Science.gov

Sample records for affected body part

  1. Body parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayiter, Elif

    2010-01-01

    In this project, the artist wishes to examine corporeality in the virtual realm, through the usage of the (non)-physical body of the avatar. An art installation created in the virtual world of Second Life, which is meant to be accessed with site specific avatars, will provide the creative platform whereby this investigation is undertaken. Thus, "body parts" seeks to challenge the residents of virtual environments into connecting with the virtual manifestations, i.e., avatars of others in an emotionally expressive/intimate manner.

  2. Disturbed Mental Imagery of Affected Body-Parts in Patients with Hysterical Conversion Paraplegia Correlates with Pathological Limbic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Saj, Arnaud; Raz, Noa; Levin, Netta; Ben-Hur, Tamir; Arzy, Shahar

    2014-01-01

    Patients with conversion disorder generally suffer from a severe neurological deficit which cannot be attributed to a structural neurological damage. In two patients with acute conversion paraplegia, investigation with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) showed that the insular cortex, a limbic-related cortex involved in body-representation and subjective emotional experience, was activated not only during attempt to move the paralytic body-parts, but also during mental imagery of their movements. In addition, mental rotation of affected body-parts was found to be disturbed, as compared to unaffected body parts or external objects. fMRI during mental rotation of the paralytic body-part showed an activation of another limbic related region, the anterior cingulate cortex. These data suggest that conversion paraplegia is associated with pathological activity in limbic structures involved in body representation and a deficit in mental processing of the affected body-parts. PMID:24961768

  3. Voluntary movement affects simultaneous perception of auditory and tactile stimuli presented to a non-moving body part

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Qiao; Ora, Hiroki; Ogawa, Ken-ichiro; Ogata, Taiki; Miyake, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    The simultaneous perception of multimodal sensory information has a crucial role for effective reactions to the external environment. Voluntary movements are known to occasionally affect simultaneous perception of auditory and tactile stimuli presented to the moving body part. However, little is known about spatial limits on the effect of voluntary movements on simultaneous perception, especially when tactile stimuli are presented to a non-moving body part. We examined the effect of voluntary movement on the simultaneous perception of auditory and tactile stimuli presented to the non-moving body part. We considered the possible mechanism using a temporal order judgement task under three experimental conditions: voluntary movement, where participants voluntarily moved their right index finger and judged the temporal order of auditory and tactile stimuli presented to their non-moving left index finger; passive movement; and no movement. During voluntary movement, the auditory stimulus needed to be presented before the tactile stimulus so that they were perceived as occurring simultaneously. This subjective simultaneity differed significantly from the passive movement and no movement conditions. This finding indicates that the effect of voluntary movement on simultaneous perception of auditory and tactile stimuli extends to the non-moving body part. PMID:27622584

  4. Voluntary movement affects simultaneous perception of auditory and tactile stimuli presented to a non-moving body part.

    PubMed

    Hao, Qiao; Ora, Hiroki; Ogawa, Ken-Ichiro; Ogata, Taiki; Miyake, Yoshihiro

    2016-09-13

    The simultaneous perception of multimodal sensory information has a crucial role for effective reactions to the external environment. Voluntary movements are known to occasionally affect simultaneous perception of auditory and tactile stimuli presented to the moving body part. However, little is known about spatial limits on the effect of voluntary movements on simultaneous perception, especially when tactile stimuli are presented to a non-moving body part. We examined the effect of voluntary movement on the simultaneous perception of auditory and tactile stimuli presented to the non-moving body part. We considered the possible mechanism using a temporal order judgement task under three experimental conditions: voluntary movement, where participants voluntarily moved their right index finger and judged the temporal order of auditory and tactile stimuli presented to their non-moving left index finger; passive movement; and no movement. During voluntary movement, the auditory stimulus needed to be presented before the tactile stimulus so that they were perceived as occurring simultaneously. This subjective simultaneity differed significantly from the passive movement and no movement conditions. This finding indicates that the effect of voluntary movement on simultaneous perception of auditory and tactile stimuli extends to the non-moving body part.

  5. Attractiveness of volatiles from different body parts to the malaria mosquito Anopheles coluzzii is affected by deodorant compounds.

    PubMed

    Verhulst, Niels O; Weldegergis, Berhane T; Menger, David; Takken, Willem

    2016-06-01

    Mosquitoes display biting preferences among different sites of the human body. In addition to height or convection currents, body odour may play a role in the selection of these biting sites. Previous studies have shown that skin emanations are important host-finding cues for mosquitoes. In this study, skin emanations were collected from armpits, hands and feet; the volatile profiles were analysed and tested for their attractiveness to the malaria mosquito Anopheles coluzzii. Skin emanations collected from armpits were less attractive to An. coluzzii compared to hands or/and feet. The difference may have been caused by deodorant residues, which were found in the armpit samples and not in those of hands and feet. In a subsequent experiment, volunteers were asked to avoid using skincare products for five days, and thereafter, no differences in attractiveness of the body parts to mosquitoes were found. The detected deodorant compound isopropyl tetradecanoate inhibited mosquito landings in a repellent bioassay. It is concluded that the volatiles emanated from different body parts induced comparable levels of attraction in mosquitoes, and that skincare products may reduce a person's attractiveness to mosquitoes.

  6. Attractiveness of volatiles from different body parts to the malaria mosquito Anopheles coluzzii is affected by deodorant compounds

    PubMed Central

    Verhulst, Niels O.; Weldegergis, Berhane T.; Menger, David; Takken, Willem

    2016-01-01

    Mosquitoes display biting preferences among different sites of the human body. In addition to height or convection currents, body odour may play a role in the selection of these biting sites. Previous studies have shown that skin emanations are important host-finding cues for mosquitoes. In this study, skin emanations were collected from armpits, hands and feet; the volatile profiles were analysed and tested for their attractiveness to the malaria mosquito Anopheles coluzzii. Skin emanations collected from armpits were less attractive to An. coluzzii compared to hands or/and feet. The difference may have been caused by deodorant residues, which were found in the armpit samples and not in those of hands and feet. In a subsequent experiment, volunteers were asked to avoid using skincare products for five days, and thereafter, no differences in attractiveness of the body parts to mosquitoes were found. The detected deodorant compound isopropyl tetradecanoate inhibited mosquito landings in a repellent bioassay. It is concluded that the volatiles emanated from different body parts induced comparable levels of attraction in mosquitoes, and that skincare products may reduce a person’s attractiveness to mosquitoes. PMID:27251017

  7. How Body Affects Brain.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Wendy A

    2016-08-09

    Studies show that physical exercise can affect a range of brain and cognitive functions. However, little is known about the peripheral signals that initiate these central changes. Moon et al. (2016) provide exciting new evidence that a novel myokine, cathepsin B (CTSB), released with exercise is associated with improved memory.

  8. Gender Affects Body Language Reading

    PubMed Central

    Sokolov, Arseny A.; Krüger, Samuel; Enck, Paul; Krägeloh-Mann, Ingeborg; Pavlova, Marina A.

    2011-01-01

    Body motion is a rich source of information for social cognition. However, gender effects in body language reading are largely unknown. Here we investigated whether, and, if so, how recognition of emotional expressions revealed by body motion is gender dependent. To this end, females and males were presented with point-light displays portraying knocking at a door performed with different emotional expressions. The findings show that gender affects accuracy rather than speed of body language reading. This effect, however, is modulated by emotional content of actions: males surpass in recognition accuracy of happy actions, whereas females tend to excel in recognition of hostile angry knocking. Advantage of women in recognition accuracy of neutral actions suggests that females are better tuned to the lack of emotional content in body actions. The study provides novel insights into understanding of gender effects in body language reading, and helps to shed light on gender vulnerability to neuropsychiatric and neurodevelopmental impairments in visual social cognition. PMID:21713180

  9. Living musical instruments and inanimate body parts?

    PubMed

    Barbarotto, R; Capitani, E; Laiacona, M

    2001-01-01

    In the literature about category effects in semantic memory, body parts and musical instruments are often considered atypical, because in cases with a disproportionate impairment of living categories body parts are relatively spared, while musical instruments are often severely defective. In this study the performance of 57 subjects affected by diseases generally associated with lexical-semantic impairment, for the most part Alzheimer's disease and other forms of cortical degeneration, but also herpetic encephalitis and traumatic brain damage are analyzed. The subjects were given a picture naming task tapping eight categories: three living categories (animals, fruits and vegetables) and three non-living categories (tools, furniture and vehicles), plus body parts and musical instruments. On a preliminary analysis at the group level, body parts were the least impaired category and musical instruments the most severely impaired, the six living and non-living categories being intermediate. However, these differences disappeared after covariance for lexical frequency, name agreement and age of acquisition. The relationship between living categories, non-living categories, musical instruments and body parts was investigated by means of a Lisrel model of Confirmatory Factor Analysis. Two latent variables related to living and non-living categories respectively were defined, and it was found that both body parts and musical instruments were significantly related only with non-living categories. The results showed that the definition of the latent variable expressing the substrate of non-living categories was less satisfactory than that expressing the living categories. On this basis, the conclusions of this study appear statistically definite but their psychological interpretation is less straightforward.

  10. Does affective touch influence the virtual reality full body illusion?

    PubMed

    de Jong, Jutta R; Keizer, Anouk; Engel, Manja M; Dijkerman, H Chris

    2017-03-13

    The sense of how we experience our physical body as our own represents a fundamental component of human self-awareness. Body ownership can be studied with bodily illusions which are generated by inducing a visuo-tactile conflict where individuals experience illusionary ownership over a fake body or body part, such as a rubber hand. Previous studies showed that different types of touch modulate the strength of experienced ownership over a rubber hand. Specifically, participants experienced more ownership after the rubber hand illusion was induced through affective touch vs non-affective touch. It is, however, unclear whether this effect would also occur for an entire fake body. The aim of this study was, therefore, to investigate whether affective touch modulates the strength of ownership in a virtual reality full body illusion. To elicit this illusion, we used slow (3 cm/s; affective touch) and fast (30 cm/s; non-affective touch) stroking velocities on the participants' abdomen. Both stroking velocities were performed either synchronous or asynchronous (control condition), while participants viewed a virtual body from a first-person-perspective. In our first study, we found that participants experienced more subjective ownership over a virtual body in the affective touch condition, compared to the non-affective touch condition. In our second study, we found higher levels of subjective ownership for synchronous stimulation, compared to asynchronous, for both touch conditions, but failed to replicate the findings from study 1 that show a difference between affective and non-affective touch. We, therefore, cannot conclude unequivocally that affective touch enhances the full-body illusion. Future research is required to study the effects of affective touch on body ownership.

  11. Tactile mental body parts representation in obesity.

    PubMed

    Scarpina, Federica; Castelnuovo, Gianluca; Molinari, Enrico

    2014-12-30

    Obese people׳s distortions in visually-based mental body-parts representations have been reported in previous studies, but other sensory modalities have largely been neglected. In the present study, we investigated possible differences in tactilely-based body-parts representation between an obese and a healthy-weight group; additionally we explore the possible relationship between the tactile- and the visually-based body representation. Participants were asked to estimate the distance between two tactile stimuli that were simultaneously administered on the arm or on the abdomen, in the absence of visual input. The visually-based body-parts representation was investigated by a visual imagery method in which subjects were instructed to compare the horizontal extension of body part pairs. According to the results, the obese participants overestimated the size of the tactilely-perceived distances more than the healthy-weight group when the arm, and not the abdomen, was stimulated. Moreover, they reported a lower level of accuracy than did the healthy-weight group when estimating horizontal distances relative to their bodies, confirming an inappropriate visually-based mental body representation. Our results imply that body representation disturbance in obese people is not limited to the visual mental domain, but it spreads to the tactilely perceived distances. The inaccuracy was not a generalized tendency but was body-part related.

  12. Dignity and the use of body parts.

    PubMed

    Foster, Charles

    2014-01-01

    This paper contends that the conventional ethical and legal ways of analysing the wrong involved in the misuse of human body parts are inadequate, and should be replaced with an analysis based on human dignity. It examines the various ways in which dignity has been understood, outlines many of the criticisms made of those ways (agreeing with many of the criticisms), and proposes a new way of seeing dignity which is exegetically consonant with the way in which dignity has been historically understood, and yet avoids the pitfalls which have led to dignity being dismissed by many as hopelessly amorphous or incurably theological. The account of dignity proposed is broadly Aristotelian. It defines dignity in terms of human thriving, and presupposes that it is possible, at least in principle, to determine empirically what makes humans thrive. It contends that humans are quintessentially relational animals, and that it is not possible (and certainly not ethically desirable) to define humans as atomistic entities. One important corollary of this is that when using dignity/thriving as a criterion for determining the ethical acceptability of a proposed action or inaction, one should ask not merely how the dignity interests of the patient (for instance) would be affected, but how the dignity interests of all stakeholders would be affected. The business of ethics is then the business of auditing all those interests, and determining the course of action which would maximise the amount of thriving in the world.

  13. Body Weight Independently Affects Articular Cartilage Catabolism

    PubMed Central

    Denning, W. Matt; Winward, Jason G.; Pardo, Michael Becker; Hopkins, J. Ty; Seeley, Matthew K.

    2015-01-01

    Although obesity is associated with osteoarthritis, it is unclear whether body weight (BW) independently affects articular cartilage catabolism (i.e., independent from physiological factors that also accompany obesity). The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the independent effect of BW on articular cartilage catabolism associated with walking. A secondary purpose was to determine how decreased BW influenced cardiovascular response due to walking. Twelve able-bodied subjects walked for 30 minutes on a lower-body positive pressure treadmill during three sessions: control (unadjusted BW), +40%BW, and -40%BW. Serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) was measured immediately before (baseline) and after, and 15 and 30 minutes after the walk. Heart rate (HR) and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured every three minutes during the walk. Relative to baseline, average serum COMP concentration was 13% and 5% greater immediately after and 15 minutes after the walk. Immediately after the walk, serum COMP concentration was 14% greater for the +40%BW session than for the -40%BW session. HR and RPE were greater for the +40%BW session than for the other two sessions, but did not differ between the control and -40%BW sessions. BW independently influences acute articular cartilage catabolism and cardiovascular response due to walking: as BW increases, so does acute articular cartilage catabolism and cardiovascular response. These results indicate that lower-body positive pressure walking may benefit certain individuals by reducing acute articular cartilage catabolism, due to walking, while maintaining cardiovascular response. Key points Walking for 30 minutes with adjustments in body weight (normal body weight, +40% and -40% body weight) significantly influences articular cartilage catabolism, measured via serum COMP concentration. Compared to baseline levels, walking with +40% body weight and normal body weight both elicited significant increases in

  14. Factish relations: Affective bodies in diabetes treatment.

    PubMed

    Danholt, Peter

    2013-07-01

    Chronic diseases pose a major challenge to contemporary western healthcare systems, and consequently there are numerous initiatives designed to meet these challenges. Patient empowerment is considered to be extremely important in chronic disease management. But what does it mean to become an 'active patient', managing a condition? This article argues that people are always active in shaping their agency and the agency of numerous others, and that we need to attend to these processes of configuration in order to better understand and conceptualize the problem of chronic disease management. This article analyses the daily practices of people with Type 2 Diabetes, with the use of what is described as the 'sociology of attachment' in the field of science and technology studies. The implications of seeing and analysing chronic conditions in this manner are that determinist understandings of chronic conditions are challenged. Accordingly, an experimental and constructive attitude towards the production and assembling of the chronically ill body is enabled. Such an attitude holds that relations with multiple other bodies and entities, such as technologies, the disease, medication and so on continuously and relentlessly affect how the condition unfolds and consequently, the room for interventional strategies and transformation of the chronically ill body is enlarged.

  15. The effects of exercise on body satisfaction and affect.

    PubMed

    Lepage, Marie L; Crowther, Janis H

    2010-03-01

    This research used ecological momentary assessment to examine the effects of exercise on state body dissatisfaction and affect in 33 undergraduate females with high trait body dissatisfaction and 28 with low trait body dissatisfaction who exercised at least three times weekly. Trait body dissatisfaction was investigated as a moderator of the effects of exercise as well as different motivations for exercise. Results indicated all participants experienced lower state body dissatisfaction and negative affect and greater positive affect post-exercise. Trait body dissatisfaction moderated the association between motivations and exercise effects. Appearance and weight motivations were related to higher state body dissatisfaction for all individuals. Fitness and health motivations were related to higher state body dissatisfaction for high trait body dissatisfied individuals and lower state body dissatisfaction for low trait body dissatisfied individuals. Thus, although exercise has positive effects on body dissatisfaction and affect for high frequency exercisers, their exercise motivations impact these effects.

  16. The functional architecture of the human body: assessing body representation by sorting body parts and activities.

    PubMed

    Bläsing, Bettina; Schack, Thomas; Brugger, Peter

    2010-05-01

    We investigated mental representations of body parts and body-related activities in two subjects with congenitally absent limbs (one with, the other without phantom sensations), a wheelchair sports group of paraplegic participants, and two groups of participants with intact limbs. To analyse mental representation structures, we applied Structure Dimensional Analysis. Verbal labels indicating body parts and related activities were presented in randomized lists that had to be sorted according to a hierarchical splitting paradigm. Participants were required to group the items according to whether or not they were considered related, based on their own body perception. Results of the groups of physically intact and paraplegic participants revealed separate clusters for the lower body, upper body, fingers and head. The participant with congenital phantom limbs also showed a clear separation between upper and lower body (but not between fingers and hands). In the participant without phantom sensations of the absent arms, no such modularity emerged, but the specific practice of his right foot in communication and daily routines was reflected. Sorting verbal labels of body parts and activities appears a useful method to assess body representation in individuals with special body anatomy or function and leads to conclusions largely compatible with other assessment procedures.

  17. Low temperature alteration processes affecting ultramafic bodies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nesbitt, H.W.; Bricker, O.P.

    1978-01-01

    At low temperatures, in the presence of an aqueous solution, olivine and orthopyroxene are not stable relative to the hydrous phases brucite, serpentine and talc. Alteration of dunite and peridotite to serpentine or steatite bodies must therefore proceed via non-equilibrium processes. The compositions of natural solutions emanating from dunites and peridotites demonstrate that the dissolution of forsterite and/or enstatite is rapid compared with the precipitation of the hydrous phases; consequently, dissolution of anhydrous minerals controls the chemistry of such solutions. In the presence of an aqueous phase, precipitation of hydrous minerals is the rate-controlling step. Brucite-bearing and -deficient serpentinites alter at low temperature by non-equilibrium processes, as evidenced by the composition of natural solutions from these bodies. The solutions approach equilibrium with the least stable hydrous phase and, as a consequence, are supersaturated with other hydrous phases. Dissolution of the least stable phase is rapid compared to precipitation of other phases, so that the dissolving mineral controls the solution chemistry. Non-equilibrium alteration of anhydrous ultramafic bodies continues until at least one anhydrous phase equilibrates with brucite, chrysotile or talc. The lowest temperature (at a given pressure) at which this happens is defined by the reaction: 3H2O + 2Mg2SiO4 ??? Mg3Si2O5(OH)4 + Mg(OH)2 (Johannes, 1968, Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 19, 309-315) so that non-equilibrium alteration may occur well into greenschist facies metamorphic conditions. ?? 1978.

  18. Body weight of hypersonic aircraft, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ardema, Mark D.

    1988-01-01

    The load bearing body weight of wing-body and all-body hypersonic aircraft is estimated for a wide variety of structural materials and geometries. Variations of weight with key design and configuration parameters are presented and discussed. Both hot and cool structure approaches are considered in isotropic, organic composite, and metal matrix composite materials; structural shells are sandwich or skin-stringer. Conformal and pillow-tank designs are investigated for the all-body shape. The results identify the most promising hypersonic aircraft body structure design approaches and their weight trends. Geometric definition of vehicle shapes and structural analysis methods are presented in appendices.

  19. Body position affects performance in untrained cyclists

    PubMed Central

    Ashe, M; Scroop, G; Frisken, P; Amery, C; Wilkins, M; Khan, K

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To compare cardiovascular and ventilatory variables in upright versus aero cycle ergometry at submaximal and maximal exercise intensities in untrained cyclists. Method: Ten physically active men (mean (SD) age 19.1 (1.10) years) who were unfamiliar with aerobars underwent maximal exercise testing and steady state cycling at 50, 100, and 150 W. Results: Participants had significantly greater maxima for oxygen uptake (VO2), ventilation, heart rate, and workload maximum in the upright position. During steady state cycling at the three workloads, VO2 (ml/kg/min) and gross mechanical efficiency were significantly greater in the upright position. Conclusions: In untrained subjects performing with maximal effort, the upright position permits greater VO2, ventilation, heart rate, and workload maxima. Further, in the steady state, exercise cycling may be less costly in the upright position. For this reason, untrained cyclists need to weigh body position effects against the well known aerodynamic advantages of the aero position. PMID:14514538

  20. The science of cycling: factors affecting performance - part 2.

    PubMed

    Faria, Erik W; Parker, Daryl L; Faria, Irvin E

    2005-01-01

    This review presents information that is useful to athletes, coaches and exercise scientists in the adoption of exercise protocols, prescription of training regimens and creation of research designs. Part 2 focuses on the factors that affect cycling performance. Among those factors, aerodynamic resistance is the major resistance force the racing cyclist must overcome. This challenge can be dealt with through equipment technological modifications and body position configuration adjustments. To successfully achieve efficient transfer of power from the body to the drive train of the bicycle the major concern is bicycle configuration and cycling body position. Peak power output appears to be highly correlated with cycling success. Likewise, gear ratio and pedalling cadence directly influence cycling economy/efficiency. Knowledge of muscle recruitment throughout the crank cycle has important implications for training and body position adjustments while climbing. A review of pacing models suggests that while there appears to be some evidence in favour of one technique over another, there remains the need for further field research to validate the findings. Nevertheless, performance modelling has important implications for the establishment of performance standards and consequent recommendations for training.

  1. GENDER INFLUENCES DIFFERENTIATION OF CHITIN AMONG BODY PARTS.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Murat; Bulut, Esra; Mujtaba, Muhammad; Sivickis, Karolis; Sargin, Idris; Akyuz, Bahar; Erdogan, Sevil

    2016-10-01

    Earlier reports have established that chitin isolates from each body part of an insect cuticle can exhibit diverse physicochemical properties. But it is still unknown if the gender of the insect can influence characteristics of chitin isolates from different body parts. The present study addresses this question. As a result, important physicochemical differences in the chitin samples from different body parts of Melolontha sp. were recorded on the basis of sex. The chitin samples were extracted from eight different body parts (antennae, head, eyes, thorax, abdomen, elytra, hindwings, and legs) of female and male. The most remarkable variations in the chitin isolates from female and male body parts were recorded in chitin content, crystallinity, thermal stability, and surface morphology. And also it was wondered these chitin isolates from different body parts of female and male could find different applications. To check this hypothesis, the chitin samples from female and male were interacted with bovine serum albumin (BSA) protein and important variations were observed.

  2. Representational Similarity of Body Parts in Human Occipitotemporal Cortex.

    PubMed

    Bracci, Stefania; Caramazza, Alfonso; Peelen, Marius V

    2015-09-23

    Regions in human lateral and ventral occipitotemporal cortices (OTC) respond selectively to pictures of the human body and its parts. What are the organizational principles underlying body part responses in these regions? Here we used representational similarity analysis (RSA) of fMRI data to test multiple possible organizational principles: shape similarity, physical proximity, cortical homunculus proximity, and semantic similarity. Participants viewed pictures of whole persons, chairs, and eight body parts (hands, arms, legs, feet, chests, waists, upper faces, and lower faces). The similarity of multivoxel activity patterns for all body part pairs was established in whole person-selective OTC regions. The resulting neural similarity matrices were then compared with similarity matrices capturing the hypothesized organizational principles. Results showed that the semantic similarity model best captured the neural similarity of body parts in lateral and ventral OTC, which followed an organization in three clusters: (1) body parts used as action effectors (hands, feet, arms, and legs), (2) noneffector body parts (chests and waists), and (3) face parts (upper and lower faces). Whole-brain RSA revealed, in addition to OTC, regions in parietal and frontal cortex in which neural similarity was related to semantic similarity. In contrast, neural similarity in occipital cortex was best predicted by shape similarity models. We suggest that the semantic organization of body parts in high-level visual cortex relates to the different functions associated with the three body part clusters, reflecting the unique processing and connectivity demands associated with the different types of information (e.g., action, social) different body parts (e.g., limbs, faces) convey. Significance statement: While the organization of body part representations in motor and somatosensory cortices has been well characterized, the principles underlying body part representations in visual cortex

  3. Mind/Body Connection: How Your Emotions Affect Your Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... body. Relaxation methods, such as meditation, listening to music, listening to guided imagery CD's or mp3's, yoga, ... Article >>Mental HealthPostpartum Depression (PPD)Postpartum depression affects women after childbirth. It includes feelings of sadness, loneliness, ...

  4. The Affective Consequences of Minimizing Women's Body Image Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosson, Jennifer K.; Pinel, Elizabeth C.; Thompson, J. Kevin

    2008-01-01

    We propose that women regularly anticipate and receive messages from others that trivialize the severity of their body image concerns. Moreover, we suggest that these minimizing messages can heighten women's negative affective reactions to body image threats, particularly if they internalize them. Two studies provided support for these ideas. In…

  5. 31 CFR Appendix C to Part 560 - Eligible Procurement Bodies

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Eligible Procurement Bodies C Appendix C to Part 560 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued..., App. C Appendix C to Part 560—Eligible Procurement Bodies This Appendix C sets forth...

  6. Categorical discrimination of human body parts by magnetoencephalography.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Misaki; Yanagisawa, Takufumi; Okamura, Yumiko; Fukuma, Ryohei; Hirata, Masayuki; Araki, Toshihiko; Kamitani, Yukiyasu; Yorifuji, Shiro

    2015-01-01

    Humans recognize body parts in categories. Previous studies have shown that responses in the fusiform body area (FBA) and extrastriate body area (EBA) are evoked by the perception of the human body, when presented either as whole or as isolated parts. These responses occur approximately 190 ms after body images are visualized. The extent to which body-sensitive responses show specificity for different body part categories remains to be largely clarified. We used a decoding method to quantify neural responses associated with the perception of different categories of body parts. Nine subjects underwent measurements of their brain activities by magnetoencephalography (MEG) while viewing 14 images of feet, hands, mouths, and objects. We decoded categories of the presented images from the MEG signals using a support vector machine (SVM) and calculated their accuracy by 10-fold cross-validation. For each subject, a response that appeared to be a body-sensitive response was observed and the MEG signals corresponding to the three types of body categories were classified based on the signals in the occipitotemporal cortex. The accuracy in decoding body-part categories (with a peak at approximately 48%) was above chance (33.3%) and significantly higher than that for random categories. According to the time course and location, the responses are suggested to be body-sensitive and to include information regarding the body-part category. Finally, this non-invasive method can decode category information of a visual object with high temporal and spatial resolution and this result may have a significant impact in the field of brain-machine interface research.

  7. Influential sources affecting Bangkok adolescent body image perceptions.

    PubMed

    Thianthai, Chulanee

    2006-01-01

    The study of body image-related problems in non-Western countries is still very limited. Thus, this study aims to identify the main influential sources and show how they affect the body image perceptions of Bangkok adolescents. The researcher recruited 400 Thai male and female adolescents in Bangkok, attending high school to freshmen level, ranging from 16-19 years, to participate in this study. Survey questionnaires were distributed to every student and follow-up interviews conducted with 40 students. The findings showed that there are eight main influential sources respectively ranked from the most influential to the least influential: magazines, television, peer group, familial, fashion trend, the opposite gender, self-realization and health knowledge. Similar to those studies conducted in Western countries, more than half of the total percentage was the influence of mass media and peer groups. Bangkok adolescents also internalized Western ideal beauty through these mass media channels. Alike studies conducted in the West, there was similarities in the process of how these influential sources affect Bangkok adolescent body image perception, with the exception of familial source. In conclusion, taking the approach of identifying the main influential sources and understanding how they affect adolescent body image perceptions can help prevent adolescents from having unhealthy views and taking risky measures toward their bodies. More studies conducted in non-Western countries are needed in order to build a cultural sensitive program, catered to the body image problems occurring in adolescents within that particular society.

  8. Body parts in property theory: an integrated framework.

    PubMed

    Nwabueze, Remigius Nnamdi

    2014-01-01

    The role of property theory as a framework for analysis and regulation of body parts has become a debate of topical importance because of the emergence of biomedical technologies that utilise body parts, and also because the application of the concept of property, even with respect to historically and traditionally accepted forms of property, raises serious challenges to the property analyst. However, there is another reason for the topicality of property in relation to body parts: a proprietary approach confers on a claimant the advantage of continuing control that is tellingly lacking in non-property frameworks underpinned, for instance, by consent, negligence, privacy and unjust enrichment rules. In some circumstances, such as an unauthorised blood test performed on a blood sample obtained with consent, the continuing control provided by property law might be the only chance a claimant has to obtain a remedy. Economy of space, however, requires that only a prolegomenon on body parts and property theory is given below. Thus, the analysis begins by providing in outline a framework for comprehensive analysis of body parts within the realm of property theory; thereafter, the author engages with the normative question of whether body parts or rights exercisable over body parts could be admitted into the category of property.

  9. Globalization and the trade in human body parts.

    PubMed

    Harrison, T

    1999-02-01

    Since the early 1980s, the number and variety of organ transplantations has increased enormously worldwide. Accompanying this increase has been the emergence of a market for human body parts. This paper argues that, while the trade in human body parts is conditioned by technological advances, it must be understood in the broader context of globalization, specifically the extension and intensification of a capitalist mode of exchange. In this regard, it is argued that the trade in human body parts mirrors the "normal" system of unequal exchanges that mark other forms of trade between the developed and undeveloped regions of the world.

  10. Visual processing of moving and static self body-parts.

    PubMed

    Frassinetti, Francesca; Pavani, Francesco; Zamagni, Elisa; Fusaroli, Giulia; Vescovi, Massimo; Benassi, Mariagrazia; Avanzi, Stefano; Farnè, Alessandro

    2009-07-01

    Humans' ability to recognize static images of self body-parts can be lost following a lesion of the right hemisphere [Frassinetti, F., Maini, M., Romualdi, S., Galante, E., & Avanzi, S. (2008). Is it mine? Hemispheric asymmetries in corporeal self-recognition. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 20, 1507-1516]. Here we investigated whether the visual information provided by the movement of self body-parts may be separately processed by right brain-damaged (RBD) patients and constitute a valuable cue to reduce their deficit in self body-parts processing. To pursue these aims, neurological healthy subjects and RBD patients were submitted to a matching-task of a pair of subsequent visual stimuli, in two conditions. In the dynamic condition, participants were shown movies of moving body-parts (hand, foot, arm and leg); in the static condition, participants were shown still images of the same body-parts. In each condition, on half of the trials at least one stimulus in the pair was from the participant's own body ('Self' condition), whereas on the remaining half of the trials both stimuli were from another person ('Other' condition). Results showed that in healthy participants the self-advantage was present when processing both static and dynamic body-parts, but it was more important in the latter condition. In RBD patients, however, the self-advantage was absent in the static, but present in the dynamic body-parts condition. These findings suggest that visual information from self body-parts in motion may be processed independently in patients with impaired static self-processing, thus pointing to a modular organization of the mechanisms responsible for the self/other distinction.

  11. 1 CFR 6.3 - Daily lists of parts affected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Daily lists of parts affected. 6.3 Section 6.3 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER INDEXES AND ANCILLARIES § 6.3 Daily lists of parts affected. (a) Each daily issue of the Federal Register shall carry...

  12. 1 CFR 6.3 - Daily lists of parts affected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Daily lists of parts affected. 6.3 Section 6.3 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER INDEXES AND ANCILLARIES § 6.3 Daily lists of parts affected. (a) Each daily issue of the Federal Register shall carry...

  13. Effects of the exposure to self- and other-referential bodies on state body image and negative affect in resistance-trained men.

    PubMed

    Cordes, Martin; Vocks, Silja; Düsing, Rainer; Waldorf, Manuel

    2017-03-09

    Previous body image research suggests that first, exposure to body stimuli can negatively affect men's body satisfaction and second, body concerns are associated with dysfunctional gaze behavior. To date, however, the effects of self- vs. other-referential body stimuli and of gaze behavior on body image in men under exposure conditions have not been investigated. Therefore, 49 weight-trained men were presented with pictures of their own and other bodies of different builds (i.e., normal, muscular, hyper-muscular) while being eye-tracked. Participants completed pre- and post-exposure measures of body image and affect. Results indicated that one's own and the muscular body negatively affected men's body image to a comparable degree. Exposure to one's own body also led to increased negative affect. Increased attention toward disliked own body parts was associated with a more negative post-exposure body image and affect. These results suggest a crucial role of critical self-examination in maintaining body dissatisfaction.

  14. Body temperature variability (Part 2): masking influences of body temperature variability and a review of body temperature variability in disease.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Gregory S

    2007-03-01

    This is the second of a two-part review on body temperature variability. Part 1 discussed historical and modern findings on average body temperatures. It also discussed endogenous sources of temperature variability, including variations caused by site of measurement; circadian, menstrual, and annual biological rhythms; fitness; and aging. Part 2 reviews the effects of exogenous masking agents - external factors in the environment, diet, or lifestyle that can be a significant source of body temperature variability. Body temperature variability findings in disease states are also reviewed.

  15. Spinal cord injury affects the interplay between visual and sensorimotor representations of the body

    PubMed Central

    Ionta, Silvio; Villiger, Michael; Jutzeler, Catherine R; Freund, Patrick; Curt, Armin; Gassert, Roger

    2016-01-01

    The brain integrates multiple sensory inputs, including somatosensory and visual inputs, to produce a representation of the body. Spinal cord injury (SCI) interrupts the communication between brain and body and the effects of this deafferentation on body representation are poorly understood. We investigated whether the relative weight of somatosensory and visual frames of reference for body representation is altered in individuals with incomplete or complete SCI (affecting lower limbs’ somatosensation), with respect to controls. To study the influence of afferent somatosensory information on body representation, participants verbally judged the laterality of rotated images of feet, hands, and whole-bodies (mental rotation task) in two different postures (participants’ body parts were hidden from view). We found that (i) complete SCI disrupts the influence of postural changes on the representation of the deafferented body parts (feet, but not hands) and (ii) regardless of posture, whole-body representation progressively deteriorates proportionally to SCI completeness. These results demonstrate that the cortical representation of the body is dynamic, responsive, and adaptable to contingent conditions, in that the role of somatosensation is altered and partially compensated with a change in the relative weight of somatosensory versus visual bodily representations. PMID:26842303

  16. Spinal cord injury affects the interplay between visual and sensorimotor representations of the body.

    PubMed

    Ionta, Silvio; Villiger, Michael; Jutzeler, Catherine R; Freund, Patrick; Curt, Armin; Gassert, Roger

    2016-02-04

    The brain integrates multiple sensory inputs, including somatosensory and visual inputs, to produce a representation of the body. Spinal cord injury (SCI) interrupts the communication between brain and body and the effects of this deafferentation on body representation are poorly understood. We investigated whether the relative weight of somatosensory and visual frames of reference for body representation is altered in individuals with incomplete or complete SCI (affecting lower limbs' somatosensation), with respect to controls. To study the influence of afferent somatosensory information on body representation, participants verbally judged the laterality of rotated images of feet, hands, and whole-bodies (mental rotation task) in two different postures (participants' body parts were hidden from view). We found that (i) complete SCI disrupts the influence of postural changes on the representation of the deafferented body parts (feet, but not hands) and (ii) regardless of posture, whole-body representation progressively deteriorates proportionally to SCI completeness. These results demonstrate that the cortical representation of the body is dynamic, responsive, and adaptable to contingent conditions, in that the role of somatosensation is altered and partially compensated with a change in the relative weight of somatosensory versus visual bodily representations.

  17. Body parts removed during surgery: a useful training source.

    PubMed

    Macchi, Veronica; Porzionato, Andrea; Stecco, Carla; Tiengo, Cesare; Parenti, Anna; Cestrone, Adriano; De Caro, Raffaele

    2011-01-01

    Current undergraduate medical curricula provides relatively little time for cadaver dissection. The Department of Human Anatomy and Physiology at the University of Padova has organized a pilot project with the University Hospital for the donation of body parts that are surgically removed for therapeutic purposes and destined under Italian law for destruction. The aim of the project is to improve residents' practical training skills. A survey over the last two years has shown that about 60 body parts were available each year. These included 13 upper limbs or their parts (i.e., forearm with hand, hand, and fingers) and 47 lower limbs or their parts (i.e., legs with feet, feet, or toes). The residents explained the aim of the project to potential donors, and, if patients were willing to donate, their informed consent was obtained. The residents were present in the operating theater during the surgical procedure. In the post-operative phase, the same residents performed dissections on the body part(s), following a teaching schedule prepared by a clinical anatomist, who also assisted residents during their studies. Residents also acted as tutors for undergraduate medical students who attended these dissections. The underlying pathology for which the body part was removed was examined, and surgical procedures were practiced on the body part itself. Our project provided an opportunity for a close relationship between anatomists and surgeons, reinforcing core knowledge of anatomy by appreciation of its clinical importance. The active involvement of residents as learners and as teachers in the various steps of this project improved their knowledge of surgical techniques and helped to establish a sense of ethical responsibility and respect for the human body. This approach involves study of anatomical structures from new perspectives and leads to improved surgical practice.

  18. Male Body Satisfaction: Factorial and Construct Validity of the Body Parts Satisfaction Scale for Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFarland, Michael B.; Petrie, Trent A.

    2012-01-01

    Given the centrality of body dissatisfaction in the manifestation of eating, exercise, and affective disturbances in men, measurement of this construct becomes essential. Across 2 studies with male undergraduates (Ns = 189 and 188), the psychometric properties, including incremental validity and factor structure, of the 25-item Body Parts…

  19. Intellectual property rights and detached human body parts.

    PubMed

    Pila, Justine

    2014-01-01

    This paper responds to an invitation by the editors to consider whether the intellectual property (IP) regime suggests an appropriate model for protecting interests in detached human body parts. It begins by outlining the extent of existing IP protection for body parts in Europe, and the relevant strengths and weaknesses of the patent system in that regard. It then considers two further species of IP right of less obvious relevance. The first are the statutory rights of ownership conferred by domestic UK law in respect of employee inventions, and the second are the economic and moral rights recognised by European and international law in respect of authorial works. In the argument made, both of these species of IP right may suggest more appropriate models of sui generis protection for detached human body parts than patent rights because of their capacity better to accommodate the relevant public and private interests in respect of the same.

  20. Inter-hemispheric integration of tactile-motor responses across body parts.

    PubMed

    Tamè, Luigi; Longo, Matthew R

    2015-01-01

    In simple detection tasks, reaction times (RTs) are faster when stimuli are presented to the visual field or side of the body ipsilateral to the body part used to respond. This advantage, the crossed-uncrossed difference (CUD), is thought to reflect inter-hemispheric interactions needed for sensorimotor information to be integrated between the two cerebral hemispheres. However, it is unknown whether the tactile CUD is invariant when different body parts are stimulated. The most likely structure mediating such processing is thought to be the corpus callosum (CC). Neurophysiological studies have shown that there are denser callosal connections between regions that represent proximal parts of the body near the body midline and more sparse connections for regions representing distal extremities. Therefore, if the information transfer between the two hemispheres is affected by the density of callosal connections, stimuli presented on more distal regions of the body should produce a greater CUD compared to stimuli presented on more proximal regions. This is because interhemispheric transfer of information from regions with sparse callosal connections will be less efficient, and hence slower. Here, we investigated whether the CUD is modulated as a function of the different body parts stimulated by presenting tactile stimuli unpredictably on body parts at different distances from the body midline (i.e., Middle Finger, Forearm, or Forehead of each side of the body). Participants detected the stimulus and responded as fast as possible using either their left or right foot. Results showed that the magnitude of the CUD was larger on the finger (~2.6 ms) and forearm (~1.8 ms) than on the forehead (≃0.9 ms). This result suggests that the interhemispheric transfer of tactile stimuli varies as a function of the strength of callosal connections of the body parts.

  1. Inter-hemispheric integration of tactile-motor responses across body parts

    PubMed Central

    Tamè, Luigi; Longo, Matthew R.

    2015-01-01

    In simple detection tasks, reaction times (RTs) are faster when stimuli are presented to the visual field or side of the body ipsilateral to the body part used to respond. This advantage, the crossed-uncrossed difference (CUD), is thought to reflect inter-hemispheric interactions needed for sensorimotor information to be integrated between the two cerebral hemispheres. However, it is unknown whether the tactile CUD is invariant when different body parts are stimulated. The most likely structure mediating such processing is thought to be the corpus callosum (CC). Neurophysiological studies have shown that there are denser callosal connections between regions that represent proximal parts of the body near the body midline and more sparse connections for regions representing distal extremities. Therefore, if the information transfer between the two hemispheres is affected by the density of callosal connections, stimuli presented on more distal regions of the body should produce a greater CUD compared to stimuli presented on more proximal regions. This is because interhemispheric transfer of information from regions with sparse callosal connections will be less efficient, and hence slower. Here, we investigated whether the CUD is modulated as a function of the different body parts stimulated by presenting tactile stimuli unpredictably on body parts at different distances from the body midline (i.e., Middle Finger, Forearm, or Forehead of each side of the body). Participants detected the stimulus and responded as fast as possible using either their left or right foot. Results showed that the magnitude of the CUD was larger on the finger (~2.6 ms) and forearm (~1.8 ms) than on the forehead (≃0.9 ms). This result suggests that the interhemispheric transfer of tactile stimuli varies as a function of the strength of callosal connections of the body parts. PMID:26124718

  2. The commodification of the body and its parts.

    PubMed

    Sharp, L A

    2000-01-01

    The human body--and its parts--has long been a target for commodification within myriad cultural settings. A discussion of commodification requires that one consider, first, the significance of the body within anthropology and, second, what defines a body "part." After exploring these initial questions, this article outlines dominant theoretical approaches to commodification within anthropology, with Mauss and Marx figuring prominently. The discussion then turns to historically well-documented forms of body commodification: These include slavery and other oppressive labor practices; female reproduction; and the realms of sorcery and endocannibalism. An analysis here uncovers dominant established approaches that continue to drive current studies. The remainder of this article concerns emergent biotechnologies, whose application in clinical and other related scientific arenas marks a paradigmatic shift in anthropological understandings of the commodified, fragmented body. The following contexts are explored with care: reproductive technologies; organ transplantation; cosmetic and transsexual surgeries; genetics and immunology; and, finally, the category of the cyborg. The article concludes with suggestions for an integrated theoretical vision, advocating greater cross-fertilization of analytical approaches and the inclusion of an ethics of body commodification within anthropology.

  3. Body Parts Removed during Surgery: A Useful Training Source

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macchi, Veronica; Porzionato, Andrea; Stecco, Carla; Tiengo, Cesare; Parenti, Anna; Cestrone, Adriano; De Caro, Raffaele

    2011-01-01

    Current undergraduate medical curricula provides relatively little time for cadaver dissection. The Department of Human Anatomy and Physiology at the University of Padova has organized a pilot project with the University Hospital for the donation of body parts that are surgically removed for therapeutic purposes and destined under Italian law for…

  4. Impact of a healthy body image program among adolescent boys on body image, negative affect, and body change strategies.

    PubMed

    McCabe, Marita P; Ricciardelli, Lina A; Karantzas, Gery

    2010-03-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of a healthy body image program. In total, 421 adolescent boys completed a five-session intervention program or a wait list control group. There were no differences between the intervention and the control group at post-intervention or any of the follow-up times. Boys in the intervention group who were one standard deviation above the mean on body dissatisfaction at baseline, demonstrated a reduction in negative affect in the intervention group at post-test and 6 months follow-up. Prevention programs need to target boys who are at risk of adopting health risk behaviors, rather than being universally applied.

  5. Mental rotation of body parts and non-corporeal objects in patients with idiopathic cervical dystonia.

    PubMed

    Fiorio, Mirta; Tinazzi, Michele; Ionta, Silvio; Fiaschi, Antonio; Moretto, Giuseppe; Edwards, Mark J; Bhatia, Kailash P; Aglioti, Salvatore M

    2007-06-11

    Mental rotation of body parts is performed through inner simulation of actual movements, and is likely to rely upon cortical and subcortical systems (e.g. motor and premotor areas and basal ganglia) involved in motor planning and execution. Studies indicate that sensory and motor deficits, such as for example pain, limb amputation or focal hand dystonia, bring about a specific impairment in mental rotation of the affected body parts. Here we explored the ability of patients affected by idiopathic cervical dystonia (CD) to mentally rotate affected (neck) and unaffected (hands and feet) body districts. The experimental stimuli consisted of realistic photos of left or right hands or feet and the head of a young men with a black patch on the left or the right eye. As non-corporeal stimulus the front view of a car with a black patch on the left or the right headlight was used. The stimuli were presented at six different degrees of orientations. Twelve CD patients and 12 healthy participants were asked to verbally report whether the hands or feet were left or right, or whether the patch was on the left or the right eye or headlight. Reaction times and accuracy in performing the laterality tasks on the four stimuli were collected. Results showed that CD patients are slow in mental rotation of stimuli representing body parts, namely hand, foot and head. This abnormality was not due to a general impairment in mental rotation per se, since patients' ability to rotate a non-corporeal object (a car) was not significantly different from that of healthy participants. We posit that the deficit in mental rotation of body parts in CD patients may derive from a defective integration of body- and world-related knowledge, a process that is likely to allow a general representation of "me in the external world".

  6. Body part-centered and full body-centered peripersonal space representations

    PubMed Central

    Serino, Andrea; Noel, Jean-Paul; Galli, Giulia; Canzoneri, Elisa; Marmaroli, Patrick; Lissek, Hervé; Blanke, Olaf

    2015-01-01

    Dedicated neural systems represent the space surrounding the body, termed Peripersonal space (PPS), by integrating visual or auditory stimuli occurring near the body with somatosensory information. As a behavioral proxy to PPS, we measured participants’ reaction time to tactile stimulation while task-irrelevant auditory or visual stimuli were presented at different distances from their body. In 7 experiments we delineated the critical distance at which auditory or visual stimuli boosted tactile processing on the hand, face, and trunk as a proxy of the PPS extension. Three main findings were obtained. First, the size of PPS varied according to the stimulated body part, being progressively bigger for the hand, then face, and largest for the trunk. Second, while approaching stimuli always modulated tactile processing in a space-dependent manner, receding stimuli did so only for the hand. Finally, the extension of PPS around the hand and the face varied according to their relative positioning and stimuli congruency, whereas the trunk PPS was constant. These results suggest that at least three body-part specific PPS representations exist, differing in extension and directional tuning. These distinct PPS representations, however, are not fully independent from each other, but referenced to the common reference frame of the trunk. PMID:26690698

  7. Where are your body parts? A pure case of heterotopagnosia following left parietal stroke.

    PubMed

    Auclair, Laurent; Noulhiane, Marion; Raibaut, Patrick; Amarenco, Gerard

    2009-12-01

    We studied the involvement of the parietal cortex in interpersonal body representation in a left parietal stroke patient. We used tasks assessing different types of body representations and localization of object parts. The patient performed normally on all tasks of body knowledge. However, she was unable to locate body parts on another person or on body representations. In contrast, she pointed correctly to the same body parts on herself or object representations. The data support the important role of the left parietal cortex in the transformation of intrinsic spatial coding of body parts localization in extrinsic body part coordinates.

  8. Body parts and the market place: insights from Thomistic philosophy.

    PubMed

    Cherry, M J

    2000-08-01

    With rare exceptions, Roman Catholic moral theologians condemn the sale of human organs for transplantation. Yet, such criticism, while rhetorically powerful, often oversimplifies complex issues. Arguments for the prohibition of a market in human organs may, therefore, depend on a single premise, or a cluster of dubious and allied premises, which when examined cannot hold. In what follows, I will examine the ways in which such arguments are configured. For example, Thomas Aquinas' (1224-1274) understandings of embodiment and moral uses of the body are usually interpreted as, and cited in support of, foreclosing a market in human organs. Aquinas' principle of totality requires that one preserve the wholeness of the human body. In approaching Aquinas' texts, I will assume the role of a revisionist who takes seriously his core commitments, while at the same time indicating that one can further develop his understanding of the body in ways which are supportive of the sale of human organs while remaining in conformity with the author's core concerns. Such considerations will provide significant grounds for concluding that a market in human organs for transplantation appreciates the embodied nature of the human person, respects the body and its parts as personal, rather than as mere things, is consistent with acknowledging God's dominion over our lives and bodies, and constitutes an appropriate utilization of God's gifts to us. Moreover, such a market would likely create significant opportunities charitably to help others, to enhance human dignity and to protect against the serious dehumanization of current national bureaucratic procedures for organ donation.

  9. Dignity and the ownership and use of body parts.

    PubMed

    Foster, Charles

    2014-10-01

    Property-based models of the ownership of body parts are common. They are inadequate. They fail to deal satisfactorily with many important problems, and even when they do work, they rely on ideas that have to be derived from deeper, usually unacknowledged principles. This article proposes that the parent principle is always human dignity, and that one will get more satisfactory answers if one interrogates the older, wiser parent instead of the younger, callow offspring. But human dignity has a credibility problem. It is often seen as hopelessly amorphous or incurably theological. These accusations are often just. But a more thorough exegesis exculpates dignity and gives it its proper place at the fountainhead of bioethics. Dignity is objective human thriving. Thriving considerations can and should be applied to dead people as well as live ones. To use dignity properly, the unit of bioethical analysis needs to be the whole transaction rather than (for instance) the doctor-patient relationship. The dignity interests of all the stakeholders are assessed in a sort of utilitarianism. Its use in relation to body part ownership is demonstrated. Article 8(1) of the European Convention of Human Rights endorses and mandates this approach.

  10. Using skinfold calipers while teaching body fatness-related concepts: cognitive and affective outcomes.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, J R; Eklund, R C; Williams, A C

    2003-12-01

    Body composition testing has been advocated as part of fitness test batteries in an educational effort to promote health-related fitness, and to prevent public health problems like obesity. However, the measurement of the body composition of children and youth, especially involving the use of skinfold calipers, has raised concerns. In two experiments the cognitive and affective consequences of skinfold caliper use in a 7th grade (155 boys, 177 girls, total N = 332) health/physical education context were examined. Experiment 1 demonstrated that the students could be taught to accurately measure a partner and/or significantly learn body fatness-related concepts compared to controls. It was also shown that inexpensive plastic Fat Control calipers produced accurate measurements. Experiment 2 was designed to replicate the significant cognitive outcome effects, and also to test the hypothesis that psychological damage is a likely consequence of skinfold caliper use-and that hypothesis was refuted. Specifically, knowledge scores, and outcome scores on adapted affect scales (e.g., PANAS, MAACL), physical self-esteem scales (CY-PSPP) and on the Social Physique Anxiety Scale supported the premise that skinfold calipers can be used in an educational context to facilitate cognitive learning without causing adverse affective consequences.

  11. Comprehension and production of body part labels in 2- to 3-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Camões-Costa, Vera; Erjavec, Mihela; Horne, Pauline J

    2011-09-01

    This study examined which body part labels children could (i) produce when the experimenter touched different locations on her own body, asking each time 'What's this?' and (ii) comprehend by touching the correct locations on their own bodies in response to the experimenter asking 'Where's the [body-part label]?'. Seventeen children aged between 26 and 41 months, tested in a repeated measures procedure, were presented with 50 different body part stimuli in 200 test trials per child. Overall, the children produced fewer body part labels than they could comprehend. The accuracy of children's responses depended on (i) the location or extent of each body part (facial and broad body features were better known; joints and features in or attached to broad body parts the least well known); (ii) the amount of sensory (but not motor) representation each body part has in the human cortex; and (iii) whether a body part was commonly named by caregivers. These results present a precise mapping of the body parts that young children are able to name and locate on their own bodies in response to body part names; they suggest several possible determinants of lexical-semantic body knowledge and add to the understanding of how it develops in childhood.

  12. Considering an affect regulation framework for examining the association between body dissatisfaction and positive body image in Black older adolescent females: does body mass index matter?

    PubMed

    Webb, Jennifer B; Butler-Ajibade, Phoebe; Robinson, Seronda A

    2014-09-01

    The present study provided an initial evaluation of an affect regulation model describing the association between body dissatisfaction and two contemporary measures of positive body image among 247 Black college-bound older adolescent females. We further tested whether possessing a higher body mass index (BMI) would strengthen these associations. Self-reported height and weight were used to calculate BMI. Respondents also completed a culturally-sensitive figure rating scale along with assessments of body appreciation and body image flexibility. Results indicated a robust positive association between the two measures of positive body image; BMI was the strongest predictor of both body appreciation and body image flexibility with body size discrepancy (current minus ideal) contributing incremental variance to both models tested. Implications for improving our understanding of the association between positive and negative body image and bolstering positive body image to promote health-protective behaviors among Black young women at this developmental juncture are discussed.

  13. Considering an Affect Regulation Framework for Examining the Association Between Body Dissatisfaction and Positive Body Image in Black Older Adolescent Females: Does Body Mass Index Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Butler-Ajibade, Phoebe; Robinson, Seronda A.

    2014-01-01

    The present study provided an initial evaluation of an affect regulation model describing the association between body dissatisfaction and two contemporary measures of positive body image among 247 Black college-bound older adolescent females. We further tested whether possessing a higher body mass index (BMI) would strengthen these associations. Self-reported height and weight were used to calculate BMI. Respondents also completed a culturally-sensitive figure rating scale along with assessments of body appreciation and body image flexibility. Results indicated a robust positive association between the two measures of positive body image; BMI was the strongest predictor of both body appreciation and body image flexibility with body size discrepancy (current minus ideal) contributing incremental variance to both models tested. Implications for improving our understanding of the association between positive and negative body image and bolstering positive body image to promote health-protective behaviors among Black young women at this developmental juncture are discussed. PMID:25079011

  14. Laser welding on trough panel: 3D body part

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirai, Masato; Hisano, Hirohiko

    2003-03-01

    Laser welding for automotive bodies has been introduced mainly by European car manufacturers since more than 10 years ago. Their purposes of laser welding introduction were mainly vehicle performance improvement and lightweight. And laser welding was applied to limited portion where shapes of panels are simple and easy to fit welded flanges. Toyota also has introduced laser welding onto 3 dimensional parts named trough panel since 1999. Our purpose of the introduction was common use of equipment. Trough panel has a complex shape and different shapes in each car type. In order to realize common use of welding equipment, we introduced parts locating equipment which had unique, small & simple jigs fo each car type and NC (Numerical Controlled) locators and air-cooled small laser head developed by ourselves to the trough welding process. Laser welding replaced spot welding and was applied linearly like stitches. Length of laser welding was determined according to comparison with statistic tensile strength and fatigue strength of spot welding.

  15. Loving transgressions: Queer of color bodies, affective ties, transformative community.

    PubMed

    Carrillo Rowe, Aimee; Royster, Francesca T

    2016-09-12

    This introductory article considers the importance of queer woman of color theorizations of affect in thinking more fully the recent interdisciplinary turn to affect. The affective turn has vitally invited culture and feminist critics to interrogate emotion beyond the individual to examine the political and cultural production of emotion. Even as women of color are often associated with excessive affect, the theoretical contributions women of color make to the field of affect studies are often overlooked. Our introduction and this special issue more broadly examine how this solipsism shapes projects invested in critical knowledge production, as well as the stakes of centering a queer woman of color genealogy. For instance, we argue for the importance of retaining U.S. third-world feminist concepts-like interpellation, oppositional consciousness, and the generative force of negative affects-even as they fall out of favor within affect studies. Centering theory that emerges from the vexed spaces of queer women of color lived experiences generates a vital interdisciplinary conversation that contributes to the ongoing political task of mobilizing affect for social action as a critical praxis. In the articles that follow we see this critical praxis at work in the form of community organizing, music, poetry, and performance art.

  16. Parry–Romberg syndrome affecting one half of the body

    PubMed Central

    Pathi, Jugajyoti; Mishra, Pallavi; Kumar, Harish; Panda, Abikshyeet

    2016-01-01

    Parry-Romberg syndrome, which is also known as progressive hemifacial atrophy, is a poorly understood rare condition. In this condition, the face shows unilateral, slowly progressive atrophy. Disturbance in fat metabolism, viral infection, trauma, heredity, endocrinal disturbances, and autoimmunity are few possible factors in its pathogenesis. Rarely, only this syndrome progresses and involves one half of the body. Our attempt is to present a case of Parry–Romberg syndrome involving one half of the body, which is a rarity in itself. PMID:27583230

  17. Turning Configural Processing Upside Down: Part and Whole Body Postures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Catherine L.; Stone, Valerie E.; Grubb, Jefferson D.; McGoldrick, John E.

    2006-01-01

    Like faces, body postures are susceptible to an inversion effect in untrained viewers. The inversion effect may be indicative of configural processing, but what kind of configural processing is used for the recognition of body postures must be specified. The information available in the body stimulus was manipulated. The presence and magnitude of…

  18. Touching the private parts: how gender and sexuality norms affect medical students' first pelvic examination.

    PubMed

    Sörensdotter, Renita; Siwe, Karin

    2016-11-01

    Gynaecologists are in a position to challenge norms about gender and sexuality in relation to female genitals. Through their work they have the opportunity to educate patients, which is why teaching medical students to perform examinations in a gender sensitive way is significant. Medical students performing their first pelvic examination often experience the examination as uncomfortable because it is a body part that is connected to sex and to something private. This paper uses medical students' interpretations of performing their first pelvic examination as a means to discuss how cultural norms for gender, sexuality and female genitals affect these examinations. Issues raised include how cultural connotations of female genitals affect the pelvic examination, how female and male students relate differently to examining female genitals and the interpretations they make in relation to themselves. Findings show that the female genitals are perceived as a special body part connected to sexuality and intimacy. Students' gender also affects the interpretations they make during pelvic examinations. Norms of gender, sexuality and female genitals need to be challenged in the teaching and performance of pelvic examination in order to demystify this experience.

  19. Does smoking affect body weight and obesity in China?

    PubMed

    Fang, Hai; Ali, Mir M; Rizzo, John A

    2009-12-01

    An inverse relationship between smoking and body weight has been documented in the medical literature, but the effect of cigarette smoking on obesity remains inconclusive. In addition, the evidence is mixed on whether rising obesity rates are an unintended consequence of successful anti-smoking policies. This study re-examines these relationships using data from China, the largest consumer and manufacturer of tobacco in the world that is also experiencing a steady rise in obesity rates. We focus on the impact of the total number of cigarettes smoked per day on individuals' body mass index (BMI) and on the likelihood of being overweight and obese. Instrumental variables estimation is used to correct for the endogeneity of cigarette smoking. We find a moderate negative and significant relationship between cigarette smoking and BMI. Smoking is also negatively related to being overweight and obese, but the marginal effects are small and statistically insignificant for being obese. Quantile regression analyses reveal that the association between smoking and BMI is quite weak among subjects whose BMIs are at the high end of the distribution but are considerably stronger among subjects in the healthy weight range. Ordered probit regression analyses also confirm these findings. Our results thus reconcile an inverse average effect of smoking on body weight with the absence of any significant effect on obesity. From a policy perspective these findings suggest that, while smoking cessation may lead to moderate weight gain among subjects of healthy weight, the effects on obese subjects are modest and should not be expected to lead to a large increase in obesity prevalence rates.

  20. 78 FR 7659 - Revised Medical Criteria for Evaluating Congenital Disorders That Affect Multiple Body Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-04

    ... impairments that affect multiple body systems in adults and children under titles II and XVI of the Social... eligibility or filing for benefits, call our national toll-free number, 1-800-772-1213, or TTY 1-800-325-0778... the appropriate affected body system(s), such as musculoskeletal, special senses and...

  1. Body dysmorphic disorder: A complex and polymorphic affection

    PubMed Central

    Fiori, Patrizia; Giannetti, Luigi Maria

    2009-01-01

    Background Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is defined as a syndrome characterized by an excessive preoccupation because of a presumed or minimal physical flaw in appearance that polarizes the energies of the subject. So far, its specular aspect, represented by the presence of an evident physical defect that is not recognized or is even denied and neglected, has been disregarded. The aim of our study was to examine the individual and relational meaning of BDD and to evaluate the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral and medical–aesthetical treatments. Methods and results We describe two subjects with BDD, diagnosed by clinical interviews and test. Both patients were compliant to cognitive-behavioral approach. One out of two subjects underwent aesthetical treatments. Conclusions Cognitive-behavioral therapy stimulates self-consciousness, rebuilds the body image, promotes health care, and improves relational capacity. Moreover, it ensures the success of any medical and/or surgical procedures by preventing unrealistic expectations. Lastly, it contributes to the definition of worldwide shared behavioral models. PMID:19777069

  2. Body size affects the evolution of eyespots in caterpillars

    PubMed Central

    Skelhorn, John; Breinholt, Jesse W.; Kawahara, Akito Y.; Sherratt, Thomas N.

    2015-01-01

    Many caterpillars have conspicuous eye-like markings, called eyespots. Despite recent work demonstrating the efficacy of eyespots in deterring predator attack, a fundamental question remains: Given their protective benefits, why have eyespots not evolved in more caterpillars? Using a phylogenetically controlled analysis of hawkmoth caterpillars, we show that eyespots are associated with large body size. This relationship could arise because (i) large prey are innately conspicuous; (ii) large prey are more profitable, and thus face stronger selection to evolve such defenses; and/or (iii) eyespots are more effective on large-bodied prey. To evaluate these hypotheses, we exposed small and large caterpillar models with and without eyespots in a 2 × 2 factorial design to avian predators in the field. Overall, eyespots increased prey mortality, but the effect was particularly marked in small prey, and eyespots decreased mortality of large prey in some microhabitats. We then exposed artificial prey to naïve domestic chicks in a laboratory setting following a 2 × 3 design (small or large size × no, small, or large eyespots). Predators attacked small prey with eyespots more quickly, but were more wary of large caterpillars with large eyespots than those without eyespots or with small eyespots. Taken together, these data suggest that eyespots are effective deterrents only when both prey and eyespots are large, and that innate aversion toward eyespots is conditional. We conclude that the distribution of eyespots in nature likely results from selection against eyespots in small caterpillars and selection for eyespots in large caterpillars (at least in some microhabitats). PMID:25964333

  3. Body size affects the evolution of eyespots in caterpillars.

    PubMed

    Hossie, Thomas John; Skelhorn, John; Breinholt, Jesse W; Kawahara, Akito Y; Sherratt, Thomas N

    2015-05-26

    Many caterpillars have conspicuous eye-like markings, called eyespots. Despite recent work demonstrating the efficacy of eyespots in deterring predator attack, a fundamental question remains: Given their protective benefits, why have eyespots not evolved in more caterpillars? Using a phylogenetically controlled analysis of hawkmoth caterpillars, we show that eyespots are associated with large body size. This relationship could arise because (i) large prey are innately conspicuous; (ii) large prey are more profitable, and thus face stronger selection to evolve such defenses; and/or (iii) eyespots are more effective on large-bodied prey. To evaluate these hypotheses, we exposed small and large caterpillar models with and without eyespots in a 2 × 2 factorial design to avian predators in the field. Overall, eyespots increased prey mortality, but the effect was particularly marked in small prey, and eyespots decreased mortality of large prey in some microhabitats. We then exposed artificial prey to naïve domestic chicks in a laboratory setting following a 2 × 3 design (small or large size × no, small, or large eyespots). Predators attacked small prey with eyespots more quickly, but were more wary of large caterpillars with large eyespots than those without eyespots or with small eyespots. Taken together, these data suggest that eyespots are effective deterrents only when both prey and eyespots are large, and that innate aversion toward eyespots is conditional. We conclude that the distribution of eyespots in nature likely results from selection against eyespots in small caterpillars and selection for eyespots in large caterpillars (at least in some microhabitats).

  4. Development of Body-Part Vocabulary in Toddlers in Relation to Self-Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waugh, Whitney E.; Brownell, Celia A.

    2015-01-01

    To better understand young children's ability to communicate about their bodies, toddlers' comprehension and production of 27 common body-part words was assessed using parental report at 20 and 30 months (n?=?64), and self-awareness was assessed using mirror self-recognition. Children at both ages comprehended more body-part words that referred to…

  5. Moving human full body and body parts detection, tracking, and applications on human activity estimation, walking pattern and face recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hai-Wen; McGurr, Mike

    2016-05-01

    We have developed a new way for detection and tracking of human full-body and body-parts with color (intensity) patch morphological segmentation and adaptive thresholding for security surveillance cameras. An adaptive threshold scheme has been developed for dealing with body size changes, illumination condition changes, and cross camera parameter changes. Tests with the PETS 2009 and 2014 datasets show that we can obtain high probability of detection and low probability of false alarm for full-body. Test results indicate that our human full-body detection method can considerably outperform the current state-of-the-art methods in both detection performance and computational complexity. Furthermore, in this paper, we have developed several methods using color features for detection and tracking of human body-parts (arms, legs, torso, and head, etc.). For example, we have developed a human skin color sub-patch segmentation algorithm by first conducting a RGB to YIQ transformation and then applying a Subtractive I/Q image Fusion with morphological operations. With this method, we can reliably detect and track human skin color related body-parts such as face, neck, arms, and legs. Reliable body-parts (e.g. head) detection allows us to continuously track the individual person even in the case that multiple closely spaced persons are merged. Accordingly, we have developed a new algorithm to split a merged detection blob back to individual detections based on the detected head positions. Detected body-parts also allow us to extract important local constellation features of the body-parts positions and angles related to the full-body. These features are useful for human walking gait pattern recognition and human pose (e.g. standing or falling down) estimation for potential abnormal behavior and accidental event detection, as evidenced with our experimental tests. Furthermore, based on the reliable head (face) tacking, we have applied a super-resolution algorithm to enhance

  6. Temperature and body weight affect fouling of pig pens.

    PubMed

    Aarnink, A J A; Schrama, J W; Heetkamp, M J W; Stefanowska, J; Huynh, T T T

    2006-08-01

    Fouling of the solid lying area in pig housing is undesirable for reasons of animal welfare, animal health, environmental pollution, and labor costs. In this study the influence of temperature on the excreting and lying behavior of growing-finishing pigs of different BW (25, 45, 65, 85, or 105 kg) was studied. Ten groups of 5 pigs were placed in partially slatted pens (60% solid concrete, 40% metal-slatted) in climate respiration chambers. After an adaptation period, temperatures were raised daily for 9 d. Results showed that above certain inflection temperatures (IT; mean 22.6 degrees C, SE = 0.78) the number of excretions (relative to the total number of excretions) on the solid floor increased with temperature (mean increase 9.7%/ degrees C, SE = 1.41). Below the IT, the number of excretions on the solid floor was low and not influenced by temperature (mean 13.2%, SE = 3.5). On average, the IT for excretion on the solid floor decreased with increasing BW, from approximately 25 degrees C at 25 kg to 20 degrees C at 100 kg of BW (P < 0.05). Increasing temperature also affected the pattern and postural lying. The temperature at which a maximum number of pigs lay on the slatted floor (i.e., the IT for lying) decreased from approximately 27 degrees C at 25 kg to 23 degrees C at 100 kg of BW (P < 0.001). At increasing temperatures, pigs lay more on their sides and less against other pigs (P < 0.001). Temperature affects lying and excreting behavior of growing-finishing pigs in partially slatted pens. Above certain IT, pen fouling increases linearly with temperature. Inflection temperatures decrease at increasing BW.

  7. Listening-touch, Affect and the Crafting of Medical Bodies through Percussion

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The growing abundance of medical technologies has led to laments over doctors’ sensory de-skilling, technologies viewed as replacing diagnosis based on sensory acumen. The technique of percussion has become emblematic of the kinds of skills considered lost. While disappearing from wards, percussion is still taught in medical schools. By ethnographically following how percussion is taught to and learned by students, this article considers the kinds of bodies configured through this multisensory practice. I suggest that three kinds of bodies arise: skilled bodies; affected bodies; and resonating bodies. As these bodies are crafted, I argue that boundaries between bodies of novices and bodies they learn from blur. Attending to an overlooked dimension of bodily configurations in medicine, self-perception, I show that learning percussion functions not only to perpetuate diagnostic craft skills but also as a way of knowing of, and through, the resource always at hand; one’s own living breathing body. PMID:27390549

  8. Does Body Mass Index Affect Mortality in Coronary Surgery?

    PubMed Central

    Protopapas, Aristotle D.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The Body Mass Index (BMI) quantifies nutritional status and classifies humans as underweight, of normal weight, overweight, mildly obese, moderately obese or morbidly obese. Obesity is the excessive accumulation of fat, defined as BMI higher than 30 kg/m2. Obesity is widely accepted to complicate anaesthesia and surgery, being a risk factor for mediastinitis after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). We sought the evidence on operative mortality of CABG between standard BMI groups. Materials and Methodology: A simple literature review of papers presenting the mortality of CABG by BMI group: Underweight (BMI ≤ 18.49 kg/m2), normal weight (BMI 18.5–24.9 kg/m2), overweight (BMI 25.0–29.9 kg/m2), mild obesity (BMI 30.0–34.9 kg/m2), moderate obesity (BMI 35.0–39.9 kg/m2), or morbid obesity (BMI ≥ 40.0 kg/m2). Results: We identified 18 relevant studies with 1,027,711 patients in total. Their variability in size of samples and choice of BMI groups precluded us from attempting inferential statistics. The overall cumulative mortality was 2.7%. Underweight patients had by far the highest mortality (6.6%). Overweight patients had the lowest group mortality (2.1%). The group mortality for morbidly obese patients was 3.44%. Discussion: Patients with extreme BMI’s undergoing CABG (underweight ones more than morbidly obese) suffer increased crude mortality. This simple observation indicates that under nutrition and morbid obesity need be further explored as risk factors for coronary surgery. PMID:28217179

  9. The Mind-Body Connection - Can Prolonged Stress Affect Whether Breast Cancer Returns?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Past Issues The Mind-Body Connection Can Prolonged Stress Affect Whether Breast Cancer Returns? Past Issues / Winter ... traumatic life events. The categories ranged from traumatic stress to some stress to no significant stress. According ...

  10. ["In vivo" body composition assessment; part I: a historic overview].

    PubMed

    Carnero, Elvis A; Alvero-Cruz, José Ramón; Giráldez García, Manuel Avelino; Sardinha, Luis B

    2015-05-01

    The study of body composition (BC) has gained in relevance over the last decades, mainly because of its important health- and disease- related applications within both the clinical and the sports setting. It is not a new area, and its especial relevance as an area of biology dates from the second half of the nineteenth century. In this paper, we have reviewed the three historic periods of BC, with special reference to the most important advances in in vivo assessment. Even though the earliest findings about human BC date from antiquity, the first (or 'early') stage of discovery began in 1850. Said early stage was mainly characterized by data obtained from the dissection of cadavers and by the application of biochemical methods in vivo. Longitudinal changes in body composition were also a concern. The second (so called 'recent') stage, in the second half of the twentieth century, was marked by milestones such as the formulation of the first mathematical models for the estimation of body components, and technological advances. Within the third ('contemporary' or 'current') stage of research, several groups have focused on validating the classical BC models in specific populations, on analysis of the genetic determinants (i.e. phenotypes and, more recently genotypes) of body composition, and on re-instigating the study of dynamic BC.

  11. Searching for the elusive neural substrates of body part terms: a neuropsychological study.

    PubMed

    Kemmerer, David; Tranel, Daniel

    2008-06-01

    Previous neuropsychological studies suggest that, compared to other categories of concrete entities, lexical and conceptual aspects of body part knowledge are frequently spared in brain-damaged patients. To further investigate this issue, we administered a battery of 12 tests assessing lexical and conceptual aspects of body part knowledge to 104 brain-damaged patients with lesions distributed throughout the telencephalon. There were two main outcomes. First, impaired oral naming of body parts, attributable to a disturbance of the mapping between lexical-semantic and lexical-phonological structures, was most reliably and specifically associated with lesions in the left frontal opercular and anterior/inferior parietal opercular cortices and in the white matter underlying these regions (8 patients). Also, 1 patient with body part anomia had a left occipital lesion that included the "extrastriate body area" (EBA). Second, knowledge of the meanings of body part terms was remarkably resistant to impairment, regardless of lesion site; in fact, we did not uncover a single patient who exhibited significantly impaired understanding of the meanings of these terms. In the 9 patients with body part anomia, oral naming of concrete entities was evaluated, and this revealed that 4 patients had disproportionately worse naming of body parts relative to other types of concrete entities. Taken together, these findings extend previous neuropsychological and functional neuroimaging studies of body part knowledge and add to our growing understanding of the nuances of how different linguistic and conceptual categories are operated by left frontal and parietal structures.

  12. Socially Deictic Use of a Body-Part Term in Turkish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taneri, Mubeccel

    The use of one body-part term in Turkish, corresponding to the English "head," is examined. It is demonstrated that this term is the most unmarked body-part term in the language with the largest functional load in common usage. It is found to have a large number of derivations, especially with socially deictic meanings. Possible…

  13. The argument for property rights in body parts: scarcity of resources.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Simon

    2014-01-01

    This article attempts to answer two basic questions. First, can body parts be the subject of property rights? This requires us to start with a definition of property rights, and this is set out in the first section. In the second section, it will be argued that rights in relation to body parts can come within this definition of property rights. However, as explained in the third section, the fact that body parts can be the subject of property rights does not mean that they should. To answer the question of whether body parts should be the subject of property rights we need to consider policy arguments. This article will develop an argument in favour of the recognition of property rights in body parts which focuses on the notion of scarcity of resources.

  14. Spatial cognition, body representation and affective processes: the role of vestibular information beyond ocular reflexes and control of posture

    PubMed Central

    Mast, Fred W.; Preuss, Nora; Hartmann, Matthias; Grabherr, Luzia

    2014-01-01

    A growing number of studies in humans demonstrate the involvement of vestibular information in tasks that are seemingly remote from well-known functions such as space constancy or postural control. In this review article we point out three emerging streams of research highlighting the importance of vestibular input: (1) Spatial Cognition: Modulation of vestibular signals can induce specific changes in spatial cognitive tasks like mental imagery and the processing of numbers. This has been shown in studies manipulating body orientation (changing the input from the otoliths), body rotation (changing the input from the semicircular canals), in clinical findings with vestibular patients, and in studies carried out in microgravity. There is also an effect in the reverse direction; top-down processes can affect perception of vestibular stimuli. (2) Body Representation: Numerous studies demonstrate that vestibular stimulation changes the representation of body parts, and sensitivity to tactile input or pain. Thus, the vestibular system plays an integral role in multisensory coordination of body representation. (3) Affective Processes and Disorders: Studies in psychiatric patients and patients with a vestibular disorder report a high comorbidity of vestibular dysfunctions and psychiatric symptoms. Recent studies investigated the beneficial effect of vestibular stimulation on psychiatric disorders, and how vestibular input can change mood and affect. These three emerging streams of research in vestibular science are—at least in part—associated with different neuronal core mechanisms. Spatial transformations draw on parietal areas, body representation is associated with somatosensory areas, and affective processes involve insular and cingulate cortices, all of which receive vestibular input. Even though a wide range of different vestibular cortical projection areas has been ascertained, their functionality still is scarcely understood. PMID:24904327

  15. Recognition and mental manipulation of body parts dissociate in locked-in syndrome.

    PubMed

    Conson, Massimiliano; Pistoia, Francesca; Sarà, Marco; Grossi, Dario; Trojano, Luigi

    2010-08-01

    Several lines of evidence demonstrate that the motor system is involved in motor simulation of actions, but some uncertainty exists about the consequences of lesions of descending motor pathways on mental imagery tasks. Moreover, recent findings suggest that the motor system could also have a role in recognition of body parts. To address these issues in the present study we assessed patients with a complete damage of descending motor pathways (locked-in syndrome, LIS) on the hand laterality task, requiring subjects to decide whether a hand stimulus in a given spatial orientation represents a left or a right hand. LIS patients were less accurate than healthy controls in judging hand laterality; more importantly, LIS patients' performance was modulated by spatial orientation of hand stimuli whereas it was not affected by biomechanical constraints. These findings demonstrate a dissociation between spared hand recognition and impaired access to action simulation processes in LIS patients.

  16. Embodying animals: Body-part compatibility in mammalian, reptile and aves classes.

    PubMed

    Pacione, Sandra M; Welsh, Timothy N

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine how humans code homologous body parts of nonhuman mammal, reptilian, and aves animals with respect to the representation of the human body. To this end, participants completed body-part compatibility tasks in which responses were executed to colored targets that were superimposed over the upper limbs, lower limbs or head of different animals in different postures. In Experiment 1, the images were of meekats and lizards in bipedal and quadrupedal postures. In Experiment 2, the images were of a human, a penguin, and an owl in a bipedal posture with upper limbs stretched out. Overall, the results revealed that the limbs of nonhuman mammals (meerkat and human) were consistently mapped onto the homologous human body parts only when the mammals were in a bipedal posture. Specifically, body-part compatibility effects emerged for the human and the meerkat in a bipedal posture, but not the meerkat in the quadrupedal posture. Further, consistent body-part compatibility effects were not observed for the lizard in the quadrupedal posture or for the lizard, penguin, or owl in a bipedal posture. The pattern of results suggests that the human bipedal body representation may distinguish taxonomical classes and is most highly engaged when viewing homologous body parts of mammalian animals.

  17. Affective responses of high and low body satisfied men to viewing physique slides.

    PubMed

    Hausenblas, Heather A; Janelle, Christopher M; Gardner, Rebecca Ellis; Hagan, Amy L

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the acute affective responses of high and low body satisfied (BS) men who viewed physique slides of the male ideal (model-slides), physique slides of themselves (self-slides), and nonphysique slides (control-slides). During three laboratory visits the participants viewed the slides from one of the three conditions, and they completed pre-, in-, and post-task affective measures. It was found that the: (a) high BS group reported less mood disturbance than the low BS group; (b) participants reported an increase in depression, anger, and body dissatisfaction after viewing the self-slides; (c) participants indicated a decrease in body dissatisfaction after viewing the model-slides; and (d) viewing the control-slides did not result in affective changes. Findings suggest that viewing physique slides results in increased mood disturbance, regardless of BS level.

  18. Body-part-specific representations of semantic noun categories.

    PubMed

    Carota, Francesca; Moseley, Rachel; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2012-06-01

    Word meaning processing in the brain involves ventrolateral temporal cortex, but a semantic contribution of the dorsal stream, especially frontocentral sensorimotor areas, has been controversial. We here examine brain activation during passive reading of object-related nouns from different semantic categories, notably animal, food, and tool words, matched for a range of psycholinguistic features. Results show ventral stream activation in temporal cortex along with category-specific activation patterns in both ventral and dorsal streams, including sensorimotor systems and adjacent pFC. Precentral activation reflected action-related semantic features of the word categories. Cortical regions implicated in mouth and face movements were sparked by food words, and hand area activation was seen for tool words, consistent with the actions implicated by the objects the words are used to speak about. Furthermore, tool words specifically activated the right cerebellum, and food words activated the left orbito-frontal and fusiform areas. We discuss our results in the context of category-specific semantic deficits in the processing of words and concepts, along with previous neuroimaging research, and conclude that specific dorsal and ventral areas in frontocentral and temporal cortex index visual and affective-emotional semantic attributes of object-related nouns and action-related affordances of their referent objects.

  19. Rhythm is it: effects of dynamic body feedback on affect and attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Sabine C.

    2014-01-01

    Body feedback is the proprioceptive feedback that denominates the afferent information from position and movement of the body to the central nervous system. It is crucial in experiencing emotions, in forming attitudes and in regulating emotions and behavior. This paper investigates effects of dynamic body feedback on affect and attitudes, focusing on the impact of movement rhythms with smooth vs. sharp reversals as one basic category of movement qualities. It relates those qualities to already explored effects of approach vs. avoidance motor behavior as one basic category of movement shape. Studies 1 and 2 tested the effects of one of two basic movement qualities (smooth vs. sharp rhythms) on affect and cognition. The third study tested those movement qualities in combination with movement shape (approach vs. avoidance motor behavior) and the effects of those combinations on affect and attitudes toward initially valence-free stimuli. Results suggest that movement rhythms influence affect (studies 1 and 2), and attitudes (study 3), and moderate the impact of approach and avoidance motor behavior on attitudes (study 3). Extending static body feedback research with a dynamic account, findings indicate that movement qualities – next to movement shape – play an important role, when movement of the lived body is an independent variable. PMID:24959153

  20. The effects of mind-body training on stress reduction, positive affect, and plasma catecholamines.

    PubMed

    Jung, Ye-Ha; Kang, Do-Hyung; Jang, Joon Hwan; Park, Hye Yoon; Byun, Min Soo; Kwon, Soo Jin; Jang, Go-Eun; Lee, Ul Soon; An, Seung Chan; Kwon, Jun Soo

    2010-07-26

    This study was designed to assess the association between stress, positive affect and catecholamine levels in meditation and control groups. The meditation group consisted of 67 subjects who regularly engaged in mind-body training of "Brain-Wave Vibration" and the control group consisted of 57 healthy subjects. Plasma catecholamine (norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (E), and dopamine (DA)) levels were measured, and a modified form of the Stress Response Inventory (SRI-MF) and the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS) were administered. The meditation group showed higher scores on positive affect (p=.019) and lower scores on stress (p<.001) compared with the control group. Plasma DA levels were also higher in the meditation (p=.031) than in the control group. The control group demonstrated a negative correlation between stress and positive affects (r=-.408, p=.002), whereas this correlation was not observed in the meditation group. The control group showed positive correlations between somatization and NE/E (r=.267, p=.045) and DA/E (r=.271, p=.042) ratios, whereas these correlations did not emerge in the meditation group. In conclusion, these results suggest that meditation as mind-body training is associated with lower stress, higher positive affect and higher plasma DA levels when comparing the meditation group with the control group. Thus, mind-body training may influence stress, positive affect and the sympathetic nervous system including DA activity.

  1. I feel who I see: visual body identity affects visual-tactile integration in peripersonal space.

    PubMed

    Salomon, R; van Elk, M; Aspell, J E; Blanke, O

    2012-09-01

    Recent studies have shown the importance of integrating multisensory information in the body representation for constituting self-consciousness. However, one idea that has received only scant attention is that our body representation is also constituted by knowledge of bodily visual characteristics (i.e. 'what I look like'). Here in two experiments we used a full body crossmodal congruency task in which visual distractors were presented on a photograph of the participant, another person, who was either familiar or unfamiliar, or an object. Results revealed that during the 'self-condition' CCEs were enhanced compared to the 'other condition'. The CCE was similar for unfamiliar and familiar others. CCEs for the object condition were significantly smaller. The results show that presentation of an irrelevant image of a body affects multimodal processing and that the effect is enhanced when that image is of the self. The results hold intriguing implications for body representation in social situations.

  2. Bodies are Represented as Wholes Rather Than Their Sum of Parts in the Occipital-Temporal Cortex.

    PubMed

    Brandman, Talia; Yovel, Galit

    2016-02-01

    Behavioral studies suggested that bodies are represented as wholes rather than in a part-based manner. However, neural selectivity for body stimuli is found for both whole bodies and body parts. It is therefore undetermined whether the neural representation of bodies is configural or part-based. We used functional MRI to test the role of first-order configuration on body representation in the human occipital-temporal cortex by comparing the response to a whole body versus the sum of its parts. Results show that body-selective areas, whether defined by selectivity to headless bodies or body parts, preferred whole bodies over their sum of parts and successfully decoded body configuration. This configural representation was specific to body stimuli and not found for faces. In contrast, general object areas showed no preference for wholes over parts and decoded the configuration of both bodies and faces. Finally, whereas effects of inversion on configural face representation were specific to face-selective mechanisms, effects of body inversion were not unique to body-selective mechanisms. We conclude that the neural representation of body parts is strengthened by their arrangement into an intact body, thereby demonstrating a central role of first-order configuration in the neural representation of bodies in their category-selective areas.

  3. Representations of faces and body parts in macaque temporal cortex: a functional MRI study.

    PubMed

    Pinsk, Mark A; DeSimone, Kevin; Moore, Tirin; Gross, Charles G; Kastner, Sabine

    2005-05-10

    Human neuroimaging studies suggest that areas in temporal cortex respond preferentially to certain biologically relevant stimulus categories such as faces and bodies. Single-cell studies in monkeys have reported cells in inferior temporal cortex that respond selectively to faces, hands, and bodies but provide little evidence of large clusters of category-specific cells that would form "areas." We probed the category selectivity of macaque temporal cortex for representations of monkey faces and monkey body parts relative to man-made objects using functional MRI in animals trained to fixate. Two face-selective areas were activated bilaterally in the posterior and anterior superior temporal sulcus exhibiting different degrees of category selectivity. The posterior face area was more extensively activated in the right hemisphere than in the left hemisphere. Immediately adjacent to the face areas, regions were activated bilaterally responding preferentially to body parts. Our findings suggest a category-selective organization for faces and body parts in macaque temporal cortex.

  4. The misuse of Kant in the debate about a market for human body parts.

    PubMed

    Gerrand, N

    1999-01-01

    Passages from the writings of Immanuel Kant concerning how a person should treat her body are often cited in the present-day debate about a market for human body parts. In this paper, I demonstrate that this has been a misuse of Kant because unlike those who cite him, Kant was not primarily concerned with prohibiting the sale of body parts. In the first section, I argue that once these particular passages are understood against the background of Kant's moral philosophy, they indicate he had much broader concerns relating to the correct moral relationship a rational person should have with her body. In the second section, I examine Stephen Munzer's unusually detailed analysis of these passages, but conclude that like those who have provided less detailed analyses, he also fails fully to understand the rationale for Kant's various prescriptions and prohibitions concerning the treatment of human body parts, and in doing so misrepresents Kant's position.

  5. 25 CFR 170.226 - How will this part affect the IRR Inventory?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How will this part affect the IRR Inventory? 170.226... RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Funding Irr Inventory and Long-Range Transportation Planning (lrtp) § 170.226 How will this part affect the IRR Inventory? The IRR Inventory defined in...

  6. 25 CFR 170.226 - How will this part affect the IRR Inventory?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How will this part affect the IRR Inventory? 170.226... RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Funding Irr Inventory and Long-Range Transportation Planning (lrtp) § 170.226 How will this part affect the IRR Inventory? The IRR Inventory defined in...

  7. 14 CFR Appendix B to Part 1215 - Factors Affecting Standard Charges

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Factors Affecting Standard Charges B Appendix B to Part 1215 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION TRACKING AND DATA RELAY SATELLITE SYSTEM (TDRSS) Pt. 1215, App. B Appendix B to Part 1215—Factors Affecting...

  8. 14 CFR Appendix B to Part 1215 - Factors Affecting Standard Charges

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Factors Affecting Standard Charges B Appendix B to Part 1215 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION TRACKING AND DATA RELAY SATELLITE SYSTEM (TDRSS) Pt. 1215, App. B Appendix B to Part 1215—Factors Affecting...

  9. 14 CFR Appendix B to Part 1215 - Factors Affecting Standard Charges

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Factors Affecting Standard Charges B Appendix B to Part 1215 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION TRACKING AND DATA RELAY SATELLITE SYSTEM (TDRSS) Pt. 1215, App. B Appendix B to Part 1215—Factors Affecting...

  10. 14 CFR Appendix B to Part 1215 - Factors Affecting Standard Charges

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Factors Affecting Standard Charges B Appendix B to Part 1215 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION TRACKING AND DATA RELAY SATELLITE SYSTEM (TDRSS) Pt. 1215, App. B Appendix B to Part 1215—Factors Affecting...

  11. 14 CFR Appendix B to Part 1215 - Factors Affecting Standard Charges

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Factors Affecting Standard Charges B Appendix B to Part 1215 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION TRACKING AND DATA RELAY SATELLITE SYSTEM (TDRSS) Pt. 1215, App. B Appendix B to Part 1215—Factors Affecting...

  12. Cognitive Analysis of Chinese-English Metaphors of Animal and Human Body Part Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Meiying

    2009-01-01

    Metaphorical cognition arises from the mapping of two conceptual domains onto each other. According to the "Anthropocentrism", people tend to know the world first by learning about their bodies including Apparatuses. Based on that, people begin to know the material world, and the human body part metaphorization emerges as the times…

  13. The venality of human body parts and products in French law and common law.

    PubMed

    Haoulia, Naima

    2012-03-01

    The successive bioethics laws in France have constantly argued that the human body is not for sale and consecrated an absolute principle of free and anonymous donations, whether of semen, ova, blood, tissues or organs. Nonetheless, this position is not shared by all countries. These legal divergences upset today our moral principles and the development of these practices leads us to question the legal status of human biological material and its gradual commodification. This paper outlines the current law principles that protect people's interests in their bodies, excised body parts and tissues without conferring the rights of full legal ownership in French law and in Common law. Contrary to what many people believe, people do not legally 'own' their bodies, body parts or tissues. However, they do have some legal rights in relation to their bodies and excised body material. For lawyers, the exact relationship people have with their bodies has raised a host of complex questions and long debates about the status we should grant to human body parts. The significance of this issue is due to two reasons:first, because of the imperative protection we have to assure to human dignity and then, because of the economic value which is attached to human products.

  14. Machine learning for the automatic localisation of foetal body parts in cine-MRI scans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowles, Christopher; Nowlan, Niamh C.; Hayat, Tayyib T. A.; Malamateniou, Christina; Rutherford, Mary; Hajnal, Joseph V.; Rueckert, Daniel; Kainz, Bernhard

    2015-03-01

    Being able to automate the location of individual foetal body parts has the potential to dramatically reduce the work required to analyse time resolved foetal Magnetic Resonance Imaging (cine-MRI) scans, for example, for use in the automatic evaluation of the foetal development. Currently, manual preprocessing of every scan is required to locate body parts before analysis can be performed, leading to a significant time overhead. With the volume of scans becoming available set to increase as cine-MRI scans become more prevalent in clinical practice, this stage of manual preprocessing is a bottleneck, limiting the data available for further analysis. Any tools which can automate this process will therefore save many hours of research time and increase the rate of new discoveries in what is a key area in understanding early human development. Here we present a series of techniques which can be applied to foetal cine-MRI scans in order to first locate and then differentiate between individual body parts. A novel approach to maternal movement suppression and segmentation using Fourier transforms is put forward as a preprocessing step, allowing for easy extraction of short movements of individual foetal body parts via the clustering of optical flow vector fields. These body part movements are compared to a labelled database and probabilistically classified before being spatially and temporally combined to give a final estimate for the location of each body part.

  15. Mental rotation of body parts and sensory temporal discrimination in fixed dystonia.

    PubMed

    Katschnig, Petra; Edwards, Mark J; Schwingenschuh, Petra; Aguirregomozcorta, Maria; Kägi, Georg; Rothwell, John C; Bhatia, Kailash P

    2010-06-15

    Fixed dystonia is an uncommon but severely disabling condition typically affecting young women following a minor peripheral injury. There is no evidence of any structural lesions of the central nervous system nor any clear peripheral nerve or root damage. Electrophysiological techniques such as short intracortical inhibition, cortical silent period and a plasticity inducing protocol have revealed similarities but also differences compared to classical mobile dystonia. To further explore the pathophysiology of fixed dystonia we compared mental rotation of body parts and sensory temporal discrimination in 11 patients with fixed dystonia, 11 patients with classical mobile dystonia and 10 healthy controls. In the mental rotation task subjects were presented with realistic photos of left or right hands, feet and the head of a young women with a black patch covering the left or the right eye in six different orientations. Subjects had to verbally report the laterality of the presented stimuli. To assess sensory temporal discrimination subjects were asked to discriminate whether pairs of visual, tactile (electrical), or visuo-tactile stimuli were simultaneous or sequential (temporal discrimination threshold) and in the latter case which stimulus preceded the other (temporal order judgement). In accordance with previous studies patients with mobile dystonia were abnormal in mental rotation and temporal discrimination, whereas patients with fixed dystonia were only impaired in mental rotation. Possible explanations for this deficit may include the influence of the abnormal body posture itself, a shared predisposing pathophysiology for mobile and fixed dystonia, or a body image disturbance. These findings add information to the developing pathophysiological picture of fixed dystonia.

  16. Why bodies? Twelve reasons for including bodily expressions in affective neuroscience.

    PubMed

    de Gelder, Beatrice

    2009-12-12

    Why bodies? It is rather puzzling that given the massive interest in affective neuroscience in the last decade, it still seems to make sense to raise the question 'Why bodies' and to try to provide an answer to it, as is the goal of this article. There are now hundreds of articles on human emotion perception ranging from behavioural studies to brain imaging experiments. These experimental studies complement decades of reports on affective disorders in neurological patients and clinical studies of psychiatric populations. The most cursory glance at the literature on emotion in humans, now referred to by the umbrella term of social and affective neuroscience, shows that over 95 per cent of them have used faces as stimuli. Of the remaining 5 per cent, a few have used scenes or auditory information including human voices, music or environmental sounds. But by far the smallest number has looked into whole-body expressions. As a rough estimate, a search on PubMed today, 1 May 2009, yields 3521 hits for emotion x faces, 1003 hits for emotion x music and 339 hits for emotion x bodies. When looking in more detail, the body x emotion category in fact yields a majority of papers on well-being, nursing, sexual violence or organ donation. But the number of cognitive and affective neuroscience studies of emotional body perception as of today is lower than 20. Why then have whole bodies and bodily expressions not attracted the attention of researchers so far? The goal of this article is to contribute some elements for an answer to this question. I believe that there is something to learn from the historical neglect of bodies and bodily expressions. I will next address some historical misconceptions about whole-body perception, and in the process I intend not only to provide an impetus for this kind of work but also to contribute to a better understanding of the significance of the affective dimension of behaviour, mind and brain as seen from the vantage point of bodily

  17. Impact of Metacognitive Acceptance on Body Dissatisfaction and Negative Affect: Engagement and Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Melissa J.; Wade, Tracey D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate engagement in metacognitive acceptance and subsequent efficacy with respect to decreasing 2 risk factors for disordered eating, body dissatisfaction (BD), and negative affect (NA). Method: In a pilot experiment, 20 female undergraduates (M[subscript age] = 24.35, SD = 9.79) underwent a BD induction procedure, received…

  18. Water-triacylglycerol interactions affect oil body structure and seed viability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We are investigating interactions between water and triacylglycerols (TAG) that appear to affect oil body stability and viability of seeds. Dried seeds are usually stored at freezer temperatures (-20oC) for long-term conservation of genetic resources. This globally accepted genebanking practice is...

  19. Child and Adolescent Affective and Behavioral Distress and Elevated Adult Body Mass Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClure, Heather H.; Eddy, J. Mark; Kjellstrand, Jean M.; Snodgrass, J. Josh; Martinez, Charles R., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity rates throughout the world have risen rapidly in recent decades, and are now a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Several studies indicate that behavioral and affective distress in childhood may be linked to elevated adult body mass index (BMI). The present study utilizes data from a 20-year longitudinal study to examine the…

  20. Sneaker Males Affect Fighter Male Body Size and Sexual Size Dimorphism in Salmon.

    PubMed

    Weir, Laura K; Kindsvater, Holly K; Young, Kyle A; Reynolds, John D

    2016-08-01

    Large male body size is typically favored by directional sexual selection through competition for mates. However, alternative male life-history phenotypes, such as "sneakers," should decrease the strength of sexual selection acting on body size of large "fighter" males. We tested this prediction with salmon species; in southern populations, where sneakers are common, fighter males should be smaller than in northern populations, where sneakers are rare, leading to geographical clines in sexual size dimorphism (SSD). Consistent with our prediction, fighter male body size and SSD (fighter male∶female size) increase with latitude in species with sneaker males (Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and masu salmon Oncorhynchus masou) but not in species without sneakers (chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta and pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha). This is the first evidence that sneaker males affect SSD across populations and species, and it suggests that alternative male mating strategies may shape the evolution of body size.

  1. Negative Mood Increases Selective Attention to Negatively Valenced Body Parts in Female Adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Svaldi, Jennifer; Bender, Caroline; Caffier, Detlef; Ivanova, Viliana; Mies, Nina; Fleischhaker, Christian; Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna

    2016-01-01

    Objective Previous research has yielded evidence of increased attentional processing of negatively valenced body parts in women with anorexia nervosa (AN), especially for those with high depressive symptomatology. The present study extended previous research by implementing an experimental mood manipulation. Method In a within-subjects design, female adolescents with AN (n = 12) and an age matched female control group (CG; n = 12) were given a negative and a positive mood induction at a one-week interval. After each mood induction, participants underwent a 3-min mirror exposure, while their eye movements were recorded. Results After the positive mood induction, both AN and CG participants displayed longer and more frequent gazes towards their self-defined most ugly relative to their self-defined most beautiful body part. However, after the negative mood induction, only females with AN were characterized by increased attention to their most ugly compared to their most beautiful body part, while CG participants’ attention distribution was balanced. Furthermore, in the negative (but not in the positive) mood induction condition gaze frequency and duration towards the most ugly body part was significantly stronger in the AN group relative to the CG. Discussion The results emphasize the role of negative mood in the maintenance of pathological information processing of the self-body. This increased body-related negativity-bias during negative mood may lead to the persistence and aggravation of AN patients’ body image disturbance. PMID:27123587

  2. The personification of animals: coding of human and nonhuman body parts based on posture and function.

    PubMed

    Welsh, Timothy N; McDougall, Laura; Paulson, Stephanie

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of the present research was to determine how humans represent the bodies and limbs of nonhuman mammals based on anatomical and functional properties. To this end, participants completed a series of body-part compatibility tasks in which they responded with a thumb or foot response to the color of a stimulus (red or blue, respectively) presented on different limbs of several animals. Across the studies, this compatibility task was conducted with images of human and nonhuman animals (bears, cows, and monkeys) in bipedal or quadrupedal postures. The results revealed that the coding of the limbs of nonhuman animals is strongly influenced by the posture of the body, but not the functional capacity of the limb. Specifically, body-part compatibility effects were present for both human and nonhuman animals when the figures were in a bipedal posture, but were not present when the animals were in a quadrupedal stance (Experiments 1a-c). Experiments 2a and 2b revealed that the posture-based body-part compatibility effects were not simply a vertical spatial compatibility effect or due to a mismatch between the posture of the body in the image and the participant. These data indicate that nonhuman animals in a bipedal posture are coded with respect to the "human" body representation, whereas nonhuman animals in a quadrupedal posture are not mapped to the human body representation. Overall, these studies provide new insight into the processes through which humans understand, mimic, and learn from the actions of nonhuman animals.

  3. Environmental Factors Affecting Large-Bodied Coral Reef Fish Assemblages in the Mariana Archipelago

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Benjamin L.; Williams, Ivor D.; Vetter, Oliver J.; Williams, Gareth J.

    2012-01-01

    Large-bodied reef fishes represent an economically and ecologically important segment of the coral reef fish assemblage. Many of these individuals supply the bulk of the reproductive output for their population and have a disproportionate effect on their environment (e.g. as apex predators or bioeroding herbivores). Large-bodied reef fishes also tend to be at greatest risk of overfishing, and their loss can result in a myriad of either cascading (direct) or indirect trophic and other effects. While many studies have investigated habitat characteristics affecting populations of small-bodied reef fishes, few have explored the relationship between large-bodied species and their environment. Here, we describe the distribution of the large-bodied reef fishes in the Mariana Archipelago with an emphasis on the environmental factors associated with their distribution. Of the factors considered in this study, a negative association with human population density showed the highest relative influence on the distribution of large-bodied reef fishes; however, depth, water temperature, and distance to deep water also were important. These findings provide new information on the ecology of large-bodied reef fishes can inform discussions concerning essential fish habitat and ecosystem-based management for these species and highlight important knowledge gaps worthy of additional research. PMID:22384014

  4. Aristotle on Like-partedness and the Like-parted Bodies.

    PubMed

    Berman, Brad

    2015-01-01

    This paper offers an interpretation of Aristotle's treatment of the homoeomerous, or like-parted, bodies. I argue that they are liable to be far more complexly structured than is commonly supposed. While Aristotelian homoeomers have no intrinsic macrostructural properties, they are, in an important class of cases, essentially marked by the presence and absence of microstructural ones. As I show, these microstructural properties allow Aristotle to neatly demarcate the non-elemental homoeomers from the elements. That demarcation, in turn, helps to clarify Aristotle's conceptions of both homoeomery and what it is to be a bodily element. On Aristotle's account, I argue, a homoeomerous body, as such, is divisible into at least one part that is the same specific kind as the whole. Elemental bodies are the limiting case. For Aristotle, an elemental body is only divisible into parts that are of the same specific kind as the whole.

  5. Where is your shoulder? Neural correlates of localizing others' body parts.

    PubMed

    Felician, Olivier; Anton, Jean-Luc; Nazarian, Bruno; Roth, Muriel; Roll, Jean-Pierre; Romaiguère, Patricia

    2009-07-01

    Neuropsychological studies, based on pointing to body parts paradigms, suggest that left posterior parietal lobe is involved in the visual processing of other persons' bodies. In addition, some patients have been found with mild deficit when dealing with abstract human representations but marked impairment with realistically represented bodies, suggesting that this processing could be modulated by the abstraction level of the body to be analyzed. These issues were examined in the present fMRI experiment, designed to evaluate the effects of visually processing human bodies of different abstraction levels on brain activity. The human specificity of the studied processes was assessed using whole-body representations of humans and of dogs, while the effects of the abstraction level of the representation were assessed using drawings, photographs, and videos. To assess the effect of species and stimulus complexity on BOLD signal, we performed a two-way ANOVA with factors species (human versus animal) and stimulus complexity (drawings, photographs and videos). When pointing to body parts irrespective of the stimulus complexity, we observed a positive effect of humans upon animals in the left angular gyrus (BA 39), as suggested by lesion studies. This effect was also present in midline cortical structures including mesial prefrontal, anterior cingulate and precuneal regions. When pointing to body parts irrespective of the species to be processed, we observed a positive effect of videos upon photographs and drawings in the right superior parietal lobule (BA 7), and bilaterally in the superior temporal sulcus, the supramarginal gyrus (BA 40) and the lateral extrastriate visual cortex (including the "extrastriate body area"). Taken together, these data suggest that, in comparison with other mammalians, the visual processing of other humans' bodies is associated with left angular gyrus activity, but also with midline structures commonly implicated in self-reference. They also

  6. Gunther von Hagens and Body Worlds part 2: The anatomist as priest and prophet.

    PubMed

    Moore, Charleen M; Brown, C Mackenzie

    2004-03-01

    Part 1 of this two-part series highlighted tensions between the anatomical quest for scientific knowledge about the human interior and artistic representations of the anatomized body, contrasting the roles of Goethe's scientific Prosektor and humanistic Proplastiker-roles disturbingly fused in Gunther von Hagens. Part 2 first examines religious interpretations of the human body that fuel the tensions manifest in anatomy art. The body in Western cultures is a sacred text amenable to interpretation as handiwork of God, habitation for the soul, and vehicle for resurrection. As handiwork of God the body beckons the anatomist's scalpel, helping establish dissection as the hallmark of Western medicine. The body as divinely designed machine encompasses the idea of an indwelling soul expressing its will in actions mediated through the intricate network of muscles-an understanding reflected in the oft occurring muscle men of early anatomical textbooks. Interconnections of body and soul in medieval somatic spirituality are examined with reference to ideas of resurrection and their impact on anatomical illustration. Part 2 concludes with consideration of von Hagens as priest and prophet, culminating in the Promethean impulse that recognizes not God but ourselves as proper owners and molders of our destiny, embodied in the plastinator's visionary quest to create the superhuman.

  7. Determining scanned body part from DICOM study description for relevant prior study matching.

    PubMed

    Mabotuwana, Thusitha; Qian, Yuechen

    2013-01-01

    The typical radiology reporting workflow involves the radiologist first looking at one or more relevant prior studies before interpreting the current study. To improve workflow efficiency, PACS systems can display relevant prior imaging studies, typically based on a study's anatomy as indicated in the Body Part Examined field of the DICOM header. The content of the Body Part Examined field can be very generic. For instance, an imaging study to exclude pancreatitis and another one to exclude renal stones will both have "abdomen" in their body part field, making it difficult to differentiate them. To improve prior study matching and support better study filtering, in this paper, we present a rule-based approach to determine specific body parts contained in the free-text DICOM Study Description field. Algorithms were trained using a production dataset of 1200 randomly selected unique study descriptions and validated against a test dataset of 404 study descriptions. Our validation resulted in 99.94% accuracy. The proposed technique suggests that a rule-based approach can be used for domain specific body part extraction from DICOM headers.

  8. Cross- and triple-ratios of human body parts during development.

    PubMed

    Lundh, Torbjörn; Udagawa, Jun; Hänel, Sven-Erik; Otani, Hiroki

    2011-08-01

    Recently developed landmark-based geometric morphometry has been used to depict the morphological development of organisms. In geometry, four landmarks can be mapped to any other four by Möbius transformations, if the cross-ratio of the landmarks is invariant and vice versa. To geometrically analyze the morphological development of the human body, we examined the cross-ratio of three consecutive body parts that are segmented by four landmarks in their configuration. Moreover, we introduced the triple-ratio of five landmarks that segments four consecutive parts (e.g., the shoulder, upper arm, forearm, and hand) and examined their growth patterns. The cross- and triple-ratios of the upper limb and shoulder girdle in fetuses were constant when biomechanical landmarks were used, although the cross-ratio of the upper limb varied when anatomical landmarks were used. The cross-ratios of the lower limbs, trunk, and pelvic girdles in fetuses differed from their corresponding cross-ratios in adults. These results suggest Möbius growth in the fetal upper limb and shoulder girdle but not in the other body parts examined. However, the growth balance of the three contiguous body parts was represented by the developmental change in the cross-ratio. Therefore, the cross- and triple-ratios may be applicable for simple but significant assessments of growth balance or proportion of the body parts.

  9. Part I - Viscous evolution of point vortex equilibria Part II - Effects of body elasticity on stability of fish motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Fangxu

    2011-12-01

    Vortex dynamics and solid-fluid interactions are two of the most important and most studied topics in fluid dynamics for their relevance to a wide range of applications from geophysical flows to locomotion in moving fluids. In this work, we investigate two problems in two parts: Part I studies the viscous evolution of point vortex equilibria; Part II studies the effects of body elasticity on the passive stability of submerged bodies. In Part I, we describe the viscous evolution of point vortex configurations that, in the absence of viscosity, are in a state of fixed or relative equilibrium. In particular, we examine four cases, three of them correspond to relative equilibria in the inviscid point vortex model and one corresponds to a fixed equilibrium. Our goal is to elucidate the dominant transient dynamical features of the flow. A multi-Gaussian "core growing" type of model is typically used in high fidelity numerical simulations, but we propose to implement it as a low-order model for the flow field. We show that all four configurations immediately begin to rotate unsteadily. We then examine in detail the qualitative and quantitative evolution of the structures as they evolve, and for each case show the sequence of topological bifurcations that occur both in a fixed reference frame, and in an appropriately chosen rotating reference frame. Comparisons between the cases help to reveal different features of the viscous evolution for short and intermediate time scales of vortex structures. We examine the dynamical evolution of passive particles in the viscously evolving flows and interpret it in relation to the evolving streamline patterns. Although the low-order multi-Gaussian model does not exactly coincide with the Navier-Stokes solution, the two results show remarkable resemblances in many aspects. In Part II, we examine the effects of body geometry and elasticity on the passive stability of motion in a perfect fluid. Our main motivation is to understand the

  10. Does winter region affect spring arrival time and body mass of king eiders in northern Alaska?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, Abby N.; Oppel, Steffen

    2009-01-01

    Events during the non-breeding season may affect the body condition of migratory birds and influence performance during the following breeding season. Migratory birds nesting in the Arctic often rely on endogenous nutrients for reproductive efforts, and are thus potentially subject to such carry-over effects. We tested whether king eider (Somateria spectabilis) arrival time and body mass upon arrival at breeding grounds in northern Alaska were affected by their choice of a winter region in the Bering Sea. We captured birds shortly after arrival on breeding grounds in early June 2002–2006 at two sites in northern Alaska and determined the region in which individuals wintered using satellite telemetry or stable isotope ratios of head feathers. We used generalized linear models to assess whether winter region explained variation in arrival body mass among individuals by accounting for sex, site, annual variation, and the date a bird was captured. We found no support for our hypothesis that either arrival time or arrival body mass of king eiders differed among winter regions. We conclude that wintering in different regions in the Bering Sea is unlikely to have reproductive consequences for king eiders in our study areas.

  11. Does body mass index and position of impacted lower third molar affect the postoperative pain intensity?

    PubMed

    Matijević, Marko; Uzarević, Zvonimir; Gvozdić, Vlatka; Leović, Dinko; Ivanisević, Zrinka; Matijević-Mikelić, Valentina; Bogut, Irella; Vcev, Aleksandar; Macan, Darko

    2012-12-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine to which extent body mass index and position of impacted lower third molar was affecting the pain intensity in the first seven postoperative days. The study was conducted following the extraction of the lower third molar in 108 patients. Depending on the type of information given to each particular patient, the patients were divided in two groups: the test group where patients were given detailed standard written and verbal instructions and the control group which received only standard written instructions about treatment after surgery. Using canonical discriminant analysis we investigated the influence of body mass index and the position of impacted lower third molar on postoperative pain intensity in two groups of patients. Results of this study showed that the body mass index or the tooth position did not have influence on intensity of postoperative pain. The body mass index and the position of impacted lower third molar do not affect the postoperative pain intensity.

  12. Surface morphology of chitin highly related with the isolated body part of butterfly (Argynnis pandora).

    PubMed

    Kaya, Murat; Bitim, Betül; Mujtaba, Muhammad; Koyuncu, Turgay

    2015-11-01

    This study was conducted to understand the differences in the physicochemical properties of chitin samples isolated from the wings and the other body parts except the wings (OBP) of a butterfly species (Argynnis pandora). The same isolation method was used for obtaining chitin specimens from both types of body parts. The chitin content of the wings (22%) was recorded as being much higher than the OBP (8%). The extracted chitin samples were characterized via FT-IR, TGA, XRD, SEM, and elemental analysis techniques. Results of these characterizations revealed that the chitins from both structures (wings and OBP) were very similar, except for their surface morphologies. SEM results demonstrated one type of surface morphology for the wings and four different surface morphologies for the OBP. Therefore, it can be hypothesized that the surface morphology of the chitin is highly related with the body part.

  13. Disturbance of Intentionality: A Phenomenological Study of Body-Affecting First-Rank Symptoms in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Thomann, Philipp Arthur; Fuchs, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Objectives In 1950, Kurt Schneider proposed that a considerable number of schizophrenia patients develop first-rank symptoms (FRS). In such cases, patients report made experiences, replaced control of will, thought insertion, broadcast or withdrawal and delusional perception, respectively. Although a number of recent studies tend to explain FRS in terms of neurobiological and neuropsychological processes, the origin of these symptoms still remains unknown. In this paper, we explore the subjective experience of patients with the following two FRS: (1) "made" impulses and (2) “made" volitional acts. Method The method applied for the study of two FRS consists first in the overview of psychiatric and philosophical literature and second in the further investigation of subjective experience in patients with FRS. Psychopathological and phenomenological aspects of FRS are discussed by means of patient cases. Results We discovered a profound transformation of intentionality and agency in schizophrenia patients with body-affecting FRS. This concept offers an insight into the interrelatedness between particular FRS. Conclusion We propose that the subjective experience of schizophrenia patients with body-affecting FRS is rooted in the disturbance of intentionality and diminished sense of agency. This theoretical account of body-affecting FRS will open up new directions in both phenomenological and neurobiological psychiatric research. PMID:24019932

  14. A machine learning approach for body part recognition based on CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Keigo; Li, Yuanzhong; Ito, Wataru; Shimura, Kazuo

    2008-03-01

    Body part recognition based on CT slice images is very important for many applications in PACS and CAD systems. In this paper, we propose a novel approach that can recognize which body part a slice image belongs to robustly. We focus on how to effectively express and use the unique statistical information of the correlation between the CT value and the position information of each body part. We apply the machine learning method AdaBoost to express and use this statistical information. Our approach consists of a training process and a recognition process. In the training process, we first define the whole body using a set of specific classes to ensure that training images in the same class have a high similarity, and prepare a training image set (positive samples and negative samples) for each class. Second, the training images are normalized to a fixed size and rotation in each class. Third, features are calculated for each normalized training image. Finally, AdaBoosted histogram classifiers are trained. After the training process, each class has its own classifiers. In the recognition process, given a series of CT images, the scores of all classes for each slice image are calculated based on the classifiers obtained in the training process. Then, based on the scores of each slice and a simple model of body part sequence continuity, we use dynamic programming (DP) to eliminate false recognition results. Experimental results on 440 unknown series including lesions show that our approach has high a recognition rate.

  15. Oesophageal foreign bodies in dogs: factors affecting success of endoscopic retrieval

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Oesophageal foreign bodies are common in dogs. Endoscopic removal is a viable treatment option but few studies have assessed the clinical and radiographic features that would be useful in decision-making and prognosis. Dogs (n = 44) with oesophageal foreign bodies presented to the University Veterinary Hospital were assessed. Terriers and West Highland White Terriers were significantly overrepresented (p < 0.0001) and in those breeds the foreign body was significantly (p < 0.0001) more likely to be located caudal to the heart base. The majority (88.6%) of foreign bodies were bones or bone fragments. Group 1 (n = 30) included animals where endoscopic removal was successful and Group 2 (n = 14) animals where it was unsuccessful or not attempted because of evidence of oesophageal rupture. There was no statistically significant difference in age, sex, body weight, type, location and size of foreign body, recovery rate, short-term complications and long-term outcome between the two groups. Duration of signs prior to presentation and time to spontaneous oral feeding were significantly longer (p < 0.01 in each case) in Group 2 (five days and 120 hours, respectively) compared to Group 1 (2 days and 24 hours, respectively). Mortality was 11.1%. Long-term follow-up of 29 dogs suggested oesophageal stricture formation manageable by feeding alone in seven (24.1%) cases. Terriers appear predisposed to oesophageal foreign bodies. Success of endoscopic removal is adversely affected by duration of signs prior to presentation. Surgical removal negatively influences time to recovery. Stricture formation appears to be a relatively common complication and alternate measures for its prevention should be sought. PMID:21851744

  16. 25 CFR 44.102 - Does this part affect existing tribal rights?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Section 44.102 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION GRANTS UNDER THE TRIBALLY CONTROLLED SCHOOLS ACT § 44.102 Does this part affect existing tribal rights? This part does not...) Require an Indian tribe to apply for a grant; or (d) Impede awards by any other Federal agency to...

  17. 25 CFR 44.102 - Does this part affect existing tribal rights?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Section 44.102 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION GRANTS UNDER THE TRIBALLY CONTROLLED SCHOOLS ACT § 44.102 Does this part affect existing tribal rights? This part does not...) Require an Indian tribe to apply for a grant; or (d) Impede awards by any other Federal agency to...

  18. 25 CFR 44.102 - Does this part affect existing tribal rights?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Section 44.102 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION GRANTS UNDER THE TRIBALLY CONTROLLED SCHOOLS ACT § 44.102 Does this part affect existing tribal rights? This part does not...) Require an Indian tribe to apply for a grant; or (d) Impede awards by any other Federal agency to...

  19. 25 CFR 44.102 - Does this part affect existing tribal rights?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Section 44.102 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION GRANTS UNDER THE TRIBALLY CONTROLLED SCHOOLS ACT § 44.102 Does this part affect existing tribal rights? This part does not...) Require an Indian tribe to apply for a grant; or (d) Impede awards by any other Federal agency to...

  20. Examining Correlates of Part-Time Faculty Affective Commitment and Job Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duhn, Samantha Tiffany

    2013-01-01

    Changes in a multitude of factors including the economy, student enrollment, university goals and policies, and the available talent pool have created an imbalance in the supply and demand for qualified part-time faculty. The unmet demand has prompted university leaders to seek an understanding of part-time faculty affective commitment, job…

  1. 34 CFR 84.115 - Does this part affect the Federal contracts that I receive?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... receive? 84.115 Section 84.115 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Purpose and Coverage § 84.115 Does this part affect... debarred or suspended for a violation of the requirements of this part, as described in § 84....

  2. Diet/Energy Balance Affect Sleep and Wakefulness Independent of Body Weight

    PubMed Central

    Perron, Isaac J.; Pack, Allan I.; Veasey, Sigrid

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Excessive daytime sleepiness commonly affects obese people, even in those without sleep apnea, yet its causes remain uncertain. We sought to determine whether acute dietary changes could induce or rescue wake impairments independent of body weight. Design: We implemented a novel feeding paradigm that generates two groups of mice with equal body weight but opposing energetic balance. Two subsets of mice consuming either regular chow (RC) or high-fat diet (HFD) for 8 w were switched to the opposite diet for 1 w. Sleep recordings were conducted at Week 0 (baseline), Week 8 (pre-diet switch), and Week 9 (post-diet switch) for all groups. Sleep homeostasis was measured at Week 8 and Week 9. Participants: Young adult, male C57BL/6J mice. Measurements and Results: Differences in total wake, nonrapid eye movement (NREM), and rapid eye movement (REM) time were quantified, in addition to changes in bout fragmentation/consolidation. At Week 9, the two diet switch groups had similar body weight. However, animals switched to HFD (and thus gaining weight) had decreased wake time, increased NREM sleep time, and worsened sleep/wake fragmentation compared to mice switched to RC (which were in weight loss). These effects were driven by significant sleep/wake changes induced by acute dietary manipulations (Week 8 → Week 9). Sleep homeostasis, as measured by delta power increase following sleep deprivation, was unaffected by our feeding paradigm. Conclusions: Acute dietary manipulations are sufficient to alter sleep and wakefulness independent of body weight and without effects on sleep homeostasis. Citation: Perron IJ, Pack AI, Veasey S. Diet/energy balance affect sleep and wakefulness independent of body weight. SLEEP 2015;38(12):1893–1903. PMID:26158893

  3. Facial affective reactions to bitter-tasting foods and body mass index in adults.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Burgos, D; Zamora, M C

    2013-12-01

    Differences in food consumption among body-weight statuses (e.g., higher fruit intake linked with lower body mass index (BMI) and energy-dense products with higher BMI) has raised the question of why people who are overweight or are at risk of becoming overweight eat differently from thinner people. One explanation, in terms of sensitivity to affective properties of food, suggests that palatability-driven consumption is likely to be an important contributor to food intake, and therefore body weight. Extending this approach to unpalatable tastes, we examined the relationship between aversive reactions to foods and BMI. We hypothesized that people who have a high BMI will show more negative affective reactions to bitter-tasting stimuli, even after controlling for sensory perception differences. Given that hedonic reactions may influence consumption even without conscious feelings of pleasure/displeasure, the facial expressions were included in order to provide more direct access to affective systems than subjective reports. Forty adults (28 females, 12 males) participated voluntarily. Their ages ranged from 18 to 46 years (M=24.2, SD=5.8). On the basis of BMI, participants were classified as low BMI (BMI<20; n=20) and high BMI (BMI>23; n=20). The mean BMI was 19.1 for low BMI (SD=0.7) and 25.2 for high BMI participants (SD=1.8). Each subject tasted 5 mL of a grapefruit juice drink and a bitter chocolate drink. Subjects rated the drinks' hedonic and incentive value, familiarity and bitter intensity immediately after each stimulus presentation. The results indicated that high BMI participants reacted to bitter stimuli showing more profound changes from baseline in neutral and disgust facial expressions compared with low BMI. No differences between groups were detected for the subjective pleasantness and familiarity. The research here is the first to examine how affective facial reactions to bitter food, apart from taste responsiveness, can predict differences in BMI.

  4. Temporal and preparation effects in the magnetic nanoparticles of Apis mellifera body parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambarelli, L. L.; Pinho, M. A.; Abraçado, L. G.; Esquivel, D. M. S.; Wajnberg, E.

    Magnetic nanoparticles in the Apis mellifera abdomens are well accepted as involved in their magnetoreception mechanism. The effects of sample preparation on the time evolution of magnetic particles in the honeybee body parts (antennae, head, thorax and abdomen) were investigated by Ferromagnetic Resonance (FMR) at room temperature (RT), for about 100 days. Three preparations were tested: (a) washed with water (WT); (b) as (a), kept in glutaraldehyde 2.5% in 0.1 M cacodylate buffer (pH 7.4) for 24 h and washed with cacodylate buffer (C); (c) as (a), kept in glutaraldehyde 2.5% for 24 h and washed with glutaraldehyde 2.5% in cacodylate buffer (GLC). The four body parts of young and adult worker presented magnetic nanoparticles. The Mn 2+ lines are observed except for the antennae spectra. The high field (HF) and low field (LF) components previously observed in the spectra of social insects, are confirmed in these spectra. The HF line is present in all spectra while the LF is easily observed in the spectra of the young bee and it appears as a baseline shift in spectra of some adult parts. The HF intensity of the abdomen is commonly one order of magnitude larger than any other body parts. This is the first systematic study on the conservation of magnetic material in all body parts of bees. The results show that the time evolution of the spectra depends on the body part, conserving solution and bee age. Further measurements are necessary to understand these effects and extend it to other social insects.

  5. Fluctuating water depths affect American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) body condition in the Everglades, Florida, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brandt, Laura A.; Beauchamp, Jeffrey S.; Jeffery, Brian M.; Cherkiss, Michael S.; Mazzotti, Frank J.

    2016-01-01

    Successful restoration of wetland ecosystems requires knowledge of wetland hydrologic patterns and an understanding of how those patterns affect wetland plant and animal populations.Within the Everglades, Florida, USA restoration, an applied science strategy including conceptual ecological models linking drivers to indicators is being used to organize current scientific understanding to support restoration efforts. A key driver of the ecosystem affecting the distribution and abundance of organisms is the timing, distribution, and volume of water flows that result in water depth patterns across the landscape. American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) are one of the ecological indicators being used to assess Everglades restoration because they are a keystone species and integrate biological impacts of hydrological operations through all life stages. Alligator body condition (the relative fatness of an animal) is one of the metrics being used and targets have been set to allow us to track progress. We examined trends in alligator body condition using Fulton’s K over a 15 year period (2000–2014) at seven different wetland areas within the Everglades ecosystem, assessed patterns and trends relative to restoration targets, and related those trends to hydrologic variables. We developed a series of 17 a priori hypotheses that we tested with an information theoretic approach to identify which hydrologic factors affect alligator body condition. Alligator body condition was highest throughout the Everglades during the early 2000s and is approximately 5–10% lower now (2014). Values have varied by year, area, and hydrology. Body condition was positively correlated with range in water depth and fall water depth. Our top model was the “Current” model and included variables that describe current year hydrology (spring depth, fall depth, hydroperiod, range, interaction of range and fall depth, interaction of range and hydroperiod). Across all models, interaction

  6. Where is a nose with respect to a foot? The left posterior parietal cortex processes spatial relationships among body parts.

    PubMed

    Corradi-Dell'Acqua, Corrado; Hesse, Maike D; Rumiati, Raffaella I; Fink, Gereon R

    2008-12-01

    Neuropsychological studies suggest that patients with left parietal lesions may show impaired localization of parts of either their own or the examiner's body, despite preserved ability to identify isolated body parts. This deficit, called autotopagnosia, may result from damage to the Body Structural Description (BSD), a representation which codes spatial relationships among body parts. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to identify the neural mechanisms underlying the BSD. Two human body or building parts (factor: STIMULI) were shown to participants who either identified them or evaluated their distance (factor: TASK). The analysis of the interaction between STIMULI and TASK, which isolates the neural mechanism underlying BSD, revealed an activation of left posterior intraparietal sulcus (IPS) when the distance between body parts was evaluated. The results show that the left IPS processes specifically the information about spatial relationships among body parts and thereby suggest that damage to this area may underlie autotopagnosia.

  7. Intermittent fasting during winter and spring affects body composition and reproduction of a migratory duck

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barboza, P.S.; Jorde, D.G.

    2002-01-01

    We compared food intake, body mass and body composition of male and female black ducks (Anas rubripes) during winter (January-March). Birds were fed the same complete diet ad libitum on consecutive days each week without fasting (control; nine male; nine female) or with either short fasts (2 day.week-1; nine male; nine female), or long fasts (4 day.week-1; eleven male; twelve female). We continued treatments through spring (March-May) to measure the effect of intermittent fasts on body mass and egg production. Daily food intake of fasted birds was up to four times that of unfasted birds. Weekly food intake of males was similar among treatments (364 g.kg-1.week-1) but fasted females consumed more than unfasted females in January (363 g.kg-1.week-1 vs. 225 g.kg-1.week-1). Although both sexes lost 10-14% body mass, fasted females lost less mass and lipid than unfasted females during winter. Total body nitrogen was conserved over winter in both sexes even though the heart and spleen lost mass while the reproductive tract and liver gained mass. Intermittent fasting increased liver, intestinal tissue and digesta mass of females but not of males. Fasting delayed egg production in spring but did not affect size, fertility or hatching of the clutch. Females on long fasts were still heavier than controls after laying eggs. Thus black ducks combine flexibility of food intake with plasticity of digestive tract, liver and adipose tissue when food supply is interrupted during winter. Females modulate body mass for survival and defer reproduction when food supply is interrupted in spring.

  8. Quinine controls body weight gain without affecting food intake in male C57BL6 mice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Quinine is a natural molecule commonly used as a flavouring agent in tonic water. Diet supplementation with quinine leads to decreased body weight and food intake in rats. Quinine is an in vitro inhibitor of Trpm5, a cation channel expressed in taste bud cells, the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas. The objective of this work is to determine the effect of diet supplementation with quinine on body weight and body composition in male mice, to investigate its mechanism of action, and whether the effect is mediated through Trpm5. Results Compared with mice consuming AIN, a regular balanced diet, mice consuming AIN diet supplemented with 0.1% quinine gained less weight (2.89 ± 0.30 g vs 5.39 ± 0.50 g) and less fat mass (2.22 ± 0.26 g vs 4.33 ± 0.43 g) after 13 weeks of diet, and had lower blood glucose and plasma triglycerides. There was no difference in food intake between the mice consuming quinine supplemented diet and those consuming control diet. Trpm5 knockout mice gained less fat mass than wild-type mice. There was a trend for a diet-genotype interaction for body weight and body weight gain, with the effect of quinine less pronounced in the Trpm5 KO than in the WT background. Faecal weight, energy and lipid contents were higher in quinine fed mice compared to regular AIN fed mice and in Trpm5 KO mice compared to wild type mice. Conclusion Quinine contributes to weight control in male C57BL6 mice without affecting food intake. A partial contribution of Trpm5 to quinine dependent body weight control is suggested. PMID:23394313

  9. Dynamic Simulation and Static Matching for Action Prediction: Evidence from Body Part Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, Anne; Brandstadter, Simone; Prinz, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Accurately predicting other people's actions may involve two processes: internal real-time simulation (dynamic updating) and matching recently perceived action images (static matching). Using a priming of body parts, this study aimed to differentiate the two processes. Specifically, participants played a motion-controlled video game with…

  10. Recognition and Mental Manipulation of Body Parts Dissociate in Locked-In Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conson, Massimiliano; Pistoia, Francesca; Sara, Marco; Grossi, Dario; Trojano, Luigi

    2010-01-01

    Several lines of evidence demonstrate that the motor system is involved in motor simulation of actions, but some uncertainty exists about the consequences of lesions of descending motor pathways on mental imagery tasks. Moreover, recent findings suggest that the motor system could also have a role in recognition of body parts. To address these…

  11. Experimenter's Pantomimes Influence Children's Use of Body Part as Object and Imaginary Object Pantomimes: A Replication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Robert W.; Clark, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Young children asked to pretend to use a series of absent objects typically pantomime by using a body part as the object (BPO) rather than by acting as if using an imaginary object (IO). This replication of Lyons's work (1983, 1986) examines whether different pretend contexts when requesting pantomimes influence children's use of IO and BPO…

  12. Four-Month-Old Infants' Categorization of Animals: Does Any Body Part Hold Privileged Status?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vidic, Janice M.; Haaf, Robert A.

    2004-01-01

    The influence of body parts on 4-month-olds' categorization of cats and dogs was examined using a visual preference procedure. Infants were familiarized with pictures of exemplars from one of two categories, cat or dog. In test, looking time to an out-of-category exemplar was compared to looking time to a novel within-category exemplar with one…

  13. Self-Recognition of the Body and Its Parts during Late Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, John K.

    1981-01-01

    Male and female student volunteers were photographed nude in three orientations and asked to identify bodily parts from an array of photographs grouped according to height and linearity. Results are discussed in terms of ego involvement, narcissism, and the increased attention given to the body during adolescence. (Author/GK)

  14. A delay in pubertal onset affects the covariation of body weight, estradiol, and bone size.

    PubMed

    Yingling, Vanessa R

    2009-04-01

    The skeletal system functions as a locomotive organ and a mineral reservoir and combinations of genetic and environmental factors affect the skeletal system. Although delayed puberty is associated with compromised bone mass, suppression of estrogen should be beneficial to cortical strength. The purpose was to employ path analysis to study bone strength and delayed puberty. Forty-five female rats were randomly assigned to a control group (n = 15) and an experimental group (n = 30) that received injections of gonadotropin releasing hormone antagonist (GnRH-a). Causal models were constructed by specifying directed paths between bone traits. The first model tested the hypothesis that the functional relationships between bone traits and body weight were altered by a delay in pubertal onset. GnRH-a injections during puberty altered the covariation between body weight and bone size. The second model was constructed to test the hypothesis that variability in stiffness was causally related to variability in body weight. The model also tested the relationship between the periosteal and endocortical surfaces and their relationship to stiffness. There was no change in the relationship between the surfaces in the GnRH-a group. The third model determined the effect of estradiol on both total area and relative cortical area in both groups. The relationship between periosteal surface and serum estradiol levels was only significant during estrogen suppression. These data suggest that increases in body weight during or prior to puberty may not be protective of bone strength.

  15. Is spinal excitability of the triceps surae mainly affected by muscle activity or body position?

    PubMed

    Cattagni, T; Martin, A; Scaglioni, G

    2014-06-15

    The aim of this study was to determine how muscle activity and body orientation contribute to the triceps surae spinal transmission modulation, when moving from a sitting to a standing position. Maximal Hoffmann-reflex (Hmax) and motor potential (Mmax) were evoked in the soleus (SOL), medial and lateral gastrocnemius in 10 male subjects and in three conditions, passive sitting, active sitting and upright standing, with the same SOL activity in active sitting and upright standing. Moreover volitional wave (V) was evoked in the two active conditions (i.e., active sitting and upright standing). The results showed that SOL Hmax/Mmax was lower in active sitting than in passive sitting, while for the gastrocnemii it was not significantly altered. For the three plantar flexors, Hmax/Mmax was lower in upright standing than in active sitting, whereas V/Mmax was not modulated. SOL H-reflex is therefore affected by the increase in muscle activity and change in body orientation, while, in the gastrocnemii, it was only affected by a change in posture. In conclusion, passing from a sitting to a standing position affects the Hmax/Mmax of the whole triceps surae, but the mechanisms responsible for this change differ among the synergist muscles. The V/Mmax does not change when upright stance is assumed. This means that the increased inhibitory activity in orthostatic position is compensated by an increased excitatory inflow to the α-motoneurons of central and/or peripheral origin.

  16. Neural representations of faces and body parts in macaque and human cortex: a comparative FMRI study.

    PubMed

    Pinsk, Mark A; Arcaro, Michael; Weiner, Kevin S; Kalkus, Jan F; Inati, Souheil J; Gross, Charles G; Kastner, Sabine

    2009-05-01

    Single-cell studies in the macaque have reported selective neural responses evoked by visual presentations of faces and bodies. Consistent with these findings, functional magnetic resonance imaging studies in humans and monkeys indicate that regions in temporal cortex respond preferentially to faces and bodies. However, it is not clear how these areas correspond across the two species. Here, we directly compared category-selective areas in macaques and humans using virtually identical techniques. In the macaque, several face- and body part-selective areas were found located along the superior temporal sulcus (STS) and middle temporal gyrus (MTG). In the human, similar to previous studies, face-selective areas were found in ventral occipital and temporal cortex and an additional face-selective area was found in the anterior temporal cortex. Face-selective areas were also found in lateral temporal cortex, including the previously reported posterior STS area. Body part-selective areas were identified in the human fusiform gyrus and lateral occipitotemporal cortex. In a first experiment, both monkey and human subjects were presented with pictures of faces, body parts, foods, scenes, and man-made objects, to examine the response profiles of each category-selective area to the five stimulus types. In a second experiment, face processing was examined by presenting upright and inverted faces. By comparing the responses and spatial relationships of the areas, we propose potential correspondences across species. Adjacent and overlapping areas in the macaque anterior STS/MTG responded strongly to both faces and body parts, similar to areas in the human fusiform gyrus and posterior STS. Furthermore, face-selective areas on the ventral bank of the STS/MTG discriminated both upright and inverted faces from objects, similar to areas in the human ventral temporal cortex. Overall, our findings demonstrate commonalities and differences in the wide-scale brain organization between

  17. Derivative plumbing: redesigning washrooms, bodies, and trans affects in ds+r's Brasserie.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Lucas Cassidy

    2014-01-01

    diller scofidio + renfro's Brasserie restaurant sets the scene for this article's overarching question: what are the stakes of absorbing "the washroom" into our affective habits as trans people? This article uses architectural theory to show that some hygienic models of transgender-such as "original plumbing"-are less about explaining our genders to ourselves and more about (1) communicating our "fuckability" to (presumably non-trans) others and (2) codifying subtle and often problematic beliefs about the relationship between architecture and the body.

  18. A new approach using the Pierce two-node model for different body parts.

    PubMed

    Foda, Ehab; Sirén, Kai

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents a new approach, in applying the Pierce two-node model, to predict local skin temperatures of individual body parts with good accuracy. In this study, local skin temperature measurements at 24 sites on the bodies of 11 human subjects were carried out in a controlled environment under three different indoor conditions (i.e. neutral, warm and cold). The neutral condition measurements were used to adjust the local skin set-points in the model for each body part. Additional modifications to the calculation algorithm were introduced corresponding to different body parts. The local core set-points were then calculated, using a line search method, as the input values that allow the model to predict the skin temperatures with maximum deviation of ±0.1°C for the neutral condition. The model predictability was verified for the other two indoor conditions, and the results show that the modified model predicts local skin temperatures with average deviation of ±0.3°C.

  19. Body Posture Angle Affects the Physiological Indices of Patients With Liver Cirrhosis Ascites.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Wen-chuan; Ho, Lun-hui; Lin, Mei-hsiang; Chiu, Hsiu-ling

    2016-01-01

    The study objective was to compare the effect of different angles of lying positions on the physiological indices of patients with cirrhosis ascites. Chronic liver disease and cirrhosis were ranked 9th among the top 10 causes of death. Ascites is the most common cirrhosis comorbidity. Body posture can affect pulmonary ventilation and arterial oxygen partial pressure, making it an important clinical nursing intervention significantly affecting patient recovery. This was a quasi-experimental study design. From a medical center in Taiwan, 252 patients with cirrhosis ascites were recruited. Subjects were randomly divided into three groups by bed angle: 15°, 30°, and 45°. Physiological indices were measured at 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 minutes to determine any changes in heart rate, respiration rate, and oxygenation saturation. Data analysis included descriptive statistics and the generalized estimating equation for statistical analysis with significance set at α= 0.05. After controlling for confounding variables, the three groups differed significantly in heart rate at 20, 25, and 30 minutes, oxygenation saturations at 15 and 20 minutes, and respiration rate at 5 and 10 minutes (α< 0.05). Body posture can affect pulmonary ventilation and arterial oxygen partial pressure and is thus an important clinical nursing intervention that significantly affects the recovery of patients. When caring for patients with cirrhosis ascites, nurses should help patients to choose the most comfortable angle for them with no particular restrictions. Our results can be used to guide nurses in making a plan for health education and nursing that improves the quality of care for patients with chronic liver disease and cirrhosis patients with ascites.

  20. Effects of 72-h of exercise abstinence on affect and body dissatisfaction in healthy female regular exercisers.

    PubMed

    Niven, Ailsa; Rendell, Emily; Chisholm, Lindsey

    2008-09-01

    In this study, we compared the effects of a 72-h exercise abstinence period and normal exercise on the affect and body dissatisfaction of 58 healthy women (mean age 26.1 years, s = 8.2) who exercised at least four times per week, and explored the relationship between the changes in affect and body dissatisfaction. Participants completed the UWIST-MACL and Body Dissatisfaction Scale to assess affect and body image, and were randomized to an abstinence or control group. Affect and body image for both groups were re-assessed following the 72-h abstinence period. Compared with the control group, the abstinence group had a significant decrease in hedonic tone and energetic arousal, and a significant increase in tense arousal and body dissatisfaction from pre-intervention to post-intervention. There were no significant relationships between the changes in body dissatisfaction and the components of affect. A 72-h exercise abstinence period resulted in increased affect disturbance and body dissatisfaction in regularly active women.

  1. Misexpression screen in Drosophila melanogaster aiming to reveal novel factors involved in formation of body parts.

    PubMed

    Grieder, Nicole C; Charlafti, Ilias; Kloter, Urs; Jäckle, Herbert; Schäfer, Ulrich; Gehring, Walter J

    2007-04-01

    To identify novel factors that lead a fly imaginal disc to adopt its developmental fate, we carried out a modular dominant misexpression screen in imaginal discs. We have identified two factors that appear to change the fate of the respective body structure and appear to lead to the transformation of a body part. In one mutant line, notum tissue, normally derived from wing imaginal tissue, formed close to the site of the sternopleural bristles, which are leg disc derivatives. In the other line, the arista is transformed into a tubular structure, resembling an abnormal leg. We found that ectopic expression of abrupt was responsible for this potential transformation of the arista.

  2. Misexpression Screen in Drosophila melanogaster Aiming to Reveal Novel Factors Involved in Formation of Body Parts

    PubMed Central

    Grieder, Nicole C.; Charlafti, Ilias; Kloter, Urs; Jäckle, Herbert; Schäfer, Ulrich; Gehring, Walter J.

    2007-01-01

    To identify novel factors that lead a fly imaginal disc to adopt its developmental fate, we carried out a modular dominant misexpression screen in imaginal discs. We have identified two factors that appear to change the fate of the respective body structure and appear to lead to the transformation of a body part. In one mutant line, notum tissue, normally derived from wing imaginal tissue, formed close to the site of the sternopleural bristles, which are leg disc derivatives. In the other line, the arista is transformed into a tubular structure, resembling an abnormal leg. We found that ectopic expression of abrupt was responsible for this potential transformation of the arista. PMID:17179072

  3. Matrix Intensification Affects Body and Physiological Condition of Tropical Forest-Dependent Passerines

    PubMed Central

    Deikumah, Justus P.; McAlpine, Clive A.; Maron, Martine

    2015-01-01

    Matrix land-use intensification is a relatively recent and novel landscape change that can have important influences on the biota within adjacent habitat patches. While there are immediate local changes that it brings about, the influences on individual animals occupying adjacent habitats may be less evident initially. High-intensity land use could induce chronic stress in individuals in nearby remnants, leading ultimately to population declines. We investigated how physiological indicators and body condition measures of tropical forest-dependent birds differ between forest adjacent to surface mining sites and that near farmlands at two distances from remnant edge in southwest Ghana. We used mixed effects models of several condition indices including residual body mass and heterophil to lymphocyte (H/L) ratios (an indicator of elevated chronic stress) to explore the effect of matrix intensity on forest-dependent passerines classed as either sedentary area-sensitive habitat specialists or nomadic generalists. Individual birds occupying tropical forest remnants near surface mining sites were in poorer condition, as indicated by lower residual body mass and elevated chronic stress, compared to those in remnants near agricultural lands. The condition of the sedentary forest habitat specialists white-tailed alethe, Alethe diademata and western olive sunbird, Cyanomitra obscura was most negatively affected by high-intensity surface mining land-use adjacent to remnants, whereas generalist species were not affected. Land use intensification may set in train a new trajectory of faunal relaxation beyond that expected based on habitat loss alone. Patterns of individual condition may be useful in identifying habitats where species population declines may occur before faunal relaxation has concluded. PMID:26107179

  4. Matrix Intensification Affects Body and Physiological Condition of Tropical Forest-Dependent Passerines.

    PubMed

    Deikumah, Justus P; McAlpine, Clive A; Maron, Martine

    2015-01-01

    Matrix land-use intensification is a relatively recent and novel landscape change that can have important influences on the biota within adjacent habitat patches. While there are immediate local changes that it brings about, the influences on individual animals occupying adjacent habitats may be less evident initially. High-intensity land use could induce chronic stress in individuals in nearby remnants, leading ultimately to population declines. We investigated how physiological indicators and body condition measures of tropical forest-dependent birds differ between forest adjacent to surface mining sites and that near farmlands at two distances from remnant edge in southwest Ghana. We used mixed effects models of several condition indices including residual body mass and heterophil to lymphocyte (H/L) ratios (an indicator of elevated chronic stress) to explore the effect of matrix intensity on forest-dependent passerines classed as either sedentary area-sensitive habitat specialists or nomadic generalists. Individual birds occupying tropical forest remnants near surface mining sites were in poorer condition, as indicated by lower residual body mass and elevated chronic stress, compared to those in remnants near agricultural lands. The condition of the sedentary forest habitat specialists white-tailed alethe, Alethe diademata and western olive sunbird, Cyanomitra obscura was most negatively affected by high-intensity surface mining land-use adjacent to remnants, whereas generalist species were not affected. Land use intensification may set in train a new trajectory of faunal relaxation beyond that expected based on habitat loss alone. Patterns of individual condition may be useful in identifying habitats where species population declines may occur before faunal relaxation has concluded.

  5. Does body size affect a bird's sensitivity to patch size and landscape structure?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winter, M.; Johnson, D.H.; Shaffer, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    Larger birds are generally more strongly affected by habitat loss and fragmentation than are smaller ones because they require more resources and thus larger habitat patches. Consequently, conservation actions often favor the creation or protection of larger over smaller patches. However, in grassland systems the boundaries between a patch and the surrounding landscape, and thus the perceived size of a patch, can be indistinct. We investigated whether eight grassland bird species with different body sizes perceived variation in patch size and landscape structure in a consistent manner. Data were collected from surveys conducted in 44 patches of northern tallgrass prairie during 1998-2001. The response to patch size was very similar among species regardless of body size (density was little affected by patch size), except in the Greater Prairie-Chicken (Tympanuchus cupido), which showed a threshold effect and was not found in patches smaller than 140 ha. In landscapes containing 0%-30% woody vegetation, smaller species responded more negatively to increases in the percentage of woody vegetation than larger species, but above an apparent threshold of 30%, larger species were not detected. Further analyses revealed that the observed variation in responses to patch size and landscape structure among species was not solely due to body size per se, but to other differences among species. These results indicate that a stringent application of concepts requiring larger habitat patches for larger species appears to limit the number of grassland habitats that can be protected and may not always be the most effective conservation strategy. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2006.

  6. Body Weight Selection Affects Quantitative Genetic Correlated Responses in Gut Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Lele; Zhao, Wenjing; He, Chuan; Honaker, Christa F.; Zhai, Zhengxiao; Sun, Zikui; Siegel, Paul B.

    2014-01-01

    The abundance of gut microbiota can be viewed as a quantitative trait, which is affected by the genetics and environment of the host. To quantify the effects of host genetics, we calculated the heritability of abundance of specific microorganisms and genetic correlations among them in the gut microbiota of two lines of chickens maintained under the same husbandry and dietary regimes. The lines, which originated from a common founder population, had undergone >50 generations of selection for high (HW) or low (LW) 56-day body weight and now differ by more than 10-fold in body weight at selection age. We identified families of Paenibacillaceae, Streptococcaceae, Helicobacteraceae, and Burkholderiaceae that had moderate heritabilities. Although there were no obvious phenotypic correlations among gut microbiota, significant genetic correlations were observed. Moreover, the effects were modified by genetic selection for body weight, which altered the quantitative genetic background of the host. Heritabilities for Bacillaceae, Flavobacteriaceae, Helicobacteraceae, Comamonadaceae, Enterococcaceae, and Streptococcaceae were moderate in LW line and little to zero in the HW line. These results suggest that loci associated with these microbiota families, while exhibiting genetic variation in LW, have been fixed in HW line. Also, long term selection for body weight has altered the genetic correlations among gut microbiota. No microbiota families had significant heritabilities in both the LW and HW lines suggesting that the presence and/or absence of a particular microbiota family either has a strong growth promoting or inhibiting effect, but not both. These results demonstrate that the quantitative genetics of the host have considerable influence on the gut microbiota. PMID:24608294

  7. Does Body Image Affect Quality of Life?: A Population Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Nayir, Tufan; Uskun, Ersin; Yürekli, Mustafa Volkan; Devran, Hacer; Çelik, Ayşe; Okyay, Ramazan Azim

    2016-01-01

    Body image (BI) can be described as the assessment of both positive and negative emotion for one’s own body parts and their characteristics by himself or herself. Current research has concentrated mostly on the status of negative BI as a risk factor for mental health problems rather than as a public health problem, thereby little is known about the effects of BI on quality of life. Thus, the purpose of this study was to assess the BI and Quality of Life (QoL) of individuals and to investigate the relationship between the two. Individuals over 15 living in Isparta city center constitute the universe of this cross-sectional analytical study, carried out in 2014. The BI of individuals was measured by the Body Image Scale and The QoL of individuals was measured using the World Health Organization (WHO) Quality of Life Scale Short Form. The mean age of the participants was 31.9 ± 13.0 and 56.0% were female, 36.8% were married and 81.7% had education above high school. 25.7% had at least one chronic disease and 17.7% received medication regularly. Having good-very good health perception, having higher income than expenses, making regular exercises were predictors in enhancing the quality of life in certain aspects, however having a good body image came out as a predictor enhancing the quality of life in all sub-domains. BI was found closely related with QoL in all sub-domains. Our findings suggest that greater attention should be to be given to BI as a strong predictor of QoL. PMID:27649389

  8. Does Body Image Affect Quality of Life?: A Population Based Study.

    PubMed

    Nayir, Tufan; Uskun, Ersin; Yürekli, Mustafa Volkan; Devran, Hacer; Çelik, Ayşe; Okyay, Ramazan Azim

    2016-01-01

    Body image (BI) can be described as the assessment of both positive and negative emotion for one's own body parts and their characteristics by himself or herself. Current research has concentrated mostly on the status of negative BI as a risk factor for mental health problems rather than as a public health problem, thereby little is known about the effects of BI on quality of life. Thus, the purpose of this study was to assess the BI and Quality of Life (QoL) of individuals and to investigate the relationship between the two. Individuals over 15 living in Isparta city center constitute the universe of this cross-sectional analytical study, carried out in 2014. The BI of individuals was measured by the Body Image Scale and The QoL of individuals was measured using the World Health Organization (WHO) Quality of Life Scale Short Form. The mean age of the participants was 31.9 ± 13.0 and 56.0% were female, 36.8% were married and 81.7% had education above high school. 25.7% had at least one chronic disease and 17.7% received medication regularly. Having good-very good health perception, having higher income than expenses, making regular exercises were predictors in enhancing the quality of life in certain aspects, however having a good body image came out as a predictor enhancing the quality of life in all sub-domains. BI was found closely related with QoL in all sub-domains. Our findings suggest that greater attention should be to be given to BI as a strong predictor of QoL.

  9. Estimating Three-Dimensional Orientation of Human Body Parts by Inertial/Magnetic Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Sabatini, Angelo Maria

    2011-01-01

    User-worn sensing units composed of inertial and magnetic sensors are becoming increasingly popular in various domains, including biomedical engineering, robotics, virtual reality, where they can also be applied for real-time tracking of the orientation of human body parts in the three-dimensional (3D) space. Although they are a promising choice as wearable sensors under many respects, the inertial and magnetic sensors currently in use offer measuring performance that are critical in order to achieve and maintain accurate 3D-orientation estimates, anytime and anywhere. This paper reviews the main sensor fusion and filtering techniques proposed for accurate inertial/magnetic orientation tracking of human body parts; it also gives useful recipes for their actual implementation. PMID:22319365

  10. Tracking human position and lower body parts using Kalman and particle filters constrained by human biomechanics.

    PubMed

    Martinez del Rincon, Jesús; Makris, Dimitrios; Orrite Urunuela, Carlos; Nebel, Jean-Christophe

    2011-02-01

    In this paper, a novel framework for visual tracking of human body parts is introduced. The approach presented demonstrates the feasibility of recovering human poses with data from a single uncalibrated camera by using a limb-tracking system based on a 2-D articulated model and a double-tracking strategy. Its key contribution is that the 2-D model is only constrained by biomechanical knowledge about human bipedal motion, instead of relying on constraints that are linked to a specific activity or camera view. These characteristics make our approach suitable for real visual surveillance applications. Experiments on a set of indoor and outdoor sequences demonstrate the effectiveness of our method on tracking human lower body parts. Moreover, a detail comparison with current tracking methods is presented.

  11. Estimating three-dimensional orientation of human body parts by inertial/magnetic sensing.

    PubMed

    Sabatini, Angelo Maria

    2011-01-01

    User-worn sensing units composed of inertial and magnetic sensors are becoming increasingly popular in various domains, including biomedical engineering, robotics, virtual reality, where they can also be applied for real-time tracking of the orientation of human body parts in the three-dimensional (3D) space. Although they are a promising choice as wearable sensors under many respects, the inertial and magnetic sensors currently in use offer measuring performance that are critical in order to achieve and maintain accurate 3D-orientation estimates, anytime and anywhere. This paper reviews the main sensor fusion and filtering techniques proposed for accurate inertial/magnetic orientation tracking of human body parts; it also gives useful recipes for their actual implementation.

  12. 40 CFR 63.11112 - What parts of my affected source does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What parts of my affected source does this subpart cover? 63.11112 Section 63.11112 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... the criteria specified in § 63.11111. Pressure/Vacuum vents on gasoline storage tanks and...

  13. 40 CFR 63.11112 - What parts of my affected source does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 14 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What parts of my affected source does this subpart cover? 63.11112 Section 63.11112 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... the criteria specified in § 63.11111. Pressure/Vacuum vents on gasoline storage tanks and...

  14. 25 CFR 44.102 - Does this part affect existing tribal rights?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Does this part affect existing tribal rights? 44.102 Section 44.102 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION GRANTS UNDER THE... change the trust responsibility of the United States to any Indian tribe or individual Indian;...

  15. 24 CFR 21.115 - Does this part affect the Federal contracts that I receive?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Does this part affect the Federal contracts that I receive? 21.115 Section 21.115 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE...

  16. 24 CFR 21.115 - Does this part affect the Federal contracts that I receive?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Does this part affect the Federal contracts that I receive? 21.115 Section 21.115 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE...

  17. 22 CFR Appendix B to Part 143 - List of Affected Federal Financial Assistance

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false List of Affected Federal Financial Assistance B Appendix B to Part 143 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF... Administered by the United States International Communication Agency Subject to Age Discrimination...

  18. 10 CFR 607.115 - Does this part affect the Federal contracts that I receive?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Does this part affect the Federal contracts that I receive? 607.115 Section 607.115 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Purpose and Coverage § 607.115 Does this...

  19. 31 CFR 20.115 - Does this part affect the Federal contracts that I receive?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Does this part affect the Federal contracts that I receive? 20.115 Section 20.115 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Purpose and...

  20. 31 CFR 20.115 - Does this part affect the Federal contracts that I receive?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Does this part affect the Federal contracts that I receive? 20.115 Section 20.115 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Purpose and...

  1. 31 CFR 20.115 - Does this part affect the Federal contracts that I receive?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Does this part affect the Federal contracts that I receive? 20.115 Section 20.115 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Purpose and...

  2. 31 CFR 20.115 - Does this part affect the Federal contracts that I receive?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Does this part affect the Federal contracts that I receive? 20.115 Section 20.115 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Purpose and...

  3. 31 CFR 20.115 - Does this part affect the Federal contracts that I receive?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Does this part affect the Federal contracts that I receive? 20.115 Section 20.115 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Purpose and...

  4. 25 CFR 293.16 - How does the Paperwork Reduction Act affect this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How does the Paperwork Reduction Act affect this part? 293.16 Section 293.16 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ECONOMIC ENTERPRISES CLASS III TRIBAL STATE GAMING COMPACT PROCESS § 293.16 How does the Paperwork Reduction Act...

  5. Study of the dairy characters of lactating Murrah buffaloes on the basis of body parts measurements

    PubMed Central

    Dhillod, Sandeep; Kar, Dipankar; Patil, C. S.; Sahu, Subhasish; Singh, Narender

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the study was to correlate the milk yield of Murrah buffaloes with certain body parts measurements. Materials and Methods: A total of 70 lactating Murrah buffaloes were selected from Buffalo Farm, Lala Lajpat Rai University of Veterinary and Animal Science, Hisar and were randomly selected in a range from first to fifth parity. Traits studied were 305 days milk yield (MY), body weight (BW), body length (BL), muzzle width (MW), height at wither (HW), abdominal girth (AG), chest girth (CG), body depth fore, body depth rear, hip bone distance (HBD), pin bone distance (PBD), skin thickness (STK), and tail length (TL). Data were collected and statically analyzed by Pearson’s correlation method. Result: The result of this study showed that Murrah buffaloes had the average 2604.8±39.5 kg for MY, 556.1±4.9 kg for BW, and 152.2±0.8 cm for BL. This study showed that buffaloes had positive significant (p<0.05) correlation between MY and BW (0.26). Highly significant (p<0.01) correlation was observed between MY and AG (0.64), MW (0.42). Significant (p<0.01) negative correlation was observed between MY and STK (−0.79). Different body part measurements (BW, BL, HW, AG, CG, MW, TL, BD, PBD, HBD, STK) were significantly correlated with each other. Conclusion: This study can be helpful as a selection tool to enhance and evaluate the production potential by setting standards of Murrah buffalo breed. BW, abdominal growth, muzzle thickness, and STK were found key factors while selecting a dairy Murrah buffalo. PMID:28246443

  6. Addition of flexible body option to the TOLA computer program. Part 2: User and programmer documentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dick, J. W.; Benda, B. J.

    1975-01-01

    User and programmer oriented documentation for the flexible body option of the Takeoff and Landing Analysis (TOLA) computer program are provided. The user information provides sufficient knowledge of the development and use of the option to enable the engineering user to successfully operate the modified program and understand the results. The programmer's information describes the option structure and logic enabling a programmer to make major revisions to this part of the TOLA computer program.

  7. Distinct cortical areas for names of numbers and body parts independent of language and input modality.

    PubMed

    Le Clec'H, G; Dehaene, S; Cohen, L; Mehler, J; Dupoux, E; Poline, J B; Lehéricy, S; van de Moortele, P F; Le Bihan, D

    2000-10-01

    Some models of word comprehension postulate that the processing of words presented in different modalities and languages ultimately converges toward common cerebral systems associated with semantic-level processing and that the localization of these systems may vary with the category of semantic knowledge being accessed. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate this hypothesis with two categories of words, numerals, and body parts, for which the existence of distinct category-specific areas is debated in neuropsychology. Across two experiments, one with a blocked design and the other with an event-related design, a reproducible set of left-hemispheric parietal and prefrontal areas showed greater activation during the manipulation of topographical knowledge about body parts and a right-hemispheric parietal network during the manipulation of numerical quantities. These results complement the existing neuropsychological and brain-imaging literature by suggesting that within the extensive network of bilateral parietal regions active during both number and body-part processing, a subset shows category-specific responses independent of the language and modality of presentation.

  8. Event-related potentials reveal early activation of body part representations in action concept comprehension.

    PubMed

    Lu, Aitao; Liu, Jing; Zhang, John X

    2012-03-09

    With tasks involving action concept comprehension, many fMRI studies have reported brain activations in sensori-motor regions specific to effectors of the referent action. There is relatively less evidence whether such activations reflect early semantic access or late conceptual re-processing. Here we recorded event-related potentials when participants recognized noun-verb pairs. For Congruent pairs, the verb was the one most commonly associated with the noun (e.g., football-kick). Compared with a control condition, verbs in Congruent pairs showed priming effects in the time windows of 100-150 ms and 210-260 ms. Such activation seems to be specific to body part but not other aspects of the action as similar priming effect was also found when the noun and verb involved different actions though sharing the same body part (e.g., football-jump), documenting for the first time the early activation of body part representations in action concept comprehension.

  9. The roles of the amygdala in the affective regulation of body, brain, and behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirolli, Marco; Mannella, Francesco; Baldassarre, Gianluca

    2010-09-01

    Despite the great amount of knowledge produced by the neuroscientific literature on affective phenomena, current models tackling non-cognitive aspects of behaviour are often bio-inspired but rarely bio-constrained. This paper presents a theoretical account of affective systems centred on the amygdala (Amg). This account aims to furnish a general framework and specific pathways to implement models that are more closely related to biological evidence. The Amg, which receives input from brain areas encoding internal states, innately relevant stimuli, and innately neutral stimuli, plays a fundamental role in the motivational and emotional processes of organisms. This role is based on the fact that Amg implements the two associative processes at the core of Pavlovian learning (conditioned stimulus (CS)-unconditioned stimulus (US) and CS-unconditioned response (UR) associations), and that it has the capacity of modulating these associations on the basis of internal states. These functionalities allow the Amg to play an important role in the regulation of the three fundamental classes of affective responses (namely, the regulation of body states, the regulation of brain states via neuromodulators, and the triggering of a number of basic behaviours fundamental for adaptation) and in the regulation of three high-level cognitive processes (namely, the affective labelling of memories, the production of goal-directed behaviours, and the performance of planning and complex decision-making). Our analysis is conducted within a methodological approach that stresses the importance of understanding the brain within an evolutionary/adaptive framework and with the aim of isolating general principles that can potentially account for the wider possible empirical evidence in a coherent fashion.

  10. Muscimol microinjected in the arcuate nucleus affects metabolism, body temperature & ventilation.

    PubMed

    Schlenker, Evelyn H

    2016-06-15

    Effects of microinjection of 2 doses of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptor agonist, muscimol (M), into the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus on oxygen consumption and control of ventilation over time and body temperature (BT) at the end of the experiment were compared in adult male and female rats. Relative to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, 0 nmol), BT was decreased only in male rats with both doses of M, while in female rats, the 5 nmol dose depressed oxygen consumption. Ventilation was depressed by 5 nmol M in male and 10 nmol M in female rats by decreasing tidal volume. M did not affect the ventilatory response of male or female rats to hypoxia, whereas in females 5 and 10 nmol M and in males 10 nmol M depressed the ventilatory response to hypercapnia. Thus, in rats GABAA receptors in the arcuate nucleus modulate BT, oxygen consumption, and ventilation in air and in response to hypercapnia in a sexually dimorphic manner.

  11. Cross-sex hormone therapy in transgender persons affects total body weight, body fat and lean body mass: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Klaver, M; Dekker, M J H J; de Mutsert, R; Twisk, J W R; den Heijer, M

    2016-08-29

    Weight gain and body fat increase the risk of cardiometabolic disease. Cross-sex hormone therapy in transgender persons leads to changes in body weight and body composition, but it is unclear to what extent. We performed a meta-analysis to investigate the changes in body weight, body fat and lean body mass during cross-sex hormone therapy in transgender persons. We searched the PubMed database for eligible studies until November 2015. Ten studies reporting changes in body weight, body fat or lean mass in hormone naive transgender persons were included, examining 171 male-to-female and 354 female-to-male transgender people. Pooled effect estimates in the male-to-female group were +1.8 kg (95% CI: 0.2;3.4) for body weight, +3.0 kg (2.0;3.9) for body fat and -2.4 kg (-2.8; -2.1) for lean body mass. In the female-to-male group, body weight changed with +1.7 kg (0.7;2.7), body fat with -2.6 kg (-3.9; -1.4) and lean body mass with +3.9 kg (3.2;4.5). Cross-sex hormone therapy increases body weight in both sexes. In the male-to-female group, a gain in body fat and a decline in lean body mass are observed, while the opposite effects are seen in the female-to-male group. Possibly, these changes increase the risk of cardiometabolic disease in the male-to-female group.

  12. Data-driven inline optimization of the manufacturing process of car body parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purr, S.; Wendt, A.; Meinhardt, J.; Moelzl, K.; Werner, A.; Hagenah, H.; Merklein, M.

    2016-11-01

    The manufacturing process of car body parts needs to be adaptable during production because of fluctuating variables; finding the most suitable settings is often expensive. The cause-effect relation between variables and process results is currently unknown; thus, any measure taken to adjust the process is necessarily subjective and dependent on operator experience. To investigate the correlations involved, a data mining system that can detect influences and determine the quality of resulting parts is integrated into the series process. The collected data is used to analyze causes, predict defects, and optimize the overall process. In this paper, a data-driven method is proposed for the inline optimization of the manufacturing process of car body parts. The calculation of suitable settings to produce good parts is based on measurements of influencing variables, such as the characteristics of blanks. First, the available data are presented, and in the event of quality issues, current procedures are investigated. Thereafter, data mining techniques are applied to identify models that link occurring fluctuations and appropriate measures to adapt the process so that it addresses such fluctuations. Consequently, a method is derived for providing objective information on appropriate process parameters.

  13. Does habitat disturbance affect stress, body condition and parasitism in two sympatric lemurs?

    PubMed Central

    Rakotoniaina, Josué H.; Kappeler, Peter M.; Ravoniarimbinina, Pascaline; Pechouskova, Eva; Hämäläinen, Anni M.; Grass, Juliane; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Kraus, Cornelia

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how animals react to human-induced changes in their environment is a key question in conservation biology. Owing to their potential correlation with fitness, several physiological parameters are commonly used to assess the effect of habitat disturbance on animals’ general health status. Here, we studied how two lemur species, the fat-tailed dwarf lemur (Cheirogaleus medius) and the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus), respond to changing environmental conditions by comparing their stress levels (measured as hair cortisol concentration), parasitism and general body condition across four habitats ordered along a gradient of human disturbance at Kirindy Forest, Western Madagascar. These two species previously revealed contrasting responses to human disturbance; whereas M. murinus is known as a resilient species, C. medius is rarely encountered in highly disturbed habitats. However, neither hair cortisol concentrations nor parasitism patterns (prevalence, parasite species richness and rate of multiple infections) and body condition varied across the gradient of anthropogenic disturbance. Our results indicate that the effect of anthropogenic activities at Kirindy Forest is not reflected in the general health status of both species, which may have developed a range of behavioural adaptations to deal with suboptimal conditions. Nonetheless, a difference in relative density among sites suggests that the carrying capacity of disturbed habitat is lower, and both species respond differently to environmental changes, with C. medius being more negatively affected. Thus, even for behaviourally flexible species, extended habitat deterioration could hamper long-term viability of populations. PMID:27656285

  14. The dynamics of finger tremor in multiple sclerosis is affected by whole body position.

    PubMed

    Morrison, S; Sosnoff, J J; Sandroff, B M; Pula, J H; Motl, R W

    2013-01-15

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a disease that results in widespread damage to the nervous system. One consequence of this disease is the emergence of enhanced tremor. This study was designed to (1) compare the tremor responses of persons with MS to that of healthy adults and to (2) examine the impact of whole body position (i.e., seated/standing) on tremor. Bilateral postural tremor was recorded using accelerometers attached to each index finger. Results revealed some similarity of tremor between groups in regard to the principal features (e.g., presence of peaks in similar frequency ranges). However, significant differences were observed with tremor for the MS persons being of greater amplitude, more regular (lower ApEn) and more strongly coupled across limbs compared to the elderly. The effects of body position were consistent across all subjects, with tremor increasing significantly from sitting-to-standing. However, the tremor increase for the MS group was greater than the elderly. Overall, the tremor for MS group was negatively affected by both this disease process and the nature of the task being performed. This latter result indicates that tremor does not simply reflect the feed-forward output of the neuromotor system but that it is influenced by the task constraints.

  15. Studies on wake-affected heat transfer around the circular leading edge of blunt body

    SciTech Connect

    Funazaki, K.

    1996-07-01

    Detailed measurements are performed about time-averaged heat transfer distributions around the leading edge of a blunt body, which is affected by incoming periodic wakes from the upstream moving bars. The blunt body is a test model of a front portion of a turbine blade in gas turbines and consists of a semicircular cylindrical leading edge and a flat plate afterbody. A wide range of the steady and unsteady flow conditions are adopted as for the Reynolds number based on the diameter of the leading edge and the bar-passing Strouhal number. The measured heat transfer distributions indicate that the wakes passing over the leading edge cause a significant increase in heat transfer before the separation and the higher Strouhal number results in higher heat transfer. From this experiment, a correlation for the heat transfer enhancement around the leading edge due to the periodic wakes is deduced as a function of the Stanton number and it is reviewed by comparison with the other experimental works.

  16. The association between the body composition and lifestyle affecting pulmonary function in Japanese workers.

    PubMed

    Inomoto, Atsushi; Fukuda, Rika; Deguchi Phn, Junko; Kato, Gohei; Kanzaki Rpt, Ryoko; Hiroshige Rpt, Keiichi; Nakamura, Kouichi; Rpt; Nakano Rpt, Keisuke; Toyonaga, Toshihiro

    2016-10-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to identify factors related to physical characteristics and lifestyle that affect pulmonary function. [Subjects and Methods] Ninety seven healthy male workers were recruited for this study, and basic information and details about lifestyle were collected. Body composition analyzer and visceral fat measuring device were conducted as measurements. Pulmonary function was measured using spirometer. A multiple stepwise linear regression analysis was performed with pulmonary function as the dependent variable. Variables with a significant association with pulmonary function on univariate analysis were imputed as independent variables. [Results] Height, fat free mass, upper extremity muscle mass, lower extremity muscle mass, and trunk muscle mass had significant positive correlations with FEV1 and FVC. Age, percentage of body fat, and visceral fat area were negatively correlated with FEV1 and FVC. Regarding the association between pulmonary function and lifestyle, a significant difference was found between the smoking index and the presence or absence of metabolic syndrome risk factors and both FEV1 and FVC. The multiple stepwise linear regression analysis with FEV1 as the dependent variable, adjusted for age and height, revealed that visceral fat area and fat free mass were significantly associated with FEV1. A similar analysis, FVC as the dependent variable identified visceral fat area. [Conclusion] FEV1 was independently associated with visceral fat area and fat free mass. FVC was independently associated with visceral fat area. These results may be valuable in preventing the decrease in respiratory function and, hence, in further preventing the onset of COPD.

  17. The dominant foot affects the postural control mechanism: examination by body tracking test

    PubMed Central

    Ikemiyagi, Fuyuko; Ikemiyagi, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Tositake; Yamamoto, Masahiko; Suzuki, Mitsuya

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion The antero-posterior (AP) body tracking test (BTT) showed that the dominant foot could affect the tilt angle of the sway movement, delineated by primary component analysis. Differences associated with the dominant foot could represent the difference in space perception of each person. Objectives To examine whether the dominant foot could affect the postural control mechanism using the BTT. Methods Ninety-seven healthy participants enrolled in the study were classified into right-foot and left-foot dominance groups, and their performances were compared. For the BTT, each participant stood on a stabilometer and caught the movement of a visual target moving vertically (anterior-posterior) or horizontally by the center of pressure movement, displayed on a 14-inch screen monitor at 100 cm in front of the subject. The mean displacement angle of the obtained stabilogram was evaluated by principal component analysis. Results The AP BTT in the right-foot dominance group showed a clockwise tilt with a mean displacement angle of 3.022 ± 3.761°, whereas the group with left-foot dominance had a modest counter-clockwise tilt with a mean displacement angle of –0.694 ± 4.497°. This difference was found to be significant by the independent t test (p < 0.0001). In the lateral BTT, the mean displacement angles were not significant. PMID:25252704

  18. Human body parts tracking and kinematic features assessment based on RSSI and inertial sensor measurements.

    PubMed

    Blumrosen, Gaddi; Luttwak, Ami

    2013-08-23

    Acquisition of patient kinematics in different environments plays an important role in the detection of risk situations such as fall detection in elderly patients, in rehabilitation of patients with injuries, and in the design of treatment plans for patients with neurological diseases. Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) measurements in a Body Area Network (BAN), capture the signal power on a radio link. The main aim of this paper is to demonstrate the potential of utilizing RSSI measurements in assessment of human kinematic features, and to give methods to determine these features. RSSI measurements can be used for tracking different body parts' displacements on scales of a few centimeters, for classifying motion and gait patterns instead of inertial sensors, and to serve as an additional reference to other sensors, in particular inertial sensors. Criteria and analytical methods for body part tracking, kinematic motion feature extraction, and a Kalman filter model for aggregation of RSSI and inertial sensor were derived. The methods were verified by a set of experiments performed in an indoor environment. In the future, the use of RSSI measurements can help in continuous assessment of various kinematic features of patients during their daily life activities and enhance medical diagnosis accuracy with lower costs.

  19. Dissociable neural responses to hands and non-hand body parts in human left extrastriate visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Bracci, Stefania; Ietswaart, Magdalena; Peelen, Marius V; Cavina-Pratesi, Cristiana

    2010-06-01

    Accumulating evidence points to a map of visual regions encoding specific categories of objects. For example, a region in the human extrastriate visual cortex, the extrastriate body area (EBA), has been implicated in the visual processing of bodies and body parts. Although in the monkey, neurons selective for hands have been reported, in humans it is unclear whether areas selective for individual body parts such as the hand exist. Here, we conducted two functional MRI experiments to test for hand-preferring responses in the human extrastriate visual cortex. We found evidence for a hand-preferring region in left lateral occipitotemporal cortex in all 14 participants. This region, located in the lateral occipital sulcus, partially overlapped with left EBA, but could be functionally and anatomically dissociated from it. In experiment 2, we further investigated the functional profile of hand- and body-preferring regions by measuring responses to hands, fingers, feet, assorted body parts (arms, legs, torsos), and non-biological handlike stimuli such as robotic hands. The hand-preferring region responded most strongly to hands, followed by robotic hands, fingers, and feet, whereas its response to assorted body parts did not significantly differ from baseline. By contrast, EBA responded most strongly to body parts, followed by hands and feet, and did not significantly respond to robotic hands or fingers. Together, these results provide evidence for a representation of the hand in extrastriate visual cortex that is distinct from the representation of other body parts.

  20. 45 CFR 261.80 - How do existing welfare reform waivers affect a State's penalty liability under this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... State's penalty liability under this part? 261.80 Section 261.80 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to... Waivers Affect State Penalties? § 261.80 How do existing welfare reform waivers affect a State's penalty liability under this part? A welfare reform waiver could affect a State's penalty liability under this...

  1. 45 CFR 261.80 - How do existing welfare reform waivers affect a State's penalty liability under this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... State's penalty liability under this part? 261.80 Section 261.80 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to... Waivers Affect State Penalties? § 261.80 How do existing welfare reform waivers affect a State's penalty liability under this part? A welfare reform waiver could affect a State's penalty liability under this...

  2. 45 CFR 261.80 - How do existing welfare reform waivers affect a State's penalty liability under this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... State's penalty liability under this part? 261.80 Section 261.80 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to... Waivers Affect State Penalties? § 261.80 How do existing welfare reform waivers affect a State's penalty liability under this part? A welfare reform waiver could affect a State's penalty liability under this...

  3. 45 CFR 261.80 - How do existing welfare reform waivers affect a State's penalty liability under this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... State's penalty liability under this part? 261.80 Section 261.80 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to... Waivers Affect State Penalties? § 261.80 How do existing welfare reform waivers affect a State's penalty liability under this part? A welfare reform waiver could affect a State's penalty liability under this...

  4. 45 CFR 261.80 - How do existing welfare reform waivers affect a State's penalty liability under this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... State's penalty liability under this part? 261.80 Section 261.80 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to... Waivers Affect State Penalties? § 261.80 How do existing welfare reform waivers affect a State's penalty liability under this part? A welfare reform waiver could affect a State's penalty liability under this...

  5. Glancing and Then Looking: On the Role of Body, Affect, and Meaning in Cognitive Control

    PubMed Central

    Su, Li; Bowman, Howard; Barnard, Philip

    2011-01-01

    In humans, there is a trade-off between the need to respond optimally to the salient environmental stimuli and the need to meet our long-term goals. This implies that a system of salience sensitive control exists, which trades task-directed processing off against monitoring and responding to potentially high salience stimuli that are irrelevant to the current task. Much cognitive control research has attempted to understand these mechanisms using non-affective stimuli. However, recent research has emphasized the importance of emotions, which are a major factor in the prioritization of competing stimuli and in directing attention. While relatively mature theories of cognitive control exist for non-affective settings, exactly how emotions modulate cognitive processes is less well understood. The attentional blink (AB) task is a useful experimental paradigm to reveal the dynamics of both cognitive and affective control in humans. Hence, we have developed the glance–look model, which has replicated a broad profile of data on the semantic AB task and characterized how attentional deployment is modulated by emotion. Taking inspiration from Barnard’s Interacting Cognitive Subsystems, the model relies on a distinction between two levels of meaning: implicational and propositional, which are supported by two corresponding mental subsystems: the glance and the look respectively. In our model, these two subsystems reflect the central engine of cognitive control and executive function. In particular, the interaction within the central engine dynamically establishes a task filter for salient stimuli using a neurobiologically inspired learning mechanism. In addition, the somatic contribution of emotional effects is modeled by a body-state subsystem. We argue that stimulus-driven interaction among these three subsystems governs the movement of control between them. The model also predicts attenuation effects and fringe awareness during the AB. PMID:22194729

  6. Dependence of morphometric allometries on the growth kinetics of body parts.

    PubMed

    Nijhout, H Frederik

    2011-11-07

    As overall size varies, the sizes of body parts of many animals often appear to be related to each other by a power law, commonly called the allometric equation. Orderly scaling relationships among body parts are widespread in the animal world, but there is no general agreement about how these relationships come about. Presumably they depend on the patterns of growth of body parts, and simple analyses have shown that exponential growth can lead to size relationships that are well-described by the allometric equation. Exponential growth kinetics also allow for a simple biological interpretation of the coefficients of the power relationship. Nevertheless, many tissues do not grow with exponential kinetics, nor do they grow for the same period of time, and the consequences of more realistic growth patterns on the resulting allometric relationships of body parts are not well understood. In this paper I derive a set of allometric equations that assume different kinetics of growth: linear, exponential and sigmoidal. In these derivations I also include differences in development times as a variable, in addition to differences in the growth rates and initial sizes of the two structures whose allometric relationship is compared. I show how these equations can be used to deduce the effect of different causes of variation in absolute size on the resulting allometry. Variation in size can be due to variation in the duration of development, variation in growth rate or variation in initial size. I show that the meaning of the coefficients of the allometric equation depends on exactly how size variation comes about. I show that if two structures are assumed to grow with sigmoidal kinetics (logistic and Gompertz) the resulting allometric equations do not have a simple and intuitive structure and produce graphs that, over a sufficiently large range of sizes, can vary from linear, to sigmoidal to hump-shaped. Over a smaller range of absolute sizes, these sigmoid growth kinetics can

  7. The association between the body composition and lifestyle affecting pulmonary function in Japanese workers

    PubMed Central

    Inomoto, Atsushi; Fukuda, Rika; Deguchi, Junko; Kato, Gohei; Kanzaki, Ryoko; Hiroshige, Keiichi; Nakamura, Kouichi; Nakano, Keisuke; Toyonaga, Toshihiro

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to identify factors related to physical characteristics and lifestyle that affect pulmonary function. [Subjects and Methods] Ninety seven healthy male workers were recruited for this study, and basic information and details about lifestyle were collected. Body composition analyzer and visceral fat measuring device were conducted as measurements. Pulmonary function was measured using spirometer. A multiple stepwise linear regression analysis was performed with pulmonary function as the dependent variable. Variables with a significant association with pulmonary function on univariate analysis were imputed as independent variables. [Results] Height, fat free mass, upper extremity muscle mass, lower extremity muscle mass, and trunk muscle mass had significant positive correlations with FEV1 and FVC. Age, percentage of body fat, and visceral fat area were negatively correlated with FEV1 and FVC. Regarding the association between pulmonary function and lifestyle, a significant difference was found between the smoking index and the presence or absence of metabolic syndrome risk factors and both FEV1 and FVC. The multiple stepwise linear regression analysis with FEV1 as the dependent variable, adjusted for age and height, revealed that visceral fat area and fat free mass were significantly associated with FEV1. A similar analysis, FVC as the dependent variable identified visceral fat area. [Conclusion] FEV1 was independently associated with visceral fat area and fat free mass. FVC was independently associated with visceral fat area. These results may be valuable in preventing the decrease in respiratory function and, hence, in further preventing the onset of COPD. PMID:27821955

  8. Ethanol concentration in food and body condition affect foraging behavior in Egyptian fruit bats ( Rousettus aegyptiacus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, Francisco; Korine, Carmi; Kotler, Burt P.; Pinshow, Berry

    2008-06-01

    Ethanol occurs in fleshy fruit as a result of sugar fermentation by both microorganisms and the plant itself; its concentration [EtOH] increases as fruit ripens. At low concentrations, ethanol is a nutrient, whereas at high concentrations, it is toxic. We hypothesized that the effects of ethanol on the foraging behavior of frugivorous vertebrates depend on its concentration in food and the body condition of the forager. We predicted that ethanol stimulates food consumption when its concentration is similar to that found in ripe fruit, whereas [EtOH] below or above that of ripe fruit has either no effect, or else deters foragers, respectively. Moreover, we expected that the amount of food ingested on a particular day of feeding influences the toxic effects of ethanol on a forager, and consequently shapes its feeding decisions on the following day. We therefore predicted that for a food-restricted forager, ethanol-rich food is of lower value than ethanol-free food. We used Egyptian fruit bats ( Rousettus aegyptiacus) as a model to test our hypotheses, and found that ethanol did not increase the value of food for the bats. High [EtOH] reduced the value of food for well-fed bats. However, for food-restricted bats, there was no difference between the value of ethanol-rich and ethanol-free food. Thus, microorganisms, via their production of ethanol, may affect the patterns of feeding of seed-dispersing frugivores. However, these patterns could be modified by the body condition of the animals because they might trade-off the costs of intoxication against the value of nutrients acquired.

  9. Dehydroepiandrosterone Supplementation Combined with Whole-Body Vibration Training Affects Testosterone Level and Body Composition in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wen-Chyuan; Chen, Yi-Ming; Huang, Chi-Chang; Tzeng, Yen-Dun

    2016-01-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), the most abundant sex steroid, is primarily secreted by the adrenal gland and a precursor hormone used by athletes for performance enhancement. Whole-body vibration (WBV) is a well-known light-resistance exercise by automatic adaptations to rapid and repeated oscillations from a vibrating platform, which is also a simple and convenient exercise for older adults. However, the potential effects of DHEA supplementation combined with WBV training on to body composition, exercise performance, and hormone regulation are currently unclear. The objective of the study is to investigate the effects of DHEA supplementation combined with WBV training on body composition, exercise performance, and physical fatigue-related biochemical responses and testosterone content in young-adult C57BL/6 mice. In this study, male C57BL/6 mice were divided into four groups (n = 8 per group) for 6-weeks treatment: sedentary controls with vehicle (SC), DHEA supplementation (DHEA, 10.2 mg/kg), WBV training (WBV; 5.6 Hz, 2 mm, 0.13 g), and WBV training with DHEA supplementation (WBV+DHEA; WBV: 5.6 Hz, 2 mm, 0.13 g and DHEA: 10.2 mg/kg). Exercise performance was evaluated by forelimb grip strength and exhaustive swimming time, as well as changes in body composition and anti-fatigue levels of serum lactate, ammonia, glucose, creatine kinase (CK), and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) after a 15-min swimming exercise. In addition, the biochemical parameters and the testosterone content were measured at the end of the experiment. Six-week DHEA supplementation alone significantly increased mice body weight (BW), muscle weight, testosterone level, and glycogen contents (liver and muscle) when compared with SC group. DHEA supplementation alone had no negative impact on all tissue and biochemical profiles, but could not improve exercise performance. However, WBV+DHEA supplementation also significantly decreased BW, testosterone level and glycogen content of liver, as well as serum

  10. Dehydroepiandrosterone Supplementation Combined with Whole-Body Vibration Training Affects Testosterone Level and Body Composition in Mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-Chyuan; Chen, Yi-Ming; Huang, Chi-Chang; Tzeng, Yen-Dun

    2016-01-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), the most abundant sex steroid, is primarily secreted by the adrenal gland and a precursor hormone used by athletes for performance enhancement. Whole-body vibration (WBV) is a well-known light-resistance exercise by automatic adaptations to rapid and repeated oscillations from a vibrating platform, which is also a simple and convenient exercise for older adults. However, the potential effects of DHEA supplementation combined with WBV training on to body composition, exercise performance, and hormone regulation are currently unclear. The objective of the study is to investigate the effects of DHEA supplementation combined with WBV training on body composition, exercise performance, and physical fatigue-related biochemical responses and testosterone content in young-adult C57BL/6 mice. In this study, male C57BL/6 mice were divided into four groups (n = 8 per group) for 6-weeks treatment: sedentary controls with vehicle (SC), DHEA supplementation (DHEA, 10.2 mg/kg), WBV training (WBV; 5.6 Hz, 2 mm, 0.13 g), and WBV training with DHEA supplementation (WBV+DHEA; WBV: 5.6 Hz, 2 mm, 0.13 g and DHEA: 10.2 mg/kg). Exercise performance was evaluated by forelimb grip strength and exhaustive swimming time, as well as changes in body composition and anti-fatigue levels of serum lactate, ammonia, glucose, creatine kinase (CK), and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) after a 15-min swimming exercise. In addition, the biochemical parameters and the testosterone content were measured at the end of the experiment. Six-week DHEA supplementation alone significantly increased mice body weight (BW), muscle weight, testosterone level, and glycogen contents (liver and muscle) when compared with SC group. DHEA supplementation alone had no negative impact on all tissue and biochemical profiles, but could not improve exercise performance. However, WBV+DHEA supplementation also significantly decreased BW, testosterone level and glycogen content of liver, as well as serum

  11. Anatomy in the Third Reich: an outline, part 2. Bodies for anatomy and related medical disciplines.

    PubMed

    Hildebrandt, S

    2009-11-01

    All anatomical departments of German universities used bodies of the executed and other victims of the National Socialist (NS) regime for their work. Many of these victims had been executed in prisons and were members of the German political opposition; others had perished in camps for prisoners of war or forced laborers and concentration camps, and were of various European and other descent. Anatomists generally welcomed the increased influx of "fresh material" for purposes of research and education of the growing numbers of medical students. No anatomist is known to have refused work with the bodies of NS victims. Other medical disciplines also made use of these bodies, among them were racial hygienists and neuropathologists. In the late 19th and early 20th century, the fields of anatomy, physical anthropology, and racial hygiene (eugenics) were closely related in their subject matter. Anatomists were involved in the biological foundation of racial hygiene, most prominently among them Eugen Fischer. The discipline was established as part of the medical curriculum after 1920. Racial hygiene became the scientific justification for NS policies that led to racial discrimination, involuntary sterilization and ultimately mass murder. Anatomists taught racial hygiene throughout the Third Reich and did research in this area. Some were actively involved in NS policies through propaganda and evaluations for the so-called Genetic Health Courts, whereas others became victims of their own science in that they were dismissed for racial reasons.

  12. Microtiming in Swing and Funk affects the body movement behavior of music expert listeners

    PubMed Central

    Kilchenmann, Lorenz; Senn, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    The theory of Participatory Discrepancies (or PDs) claims that minute temporal asynchronies (microtiming) in music performance are crucial for prompting bodily entrainment in listeners, which is a fundamental effect of the “groove” experience. Previous research has failed to find evidence to support this theory. The present study tested the influence of varying PD magnitudes on the beat-related body movement behavior of music listeners. 160 participants (79 music experts, 81 non-experts) listened to 12 music clips in either Funk or Swing style. These stimuli were based on two audio recordings (one in each style) of expert drum and bass duo performances. In one series of six clips, the PDs were downscaled from their originally performed magnitude to complete quantization in steps of 20%. In another series of six clips, the PDs were upscaled from their original magnitude to double magnitude in steps of 20%. The intensity of the listeners' beat-related head movement was measured using video-based motion capture technology and Fourier analysis. A mixed-design Four-Factor ANOVA showed that the PD manipulations had a significant effect on the expert listeners' entrainment behavior. The experts moved more when listening to stimuli with PDs that were downscaled by 60% compared to completely quantized stimuli. This finding offers partial support for PD theory: PDs of a certain magnitude do augment entrainment in listeners. But the effect was found to be small to moderately sized, and it affected music expert listeners only. PMID:26347694

  13. Transcriptional regulation is affected by subnuclear targeting of reporter plasmids to PML nuclear bodies.

    PubMed

    Block, Gregory J; Eskiw, Christopher H; Dellaire, Graham; Bazett-Jones, David P

    2006-12-01

    Whereas the PML protein has been reported to have both transcriptional coactivator and corepressor potential, the contribution of the PML nuclear body (PML NB) itself to transcriptional regulation is not well understood. Here we demonstrate that plasmid DNA artificially tethered to PML or the PML NB-targeting domain of Sp100 is preferentially localized to PML NBs. Using the tethering technique, we targeted a simian virus 40 promoter-driven luciferase reporter plasmid to PML NBs, resulting in the repression of the transgene transcriptional activity. Conversely, the tethering of a cytomegalovirus promoter-containing reporter plasmid resulted in activation. Targeting a minimal eukaryotic promoter did not affect its activity. The expression of targeted promoters could be modulated by altering the cellular concentration of PML NB components, including Sp100 and isoforms of the PML protein. Finally, we demonstrate that ICP0, the promiscuous herpes simplex virus transactivator, increases the level of transcriptional activation of plasmid DNA tethered to the PML NB. We conclude that when PML NB components are artificially tethered to reporter plasmids, the PML NB contributes to the regulation of the tethered DNA in a promoter-dependent manner. Our findings demonstrate that transient transcription assays are sensitive to the subnuclear localization of the transgene plasmid.

  14. Microtiming in Swing and Funk affects the body movement behavior of music expert listeners.

    PubMed

    Kilchenmann, Lorenz; Senn, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    The theory of Participatory Discrepancies (or PDs) claims that minute temporal asynchronies (microtiming) in music performance are crucial for prompting bodily entrainment in listeners, which is a fundamental effect of the "groove" experience. Previous research has failed to find evidence to support this theory. The present study tested the influence of varying PD magnitudes on the beat-related body movement behavior of music listeners. 160 participants (79 music experts, 81 non-experts) listened to 12 music clips in either Funk or Swing style. These stimuli were based on two audio recordings (one in each style) of expert drum and bass duo performances. In one series of six clips, the PDs were downscaled from their originally performed magnitude to complete quantization in steps of 20%. In another series of six clips, the PDs were upscaled from their original magnitude to double magnitude in steps of 20%. The intensity of the listeners' beat-related head movement was measured using video-based motion capture technology and Fourier analysis. A mixed-design Four-Factor ANOVA showed that the PD manipulations had a significant effect on the expert listeners' entrainment behavior. The experts moved more when listening to stimuli with PDs that were downscaled by 60% compared to completely quantized stimuli. This finding offers partial support for PD theory: PDs of a certain magnitude do augment entrainment in listeners. But the effect was found to be small to moderately sized, and it affected music expert listeners only.

  15. In situ chitin isolation from body parts of a centipede and lysozyme adsorption studies.

    PubMed

    Bulut, Esra; Sargin, Idris; Arslan, Ozlem; Odabasi, Mehmet; Akyuz, Bahar; Kaya, Murat

    2017-01-01

    Isolation of structurally intact chitin samples for biotechnological applications has gained much recent attention. So far, three-dimensional chitin isolates have been obtained from only diplopods and sponges. In this study, three-dimensional chitin isolates were obtained from the body parts of centipede Scolopendra sp. (antennae, head, forcipule, collum, trunk, trunk legs and last pair of legs) without leading to structural failure. FT-IR spectra of chitin isolates confirmed that chitin samples are in α allomorph. TGA, XRD and SEM analyses and lysozyme adsorption studies revealed that each chitin isolate had different thermal stability, crystallinity and surface characteristics. Among the chitin isolates, Cu(II)-immobilized forcipule chitin showed the highest affinity for lysozyme (54.1mg/g), whereas chitin from last pair of legs exhibited the lowest affinity (3.7mg/g). This study demonstrated that structurally intact chitin isolates can be obtained from the body parts of centipede Scolopendra sp. (antennae, head, forcipule, collum, trunk, trunk legs and last pair of legs) by using a simple chemical procedure. Also, it gives a biotechnological perspective to the organisms in the group of Chilipoda.

  16. Perfectionism and symptoms of eating disturbances in female college students: considering the role of negative affect and body dissatisfaction.

    PubMed

    Downey, Christina A; Chang, Edward C

    2007-12-01

    This study examined body dissatisfaction and negative affect in understanding the link between perfectionism and dieting and bulimic symptoms in a sample of 307 female college students. Perfectionism was found to be associated with dieting and bulimic symptoms. Body dissatisfaction was found to interact with socially prescribed perfectionism in predicting both dieting and bulimic symptoms. Support for a prediction model involving negative affect as a mediator between socially prescribed perfectionism and bulimic symptoms was found only among those who reported a moderate level of body dissatisfaction. For those who reported a high level of body dissatisfaction, socially prescribed perfectionism was the only significant predictor of bulimic symptoms. Implications of the present findings for future research and for working with female college students at risk for eating disturbances are discussed.

  17. Sex, season, and time of day interact to affect body temperatures of the Giant Gartersnake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wylie, G.D.; Casazza, M.L.; Halstead, B.J.; Gregory, C.J.

    2009-01-01

    1.We examined multiple hypotheses regarding differences in body temperatures of the Giant Gartersnake using temperature-sensitive radio telemetry and an information-theoretic analytical approach.2.Giant Gartersnakes selected body temperatures near 30 ??C, and males and females had similar body temperatures most of the year, except during the midsummer gestation period.3.Seasonal differences in the body temperatures of males and females may relate to both the costs associated with thermoregulatory behavior, such as predation, and the benefits associated with maintaining optimal body temperatures, such as successful incubation.

  18. Body size, but not cooling rate, affects supercooling points in the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Daniel A; Martin, Adam R; Porter, Sanford D

    2008-10-01

    The level of an animal's stress resistance is set by multiple intrinsic physiological and extrinsic environmental parameters. Body size is a critical intrinsic parameter that affects numerous fitness-related organismal traits including fecundity, survival, mating success, and stress resistance. The rate of cooling is a critical extrinsic environmental factor that can affect thermal stress resistance. Workers of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), display considerable variation in adult body size. Therefore, developing ecologically realistic models of thermotolerance in this species requires a consideration of body size. We tested the hypothesis that body size and cooling rate would interact to set the supercooling point in fire ant workers by exposing workers of a range of body sizes to three different cooling regimens: a very fast ramp of -10 degrees C/min, an intermediate ramp of -1 degrees C/min, and an ecologically relevant slow ramp of -0.1 degrees C/min. Specifically, we asked whether large workers were more susceptible to differences in cooling rate than smaller workers. We found that body size had a considerable effect on supercooling point with the largest workers freezing at a temperature approximately 3 degrees C higher than the smallest workers. Cooling rate had a very small effect on supercooling point, and there was no interaction between the two factors. Therefore, the allometry of supercooling points across the range of worker body sizes does not change with cooling rate.

  19. Additive effects of affective arousal and top-down attention on the event-related brain responses to human bodies.

    PubMed

    Hietanen, Jari K; Kirjavainen, Ilkka; Nummenmaa, Lauri

    2014-12-01

    The early visual event-related 'N170 response' is sensitive to human body configuration and it is enhanced to nude versus clothed bodies. We tested whether the N170 response as well as later EPN and P3/LPP responses to nude bodies reflect the effect of increased arousal elicited by these stimuli, or top-down allocation of object-based attention to the nude bodies. Participants saw pictures of clothed and nude bodies and faces. In each block, participants were asked to direct their attention towards stimuli from a specified target category while ignoring others. Object-based attention did not modulate the N170 amplitudes towards attended stimuli; instead N170 response was larger to nude bodies compared to stimuli from other categories. Top-down attention and affective arousal had additive effects on the EPN and P3/LPP responses reflecting later processing stages. We conclude that nude human bodies have a privileged status in the visual processing system due to the affective arousal they trigger.

  20. Nocturnal body temperature in wintering blue tits is affected by roost-site temperature and body reserves.

    PubMed

    Nord, Andreas; Nilsson, Johan F; Nilsson, J-Å

    2011-09-01

    Birds commonly use rest-phase hypothermia, a controlled reduction of body temperature (T(b)), to conserve energy during times of high metabolic demands. We assessed the flexibility of this heterothermic strategy by increasing roost-site temperature and recording the subsequent T(b) changes in wintering blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus L.), assuming that blue tits would respond to treatment by increasing T(b). We found that birds increased T(b) when roost-site temperature was increased, but only at low ambient temperatures. Moreover, birds with larger fat reserves regulated T(b) at higher levels than birds carrying less fat. This result implies that a roosting blue tit maintains its T(b) at the highest affordable level, as determined by the interacting effect of ecophysiological costs associated with rest-phase hypothermia and energy reserves, in order to minimize potential fitness costs associated with a low T(b).

  1. 45 CFR Appendix I to Part 617 - List of Age Distinctions Provided in Federal Statutes or Regulations Affecting Federal Financial...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Statutes or Regulations Affecting Federal Financial Assistance Administered by NSF I Appendix I to Part 617.... 617, App. I Appendix I to Part 617—List of Age Distinctions Provided in Federal Statutes or Regulations Affecting Federal Financial Assistance Administered by NSF I. Section 6 of Pub. L. 94-86, 42...

  2. 45 CFR Appendix I to Part 617 - List of Age Distinctions Provided in Federal Statutes or Regulations Affecting Federal Financial...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Statutes or Regulations Affecting Federal Financial Assistance Administered by NSF I Appendix I to Part 617.... 617, App. I Appendix I to Part 617—List of Age Distinctions Provided in Federal Statutes or Regulations Affecting Federal Financial Assistance Administered by NSF I. Section 6 of Pub. L. 94-86, 42...

  3. 45 CFR Appendix I to Part 617 - List of Age Distinctions Provided in Federal Statutes or Regulations Affecting Federal Financial...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Statutes or Regulations Affecting Federal Financial Assistance Administered by NSF I Appendix I to Part 617.... 617, App. I Appendix I to Part 617—List of Age Distinctions Provided in Federal Statutes or Regulations Affecting Federal Financial Assistance Administered by NSF I. Section 6 of Pub. L. 94-86, 42...

  4. 45 CFR Appendix I to Part 617 - List of Age Distinctions Provided in Federal Statutes or Regulations Affecting Federal Financial...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Statutes or Regulations Affecting Federal Financial Assistance Administered by NSF I Appendix I to Part 617.... 617, App. I Appendix I to Part 617—List of Age Distinctions Provided in Federal Statutes or Regulations Affecting Federal Financial Assistance Administered by NSF I. Section 6 of Pub. L. 94-86, 42...

  5. Melanocortin Receptor 4 Deficiency Affects Body Weight Regulation, Grooming Behavior, and Substrate Preference in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Mul, Joram D.; van Boxtel, Ruben; Bergen, Dylan J.M.; Brans, Maike A.D.; Brakkee, Jan H.; Toonen, Pim W.; Garner, Keith M.; Adan, Roger A.H.; Cuppen, Edwin

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is caused by an imbalance between energy intake and expenditure and has become a major health-care problem in western society. The central melanocortin system plays a crucial role in the regulation of feeding and energy expenditure, and functional loss of melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R) is the most common genetic cause of human obesity. In this study, we present the first functional Mc4r knockout model in the rat, resulting from an N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea mutagenesis–induced point mutation. In vitro observations revealed impaired membrane-binding and subsequent nonfunctionality of the receptor, whereas in vivo observations showed that functional loss of MC4R increased body weight, food intake, white adipose mass, and changed substrate preference. In addition, intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of Agouti-Related Protein79–129 (AgRP79–129), an MC4R inverse agonist, or Melanotan-II (MTII), an MC4R agonist, did affect feeding behavior in wild-type rats but not in homozygous mutant rats, confirming complete loss of MC4R function in vivo. Finally, ICV administration of MTII induced excessive grooming behavior in wild-type rats, whereas this effect was absent in homozygous mutant rats, indicating that MTII-induced grooming behavior is exclusively regulated via MC4R pathways. Taken together, we expect that the MC4R rat model described here will be a valuable tool for studying monogenic obesity in humans. More specifically, the relative big size and increased cognitive capacity of rats as compared to mice will facilitate complex behavioral studies and detailed mechanistic studies regarding central function of MC4R, both of which ultimately may help to further understand the specific mechanisms that induce obesity during loss of MC4R function. PMID:21527895

  6. Melanocortin receptor 4 deficiency affects body weight regulation, grooming behavior, and substrate preference in the rat.

    PubMed

    Mul, Joram D; van Boxtel, Ruben; Bergen, Dylan J M; Brans, Maike A D; Brakkee, Jan H; Toonen, Pim W; Garner, Keith M; Adan, Roger A H; Cuppen, Edwin

    2012-03-01

    Obesity is caused by an imbalance between energy intake and expenditure and has become a major health-care problem in western society. The central melanocortin system plays a crucial role in the regulation of feeding and energy expenditure, and functional loss of melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R) is the most common genetic cause of human obesity. In this study, we present the first functional Mc4r knockout model in the rat, resulting from an N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea mutagenesis-induced point mutation. In vitro observations revealed impaired membrane-binding and subsequent nonfunctionality of the receptor, whereas in vivo observations showed that functional loss of MC4R increased body weight, food intake, white adipose mass, and changed substrate preference. In addition, intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of Agouti-Related Protein(79-129) (AgRP(79-129)), an MC4R inverse agonist, or Melanotan-II (MTII), an MC4R agonist, did affect feeding behavior in wild-type rats but not in homozygous mutant rats, confirming complete loss of MC4R function in vivo. Finally, ICV administration of MTII induced excessive grooming behavior in wild-type rats, whereas this effect was absent in homozygous mutant rats, indicating that MTII-induced grooming behavior is exclusively regulated via MC4R pathways. Taken together, we expect that the MC4R rat model described here will be a valuable tool for studying monogenic obesity in humans. More specifically, the relative big size and increased cognitive capacity of rats as compared to mice will facilitate complex behavioral studies and detailed mechanistic studies regarding central function of MC4R, both of which ultimately may help to further understand the specific mechanisms that induce obesity during loss of MC4R function.

  7. Varying whole body vibration amplitude differentially affects tendon and ligament structural and material properties.

    PubMed

    Keller, Benjamin V; Davis, Matthew L; Thompson, William R; Dahners, Laurence E; Weinhold, Paul S

    2013-05-31

    Whole Body Vibration (WBV) is becoming increasingly popular for helping to maintain bone mass and strengthening muscle. Vibration regimens optimized for bone maintenance often operate at hypogravity levels (<1G) and regimens for muscle strengthening often employ hypergravity (>1G) vibrations. The effect of vibratory loads on tendon and ligament properties is unclear though excessive vibrations may be injurious. Our objective was to evaluate how tendon gene expression and the mechanical/histological properties of tendon and ligament were affected in response to WBV in the following groups: no vibration, low vibration (0.3G peak-to-peak), and high vibration (2G peak-to-peak). Rats were vibrated for 20 min a day, 5 days a week, for 5 weeks. Upon sacrifice, the medial collateral ligament (MCL), patellar tendon (PT), and the Achilles Tendon (AT) were isolated with insertion sites intact. All tissues were tensile tested to determine structural and material properties or used for histology. Patellar tendon was also subjected to quantitative RT-PCR to evaluate expression of anabolic and catabolic genes. No differences in biomechanical data between the control and the low vibration groups were found. There was evidence of significant weakness in the MCL with high vibration, but no significant effect on the PT or AT. Histology of the MCL and PT showed a hypercellular tissue response and some fiber disorganization with high vibration. High vibration caused an increase in collagen expression and a trend for an increase in IGF-1 expression suggesting a potential anabolic response to prevent tendon overuse injury.

  8. Microinjection of Anti-coilin Antibodies Affects the Structure of Coiled Bodies

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Fátima; Saffrich, Rainer; Ansorge, Wilhelm; Carmo-Fonseca, Maria

    1998-01-01

    The coiled body is a distinct subnuclear domain enriched in small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles (snRNPs) involved in processing of pre-mRNA. Although the function of the coiled body is still unknown, current models propose that it may have a role in snRNP biogenesis, transport, or recycling. Here we describe that anti-coilin antibodies promote a specific disappearance of the coiled body in living human cells, thus providing a novel tool for the functional analysis of this structure. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were raised against recombinant human coilin, the major structural protein of the coiled body. Four mAbs are shown to induce a progressive disappearance of coiled bodies within ∼6 h after microinjection into the nucleus of HeLa cells. After their disappearance, coiled bodies are not seen to re-form, although injected cells remain viable for at least 3 d. Epitope mapping reveals that the mAbs recognize distinct amino acid motifs scattered along the complete coilin sequence. By 24 and 48 h after injection of antibodies that promote coiled body disappearance, splicing snRNPs are normally distributed in the nucleoplasm, the nucleolus remains unaffected, and the cell cycle progresses normally. Furthermore, cells devoid of coiled bodies for ∼24 h maintain the ability to splice both adenoviral pre-mRNAs and transiently overexpressed human β-globin transcripts. In conclusion, within the time range of this study, no major nuclear abnormalities are detected after coiled body disappearance. PMID:9722604

  9. Methyl jasmonate affects morphology, number and activity of endoplasmic reticulum bodies in Raphanus sativus root cells.

    PubMed

    Gotté, Maxime; Ghosh, Rajgourab; Bernard, Sophie; Nguema-Ona, Eric; Vicré-Gibouin, Maïté; Hara-Nishimura, Ikuko; Driouich, Azeddine

    2015-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) bodies are ER-derived structures that are found in Brassicaceae species and thought to play a role in defense. Here, we have investigated the occurrence, distribution and function of ER bodies in root cells of Raphanus sativus using a combination of microscopic and biochemical methods. We have also assessed the response of ER bodies to methyl jasmonate (MeJA), a phytohormone that mediates plant defense against wounding and pathogens. Our results show that (i) ER bodies do occur in different root cell types from the root cap region to the differentiation zone; (ii) they do accumulate a PYK10-like protein similar to the major marker protein of ER bodies that is involved in defense in Arabidopsis thaliana; and (iii) treatment of root cells with MeJA causes a significant increase in the number of ER bodies and the activity of β-glucosidases. More importantly, MeJA was found to induce the formation of very long ER bodies that results from the fusion of small ones, a phenomenon that has not been reported in any other study so far. These findings demonstrate that MeJA impacts the number and morphology of functional ER bodies and stimulates ER body enzyme activities, probably to participate in defense responses of radish root. They also suggest that these structures may provide a defensive system specific to root cells.

  10. The Girl Shedding Glass Pieces from Her Body Parts: Unfolding the Mystery Behind Dermatitis Artefacta

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Harpreet; Tripathi, Adarsh; Kar, Sujita Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Patients presenting with unusual symptoms are uncommon. Unusual symptoms often catch the attention of the public including the health professionals. Atypicality in the symptoms is usually seen in patients with factitious disorder. In patients with factitious disorder, there occurs conscious production of symptoms with an unconscious motive, irrespective of the fact whether they are ill or not. Self-inflicted injuries to skin often give rise to typical skin lesions known as dermatitis artefacta, which many a times simulate other dermatological conditions. Patients with factitious disorder often have a narrow line of demarcation from malingering. We present a case of an adolescent girl presenting with spontaneous extrusion of glass pieces from her body parts with focus on diagnostic dilemma and management. PMID:27057021

  11. Why does it matter how we regulate the use of human body parts?

    PubMed

    Goold, Imogen

    2014-01-01

    Human tissue and body parts have been used in one way or another for millennia. They have been preserved and displayed, both in museums and public shows. Real human hair is used for wigs, while some artists even use human tissue in their works. Blood, bone marrow, whole organs and a host of other structures and human substances are all transplanted into living persons to treat illness. New life can be created from gametes through in vitro fertilisation (IVF), while the creation of cell lines keeps tissue alive indefinitely. These uses create significant challenges for the legal system in the UK. The major challenge for the law is to balance the competing demands of those groups who have vested interests in human tissue-researchers, medical practitioners, patients, families, the community and the police, among many others. It must provide sufficient control to users of tissue, but also take account of the fact that our bodies hold psychological importance for us while we live and, after we die, for those we leave behind. To some degree the law has been successful, but we still lack a comprehensive, coherent approach to the regulation of human tissue. Partially as a reaction to this lack of a comprehensive approach, some commentators have turned to applying the concept of property to human tissue means to achieve regulatory outcomes they support.

  12. Viewing the motion of human body parts activates different regions of premotor, temporal, and parietal cortex.

    PubMed

    Wheaton, Kylie J; Thompson, James C; Syngeniotis, Ari; Abbott, David F; Puce, Aina

    2004-05-01

    Activation of premotor and temporoparietal cortex occurs when we observe others movements, particularly relating to objects. Viewing the motion of different body parts without the context of an object has not been systematically evaluated. During a 3T fMRI study, 12 healthy subjects viewed human face, hand, and leg motion, which was not directed at or did not involve an object. Activation was identified relative to static images of the same human face, hand, and leg in both individual subject and group average data. Four clear activation foci emerged: (1) right MT/V5 activated to all forms of viewed motion; (2) right STS activated to face and leg motion; (3) ventral premotor cortex activated to face, hand, and leg motion in the right hemisphere and to leg motion in the left hemisphere; and (4) anterior intraparietal cortex (aIP) was active bilaterally to viewing hand motion and in the right hemisphere leg motion. In addition, in the group data, a somatotopic activation pattern for viewing face, hand, and leg motion occurred in right ventral premotor cortex. Activation patterns in STS and aIP were more complex--typically activation foci to viewing two types of human motion showed some overlap. Activation in individual subjects was similar; however, activation to hand motion also occurred in the STS with a variable location across subjects--explaining the lack of a clear activation focus in the group data. The data indicate that there are selective responses to viewing motion of different body parts in the human brain that are independent of object or tool use.

  13. Genetic factors contributing to obesity and body weight can act through mechanisms affecting muscle weight, fat weight, or both.

    PubMed

    Brockmann, Gudrun A; Tsaih, Shirng-Wern; Neuschl, Christina; Churchill, Gary A; Li, Renhua

    2009-01-08

    Genetic loci for body weight and subphenotypes such as fat weight have been mapped repeatedly. However, the distinct effects of different loci and physiological interactions among different traits are often not accounted for in mapping studies. Here we used the method of structural equation modeling to identify the specific relationships between genetic loci and different phenotypes influencing body weight. Using this technique, we were able to distinguish genetic loci that affect adiposity from those that affect muscle growth. We examined the high body weight-selected mouse lines NMRI8 and DU6i and the intercross populations NMRI8 x DBA/2 and DU6i x DBA/2. Structural models help us understand whether genetic factors affect lean mass and fat mass pleiotropically or nonpleiotropically. Sex has direct effects on both fat and muscle weight but also influences fat weight indirectly via muscle weight. Three genetic loci identified in these two crosses showed exclusive effects on fat deposition, and five loci contributed exclusively to muscle weight. Two additional loci showed pleiotropic effects on fat and muscle weight, with one locus acting in both crosses. Fat weight and muscle weight were influenced by epistatic effects. We provide evidence that significant fat loci in strains selected for body weight contribute to fat weight both directly and indirectly via the influence on lean weight. These results shed new light on the action of genes in quantitative trait locus regions potentially influencing muscle and fat mass and thus controlling body weight as a composite trait.

  14. "Doing Gender" at "Body Worlds": Embodying Field Trips as Affective Educational Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Joyce; Huff, Leah; Bridgen, Jen; Carolan, Andrea; Chang, Ashley; Ennis, Katherine; Loynes, Kathryn; Miller, Jen

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the background, experience and outcomes of an explicitly feminist field trip to Gunther von Hagen's "Body Worlds 2: The Anatomical Exhibition of Real Human Bodies". The cultural landscape of this exhibition materialized gendered geographies very powerfully, facilitating observation and analysis of embodied and emotional,…

  15. Energy composition of diet affects muscle fiber recruitment, body composition, and growth trajectory in rainbow trout (Oncorhnychus mykiss)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Energy composition of diet affects muscle fiber recruitment, body composition, and growth trajectory in rainbow trout (Oncorhnychus mykiss) The cost and scarcity of key ingredients for aquaculture feed formulation call for a wise use of resources, especially dietary proteins and energy. For years t...

  16. Body Dissatisfaction and Eating Disturbances in Early Adolescence: A Structural Modeling Investigation Examining Negative Affect and Peer Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchinson, Delyse M.; Rapee, Ronald M.; Taylor, Alan

    2010-01-01

    This study tested five proposed models of the relationship of negative affect and peer factors in early adolescent body dissatisfaction, dieting, and bulimic behaviors. A large community sample of girls in early adolescence was assessed via questionnaire (X[overbar] age = 12.3 years). Structural equation modeling (SEM) indicated that negative…

  17. Body size, but not cooling rate affects supercooling points in the red imported fire ant Solenopsis invicta

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The level of an animal’s stress resistance is set by multiple intrinsic physiological and extrinsic environmental parameters. Body size is a critical intrinsic parameter that affects numerous fitness-related organismal traits including fecundity, survival, mating success, and stress resistance. The ...

  18. Self-Esteem and Negative Affect as Moderators of Sociocultural Influences on Body Dissatisfaction, Strategies To Decrease Weight, and Strategies To Increase Muscles among Adolescent Boys and Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricciardelli, Lina A.; McCabe, Marita P.

    2001-01-01

    Examined the impact of sociocultural influences and the moderating role of self-esteem and negative affect on body dissatisfaction and body change strategies for adolescent boys and girls. Surveys indicated that sociocultural pressures significantly predicted body dissatisfaction and body change strategies among both sexes. Both boys and girls…

  19. Calculation of symmetric vortex separation affecting subsonic bodies at high incidence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Almosnino, D.; Rom, J.

    1983-01-01

    A method for calculating the longitudinal aerodynamic coefficients and the pressure distributions on a body at reasonably high angles of attack is presented. The body is represented by a combination of source elements and vortex-lattice elements, including separation of the vortices at increasing angles of attack. The method is self-consistent in that the body and the separated vortex wake are treated as an integrated interacting system. The location of the separation line can be included as an arbitrary input from experimental data or can be evaluated approximately by a pressure-dependent criterion. Calculated values of the aerodynamic coefficients and pressure distributions on cone-cylinder and ogive-cylinder bodies compare well, qualitatively and quantitatively, with experimental data, including simulation of the dependence on Reynolds number.

  20. Does self-esteem affect body dissatisfaction levels in female adolescents?☆

    PubMed Central

    Fortes, Leonardo de Sousa; Cipriani, Flávia Marcele; Coelho, Fernanda Dias; Paes, Santiago Tavares; Ferreira, Maria Elisa Caputo

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the influence of self-esteem on levels of body dissatisfaction among adolescent females. Methods: A group of 397 adolescents aged 12 to 17 years were enrolled in the study. The Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) was applied to assess body dissatisfaction. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale was used to assess self-esteem. Weight, height, and skinfold thickness were also measured. These anthropometric data were controlled in the statistical analyses. Results: The multiple regression model indicated influence of "positive self-esteem" (R2=0.16; p=0.001) and "negative self-esteem" (R2=0.23; p=0.001) subscales on the BSQ scores. Univariate analysis of covariance demonstrated differences in BSQ scores (p=0.001) according to groups of self-esteem. Conclusion: It was concluded that self-esteem influenced body dissatisfaction in adolescent girls from Juiz de Fora, MG. PMID:25479855

  1. Dosing obese cats based on body weight spuriously affects some measures of glucose tolerance.

    PubMed

    Reeve-Johnson, M K; Rand, J S; Anderson, S T; Appleton, D J; Morton, J M; Vankan, D

    2016-10-01

    The primary objective was to investigate whether dosing glucose by body weight results in spurious effects on measures of glucose tolerance in obese cats because volume of distribution does not increase linearly with body weight. Healthy research cats (n = 16; 6 castrated males, 10 spayed females) were used. A retrospective study was performed using glucose concentration data from glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity tests before and after cats were fed ad libitum for 9 to 12 mo to promote weight gain. The higher dose of glucose (0.5 vs 0.3 g/kg body weight) in the glucose tolerance tests increased 2-min glucose concentrations (P < 0.001), and there was a positive correlation between 2-min and 2-h glucose (r = 0.65, P = 0.006). Two-min (P = 0.016 and 0.019, respectively), and 2-h (P = 0.057 and 0.003, respectively) glucose concentrations, and glucose half-life (T1/2; P = 0.034 and <0.001 respectively) were positively associated with body weight and body condition score. Glucose dose should be decreased by 0.05 g for every kg above ideal body weight. Alternatively, for every unit of body condition score above 5 on a 9-point scale, observed 2-h glucose concentration should be adjusted down by 0.1 mmol/L. Dosing glucose based on body weight spuriously increases glucose concentrations at 2 h in obese cats and could lead to cats being incorrectly classified as having impaired glucose tolerance. This has important implications for clinical studies assessing the effect of interventions on glucose tolerance when lean and obese cats are compared.

  2. Documentation of program AFTBDY to generate coordinate system for 3D after body using body fitted curvilinear coordinates, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, D.

    1980-01-01

    The computer program AFTBDY generates a body fitted curvilinear coordinate system for a wedge curved after body. This wedge curved after body is being used in an experimental program. The coordinate system generated by AFTBDY is used to solve 3D compressible N.S. equations. The coordinate system in the physical plane is a cartesian x,y,z system, whereas, in the transformed plane a rectangular xi, eta, zeta system is used. The coordinate system generated is such that in the transformed plane coordinate spacing in the xi, eta, zeta direction is constant and equal to unity. The physical plane coordinate lines in the different regions are clustered heavily or sparsely depending on the regions where physical quantities to be solved for by the N.S. equations have high or low gradients. The coordinate distribution in the physical plane is such that x stays constant in eta and zeta direction, whereas, z stays constant in xi and eta direction. The desired distribution in x and z is input to the program. Consequently, only the y-coordinate is solved for by the program AFTBDY.

  3. Effect of frequency, body parts and surrounding on the on-body propagation channel around the torso.

    PubMed

    Chandra, R; Johansson, A J

    2012-01-01

    Wearable medical devices can be positioned around the torso for monitoring of critical health parameters. The signal transmission between them is through a wireless link over an on-body propagation channel. In this paper, the effect of some factors which could influence the propagation channel around the torso as: (a) frequency of operation (b) positions of the arms (c) material of a chair used, have been investigated. Moreover, a comparison between the link loss around the torso of a full body phantom and a truncated torso phantom has been done. It is found that the frequency of operation and the positions of the arms have a significant influence on the channel. The difference between the link loss of a full body phantom and a truncated phantom is found to be minimal, indicating a possibility of using a truncated torso for a faster simulation. The results presented in the paper gives an insight in to the influence of arms and the frequency of operation on the propagation channel around the torso and thus would be beneficial for designing a reliable wireless link.

  4. Early trauma and affect: the importance of the body for the development of the capacity to symbolize.

    PubMed

    Willemsen, Hessel

    2014-11-01

    In this paper I aim to outline the importance of working clinically with affect when treating severely traumatized patients who have a limited capacity to symbolize. These patients, who suffer the loss of maternal care early in life, require the analyst to be closely attuned to the patient's distress through use of the countertransference and with significantly less attention paid to the transference. It is questionable whether we can speak of transference when there is limited capacity to form internal representations. The analyst's relationship with the patient is not necessarily used to make interpretations but, instead, the analyst's reverie functions therapeutically to develop awareness and containment of affect, first in the analyst's mind and, later, in the patient's, so that, in time, a relationship between the patient's mind and the body, as the first object, is made. In contrast to general object-relations theories, in which the first object is considered to be the breast or the mother, Ferrari (2004) proposes that the body is the first object in the emerging mind. Once a relationship between mind and body is established, symbolization becomes possible following the formation of internal representations of affective states in the mind, where previously there were few. Using Ferrari's body-mind model, two clinical case vignettes underline the need to use the countertransference with patients who suffered chronic developmental trauma in early childhood.

  5. Lateral diffusion of CO2 from shaded to illuminated leaf parts affects photosynthesis inside homobaric leaves.

    PubMed

    Pieruschka, Roland; Schurr, Ulrich; Jensen, Manfred; Wolff, Wilfried F; Jahnke, Siegfried

    2006-01-01

    Gas exchange is generally regarded to occur between the leaf interior and ambient air, i.e. in vertical (anticlinal) directions of leaf blades. However, inside homobaric leaves, gas movement occurs also in lateral directions. The aim of the present study was to ascertain whether lateral CO2 diffusion affects leaf photosynthesis when illuminated leaves are partially shaded. Measurements using gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence imaging techniques were performed on homobaric leaves of Vicia faba and Nicotiana tabacum or on heterobaric leaves of Glycine max and Phaseolus vulgaris. For homobaric leaves, gas exchange inside a clamp-on leaf chamber was affected by shading the leaf outside the chamber. The quantum yield of photosystem II (Phi(PSII)) was highest directly adjacent to a light/shade border (LSB). Phi(PSII) decreased in the illuminated leaf parts with distance from the LSB, while the opposite was observed for nonphotochemical quenching. These effects became most pronounced at low stomatal conductance. They were not observed in heterobaric leaves. The results suggest that plants with homobaric leaves can benefit from lateral CO2 flux, in particular when stomata are closed (e.g. under drought stress). This may enhance photosynthetic, instead of nonphotochemical, processes near LSBs in such leaves and reduce the photoinhibitory effects of excess light.

  6. Short-term exposure to predation affects body elemental composition, climbing speed and survival ability in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Eichler Inwood, Sarah; Trakimas, Giedrius; Krams, Ronalds; Burghardt, Gordon M.; Butler, David M.; Luoto, Severi; Krama, Tatjana

    2016-01-01

    Factors such as temperature, habitat, larval density, food availability and food quality substantially affect organismal development. In addition, risk of predation has a complex impact on the behavioural and morphological life history responses of prey. Responses to predation risk seem to be mediated by physiological stress, which is an adaptation for maintaining homeostasis and improving survivorship during life-threatening situations. We tested whether predator exposure during the larval phase of development has any influence on body elemental composition, energy reserves, body size, climbing speed and survival ability of adult Drosophila melanogaster. Fruit fly larvae were exposed to predation by jumping spiders (Phidippus apacheanus), and the percentage of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) content, extracted lipids, escape response and survival were measured from predator-exposed and control adult flies. The results revealed predation as an important determinant of adult phenotype formation and survival ability. D. melanogaster reared together with spiders had a higher concentration of body N (but equal body C), a lower body mass and lipid reserves, a higher climbing speed and improved adult survival ability. The results suggest that the potential of predators to affect the development and the adult phenotype of D. melanogaster is high enough to use predators as a more natural stimulus in laboratory experiments when testing, for example, fruit fly memory and learning ability, or when comparing natural populations living under different predation pressures. PMID:27602281

  7. Short-term exposure to predation affects body elemental composition, climbing speed and survival ability in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Krams, Indrikis; Eichler Inwood, Sarah; Trakimas, Giedrius; Krams, Ronalds; Burghardt, Gordon M; Butler, David M; Luoto, Severi; Krama, Tatjana

    2016-01-01

    Factors such as temperature, habitat, larval density, food availability and food quality substantially affect organismal development. In addition, risk of predation has a complex impact on the behavioural and morphological life history responses of prey. Responses to predation risk seem to be mediated by physiological stress, which is an adaptation for maintaining homeostasis and improving survivorship during life-threatening situations. We tested whether predator exposure during the larval phase of development has any influence on body elemental composition, energy reserves, body size, climbing speed and survival ability of adult Drosophila melanogaster. Fruit fly larvae were exposed to predation by jumping spiders (Phidippus apacheanus), and the percentage of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) content, extracted lipids, escape response and survival were measured from predator-exposed and control adult flies. The results revealed predation as an important determinant of adult phenotype formation and survival ability. D. melanogaster reared together with spiders had a higher concentration of body N (but equal body C), a lower body mass and lipid reserves, a higher climbing speed and improved adult survival ability. The results suggest that the potential of predators to affect the development and the adult phenotype of D. melanogaster is high enough to use predators as a more natural stimulus in laboratory experiments when testing, for example, fruit fly memory and learning ability, or when comparing natural populations living under different predation pressures.

  8. The story of the body and the story of the person: towards an ethics of representing human bodies and body-parts.

    PubMed

    Barilan, Y Michael

    2005-01-01

    Western culture has a few traditions of representing the human body - among them mortuary art (gisants), the freak show, the culture of the relics, renaissance art and pre-modern and modern anatomy. A historical analysis in the spirit of Norbert Elias is offered with regard to body - person relationship in anatomy. Modern anatomy is characterized by separating the story of the person from the story of the body, a strategy that is incompatible with the bio-psycho-social paradigm of clinical medicine. The paper discusses different aspects of the above traditions and how they might bear on this conflict and on contemporary bioethics and bedside practice.

  9. Investigation of Factors Affecting Body Temperature Changes During Routine Clinical Head Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Myeong Seong

    2016-01-01

    Background Pulsed radiofrequency (RF) magnetic fields, required to produce magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signals from tissue during the MRI procedure have been shown to heat tissues. Objectives To investigate the relationship between body temperature rise and the RF power deposited during routine clinical MRI procedures, and to determine the correlation between this effect and the body’s physiological response. Patients and Methods We investigated 69 patients from the Korean national cancer center to identify the main factors that contribute to an increase in body temperature (external factors and the body’s response) during a clinical brain MRI. A routine protocol sequence of MRI scans (1.5 T and 3.0 T) was performed. The patient’s tympanic temperature was recorded before and immediately after the MRI procedure and compared with changes in variables related to the body’s physiological response to heat. Results Our investigation of the physiological response to RF heating indicated a link between increasing age and body temperature. A higher increase in body temperature was observed in older patients after a 3.0-T MRI (r = 0.07, P = 0.29 for 1.5-T MRI; r = 0.45, P = 0.002 for 3.0-T MRI). The relationship between age and body heat was related to the heart rate (HR) and changes in HR during the MRI procedure; a higher RF power combined with a reduction in HR resulted in an increase in body temperature. Conclusion A higher magnetic field strength and a decrease in the HR resulted in an increase in body temperature during the MRI procedure. PMID:27895872

  10. Affective Assemblages: Body Matters in the Pedagogic Practices of Contemporary School Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulcahy, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Set within the affective turn in cultural and social theory, in this paper, I explore the significance of materiality and matter, most specifically, bodily matter, in the pedagogic practices of contemporary school classrooms. The received view in education is that affect is tantamount to emotion or feeling and that materials, such as bodily…

  11. How does the presence of a body affect the performance of an actuator disk ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira, G.; Pereira, R. B.; Ragni, D.; Avallone, F.; van Bussel, G.

    2016-09-01

    The article seeks to unify the treatment of conservative force interactions between axi-symmetric bodies and actuators in inviscid flow. Applications include the study of hub interference, diffuser augmented wind turbines and boundary layer ingestion propeller configurations. The conservation equations are integrated over infinitesimal streamtubes to obtain an exact momentum model contemplating the interaction between an actuator and a nearby body. No assumptions on the shape or topology of the body are made besides (axi)symmetry. Laws are derived for the thrust coefficient, power coefficient and propulsive efficiency. The proposed methodology is articulated with previous efforts and validated against the numerical predictions of a planar vorticity equation solver. Very good agreement is obtained between the analytical and numerical methods.

  12. Effects of garments on photoanthropometry of body parts: application to stature estimation.

    PubMed

    Scoleri, Tony; Lucas, Teghan; Henneberg, Maciej

    2014-04-01

    Person identification from images is an important task in many security applications and forensic investigations. The essence of the problem comes down to measuring key observable anatomical features which can help describing similarities or differences between two or more individuals. In this paper, we examine how different types of garments affect the placement of body markers that enable precise anatomical human description. We focus in particular on landmark positioning errors on the upper limb. Closed-form formulae are provided to compute the maximum likelihood estimate of upper limb length from an image. Subject stature is then predicted from the limb length through a regression model and used as identification criterion. Following initial laboratory experiments, the technique is demonstrated to be invariant to posture and applicable to uninformed subjects in unconstrained environments. Seven technical errors of measurement and statistical tests are quantified empirically from statures obtained by three assessors. Results show that thicker garments produce higher inaccuracies in landmark localisation but errors decrease as placement is repeated, as expected. Overall, comparison to truth reveals that on average statures are predicted with accuracy in excess of 96% for the worst assessor.

  13. How Trace Element Levels of Public Drinking Water Affect Body Composition in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Cetin, Ihsan; Nalbantcilar, Mahmut Tahir; Tosun, Kezban; Nazik, Aydan

    2017-02-01

    Since waterborne minerals appear in ionic form and are readily absorbed by the gastrointestinal tract, drinking water could be a crucial source of mineral intake. However, no comprehensive research has yet determined how trace elements in drinking water relate to body composition. We aimed to assess the relationship between clinically important trace elements in public drinking water and body composition in average, overweight and obese individuals in Turkey. The study's population consisted of 423 participants: 143 overweight, 138 obese and 142 healthy control individuals, grouped according to clinical cutoff points of body mass index (BMI). We measured levels of lithium (Li), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), silicon (Si), tin (Sn), strontium (Sr), boron (B), aluminium (Al), barium (Ba) and rubidium (Rb) in samples from wells of municipal water by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. We gauged all the participants' body composition measurements with a BC-418 body composition analyser. In all the participants, body weight values showed significant positive correlations with Ni levels in drinking water, as did BMI values with Al levels and percentage of obesity with Ni, Si and B levels. In particular, Ni levels showed significant positive correlations with the basal metabolic rate, activity calories, and total activity of participants. Giving findings showing correlations between obesity-related parameters and Al, Si, B and Ni content in drinking water, we hope that these associations will be clarified with further studies including cellular, experimental and clinical studies. Hence, medical practitioners must be aware of trace element levels in drinking water for overweight and obese patients.

  14. On density differences of some parts of body of men living on hypsometrically contrasting tectonic blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochemasov, G. G.

    In microgravity conditions in cosmos above the Earth s surface 100 and more km man diminishes density of its bones losing Ca This phenomenon appears instantaneously after arriving man in orbit If an abrupt hundred km vertical change produces very sharp and prompt result then a smaller vertical difference in terrestrial habitation 1 to 5 km but during thousand and thousand years should have some steady and noticeable results Let us compare some characteristics of man living in two tectonic segments the higher eastern and lower western hemispheres in two tectonic sectors the lower Eurasian and higher Asian sectors in two tectonic granules of Africa Pygmy of the Congolese lowlands and Bushman of the South-African highlands Polynesians of Pacific and Indians of America the western hemisphere have on average higher the Rohrer s index the ratio of body weight to the cube of its height than population of the eastern hemisphere A calf of a Polynesian is 25 longer in circumference than that of Hottentot Hand contraction of a Polynesian on average is stronger than that of a Breton fisherman Crania of the Changos - past Indians of the Atakama desert a very low part of the American continent -- are very strong with thick-bones and with cartilage joining skull bones thickness of skull bones is also a characteristic of other Indians So if an astronaut above loses his calcium an Indian below acquires additional calcium for his bones Composition and quantity of human hairs characteristically changes from uplifted to subsided -

  15. Dose and dose rate effects of whole-body proton-irradiation on lymphocyte blastogenesis and hematological variables: part II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pecaut, Michael J.; Gridley, Daila S.; Smith, Anna L.; Nelson, Gregory A.

    2002-01-01

    The goal of part II of this study was to evaluate functional characteristics of leukocytes and circulating blood cell parameters after whole-body proton irradiation at varying doses and at low- and high-dose-rates (LDR and HDR, respectively). C57BL/6 mice (n=51) were irradiated and euthanized at 4 days post-exposure for assay. Significant radiation dose- (but not dose-rate-) dependent decreases were observed in splenocyte responses to T and B cell mitogens when compared to sham-irradiated controls (P<0.001). Spontaneous blastogenesis, also significantly dose-dependent, was increased in both blood and spleen (P<0.001). Red blood cell counts, hemoglobin concentration, and hematocrit were decreased in a dose-dependent manner (P<0.05), whereas thrombocyte numbers were only slightly affected. Comparison of proton- and gamma-irradiated groups (both receiving 3 Gy at HDR) showed a higher level of spontaneous blastogenesis in blood leukocytes and a lower splenocyte response to concanavalin A following proton irradiation (P<0.05). There were no dose rate effects. Collectively, the data demonstrate that the measurements in blood and spleen were largely dependent upon the total dose of proton radiation and that an 80-fold difference in the dose rate was not a significant factor. A difference, however, was found between protons and gamma-rays in the degree of change induced in some of the measurements.

  16. Leptin treatment reduces body fat but does not affect lean body mass or the myostatin-follistatin-activin axis in lean hypoleptinemic women.

    PubMed

    Brinkoetter, Mary; Magkos, Faidon; Vamvini, Maria; Mantzoros, Christos S

    2011-07-01

    Animal studies in vivo indicate that leptin treatment in extremely leptin-sensitive ob/ob mice reduces body weight exclusively by reducing fat mass and that it increases muscle mass by downregulating myostatin expression. Data from human trials are limited. Therefore, we aimed at characterizing the effects of leptin administration on fat mass, lean body mass, and circulating regulators of muscle growth in hypoleptinemic and presumably leptin-sensitive human subjects. In an open-label, single-arm trial, seven lean, strenuously exercising, amenorrheic women with low leptin concentrations (≤5 ng/ml) were given recombinant methionyl human leptin (metreleptin; 0.08 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) for 10 wk. In a separate randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, seven women were given metreleptin (initial dose: 0.08 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) for 3 mo, increased thereafter to 0.12 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) if menstruation did not occur), and six were given placebo for 9 mo. Metreleptin significantly reduced total body fat by an average of 18.6% after 10 wk (P < 0.001) in the single-arm trial and by 19.5% after 9 mo (placebo subtracted; P for interaction = 0.025, P for metreleptin = 0.004) in the placebo-controlled trial. There were no significant changes in lean body mass (P ≥ 0.33) or in serum concentrations of myostatin (P ≥ 0.35), follistatin (P ≥ 0.30), and activin A (P ≥ 0.20) whether in the 10-wk trial or the 9-mo trial. We conclude that metreleptin administration in lean hypoleptinemic women reduces fat mass exclusively and does not affect lean body mass or the myostatin-follistatin-activin axis.

  17. Microclimatic Divergence in a Mediterranean Canyon Affects Richness, Composition, and Body Size in Saproxylic Beetle Assemblages.

    PubMed

    Buse, Jörn; Fassbender, Samuel; Entling, Martin H; Pavlicek, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    Large valleys with opposing slopes may act as a model system with which the effects of strong climatic gradients on biodiversity can be evaluated. The advantage of such comparisons is that the impact of a change of climate can be studied on the same species pool without the need to consider regional differences. The aim of this study was to compare the assemblage of saproxylic beetles on such opposing slopes at Lower Nahal Oren, Mt. Carmel, Israel (also known as "Evolution Canyon") with a 200-800% higher solar radiation on the south-facing (SFS) compared to the north-facing slope (NFS). We tested specific hypotheses of species richness patterns, assemblage structure, and body size resulting from interslope differences in microclimate. Fifteen flight-interception traps per slope were distributed over three elevation levels ranging from 50 to 100 m a.s.l. Richness of saproxylic beetles was on average 34% higher on the SFS compared with the NFS, with no detected influence of elevation levels. Both assemblage structure and average body size were determined by slope aspect, with more small-bodied beetles found on the SFS. Both the increase in species richness and the higher prevalence of small species on the SFS reflect ecological rules present on larger spatial grain (species-energy hypothesis and community body size shift hypothesis), and both can be explained by the metabolic theory of ecology. This is encouraging for the complementary use of micro- and macroclimatic gradients to study impacts of climate warming on biodiversity.

  18. Body mass index distribution affects discrepancies in weight classifications in children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of body mass index (BMI) distribution, ethnicity, and age at menarche on the consistency in the prevalence of underweight and overweight as defined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the International Obesity Task Fo...

  19. Body visual discontinuity affects feeling of ownership and skin conductance responses

    PubMed Central

    Tieri, Gaetano; Tidoni, Emmanuele; Pavone, Enea Francesco; Aglioti, Salvatore Maria

    2015-01-01

    When we look at our hands we are immediately aware that they belong to us and we rarely doubt about the integrity, continuity and sense of ownership of our bodies. Here we explored whether the mere manipulation of the visual appearance of a virtual limb could influence the subjective feeling of ownership and the physiological responses (Skin Conductance Responses, SCRs) associated to a threatening stimulus approaching the virtual hand. Participants observed in first person perspective a virtual body having the right hand-forearm (i) connected by a normal wrist (Full-Limb) or a thin rigid wire connection (Wire) or (ii) disconnected because of a missing wrist (m-Wrist) or a missing wrist plus a plexiglass panel positioned between the hand and the forearm (Plexiglass). While the analysis of subjective ratings revealed that only the observation of natural full connected virtual limb elicited high levels of ownership, high amplitudes of SCRs were found also during observation of the non-natural, rigid wire connection condition. This result suggests that the conscious embodiment of an artificial limb requires a natural looking visual body appearance while implicit reactivity to threat may require physical body continuity, even non-naturally looking, that allows the implementation of protective reactions to threat. PMID:26602036

  20. Body position does not affect the hemodynamic response to venous air embolism in dogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehlhorn, U.; Burke, E. J.; Butler, B. D.; Davis, K. L.; Katz, J.; Melamed, E.; Morris, W. P.; Allen, S. J.

    1994-01-01

    Current therapy for massive venous air embolism (VAE) includes the use of the left lateral recumbent (LLR) position. This recommendation is based on animal studies, conducted 50 yr ago, which looked primarily at survival. Little is known, however, about the concomitant hemodynamic response after VAE in various body positions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the hemodynamic and cardiovascular changes in various body positions after VAE. Twenty-two mechanically ventilated supine mongrel dogs received a venous air infusion of 2.5 mL/kg at a rate of 5 mL/s. One minute after the infusion, 100% oxygen ventilation was commenced and the body position of the dogs was changed to either the LLR (n = 6), the LLR with the head 10 degrees down (LLR-10 degrees; n = 6) or the right lateral recumbent (RLR; n = 5) position. Five dogs were maintained in the supine position (SUP; n = 5). One dog died in every group except in the SUP group, where all the dogs recovered. There were no significant differences among the various body positions in terms of heart rate, mean arterial pressure, pulmonary artery pressure, central venous pressure, left ventricular end-diastolic pressure, or cardiac output. The acute hemodynamic changes occurring during the first 5-15 min after VAE recovered to 80% of control within 60 min. Our data suggest that body repositioning does not influence the cardiovascular response to VAE. Specifically, our data do not support the recommendation of repositioning into the LLR position for the treatment of VAE.

  1. Body position does not affect the hemodynamic response to venous air embolism in dogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehlhorn, Uwe; Burke, Edward J.; Butler, Bruce D.; Davis, Karen L.; Katz, Jeffrey; Melamed, Evan; Morris, William P.; Allen, Steven J.

    1993-01-01

    Current therapy for massive venous air embolism (VAE) includes the use of the left lateral recumbent (LLR) position. This recommendation is based on animal studies, conducted 50 years ago, which looked primarily at survival. Little is known, however, about the concomitant hemodynamic response after VAE in various body positions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the hemodynamic and cardiovascular changes in various body positions after VAE. Twenty-two mechanically ventilated supine mongrel dogs received a venous air infusion of 2.5 mL/kg at a rate of 5 mL/s. One minute after the infusion, 100% oxygen ventilation was commenced and the body position of the dogs was changed to either the LLR (n = 6), the LLR with the head 10 deg down (LLR-10 deg; n = 6) or the right lateral recumbent (RLR; n = 5) position. Five dogs were maintained in the supine position (SUP; n = 5). One dog died in every group except in the SUP group, where all the dogs recovered. There were no significant differences among the various body positions in terms of heart rate, mean arterial pressure, pulmonary artery pressure, central venous pressure, left ventricular end-diastolic pressure, or cardiac output. The acute hemodynamic changes occurring during the first 5-15 min after VAE recovered to 80% of control within 60 min. Our data suggest that body repositioning does not influence the cardiovascular response to VAE. Specifically, our data do not support the recommendation of repositioning into the LLR position for the treatment of VAE.

  2. Objectification in Virtual Romantic Contexts: Perceived Discrepancies between Self and Partner Ideals Differentially affect Body Consciousness in Women and Men.

    PubMed

    Overstreet, Nicole M; Quinn, Diane M; Marsh, Kerry L

    2015-11-01

    The current study examined whether exposure to sexually objectifying images in a potential romantic partner's virtual apartment affects discrepancies between people's perception of their own appearance (i.e., self-perceptions) and their perception of the body ideal that is considered desirable to a romantic partner (i.e., partner-ideals). Participants were 114 heterosexual undergraduate students (57 women and 57 men) from a northeastern U.S. university. The study used a 2 (Participant Gender) x 2 (Virtual Environment: Sexualized vs. Non-Sexualized) between-subjects design. We predicted that women exposed to sexually objectifying images in a virtual environment would report greater discrepancies between their self-perceptions and partner-ideals than men, which in turn would contribute to women's body consciousness. Findings support this hypothesis and show that perceived discrepancies account for the relationship between exposure to sexually objectifying images and body consciousness for women but not men. We also found gender asymmetries in objectification responses when each component of perceived discrepancies, i.e., self-perceptions versus perceptions of a romantic partner's body ideal, were examined separately. For men, exposure to muscular sexualized images was significantly associated with their self-perceptions but not their perceptions of the body size that is considered desirable to a romantic partner. For women, exposure to thin sexualized images was significantly associated with their perceptions that a romantic partner preferred a woman with a smaller body size. However, exposure to these images did not affect women's self-perceptions. Implications for gender asymmetries in objectification responses and perceived discrepancies that include a romantic partner's perceptions are discussed.

  3. Objectification in Virtual Romantic Contexts: Perceived Discrepancies between Self and Partner Ideals Differentially affect Body Consciousness in Women and Men

    PubMed Central

    Overstreet, Nicole M.; Quinn, Diane M.; Marsh, Kerry L.

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined whether exposure to sexually objectifying images in a potential romantic partner's virtual apartment affects discrepancies between people's perception of their own appearance (i.e., self-perceptions) and their perception of the body ideal that is considered desirable to a romantic partner (i.e., partner-ideals). Participants were 114 heterosexual undergraduate students (57 women and 57 men) from a northeastern U.S. university. The study used a 2 (Participant Gender) x 2 (Virtual Environment: Sexualized vs. Non-Sexualized) between-subjects design. We predicted that women exposed to sexually objectifying images in a virtual environment would report greater discrepancies between their self-perceptions and partner-ideals than men, which in turn would contribute to women's body consciousness. Findings support this hypothesis and show that perceived discrepancies account for the relationship between exposure to sexually objectifying images and body consciousness for women but not men. We also found gender asymmetries in objectification responses when each component of perceived discrepancies, i.e., self-perceptions versus perceptions of a romantic partner's body ideal, were examined separately. For men, exposure to muscular sexualized images was significantly associated with their self-perceptions but not their perceptions of the body size that is considered desirable to a romantic partner. For women, exposure to thin sexualized images was significantly associated with their perceptions that a romantic partner preferred a woman with a smaller body size. However, exposure to these images did not affect women's self-perceptions. Implications for gender asymmetries in objectification responses and perceived discrepancies that include a romantic partner's perceptions are discussed. PMID:26594085

  4. 40 CFR 3.4 - How does this part affect enforcement and compliance provisions of Title 40?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... electronic document to a State, tribe, or local government under an authorized program and fails to comply... PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL CROSS-MEDIA ELECTRONIC REPORTING General Provisions § 3.4 How does this part affect... person submits an electronic document to EPA under this part that fails to comply with the provisions...

  5. Atrazine exposure affects growth, body condition and liver health in Xenopus laevis tadpoles.

    PubMed

    Zaya, Renee M; Amini, Zakariya; Whitaker, Ashley S; Kohler, Steven L; Ide, Charles F

    2011-08-01

    Six studies were performed regarding the effects of atrazine, the most frequently detected pesticide in fresh water in the US, on developing Xenopus laevis tadpoles exposed 5 days post-hatch through Nieuwkoop Faber Stage 62. The levels of atrazine tested included those potentially found in puddles, vernal ponds and runoff soon after application (200 and 400 μg/L) and a low level studied by a number of other investigators (25 μg/L). One study tested 0, 25 and 200 μg/L, another tested 0, 200 and 400 μg/L, while the remaining four studies tested 0 and 400 μg/L. During all exposures, mortality, growth, metamorphosis, sex ratio, fat body (a lipid storage organ) size and liver weights, both relative to body weight, were evaluated. In selected studies, feeding behavior was recorded, livers and fat bodies were histologically evaluated, liver glycogen and lipid content were determined by image analysis, and immunohistochemical detection of activated caspase-3 in hepatocytes was performed. The NOEC was 25 μg/L. None of these exposure levels changed sex ratios nor were intersex gonads noted, however, no definitive histological evaluation of the gonads was performed. Although a marginal increase in mortality at the 200 μg/L level was noted, this was not statistically significant. Nor was there an increase in mortality at 400 μg/L versus controls. At the 400 μg/L level, tadpoles were smaller than controls by 72 h of exposure and remained smaller throughout the entire exposure. Appetite was not decreased at any exposure level. Slowed metamorphosis was noted only at 400 μg/L in two of five studies. Livers were significantly smaller in the study that tested both 200 and 400 μg/L, yet no pathological changes or differences in glycogen or lipid stores were noted. However, livers from 400 μg/L exposed tadpoles had higher numbers of activated caspase-3 immunopositive cells suggesting increased rates of apoptosis. Fat body size decreased significantly after exposure to 200

  6. Body size affects individual winter foraging strategies of thick-billed murres in the Bering Sea.

    PubMed

    Orben, Rachael A; Paredes, Rosana; Roby, Daniel D; Irons, David B; Shaffer, Scott A

    2015-11-01

    Foraging and migration often require different energetic and movement strategies. Though not readily apparent, constraints during one phase might influence the foraging strategies observed in another. For marine birds that fly and dive, body size constraints likely present a trade-off between foraging ability and migration as smaller bodies reduce flight costs, whereas larger bodies are advantageous for diving deeper. This study examines individual wintering strategies of deep diving thick-billed murres (Uria lomvia) breeding at three colonies in the south-eastern Bering Sea: St Paul, St George and Bogoslof. These colonies, arranged north to south, are located such that breeding birds forage in a gradient from shelf to deep-water habitats. We used geolocation time-depth recorders and stable isotopes from feathers to determine differences in foraging behaviour and diet of murres during three non-breeding periods, 2008-2011. Body size was quantified by a principal component analysis (wing, culmen, head+bill and tarsus length). A hierarchical cluster analysis identified winter foraging strategies based on individual movement, diving behaviour and diet (inferred from stable isotopes). Structural body size differed by breeding island. Larger birds from St Paul had higher wing loading than smaller birds from St George. Larger birds, mainly from St Paul, dove to deeper depths, spent more time in the Bering Sea, and likely consumed higher trophic-level prey in late winter. Three winter foraging strategies were identified. The main strategy, employed by small birds from all three breeding colonies in the first 2 years, was characterized by high residency areas in the North Pacific south of the Aleutians and nocturnal diving. In contrast, 31% of birds from St Paul remained in the Bering Sea and foraged mainly during the day, apparently feeding on higher trophic-level prey. Throat feather stable isotopes indicated that individuals exhibited flexibility in the use of this

  7. Activity affects intraspecific body-size scaling of metabolic rate in ectothermic animals.

    PubMed

    Glazier, Douglas Stewart

    2009-10-01

    Metabolic rate is commonly thought to scale with body mass (M) to the 3/4 power. However, the metabolic scaling exponent (b) may vary with activity state, as has been shown chiefly for interspecific relationships. Here I use a meta-analysis of literature data to test whether b changes with activity level within species of ectothermic animals. Data for 19 species show that b is usually higher during active exercise (mean +/- 95% confidence limits = 0.918 +/- 0.038) than during rest (0.768 +/- 0.069). This significant upward shift in b to near 1 is consistent with the metabolic level boundaries hypothesis, which predicts that maximal metabolic rate during exercise should be chiefly influenced by volume-related muscular power production (scaling as M (1)). This dependence of b on activity level does not appear to be a simple temperature effect because body temperature in ectotherms changes very little during exercise.

  8. How Can Diet Affect the Accumulation of Advanced Glycation End-Products in the Human Body?

    PubMed Central

    Guilbaud, Axel; Niquet-Leridon, Celine; Boulanger, Eric; Tessier, Frederic J.

    2016-01-01

    The accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) is associated with the complications of diabetes, kidney disease, metabolic disorders and degenerative diseases. It is recognized that the pool of glycation products found in the human body comes not only from an endogenous formation, but also from a dietary exposure to exogenous AGEs. In recent years, the development of pharmacologically-active ingredients aimed at inhibiting endogenous glycation has not been successful. Since the accumulation of AGEs in the human body appears to be progressive throughout life, an early preventive action against glycation could be effective through dietary adjustments or supplementation with purified micronutrients. The present article provides an overview of current dietary strategies tested either in vitro, in vivo or both to reduce the endogenous formation of AGEs and to limit exposure to food AGEs. PMID:28231179

  9. Microclimatic Divergence in a Mediterranean Canyon Affects Richness, Composition, and Body Size in Saproxylic Beetle Assemblages

    PubMed Central

    Buse, Jörn; Fassbender, Samuel; Entling, Martin H.; Pavlicek, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    Large valleys with opposing slopes may act as a model system with which the effects of strong climatic gradients on biodiversity can be evaluated. The advantage of such comparisons is that the impact of a change of climate can be studied on the same species pool without the need to consider regional differences. The aim of this study was to compare the assemblage of saproxylic beetles on such opposing slopes at Lower Nahal Oren, Mt. Carmel, Israel (also known as “Evolution Canyon”) with a 200–800% higher solar radiation on the south-facing (SFS) compared to the north-facing slope (NFS). We tested specific hypotheses of species richness patterns, assemblage structure, and body size resulting from interslope differences in microclimate. Fifteen flight-interception traps per slope were distributed over three elevation levels ranging from 50 to 100 m a.s.l. Richness of saproxylic beetles was on average 34% higher on the SFS compared with the NFS, with no detected influence of elevation levels. Both assemblage structure and average body size were determined by slope aspect, with more small-bodied beetles found on the SFS. Both the increase in species richness and the higher prevalence of small species on the SFS reflect ecological rules present on larger spatial grain (species-energy hypothesis and community body size shift hypothesis), and both can be explained by the metabolic theory of ecology. This is encouraging for the complementary use of micro- and macroclimatic gradients to study impacts of climate warming on biodiversity. PMID:26047491

  10. Serotonergic systems, anxiety, and affective disorder: focus on the dorsomedial part of the dorsal raphe nucleus.

    PubMed

    Lowry, Christopher A; Hale, Matthew W; Evans, Andrew K; Heerkens, Jasper; Staub, Daniel R; Gasser, Paul J; Shekhar, Anantha

    2008-12-01

    Depressed suicide patients have elevated expression of neuronal tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2) mRNA and protein in midbrain serotonergic neurons, as well as increases in brain serotonin turnover. The mechanisms underlying these changes are uncertain, but increased TPH2 expression and serotonin turnover could result from genetic influences, adverse early life experiences, or acute stressful life events, all of which can alter serotonergic neurotransmission and have been implicated in determining vulnerability to major depression. Emerging evidence suggests that there are several different stress-related subsets of serotonergic neurons, each with a unique role in the integrated stress response. Here we review our current understanding of how genetic and environmental factors may influence TPH2 mRNA expression and serotonergic neurotransmission, focusing in particular on the dorsomedial part of the dorsal raphe nucleus. This subdivision of the dorsal raphe nucleus is selectively innervated by key forebrain structures implicated in regulation of anxiety states, it gives rise to projections to a distributed neural system mediating anxiety states, and serotonergic neurons within this subdivision are selectively activated by a number of stress- and anxiety-related stimuli. A better understanding of the anatomical and functional properties of specific stress- or anxiety-related serotonergic systems should aid our understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying the etiology of anxiety and affective disorders.

  11. Dietary supplements and physical exercise affecting bone and body composition in frail elderly persons.

    PubMed Central

    de Jong, N; Chin A Paw, M J; de Groot, L C; Hiddink, G J; van Staveren, W A

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study determined the effect of enriched foods and all-around physical exercise on bone and body composition in frail elderly persons. METHODS: A 17-week randomized, controlled intervention trial, following a 2 x 2 factorial design--(1) enriched foods, (2) exercise, (3) both, or (4) neither--was performed in 143 frail elderly persons (aged 78.6 +/- 5.6 years). Foods were enriched with multiple micronutrients; exercises focused on skill training, including strength, endurance, coordination, and flexibility. Main outcome parameters were bone and body composition. RESULTS: Exercise preserved lean mass (mean difference between exercisers and non-exercisers: 0.5 kg +/- 1.2 kg; P < .02). Groups receiving enriched food had slightly increased bone mineral density (+0.4%), bone mass (+0.6%), and bone calcium (+0.6%) compared with groups receiving non-enriched foods, in whom small decreases of 0.1%, 0.2%, and 0.4%, respectively, were found. These groups differed in bone mineral density (0.006 +/- 0.020 g/cm2; P = .08), total bone mass (19 +/- g; P = .04), and bone calcium (8 +/- 21 g; P = .03). CONCLUSIONS: Foods containing a physiologic dose of micronutrients slightly increased bone density, mass, and calcium, whereas moderately intense exercise preserved lean body mass in frail elderly persons. PMID:10846514

  12. Procedure of rectal temperature measurement affects brain, muscle, skin, and body temperatures and modulates the effects of intravenous cocaine.

    PubMed

    Bae, David D; Brown, P Leon; Kiyatkin, Eugene A

    2007-06-18

    Rectal probe thermometry is commonly used to measure body core temperature in rodents because of its ease of use. Although previous studies suggest that rectal measurement is stressful and results in long-lasting elevations in body temperatures, we evaluated how this procedure affects brain, muscle, skin, and core temperatures measured with chronically implanted thermocouple electrodes in rats. Our data suggest that the procedure of rectal measurement results in powerful locomotor activation, rapid and strong increases in brain, muscle, and deep body temperatures, as well as a biphasic, down-up fluctuation in skin temperature, matching the response pattern observed during tail-pinch, a representative stressful procedure. This response, moreover, did not habituate after repeated day-to-day testing. Repeated rectal probe insertions also modified temperature responses induced by intravenous cocaine. Under quiet resting conditions, cocaine moderately increased brain, muscle, and deep body temperatures. However, during repeated rectal measurements, which increased temperatures, cocaine induced both hyperthermic and hypothermic responses. Direct comparisons revealed that body temperatures measured by a rectal probe are typically lower (approximately 0.6 degrees C) and more variable than body temperatures recorded by chronically implanted electrodes; the difference is smaller at low and greater at high basal temperatures. Because of this difference and temperature increases induced by the rectal probe per se, cocaine had no significant effect on rectal temperatures compared to control animals exposed to repeated rectal probes. Therefore, although rectal temperature measurements provide a decent correlation with directly measured deep body temperatures, the arousing influence of this procedure may drastically modulate the effects of other arousing stimuli and drugs.

  13. Real-time two-level foreground detection and person-silhouette extraction enhanced by body-parts tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deeb, Rada; Desserée, Elodie; Bouakaz, Saida

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we discuss foreground detection and human body silhouette extraction and tracking in monocular video systems designed for human motion analysis applications. Vision algorithms face many challenges when it comes to analyze human activities in non-controlled environments. For instance, issues like illumination changes, shadows, camouflage and occlusions make the detection and the tracking of a moving person a hard task to accomplish. Hence, advanced solutions are required to analyze the content of video sequences. We propose a real-time, two-level foreground detection, enhanced by body parts tracking, designed to efficiently extract person silhouette and body parts for monocular video-based human motion analysis systems. We aim to find solutions for different non-controlled environment challenges, which make the detection and the tracking of a moving person a hard task to accomplish. On the first level, we propose an enhanced Mixture of Gaussians, built on both chrominanceluminance and chrominance-only spaces, which handles global illumination changes. On the second level, we improve segmentation results, in interesting areas, by using statistical foreground models updated by a high-level tracking of body parts. Each body part is represented with a set of template characterized by a feature vector built in an initialization phase. Then, high level tracking is done by finding blob-template correspondences via distance minimization in feature space. Correspondences are then used to update foreground models, and a graph cut algorithm, which minimizes a Markov random field energy function containing these models, is used to refine segmentation. We were able to extract a refined silhouette in the presence of light changes, noise and camouflage. Moreover, the tracking approach allowed us to infer information about the presence and the location of body parts even in the case of partial occlusion.

  14. A prospective study of calf factors affecting age, body size, and body condition score at first calving of holstein dairy heifers.

    PubMed

    Heinrichs, A J; Heinrichs, B S; Harel, O; Rogers, G W; Place, N T

    2005-08-01

    Data were collected prospectively on parameters related to first calving on 18 farms located in Northeastern Pennsylvania. This project was designed to study possible residual effects of calf management practices and events occurring during the first 16 wk of life on age, BW, skeletal growth, and body condition score at first calving. Multiple imputation method for handling missing data was incorporated in these analyses. This method has the advantage over ad hoc single imputations because the appropriate error structure is maintained. Much similarity was found between the multiple imputation method and a traditional mixed model analysis, except that some estimates from the multiple imputation method seemed more logical in their effects on the parameter measured. Factors related to increased age at first calving were increased difficulty of delivery, antibiotic treatment of sick calves, increased amount of milk or milk replacer fed before weaning, reduced quality of forage fed to weaned calves, maximum humidity, mean daily temperature, and maximum ammonia levels in calf housing areas. Body weight at calving tended to increase with parity of the dam, increased amount of grain fed to calves, increased ammonia levels, and increased mean temperature of the calf housing area. Body condition score at calving tended to be positively influenced by delivery score at first calving, dam parity, and milk or milk replacer dry matter intake. Withers height at calving was positively affected by treatment of animals with antibiotics and increased mean temperature in the calf area. This study demonstrated that nutrition, housing, and management factors that affect health and growth of calves have long-term effects on the animal at least through first calving.

  15. Terror(ism) in the Classroom: Censorship, Affect and Uncivil Bodies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niccolini, Alyssa D.

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines an event in a US secondary classroom where a Muslim student was disciplined for reading lesbian erotica in class. While many students read and exchanged erotica in the school, this student in particular was targeted for a disciplinary hearing. I explore this as an affective event, a moment of sensation and excess, to think…

  16. The Pedagogy of the Body: Affect and Collective Individuation in the Classroom and on the Dancefloor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    Much recent work in the study of popular culture has emphasized the extent to which it is not only a site of signifying practices, myths, meanings and identifications, but also an arena of intensities, of affective flows and corporeal state-changes. From this perspective, many areas of popular culture (from calisthenics to social dance to video…

  17. A genome scan for quantitative trait loci affecting body conformation traits in Spanish Churra dairy sheep.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Gil, B; Alvarez, L; de la Fuente, L F; Sanchez, J P; San Primitivo, F; Arranz, J J

    2011-08-01

    A genome scan for chromosomal regions influencing body conformation traits was conducted for a population of Spanish Churra dairy sheep following a daughter design. A total of 739 ewes from 11 half-sib sire families were included in the study. The ewes were scored for the 5 linear traits used in the breeding scheme of the Churra breed to assess body conformation: stature, rear legs-rear view, foot angle, rump width, and general appearance. All the animals, including the 11 sires, were genotyped for 181 microsatellite markers evenly distributed across the 26 sheep autosomes. Using the yield deviations of the raw scores adjusted for fixed factors as phenotypic measurements, a quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis was performed on the basis of a multi-marker regression method. Seven suggestive QTL were identified on chromosomes Ovis aries (OAR)2, OAR5, OAR16, OAR23, and OAR26, but none reached a genome-wise significance level. Putative QTL were identified for all of the traits analyzed, except for general appearance score. The suggestive QTL showing the highest test statistic influenced rear legs-rear view and was localized on OAR16, close to the growth hormone receptor coding gene, GHR. Some of the putative linkage associations reported here are consistent with previously reported QTL in cattle for similar traits. To the best of our knowledge, this study provides the first report of QTL for body conformation traits in dairy sheep; further studies will be needed to confirm and redefine the linkage associations reported herein. It is expected that future genome-wide association analyses of larger families will help identify genes underlying these putative genetic effects and provide useful markers for marker-assisted selection of such functional traits.

  18. Imagery and Motor Processes--When Are They Connected? The Mental Rotation of Body Parts in Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruger, Markus; Krist, Horst

    2009-01-01

    Motor influences on the mental transformation of body parts have been observed in both children and adults. Previous findings indicated that these influences were more pronounced in children than in adults, suggesting a stronger link between motor processes and imagery in children. The present series of two experiments casts doubt on the general…

  19. 50 CFR Table 21 to Part 679 - Eligible GOA Communities, Halibut IFQ Regulatory Use Areas and Community Governing Body that...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Regulatory Use Areas and Community Governing Body that Recommends the Community Quota Entity 21 Table 21 to..., Table 21 Table 21 to Part 679—Eligible GOA Communities, Halibut IFQ Regulatory Use Areas and Community.... Whale Pass Whale Pass Community Association. Akhiok City of Akhiok. Chenega Bay Chenega IRA...

  20. Cajal body proteins differentially affect the processing of box C/D scaRNPs.

    PubMed

    Enwerem, Isioma I; Wu, Guowei; Yu, Yi Tao; Hebert, Michael D

    2015-01-01

    Small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs), which are required for pre-mRNA splicing, contain extensively modified snRNA. Small Cajal body-specific ribonucleoproteins (scaRNPs) mediate these modifications. It is unknown how the box C/D class of scaRNPs localizes to Cajal Bodies (CBs). The processing of box C/D scaRNA is also unclear. Here, we explore the processing of box C/D scaRNA 2 and 9 by coilin. We also broaden our investigation to include WRAP53 and SMN, which accumulate in CBs, play a role in RNP biogenesis and associate with coilin. These studies demonstrate that the processing of an ectopically expressed scaRNA2 is altered upon the reduction of coilin, WRAP53 or SMN, but the extent and direction of this change varies depending on the protein reduced. We also show that box C/D scaRNP activity is reduced in a cell line derived from coilin knockout mice. Collectively, the findings presented here further implicate coilin as being a direct participant in the formation of box C/D scaRNPs, and demonstrate that WRAP53 and SMN may also play a role, but the activity of these proteins is divergent to coilin.

  1. Expression of TRPV1 in rabbits and consuming hot pepper affects its body weight.

    PubMed

    Yu, Qi; Wang, Yanli; Yu, Ying; Li, Yafeng; Zhao, Sihai; Chen, Yulong; Waqar, Ahmed Bilal; Fan, Jianglin; Liu, Enqi

    2012-07-01

    The capsaicin receptor, known as transient receptor potential vanilloid subfamily member 1 (TRPV1), is an important membrane receptor that has been implicated in obesity, diabetes, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases. The rabbit model is considered excellent for studying cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, however, the tissue expression of TRPV1 and physiological functions of its ligand capsaicin on diet-induced obesity have not been fully defined in this model. In the current study, we investigated the tissue expression of TRPV1 in normal rabbits using real-time RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Rabbit TRPV1 mRNA was highly expressed in a variety of organs, including the kidneys, adrenal gland, spleen and brain. A phylogenetic analysis showed that the amino acid sequence of rabbit TRPV1 was closer to human TRPV1 than rodent TRPV1. To examine the effect of capsaicin (a pungent compound in hot pepper) on body weight, rabbits were fed with either a high fat diet (as control) or high fat diet containing 1% hot pepper. We found that the body weight of the hot pepper-fed rabbits was significantly lower than the control group. We conclude that the intake of capsaicin can prevent diet-induced obesity and rabbit model is useful for the study of TRPV1 function in cardiovascular and metabolic diseases.

  2. Consumption of garlic positively affects hedonic perception of axillary body odour.

    PubMed

    Fialová, Jitka; Roberts, S Craig; Havlíček, Jan

    2016-02-01

    Beneficial health properties of garlic, as well as its most common adverse effect - distinctive breath odour - are well-known. In contrast, analogous research on the effect of garlic on axillary odour is currently missing. Here, in three studies varying in the amount and nature of garlic provided (raw garlic in study 1 and 2, garlic capsules in study 3), we tested the effect of garlic consumption on the quality of axillary odour. A balanced within-subject experimental design was used. In total, 42 male odour donors were allocated to either a "garlic" or "non-garlic" condition, after which they wore axillary pads for 12 h to collect body odour. One week later, the conditions were reversed. Odour samples were then judged for their pleasantness, attractiveness, masculinity and intensity by 82 women. We found no significant differences in ratings of any characteristics in study 1. However, the odour of donors after an increased garlic dosage was assessed as significantly more pleasant, attractive and less intense (study 2), and more attractive and less intense in study 3. Our results indicate that garlic consumption may have positive effects on perceived body odour hedonicity, perhaps due to its health effects (e.g., antioxidant properties, antimicrobial activity).

  3. CALHM1 Deletion in Mice Affects Glossopharyngeal Taste Responses, Food Intake, Body Weight, and Life Span.

    PubMed

    Hellekant, Göran; Schmolling, Jared; Marambaud, Philippe; Rose-Hellekant, Teresa A

    2015-07-01

    Stimulation of Type II taste receptor cells (TRCs) with T1R taste receptors causes sweet or umami taste, whereas T2Rs elicit bitter taste. Type II TRCs contain the calcium channel, calcium homeostasis modulator protein 1 (CALHM1), which releases adenosine triphosphate (ATP) transmitter to taste fibers. We have previously demonstrated with chorda tympani nerve recordings and two-bottle preference (TBP) tests that mice with genetically deleted Calhm1 (knockout [KO]) have severely impaired perception of sweet, bitter, and umami compounds, whereas their sour and salty tasting ability is unaltered. Here, we present data from KO mice of effects on glossopharyngeal (NG) nerve responses, TBP, food intake, body weight, and life span. KO mice have no NG response to sweet and a suppressed response to bitter compared with control (wild-type [WT]) mice. KO mice showed some NG response to umami, suggesting that umami taste involves both CALHM1- and non-CALHM1-modulated signals. NG responses to sour and salty were not significantly different between KO and WT mice. Behavioral data conformed in general with the NG data. Adult KO mice consumed less food, weighed significantly less, and lived almost a year longer than WT mice. Taken together, these data demonstrate that sweet taste majorly influences food intake, body weight, and life span.

  4. Dementia severity and Lewy bodies affect circadian rhythms in Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Harper, David G; Stopa, Edward G; McKee, Ann C; Satlin, Andrew; Fish, David; Volicer, Ladislav

    2004-07-01

    Sleep disturbance is a symptom shared by all neurodegenerative, dementing illnesses, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), and its presence frequently precipitates decisions to seek institutional care for patients. Although the sleep disturbances of AD and DLB are qualitatively similar, they appear to be more prominent in patients with DLB. Disturbance of the circadian rhythm has been noted and is a potential factor underlying the nocturnal sleep fragmentation and daytime sleepiness observed in these patients. We studied the circadian variation of core-body temperature and motor activity in a total of 32 institutionalized patients with probable AD by NINCDS-ADRDA criteria, 9 of whom also met pathologic criteria for DLB. Eight, healthy, elderly male controls were studied on a clinical research unit designed to simulate the hospital environment where the dementia patients were studied. Circadian variables generally had greater deviations from normal associated with increasing AD pathology, as measured by postmortem-determined Braak stage, supporting the hypothesis that central changes mediate circadian disturbances in AD and DLB. Patients with a postmortem diagnosis of DLB manifested greater disturbances of locomotor activity circadian rhythms than patients with AD, possibly reflecting the greater sleep disturbances seen in this population, but the differences from normal in the circadian rhythms of the AD and DLB patients were qualitatively similar.

  5. Myotonia congenita-associated mutations in chloride channel-1 affect zebrafish body wave swimming kinematics.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Wei; Tian, Jing; Burgunder, Jean-Marc; Hunziker, Walter; Eng, How-Lung

    2014-01-01

    Myotonia congenita is a human muscle disorder caused by mutations in CLCN1, which encodes human chloride channel 1 (CLCN1). Zebrafish is becoming an increasingly useful model for human diseases, including muscle disorders. In this study, we generated transgenic zebrafish expressing, under the control of a muscle specific promoter, human CLCN1 carrying mutations that have been identified in human patients suffering from myotonia congenita. We developed video analytic tools that are able to provide precise quantitative measurements of movement abnormalities in order to analyse the effect of these CLCN1 mutations on adult transgenic zebrafish swimming. Two new parameters for body-wave kinematics of swimming reveal changes in body curvature and tail offset in transgenic zebrafish expressing the disease-associated CLCN1 mutants, presumably due to their effect on muscle function. The capability of the developed video analytic tool to distinguish wild-type from transgenic zebrafish could provide a useful asset to screen for compounds that reverse the disease phenotype, and may be applicable to other movement disorders besides myotonia congenita.

  6. CALHM1 Deletion in Mice Affects Glossopharyngeal Taste Responses, Food Intake, Body Weight, and Life Span

    PubMed Central

    Schmolling, Jared; Marambaud, Philippe; Rose-Hellekant, Teresa A.

    2015-01-01

    Stimulation of Type II taste receptor cells (TRCs) with T1R taste receptors causes sweet or umami taste, whereas T2Rs elicit bitter taste. Type II TRCs contain the calcium channel, calcium homeostasis modulator protein 1 (CALHM1), which releases adenosine triphosphate (ATP) transmitter to taste fibers. We have previously demonstrated with chorda tympani nerve recordings and two-bottle preference (TBP) tests that mice with genetically deleted Calhm1 (knockout [KO]) have severely impaired perception of sweet, bitter, and umami compounds, whereas their sour and salty tasting ability is unaltered. Here, we present data from KO mice of effects on glossopharyngeal (NG) nerve responses, TBP, food intake, body weight, and life span. KO mice have no NG response to sweet and a suppressed response to bitter compared with control (wild-type [WT]) mice. KO mice showed some NG response to umami, suggesting that umami taste involves both CALHM1- and non-CALHM1-modulated signals. NG responses to sour and salty were not significantly different between KO and WT mice. Behavioral data conformed in general with the NG data. Adult KO mice consumed less food, weighed significantly less, and lived almost a year longer than WT mice. Taken together, these data demonstrate that sweet taste majorly influences food intake, body weight, and life span. PMID:25855639

  7. How body size affects middle-ear structure and function and auditory sensitivity in gekkonoid lizards.

    PubMed

    Werner, Y L; Montgomery, L G; Safford, S D; Igic, P G; Saunders, J C

    1998-02-01

    Gekkonoid lizards increase in body size throughout life, and the present study investigates whether changes in auditory function accompany these increases. Middle-ear structures in four groups of animals, adults and juveniles of two gekkonoid species (Eublepharis macularius and Oedura marmorata), were examined. Tympanic membrane velocity and phase were also measured in all four groups. An indication of peripheral auditory function was obtained for each group by measuring compound action potentials (CAPs) from the round window membrane. The middle-ear contribution to CAP thresholds was obtained by comparing threshold levels of the CAP response with and without an intact middle-ear system. The results from these studies indicated that significant changes occurred in middle-ear structure, tympanic membrane velocity and CAP threshold between the younger and older animals. In addition, the adults of both species exhibited better auditory function when the acoustic stimulus was delivered to the tympanic membrane than when it was delivered to the columella footplate. The findings show clearly that increased body size (or age) is accompanied by functional changes in the auditory periphery.

  8. Turbulence: does vorticity affect the structure and shape of body and fin propulsors?

    PubMed

    Webb, P W; Cotel, A J

    2010-12-01

    Over the past century, many ideas have been developed on the relationships between water flow and the structure and shape of the body and fins of fishes, largely during swimming in relatively steady flows. However, both swimming by fishes and the habitats they occupy are associated with vorticity, typically concentrated as eddies characteristic of turbulent flow. Deployment of methods to examine flow in detail suggests that vorticity impacts the lives of fishes. First, vorticity near the body and fins can increase thrust and smooth variations in thrust that are a consequence of using oscillating and undulating propulsors to swim. Second, substantial mechanical energy is dissipated in eddies in the wake and adaptations that minimize these losses would be anticipated. We suggest that such mechanisms may be found in varying the length of the propulsive wave, stiffening propulsive surfaces, and shifting to using median and paired fins when swimming at low speeds. Eddies in the flow encountered by fishes may be beneficial, but when eddy radii are of the order of 0.25 of the fish's total length, negative impacts occur due to greater difficulties in controlling stability. The archetypal streamlined "fish" shape reduces destabilizing forces for fishes swimming into eddies.

  9. Nectar foraging behaviour is affected by ant body size in Camponotus mus.

    PubMed

    Medan, Violeta; Josens, Roxana B

    2005-08-01

    The nectivorous ant Camponotus mus shows a broad size variation within the worker caste. Large ants can ingest faster and larger loads than small ones. Differences in physiological abilities in fluid ingestion due to the insect size could be related to differences in decision-making according to ant size during nectar foraging. Sucrose solutions of different levels of sugar concentration (30% or 60%w/w), viscosity (high or low) or flow rate (ad libitum or 1microl/min) were offered in combination to analyse the behavioural responses to each of these properties separately. Differences were found depending on ant body size and the property compared. A regulated flow produced smaller crop loads for medium and large ants compared to the same solution given ad libitum. All foragers remained longer times feeding at the regulated flow source but larger ants often made longer interruptions. When sugar concentration was constant but viscosity was high, only large ants increased feeding time. Constant viscosity with different sugar concentration determined longer feeding time and bigger loads for the most concentrated solution for small but not for large ants. Small ants reached similar crop loads in a variety of conditions while large ants did not. These differences could be evidence of a possible specialization for nectar foraging based on ant body size.

  10. Artificial light at night affects body mass but not oxidative status in free-living nestling songbirds: an experimental study

    PubMed Central

    Raap, Thomas; Casasole, Giulia; Costantini, David; AbdElgawad, Hamada; Asard, Han; Pinxten, Rianne; Eens, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    Artificial light at night (ALAN), termed light pollution, is an increasingly important anthropogenic environmental pressure on wildlife. Exposure to unnatural lighting environments may have profound effects on animal physiology, particularly during early life. Here, we experimentally investigated for the first time the impact of ALAN on body mass and oxidative status during development, using nestlings of a free-living songbird, the great tit (Parus major), an important model species. Body mass and blood oxidative status were determined at baseline (=13 days after hatching) and again after a two night exposure to ALAN. Because it is very difficult to generalise the oxidative status from one or two measures we relied on a multi-biomarker approach. We determined multiple metrics of both antioxidant defences and oxidative damage: molecular antioxidants GSH, GSSG; antioxidant enzymes GPX, SOD, CAT; total non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity and damage markers protein carbonyls and TBARS. Light exposed nestlings showed no increase in body mass, in contrast to unexposed individuals. None of the metrics of oxidative status were affected. Nonetheless, our study provides experimental field evidence that ALAN may negatively affect free-living nestlings’ development and hence may have adverse consequences lasting throughout adulthood. PMID:27759087

  11. Widespread exposure to lead affects the body condition of free-living whooper swans Cygnus cygnus wintering in Britain.

    PubMed

    Newth, J L; Rees, E C; Cromie, R L; McDonald, R A; Bearhop, S; Pain, D J; Norton, G J; Deacon, C; Hilton, G M

    2016-02-01

    Lead poisoning, through the ingestion of spent lead gunshot, is an established cause of morbidity and mortality in waterbirds globally, but the thresholds at which blood levels begin to affect the physiology of birds in the wild are less well known. Here we determine the prevalence of lead exposure in whooper swans and, for the first time, identify the level of blood lead associated with initial reductions in body condition. Blood lead elevated above background levels (i.e. >20 μg dL(-1)) was found in 41.7% (125/300) of swans tested. Blood lead was significantly negatively associated with winter body condition when levels were ≥44 μg dL(-1) (27/260 = 10%). Our findings indicating that sub-lethal impacts of lead on body condition occur at the lower end of previously established clinical thresholds and that a relatively high proportion of individuals in this population may be affected, reaffirm the importance of reducing contamination of the environment with lead shot.

  12. Artificial light at night affects body mass but not oxidative status in free-living nestling songbirds: an experimental study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raap, Thomas; Casasole, Giulia; Costantini, David; Abdelgawad, Hamada; Asard, Han; Pinxten, Rianne; Eens, Marcel

    2016-10-01

    Artificial light at night (ALAN), termed light pollution, is an increasingly important anthropogenic environmental pressure on wildlife. Exposure to unnatural lighting environments may have profound effects on animal physiology, particularly during early life. Here, we experimentally investigated for the first time the impact of ALAN on body mass and oxidative status during development, using nestlings of a free-living songbird, the great tit (Parus major), an important model species. Body mass and blood oxidative status were determined at baseline (=13 days after hatching) and again after a two night exposure to ALAN. Because it is very difficult to generalise the oxidative status from one or two measures we relied on a multi-biomarker approach. We determined multiple metrics of both antioxidant defences and oxidative damage: molecular antioxidants GSH, GSSG; antioxidant enzymes GPX, SOD, CAT; total non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity and damage markers protein carbonyls and TBARS. Light exposed nestlings showed no increase in body mass, in contrast to unexposed individuals. None of the metrics of oxidative status were affected. Nonetheless, our study provides experimental field evidence that ALAN may negatively affect free-living nestlings’ development and hence may have adverse consequences lasting throughout adulthood.

  13. Factors Affecting Part-Time Faculty Job Satisfaction in the Colorado Community College System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cashwell, Allison L.

    2009-01-01

    How do part-time faculty members in community colleges view their roles? Data from part-time faculty responses regarding their experiences in higher education vary. Valadez and Antony (2001) analyzed data from 6,811 part-time faculty collected from the National Center for Education Statistics' (NCES) 1992-1993 National Survey of Postsecondary…

  14. Factors Affecting the Turnover of Different Groups of Part-Time Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senter, Jenell L.; Martin, James E.

    2007-01-01

    Past research on employee attitudes and behavior has focused mainly on full-time employees. When part-time employees have been studied, the research has concentrated on the differences between full-time and part-time employees. Recent research has suggested that part-time employees should not be viewed as a single, undifferentiated group. Instead…

  15. How Does the Body Affect the Mind? Role of Cardiorespiratory Coherence in the Spectrum of Emotions.

    PubMed

    Jerath, Ravinder; Crawford, Molly W

    2015-01-01

    The brain is considered to be the primary generator and regulator of emotions; however, afferent signals originating throughout the body are detected by the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and brainstem, and, in turn, can modulate emotional processes. During stress and negative emotional states, levels of cardiorespiratory coherence (CRC) decrease, and a shift occurs toward sympathetic dominance. In contrast, CRC levels increase during more positive emotional states, and a shift occurs toward parasympathetic dominance. The dynamic changes in CRC that accompany different emotions can provide insights into how the activity of the limbic system and afferent feedback manifest as emotions. The authors propose that the brainstem and CRC are involved in important feedback mechanisms that modulate emotions and higher cortical areas. That mechanism may be one of many mechanisms that underlie the physiological and neurological changes that are experienced during pranayama and meditation and may support the use of those techniques to treat various mood disorders and reduce stress.

  16. Mental rotation of letters, body parts and scenes during whole-body tilt: role of a body-centered versus a gravitational reference frame.

    PubMed

    Bock, Otmar L; Dalecki, Marc

    2015-04-01

    It is known that in mental-rotation tasks, subjects mentally transform the displayed material until it appears "upright" and then make a judgment. Here we evaluate, by using three typical mental rotation tasks with different degrees of embodiment, whether "upright" is coded to a gravitational or egocentric reference frame, or a combination of both. Observers stood erect or were whole-body tilted by 60°, with their left ear down. In either posture, they saw stimuli presented at different orientation angles in their frontal plane: in condition LETTER, they judged whether the stimuli were normal or mirror-reversed letters, in condition HAND whether they represented a left or a right hand, and in condition SCENE whether a weapon laid left or right in front of a displayed person. Data confirm that reaction times are modulated by stimulus orientation angle, and the modulation curve in LETTER and HAND differs from that in SCENE. More importantly, during 60° body tilt, the modulation curve shifted 12° away from the gravitational towards the egocentric vertical reference; this shift was comparable in all three conditions and independent of the degree of embodiment. We conclude that mental rotation in all conditions relied on a similar spatial reference, which seems to be a weighted average of the gravitational and the egocentric vertical, with a higher weight given to the former.

  17. Distribution function approach to redshift space distortions. Part II: N-body simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Okumura, Teppei; Seljak, Uroš; McDonald, Patrick; Desjacques, Vincent E-mail: useljak@berkeley.edu E-mail: dvince@physik.uzh.ch

    2012-02-01

    Measurement of redshift-space distortions (RSD) offers an attractive method to directly probe the cosmic growth history of density perturbations. A distribution function approach where RSD can be written as a sum over density weighted velocity moment correlators has recently been developed. In this paper we use results of N-body simulations to investigate the individual contributions and convergence of this expansion for dark matter. If the series is expanded as a function of powers of μ, cosine of the angle between the Fourier mode and line of sight, then there are a finite number of terms contributing at each order. We present these terms and investigate their contribution to the total as a function of wavevector k. For μ{sup 2} the correlation between density and momentum dominates on large scales. Higher order corrections, which act as a Finger-of-God (FoG) term, contribute 1% at k ∼ 0.015hMpc{sup −1}, 10% at k ∼ 0.05hMpc{sup −1} at z = 0, while for k > 0.15hMpc{sup −1} they dominate and make the total negative. These higher order terms are dominated by density-energy density correlations which contributes negatively to the power, while the contribution from vorticity part of momentum density auto-correlation adds to the total power, but is an order of magnitude lower. For μ{sup 4} term the dominant term on large scales is the scalar part of momentum density auto-correlation, while higher order terms dominate for k > 0.15hMpc{sup −1}. For μ{sup 6} and μ{sup 8} we find it has very little power for k < 0.15hMpc{sup −1}, shooting up by 2–3 orders of magnitude between k < 0.15hMpc{sup −1} and k < 0.4hMpc{sup −1}. We also compare the expansion to the full 2-d P{sup ss}(k,μ), as well as to the monopole, quadrupole, and hexadecapole integrals of P{sup ss}(k,μ). For these statistics an infinite number of terms contribute and we find that the expansion achieves percent level accuracy for kμ < 0.15hMpc{sup −1} at 6-th order, but breaks down

  18. Unsteady Newton-Busemann flow theory. Part 2: Bodies of revolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hui, W. H.; Tobak, M.

    1981-01-01

    Newtonian flow theory for unsteady flow past oscillating bodies of revolution at very high Mach numbers is completed by adding a centrifugal force correction to the impact pressures. Exact formulas for the unsteady pressure and the stability derivatives are obtained in closed form and are applicable to bodies of revolution that have arbitrary shapes, arbitrary thicknesses, and either sharp or blunt noses. The centrifugal force correction arising from the curved trajectories followed by the fluid particles in unsteady flow cannot be neglected even for the case of a circular cone. With this correction, the present theory is in excellent agreement with experimental results for sharp cones and for cones with small nose bluntness; gives poor agreement with the results of experiments in air for bodies with moderate or large nose bluntness. The pitching motions of slender power-law bodies of revulution are shown to be always dynamically stable according to Newton-Busemann theory.

  19. Choice feeding of selenium-deficient laying hens affects diet selection, selenium intake and body weight.

    PubMed

    Zuberbuehler, Christine A; Messikommer, Ruth E; Wenk, Caspar

    2002-11-01

    Inadequate selenium (Se) supply often in combination with low vitamin E status causes deficiency symptoms in many species. It is likely that a vague discomfort or sickness is perceived before clear deficiency signs become apparent. We investigated whether Se-deficient hens reduce their Se deficit by selecting a diet containing more selenium when offered two diets with different Se concentrations. A Low-Se diet (0.07 mg Se/kg) was supplemented with Se-enriched yeast (Sel-Plex 50) to produce Medium-Se (0.20 mg Se/kg) and High-Se (1.50 mg Se/kg) diets. Each of two consecutive study parts (I and II) with the same hens and treatments began with a 6-wk baseline period (Medium-Se diet), subsequently followed a 9-wk depletion period (Low-Se diet or Medium-Se diet), then a 6-wk choice feeding period in which two diets with different Se concentrations (Low-Se and Medium-Se, Medium-Se and High-Se, or Low-Se and High-Se) were offered. A control group received the Medium-Se diet throughout the study. Daily Se intake, calculated from daily feed intake, followed similar patterns in both parts of the study, but Se-deficient hens preferred (P < 0.05) the High-Se diet to the Low-Se diet during the first 3 wk of choice feeding only in part I. We conclude that young Se-deficient laying hens reduce their Se deficit if they have a choice between a Low-Se and a High-Se diet by preferentially selecting the High-Se diet, possibly based on learned place preference and/or learned taste aversion to the Low-Se diet, presumably in response to discomfort due to Se-deficiency.

  20. Psychologically induced cooling of a specific body part caused by the illusory ownership of an artificial counterpart.

    PubMed

    Moseley, G Lorimer; Olthof, Nick; Venema, Annemeike; Don, Sanneke; Wijers, Marijke; Gallace, Alberto; Spence, Charles

    2008-09-02

    The sense of body ownership represents a fundamental aspect of our self-awareness, but is disrupted in many neurological, psychiatric, and psychological conditions that are also characterized by disruption of skin temperature regulation, sometimes in a single limb. We hypothesized that skin temperature in a specific limb could be disrupted by psychologically disrupting the sense of ownership of that limb. In six separate experiments, and by using an established protocol to induce the rubber hand illusion, we demonstrate that skin temperature of the real hand decreases when we take ownership of an artificial counterpart. The decrease in skin temperature is limb-specific: it does not occur in the unstimulated hand, nor in the ipsilateral foot. The effect is not evoked by tactile or visual input per se, nor by simultaneous tactile and visual input per se, nor by a shift in attention toward the experimental side or limb. In fact, taking ownership of an artificial hand slows tactile processing of information from the real hand, which is also observed in patients who demonstrate body disownership after stroke. These findings of psychologically induced limb-specific disruption of temperature regulation provide the first evidence that: taking ownership of an artificial body part has consequences for the real body part; that the awareness of our physical self and the physiological regulation of self are closely linked in a top-down manner; and that cognitive processes that disrupt the sense of body ownership may in turn disrupt temperature regulation in numerous states characterized by both.

  1. Selective inactivation of Socs3 in SF1 neurons improves glucose homeostasis without affecting body weight.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ren; Dhillon, Harveen; Yin, Huali; Yoshimura, Akihiko; Lowell, Bradford B; Maratos-Flier, Eleftheria; Flier, Jeffrey S

    2008-11-01

    Suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (Socs3) has been identified as a mediator of central leptin resistance, but the identity of specific neurons in which Socs3 acts to suppress leptin signaling remains elusive. The ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) was recently shown to be an important site for leptin action because deleting leptin receptor within VMH neurons causes obesity. To examine the role of VMH Socs3 in leptin resistance and energy homeostasis, we generated mice lacking Socs3 specifically in neurons positive for steroidogenic factor 1 (SF1), which is expressed abundantly in the VMH. These mice had increased phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 in VMH neurons, suggesting improved leptin signaling, and consistently, food intake and weight-reducing effects of exogenous leptin were enhanced. Furthermore, on either chow or high-fat diets, these mice had reduced food intake. Unexpectedly, energy expenditure was reduced as well. Mice lacking Socs3 in SF1 neurons, despite no change in body weight, had improved glucose homeostasis and were partially protected from hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia induced by high-fat diets. These results suggest that Socs3 in SF1 neurons negatively regulates leptin signaling and plays important roles in mediating leptin sensitivity, glucose homeostasis, and energy expenditure.

  2. Affect differentially modulates brain activation in uni- and multisensory body-voice perception.

    PubMed

    Jessen, Sarah; Kotz, Sonja A

    2015-01-01

    Emotion perception naturally entails multisensory integration. It is also assumed that multisensory emotion perception is characterized by enhanced activation of brain areas implied in multisensory integration, such as the superior temporal gyrus and sulcus (STG/STS). However, most previous studies have employed designs and stimuli that preclude other forms of multisensory interaction, such as crossmodal prediction, leaving open the question whether classical integration is the only relevant process in multisensory emotion perception. Here, we used video clips containing emotional and neutral body and vocal expressions to investigate the role of crossmodal prediction in multisensory emotion perception. While emotional multisensory expressions increased activation in the bilateral fusiform gyrus (FFG), neutral expressions compared to emotional ones enhanced activation in the bilateral middle temporal gyrus (MTG) and posterior STS. Hence, while neutral stimuli activate classical multisensory areas, emotional stimuli invoke areas linked to unisensory visual processing. Emotional stimuli may therefore trigger a prediction of upcoming auditory information based on prior visual information. Such prediction may be stronger for highly salient emotional compared to less salient neutral information. Therefore, we suggest that multisensory emotion perception involves at least two distinct mechanisms; classical multisensory integration, as shown for neutral expressions, and crossmodal prediction, as evident for emotional expressions.

  3. Does influenza A affect body condition of wild mallard ducks, or vice versa?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flint, Paul L.; Franson, J. Christian

    2009-01-01

    Low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses are well documented to circulate within wild waterfowl populations (Olsen et. al. 2006). It has been assumed that these infections are benign with no subsequent effects on life-history parameters. The study by Latorre-Margalef et al. (2009; hereafter L.-M. et al.) represents an important step, as they attempt to test this assumption in wild birds. L.-M. et al. captured migrating mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) at a staging area and tested them for the presence of avian influenza A virus (IAV). They related IAV infection status to body mass and duration of time spent on the staging area. Overall, the study is well designed with impressive sample sizes and the analyses are carefully conducted and presented. However, in discussing these results, the authors assume causation based upon correlation and, although they acknowledge the possibility of immunosuppression during migration due to reduced energy stores, they do not discuss it as a possible explanation for their findings. Below, we consider several of the major findings by L.-M. et al., providing alternative explanations for the results. Because the L.-M. et al. study design is correlational, it is not possible to use their data to distinguish between their interpretations and our alternative explanations.

  4. Risk communication with Fukushima residents affected by the Fukushima Daiichi accident at whole-body counting

    SciTech Connect

    Gunji, I.; Furuno, A.; Yonezawa, R.; Sugiyama, K.

    2013-07-01

    After the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident, the Tokai Research and Development Center of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) have had direct dialogue as risk communication with Fukushima residents who underwent whole-body counting examination (WBC). The purpose of the risk communication was to exchange information and opinions about radiation in order to mitigate Fukushima residents' anxiety and stress. Two kinds of opinion surveys were performed: one survey evaluated residents' views of the nuclear accident itself and the second survey evaluated the management of WBC examination as well as the quality of JAEA's communication skills on risks. It appears that most Fukushima residents seem to have reduced their anxiety level after the direct dialogue. The results of the surveys show that Fukushima residents have the deepest anxiety and concern about their long-term health issues and that they harbor anger toward the government and TEPCO. On the other hand, many WBC patients and patients' relatives have expressed gratitude for help in reducing their feelings of anxiety.

  5. Does whole body vibration training affect knee kinematics and neuromuscular control in healthy people?

    PubMed

    Sañudo, Borja; Feria, Adrian; Carrasco, Luis; de Hoyo, Moisés; Santos, Rui; Gamboa, Hugo

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of whole body vibration (WBV) training on the knee kinematics and neuromuscular control after single-legged drop landings. Surface electromyographic (EMG) activity of the rectus femoris and hamstring muscles and knee and ankle accelerometry signals were acquired from 42 healthy volunteers. Participants performed three pre-test landings and after a recovery period of three minutes, they completed one set of six bouts of WBV each of one minute duration (30 Hz - 4 mm), followed by a single-leg drop landing. After the WBV intervention no significant changes were observed in the kinematic outcomes measured, although the time to stabilise the lower-limb was significantly lower after the vibration training (F(8,41) = 6.55; P < 0.01). EMG analysis showed no significant differences in the amplitude of rectus femoris or hamstring muscles after WBV training, however, significant differences in EMG frequency of the rectus femoris were found before (F(8,41) = 7.595; P < 0.01) and after toe-down (F(8,41) = 4.440; P < 0.001). Finally, no significant changes were observed in knee or ankle acceleration after WBV. Results suggest that WBV can help to acutely enhance knee neuromuscular control, which may have clinical significance and help in the design of rehabilitation programmes.

  6. Formation of Nup98-containing nuclear bodies in HeLa sublines is linked to genomic rearrangements affecting chromosome 11.

    PubMed

    Romana, Serge; Radford-Weiss, Isabelle; Lapierre, Jean-Michel; Doye, Valérie; Geoffroy, Marie-Claude

    2016-09-01

    Nup98 is an important component of the nuclear pore complex (NPC) and also a rare but recurrent target for chromosomal translocation in leukaemogenesis. Nup98 contains multiple cohesive Gly-Leu-Phe-Gly (GLFG) repeats that are critical notably for the formation of intranuclear GLFG bodies. Previous studies have reported the existence of GLFG bodies in cells overexpressing exogenous Nup98 or in a HeLa subline (HeLa-C) expressing an unusual elevated amount of endogenous Nup98. Here, we have analysed the presence of Nup98-containing bodies in several human cell lines. We found that HEp-2, another HeLa subline, contains GLFG bodies that are distinct from those identified in HeLa-C. Rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) revealed that HEp-2 cells express additional truncated forms of Nup98 fused to a non-coding region of chromosome 11q22.1. Cytogenetic analyses using FISH and array-CGH further revealed chromosomal rearrangements that were distinct from those observed in leukaemic cells. Indeed, HEp-2 cells feature a massive amplification of juxtaposed NUP98 and 11q22.1 loci on a chromosome marker derived from chromosome 3. Unexpectedly, minor co-amplifications of NUP98 and 11q22.1 loci were also observed in other HeLa sublines, but on rearranged chromosomes 11. Altogether, this study reveals that distinct genomic rearrangements affecting NUP98 are associated with the formation of GLFG bodies in specific HeLa sublines.

  7. Drag reduction of boat-tailed bluff bodies through transverse grooves. Part I: experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariotti, Alessandro; Buresti, Guido; Salvetti, Maria Vittoria

    2016-11-01

    The reduction of the aerodynamic drag of elongated axisymmetric bluff bodies is interesting for several applications. One well-known method to reduce the drag of this type of body is a geometrical modification called boat-tailing, consisting in a gradual reduction of the body cross-section before a sharp-edged base. We combine boat-tailing with properly contoured transverse grooves to further delay boundary-layer separation and reduce drag. The considered geometry is axisymmetric with an elliptical forebody and a cylindrical main body followed by a circular-arc boat-tail. The effectiveness of the contoured grooves was assessed through experiments and simulations. In this talk the experimental investigation is presented. Pressure measurements show that the introduction of a single transverse groove leads to a significant increase of the pressure on the body base and, consequently, to a reduction of drag compared with the boat-tail without the groove. Velocity measurements and flow visualizations highlight that this is due to a delay of flow separation over the boat tail. A steady local recirculation is present inside the groove and downstream its reattachment the boundary layer is thinner and has higher momentum than in the case with no groove, allowing separation to be delayed.

  8. (234)U/(238)U signatures associated with uranium ore bodies: part 2 Manyingee.

    PubMed

    Lowson, Richard T; McIntyre, Mark G

    2013-04-01

    The Manyingee ore body is a roll-front U ore body located at depth in the Cretaceous sandstone sediments of a Proterozoic palaeo valley. It is located in a confined aquifer. The aquifer is recharged 4 km upstream by the Ashburton River. Groundwater samples were collected at and up to 4.7 km downstream of the ore body. The ground water (234)U/(238)U activity ratios (AR) were elevated to 1.86 in the vicinity of the ore body and then declined to 1.06 over the 4.7 km transect. The elevated (234)U/(238)U ARs are attributed to selective leaching of (234)U sites by oxidising waters, with α recoil as a necessary precursor to produce activated (234)U sites. Direct ejection into another phase following α recoil is considered to be a minor contributor to (234)U -(238)U disequilibrium in this environment. The profile is considered to be typical of the (234)U/(238)U AR profile at and down gradient of the redox front of a U ore body.

  9. The role of independent motion in object segmentation in the ventral visual stream: Learning to recognise the separate parts of the body.

    PubMed

    Higgins, I V; Stringer, S M

    2011-03-25

    This paper investigates how the visual areas of the brain may learn to segment the bodies of humans and other animals into separate parts. A neural network model of the ventral visual pathway, VisNet, was used to study this problem. In particular, the current work investigates whether independent motion of body parts can be sufficient to enable the visual system to learn separate representations of them even when the body parts are never seen in isolation. The network was shown to be able to separate out the independently moving body parts because the independent motion created statistical decoupling between them.

  10. 22 CFR 1509.115 - Does this part affect the Federal contracts that I receive?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... I receive? 1509.115 Section 1509.115 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Purpose and Coverage § 1509.115 Does this part...). However, this part does not apply directly to procurement contracts. The portion of the...

  11. 22 CFR 1509.115 - Does this part affect the Federal contracts that I receive?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... I receive? 1509.115 Section 1509.115 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Purpose and Coverage § 1509.115 Does this part...). However, this part does not apply directly to procurement contracts. The portion of the...

  12. 22 CFR 1509.115 - Does this part affect the Federal contracts that I receive?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... I receive? 1509.115 Section 1509.115 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Purpose and Coverage § 1509.115 Does this part...). However, this part does not apply directly to procurement contracts. The portion of the...

  13. 22 CFR 1509.115 - Does this part affect the Federal contracts that I receive?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... I receive? 1509.115 Section 1509.115 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Purpose and Coverage § 1509.115 Does this part...). However, this part does not apply directly to procurement contracts. The portion of the...

  14. Factors affecting body weight loss during commercial long haul transport of cattle in North America.

    PubMed

    González, L A; Schwartzkopf-Genswein, K S; Bryan, M; Silasi, R; Brown, F

    2012-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to identify and quantify several factors affecting shrink in cattle during commercial long-haul transport (≥400 km; n = 6,152 journeys). Surveys were designed and delivered to transport carriers to collect relevant information regarding the characteristics of animals, time of loading, origin and destination, and loaded weight before and after transport. In contrast to fat cattle, feeder cattle exhibited greater shrink (4.9 vs. 7.9 ± 0.2% of BW, respectively; P < 0.01), and experienced longer total transport durations (12.4 vs. 14.9 ± 0.99, respectively; P < 0.01) due to border crossing protocols which require mandatory animal inspection. Shrink was greater (P < 0.001) for feeder cattle loaded at ranches/farms and feed yards compared with those loaded at auction markets. Cattle loaded during the afternoon and evening shrank more than those loaded during the night and morning (P < 0.05). Shrinkage was less in cattle transported by truck drivers having 6 or more years of experience hauling livestock compared with those with 5 yr or less (P < 0.05). Shrink increased with both midpoint ambient temperature (% of BW/°C; P < 0.001) and time on truck (% of BW/h; P < 0.001). Temperature and time on truck had a multiplicative effect on each other because shrink increased most rapidly in cattle transported for both longer durations and at higher ambient temperatures (P < 0.001). The rate of shrink over time (% of BW/h) was greatest in cull cattle, intermediate in calves and feeder cattle, and slowest in fat cattle (P < 0.05) but such differences disappeared when the effects of place of origin, loading time, and experience of truck drivers were included in the model. Cull cattle, calves and feeder cattle appear to be more affected by transport compared with fat cattle going to slaughter because of greater shrink. Several factors should be considered when developing guidelines to reduce cattle transport stress and shrink including type

  15. (234)U/(238)U signatures associated with uranium ore bodies: part 1 Ranger 3.

    PubMed

    Lowson, Richard T; McIntyre, Mark G

    2013-04-01

    The Ranger 3 ore body is an early Proterozoic U ore body in the Alligator Rivers U province, Northern Territory, Australia. It has surface expression with a redox front located between 30 and 50 m below the surface. The ground water U concentration and (234)U/(238)U AR signature in the top 10 m of the weathered zone are reported for 357 samples collected over 4 wet seasons, at 5 depths, along a transect in-line with the hydraulic gradient and along the centre line of the ore body and its associated dispersion halo. The results show that the weathered zone displays a general U isotope feature for this type of ore body with the (234)U/(238)U AR for the ground water and amorphous phase of the solid matrix being less than 1. The ground water (234)U/(238)U AR is independent of the annual monsoonal climate and depth within the range surface to 10 m. In the vicinity of the U ore body the ground water (234)U/(238)U AR is 0.75 and is very similar to the (234)U/(238)U AR of the amorphous phase of the solid (0.76). The (234)U/(238)U ARs of the amorphous phase and ground water rise and separate to values of 0.88 and 1.02 at the end of the transect. The rise and separation in (234)U/(238)U AR are interpreted as evidence that the source of the U in the ground water is from the water-soluble sub-phase of the amorphous phase and that the ground water flow is too fast to allow the processes occurring across the solid-water interface to reach chemical equilibrium. The data set is a robust characterisation of the coarse and fine detail of the (234)U/(238)U AR signature in the weathered zone of U ore bodies.

  16. Calving body condition score affects indicators of health in grazing dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Roche, J R; Macdonald, K A; Schütz, K E; Matthews, L R; Verkerk, G A; Meier, S; Loor, J J; Rogers, A R; McGowan, J; Morgan, S R; Taukiri, S; Webster, J R

    2013-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of calving body condition score (BCS) on cow health during the transition period in a pasture-based dairying system. Feed inputs were managed during the second half of the previous lactation so that BCS differed at drying off (BCS 5.0, 4.0, and 3.0 for high, medium, and low treatments, respectively: a 10-point scale); feed allowance was managed after cows were dried off, such that the BCS differences established during lactation remained at the subsequent calving (BCS 5.5, 4.5, and 3.5; n=20, 18, and 19, for high, medium, and low treatments, respectively). After calving, cows were allocated pasture and pasture silage to ensure grazing residuals >1,600 kg of DM/ha. Milk production was measured weekly; blood was sampled regularly pre- and postpartum to measure indicators of health, and udder and uterine health were evaluated during the 6 wk after calving. Milk weight, fat, protein, and lactose yields, and fat content increased with calving BCS during the first 6 wk of lactation. The effect of calving BCS on the metabolic profile was nonlinear. Before calving, cows in the low group had lower mean plasma β-hydroxybutyrate and serum Mg concentrations and greater mean serum urea than cows in the medium and high BCS groups, which did not differ from each other. During the 6 wk after calving, cows in the low group had lower serum albumin and fructosamine concentrations than cows in the other 2 treatment groups, whereas cows in the low- and medium-BCS groups had proportionately more polymorphonucleated cells in their uterine secretions at 3 and 5 wk postpartum than high-BCS cows. In comparison, plasma β-hydroxybutyrate and nonesterified fatty acid concentrations increased linearly in early lactation with calving BCS, consistent with a greater negative energy balance in these cows. Many of the parameters measured did not vary with BCS. The results highlight that calving BCS and, therefore, BCS through early

  17. Addition of flexible body option to the TOLA computer program, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dick, J. W.; Benda, B. J.

    1975-01-01

    This report describes a flexible body option that was developed and added to the Takeoff and Landing Analysis (TOLA) computer program. The addition of the flexible body option to TOLA allows it to be used to study essentially any conventional type airplane in the ground operating environment. It provides the capability to predict the total motion of selected points on the analytical methods incorporated in the program and operating instructions for the option are described. A program listing is included along with several example problems to aid in interpretation of the operating instructions and to illustrate program usage.

  18. Psychology and mind-body segregation: Are we part of the problem?

    PubMed

    Carr, J E

    1996-06-01

    Despite advances in behavioral medicine and health psychology, the health care system and medical education continue to show resistance to a truly biopsychosocial model of medical practice. Psychologists in medical settings have generally been identified as challenging the concept of mind-body duality and the segregation of biologic and psychosocial sciences in medicine. However, examples are presented of how psychologists contribute to and perpetuate mind-body segregation via exclusive theoretical conceptualizations, arbitrary definitions of professional behavior, and dogmatic constraints on the limits of psychology's field of knowledge.

  19. Evolution of the cephalopod head complex by assembly of multiple molluscan body parts: Evidence from Nautilus embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Shigeno, Shuichi; Sasaki, Takenori; Moritaki, Takeya; Kasugai, Takashi; Vecchione, Michael; Agata, Kiyokazu

    2008-01-01

    Cephalopod head parts are among the most complex occurring in all invertebrates. Hypotheses for the evolutionary process require a drastic body-plan transition in relation to the life-style changes from benthos to active nekton. Determining these transitions, however, has been elusive because of scarcity of fossil records of soft tissues and lack of some of the early developmental stages of the basal species. Here we report the first embryological evidence in the nautiloid cephalopod Nautilus pompilius for the morphological development of the head complex by a unique assembly of multiple archetypical molluscan body parts. Using a specialized aquarium system, we successfully obtained a series of developmental stages that enabled us to test previous controversial scenarios. Our results demonstrate that the embryonic organs exhibit body plans that are primarily bilateral and antero-posteriorly elongated at stereotyped positions. The distinct cephalic compartment, foot, brain cords, mantle, and shell resemble the body plans of monoplacophorans and basal gastropods. The numerous digital tentacles of Nautilus develop from simple serial and spatially-patterned bud-like anlagen along the anterior-posterior axis, indicating that origins of digital tentacles or arms of all other cephalopods develop not from the head but from the foot. In middle and late embryos, the primary body plans largely change to those of juveniles or adults, and finally form a "head" complex assembled by anlagen of the foot, cephalic hood, collar, hyponome (funnel), and the foot-derived epidermal covers. We suggest that extensions of the collar-funnel compartment and free epidermal folds derived from multiple topological foot regions may play an important role in forming the head complex, which is thought to be an important feature during the body plan transition.

  20. Adolescent Dress, Part I: Dress and Body Markings of Psychiatric Outpatients and Inpatients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michelman, John D.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Investigated dress and body markings of 100 hospitalized and never-hospitalized adolescent psychiatric patients using in-depth interviews. Found that hospitalized patients had higher incidence of self-scarring, but other individual expressions of appearance did not differentiate two groups. Suggests that dress and appearance observations,…

  1. (234)U/(238)U signatures associated with uranium ore bodies: part 3 Koongarra.

    PubMed

    Lowson, Richard T

    2013-04-01

    The Koongarra ore body is an early Proterozoic U ore body in the Alligator Rivers U province, Northern Territory, Australia. It has surface expression with a redox front located ∼30 m below the surface. The (234)U/(238)U activity ratios (AR) for the ground water and the amorphous phase of the solid have been analysed for the ore zone and dispersion halo as a function of depth. The results display a (234)U/(238)U AR signature with depth which may be common to all U ore bodies. The (234)U/(238)U AR is depressed below secular equilibrium in the weathered material above the redox front; rises significantly above secular equilibrium in the vicinity of the redox front; and is followed by a gradual decrease with depth below the redox front. The amplitude of the profile is a function of local conditions. A model is proposed for the signature in which oxidising waters preferentially leach the (234)U sites at the redox front due to preconditioning of the (234)U sites by α recoil during the decay of (23)(8)U to (23)(4)U. Mass balance requires the solid material left behind the redox front to have a (234)U/(238)U AR reduced below 1. Local second order effects may be superimposed on the signature. The signature may have application to calibrating scenarios for nuclear waste repositories, assisting in understanding historical climates, economic evaluation of U ore bodies and U exploration.

  2. The ash in forest fire affected soils control the soil losses. Part 1. The pioneer research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Pereira, Paulo

    2013-04-01

    composition (Pereira and Úbeda, 2010) and Pereira et al., 2012). Some of the new research challenges related to ash impact in the fire affected soils are related to the ash redistribution after the fire, the impact of ash in soil and water chemistry, the temporal changes of soil erosion, the control ash exert on vegetation recovery and the role to be played by ash in the best management of fire affected land. Those topics needs new ideas and new scientists such as Paulo Pereira show in the Part II of this abstract. Acknowledgements, Lithuanian Research Council. Project LITFIRE, Fire effects on Lithuanian soils and ecosystems (MIP-48/2011) and the research projects GL2008-02879/BTE and LEDDRA 243857. References Bodí, M., Mataix-Solera, J., Doerr, S., and Cerdà, A. 2011b. The wettability of ash from burned vegetation and its relationship to Mediterranean plant species type, burn severity and total organic carbon content. Geoderma, 160, 599-607. Cerdà, A. 1998a. Postfire dynamics of erosional processes under mediterranean climatic conditions. Z. Geomorphol., 42 (3) 373-398. Cerdà, A. 1998b. Changes in overland flow and infiltration after a rangeland fire in a Mediterranean scrubland. Hydrological Processes, 12, 1031-1042. Cerdà, A., and Doerr, S. H.2010. The effect of ant mounds on overland flow and soil erodibility following a wildfire in eastern Spain. Ecohydrology, 3, 392-401. Cerdà, A., and Doerr, S.H. 2008. The effect of ash and needle cover on surface runoff and erosion in the immediate post-fire period. Catena, 74, 256-263. Pereira, P., and Úbeda, X. 2010. Spatial distribution of heavy metals released from ashes after a wildfire, Journal of Environment Engineering and Landscape Management, 18, 13-22. Pereira, P., Ubeda, X., Martin, D.A. 2012. Fire severity effects on ash chemical composition and extractable elements. Geoderma, 191, 105 - 114. Pérez-Cabello, F., Cerdà, A., de la Riva, J., Echeverría, M.T., García-Martín, A., Ibarra, P., Lasanta, T., Montorio

  3. inertial orientation tracker having automatic drift compensation using an at rest sensor for tracking parts of a human body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foxlin, Eric M. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A self contained sensor apparatus generates a signal that corresponds to at least two of the three orientational aspects of yaw, pitch and roll of a human-scale body, relative to an external reference frame. A sensor generates first sensor signals that correspond to rotational accelerations or rates of the body about certain body axes. The sensor may be mounted to the body. Coupled to the sensor is a signal processor for generating orientation signals relative to the external reference frame that correspond to the angular rate or acceleration signals. The first sensor signals are impervious to interference from electromagnetic, acoustic, optical and mechanical sources. The sensors may be rate sensors. An integrator may integrate the rate signal over time. A drift compensator is coupled to the rate sensors and the integrator. The drift compensator may include a gravitational tilt sensor or a magnetic field sensor or both. A verifier periodically measures the orientation of the body by a means different from the drift sensitive sate sensors. The verifier may take into account characteristic features of human motion, such as stillness periods. The drift compensator may be, in part, a Kalman filter, which may utilize statistical data about human head motion.

  4. Mantises exchange angular momentum between three rotating body parts to jump precisely to targets.

    PubMed

    Burrows, Malcolm; Cullen, Darron A; Dorosenko, Marina; Sutton, Gregory P

    2015-03-16

    Flightless animals have evolved diverse mechanisms to control their movements in air, whether falling with gravity or propelling against it. Many insects jump as a primary mode of locomotion and must therefore precisely control the large torques generated during takeoff. For example, to minimize spin (angular momentum of the body) at takeoff, plant-sucking bugs apply large equal and opposite torques from two propulsive legs [1]. Interacting gear wheels have evolved in some to give precise synchronization of these legs [2, 3]. Once airborne, as a result of either jumping or falling, further adjustments may be needed to control trajectory and orient the body for landing. Tails are used by geckos to control pitch [4, 5] and by Anolis lizards to alter direction [6, 7]. When falling, cats rotate their body [8], while aphids [9] and ants [10, 11] manipulate wind resistance against their legs and thorax. Falling is always downward, but targeted jumping must achieve many possible desired trajectories. We show that when making targeted jumps, juvenile wingless mantises first rotated their abdomen about the thorax to adjust the center of mass and thus regulate spin at takeoff. Once airborne, they then smoothly and sequentially transferred angular momentum in four stages between the jointed abdomen, the two raptorial front legs, and the two propulsive hind legs to produce a controlled jump with a precise landing. Experimentally impairing abdominal movements reduced the overall rotation so that the mantis either failed to grasp the target or crashed into it head first.

  5. A study of coal particle shape and three-body wear: Part 1, Design and development of a new three-body wear testing machine: Part 2, Particle shape and three-body wear

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, N.N.; Means, K.H.; James, R.; Thompson, T.

    1991-01-01

    Three-body wear involves two surfaces and an intermediate particle trapped between the two surfaces. A machine has been constructed to measure normal and frictional forces due to three-body wear. This machine accurately positions specimens a predetermined distance apart from each other and introduces particles to the interface between the specimens. Different types of specimen combinations have been tested to give a variety of data. Loads that result from the wear test are sampled and stored. Wear coefficients and rates of wear have been calculated for all specimens. (VC)

  6. 22 CFR Appendix C to Part 143 - List of Affected Programs

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of Affected Programs Types of Federal Financial Assistance Administered by AID Subject to Age... and voluntary agencies, non-profit organizations, educational institutions, and other qualified organizations for programs in the United States to promote the economic and social development of...

  7. The community structure of endophytic bacteria in different parts of Huanglongbing-affected citrus plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The analyses methods of Pearson correlation coefficient (PCC), hierarchical cluster analysis and diversity index were used to study the relevance between citrus huanglongbing (HLB) and the endophytic bacteria in different branches and leaves as well as roots of huanglongbing (HLB)-affected citrus tr...

  8. Effects of Progressive Body Weight Support Treadmill Forward and Backward Walking Training on Stroke Patients’ Affected Side Lower Extremity’s Walking Ability

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyunghoon; Lee, Sukmin; Lee, Kyoungbo

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of progressive body weight supported treadmill forward and backward walking training (PBWSTFBWT), progressive body weight supported treadmill forward walking training (PBWSTFWT), progressive body weight supported treadmill backward walking training (PBWSTBWT), on stroke patients’ affected side lower extremity’s walking ability. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 36 chronic stroke patients were divided into three groups with 12 subjects in each group. Each of the groups performed one of the progressive body weight supported treadmill training methods for 30 minute, six times per week for three weeks, and then received general physical therapy without any other intervention until the follow-up tests. For the assessment of the affected side lower extremity’s walking ability, step length of the affected side, stance phase of the affected side, swing phase of the affected side, single support of the affected side, and step time of the affected side were measured using optogait and the symmetry index. [Results] In the within group comparisons, all the three groups showed significant differences between before and after the intervention and in the comparison of the three groups, the PBWSTFBWT group showed more significant differences in all of the assessed items than the other two groups. [Conclusion] In the present study progressive body weight supported treadmill training was performed in an environment in which the subjects were actually walked, and PBWSTFBWT was more effective at efficiently training stroke patients’ affected side lower extremity’s walking ability. PMID:25540499

  9. [Assessing various aspects of the motivation to eat that can affect food intake and body weight control].

    PubMed

    Bellisle, F

    2009-04-01

    control are "emotional eating" and "externality", which represent an individual's vulnerability to eat in response to emotional states or external cues, respectively. These questionnaires have been translated into French and validated for the French population. Average data are available for normal weight and obese French men and women. A gender difference is often reported: women, and even young girls, tend to have higher scores than males for most dimensions. These questionnaires have been extensively used in populations without psychiatric disorders, with the only exception of diagnosed eating disorders such as anorexia and bulimia nervosa. The questionnaires have not been used until now in populations with other types of psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia or bipolar disease. Their relevance for such populations is now an important question, since last generation pharmaceutical treatments of such psychiatric disorders seem to adversely affect body weight control. It then becomes critical to know whether the psychological dimensions assessed by such questionnaires reflect the action of pharmacological agents that induce weight gain. A research project is now in progress at Sainte-Anne Hospital to investigate many dimensions of the motivation to eat, as assessed by the questionnaires, in psychiatric patients receiving various types of antipsychotic agents. The results of this original study might provide hints about the mechanisms that lead to body weight gain in patients receiving certain types of antipsychotic pharmacological agents and potentially help in preventing or reversing the weight gain associated with such treatments.

  10. How Does the Narrowing of Eligibility Criteria Affect Enrollment in Part C Early Intervention?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elbaum, Batya; Celimli-Aksoy, Seniz; Marshall, Jennifer T.; Berkovits, Michelle D.

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, many states have narrowed their eligibility criteria for participation in the IDEA Part C early intervention (EI) program for infants and toddlers with or at risk for developmental delays. However, there is scant research on the effects of such a policy change on the population of children served or on the timing of children's…

  11. The distance of visual targets affects the spatial magnitude and multifractal scaling of standing body sway in younger and older adults.

    PubMed

    Munafo, Justin; Curry, Christopher; Wade, Michael G; Stoffregen, Thomas A

    2016-09-01

    The spatial magnitude of standing body sway is greater during viewing of more distant targets and reduced when viewing nearby targets. Classical interpretations of this effect are based on the projective geometry of changes in visual stimulation that are brought about by body sway. Such explanations do not motivate predictions about the temporal dynamics of body sway. We asked whether the distance of visible targets would affect both the spatial magnitude and the multifractality of standing body sway. It has been suggested that the multifractality of movement may change with age. Separately, previous research has not addressed the effects of target distance on postural sway in older adults. For these reasons, we crossed our variation in target distance with variation in age. In an open-air setting, we measured standing body sway in younger and older adults while looking at visual targets that were placed at three distances. The distance of visual targets affected the spatial magnitude of body sway in younger adults, replicating past studies. Target distance also affected the spatial magnitude of sway in older adults, confirming that this relation persists despite other age-related changes. Target distance also affected the multifractality of body sway, but this effect was modulated by age. Finally, the width of the multifractal spectrum was greater for older adults than for younger adults, revealing that healthy aging can affect the multifractality of movement. These findings reveal similarities and differences between the spatial magnitude and the multifractality of human movement.

  12. Biomechanics of the Sensor–Tissue Interface—Effects of Motion, Pressure, and Design on Sensor Performance and the Foreign Body Response—Part I: Theoretical Framework

    PubMed Central

    Helton, Kristen L; Ratner, Buddy D; Wisniewski, Natalie A

    2011-01-01

    The importance of biomechanics in glucose sensor function has been largely overlooked. This article is the first part of a two-part review in which we look beyond commonly recognized chemical biocompatibility to explore the biomechanics of the sensor–tissue interface as an important aspect of continuous glucose sensor biocompatibility. Part I provides a theoretical framework to describe how biomechanical factors such as motion and pressure (typically micromotion and micropressure) give rise to interfacial stresses, which affect tissue physiology around a sensor and, in turn, impact sensor performance. Three main contributors to sensor motion and pressure are explored: applied forces, sensor design, and subject/patient considerations. We describe how acute forces can temporarily impact sensor signal and how chronic forces can alter the foreign body response and inflammation around an implanted sensor, and thus impact sensor performance. The importance of sensor design (e.g., size, shape, modulus, texture) and specific implant location on the tissue response are also explored. In Part II: Examples and Application (a sister publication), examples from the literature are reviewed, and the application of biomechanical concepts to sensor design are described. We believe that adding biomechanical strategies to the arsenal of material compositions, surface modifications, drug elution, and other chemical strategies will lead to improvements in sensor biocompatibility and performance. PMID:21722578

  13. Effect of Whole-Body Vibration on Speech. Part 2; Effect on Intelligibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begault, Durand R.

    2011-01-01

    The effect on speech intelligibility was measured for speech where talkers reading Diagnostic Rhyme Test material were exposed to 0.7 g whole body vibration to simulate space vehicle launch. Across all talkers, the effect of vibration was to degrade the percentage of correctly transcribed words from 83% to 74%. The magnitude of the effect of vibration on speech communication varies between individuals, for both talkers and listeners. A worst case scenario for intelligibility would be the most sensitive listener hearing the most sensitive talker; one participant s intelligibility was reduced by 26% (97% to 71%) for one of the talkers.

  14. Bones, body parts, and sex appeal: An analysis of #thinspiration images on popular social media.

    PubMed

    Ghaznavi, Jannath; Taylor, Laramie D

    2015-06-01

    The present study extends research on thinspiration images, visual and/or textual images intended to inspire weight loss, from pro-eating disorder websites to popular photo-sharing social media websites. The article reports on a systematic content analysis of thinspiration images (N=300) on Twitter and Pinterest. Images tended to be sexually suggestive and objectifying with a focus on ultra-thin, bony, scantily-clad women. Results indicated that particular social media channels and labels (i.e., tags) were characterized by more segmented, bony content and greater social endorsement compared to others. In light of theories of media influence, results offer insight into the potentially harmful effects of exposure to sexually suggestive and objectifying content in large online communities on body image, quality of life, and mental health.

  15. Numerical computation of two dimensional viscous blunt body flows with an impinging shock, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holst, T. L.; Tannehill, J. C.

    1974-01-01

    Two-dimensional viscous blunt body flows with an impinging shock have been computed using a time-dependent finite-difference method which solves the complete set of Navier-Stokes equations for a compressible flow. For low Reynolds number flows, the entire flow field, including the bow shock and impinging shock, has been captured in the computation. For higher Reynolds number flows, the bow shock is treated as a discontinuity across which the Rankine-Hugoniot equations are applied, while the boundary layer and interaction regions are captured as before. Using this latter shock-fitting approach, a Type III shock interaction flow field has been computed with flow conditions corresponding to the space shuttle orbiter freestream conditions at 61 km (200,000 ft).

  16. The Term Affected States as it Concerns Local Authorities in the Context of Part 71

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the Title V air operating permit regulations. This document is part of the Title V Policy and Guidance Database available at www2.epa.gov/title-v-operating-permits/title-v-operating-permit-policy-and-guidance-document-index. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  17. [Mind-body medicine as a part of German integrative medicine].

    PubMed

    Dobos, G; Altner, N; Lange, S; Musial, F; Langhorst, J; Michalsen, A; Paul, A

    2006-08-01

    Mind-body medicine (MBM) as a holistic approach to health and healing has been shaped by research into stress physiology and stress psychology, by psychoneuro(endocrino)immunology and by Antonovsky's salutogenetic paradigm. MBM seeks to acknowledge physical, psychological as well as social and spiritual aspects of human beings. MBM constitutes one of the traditions, which the emerging field of integrative medicine in Germany draws upon, others being mainstream medicine, traditional European naturopathy and non-European methods like traditional Chinese medicine. The article outlines historical aspects of MBM, gives a brief review of research evidence, and introduces clinical MBM institutes in Germany. Especially the Clinic and Chair of Complementary and Integrative Medicine, Alfried Krupp von Bohlen und Halbach Foundation at the University Duisburg-Essen has been integrating MBM into the concept of integrative medicine. Considering that a growing number of health issues arises due to maladaptive lifestyles, MBM is being identified as a development that supports a shift from increasingly expensive treatments to more cost-effective preventive approaches.

  18. Bionic cardiology: exploration into a wealth of controllable body parts in the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Sugimachi, Masaru; Sunagawa, Kenji

    2009-01-01

    Bionic cardiology is the medical science of exploring electronic control of the body, usually via the neural system. Mimicking or modifying biological regulation is a strategy used to combat diseases. Control of ventricular rate during atrial fibrillation by selective vagal stimulation, suppression of ischemia-related ventricular fibrillation by vagal stimulation, and reproduction of neurally commanded heart rate are some examples of bionic treatment for arrhythmia. Implantable radio-frequency-coupled on-demand carotid sinus stimulators succeeded in interrupting or preventing anginal attacks but were replaced later by coronary revascularization. Similar but fixed-intensity carotid sinus stimulators were used for hypertension but were also replaced by drugs. Recently, however, a self-powered implantable device has been reappraised for the treatment of drug-resistant hypertension. Closed-loop spinal cord stimulation has successfully treated severe orthostatic hypotension in a limited number of patients. Vagal nerve stimulation is effective in treating heart failure in animals, and a small-size clinical trial has just started. Simultaneous corrections of multiple hemodynamic abnormalities in an acute decompensated state are accomplished simply by quantifying fundamental cardiovascular parameters and controlling these parameters. Bionic cardiology will continue to promote the development of more sophisticated device-based therapies for otherwise untreatable diseases and will inspire more intricate applications in the twenty-first century.

  19. Snowmelt Processes At High Altitude. How Does A Partly Frozen Ground Affect Alpine Aquifer During Snowmelt?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayard, D.; Stähli, M.; Turberg, P.; Parriaux, A.

    In alpine areas, the snow cover plays an important role as water reservoir, especially at high altitudes (over 2000 meters). Water is stored as snow over the winter and re- leased in spring, recharging mountain aquifers through infiltration. These aquifers are essential, especially for the supply of human activities with water during dry seasons. But these snow reservoirs may produce severe flooding, in particular when snowmelt is combined with heavy rainfall and a frozen underground. Surface frost can drastically reduce water infiltration by several orders of magnitude and therefore affect groundwater recharge. Evaluating the impact of frost on snowmelt runoff at selected sites in the Alps enables us to quantify water exportation processes (i.e. surface runoff, subsurface runoff and deep percolation) from the snow pack. The main objectives of this research project consisted (a) in studying the different pro- cesses influencing groundwater recharge during snowmelt periods, i.e. snow cover evolution, ground frost depth, snowmelt water runoff types on specific sites, (b) in as- sessing the variability of frost formation while taking into account spatial, altitudinal and climatic differences, (c) in identifying meteorological situations that are critical with respect to flooding. Two experimental sites were selected in the southern Swiss Alps, one at Hannigalp (2100 m) and the other at the Gd St-Bernard pass (2500 m). The Hannigalp site is characterized by a rather dry (600 mm/year) and wind free climate, whereas high amounts of precipitation (2100 mm/year) and strong winds are encountered at the Grand St Bernard. To investigate the delay in snowmelt due to the orientation and altitude, two secondary sites were additionally chosen near the Gd St-Bernard pass. In spite of a very thick snow pack, water balance measurements of winter 2000/01 showed for Grächen null to very low surface and subsurface flow due to the fact that soil frost was local. At the Gd St Bernard

  20. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae spindle pole body duplication gene MPS1 is part of a mitotic checkpoint

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    M-phase checkpoints inhibit cell division when mitotic spindle function is perturbed. Here we show that the Saccharomyces cerevisiae MPS1 gene product, an essential protein kinase required for spindle pole body (SPB) duplication (Winey et al., 1991; Lauze et al., 1995), is also required for M-phase check-point function. In cdc31-2 and mps2-1 mutants, conditional failure of SPB duplication results in cell cycle arrest with high p34CDC28 kinase activity that depends on the presence of the wild-type MAD1 checkpoint gene, consistent with checkpoint arrest of mitosis. In contrast, mps1 mutant cells fail to duplicate their SPBs and do not arrest division at 37 degrees C, exhibiting a normal cycle of p34CDC28 kinase activity despite the presence of a monopolar spindle. Double mutant cdc31-2, mps1-1 cells also fail to arrest mitosis at 37 degrees C, despite having SPB structures similar to cdc31-2 single mutants as determined by EM analysis. Arrest of mitosis upon microtubule depolymerization by nocodazole is also conditionally absent in mps1 strains. This is observed in mps1 cells synchronized in S phase with hydroxyurea before exposure to nocodazole, indicating that failure of checkpoint function in mps1 cells is independent of SPB duplication failure. In contrast, hydroxyurea arrest and a number of other cdc mutant arrest phenotypes are unaffected by mps1 alleles. We propose that the essential MPS1 protein kinase functions both in SPB duplication and in a mitotic checkpoint monitoring spindle integrity. PMID:8567717

  1. Ammonia emissions in Europe, part II: How ammonia emission abatement strategies affect secondary aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backes, Anna M.; Aulinger, Armin; Bieser, Johannes; Matthias, Volker; Quante, Markus

    2016-02-01

    In central Europe, ammonium sulphate and ammonium nitrate make up a large fraction of fine particles which pose a threat to human health. Most studies on air pollution through particulate matter investigate the influence of emission reductions of sulphur- and nitrogen oxides on aerosol concentration. Here, we focus on the influence of ammonia (NH3) emissions. Emission scenarios have been created on the basis of the improved ammonia emission parameterization implemented in the SMOKE for Europe and CMAQ model systems described in part I of this study. This includes emissions based on future European legislation (the National Emission Ceilings) as well as a dynamic evaluation of the influence of different agricultural sectors (e.g. animal husbandry) on particle formation. The study compares the concentrations of NH3, NH4+, NO3 -, sulphur compounds and the total concentration of particles in winter and summer for a political-, technical- and behavioural scenario. It was found that a reduction of ammonia emissions by 50% lead to a 24% reduction of the total PM2.5 concentrations in northwest Europe. The observed reduction was mainly driven by reduced formation of ammonium nitrate. Moreover, emission reductions during winter had a larger impact than during the rest of the year. This leads to the conclusion that a reduction of the ammonia emissions from the agricultural sector related to animal husbandry could be more efficient than the reduction from other sectors due to its larger share in winter ammonia emissions.

  2. "I'm thankful for being Native and my body is part of that": the body pride experiences of young Aboriginal women in Canada.

    PubMed

    McHugh, Tara-Leigh F; Coppola, Angela M; Sabiston, Catherine M

    2014-06-01

    Body pride may be a predictor of health and well-being among Aboriginal youth. Body pride could potentially be addressed in health interventions, but it is critical to understand how body pride is conceptualized among Aboriginal youth. The purpose of this qualitative description study was to better understand the experiences of body pride among young Aboriginal women living in urban centers in Alberta, Canada. Eight young Aboriginal women (15-18 years old) participated in one-on-one interviews. A qualitative content analysis highlighted five themes that represent the participants' meanings of body pride. Participants described how body pride is: (a) accepting everything about your body, (b) who you are and how you show it, (c) connected to culture, (d) being healthy, and (e) being thankful to be Native. This research makes a contribution to the growing body pride literature by providing an initial glimpse into the complexities of young Aboriginal women's body pride experiences.

  3. US Transuranium Registry report on the SU Am content of a whole body. Part III: Gamma-ray measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, H.E.; Spitz, H.B.; Rieksts, G.A.

    1985-10-01

    The SU Am measurements on the donor's body, followed by an analysis of each bone of the skeleton, have provided the best available calibration factors for measuring the SU Am content in the skeletons of the living. These calibration factors have already been useful in measuring the skeletal burden of several workers in the nuclear industry. This study has shown that differential linear scanning provides good results on the content of various parts of the skeleton. Previously used methods of head or leg counting for estimating total skeletal content of SU Am were also found to provide good results. These studies confirm previous recommendations that in-vivo measurement of the skull probably provides the best estimate of SU Am in the skeleton; however, other positions such as the knee are also found to be bilaterally symmetrical for identical bones on the right and left sides of the body. A comparison of measurements on the donor's body with those of other people with skeletal burdens of SU Am shows that differences in skeletal distribution do exist and are probably due to the age of the person, the duration of the skeletal SU Am burden, and perhaps the physical activity of the person. Additional measurements and studies are planned on the remaining half of the skeleton and they should further improve the accuracy of in-vivo measurements of SU Am in the human skeleton.

  4. Body-part metaphors: a cross-cultural survey of the perception of translatability among Americans and Japanese.

    PubMed

    Sakuragi, Toshiyuki; Fuller, Judith W

    2003-07-01

    What kinds of linguistic resources do people utilize when they try to translate metaphors into a foreign language? This investigation of the perception of translatability of body-part metaphors examined the effects of the following factors: the similarity between the human body part and the metaphorical expression (e.g., "eye" in "electric eye") in appearance and function; the frequency of the use of the metaphor in the native language; and the perceived distance between the first language and the target language. The results of a survey of American (n = 151) and Japanese (n = 116) university students showed that both Similarity in Appearance and Similarity in Function correlated positively with Translatability, while the effect of the former was stronger than the latter. Frequency correlated positively with Translatability for the Americans, although the correlation was weaker when the target language is "distant" (Japanese or Chinese) than when the target language is "close" (Spanish). Among the Japanese, Frequency did not correlate with translatability regardless of the target language.

  5. Deceived by stripes: conspicuous patterning on vital anterior body parts can redirect predatory strikes to expendable posterior organs

    PubMed Central

    Kodandaramaiah, Ullasa

    2016-01-01

    Conspicuous coloration, which presumably makes prey more visible to predators, has intrigued researchers for long. Contrastingly coloured, conspicuous striped patterns are common among lizards and other animals, but their function is not well known. We propose and test a novel hypothesis, the ‘redirection hypothesis’, wherein longitudinal striped patterns, such as those found on the anterior body parts of most lacertilians, redirect attacks away from themselves during motion towards less vulnerable posterior parts, for example, the autotomous tail. In experiments employing human ‘predators’ attacking virtual prey on a touchscreen, we show that longitudinal striped patterns on the anterior half of prey decreased attacks to the anterior and increased attacks to the posterior. The position of stripes mattered—they worked best when they were at the anterior. By employing an adaptive psychophysical procedure, we show that prey with striped patterning are perceived to move slower, offering a mechanistic explanation for the redirective effect. In summary, our results suggest that the presence of stripes on the body (i.e. head and trunk) of lizards in combination with caudal autotomy can work as an effective anti-predator strategy during motion. PMID:27429765

  6. Low doses of estradiol partly inhibit release of GH in sheep without affecting basal levels.

    PubMed

    Hudmon, A; Davenport, G; Coleman, E S; Sartin, J L

    2009-10-01

    Estradiol increases basal growth hormone (GH) concentrations in sheep and cattle. This study sought to determine the effects of estradiol on GH-releasing hormone (GRH)-stimulated GH release in sheep. Growth hormone secretory characteristics, the GH response to GRH, and steady-state GH mRNA concentrations were determined in castrated male lambs treated with 2 different doses of estradiol 17-beta for a 28-d experimental period. Although no differences between treatments in mean GH, basal GH, or GH pulse number were observed after 28 d of estradiol treatment, GH pulse amplitude was greater (P < 0.05) in the 2.00-cm implant-treated animals than in the control and 0.75-cm implant group. The effect of estradiol treatment on GRH-stimulated GH release revealed differences between the control and estradiol-treated animals (P < 0.05). The 15-min GH responses to 0.075 microg/kg hGRH in the control, 0.75-cm, and 2.00-cm implant groups, respectively, were 76 +/- 10, 22.6 +/- 2.1, and 43.6 +/- 15.0 ng/mL. Growth hormone mRNA content was determined for pituitary glands from the different treatment groups, and no differences in steady-state GH mRNA levels were observed. There were no differences in the mean plasma concentrations of IGF-I, cortisol, T(3), or T(4) from weekly samples. Growth hormone release from cultured ovine pituitary cells from control sheep was not affected by estradiol after 72 h or in a subsequent 3-h incubation with estradiol combined with GRH. These data suggest that estradiol has differing actions on basal and GRH-stimulated GH concentrations in plasma, but the increase in pulse amplitude does not represent an increased pituitary sensitivity to GRH.

  7. Exercise and diet affect quantitative trait loci for body weight and composition traits in an advanced intercross population of mice.

    PubMed

    Leamy, Larry J; Kelly, Scott A; Hua, Kunjie; Pomp, Daniel

    2012-12-01

    Driven by the recent obesity epidemic, interest in understanding the complex genetic and environmental basis of body weight and composition is great. We investigated this by searching for quantitative trait loci (QTLs) affecting a number of weight and adiposity traits in a G(10) advanced intercross population produced from crosses of mice in inbred strain C57BL/6J with those in a strain selected for high voluntary wheel running. The mice in this population were fed either a high-fat or a control diet throughout the study and also measured for four exercise traits prior to death, allowing us to test for pre- and postexercise QTLs as well as QTL-by-diet and QTL-by-exercise interactions. Our genome scan uncovered a number of QTLs, of which 40% replicated QTLs previously found for similar traits in an earlier (G(4)) generation. For those replicated QTLs, the confidence intervals were reduced from an average of 19 Mb in the G(4) to 8 Mb in the G(10). Four QTLs on chromosomes 3, 8, 13, and 18 were especially prominent in affecting the percentage of fat in the mice. About of all QTLs showed interactions with diet, exercise, or both, their genotypic effects on the traits showing a variety of patterns depending on the diet or level of exercise. It was concluded that the indirect effects of these QTLs provide an underlying genetic basis for the considerable variability in weight or fat loss typically found among individuals on the same diet and/or exercise regimen.

  8. Molecular Body Imaging: MR Imaging, CT, and US. Part I. Principles

    PubMed Central

    Kircher, Moritz F.

    2012-01-01

    Molecular imaging, generally defined as noninvasive imaging of cellular and subcellular events, has gained tremendous depth and breadth as a research and clinical discipline in recent years. The coalescence of major advances in engineering, molecular biology, chemistry, immunology, and genetics has fueled multi- and interdisciplinary innovations with the goal of driving clinical noninvasive imaging strategies that will ultimately allow disease identification, risk stratification, and monitoring of therapy effects with unparalleled sensitivity and specificity. Techniques that allow imaging of molecular and cellular events facilitate and go hand in hand with the development of molecular therapies, offering promise for successfully combining imaging with therapy. While traditionally nuclear medicine imaging techniques, in particular positron emission tomography (PET), PET combined with computed tomography (CT), and single photon emission computed tomography, have been the molecular imaging methods most familiar to clinicians, great advances have recently been made in developing imaging techniques that utilize magnetic resonance (MR), optical, CT, and ultrasonographic (US) imaging. In the first part of this review series, we present an overview of the principles of MR imaging-, CT-, and US-based molecular imaging strategies. © RSNA, 2012 PMID:22623690

  9. Pain and dental implantology: sensory quantification and affective aspects. Part I: At the private dental office.

    PubMed

    Muller, E; Ríos Calvo, M P

    2001-01-01

    After an extensive review of the dental literature, few articles were found related to pain and implantology. Management of orofacial pain has traditionally been a difficult challenge for the dental-medical profession. Patients may be afraid of dental pain, particularly in cases of dental implantology. Therefore, a study to obtain more conclusive data was developed. Taking into account that the perception of pain and the threshold of pain vary among individuals, a 2-year clinical study was established in private practice utilizing a verbal method (double-blind). The study was used to quantify sensory and affective aspects of pain associated with dental implantology on 75 patients in a private dental office. All of the implants were placed by the same clinician. Data were recorded following a Pain Data Sheet designed for this particular study. The aim of this study was to obtain different aspects of data as follows: 1) Fear of the dentist and fear of dental implant procedures utilizing a descriptive scale of 1 to 10, with 1 indicative of no fear. 2) Dental areas and ridges: Dental pain, pain in edentulous areas, and pain in the implanted area utilizing a scale of 0 to 8, with 0 indicative of no pain. 3) Function and pain: during mastication, swallowing, speech, yawning, opening, closing, and lateral excursions and indication of cervical pain or back pain, each calibrated by the presence or absence of pain. 4) Palpation and pain of the temporomandibular joint, the temporal muscle, the area of the pterygoid muscles, masseter muscle, and sternocleidomastoid muscle, all calibrated on the indication of presence or absence of pain. 5) Others: ear pain, neuralgia, headaches, edema, and hematoma, calibrated on the basis of presence or absence. The aforementioned factors were evaluated immediately before surgery and after surgery, at 24 hours, and during a follow up for a period of 2 years at intervals of 1 week; 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6 months; and 1 and 2 years after surgery

  10. Pregnancy affects FOS rhythms in brain regions regulating sleep/wake state and body temperature in rats.

    PubMed

    Schrader, Jessica A; Smale, Laura; Nunez, Antonio A

    2012-10-22

    Circadian rhythms in behavior and physiology change substantially as female mammals undergo the transition from a non-pregnant to a pregnant state. Here, we examined the possibility that site-specific changes in brain regions known to regulate the sleep/wake cycle and body temperature might reflect altered rhythms in these overt functions. Specifically, we compared daily patterns of immunoreactive FOS in early pregnant and diestrous rats in the medial septum (MS), vertical and horizontal diagonal bands of Broca (VDB and HDB), perifornical lateral hypothalamus (LH), and ventrolateral, medial, and median preoptic areas (VLPO, MPA, and MnPO, respectively). In the pregnant animals, FOS expression was reduced and the daily rhythms of expression were lost or attenuated in the MS, VDB, and LH, areas known to support wakefulness, and in the MPA, a brain region that may coordinate sleep/wake patterns with temperature changes. However, despite the well-documented differences in sleep patterns between diestrous and pregnant rats, reproductive state did not affect FOS expression in the VLPO or MnPO, two brain regions in which FOS expression usually correlates with sleep. These data indicate that plasticity in sleep/wake patterns during early pregnancy may be driven by a reduction in wakefulness-promotion by the brain, rather than by an increase in sleep drive.

  11. Prepartum feeding level and body condition score affect immunological performance in grazing dairy cows during the transition period.

    PubMed

    Lange, Joshua; McCarthy, Allison; Kay, Jane; Meier, Susanne; Walker, Caroline; Crookenden, Mallory A; Mitchell, Murray D; Loor, Juan J; Roche, John R; Heiser, Axel

    2016-03-01

    Precalving feeding level affects dry matter intake, postcalving energy balance, the risk of hepatic lipidosis and metabolic disease, and gene expression in liver and adipose tissue. These coincide with a higher risk of disease postpartum and, very likely, a failure to reach optimum production as well as reproductive targets. Current interpretation of the available evidence suggest that metabolic stressors affect the immune system of transition dairy cows and lead to reduced immunocompetence. The objective of the current study was to investigate the effect of precalving body condition score (BCS) and level of feeding on immunocompetence during the peripartum period. Twenty-three weeks before calving, 78 cows were allocated randomly to 1 of 6 treatment groups (n=13) in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement: 2 precalving BCS categories (4.0 and 5.0, based on a 10-point scale) and 3 levels of energy intake during the 3 wk preceding calving (75, 100, and 125% of estimated requirements). Blood was sampled precalving and at 1, 2 and 4 wk after calving. Cells were analyzed by flow cytometry and quantitative real-time PCR. The numbers of T helper lymphocytes (CD4+), cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CD8+), natural killer cells (CD335+), and γδ T lymphocytes (WC1+) as well as their activation status [IL-2 receptor (CD25)+ cells] were highly variable between animals, but there was no evident effect of BCS, feeding level, or time. All groups presented with an increase in expression of cytokines in unstimulated blood cells in the week after calving, although this was significant only for IFNG in the BCS 4.0 group. Analysis of in vitro-stimulated cells allowed 2 general observations: (1) cows with high energy intake precalving (125%) had increased cytokine expression precalving, and (2) all cows had increased cytokine expression in the week after calving. The present study provides evidence that prepartum feed management can affect immunocompetence during the transition period. Considering

  12. The Oncogenic Fusion Proteins SET-Nup214 and Sequestosome-1 (SQSTM1)-Nup214 Form Dynamic Nuclear Bodies and Differentially Affect Nuclear Protein and Poly(A)+ RNA Export.

    PubMed

    Port, Sarah A; Mendes, Adélia; Valkova, Christina; Spillner, Christiane; Fahrenkrog, Birthe; Kaether, Christoph; Kehlenbach, Ralph H

    2016-10-28

    Genetic rearrangements are a hallmark of several forms of leukemia and can lead to oncogenic fusion proteins. One example of an affected chromosomal region is the gene coding for Nup214, a nucleoporin that localizes to the cytoplasmic side of the nuclear pore complex (NPC). We investigated two such fusion proteins, SET-Nup214 and SQSTM1 (sequestosome)-Nup214, both containing C-terminal portions of Nup214. SET-Nup214 nuclear bodies containing the nuclear export receptor CRM1 were observed in the leukemia cell lines LOUCY and MEGAL. Overexpression of SET-Nup214 in HeLa cells leads to the formation of similar nuclear bodies that recruit CRM1, export cargo proteins, and certain nucleoporins and concomitantly affect nuclear protein and poly(A)(+) RNA export. SQSTM1-Nup214, although mostly cytoplasmic, also forms nuclear bodies and inhibits nuclear protein but not poly(A)(+) RNA export. The interaction of the fusion proteins with CRM1 is RanGTP-dependent, as shown in co-immunoprecipitation experiments and binding assays. Further analysis revealed that the Nup214 parts mediate the inhibition of nuclear export, whereas the SET or SQSTM1 part determines the localization of the fusion protein and therefore the extent of the effect. SET-Nup214 nuclear bodies are highly mobile structures, which are in equilibrium with the nucleoplasm in interphase and disassemble during mitosis or upon treatment of cells with the CRM1-inhibitor leptomycin B. Strikingly, we found that nucleoporins can be released from nuclear bodies and reintegrated into existing NPC. Our results point to nuclear bodies as a means of preventing the formation of potentially insoluble and harmful protein aggregates that also may serve as storage compartments for nuclear transport factors.

  13. Nuclear LSm8 affects number of cytoplasmic processing bodies via controlling cellular distribution of Like-Sm proteins

    PubMed Central

    Novotný, Ivan; Podolská, Kateřina; Blažíková, Michaela; Valášek, Leoš Shivaya; Svoboda, Petr; Staněk, David

    2012-01-01

    Processing bodies (P-bodies) are dynamic cytoplasmic structures involved in mRNA degradation, but the mechanism that governs their formation is poorly understood. In this paper, we address a role of Like-Sm (LSm) proteins in formation of P-bodies and provide evidence that depletion of nuclear LSm8 increases the number of P-bodies, while LSm8 overexpression leads to P-body loss. We show that LSm8 knockdown causes relocalization of LSm4 and LSm6 proteins to the cytoplasm and suggest that LSm8 controls nuclear accumulation of all LSm2–7 proteins. We propose a model in which redistribution of LSm2–7 to the cytoplasm creates new binding sites for other P-body components and nucleates new, microscopically visible structures. The model is supported by prolonged residence of two P-body proteins, DDX6 and Ago2, in P-bodies after LSm8 depletion, which indicates stronger interactions between these proteins and P-bodies. Finally, an increased number of P-bodies has negligible effects on microRNA-mediated translation repression and nonsense mediated decay, further supporting the view that the function of proteins localized in P-bodies is independent of visible P-bodies. PMID:22875987

  14. The Impact of Body-Part-Naming Training on the Accuracy of Imitative Performances in 2- to 3-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camoes-Costa, Vera; Erjavec, Mihela; Horne, Pauline J.

    2011-01-01

    A series of three experiments explored the relationship between 3-year-old children's ability to name target body parts and their untrained matching of target hand-to-body touches. Nine participants, 3 per experiment, were presented with repeated generalized imitation tests in a multiple-baseline procedure, interspersed with step-by-step training…

  15. Protocol for Fit Bodies, Fine Minds: a randomized controlled trial on the affect of exercise and cognitive training on cognitive functioning in older adults

    PubMed Central

    O'Dwyer, Siobhan T; Burton, Nicola W; Pachana, Nancy A; Brown, Wendy J

    2007-01-01

    Background Declines in cognitive functioning are a normal part of aging that can affect daily functioning and quality of life. This study will examine the impact of an exercise training program, and a combined exercise and cognitive training program, on the cognitive and physical functioning of older adults. Methods/Design Fit Bodies, Fine Minds is a randomized, controlled trial. Community-dwelling adults, aged between 65 and 75 years, are randomly allocated to one of three groups for 16 weeks. The exercise-only group do three 60-minute exercise sessions per week. The exercise and cognitive training group do two 60-minute exercise sessions and one 60-minute cognitive training session per week. A no-training control group is contacted every 4 weeks. Measures of cognitive functioning, physical fitness and psychological well-being are taken at baseline (0 weeks), post-test (16 weeks) and 6-month follop (40 weeks). Qualitative responses to the program are taken at post-test. Discussion With an increasingly aged population, interventions to improve the functioning and quality of life of older adults are particularly important. Exercise training, either alone or in combination with cognitive training, may be an effective means of optimizing cognitive functioning in older adults. This study will add to the growing evidence base on the effectiveness of these interventions. Trial Registration Australian Clinical Trials Register: ACTRN012607000151437 PMID:17915035

  16. Constitutive activation of ectodermal β-catenin induces ectopic outgrowths at various positions in mouse embryo and affects abdominal ventral body wall closure.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xuming; Huang, Sixia; Zhang, Lingling; Wu, Yumei; Chen, Yingwei; Tao, Yixin; Wang, Yushu; He, Shigang; Shen, Sanbing; Wu, Ji; Li, Baojie; Guo, Xizhi; He, Lin; Ma, Gang

    2014-01-01

    Vertebrate limbs originate from the lateral plate mesoderm (LPM) and the overlying ectoderm. While normal limb formation in defined regions has been well studied, the question of whether other positions retain limb-forming potential has not been fully investigated in mice. By ectopically activating β-catenin in the ectoderm with Msx2-cre, we observed that local tissue outgrowths were induced, which either progressed into limb-like structure within the inter-limb flank or formed extra tissues in other parts of the mouse embryo. In the presumptive abdominal region of severely affected embryos, ectopic limb formation was coupled with impaired abdominal ventral body wall (AVBW) closure, which indicates the existence of a potential counterbalance of limb formation and AVBW closure. At the molecular level, constitutive β-catenin activation was sufficient to trigger, but insufficient to maintain the ectopic expression of a putative limb-inducing factor, Fgf8, in the ectoderm. These findings provide new insight into the mechanism of limb formation and AVBW closure, and the crosstalk between the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and Fgf signal.

  17. A functional magnetic resonance imaging study of the body schema using full human line-drawing figures in an on-line verbal naming and localization task of single body part words.

    PubMed

    McCrea, Simon M

    2007-06-18

    Naming and localization of individual body part words to a high-resolution line drawing of a full human figure was tested in a mixed-sex sample of nine right handed subjects. Activation within the superior medial left parietal cortex and bilateral dorsolateral cortex was consistent with involvement of the body schema which is a dynamic postural self-representation coding and combining sensory afference and motor efference inputs/outputs that is automatic and nonconscious. Additional activation of the left rostral occipitotemporal cortex was consistent with involvement of the neural correlates of the verbalizable body structural description that encodes semantic and categorical representations to animate objects such as full human figures. The results point to a highly distributed cortical representation for the encoding and manipulation of body part information and highlight the need for the incorporation of more ecologically valid measures of body schema coding in future functional neuroimaging studies.

  18. Tests of Cook Technological Center Parachutes in the Wake of a Conical-Nosed Body (Part 5 of 6)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel Tests of Cook Technological Center Parachutes in the Wake of a Conical-Nosed Cylindrical Body Having a Base Diameter of 2.375-Inches (Part 5 of 6). The film depicts two tests of a flat roof, conical inlet canopy parachute. The first test is a series of wind tunnel trials with a flat circular ribbon roof of 22 percent porosity. The second test is a single series of wind tunnel trials with a flat circular ribbon roof of 25 percent porosity. Variables for both trials include Mach number, dynamic pressure, longitudinal separation distances (x/d), and drag coefficient C(sub d). [Entire movie available on DVD from CASI as Doc ID 20070030960. Contact help@sti.nasa.gov

  19. Numerical modeling of landfill gas and heat transport in the deformable MSW landfill body. Part 1. Development of the model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutsyi, D. V.

    2015-06-01

    The article is devoted to studying the parameters of wells that are used as part of vertical gas extraction systems for degassing landfills. To this end, approaches to modeling the main processes occurring in the landfill's porous medium are considered. The considered approaches served as a basis for elaborating a thermophysical gas and heat transport model that takes into account variation in the hydrodynamic properties of wastes resulting from their secondary settlement. The adequacy of the results obtained using the developed model is confirmed by the data of classic works. The effect the secondary settlement of wastes has on the distribution of pressure and temperature in the landfill body is determined. It is shown that compaction of wastes due to their secondary settlement results in a growth of pressure by 40% on the average.

  20. Natural mixtures of POPs affected body weight gain and induced transcription of genes involved in weight regulation and insulin signaling.

    PubMed

    Lyche, Jan L; Nourizadeh-Lillabadi, Rasoul; Karlsson, Camilla; Stavik, Benedicte; Berg, Vidar; Skåre, Janneche Utne; Alestrøm, Peter; Ropstad, Erik

    2011-04-01

    Obesity is reaching epidemic proportions worldwide, and is associated with chronic illnesses such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, hypertension and dyslipidemias (metabolic syndrome). Commonly held causes of obesity are overeating coupled with a sedentary lifestyle. However, it has also been postulated that exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may be related to the significant increase in the prevalence of obesity and associated diseases. In the present study, developmental and reproductive effects of lifelong exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of two natural mixtures of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were investigated using classical and molecular methods in a controlled zebrafish model. The mixtures used were extracted from burbot (Lota lota) liver originating from freshwater systems in Norway (Lake Mjøsa and Lake Losna). The concentration of POPs in the zebrafish ranged from levels detected in wild fish (Lake Mjøsa and Lake Losna), to concentrations reported in human and wildlife populations. Phenotypic effects observed in both exposure groups included (1) earlier onset of puberty, (2) elevated male/female sex ratio, and (3) increased body weight at 5 months of age. Interestingly, genome-wide transcription profiling identified functional networks of genes, in which key regulators of weight homeostasis (PPARs, glucocoricoids, CEBPs, estradiol), steroid hormone functions (glucocoricoids, estradiol, NCOA3) and insulin signaling (HNF4A, CEBPs, PPARG) occupied central positions. The increased weight and the regulation of genes associated with weight homeostasis and insulin signaling observed in the present study suggest that environmental pollution may affect the endocrine regulation of the metabolism, possibly leading to increased weight gain and obesity.

  1. Modulation of polyamine metabolic flux in adipose tissue alters the accumulation of body fat by affecting glucose homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chunli; Perez-Leal, Oscar; Barrero, Carlos; Zahedi, Kamyar; Soleimani, Manoocher; Porter, Carl

    2013-01-01

    The continued rise in obesity despite public education, awareness and policies indicates the need for mechanism-based therapeutic approaches to help control the disease. Our data, in conjunction with other studies, suggest an unexpected role for the polyamine catabolic enzyme spermidine/spermine-N1-acetyltransferase (SSAT) in fat homeostasis. Our previous studies showed that deletion of SSAT greatly exaggerates weight gain and that the transgenic overexpression suppresses weight gain in mice on a high-fat diet. This discovery is substantial but the underlying molecular linkages are only vaguely understood. Here, we used a comprehensive systems biology approach, on white adipose tissue (WAT), to discover that the partition of acetyl-CoA towards polyamine catabolism alters glucose homeostasis and hence, fat accumulation. Comparative proteomics and antibody-based expression studies of WAT in SSAT knockout, wild type and transgenic mice identified nine proteins with an increasing gradient across the genotypes, all of which correlate with acetyl-CoA consumption in polyamine acetylation. Adipose-specific SSAT knockout mice and global SSAT knockout mice on a high-fat diet exhibited similar growth curves and proteomic patterns in their WAT, confirming that attenuated consumption of acetyl-CoA in acetylation of polyamines in adipose tissue drives the obese phenotype of these mice. Analysis of protein expression indicated that the identified changes in the levels of proteins regulating acetyl-CoA consumption occur via the AMP-activated protein kinase pathway. Together, our data suggest that differential expression of SSAT markedly alters acetyl-CoA levels, which in turn trigger a global shift in glucose metabolism in adipose tissue, thus affecting the accumulation of body fat. PMID:23881108

  2. Cognitive Processing about Classroom-Relevant Contexts: Teachers' Attention to and Utilization of Girls' Body Size, Ethnicity, Attractiveness, and Facial Affect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Shirley S.; Treat, Teresa A.; Brownell, Kelly D.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines 2 aspects of cognitive processing in person perception--attention and decision making--in classroom-relevant contexts. Teachers completed 2 implicit, performance-based tasks that characterized attention to and utilization of 4 student characteristics of interest: ethnicity, facial affect, body size, and attractiveness. Stimuli…

  3. Short term exposure to attractive and muscular singers in music video clips negatively affects men's body image and mood.

    PubMed

    Mulgrew, K E; Volcevski-Kostas, D

    2012-09-01

    Viewing idealized images has been shown to reduce men's body satisfaction; however no research has examined the impact of music video clips. This was the first study to examine the effects of exposure to muscular images in music clips on men's body image, mood and cognitions. Ninety men viewed 5 min of clips containing scenery, muscular or average-looking singers, and completed pre- and posttest measures of mood and body image. Appearance schema activation was also measured. Men exposed to the muscular clips showed poorer posttest levels of anger, body and muscle tone satisfaction compared to men exposed to the scenery or average clips. No evidence of schema activation was found, although potential problems with the measure are noted. These preliminary findings suggest that even short term exposure to music clips can produce negative effects on men's body image and mood.

  4. Micro-X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry of the Surface Elemental Composition of Vegetative Parts and Fruiting Bodies of Lichenized Teloschistaceae Fungi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biazrov, L. G.; Pelgunova, L. A.

    2016-01-01

    The elemental composition and atomic mass ratios (%) on the surface of vegetative and generative parts of crustose Caloplaca cerina and foliose Xanthoria parietina lichen thalli collected from the same tree trunk were measured using micro-x-ray fluorescence spectrometry. The atomic mass fractions for half of the elements (of 21 identified) were significantly higher on the surfaces of fruiting bodies (apothecia) than on vegetative parts of thalli of both species. The atomic mass fractions of most elements were much greater on the surfaces of fruiting bodies and vegetative parts of the foliose species than on the crustose species.

  5. Lactose in milk replacer can partly be replaced by glucose, fructose, or glycerol without affecting insulin sensitivity in veal calves.

    PubMed

    Pantophlet, A J; Gilbert, M S; van den Borne, J J G C; Gerrits, W J J; Roelofsen, H; Priebe, M G; Vonk, R J

    2016-04-01

    Calf milk replacer (MR) contains 40 to 50% lactose. Lactose strongly fluctuates in price and alternatives are desired. Also, problems with glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity (i.e., high incidence of hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia) have been described for heavy veal calves (body weight >100 kg). Replacement of lactose by other dietary substrates can be economically attractive, and may also positively (or negatively) affect the risk of developing problems with glucose metabolism. An experiment was designed to study the effects of replacing one third of the dietary lactose by glucose, fructose, or glycerol on glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity in veal calves. Forty male Holstein-Friesian (body weight=114 ± 2.4 kg; age=97 ± 1.4 d) calves were fed an MR containing 462 g of lactose/kg (CON), or an MR in which 150 g of lactose/kg of MR was replaced by glucose (GLU), fructose (FRU), or glycerol (GLY). During the first 10d of the trial, all calves received CON. The CON group remained on this diet and the other groups received their experimental diets for a period of 8 wk. Measurements were conducted during the first (baseline) and last week of the trial. A frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test was performed to assess insulin sensitivity and 24 h of urine was collected to measure glucose excretion. During the last week of the trial, a bolus of 1.5 g of [U-(13)C] substrates was added to their respective meals and plasma glucose, insulin, and (13)C-glucose responses were measured. Insulin sensitivity was low at the start of the trial and remained low [1.2 ± 0.1 and 1.0 ± 0.1 (mU/L)(-1) × min(-1)], and no treatment effect was noted. Glucose excretion was low at the start of the trial (3.4 ± 1.0 g/d), but increased in CON and GLU calves (26.9 ± 3.9 and 43.0 ± 10.6g/d) but not in FRU and GLY calves. Postprandial glucose was higher in GLU, lower in FRU, and similar in GLY compared with CON calves. Postprandial insulin was lower in FRU

  6. Coilin is rapidly recruited to UVA-induced DNA lesions and γ-radiation affects localized movement of Cajal bodies.

    PubMed

    Bártová, Eva; Foltánková, Veronika; Legartová, Soňa; Sehnalová, Petra; Sorokin, Dmitry V; Suchánková, Jana; Kozubek, Stanislav

    2014-01-01

    Cajal bodies are important nuclear structures containing proteins that preferentially regulate RNA-related metabolism. We investigated the cell-type specific nuclear distribution of Cajal bodies and the level of coilin, a protein of Cajal bodies, in non-irradiated and irradiated human tumor cell lines and embryonic stem (ES) cells. Cajal bodies were localized in different nuclear compartments, including DAPI-poor regions, in the proximity of chromocenters, and adjacent to nucleoli. The number of Cajal bodies per nucleus was cell cycle-dependent, with higher numbers occurring during G2 phase. Human ES cells contained a high coilin level in the nucleoplasm, but coilin-positive Cajal bodies were also identified in nuclei of mouse and human ES cells. Coilin, but not SMN, recognized UVA-induced DNA lesions, which was cell cycle-independent. Treatment with γ-radiation reduced the localized movement of Cajal bodies in many cell types and GFP-coilin fluorescence recovery after photobleaching was very fast in nucleoplasm in comparison with GFP-coilin recovery in DNA lesions. By contrast, nucleolus-localized coilin displayed very slow fluorescence recovery after photobleaching, which indicates very slow rates of protein diffusion, especially in nucleoli of mouse ES cells.

  7. Growth performance and certain body measurements of ostrich chicks as affected by dietary protein levels during 2-9 weeks of age.

    PubMed

    Mahrose, Kh M; Attia, A I; Ismail, I E; Abou-Kassem, D E; El-Hack, M E Abd

    2015-01-01

    The present work was conducted to examine the effects of dietary crude protein (CP) levels (18, 21 and 24%) on growth performance (Initial and final body weight, daily body weight gain, feed consumption, feed conversion and protein efficiency ratio) during 2-9 weeks of age and certain body measurements (body height, tibiotarsus length and tibiotarsus girth) at 9 weeks of age. A total of 30 African Black unsexed ostrich chicks were used in the present study in simple randomized design. The results of the present work indicated that initial and final live body weight, body weight gain, feed consumption, feed conversion of ostrich chicks were insignificantly affected by dietary protein level used. Protein efficiency ratio was high in the group of chicks fed diet contained 18% CP. Results obtained indicated that tibiotarsus girth was decreased (P≤0.01) with the increasing dietary protein level, where the highest value of tibiotarsus girth (18.38 cm) was observed in chicks fed 18% dietary protein level. Body height and tibiotarsus length were not significantly different. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicate that ostrich chicks (during 2-9 weeks of age) could grow on diets contain lower levels of CP (18%).

  8. Growth performance and certain body measurements of ostrich chicks as affected by dietary protein levels during 2–9 weeks of age

    PubMed Central

    Mahrose, Kh.M.; Attia, A.I.; Ismail, I.E.; Abou-Kassem, D.E.; El-Hack, M.E. Abd

    2015-01-01

    The present work was conducted to examine the effects of dietary crude protein (CP) levels (18, 21 and 24%) on growth performance (Initial and final body weight, daily body weight gain, feed consumption, feed conversion and protein efficiency ratio) during 2-9 weeks of age and certain body measurements (body height, tibiotarsus length and tibiotarsus girth) at 9 weeks of age. A total of 30 African Black unsexed ostrich chicks were used in the present study in simple randomized design. The results of the present work indicated that initial and final live body weight, body weight gain, feed consumption, feed conversion of ostrich chicks were insignificantly affected by dietary protein level used. Protein efficiency ratio was high in the group of chicks fed diet contained 18% CP. Results obtained indicated that tibiotarsus girth was decreased (P≤0.01) with the increasing dietary protein level, where the highest value of tibiotarsus girth (18.38 cm) was observed in chicks fed 18% dietary protein level. Body height and tibiotarsus length were not significantly different. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicate that ostrich chicks (during 2-9 weeks of age) could grow on diets contain lower levels of CP (18%). PMID:26623373

  9. Functional specialization and convergence in the occipito-temporal cortex supporting haptic and visual identification of human faces and body parts: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Kitada, Ryo; Johnsrude, Ingrid S; Kochiyama, Takanori; Lederman, Susan J

    2009-10-01

    Humans can recognize common objects by touch extremely well whenever vision is unavailable. Despite its importance to a thorough understanding of human object recognition, the neuroscientific study of this topic has been relatively neglected. To date, the few published studies have addressed the haptic recognition of nonbiological objects. We now focus on haptic recognition of the human body, a particularly salient object category for touch. Neuroimaging studies demonstrate that regions of the occipito-temporal cortex are specialized for visual perception of faces (fusiform face area, FFA) and other body parts (extrastriate body area, EBA). Are the same category-sensitive regions activated when these components of the body are recognized haptically? Here, we use fMRI to compare brain organization for haptic and visual recognition of human body parts. Sixteen subjects identified exemplars of faces, hands, feet, and nonbiological control objects using vision and haptics separately. We identified two discrete regions within the fusiform gyrus (FFA and the haptic face region) that were each sensitive to both haptically and visually presented faces; however, these two regions differed significantly in their response patterns. Similarly, two regions within the lateral occipito-temporal area (EBA and the haptic body region) were each sensitive to body parts in both modalities, although the response patterns differed. Thus, although the fusiform gyrus and the lateral occipito-temporal cortex appear to exhibit modality-independent, category-sensitive activity, our results also indicate a degree of functional specialization related to sensory modality within these structures.

  10. Diet quality and food limitation affect the dynamics of body composition and digestive organs in a migratory songbird (Zonotrichia albicollis).

    PubMed

    Pierce, Barbara J; McWilliams, Scott R

    2004-01-01

    Migrating songbirds interrupt their feeding to fly between stopover sites that may vary appreciably in diet quality. We studied the effects of fasting and food restriction on body composition and digestive organs in a migratory songbird and how these effects interacted with diet quality to influence the rate of recovery of nutrient reserves. Food limitation caused white-throated sparrows to reduce both lean and fat reserves, with about 20% of the decline in lean mass represented by a decline in stomach, small intestine, and liver. During refeeding on diets similar in nutrient composition to either grain or fruit, food-limited grain-fed birds ate 40% more than did control birds, and they regained body mass, with on average 60% of the increase in body mass composed of lean mass including digestive organs. In contrast, food-limited fruit-fed birds did not eat more than did control birds and did not regain body mass, suggesting that a digestive constraint limited their food intake. The interacting effects of food limitation and diet quality on the dynamics of body composition and digestive organs in sparrows suggest that the adequacy of the diet at stopover sites can directly influence the rate of recovery of body reserves in migrating songbirds and hence the pace of their migration.

  11. Blood Products and the Commodification Debate: The Blurry Concept of Altruism and the 'Implicit Price' of Readily Available Body Parts.

    PubMed

    Dufner, Annette

    2015-12-01

    There is a widespread consensus that a commodification of body parts is to be prevented. Numerous policy papers by international organizations extend this view to the blood supply and recommend a system of uncompensated volunteers in this area--often, however, without making the arguments for this view explicit. This situation seems to indicate that a relevant source of justified worry or unease about the blood supply system has to do with the issue of commodification. As a result, the current health minister of Ontario is proposing a ban on compensation even for blood plasma--despite the fact that Canada can only generate 30 % of the plasma needed for fractionation into important plasma protein products and has to purchase the rest abroad. In the following, I am going to suggest a number of alternative perspectives on the debate in order to facilitate a less dogmatic and more differentiated debate about the matter. Especially in light of the often over-simplified notions of altruism and commodification, I conclude that the debate has not conclusively established that it would be morally objectionable to provide blood plasma donors with monetary compensation or with other forms of explicit social recognition as an incentive. This is especially true of donations for fractionation into medicinal products by profit-oriented pharmaceutical companies.

  12. Equestrian expertise affecting physical fitness, body compositions, lactate, heart rate and calorie consumption of elite horse riding players

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Bong-Ju; Jeon, Sang-Yong; Lim, Sung-Ro; Lee, Kyu-Eon; Jee, Hyunseok

    2015-01-01

    Horse riding (HR) is a sport harmonized with rider and horse. HR is renowned as an effective sport for young and old women and men. There is rare study regarding comparison between elite horse riders and amateurs. We aimed to investigate comprehensive ranges of parameters such as change of lactate, heart rate, calorie, VO2max, skeletal muscle mass, body water, body fat, etc between amateurs and professionals to emphasize HR not only as a sport training but also as a therapeutic aspect. We performed 3 experiments for comparing physical fitness, body compositions, lactate value, heart rate and calorie consumption change before and after riding between amateurs and elites. Around 3 yr riding experienced elites are preeminent at balance capability compared to 1 yr riding experienced amateurs. During 18 min horse riding, skeletal muscle mass and body fat were interestingly increased and decreased, respectively. Lactate response was more sensitive in elites rather than amateurs and its recovery was reversely reacted. Exercise intensity estimated from heart rate was significantly higher in elites (P<0.05). The similar pattern of calorie consumption during riding between amateurs and elites was shown. Horse riding possibly induces various physiological (muscle strength, balance, oxidative capability, flexibility, and metabolic control) changes within body and is thus highly recommended as combined exercise for women, children, and aged as therapeutic and leisure sport activity. PMID:26171385

  13. Equestrian expertise affecting physical fitness, body compositions, lactate, heart rate and calorie consumption of elite horse riding players.

    PubMed

    Sung, Bong-Ju; Jeon, Sang-Yong; Lim, Sung-Ro; Lee, Kyu-Eon; Jee, Hyunseok

    2015-06-01

    Horse riding (HR) is a sport harmonized with rider and horse. HR is renowned as an effective sport for young and old women and men. There is rare study regarding comparison between elite horse riders and amateurs. We aimed to investigate comprehensive ranges of parameters such as change of lactate, heart rate, calorie, VO2max, skeletal muscle mass, body water, body fat, etc between amateurs and professionals to emphasize HR not only as a sport training but also as a therapeutic aspect. We performed 3 experiments for comparing physical fitness, body compositions, lactate value, heart rate and calorie consumption change before and after riding between amateurs and elites. Around 3 yr riding experienced elites are preeminent at balance capability compared to 1 yr riding experienced amateurs. During 18 min horse riding, skeletal muscle mass and body fat were interestingly increased and decreased, respectively. Lactate response was more sensitive in elites rather than amateurs and its recovery was reversely reacted. Exercise intensity estimated from heart rate was significantly higher in elites (P<0.05). The similar pattern of calorie consumption during riding between amateurs and elites was shown. Horse riding possibly induces various physiological (muscle strength, balance, oxidative capability, flexibility, and metabolic control) changes within body and is thus highly recommended as combined exercise for women, children, and aged as therapeutic and leisure sport activity.

  14. How Body Orientation Affects Concepts of Space, Time and Valence: Functional Relevance of Integrating Sensorimotor Experiences during Word Processing

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz Fernandez, Susana; Bury, Nils-Alexander; Gerjets, Peter; Fischer, Martin H.; Bock, Otmar L.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to test the functional relevance of the spatial concepts UP or DOWN for words that use these concepts either literally (space) or metaphorically (time, valence). A functional relevance would imply a symmetrical relationship between the spatial concepts and words related to these concepts, showing that processing words activate the related spatial concepts on one hand, but also that an activation of the concepts will ease the retrieval of a related word on the other. For the latter, the rotation angle of participant’s body position was manipulated either to an upright or a head-down tilted body position to activate the related spatial concept. Afterwards participants produced in a within-subject design previously memorized words of the concepts space, time and valence according to the pace of a metronome. All words were related either to the spatial concept UP or DOWN. The results including Bayesian analyses show (1) a significant interaction between body position and words using the concepts UP and DOWN literally, (2) a marginal significant interaction between body position and temporal words and (3) no effect between body position and valence words. However, post-hoc analyses suggest no difference between experiments. Thus, the authors concluded that integrating sensorimotor experiences is indeed of functional relevance for all three concepts of space, time and valence. However, the strength of this functional relevance depends on how close words are linked to mental concepts representing vertical space. PMID:27812155

  15. The "spare parts person"? Conceptions of the human body and their implications for public attitudes towards organ donation and organ sale

    PubMed Central

    Schweda, Mark; Schicktanz, Silke

    2009-01-01

    Background The increasing debate on financial incentives for organ donation raises concerns about a "commodification of the human body". Philosophical-ethical stances on this development depend on assumptions concerning the body and how people think about it. In our qualitative empirical study we analyze public attitudes towards organ donation in their specific relation to conceptions of the human body in four European countries (Cyprus, Germany, the Netherlands and Sweden). This approach aims at a more context-sensitive picture of what "commodification of the body" can mean in concrete clinical decisions concerning organ donation. Results We find that moral intuitions concerning organ donation are rooted in various conceptions of the human body and its relation to the self: a) the body as a mechanical object owned by the self, b) the body as a part of a higher order embodying the self, and c) the body as a hierarchy of organs constitutive of the self. Conclusion The language of commodification is much too simple to capture what is at stake in everyday life intuitions about organ donation and organ sale. We discuss how the plurality of underlying body-self conceptions can be taken into account in the ethical debate, pointing out consequences for an anthropologically informed approach and for a liberal perspective. PMID:19226449

  16. Body Composition, Nutritional Profile and Muscular Fitness Affect Bone Health in a Sample of Schoolchildren from Colombia: The Fuprecol Study.

    PubMed

    Forero-Bogotá, Mónica Adriana; Ojeda-Pardo, Mónica Liliana; García-Hermoso, Antonio; Correa-Bautista, Jorge Enrique; González-Jiménez, Emilio; Schmidt-RíoValle, Jacqueline; Navarro-Pérez, Carmen Flores; Gracia-Marco, Luis; Vlachopoulos, Dimitris; Martínez-Torres, Javier; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson

    2017-02-03

    The objective of the present study is to investigate the relationships between body composition, nutritional profile, muscular fitness (MF) and bone health in a sample of children and adolescents from Colombia. Participants included 1118 children and adolescents (54.6% girls). Calcaneal broadband ultrasound attenuation (c-BUA) was obtained as a marker of bone health. Body composition (fat mass and lean mass) was assessed using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Furthermore height, weight, waist circumference and Tanner stage were measured and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Standing long-jump (SLJ) and isometric handgrip dynamometry were used respectively as indicators of lower and upper body muscular fitness. A muscular index score was also computed by summing up the standardised values of both SLJ and handgrip strength. Dietary intake and degree of adherence to the Mediterranean diet were assessed by a 7-day recall questionnaire for food frequency and the Kidmed questionnaire. Poor bone health was considered using a z-score cut off of ≤-1.5 standard deviation. Once the results were adjusted for age and Tanner stage, the predisposing factors of having a c-BUA z-score ≤-1.5 standard deviation included being underweight or obese, having an unhealthy lean mass, having an unhealthy fat mass, SLJ performance, handgrip performance, and unhealthy muscular index score. In conclusion, body composition (fat mass and lean body mass) and MF both influenced bone health in a sample of children and adolescents from Colombia. Thus promoting strength adaptation and preservation in Colombian youth will help to improve bone health, an important protective factor against osteoporosis in later life.

  17. Body Composition, Nutritional Profile and Muscular Fitness Affect Bone Health in a Sample of Schoolchildren from Colombia: The Fuprecol Study

    PubMed Central

    Forero-Bogotá, Mónica Adriana; Ojeda-Pardo, Mónica Liliana; García-Hermoso, Antonio; Correa-Bautista, Jorge Enrique; González-Jiménez, Emilio; Schmidt-RíoValle, Jacqueline; Navarro-Pérez, Carmen Flores; Gracia-Marco, Luis; Vlachopoulos, Dimitris; Martínez-Torres, Javier; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to investigate the relationships between body composition, nutritional profile, muscular fitness (MF) and bone health in a sample of children and adolescents from Colombia. Participants included 1118 children and adolescents (54.6% girls). Calcaneal broadband ultrasound attenuation (c-BUA) was obtained as a marker of bone health. Body composition (fat mass and lean mass) was assessed using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Furthermore height, weight, waist circumference and Tanner stage were measured and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Standing long-jump (SLJ) and isometric handgrip dynamometry were used respectively as indicators of lower and upper body muscular fitness. A muscular index score was also computed by summing up the standardised values of both SLJ and handgrip strength. Dietary intake and degree of adherence to the Mediterranean diet were assessed by a 7-day recall questionnaire for food frequency and the Kidmed questionnaire. Poor bone health was considered using a z-score cut off of ≤−1.5 standard deviation. Once the results were adjusted for age and Tanner stage, the predisposing factors of having a c-BUA z-score ≤−1.5 standard deviation included being underweight or obese, having an unhealthy lean mass, having an unhealthy fat mass, SLJ performance, handgrip performance, and unhealthy muscular index score. In conclusion, body composition (fat mass and lean body mass) and MF both influenced bone health in a sample of children and adolescents from Colombia. Thus promoting strength adaptation and preservation in Colombian youth will help to improve bone health, an important protective factor against osteoporosis in later life. PMID:28165360

  18. The extent to which garments affect the assessment of body shapes of males from faceless CCTV images.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Teghan; Kumaratilake, Jaliya; Henneberg, Maciej

    2014-01-01

    Closed circuit television (CCTV) systems are being widely used in crime surveillance. The images produced are of poor quality often face details are not visible, however expert witnesses in the field of biological anthropology use morphological descriptions of body shapes in an attempt to identify persons of interest. These methods can be applied to individual images when other cues such as gait, are not present. Criminals commonly disguise their faces, but body shape characteristics can be used to distinguish a person of interest from others. Garments may distort the body shape appearance, thus this study was undertaken to investigate the effects of garments on the description of body shape from CCTV images. Twelve adult males representing a wide body shape range of Sheldonian somatotypes were photographed in identical garments comprising of tight fitting black shirt, horizontally striped shirt, padded leather jacket and in naked torso. These photographs were assessed by 51 males and females aged 18-50 years, with varying levels of education, and different experience in use of CCTV images for identification of people, to identify the 12 participants. The effect of assessors was not significant. They correctly distinguished 88.6% of individuals wearing the same wear, but could not match the same individuals wearing different wear above the random expectations. However, they matched somatotypes above random expectation. Type of clothing produced little bias in somatotype matching; ectomorphic component of individuals wearing black shirts and padded jackets was overestimated and underestimated, respectively. In conclusion, type of the wear had little effect in the description of individuals from CCTV images using the body shapes.

  19. Part-body and multibody effects on absorption of radio-frequency electromagnetic energy by animals and by models of man

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gandhi, O. P.; Hagmann, M. J.; Dandrea, J. A.

    1979-01-01

    Fine structure in the whole-body resonant curve for radio-frequency energy deposition in man can be attributed to part-body resonances. As for head resonance, which occurs near 350 MHz in man, the absorptive cross section is nearly three times the physical cross section of the head. The arm has a prominent resonance at 150 MHz. Numerical solutions, antenna theory, and experimental results on animals have shown that whole-body energy deposition may be increased by 50 percent or more because of multiple bodies that are strategically located in the field. Empirical equations for SARs are also presented along with test data for several species of laboratory animals. Barbiturate anesthesia is sufficiently disruptive of thermoregulation that delta Ts of colonic temperature yield energy dose values in several mammals that compare quite favorably with those based on whole-body calorimetry.

  20. Clothing resultant thermal insulation determined on a movable thermal manikin. Part II: effects of wind and body movement on local insulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yehu; Wang, Faming; Wan, Xianfu; Song, Guowen; Zhang, Chengjiao; Shi, Wen

    2015-10-01

    Part II of this two-part series study was focused on examining the effects of wind and body movement on local clothing thermal insulation. Seventeen clothing ensembles with different layers (i.e., 1, 2, or 3 layers) were selected for this study. Local thermal insulation with different air velocities (0.15, 1.55, and 4.0 m/s) and walking speeds (0, 0.75, and 1.17 m/s) were investigated on a thermal manikin. Empirical equations for estimating local resultant clothing insulation as a function of local insulation, air velocity, and walking speed were developed. The results showed that the effects of wind and body movement on local resultant thermal resistance are complex and differ distinctively among different body parts. In general, the reductions of local insulation with wind at the chest, abdomen, and pelvis were greater than those at the lower leg and back, and the changes at the body extremity such as the forearm, thigh, and lower leg were higher than such immobile body parts as the chest and back. In addition, the wind effect interacted with the walking effect. This study may have important applications in human local thermal comfort modeling and functional clothing design.

  1. Clothing resultant thermal insulation determined on a movable thermal manikin. Part II: effects of wind and body movement on local insulation.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yehu; Wang, Faming; Wan, Xianfu; Song, Guowen; Zhang, Chengjiao; Shi, Wen

    2015-10-01

    Part II of this two-part series study was focused on examining the effects of wind and body movement on local clothing thermal insulation. Seventeen clothing ensembles with different layers (i.e., 1, 2, or 3 layers) were selected for this study. Local thermal insulation with different air velocities (0.15, 1.55, and 4.0 m/s) and walking speeds (0, 0.75, and 1.17 m/s) were investigated on a thermal manikin. Empirical equations for estimating local resultant clothing insulation as a function of local insulation, air velocity, and walking speed were developed. The results showed that the effects of wind and body movement on local resultant thermal resistance are complex and differ distinctively among different body parts. In general, the reductions of local insulation with wind at the chest, abdomen, and pelvis were greater than those at the lower leg and back, and the changes at the body extremity such as the forearm, thigh, and lower leg were higher than such immobile body parts as the chest and back. In addition, the wind effect interacted with the walking effect. This study may have important applications in human local thermal comfort modeling and functional clothing design.

  2. Tail position affects the body temperature of rats during cold exposure in a low-energy state.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Yuki; Tokizawa, Ken; Nakamura, Mayumi; Lin, Cheng-Hsien; Nagashima, Kei

    2012-02-01

    Rats place their tails underneath their body trunks when cold (tail-hiding behavior). The aim of the present study was to determine whether this behavior is necessary to maintain body temperature. Male Wistar rats were divided into 'fed' and '42-h fasting' groups. A one-piece tail holder (8.4 cm in length) that prevented the tail-hiding behavior or a three-piece tail holder (2.8 cm in length) that allowed for the tail-hiding behavior was attached to the tails of the rats. The rats were exposed to 27°C for 180 min or to 20°C for 90 min followed by 15°C for 90 min with continuous body temperature and oxygen consumption measurements. Body temperature decreased by -1.0 ± 0.1°C at 15°C only in the rats that prevented tail-hiding behavior of the 42-h fasting group, and oxygen consumption increased at 15°C in all animals. Oxygen consumption was not different between the rats that prevented tail-hiding behavior and the rats that allowed the behavior in the fed and 42-h fasting groups under ambient conditions. These results show that the tail-hiding behavior is involved in thermoregulation in the cold in fasting rats.

  3. Dietary available phosphorus affected growth performance, body composition, and hepatic antioxidant property of juvenile yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco.

    PubMed

    Tang, Qin; Wang, Chunfang; Xie, Congxin; Jin, Jiali; Huang, Yanqing

    2012-01-01

    An 8-week feeding trial was carried out with juvenile yellow catfish to study the effects of dietary available phosphorus (P) on growth performance, body composition, and hepatic antioxidant property. Six pellet diets were formulated to contain graded available P levels at 0.33, 0.56, 0.81, 1.15, 1.31, and 1.57% of dry matter, respectively. Triplicate tanks with each tank containing 60 juveniles (3.09 ± 0.03 g) were fed one of the six experimental diets for 8 weeks. Specific growth rate, feeding rate, and protein efficiency ratio were significantly higher at 0.81% dietary available P. Efficiency of P utilization distinctly decreased with increasing P level. Body lipid content significantly decreased while body ash and feces P content significantly increased with increasing P level. Quadratic regression analysis indicated that vertebrae P content was maximized at 1.21% dietary available P. Fish fed 1.57% dietary available P had highest activity of hepatic superoxide dismutase and catalase and malonaldehyde content. In conclusion, decreasing dietary available P increased P utilization efficiency and body lipid content while decreased vertebrae P content. Juvenile yellow catfish were subjected to oxidative damage under the condition of high dietary P content (1.57%), and the damage could not be eradicated by their own antioxidant defense system.

  4. Hypoxia affects performance traits and body composition of juvenile hybrid striped bass (Morone chrysops x M. saxatilis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Performance traits and body composition of juvenile hybrid striped bass (Morone chrysops x M. saxatilis) in response to hypoxia were evaluated in replicate tanks maintained at constant dissolved oxygen concentrations that averaged 23.0 +/- 2.3%, 39.7 +/- 3.0%, and 105.5 +/- 9.5% dissolved oxygen sat...

  5. Distinguishing disease effects from environmental effects in a mountain ungulate: seasonal variation in body weight, hematology, and serum chemistry among Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica) affected by sarcoptic mange.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Jesús M; Serrano, Emmanuel; Soriguer, Ramón C; González, Francisco J; Sarasa, Mathieu; Granados, José E; Cano-Manuel, Francisco J; Cuenca, Rafaela; Fandos, Paulino

    2015-01-01

    Our study focuses on the Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica) from the Sierra Nevada Natural Space (southern Spain), where sarcoptic mange is an endemic disease and animals are affected by a highly seasonal environment. Our aim was to distinguish between disease and environmental influences on seasonal variation in body weight, hematology, and serum biochemistry in Iberian ibex. We sampled 136 chemically immobilized male ibexes. The single effect of mange influenced hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, leukocytes, band neutrophils, monocytes, cholesterol, urea, creatine, and aspartate aminotransferase. Both mange and the period of the year also affected values of mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, neutrophils, glucose, and serum proteins. Scabietic animals showed a marked reduction in body weight (21.4 kg on average), which was more pronounced in winter. These results reveal that 1) infested animals are anemic, 2) secondary infections likely occur, and 3) sarcoptic mange is catabolic.

  6. The perception of emotion in body expressions.

    PubMed

    de Gelder, B; de Borst, A W; Watson, R

    2015-01-01

    During communication, we perceive and express emotional information through many different channels, including facial expressions, prosody, body motion, and posture. Although historically the human body has been perceived primarily as a tool for actions, there is now increased understanding that the body is also an important medium for emotional expression. Indeed, research on emotional body language is rapidly emerging as a new field in cognitive and affective neuroscience. This article reviews how whole-body signals are processed and understood, at the behavioral and neural levels, with specific reference to their role in emotional communication. The first part of this review outlines brain regions and spectrotemporal dynamics underlying perception of isolated neutral and affective bodies, the second part details the contextual effects on body emotion recognition, and final part discusses body processing on a subconscious level. More specifically, research has shown that body expressions as compared with neutral bodies draw upon a larger network of regions responsible for action observation and preparation, emotion processing, body processing, and integrative processes. Results from neurotypical populations and masking paradigms suggest that subconscious processing of affective bodies relies on a specific subset of these regions. Moreover, recent evidence has shown that emotional information from the face, voice, and body all interact, with body motion and posture often highlighting and intensifying the emotion expressed in the face and voice.

  7. Dose and dose rate effects of whole-body proton irradiation on leukocyte populations and lymphoid organs: part I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gridley, Daila S.; Pecaut, Michael J.; Dutta-Roy, Radha; Nelson, Gregory A.

    2002-01-01

    The goal of part I of this study was to evaluate the effects of whole-body proton irradiation on lymphoid organs and specific leukocyte populations. C57BL/6 mice were exposed to the entry region of the proton Bragg curve to total doses of 0.5 gray (Gy), 1.5 Gy, and 3.0 Gy, each delivered at a low dose rate (LDR) of 1 cGy/min and high dose rate (HDR) of 80 cGy/min. Non-irradiated and 3 Gy HDR gamma-irradiated groups were included as controls. At 4 days post-irradiation, highly significant radiation dose-dependent reductions were observed in the mass of both lymphoid organs and the numbers of leukocytes and T (CD3(+)), T helper (CD3(+)/CD4(+)), T cytotoxic (CD3(+)/CD8(+)), and B (CD19(+)) cells in both blood and spleen. A less pronounced dose effect was noted for natural killer (NK1.1(+) NK) cells in spleen. Monocyte, but not granulocyte, counts in blood were highly dose-dependent. The numbers for each population generally tended to be lower with HDR than with LDR radiation; a significant dose rate effect was found in the percentages of T and B cells, monocytes, and granulocytes and in CD4(+):CD8(+) ratios. These data indicate that mononuclear cell response to the entry region of the proton Bragg curve is highly dependent upon the total dose and that dose rate effects are evident with some cell types. Results from gamma- and proton-irradiated groups (both at 3 Gy HDR) were similar, although proton-irradiation gave consistently lower values in some measurements.

  8. Growth of body components and carcass composition of Iberian pigs of 10 to 150 kg body weight as affected by the level of feeding and dietary protein concentration.

    PubMed

    Nieto, R; Lara, L; Barea, R; García-Valverde, R; Conde-Aguilera, J A; Aguilera, J F

    2013-09-01

    lean tissues and cuts, their slower rates of growth, and the increased total body fat, with marked changes in its distribution among depots. Consequently, relationships obtained for lean or conventional genotypes are not applicable to the IB pig.

  9. Biomechanical Analyses of Body Movement and Locomotion as Affected by Clothing and Footwear for Cold Weather Climates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-01

    revealed that adding clothing layers interfered with bending at the waist and moving the upper arm at the shoulder. Compared with the temperate duty...the body were located by palpation and marked; these were acromion, trochanterion, olecranon, radial styloid process, anterior superior iliac spine...points posterior to the locations of the left and the right anterior superior iliac spine. For clothing conditions that included the ECWCS parka, the

  10. Neonatal capsaicin treatment in rats affects TRPV1-related noxious heat sensation and circadian body temperature rhythm.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Keun-Yeong; Seong, Jinsil

    2014-06-15

    The transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is a cation channel that serves as a polymodal detector of noxious stimuli such as capsaicin. Therefore, capsaicin treatment has been used to investigate the physiological function of TRPV1. Here, we report physiological changes induced by treating neonatal rats with capsaicin. Capsaicin (50mg/kg) (cap-treated) or vehicle (vehicle-treated) was systemically administered to newborn SD rat pups within 48 h after birth. TRPV1 expression, intake volume of capsaicin water, and noxious heat sensation were measured 6 weeks after capsaicin treatment. Circadian body temperature and locomotion were recorded by biotelemetry. Expression of Per1, Per2, Bmal1 and Hsf1 (clock genes) was also investigated. Neonatal capsaicin treatment not only decreased TRPV1 expression but also induced desensitization to noxious heat stimuli. Circadian body temperature of cap-treated rats increased significantly compared with that of vehicle-treated rats. Additionally, the amplitude of the circadian body temperature was reversed in cap-treated rats. Expression of the hypothalamic Hsf1 and liver Per2 clock genes followed a similar trend. Therefore, we suggest that these findings will be useful in studying various physiological mechanisms related to TRPV1.

  11. Body size affects the predatory interactions between introduced American Bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) and native anurans in China: An experimental study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Y.; Guo, Z.; Pearl, C.A.; Li, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Introduced American Bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) have established breeding populations in several provinces in China since their introduction in 1959. Although Bullfrogs are viewed as a potentially important predator of Chinese native anurans, their impacts in the field are difficult to quantify. We used two experiments to examine factors likely to mediate Bullfrog predation on native anurans. First, we examined effects of Bullfrog size and sex on daily consumption of a common Chinese native (Rana limnocharis). Second, we examined whether Bullfrogs consumed similar proportions of four Chinese natives: Black-Spotted Pond Frog (Rana nigromaculata), Green Pond Frog (Rana plancyi plancyi), Rice Frog (R. limnocharis), and Zhoushan Toad (Bufo bufo gargarizans). We found that larger Rana catesbeiana consumed more R. limnocharis per day than did smaller R. catesbeiana, and that daily consumption of R. limnocharis was positively related to R. catesbeiana body size. When provided with adults of four anurans that differed significantly in body size, R. catesbeiana consumed more individuals of the smallest species (R. limnocharis). However, when provided with similarly sized juveniles of the same four species, R. catesbeiana did not consume any species more than expected by chance. Our results suggest that body size plays an important role in the predatory interactions between R. catesbeiana and Chinese native anurans and that, other things being equal, smaller species and individuals are at greater risk of predation by R. catesbeiana. Copyright 2007 Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles.

  12. Using body diagrams and disease protocols as part of an integrated approach to the medical consultation in Nepal.

    PubMed

    McKellar, Angus T; Rutland-Brown, Wesley

    2004-07-01

    Neither medical assistants nor doctors in Nepal receive adequate training in medical consultation techniques. Patients often leave the consultation with poor understanding of their disease. Moreover, disease management counselling and preventative health counselling are rarely done. In order to address these issues, simple body diagrams and disease protocols were developed and tested in a random cohort survey of 300 outpatients. While 72% of patients who were shown a body diagram achieved basic understanding of their disease, only 38% of patients who were not shown a body diagram understood their disease. This improvement was significant and independent of other factors. Satisfactory disease management counselling was given in 38% of cases, and preventative health counselling in 36%. There was correlation between use of body diagrams and provision of disease management counselling and preventative health counselling. These findings emphasize the need for simple consultation tools such as body diagrams and disease management protocols in developing countries.

  13. Women gaze behaviour in assessing female bodies: the effects of clothing, body size, own body composition and body satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Cundall, Amelia; Guo, Kun

    2017-01-01

    Often with minimally clothed figures depicting extreme body sizes, previous studies have shown women tend to gaze at evolutionary determinants of attractiveness when viewing female bodies, possibly for self-evaluation purposes, and their gaze distribution is modulated by own body dissatisfaction level. To explore to what extent women's body-viewing gaze behaviour is affected by clothing type, dress size, subjective measurements of regional body satisfaction and objective measurements of own body composition (e.g., chest size, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio), in this self-paced body attractiveness and body size judgement experiment, we compared healthy, young women's gaze distributions when viewing female bodies in tight and loose clothing of different dress sizes. In contrast to tight clothing, loose clothing biased gaze away from the waist-hip to the leg region, and subsequently led to enhanced body attractiveness ratings and body size underestimation for larger female bodies, indicating the important role of clothing in mediating women's body perception. When viewing preferred female bodies, women's higher satisfaction of a specific body region was associated with an increased gaze towards neighbouring body areas, implying satisfaction might reduce the need for comparison of confident body parts; furthermore undesirable body composition measurements were correlated with a gaze avoidance process if the construct was less changeable (i.e. chest size) but a gaze comparison process if the region was more changeable (i.e. body mass index, dress size). Clearly, own body satisfaction and body composition measurements had an evident impact on women's body-viewing gaze allocation, possibly through different cognitive processes.

  14. Black Like Me: How Idealized Images of Caucasian Women Affect Body Esteem and Mood States of African-American Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frisby, Cynthia M.

    Using the theory of social comparison, the present research explores how exposure to idealized images of physically attractive Caucasian women affects and changes the self-reported esteem levels of African-American undergraduate students. Though research reveals that the number of portrayals of African-Americans in ads is growing, little if any…

  15. Body composition changes affect energy cost of running during 12 months of specific diet and training in amateur athletes.

    PubMed

    Ghiani, Giovanna; Marongiu, Elisabetta; Melis, Franco; Angioni, Giuseppina; Sanna, Irene; Loi, Andrea; Pusceddu, Matteo; Pinna, Virginia; Crisafulli, Antonio; Tocco, Filippo

    2015-09-01

    Considering the relation between body weight composition and energy cost of running, we tested the hypothesis that by modifying body composition by means of a combined protocol of specific diet and training, the energy cost of motion (Cr) may be reduced. Forty-five healthy and normal-weight subjects were divided into 3 groups that performed a different treatment: the first group attended a dietary protocol (D), the second group participated in a running program (R), and the third group followed both the dietary and running protocols (R&D). Each subject underwent 3 anthropometric and exercise evaluation tests during 1 year (at entry (T0), month 6 (T6), and month 12 (T12)) to assess body composition and Cr adjustments. The mean fat mass (FM) values were reduced in R&D from 12.0 ± 4.0 to 10.4 ± 3.0 kg (p < 0.05 T0 vs. T12) and in the D group from 14.2 ± 5.8 to 11.6 ± 4.7 kg (p < 0.05 T0 vs. T12). Conversely, the mean fat free mass values increased in R&D (from 56.3 ± 8.8 to 58.3 ± 9.8 kg, p < 0.05 T0 vs. T12) and in the D group (from 50.6 ± 13.2 to 52.9 ± 13.6 kg, p < 0.05 T0 vs. T12). The mean Cr values of the 2 groups were significantly modified throughout the 1-year protocol (1.48 ± 0.16 and 1.40 ± 0.15 kcal·kg(-b)·km(-1) in the R&D group at T0 and T12, respectively; 1.83 ± 0.17 and 1.76 ± 0.23 kcal·kg(-b)·km(-1) in D group at T0 to T12, respectively). The R&D and D groups that underwent the diet protocol had a positive change in body composition during the year (FM/fat free mass ratio decline), which determined a Cr reduction.

  16. Residual analysis in the determination of factors affecting the estimates of body heat storage in clothed subjects.

    PubMed

    Aoyagi, Y; McLellan, T M; Shephard, R J

    1996-01-01

    Body heat storage can be estimated by calorimetry (from heat gains and losses) or by thermometry [from changes (delta) in mean body temperature (T b) calculated as a weighted combination of rectal (Tre) and mean skin temperatures (T sk)]. If an invariant weighting factor of Tre and T sk were to be used (for instance, delta T b = 0.8.delta Tre + 0.2 delta T sk under hot conditions), body heat storage could be over- or underestimated substantially relative to calorimetry, depending on whether the subject was wearing light or protective clothing. This study investigated whether discrepancies between calorimetry and thermometry arise from methodological errors in the calorimetric estimate of heat storage, from inappropriate weightings in the thermometric estimate, or from both. Residuals of calorimetry versus thermometric estimates were plotted against individual variables in the standard heat balance equation, applying various weighting factors to Tre and T sk. Whether light or protective clothing was worn, the calorimetric approach generally gave appropriate estimates of heat exchange components and thus heat storage. One exception was in estimating latent heat loss from sweat evaporation. If sweat evaporation exceeded 650 g.h-1 when wearing normal clothing, evaporative heat loss was overestimated and thus body heat storage was underestimated. Nevertheless, if data beyond this ceiling were excluded from the analyses, the standard 4:1 weighting matched calorimetric heat storage estimates quite well. When wearing protective clothing, the same 4:1 weighting approximated calorimetric heat storage with errors of less than approximately 10%, but only if environmental conditions allowed a subject to exercise for more than 90 min. The best thermometric estimates of heat storage were provided by using two sets of relative weightings, based upon the individual's metabolic heat production (M in kilojoules per meter squared per hour): (4 - [(M - x).x-1].2): 1 for an initial

  17. Coffee Mannooligosaccharides, Consumed As Part of a Free-Living, Weight-Maintaining Diet, Increase the Proportional Reduction in Body Volume in Overweight Men123

    PubMed Central

    Salinardi, Taylor C.; Rubin, Kristin Herron; Black, Richard M.; St-Onge, Marie-Pierre

    2010-01-01

    Clinical studies have shown that the consumption of coffee mannooligosaccharides (MOS) decreases body fat, suggesting that MOS consumption may be useful for weight management. This study was undertaken to determine whether consumption of coffee MOS improves body composition when consumed as part of a weight-maintaining diet. In this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study, 54 men and women, age 19–65 y and with BMI of 27–33 kg/m2, consumed study beverages twice daily, for 12 wk. Beverages were identical except for the presence (MOS group) or absence (placebo group) of MOS (4 g/d). Body composition was assessed at baseline and endpoint using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Body weight, blood pressure, and assessments of feelings of appetite and satiety were taken weekly. Fifty men and women completed both baseline and endpoint MRI scans. There was a significant beverage x time interaction on total body volume (P = 0.026), total adipose tissue (TAT) (P = 0.046), and total subcutaneous adipose tissue (P = 0.032) in men but not women. Men consuming the MOS beverage had a greater percent change in total body volume (P = 0.043) and tended to have greater percent changes in subcutaneous (P = 0.069) and TAT (P = 0.098) compared with the placebo group. Consumption of a MOS-containing beverage, as part of a free-living weight-maintaining diet, leads to reductions in total body volume, relative to placebo, in men. More research is needed to further investigate the mechanism by which MOS may act to improve body composition and to elucidate the influence of gender. PMID:20861211

  18. Fructose decreases physical activity and increases body fat without affecting hippocampal neurogenesis and learning relative to an isocaloric glucose diet

    PubMed Central

    Rendeiro, Catarina; Masnik, Ashley M.; Mun, Jonathan G.; Du, Kristy; Clark, Diana; Dilger, Ryan N.; Dilger, Anna C.; Rhodes, Justin S.

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that fructose consumption is associated with weight gain, fat deposition and impaired cognitive function. However it is unclear whether the detrimental effects are caused by fructose itself or by the concurrent increase in overall energy intake. In the present study we examine the impact of a fructose diet relative to an isocaloric glucose diet in the absence of overfeeding, using a mouse model that mimics fructose intake in the top percentile of the USA population (18% energy). Following 77 days of supplementation, changes in body weight (BW), body fat, physical activity, cognitive performance and adult hippocampal neurogenesis were assessed. Despite the fact that no differences in calorie intake were observed between groups, the fructose animals displayed significantly increased BW, liver mass and fat mass in comparison to the glucose group. This was further accompanied by a significant reduction in physical activity in the fructose animals. Conversely, no differences were detected in hippocampal neurogenesis and cognitive/motor performance as measured by object recognition, fear conditioning and rotorod tasks. The present study suggests that fructose per se, in the absence of excess energy intake, increases fat deposition and BW potentially by reducing physical activity, without impacting hippocampal neurogenesis or cognitive function. PMID:25892667

  19. Dietary energy sources affect the partition of body lipids and the hierarchy of energy metabolic pathways in growing pigs differing in feed efficiency.

    PubMed

    Gondret, F; Louveau, I; Mourot, J; Duclos, M J; Lagarrigue, S; Gilbert, H; van Milgen, J

    2014-11-01

    The use and partition of feed energy are key elements in productive efficiency of pigs. This study aimed to determine whether dietary energy sources affect the partition of body lipids and tissue biochemical pathways of energy use between pigs differing in feed efficiency. Forty-eight barrows (pure Large White) from two divergent lines selected for residual feed intake (RFI), a measure of feed efficiency, were compared. From 74 d to 132 ± 0.5 d of age, pigs (n = 12 by line and by diet) were offered diets with equal protein and ME contents. A low fat, low fiber diet (LF) based on cereals and a high fat, high fiber diet (HF) where vegetal oils and wheat straw were used to partially substitute cereals, were compared. Irrespective of diet, gain to feed was 10% better (P < 0.001), and carcass yield was greater (+2.3%; P < 0.001) in the low RFI compared with the high RFI line; the most-efficient line was also leaner (+3.2% for loin proportion in the carcass, P < 0.001). In both lines, ADFI and ADG were lower when pigs were fed the HF diet (-12.3% and -15%, respectively, relatively to LF diet; P < 0.001). Feeding the HF diet reduced the perirenal fat weight and backfat proportion in the carcass to the same extent in both lines (-27% on average; P < 0.05). Lipid contents in backfat and LM also declined (-5% and -19%, respectively; P < 0.05) in pigs offered the HF diet. The proportion of saturated fatty acids (FA) was lower, but the percentage of PUFA, especially the EFA C18:2 and C18:3, was greater (P < 0.001) in backfat of HF-fed pigs. In both lines, these changes were associated with a marked decrease (P < 0.001) in the activities of two lipogenic enzymes, the fatty acid synthase (FASN) and the malic enzyme, in backfat. For the high RFI line, the hepatic lipid content was greater (P < 0.05) in pigs fed the HF diet than in pigs fed the LF diet, despite a reduced FASN activity (-32%; P < 0.001). In both lines, the HF diet also led to lower glycogen content (-70%) and

  20. Usage Position and Virtual Keyboard Design Affect Upper-Body Kinematics, Discomfort, and Usability during Prolonged Tablet Typing

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ming-I Brandon; Hong, Ruei-Hong; Chang, Jer-Hao; Ke, Xin-Min

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The increase in tablet usage allows people to perform computer work in non-traditional office environments. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of changes in tablet keyboard design on postures of the upper extremities and neck, discomfort, and usability under different usage positions during prolonged touch-typing. Methods Eighteen healthy participants familiar with touch-screen devices were randomized into three usage positions (desk, lap, and bed) and completed six, 60-minute typing sessions using three virtual keyboard designs (standard, wide, split). Electrogoniometers continuously measured the postures of the wrists, elbow, and neck. Body discomfort and system usability were evaluated by questionnaires before and immediately after each typing session. Results Separate linear mixed effects models on various postural measures and subjective ratings are conducted with usage position as the between-subject factors, keyboard design and typing duration as the with-in subject factors were conducted. Using the tablet in bed led to more extended wrists but a more natural elbow flexion than the desk position. The angled split virtual keyboard significantly reduced the extent of wrist ulnar deviation than the keyboard with either standard or wide design. However, little difference was observed across the usage position and keyboard design. When the postural data were compared between the middle and end of typing sessions, the wrists, elbow, and neck all exhibited a substantially increased range of joint movements (13% to 38%). The discomfort rating also increased significantly over time in every upper body region investigated. Additionally, the split keyboard design received a higher usability rating in the bed position, whereas participants had more satisfactory experience while using the wide keyboard in the traditional desk setting. Conclusions Prolonged use of tablets in non-traditional office environments may result in awkward postures in the

  1. Do 'Surgical Helmet Systems' or 'Body Exhaust Suits' Affect Contamination and Deep Infection Rates in Arthroplasty? A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Young, Simon W; Zhu, Mark; Shirley, Otis C; Wu, Qing; Spangehl, Mark J

    2016-01-01

    This systematic review examined whether negative-pressure Charnley-type body exhaust suits (BES) or modern positive-pressure surgical helmet systems (SHS) reduce deep infection rates and/or contamination in arthroplasty. For deep infection, four studies (3990 patients) gave adjusted relative risk for deep infection of 0.11 (P = 0.09) against SHS. Five of 7 (71%) studies found less air contamination and 2 of 4 studies (50%) less wound contamination with BES. One of 4 (25%) found less air contamination with SHS and 0 of 1 (0%) less wound contamination. In contrast to BES, modern SHS designs were not shown to reduce contamination or deep infection during arthroplasty.

  2. Body fat does not affect venous bubble formation after air dives of moderate severity: theory and experiment.

    PubMed

    Schellart, Nico A M; van Rees Vellinga, Tjeerd P; van Hulst, Rob A

    2013-03-01

    For over a century, studies on body fat (BF) in decompression sickness and venous gas embolism of divers have been inconsistent. A major problem is that age, BF, and maximal oxygen consumption (Vo2max) show high multicollinearity. Using the Bühlmann model with eight parallel compartments, preceded by a blood compartment in series, nitrogen tensions and loads were calculated with a 40 min/3.1 bar (absolute) profile. Compared with Haldanian models, the new model showed a substantial delay in N2 uptake and (especially) release. One hour after surfacing, an increase of 14-28% in BF resulted in a whole body increase of the N2 load of 51%, but in only 15% in the blood compartment. This would result in an increase in the bubble grade of only 0.01 Kisman-Masurel (KM) units at the scale near KM = I-. This outcome was tested indirectly by a dry dive simulation (air breathing) with 53 male divers with a small range in age and Vo2max to suppress multicollinearity. BF was determined with the four-skinfold method. Precordial Doppler bubble grades determined at 40, 80, 120, and 160 min after surfacing were used to calculate the Kisman Integrated Severity Score and were also transformed to the logarithm of the number of bubbles/cm(2) (logB). The highest of the four scores yielded logB = -1.78, equivalent to KM = I-. All statistical outcomes of partial correlations with BF were nonsignificant. These results support the model outcomes. Although this and our previous study suggest that BF does not influence venous gas embolism (Schellart NAM, van Rees Vellinga TP, van Dijk FH, Sterk W. Aviat Space Environ Med 83: 951-957, 2012), more studies with different profiles under various conditions are needed to establish whether BF remains (together with age and Vo2max) a basic physical characteristic or will become less important for the medical examination and for risk assessment.

  3. Energy absorption during impact on the proximal femur is affected by body mass index and flooring surface.

    PubMed

    Bhan, Shivam; Levine, Iris C; Laing, Andrew C

    2014-07-18

    Impact mechanics theory suggests that peak loads should decrease with increase in system energy absorption. In light of the reduced hip fracture risk for persons with high body mass index (BMI) and for falls on soft surfaces, the purpose of this study was to characterize the effects of participant BMI, gender, and flooring surface on system energy absorption during lateral falls on the hip with human volunteers. Twenty university-aged participants completed the study with five men and five women in both low BMI (<22.5 kg/m(2)) and high BMI (>27.5 kg/m(2)) groups. Participants underwent lateral pelvis release experiments from a height of 5 cm onto two common floors and four safety floors mounted on a force plate. A motion-capture system measured pelvic deflection. The energy absorbed during the initial compressive phase of impact was calculated as the area under the force-deflection curve. System energy absorption was (on average) 3-fold greater for high compared to low BMI participants, but no effects of gender were observed. Even after normalizing for body mass, high BMI participants absorbed 1.8-fold more energy per unit mass. Additionally, three of four safety floors demonstrated significantly increased energy absorption compared to a baseline resilient-rolled-sheeting system (% increases ranging from 20.7 to 28.3). Peak system deflection was larger for high BMI persons and for impacts on several safety floors. This study indicates that energy absorption may be a common mechanism underlying the reduced risk of hip fracture for persons with high BMI and for those who fall on soft surfaces.

  4. Environmental hypoxia but not minor shell damage affects scope for growth and body condition in the blue mussel Mytilus edulis (L.).

    PubMed

    Sanders, Trystan; Widdicombe, Steve; Calder-Potts, Ruth; Spicer, John I

    2014-04-01

    The effects of short-term (7 d) exposure to environmental hypoxia (2.11 mg O₂ L⁻¹; control: 6.96 mg O₂ L⁻¹) and varying degrees of shell damage (1 or 2, 1 mm diameter holes; control: no holes) on respiration rate, clearance rate, ammonia excretion rate, scope for growth (SFG) and body condition index were investigated in adult blue mussels (Mytilus edulis). There was a significant hypoxia-related reduction in SFG (>6.70 to 0.92 J g⁻¹ h⁻¹) primarily due to a reduction in energy acquisition as a result of reduced clearance rates during hypoxia. Shell damage had no significant affect on any of the physiological processes measured or the SFG calculated. Body condition was unaffected by hypoxia or shell damage. In conclusion, minor physical damage to mussels had no effect on physiological energetics but environmental hypoxia compromised growth, respiration and energy acquisition presumably by reducing feeding rates.

  5. Part 1: Aspects of lithospheric evolution on Venus. Part 2: Thermal and collisional histories of chondrite parent bodies. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grimm, Robert E.

    1988-01-01

    The geological evolution of distinctly different kinds of solar system objects is addressed. Venus has been observed over the past decade by orbital radars on both American and Soviet spacecraft. These surface measurements provide clues to the structure and evolution of the lithosphere. The parent bodies of chondritic meteorites, thought to resemble asteroids, represent the other end of the size spectrum of terrestrial objects. Their early thermal and collisional histories may be constrained by the chemical and textural record preserved in meteorite samples. Impact craters on Venus have been observed by the Soviet Venera 15/16 spacecraft. A formalism is presented by which the size-frequency distribution of impact craters may be used to estimate upper bounds on the mean global rates of volcanic resurfacing and lithospheric recycling on that planet over the past several hundred million years. The impact crater density reported from Venera observations, if valid for the entire Venus surface, indicates a mean volcanic flux no greater than 2 cu km/y, corresponding to a maximum average rate of resurfacing of about 4 km/b.y. For the lowest estimated mean crater retention age of the surface of Venus imaged by Venera 15/16, the rate of lithospheric recycling on Venus does not exceed 1.5 sq km/y. Ordinary chondrite meteorites show textural and chemical patterns indicative of varying intensities of thermal metamorphism. The conventional onion-shell model, which envisions highly metamorphosed material in the core and less intensely heated rocks near the surface, predicts an inverse relation between peak temperature and cooking rate, but none has been observed. A metamorphosed-planetesimal model is devised to explain this discrepancy, whereby heating occurs in planetesimals a few kilometers in radius which then accrete to form 100-km-radius parent bodies. Cooling rates are then randomly controlled by burial depth. Thermal and collisional constraints are examined, and the model

  6. Environmental variation at the onset of independent foraging affects full-grown body mass in the red fox.

    PubMed

    Soulsbury, Carl D; Iossa, Graziella; Baker, Philip J; Harris, Stephen

    2008-10-22

    The period following the withdrawal of parental care has been highlighted as a key developmental period for juveniles. One reason for this is that juveniles cannot forage as competently as adults, potentially placing them at greater risk from environmentally-induced changes in food availability. However, no study has examined this topic. Using a long-term dataset on red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), we examined (i) dietary changes that occurred in the one-month period following the attainment of nutritional independence, (ii) diet composition in relation to climatic variation, and (iii) the effect of climatic variation on subsequent full-grown mass. Diet at nutritional independence contained increased quantities of easy-to-catch food items (earthworms and insects) when compared with pre-independence. Interannual variation in the volume of rainfall at nutritional independence was positively correlated to the proportion of earthworms in cub diet. Pre-independence cub mass and rainfall immediately following nutritional independence explained a significant proportion of variance in full-grown mass, with environmental variation affecting full-grown mass of the entire cohorts. Thus, weather-mediated availability of easy-to-catch food items at a key developmental stage has lifelong implications for the development of juvenile foxes by affecting full-grown mass, which in turn appears to be an important component of individual reproductive potential.

  7. Feeding of potato, tomato and eggplant alkaloids affects food consumption and body and liver weights in mice.

    PubMed

    Friedman, M; Henika, P R; Mackey, B E

    1996-04-01

    Reduced liver weight was used to evaluate the potential toxicity in mice of four naturally occurring steroidal glycoalkaloids: alpha-chaconine and alpha-solanine, alpha-tomatine and solasonine. Increased liver weights was used to evaluate the three corresponding steroidal aglycones: solanidine, tomatidine, and solasodine and the non-alkaloid adrenal steroid dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). Adult female Swiss-Webster mice were fed diets containing test compound concentrations of 0 (control), 1.2, 2.4 or 4.8 mmol/kg diet for 7, 14 or 28 d. Absolute liver weights (LW) and relative liver weights (liver weight/body weight x 100, %LW/BW) were determined at autopsy. The %LW/BW was lower than that of controls in mice fed the potato glycoalkaloid alpha-chaconine (-10%, P < or = 0.05) for 7 d with the 2.4 mmol/kg diet dose. Under these same conditions, %LW/BW was greater than that of controls in mice fed two aglycones: solanidine (27%, P < or = 0.001) and solasodine (8%, P < or = 0.01). Relative liver weight increases induced by the aglycones were determined under time and dose conditions in which differences in body weight and food consumption were not significant (2.4 mmol/kg diet for 28 d). Under these conditions, the observed %LW/BW increases relative to the controls were as follows: solanidine (32%, P < or = 0.001), solasodine (22%, P < or = 0.001) and DHEA (16%, P < or = 0.001). Solanidine, solasodine and DHEA were equally potent and were more potent than tomatidine. We also observed that the greater %LW/BW in mice fed 2.4 mmol/kg diet solasodine or solanidine for 14 d declined to near control values if they were fed control diets for another 14 d. The increase in relative liver weight induced by solanidine and solasodine is a reversible adaptive response. These findings and the apparent effects of structure on biological activity should serve as a guide for the removal of the most toxic ++compounds from plant foods. The implications of the results for food safety and

  8. Size relationships of different body parts in the three dipteran species Drosophila melanogaster, Ceratitis capitata and Musca domestica.

    PubMed

    Siomava, Natalia; Wimmer, Ernst A; Posnien, Nico

    2016-06-01

    Body size is an integral feature of an organism that influences many aspects of life such as fecundity, life span and mating success. Size of individual organs and the entire body size represent quantitative traits with a large reaction norm, which are influenced by various environmental factors. In the model system Drosophila melanogaster, pupal size and adult traits, such as tibia and thorax length or wing size, accurately estimate the overall body size. However, it is unclear whether these traits can be used in other flies. Therefore, we studied changes in size of pupae and adult organs in response to different rearing temperatures and densities for D. melanogaster, Ceratitis capitata and Musca domestica. We confirm a clear sexual size dimorphism (SSD) for Drosophila and show that the SSD is less uniform in the other species. Moreover, the size response to changing growth conditions is sex dependent. Comparison of static and evolutionary allometries of the studied traits revealed that response to the same environmental variable is genotype specific but has similarities between species of the same order. We conclude that the value of adult traits as estimators of the absolute body size may differ among species and the use of a single trait may result in wrong assumptions. Therefore, we suggest using a body size coefficient computed from several individual measurements. Our data is of special importance for monitoring activities of natural populations of the three dipteran flies, since they are harmful species causing economical damage (Drosophila, Ceratitis) or transferring diseases (Musca).

  9. Whole body exposure of rats to microwaves emitted from a cell phone does not affect the testes.

    PubMed

    Dasdag, Suleyman; Zulkuf Akdag, M; Aksen, Feyzan; Yilmaz, Fahri; Bashan, Mehmet; Mutlu Dasdag, M; Salih Celik, M

    2003-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of radiofrequency radiation emitted from cellular phones on the lipid composition, malondialdehyde concentration, p53 immune reactivity, sperm count, morphology, histological structure of testes, and on rectal temperature of rats exposed to microwave radiation emitted from cellular phones. Sixteen Spraque-Dawley rats were separated into two groups of eight, sham exposed (control) and experimental. The rats were confined in plexiglas cages specially designed for this study, and cellular phones were placed 0.5 cm under the cages. For the experimental group, cellular phones were activated 20 min per day (7 days a week) for 1 month. For the control group, the cellular phones were placed beneath the cages for 20 min a day, but the phones were turned off. Rectal temperatures were measured weekly. For 250 mW radiated power, the whole body average SAR (rms) is 0.52 W/kg and 1 g averaged peak SAR (rms) is 3.13 W/kg. The Mann-Whitney U-test was used for statistical comparisons of groups. No statistically significant alteration in any of the endpoints was noted. This study found no evidence suggesting an adverse effect of cell phone exposure on measures of testicular function or structure.

  10. BmPLA2 containing conserved domain WD40 affects the metabolic functions of fat body tissue in silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Orville Singh, Chabungbam; Xin, Hu-Hu; Chen, Rui-Ting; Wang, Mei-Xian; Liang, Shuang; Lu, Yan; Cai, Zi-Zheng; Miao, Yun-Gen

    2016-02-01

    PLA2 enzyme hydrolyzes arachidonic acid, and other polyunsaturated fatty acids, from the sn-2 position to release free arachidonic acid and a lysophospholipid. Previous studies reported that the PLA2 in invertebrate organisms participates in lipid signaling molecules like arachidonic acid release in immune-associated tissues like hemocytes and fat bodies. In the present study, we cloned the BmPLA2 gene from fat body tissue of silkworm Bombyx mori, which has a total sequence of 1.031 kb with a 31.90 kDa protein. In silico results of BmPLA2 indicated that the protein has a putative WD40 conserved domain and its phylogeny tree clustered with Danaus plexippus species. We investigated the transcriptional expression in development stages and tissues. The highest expression of BmPLA2 was screened in fat body among the studied tissues of third day fifth instar larva, with a high expression on third day fifth instar larva followed by a depression of expression in the wandering stage of the fifth instar larva. The expression of BmPLA2 in female pupa was higher than that of male pupa. Our RNAi-mediated gene silencing results showed highest reduction of BmPLA2 expression in post-24 h followed by post-48 and post-72 h. The BmPLA2-RNAi larvae and pupa could be characterized by pharate adult lethality and underdevelopment. The phenotypic characters of fat body cells in RNAi-induced larva implied that BmPLA2 affects the metabolic functions of fat body tissue in silkworm Bombyx mori.

  11. Unsteady aerodynamic flow field analysis of the space shuttle configuration. Part 3: Unsteady aerodynamics of bodies with concave nose geometries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ericsson, L. E.; Reding, J. P.

    1976-01-01

    An analysis of the unsteady aerodynamics of bodies with concave nose geometries was performed. The results show that the experimentally observed pulsating flow on spiked bodies and in forward facing cavities can be described by the developed simple mathematical model of the phenomenon. Static experimental data is used as a basis for determination of the oscillatory frequency of spike-induced flow pulsations. The agreement between predicted and measured reduced frequencies is generally very good. The spiked-body mathematical model is extended to describe the pulsations observed in forward facing cavities and it is shown that not only the frequency but also the pressure time history can be described with the accuracy needed to predict the experimentally observed time average effects. This implies that it should be possible to determine analytically the impact of the flow pulsation on the structural integrity of the nozzles for the jettisoned empty SRM-shells.

  12. 50 CFR Table 21 to Part 679 - Eligible Communities, Halibut IFQ Regulatory Area Location, Community Governing Body That...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Associated Areas Where a CQE Representing an Eligible Community May Be Permitted To Participate 21 Table 21 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 21 Table 21 to Part 679—Eligible Communities, Halibut IFQ Regulatory Area...

  13. 50 CFR Table 21 to Part 679 - Eligible Communities, Halibut IFQ Regulatory Area Location, Community Governing Body That...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Associated Areas Where a CQE Representing an Eligible Community May Be Permitted To Participate 21 Table 21 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 21 Table 21 to Part 679—Eligible Communities, Halibut IFQ Regulatory Area...

  14. Bodily ownership modulation in defensive responses: physiological evidence in brain-damaged patients with pathological embodiment of other’s body parts

    PubMed Central

    Fossataro, C.; Gindri, P.; Mezzanato, T.; Pia, L.; Garbarini, F.

    2016-01-01

    Do conscious beliefs about the body affect defensive mechanisms within the body? To answer this question we took advantage from a monothematic delusion of bodily ownership, in which brain-damaged patients misidentify alien limbs as their own. We investigated whether the delusional belief that an alien hand is their own hand modulates a subcortical defensive response, such as the hand-blink reflex. The blink, dramatically increases when the threated hand is inside the defensive peripersonal-space of the face. In our between-subjects design, including patients and controls, the threat was brought near the face either by the own hand or by another person’s hand. Our results show an ownership-dependent modulation of the defensive response. In controls, as well as in the patients’ intact-side, the response enhancement is significantly greater when the threat was brought near the face by the own than by the alien hand. Crucially, in the patients’ affected-side (where the pathological embodiment occurs), the alien (embodied) hand elicited a response enhancement comparable to that found when the threat is brought near the face by the real hand. These findings suggest the existence of a mutual interaction between our conscious beliefs about the body and the physiological mechanisms within the body. PMID:27292285

  15. Comparison of total body irradiation vs chlorambucil and prednisone for remission induction of active chronic lymphocytic leukemia: an ECOG study. Part I: total body irradiation-response

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, P.I.; Bennett, J.M.; Begg, C.; Bozdech, M.J.; Silber, R.

    1981-12-01

    Twenty-six evaluable patients were entered into two fractionated total body irradiation (TBI) programs; 11 patients received a course of 150 rad TBI (x 3 if tolerated) and 15 patients received a lower dose course of 50 rad (x 3 if tolerated). Complete remissions (CR) were not produced by either course; however, the higher dose course (Plan I) yielded a partial response (PR) rate of 73%, while the lower dose course yielded a PR of 47%. Although fraction size seemed trivial in both TBI plans, an unexpected high degree of hematologic toxicity was encountered, and was parallel to the response rates: in Plan I 73% of patients experienced severe to life-threatening depression of platelets or granulocytes, whereas in Plan II this rate was 47%. This was of short duration with rapid return of blood counts to normal levels. One death can be attributed to TBI. The chemotherapy arm of the study demonstrated superiority in terms of complete responses. Twenty-three percent of patients treated by cholrambucil and prednisone attained CR, in contrast to 0% of TBI patients. PR for chemotherapy was similar to that obtained with TBI. Chemotherapy also proved superior in terms of overall response rate, number of patients in remission, and in the median duration of response, but not in the median duration of survival. Fractional TBI techniques for active chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) should be interrupted when the platelet count dips below 100,000 and the granulocyte count is lower than 2,000. Future studies should combine TBI radiation therapy and chemotherapy.

  16. Regulation of appetite, satiation, and body weight by enteroendocrine cells. Part 1: characteristics of enteroendocrine cells and their capability of weight regulation.

    PubMed

    Posovszky, Carsten; Wabitsch, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract is the gateway for food in our body. Food ingestion and the ensuing digestive processes depend on the composition and amount of ingested nutrients. This complex process of nutrient digestion and absorption is effectively regulated by the enteroendocrine system. Enteroendocrine cells (EECs) reside scattered throughout the intestinal epithelium. They express nutrient receptors that face the lumen and secrete peptide hormones in response to food. Besides regulating digestion, gastrointestinal endocrine cells are involved in the regulation of appetite and satiety. The first part of this review describes the anatomical and biological characteristics of EECs and discusses the capability of their hormones to influence appetite, satiety, and body weight. In the second part, we then discuss the therapeutic potential of EECs in the treatment of obesity.

  17. The impact of body-part-naming training on the accuracy of imitative performances in 2- to 3-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Camões-Costa, Vera; Erjavec, Mihela; Horne, Pauline J

    2011-11-01

    A series of three experiments explored the relationship between 3-year-old children's ability to name target body parts and their untrained matching of target hand-to-body touches. Nine participants, 3 per experiment, were presented with repeated generalized imitation tests in a multiple-baseline procedure, interspersed with step-by-step training that enabled them to (i) tact the target locations on their own and the experimenter's bodies or (ii) respond accurately as listeners to the experimenter's tacts of the target locations. Prompts for on-task naming of target body parts were also provided later in the procedure. In Experiment 1, only tact training followed by listener probes were conducted; in Experiment 2, tacting was trained first and listener behavior second, whereas in Experiment 3 listener training preceded tact training. Both tact and listener training resulted in emergence of naming together with significant and large improvements in the children's matching performances; this was true for each child and across most target gestures. The present series of experiments provides evidence that naming--the most basic form of self-instructional behavior--may be one means of establishing untrained matching as measured in generalized imitation tests. This demonstration has a bearing on our interpretation of imitation reported in the behavior analytic, cognitive developmental, and comparative literature.

  18. White Paper of the Society of Computed Body Tomography and Magnetic Resonance on Dual-Energy CT, Part 1: Technology and Terminology.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Marilyn J; Kaza, Ravi K; Bolus, David N; Boll, Daniel T; Rofsky, Neil M; De Cecco, Carlo N; Foley, W Dennis; Morgan, Desiree E; Schoepf, U Joseph; Sahani, Dushyant V; Shuman, William P; Vrtiska, Terri J; Yeh, Benjamin M; Berland, Lincoln L

    This is the first of a series of 4 white papers that represent Expert Consensus Documents developed by the Society of Computed Body Tomography and Magnetic Resonance through its task force on dual-energy computed tomography (DECT). This article, part 1, describes the fundamentals of the physical basis for DECT and the technology of DECT and proposes uniform nomenclature to account for differences in proprietary terms among manufacturers.

  19. Pasteurization Procedures for Donor Human Milk Affect Body Growth, Intestinal Structure, and Resistance against Bacterial Infections in Preterm Pigs.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanqi; Nguyen, Duc Ninh; de Waard, Marita; Christensen, Lars; Zhou, Ping; Jiang, Pingping; Sun, Jing; Bojesen, Anders Miki; Lauridsen, Charlotte; Lykkesfeldt, Jens; Dalsgaard, Trine Kastrup; Bering, Stine Brandt; Sangild, Per Torp

    2017-03-15

    Background: Holder pasteurization (HP) destroys multiple bioactive factors in donor human milk (DM), and UV-C irradiation (UVC) is potentially a gentler method for pasteurizing DM for preterm infants.Objective: We investigated whether UVC-treated DM improves gut maturation and resistance toward bacterial infections relative to HP-treated DM.Methods: Bacteria, selected bioactive components, and markers of antioxidant capacity were measured in unpasteurized donor milk (UP), HP-treated milk, and UVC-treated milk (all from the same DM pool). Fifty-seven cesarean-delivered preterm pigs (91% gestation; ratio of males to females, 30:27) received decreasing volumes of parental nutrition (average 69 mL ⋅ kg(-1) ⋅ d(-1)) and increasing volumes of the 3 DM diets (n = 19 each, average 89 mL ⋅ kg(-1) ⋅ d(-1)) for 8-9 d. Body growth, gut structure and function, and systemic bacterial infection were evaluated.Results: A high bacterial load in the UP (6×10(5) colony forming units/mL) was eliminated similarly by HP and UVC treatments. Relative to HP-treated milk, both UVC-treated milk and UP showed greater activities of lipase and alkaline phosphatase and concentrations of lactoferrin, secretory immunoglobulin A, xanthine dehydrogenase, and some antioxidant markers (all P < 0.05). The pigs fed UVC-treated milk and pigs fed UP showed higher relative weight gain than pigs fed HP-treated milk (5.4% and 3.5%), and fewer pigs fed UVC-treated milk had positive bacterial cultures in the bone marrow (28%) than pigs fed HP-treated milk (68%) (P < 0.05). Intestinal health was also improved in pigs fed UVC-treated milk compared with those fed HP-treated milk as indicated by a higher plasma citrulline concentration (36%) and villus height (38%) (P < 0.05) and a tendency for higher aminopeptidase N (48%) and claudin-4 (26%) concentrations in the distal intestine (P < 0.08). The gut microbiota composition was similar among groups except for greater proportions of Enterococcus in pigs

  20. Chronic exposure to low doses of lipopolysaccharide and high-fat feeding increases body mass without affecting glucose tolerance in female rats

    PubMed Central

    Dudele, Anete; Fischer, Christina W; Elfving, Betina; Wegener, Gregers; Wang, Tobias; Lund, Sten

    2015-01-01

    Obesity-related inflammation may have a causal role in the development of diabetes and insulin resistance, and studies using animal models of chronic experimental endotoxemia have shown the link. However, many studies use only males, and much less is known about the role of obesity-related inflammation in females. Therefore, we addressed how experimentally induced chronic inflammation affects body mass, energy intake, and glucose metabolism in female rats. Adult female Sprague Dawley rats were instrumented with slow release pellets that delivered a constant daily dose of 53 or 207 μg of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) per rat for 60 days. Control rats were instrumented with vehicle pellets. Due to inflammatory nature of high-fat diet (HFD) half of the rats received HFD (60% of calories from lard), while the other half remained on control diet to detect possible interactions between two modes of induced inflammation. Our results showed that chronic LPS administration increased female rat body mass and calorie intake in a dose-dependent manner, and that HFD further exacerbated these effects. Despite these effects, no effects of LPS and HFD were evident on female rat glucose metabolism. Only LPS elevated expression of inflammatory markers in the hypothalamus. To conclude, female rats respond to experimentally induced chronic inflammation by increasing body mass, but do not develop glucose intolerance in the given period of time. PMID:26537342

  1. Skin rubdown with a dry towel, 'kanpu-masatsu' is an aerobic exercise affecting body temperature, energy production, and the immune and autonomic nervous systems.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Mayumi; Takano, Osamu; Tomiyama, Chikako; Matsumoto, Hiroaki; Kobayashi, Takahiro; Urahigashi, Nobuatsu; Urahigashi, Nobuatsu; Abo, Toru

    2012-01-01

    Skin rubdown using a dry towel (SRDT) to scrub the whole body is a traditional therapy for health promotion. To investigate its mechanism, 24 healthy male volunteers were studied. Body temperature, pulse rate, red blood cells (RBCs), serum levels of catecholamines and cortisol, blood gases (PO(2), sO(2), PCO(2) and pH), lactate and glucose, and the ratio and number of white blood cells (WBCs) were assessed before and after SRDT. After SRDT, pulse rate and body temperature were increased. PO(2), sO(2) and pH were also increased and there was no Rouleaux formation by RBCs. Lactate level tended to increase, whereas that of glucose did not. Adrenaline and noradrenaline levels increased, indicating sympathetic nerve (SN) dominance with increase in granulocytes. WBC number and ratio were divided into two groups according to granulocyte ratio (≤ or < 60%) before SRDT: a normal group and a SN group. Only in the SN group did the granulocyte ratio decrease and the lymphocyte ratio and number increase after SRDT. It is suggested that SRDT is a mild aerobic, systemic exercise that might affect the immune system via the autonomic nervous system.

  2. Whey protein supplementation does not affect exercise training-induced changes in body composition and indices of metabolic syndrome in middle-aged overweight and obese adults.

    PubMed

    Weinheimer, Eileen M; Conley, Travis B; Kobza, Vanessa M; Sands, Laura P; Lim, Eunjung; Janle, Elsa M; Campbell, Wayne W

    2012-08-01

    Little is known about the effects of different quantities of whey protein on exercise training-induced changes in body composition and indices of metabolic syndrome in middle-aged overweight and obese adults. Therefore, we examined the effects of consuming 0.8-MJ supplements with 0 (n = 126), 10 (n = 112), 20 (n = 44), or 30 (n = 45) g whey protein twice daily in conjunction with resistance (2 d/wk) and aerobic (1 d/wk) exercise training in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, community-based 9-mo study in men (n = 117) and women (n = 210); (age: 48 ± 7.9 y; BMI: 30.0 ± 2.8 kg/m(2)). Whey protein supplementation did not influence any of the following outcomes, some of which were affected by training. Among all participants, strength increased by 15 ± 12% (P < 0.001) and maximal oxygen uptake capacity (VO(2)max) increased by 9 ± 15% (P < 0.001). Body weight was unchanged (0.1 ± 3.7 kg, P = 0.80), lean body mass increased by 1.9 ± 2.8% (0.95 ± 1.3 kg, P < 0.001), and fat mass decreased by 2.6 ± 9.4% (-0.86 ± 3.1 kg, P = 0.001). Oral-glucose-tolerance testing showed that plasma glucose AUC was unchanged (-18.0 ± 170 mmol/L·  3 h, P = 0.16), insulin AUC decreased by 2.6 ± 32% (-7.5 ± 29 nmol/L·  3 h, P = 0.01), and HOMA-IR (0.2 ± 2.0, P = 0.81) and the insulin sensitivity index (0.3 ± 3.0, P = 0.63) were unchanged. Plasma concentrations of TG; total, LDL, and HDL cholesterol; C-reactive protein; plasminogen activator inhibitor-1; blood pressure; and waist circumference were unchanged. Whey protein supplementation did not affect exercise training-induced responses in body composition and indices of metabolic syndrome in middle-aged overweight and obese adults who maintained body weight.

  3. 26 CFR 48.4061(a)-4 - Parts or accessories sold on or in connection with chasis, bodies, etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Motor Vehicles, Tires, Tubes, Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Automotive and Related Items § 48.4061(a)-4... taxable tractor and the fifth wheel and attachments, the tax applies to such parts or accessories at...

  4. 26 CFR 48.4061(a)-4 - Parts or accessories sold on or in connection with chasis, bodies, etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Motor Vehicles, Tires, Tubes, Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Automotive and Related Items § 48.4061(a)-4... taxable tractor and the fifth wheel and attachments, the tax applies to such parts or accessories at...

  5. 26 CFR 48.4061(a)-4 - Parts or accessories sold on or in connection with chasis, bodies, etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Motor Vehicles, Tires, Tubes, Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Automotive and Related Items § 48.4061(a)-4... taxable tractor and the fifth wheel and attachments, the tax applies to such parts or accessories at...

  6. 26 CFR 48.4061(a)-4 - Parts or accessories sold on or in connection with chasis, bodies, etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Motor Vehicles, Tires, Tubes, Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Automotive and Related Items § 48.4061(a)-4... taxable tractor and the fifth wheel and attachments, the tax applies to such parts or accessories at...

  7. Supplementation with a proprietary blend of ancient peat and apple extract may improve body composition without affecting hematology in resistance-trained men.

    PubMed

    Joy, Jordan M; Falcone, Paul H; Vogel, Roxanne M; Mosman, Matt M; Kim, Michael P; Moon, Jordan R

    2015-11-01

    Adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) is primarily known as a cellular source of energy. Increased ATP levels may have the potential to enhance body composition. A novel, proprietary blend of ancient peat and apple extracts has been reported to increase ATP levels, potentially by enhancing mitochondrial ATP production. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to determine the supplement's effects on body composition when consumed during 12 weeks of resistance training. Twenty-five healthy, resistance-trained, male subjects (age, 27.7 ± 4.8 years; height, 176.0 ± 6.5 cm; body mass, 83.2 ± 12.1 kg) completed this study. Subjects supplemented once daily with either 1 serving (150 mg) of a proprietary blend of ancient peat and apple extracts (TRT) or placebo (PLA). Supervised resistance training consisted of 8 weeks of daily undulating periodized training followed by a 2-week overreach and a 2-week taper phase. Body composition was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and ultrasound at weeks 0, 4, 8, 10, and 12. Vital signs and blood markers were assessed at weeks 0, 8, and 12. Significant group × time (p < 0.05) interactions were present for ultrasound-determined cross-sectional area, which increased in TRT (+0.91 cm(2)) versus PLA (-0.08 cm(2)), as well as muscle thickness (TRT: +0.46; PLA: +0.04 cm). A significant group × time (p < 0.05) interaction existed for creatinine (TRT: +0.06; PLA: +0.15 mg/dL), triglycerides (TRT: +24.1; PLA: -20.2 mg/dL), and very-low-density lipoprotein (TRT: +4.9; PLA: -3.9 mg/dL), which remained within clinical ranges. Supplementation with a proprietary blend of ancient peat and apple extracts may enhance resistance training-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy without affecting fat mass or blood chemistry in healthy males.

  8. Separated flow over bodies of revolution using an unsteady discrete-vorticity cross wake. Part 1: Theory and application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, F. J.; Deffenbaugh, F. D.

    1974-01-01

    A method is developed to determine the flow field of a body of revolution in separated flow. The technique employed is the use of the computer to integrate various solutions and solution properties of the sub-flow fields which made up the entire flow field without resorting to a finite difference solution to the complete Navier-Stokes equations. The technique entails the use of the unsteady cross flow analogy and a new solution to the required two-dimensional unsteady separated flow problem based upon an unsteady, discrete-vorticity wake. Data for the forces and moments on aerodynamic bodies at low speeds and high angle of attack (outside the range of linear inviscid theories) such that the flow is substantially separated are produced which compare well with experimental data. In addition, three dimensional steady separation regions and wake vortex patterns are determined.

  9. Separated flow over bodies of revolution using an unsteady discrete-vorticity cross wake. Part 2: Computer program description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, F. J.; Deffenbaugh, F. D.

    1974-01-01

    A method is developed to determine the flow field of a body of revolution in separated flow. The computer was used to integrate various solutions and solution properties of the sub-flow fields which made up the entire flow field without resorting to a finite difference solution to the complete Navier-Stokes equations. The technique entails the use of the unsteady cross flow analogy and a new solution to the two-dimensional unsteady separated flow problem based upon an unsteady, discrete-vorticity wake. Data for the forces and moments on aerodynamic bodies at low speeds and high angle of attack (outside the range of linear inviscid theories) such that the flow is substantially separated are produced which compare well with experimental data. In addition, three dimensional steady separated regions and wake vortex patterns are determined. The computer program developed to perform the numerical calculations is described.

  10. Calculation of double-lunar swingby trajectories: Part 2: Numerical solutions in the restricted problem of three bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stalos, S.

    1990-01-01

    The double-lunar swingby trajectory is a method for maintaining alignment of an Earth satellite's line of apsides with the Sun-Earth line. From a Keplerian point of view, successive close encounters with the Moon cause discrete, instantaneous changes in the satellite's eccentricity and semimajor axis. Numerical solutions to the planar, restricted problem of three bodies as double-lunar swingby trajectories are identified. The method of solution is described and the results compared to the Keplerian formulation.

  11. Emotions, affects and the production of social life.

    PubMed

    Fox, Nick J

    2015-06-01

    While many aspects of social life possess an emotional component, sociology needs to explore explicitly the part emotions play in producing the social world and human history. This paper turns away from individualistic and anthropocentric emphases upon the experience of feelings and emotions, attending instead to an exploration of flows of 'affect' (meaning simply a capacity to affect or be affected) between bodies, things, social institutions and abstractions. It establishes a materialist sociology of affects that acknowledges emotions as a part, but only a part, of a more generalized affective flow that produces bodies and the social world. From this perspective, emotions are not a peculiarly remarkable outcome of the confluence of biology and culture, but part of a continuum of affectivity that links human bodies to their physical and social environment. This enhances sociological understanding of the part emotions play in shaping actions and capacities in many settings of sociological concern.

  12. Clothing resultant thermal insulation determined on a movable thermal manikin. Part I: effects of wind and body movement on total insulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yehu; Wang, Faming; Wan, Xianfu; Song, Guowen; Shi, Wen; Zhang, Chengjiao

    2015-10-01

    In this serial study, 486 thermal manikin tests were carried out to examine the effects of air velocity and walking speed on both total and local clothing thermal insulations. Seventeen clothing ensembles with different layers (i.e., one, two, or three layers) were selected for the study. Three different wind speeds (0.15, 1.55, 4.0 m/s) and three levels of walking speed (0, 0.75, 1.2 m/s) were chosen. Thus, there are totally nine different testing conditions. The clothing total insulation and local clothing insulation at different body parts under those nine conditions were determined. In part I, empirical equations for estimating total resultant clothing insulation as a function of the static thermal insulation, relative air velocity, and walking speed were developed. In part II, the local thermal insulation of various garments was analyzed and correction equations on local resultant insulation for each body part were developed. This study provides critical database for potential applications in thermal comfort study, modeling of human thermal strain, and functional clothing design and engineering.

  13. Clothing resultant thermal insulation determined on a movable thermal manikin. Part I: effects of wind and body movement on total insulation.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yehu; Wang, Faming; Wan, Xianfu; Song, Guowen; Shi, Wen; Zhang, Chengjiao

    2015-10-01

    In this serial study, 486 thermal manikin tests were carried out to examine the effects of air velocity and walking speed on both total and local clothing thermal insulations. Seventeen clothing ensembles with different layers (i.e., one, two, or three layers) were selected for the study. Three different wind speeds (0.15, 1.55, 4.0 m/s) and three levels of walking speed (0, 0.75, 1.2 m/s) were chosen. Thus, there are totally nine different testing conditions. The clothing total insulation and local clothing insulation at different body parts under those nine conditions were determined. In part I, empirical equations for estimating total resultant clothing insulation as a function of the static thermal insulation, relative air velocity, and walking speed were developed. In part II, the local thermal insulation of various garments was analyzed and correction equations on local resultant insulation for each body part were developed. This study provides critical database for potential applications in thermal comfort study, modeling of human thermal strain, and functional clothing design and engineering.

  14. 40 CFR 3.4 - How does this part affect enforcement and compliance provisions of Title 40?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... electronic signature will suffice to establish that the individual uniquely entitled to use the device did so..., criminal, or other penalties and remedies for failure to comply with a federal reporting requirement if the person submits an electronic document to EPA under this part that fails to comply with the provisions...

  15. Direct simulation of initial value problems for the motion of solid bodies in a Newtonian fluid part 1. Sedimentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, J.; Hu, H. H.; Joseph, D. D.

    1994-02-01

    This paper reports the result of direct simulations of fluid-particle motions in two dimensions. We solve the initial value problem for the sedimentation of circular and elliptical particles in a vertical channel. The fluid motion is computed from the Navier-Stokes equations for moderate Reynolds numbers in the hundreds. The particles are moved according to the equations of motion of a rigid body under the action of gravity and hydrodynamic forces arising from the motion of the fluid. The solutions are as exact as our finite-element calculations will allow. As the Reynolds number is increased to 600, a circular particle can be said to experience five different regimes of motion: steady motion with and without overshoot and weak, strong and irregular oscillations. An elliptic particle always turn its long axis perpendicular to the fall, and drifts to the centreline of the channel during sedimentation. Steady drift, damped oscillation and periodic oscillation of the particle are observed for different ranges of the Reynolds number. For two particles which interact while settling, a steady staggered structure, a periodic wake-action regime and an active drafting-kissing-tumbling scenario are realized at increasing Reynolds numbers. The nonlinear effects of particle-fluid, particle-wall and interparticle interactions are analyzed, and the mechanisms controlling the simulated flows are shown to be lubrication, turning couples on long bodies, steady and unsteady wakes and wake interactions. The results are compared to experimental and theoretical results previously published.

  16. Drag reduction of boat-tailed bluff bodies through transverse grooves. Part II: large-eddy simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvetti, Maria Vittoria; Mariotti, Alessandro; Buresti, Guido

    2016-11-01

    The present work focuses on strategies for aerodynamic drag reduction of elongated axisymmetric bluff bodies, which can be viewed as simplified models of a road vehicles. We combine boat-tailing, i.e. a gradual reduction of the body cross-section before a sharp-edged base, with properly contoured transverse grooves. The effectiveness of this strategy was assessed through experiments and simulations. Experiments showed that the introduction of a single groove leads to a further delay of boundary-layer separation and to a reduction of drag compared with the boat-tail configuration without grooves. In this talk, we present Large-Eddy Simulations (LES). LES results agree with the experimental findings. The success of the proposed flow control strategy is due to the relaxation of the no-slip condition in the small recirculation region inside the groove, which reduces the momentum losses near the wall and thus delays boundary layer separation. The effects of the introduction of the groove on the mean topology and on the dynamics of the near wake are also highlighted. Finally, a sensitivity analysis of the proposed control strategy efficiency to the groove location and to the boat-tail geometry is shown.

  17. Does broodstock nutritional history affect the response of progeny to different first-feeding diets? A whole-body transcriptomic study of rainbow trout alevins.

    PubMed

    Lazzarotto, Viviana; Corraze, Geneviève; Larroquet, Laurence; Mazurais, David; Médale, Françoise

    2016-06-01

    The whole-body transcriptome of trout alevins was characterised to investigate the effects of long-term feeding of rainbow trout broodstock females a diet free of fishmeal and fish oil on the metabolic capacities of progeny. Effects were studied before first feeding and after 3 weeks of feeding diets containing different proportions of marine and plant ingredients. Feeding alevins plant-based diets resulted in lower fish body weight, irrespective of maternal nutritional history. No differences in whole-body lipids were found between treatments, and the tissue fatty acid profile strongly reflected that of the respective broodstock or first-feeding diets. We showed that the maternal diet history did not significantly affect expressions of any genes before the first feeding. Interestingly, we found an effect of maternal nutritional history on gene expression in alevins after 3 weeks of feeding. The major differences in the transcriptome of alevins from plant-based diet-fed females compared with those from commercial-fed females were as follows: (i) down-regulation of genes involved in muscle growth/contraction and (ii) up-regulation of genes involved in carbohydrate and energy metabolism related to the delay in growth/development observed with plant-based diets. Our findings also showed an effect of the first-feeding diets, irrespective of maternal nutritional history. Specifically, the introduction of plant ingredients resulted in the up-regulation of genes involved in amino acid/protein and cholesterol metabolism and in differences in the expressions of genes related to carbohydrate metabolism. Information gained through this study opens up avenues for further reduction of marine ingredients in trout diets, including the whole rearing cycle.

  18. The Whole Is Not the Sum of Its Parts: Specific Types of Positive Affect Influence Sleep Differentially.

    PubMed

    Pressman, Sarah D; Jenkins, Brooke N; Kraft-Feil, Tara L; Rasmussen, Heather; Scheier, Michael F

    2017-02-13

    Given the known detrimental effects of poor sleep on an array of psychological and physical health processes, it is critical to understand the factors that protect sleep, especially during times of stress when sleep particularly suffers. Positive affect (PA) arises as a variable of interest given its known associations with health and health behaviors and its ability to buffer stress. In 2 studies, we examined which types of PA (distinguished by arousal level and trait/state measurement) were most beneficial for sleep and whether these associations varied depending on the stress context. In Study 1, college students (N = 99) reported on their PA and sleep during the week of a major exam. In Study 2, 2 weeks of daily PA and sleep data were collected during a period with no examinations in a similar sample of students (N = 83). Results indicated that high trait vigor was tied to better sleep efficiency and quality, especially during high stress. Trait calm was generally unhelpful to sleep, and was related negatively to sleep duration. State calm, on the other hand, interacted with stress in Study 2 to predict more efficient day-to-day sleep on days with higher average stress. These findings illustrate the importance of considering arousal level, affect duration, and the stress context in studies of PA and health. (PsycINFO Database Record

  19. Body Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... more about how the body works, what basic human anatomy is, and what happens when parts of the body don't function properly. Blood Bones, Muscles, and Joints Brain and Nervous System Digestive System Endocrine System Eyes Female Reproductive System ...

  20. Five-year-olds are willing, but 4-year-olds refuse, to trust informants who offer new and unfamiliar labels for parts of the body.

    PubMed

    Luu, Betty; Rosnay, Marc de; Harris, Paul L

    2013-10-01

    This study employed the selective trust paradigm to examine how children interpret novel labels when compared with labels they already know to be accurate or inaccurate within the biological domain. The participants--3-, 4-, and 5-year-olds (N=144)--were allocated to one of three conditions. In the accurate versus inaccurate condition, one informant labeled body parts correctly, whereas the other labeled them incorrectly (e.g., calling an eye an "arm"). In the accurate versus novel condition, one informant labeled body parts accurately, whereas the other provided novel labels (e.g., calling an eye a "roke"). Finally, in the inaccurate versus novel condition, one informant labeled body parts incorrectly, whereas the other offered novel labels. In subsequent test trials, the two informants provided conflicting labels for unfamiliar internal organs. In the accurate versus inaccurate condition, children sought and endorsed labels from the accurate informant. In the accurate versus novel condition, only 4- and 5-year-olds preferred the accurate informant, whereas 3-year-olds did not selectively prefer either informant. In the inaccurate versus novel condition, only 5-year-olds preferred the novel informant, whereas 3- and 4-year-olds did not demonstrate a selective preference. Results are supportive of previous studies suggesting that 3-year-olds are sensitive to inaccuracy and that 4-year-olds privilege accuracy. However, 3- and 4-year-olds appear to be unsure as to how the novel informant should be construed. In contrast, 5-year-olds appreciate that speakers offering new information are more trustworthy than those offering inaccurate information, but they are cautious in judging such informants as being "better" at providing that information.

  1. Clinical severity, rather than body temperature, during the rewarming phase of therapeutic hypothermia affect quantitative EEG in neonates with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Burnsed, Jennifer; Quigg, Mark; Zanelli, Santina; Goodkin, Howard P

    2011-02-01

    EEG is important in monitoring neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) during hypothermia therapy (HT). Although EEG is used to evaluate the severity of HIE and predict outcome, HT itself may affect EEG parameters. The goal of this study is to evaluate whether core body temperature (CBT) during the rewarming phase of HT in neonates with HIE changes quantified EEG parameters. Quantified EEG parameters were reviewed in 10 neonates with HIE treated with HT. Total power, 90% spectral edge frequency, the mean and lower border of amplitude-integrated EEG (aEEG), and approximate entropy of the aEEG were calculated from 10-minute samples centered on CBT measurements. Patients were classified by clinical HIE severity and length of stay. Two-way analysis of variance was used to test interactions among CBT and EEG data. CBT had no significant effects on the quantified EEG parameters. The aEEG-average and lower border amplitudes were significantly lower in severe HIE. The aEEG-average was significantly more orderly in patients with longer length of stay, regardless of CBT. HIE severity and length of stay but not CBT affect quantified EEG. Findings suggest quantified EEG is reliable during HT. In addition, EEG may aid in predicting short-term outcome of neonates with HIE.

  2. Analysis of selected pharmaceuticals in fish and the fresh water bodies directly affected by reclaimed water using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Gardinali, Piero R

    2012-11-01

    A comprehensive method for the analysis of 11 target pharmaceuticals representing multiple commonly used therapeutic classes was developed for biological tissues (fish), reclaimed water, and the surface water directly affected by irrigation with reclaimed water. One gram of fish tissue homogenate was extracted by accelerated solvent extraction with methylene chloride followed by mixed-mode cation exchange solid phase extraction (SPE) cleanup and analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Compared to previously reported methods, the protocol produces cleaner extracts resulting in lower method detection limits. Similarly, an SPE method based on Oasis HLB cartridges was used to concentrate and cleanup reclaimed and surface water samples. Among the 11 target compounds analyzed, trimethoprim, caffeine, sulfamethoxazole, diphenhydramine, diltiazem, carbamazepine, erythromycin, and fluoxetine were consistently detected in reclaimed water. Caffeine, diphenhydramine, and carbamazepine were consistently detected in fish and surface water samples. Bioaccumulation factors for caffeine, diphenhydramine, and carbamazepine in mosquito fish (Gambusia holbrooki) were calculated at 29 ± 26, 821 ± 422, and 108 ± 144, respectively. This is the first report of potential accumulation of caffeine in fish from a water body directly influenced by reclaimed water. Figure The pharmaceuticals detected in reclaimed water and the fresh water directly affected by reclaimed water.

  3. Free Body Dynamics of a Spinning Cylinder with Planar Restraint-(a.k.a. Barrel of Fun). Part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moraru, Laurentiu; Dimofte, Florin; Hendricks, Robert C.

    2011-01-01

    The dynamic motion of a cylinder is analyzed based on rotation about its center of mass and is restrained by a plane normal to the axis passing through its center of mass at an angle. The first part of this work presented an analysis of the stability of the motion. In the current report, the governing equations are numerically integrated in time and the steady state is obtained as a limit of the transient numerical solution. The calculated data are compared with observed behaviors.

  4. The relationships between body fatness, leptin, testosterone, and reproductive performance in ram lambs as affected by level and frequency of feeding.

    PubMed

    Swelum, Ayman Abdel-Aziz; Ayadi, Moez; Alhidary, Ibrahim; Alowaimer, Abdullah; Abouheif, Mohamed

    2017-02-01

    This study was carried out using 24 Najdi ram lambs of approximately 6.5 months old to evaluate the effects of feed restriction and frequency of feeding on hormone concentrations of leptin and testosterone, sexual behavior, and semen traits. Ram lambs were allotted equally into three feeding groups. The first group was used as a control and fed ad libitum. The second and third groups were restricted fed at 0.85 ad libitum and fed either once (R1M) or twice daily (R2M). Sexual behavior and semen evaluation were assessed during the sixth, seventh, and eighth weeks of the study. Blood samples were drawn at 1-hour pre-feeding on days 41, 48, and 55 of the study for the determination of serum leptin and testosterone concentrations. All lambs were slaughtered after 8 weeks of experimentation. Results showed that the restricted-fed groups had lower (P < 0.01) values for slaughter body weight, average daily gain, dry matter intake, internal fat, tail fat, body fat thickness, body wall thickness, and testes weight than the ad libitum group; these corresponding traits did not differ between both restricted-fed treatments. Leptin and testosterone concentrations in restricted-fed rams were (P < 0.01) lower and higher, respectively, than in the ad libitum rams; there were no differences between R1M and R2M groups. The restricted-fed rams had lower (P < 0.01) ejaculation latency time compared with control, whereas the percentage of sexually active rams and sexual desire score were not affected by feeding restriction or frequency of feeding. Sperm motility, progressive motility, and percentage of sperm moving at rapid speed were higher (P < 0.01) in feed-restricted rams than in the ad libitum rams. R1M rams had higher (P < 0.01) value for straightness and lower (P < 0.01) value for curvilinear velocity in comparison with the ad libitum group. Testosterone was correlated positively (P < 0.05) with sperm motility and progressive motility and negatively (P < 0

  5. Biomechanics of the Sensor–Tissue Interface—Effects of Motion, Pressure, and Design on Sensor Performance and Foreign Body Response—Part II: Examples and Application

    PubMed Central

    Helton, Kristen L; Ratner, Buddy D; Wisniewski, Natalie A

    2011-01-01

    This article is the second part of a two-part review in which we explore the biomechanics of the sensor–tissue interface as an important aspect of continuous glucose sensor biocompatibility. Part I, featured in this issue of Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology, describes a theoretical framework of how biomechanical factors such as motion and pressure (typically micromotion and micropressure) affect tissue physiology around a sensor and in turn, impact sensor performance. Here in Part II, a literature review is presented that summarizes examples of motion or pressure affecting sensor performance. Data are presented that show how both acute and chronic forces can impact continuous glucose monitor signals. Also presented are potential strategies for countering the ill effects of motion and pressure on glucose sensors. Improved engineering and optimized chemical biocompatibility have advanced sensor design and function, but we believe that mechanical biocompatibility, a rarely considered factor, must also be optimized in order to achieve an accurate, long-term, implantable sensor. PMID:21722579

  6. Evidence for direct cellular protective effect of PL-10 substances (synthesized parts of body protection compound, BPC) and their specificity to gastric mucosal cells.

    PubMed

    Bódis, B; Karádi, O; Németh, P; Dohoczky, C; Kolega, M; Mózsik, G

    1997-01-01

    The direct gastric mucosal cellular effect of four PL-10 substances (a synthesized part of human body protection compound, BPC containing 14 or 15 amino acids) was studied on freshly isolated rat gastric mucosal cells and on a mouse myeloma cell line (Sp2/0-Ag14) in an ethanol-induced cell injury model. The examined substances were not toxic for the cells. Two of them proved to be significantly protective against the direct cellular damaging effect of ethanol (PL 10.1.15AK-3 in 5 microg/ml dose and PL 10.1.AK14-2 dose-dependently, ED50=50 ng/ml) on gastric mucosal cells. This cytoprotective effect was failured on mouse myeloma cells. Based on these results a part of the in vivo protection induced by BPC seems to be a direct cellular protective effect to gastric mucosal cells.

  7. Great Historical Events That Were Significantly Affected by the Weather. Part 11: Meteorological Aspects of the Battle of Waterloo.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumann, J.

    1993-03-01

    The Waterloo Campaign extended from 15 to 18 June 1815, with the decisive Battle of Waterloo taking place on the 18th. The campaign involved the "Army of the North" of Napoleon on the one hand, and the Anglo-Dutch and Prussian armies on the other. The latter were commanded, respectively, by the Duke of Wellington and Prince Blücher. A shallow but active low and associated warm and cold fronts crossed the battle area on the 16th and 17th.The weather had important effects on the battles. On the 16th, in a battle between part of the French army and part of the Prussian army, at the village of Ligny, about 40 km south-southeast of Brussels, thunderstorms connected with the passage of the aforementioned warm front made the use of muskets impracticable.However, the most important weather effects developed on the 17th and during the night from the 17th to the 18th. Violent thunderstorms occurred early in the afternoon of the 17th close to Ligny, while Napoleon was in the process of attacking the Anglo-Dutch force at Quatre Bras. The rains turned the ground into a quagmire, making it impossible for the French artillery and cavalry, and even for the infantry, to move across the fields in extended order, as required by the emperor. The French advance was so greatly slowed down that Wellington was able to withdraw his lighter force to a better position near Waterloo. Thus, the Anglo-Dutch force was almost completely preserved for the decisive battle of the next day.The rainshowers of the 17th and the night from the 17th to the 18th softened the ground to an extent that, on the morning of the 18th, Napoleon and his artillery experts judged that the battle-the Battle of Waterloo-could not be started before a late hour of the forenoon [1130 local standard time (LST)]. Until the arrival of the Prussian force, about 1600 LST and later, the battle tended to go in favor of the French, but the Prussians turned the tide of the fighting.The paper quotes judgments of military

  8. A process model for the heat-affected zone microstructure evolution in duplex stainless steel weldments: Part I. the model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemmer, H.; Grong, Ø.

    1999-11-01

    The present investigation is concerned with modeling of the microstructure evolution in duplex stainless steels under thermal conditions applicable to welding. The important reactions that have been modeled are the dissolution of austenite during heating, subsequent grain growth in the delta ferrite regime, and finally, the decomposition of the delta ferrite to austenite during cooling. As a starting point, a differential formulation of the underlying diffusion problem is presented, based on the internal-state variable approach. These solutions are later manipulated and expressed in terms of the Scheil integral in the cases where the evolution equation is separable or can be made separable by a simple change of variables. The models have then been applied to describe the heat-affected zone microstructure evolution during both thick-plate and thin-plate welding of three commercial duplex stainless steel grades: 2205, 2304, and 2507. The results may conveniently be presented in the form of novel process diagrams, which display contours of constant delta ferrite grain size along with information about dissolution and reprecipitation of austenite for different combinations of weld input energy and peak temperature. These diagrams are well suited for quantitative readings and illustrate, in a condensed manner, the competition between the different variables that lead to structural changes during welding of duplex stainless steels.

  9. Significance of silica in identifying the processes affecting groundwater chemistry in parts of Kali watershed, Central Ganga Plain, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Arina; Umar, Rashid; Khan, Haris Hasan

    2015-03-01

    Chemical geothermometry using silica was employed in the present study to estimate the sub-surface groundwater temperature and the corresponding depth of the groundwater in parts of Kali watershed in Bulandshahr and Aligarh district. 42 groundwater samples each were collected from borewells during pre-monsoon and post-monsoon season 2012 and analysed for all major ions and silica. Silica values in the area range from 18.72 to 50.64 mg/l in May 2012 and from 18.89 to 52.23 mg/l in November 2012. Chalcedony temperature >60 °C was deduced for five different locations in each season, which corresponds to a depth of more than 1,000 metres. Spatial variation of silica shows high values along a considerable stretch of River Kali, during pre-monsoon season. Relationship of silica with Total Dissolved Solids and Chloride was established to infer the role of geogenic and anthropogenic processes in solute acquisition. It was found that both water-rock interaction and anthropogenic influences are responsible for the observed water chemistry.

  10. Computer code for scattering from impedance bodies of revolution. Part 3: Surface impedance with s and phi variation. Analytical and numerical results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uslenghi, Piergiorgio L. E.; Laxpati, Sharad R.; Kawalko, Stephen F.

    1993-01-01

    The third phase of the development of the computer codes for scattering by coated bodies that has been part of an ongoing effort in the Electromagnetics Laboratory of the Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Department at the University of Illinois at Chicago is described. The work reported discusses the analytical and numerical results for the scattering of an obliquely incident plane wave by impedance bodies of revolution with phi variation of the surface impedance. Integral equation formulation of the problem is considered. All three types of integral equations, electric field, magnetic field, and combined field, are considered. These equations are solved numerically via the method of moments with parametric elements. Both TE and TM polarization of the incident plane wave are considered. The surface impedance is allowed to vary along both the profile of the scatterer and in the phi direction. Computer code developed for this purpose determines the electric surface current as well as the bistatic radar cross section. The results obtained with this code were validated by comparing the results with available results for specific scatterers such as the perfectly conducting sphere. Results for the cone-sphere and cone-cylinder-sphere for the case of an axially incident plane were validated by comparing the results with the results with those obtained in the first phase of this project. Results for body of revolution scatterers with an abrupt change in the surface impedance along both the profile of the scatterer and the phi direction are presented.

  11. Lewy Body Disease

    MedlinePlus

    Lewy body disease is one of the most common causes of dementia in the elderly. Dementia is the loss of mental ... to affect normal activities and relationships. Lewy body disease happens when abnormal structures, called Lewy bodies, build ...

  12. The ash in forest fire affected soils control the soil losses. Part 2. Current and future research challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Paulo; Cerdà, Artemi

    2013-04-01

    Ash distribution on soil surface and impacts on soil properties received a great attention in recently (Pereira et al., 2010; Pereira et al., 2013). Ash it is a highly mobile material that can be easily transported wind, especially in severe wildland fires, where organic matter is reduced to dust, due the high temperatures of combustion. In the immediate period after the fire, ash cover rules soil erosion as previous researchers observed (Cerdà, 1998a; 1998b) and have strong influence on soil hydrological properties, such as water retention (Stoof et al. 2011 ) and wettability (Bodi et al., 2011). Ash it is also a valuable source of nutrients important for plant recuperation (Pereira et al., 2011; Pereira et al., 2012), but can act also as a source contamination, since are also rich in heavy metals (Pereira and Ubeda, 2010). Ash has different physical and chemical properties according the temperature of combustion, burned specie and time of exposition (Pereira et al., 2010). Thus this different properties will have different implications on soil properties including erosion that can increase due soil sealing (Onda et al. 2008) or decrease as consequence of raindrop impact reduction (Cerdà and Doerr, 2008). The current knowledge shows that ash has different impacts on soil properties and this depends not only from the type of ash produced, but of the soil properties (Woods and Balfour, 2010). After fire wind and water strong redistribute ash on soil surface, increasing the vulnerability of soil erosion in some areas, and reducing in others. Understand this mobility is fundamental have a better comprehension about the spatial and temporal effects of ash in soil erosion. Have a better knowledge about this mobility is a priority to future research. Other important aspects to have to be assessed in the future are how ash particulates percolate on soil and how ash chemical composition is important to induce soil aggregation and dispersion. How soil micro topography

  13. High diversity of skin-associated bacterial communities of marine fishes is promoted by their high variability among body parts, individuals and species.

    PubMed

    Chiarello, Marlène; Villéger, Sébastien; Bouvier, Corinne; Bettarel, Yvan; Bouvier, Thierry

    2015-07-01

    Animal-associated microbiotas form complex communities, which are suspected to play crucial functions for their host fitness. However, the biodiversity of these communities, including their differences between host species and individuals, has been scarcely studied, especially in case of skin-associated communities. In addition, the intraindividual variability (i.e. between body parts) has never been assessed to date. The objective of this study was to characterize skin bacterial communities of two teleostean fish species, namely the European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax) and gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata), using a high-throughput DNA sequencing method. In order to focus on intrinsic factors of host-associated bacterial community variability, individuals of the two species were raised in controlled conditions. Bacterial diversity was assessed using a set of four complementary indices, describing the taxonomic and phylogenetic facets of biodiversity and their respective composition (based on presence/absence data) and structure (based on species relative abundances) components. Variability of bacterial diversity was quantified at the interspecific, interindividual and intraindividual scales. We demonstrated that fish surfaces host highly diverse bacterial communities, whose composition was very different from that of surrounding bacterioplankton. This high total biodiversity of skin-associated communities was supported by the important variability, between host species, individuals and the different body parts (dorsal, anal, pectoral and caudal fins).

  14. Crossing of neuronal pathways: is it a response to the occurrence of separated parts for the body (limbs, eyes, etc.) during evolution?

    PubMed

    Banihani, Saleh M

    2010-04-01

    Most sensory and motor pathways in the central nervous system cross the midline. Comparing between different neuronal pathways in different species suggest that, fibers crossing is most probably a response to the development of separated parts for the body during the process of evolution. This hypothesis proposes direct link between the occurrence of fibers crossing and the occurrence of separated parts of the body such as lateral eyes and limbs. It is supported by many observations that clearly indicate that different neuronal pathways in different species cross the midline when they carry separated information and run ipsilaterally when they carry shared information. Carrying separated information seems to create a need for functional coordination between the two halves of the nervous system which seems to be mediated by the fibers crossing. This hypothesis may alert scientists to study certain aspects of sensory and/or motor pathways in different species. It also enable the students to remember whether a pathway is uncrossed or crossed based on whether this pathway carry shared or separated information.

  15. Illuminating heterogeneous anisotropic upper mantle: testing a new anisotropic teleseismic body-wave tomography code - part II: Inversion mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munzarova, Helena; Plomerova, Jaroslava; Kissling, Edi

    2015-04-01

    Considering only isotropic wave propagation and neglecting anisotropy in teleseismic tomography studies is a simplification obviously incongruous with current understanding of the mantle-lithosphere plate dynamics. Furthermore, in solely isotropic high-resolution tomography results, potentially significant artefacts (i.e., amplitude and/or geometry distortions of 3D velocity heterogeneities) may result from such neglect. Therefore, we have undertaken to develop a code for anisotropic teleseismic tomography (AniTomo), which will allow us to invert the relative P-wave travel time residuals simultaneously for coupled isotropic-anisotropic P-wave velocity models of the upper mantle. To accomplish that, we have modified frequently-used isotropic teleseismic tomography code Telinv (e.g., Weiland et al., JGR, 1995; Lippitsch, JGR, 2003; Karousova et al., GJI, 2013). Apart from isotropic velocity heterogeneities, a weak hexagonal anisotropy is assumed as well to be responsible for the observed P-wave travel-time residuals. Moreover, no limitations to orientation of the symmetry axis are prescribed in the code. We allow a search for anisotropy oriented generally in 3D, which represents a unique approach among recent trials that otherwise incorporate only azimuthal anisotopy into the body-wave tomography. The presented code for retrieving anisotropy in 3D thus enables its direct applications to datasets from tectonically diverse regions. In this contribution, we outline the theoretical background of the AniTomo anisotropic tomography code. We parameterize the mantle lithosphere and asthenosphere with an orthogonal grid of nodes with various values of isotropic velocities, as well as of strength and orientation of anisotropy in 3D, which is defined by azimuth and inclination of either fast or slow symmetry axis of the hexagonal approximation of the media. Careful testing of the new code on synthetics, concentrating on code functionality, strength and weaknesses, is a

  16. How our body influences our perception of the world

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Laurence R.; Carnevale, Michael J.; D’Amour, Sarah; Fraser, Lindsey E.; Harrar, Vanessa; Hoover, Adria E. N.; Mander, Charles; Pritchett, Lisa M.

    2015-01-01

    Incorporating the fact that the senses are embodied is necessary for an organism to interpret sensory information. Before a unified perception of the world can be formed, sensory signals must be processed with reference to body representation. The various attributes of the body such as shape, proportion, posture, and movement can be both derived from the various sensory systems and can affect perception of the world (including the body itself). In this review we examine the relationships between sensory and motor information, body representations, and perceptions of the world and the body. We provide several examples of how the body affects perception (including but not limited to body perception). First we show that body orientation effects visual distance perception and object orientation. Also, visual-auditory crossmodal-correspondences depend on the orientation of the body: audio “high” frequencies correspond to a visual “up” defined by both gravity and body coordinates. Next, we show that perceived locations of touch is affected by the orientation of the head and eyes on the body, suggesting a visual component to coding body locations. Additionally, the reference-frame used for coding touch locations seems to depend on whether gaze is static or moved relative to the body during the tactile task. The perceived attributes of the body such as body size, affect tactile perception even at the level of detection thresholds and two-point discrimination. Next, long-range tactile masking provides clues to the posture of the body in a canonical body schema. Finally, ownership of seen body parts depends on the orientation and perspective of the body part in view. Together, all of these findings demonstrate how sensory and motor information, body representations, and perceptions (of the body and the world) are interdependent. PMID:26124739

  17. How our body influences our perception of the world.

    PubMed

    Harris, Laurence R; Carnevale, Michael J; D'Amour, Sarah; Fraser, Lindsey E; Harrar, Vanessa; Hoover, Adria E N; Mander, Charles; Pritchett, Lisa M

    2015-01-01

    Incorporating the fact that the senses are embodied is necessary for an organism to interpret sensory information. Before a unified perception of the world can be formed, sensory signals must be processed with reference to body representation. The various attributes of the body such as shape, proportion, posture, and movement can be both derived from the various sensory systems and can affect perception of the world (including the body itself). In this review we examine the relationships between sensory and motor information, body representations, and perceptions of the world and the body. We provide several examples of how the body affects perception (including but not limited to body perception). First we show that body orientation effects visual distance perception and object orientation. Also, visual-auditory crossmodal-correspondences depend on the orientation of the body: audio "high" frequencies correspond to a visual "up" defined by both gravity and body coordinates. Next, we show that perceived locations of touch is affected by the orientation of the head and eyes on the body, suggesting a visual component to coding body locations. Additionally, the reference-frame used for coding touch locations seems to depend on whether gaze is static or moved relative to the body during the tactile task. The perceived attributes of the body such as body size, affect tactile perception even at the level of detection thresholds and two-point discrimination. Next, long-range tactile masking provides clues to the posture of the body in a canonical body schema. Finally, ownership of seen body parts depends on the orientation and perspective of the body part in view. Together, all of these findings demonstrate how sensory and motor information, body representations, and perceptions (of the body and the world) are interdependent.

  18. Laboratory study to assess causative factors affecting temporal changes in filtering facepiece respirator fit: part I - pilot study.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Ziqing; Benson, Stacey; Lynch, Stephanie; Palmiero, Andy; Roberge, Raymond

    2011-12-01

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health is conducting a first-of-its-kind study that will assess respirator fit and facial dimension changes as a function of time and improve the scientific basis for decisions on the periodicity of fit testing. A representative sample of 220 subjects wearing filtering-facepiece respirators (FFR) will be evaluated to investigate factors that affect changes in respirator fit over time. The objective of this pilot study (n = 10) was to investigate the variation in fit test data collected in accordance with the study protocol. Inward leakage (IL) and filter penetration were measured for each donned respirator, permitting the calculation of face seal leakage (FSL) and fit factor (FF). The study included only subjects who (a) passed one of the first three fit tests (FF ≥ 100), and (b) demonstrated through a series of nine donnings that they achieved adequate fit (90th percentile FSL was ≤ 0.05). Following the respirator fit tests, 3-D scans of subjects were captured, and height, weight, and 13 traditional anthropometric facial dimensions were measured. The same data were collected 2 and 4 weeks after baseline. The mean change in FSL for the 10 subjects was 0.044% between Visits 1 and 2, and was 0.229% between Visits 1 and 3. Technicians achieved at least moderate reliability for all manual measurements except nose protrusion. Filter penetration was generally less than 0.03%. Geometric mean fit factors were not statistically different among the three visits. The large variability was observed with different respirator samples for the same model, between subjects (inter), and within each subject (intra). Although variability was observed, adequate fit was maintained for all 10 subjects. Pilot scans collected show subject faces remained the same over the 4 weeks. The consistent results during the pilot study indicate that the methods and procedures are appropriate for the 3-year main study. In addition, this baseline

  19. Illuminating heterogeneous anisotropic upper mantle: testing new anisotropic teleseismic body wave tomography code - part I: Forward mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munzarova, Helena; Plomerova, Jaroslava; Kissling, Eduard

    2014-05-01

    Considering only isotropic wave propagation in teleseismic tomography studies and neglecting anisotropy is a simplification obviously incongruent with current understanding of the mantle-lithosphere plate dynamics. Furthermore, in solely isotropic high-resolution tomography results, potentially significant artefacts (i.e., amplitude and/or geometry distortions of 3D velocity heterogeneities) may result from such neglect. We have undertaken to develop an anisotropic version of frequently used isotropic teleseismic tomography code (TELINV), which will allow us to invert simultaneously for coupled isotropic-anisotropic P-wave velocity models. In the first step, we test the forward mode of the new code by calculating travel times of teleseismic body waves propagating through an anisotropic heterogeneous model of the upper mantle. The forward mode itself shows how specific heterogeneous anisotropic structure projects into P-wave travel times, particularly into directional variations of travel time residuals, which are presented by P-residual spheres showing the directional terms of relative residuals. This step further allows to investigate the trade-off between effects of P-wave anisotropy and isotropic heterogeneities. We present plots of synthetic P-residual spheres calculated for P waves propagating through several synthetic models of the upper mantle. The models are designed to represent schematically different structures of the upper mantle. We approximate the mantle lithosphere and asthenosphere by cells with various values of isotropic velocities as well as of strength and orientation of anisotropy in 3D, which is defined by azimuths and inclinations of symmetry axes of the hexagonal approximations of the media. We compare the synthetic P-residual spheres with observation examples from tectonically different regions which were subjected to anisotropy studies earlier. Modelling the P-residual spheres confirms that anisotropy is a significant source of directional

  20. New paleomagnetic pole from Precambrian magmatic bodies of the Kotuy river basin (northwestern part of the Siberian platform)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veselovskiy, R.; Pavlov, V.

    2009-04-01

    Apparent polar wander paths are powerful means for deciphering of tectonic history of the Earth lithosphere and its structural elements. At the same time APWP's can be used as a tool for dating of different geological events and objects. Importance of APWP's especially increases when dealing with Precambrian where possibilities of many other methods of dating become limited. Whereas Proterozoic APWP's of North American, East European and Australian ancient platforms are more or less developed, Siberian Apparent Polar Wander Path is at the first stage of its elaboration. Proterozoic and, especially, Meso- and Paleoproterozoic paleomagnetic poles are scarce and for long time intervals are practically absent. Thus every new reliable Siberian paleomagnetic pole of Proterozoic age is of paramount importance for elaboration of Proterozoic APWP of the Siberian platform. To obtain such the pole we have carried out paleomagnetic investigation of Late Precambrian magmatic complex of northwestern part of the Anabar Uplift (Siberian platform). In total, six dolerite subvolcanic intrusions (dykes and sills) exposed along the Kotuy, Kotuykan and Djogdjo rivers have been studied. Clear paleomagnetic record was found in 5 intrusions. Thermal demagnetization isolates two magnetic components. The first of them is parallel to the recent geomagnetic field at the site and is removed in the low to middle temperature range. The second one (HTC) is isolated at higher temperatures (up to 600°C) and has dual magnetic polarities. Intrusions means form relatively tight cluster, which average direction corresponds to paleomagnetic poles with coordinates: Plat=-23.4°N, Plong=70.0°E, dp/dm = 3.4°/6.7°. Two polarity distribution of HTC vectors, no resemblance to paleomagnetic poles of younger age, and relative proximity to poles of close age (Ernst et al., 2000; Veselovskiy et al., 2006, 2009) - all these allow us to consider the paleomagnetic pole as reflecting the direction of geomagnetic

  1. p53-upregulated-modulator-of-apoptosis (PUMA) deficiency affects food intake but does not impact on body weight or glucose homeostasis in diet-induced obesity.

    PubMed Central

    Litwak, Sara A.; Loh, Kim; Stanley, William J.; Pappas, Evan G.; Wali, Jibran A.; Selck, Claudia; Strasser, Andreas; Thomas, Helen E.; Gurzov, Esteban N.

    2016-01-01

    BCL-2 proteins have been implicated in the control of glucose homeostasis and metabolism in different cell types. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the role of the pro-apoptotic BH3-only protein, p53-upregulated-modulator-of-apoptosis (PUMA), in metabolic changes mediated by diet-induced obesity, using PUMA deficient mice. At 10 weeks of age, knockout and wild type mice either continued consuming a low fat chow diet (6% fat), or were fed with a high fat diet (23% fat) for 14–17 weeks. We measured body composition, glucose and insulin tolerance, insulin response in peripheral tissues, energy expenditure, oxygen consumption, and respiratory exchange ratio in vivo. All these parameters were indistinguishable between wild type and knockout mice on chow diet and were modified equally by diet-induced obesity. Interestingly, we observed decreased food intake and ambulatory capacity of PUMA knockout mice on high fat diet. This was associated with increased adipocyte size and fasted leptin concentration in the blood. Our findings suggest that although PUMA is dispensable for glucose homeostasis in lean and obese mice, it can affect leptin levels and food intake during obesity. PMID:27033313

  2. Age-related body weight constraints on prenatal and milk provisioning in Iberian red deer (Cervus elaphus hispanicus) affect allocation of maternal resources.

    PubMed

    Landete-Castillejos, T; García, A; Carrión, D; Estevez, J A; Ceacero, F; Gaspar-López, E; Gallego, L

    2009-02-01

    Maternal phenotypic characteristics can influence key life history variables of their offspring through maternal effects. In this study, we examined how body size constraints on maternal weight in yearling and subadult compared to adult hinds (age class effects) affected prenatal (calf birth weight, calf to hind weight ratio) and postnatal (milk) provisioning of Iberian red deer calves. Age correlated with all prenatal and postnatal investment traits except calf gains, although correlations were weaker than those with maternal weight. Once the effect of linear increase in weight with age was removed from models, yearlings showed additional reductions in calf birth weight, calf gains, and milk provisioning. The low-calf birth weight might increase the risk of calf mortality during lactation, as this occurs primarily during the first day of life and is strongly related to birth weight. Yearlings showed a greater prenatal allocation of resources in terms of greater calf to hind weight ratio probably as an extra effort by yearling mothers to balance calf neonatal mortality. It might compensate young mothers to produce low-quality calves while still growing rather than waiting for the uncertain possibility of surviving to the next reproductive season.

  3. p53-upregulated-modulator-of-apoptosis (PUMA) deficiency affects food intake but does not impact on body weight or glucose homeostasis in diet-induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Litwak, Sara A; Loh, Kim; Stanley, William J; Pappas, Evan G; Wali, Jibran A; Selck, Claudia; Strasser, Andreas; Thomas, Helen E; Gurzov, Esteban N

    2016-04-01

    BCL-2 proteins have been implicated in the control of glucose homeostasis and metabolism in different cell types. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the role of the pro-apoptotic BH3-only protein, p53-upregulated-modulator-of-apoptosis (PUMA), in metabolic changes mediated by diet-induced obesity, using PUMA deficient mice. At 10 weeks of age, knockout and wild type mice either continued consuming a low fat chow diet (6% fat), or were fed with a high fat diet (23% fat) for 14-17 weeks. We measured body composition, glucose and insulin tolerance, insulin response in peripheral tissues, energy expenditure, oxygen consumption, and respiratory exchange ratio in vivo. All these parameters were indistinguishable between wild type and knockout mice on chow diet and were modified equally by diet-induced obesity. Interestingly, we observed decreased food intake and ambulatory capacity of PUMA knockout mice on high fat diet. This was associated with increased adipocyte size and fasted leptin concentration in the blood. Our findings suggest that although PUMA is dispensable for glucose homeostasis in lean and obese mice, it can affect leptin levels and food intake during obesity.

  4. Genome-Wide Association Study for Identifying Loci that Affect Fillet Yield, Carcass, and Body Weight Traits in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Pena, Dianelys; Gao, Guangtu; Baranski, Matthew; Moen, Thomas; Cleveland, Beth M; Kenney, P Brett; Vallejo, Roger L; Palti, Yniv; Leeds, Timothy D

    2016-01-01

    Fillet yield (FY, %) is an economically-important trait in rainbow trout aquaculture that affects production efficiency. Despite that, FY has received little attention in breeding programs because it is difficult to measure on a large number of fish and cannot be directly measured on breeding candidates. The recent development of a high-density SNP array for rainbow trout has provided the needed tool for studying the underlying genetic architecture of this trait. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) was conducted for FY, body weight at 10 (BW10) and 13 (BW13) months post-hatching, head-off carcass weight (CAR), and fillet weight (FW) in a pedigreed rainbow trout population selectively bred for improved growth performance. The GWAS analysis was performed using the weighted single-step GBLUP method (wssGWAS). Phenotypic records of 1447 fish (1.5 kg at harvest) from 299 full-sib families in three successive generations, of which 875 fish from 196 full-sib families were genotyped, were used in the GWAS analysis. A total of 38,107 polymorphic SNPs were analyzed in a univariate model with hatch year and harvest group as fixed effects, harvest weight as a continuous covariate, and animal and common environment as random effects. A new linkage map was developed to create windows of 20 adjacent SNPs for use in the GWAS. The two windows with largest effect for FY and FW were located on chromosome Omy9 and explained only 1.0-1.5% of genetic variance, thus suggesting a polygenic architecture affected by multiple loci with small effects in this population. One window on Omy5 explained 1.4 and 1.0% of the genetic variance for BW10 and BW13, respectively. Three windows located on Omy27, Omy17, and Omy9 (same window detected for FY) explained 1.7, 1.7, and 1.0%, respectively, of genetic variance for CAR. Among the detected 100 SNPs, 55% were located directly in genes (intron and exons). Nucleotide sequences of intragenic SNPs were blasted to the Mus musculus genome to create a

  5. Genome-Wide Association Study for Identifying Loci that Affect Fillet Yield, Carcass, and Body Weight Traits in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Pena, Dianelys; Gao, Guangtu; Baranski, Matthew; Moen, Thomas; Cleveland, Beth M.; Kenney, P. Brett; Vallejo, Roger L.; Palti, Yniv; Leeds, Timothy D.

    2016-01-01

    Fillet yield (FY, %) is an economically-important trait in rainbow trout aquaculture that affects production efficiency. Despite that, FY has received little attention in breeding programs because it is difficult to measure on a large number of fish and cannot be directly measured on breeding candidates. The recent development of a high-density SNP array for rainbow trout has provided the needed tool for studying the underlying genetic architecture of this trait. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) was conducted for FY, body weight at 10 (BW10) and 13 (BW13) months post-hatching, head-off carcass weight (CAR), and fillet weight (FW) in a pedigreed rainbow trout population selectively bred for improved growth performance. The GWAS analysis was performed using the weighted single-step GBLUP method (wssGWAS). Phenotypic records of 1447 fish (1.5 kg at harvest) from 299 full-sib families in three successive generations, of which 875 fish from 196 full-sib families were genotyped, were used in the GWAS analysis. A total of 38,107 polymorphic SNPs were analyzed in a univariate model with hatch year and harvest group as fixed effects, harvest weight as a continuous covariate, and animal and common environment as random effects. A new linkage map was developed to create windows of 20 adjacent SNPs for use in the GWAS. The two windows with largest effect for FY and FW were located on chromosome Omy9 and explained only 1.0–1.5% of genetic variance, thus suggesting a polygenic architecture affected by multiple loci with small effects in this population. One window on Omy5 explained 1.4 and 1.0% of the genetic variance for BW10 and BW13, respectively. Three windows located on Omy27, Omy17, and Omy9 (same window detected for FY) explained 1.7, 1.7, and 1.0%, respectively, of genetic variance for CAR. Among the detected 100 SNPs, 55% were located directly in genes (intron and exons). Nucleotide sequences of intragenic SNPs were blasted to the Mus musculus genome to create a

  6. Changes of skin temperature of parts of the body and serum asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) in type-2 diabetes mellitus Indian patients.

    PubMed

    Anburajan, M; Sivanandam, S; Bidyarasmi, S; Venkatraman, B; Menaka, M; Raj, Baldev

    2011-01-01

    In India, number of people with type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM) would be 87 million by the year 2030. DM disturbs autonomic regulation of skin micro-circulation, and causes decrease in resting blood flows through the skin. The skin blood flow has a major effect on its temperature. The aim of the study was to evaluate changes of skin temperature of all parts of the body and serum asymmetric dimethylarginine, ADMA (μmol/L) in type-2 DM Indian patients. Group-I: Normal (n = 17; M/F: 10/15, mean ± SD = 43.2 ± 9.4 years); Group-II: Type-2 DM without cardiovascular (CV) complications (n = 15; M/F: 10/7, mean ± SD = 46.3 ± 14.0 years); Thermograms of all parts of the body were acquired using a non-contact infrared (IR) thermography camera (ThermaCAM T400, FLIR Systems, Sweden). Blood parameters and thyroid hormone were measured biochemically. Indian diabetic risk score (IDRS) was calculated for each subject. In type-2 DM patients without CV group (n = 15), there was a statistically significant (p = 0.01) negative correlations between HbA(1c) and skin temperature of eye and nose (r = -0.57 and r = -0.55 respectively). ADMA was correlated significantly (p = 0.01) with HbA(1c) (r = 0.65) and estimated average glucose, eAG (r = 0.63). In normal subjects, mean minimum and maximum values of skin temperatures were observed at posterior side of sole (26.89 °C) and ear (36.85 °C) respectively. In type-2 DM without CV, mean values of skin temperature in different parts of the body from head to toe were lesser than those values in control group; but this decreases were statistically significant in nose (32.66 Vs 33.99 °C, p = 0.024) as well as in tibia (32.78 Vs 33.13 °C, p = 0.036) regions.

  7. Anatomical and biomechanical traits of broiler chickens across ontogeny. Part II. Body segment inertial properties and muscle architecture of the pelvic limb

    PubMed Central

    Tickle, Peter G.; Rankin, Jeffery W.; Codd, Jonathan R.; Hutchinson, John R.

    2014-01-01

    In broiler chickens, genetic success for desired production traits is often shadowed by welfare concerns related to musculoskeletal health. Whilst these concerns are clear, a viable solution is still elusive. Part of the solution lies in knowing how anatomical changes in afflicted body systems that occur across ontogeny influence standing and moving. Here, to demonstrate these changes we quantify the segment inertial properties of the whole body, trunk (legs removed) and the right pelvic limb segments of five broilers at three different age groups across development. We also consider how muscle architecture (mass, fascicle length and other properties related to mechanics) changes for selected muscles of the pelvic limb. All broilers used had no observed lameness, but we document the limb pathologies identified post mortem, since these two factors do not always correlate, as shown here. The most common leg disorders, including bacterial chondronecrosis with osteomyelitis and rotational and angular deformities of the lower limb, were observed in chickens at all developmental stages. Whole limb morphology is not uniform relative to body size, with broilers obtaining large thighs and feet between four and six weeks of age. This implies that the energetic cost of swinging the limbs is markedly increased across this growth period, perhaps contributing to reduced activity levels. Hindlimb bone length does not change during this period, which may be advantageous for increased stability despite the increased energetic costs. Increased pectoral muscle growth appears to move the centre of mass cranio-dorsally in the last two weeks of growth. This has direct consequences for locomotion (potentially greater limb muscle stresses during standing and moving). Our study is the first to measure these changes in the musculoskeletal system across growth in chickens, and reveals how artificially selected changes of the morphology of the pectoral apparatus may cause deficits in

  8. Does low-energy sweetener consumption affect energy intake and body weight? A systematic review, including meta-analyses, of the evidence from human and animal studies.

    PubMed

    Rogers, P J; Hogenkamp, P S; de Graaf, C; Higgs, S; Lluch, A; Ness, A R; Penfold, C; Perry, R; Putz, P; Yeomans, M R; Mela, D J

    2016-03-01

    By reducing energy density, low-energy sweeteners (LES) might be expected to reduce energy intake (EI) and body weight (BW). To assess the totality of the evidence testing the null hypothesis that LES exposure (versus sugars or unsweetened alternatives) has no effect on EI or BW, we conducted a systematic review of relevant studies in animals and humans consuming LES with ad libitum access to food energy. In 62 of 90 animal studies exposure to LES did not affect or decreased BW. Of 28 reporting increased BW, 19 compared LES with glucose exposure using a specific 'learning' paradigm. Twelve prospective cohort studies in humans reported inconsistent associations between LES use and body mass index (-0.002 kg m(-)(2) per year, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.009 to 0.005). Meta-analysis of short-term randomized controlled trials (129 comparisons) showed reduced total EI for LES versus sugar-sweetened food or beverage consumption before an ad libitum meal (-94 kcal, 95% CI -122 to -66), with no difference versus water (-2 kcal, 95% CI -30 to 26). This was consistent with EI results from sustained intervention randomized controlled trials (10 comparisons). Meta-analysis of sustained intervention randomized controlled trials (4 weeks to 40 months) showed that consumption of LES versus sugar led to relatively reduced BW (nine comparisons; -1.35 kg, 95% CI -2.28 to -0.42), and a similar relative reduction in BW versus water (three comparisons; -1.24 kg, 95% CI -2.22 to -0.26). Most animal studies did not mimic LES consumption by humans, and reverse causation may influence the results of prospective cohort studies. The preponderance of evidence from all human randomized controlled trials indicates that LES do not increase EI or BW, whether compared with caloric or non-caloric (for example, water) control conditions. Overall, the balance of evidence indicates that use of LES in place of sugar, in children and adults, leads to reduced EI and BW, and possibly also

  9. Does low-energy sweetener consumption affect energy intake and body weight? A systematic review, including meta-analyses, of the evidence from human and animal studies

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, P J; Hogenkamp, P S; de Graaf, C; Higgs, S; Lluch, A; Ness, A R; Penfold, C; Perry, R; Putz, P; Yeomans, M R; Mela, D J

    2016-01-01

    By reducing energy density, low-energy sweeteners (LES) might be expected to reduce energy intake (EI) and body weight (BW). To assess the totality of the evidence testing the null hypothesis that LES exposure (versus sugars or unsweetened alternatives) has no effect on EI or BW, we conducted a systematic review of relevant studies in animals and humans consuming LES with ad libitum access to food energy. In 62 of 90 animal studies exposure to LES did not affect or decreased BW. Of 28 reporting increased BW, 19 compared LES with glucose exposure using a specific ‘learning' paradigm. Twelve prospective cohort studies in humans reported inconsistent associations between LES use and body mass index (−0.002 kg m−2 per year, 95% confidence interval (CI) −0.009 to 0.005). Meta-analysis of short-term randomized controlled trials (129 comparisons) showed reduced total EI for LES versus sugar-sweetened food or beverage consumption before an ad libitum meal (−94 kcal, 95% CI −122 to −66), with no difference versus water (−2 kcal, 95% CI −30 to 26). This was consistent with EI results from sustained intervention randomized controlled trials (10 comparisons). Meta-analysis of sustained intervention randomized controlled trials (4 weeks to 40 months) showed that consumption of LES versus sugar led to relatively reduced BW (nine comparisons; −1.35 kg, 95% CI –2.28 to −0.42), and a similar relative reduction in BW versus water (three comparisons; −1.24 kg, 95% CI –2.22 to −0.26). Most animal studies did not mimic LES consumption by humans, and reverse causation may influence the results of prospective cohort studies. The preponderance of evidence from all human randomized controlled trials indicates that LES do not increase EI or BW, whether compared with caloric or non-caloric (for example, water) control conditions. Overall, the balance of evidence indicates that use of LES in place of sugar, in children and adults, leads to reduced EI

  10. US Transuranium Registry report of the 241Am content of a whole body. Part IV: Preparation and analysis of the tissues and bones

    SciTech Connect

    McInroy, J.F.; Boyd, H.A.; Eutsler, B.C.; Romero, D.

    1985-10-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has analyzed autopsy tissue for the USTR, as a part of its study of the uptake, distribution and retention of Pu and other transuranic elements in occupationally exposed workers since 1978. In April 1979, Los Alamos received the internal organs and bone samples from the first whole-body donation to the USTR. The donor was known to have an internal deposition of SU Am. All soft tissue, the bones from the right half of the skeleton, and the odd-numbered vertebrae were received at Los Alamos in February 1980. The bones were subdivided along anatomical areas of interest. All soft tissues and bone specimens were analyzed for their SU Am content. A total deposition of 147.4 nCi SU Am was measured. Approximately 18% of the SU Am remaining in the body (disregarding that in the left hand), was found in the soft tissues, and 82% was in the bones and teeth. The soft tissues and organs containing the largest amounts of SU Am were the combined soft tissue (striated muscle, connective tissue and skin) 8.8%; liver, 6.4% and respiratory tract, 1.5%. The remaining organs accounted for 0.9% of the systemic burden.

  11. The U.S. Transuranium Registry report of the 241Am content of a whole body. Part IV: Preparation and analysis of the tissues and bones.

    PubMed

    McInroy, J F; Boyd, H A; Eutsler, B C; Romero, D

    1985-10-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has analyzed autopsy tissue for the USTR, as a part of its study of the uptake, distribution and retention of Pu and other transuranic elements in occupationally exposed workers since 1978. In April 1979, Los Alamos received the internal organs and bone samples from the first whole-body donation to the USTR. The donor was known to have an internal deposition of 241Am. All soft tissue, the bones from the right half of the skeleton, and the odd-numbered vertebrae were received at Los Alamos in February 1980. The bones were subdivided along anatomical areas of interest. All soft tissues and bone specimens were analyzed for their 241Am content. A total deposition of 147.4 nCi 241Am was measured. Approximately 18% of the 241Am remaining in the body (disregarding that in the left hand), was found in the soft tissues, and 82% was in the bones and teeth. The soft tissues and organs containing the largest amounts of 241Am were the combined soft tissue (striated muscle, connective tissue and skin) 8.8%; liver, 6.4% and respiratory tract, 1.5%. The remaining organs accounted for 0.9% of the systemic burden.

  12. How the length of genital parts affects copulation performance in a carabid beetle: implications for correlated genital evolution between the sexes.

    PubMed

    Okuzaki, Y; Sota, T

    2014-03-01

    To identify factors leading to the correlated evolution of exaggerated male and female genitalia, we studied the effects of the variable dimensions of corresponding functional genital parts (male copulatory piece and female vaginal appendix) on copulatory performance in the polygamous carabid beetle Carabus (Ohomopterus) maiyasanus. We used mating pairs of individuals from two populations to increase the variances in genital dimensions and determined the copulation performance (insemination and spermatophore replacement, and copulation time) in single- and double-mating situations. In single mating, insemination success was not affected by genital dimensions, although the copulation time was significantly shorter when the male aedeagus was longer. In the double-mating experiment, insemination and replacement of spermatophores by the second male succeeded more frequently when the copulatory piece was shorter and the vaginal appendix was longer, and when the difference between the length of the copulatory piece and the vaginal appendix was smaller. Thus, a matching of the corresponding genital parts between the sexes increases the male's reproductive success in sperm competition, but elongation of the copulatory piece cannot be explained simply by the improvement in male reproductive success. We discuss possible factors for the elongation of genital parts in terms of sexual conflict and reproductive interference through interspecific copulation.

  13. The body fades away: investigating the effects of transparency of an embodied virtual body on pain threshold and body ownership

    PubMed Central

    Martini, Matteo; Kilteni, Konstantina; Maselli, Antonella; Sanchez-Vives, Maria V.

    2015-01-01

    The feeling of “ownership” over an external dummy/virtual body (or body part) has been proven to have both physiological and behavioural consequences. For instance, the vision of an “embodied” dummy or virtual body can modulate pain perception. However, the impact of partial or total invisibility of the body on physiology and behaviour has been hardly explored since it presents obvious difficulties in the real world. In this study we explored how body transparency affects both body ownership and pain threshold. By means of virtual reality, we presented healthy participants with a virtual co-located body with four different levels of transparency, while participants were tested for pain threshold by increasing ramps of heat stimulation. We found that the strength of the body ownership illusion decreases when the body gets more transparent. Nevertheless, in the conditions where the body was semi-transparent, higher levels of ownership over a see-through body resulted in an increased pain sensitivity. Virtual body ownership can be used for the development of pain management interventions. However, we demonstrate that providing invisibility of the body does not increase pain threshold. Therefore, body transparency is not a good strategy to decrease pain in clinical contexts, yet this remains to be tested. PMID:26415748

  14. Radiation Doses to Members of the U.S. Population from Ubiquitous Radionuclides in the Body: Part 3, Results, Variability, and Uncertainty

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, David J.; Strom, Daniel J.

    2011-02-25

    This paper is part three of a three-part series investigating annual effective doses to residents of the United States from intakes of ubiquitous radionuclides, including radionuclides occurring naturally, radionuclides whose concentrations are technologically enhanced, and anthropogenic radionuclides. The radionuclides of interest are the 238U series (14 nuclides), the actinium series (headed by 235U; 11 nuclides), and the 232Th series (11 nuclides); primordial radionuclides 87Rb and 40K; cosmogenic and fallout radionuclides 14C and 3H; and purely anthropogenic radionuclides 137Cs-137mBa, 129I and 90Sr-90Y. This series of papers explicitly excludes intakes from inhaling 222Rn, 220Rn, and their short-lived decay products; it also excludes intakes of radionuclides in occupational and medical settings. Part one reviewed, summarized, characterized, and grouped all published and some unpublished data for U.S. residents on ubiquitous radionuclide concentrations in tissues and organs. Part two described the methods used to organize the data collected in part one and segregate it into the ages and genders defined by the study, imputed missing values from the existing data, apportioned activity in bone, and imputed activity in hollow organ contents and the remainder of the body. This paper estimates equivalent doses to target tissues from source regions and maps target tissues to lists of tissues with International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP) tissue-weighting factors or to surrogate tissue regions when there is no direct match. Effective doses, using ICRP tissue-weighting factors recommended in 1977, 1990, and 2007, are then calculated, and an upper bound of variability of the effective dose is estimated by calculating the average coefficients of variation (CV), assuming all variance is due to variability. Most of the data were for adult males, whose average annual effective dose is estimated to be 337 μSv (CV = 0.65, geometric mean = 283 μSv, geometric

  15. The use of mixed-method, part-body pre-cooling procedures for team-sport athletes training in the heat.

    PubMed

    Duffield, Rob; Steinbacher, Geoff; Fairchild, Timothy J

    2009-12-01

    The current study investigated the effects of a pre-cooling intervention on physiological and performance responses to team-sport training in the heat. Seven male lacrosse players performed a familiarization session and 2 randomized, counterbalanced sessions consisting of a 30-minute intermittent-sprint conditioning session. Prior to the sessions, players performed a 20-minute mixed-method, part-body cooling intervention (consisting of cooling vests, cold towels to the neck, and ice packs to the quadriceps) or no cooling intervention. Performance was determined from collection of 1 Hz global positioning system (GPS) data and analyzed for distance and speed. Prior to, during, and following the sessions, core temperature, heart rate, rating of perceived exertion (RPE), and thermal sensation scale (TSS) were measured; additionally, a venous blood sample was collected before and after each session for measurement of interleukin-6 (IL-6), insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein3 (IGF-BP3). Results indicated that a greater distance was covered during the pre-cooling condition (3.35 +/- 0.20 vs. 3.11 +/- 0.13 km; p = 0.05). Further, most of this improvement was evident from a greater distance covered during moderate intensities of 7 to 14 km/h (2.28 +/- 0.18 vs. 2.00 +/- 0.24 km; p = 0.05). Peak speeds and very-high-intensity efforts (20 km/h +/-) were not different between conditions (p > 0.05). The increase in core temperature was blunted following cooling, with a lower core temperature throughout the cooling session (38.8 +/- 0.3 vs. 39.3 +/- 0.4 degrees C; p < 0.05). However, there were no differences in heart rate, RPE, TSS, IL-6, IGF-1, or IGF-BP3 between conditions (p > 0.05). Accordingly, the use of a mixed-method, part-body cooling intervention prior to an intermittent-sprint training session in the heat can assist in reducing thermoregulatory load and improve aspects of training performance for team sports.

  16. Prenatal exposure to glucocorticoids affects body weight, serum leptin levels, and hypothalamic neuropeptide-Y expression in pre-pubertal female rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Iwasa, Takeshi; Matsuzaki, Toshiya; Munkhzaya, Munkhsaikhan; Tungalagsuvd, Altankhuu; Kawami, Takako; Murakami, Masahiro; Yamasaki, Mikio; Kato, Takeshi; Kuwahara, Akira; Yasui, Toshiyuki; Irahara, Minoru

    2014-08-01

    Glucocorticoid secretion is a key endocrine response to stress. It has been reported that prenatal stress induces long-lasting alterations in body weight regulation systems, which persist after the stress has ceased. In this study, the long-term effects of prenatal glucocorticoid exposure on body weight changes and the expression of appetite-regulating factors were examined in female rats. Pregnant rats were given normal drinking water (control) or dexamethasone (1 μg/mL) dissolved in drinking water (DEX) from day 13 of pregnancy until delivery. Then, the body weight change, serum leptin levels, and hypothalamic NPY mRNA levels of their offspring were examined. The DEX dams gained significantly less body weight during pregnancy than the control dams. The DEX dams' offspring exhibited a significantly lower birth weight than the offspring of the control dams, and the same was true for body weight at postnatal days 20 and 28. The offspring of the DEX dams displayed significantly higher serum leptin levels and significantly lower hypothalamic NPY mRNA levels compared with the offspring of the control dams. Significant inverse correlations were detected between body weight and the serum leptin level, and between the serum leptin level and the hypothalamic NPY mRNA level. On the other hand, a significant positive correlation was detected between body weight and the hypothalamic NPY mRNA level. These results indicate that leptin production is increased in a long-lasting manner in offspring exposed to glucocorticoids during the prenatal period and that this results in attenuated body weight gain and hypothalamic NPY expression during the pre-pubertal period.

  17. Eight Weeks of Phosphatidic Acid Supplementation in Conjunction with Resistance Training Does Not Differentially Affect Body Composition and Muscle Strength in Resistance-Trained Men.

    PubMed

    Andre, Thomas L; Gann, Joshua J; McKinley-Barnard, Sarah K; Song, Joon J; Willoughby, Darryn S

    2016-09-01

    This study attempted to determine the effects of eight weeks of resistance training (RT) combined with phosphatidic acid (PA) supplementation at a dose of either 250 mg or 375 mg on body composition and muscle size and strength. Twenty-eight resistance-trained men were randomly assigned to ingest 375 mg [PA375 (n = 9)] or 250 mg [PA250 (n = 9)] of PA or 375 mg of placebo [PLC (n = 10)] daily for eight weeks with RT. Supplements were ingested 60 minutes prior to RT and in the morning on non-RT days. Participants' body composition, muscle size, and lower-body muscle strength were determined before and after training/supplementation. Separate group x time ANOVAs for each criterion variable were used employing an alpha level of ≤ 0.05. Magnitude- based inferences were utilized to determine the likely or unlikely impact of PA on each criterion variable. A significant main effect for time was observed for improvements in total body mass (p = 0.003), lean mass (p = 0.008), rectus femoris cross-sectional area [RF CSA (p = 0.011)], and lower-body strength (p < 0.001), but no significant interactions were present (p > 0.05). Collectively, magnitude-based inferences determined both doses of PA to have a likely impact of increasing body mass (74.2%), lean mass (71.3%), RF CSA (92.2%), and very likely impact on increasing lower-body strength (98.1% beneficial). When combined with RT, it appears that PA has a more than likely impact on improving lower-body strength, whereas a likely impact exists for increasing muscle size and lean mass.

  18. Brain oxygenation patterns during the execution of tool use demonstration, tool use pantomime, and body-part-as-object tool use.

    PubMed

    Helmich, Ingo; Holle, Henning; Rein, Robert; Lausberg, Hedda

    2015-04-01

    Divergent findings exist whether left and right hemispheric pre- and postcentral cortices contribute to the production of tool use related hand movements. In order to clarify the neural substrates of tool use demonstrations with tool in hand, tool use pantomimes without tool in hand, and body-part-as-object presentations of tool use (BPO) in a naturalistic mode of execution, we applied functional Near InfraRed Spectroscopy (fNIRS) in twenty-three right-handed participants. Functional NIRS techniques allow for the investigation of brain oxygenation during the execution of complex hand movements with an unlimited movement range. Brain oxygenation patterns were retrieved from 16 channels of measurement above pre- and postcentral cortices of each hemisphere. The results showed that tool use demonstration with tool in hand leads to increased oxygenation as compared to tool use pantomimes in the left hemispheric somatosensory gyrus. Left hand executions of the demonstration of tool use, pantomime of tool use, and BPO of tool use led to increased oxygenation in the premotor and somatosensory cortices of the left hemisphere as compared to right hand executions of either condition. The results indicate that the premotor and somatosensory cortices of the left hemisphere constitute relevant brain structures for tool related hand movement production when using the left hand, whereas the somatosensory cortex of the left hemisphere seems to provide specific mental representations when performing tool use demonstrations with the tool in hand.

  19. Small parts: Crisóstomo Martínez (1638-1694), bone histology, and the visual making of body wholeness.

    PubMed

    Valverde, Nuria

    2009-09-01

    The Valencian engraver Crisóstomo Martínez (ca. 1638-1694) arrived in Paris in July 1687, commissioned to create an anatomical atlas. Impressed by Govard Bidloo's Anatomia humani corporis (1685), Martínez decided to make a comparable work on osteology. His unpublished atlas of anatomy was exceptional in its choice of topic, its quality, and its overall visual approach. Martínez's work revolves around the dissolving effects of microscopic study on the traditional understanding of the connections between parts and whole. Underlying his investigation into the most effective composition of an anatomical atlas was the idea of the self-organizing and complex nature of the body as itself a composition, an idea rooted in the way observation and judgment, the seen and the unseen, and notions about collections and communities were connected in the vanitas culture. This essay explores the links between Martínez's work and the cultures of a time in which observation and interpretation of the processes of death, decay, and fragmentation played a primary role in defining a common human nature around which notions of destiny could be articulated.

  20. Creatine monohydrate supplementation on body weight and percent body fat.

    PubMed

    Kutz, Matthew R; Gunter, Michael J

    2003-11-01

    Seventeen active males (age 22.9 +/- 4.9 year) participated in a study to examine the effects of creatine monohydrate supplementation on total body weight (TBW), percent body fat, body water content, and caloric intake. The TBW was measured in kilograms, percent body fat by hydrostatic weighing, body water content via bioelectrical impedance, and caloric intake by daily food log. Subjects were paired and assigned to a creatine or placebo group with a double-blind research design. Supplementation was given for 4 weeks (30 g a day for the initial 2 weeks and 15 g a day for the final 2 weeks). Subjects reported 2 days a week for supervised strength training of the lower extremity. Significant increases before and after the study were found in TBW (90.42 +/- 14.74 to 92.12 +/- 15.19 kg) and body water content (53.77 +/- 1.75 to 57.15 +/- 2.01 L) for the creatine group (p = 0.05). No significant changes were found in percent body fat or daily caloric intake in the creatine group. No significant changes were noted for the placebo group. These findings support previous research that creatine supplementation increases TBW. Mean percent body fat and caloric intake was not affected by creatine supplementation. Therefore weight gain in lieu of creatine supplementation may in part be due to water retention.

  1. Eight Weeks of Phosphatidic Acid Supplementation in Conjunction with Resistance Training Does Not Differentially Affect Body Composition and Muscle Strength in Resistance-Trained Men

    PubMed Central

    Andre, Thomas L.; Gann, Joshua J.; McKinley-Barnard, Sarah K.; Song, Joon J.; Willoughby, Darryn S.

    2016-01-01

    This study attempted to determine the effects of eight weeks of resistance training (RT) combined with phosphatidic acid (PA) supplementation at a dose of either 250 mg or 375 mg on body composition and muscle size and strength. Twenty-eight resistance-trained men were randomly assigned to ingest 375 mg [PA375 (n = 9)] or 250 mg [PA250 (n = 9)] of PA or 375 mg of placebo [PLC (n = 10)] daily for eight weeks with RT. Supplements were ingested 60 minutes prior to RT and in the morning on non-RT days. Participants’ body composition, muscle size, and lower-body muscle strength were determined before and after training/supplementation. Separate group x time ANOVAs for each criterion variable were used employing an alpha level of ≤ 0.05. Magnitude- based inferences were utilized to determine the likely or unlikely impact of PA on each criterion variable. A significant main effect for time was observed for improvements in total body mass (p = 0.003), lean mass (p = 0.008), rectus femoris cross-sectional area [RF CSA (p = 0.011)], and lower-body strength (p < 0.001), but no significant interactions were present (p > 0.05). Collectively, magnitude-based inferences determined both doses of PA to have a likely impact of increasing body mass (74.2%), lean mass (71.3%), RF CSA (92.2%), and very likely impact on increasing lower-body strength (98.1% beneficial). When combined with RT, it appears that PA has a more than likely impact on improving lower-body strength, whereas a likely impact exists for increasing muscle size and lean mass. Key points In response to eight weeks resistance training and PLC and PA (375 mg and 250 mg) supplementation, similar increases in lower-body muscle strength occurred in all three groups; however, the increases were not different between supplement groups. In response to eight weeks resistance training and PLC and PA (375 mg and 250 mg) supplementation, similar increases in lean mass occurred in all three groups; however, the increases were

  2. Short communication: Changes in body temperature of calves up to 2 months of age as affected by time of day, age, and ambient temperature.

    PubMed

    Hill, T M; Bateman, H G; Suarez-Mena, F X; Dennis, T S; Schlotterbeck, R L

    2016-11-01

    Extensive measurements of calf body temperature are limited in the literature. In this study, body temperatures were collected by taping a data logger to the skin over the tail vein opposing the rectum of Holstein calves between 4 and 60d of age during 3 different periods of the summer and fall. The summer period was separated into moderate (21-33°C average low to high) and hot (25-37°C) periods, whereas the fall exhibited cool (11-19°C) ambient temperatures. Tail temperatures were compared in a mixed model ANOVA using ambient temperature, age of calf, and time of day (10-min increments) as fixed effects and calf as a random effect. Measures within calf were modeled as repeated effects of type autoregressive 1. Calf temperature increased 0.0325°C (±0.00035) per 1°C increase in ambient temperature. Body temperature varied in a distinct, diurnal pattern with time of day, with body temperatures being lowest around 0800h and highest between 1700 and 2200h. During periods of hot weather, the highest calf temperature was later in the day (~2200h). Calf minimum, maximum, and average body temperatures were all higher in hot than in moderate periods and higher in moderate than in cool periods.

  3. A Virtual Reality Full Body Illusion Improves Body Image Disturbance in Anorexia Nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Keizer, Anouk; van Elburg, Annemarie; Helms, Rossa; Dijkerman, H. Chris

    2016-01-01

    Background Patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) have a persistent distorted experience of the size of their body. Previously we found that the Rubber Hand Illusion improves hand size estimation in this group. Here we investigated whether a Full Body Illusion (FBI) affects body size estimation of body parts more emotionally salient than the hand. In the FBI, analogue to the RHI, participants experience ownership over an entire virtual body in VR after synchronous visuo-tactile stimulation of the actual and virtual body. Methods and Results We asked participants to estimate their body size (shoulders, abdomen, hips) before the FBI was induced, directly after induction and at ~2 hour 45 minutes follow-up. The results showed that AN patients (N = 30) decrease the overestimation of their shoulders, abdomen and hips directly after the FBI was induced. This effect was strongest for estimates of circumference, and also observed in the asynchronous control condition of the illusion. Moreover, at follow-up, the improvements in body size estimation could still be observed in the AN group. Notably, the HC group (N = 29) also showed changes in body size estimation after the FBI, but the effect showed a different pattern than that of the AN group. Conclusion The results lead us to conclude that the disturbed experience of body size in AN is flexible and can be changed, even for highly emotional body parts. As such this study offers novel starting points from which new interventions for body image disturbance in AN can be developed. PMID:27711234

  4. A methanolic extract of Ganoderma lucidum fruiting body inhibits the growth of a gastric cancer cell line and affects cellular autophagy and cell cycle.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Marta; Reis, Filipa S; Sousa, Diana; Tavares, Catarina; Lima, Raquel T; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; dos Santos, Tiago; Vasconcelos, M Helena

    2014-07-25

    Ganoderma lucidum is one of the most extensively studied mushrooms as a functional food and as a chemopreventive agent due to its recognized medicinal properties. Some G. lucidum extracts have shown promising antitumor potential. In this study, the bioactive properties of various extracts of G. lucidum, from both the fruiting body and the spores, were investigated. The most potent extract identified was the methanolic fruiting body extract, which inhibited the growth of a gastric cancer cell line (AGS) by interfering with cellular autophagy and cell cycle.

  5. SAR versus S(inc): What is the appropriate RF exposure metric in the range 1-10 GHz? Part II: Using complex human body models.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, Robert L; Anderson, Vitas

    2010-09-01

    This is the second of the two articles that present modeling data and reasoned arguments for specifying the appropriate crossover frequency at which incident power flux density (S(inc)) replaces the peak 10 g averaged value of the specific energy absorption rate (SAR) as the designated basic restriction for protecting against radiofrequency electromagnetic heating effects in the 1-10 GHz range. In our first study, we compared the degree of correlation between these basic restrictions and the peak-induced tissue temperature rise (DeltaT) for a representative range of population/exposure scenarios using simple multi-planar models exposed to plane wave conditions. In this complementary study, complex heterogeneous head models for an adult and 12-year-old child were analyzed at 1, 3, 6, 8, and 10 GHz for a variety of exposure conditions. The complex models indicate that peak DeltaT is better correlated with peak 10 g SAR than S(inc) at 1 and 3 GHz and with S(inc) at 6-10 GHz, in contrast to the results from Part I. Considering the planar and complex body modeling results together, and given the equivocal indications of the two metrics in the 6-10 GHz range, we recommend that the breakpoint be set at 6 GHz. This choice is also based on other considerations such as ease of assessment. We also recommend that the limit level of S(inc) should be adjusted to provide a better match with 10 g SAR in the induced tissue temperature rise.

  6. Reverse engineering of complex biological body parts by squared distance enabled non-uniform rational B-spline technique and layered manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Pandithevan, Ponnusamy

    2015-02-01

    In tissue engineering, the successful modeling of scaffold for the replacement of damaged body parts depends mainly on external geometry and internal architecture in order to avoid the adverse effects such as pain and lack of ability to transfer the load to the surrounding bone. Due to flexibility in controlling the parameters, layered manufacturing processes are widely used for the fabrication of bone tissue engineering scaffold with the given computer-aided design model. This article presents a squared distance minimization approach for weight optimization of non-uniform rational B-spline curve and surface to modify the geometry that exactly fits into the defect region automatically and thus to fabricate the scaffold specific to subject and site. The study showed that though the errors associated in the B-spline curve and surface were minimized by squared distance method than point distance method and tangent distance method, the errors could be minimized further in the rational B-spline curve and surface as the optimal weight could change the shape that desired for the defect site. In order to measure the efficacy of the present approach, the results were compared with point distance method and tangent distance method in optimizing the non-rational and rational B-spline curve and surface fitting for the defect site. The optimized geometry then allowed to construct the scaffold in fused deposition modeling system as an example. The result revealed that the squared distance-based weight optimization of the rational curve and surface in making the defect specific geometry best fits into the defect region than the other methods used.

  7. Tamoxifen affects glucose and lipid metabolism parameters, causes browning of subcutaneous adipose tissue and transient body composition changes in C57BL/6NTac mice.

    PubMed

    Hesselbarth, Nico; Pettinelli, Chiara; Gericke, Martin; Berger, Claudia; Kunath, Anne; Stumvoll, Michael; Blüher, Matthias; Klöting, Nora

    2015-08-28

    Tamoxifen is a selective estrogen receptor (ER) modulator which is widely used to generate inducible conditional transgenic mouse models. Activation of ER signaling plays an important role in the regulation of adipose tissue (AT) metabolism. We therefore tested the hypothesis that tamoxifen administration causes changes in AT biology in vivo. 12 weeks old male C57BL/6NTac mice were treated with either tamoxifen (n = 18) or vehicle (n = 18) for 5 consecutive days. Tamoxifen treatment effects on body composition, energy homeostasis, parameters of AT biology, glucose and lipid metabolism were investigated up to an age of 18 weeks. We found that tamoxifen treatment causes: I) significantly increased HbA1c, triglyceride and free fatty acid serum concentrations (p < 0.01), II) browning of subcutaneous AT and increased UCP-1 expression, III) increased AT proliferation marker Ki67 mRNA expression, IV) changes in adipocyte size distribution, and V) transient body composition changes. Tamoxifen may induce changes in body composition, whole body glucose and lipid metabolism and has significant effects on AT biology, which need to be considered when using Tamoxifen as a tool to induce conditional transgenic mouse models. Our data further suggest that tamoxifen-treated wildtype mice should be characterized in parallel to experimental transgenic models to control for tamoxifen administration effects.

  8. Supersonic aerodynamic characteristics of hypersonic low-wave-drag elliptical body-tail combinations as affected by changes in stabilizer configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spencer, B., Jr.; Fournier, R. H.

    1973-01-01

    An investigation has been made at Mach numbers from 1.50 to 4.63 to determine systematically the effects of the addition and position of outboard stabilizers and vertical- and vee-tail configurations on the performance and stability characteristics of a low-wave-drag elliptical body. The basic body shape was a zero-lift hypersonic minimum-wave-drag body as determined for the geometric constraints of length and volume. The elliptical cross section had an axis ratio of 2 (major axis horizontal) and an equivalent fineness ratio of 6.14. Base-mounted outboard stabilizers were at various dihedral angles from 90 deg to minus 90 deg with and without a single center-line vertical tail or a vee-tail. The angle of attack was varied from about minus 6 to 27 deg at sideslip angles of 0 and 5 deg and a constant Reynolds number of 4.58 x one million (based on body length).

  9. Factors Affecting Date of Implantation, Parturition, and Den Entry Estimated from Activity and Body Temperature in Free-Ranging Brown Bears

    PubMed Central

    Friebe, Andrea; Evans, Alina L.; Arnemo, Jon M.; Blanc, Stéphane; Brunberg, Sven; Fleissner, Günther; Swenson, Jon E.; Zedrosser, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of factors influencing the timing of reproduction is important for animal conservation and management. Brown bears (Ursus arctos) are able to vary the birth date of their cubs in response to their fat stores, but little information is available about the timing of implantation and parturition in free-ranging brown bears. Body temperature and activity of pregnant brown bears is higher during the gestation period than during the rest of hibernation and drops at parturition. We compared mean daily body temperature and activity levels of pregnant and nonpregnant females during preimplantation, gestation, and lactation. Additionally we tested whether age, litter size, primiparity, environmental conditions, and the start of hibernation influence the timing of parturition. The mean date of implantation was 1 December (SD = 12), the mean date of parturition was 26 January (SD = 12), and the mean duration of the gestation period was 56 days (SD = 2). The body temperature of pregnant females was higher during the gestation and lactation periods than that of nonpregnant bears. The body temperature of pregnant females decreased during the gestation period. Activity recordings were also used to determine the date of parturition. The parturition dates calculated with activity and body temperature data did not differ significantly and were the same in 50% of the females. Older females started hibernation earlier. The start of hibernation was earlier during years with favorable environmental conditions. Dates of parturition were later during years with good environmental conditions which was unexpected. We suggest that free-ranging pregnant brown bears in areas with high levels of human activities at the beginning of the denning period, as in our study area, might prioritize investing energy in early denning than in early parturition during years with favorable environmental conditions, as a strategy to prevent disturbances caused by human. PMID:24988486

  10. Tamoxifen affects glucose and lipid metabolism parameters, causes browning of subcutaneous adipose tissue and transient body composition changes in C57BL/6NTac mice

    SciTech Connect

    Hesselbarth, Nico; Pettinelli, Chiara; Gericke, Martin; Berger, Claudia; Kunath, Anne; Stumvoll, Michael; Blüher, Matthias; Klöting, Nora

    2015-08-28

    Tamoxifen is a selective estrogen receptor (ER) modulator which is widely used to generate inducible conditional transgenic mouse models. Activation of ER signaling plays an important role in the regulation of adipose tissue (AT) metabolism. We therefore tested the hypothesis that tamoxifen administration causes changes in AT biology in vivo. 12 weeks old male C57BL/6NTac mice were treated with either tamoxifen (n = 18) or vehicle (n = 18) for 5 consecutive days. Tamoxifen treatment effects on body composition, energy homeostasis, parameters of AT biology, glucose and lipid metabolism were investigated up to an age of 18 weeks. We found that tamoxifen treatment causes: I) significantly increased HbA{sub 1c}, triglyceride and free fatty acid serum concentrations (p < 0.01), II) browning of subcutaneous AT and increased UCP-1 expression, III) increased AT proliferation marker Ki67 mRNA expression, IV) changes in adipocyte size distribution, and V) transient body composition changes. Tamoxifen may induce changes in body composition, whole body glucose and lipid metabolism and has significant effects on AT biology, which need to be considered when using Tamoxifen as a tool to induce conditional transgenic mouse models. Our data further suggest that tamoxifen-treated wildtype mice should be characterized in parallel to experimental transgenic models to control for tamoxifen administration effects. - Highlights: • Tamoxifen treatment causes significantly increased HbA{sub 1c}, triglyceride and free fatty acid serum concentrations. • Tamoxifen induces browning of subcutaneous AT and increased UCP-1 expression. • Tamoxifen changes adipocyte size distribution, and transient body composition.

  11. Factors affecting date of implantation, parturition, and den entry estimated from activity and body temperature in free-ranging brown bears.

    PubMed

    Friebe, Andrea; Evans, Alina L; Arnemo, Jon M; Blanc, Stéphane; Brunberg, Sven; Fleissner, Günther; Swenson, Jon E; Zedrosser, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of factors influencing the timing of reproduction is important for animal conservation and management. Brown bears (Ursus arctos) are able to vary the birth date of their cubs in response to their fat stores, but little information is available about the timing of implantation and parturition in free-ranging brown bears. Body temperature and activity of pregnant brown bears is higher during the gestation period than during the rest of hibernation and drops at parturition. We compared mean daily body temperature and activity levels of pregnant and nonpregnant females during preimplantation, gestation, and lactation. Additionally we tested whether age, litter size, primiparity, environmental conditions, and the start of hibernation influence the timing of parturition. The mean date of implantation was 1 December (SD = 12), the mean date of parturition was 26 January (SD = 12), and the mean duration of the gestation period was 56 days (SD = 2). The body temperature of pregnant females was higher during the gestation and lactation periods than that of nonpregnant bears. The body temperature of pregnant females decreased during the gestation period. Activity recordings were also used to determine the date of parturition. The parturition dates calculated with activity and body temperature data did not differ significantly and were the same in 50% of the females. Older females started hibernation earlier. The start of hibernation was earlier during years with favorable environmental conditions. Dates of parturition were later during years with good environmental conditions which was unexpected. We suggest that free-ranging pregnant brown bears in areas with high levels of human activities at the beginning of the denning period, as in our study area, might prioritize investing energy in early denning than in early parturition during years with favorable environmental conditions, as a strategy to prevent disturbances caused by human.

  12. Peripubertal exposure to low doses of tributyltin chloride affects the homeostasis of serum T, E2, LH, and body weight of male mice.

    PubMed

    Si, Jiliang; Wu, Xuesen; Wan, Chengen; Zeng, Tao; Zhang, Miao; Xie, Keqin; Li, Jie

    2011-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that tributyltin could act as an endocrine disruptor in mammals. However, the data on the low-dose effect of tributyltin in animals are still lacking. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the endocrine disruption induced by low levels of tributyltin chloride (TBTCl) in male KM mice. The animals were treated with 0.05 or 0.5 mg TBTCl/kg body weight/3 days from postnatal days (PNDs) 24 to 45, and killed on PNDs 49 and 84, respectively. Mice treated with 0.5 mg TBTCl/kg exhibited decreased serum and intratesticular testosterone (T) levels on PND 49 and then followed by an obvious recovery on PND 84. Furthermore, mice treated with 0.05 mg TBTCl/kg showed reduced serum 17β-estradiol (E2) levels on PND 49. However, treatments with TBTCl resulted in a dose-dependent increase in serum E2 concentration of the mice on PND 84. Administration of TBTCl also decreased levels of serum luteinizing hormone and intratesticular E2 on PND 84. In addition, mice exposed to 0.05 mg/kg TBTCl exhibited an increase in body weight in the late stage of the experiment. These results indicate that treatment with low doses of TBTCl could disturb hormone homeostasis and body weight gain in rodents, and exposure to different levels of TBTCl might have different effects on changing some physiologic parameters.

  13. Vehicle body cover

    SciTech Connect

    Hirose, T.

    1987-01-13

    This patent describes a vehicle body covered with a vehicle body cover which comprises: a front cover part, a rear cover part, a pair of side cover parts, and a roof cover part: the front cover part having portions adapted to cover only a hood, an area around a windshield and tops of front fenders of a vehicle body. The portion covering the hood is separated from the portions covering the tops of the fenders by cuts in the front cover part, the front cover part having an un-cut portion corresponding to a position at which the hood is hinged to the car body. The front cover part has a cut-out at a position corresponding to the windshield of the vehicle body and the front cover part has at least one cut-out at a position corresponding to where a rear view mirror is attached to the vehicle body; and the rear cover part having portions adapted to cover an area around a rear window, a trunk lid and a rear end of the vehicle body, the portion covering the trunk lid separated from the rest of the rear cover part by cuts corresponding to three sides of the trunk lid and an un-cut portion corresponding to a position at which the trunk lid is hinged to the vehicle body. The rear cover part has a hole at position corresponding to a trunk lid lock, a cut-out portion at a position corresponding to the rear window of the vehicle body, a cut-out at a position corresponding to a license plate of the vehicle body and cut-outs at positions corresponding to rear taillights of the vehicle body.

  14. 40 CFR 63.5595 - What compliance options do I have if part of my affected source is subject to both this subpart...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... part 265, subpart AA or CC, and you comply with the periodic reporting requirements under 40 CFR part... the Notification of Compliance Status Report required in § 63.5575 and Table 7 to this subpart....

  15. 40 CFR 63.5595 - What compliance options do I have if part of my affected source is subject to both this subpart...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., subpart AA or CC, or is subject to monitoring and recordkeeping requirements in 40 CFR part 265, subpart AA or CC, and you comply with the periodic reporting requirements under 40 CFR part 264, subpart...

  16. Genome-wide association study for identifying loci that affect fillet yield, carcass, and body weight traits in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fillet yield (FY, %) is an economically important trait in rainbow trout aquaculture that affects production efficiency. Despite that, FY has not received much attention in breeding programs because it is difficult to measure on a large number of fish and it cannot be directly measured on breeding c...

  17. Bone cement distribution in the vertebral body affects chances of recompression after percutaneous vertebroplasty treatment in elderly patients with osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Liang; Wang, Qiang; Wang, Lin; Shen, Jian; Zhang, Qiwei; Sun, Changtai

    2017-01-01

    Objective Percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) is a surgical procedure that has been widely used to treat patients suffering from osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (OVCFs). The procedure involves injection of bone cement into a fractured vertebra. In this study, we investigated whether the distribution of the cement in the vertebral body is related to the occurrence of recompression after surgery. Patients and methods A total of 172 patients diagnosed with OVCF, from January 2008 to June 2013, were retrospectively reviewed. Fifty of these patients experienced recompression after surgery during the follow-up period (recompression group), and 122 patients had no recompression observed during the follow-up period (control group). Statistical analysis was performed to compare clinical and operative parameters between these two groups. Results Differences were found in bone cement distribution between the recompression group and control group (P=0.001). Patients with bone cement distributed around both upper and lower endplates had a significantly less incidence of recompression (4/50 patients), when compared to other patterns of cement distribution (eg, below upper endplate, above lower endplate, and in the middle of vertebral body). The logistic multiple regression analysis also indicated that patients with bone cement distributed around both the upper and lower endplates had a lower risk of recompression when compared to patients with bone cement distributed in the middle of vertebral body (odds ratio =0.223, P=0.003). Conclusion We herein suggest that the control of bone cement distribution during surgery provides beneficial effects on reducing the risks of recompression after PVP treatment in patients with OVCF. PMID:28260871

  18. Research on the sonic boom problem. Part 1: Second-order solutions for the flow field around slender bodies in supersonic flow for sonic boom analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landahl, M.; Loefgren, P.

    1973-01-01

    A second-order theory for supersonic flow past slender bodies is presented. Through the introduction of characteristic coordinates as independent variables and the expansion procedure proposed by Lin and Oswatitsch, a uniformly valid solution is obtained for the whole flow field in the axisymmetric case and for far field in the general three-dimensional case. For distances far from the body the theory is an extension of Whitham's first-order solution and for the domain close to the body it is a modification of Van Dyke's second-order solution in the axisymmetric case. From the theory useful formulas relating flow deflections to the Whitham F-function are derived, which permits one to determine the sonic boom strength from wind tunnel measurements fairly close to the body.

  19. Sex allocation and secondary sex ratio in Cuban boa (Chilabothrus angulifer): mother's body size affects the ratio between sons and daughters.

    PubMed

    Frynta, Daniel; Vejvodová, Tereza; Šimková, Olga

    2016-06-01

    Secondary sex ratios of animals with genetically determined sex may considerably deviate from equality. These deviations may be attributed to several proximate and ultimate factors. Sex ratio theory explains some of them as strategic decisions of mothers improving their fitness by selective investment in sons or daughters, e.g. local resource competition hypothesis (LRC) suggests that philopatric females tend to produce litters with male-biased sex ratios to avoid future competition with their daughters. Until now, only little attention has been paid to examine predictions of sex ratio theory in snakes possessing genetic sex determination and exhibiting large variance in allocation of maternal investment. Cuban boa is an endemic viviparous snake producing large-bodied newborns (∼200 g). Extremely high maternal investment in each offspring increases importance of sex allocation. In a captive colony, we collected breeding records of 42 mothers, 62 litters and 306 newborns and examined secondary sex ratios (SR) and sexual size dimorphism (SSD) of newborns. None of the examined morphometric traits of neonates appeared sexually dimorphic. The sex ratio was slightly male biased (174 males versus 132 females) and litter sex ratio significantly decreased with female snout-vent length. We interpret this relationship as an additional support for LRC as competition between mothers and daughters increases with similarity of body sizes between competing snakes.

  20. Sex allocation and secondary sex ratio in Cuban boa ( Chilabothrus angulifer): mother's body size affects the ratio between sons and daughters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frynta, Daniel; Vejvodová, Tereza; Šimková, Olga

    2016-06-01

    Secondary sex ratios of animals with genetically determined sex may considerably deviate from equality. These deviations may be attributed to several proximate and ultimate factors. Sex ratio theory explains some of them as strategic decisions of mothers improving their fitness by selective investment in sons or daughters, e.g. local resource competition hypothesis (LRC) suggests that philopatric females tend to produce litters with male-biased sex ratios to avoid future competition with their daughters. Until now, only little attention has been paid to examine predictions of sex ratio theory in snakes possessing genetic sex determination and exhibiting large variance in allocation of maternal investment. Cuban boa is an endemic viviparous snake producing large-bodied newborns (˜200 g). Extremely high maternal investment in each offspring increases importance of sex allocation. In a captive colony, we collected breeding records of 42 mothers, 62 litters and 306 newborns and examined secondary sex ratios (SR) and sexual size dimorphism (SSD) of newborns. None of the examined morphometric traits of neonates appeared sexually dimorphic. The sex ratio was slightly male biased (174 males versus 132 females) and litter sex ratio significantly decreased with female snout-vent length. We interpret this relationship as an additional support for LRC as competition between mothers and daughters increases with similarity of body sizes between competing snakes.

  1. Lower maternal body condition during pregnancy affects skeletal muscle structure and glut-4 protein levels but not glucose tolerance in mature adult sheep.

    PubMed

    Costello, Paula M; Hollis, Lisa J; Cripps, Roselle L; Bearpark, Natasha; Patel, Harnish P; Sayer, Avan Aihie; Cooper, Cyrus; Hanson, Mark A; Ozanne, Susan E; Green, Lucy R

    2013-10-01

    Suboptimal maternal nutrition and body composition are implicated in metabolic disease risk in adult offspring. We hypothesized that modest disruption of glucose homeostasis previously observed in young adult sheep offspring from ewes of a lower body condition score (BCS) would deteriorate with age, due to changes in skeletal muscle structure and insulin signaling mechanisms. Ewes were fed to achieve a lower (LBCS, n = 10) or higher (HBCS, n = 14) BCS before and during pregnancy. Baseline plasma glucose, glucose tolerance and basal glucose uptake into isolated muscle strips were similar in male offspring at 210 ± 4 weeks. Vastus total myofiber density (HBCS, 343 ± 15; LBCS, 294 ± 14 fibers/mm(2), P < .05) and fast myofiber density (HBCS, 226 ± 10; LBCS 194 ± 10 fibers/mm(2), P < .05), capillary to myofiber ratio (HBCS, 1.5 ± 0.1; LBCS 1.2 ± 0.1 capillary:myofiber, P < .05) were lower in LBCS offspring. Vastus protein levels of Akt1 were lower (83% ± 7% of HBCS, P < .05), and total glucose transporter 4 was increased (157% ± 6% of HBCS, P < .001) in LBCS offspring, Despite the reduction in total myofiber density in LBCS offspring, glucose tolerance was normal in mature adult life. However, such adaptations may lead to complications in metabolic control in an overabundant postnatal nutrient environment.

  2. Rock Glacier Outflows May Adversely Affect Lakes: Lessons from the Past and Present of Two Neighboring Water Bodies in a Crystalline-Rock Watershed

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Despite the fact that rock glaciers are one of the most common geomorphological expressions of mountain permafrost, the impacts of their solute fluxes on lakes still remain largely obscure. We examined water and sediment chemistry, and biota of two neighboring water bodies with and without a rock glacier in their catchments in the European Alps. Paleolimnological techniques were applied to track long-term temporal trends in the ecotoxicological state of the water bodies and to establish their baseline conditions. We show that the active rock glacier in the mineralized catchment of Lake Rasass (RAS) represents a potent source of acid rock drainage that results in enormous concentrations of metals in water, sediment, and biota of RAS. The incidence of morphological abnormalities in the RAS population of Pseudodiamesa nivosa, a chironomid midge, is as high as that recorded in chironomid populations inhabiting sites heavily contaminated by trace metals of anthropogenic origin. The incidence of morphological deformities in P. nivosa of ∼70% persisted in RAS during the last 2.5 millennia and was ∼40% in the early Holocene. The formation of RAS at the toe of the rock glacier most probably began at the onset of acidic drainage in the freshly deglaciated area. The present adverse conditions are not unprecedented in the lake’s history and cannot be associated exclusively with enhanced thawing of the rock glacier in recent years. PMID:24804777

  3. Rock glacier outflows may adversely affect lakes: lessons from the past and present of two neighboring water bodies in a crystalline-rock watershed.

    PubMed

    Ilyashuk, Boris P; Ilyashuk, Elena A; Psenner, Roland; Tessadri, Richard; Koinig, Karin A

    2014-06-03

    Despite the fact that rock glaciers are one of the most common geomorphological expressions of mountain permafrost, the impacts of their solute fluxes on lakes still remain largely obscure. We examined water and sediment chemistry, and biota of two neighboring water bodies with and without a rock glacier in their catchments in the European Alps. Paleolimnological techniques were applied to track long-term temporal trends in the ecotoxicological state of the water bodies and to establish their baseline conditions. We show that the active rock glacier in the mineralized catchment of Lake Rasass (RAS) represents a potent source of acid rock drainage that results in enormous concentrations of metals in water, sediment, and biota of RAS. The incidence of morphological abnormalities in the RAS population of Pseudodiamesa nivosa, a chironomid midge, is as high as that recorded in chironomid populations inhabiting sites heavily contaminated by trace metals of anthropogenic origin. The incidence of morphological deformities in P. nivosa of ∼70% persisted in RAS during the last 2.5 millennia and was ∼40% in the early Holocene. The formation of RAS at the toe of the rock glacier most probably began at the onset of acidic drainage in the freshly deglaciated area. The present adverse conditions are not unprecedented in the lake's history and cannot be associated exclusively with enhanced thawing of the rock glacier in recent years.

  4. Early invitation to food and/or multiple micronutrient supplementation in pregnancy does not affect body composition in offspring at 54 months: follow-up of the MINIMat randomised trial, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Khan, Ashraful Islam; Kabir, Iqbal; Hawkesworth, Sophie; Ekström, Eva-Charlotte; Arifeen, Shams; Frongillo, Edward A; Persson, Lars Åke

    2015-07-01

    Growth patterns in early life are associated with later health. The effect of nutrition during in utero development on later body composition is unclear. We evaluated whether prenatal early invitation to food and/or multiple micronutrient supplementation (MMS) in pregnancy has an effect on offspring body composition at 54 months of age. In Maternal and Infant Nutrition Interventions in Matlab trial (ISRCTN16581394) in Bangladesh, 4436 pregnant women were randomised into six equally sized groups: double-masked supplementation with capsules of either 30 mg Fe and 400 μg folic acid, or 60 mg Fe and 400 μg folic acid, or MMS (15 micronutrients), was combined with a randomised early invitation (around 9 weeks) or a usual invitation (around 20 weeks) to start food supplementation (608 kcal 6 days per week). At 54 months, the body composition of the offspring was assessed by leg-to-leg bioelectrical impedance analysis. Of the 3267 live singletons with birth anthropometry, 2290 children were measured at 54 months, representing 70% of the live births. There was no interaction between the food and micronutrient supplementation on body composition outcomes. There were no significant differences in a range of anthropometric and body composition measurements, including weight, height, mid-upper arm circumference, head circumference, skinfold thickness, and fat mass and fat-free mass between the different prenatal food and micronutrient groups using an intention-to-treat analysis. This analysis shows that early invitation to food supplementation and MMS provided to rural Bangladeshi women during pregnancy did not affect offspring body composition at 54 months of age.

  5. Agavins from Agave angustifolia and Agave potatorum affect food intake, body weight gain and satiety-related hormones (GLP-1 and ghrelin) in mice.

    PubMed

    Santiago-García, Patricia Araceli; López, Mercedes G

    2014-12-01

    Agavins act as a fermentable dietary fiber and have attracted attention due to their potential for reducing the risk of disease. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of supplementation using 10% agavins with a short-degree of polymerization (SDP) from Agave angustifolia Haw. (AASDP) or Agave potatorum Zucc. (APSDP) along with chicory fructans (RSE) as a reference for 5 weeks, on the energy intake, body weight gain, satiety-related hormones from the gut and blood (GLP-1 and ghrelin), blood glucose and lipids, and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) from the gut of ad libitum-fed mice. We evaluated the energy intake daily and weight gain every week. At the end of the experiment, portal vein blood samples as well as intestinal segments and the stomach were collected to measure glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and ghrelin using RIA and ELISA kits, respectively. Colon SCFAs were measured using gas chromatography. The energy intake, body weight gain, and triglycerides were lower in the fructan-fed mice than in the STD-fed mice. The AASDP, APSDP, and RSE diets increased the serum levels of GLP-1 (40, 93, and 16%, respectively vs. STD) (P ≤ 0.05), whereas ghrelin was decreased (16, 38, and 42%, respectively) (P ≤ 0.05). Butyric acid increased significantly in the APSDP-fed mice (26.59 mmol g(-1), P ≤ 0.001) compared with that in the AASDP- and RSE-fed mice. We concluded that AASDP and APSDP are able to promote the secretion of the peptides involved in appetite regulation, which might help to control obesity and its associated metabolic disorder.

  6. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitor lowers PPARγ agonist-induced body weight gain by affecting food intake, fat mass, and beige/brown fat but not fluid retention

    PubMed Central

    Masuda, Takahiro; Fu, Yiling; Eguchi, Akiko; Czogalla, Jan; Rose, Michael A.; Kuczkowski, Alexander; Gerasimova, Maria; Feldstein, Ariel E.; Scadeng, Miriam

    2013-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) agonists like pioglitazone (PGZ) are effective antidiabetic drugs, but they induce fluid retention and body weight (BW) gain. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV) inhibitors are antidiabetic drugs that enhance renal Na+ and fluid excretion. Therefore, we examined whether the DPP IV inhibitor alogliptin (ALG) ameliorates PGZ-induced BW gain. Male Sv129 mice were treated with vehicle (repelleted diet), PGZ (220 mg/kg diet), ALG (300 mg/kg diet), or a combination of PGZ and ALG (PGZ + ALG) for 14 days. PGZ + ALG prevented the increase in BW observed with PGZ but did not attenuate the increase in body fluid content determined by bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS). BIS revealed that ALG alone had no effect on fat mass (FM) but enhanced the FM-lowering effect of PGZ; MRI analysis confirmed the latter and showed reductions in visceral and inguinal subcutaneous (sc) white adipose tissue (WAT). ALG but not PGZ decreased food intake and plasma free fatty acid concentrations. Conversely, PGZ but not ALG increased mRNA expression of thermogenesis mediator uncoupling protein 1 in epididymal WAT. Adding ALG to PGZ treatment increased the abundance of multilocular cell islets in sc WAT, and PGZ + ALG increased the expression of brown-fat-like “beige” cell marker TMEM26 in sc WAT and interscapular brown adipose tissue and increased rectal temperature vs. vehicle. In summary, DPP IV inhibition did not attenuate PPARγ agonist-induced fluid retention but prevented BW gain by reducing FM. This involved ALG inhibition of food intake and was associated with food intake-independent synergistic effects of PPARγ agonism and DPP-IV inhibition on beige/brown fat cells and thermogenesis. PMID:24347054

  7. Factors affecting pre-ovulatory follicle diameter and ovulation rate following GnRH in postpartum beef cows Part II: Anestrous cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were to identify factors affecting ovulatory follicle size in anestrous suckled beef cows so that we could determine how ovulatory follicle size affects fertility. This study used a two by two factorial design in which anestrous suckled beef cows (n = 55) either ovulate...

  8. My body, my property.

    PubMed

    Andrews, L B

    1986-10-01

    Two recent cases raise the question: Should the body be considered a form of property? Patients generally do not share in the profits derived from the applications of research on their body parts and products. Nor is their consent for research required so long as the body part is unidentified and is removed in the course of treatment. A market in body parts and products would require consent to all categories of research and ensure that patients are protected from coercion and given the chance to be paid fairly for their contributions. Such a market might force us to rethink our policies prohibiting organ sales. Donors, recipients, and society will benefit from a market in body parts so long as owners--and no one else--retain control over their bodies.

  9. Design Concepts for Zero-G Whole Body Cleansing on ISS Alpha. Part 2; Individual Design Project; Degree awarded by International Space Univ., 1997

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohanty, Susmita

    2001-01-01

    This document was originally published in 1997 as a International Space University Master of Space Studies student's project. While the specifics may be a little dated, the results gleaned are still relevant and valid. Johnson Space Center is now abuzz with preparations for the International Space Station. The work on the various systems for the U.S. Habitation Module will begin in 1998. As a prelude, the Flight Crew Support Division perceived the need to take a closer, more critical took at planning the Whole Body Cleansing function for ISS. This report is an endeavour to retrieve all data available on whole body cleansing mechanisms used, past and present, by the Russians and the Americans, analyze it and create design concepts for products/product systems for zero-g whole body cleansing on ISS Alpha, for typical duration of about 90 days. This report takes a close look at the Skylab collapsible shower, the Mir shower/sauna, the full body cleansing methods currently in use onboard the Space Shuttle and Mir and at the Whole Body Shower designed and tested for Space Station Freedom. It attempts to "listen" carefully to what the Mir astronauts (Norm Thagard, Shannon Lucid and John Blaha) have to say about their personal hygiene experiences during their recent stays on Mir. The findings in the report call for a change in paradigm. What is good for Earth conditions is not necessarily good for Zero-g! It concludes that a shower is not a good idea for the ISS. The final concept that is proposed reflects very strongly what the Mir astronauts would like to have and to use onboard a station like the ISS, The report concludes with directions of how to take the "idea" further and realize it in the form of a product system for Whole Body Cleansing onboard the ISS.

  10. Factors affecting the perception of whole-body vibration of occupational drivers: an analysis of posture and manual materials handling and musculoskeletal disorders

    PubMed Central

    Raffler, Nastaran; Ellegast, Rolf; Kraus, Thomas; Ochsmann, Elke

    2016-01-01

    Due to the high cost of conducting field measurements, questionnaires are