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Sample records for affected body weight

  1. Body Weight Independently Affects Articular Cartilage Catabolism

    PubMed Central

    Denning, W. Matt; Winward, Jason G.; Pardo, Michael Becker; Hopkins, J. Ty; Seeley, Matthew K.

    2015-01-01

    Although obesity is associated with osteoarthritis, it is unclear whether body weight (BW) independently affects articular cartilage catabolism (i.e., independent from physiological factors that also accompany obesity). The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the independent effect of BW on articular cartilage catabolism associated with walking. A secondary purpose was to determine how decreased BW influenced cardiovascular response due to walking. Twelve able-bodied subjects walked for 30 minutes on a lower-body positive pressure treadmill during three sessions: control (unadjusted BW), +40%BW, and -40%BW. Serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) was measured immediately before (baseline) and after, and 15 and 30 minutes after the walk. Heart rate (HR) and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured every three minutes during the walk. Relative to baseline, average serum COMP concentration was 13% and 5% greater immediately after and 15 minutes after the walk. Immediately after the walk, serum COMP concentration was 14% greater for the +40%BW session than for the -40%BW session. HR and RPE were greater for the +40%BW session than for the other two sessions, but did not differ between the control and -40%BW sessions. BW independently influences acute articular cartilage catabolism and cardiovascular response due to walking: as BW increases, so does acute articular cartilage catabolism and cardiovascular response. These results indicate that lower-body positive pressure walking may benefit certain individuals by reducing acute articular cartilage catabolism, due to walking, while maintaining cardiovascular response. Key points Walking for 30 minutes with adjustments in body weight (normal body weight, +40% and -40% body weight) significantly influences articular cartilage catabolism, measured via serum COMP concentration. Compared to baseline levels, walking with +40% body weight and normal body weight both elicited significant increases in

  2. Genetic factors contributing to obesity and body weight can act through mechanisms affecting muscle weight, fat weight, or both.

    PubMed

    Brockmann, Gudrun A; Tsaih, Shirng-Wern; Neuschl, Christina; Churchill, Gary A; Li, Renhua

    2009-01-08

    Genetic loci for body weight and subphenotypes such as fat weight have been mapped repeatedly. However, the distinct effects of different loci and physiological interactions among different traits are often not accounted for in mapping studies. Here we used the method of structural equation modeling to identify the specific relationships between genetic loci and different phenotypes influencing body weight. Using this technique, we were able to distinguish genetic loci that affect adiposity from those that affect muscle growth. We examined the high body weight-selected mouse lines NMRI8 and DU6i and the intercross populations NMRI8 x DBA/2 and DU6i x DBA/2. Structural models help us understand whether genetic factors affect lean mass and fat mass pleiotropically or nonpleiotropically. Sex has direct effects on both fat and muscle weight but also influences fat weight indirectly via muscle weight. Three genetic loci identified in these two crosses showed exclusive effects on fat deposition, and five loci contributed exclusively to muscle weight. Two additional loci showed pleiotropic effects on fat and muscle weight, with one locus acting in both crosses. Fat weight and muscle weight were influenced by epistatic effects. We provide evidence that significant fat loci in strains selected for body weight contribute to fat weight both directly and indirectly via the influence on lean weight. These results shed new light on the action of genes in quantitative trait locus regions potentially influencing muscle and fat mass and thus controlling body weight as a composite trait.

  3. Does smoking affect body weight and obesity in China?

    PubMed

    Fang, Hai; Ali, Mir M; Rizzo, John A

    2009-12-01

    An inverse relationship between smoking and body weight has been documented in the medical literature, but the effect of cigarette smoking on obesity remains inconclusive. In addition, the evidence is mixed on whether rising obesity rates are an unintended consequence of successful anti-smoking policies. This study re-examines these relationships using data from China, the largest consumer and manufacturer of tobacco in the world that is also experiencing a steady rise in obesity rates. We focus on the impact of the total number of cigarettes smoked per day on individuals' body mass index (BMI) and on the likelihood of being overweight and obese. Instrumental variables estimation is used to correct for the endogeneity of cigarette smoking. We find a moderate negative and significant relationship between cigarette smoking and BMI. Smoking is also negatively related to being overweight and obese, but the marginal effects are small and statistically insignificant for being obese. Quantile regression analyses reveal that the association between smoking and BMI is quite weak among subjects whose BMIs are at the high end of the distribution but are considerably stronger among subjects in the healthy weight range. Ordered probit regression analyses also confirm these findings. Our results thus reconcile an inverse average effect of smoking on body weight with the absence of any significant effect on obesity. From a policy perspective these findings suggest that, while smoking cessation may lead to moderate weight gain among subjects of healthy weight, the effects on obese subjects are modest and should not be expected to lead to a large increase in obesity prevalence rates.

  4. Temperature and body weight affect fouling of pig pens.

    PubMed

    Aarnink, A J A; Schrama, J W; Heetkamp, M J W; Stefanowska, J; Huynh, T T T

    2006-08-01

    Fouling of the solid lying area in pig housing is undesirable for reasons of animal welfare, animal health, environmental pollution, and labor costs. In this study the influence of temperature on the excreting and lying behavior of growing-finishing pigs of different BW (25, 45, 65, 85, or 105 kg) was studied. Ten groups of 5 pigs were placed in partially slatted pens (60% solid concrete, 40% metal-slatted) in climate respiration chambers. After an adaptation period, temperatures were raised daily for 9 d. Results showed that above certain inflection temperatures (IT; mean 22.6 degrees C, SE = 0.78) the number of excretions (relative to the total number of excretions) on the solid floor increased with temperature (mean increase 9.7%/ degrees C, SE = 1.41). Below the IT, the number of excretions on the solid floor was low and not influenced by temperature (mean 13.2%, SE = 3.5). On average, the IT for excretion on the solid floor decreased with increasing BW, from approximately 25 degrees C at 25 kg to 20 degrees C at 100 kg of BW (P < 0.05). Increasing temperature also affected the pattern and postural lying. The temperature at which a maximum number of pigs lay on the slatted floor (i.e., the IT for lying) decreased from approximately 27 degrees C at 25 kg to 23 degrees C at 100 kg of BW (P < 0.001). At increasing temperatures, pigs lay more on their sides and less against other pigs (P < 0.001). Temperature affects lying and excreting behavior of growing-finishing pigs in partially slatted pens. Above certain IT, pen fouling increases linearly with temperature. Inflection temperatures decrease at increasing BW.

  5. Quinine controls body weight gain without affecting food intake in male C57BL6 mice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Quinine is a natural molecule commonly used as a flavouring agent in tonic water. Diet supplementation with quinine leads to decreased body weight and food intake in rats. Quinine is an in vitro inhibitor of Trpm5, a cation channel expressed in taste bud cells, the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas. The objective of this work is to determine the effect of diet supplementation with quinine on body weight and body composition in male mice, to investigate its mechanism of action, and whether the effect is mediated through Trpm5. Results Compared with mice consuming AIN, a regular balanced diet, mice consuming AIN diet supplemented with 0.1% quinine gained less weight (2.89 ± 0.30 g vs 5.39 ± 0.50 g) and less fat mass (2.22 ± 0.26 g vs 4.33 ± 0.43 g) after 13 weeks of diet, and had lower blood glucose and plasma triglycerides. There was no difference in food intake between the mice consuming quinine supplemented diet and those consuming control diet. Trpm5 knockout mice gained less fat mass than wild-type mice. There was a trend for a diet-genotype interaction for body weight and body weight gain, with the effect of quinine less pronounced in the Trpm5 KO than in the WT background. Faecal weight, energy and lipid contents were higher in quinine fed mice compared to regular AIN fed mice and in Trpm5 KO mice compared to wild type mice. Conclusion Quinine contributes to weight control in male C57BL6 mice without affecting food intake. A partial contribution of Trpm5 to quinine dependent body weight control is suggested. PMID:23394313

  6. Diet/Energy Balance Affect Sleep and Wakefulness Independent of Body Weight

    PubMed Central

    Perron, Isaac J.; Pack, Allan I.; Veasey, Sigrid

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Excessive daytime sleepiness commonly affects obese people, even in those without sleep apnea, yet its causes remain uncertain. We sought to determine whether acute dietary changes could induce or rescue wake impairments independent of body weight. Design: We implemented a novel feeding paradigm that generates two groups of mice with equal body weight but opposing energetic balance. Two subsets of mice consuming either regular chow (RC) or high-fat diet (HFD) for 8 w were switched to the opposite diet for 1 w. Sleep recordings were conducted at Week 0 (baseline), Week 8 (pre-diet switch), and Week 9 (post-diet switch) for all groups. Sleep homeostasis was measured at Week 8 and Week 9. Participants: Young adult, male C57BL/6J mice. Measurements and Results: Differences in total wake, nonrapid eye movement (NREM), and rapid eye movement (REM) time were quantified, in addition to changes in bout fragmentation/consolidation. At Week 9, the two diet switch groups had similar body weight. However, animals switched to HFD (and thus gaining weight) had decreased wake time, increased NREM sleep time, and worsened sleep/wake fragmentation compared to mice switched to RC (which were in weight loss). These effects were driven by significant sleep/wake changes induced by acute dietary manipulations (Week 8 → Week 9). Sleep homeostasis, as measured by delta power increase following sleep deprivation, was unaffected by our feeding paradigm. Conclusions: Acute dietary manipulations are sufficient to alter sleep and wakefulness independent of body weight and without effects on sleep homeostasis. Citation: Perron IJ, Pack AI, Veasey S. Diet/energy balance affect sleep and wakefulness independent of body weight. SLEEP 2015;38(12):1893–1903. PMID:26158893

  7. A delay in pubertal onset affects the covariation of body weight, estradiol, and bone size.

    PubMed

    Yingling, Vanessa R

    2009-04-01

    The skeletal system functions as a locomotive organ and a mineral reservoir and combinations of genetic and environmental factors affect the skeletal system. Although delayed puberty is associated with compromised bone mass, suppression of estrogen should be beneficial to cortical strength. The purpose was to employ path analysis to study bone strength and delayed puberty. Forty-five female rats were randomly assigned to a control group (n = 15) and an experimental group (n = 30) that received injections of gonadotropin releasing hormone antagonist (GnRH-a). Causal models were constructed by specifying directed paths between bone traits. The first model tested the hypothesis that the functional relationships between bone traits and body weight were altered by a delay in pubertal onset. GnRH-a injections during puberty altered the covariation between body weight and bone size. The second model was constructed to test the hypothesis that variability in stiffness was causally related to variability in body weight. The model also tested the relationship between the periosteal and endocortical surfaces and their relationship to stiffness. There was no change in the relationship between the surfaces in the GnRH-a group. The third model determined the effect of estradiol on both total area and relative cortical area in both groups. The relationship between periosteal surface and serum estradiol levels was only significant during estrogen suppression. These data suggest that increases in body weight during or prior to puberty may not be protective of bone strength.

  8. Body Weight Selection Affects Quantitative Genetic Correlated Responses in Gut Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Lele; Zhao, Wenjing; He, Chuan; Honaker, Christa F.; Zhai, Zhengxiao; Sun, Zikui; Siegel, Paul B.

    2014-01-01

    The abundance of gut microbiota can be viewed as a quantitative trait, which is affected by the genetics and environment of the host. To quantify the effects of host genetics, we calculated the heritability of abundance of specific microorganisms and genetic correlations among them in the gut microbiota of two lines of chickens maintained under the same husbandry and dietary regimes. The lines, which originated from a common founder population, had undergone >50 generations of selection for high (HW) or low (LW) 56-day body weight and now differ by more than 10-fold in body weight at selection age. We identified families of Paenibacillaceae, Streptococcaceae, Helicobacteraceae, and Burkholderiaceae that had moderate heritabilities. Although there were no obvious phenotypic correlations among gut microbiota, significant genetic correlations were observed. Moreover, the effects were modified by genetic selection for body weight, which altered the quantitative genetic background of the host. Heritabilities for Bacillaceae, Flavobacteriaceae, Helicobacteraceae, Comamonadaceae, Enterococcaceae, and Streptococcaceae were moderate in LW line and little to zero in the HW line. These results suggest that loci associated with these microbiota families, while exhibiting genetic variation in LW, have been fixed in HW line. Also, long term selection for body weight has altered the genetic correlations among gut microbiota. No microbiota families had significant heritabilities in both the LW and HW lines suggesting that the presence and/or absence of a particular microbiota family either has a strong growth promoting or inhibiting effect, but not both. These results demonstrate that the quantitative genetics of the host have considerable influence on the gut microbiota. PMID:24608294

  9. Natural mixtures of POPs affected body weight gain and induced transcription of genes involved in weight regulation and insulin signaling.

    PubMed

    Lyche, Jan L; Nourizadeh-Lillabadi, Rasoul; Karlsson, Camilla; Stavik, Benedicte; Berg, Vidar; Skåre, Janneche Utne; Alestrøm, Peter; Ropstad, Erik

    2011-04-01

    Obesity is reaching epidemic proportions worldwide, and is associated with chronic illnesses such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, hypertension and dyslipidemias (metabolic syndrome). Commonly held causes of obesity are overeating coupled with a sedentary lifestyle. However, it has also been postulated that exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may be related to the significant increase in the prevalence of obesity and associated diseases. In the present study, developmental and reproductive effects of lifelong exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of two natural mixtures of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were investigated using classical and molecular methods in a controlled zebrafish model. The mixtures used were extracted from burbot (Lota lota) liver originating from freshwater systems in Norway (Lake Mjøsa and Lake Losna). The concentration of POPs in the zebrafish ranged from levels detected in wild fish (Lake Mjøsa and Lake Losna), to concentrations reported in human and wildlife populations. Phenotypic effects observed in both exposure groups included (1) earlier onset of puberty, (2) elevated male/female sex ratio, and (3) increased body weight at 5 months of age. Interestingly, genome-wide transcription profiling identified functional networks of genes, in which key regulators of weight homeostasis (PPARs, glucocoricoids, CEBPs, estradiol), steroid hormone functions (glucocoricoids, estradiol, NCOA3) and insulin signaling (HNF4A, CEBPs, PPARG) occupied central positions. The increased weight and the regulation of genes associated with weight homeostasis and insulin signaling observed in the present study suggest that environmental pollution may affect the endocrine regulation of the metabolism, possibly leading to increased weight gain and obesity.

  10. Dosing obese cats based on body weight spuriously affects some measures of glucose tolerance.

    PubMed

    Reeve-Johnson, M K; Rand, J S; Anderson, S T; Appleton, D J; Morton, J M; Vankan, D

    2016-10-01

    The primary objective was to investigate whether dosing glucose by body weight results in spurious effects on measures of glucose tolerance in obese cats because volume of distribution does not increase linearly with body weight. Healthy research cats (n = 16; 6 castrated males, 10 spayed females) were used. A retrospective study was performed using glucose concentration data from glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity tests before and after cats were fed ad libitum for 9 to 12 mo to promote weight gain. The higher dose of glucose (0.5 vs 0.3 g/kg body weight) in the glucose tolerance tests increased 2-min glucose concentrations (P < 0.001), and there was a positive correlation between 2-min and 2-h glucose (r = 0.65, P = 0.006). Two-min (P = 0.016 and 0.019, respectively), and 2-h (P = 0.057 and 0.003, respectively) glucose concentrations, and glucose half-life (T1/2; P = 0.034 and <0.001 respectively) were positively associated with body weight and body condition score. Glucose dose should be decreased by 0.05 g for every kg above ideal body weight. Alternatively, for every unit of body condition score above 5 on a 9-point scale, observed 2-h glucose concentration should be adjusted down by 0.1 mmol/L. Dosing glucose based on body weight spuriously increases glucose concentrations at 2 h in obese cats and could lead to cats being incorrectly classified as having impaired glucose tolerance. This has important implications for clinical studies assessing the effect of interventions on glucose tolerance when lean and obese cats are compared.

  11. Melanocortin Receptor 4 Deficiency Affects Body Weight Regulation, Grooming Behavior, and Substrate Preference in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Mul, Joram D.; van Boxtel, Ruben; Bergen, Dylan J.M.; Brans, Maike A.D.; Brakkee, Jan H.; Toonen, Pim W.; Garner, Keith M.; Adan, Roger A.H.; Cuppen, Edwin

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is caused by an imbalance between energy intake and expenditure and has become a major health-care problem in western society. The central melanocortin system plays a crucial role in the regulation of feeding and energy expenditure, and functional loss of melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R) is the most common genetic cause of human obesity. In this study, we present the first functional Mc4r knockout model in the rat, resulting from an N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea mutagenesis–induced point mutation. In vitro observations revealed impaired membrane-binding and subsequent nonfunctionality of the receptor, whereas in vivo observations showed that functional loss of MC4R increased body weight, food intake, white adipose mass, and changed substrate preference. In addition, intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of Agouti-Related Protein79–129 (AgRP79–129), an MC4R inverse agonist, or Melanotan-II (MTII), an MC4R agonist, did affect feeding behavior in wild-type rats but not in homozygous mutant rats, confirming complete loss of MC4R function in vivo. Finally, ICV administration of MTII induced excessive grooming behavior in wild-type rats, whereas this effect was absent in homozygous mutant rats, indicating that MTII-induced grooming behavior is exclusively regulated via MC4R pathways. Taken together, we expect that the MC4R rat model described here will be a valuable tool for studying monogenic obesity in humans. More specifically, the relative big size and increased cognitive capacity of rats as compared to mice will facilitate complex behavioral studies and detailed mechanistic studies regarding central function of MC4R, both of which ultimately may help to further understand the specific mechanisms that induce obesity during loss of MC4R function. PMID:21527895

  12. Melanocortin receptor 4 deficiency affects body weight regulation, grooming behavior, and substrate preference in the rat.

    PubMed

    Mul, Joram D; van Boxtel, Ruben; Bergen, Dylan J M; Brans, Maike A D; Brakkee, Jan H; Toonen, Pim W; Garner, Keith M; Adan, Roger A H; Cuppen, Edwin

    2012-03-01

    Obesity is caused by an imbalance between energy intake and expenditure and has become a major health-care problem in western society. The central melanocortin system plays a crucial role in the regulation of feeding and energy expenditure, and functional loss of melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R) is the most common genetic cause of human obesity. In this study, we present the first functional Mc4r knockout model in the rat, resulting from an N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea mutagenesis-induced point mutation. In vitro observations revealed impaired membrane-binding and subsequent nonfunctionality of the receptor, whereas in vivo observations showed that functional loss of MC4R increased body weight, food intake, white adipose mass, and changed substrate preference. In addition, intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of Agouti-Related Protein(79-129) (AgRP(79-129)), an MC4R inverse agonist, or Melanotan-II (MTII), an MC4R agonist, did affect feeding behavior in wild-type rats but not in homozygous mutant rats, confirming complete loss of MC4R function in vivo. Finally, ICV administration of MTII induced excessive grooming behavior in wild-type rats, whereas this effect was absent in homozygous mutant rats, indicating that MTII-induced grooming behavior is exclusively regulated via MC4R pathways. Taken together, we expect that the MC4R rat model described here will be a valuable tool for studying monogenic obesity in humans. More specifically, the relative big size and increased cognitive capacity of rats as compared to mice will facilitate complex behavioral studies and detailed mechanistic studies regarding central function of MC4R, both of which ultimately may help to further understand the specific mechanisms that induce obesity during loss of MC4R function.

  13. Cross-sex hormone therapy in transgender persons affects total body weight, body fat and lean body mass: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Klaver, M; Dekker, M J H J; de Mutsert, R; Twisk, J W R; den Heijer, M

    2016-08-29

    Weight gain and body fat increase the risk of cardiometabolic disease. Cross-sex hormone therapy in transgender persons leads to changes in body weight and body composition, but it is unclear to what extent. We performed a meta-analysis to investigate the changes in body weight, body fat and lean body mass during cross-sex hormone therapy in transgender persons. We searched the PubMed database for eligible studies until November 2015. Ten studies reporting changes in body weight, body fat or lean mass in hormone naive transgender persons were included, examining 171 male-to-female and 354 female-to-male transgender people. Pooled effect estimates in the male-to-female group were +1.8 kg (95% CI: 0.2;3.4) for body weight, +3.0 kg (2.0;3.9) for body fat and -2.4 kg (-2.8; -2.1) for lean body mass. In the female-to-male group, body weight changed with +1.7 kg (0.7;2.7), body fat with -2.6 kg (-3.9; -1.4) and lean body mass with +3.9 kg (3.2;4.5). Cross-sex hormone therapy increases body weight in both sexes. In the male-to-female group, a gain in body fat and a decline in lean body mass are observed, while the opposite effects are seen in the female-to-male group. Possibly, these changes increase the risk of cardiometabolic disease in the male-to-female group.

  14. Expression of TRPV1 in rabbits and consuming hot pepper affects its body weight.

    PubMed

    Yu, Qi; Wang, Yanli; Yu, Ying; Li, Yafeng; Zhao, Sihai; Chen, Yulong; Waqar, Ahmed Bilal; Fan, Jianglin; Liu, Enqi

    2012-07-01

    The capsaicin receptor, known as transient receptor potential vanilloid subfamily member 1 (TRPV1), is an important membrane receptor that has been implicated in obesity, diabetes, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases. The rabbit model is considered excellent for studying cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, however, the tissue expression of TRPV1 and physiological functions of its ligand capsaicin on diet-induced obesity have not been fully defined in this model. In the current study, we investigated the tissue expression of TRPV1 in normal rabbits using real-time RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Rabbit TRPV1 mRNA was highly expressed in a variety of organs, including the kidneys, adrenal gland, spleen and brain. A phylogenetic analysis showed that the amino acid sequence of rabbit TRPV1 was closer to human TRPV1 than rodent TRPV1. To examine the effect of capsaicin (a pungent compound in hot pepper) on body weight, rabbits were fed with either a high fat diet (as control) or high fat diet containing 1% hot pepper. We found that the body weight of the hot pepper-fed rabbits was significantly lower than the control group. We conclude that the intake of capsaicin can prevent diet-induced obesity and rabbit model is useful for the study of TRPV1 function in cardiovascular and metabolic diseases.

  15. CALHM1 Deletion in Mice Affects Glossopharyngeal Taste Responses, Food Intake, Body Weight, and Life Span.

    PubMed

    Hellekant, Göran; Schmolling, Jared; Marambaud, Philippe; Rose-Hellekant, Teresa A

    2015-07-01

    Stimulation of Type II taste receptor cells (TRCs) with T1R taste receptors causes sweet or umami taste, whereas T2Rs elicit bitter taste. Type II TRCs contain the calcium channel, calcium homeostasis modulator protein 1 (CALHM1), which releases adenosine triphosphate (ATP) transmitter to taste fibers. We have previously demonstrated with chorda tympani nerve recordings and two-bottle preference (TBP) tests that mice with genetically deleted Calhm1 (knockout [KO]) have severely impaired perception of sweet, bitter, and umami compounds, whereas their sour and salty tasting ability is unaltered. Here, we present data from KO mice of effects on glossopharyngeal (NG) nerve responses, TBP, food intake, body weight, and life span. KO mice have no NG response to sweet and a suppressed response to bitter compared with control (wild-type [WT]) mice. KO mice showed some NG response to umami, suggesting that umami taste involves both CALHM1- and non-CALHM1-modulated signals. NG responses to sour and salty were not significantly different between KO and WT mice. Behavioral data conformed in general with the NG data. Adult KO mice consumed less food, weighed significantly less, and lived almost a year longer than WT mice. Taken together, these data demonstrate that sweet taste majorly influences food intake, body weight, and life span.

  16. CALHM1 Deletion in Mice Affects Glossopharyngeal Taste Responses, Food Intake, Body Weight, and Life Span

    PubMed Central

    Schmolling, Jared; Marambaud, Philippe; Rose-Hellekant, Teresa A.

    2015-01-01

    Stimulation of Type II taste receptor cells (TRCs) with T1R taste receptors causes sweet or umami taste, whereas T2Rs elicit bitter taste. Type II TRCs contain the calcium channel, calcium homeostasis modulator protein 1 (CALHM1), which releases adenosine triphosphate (ATP) transmitter to taste fibers. We have previously demonstrated with chorda tympani nerve recordings and two-bottle preference (TBP) tests that mice with genetically deleted Calhm1 (knockout [KO]) have severely impaired perception of sweet, bitter, and umami compounds, whereas their sour and salty tasting ability is unaltered. Here, we present data from KO mice of effects on glossopharyngeal (NG) nerve responses, TBP, food intake, body weight, and life span. KO mice have no NG response to sweet and a suppressed response to bitter compared with control (wild-type [WT]) mice. KO mice showed some NG response to umami, suggesting that umami taste involves both CALHM1- and non-CALHM1-modulated signals. NG responses to sour and salty were not significantly different between KO and WT mice. Behavioral data conformed in general with the NG data. Adult KO mice consumed less food, weighed significantly less, and lived almost a year longer than WT mice. Taken together, these data demonstrate that sweet taste majorly influences food intake, body weight, and life span. PMID:25855639

  17. Selective inactivation of Socs3 in SF1 neurons improves glucose homeostasis without affecting body weight.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ren; Dhillon, Harveen; Yin, Huali; Yoshimura, Akihiko; Lowell, Bradford B; Maratos-Flier, Eleftheria; Flier, Jeffrey S

    2008-11-01

    Suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (Socs3) has been identified as a mediator of central leptin resistance, but the identity of specific neurons in which Socs3 acts to suppress leptin signaling remains elusive. The ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) was recently shown to be an important site for leptin action because deleting leptin receptor within VMH neurons causes obesity. To examine the role of VMH Socs3 in leptin resistance and energy homeostasis, we generated mice lacking Socs3 specifically in neurons positive for steroidogenic factor 1 (SF1), which is expressed abundantly in the VMH. These mice had increased phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 in VMH neurons, suggesting improved leptin signaling, and consistently, food intake and weight-reducing effects of exogenous leptin were enhanced. Furthermore, on either chow or high-fat diets, these mice had reduced food intake. Unexpectedly, energy expenditure was reduced as well. Mice lacking Socs3 in SF1 neurons, despite no change in body weight, had improved glucose homeostasis and were partially protected from hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia induced by high-fat diets. These results suggest that Socs3 in SF1 neurons negatively regulates leptin signaling and plays important roles in mediating leptin sensitivity, glucose homeostasis, and energy expenditure.

  18. [Assessing various aspects of the motivation to eat that can affect food intake and body weight control].

    PubMed

    Bellisle, F

    2009-04-01

    control are "emotional eating" and "externality", which represent an individual's vulnerability to eat in response to emotional states or external cues, respectively. These questionnaires have been translated into French and validated for the French population. Average data are available for normal weight and obese French men and women. A gender difference is often reported: women, and even young girls, tend to have higher scores than males for most dimensions. These questionnaires have been extensively used in populations without psychiatric disorders, with the only exception of diagnosed eating disorders such as anorexia and bulimia nervosa. The questionnaires have not been used until now in populations with other types of psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia or bipolar disease. Their relevance for such populations is now an important question, since last generation pharmaceutical treatments of such psychiatric disorders seem to adversely affect body weight control. It then becomes critical to know whether the psychological dimensions assessed by such questionnaires reflect the action of pharmacological agents that induce weight gain. A research project is now in progress at Sainte-Anne Hospital to investigate many dimensions of the motivation to eat, as assessed by the questionnaires, in psychiatric patients receiving various types of antipsychotic agents. The results of this original study might provide hints about the mechanisms that lead to body weight gain in patients receiving certain types of antipsychotic pharmacological agents and potentially help in preventing or reversing the weight gain associated with such treatments.

  19. Factors affecting body weight loss during commercial long haul transport of cattle in North America.

    PubMed

    González, L A; Schwartzkopf-Genswein, K S; Bryan, M; Silasi, R; Brown, F

    2012-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to identify and quantify several factors affecting shrink in cattle during commercial long-haul transport (≥400 km; n = 6,152 journeys). Surveys were designed and delivered to transport carriers to collect relevant information regarding the characteristics of animals, time of loading, origin and destination, and loaded weight before and after transport. In contrast to fat cattle, feeder cattle exhibited greater shrink (4.9 vs. 7.9 ± 0.2% of BW, respectively; P < 0.01), and experienced longer total transport durations (12.4 vs. 14.9 ± 0.99, respectively; P < 0.01) due to border crossing protocols which require mandatory animal inspection. Shrink was greater (P < 0.001) for feeder cattle loaded at ranches/farms and feed yards compared with those loaded at auction markets. Cattle loaded during the afternoon and evening shrank more than those loaded during the night and morning (P < 0.05). Shrinkage was less in cattle transported by truck drivers having 6 or more years of experience hauling livestock compared with those with 5 yr or less (P < 0.05). Shrink increased with both midpoint ambient temperature (% of BW/°C; P < 0.001) and time on truck (% of BW/h; P < 0.001). Temperature and time on truck had a multiplicative effect on each other because shrink increased most rapidly in cattle transported for both longer durations and at higher ambient temperatures (P < 0.001). The rate of shrink over time (% of BW/h) was greatest in cull cattle, intermediate in calves and feeder cattle, and slowest in fat cattle (P < 0.05) but such differences disappeared when the effects of place of origin, loading time, and experience of truck drivers were included in the model. Cull cattle, calves and feeder cattle appear to be more affected by transport compared with fat cattle going to slaughter because of greater shrink. Several factors should be considered when developing guidelines to reduce cattle transport stress and shrink including type

  20. Body mass index distribution affects discrepancies in weight classifications in children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of body mass index (BMI) distribution, ethnicity, and age at menarche on the consistency in the prevalence of underweight and overweight as defined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the International Obesity Task Fo...

  1. Exercise and diet affect quantitative trait loci for body weight and composition traits in an advanced intercross population of mice.

    PubMed

    Leamy, Larry J; Kelly, Scott A; Hua, Kunjie; Pomp, Daniel

    2012-12-01

    Driven by the recent obesity epidemic, interest in understanding the complex genetic and environmental basis of body weight and composition is great. We investigated this by searching for quantitative trait loci (QTLs) affecting a number of weight and adiposity traits in a G(10) advanced intercross population produced from crosses of mice in inbred strain C57BL/6J with those in a strain selected for high voluntary wheel running. The mice in this population were fed either a high-fat or a control diet throughout the study and also measured for four exercise traits prior to death, allowing us to test for pre- and postexercise QTLs as well as QTL-by-diet and QTL-by-exercise interactions. Our genome scan uncovered a number of QTLs, of which 40% replicated QTLs previously found for similar traits in an earlier (G(4)) generation. For those replicated QTLs, the confidence intervals were reduced from an average of 19 Mb in the G(4) to 8 Mb in the G(10). Four QTLs on chromosomes 3, 8, 13, and 18 were especially prominent in affecting the percentage of fat in the mice. About of all QTLs showed interactions with diet, exercise, or both, their genotypic effects on the traits showing a variety of patterns depending on the diet or level of exercise. It was concluded that the indirect effects of these QTLs provide an underlying genetic basis for the considerable variability in weight or fat loss typically found among individuals on the same diet and/or exercise regimen.

  2. Effects of Progressive Body Weight Support Treadmill Forward and Backward Walking Training on Stroke Patients’ Affected Side Lower Extremity’s Walking Ability

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyunghoon; Lee, Sukmin; Lee, Kyoungbo

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of progressive body weight supported treadmill forward and backward walking training (PBWSTFBWT), progressive body weight supported treadmill forward walking training (PBWSTFWT), progressive body weight supported treadmill backward walking training (PBWSTBWT), on stroke patients’ affected side lower extremity’s walking ability. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 36 chronic stroke patients were divided into three groups with 12 subjects in each group. Each of the groups performed one of the progressive body weight supported treadmill training methods for 30 minute, six times per week for three weeks, and then received general physical therapy without any other intervention until the follow-up tests. For the assessment of the affected side lower extremity’s walking ability, step length of the affected side, stance phase of the affected side, swing phase of the affected side, single support of the affected side, and step time of the affected side were measured using optogait and the symmetry index. [Results] In the within group comparisons, all the three groups showed significant differences between before and after the intervention and in the comparison of the three groups, the PBWSTFBWT group showed more significant differences in all of the assessed items than the other two groups. [Conclusion] In the present study progressive body weight supported treadmill training was performed in an environment in which the subjects were actually walked, and PBWSTFBWT was more effective at efficiently training stroke patients’ affected side lower extremity’s walking ability. PMID:25540499

  3. Body weight relationships in early marriage. Weight relevance, weight comparisons, and weight talk.

    PubMed

    Bove, Caron F; Sobal, Jeffery

    2011-12-01

    This investigation uncovered processes underlying the dynamics of body weight and body image among individuals involved in nascent heterosexual marital relationships in Upstate New York. In-depth, semi-structured qualitative interviews conducted with 34 informants, 20 women and 14 men, just prior to marriage and again one year later were used to explore continuity and change in cognitive, affective, and behavioral factors relating to body weight and body image at the time of marriage, an important transition in the life course. Three major conceptual themes operated in the process of developing and enacting informants' body weight relationships with their partner: weight relevance, weight comparisons, and weight talk. Weight relevance encompassed the changing significance of weight during early marriage and included attracting and capturing a mate, relaxing about weight, living healthily, and concentrating on weight. Weight comparisons between partners involved weight relativism, weight competition, weight envy, and weight role models. Weight talk employed pragmatic talk, active and passive reassurance, and complaining and critiquing criticism. Concepts emerging from this investigation may be useful in designing future studies of and approaches to managing body weight in adulthood.

  4. Body Weight Relationships in Early Marriage: Weight Relevance, Weight Comparisons, and Weight Talk

    PubMed Central

    Bove, Caron F.; Sobal, Jeffery

    2011-01-01

    This investigation uncovered processes underlying the dynamics of body weight and body image among individuals involved in nascent heterosexual marital relationships in Upstate New York. In-depth, semi-structured qualitative interviews conducted with 34 informants, 20 women and 14 men, just prior to marriage and again one year later were used to explore continuity and change in cognitive, affective, and behavioral factors relating to body weight and body image at the time of marriage, an important transition in the life course. Three major conceptual themes operated in the process of developing and enacting informants’ body weight relationships with their partner: weight relevance, weight comparisons, and weight talk. Weight relevance encompassed the changing significance of weight during early marriage and included attracting and capturing a mate, relaxing about weight, living healthily, and concentrating on weight. Weight comparisons between partners involved weight relativism, weight competition, weight envy, and weight role models. Weight talk employed pragmatic talk, active and passive reassurance, and complaining and critiquing criticism. Concepts emerging from this investigation may be useful in designing future studies of and approaches to managing body weight in adulthood. PMID:21864601

  5. Feeding of potato, tomato and eggplant alkaloids affects food consumption and body and liver weights in mice.

    PubMed

    Friedman, M; Henika, P R; Mackey, B E

    1996-04-01

    Reduced liver weight was used to evaluate the potential toxicity in mice of four naturally occurring steroidal glycoalkaloids: alpha-chaconine and alpha-solanine, alpha-tomatine and solasonine. Increased liver weights was used to evaluate the three corresponding steroidal aglycones: solanidine, tomatidine, and solasodine and the non-alkaloid adrenal steroid dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). Adult female Swiss-Webster mice were fed diets containing test compound concentrations of 0 (control), 1.2, 2.4 or 4.8 mmol/kg diet for 7, 14 or 28 d. Absolute liver weights (LW) and relative liver weights (liver weight/body weight x 100, %LW/BW) were determined at autopsy. The %LW/BW was lower than that of controls in mice fed the potato glycoalkaloid alpha-chaconine (-10%, P < or = 0.05) for 7 d with the 2.4 mmol/kg diet dose. Under these same conditions, %LW/BW was greater than that of controls in mice fed two aglycones: solanidine (27%, P < or = 0.001) and solasodine (8%, P < or = 0.01). Relative liver weight increases induced by the aglycones were determined under time and dose conditions in which differences in body weight and food consumption were not significant (2.4 mmol/kg diet for 28 d). Under these conditions, the observed %LW/BW increases relative to the controls were as follows: solanidine (32%, P < or = 0.001), solasodine (22%, P < or = 0.001) and DHEA (16%, P < or = 0.001). Solanidine, solasodine and DHEA were equally potent and were more potent than tomatidine. We also observed that the greater %LW/BW in mice fed 2.4 mmol/kg diet solasodine or solanidine for 14 d declined to near control values if they were fed control diets for another 14 d. The increase in relative liver weight induced by solanidine and solasodine is a reversible adaptive response. These findings and the apparent effects of structure on biological activity should serve as a guide for the removal of the most toxic ++compounds from plant foods. The implications of the results for food safety and

  6. Distinguishing disease effects from environmental effects in a mountain ungulate: seasonal variation in body weight, hematology, and serum chemistry among Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica) affected by sarcoptic mange.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Jesús M; Serrano, Emmanuel; Soriguer, Ramón C; González, Francisco J; Sarasa, Mathieu; Granados, José E; Cano-Manuel, Francisco J; Cuenca, Rafaela; Fandos, Paulino

    2015-01-01

    Our study focuses on the Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica) from the Sierra Nevada Natural Space (southern Spain), where sarcoptic mange is an endemic disease and animals are affected by a highly seasonal environment. Our aim was to distinguish between disease and environmental influences on seasonal variation in body weight, hematology, and serum biochemistry in Iberian ibex. We sampled 136 chemically immobilized male ibexes. The single effect of mange influenced hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, leukocytes, band neutrophils, monocytes, cholesterol, urea, creatine, and aspartate aminotransferase. Both mange and the period of the year also affected values of mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, neutrophils, glucose, and serum proteins. Scabietic animals showed a marked reduction in body weight (21.4 kg on average), which was more pronounced in winter. These results reveal that 1) infested animals are anemic, 2) secondary infections likely occur, and 3) sarcoptic mange is catabolic.

  7. Age-related body weight constraints on prenatal and milk provisioning in Iberian red deer (Cervus elaphus hispanicus) affect allocation of maternal resources.

    PubMed

    Landete-Castillejos, T; García, A; Carrión, D; Estevez, J A; Ceacero, F; Gaspar-López, E; Gallego, L

    2009-02-01

    Maternal phenotypic characteristics can influence key life history variables of their offspring through maternal effects. In this study, we examined how body size constraints on maternal weight in yearling and subadult compared to adult hinds (age class effects) affected prenatal (calf birth weight, calf to hind weight ratio) and postnatal (milk) provisioning of Iberian red deer calves. Age correlated with all prenatal and postnatal investment traits except calf gains, although correlations were weaker than those with maternal weight. Once the effect of linear increase in weight with age was removed from models, yearlings showed additional reductions in calf birth weight, calf gains, and milk provisioning. The low-calf birth weight might increase the risk of calf mortality during lactation, as this occurs primarily during the first day of life and is strongly related to birth weight. Yearlings showed a greater prenatal allocation of resources in terms of greater calf to hind weight ratio probably as an extra effort by yearling mothers to balance calf neonatal mortality. It might compensate young mothers to produce low-quality calves while still growing rather than waiting for the uncertain possibility of surviving to the next reproductive season.

  8. Growth of body components and carcass composition of Iberian pigs of 10 to 150 kg body weight as affected by the level of feeding and dietary protein concentration.

    PubMed

    Nieto, R; Lara, L; Barea, R; García-Valverde, R; Conde-Aguilera, J A; Aguilera, J F

    2013-09-01

    A total of 211 growing-finishing Iberian (IB) pigs from 4 separate and independent sets of trials were slaughtered at several stages of growth from 10 to 150 kg BW to determine growth and development of chemical and physical components of the cold eviscerated carcass (CC; without head, feet, and tail). Within each set of trials, a factorial arrangement of treatments, involving several concentrations of ideal protein in the diets as 1 factor and 2 or 3 levels of feed intake as the other, was used. The main objective of the present study was to provide information on the relative growth of physical and chemical components of the CC of IB pigs, which differed because of the dietary treatment imposed, involving a wide range of protein-to-energy ratios and feeding levels. Allometric relationships (P < 0.001) were established between the weight of a chemical component in the CC and empty BW or CC weight. Irrespective of the adequacy of the dietary protein-to-energy ratio, the growth coefficient for CC weight relative to empty BW was >1 (P < 0.001), whereas those for protein, water, and ash relative to empty BW or CC weight were <1 (P < 0.001). In contrast, relative growth coefficients >1 (P < 0.001) were obtained for fat mass and total energy, reflecting the increase in fat relative content that occurs with increasing weight. Multiple-regression equations (P < 0.001) were developed using a stepwise procedure, which estimates the chemical (g/kg) or energy (MJ/kg) composition of CC as a function of empty BW, dietary protein-to-energy ratio, and feeding level, expressed as a multiple of the ME required for maintenance. It is concluded that even if the pattern of developmental growth for the IB pig may show some similarities (increased fat content or decreased proportional weight of some primal cuts with BW or age) with that observed for pigs of different genetic background, relevant differences were detected. They are related to a much smaller relative size of the IB pig

  9. Marital status and body weight, weight perception, and weight management among U.S. adults.

    PubMed

    Klos, Lori A; Sobal, Jeffery

    2013-12-01

    Married individuals often have higher body weights than unmarried individuals, but it is unclear how marital roles affect body weight-related perceptions, desires, and behaviors. This study analyzed cross-sectional data for 4,089 adult men and 3,989 adult women using multinomial logistic regression to examine associations between marital status, perceived body weight, desired body weight, and weight management approach. Controlling for demographics and current weight, married or cohabiting women and divorced or separated women more often perceived themselves as overweight and desired to weigh less than women who had never married. Marital status was unrelated to men's weight perception and desired weight change. Marital status was also generally unrelated to weight management approach, except that divorced or separated women were more likely to have intentionally lost weight within the past year compared to never married women. Additionally, never married men were more likely to be attempting to prevent weight gain than married or cohabiting men and widowed men. Overall, married and formerly married women more often perceived themselves as overweight and desired a lower weight. Men's marital status was generally unassociated with weight-related perceptions, desires, and behaviors. Women's but not men's marital roles appear to influence their perceived and desired weight, suggesting that weight management interventions should be sensitive to both marital status and gender differences.

  10. Self-Esteem and Negative Affect as Moderators of Sociocultural Influences on Body Dissatisfaction, Strategies To Decrease Weight, and Strategies To Increase Muscles among Adolescent Boys and Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricciardelli, Lina A.; McCabe, Marita P.

    2001-01-01

    Examined the impact of sociocultural influences and the moderating role of self-esteem and negative affect on body dissatisfaction and body change strategies for adolescent boys and girls. Surveys indicated that sociocultural pressures significantly predicted body dissatisfaction and body change strategies among both sexes. Both boys and girls…

  11. Effect of clothing weight on body weight

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: In clinical settings, it is common to measure weight of clothed patients and estimate a correction for the weight of clothing, but we can find no papers in the medical literature regarding the variability in clothing weight with weather, season, and gender. Methods: Fifty adults (35 wom...

  12. Genome-Wide Association Study for Identifying Loci that Affect Fillet Yield, Carcass, and Body Weight Traits in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Pena, Dianelys; Gao, Guangtu; Baranski, Matthew; Moen, Thomas; Cleveland, Beth M; Kenney, P Brett; Vallejo, Roger L; Palti, Yniv; Leeds, Timothy D

    2016-01-01

    Fillet yield (FY, %) is an economically-important trait in rainbow trout aquaculture that affects production efficiency. Despite that, FY has received little attention in breeding programs because it is difficult to measure on a large number of fish and cannot be directly measured on breeding candidates. The recent development of a high-density SNP array for rainbow trout has provided the needed tool for studying the underlying genetic architecture of this trait. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) was conducted for FY, body weight at 10 (BW10) and 13 (BW13) months post-hatching, head-off carcass weight (CAR), and fillet weight (FW) in a pedigreed rainbow trout population selectively bred for improved growth performance. The GWAS analysis was performed using the weighted single-step GBLUP method (wssGWAS). Phenotypic records of 1447 fish (1.5 kg at harvest) from 299 full-sib families in three successive generations, of which 875 fish from 196 full-sib families were genotyped, were used in the GWAS analysis. A total of 38,107 polymorphic SNPs were analyzed in a univariate model with hatch year and harvest group as fixed effects, harvest weight as a continuous covariate, and animal and common environment as random effects. A new linkage map was developed to create windows of 20 adjacent SNPs for use in the GWAS. The two windows with largest effect for FY and FW were located on chromosome Omy9 and explained only 1.0-1.5% of genetic variance, thus suggesting a polygenic architecture affected by multiple loci with small effects in this population. One window on Omy5 explained 1.4 and 1.0% of the genetic variance for BW10 and BW13, respectively. Three windows located on Omy27, Omy17, and Omy9 (same window detected for FY) explained 1.7, 1.7, and 1.0%, respectively, of genetic variance for CAR. Among the detected 100 SNPs, 55% were located directly in genes (intron and exons). Nucleotide sequences of intragenic SNPs were blasted to the Mus musculus genome to create a

  13. Genome-Wide Association Study for Identifying Loci that Affect Fillet Yield, Carcass, and Body Weight Traits in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Pena, Dianelys; Gao, Guangtu; Baranski, Matthew; Moen, Thomas; Cleveland, Beth M.; Kenney, P. Brett; Vallejo, Roger L.; Palti, Yniv; Leeds, Timothy D.

    2016-01-01

    Fillet yield (FY, %) is an economically-important trait in rainbow trout aquaculture that affects production efficiency. Despite that, FY has received little attention in breeding programs because it is difficult to measure on a large number of fish and cannot be directly measured on breeding candidates. The recent development of a high-density SNP array for rainbow trout has provided the needed tool for studying the underlying genetic architecture of this trait. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) was conducted for FY, body weight at 10 (BW10) and 13 (BW13) months post-hatching, head-off carcass weight (CAR), and fillet weight (FW) in a pedigreed rainbow trout population selectively bred for improved growth performance. The GWAS analysis was performed using the weighted single-step GBLUP method (wssGWAS). Phenotypic records of 1447 fish (1.5 kg at harvest) from 299 full-sib families in three successive generations, of which 875 fish from 196 full-sib families were genotyped, were used in the GWAS analysis. A total of 38,107 polymorphic SNPs were analyzed in a univariate model with hatch year and harvest group as fixed effects, harvest weight as a continuous covariate, and animal and common environment as random effects. A new linkage map was developed to create windows of 20 adjacent SNPs for use in the GWAS. The two windows with largest effect for FY and FW were located on chromosome Omy9 and explained only 1.0–1.5% of genetic variance, thus suggesting a polygenic architecture affected by multiple loci with small effects in this population. One window on Omy5 explained 1.4 and 1.0% of the genetic variance for BW10 and BW13, respectively. Three windows located on Omy27, Omy17, and Omy9 (same window detected for FY) explained 1.7, 1.7, and 1.0%, respectively, of genetic variance for CAR. Among the detected 100 SNPs, 55% were located directly in genes (intron and exons). Nucleotide sequences of intragenic SNPs were blasted to the Mus musculus genome to create a

  14. Prenatal exposure to glucocorticoids affects body weight, serum leptin levels, and hypothalamic neuropeptide-Y expression in pre-pubertal female rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Iwasa, Takeshi; Matsuzaki, Toshiya; Munkhzaya, Munkhsaikhan; Tungalagsuvd, Altankhuu; Kawami, Takako; Murakami, Masahiro; Yamasaki, Mikio; Kato, Takeshi; Kuwahara, Akira; Yasui, Toshiyuki; Irahara, Minoru

    2014-08-01

    Glucocorticoid secretion is a key endocrine response to stress. It has been reported that prenatal stress induces long-lasting alterations in body weight regulation systems, which persist after the stress has ceased. In this study, the long-term effects of prenatal glucocorticoid exposure on body weight changes and the expression of appetite-regulating factors were examined in female rats. Pregnant rats were given normal drinking water (control) or dexamethasone (1 μg/mL) dissolved in drinking water (DEX) from day 13 of pregnancy until delivery. Then, the body weight change, serum leptin levels, and hypothalamic NPY mRNA levels of their offspring were examined. The DEX dams gained significantly less body weight during pregnancy than the control dams. The DEX dams' offspring exhibited a significantly lower birth weight than the offspring of the control dams, and the same was true for body weight at postnatal days 20 and 28. The offspring of the DEX dams displayed significantly higher serum leptin levels and significantly lower hypothalamic NPY mRNA levels compared with the offspring of the control dams. Significant inverse correlations were detected between body weight and the serum leptin level, and between the serum leptin level and the hypothalamic NPY mRNA level. On the other hand, a significant positive correlation was detected between body weight and the hypothalamic NPY mRNA level. These results indicate that leptin production is increased in a long-lasting manner in offspring exposed to glucocorticoids during the prenatal period and that this results in attenuated body weight gain and hypothalamic NPY expression during the pre-pubertal period.

  15. Alcohol consumption and body weight.

    PubMed

    French, Michael T; Norton, Edward C; Fang, Hai; Maclean, Johanna Catherine

    2010-07-01

    The number of Americans who are overweight or obese has reached epidemic proportions. Elevated weight is associated with health problems and increased medical expenditures. This paper analyzes Waves 1 and 2 of the National Epidemiological Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions to investigate the role of alcohol consumption in weight gain. Alcohol is not only an addictive substance but also a high-calorie beverage that can interfere with metabolic function and cognitive processes. Because men and women differ in the type and amount of alcohol they consume, in the biological effects they experience as a result of alcohol consumption, and in the consequences they face as a result of obesity, we expect our results to differ by gender. We use first-difference models of body mass index (BMI) and alcohol consumption (frequency and intensity) to control for time-invariant unobservable factors that may influence changes in both alcohol use and weight status. Increasing frequency and intensity of alcohol use is associated with statistically significant yet quantitatively small weight gain for men but not for women. Moreover, the first-difference results are much smaller in magnitude and sometimes different in sign compared with the benchmark pooled cross-sectional estimates.

  16. Creatine monohydrate supplementation on body weight and percent body fat.

    PubMed

    Kutz, Matthew R; Gunter, Michael J

    2003-11-01

    Seventeen active males (age 22.9 +/- 4.9 year) participated in a study to examine the effects of creatine monohydrate supplementation on total body weight (TBW), percent body fat, body water content, and caloric intake. The TBW was measured in kilograms, percent body fat by hydrostatic weighing, body water content via bioelectrical impedance, and caloric intake by daily food log. Subjects were paired and assigned to a creatine or placebo group with a double-blind research design. Supplementation was given for 4 weeks (30 g a day for the initial 2 weeks and 15 g a day for the final 2 weeks). Subjects reported 2 days a week for supervised strength training of the lower extremity. Significant increases before and after the study were found in TBW (90.42 +/- 14.74 to 92.12 +/- 15.19 kg) and body water content (53.77 +/- 1.75 to 57.15 +/- 2.01 L) for the creatine group (p = 0.05). No significant changes were found in percent body fat or daily caloric intake in the creatine group. No significant changes were noted for the placebo group. These findings support previous research that creatine supplementation increases TBW. Mean percent body fat and caloric intake was not affected by creatine supplementation. Therefore weight gain in lieu of creatine supplementation may in part be due to water retention.

  17. How Body Affects Brain.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Wendy A

    2016-08-09

    Studies show that physical exercise can affect a range of brain and cognitive functions. However, little is known about the peripheral signals that initiate these central changes. Moon et al. (2016) provide exciting new evidence that a novel myokine, cathepsin B (CTSB), released with exercise is associated with improved memory.

  18. Weight status and body image perceptions in adolescents: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Voelker, Dana K; Reel, Justine J; Greenleaf, Christy

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence represents a pivotal stage in the development of positive or negative body image. Many influences exist during the teen years including transitions (eg, puberty) that affect one’s body shape, weight status, and appearance. Weight status exists along a spectrum between being obese (ie, where one’s body weight is in the 95th percentile for age and gender) to being underweight. Salient influences on body image include the media, which can target adolescents, and peers who help shape beliefs about the perceived body ideal. Internalization of and pressures to conform to these socially prescribed body ideals help to explain associations between weight status and body image. The concepts of fat talk and weight-related bullying during adolescence greatly contribute to an overemphasis on body weight and appearance as well as the development of negative body perceptions and dissatisfaction surrounding specific body parts. This article provides an overview of the significance of adolescent development in shaping body image, the relationship between body image and adolescent weight status, and the consequences of having a negative body image during adolescence (ie, disordered eating, eating disorders, and dysfunctional exercise). Practical implications for promoting a healthy weight status and positive body image among adolescents will be discussed. PMID:26347007

  19. Weight status and body image perceptions in adolescents: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Voelker, Dana K; Reel, Justine J; Greenleaf, Christy

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence represents a pivotal stage in the development of positive or negative body image. Many influences exist during the teen years including transitions (eg, puberty) that affect one's body shape, weight status, and appearance. Weight status exists along a spectrum between being obese (ie, where one's body weight is in the 95th percentile for age and gender) to being underweight. Salient influences on body image include the media, which can target adolescents, and peers who help shape beliefs about the perceived body ideal. Internalization of and pressures to conform to these socially prescribed body ideals help to explain associations between weight status and body image. The concepts of fat talk and weight-related bullying during adolescence greatly contribute to an overemphasis on body weight and appearance as well as the development of negative body perceptions and dissatisfaction surrounding specific body parts. This article provides an overview of the significance of adolescent development in shaping body image, the relationship between body image and adolescent weight status, and the consequences of having a negative body image during adolescence (ie, disordered eating, eating disorders, and dysfunctional exercise). Practical implications for promoting a healthy weight status and positive body image among adolescents will be discussed.

  20. Does low-energy sweetener consumption affect energy intake and body weight? A systematic review, including meta-analyses, of the evidence from human and animal studies.

    PubMed

    Rogers, P J; Hogenkamp, P S; de Graaf, C; Higgs, S; Lluch, A; Ness, A R; Penfold, C; Perry, R; Putz, P; Yeomans, M R; Mela, D J

    2016-03-01

    By reducing energy density, low-energy sweeteners (LES) might be expected to reduce energy intake (EI) and body weight (BW). To assess the totality of the evidence testing the null hypothesis that LES exposure (versus sugars or unsweetened alternatives) has no effect on EI or BW, we conducted a systematic review of relevant studies in animals and humans consuming LES with ad libitum access to food energy. In 62 of 90 animal studies exposure to LES did not affect or decreased BW. Of 28 reporting increased BW, 19 compared LES with glucose exposure using a specific 'learning' paradigm. Twelve prospective cohort studies in humans reported inconsistent associations between LES use and body mass index (-0.002 kg m(-)(2) per year, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.009 to 0.005). Meta-analysis of short-term randomized controlled trials (129 comparisons) showed reduced total EI for LES versus sugar-sweetened food or beverage consumption before an ad libitum meal (-94 kcal, 95% CI -122 to -66), with no difference versus water (-2 kcal, 95% CI -30 to 26). This was consistent with EI results from sustained intervention randomized controlled trials (10 comparisons). Meta-analysis of sustained intervention randomized controlled trials (4 weeks to 40 months) showed that consumption of LES versus sugar led to relatively reduced BW (nine comparisons; -1.35 kg, 95% CI -2.28 to -0.42), and a similar relative reduction in BW versus water (three comparisons; -1.24 kg, 95% CI -2.22 to -0.26). Most animal studies did not mimic LES consumption by humans, and reverse causation may influence the results of prospective cohort studies. The preponderance of evidence from all human randomized controlled trials indicates that LES do not increase EI or BW, whether compared with caloric or non-caloric (for example, water) control conditions. Overall, the balance of evidence indicates that use of LES in place of sugar, in children and adults, leads to reduced EI and BW, and possibly also

  1. Does low-energy sweetener consumption affect energy intake and body weight? A systematic review, including meta-analyses, of the evidence from human and animal studies

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, P J; Hogenkamp, P S; de Graaf, C; Higgs, S; Lluch, A; Ness, A R; Penfold, C; Perry, R; Putz, P; Yeomans, M R; Mela, D J

    2016-01-01

    By reducing energy density, low-energy sweeteners (LES) might be expected to reduce energy intake (EI) and body weight (BW). To assess the totality of the evidence testing the null hypothesis that LES exposure (versus sugars or unsweetened alternatives) has no effect on EI or BW, we conducted a systematic review of relevant studies in animals and humans consuming LES with ad libitum access to food energy. In 62 of 90 animal studies exposure to LES did not affect or decreased BW. Of 28 reporting increased BW, 19 compared LES with glucose exposure using a specific ‘learning' paradigm. Twelve prospective cohort studies in humans reported inconsistent associations between LES use and body mass index (−0.002 kg m−2 per year, 95% confidence interval (CI) −0.009 to 0.005). Meta-analysis of short-term randomized controlled trials (129 comparisons) showed reduced total EI for LES versus sugar-sweetened food or beverage consumption before an ad libitum meal (−94 kcal, 95% CI −122 to −66), with no difference versus water (−2 kcal, 95% CI −30 to 26). This was consistent with EI results from sustained intervention randomized controlled trials (10 comparisons). Meta-analysis of sustained intervention randomized controlled trials (4 weeks to 40 months) showed that consumption of LES versus sugar led to relatively reduced BW (nine comparisons; −1.35 kg, 95% CI –2.28 to −0.42), and a similar relative reduction in BW versus water (three comparisons; −1.24 kg, 95% CI –2.22 to −0.26). Most animal studies did not mimic LES consumption by humans, and reverse causation may influence the results of prospective cohort studies. The preponderance of evidence from all human randomized controlled trials indicates that LES do not increase EI or BW, whether compared with caloric or non-caloric (for example, water) control conditions. Overall, the balance of evidence indicates that use of LES in place of sugar, in children and adults, leads to reduced EI

  2. Peripubertal exposure to low doses of tributyltin chloride affects the homeostasis of serum T, E2, LH, and body weight of male mice.

    PubMed

    Si, Jiliang; Wu, Xuesen; Wan, Chengen; Zeng, Tao; Zhang, Miao; Xie, Keqin; Li, Jie

    2011-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that tributyltin could act as an endocrine disruptor in mammals. However, the data on the low-dose effect of tributyltin in animals are still lacking. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the endocrine disruption induced by low levels of tributyltin chloride (TBTCl) in male KM mice. The animals were treated with 0.05 or 0.5 mg TBTCl/kg body weight/3 days from postnatal days (PNDs) 24 to 45, and killed on PNDs 49 and 84, respectively. Mice treated with 0.5 mg TBTCl/kg exhibited decreased serum and intratesticular testosterone (T) levels on PND 49 and then followed by an obvious recovery on PND 84. Furthermore, mice treated with 0.05 mg TBTCl/kg showed reduced serum 17β-estradiol (E2) levels on PND 49. However, treatments with TBTCl resulted in a dose-dependent increase in serum E2 concentration of the mice on PND 84. Administration of TBTCl also decreased levels of serum luteinizing hormone and intratesticular E2 on PND 84. In addition, mice exposed to 0.05 mg/kg TBTCl exhibited an increase in body weight in the late stage of the experiment. These results indicate that treatment with low doses of TBTCl could disturb hormone homeostasis and body weight gain in rodents, and exposure to different levels of TBTCl might have different effects on changing some physiologic parameters.

  3. Body weight of hypersonic aircraft, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ardema, Mark D.

    1988-01-01

    The load bearing body weight of wing-body and all-body hypersonic aircraft is estimated for a wide variety of structural materials and geometries. Variations of weight with key design and configuration parameters are presented and discussed. Both hot and cool structure approaches are considered in isotropic, organic composite, and metal matrix composite materials; structural shells are sandwich or skin-stringer. Conformal and pillow-tank designs are investigated for the all-body shape. The results identify the most promising hypersonic aircraft body structure design approaches and their weight trends. Geometric definition of vehicle shapes and structural analysis methods are presented in appendices.

  4. Gender Affects Body Language Reading

    PubMed Central

    Sokolov, Arseny A.; Krüger, Samuel; Enck, Paul; Krägeloh-Mann, Ingeborg; Pavlova, Marina A.

    2011-01-01

    Body motion is a rich source of information for social cognition. However, gender effects in body language reading are largely unknown. Here we investigated whether, and, if so, how recognition of emotional expressions revealed by body motion is gender dependent. To this end, females and males were presented with point-light displays portraying knocking at a door performed with different emotional expressions. The findings show that gender affects accuracy rather than speed of body language reading. This effect, however, is modulated by emotional content of actions: males surpass in recognition accuracy of happy actions, whereas females tend to excel in recognition of hostile angry knocking. Advantage of women in recognition accuracy of neutral actions suggests that females are better tuned to the lack of emotional content in body actions. The study provides novel insights into understanding of gender effects in body language reading, and helps to shed light on gender vulnerability to neuropsychiatric and neurodevelopmental impairments in visual social cognition. PMID:21713180

  5. Maintaining ideal body weight counseling sessions

    SciTech Connect

    Brammer, S.H.

    1980-10-09

    The purpose of this program is to provide employees with the motivation, knowledge and skills necessary to maintain ideal body weight throughout life. The target audience for this program, which is conducted in an industrial setting, is the employee 40 years of age or younger who is at or near his/her ideal body weight.

  6. Modelling body weight, dieting and obesity traps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbieri, Paolo Nicola

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents a theoretical investigation into why losing weight is so difficult even in the absence of rational addiction, time-inconsistent preferences or bounded rationality. We add to the existing literature by focusing on the role that individual metabolism has on weight loss. The results from the theoretical model provide multiple steady states and a threshold revealing a situation of "obesity traps" that the individual must surpass in order to successfully lose weight. Any weight-loss efforts that the individual undertakes have to surpass such threshold in order to result in permanent weight loss, otherwise the individual will gradually regain weight and converge to his or her previous body weight.

  7. Body Weight Image and Gender Influence Emotional Response Patterns to Body Weight Related Cues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DelRosario, Marlene W.; And Others

    Young adult females' attitudes toward body weight regulation contain important emotional components. To study the effects of body weight cues on emotionality, 160 college students (75 females, 85 males) completed either a body weight related (Q1) or control (Q2) questionnaire prior to taking the California Test of Personality (CTP). An analysis of…

  8. Agavins from Agave angustifolia and Agave potatorum affect food intake, body weight gain and satiety-related hormones (GLP-1 and ghrelin) in mice.

    PubMed

    Santiago-García, Patricia Araceli; López, Mercedes G

    2014-12-01

    Agavins act as a fermentable dietary fiber and have attracted attention due to their potential for reducing the risk of disease. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of supplementation using 10% agavins with a short-degree of polymerization (SDP) from Agave angustifolia Haw. (AASDP) or Agave potatorum Zucc. (APSDP) along with chicory fructans (RSE) as a reference for 5 weeks, on the energy intake, body weight gain, satiety-related hormones from the gut and blood (GLP-1 and ghrelin), blood glucose and lipids, and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) from the gut of ad libitum-fed mice. We evaluated the energy intake daily and weight gain every week. At the end of the experiment, portal vein blood samples as well as intestinal segments and the stomach were collected to measure glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and ghrelin using RIA and ELISA kits, respectively. Colon SCFAs were measured using gas chromatography. The energy intake, body weight gain, and triglycerides were lower in the fructan-fed mice than in the STD-fed mice. The AASDP, APSDP, and RSE diets increased the serum levels of GLP-1 (40, 93, and 16%, respectively vs. STD) (P ≤ 0.05), whereas ghrelin was decreased (16, 38, and 42%, respectively) (P ≤ 0.05). Butyric acid increased significantly in the APSDP-fed mice (26.59 mmol g(-1), P ≤ 0.001) compared with that in the AASDP- and RSE-fed mice. We concluded that AASDP and APSDP are able to promote the secretion of the peptides involved in appetite regulation, which might help to control obesity and its associated metabolic disorder.

  9. Misconceptions in body weight regulation: implications for the obesity pandemic.

    PubMed

    Flatt, J P

    2012-01-01

    Energy is a concept of universal importance. In applying it to body weight regulation, the focus has been on energy balance and how this balance is affected by intakes and expenditures. However, energy is an abstract concept without biological equivalent and applying it to explain body weight regulation has led to various misconceptions and created intellectual obstacles in understanding the obesity problem. When nutrient and substrate interactions are considered, instead, a number of important issues pertaining to body weight regulation and to the obesity epidemic can be much more pertinently addressed.

  10. Insulin and body weight but not hyperandrogenism seem involved in seasonal serum 25-OH-vitamin D3 levels in subjects affected by PCOS.

    PubMed

    Gallea, Mariateresa; Granzotto, Marnie; Azzolini, Sara; Faggian, Diego; Mozzanega, Bruno; Vettor, Roberto; Mioni, Roberto

    2014-10-01

    PCOS patients were frequently characterized by lower plasma vitamin D levels. The mechanisms involved in this dysfunction remains still debated, therefore we evaluated the role of androgen, insulin and body weight on the serum VitD levels in women with or without PCOS. Eighty one patients 18-42 yrs old were studied into "SUMMER" and "WINTER" seasonal period: thirty seven PCOS, seventeen no-ovarian hyperandrogenic (noPCOS), twelve functional hypothalamic amenorrhea (FHA) and finally fifteen healthy (Con). Patients were further divided into: lean (L), obese (O), normo- (nINS) and hyperinsulinemic (hINS). All hormonal and metabolic parameters were measured at 1-7 days of the menstrual cycle. Our results show that VitD levels were lower in PCOS and in noPCOS than in FHA and Con, in particular in (O) and (hINS) PCOSs. Both in summer and in winter, PCOSs had basal VitD levels significantly lower than FHA and Con, whereas they were similar to noPCOS. Yet, LhINS and OPCOS had VitD levels lower than Con and noPCOS. VitD levels were comparable in LnINS PCOS and Con. In conclusion, PCOSs had levels of VitD lower than controls. Weight and hyperinsulinemia had a significant influence on these values. Finally, over 70% of our healthy patients had VitD deficiency.

  11. The effects of exercise on body satisfaction and affect.

    PubMed

    Lepage, Marie L; Crowther, Janis H

    2010-03-01

    This research used ecological momentary assessment to examine the effects of exercise on state body dissatisfaction and affect in 33 undergraduate females with high trait body dissatisfaction and 28 with low trait body dissatisfaction who exercised at least three times weekly. Trait body dissatisfaction was investigated as a moderator of the effects of exercise as well as different motivations for exercise. Results indicated all participants experienced lower state body dissatisfaction and negative affect and greater positive affect post-exercise. Trait body dissatisfaction moderated the association between motivations and exercise effects. Appearance and weight motivations were related to higher state body dissatisfaction for all individuals. Fitness and health motivations were related to higher state body dissatisfaction for high trait body dissatisfied individuals and lower state body dissatisfaction for low trait body dissatisfied individuals. Thus, although exercise has positive effects on body dissatisfaction and affect for high frequency exercisers, their exercise motivations impact these effects.

  12. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitor lowers PPARγ agonist-induced body weight gain by affecting food intake, fat mass, and beige/brown fat but not fluid retention

    PubMed Central

    Masuda, Takahiro; Fu, Yiling; Eguchi, Akiko; Czogalla, Jan; Rose, Michael A.; Kuczkowski, Alexander; Gerasimova, Maria; Feldstein, Ariel E.; Scadeng, Miriam

    2013-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) agonists like pioglitazone (PGZ) are effective antidiabetic drugs, but they induce fluid retention and body weight (BW) gain. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV) inhibitors are antidiabetic drugs that enhance renal Na+ and fluid excretion. Therefore, we examined whether the DPP IV inhibitor alogliptin (ALG) ameliorates PGZ-induced BW gain. Male Sv129 mice were treated with vehicle (repelleted diet), PGZ (220 mg/kg diet), ALG (300 mg/kg diet), or a combination of PGZ and ALG (PGZ + ALG) for 14 days. PGZ + ALG prevented the increase in BW observed with PGZ but did not attenuate the increase in body fluid content determined by bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS). BIS revealed that ALG alone had no effect on fat mass (FM) but enhanced the FM-lowering effect of PGZ; MRI analysis confirmed the latter and showed reductions in visceral and inguinal subcutaneous (sc) white adipose tissue (WAT). ALG but not PGZ decreased food intake and plasma free fatty acid concentrations. Conversely, PGZ but not ALG increased mRNA expression of thermogenesis mediator uncoupling protein 1 in epididymal WAT. Adding ALG to PGZ treatment increased the abundance of multilocular cell islets in sc WAT, and PGZ + ALG increased the expression of brown-fat-like “beige” cell marker TMEM26 in sc WAT and interscapular brown adipose tissue and increased rectal temperature vs. vehicle. In summary, DPP IV inhibition did not attenuate PPARγ agonist-induced fluid retention but prevented BW gain by reducing FM. This involved ALG inhibition of food intake and was associated with food intake-independent synergistic effects of PPARγ agonism and DPP-IV inhibition on beige/brown fat cells and thermogenesis. PMID:24347054

  13. Serum posaconazole levels among haematological cancer patients taking extended release tablets is affected by body weight and diarrhoea: single centre retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Miceli, Marisa H; Perissinotti, Anthony J; Kauffman, Carol A; Couriel, Daniel R

    2015-07-01

    The posaconazole extended release tablet formulation was developed to improve bioavailability relative to the oral suspension. Therapeutic drug monitoring has been used to optimise posaconazole dosing to achieve a target trough level ≥0.7 μg ml(-1). We retrospectively evaluated 28 patients with haematological malignancies who received posaconazole tablets for antifungal prophylaxis. Posaconazole serum trough levels were obtained 5 days after initiation of therapy. Mean trough level was 1.19 ± 0.63 μg ml(-1), and 71% achieved a trough level ≥0.7 μg ml(-1). Diarrhoea was associated with lower mean trough levels (0.65 ± 0.08 μg ml(-1) vs. 1.31 ± 0.13 μg ml(-1)), P = 0.002. Mean trough levels were lower in patients ≥90 kg (0.74 ± 0.09 μg ml(-1)) vs. <90 kg (1.32 ± 0.14 μg ml(-1)), P = 0.002 and in patients with body mass index (BMI) ≥30 (0.89 ± 0.13 μg ml(-1)) vs. BMI <30 (1.29 ± 0.14 μg ml(-1)), P = 0.05. Posaconazole delayed release tablets attain appropriate trough levels in most patients, but patients with a higher weight and those experiencing diarrhoea are more likely to have lower levels.

  14. Body Mass Index Self-Perception and Weight Management Behaviors during Late Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Kyeongra; Turk, Melanie T.; Allison, Virginia L.; James, Khara A.; Chasens, Eileen

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study examined the relationship between actual body weight and self-perceived weight, and how perception of one's weight affects weight management behaviors among US adolescents. Methods: Adolescents ages 16-19 years with objectively-measured weight and height and self-reported perception of weight, weight-loss efforts, and…

  15. Excess body weight during pregnancy and offspring obesity: potential mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Paliy, Oleg; Piyathilake, Chandrika J; Kozyrskyj, Anita; Celep, Gulcin; Marotta, Francesco; Rastmanesh, Reza

    2014-03-01

    The rates of child and adult obesity have increased in most developed countries over the past several decades. The health consequences of obesity affect both physical and mental health, and the excess body weight can be linked to an elevated risk for developing type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular problems, and depression. Among the factors that can influence the development of obesity are higher infant weights and increased weight gain, which are associated with higher risk for excess body weight later in life. In turn, mother's excess body weight during and after pregnancy can be linked to the risk for offspring overweight and obesity through dietary habits, mode of delivery and feeding, breast milk composition, and through the influence on infant gut microbiota. This review considers current knowledge of these potential mechanisms that threaten to create an intergenerational cycle of obesity.

  16. Excessive Body Weight in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Porter Starr, Kathryn N; Bales, Connie W

    2015-08-01

    The health challenges prompted by obesity in the older adult population are poorly recognized and understudied. A defined treatment of geriatric obesity is difficult to establish, as it must take into account biological heterogeneity, age-related comorbidities, and functional limitations (sarcopenia/dynapenia). This retrospective article highlights the current understanding of the optimal body mass index (BMI) in later life, addressing appropriate recommendations based on BMI category, age, and health history. The findings of randomized control trials of weight loss/maintenance interventions help one to move closer to evidence-based and appropriately individualized recommendations for body weight management in older adults.

  17. p53-upregulated-modulator-of-apoptosis (PUMA) deficiency affects food intake but does not impact on body weight or glucose homeostasis in diet-induced obesity.

    PubMed Central

    Litwak, Sara A.; Loh, Kim; Stanley, William J.; Pappas, Evan G.; Wali, Jibran A.; Selck, Claudia; Strasser, Andreas; Thomas, Helen E.; Gurzov, Esteban N.

    2016-01-01

    BCL-2 proteins have been implicated in the control of glucose homeostasis and metabolism in different cell types. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the role of the pro-apoptotic BH3-only protein, p53-upregulated-modulator-of-apoptosis (PUMA), in metabolic changes mediated by diet-induced obesity, using PUMA deficient mice. At 10 weeks of age, knockout and wild type mice either continued consuming a low fat chow diet (6% fat), or were fed with a high fat diet (23% fat) for 14–17 weeks. We measured body composition, glucose and insulin tolerance, insulin response in peripheral tissues, energy expenditure, oxygen consumption, and respiratory exchange ratio in vivo. All these parameters were indistinguishable between wild type and knockout mice on chow diet and were modified equally by diet-induced obesity. Interestingly, we observed decreased food intake and ambulatory capacity of PUMA knockout mice on high fat diet. This was associated with increased adipocyte size and fasted leptin concentration in the blood. Our findings suggest that although PUMA is dispensable for glucose homeostasis in lean and obese mice, it can affect leptin levels and food intake during obesity. PMID:27033313

  18. p53-upregulated-modulator-of-apoptosis (PUMA) deficiency affects food intake but does not impact on body weight or glucose homeostasis in diet-induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Litwak, Sara A; Loh, Kim; Stanley, William J; Pappas, Evan G; Wali, Jibran A; Selck, Claudia; Strasser, Andreas; Thomas, Helen E; Gurzov, Esteban N

    2016-04-01

    BCL-2 proteins have been implicated in the control of glucose homeostasis and metabolism in different cell types. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the role of the pro-apoptotic BH3-only protein, p53-upregulated-modulator-of-apoptosis (PUMA), in metabolic changes mediated by diet-induced obesity, using PUMA deficient mice. At 10 weeks of age, knockout and wild type mice either continued consuming a low fat chow diet (6% fat), or were fed with a high fat diet (23% fat) for 14-17 weeks. We measured body composition, glucose and insulin tolerance, insulin response in peripheral tissues, energy expenditure, oxygen consumption, and respiratory exchange ratio in vivo. All these parameters were indistinguishable between wild type and knockout mice on chow diet and were modified equally by diet-induced obesity. Interestingly, we observed decreased food intake and ambulatory capacity of PUMA knockout mice on high fat diet. This was associated with increased adipocyte size and fasted leptin concentration in the blood. Our findings suggest that although PUMA is dispensable for glucose homeostasis in lean and obese mice, it can affect leptin levels and food intake during obesity.

  19. Impact of Body Weight and Body Composition on Ovarian Cancer Prognosis.

    PubMed

    Purcell, Sarah A; Elliott, Sarah A; Kroenke, Candyce H; Sawyer, Michael B; Prado, Carla M

    2016-02-01

    Measures of body weight and anthropometrics such as body mass index (BMI) are commonly used to assess nutritional status in clinical conditions including cancer. Extensive research has evaluated associations between body weight and prognosis in ovarian cancer patients, yet little is known about the potential impact of body composition (fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM)) in these patients. Thus, the purpose of this publication was to review the literature (using PubMed and EMBASE) evaluating the impact of body weight and particularly body composition on surgical complications, morbidity, chemotherapy dosing and toxicity (as predictors of prognosis), and survival in ovarian cancer patients. Body weight is rarely associated with intra-operative complications, but obesity predicts higher rates of venous thromboembolism and wound complications post-operatively in ovarian cancer patients. Low levels of FM and FFM are superior predictors of length of hospital stay compared to measures of body weight alone, but the role of body composition on other surgical morbidities is unknown. Obesity complicates chemotherapy dosing due to altered pharmacokinetics, imprecise dosing strategies, and wide variability in FM and FFM. Measurement of body composition has the potential to reduce toxicity if the results are incorporated into chemotherapy dosing calculations. Some findings suggest that excess body weight adversely affects survival, while others find no such association. Limited studies indicate that FM is a better predictor of survival than body weight in ovarian cancer patients, but the direction of this relationship has not been determined. In conclusion, body composition as an indicator of nutritional status is a better prognostic tool than body weight or BMI alone in ovarian cancer patients.

  20. Liquid calories, sugar, and body weight.

    PubMed

    Drewnowski, Adam; Bellisle, France

    2007-03-01

    The consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages has been linked to rising rates of obesity in the United States. The standard explanation is that energy-containing liquids are less satiating than are solid foods. However, purely physiologic mechanisms do not fully account for the proposed links between liquid sugar energy and body weight change. First, a reevaluation of published epidemiologic studies of consumption of sweetened beverages and overweight shows that most such studies either are cross-sectional or are based on passive surveillance of temporal trends and thus permit no conclusions about causal links. Second, research evidence comparing the short-term satiating power of different types of liquids and of solids remains inconclusive. Numerous clinical studies have shown that sugar-containing liquids, when consumed in place of usual meals, can lead to a significant and sustained weight loss. The principal ingredient of liquid meal replacement shakes is sugar, often high-fructose corn syrup, which is present in amounts comparable to those in soft drinks. Far from suppressing satiety, one such liquid shake is marketed on the grounds that it helps control hunger and prevents hunger longer when consumed for the purpose of weight loss. These inconsistencies raise the question whether the issue of sugars and body weight should continue to be framed purely in metabolic or physiologic terms. The effect of sugar consumption on body weight can also depend on behavioral intent, context, and the mode of use, availability, and cost of sweetened liquids.

  1. Effects of independently altering body weight and body mass on the metabolic cost of running.

    PubMed

    Teunissen, Lennart P J; Grabowski, Alena; Kram, Rodger

    2007-12-01

    The metabolic cost of running is substantial, despite the savings from elastic energy storage and return. Previous studies suggest that generating vertical force to support body weight and horizontal forces to brake and propel body mass are the major determinants of the metabolic cost of running. In the present study, we investigated how independently altering body weight and body mass affects the metabolic cost of running. Based on previous studies, we hypothesized that reducing body weight would decrease metabolic rate proportionally, and adding mass and weight would increase metabolic rate proportionally. Further, because previous studies show that adding mass alone does not affect the forces generated on the ground, we hypothesized that adding mass alone would have no substantial effect on metabolic rate. We manipulated the body weight and body mass of 10 recreational human runners and measured their metabolic rates while they ran at 3 m s(-1). We reduced weight using a harness system, increased mass and weight using lead worn about the waist, and increased mass alone using a combination of weight support and added load. We found that net metabolic rate decreased in less than direct proportion to reduced body weight, increased in slightly more than direct proportion to added load (added mass and weight), and was not substantially different from normal running with added mass alone. Adding mass alone was not an effective method for determining the metabolic cost attributable to braking/propelling body mass. Runners loaded with mass alone did not generate greater vertical or horizontal impulses and their metabolic costs did not substantially differ from those of normal running. Our results show that generating force to support body weight is the primary determinant of the metabolic cost of running. Extrapolating our reduced weight data to zero weight suggests that supporting body weight comprises at most 74% of the net cost of running. However, 74% is probably an

  2. The dynamics of human body weight change.

    PubMed

    Chow, Carson C; Hall, Kevin D

    2008-03-28

    An imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure will lead to a change in body weight (mass) and body composition (fat and lean masses). A quantitative understanding of the processes involved, which currently remains lacking, will be useful in determining the etiology and treatment of obesity and other conditions resulting from prolonged energy imbalance. Here, we show that a mathematical model of the macronutrient flux balances can capture the long-term dynamics of human weight change; all previous models are special cases of this model. We show that the generic dynamic behavior of body composition for a clamped diet can be divided into two classes. In the first class, the body composition and mass are determined uniquely. In the second class, the body composition can exist at an infinite number of possible states. Surprisingly, perturbations of dietary energy intake or energy expenditure can give identical responses in both model classes, and existing data are insufficient to distinguish between these two possibilities. Nevertheless, this distinction has important implications for the efficacy of clinical interventions that alter body composition and mass.

  3. The Dynamics of Human Body Weight Change

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Carson C.; Hall, Kevin D.

    2008-01-01

    An imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure will lead to a change in body weight (mass) and body composition (fat and lean masses). A quantitative understanding of the processes involved, which currently remains lacking, will be useful in determining the etiology and treatment of obesity and other conditions resulting from prolonged energy imbalance. Here, we show that a mathematical model of the macronutrient flux balances can capture the long-term dynamics of human weight change; all previous models are special cases of this model. We show that the generic dynamic behavior of body composition for a clamped diet can be divided into two classes. In the first class, the body composition and mass are determined uniquely. In the second class, the body composition can exist at an infinite number of possible states. Surprisingly, perturbations of dietary energy intake or energy expenditure can give identical responses in both model classes, and existing data are insufficient to distinguish between these two possibilities. Nevertheless, this distinction has important implications for the efficacy of clinical interventions that alter body composition and mass. PMID:18369435

  4. [Body composition at menarche. Estimation of total body weight, total body water, lean and fat body weight].

    PubMed

    Zurlo de Mirotti, S M; Lesa, A M; Barrón de Carbonetti, M; Roitter, H; Villagra de Lacuara, S

    1995-01-01

    Our aim was to confirm in our environment what has been observed and described by other writers about the importance of achieving a "critical body weight'' and an adequate "fat percentage'' -on the basis of the calculation of total body water- for the initiation and development of pubertal events. This study included 92 girls, healthy, well nourished, belonging to upper middle class from a high school of The National University of Cordoba. The longitudinal method of control was used every 6 months and at the precise moment of menarche. Out of 20 antropometrical variables observed height, weight and height, TBW as percentage of body weight, lean body and fat weight, fat percentage and skin folds ppercentiles for each girl at menarche. A regression between fat percentage and skin folds was done. Percentiles 5 to 95 of fat percentage in relation to body water percentage were estimated. At menarche the average for the different variables are: Heigth 155.6 cm +/- 0.469; Weight 45.8 Kg +/- 0,5; TBW 25.216 lit. +/- 0.318; lean body weigth 35.02 Kg (S.D.2.98); fat weigth 10.86 Kg (S. D. 3.17). The addition of skin folds was correlated fat percentage, thus, an equation was obtained for the average calculation of such percentage %F= 12.16 + (0.313 x fold addition). The minium percentage for the onset of menstrual cycles is 17.3% and corresponds to percentile 10. However, there is a 5% of girls who start to menstruate with a 15.5% of fat and none of them is below that value. The reasons mentioned above suggest that is necessary to obtain a "critical body weigth'' as well as a "fat percentage'' minimum for the onset and maintenance of menstrual cycles, among our girls, similar o what has been obtained by doctor Frisch.

  5. Sire carcass breeding values affect body composition in lambs - 1. Effects on lean weight and its distribution within the carcass as measured by computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Anderson, F; Williams, A; Pannier, L; Pethick, D W; Gardner, G E

    2015-10-01

    Data are obtained from computed tomography scanning of 1665 lambs at locations around Australia. Lambs were progeny of Terminal, Maternal and Merino sires with known Australian Sheep Breeding Values for post weaning c-site eye muscle depth (mm; PEMD) and fat depth (mm; PFAT), and post weaning weight (kg; PWWT). Across the 7.8 unit range of sire PEMD, carcass lean weight increased by 7.7%. This lean was distributed to the saddle section (mid-section) where lean became 3.8% heavier, with fore section lean becoming 3.5% lighter. Reducing sire PFAT across its 5.1 unit range increased carcass lean weight by 9.5%, and distributed lean to the saddle section which was 3.7% heavier. Increasing sire PWWT increased lean at some sites in some years, and on average increased saddle lean by 4% across the 24.7 unit PWWT range. Changes in lean weight and distribution due to selection for carcass breeding values will increase carcass value, particularly through increased weight of high value loin cuts.

  6. Sire carcass breeding values affect body composition in lambs--2. Effects on fat and bone weight and their distribution within the carcass as measured by computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Anderson, F; Williams, A; Pannier, L; Pethick, D W; Gardner, G E

    2016-06-01

    This study assessed the effect of paternal Australian Sheep Breeding Values for post weaning c-site eye muscle depth (PEMD) and fat depth (PFAT), and post weaning weight (PWWT) on the composition of lamb carcasses. Composition was measured using computed tomography scans of 1665 lambs which were progeny of 85 Maternal, 115 Merino and 155 Terminal sires. Reducing sire PFAT decreased carcass fat weight by 4.8% and increased carcass bone by 1.3% per unit of PFAT (range 5.1 mm). Increasing sire PEMD reduced carcass fat weight by 3.8% in Maternal and 2% in Terminal sired lambs per unit of PEMD (range 4.3 and 7.8 mm), with no impact on bone. Increasing sire PWWT reduced carcass fat weight, but only at some experimental locations. Differences in composition varied between sire types with Maternal sired lambs having the most fat and Merino sired lambs the greatest bone weight. Genetic effects on fatness were greater than the environmental or production factor effects, with the converse true of bone.

  7. Thermogenic ingredients and body weight regulation.

    PubMed

    Hursel, R; Westerterp-Plantenga, M S

    2010-04-01

    The global prevalence of obesity has increased considerably in the last decade. Tools for obesity management, including consumption of caffeine, capsaicin and different teas such as green, white and oolong tea, have been proposed as strategies for weight loss and weight maintenance, as they may increase energy expenditure (4-5%), fat oxidation (10-16%) and have been proposed to counteract the decrease in metabolic rate that is present during weight loss. Daily increases in thermogenesis of approximately 300-400 kJ can eventually lead to substantial weight loss. However, it becomes clearer that certain conditions have to be met before thermogenic ingredients yield an effect, as intra-variability with respect to body weight regulation has been shown between subjects. Furthermore, the sympathetic nervous system is involved in the regulation of lipolysis, and the sympathetic innervation of white adipose tissue may have an important role in the regulation of total body fat in general. Taken together, these functional ingredients have the potential to produce significant effects on metabolic targets such as satiety, thermogenesis and fat oxidation. A significant clinical outcome may sometimes appear straightforward and may also depend very strongly on full compliance of subjects. Nevertheless, thermogenic ingredients may be considered as functional agents that could help in preventing a positive energy balance and obesity.

  8. Teammates and social influence affect weight loss outcomes in a team-based weight loss competition.

    PubMed

    Leahey, Tricia M; Kumar, Rajiv; Weinberg, Brad M; Wing, Rena R

    2012-07-01

    Team-based internet interventions are increasing in popularity as a way of promoting weight loss in large numbers of individuals. Given that social networks influence health behavior change, this study investigated the effects of teammates and social influence on individual weight loss during a team-based weight loss competition. Shape Up Rhode Island (SURI) 2009 was a 12-week online program open to adult residents of Rhode Island. Participants joined with a team and competed with other teams on weight loss and/or physical activity. Overweight/obese (OW/OB) individuals (N = 3,330; 76% female; age = 46.1 ± 10.8; BMI = 31.2 ± 5.3 kg/m(2)), representing 987 teams, completed the weight loss program. Multilevel modeling was used to examine whether weight loss clustered among teammates and whether percentage of teammates in the weight loss division and reported teammate influence on weight loss were associated with individual weight outcomes. OW/OB completers reported losing 4.2 ± 3.4% of initial body weight. Weight loss was similar among teammates (intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) = 0.10, P < 0.001). Moreover, having a greater percentage of teammates in the weight loss division and reporting higher social influence for weight loss were associated with greater percent weight loss (P's ≤ 0.002). Similarly, achieving a clinically significant (5%) weight loss tended to cluster within teams (ICC = 0.09; P < 0.001) and having more teammates in the weight loss division and higher social influence for weight loss were associated with increased likelihood of achieving a 5% weight loss (odds ratio (OR) = 1.06; OR = 1.20, respectively). These results suggest that teammates affect weight loss outcomes during a team-based intervention. Harnessing and maximizing teammate influence for weight loss may enhance weight outcomes in large-scale team-based programs.

  9. Brain nuclear receptors and body weight regulation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yong; O'Malley, Bert W; Elmquist, Joel K

    2017-02-20

    Neural pathways, especially those in the hypothalamus, integrate multiple nutritional, hormonal, and neural signals, resulting in the coordinated control of body weight balance and glucose homeostasis. Nuclear receptors (NRs) sense changing levels of nutrients and hormones, and therefore play essential roles in the regulation of energy homeostasis. Understanding the role and the underlying mechanisms of NRs in the context of energy balance control may facilitate the identification of novel targets to treat obesity. Notably, NRs are abundantly expressed in the brain, and emerging evidence indicates that a number of these brain NRs regulate multiple aspects of energy balance, including feeding, energy expenditure and physical activity. In this Review we summarize some of the recent literature regarding effects of brain NRs on body weight regulation and discuss mechanisms underlying these effects.

  10. Associations between Obesity, Body Fat Distribution, Weight Loss and Weight Cycling on Serum Pesticide Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Frugé, Andrew Dandridge; Cases, Mallory Gamel; Schildkraut, Joellen Martha; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Objective Preliminary studies suggest pesticides may be linked to increased cancer risk. Since most pesticides are lipophilic and stored within adipose tissue, serum levels of organochlorines are affected not only by environmental exposures, but also by factors related to lipid turnover and storage. Our objective was to investigate whether serum organochlorines are influenced by weight loss, body fat distribution, and weight cycling. Methods Ten overweight women were recruited upon entry into a weight loss program and surveyed regarding weight history, childbearing/lactation, and exposure to environmental contaminants. Anthropometric measures and phlebotomy were conducted at baseline and at four weeks (mean weight loss=5.1 kg). Serum was analyzed for 19 common polychlorinated pesticides and metabolites and 10 PCB congeners. Results Organochlorine levels were not significantly affected by weight loss nor associated with body mass index (BMI). Strong positive correlations were noted between levels of DDE/DDT and age (DDE β=0.6986/p=0.0246/DDT β=0.6536/p=0.0404) and between DDE/DDT and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) (DDE β=0.4356/p=0.0447/DDT β=0.8108/p=0.0044). Trends were noted for decreased levels of DDT in women who reported more episodes of weight cycling. Conclusion Serum organochlorine levels may be affected not only by age, but also factors related to lipid turnover (i.e., episodes of weight cycling and WHR), and warrants further study. PMID:27478857

  11. Omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and body weight.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Victoria, Emilio; Yago, María Dolores

    2012-06-01

    In animal studies, n-3 PUFA have been shown to influence body composition and to reduce the accumulation of body fat, thereby affecting body weight homeostasis. In addition, it has been suggested that an additional supply of n-3 PUFA during pregnancy or lactation, or both, would have a beneficial effect on birth weight and infant growth and development. The purpose of the present study was to systematically review interventional clinical trials on the effects of dietary n-3 PUFA supplementation on body weight in adult subjects and in infants whose mothers were supplemented with these fatty acids during pregnancy and/or lactation. A systematic search, focused on n-3 PUFA and body weight, and limited to controlled clinical trials, was performed in different databases. The quality of all included studies was assessed against set criteria, and results of eligible trials were compared. There were few studies targeting this topic. In adults, all of the five studies included, except for one, show no change in body weight by dietary supplementation with n-3 PUFA. Within those trials conducted in pregnant and/or lactating women in which a main outcome was birth weight or growth in infancy, two showed a modest increase in birth weight and the rest showed no effect. None of the trials showed an effect of maternal n-3 PUFA supplementation on infant's weight at the short term. However, it should be noted that a number of limitations, including a variety of experimental designs, type and doses of n-3 PUFA, and high attrition rates, among others, make impossible to draw robust conclusions from this review.

  12. Glycaemic index, appetite and body weight.

    PubMed

    Ford, Heather; Frost, Gary

    2010-05-01

    Much interest has been focused on the relationship between glycaemic index and body-weight loss, some of which is fueled by popular media. However, there is a number of potential mechanisms that could be triggered by reducing the glycaemic index of the carbohydrate consumed in the diet. For example, the effect of foods on the gastrointestinal tract and the effect on blood glucose both could lead to potential appetite effects. Acute meal studies seem to point to an effect of glycaemic index on appetite regulation. However, the results of longer-term studies of weight loss are not as clear. In the present review a possible reason for this variation in outcome from the weight-loss studies will be discussed. The present review focuses on the possibility that the fermentable fibre content of the low-glycaemic-index diet may be important in weight-loss efficacy. A novel receptor that binds SCFA, the products of carbohydrate fermentation, has recently been described on the enteroendocrine L-cell in the colon. This cell releases a number of anorectic hormones and could offer an explanation of the appetite suppressant effects of fermentable carbohydrates. It could also explain the variability in the results of glycaemic-index weight-loss studies.

  13. Genome-wide association study for identifying loci that affect fillet yield, carcass, and body weight traits in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fillet yield (FY, %) is an economically important trait in rainbow trout aquaculture that affects production efficiency. Despite that, FY has not received much attention in breeding programs because it is difficult to measure on a large number of fish and it cannot be directly measured on breeding c...

  14. Weight and weddings. Engaged men's body weight ideals and wedding weight management behaviors.

    PubMed

    Klos, Lori A; Sobal, Jeffery

    2013-01-01

    Most adults marry at some point in life, and many invest substantial resources in a wedding ceremony. Previous research reports that brides often strive towards culturally-bound appearance norms and engage in weight management behaviors in preparation for their wedding. However, little is known about wedding weight ideals and behaviors among engaged men. A cross-sectional survey of 163 engaged men asked them to complete a questionnaire about their current height and weight, ideal wedding body weight, wedding weight importance, weight management behaviors, formality of their upcoming wedding ceremony, and demographics. Results indicated that the discrepancy between men's current weight and reported ideal wedding weight averaged 9.61 lb. Most men considered being at a certain weight at their wedding to be somewhat important. About 39% were attempting to lose weight for their wedding, and 37% were not trying to change their weight. Attempting weight loss was more frequent among men with higher BMI's, those planning more formal weddings, and those who considered being the right weight at their wedding as important. Overall, these findings suggest that weight-related appearance norms and weight loss behaviors are evident among engaged men.

  15. Factors affecting birth weight in sheep: maternal environment

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, D S; Buttery, P J; Daniel, Z; Symonds, M E

    2007-01-01

    Knowledge of factors affecting variation in birth weight is especially important given the relationship of birth weight to neonatal and adult health. The present study utilises two large contemporary datasets in sheep of differing breeds to explore factors that influence weight at term. For dataset one (Study 1; n = 154 Blue-faced Leicester×Swaledale (Mule) and 87 Welsh Mountain ewes, 315 separate cases of birth weight), lamb birth weight as the outcome measure was related to maternal characteristics and individual energy intake of the ewe during specified periods of gestation, i.e. early (1-30 days; term ∼147 days gestation), mid (31-80 days) or late (110-147 days) pregnancy. For dataset two (Study 2; n = 856 Mule ewes and 5821 cases of birth weight), we investigated using multilevel modelling the influence of ewe weight, parity, barrenness, lamb sex, litter size, lamb mortality and year of birth on lamb birth weight. For a subset of these ewes (n = 283), the effect of the ewes’ own birth weight was also examined. Interactions between combinations of variables were selectively investigated. Litter size, as expected, had the single greatest influence on birth weight with other significant effects being year of birth, maternal birth weight, maternal nutrition, sex of the lamb, ewe barrenness and maternal body composition at mating. The results of the present study have practical implications not only for sheep husbandry but also for the increased knowledge of factors that significantly influence variation in birth weight; as birth weight itself has become a significant predictor of later health outcomes. PMID:17244755

  16. The gut sensor as regulator of body weight.

    PubMed

    Reinehr, Thomas; Roth, Christian L

    2015-05-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract comprises a large endocrine organ that regulates not only nutrient sensing and metabolising but also satiety and energy homeostasis. More than 20 hormones secreted from the stomach, intestine, and pancreas as well as signaling mediators of the gut microbiome are involved in this process. A better understanding of how related pathways affect body weight and food intake will help us to find new strategies and drugs to treat obesity. For example, weight loss secondary to lifestyle intervention is often accompanied by unfavorable changes in multiple GI hormones, which may cause difficulties in maintaining a lower body weight status. Conversely, bariatric surgery favorably changes the hormone profile to support improved satiety and metabolic function. This partially explains stronger sustained body weight reduction resulting in better long-term results of improved metabolic functions. This review focuses on GI hormones and signaling mediators of the microbiome involved in satiety regulation and energy homeostasis and summarizes their changes following weight loss. Furthermore, the potential role of GI hormones as anti-obesity drugs is discussed.

  17. Concurrent pharmacological modification of cannabinoid-1 and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor activity affects feeding behavior and body weight in rats fed a free-choice, high-carbohydrate diet.

    PubMed

    Radziszewska, Elżbieta; Wolak, Monika; Bojanowska, Ewa

    2014-02-01

    To extend preliminary studies on the effects on food intake of the combined use of cannabinoid (CB) 1 and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists and antagonists, the effect of these drugs on the feeding behavior in rats maintained on a free-choice, high-carbohydrate diet was investigated over a longer period of time. Rats were fed a standard diet for 3 days and then fed with both the standard and the high-sucrose chow. After 4 days of the high-calorie diet, the following combination treatments were administered daily by an intraperitoneal injection for the next 3 days: 1 mg/kg AM 251 (a CB1 receptor antagonist) or 1 mg/kg WIN 55,212-2 (a CB1 receptor agonist) together with 3 µg/kg exendin-4 (Ex-4, a GLP-1 receptor agonist) or 160 µg/kg exendin (9-39) [Ex (9-39), a GLP-1 receptor antagonist]. The total daily caloric intake and body weight were significantly reduced in rats treated with Ex-4 and AM 251 or WIN 55,212-2 compared with either of the drugs injected alone and the saline-injected controls. Both drug combinations selectively inhibited ingestion of the high-sucrose chow. Although Ex (9-39) administration did not significantly affect food consumption, it resulted in a marked body weight gain, indicating that the GLP-1 receptor antagonist caused a positive energy balance. It is concluded that AM 251 or WIN 55,212-2 and Ex-4, injected together, exert additive, inhibitory effects on the consumption of high-sugar food.

  18. The role of whole grains in body weight regulation.

    PubMed

    Karl, J Philip; Saltzman, Edward

    2012-09-01

    Whole grain (WG)-rich diets are purported to have a variety of health benefits, including a favorable role in body weight regulation. Current dietary recommendations advocate substituting WG for refined grains (RG), because many of the beneficial bioactive components intrinsic to WG are lost during the refining process. Epidemiological studies consistently demonstrate that higher intakes of WG, but not RG, are associated with lower BMI and/or reduced risk of obesity. However, recent clinical trials have failed to support a role for WG in promoting weight loss or maintenance. Though the biochemical and structural characteristics of WG have been shown to modulate appetite, nutrient availability, and energy utilization, the capacity of WG foods to elicit these effects varies with the type and amount of grain consumed as well as the nature of its consumption. As such, WG foods differentially affect physiologic factors influencing body weight with the common practice of processing and reconstituting WG ingredients during food production likely mitigating the capacity for WG to benefit body weight regulation.

  19. Dose-response trend tests for tumorigenesis, adjusted for body weight.

    PubMed

    Gaylor, D W; Kodell, R L

    1999-06-01

    Several studies have demonstrated a relationship between rodent body weight and tumor incidence for some tissue/organ sites. It is not uncommon for a chemical tested for carcinogenicity to also affect body weight. In such cases, comparisons of tumor incidence may be biased by body-weight differences across dose groups. A simple procedure was investigated for reducing this bias. This procedure divides the animals into a few groups based on body weight. Body weight at 12 months was used, before the appearance of a tumor was likely to affect body weight. Statistics for dose-response trend tests are calculated within body weight strata and pooled to obtain an overall dose-response trend test. This procedure is analogous to that currently used, of stratifying animals, based on their age at the time of removal from a study. Age stratification is used to account for differences in animal age across dose groups, which can affect comparisons of tumor incidence. Several examples were investigated where the high-dose group had reduced body weights and associated reductions in tumor incidence. When the data were analyzed by body-weight strata, some positive dose-response trends for tumor incidence were demonstrated. In one case, the weight-adjusted analysis indicated that a negative dose-response trend in tumor incidence was a real effect, in addition to a body weight reduction. These examples indicate that it is important to consider the effects of body weight changes as low as 10%, and perhaps below, that were caused by chemicals in 2-year bioassays for carcinogenesis. The simple procedure of analyzing tumor incidence within body-weight strata can reduce the bias introduced by weight differences across dose groups.

  20. Body Weight Concerns and Antifat Attitude in Iranian Children

    PubMed Central

    Garousi, Saideh

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is increasing evidence that children are showing body image issues in recent years. Body image disturbances in childhood must be taken seriously. The thin ideal is becoming more prominent in Asian countries; however, there is little research examining how this issue affects Iranian children. This study explores body weight concerns and associated factors among children in Iranian elementary schools. Methods: This study was conducted in 500 elementary schools. An assessment of body image and antifat attitudes was undertaken using the figure rating scale. In addition, body mass index (BMI) and demographic variables were assessed. Results: Nearly, 27.4% of children were underweight, and 13.3% were obese. There was a significant difference between the mean score of body dissatisfaction (BD) between boys and girls (P < 0.05). There were no differences between BD and education of parents, age, and academic grades. In girls, antifat attitudes were significantly related to BMI. Conclusions: The results of this study demonstrate the paramount importance of undertaking further research in order to identify the predictive factors of body concerns and its consequences among Iranian children. In addition, researchers must plan prevention and educational program for these children. PMID:25709795

  1. Weight Loss Practices and Body Weight Perceptions among US College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wharton, Christopher M.; Adams, Troy; Hampl, Jeffrey S.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors assessed associations between body weight perception and weight loss strategies. Participants: They randomly selected male and female college students (N = 38,204). Methods: The authors conducted a secondary data analysis of the rates of weight loss strategies and body weight perception among students who completed the…

  2. Body Weight Can Change How Your Emotions Are Perceived

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Accurately interpreting other’s emotions through facial expressions has important adaptive values for social interactions. However, due to the stereotypical social perception of overweight individuals as carefree, humorous, and light-hearted, the body weight of those with whom we interact may have a systematic influence on our emotion judgment even though it has no relevance to the expressed emotion itself. In this experimental study, we examined the role of body weight in faces on the affective perception of facial expressions. We hypothesized that the weight perceived in a face would bias the assessment of an emotional expression, with overweight faces generally more likely to be perceived as having more positive and less negative expressions than healthy weight faces. Using two-alternative forced-choice perceptual decision tasks, participants were asked to sort the emotional expressions of overweight and healthy weight facial stimuli that had been gradually morphed across six emotional intensity levels into one of two categories—“neutral vs. happy” (Experiment 1) and “neutral vs. sad” (Experiment 2). As predicted, our results demonstrated that overweight faces were more likely to be categorized as happy (i.e., lower happy decision threshold) and less likely to be categorized as sad (i.e., higher sad decision threshold) compared to healthy weight faces that had the same levels of emotional intensity. The neutral-sad decision threshold shift was negatively correlated with participant’s own fear of becoming fat, that is, those without a fear of becoming fat more strongly perceived overweight faces as sad relative to those with a higher fear. These findings demonstrate that the weight of the face systematically influences how its emotional expression is interpreted, suggesting that being overweight may make emotional expressions appear more happy and less sad than they really are. PMID:27870892

  3. Body image and strategies to lose weight and increase muscle among boys and girls.

    PubMed

    McCabe, Marita P; Ricciardelli, Lina A

    2003-01-01

    This study examined factors that influence body image and strategies to either lose weight or increase muscle among children. Participants were 237 boys and 270 girls. Body mass index (BMI), body dissatisfaction, cognitions and behaviors to both lose weight and increase muscles, as well as self-esteem and positive and negative affect, were evaluated. Self-esteem was associated with body satisfaction, positive affect predicted strategies to lose weight and increase muscles, and negative affect predicted body dissatisfaction and cognitions to lose weight and increase muscles. Boys were more likely to focus on changing muscles. Respondents with higher BMIs were more focused on losing weight butnot muscle. The discussion focuses on health risk behaviors related to eating and exercise among children.

  4. Phytochemicals in the Control of Human Appetite and Body Weight

    PubMed Central

    Tucci, Sonia A.

    2010-01-01

    Since obesity has grown to epidemic proportions, its effective management is a very important clinical issue. Despite the great amount of scientific effort that has been put into understanding the mechanisms that lead to overconsumption and overweight, at the moment very few approaches to weight management are effective in the long term. On the other hand, modern society is also affected by the growing incidence of eating disorders on the other side of the spectrum such as anorexia and bulimia nervosa which are equally difficult to treat. This review will try to summarise the main findings available in the literature regarding the effect of plants or plant extracts (phytochemicals) on human appetite and body weight. The majority of plant extracts are not single compounds but rather a mixture of different molecules, therefore their mechanism of action usually targets several systems. In addition, since some cellular receptors tend to be widely distributed, sometimes a single molecule can have a widespread effect. This review will attempt to describe the main phytochemicals that have been suggested to affect the homeostatic mechanisms that influence intake and body weight. Clinical data will be summarised and scientific evidence will be reviewed. PMID:27713277

  5. The Development of Body Image and Weight Bias in Childhood.

    PubMed

    Paxton, S J; Damiano, S R

    2017-01-01

    Negative body image attitudes are related to the onset of disordered eating, poor self-esteem, general mental health problems, and obesity. In this chapter, we will review the nature of body image attitudes in girls and boys in early (approximately 3-7 years old) and later childhood (approximately 8-11 years old). The body image attitudes explored in this chapter include body image attitudes related to the self, with a focus on body dissatisfaction, and body image attitudes related to others, with a focus on weight bias. Issues of measurement of body image and weight bias will first be explored. In light of measurement considerations, the prevalence and predictors of body dissatisfaction and related concerns, and weight bias will be examined. The chapter will conclude with a review of promising directions in the prevention of body dissatisfaction and weight bias in children.

  6. Body weight and beauty: the changing face of the ideal female body weight.

    PubMed

    Bonafini, B A; Pozzilli, P

    2011-01-01

    By observing the art of different eras, as well as the more recent existence of the media, it is obvious that there have been dramatic changes in what is considered a beautiful body. The ideal of female beauty has shifted from a symbol of fertility to one of mathematically calculated proportions. It has taken the form of an image responding to men's sexual desires. Nowadays there seems to be a tendency towards the destruction of the feminine, as androgynous fashion and appearance dominate our culture. The metamorphosis of the ideal woman follows the shifting role of women in society from mother and mistress to a career-orientated individual. Her depiction by artists across the centuries reveals this change in role and appearance that should be interpreted within the social and historical context of each era with its own theories of what constituted the ideal female body weight.

  7. Exercise and weight loss: no sex differences in body weight response to exercise.

    PubMed

    Caudwell, Phillipa; Gibbons, Catherine; Finlayson, Graham; Näslund, Erik; Blundell, John

    2014-07-01

    There is a view that exercise is less effective for weight loss in women compared with men. This systematic review examines the evidence for sex-based differences in the effect of exercise on body weight. We hypothesize that, when energy expenditure is equivalent, there will be no evidence for sex differences in body weight response to exercise.

  8. Correlates of Body Mass Index, Weight Goals, and Weight-Management Practices among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paxton, Raheem J.; Valois, Robert F.; Drane, J. Wanzer

    2004-01-01

    The study examined associations among physical activity, cigarette smoking, body mass index, perceptions of body weight, weight-management goals, and weight-management behaviors of public high school adolescents. The CDC Youth Risk Behavior Survey provided a cross-sectional sample (n = 3,089) of public high school students in South Carolina.…

  9. Perceptions of Body Weight, Weight Management Strategies, and Depressive Symptoms among US College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harring, Holly Anne; Montgomery, Kara; Hardin, James

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To determine if inaccurate body weight perception predicts unhealthy weight management strategies and to determine the extent to which inaccurate body weight perception is associated with depressive symptoms among US college students. Participants: Randomly selected male and female college students in the United States (N = 97,357).…

  10. Body Weight, Body Image, and Perception of Fad Diets in Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storz, Nancy S.; Greene, Walter H.

    1983-01-01

    Examined relationships among adolescent girls' (N=203) satisfaction with body weight, body image, and perception/use of fad diets. Subjects wanting to lose weight were placed into two groups based on amount of weight-loss desired and compared in terms of body image scores, ratings of fad diets, and frequency of using the diets. (JN)

  11. Mechanisms of body weight fluctuations in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Kistner, Andrea; Lhommée, Eugénie; Krack, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Typical body weight changes are known to occur in Parkinson's disease (PD). Weight loss has been reported in early stages as well as in advanced disease and malnutrition may worsen the clinical state of the patient. On the other hand, an increasing number of patients show weight gain under dopamine replacement therapy or after surgery. These weight changes are multifactorial and involve changes in energy expenditure, perturbation of homeostatic control, and eating behavior modulated by dopaminergic treatment. Comprehension of the different mechanisms contributing to body weight is a prerequisite for the management of body weight and nutritional state of an individual PD patient. This review summarizes the present knowledge and highlights the necessity of evaluation of body weight and related factors, as eating behavior, energy intake, and expenditure in PD.

  12. Mechanisms of Body Weight Fluctuations in Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kistner, Andrea; Lhommée, Eugénie; Krack, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Typical body weight changes are known to occur in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Weight loss has been reported in early stages as well as in advanced disease and malnutrition may worsen the clinical state of the patient. On the other hand, an increasing number of patients show weight gain under dopamine replacement therapy or after surgery. These weight changes are multifactorial and involve changes in energy expenditure, perturbation of homeostatic control, and eating behavior modulated by dopaminergic treatment. Comprehension of the different mechanisms contributing to body weight is a prerequisite for the management of body weight and nutritional state of an individual PD patient. This review summarizes the present knowledge and highlights the necessity of evaluation of body weight and related factors, as eating behavior, energy intake, and expenditure in PD. PMID:24917848

  13. Body weight gain and deep brain stimulation.

    PubMed

    Rieu, Isabelle; Derost, Philippe; Ulla, Miguel; Marques, Ana; Debilly, Bérangère; De Chazeron, Ingrid; Chéreau, Isabelle; Lemaire, Jean Jacques; Boirie, Yves; Llorca, Pierre Michel; Durif, Franck

    2011-11-15

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a neurosurgical technique that has now been available for some 25 years. It is used in the treatment of various motor disorders, e.g. Parkinson's disease (PD), essential tremor and dystonia, and neuropsychiatric illnesses, e.g. obsessive-compulsive disorder and Tourette syndrome. The surgical targets of DBS include the thalamic ventralis intermedius nucleus (Vim), the globus pallidus internus (GPi) and more recently the subthalamic nucleus (STN), currently considered as the reference target in the treatment of PD. In the last ten years, most studies in PD patients have described a rapid and marked weight gain in the months following DBS of the STN. This weight gain sometimes induces obesity and can have metabolic repercussions. The physiopathological mechanisms responsible for the weight gain are multifactorial (changes in energy metabolism and eating behaviour, reduction of motor complications, etc.). This review reports current knowledge concerning weight changes in patients treated by DBS with different surgical targets. It also describes the mechanisms responsible for weight gain and the health outcome for the patients.

  14. Effects of Eucommia leaf extracts on autonomic nerves, body temperature, lipolysis, food intake, and body weight.

    PubMed

    Horii, Yuko; Tanida, Mamoru; Shen, Jiao; Hirata, Tetsuya; Kawamura, Naomi; Wada, Atsunori; Nagai, Katsuya

    2010-08-02

    Eucommia ulmoides Oliver leaf extracts (ELE) have been shown to exert a hypolipidemic effect in hamsters. Therefore, it was hypothesized that ELE might affect lipid metabolism via changes in autonomic nerve activities and causes changes in thermogenesis and body weight. We examined this hypothesis, and found that intraduodenal (ID) injection of ELE elevated epididymal white adipose tissue sympathetic nerve activity (WAT-SNA) and interscapular brown adipose tissue sympathetic nerve activity (BAT-SNA) in urethane-anesthetized rats and elevated the plasma concentration of free fatty acids (FFA) (a marker of lipolysis) and body temperature (BT) (a marker of thermogenesis) in conscious rats. Furthermore, it was observed that ID administration of ELE decreased gastric vagal nerve activity (GVNA) in urethane-anesthetized rats, and that ELE given as food reduced food intake, body and abdominal adipose tissue weights and decreased plasma triglyceride level. These findings suggest that ELE stimulates lipolysis and thermogenesis through elevations in WAT-SNA and BAT-SNA, respectively, suppresses appetite by inhibiting the activities of the parasympathetic nerves innervating the gastrointestinal tract, including GVNA, and decreases the amount of abdominal fat and body weight via these changes.

  15. Control of Body Weight by Eating Behavior in Children

    PubMed Central

    Zandian, Modjtaba; Bergh, Cecilia; Ioakimidis, Ioannis; Esfandiari, Maryam; Shield, Julian; Lightman, Stafford; Leon, Michael; Södersten, Per

    2015-01-01

    Diet, exercise, and pharmacological interventions have limited effects in counteracting the worldwide increase in pediatric body weight. Moreover, the promise that individualized drug design will work to induce weight loss appears to be exaggerated. We suggest that the reason for this limited success is that the cause of obesity has been misunderstood. Body weight is mainly under external control; our brain permits us to eat under most circumstances, and unless the financial or physical cost of food is high, eating and body weight increase by default. When energy-rich, inexpensive foods are continually available, people need external support to maintain a healthy body weight. Weight loss can thereby be achieved by continuous feedback on how much and how fast to eat on a computer screen. PMID:26539422

  16. Tracking of weight status and body fatness in Italian children.

    PubMed

    Toselli, Stefania; Brasili, Patricia; Di Michele, Rocco

    2013-12-01

    The prevalence of weight disorders among school-aged children is an increasing phenomenon and it is of great importance to identify the characteristics of individuals at risk of gaining or retaining weight. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of weight disorders and their tracking over a 3-year period in a sample of Italian children. Body mass, body height and selected skinfold thicknesses were assessed in 355 children at the age of 7 and 10 years. Tracking of body mass index (BMI), inverted BMI (iBMI) and skinfold-based body fat were analyzed and the relationships between changes in BMI and body fat were examined. Children presenting with overweight or obesity at 7 years old showed a trend toward lower weight categories at 10 years old. Conversely, a trend to become overweight was observed among normal weight boys, and a trend to become underweight was observed among normal weight girls. BMI, iBMI and body fat showed good levels of tracking, with high correlations between measurements performed at 7 and 10 years of age. Furthermore, BMI and iBMI changes were correlated to body fatness changes. The present study shows the importance of carefully following children's development over time because weight disorders may appear even in previously normal weight children.

  17. Body talk among undergraduate women: why conversations about exercise and weight loss differentially predict body appreciation.

    PubMed

    Wasylkiw, Louise; Butler, Nicole A

    2014-08-01

    Undergraduate women (N = 143) completed self-reports on exercise behavior, body orientation, body appreciation, and body-related talk. Results showed that conversations about weight loss/dieting and conversations about exercise differentially predicted body appreciation. Importantly, multiple regression analyses showed that the relationship between talk type and body appreciation was explained by the object-process dichotomy: Conversations about exercise oriented women to consider what their bodies can do which, in turn, predicted appreciation of one's body. In contrast, the relationship between conversations about weight loss/dieting and body appreciation was mediated by negative attitudes about one's body but not by an object orientation.

  18. Exercise, weight loss, and changes in body composition in mice: phenotypic relationships and genetic architecture.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Scott A; Nehrenberg, Derrick L; Hua, Kunjie; Garland, Theodore; Pomp, Daniel

    2011-02-24

    The regulation of body weight and composition is complex, simultaneously affected by genetic architecture, the environment, and their interactions. We sought to analyze the complex phenotypic relationships between voluntary exercise, food consumption, and changes in body weight and composition and simultaneously localize quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling these traits. A large (n = 815) murine advanced intercross line (G(4)) was created from a reciprocal cross between a high-running line and the inbred strain C57BL/6J. Body weight and composition (% fat, % lean) were measured at 4, 6, and 8 wk of age. After measurements at 8 wk of age, mice were given access to running wheels, during which food consumption was quantified and after which body weight and composition were assessed to evaluate exercise-induced changes. Phenotypic correlations indicated that the relationship between exercise and overall change in weight and adiposity depended on body composition before the initiation of exercise. Interval mapping revealed QTL for body weight, % fat, and % lean at 4, 6, and 8 wk of age. Furthermore, QTL were observed for food consumption and changes in weight, % fat, and % lean in response to short-term exercise. Here we provide some clarity for the relationship between weight loss, reduction in adiposity, food consumption, and exercise. Simultaneously, we reinforce the genetic basis for body weight and composition with some independent loci controlling growth at different ages. Finally, we present unique QTL providing insight regarding variation in weight loss and reduction in adiposity in response to exercise.

  19. Effects of pre-pregnancy body mass index and gestational weight gain on neonatal birth weight* #

    PubMed Central

    Du, Meng-kai; Ge, Li-ya; Zhou, Meng-lin; Ying, Jun; Qu, Fan; Dong, Min-yue; Chen, Dan-qing

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (pre-BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) on neonatal birth weight (NBW) in the population of Chinese healthy pregnant women, attempting to guide weight control in pregnancy. A retrospective cohort study of 3772 Chinese women was conducted. The population was stratified by maternal pre-BMI categories as underweight (<18.5 kg/m2), normal weight (18.5–23.9 kg/m2), overweight (24.0–27.9 kg/m2), and obesity (≥28.0 kg/m2). The NBW differences were tested among the four groups, and then deeper associations among maternal pre-BMI, GWG, and NBW were investigated by multivariate analysis. NBW increased significantly with the increase of maternal pre-BMI level (P<0.05), except overweight to obesity (P>0.05). The multivariate analysis showed that both pre-BMI and GWG were positively correlated with NBW (P<0.05). Compared with normal pre-BMI, underweight predicted an increased odds ratio of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) and decreased odds ratio for macrosomia and large-for-gestational-age (LGA), and the results were opposite for overweight. With the increase of GWG, the risk of SGA decreased and the risks of macrosomia and LGA increased. In addition, in different pre-BMI categories, the effects of weight gain in the first trimester on NBW were different (P<0.05). NBW is positively affected by both maternal pre-BMI and GWG, extreme pre-BMI and GWG are both associated with increased risks of abnormal birth weight, and maternal pre-BMI may modify the effect of weight gain in each trimester on NBW. A valid GWG guideline for Chinese women is an urgent requirement, whereas existing recommendations seem to be not very suitable for the Chinese. PMID:28271662

  20. Sleep, circadian rhythm and body weight: parallel developments.

    PubMed

    Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2016-11-01

    Circadian alignment is crucial for body-weight management, and for metabolic health. In this context, circadian alignment consists of alignment of sleep, meal patterns and physical activity. During puberty a significant reduction in sleep duration occurs, and pubertal status is inversely associated with sleep duration. A consistent inverse association between habitual sleep duration and body-weight development occurs, independent of possible confounders. Research on misalignment reveals that circadian misalignment affects sleep-architecture and subsequently disturbs glucose-insulin metabolism, substrate oxidation, leptin- and ghrelin concentrations, appetite, food reward, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis activity and gut-peptide concentrations enhancing positive energy balance and metabolic disturbance. Not only aligning meals and sleep in a circadian way is crucial, also regular physical activity during the day strongly promotes the stability and amplitude of circadian rhythm, and thus may serve as an instrument to restore poor circadian rhythms. Endogenicity may play a role in interaction of these environmental variables with a genetic predisposition. In conclusion, notwithstanding the separate favourable effects of sufficient daily physical activity, regular meal patterns, sufficient sleep duration and quality sleep on energy balance, the overall effect of the amplitude and stability of the circadian rhythm, perhaps including genetic predisposition, may integrate the separate effects in an additive way.

  1. The effects of body mass on cremation weight.

    PubMed

    May, Shannon E

    2011-01-01

    Cremains have become increasingly frequent in forensic contexts, while higher body mass in the general population has simultaneously made cremation a more cost-effective mortuary practice. This study analyzed the relationship between body mass and bone mass, as reflected through cremation weight. Antemortem data were recorded for samples used in the multi-regional data set. Each was rendered through commercial crematoriums and reweighed postincineration. Pearson's correlation demonstrates clear association between body mass and cremation weight (r=0.56; p<0.0001). However, multiple linear regression revealed sex and age variables also have a significant relationship (t=7.198; t=-2.5, respectively). Regressed in conjunction, body mass, sex, and age contribute approximately 67% of all variation observed in cremation weight (r=0.668). Analysis of covariance indicates significant regional variation in body and cremation weight. Explanations include bone modification resulting from increased loading stress, as well as glucose intolerance and altered metabolic pathways related to obesity.

  2. Rapid weight loss followed by recovery time does not affect judo-related performance.

    PubMed

    Artioli, Guilherme G; Iglesias, Rodrigo T; Franchini, Emerson; Gualano, Bruno; Kashiwagura, Daniel B; Solis, Marina Y; Benatti, Fabiana B; Fuchs, Marina; Lancha Junior, Antonio H

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of rapid weight loss followed by a 4-h recovery on judo-related performance. Seven weight-cycler athletes were assigned to a weight loss group (5% body weight reduction by self-selected regime) and seven non-weight-cyclers to a control group (no weight reduction). Body composition, performance, glucose, and lactate were assessed before and after weight reduction (5-7 days apart; control group kept weight stable). The weight loss group had 4 h to re-feed and rehydrate after the weigh-in. Food intake was recorded during the weight loss period and recovery after the weigh-in. Performance was evaluated through a specific judo exercise, followed by a 5-min judo combat and by three bouts of the Wingate test. Both groups significantly improved performance after the weight loss period. No interaction effects were observed. The energy and macronutrient intake of the weight loss group were significantly lower than for the control group. The weight loss group consumed large amounts of food and carbohydrate during the 4-h recovery period. No changes were observed in lactate concentration, but a significant decrease in glucose during rest was observed in the weight loss group. In conclusion, rapid weight loss did not affect judo-related performance in experienced weight-cyclers when the athletes had 4 h to recover. These results should not be extrapolated to inexperienced weight-cyclers.

  3. Body Weight Perception, Unhealthy Weight Control Behaviors, and Suicidal Ideation among Korean Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Dong-Sik; Cho, Youngtae; Cho, Sung-Il; Lim, In-Sook

    2009-01-01

    Background: This study examined the mediating function of body weight perception (BWP) in the relation between body mass index (BMI) and unhealthy weight control behaviors (UWCBs; eg, fasting, using diet pills, or laxatives), and between BMI and suicidal ideation. It also explored the correlation between exposure to multiple UWCBs and suicidal…

  4. Increase in body weight after pramipexole treatment in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Kumru, Hatice; Santamaria, Joan; Valldeoriola, Francesc; Marti, Maria J; Tolosa, Eduardo

    2006-11-01

    Body weight changes occur during the clinical course of Parkinson's disease (PD) and with surgical treatment, but the effect of dopaminergic treatment on weight is unknown. Body mass index (BMI), Hamilton depression scale score (HDS), and Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale III (UPRS-III) were measured before and 3 months after starting pramipexole in 28 PD patients. Pramipexole produced a significant weight increase, as well as motor and mood improvement (P <0.001). HDS and BMI changes were mildly related (P = 0.05). A direct effect of pramipexole on limbic D(3) receptors involved in the control of feeding may be responsible for weight gain in PD.

  5. Associations of body weight perception and weight control behaviors with problematic internet use among Korean adolescents.

    PubMed

    Park, Subin; Lee, Yeeun

    2017-05-01

    We examined the association of body mass index (BMI), body weight perception, and weight control behaviors with problematic Internet use in a nationwide sample of Korean adolescents. Cross-sectional data from the 2010 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey collected from 37,041 boys and 33,655 girls in middle- and high- schools (grades 7-12) were analyzed. Participants were classified into groups based on BMI (underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obese), body weight perception (underweight, normal weight, and overweight), and weight control behavior (no weight control behavior, appropriate weight control behavior, inappropriate weight control behavior). The risk of problematic Internet use was assessed with the Korean Internet Addiction Proneness Scale for Youth-Short Form. Both boys and girls with inappropriate weight control behavior were more likely to have problematic Internet use. Underweight, overweight, and obese boys and girls were more likely to have problematic Internet use. For both boys and girls, subjective perception of underweight and overweight were positively associated with problematic Internet use. Given the negative effect of inappropriate weight control behavior, special attention needs to be given to adolescents' inappropriate weight control behavior, and an educational intervention for adolescents to control their weight in healthy ways is needed.

  6. Variance Component Quantitative Trait Locus Analysis for Body Weight Traits in Purebred Korean Native Chicken

    PubMed Central

    Cahyadi, Muhammad; Park, Hee-Bok; Seo, Dong-Won; Jin, Shil; Choi, Nuri; Heo, Kang-Nyeong; Kang, Bo-Seok; Jo, Cheorun; Lee, Jun-Heon

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative trait locus (QTL) is a particular region of the genome containing one or more genes associated with economically important quantitative traits. This study was conducted to identify QTL regions for body weight and growth traits in purebred Korean native chicken (KNC). F1 samples (n = 595) were genotyped using 127 microsatellite markers and 8 single nucleotide polymorphisms that covered 2,616.1 centi Morgan (cM) of map length for 26 autosomal linkage groups. Body weight traits were measured every 2 weeks from hatch to 20 weeks of age. Weight of half carcass was also collected together with growth rate. A multipoint variance component linkage approach was used to identify QTLs for the body weight traits. Two significant QTLs for growth were identified on chicken chromosome 3 (GGA3) for growth 16 to18 weeks (logarithm of the odds [LOD] = 3.24, Nominal p value = 0.0001) and GGA4 for growth 6 to 8 weeks (LOD = 2.88, Nominal p value = 0.0003). Additionally, one significant QTL and three suggestive QTLs were detected for body weight traits in KNC; significant QTL for body weight at 4 weeks (LOD = 2.52, nominal p value = 0.0007) and suggestive QTL for 8 weeks (LOD = 1.96, Nominal p value = 0.0027) were detected on GGA4; QTLs were also detected for two different body weight traits: body weight at 16 weeks on GGA3 and body weight at 18 weeks on GGA19. Additionally, two suggestive QTLs for carcass weight were detected at 0 and 70 cM on GGA19. In conclusion, the current study identified several significant and suggestive QTLs that affect growth related traits in a unique resource pedigree in purebred KNC. This information will contribute to improving the body weight traits in native chicken breeds, especially for the Asian native chicken breeds. PMID:26732327

  7. True Believers? Religion, Physiology, and Perceived Body Weight in Texas.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Andrea L; Acevedo, Gabriel A

    2015-08-01

    This paper examines relationships between body weight, religion, and gender while controlling for relevant covariates and body mass index (BMI), a measure of physical/biological body type. Using data from the 2004 Survey of Texas Adults (n = 1,504), we present results of ordered logistic regression models which indicate that religious factors work distinctly for men and women when controlling for BMI. While church attendance is associated with lower odds of overweight perceptions among women, it is religious salience that is associated with lower odds of self-reported excess weight in men. Implications for research which associates religious and physiological factors are discussed.

  8. Does eating good-tasting food influence body weight?

    PubMed

    Tordoff, Michael G; Pearson, Jordan A; Ellis, Hillary T; Poole, Rachel L

    2017-03-01

    Does eating good-tasting food influence body weight? To investigate, we first established some concentrations of sucralose and mineral oil in chow that mice strongly preferred. Then, in Experiment 1, we compared groups of 16 mice fed plain chow (i.e., chow with no additives) to groups fed chow with added (a) sucralose, (b) mineral oil, (c) sucralose and mineral oil, or (d) sucralose on odd days and mineral oil on even days. During a 6-week test, the body weights and body compositions of the five groups never differed. In Experiment 2, we compared groups of 18 mice fed plain chow or plain high-fat diet to groups fed these diets with added sucralose. During a 9-week test, the high-fat diet caused weight gain, but the body weights of mice fed the sucralose-sweetened diets did not differ from those fed the corresponding plain versions. Two-cup choice tests conducted at the end of each experiment showed persisting strong preferences for the diets with added sucralose and/or mineral oil. In concert with earlier work, our results challenge the hypothesis that the orosensory properties of a food influence body weight gain. A good taste can stimulate food intake acutely, and guide selection toward nutrient-dense foods that cause weight gain, but it does not determine how much is eaten chronically.

  9. [Method of determining body thickness from weight and height].

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Kenichi

    2009-01-20

    With attention given to the fact that information on weight and height is available in advance from electronic medical charts, we devised a method for determining body thickness on the basis of a simple calculation. The formula is as follows: body thickness=weight(a) x height(b) xf. In order to obtain body thickness from the above formula, it is necessary to determine optimal factors of a, b, and f. Therefore, the formula is modified to give f=body thickness/weight(a) x height(b). Then, a multiplier of a with b is changed to determine a combination in which f is varied to the smallest extent. Every site of the body is checked to find that an optimal multiplier of a with b is weight(0.6) x height(-0.8). This multiplier is applicable to all sites of the body. Then, f is given as a median of 15 to 74 cases in which calculation is made for each case based on the formula of weight(0.6) x height(-0.8) and the body thickness. A difference between calculation values and measured values is equivalent to the variation of f in which the median is given as 100%. The variation of f at all sites of the body is 3% to 11% in terms of average absolute deviation. The calculation difference is obtained by the formula of body thickness x average absolute deviation. Where the calculation difference is within the above range, clinical practices will be influenced to a small extent. Thus, this study will provide an effective method for determining body thickness.

  10. Weight Self-Regulation Process in Adolescence: The Relationship between Control Weight Attitudes, Behaviors, and Body Weight Status.

    PubMed

    Pich, Jordi; Bibiloni, Maria Del Mar; Pons, Antoni; Tur, Josep A

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents' self-control weight behaviors were assessed (N = 1961; 12-17 years old; 2007-2008) in the Balearic Islands, Spain. The study analyzed the relationships between body weight status, body image, and self-weight concern, and actual attempts to lose weight by restrained eating and/or increased exercising. In terms of regulatory focus theory (RFT), we considered that efforts to lose or to maintain weight (successful or failed) would be motivated either by a "promotion focus" (to show an attractive body), or a "prevention focus" (to avoid social rejection of fatness), or both. Results showed that 41% of overweight boys and 25% of obese boys stated that they had never made any attempt to lose weight, and 13 and 4% in females. Around half of overweight boys and around a quarter of obese boys stated that they were "Not at all" concerned about weight gain, and girls' percentages decreased to 13 and 11%, respectively. By contrast, 57% of normal weight girls monitored their weight and stated that they had tried to become slim at least once. Weight self-regulation in females attempted to combine diet and exercise, while boys relied almost exclusively on exercise. Apparent lack of consciousness of body weight status among overweight boys, and more important, subsequent absence of behaviors to reduce their weight clearly challenges efforts to prevent obesity. We argue that several causes may be involved in this outcome, including unconscious, emotional (self-defense), and cognitive (dissonance) mechanisms driven by perceived social stigmatization of obesity. The active participation of social values of male and female body image (strong vs. pretty), and the existence of social habituation to overweight are suggested. A better knowledge of psychosocial mechanisms underlying adolescent weight self-control may improve obesity epidemics.

  11. Weight Self-Regulation Process in Adolescence: The Relationship between Control Weight Attitudes, Behaviors, and Body Weight Status

    PubMed Central

    Pich, Jordi; Bibiloni, Maria del Mar; Pons, Antoni; Tur, Josep A.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents’ self-control weight behaviors were assessed (N = 1961; 12–17 years old; 2007–2008) in the Balearic Islands, Spain. The study analyzed the relationships between body weight status, body image, and self-weight concern, and actual attempts to lose weight by restrained eating and/or increased exercising. In terms of regulatory focus theory (RFT), we considered that efforts to lose or to maintain weight (successful or failed) would be motivated either by a “promotion focus” (to show an attractive body), or a “prevention focus” (to avoid social rejection of fatness), or both. Results showed that 41% of overweight boys and 25% of obese boys stated that they had never made any attempt to lose weight, and 13 and 4% in females. Around half of overweight boys and around a quarter of obese boys stated that they were “Not at all” concerned about weight gain, and girls’ percentages decreased to 13 and 11%, respectively. By contrast, 57% of normal weight girls monitored their weight and stated that they had tried to become slim at least once. Weight self-regulation in females attempted to combine diet and exercise, while boys relied almost exclusively on exercise. Apparent lack of consciousness of body weight status among overweight boys, and more important, subsequent absence of behaviors to reduce their weight clearly challenges efforts to prevent obesity. We argue that several causes may be involved in this outcome, including unconscious, emotional (self-defense), and cognitive (dissonance) mechanisms driven by perceived social stigmatization of obesity. The active participation of social values of male and female body image (strong vs. pretty), and the existence of social habituation to overweight are suggested. A better knowledge of psychosocial mechanisms underlying adolescent weight self-control may improve obesity epidemics. PMID:26284248

  12. Olfactory and gustatory functions and its relation to body weight.

    PubMed

    Skrandies, Wolfgang; Zschieschang, Romy

    2015-04-01

    In the present study we investigated the influence of body weight as defined by BMI on gustatory and olfactory perception. A total of 66 healthy adults (41 females; 25 males) participated in psychophysical measurements using the "Sniffin' Sticks" test and "Taste Strips" test. Odor thresholds as well as discrimination and identification performance were determined. Tests of gustatory function involved the identification and thresholds of sweet, sour, salty, or bitter taste. In this study, all subjects were healthy participants in a middle age range (between 20 and 56 years of age). Persons with an extreme BMI value were excluded. Subjects were classified according to their BMI in four groups: (1) 15-19.9 kg/m, (2) 20-24.9 kg/m, (3) 25-29.9 kg/m, and (4) >30 kg/m. We did not observe an overall effect of BMI on general sensory sensitivity. There was a significant influence of BMI on olfactory thresholds (F(3,62)=2.79; p<0.047) which increased with increasing BMI. In a similar line, the gustatory thresholds for "salty" were significantly higher with higher BMI (F(3,62)=3.06; p<0.035). Olfactory discrimination and identification was not affected by BMI. Thresholds for odor and sweet or salty taste were also correlated. Our data show that body weight influences gustatory and olfactory perception in healthy adults. Increasing BMI is associated with a decrease in olfactory and taste sensitivity. These findings may have implications for the understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms in patients.

  13. Factish relations: Affective bodies in diabetes treatment.

    PubMed

    Danholt, Peter

    2013-07-01

    Chronic diseases pose a major challenge to contemporary western healthcare systems, and consequently there are numerous initiatives designed to meet these challenges. Patient empowerment is considered to be extremely important in chronic disease management. But what does it mean to become an 'active patient', managing a condition? This article argues that people are always active in shaping their agency and the agency of numerous others, and that we need to attend to these processes of configuration in order to better understand and conceptualize the problem of chronic disease management. This article analyses the daily practices of people with Type 2 Diabetes, with the use of what is described as the 'sociology of attachment' in the field of science and technology studies. The implications of seeing and analysing chronic conditions in this manner are that determinist understandings of chronic conditions are challenged. Accordingly, an experimental and constructive attitude towards the production and assembling of the chronically ill body is enabled. Such an attitude holds that relations with multiple other bodies and entities, such as technologies, the disease, medication and so on continuously and relentlessly affect how the condition unfolds and consequently, the room for interventional strategies and transformation of the chronically ill body is enlarged.

  14. Body weight control practice as a cause of infertility.

    PubMed

    Bates, G W

    1985-09-01

    Evidence concerning the relationship between the ratio of lean mass to body fat in the female body and the maintenance of female reproductive functions was examined, and the results of a US clinical study in which a weight gain regime was used to treat unexplained in fertility in 29 fashionabely slim women were presented. During the female pubertal process, there is an average increase in the lean body weight of 44% and a mean increase in the body fat of 120%. Apparently, the accummulation of fat is a necessary prerequisite for the onset of menarche and the establishment and maintenance of regular ovulatory cycles. A small change in body weight produces a relatively large shift in the body weight to fat ratio. As a result, weight loss is frequently followed by amenorrhea. Studies of the endocrine and central nervous system changes in patients with anorexia nervosa, an extreme form of overzealous weight control, provides clues for understanding the effects of less extreme weight control practices on reproductive functions. The gonadotropin secretory pattern of anorexia nervosa patients is similar to the prepubertal pattern. When gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is administered to patients with 53%-64% of their ideal body weight (IBW), they have a weak luteinizing hormone (LH) response and a normal follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) response. As their weight increases, the LH response becomes stronger, and at 90%-94% of their IBW, the LH response is frequently exaggerated. Other studies indicate that an exaggerated LH response also occurs when GnRH is administered to fashionably slim women. This finding suggests that gonadotropin secretory studies should be conducted when evaluating women with weight related menstrual dysfunctions. In the present study, 29 patients with unexplained infertility were identified as being overly, but not excessively, concerned with maintaining a slim body image. On the average, they were 91% below their IBW. The women were asked to

  15. Negotiating the Early Developing Body: Pubertal Timing, Body Weight, and Adolescent Girls' Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner-Smith, Emily E.

    2010-01-01

    Despite knowledge that early pubertal timing predicts adolescent girls' substance use, it is still unclear whether this relationship persists beyond early adolescence and whether it is conditional on girls' body weight. This study examined the moderating role of body weight in the association between early pubertal timing and adolescent girls'…

  16. Relationships between Weight and Body Dissatisfaction, Body Esteem, and Teasing in African American Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Chermaine; Johnston, Craig A.; Dalton, William T., III; Foreyt, John P.

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed the relation between weight and weight-related factors (i.e., body dissatisfaction, body esteem, teasing frequency, and the effects of teasing) in a community sample of prepubescent African American girls. African American girls (N = 97) in Grades 3 to 5 completed the McKnight Risk Factor Survey-Third Edition and had their…

  17. Weight status and the perception of body image in men

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Rick M

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the role of body size in relation to the accuracy of body image perception in men is an important topic because of the implications for avoiding and treating obesity, and it may serve as a potential diagnostic criterion for eating disorders. The early research on this topic produced mixed findings. About one-half of the early studies showed that obese men overestimated their body size, with the remaining half providing accurate estimates. Later, improvements in research technology and methodology provided a clearer indication of the role of weight status in body image perception. Research in our laboratory has also produced diverse findings, including that obese subjects sometimes overestimate their body size. However, when examining our findings across several studies, obese subjects had about the same level of accuracy in estimating their body size as normal-weight subjects. Studies in our laboratory also permitted the separation of sensory and nonsensory factors in body image perception. In all but one instance, no differences were found overall between the ability of obese and normal-weight subjects to detect overall changes in body size. Importantly, however, obese subjects are better at detecting changes in their body size when the image is distorted to be too thin as compared to too wide. Both obese and normal-weight men require about a 3%–7% change in the width of their body size in order to detect the change reliably. Correlations between a range of body mass index values and body size estimation accuracy indicated no relationship between these variables. Numerous studies in other laboratories asked men to place their body size into discrete categorizes, ranging from thin to obese. Researchers found that overweight and obese men underestimate their weight status, and that men are less accurate in their categorizations than are women. Cultural influences have been found to be important, with body size underestimations occurring in cultures

  18. Weight status and the perception of body image in men.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Rick M

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the role of body size in relation to the accuracy of body image perception in men is an important topic because of the implications for avoiding and treating obesity, and it may serve as a potential diagnostic criterion for eating disorders. The early research on this topic produced mixed findings. About one-half of the early studies showed that obese men overestimated their body size, with the remaining half providing accurate estimates. Later, improvements in research technology and methodology provided a clearer indication of the role of weight status in body image perception. Research in our laboratory has also produced diverse findings, including that obese subjects sometimes overestimate their body size. However, when examining our findings across several studies, obese subjects had about the same level of accuracy in estimating their body size as normal-weight subjects. Studies in our laboratory also permitted the separation of sensory and nonsensory factors in body image perception. In all but one instance, no differences were found overall between the ability of obese and normal-weight subjects to detect overall changes in body size. Importantly, however, obese subjects are better at detecting changes in their body size when the image is distorted to be too thin as compared to too wide. Both obese and normal-weight men require about a 3%-7% change in the width of their body size in order to detect the change reliably. Correlations between a range of body mass index values and body size estimation accuracy indicated no relationship between these variables. Numerous studies in other laboratories asked men to place their body size into discrete categorizes, ranging from thin to obese. Researchers found that overweight and obese men underestimate their weight status, and that men are less accurate in their categorizations than are women. Cultural influences have been found to be important, with body size underestimations occurring in cultures

  19. Lower-limb amputation and body weight changes in men.

    PubMed

    Littman, Alyson J; Thompson, Mary Lou; Arterburn, David E; Bouldin, Erin; Haselkorn, Jodie K; Sangeorzan, Bruce J; Boyko, Edward J

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the relationship between lower-limb amputation (LLA) and subsequent changes in body weight. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using clinical and administrative databases to identify and follow weight changes in 759 males with amputation (partial foot amputation [PFA], n = 396; transtibial amputation [TTA], n = 267; and transfemoral amputation [TFA], n = 96) and 3,790 nondisabled persons frequency-matched (5:1) on age, body mass index, diabetes, and calendar year from eight Department of Veterans Affairs medical care facilities in the Pacific Northwest. We estimated and compared longitudinal percent weight change from baseline during up to 39 mo of follow-up in participants with and without amputation. Weight gain in the 2 yr after amputation was significantly more in men with an amputation than without, and in men with a TTA or TFA (8%-9% increase) than in men with a PFA (3%-6% increase). Generally, percent weight gain peaked at 2 yr and was followed by some weight loss in the third year. These findings indicate that LLA is often followed by clinically important weight gain. Future studies are needed to better understand the reasons for weight gain and to identify intervention strategies to prevent excess weight gain and the deleterious consequences that may ensue.

  20. Body Weight Reducing Effect of Oral Boric Acid Intake

    PubMed Central

    Aysan, Erhan; Sahin, Fikrettin; Telci, Dilek; Yalvac, Mehmet Emir; Emre, Sinem Hocaoglu; Karaca, Cetin; Muslumanoglu, Mahmut

    2011-01-01

    Background: Boric acid is widely used in biology, but its body weight reducing effect is not researched. Methods: Twenty mice were divided into two equal groups. Control group mice drank standard tap water, but study group mice drank 0.28mg/250ml boric acid added tap water over five days. Total body weight changes, major organ histopathology, blood biochemistry, urine and feces analyses were compared. Results: Study group mice lost body weight mean 28.1% but in control group no weight loss and also weight gained mean 0.09% (p<0.001). Total drinking water and urine outputs were not statistically different. Cholesterol, LDL, AST, ALT, LDH, amylase and urobilinogen levels were statistically significantly high in the study group. Other variables were not statistically different. No histopathologic differences were detected in evaluations of all resected major organs. Conclusion: Low dose oral boric acid intake cause serious body weight reduction. Blood and urine analyses support high glucose, lipid and middle protein catabolisms, but the mechanism is unclear. PMID:22135611

  1. Body weight and response acquisition with delayed reinforcement.

    PubMed Central

    Lattal, K A; Williams, A M

    1997-01-01

    The relation between body weight and responding established with unsignaled delayed reinforcement was investigated. In three experiments, naive rats were deprived to either 70%, 80%, or 90% of ad libitum weight and were then exposed to tandem variable-interval 15-s differential-reinforcement-of-other-behavior 30-s schedules. The tandem schedule defined a resetting unsignaled delay-of-reinforcement procedure. In the first experiment, speed of magazine training, acquisition of lever pressing, and final rate of lever pressing were related to body weight. In the next experiment, lever pressing was established and maintained in rats that were magazine trained at 70% of ad libitum weight but that were then exposed to the delay procedure at 90% of ad libitum weight. Responding did not change consistently either across or within subjects in subsequent conditions in which body weight was manipulated. In the final experiment, lever pressing was established and maintained with delayed reinforcement in the absence of magazine training for each of 2 rats at 70% and for 1 of 2 rats at 90% of ad libitum weight. The results further illuminate the conditions under which responding can be established in the absence of training and when such responses are reinforced only following an unsignaled delay period. PMID:9037784

  2. Eating and weight control behaviors among middle school girls in relationship to body weight and ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Shisslak, Catherine M; Mays, Mary Z; Crago, Marjorie; Jirsak, Jan K; Taitano, Keolani; Cagno, Colleen

    2006-05-01

    This study examined the links among body mass index (BMI), weight control practices, binge eating, and eating disorders in 1164 middle school girls. Both the prevalence and frequency of weight control behaviors increased as BMI increased, but binge eating was reported approximately equally by girls across the BMI spectrum.

  3. Body weight loss as an indicator of breast cancer recurrence.

    PubMed

    Marinho, L A; Rettori, O; Vieira-Matos, A N

    2001-01-01

    Body weight loss (BWL), a major prognostic factor in breast cancer, was included as a parameter to be monitored in the recent breast cancer surveillance guidelines of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. The aim of this work was prospectively to evaluate BWL as an indicator of breast cancer recurrence. Body weight was measured every 2 months for 10.4+/-3.7 (SD) months in 109 disease-free breast cancer patients in stage II node-positive and stage III disease. The correlation between unexplained BWL and recurrence was studied. Attempts were made to define the limits in weight variations among disease-free patients beyond which recurrence could be suspected. Unexplained BWL was observed in 16/19 (84%) patients developing recurrence, versus 9/90 (10%) patients remaining disease-free. There was a significant (p < 0.001) correlation between BWL and recurrence. BWL anticipated the diagnosis of recurrence by 6 (range 4-12) months. Based on the average percentage weight variation +/- 2 SD (95% confidence interval) of the disease-free group, the limits for BWL beyond which recurrence could be suspected were a 5.8% decrease in the last 6 months, 3.6% in the last 2 months or 3.0% of the patient's mean weight. However, because of the large variation in the amplitude of individual weight oscillations among disease-free patients (from < 0.5% to > 5.9% of the mean weight), individual limits derived from the patient's own body weight curve seemed more reliable. The results suggest that unexplained BWL is a valuable indicator of incipient breast cancer recurrence. Careful monitoring of body weight in breast cancer patients during follow-up is encouraged.

  4. Modeling of daily body weights and body weight changes of Nordic Red cows.

    PubMed

    Mäntysaari, P; Mäntysaari, E A

    2015-10-01

    Increased availability of automated weighing systems have made it possible to record massive amounts of body weight (BW) data in a short time. If the BW measurement is unbiased, the changes in BW reflect the energy status of the cow and can be used for management or breeding purposes. The usefulness of the BW data depends on the reliability of the measures. The noise in BW measurements can be smoothed by fitting a parametric or time series model into the BW measurements. This study examined the accuracy of different models to predict BW of the cows based on daily BW measurements and investigated the usefulness of modeling in increasing the value of BW measurements as management and breeding tools. Data included daily BW measurements, production, and intake from 230 Nordic Red dairy cows. The BW of the cows was recorded twice a day on their return from milking. In total, the data included 50,594 daily observations with 98,418 BW measurements. A clear diurnal change was present in the BW of the cows even if they had feed available 24 h. The daily average BW were used in the modeling. Five different models were tested: (1) a cow-wise fixed second-order polynomial regression model (FiX) including the exponential Wilmink term, (2) a random regression model with fixed and random animal lactation stage functions (MiX), (3) MiX with 13 periods of weighing added (PER), (4) natural cubic smoothing splines with 8 equally spaced knots (SPk8), and (5) spline model with no restriction on knots but a smoothing parameter corresponding to a fit of 5 degrees of freedom (SPdf5). In the original measured BW data, the within-animal variation was 6.4% of the total variance. Modeling decreased the within animal variation to levels of 2.9 to 5.1%. The smallest day-to-day variation and thereafter highest day-to-day repeatabilities were with PER and MiX models. The usability of modeled BW as energy balance (EB) indicator were evaluated by estimating relationships between EB, or EB

  5. An integrative affect regulation process model of internalized weight bias and intuitive eating in college women.

    PubMed

    Webb, Jennifer B; Hardin, Abigail S

    2016-07-01

    The present study extended the weight stigma and well-being process model (Tylka et al., 2014) by examining three affect regulation pathways that may help simultaneously explain the predicted inverse association between internalized weight bias and intuitive eating. A weight-diverse sample of 333 college women completed an online survey assessing internalized weight stigma, intuitive eating, body shame, body image flexibility, and self-compassion. Self-reported height and weight were used to calculate body mass index (BMI). Non-parametric bootstrap resampling procedures were computed to ascertain the presence of the indirect effects of internalized weight bias on intuitive eating via the three hypothesized mediators controlling for BMI in a combined model. Results demonstrated that body image flexibility significantly and self-compassion marginally contributed unique variance in accounting for this relationship. Our preliminary cross-sectional findings contribute to a nascent body of scholarship seeking to provide a theoretically-driven understanding of how negative and positive forms of experiencing and relating to the body may co-occur within individuals. Results also point to potential target variables to consider incorporating in later-stage efforts to promote more adaptive ways of eating amidst internalized weight stigma.

  6. Excess Body Weight and Colorectal Cancer Survival: The Multiethnic Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Maskarinec, Gertraud; Harmon, Brook E.; Little, Melissa A.; Ollberding, Nicholas J.; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Henderson, Brian E.; Le Marchand, Loic; Wilkens, Lynne R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Excess body weight is a risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC) and may also adversely affect survival in CRC patients. Methods This study examined the relation of body mass index (BMI), which was self-reported at cohort entry and after 5.7±0.8 years, with CRC-specific and all-cause survival among 4,204 incident cases of invasive CRC in the Multiethnic Cohort (MEC). Cox regression analysis with age as time metric and BMI as time-varying exposure was applied to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) while adjusting for relevant covariates. Results Over 6.0±4.7 years of follow-up, 1,976 all-cause and 1,095 CRC-specific deaths were recorded. The mean time interval between cohort entry and diagnosis was 7.6±4.7 years. No association with CRC-specific survival was detected in men (HR5units=0.94; 95%CI 0.84–1.04) or women (HR5units=0.98; 95%CI 0.89–1.08). In men, all-cause survival also showed no relation with BMI (HR5unit=0.97; 95%CI 0.90–1.06), whereas it was reduced in women (HR5units=1.10; 95%CI 1.03–1.18). Interactions of BMI with ethnicity were only significant for obesity. Obese Latino and overweight Native Hawaiian men as well as overweight African American women, experienced significantly better CRC-specific survival than whites. Overweight Japanese men and African American women had better all-cause survival and obese Latino women had the lowest all-cause survival (HRobese=1.74; 95%CI 1.08–2.80). Conclusions This analysis detected little evidence for an adverse effect of excess body weight on CRC-specific survival, but all-cause survival was reduced in women. These findings suggest that adiposity may be less important for CRC survival than as an etiologic factor. PMID:26358830

  7. Sleep duration, sleep quality and body weight: parallel developments.

    PubMed

    Gonnissen, Hanne K J; Adam, Tanja C; Hursel, Rick; Rutters, Femke; Verhoef, Sanne P M; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2013-09-10

    The increase in obesity, including childhood obesity, has developed over the same time period as the progressive decrease in self-reported sleep duration. Since epidemiological studies showed an inverse relationship between short or disturbed sleep and obesity, the question arose, how sleep duration and sleep quality are associated with the development of obesity. In this review, the current literature on these topics has been evaluated. During puberty, changes in body mass index (BMI) are inversely correlated to changes in sleep duration. During adulthood, this relationship remains and at the same time unfavorable metabolic and neuro-endocrinological changes develop, that promote a positive energy balance, coinciding with sleep disturbance. Furthermore, during excessive weight loss BMI and fat mass decrease, in parallel, and related with an increase in sleep duration. In order to shed light on the association between sleep duration, sleep quality and obesity, until now it only has been shown that diet-induced body-weight loss and successive body-weight maintenance contribute to sleep improvement. It remains to be demonstrated whether body-weight management and body composition improve during an intervention concomitantly with spontaneous sleep improvement compared with the same intervention without spontaneous sleep improvement.

  8. Strength and Body Weight in US Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Ervin, R. Bethene; Fryar, Cheryl D.; Wang, Chia-Yih; Miller, Ivey M.; Ogden, Cynthia L.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Regular aerobic and muscle-strengthening physical activity in youth has been positively associated with health and may help prevent obesity. The purpose of this study is to provide reference values on 4 core, upper, and lower body measures of muscle strength among US children and adolescents and to investigate the association between these measures of strength and weight status. METHODS We assessed muscular strength using 4 different tests (plank, modified pull-up, knee extension, and grip strength) in 1224 youth aged 6 to 15 years collected during the 2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey National Youth Fitness Survey. Mean and median estimates are provided by gender, age, and weight status. Weight status was defined based on standard categories of obesity, overweight, normal weight, and underweight using the gender-specific BMI-for-age Centers for Disease Control and Prevention growth charts. RESULTS There were significant positive trends with age for each of the strength tests (P < .001) except the modified pull-up among girls. The length of time the plank was held decreased as weight status increased for both girls and boys (P < .001). As weight status increased the number of modified pull-ups decreased (P < .001 boys and girls). Scores on the knee extension increased as weight status increased (P < .01). Grip strength increased as weight status increased (P < .01). CONCLUSIONS Increasing weight status had a negative association with measures of strength that involved lifting the body, but was associated with improved performances on tests that did not involve lifting the body. PMID:25157016

  9. Relationships between heart score, heart weight and body weight in Greyhound dogs.

    PubMed

    Steel, J D; Taylor, R I; Davis, P E; Stewart, G A; Salmon, P W

    1976-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationships between heart score (mean QRS interval), heart weight and body weight in Greyhound dogs. Highly significant correlations between these measurements have been observed and distinct sex differences have been demonstrated. The results of multiple regression analysis indicated that 66% of the variation in heart weight was due to variation in heart score and body weight. From the regression analysis, a formula for heart weight prediction with a standard deviation of 27.1 g was derived. The implications of these findings have been discussed briefly and emphasis has been placed on the need for good electrocardiographic technique, if the procedures outlined are to be used successfully. The positive correlation between heart score and heart size demonstrated here in Greyhounds is in accord with similar correlations reported previously in racehorses and human athletes.

  10. Body weight, anorexia, and undernutrition in older people.

    PubMed

    Soenen, Stijn; Chapman, Ian M

    2013-09-01

    Ideal body weight for maximum life expectancy increases with advancing age. Older people, however, tend to weigh less than younger adults, and old age is also associated with a tendency to lose weight. Weight loss in older people is associated with adverse outcomes, particularly if unintentional, and initial body weight is low. When older people lose weight, more of the tissue lost is lean tissue (mainly skeletal muscle) than in younger people. When excessive, the loss of lean muscle tissue results in sarcopenia, which is associated with poor health outcomes. Unintentional weight loss in older people may be a result of protein-energy malnutrition, cachexia, the physiological anorexia of aging, or a combination of these. The physiological anorexia of aging is a decrease in appetite and energy intake that occurs even in healthy people and is possibly caused by changes in the digestive tract, gastrointestinal hormone concentrations and activity, neurotransmitters, and cytokines. A greater understanding of this decrease in appetite and energy intake during aging, and the responsible mechanisms, may aid the search for ways to treat undernutrition and weight loss in older people.

  11. Body weight perception among adolescents in Dubai, United Arab Emirates.

    PubMed

    Musaiger, A O; bin Zaal, A A; D'Souza, R

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the body image perceptions among adolescents in Dubai, United Arab Emirates (UAE). A cross-sectional survey was conducted amongst 661 adolescents (324 males; 337 females) aged 12-17 years selected from government schools using a multistage stratified random sampling technique. A pretested validated questionnaire was employed to determine the perception of adolescents toward their weight status. A nine figure silhouette illustration was used to measure perceptions of their ideal body image and how it compares with their current body weight. The results revealed that overweight (18.5%) and obesity (27.2%) were higher among males than in females (13.1% and 20.5% respectively). A high proportion of overweight males and females considered themselves as average (45.0% and 52.3%, respectively). Similarly, 56.9% of obese male and 46.4% of females considered themselves as average weight. Of non-overweight/obese males and females, 27.6% and 39.3% respectively, were pressured by parents to gain weight (p > 0.000). In general overweight and obese adolescents were more likely to face pressure from their parents and teased by friends than non-overweight/obese adolescents. Compared to their current body image, overweight and obese adolescents chose a significantly lighter figure as their ideal (p < 0.000). It is suggested that the current health education curriculum should include information related to healthy body weight and appropriate diet and lifestyle so as to minimize risk of developing distorted body image concerns in adolescence and beyond.

  12. Regulation of body weight: what is the regulated parameter?

    PubMed

    Bessesen, Daniel H

    2011-09-26

    Despite dramatic variations in day to day intake and energy expenditure, weight remains relatively stable in most animals and humans. There are clear physiological responses to over and underfeeding suggesting that the body strives to maintain a constant weight. Despite this, for most humans and experimental animals, there is a tendency for weight to increase slowly over the lifespan. Recent increases in the prevalence of both obesity and anorexia nervosa suggest that factors other than homeostatic physiological mechanisms are important in determining body weight. Clearly reward pathways are activated by palatable food and evidence is emerging that energy balance can modulate these reward pathways and alter the salience of food related stimuli. Significant inhibitory control of reward pathways also comes from a number of brain regions involved in regulation of behavior. Finally there is strong evidence of the important role that social and environmental factors play in modulating both food intake and physical activity behaviors which in turn result in alterations in weight over time. While some aspects of these regulatory systems are within the conscious awareness of people, many, perhaps even most are not. The evidence then would suggest that weight is controlled by several complex regulatory systems that respond to internal metabolic and hormonal signals, hedonic properties of food, internal forces of valuation and self-control, and social factors. Each of these systems is likely 'regulated' and is important in ultimately determining body weight. Experimental paradigms that test one variable in one of these interrelated systems should, where possible control or at least consider the other systems in an effort to provide an integrated picture of weight regulation.

  13. Muscle-specific interleukin-6 deletion influences body weight and body fat in a sex-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, Beatriz; Navia, Belén; Giralt, Mercedes; Comes, Gemma; Carrasco, Javier; Molinero, Amalia; Quintana, Albert; Señarís, Rosa M; Hidalgo, Juan

    2014-08-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a major cytokine controlling not only the immune system but also basic physiological variables such as body weight and metabolism. While central IL-6 is clearly implicated in the latter, the putative role of peripheral IL-6 controlling body weight remains unclear. We herewith report results obtained in muscle-specific IL-6 KO (mIL-6 KO) mice. mIL-6 KO male mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD, 58.4% kcal from fat) or a control diet (18%) gained less weight and body fat than littermate floxed male mice, while the opposite pattern was observed in female mice. Food intake was not affected by muscle IL-6 deficiency, but male and female mIL-6 KO mice were more and less active, respectively, in the hole-board test. Moreover, female mIL-6 KO mice did not control adequately their body temperature upon exposure to 4°C, suggesting a role of muscle IL-6 in energy expenditure. At least part of this regulatory role of muscle IL-6 may be mediated by the hypothalamus, as IL-6 deficiency regulated the expression of critical hypothalamic neuropeptides (NPY, AgRP, POMC, CRH and preproOX). Leptin and insulin changes cannot explain the phenotype of these mice. In summary, the present results demonstrate that muscle IL-6 controls body weight and body fat in a sex-specific fashion, influencing the expression of the main neuropeptides involved in energy homeostasis.

  14. Anorexia nervosa at normal body weight!--The abnormal normal weight control syndrome.

    PubMed

    Crisp, A H

    1981-01-01

    Disgust with "fatness" and a consequent preoccupation with body weight, coupled with an inability to reduce it to or sustain it at the desired low level, characterizes the abnormal normal weight control syndrome. Individuals remain sexually active in a biological sense and often also socially. Indeed their sexual behaviour may be as impulse ridden as is their eating behaviour, which often comprises phases of massive bingeing coupled with vomiting and/or purgation. The syndrome is unlike frank anorexia nervosa in that the latter involves a regression to a position of phobic avoidance of normal body weight and consequent low body weight control with inhibition of both biological and social sexual activity. In abnormal normal weight control there is a strong and sometimes desperate hedonistic and extrovert element that will often not be denied so long as body weight does not get too low. Individuals nevertheless feel desperately "out of control" and insecure beneath their bravura. The syndrome is much more common in females than in males. There is a clinical overlap with anorexia nervosa and obesity in many cases as the disorder evolves. Depression, stealing, drug dependence (including alcohol) and acute self-poisoning and self-mutilation are common complications. Clinic cases probably only represent the tip of the iceberg of the much more widespread morbidity within the general population. Like anorexia nervosa and for the same reasons the disorder is probably more common than it used to be.

  15. SNPs of melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) associated with body weight in Beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Ruixia; Zhang, Yibo; Du, Peng

    2014-01-01

    Melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R), which is associated with inherited human obesity, is involoved in food intake and body weight of mammals. To study the relationships between MC4R gene polymorphism and body weight in Beagle dogs, we detected and compared the nucleotide sequence of the whole coding region and 3'- and 5'- flanking regions of the dog MC4R gene (1214 bp). In 120 Beagle dogs, two SNPs (A420C, C895T) were identified and their relation with body weight was analyzed with RFLP-PCR method. The results showed that the SNP at A420C was significantly associated with canine body weight trait when it changed amino acid 101 of the MC4R protein from asparagine to threonine, while canine body weight variations were significant in female dogs when MC4R nonsense mutation at C895T. It suggested that the two SNPs might affect the MC4R gene's function which was relative to body weight in Beagle dogs. Therefore, MC4R was a candidate gene for selecting different size dogs with the MC4R SNPs (A420C, C895T) being potentially valuable as a genetic marker.

  16. Associations between Body Weight and Bullying among South Korean Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Seung-Gon; Yun, Ilhong; Kim, Jae-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Most previous studies on the association between bullying and body weight were performed using North American or White samples from Western countries. The present study is the first empirical endeavor to examine whether such an association exists in a sample of adolescents from East Asia. Specifically, the authors examined the associations between…

  17. Religion and body weight in an underserved population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Religions prominence in some underserved groups that bear a disproportionate burden of the obesity epidemic (e.g. rural, Southern, minority) may play an important role in body weight. Data (1662 African American and Caucasian adults aged 18+) from a representative U.S. sample of a predominately rura...

  18. The role of whole grains in body weight regulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whole grain (WG)-rich diets are purported to have a variety of health benefits including a favorable role in body weight regulation. Current dietary recommendations advocate substituting WG for refined grains (RG) as many of the beneficial bioactive components intrinsic to WG are lost during the re...

  19. Body Dissatisfaction, Dietary Restraint, Depression, and Weight Status in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldfield, Gary S.; Moore, Ceri; Henderson, Katherine; Buchholz, Annick; Obeid, Nicole; Flament, Martine F.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Adolescence may be a crucial period for developing obesity and associated mental health problems. This study examined the relationship of weight status on body image, eating behavior, and depressive symptoms in youth. Methods: A survey was conducted on 1490 youth attending grades 7-12. Participants completed questionnaires on body…

  20. Body Percept Change in Obese Females after Weight Reduction Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, John K.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Measured video-image representations of body size for 68 females undergoing weight reduction counseling. All judged themselves significantly more obese than they actually were. After therapy, more realistic estimates of their physiques ensued. Dropouts saw themselves as significantly more obese than those who graduated from the program. (JAC)

  1. Food shopping and weight concern. Balancing consumer and body normality.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Annemette; Holm, Lotte

    2014-11-01

    The desire to achieve a normal, culturally acceptable body is often seen as the main driver of food-consumption practices adopted by individuals who are concerned about their body weight. In social research into weight management self-control is therefore often a central theme. Turning the focus towards practices and values related to food shopping, this study adds to our understanding of central features in perceptions of normality among people with weight concerns. In a qualitative study 25 people who participated in a dietary intervention trial in Denmark were interviewed and five people were observed. The study shows that the aim of achieving a normal body does not eclipse the importance of enacting values linked to ideas of the 'normal consumer'. Using empirical examples, the study illuminates how consumer freedom is attained in ways that are both complementary to, and in conflict with, practices and experiences of controlling food intake. The paper suggests that freedom and control are composite and complementary ideals of normality for people with weight concerns. On the basis of this insight, the authors discuss the contribution the paper makes to existing studies of weight management and food consumption.

  2. Attitudes to body weight, weight gain and eating behavior in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Abraham, S; King, W; Llewellyn-Jones, D

    1994-12-01

    The eating behavior and attitudes to body weight of 100 healthy women were studied 3 days after the birth of their first child. During pregnancy women 'watch their weight' and use a range of methods of weight control which include cigarette smoking and inducing vomiting. During pregnancy 41 women reported weight control problems and 20 women considered their weight and eating problems to be greater than at any previous time. Picking was the most common unwanted behavior. Binge eating was experienced by 44 women, nine of whom reported it to be a 'severe' problem. Although women were ambivalent about being weighed at each antenatal visit, 81 recommended weighing once each month. The women held differing opinions on the effects of breastfeeding on body weight and on the need for nutritional supplements during pregnancy. Women reporting 'disordered eating' were more likely to have antenatal complications and give birth to low birthweight babies. The results suggest good obstetric care should include a history of the woman's eating behavior and body weight.

  3. Opposite effects of gentle handling on body temperature and body weight in rats.

    PubMed

    Michel, C; Cabanac, M

    1999-10-01

    Opposite effects of gentle handling on body temperature and body weight in rats. PHhe aim of this study was to measure the body weight set point when rats are being handled gently and thus experience emotional rise in body temperature. Wistar male rats were used in this experiment, and each rat was its own control. Body weight set point was estimated from the rat's food hoarding behavior. The set point is the intersection of the regression line for hoarding with the X axis. During hoarding sessions the experimenter handled the rat and took its colonic temperature six to eight times, an action sufficient to arouse emotional fever. On alternate days the rats were not handled. Thus, body weight set point was obtained for each rat without handling and with handling. In sessions with handling, rats raised their body temperature, ate less, and defecated more than in control sessions. When handled, the body weight set point declined from 388 +/- 44 g to 366 +/- 47 g (p = 0.048, t = 2,39). The decline in the set point induced by gentle handling is believed to result from an elevation of the hypothalamic CRH.

  4. Body contouring surgery for military personnel following massive weight loss.

    PubMed

    Chong, S J; Kok, Y O; Foo, C L

    2011-12-01

    The burgeoning global obesity epidemic extends to the military service, where 6-53% of military personnel are overweight. Obese military personnel who adhere to a strict training and diet regime may potentially achieve and maintain significant weight loss. They may however face physical problems such as excess skin folds causing discomfort, difficulty in uniform fitting, personal hygiene, interference with full physical activities and psychological issues such as body image dissatisfaction, low self esteem and difficulty in social acceptance. We present a case report of a highly motivated military conscript who achieved and maintained significant weight loss but had physical defects following Massive Weight Loss. Body contouring surgery was successfully utilised to correct his physical defects and allowed him to return to full physical duties.

  5. Drude weight fluctuations in many-body localized systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippone, Michele; Brouwer, Piet W.; Eisert, Jens; von Oppen, Felix

    2016-11-01

    We numerically investigate the distribution of Drude weights D of many-body states in disordered one-dimensional interacting electron systems across the transition to a many-body localized phase. Drude weights are proportional to the spectral curvatures induced by magnetic fluxes in mesoscopic rings. They offer a method to relate the transition to the many-body localized phase to transport properties. In the delocalized regime, we find that the Drude weight distribution at a fixed disorder configuration agrees well with the random-matrix-theory prediction P (D ) ∝(γ2+D2) -3 /2 , although the distribution width γ strongly fluctuates between disorder realizations. A crossover is observed towards a distribution with different large-D asymptotics deep in the many-body localized phase, which however differs from the commonly expected Cauchy distribution. We show that the average distribution width <γ >, rescaled by L Δ ,Δ being the average level spacing in the middle of the spectrum and L the systems size, is an efficient probe of the many-body localization transition, as it increases (vanishes) exponentially in the delocalized (localized) phase.

  6. Body weight and metabolic level in growing chickens.

    PubMed

    Keller, J

    1977-01-01

    Body weight and metabolic level in growing chickens. Acta Physiol. Pol., 1977, 28 (6): 575-583. In the investigations carried out on 128 White Rock chicken the metabolic level was determined under standard conditions in chickens characterising by different growth rate resulted from different feeding levels. It was shown that the feeding level of growing chicken has an essential influence on the character of the regression between the metabolic level and body weight. It was also found that this regression is not necessarily ot the character of Kleiber's function H = aWb. The differences in the metabolic level between the chickens maintained on different feeding levels did not disappear even after 4 days of starvation. In the light of the obtained results and recent investigations by other authors the usefulness of the so-called metabolic unit of the body size based on W0.75 in context to growing animals within one species has bee criticized.

  7. Actual Body Weight and the Parent’s Perspective of Child’s Body Weight among Rural Canadian Children

    PubMed Central

    Karunanayake, Chandima P.; Rennie, Donna C.; Hildebrand, Carole; Lawson, Joshua A.; Hagel, Louise; Dosman, James A.; Pahwa, Punam

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of being overweight during childhood continues to increase in the USA and Canada and children living in rural areas are more at risk than their urban counterparts. The objectives of this study were to evaluate how well the parent’s perception of their child’s weight status correlated with objectively measured weight status among a group of rural children and to identify predictors of inaccurate parental perceptions of child’s weight status. Participants were children from the Saskatchewan Rural Health Study conducted in 2010. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed through rural schools to parents of children in grades one to eight. Parents reported their child’s height and weight and rated their child’s weight status (underweight, just about the right weight, or overweight). Standardized body mass index (BMI) categories were calculated for clinically measured height and weight and for parental report of height and weight for 584 children. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify predictors of misclassification of the parent’s perception of child’s weight status adjusting for potential confounders. Clinically measured overweight was much higher (26.5%) compared to parental perceived overweight (7.9%). The misclassification of the child’s BMI was more likely to occur if the child was a boy (odds ratio (OR) = 1.58) or non-Caucasian (OR = 2.03). Overweight was high in this group of rural children and parental perception of weight status underestimated the actual weight status of overweight school-age children. Parental reporting of child weight status has implications for public health policy and prevention strategies. Future research should focus on assessing longitudinal effects of parental misperceptions of child’s weight status. PMID:27527235

  8. Elite athletes in aesthetic and Olympic weight-class sports and the challenge of body weight and body compositions.

    PubMed

    Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn; Garthe, Ina

    2011-01-01

    The use of dieting, rapid weight loss, and frequent weight fluctuation among athletes competing in weight-class and leanness sports have been considered a problem for years, but the extent of the problem and the health and performance consequences have yet to be fully examined. Most studies examining these issues have had weak methodology. However, results from this review indicate that a high proportion of athletes are using extreme weight-control methods and that the rules of some sports might be associated with the risk of continuous dieting, energy deficit, and/or use of extreme weight-loss methods that can be detrimental to health and performance. Thus, preventive strategies are justified for medical as well as performance reasons. The most urgent needs are: (1) to develop sport-specific educational programmes for athletic trainers, coaches, and athletes; (2) modifications to regulations; and (3) research related to minimum percentage body fat and judging patterns.

  9. Satiety and body weight control. Promise and compromise. Comment on 'Satiety. No way to slim'.

    PubMed

    Bellisle, France; Tremblay, Angelo

    2011-12-01

    Satiety is a complex psycho-physiological mechanism that allows the adjustment of energy intake to expenditures. As such, it plays an important role among the numerous interacting mechanisms contributing to body weight control. Booth and Nouwen rightfully stress that satiety claims can be misleading and even dangerous when they are misrepresented or misinterpreted as slimming claims. Indeed, a substance that might enhance satiety, especially by affecting sensations on the short term, will not necessarily help to decrease energy intake on the longer term or facilitate weight loss. While denouncing abusive claims, the article by Booth and Nouwen also refers to numerous contributions of satiety mechanisms that could potentially affect intake and weight control over the long term. We propose that multi-step proofs of concepts could be useful in this field. Satiety effects are one early step in a complex demonstration of how a substance could affect short-term intake, hormonal mechanisms, and medium or long term changes in body weight. An example of such a step-wise process is described (beneficial effects of calcium and dairy products on appetite and weight change). Booth and Nouwen insist that satiety effects should be evaluated in the context of the local socio-cultural meal pattern and lifestyle. This wise advice supports the use of multi-step proofs of concept, perhaps including the use of biomarkers as well as behavioural measures, before any satiety enhancement claim can be considered to have any actual impact on body weight control.

  10. Considering an affect regulation framework for examining the association between body dissatisfaction and positive body image in Black older adolescent females: does body mass index matter?

    PubMed

    Webb, Jennifer B; Butler-Ajibade, Phoebe; Robinson, Seronda A

    2014-09-01

    The present study provided an initial evaluation of an affect regulation model describing the association between body dissatisfaction and two contemporary measures of positive body image among 247 Black college-bound older adolescent females. We further tested whether possessing a higher body mass index (BMI) would strengthen these associations. Self-reported height and weight were used to calculate BMI. Respondents also completed a culturally-sensitive figure rating scale along with assessments of body appreciation and body image flexibility. Results indicated a robust positive association between the two measures of positive body image; BMI was the strongest predictor of both body appreciation and body image flexibility with body size discrepancy (current minus ideal) contributing incremental variance to both models tested. Implications for improving our understanding of the association between positive and negative body image and bolstering positive body image to promote health-protective behaviors among Black young women at this developmental juncture are discussed.

  11. Considering an Affect Regulation Framework for Examining the Association Between Body Dissatisfaction and Positive Body Image in Black Older Adolescent Females: Does Body Mass Index Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Butler-Ajibade, Phoebe; Robinson, Seronda A.

    2014-01-01

    The present study provided an initial evaluation of an affect regulation model describing the association between body dissatisfaction and two contemporary measures of positive body image among 247 Black college-bound older adolescent females. We further tested whether possessing a higher body mass index (BMI) would strengthen these associations. Self-reported height and weight were used to calculate BMI. Respondents also completed a culturally-sensitive figure rating scale along with assessments of body appreciation and body image flexibility. Results indicated a robust positive association between the two measures of positive body image; BMI was the strongest predictor of both body appreciation and body image flexibility with body size discrepancy (current minus ideal) contributing incremental variance to both models tested. Implications for improving our understanding of the association between positive and negative body image and bolstering positive body image to promote health-protective behaviors among Black young women at this developmental juncture are discussed. PMID:25079011

  12. Mediating Effect of Body Image Distortion on Weight Loss Efforts in Normal-Weight and Underweight Korean Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Jeong-Sil; Kim, Ji-Soo

    2017-01-01

    Background: We explored the relationship between body mass index-for-age percentile, body image distortion, and unnecessary weight loss efforts in Korean adolescent girls who are underweight and normal weight and examined the mediating effect of body image distortion on weight loss efforts. Methods: This study used data from the 2013 Korea Youth…

  13. Adolescent Boys and Body Image: Weight and Muscularity Concerns as Dual Pathways to Body Dissatisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Diane Carlson; Crawford, Joy K.

    2005-01-01

    This research evaluated a dual pathway model for body dissatisfaction among adolescent boys. The study provides empirical support for the importance of distinguishing between weight and muscularity concerns in understanding male body image. A total of 128 boys from grades 8 and 11 completed a self-report questionnaire. Results indicated that…

  14. Physical activity, food intake, and body weight regulation: insights from doubly labeled water studies.

    PubMed

    Westerterp, Klaas R

    2010-03-01

    Body weight and energy balance can be maintained by adapting energy intake to changes in energy expenditure and vice versa, whereas short-term changes in energy expenditure are mainly caused by physical activity. This review investigates whether physical activity is affected by over- and undereating, whether intake is affected by an increase or a decrease in physical activity, and whether being overweight affects physical activity. The available evidence is based largely on studies that quantified physical activity with doubly labeled water. Overeating does not affect physical activity, while undereating decreases habitual or voluntary physical activity. Thus, it is easier to gain weight than to lose weight. An exercise-induced increase in energy requirement is typically compensated by increased energy intake, while a change to a more sedentary routine does not induce an equivalent reduction of intake and generally results in weight gain. Overweight and obese subjects tend to have similar activity energy expenditures to lean people despite being more sedentary. There are two ways in which the general population trend towards increasing body weight can be reversed: reduce intake or increase physical activity. The results of the present literature review indicate that eating less is the most effective method for preventing weight gain, despite the potential for a negative effect on physical activity when a negative energy balance is reached.

  15. Role of oxytocin signaling in the regulation of body weight.

    PubMed

    Blevins, James E; Ho, Jacqueline M

    2013-12-01

    Obesity and its associated metabolic disorders are growing health concerns in the US and worldwide. In the US alone, more than two-thirds of the adult population is classified as either overweight or obese [1], highlighting the need to develop new, effective treatments for these conditions. Whereas the hormone oxytocin is well known for its peripheral effects on uterine contraction during parturition and milk ejection during lactation, release of oxytocin from somatodendrites and axonal terminals within the central nervous system (CNS) is implicated in both the formation of prosocial behaviors and in the control of energy balance. Recent findings demonstrate that chronic administration of oxytocin reduces food intake and body weight in diet-induced obese (DIO) and genetically obese rodents with impaired or defective leptin signaling. Importantly, chronic systemic administration of oxytocin out to 6 weeks recapitulates the effects of central administration on body weight loss in DIO rodents at doses that do not result in the development of tolerance. Furthermore, these effects are coupled with induction of Fos (a marker of neuronal activation) in hindbrain areas (e.g. dorsal vagal complex (DVC)) linked to the control of meal size and forebrain areas (e.g. hypothalamus, amygdala) linked to the regulation of food intake and body weight. This review assesses the potential central and peripheral targets by which oxytocin may inhibit body weight gain, its regulation by anorexigenic and orexigenic signals, and its potential use as a therapy that can circumvent leptin resistance and reverse the behavioral and metabolic abnormalities associated with DIO and genetically obese models.

  16. The liver: Key in regulating appetite and body weight.

    PubMed

    Fam, Barbara C; Joannides, Christos N; Andrikopoulos, Sofianos

    2012-10-01

    Liver fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase) is a regulatory enzyme in gluconeogenesis that is elevated by obesity and dietary fat intake. Whether FBPase functions only in glucose metabolism or has other metabolic roles is currently unclear. In our recently published study, we examined the importance of liver FBPase in body weight regulation by performing a series of comprehensive physiological and biochemical assessments of energy balance and specific intervention studies in our transgenic mouse line that overexpresses FBPase specifically in the liver. Compared with negative littermates, these FBPase transgenic mice weighed 10% less, had 50% less adiposity, ate 15% less food but did not have altered energy expenditure. Increased circulating leptin and cholecystokinin levels, elevated fatty acid oxidation and reduced appetite stimulating neuropeptides, neuropeptide Y (NPY) and agouti-related peptide (AGRP), underpinned this phenotype. Blocking the action of FBPase returned food intake and body weight to those of the negative littermates. Our study is the first to identify liver FBPase as a previously unknown regulator of appetite and adiposity. Importantly, this work recognizes the liver as an important organ in appetite and body weight regulation. This commentary will provide further insight and expand on this novel concept that the liver does in fact play an important role in adiposity.

  17. A treasure trove of hypothalamic neurocircuitries governing body weight homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Vianna, Claudia R; Coppari, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Changes in physical activities and feeding habits have transformed the historically rare disease of obesity into a modern metabolic pandemic. Obesity occurs when energy intake exceeds energy expenditure over time. This energy imbalance significantly increases the risk for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus and as such represents an enormous socioeconomic burden and health threat. To combat obesity, a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms and neurocircuitries underlying normal body weight homeostasis is required. In the 1940s, pioneering lesion experiments unveiled the importance of medial and lateral hypothalamic structures. In the 1980s and 1990s, several neuropeptides and peripheral hormones critical for appropriate feeding behavior, energy expenditure, and hence body weight homeostasis were identified. In the 2000s, results from metabolic analyses of genetically engineered mice bearing mutations only in selected neuronal groups greatly advanced our knowledge of the peripheral/brain feedback-loop modalities by which central neurons control energy balance. In this review, we will summarize these recent progresses with particular emphasis on the biochemical identities of hypothalamic neurons and molecular components underlying normal appetite, energy expenditure, and body weight homeostasis. We will also parse which of those neurons and molecules are critical components of homeostatic adaptive pathways against obesity induced by hypercaloric feeding.

  18. Human growth and body weight dynamics: an integrative systems model.

    PubMed

    Rahmandad, Hazhir

    2014-01-01

    Quantifying human weight and height dynamics due to growth, aging, and energy balance can inform clinical practice and policy analysis. This paper presents the first mechanism-based model spanning full individual life and capturing changes in body weight, composition and height. Integrating previous empirical and modeling findings and validated against several additional empirical studies, the model replicates key trends in human growth including A) Changes in energy requirements from birth to old ages. B) Short and long-term dynamics of body weight and composition. C) Stunted growth with chronic malnutrition and potential for catch up growth. From obesity policy analysis to treating malnutrition and tracking growth trajectories, the model can address diverse policy questions. For example I find that even without further rise in obesity, the gap between healthy and actual Body Mass Indexes (BMIs) has embedded, for different population groups, a surplus of 14%-24% in energy intake which will be a source of significant inertia in obesity trends. In another analysis, energy deficit percentage needed to reduce BMI by one unit is found to be relatively constant across ages. Accompanying documented and freely available simulation model facilitates diverse applications customized to different sub-populations.

  19. Cardiometabolic risk markers of normal weight and excess body weight in Brazilian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Mastroeni, Silmara Salete de Barros Silva; Mastroeni, Marco Fabio; Gonçalves, Muryel de Carvalho; Debortoli, Guilherme; da Silva, Nilza Nunes; Bernal, Regina Tomie Ivata; Adamovski, Maristela; Veugelers, Paul J; Rondó, Patrícia Helen de Carvalho

    2016-06-01

    Excess body weight leads to a variety of metabolic changes and increases the risk for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in adulthood. The objective of this study was to investigate the presence of risk markers for CVD among Brazilian adolescents of normal weight and with excess body weight. The markers included blood pressure, C-reactive protein, homocysteine, tumor necrosis factor alpha, fibrinogen, fasting insulin and glucose, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), leptin, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), and triglycerides. We calculated odds ratios (OR) using logistic regression and adjusted for potential confounders such as age, sex, physical activity, and socioeconomic background. Compared with normal weight subjects, overweight/obese adolescents were more likely to have higher systolic blood pressure (OR = 3.49, p < 0.001), fasting insulin (OR = 8.03, p < 0.001), HOMA-IR (OR = 8.03, p < 0.001), leptin (OR = 5.55, p < 0.001), and LDL-c (OR = 5.50, p < 0.001) and lower serum HDL-c concentrations (OR = 2.76, p = 0.004). After adjustment for confounders, the estimates did not change substantially, except for leptin for which the risk associated with overweight increased to 11.09 (95% CI: 4.05-30.35). In conclusion, excess body weight in adolescents exhibits strong associations with several markers that are established as causes of CVD in adults. This observation stresses the importance of primary prevention and of maintaining a healthy body weight throughout adolescence to reduce the global burden of CVD.

  20. Challenging body weight: evidence from a community-based intervention on weight, behaviour and motivation.

    PubMed

    Blais, Louise T; Mack, Diane E; Wilson, Philip M; Blanchard, Chris M

    2016-12-21

    The objective of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a 12 week weight loss intervention within a commercial fitness centre on body weight, moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA), dietary intake, and behavioural regulations for exercise and healthy eating. Using a quasi-experimental design, the intervention group received weekly coaching sessions and bi-weekly seminars designed to increase MVPA and improve dietary intake. Outcome variables were assessed at three time points over a six month period. Results showed a significant interaction for body weight (p = .04) and dietary changes (p < .05) following the weight loss challenge but were not maintained across the six month period. Changes in behavioural regulations favoured the intervention condition. Results imply that a 12 week weight loss challenge within a commercial fitness centre may be effective at prompting short-term weight loss and support the internalization of behavioural regulations specific to healthy eating and exercise.

  1. Wheel running, food intake, and body weight in male rats.

    PubMed

    Looy, H; Eikelboom, R

    1989-02-01

    The acquisition of wheel running, its effects on food intake and body weight, and the effects of wheel deprivation, were examined in male rats. Running increased during the first 15 days of access, then plateaued. When wheels were unlocked after 10 days of deprivation, running was reduced, but quickly recovered to original levels. Animals first given wheel access 49 days into the study ran little, with no increase over days. Food intake dropped each time with wheel access, but recovered to control levels over 10-14 days. Wheel deprivation resulted in a temporary hyperphagia. With wheel access, weight initially dropped and was then maintained at a reduced percentage of homecage-housed animals. In male rats wheel access appears to have temporary effects on food intake, and long term effects on weight. Marked differences in the activity of same-age rats suggest that wheel running is in part a function of housing history.

  2. Emotion Regulation and Excess Weight: Impaired Affective Processing Characterized by Dysfunctional Insula Activation and Connectivity.

    PubMed

    Steward, Trevor; Picó-Pérez, Maria; Mata, Fernanda; Martínez-Zalacaín, Ignacio; Cano, Marta; Contreras-Rodríguez, Oren; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Yucel, Murat; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Verdejo-García, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Emotion-regulation strategies are understood to influence food intake. This study examined the neurophysiological underpinnings of negative emotion processing and emotion regulation in individuals with excess weight compared to normal-weight controls. Fifteen participants with excess-weight (body mass index >25) and sixteen normal-weight controls (body mass index 18-25) performed an emotion-regulation task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Participants were exposed to 24 negative affective or neutral pictures that they were instructed to Observe (neutral pictures), Maintain (sustain the emotion elicited by negative pictures) or Regulate (down-regulate the emotion provoked by negative pictures through previously trained reappraisal techniques). When instructed to regulate negative emotions by means of cognitive reappraisal, participants with excess weight displayed persistently heightened activation in the right anterior insula. Decreased responsivity was also found in right anterior insula, the orbitofrontal cortex and cerebellum during negative emotion experience in participants with excess weight. Psycho-physiological interaction analyses showed that excess-weight participants had decreased negative functional coupling between the right anterior insula and the right dlPFC, and the bilateral dmPFC during cognitive reappraisal. Our findings support contentions that excess weight is linked to an abnormal pattern of neural activation and connectivity during the experience and regulation of negative emotions, with the insula playing a key role in these alterations. We posit that ineffective regulation of emotional states contributes to the acquisition and preservation of excess weight.

  3. Emotion Regulation and Excess Weight: Impaired Affective Processing Characterized by Dysfunctional Insula Activation and Connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Mata, Fernanda; Martínez-Zalacaín, Ignacio; Cano, Marta; Contreras-Rodríguez, Oren; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Yucel, Murat; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Verdejo-García, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Emotion-regulation strategies are understood to influence food intake. This study examined the neurophysiological underpinnings of negative emotion processing and emotion regulation in individuals with excess weight compared to normal-weight controls. Fifteen participants with excess-weight (body mass index >25) and sixteen normal-weight controls (body mass index 18–25) performed an emotion-regulation task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Participants were exposed to 24 negative affective or neutral pictures that they were instructed to Observe (neutral pictures), Maintain (sustain the emotion elicited by negative pictures) or Regulate (down-regulate the emotion provoked by negative pictures through previously trained reappraisal techniques). When instructed to regulate negative emotions by means of cognitive reappraisal, participants with excess weight displayed persistently heightened activation in the right anterior insula. Decreased responsivity was also found in right anterior insula, the orbitofrontal cortex and cerebellum during negative emotion experience in participants with excess weight. Psycho-physiological interaction analyses showed that excess-weight participants had decreased negative functional coupling between the right anterior insula and the right dlPFC, and the bilateral dmPFC during cognitive reappraisal. Our findings support contentions that excess weight is linked to an abnormal pattern of neural activation and connectivity during the experience and regulation of negative emotions, with the insula playing a key role in these alterations. We posit that ineffective regulation of emotional states contributes to the acquisition and preservation of excess weight. PMID:27003840

  4. Nuts Improve Diet Quality Compared to Other Energy-Dense Snacks While Maintaining Body Weight

    PubMed Central

    Tey, Siew Ling; Brown, Rachel; Gray, Andrew; Chisholm, Alexandra; Delahunty, Conor

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that regular nut consumption reduces cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and does not promote weight gain despite the fact that nuts are energy-dense. However, no studies have investigated the body composition of those regularly consuming nuts compared to similar intakes of other snacks of equal energy density. This parallel study (n = 118) examined the effects of providing daily portions (~1100 kJ/d) of hazelnuts, chocolate, or potato crisps compared to a control group receiving no snacks for twelve weeks. Effects on body weight and composition, blood lipids and lipoproteins, resting metabolic rate (RMR), appetite indices, and dietary quality were compared. At week 12, there was no significant difference in any of the outcome measurements between the groups except for dietary quality, which improved significantly in the nut group. Nuts can be incorporated into the diet without adversely affecting body weight and can improve diet quality. PMID:21845219

  5. Identification of genetic factors that modify motor performance and body weight using Collaborative Cross mice

    DOE PAGES

    Mao, Jian -Hua; Langley, Sasha A.; Huang, Yurong; ...

    2015-11-09

    Evidence has emerged that suggests a link between motor deficits, obesity and many neurological disorders. However, the contributing genetic risk factors are poorly understood. Here we used the Collaborative Cross (CC), a large panel of newly inbred mice that captures 90% of the known variation among laboratory mice, to identify the genetic loci controlling rotarod performance and its relationship with body weight in a cohort of 365 mice across 16 CC strains. Body weight and rotarod performance varied widely across CC strains and were significantly negatively correlated. Genetic linkage analysis identified 14 loci that were associated with body weight. However,more » 45 loci affected rotarod performance, seven of which were also associated with body weight, suggesting a strong link at the genetic level. As a result, we show that genes identified in this study overlap significantly with those related to neurological disorders and obesity found in human GWA studies. In conclusion, our results provide a genetic framework for studies of the connection between body weight, the central nervous system and behavior.« less

  6. Identification of genetic factors that modify motor performance and body weight using Collaborative Cross mice

    SciTech Connect

    Mao, Jian -Hua; Langley, Sasha A.; Huang, Yurong; Hang, Michael; Bouchard, Kristofer E.; Celniker, Susan E.; Brown, James B.; Jansson, Janet K.; Karpen, Gary H.; Snijders, Antoine M.

    2015-11-09

    Evidence has emerged that suggests a link between motor deficits, obesity and many neurological disorders. However, the contributing genetic risk factors are poorly understood. Here we used the Collaborative Cross (CC), a large panel of newly inbred mice that captures 90% of the known variation among laboratory mice, to identify the genetic loci controlling rotarod performance and its relationship with body weight in a cohort of 365 mice across 16 CC strains. Body weight and rotarod performance varied widely across CC strains and were significantly negatively correlated. Genetic linkage analysis identified 14 loci that were associated with body weight. However, 45 loci affected rotarod performance, seven of which were also associated with body weight, suggesting a strong link at the genetic level. As a result, we show that genes identified in this study overlap significantly with those related to neurological disorders and obesity found in human GWA studies. In conclusion, our results provide a genetic framework for studies of the connection between body weight, the central nervous system and behavior.

  7. [Body weight, nutritional factors and physical activity--their influence on prognosis after breast cancer diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Weitzen, Rony; Tichler, Thomas; Kaufman, Bella; Catane, Raphael; Shpatz, Yael

    2006-11-01

    Numerous studies have examined the association between body weight, nutritional factors, physical activity and the risk for primary breast cancer. Relatively few studies, however, have examined the associations between these issues and the recurrence of the disease and cure of the primary tumor. Today, three areas of focus are actively being researched for breast cancer survivors: body weight, diet composition and physical activity with specific emphasis on the risk for recurrence, survival and quality of life. Increased body weight or BMI (Body Mass Index) at diagnosis was found to be a significant risk factor for recurrent disease, decreased survival, or both. Overall obesity has been shown to adversely affect prognosis. Appropriate weight control may be particularly beneficial for breast cancer survivors. Breast cancer survivors should be encouraged to achieve and maintain a healthy weight. Limiting fat intake can reduce the risk of breast cancer recurrence. Increasing consumption of vegetables and fruits seems to have possible beneficial effects during and after treatments. To date physical activity after breast cancer diagnosis has been found to reduce the risk of death. The greatest benefit occurred in women who performed the equivalent of walking 3-5 hours per week at an average pace. Safe weight loss via increased physical activity and healthful food choices should be encouraged for normal, overweight or obese breast cancer survivors in order to improve survival and life quality.

  8. Effects of body weight and age on the time and pairing of American black ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hepp, G.R.

    1986-01-01

    I used captive young and adult American Black Ducks (Anas rubripes) during October-February 1984-1985 to test whether body weight and age affected time of pair-bond formation. Eighty ducks were marked individually, and 10 ducks (6 males and 4 females, half of each age class) were assigned to each of 8 experimental pens. Ducks in 4 pens received an ad libitum diet of commercial duck food, and ducks in the other 4 pens received a restricted ration of the same food. During early winter ducks in both groups gained weight, but ducks on the restricted diet gained less than birds on the ad libitum diet; peak winter weight of ducks on the ad libitum diet averaged 22% greater than initial body weight compared with 6.5% for ducks on the restricted diet. In late winter ducks on the restricted diet lost 28.7% of peak winter weight, and ducks on the ad libitum diet lost 19.3%. Weight loss of ducks on the ad libitum diet began before weather conditions became severe and coincided with a reduction in food consumption. This result supports the idea that weight loss of waterfowl in late winter is controlled endogenously. Individuals on the ad libitum diet paired earlier than those on the restricted diet, and pair bonds were stronger. Adults of both sexes paired earlier than young ducks, but differences for females were not significant statistically. Age and energy constraints are factors that can affect intraspecific variation in pairing chronology.

  9. Development and Validation of the Body Size Scale for Assessing Body Weight Perception in African Populations

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Emmanuel; Bernard, Jonathan Y.; Ponty, Amandine; Ndao, Amadou; Amougou, Norbert; Saïd-Mohamed, Rihlat; Pasquet, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Background The social valorisation of overweight in African populations could promote high-risk eating behaviours and therefore become a risk factor of obesity. However, existing scales to assess body image are usually not accurate enough to allow comparative studies of body weight perception in different African populations. This study aimed to develop and validate the Body Size Scale (BSS) to estimate African body weight perception. Methods Anthropometric measures of 80 Cameroonians and 81 Senegalese were used to evaluate three criteria of adiposity: body mass index (BMI), overall percentage of fat, and endomorphy (fat component of the somatotype). To develop the BSS, the participants were photographed in full face and profile positions. Models were selected for their representativeness of the wide variability in adiposity with a progressive increase along the scale. Then, for the validation protocol, participants self-administered the BSS to assess self-perceived current body size (CBS), desired body size (DBS) and provide a “body self-satisfaction index.” This protocol included construct validity, test-retest reliability and convergent validity and was carried out with three independent samples of respectively 201, 103 and 1115 Cameroonians. Results The BSS comprises two sex-specific scales of photos of 9 models each, and ordered by increasing adiposity. Most participants were able to correctly order the BSS by increasing adiposity, using three different words to define body size. Test-retest reliability was consistent in estimating CBS, DBS and the “body self-satisfaction index.” The CBS was highly correlated to the objective BMI, and two different indexes assessed with the BSS were consistent with declarations obtained in interviews. Conclusion The BSS is the first scale with photos of real African models taken in both full face and profile and representing a wide and representative variability in adiposity. The validation protocol proved its

  10. Association between eating out of home and body weight.

    PubMed

    Bezerra, Ilana N; Curioni, Cintia; Sichieri, Rosely

    2012-02-01

    Eating outside of the home environment on a frequent basis has been associated with weight gain. Food choices when eating out are usually high in energy content, which contributes to excessive energy intake; however, the available data on out-of-home eating and obesity are far from conclusive. This systematic review assesses the association between out-of-home eating and body weight in adults over 18 years of age. The literature databases searched included Medline, Embase, Lilacs, The Cochrane Library, and the ISI Web of Knowledge. The review includes a comprehensive quality assessment of all included observational studies, 20 cross-sectional studies, and 8 prospective cohort studies. All but one of the prospective cohort studies and about half of the cross-sectional analyses found a positive association between out-of-home eating and body weight. However, many methodological differences among the studies were found, such as the definition of out-of-home eating and its assessment, which limits comparisons. The results of the present analysis suggest that in future studies fast-food restaurants and other out-of-home dining venues should be analyzed separately, assessments based on a single 24-h recall should be avoided, and controls for at-home choices (which were not included in any of the studies reviewed) are necessary to evaluate this association.

  11. Body Characteristics, Dietary Protein and Body Weight Regulation. Reconciling Conflicting Results from Intervention and Observational Studies?

    PubMed Central

    Ankarfeldt, Mikkel Z.; Ängquist, Lars; Stocks, Tanja; Jakobsen, Marianne U.; Overvad, Kim; Halkjær, Jytte; Saris, Wim H. M.; Astrup, Arne; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Objectives Physiological evidence indicates that high-protein diets reduce caloric intake and increase thermogenic response, which may prevent weight gain and regain after weight loss. Clinical trials have shown such effects, whereas observational cohort studies suggest an association between greater protein intake and weight gain. In both types of studies the results are based on average weight changes, and show considerable diversity in both directions. This study investigates whether the discrepancy in the evidence could be due to recruitment of overweight and obese individuals into clinical trials. Subjects/Methods Data were available from the European Diet, Obesity and Genes (DiOGenes) post-weight-loss weight-maintenance trial and the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health (DCH) cohort. Participants of the DCH cohort were matched with participants from the DiOGenes trial on gender, diet, and body characteristics. Different subsets of the DCH-participants, comparable with the trial participants, were analyzed for weight maintenance according to the randomization status (high or low protein) of the matched trial participants. Results Trial participants were generally heavier, had larger waist circumference and larger fat mass than the participants in the entire DCH cohort. A better weight maintenance in the high-protein group compared to the low protein group was observed in the subgroups of the DCH cohort matching body characteristics of the trial participants. Conclusion This modified observational study, minimized the differences between the RCT and observational data with regard to dietary intake, participant characteristics and statistical analysis. Compared with low protein diet the high protein diet was associated with better weight maintenance when individuals with greater body mass index and waist circumference were analyzed. Selecting subsets of large-scale observational cohort studies with similar characteristics as participants in clinical trials

  12. Low temperature alteration processes affecting ultramafic bodies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nesbitt, H.W.; Bricker, O.P.

    1978-01-01

    At low temperatures, in the presence of an aqueous solution, olivine and orthopyroxene are not stable relative to the hydrous phases brucite, serpentine and talc. Alteration of dunite and peridotite to serpentine or steatite bodies must therefore proceed via non-equilibrium processes. The compositions of natural solutions emanating from dunites and peridotites demonstrate that the dissolution of forsterite and/or enstatite is rapid compared with the precipitation of the hydrous phases; consequently, dissolution of anhydrous minerals controls the chemistry of such solutions. In the presence of an aqueous phase, precipitation of hydrous minerals is the rate-controlling step. Brucite-bearing and -deficient serpentinites alter at low temperature by non-equilibrium processes, as evidenced by the composition of natural solutions from these bodies. The solutions approach equilibrium with the least stable hydrous phase and, as a consequence, are supersaturated with other hydrous phases. Dissolution of the least stable phase is rapid compared to precipitation of other phases, so that the dissolving mineral controls the solution chemistry. Non-equilibrium alteration of anhydrous ultramafic bodies continues until at least one anhydrous phase equilibrates with brucite, chrysotile or talc. The lowest temperature (at a given pressure) at which this happens is defined by the reaction: 3H2O + 2Mg2SiO4 ??? Mg3Si2O5(OH)4 + Mg(OH)2 (Johannes, 1968, Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 19, 309-315) so that non-equilibrium alteration may occur well into greenschist facies metamorphic conditions. ?? 1978.

  13. Adolescent-parent interactions and communication preferences regarding body weight and weight management: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background This study aimed to canvass the nature of adolescent-parent interactions about weight, particularly overweight, and to explore ideas of how to foster supportive discussions regarding weight, both in the home and with family doctors. Methods A market research company was contracted to recruit and conduct a series of separate focus groups with adolescents and unrelated parents of adolescents from low-middle socio-economic areas in Sydney and a regional centre, Australia. Group discussions were audio recorded, transcribed, and then a qualitative content analysis of the data was performed. Results Nine focus groups were conducted; two were held with girls (n = 13), three with boys (n = 18), and four with parents (20 mothers, 12 fathers). Adolescent and parent descriptions of weight-related interactions could be classified into three distinct approaches: indirect/cautious (i.e. focus on eating or physical activity behaviors without discussing weight specifically); direct/open (i.e. body weight was discussed); and never/rarely discussing the subject. Indirect approaches were described most frequently by both adolescents and parents and were generally preferred over direct approaches. Parents and adolescents were circumspect but generally supportive of the potential role for family doctors to monitor and discuss adolescent weight status. Conclusions These findings have implications for developing acceptable messages for adolescent and family overweight prevention and treatment interventions. PMID:20205918

  14. Ribose Accelerates Gut Motility and Suppresses Mouse Body Weight Gaining

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yan; Li, Tong-Ruei R; Xu, Cong; Xu, Tian

    2016-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of obesity is closely related to excessive energy consumption. Clinical intervention of energy intake is an attractive strategy to fight obesity. However, the current FDA-approved weight-loss drugs all have significant side effects. Here we show that ribose upregulates gut motility and suppresses mice body weight gain. Ribokinase, which is encoded by Rbks gene, is the first enzyme for ribose metabolism in vivo. Rbks mutation resulted in ribose accumulation in the small intestine, which accelerated gut movement. Ribose oral treatment in wild type mice also enhanced bowel motility and rendered mice resistance to high fat diets. The suppressed weight gain was resulted from enhanced ingested food excretion. In addition, the effective dose of ribose didn't cause any known side effects (i.e. diarrhea and hypoglycemia). Overall, our results show that ribose can regulate gut motility and energy homeostasis in mice, and suggest that administration of ribose and its analogs could regulate gastrointestinal motility, providing a novel therapeutic approach for gastrointestinal dysfunction and weight control. PMID:27194947

  15. Monocarboxylate transporters: new players in body weight regulation.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, L; Pellerin, L

    2015-02-01

    Over the last two decades, several genes have been identified that appear to play a role in the regulation of energy homeostasis and body weight. For a small subset of them, a reduction or an absence of expression confers a resistance to the development of obesity. Recently, a knockin mouse for a member of the monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) family, MCT1, was demonstrated to exhibit a typical phenotype of resistance to diet-induced obesity and a protection from its associated metabolic perturbations. Such findings point out at MCTs as putatively new therapeutic targets in the context of obesity. Here, we will review what is known about MCTs and their possible metabolic roles in different organs and tissues. Based on the description of the phenotype of the MCT1 knockin mouse, we will also provide some insights about their putative roles in weight gain regulation.

  16. Effects of diet macronutrient composition on body composition and fat distribution during weight maintenance and weight loss

    PubMed Central

    Goss, Amy M.; Goree, Laura Lee; Ellis, Amy C.; Chandler-Laney, Paula C.; Casazza, Krista; Lockhart, Mark E.; Gower, Barbara A.

    2012-01-01

    Qualitative aspects of diet may affect body composition and propensity for weight gain or loss. We tested the hypothesis that consumption of a relatively low glycemic load (GL) diet would reduce total and visceral adipose tissue under both eucaloric and hypocaloric conditions. Participants were 69 healthy overweight men and women. Body composition was assessed by DXA and fat distribution by CT scan at baseline, after 8 weeks of a eucaloric diet intervention, and after 8 weeks of a hypocaloric (1000 kcal/d deficit) diet intervention. Participants were provided all food for both phases, and randomized to either a low GL diet (≤45 points per 1000 kcal; n=40) or high GL diet (>75 points per 1000 kcal, n=29). After the eucaloric phase, participants who consumed the low GL diet had 11% less intra-abdominal fat (IAAT) than those who consumed the high GL diet (P<0.05, adjusted for total fat mass and baseline IAAT). Participants lost an average of 5.8 kg during the hypocaloric phase, with no differences in the amount of weight loss with diet assignment (P=0.39). Following weight loss, participants who consumed the low GL diet had 4.4% less total fat mass than those who consumed the high GL diet (P<0.05, adjusted for lean mass and baseline fat mass). Consumption of a relatively low GL diet may affect energy partitioning, both inducing reduction in IAAT independent of weight change, and enhancing loss of fat relative to lean mass during weight loss. PMID:23671029

  17. Role of the hypothalamus in the neuroendocrine regulation of body weight and composition during energy deficit.

    PubMed

    Sainsbury, A; Zhang, L

    2012-03-01

    Energy deficit in lean or obese animals or humans stimulates appetite, reduces energy expenditure and possibly also decreases physical activity, thereby contributing to weight regain. Often overlooked in weight loss trials for obesity, however, is the effect of energy restriction on neuroendocrine status. Negative energy balance in lean animals and humans consistently inhibits activity of the hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid, -gonadotropic and -somatotropic axes (or reduces circulating insulin-like growth factor-1 levels), while concomitantly activating the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis, with emerging evidence of similar changes in overweight and obese people during lifestyle interventions for weight loss. These neuroendocrine changes, which animal studies show may result in part from hypothalamic actions of orexigenic (e.g. neuropeptide Y, agouti-related peptide) and anorexigenic peptides (e.g. alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone, and cocaine and amphetamine-related transcript), can adversely affect body composition by promoting the accumulation of adipose tissue (particularly central adiposity) and stimulating the loss of lean body mass and bone. As such, current efforts to maximize loss of excess body fat in obese people may inadvertently be promoting long-term complications such as central obesity and associated health risks, as well as sarcopenia and osteoporosis. Future weight loss trials would benefit from assessment of the effects on body composition and key hormonal regulators of body composition using sensitive techniques.

  18. Roles of orexins in the regulation of body weight homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    Lateral hypothalamic neuropeptides, orexins, have been recognized as one of the most important regulators of sleep/wakefulness states. Besides, these peptides are also regarded as an important factor that regulates feeding behavior, owing to their localization within the lateral hypothalamic area, the classic "feeding center", pharmacological activities, and the fact that prepro-orexin mRNA is upregulated when animals are fasted. This review summarizes the role of orexins in the regulation of feeding behavior and body weight homeostasis in relation to other systems that involve orexinergic neurotransmission.

  19. CART peptides: regulators of body weight, reward and other functions

    PubMed Central

    Rogge, G.; Jones, D.; Hubert, G. W.; Lin, Y.; Kuhar, M. J.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decade or so, CART (cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript) peptides have emerged as major neurotransmitters and hormones. CART peptides are widely distributed in the CNS and are involved in regulating many processes, including food intake and the maintenance of body weight, reward and endocrine functions. Recent studies have produced a wealth of information about the location, regulation, processing and functions of CART peptides, but additional studies aimed at elucidating the physiological effects of the peptides and at characterizing the CART receptor(s) are needed to take advantage of possible therapeutic applications. PMID:18802445

  20. Effects of age on recovery of body weight following REM sleep deprivation of rats.

    PubMed

    Koban, Michael; Stewart, Craig V

    2006-01-30

    Chronically enforced rapid eye (paradoxical) movement sleep deprivation (REM-SD) of rats leads to a host of pathologies, of which hyperphagia and loss of body weight are among the most readily observed. In recent years, the etiology of many REM-SD-associated pathologies have been elucidated, but one unexplored area is whether age affects outcomes. In this study, male Sprague-Dawley rats at 2, 6, and 12 months of age were REM sleep-deprived with the platform (flowerpot) method for 10-12 days. Two-month-old rats resided on 7-cm platforms, while 10-cm platforms were used for 6- and 12-month-old rats; rats on 15-cm platforms served as tank controls (TCs). Daily changes in food consumption (g/kg(0.67)) and body weight (g) during baseline, REM-SD or TCs, and post-experiment recovery in home cages were determined. Compared to TCs, REM-SD resulted in higher food intake and decreases in body weight. When returned to home cages, food intake rapidly declined to baseline levels. Of primary interest was that rates of body weight gain during recovery differed between the age groups. Two-month-old rats rapidly restored body weight to pre-REM-SD mass within 5 days; 6-month-old rats were extrapolated by linear regression to have taken about 10 days, and for 12-month-old rats, the estimate was about 35 days. The observation that restoration of body weight following its loss during REM-SD may be age-dependent is in general agreement with the literature on aging effects on how mammals respond to stress.

  1. Does affective touch influence the virtual reality full body illusion?

    PubMed

    de Jong, Jutta R; Keizer, Anouk; Engel, Manja M; Dijkerman, H Chris

    2017-03-13

    The sense of how we experience our physical body as our own represents a fundamental component of human self-awareness. Body ownership can be studied with bodily illusions which are generated by inducing a visuo-tactile conflict where individuals experience illusionary ownership over a fake body or body part, such as a rubber hand. Previous studies showed that different types of touch modulate the strength of experienced ownership over a rubber hand. Specifically, participants experienced more ownership after the rubber hand illusion was induced through affective touch vs non-affective touch. It is, however, unclear whether this effect would also occur for an entire fake body. The aim of this study was, therefore, to investigate whether affective touch modulates the strength of ownership in a virtual reality full body illusion. To elicit this illusion, we used slow (3 cm/s; affective touch) and fast (30 cm/s; non-affective touch) stroking velocities on the participants' abdomen. Both stroking velocities were performed either synchronous or asynchronous (control condition), while participants viewed a virtual body from a first-person-perspective. In our first study, we found that participants experienced more subjective ownership over a virtual body in the affective touch condition, compared to the non-affective touch condition. In our second study, we found higher levels of subjective ownership for synchronous stimulation, compared to asynchronous, for both touch conditions, but failed to replicate the findings from study 1 that show a difference between affective and non-affective touch. We, therefore, cannot conclude unequivocally that affective touch enhances the full-body illusion. Future research is required to study the effects of affective touch on body ownership.

  2. Gestation length, metabolic rate, and body and brain weights in primates: epigenetic effects.

    PubMed

    Little, B B

    1989-10-01

    The relationship of brain and body weights can be expressed in log-log regression: log (brain weight) = log (A) + B log (body weight). To investigate further the weights' similarity, gestation length and brain and body weights were determined from the literature for 46 primate genera. The results of allometric and path regression analyses suggest that the relationship between brain and body weights may not be mainly pleiotropic in the order Primates. The correlation between brain and body weights appears to be due to epigenetic factors in hyperplastic growth related to time constraint by gestation length and to energy utilization limitations imposed by metabolic rate.

  3. Body position affects performance in untrained cyclists

    PubMed Central

    Ashe, M; Scroop, G; Frisken, P; Amery, C; Wilkins, M; Khan, K

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To compare cardiovascular and ventilatory variables in upright versus aero cycle ergometry at submaximal and maximal exercise intensities in untrained cyclists. Method: Ten physically active men (mean (SD) age 19.1 (1.10) years) who were unfamiliar with aerobars underwent maximal exercise testing and steady state cycling at 50, 100, and 150 W. Results: Participants had significantly greater maxima for oxygen uptake (VO2), ventilation, heart rate, and workload maximum in the upright position. During steady state cycling at the three workloads, VO2 (ml/kg/min) and gross mechanical efficiency were significantly greater in the upright position. Conclusions: In untrained subjects performing with maximal effort, the upright position permits greater VO2, ventilation, heart rate, and workload maxima. Further, in the steady state, exercise cycling may be less costly in the upright position. For this reason, untrained cyclists need to weigh body position effects against the well known aerodynamic advantages of the aero position. PMID:14514538

  4. The Effect of Acute Weight Loss on Body Composition, Self-Esteem and Appearance Esteem before Competitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastug, Gülsüm; Özdemir, Mehmet; Tanir, Halil; Salim, Emrullah

    2016-01-01

    Weight loss in human body accompanies physical and psychological differences. In this study, it was aimed to see whether acute weight loss (dehydration) affected self-esteem and appearance esteem in the elite wrestlers before competitions. 38 professional wrestlers who had international competition experiences and were required to be in a lower…

  5. Longer Exposure to Obesity, Slimmer Chance of College? Body Weight Trajectories, Non-Cognitive Skills, and College Completion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Yen-hsin Alice

    2017-01-01

    The NLSY97 data were used to explore the patterns of developmental trajectories of body weight in adolescence and how they affected the likelihood of college completion in young adulthood among 2,275 youths aged 13 and 14 in Wave 1. A strong weight trajectory gradient was found for rates of college completion. The study further explored the role…

  6. Dietary supplements for improving body composition and reducing body weight: where is the evidence?

    PubMed

    Manore, Melinda M

    2012-04-01

    Weight-loss supplements typically fall into 1 of 4 categories depending on their hypothesized mechanism of action: products that block the absorption of fat or carbohydrate, stimulants that increase thermogenesis, products that change metabolism and improve body composition, and products that suppress appetite or give a sense of fullness. Each category is reviewed, and an overview of the current science related to their effectiveness is presented. While some weight-loss supplements produce modest effects (<2 kg weight loss), many have either no or few randomized clinical trials examining their effectiveness. A number of factors confound research results associated with the efficacy of weight-loss supplements, such as small sample sizes, short intervention periods, little or no follow-up, and whether the supplement is given in combination with an energy-restricted diet or increased exercise expenditure. There is no strong research evidence indicating that a specific supplement will produce significant weight loss (>2 kg), especially in the long term. Some foods or supplements such as green tea, fiber, and calcium supplements or dairy products may complement a healthy lifestyle to produce small weight losses or prevent weight gain over time. Weight-loss supplements containing metabolic stimulants (e.g., caffeine, ephedra, synephrine) are most likely to produce adverse side effects and should be avoided.

  7. Central transthyretin acts to decrease food intake and body weight

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Fenping; Kim, Yonwook J.; Moran, Timothy H.; Li, Hong; Bi, Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Transthyretin (TTR) is a blood and cerebrospinal fluid transporter of thyroxine and retinol. Gene expression profiling revealed an elevation of Ttr expression in the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) of rats with exercise-induced anorexia, implying that central TTR may also play a functional role in modulating food intake and energy balance. To test this hypothesis, we have examined the effects of brain TTR on food intake and body weight and have further determined hypothalamic signaling that may underlie its feeding effect in rats. We found that intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of TTR in normal growing rats decreased food intake and body weight. This effect was not due to sickness as icv TTR did not cause a conditioned taste aversion. ICV TTR decreased neuropeptide Y (NPY) levels in the DMH and the paraventricular nucleus (P < 0.05). Chronic icv infusion of TTR in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats reversed hyperphagia and obesity and reduced DMH NPY levels. Overall, these results demonstrate a previously unknown anorectic action of central TTR in the control of energy balance, providing a potential novel target for treating obesity and its comorbidities. PMID:27053000

  8. Mechanisms of Body Weight Reduction by Black Tea Polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Pan, Haibo; Gao, Ying; Tu, Youying

    2016-12-07

    Obesity is one of the most common nutritional diseases worldwide. This disease causes health problems, such as dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, hypertension and inflammation. There are drugs used to inhibit obesity. However, they have serious side effects outweighing their beneficial effects. Black tea, commonly referred to as "fermented tea", has shown a positive effect on reducing body weight in animal models. Black tea polyphenols are the major components in black tea which reduce body weight. Black tea polyphenols are more effective than green tea polyphenols. Black tea polyphenols exert a positive effect on inhibiting obesity involving in two major mechanisms: (i) inhibiting lipid and saccharide digestion, absorption and intake, thus reducing calorie intake; and (ii) promoting lipid metabolism by activating AMP-activated protein kinase to attenuate lipogenesis and enhance lipolysis, and decreasing lipid accumulation by inhibiting the differentiation and proliferation of preadipocytes; (iii) blocking the pathological processes of obesity and comorbidities of obesity by reducing oxidative stress. Epidemiological studies of the health relevance between anti-obesity and black tea polyphenols consumption remain to be further investigated.

  9. Brain regulation of energy balance and body weight.

    PubMed

    Rui, Liangyou

    2013-12-01

    Body weight is determined by a balance between food intake and energy expenditure. Multiple neural circuits in the brain have evolved to process information about food, food-related cues and food consumption to control feeding behavior. Numerous gastrointestinal endocrine cells produce and secrete satiety hormones in response to food consumption and digestion. These hormones suppress hunger and promote satiation and satiety mainly through hindbrain circuits, thus governing meal-by-meal eating behavior. In contrast, the hypothalamus integrates adiposity signals to regulate long-term energy balance and body weight. Distinct hypothalamic areas and various orexigenic and anorexigenic neurons have been identified to homeostatically regulate food intake. The hypothalamic circuits regulate food intake in part by modulating the sensitivity of the hindbrain to short-term satiety hormones. The hedonic and incentive properties of foods and food-related cues are processed by the corticolimbic reward circuits. The mesolimbic dopamine system encodes subjective "liking" and "wanting" of palatable foods, which is subjected to modulation by the hindbrain and the hypothalamic homeostatic circuits and by satiety and adiposity hormones. Satiety and adiposity hormones also promote energy expenditure by stimulating brown adipose tissue (BAT) activity. They stimulate BAT thermogenesis mainly by increasing the sympathetic outflow to BAT. Many defects in satiety and/or adiposity hormone signaling and in the hindbrain and the hypothalamic circuits have been described and are believed to contribute to the pathogenesis of energy imbalance and obesity.

  10. Pharmacological stimulation of brain carnitine palmitoyl-transferase-1 decreases food intake and body weight.

    PubMed

    Aja, Susan; Landree, Leslie E; Kleman, Amy M; Medghalchi, Susan M; Vadlamudi, Aravinda; McFadden, Jill M; Aplasca, Andrea; Hyun, Jayson; Plummer, Erica; Daniels, Khadija; Kemm, Matthew; Townsend, Craig A; Thupari, Jagan N; Kuhajda, Francis P; Moran, Timothy H; Ronnett, Gabriele V

    2008-02-01

    Inhibition of brain carnitine palmitoyl-transferase-1 (CPT-1) is reported to decrease food intake and body weight in rats. Yet, the fatty acid synthase (FAS) inhibitor and CPT-1 stimulator C75 produces hypophagia and weight loss when given to rodents intracerebroventricularly (icv). Thus roles and relative contributions of altered brain CPT-1 activity and fatty acid oxidation in these phenomena remain unclarified. We administered compounds that target FAS or CPT-1 to mice by single icv bolus and examined acute and prolonged effects on feeding and body weight. C75 decreased food intake rapidly and potently at all doses (1-56 nmol) and dose dependently inhibited intake on day 1. Dose-dependent weight loss on day 1 persisted through 4 days of postinjection monitoring. The FAS inhibitor cerulenin produced dose-dependent (560 nmol) hypophagia for 1 day, weight loss for 2 days, and weight regain to vehicle control by day 3. The CPT-1 inhibitor etomoxir (32, 320 nmol) did not alter overall day 1 feeding. However, etomoxir attenuated the hypophagia produced by C75, indicating that CPT-1 stimulation is important for C75's effect. A novel compound, C89b, was characterized in vitro as a selective stimulator of CPT-1 that does not affect fatty acid synthesis. C89b (100, 320 nmol) decreased feeding in mice for 3 days and produced persistent weight loss for 6 days without producing conditioned taste aversion. Similarly, intraperitoneal administration decreased feeding and body weight without producing conditioned taste aversion. These results suggest a role for brain CPT-1 in the regulation of energy balance and implicate CPT-1 stimulation as a pharmacological approach to weight loss.

  11. Sugar intake and body weight in Cambodian and Japanese children.

    PubMed

    Shikanai, Saiko; Koung Ry, Ly; Takeichi, Hitomi; Emiko, Suzuki; San, Pann; Sarukura, Nobuko; Kamoshita, Sumiko; Yamamoto, Shigeru

    2014-01-01

    Because of the tastiness of sugars, it is easy to consume more than an adequate amount. There are many research reports that excess sugar intake contributes to dental decay, obesity, diabetes etc. Continuing economic development in Cambodia has made it easier than before for people to consume sugars in their daily life. Currently, isomerized sugar (a mixture of glucose and fructose) made from starches is commonly used in commercial beverages because of its low price. However, in Cambodia and Japan, sugar composition tables that include not only sucrose but also glucose, fructose, lactose and maltose have not been available. Prior to the present nutrition surveys, we made sugar composition tables for both countries. In this study we tried to estimate the intakes of various sugars by children in Cambodia and Japan and to determine the relationship between intake and body weight. Nutrition surveys of children aged 7, 10 and 13 years old were conducted for 3 nonconsecutive days by the 24 h recall method in 89 Cambodian children living in the capital city of Cambodia, Phnom Penh, and 151 Japanese children living in 3 prefectures from north to south. Height and weight of children in Cambodia and Japan were similar until 10 years old but at 13 years old, the Cambodians were shorter and lighter than the Japanese. We could not observe any differences in BMI in either country. The sugar intakes from beverages and snacks were not different among the different gender and age. Thus we combined the mean total sugar intake for Cambodian and Japanese, 28.42 ± 25.28 g and 25.69 ± 16.16 g respectively. These were within the range of WHO recommendations (less than 10% of energy intakes). Cambodian children consumed about 46% of sugars from commercial beverages and snacks and Japanese children 26%. This means that for Cambodians half of the sugars came from isomerized sugar made from starches. Relationships between sugar intake and body weight were not observed in both countries. In

  12. PET imaging predicts future body weight and cocaine preference

    SciTech Connect

    Michaelides M.; Wang G.; Michaelides M.; Thanos P.K. Kim R.; Cho J.; Ananth M.; Wang G.-J.; Volkow N.D.

    2011-08-28

    Deficits in dopamine D2/D3 receptor (D2R/D3R) binding availability using PET imaging have been reported in obese humans and rodents. Similar deficits have been reported in cocaine-addicts and cocaine-exposed primates. We found that D2R/D3R binding availability negatively correlated with measures of body weight at the time of scan (ventral striatum), at 1 (ventral striatum) and 2 months (dorsal and ventral striatum) post scan in rats. Cocaine preference was negatively correlated with D2R/D3R binding availability 2 months (ventral striatum) post scan. Our findings suggest that inherent deficits in striatal D2R/D3R signaling are related to obesity and drug addiction susceptibility and that ventral and dorsal striatum serve dissociable roles in maintaining weight gain and cocaine preference. Measuring D2R/D3R binding availability provides a way for assessing susceptibility to weight gain and cocaine abuse in rodents and given the translational nature of PET imaging, potentially primates and humans.

  13. [Promoting sustainable behavior change in body weight control].

    PubMed

    Camolas, José; Santos, Osvaldo; Moreira, Pedro; do Carmo, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    There is a wide acknowledgement of obesity as a relevant clinical entity. Such relevance can be inferred by the huge worldwide amount of research and related health promotion and clinical efforts. Though the evidence sustains some cues for the therapeutic success, the overall long-term effectiveness of obesity treatment tends to be not so satisfactory. Scientific literature is not unequivocal in key areas of nutritional intervention, such as the magnitude of caloric restriction, proportion of macronutrients, meal frequency, among others. The same applies to the area of physical activity recommendation for weight control. As a correlate of this scenario of incertitude, there is a proliferation of interventions and there is a clear need to integrate the scientific and clinical evidence. This paper presents a narrative literature review of key issues of clinical practice in obesity, regarding a set of actions that, in the overall, have as main purpose the promotion of reduction and/or control of body weight. The role of the health professional is highlighted as a facilitator of acquisition of habits that favor weight control, by integrating the professional's scientific knowledge with the patient's readiness for and capacity to change.

  14. [Analysis of systematic environmental and genetic effects on body weight and body measurements in German shepherd dogs].

    PubMed

    Dammann, Melanie; Hamann, Henning; Stock, Kathrin Friederike; Distl, Ottmar

    2009-01-01

    In dog breeding permission for breeding is only given when the body measurements of the dog are within the lower and upper limits which are defined in the breed standard. Therefore, the objective of this study was to analyse the systematic and genetic effects on body weight and body measurements recorded at licensing in German shepherd dogs (GSD) over a period of 10 years. The data included withers and chest height, chest circumference and body weight from 36,028 breeding dogs born between 1992 and 2003. Birth year, month of birth and region were significant for the traits analysed. Age at breeding approval was significant for the body measurements withers height and chest height and only significant for male dogs for chest circumference. Inbreeding coefficient was significant as a nonlinear covariate for withers and chest height. The genetic parameters were estimated in linear animal models using residual maximum likelihood (REML) and the relationship matrix of 53,429 dogs. Uni- and bivariate analyses were performed for both sexes together and separately for males and females. Heritability estimates for both sexes together were 0.41 +/- 0.01 for withers height and 0.27 +/- 0.01 for body weight. For the other traits studied, heritability estimates were lower with values of 0.20 +/- 0.01 for chest height and 0.13 +/- 0.01 for chest circumference. In the separate analyses for male and female dogs, heritability estimates were higher for females. Additive genetic correlations were at 0.91 to 0.98 between corresponding traits in males and females. The high genetic correlations indicate that selection for conformation traits equally affects both sexes and does not increase sexual dimorphism in dogs.

  15. Influence of maternal pregravid weight, height and body mass index on birth weight of male and female newborns.

    PubMed

    Miletić, Tomislav; Stoini, Eugenio

    2005-06-01

    The study included 2300 healthy couples and their healthy newborns delivered vaginally from singleton, normal term (37-42 weeks) pregnancies in Sibenik, Zadar and Split (Croatia). Both fathers and mothers of male newborns were older and had a higher weight than those of female newborns (p < 0.05). Gestational age and birth weight were higher in male than female newborns (p < 0.001). Increasing maternal pregravid weight led to increasing birth weight of both male and female newborns (p < 0.001). Furthermore, increasing maternal height and body mass index resulted in increasing birth weight of male and female newborns (p < 0.001). Thus, the fathers and mothers of male infants were older than those of female infants (p < 0.05), and increasing pre-gravid body weight, body height and body mass index were associated with a higher birth weight in both male and female newborns.

  16. Effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists on body weight: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Monami, Matteo; Dicembrini, Ilaria; Marchionni, Niccolò; Rotella, Carlo M; Mannucci, Edoardo

    2012-01-01

    Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs), approved as glucose-lowering drugs for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, have also been shown to reduce body weight. An extensive Medline, Cochrane database, and Embase search for "exenatide," "liraglutide," "albiglutide," "semaglutide," and "lixisenatide" was performed, collecting all randomized clinical trials on humans up to December 15, 2011, with a duration of at least 24 weeks, comparing GLP-1 receptor agonists with either placebo or active drugs. Twenty two (7,859 patients) and 7 (2,416 patients) trials with available results on body weight at 6 and 12 months, respectively, were included. When compared with placebo, GLP-1RAs determine a reduction of BMI at 6 months of -1.0 [-1.3; -0.6] kg/m(2). Considering the average BMI at baseline (32.4 kg/m(2)) these data means a weight reduction of about 3% at 6 months. This result could seem modest from a clinical standpoint; however, it could be affected by many factors contributing to an underestimation of the effect of GLP-1RA on body weight, such as non adequate doses, inclusion criteria, efficacy of GLP-1RA on reducing glycosuria, and association to non-pharmacological interventions not specifically aimed to weight reduction.

  17. Effects of Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonists on Body Weight: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Monami, Matteo; Dicembrini, Ilaria; Marchionni, Niccolò; Rotella, Carlo M.; Mannucci, Edoardo

    2012-01-01

    Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs), approved as glucose-lowering drugs for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, have also been shown to reduce body weight. An extensive Medline, Cochrane database, and Embase search for “exenatide,” “liraglutide,” “albiglutide,” “semaglutide,” and “lixisenatide” was performed, collecting all randomized clinical trials on humans up to December 15, 2011, with a duration of at least 24 weeks, comparing GLP-1 receptor agonists with either placebo or active drugs. Twenty two (7,859 patients) and 7 (2,416 patients) trials with available results on body weight at 6 and 12 months, respectively, were included. When compared with placebo, GLP-1RAs determine a reduction of BMI at 6 months of −1.0 [−1.3; −0.6] kg/m2. Considering the average BMI at baseline (32.4 kg/m2) these data means a weight reduction of about 3% at 6 months. This result could seem modest from a clinical standpoint; however, it could be affected by many factors contributing to an underestimation of the effect of GLP-1RA on body weight, such as non adequate doses, inclusion criteria, efficacy of GLP-1RA on reducing glycosuria, and association to non-pharmacological interventions not specifically aimed to weight reduction. PMID:22675341

  18. Effect of habitual aerobic exercise on body weight and arterial function in overweight and obese men.

    PubMed

    Miyaki, Asako; Maeda, Seiji; Yoshizawa, Mutsuko; Misono, Maiko; Saito, Yoko; Sasai, Hiroyuki; Kim, Maeng-Kyu; Nakata, Yoshio; Tanaka, Kiyoji; Ajisaka, Ryuichi

    2009-09-15

    The effect of habitual exercise on vascular function, including central arterial distensibility and endothelial function, in obese subjects has not yet been clarified. We investigated whether aerobic exercise training affects central arterial distensibility and endothelial function in middle-age overweight and obese men. A total of 21 overweight and obese men (age 50 +/- 2 years, body mass index 30 +/- 1 kg/m(2)) completed a 12-week aerobic exercise intervention. Aerobic exercise training significantly reduced their body weight and resulted in a significant decrease in body mass index. After the weight-reduction exercise program, carotid arterial compliance (determined by simultaneous B-mode ultrasonography and arterial applanation tonometry on the common carotid artery) significantly increased; and the beta-stiffness index, an index of arterial compliance adjusted for distending pressure, significantly decreased. The concentrations of plasma endothelin-1, a potent vasoconstrictor peptide produced by vascular endothelial cells, significantly decreased and plasma nitric oxide (measured as the stable end product [nitrite/nitrate]), a potent vasodilator produced by vascular endothelial cells, significantly increased after the weight-reduction exercise program. In conclusion, weight reduction by aerobic exercise training in overweight and obese men increased the central arterial distensibility. This increase might contribute to the improvement in endothelial function, as assessed by a decrease in endothelin-1 and an increase in nitric oxide, after exercise training-induced weight loss.

  19. Calorie Estimation in Adults Differing in Body Weight Class and Weight Loss Status

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Ruth E; Canning, Karissa L; Fung, Michael; Jiandani, Dishay; Riddell, Michael C; Macpherson, Alison K; Kuk, Jennifer L

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Ability to accurately estimate calories is important for weight management, yet few studies have investigated whether individuals can accurately estimate calories during exercise, or in a meal. The objective of this study was to determine if accuracy of estimation of moderate or vigorous exercise energy expenditure and calories in food is associated with body weight class or weight loss status. Methods Fifty-eight adults who were either normal weight (NW) or overweight (OW), and either attempting (WL) or not attempting weight loss (noWL), exercised on a treadmill at a moderate (60% HRmax) and a vigorous intensity (75% HRmax) for 25 minutes. Subsequently, participants estimated the number of calories they expended through exercise, and created a meal that they believed to be calorically equivalent to the exercise energy expenditure. Results The mean difference between estimated and measured calories in exercise and food did not differ within or between groups following moderate exercise. Following vigorous exercise, OW-noWL overestimated energy expenditure by 72%, and overestimated the calories in their food by 37% (P<0.05). OW-noWL also significantly overestimated exercise energy expenditure compared to all other groups (P<0.05), and significantly overestimated calories in food compared to both WL groups (P<0.05). However, among all groups there was a considerable range of over and underestimation (−280 kcal to +702 kcal), as reflected by the large and statistically significant absolute error in calorie estimation of exercise and food. Conclusion There was a wide range of under and overestimation of calories during exercise and in a meal. Error in calorie estimation may be greater in overweight adults who are not attempting weight loss. PMID:26469988

  20. Holding fat stereotypes is associated with lower body dissatisfaction in normal weight Caucasian women who engage in body surveillance.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jean; Jarry, Josée L

    2014-09-01

    This study examined the moderating effect of body surveillance on the relationship between fat stereotype endorsement and body dissatisfaction in normal weight women. Participants (N=225) completed online measures of fat stereotyping, body surveillance, body dissatisfaction, and internalized thin ideals. After accounting for thin ideals, body surveillance moderated the relationship between fat stereotypes and body dissatisfaction. Contrary to hypotheses, higher fat stereotype endorsement predicted lower body dissatisfaction in women with higher body surveillance. Conversely, higher fat stereotype endorsement predicted greater body dissatisfaction in women with lower body surveillance. Thus, endorsing fat stereotypes appears protective against body dissatisfaction in normal weight women who extensively engage in body surveillance. For women who hold fat stereotypes and report high body surveillance, we propose that downward appearance comparison may create a contrast between themselves and the people with overweight whom they denigrate, thus improving body dissatisfaction.

  1. Effect of Map-vaccination in ewes on body condition score, weight and Map-shedding.

    PubMed

    Hüttner, Klim; Krämer, Ulla; Kleist, Petra

    2012-01-01

    Vaccination against Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map) in sheep receives growing attention worldwide, particularly in countries with national Map control strategies. A field study was conducted, investigating the effect of GUDAIR on body condition, weight and Map-shedding in a professionally managed but largely Map-affected suffolk flock prior and after vaccination. For this, 80 ewes out of 1000 animals were randomly sampled. In the univariate analysis body condition scores of ewes twelve months after vaccination improved significantly compared to those sampled prior to vaccination. At the same time the rate of ewes shedding Map was reduced by 37%.

  2. Body weight, diet and water intake in preventing stone disease.

    PubMed

    Meschi, Tiziana; Schianchi, Tania; Ridolo, Erminia; Adorni, Giuditta; Allegri, Franca; Guerra, Angela; Novarini, Almerico; Borghi, Loris

    2004-01-01

    Nutrition plays a major role in the pathogenesis of the most widespread forms of nephrolithiasis, i.e. calcium (calcium oxalate and phosphate) and uric acid stone disease. For this reason, dietary measures are the first level of intervention in primary prevention, as well as in secondary prevention of recurrences. An unbalanced diet or particular sensitivity to various foods in stone formers can lead to urinary alterations such as hypercalciuria, hyperoxaluria, hyperuricosuria, hypocitraturia and an excessively acid urinary pH. Over the course of time, these conditions contribute to the formation or recurrence of kidney stones, due to the effect they exert on the lithogenous salt profile. The fundamental aspects of the nutritional approach to the treatment of idiopathic nephrolithiasis are body weight, diet and water intake. This paper will present data resulting from our own investigations and the most significant evidence in literature.

  3. Evaluation of body weight, body mass index, and body fat percentage changes in early stages of fixed orthodontic therapy

    PubMed Central

    Sandeep, K. Sai; Singaraju, Gowri Sankar; Reddy, V. Karunakar; Mandava, Prasad; Bhavikati, Venkata N.; Reddy, Rohit

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the changes in body weight, body mass index (BMI), and body fat percentage (BFP) during the initial stages of fixed orthodontic treatment. Materials and Methods: The sample for this observational prospective study included 68 individuals with fixed orthodontic appliance in the age group of 18–25 years of both the sexes (25 males and 43 females). The control group consisted of 60 individuals (24 males and 36 females). The weight, BMI, and BFP were measured using a Body Composition Monitor at three points of time “T1” initial; “T2” after 1 month; and “T2” after 3 months. The results were tabulated and analyzed with the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software. The mean changes between different parameters in both the study and control groups and between males and females in the study group was compared by using two-tailed unpaired student's t-test. The statistical significance is set atP ≤ 0.05. Results: There was an overall decrease in the body weight, BMI, and BFP after 1 month in the study cohort, which was statistically significant compared to the control group (P < 0.0001). This was followed by an increase in the parameters after the end of the 3rd month. Comparison of the parameters between the study and control group at the start of the treatment and at the end of the 3rd month had no statistical significance. There was a marked variation in the changes of these parameters between males and females of the study group, which is statistically significant (<0.0001). Conclusion: There is a definite reduction in the weight, BMP, and BMI at the end of the first month followed by a gain of weight, but not at the initial point by the end of the 3rd month. PMID:27583224

  4. Methods for determining healthy body weight in end stage renal disease.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Kathy Schiro

    2006-07-01

    Several formulas for calculating desirable body weight are used in chronic kidney failure patients. Ideal body weight (IBW) derived from Metropolitan Life Insurance tables has been available since the 1950s. The Hamwi formula was proposed in the 1960s as a simple tool for quickly estimating desirable body weight, especially in people with diabetes. Since the 1970s, National Health and Nutrition Evaluation Surveys I, II, and III have provided an in-depth evaluation of the average body weights of Americans. These standard body weights (SBW) are often interpreted to be normal and healthy weight goals. Body mass index (BMI) has also been studied for decades and is used internationally as the standard for determining healthy weight, especially in relationship to obesity. These 4 methods are discussed and compared along with a brief review of the history of using the adjusted body weight (ABW) formulas, followed by recommendations for clinical practice.

  5. Mind/Body Connection: How Your Emotions Affect Your Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... body. Relaxation methods, such as meditation, listening to music, listening to guided imagery CD's or mp3's, yoga, ... Article >>Mental HealthPostpartum Depression (PPD)Postpartum depression affects women after childbirth. It includes feelings of sadness, loneliness, ...

  6. Association between socioeconomic status, weight, age and gender, and the body image and weight control practices of 6- to 19-year-old children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    O'Dea, J A; Caputi, P

    2001-10-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the effect of socioeconomic status (SES), age, weight and gender on the body image and weight control practices of children and adolescents, and to investigate whether health education about weight issues should target low socioeconomic groups. The study participants were a randomly selected group of school children who completed a questionnaire, and had their height and weight measured. Participants (n = 1131) were aged 6-19 years from 12 schools in New South Wales. SES, age, gender, body weight, body image, skipping breakfast, physical self-esteem, attempts to lose or gain weight, and dietary and weight control advice received from others were examined. Log-linear, chi 2 and MANOVA analyses were used to determine interactions between variables. Low SES children were more likely to be overweight, to skip breakfast, to perceive themselves as 'too thin', to be trying to gain weight and less likely to receive dietary or weight control advice. Physical self-esteem was lowest among overweight girls of middle/upper SES and greatest among boys of low SES, despite the latter being more likely to be overweight. Being overweight does not appear to adversely affect the physical self-esteem of children of low SES, particularly boys. Health educators should examine these issues with young people to help make health education and nutrition education most relevant and appropriate.

  7. The Affective Consequences of Minimizing Women's Body Image Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosson, Jennifer K.; Pinel, Elizabeth C.; Thompson, J. Kevin

    2008-01-01

    We propose that women regularly anticipate and receive messages from others that trivialize the severity of their body image concerns. Moreover, we suggest that these minimizing messages can heighten women's negative affective reactions to body image threats, particularly if they internalize them. Two studies provided support for these ideas. In…

  8. Positive fantasies or negative contrasts: the effect of media body ideals on restrained eaters' mood, weight satisfaction, and food intake.

    PubMed

    Boyce, Jessica A; Kuijer, Roeline G; Gleaves, David H

    2013-09-01

    Although viewing media body ideals promotes body dissatisfaction and problematic eating among women (e.g., extreme restraint/overeating), some argue that women only report such negative effects because they think that they are meant to (i.e., demand characteristics). Because restrained eaters are trying to lose weight, they might be vulnerable to such media exposure. However, because of demand characteristics, evidence is mixed. Therefore, we minimized demand characteristics and explored whether media body ideals would trigger restrained eaters to report negative (negative mood, weight dissatisfaction) or positive (positive mood, weight satisfaction) effects. We also hypothesized that this change (negative or positive) would encourage food intake. Restrained and unrestrained eaters (n=107) memorized media or control images. Restrained eaters exposed to media images reported decreased weight satisfaction and increased negative mood, but their food intake was not significantly affected. Perhaps paying advertent attention to the images caused goal-related negative affect, which triggered restraint.

  9. Effects of obestatin on feeding and body weight after standard or cafeteria diet in the rat.

    PubMed

    Brunetti, Luigi; Leone, Sheila; Orlando, Giustino; Recinella, Lucia; Ferrante, Claudio; Chiavaroli, Annalisa; Di Nisio, Chiara; Di Michele, Pierpaolo; Vacca, Michele

    2009-07-01

    Obestatin is a gastric derived 23 amino acid peptide, which has shown anorectic effects in a number of experimental paradigms after both peripheral and central administration. On the other hand, several researchers were not able to confirm these data. Since all previous experiments have been performed in animals fed a standard laboratory diet, we studied obestatin effects in male Wistar rats fed both a standard laboratory chow (STD) diet (3.5% fat, 63% carbohydrate, 14% protein, 19.5% other components without caloric value; 3.20 kcal/g) and a highly palatable cafeteria-style (CAF) diet (30% fat, 56% carbohydrate, 14% protein; 4.20 kcal/g). Vehicle or obestatin (10, 50 or 100 nmol/kg) was injected intraperitoneally daily for 12 days. In STD diet rats, obestatin decreased daily caloric intake and body weight gain compared to vehicle treated rats. The anorectic and weight reducing effects of obestatin treatment were evidenced since day 6 and day 8 of treatment, respectively, and were consistent through the end of treatment. On the other hand, in CAF diet rats, obestatin treatment did not modify either daily caloric intake or body weight gain. In CAF diet rats, the percentage intake from standard food was decreased, balanced by an increase in cafeteria food intake. Obestatin treatment affected neither water consumption nor the intake of any specific food within the cafeteria diet. In conclusion, obestatin decreases caloric intake and body weight gain, but only in rats fed a STD diet.

  10. Effect of swimming activity on relative weight and body composition of juvenile rainbow trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simpkins, D.G.; Hubert, W.A.; Del Rio, C.M.; Rule, D.C.

    2003-01-01

    Fisheries managers often assess body condition using relative weight (Wr) because it provides a comparative measure of fish plumpness among individuals and populations. However, it is not known whether the morphological information that Wr summarizes reflects physiological measures, such as relative lipid reserves, in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. The purpose of this study was to determine whether swimming activity affects either the Wr or proximate body composition of juvenile (total length, 170-260 mm) rainbow trout. When rainbow trout from a hatchery were fed ad libitum for 147 d, inactive (no current) and active (15 cm/s current velocity) fish did not differ in Wr However, inactive rainbow trout maintained relatively constant lipid levels, whereas active fish declined in lipid content. Relative weight may provide a comparable measure of body form, but it is not an accurate index of lipid content between active and inactive rainbow trout fed an excess ration. For assessing the physiological condition of rainbow trout, measurement of proximate body composition appears to be more accurate than indices based on length and weight.

  11. A dynamical model for describing behavioural interventions for weight loss and body composition change.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Barrientos, J-Emeterio; Rivera, Daniel E; Collins, Linda M

    2011-01-12

    We present a dynamical model incorporating both physiological and psychological factors that predicts changes in body mass and composition during the course of a behavioral intervention for weight loss. The model consists of a three-compartment energy balance integrated with a mechanistic psychological model inspired by the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). The latter describes how important variables in a behavioural intervention can influence healthy eating habits and increased physical activity over time. The novelty of the approach lies in representing the behavioural intervention as a dynamical system, and the integration of the psychological and energy balance models. Two simulation scenarios are presented that illustrate how the model can improve the understanding of how changes in intervention components and participant differences affect outcomes. Consequently, the model can be used to inform behavioural scientists in the design of optimised interventions for weight loss and body composition change.

  12. Restricted selection index in mice designed to change body fat without changing body weight: correlated responses.

    PubMed

    Eisen, E J

    1992-07-01

    Correlated responses were studied in lines of mice selected for eight generations based on the criterion of a restricted selection index. Two replicate lines were selected in each treatment as follows: HE, high epididymal fat pad weight (EF) with zero change in body weight (BW) at 12 weeks of age; LE; low EF with zero change in BW; and RS, randomly. Correlated responses showed considerable variation between replicates, suggesting that genetic drift was important. Further, correlated responses for most traits were relatively small, probably because of low selection intensity. The HE line responded as expected in component traits of the restricted index. Associated compositional traits in HE responded as predicted since traits correlated with adiposity increased and hind carcass weight did not change significantly. Feed intake increased and feed efficiency (weight gain/feed intake) decreased in HE, as predicted. In contrast, the LE line did not respond in component traits as predicted since EF did not decrease and BW increased. Consequently, LE exhibited little change in traits associated with adiposity, but hind carcass weight, feed intake and feed efficiency increased. Of the correlated responses scored for fitness traits (littering rate, number of days from pairing of mate to littering, litter size and preweaning pup survival rate), significant effects were found for decreased littering rate in LE and increased prenatal survival rate in HE. In summary, correlated responses to restricted index selection generally agreed with expectation when responses in component traits of the index were considered.

  13. Relationship between body satisfaction with self esteemand unhealthy body weight management

    PubMed Central

    Daniali, Shahrbanoo; Azadbakht, Leila; Mostafavi, Firoozeh

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: A favorable or unfavorable attitude about self was named self esteem. According to Maslow theory to achieve quality of life and happiness, one must reach the gradual fulfillment of human needs, including a high degree of own self-esteem. Body dissatisfaction is a negative distortion of one's body which is especially mentioned by the women. Many studies have shown links between self esteem, body dissatisfaction, health and behaviors. this study intends to determine relationship between body satisfaction, self esteem and unhealthy weight control behaviors between women. Methods: This cross-sectional study was done on 408 women employees in Isfahan University and Isfahan University of Medical Sciences during 1390. They were chosen according to the stratified random sampling method. Inclusion criteria were 1) willing to participate in the study and 2) lack of serious physical defect 3) not being in pregnancy or breastfeeding course. Exclusion criteria was filling out questionnaires incompletely. Data collection tool was a multidimensional questionnaire which comprised of 4 sections as following: demographic (5items), A self-administrative questionnaire for body Satisfaction (7 items), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (10 items) and a standard Weight Control Behavior Scale (18 items). Cranach's alpha was 0.9 or higher for the different sections. Finally, collected data was analyzed with SPSS18 using the independent T-test, one-way ANOVA, Pearson correlation coefficient, regression, Spearman correlation. Results: Frequencies of participants by weight category were 14.1% for obese, 35.3% for overweight, 47.6% for normal weight. The mean body satisfaction score in the studied women was 63.26 ± 16.27 (from 100). Mean score of self esteem was 76.70 ± 10.45. 51.5% of women had medium self esteem, 47.5% had high self esteem. Pearson correlation showed that the variables of body Satisfaction (r = 0.3, P = 0.02), BMI (r = - 0.14, P < 0.003), education level (r = 0

  14. Nutrigenomics of body weight regulation: a rationale for careful dissection of individual contributors.

    PubMed

    Keijer, Jaap; Hoevenaars, Femke P M; Nieuwenhuizen, Arie; van Schothorst, Evert M

    2014-10-21

    Body weight stability may imply active regulation towards a certain physiological condition, a body weight setpoint. This interpretation is ill at odds with the world-wide increase in overweight and obesity. Until now, a body weight setpoint has remained elusive and the setpoint theory did not provide practical clues for body weight reduction interventions. For this an alternative theoretical model is necessary, which is available as the settling point model. The settling point model postulates that there is little active regulation towards a predefined body weight, but that body weight settles based on the resultant of a number of contributors, represented by the individual's genetic predisposition, in interaction with environmental and socioeconomic factors, such as diet and lifestyle. This review refines the settling point model and argues that by taking body weight regulation from a settling point perspective, the road will be opened to careful dissection of the various contributors to establishment of body weight and its regulation. This is both necessary and useful. Nutrigenomic technologies may help to delineate contributors to body weight settling. Understanding how and to which extent the different contributors influence body weight will allow the design of weight loss and weight maintenance interventions, which hopefully are more successful than those that are currently available.

  15. Body weight divided by squared knee height as an alternative to body mass index.

    PubMed

    Kuwabara, Akiko; Ogawa-Shimokawa, Yoko; Tanaka, Kiyoshi

    2011-03-01

    Weight/height(2) (Quetelet's index) is the basis for defining both underweight and obesity. Height, however, is often not precisely measurable in the elderly due to involutional changes such as spinal deformity. Body volume or body surface area are not proportionately decreased even with height loss. Previous reports have shown that Quetelet's index is overestimated in the elderly with height loss. Then we have made a hypothesis described below. Maximal height or height at youth would better represent the subjects' nutritional or clinical status. The distinction of these two heights has not been mentioned before. There have been many publications showing the equations to estimate height from the surrogate parameter(s) such as knee height (KH). Most equations published so far are expressed as estimated height=a + b × KH-c × age, where a, b, and c are constants. Negative correction by age is unexceptionally far greater in women than in men. Apparently, previous researchers have estimated current height by their equations. Maximal height cannot be measurable. It, however, is unaffected by age by its definition. Therefore, maximal height does not have to be corrected by age, and would be almost proportional to KH. Then weight/KH(2) could be a better alternative to the most commonly used weight-height ratio; weight/height(2); the Quetelet's index. Height is the basis for various clinically important indices such as body surface area (BSA) and energy requirement. Employing current height could lead to the underestimation of BSA or energy requirement in the elderly with height loss. Our hypothesis described here would yield a novel and better indices for the clinical assessment of the elderly.

  16. Cockcroft-Gault formula is biased by body weight in diabetic patients with renal impairment.

    PubMed

    Rigalleau, Vincent; Lasseur, Catherine; Perlemoine, Caroline; Barthe, Nicole; Raffaitin, Christelle; Chauveau, Philippe; Combe, Christian; Gin, Henri

    2006-01-01

    The Cockcroft-Gault (CG) formula and the modification of diet in renal disease (MDRD) equation are commonly used to estimate glomerular filtration rate (GFR), but their validity at extreme body weight is questionable. This may be significant for diabetic patients. In 122 diabetic patients with renal damage, we compared both estimates to isotopically determined GFR by correlation studies and a Bland and Altman procedure before and after categorizing the patients according to body mass index (BMI). Over the whole population, the CG overestimated GFR (CG, 51.4 +/- 23.1 mL/[min . 1.73 m2]; isotopic GFR, 44.6 +/- 21.1 mL/[min . 1.73 m2], P < .0001). The MDRD (45.2 +/- 17.9; NS vs isotopic GFR) did not overestimate GFR, but it underestimated high GFR as revealed by the Bland and Altman procedure (r = -0.26, P < .005). The CG underestimated GFR in patients with normal BMI (-14%, P < .01) and overestimated it in overweight (15%, P < .005) and obese patients (55%, P < .0001); the result and the error of the estimation were correlated with BMI. This bias did not affect the MDRD. The use of ideal instead of measured body weight improved the CG prediction, but underestimated GFR. As the BMI of the 87 type 2 diabetic subjects was higher, the CG overestimated their mean GFR by 18% (P < .001), whereas the MDRD did not. There were 25% fewer patients with delayed referral using the MDRD than with the CG. Because the estimate of GFR by the CG is proportional to body weight, it is not suited for obese diabetic patients. Although it is less easy to calculate, the MDRD is not affected by weight, and its use would avoid delay in referral to nephrologists.

  17. Effects of Changing Body Weight Distribution on Mediolateral Stability Control during Gait Initiation

    PubMed Central

    Caderby, Teddy; Yiou, Eric; Peyrot, Nicolas; de Viviés, Xavier; Bonazzi, Bruno; Dalleau, Georges

    2017-01-01

    During gait initiation, anticipatory postural adjustments (APA) precede the execution of the first step. It is generally acknowledged that these APA contribute to forward progression but also serve to stabilize the whole body in the mediolateral direction during step execution. Although previous studies have shown that changes in the distribution of body weight between both legs influence motor performance during gait initiation, it is not known whether and how such changes affect a person’s postural stability during this task. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of changing initial body weight distribution between legs on mediolateral postural stability during gait initiation. Changes in body weight distribution were induced under experimental conditions by modifying the frontal plane distribution of an external load located at the participants’ waists. Fifteen healthy adults performed a gait initiation series at a similar speed under three conditions: with the overload evenly distributed over both legs; with the overload strictly distributed over the swing-limb side; and with the overload strictly distributed over the stance-leg side. Our results showed that the mediolateral location of center-of-mass (CoM) during the initial upright posture differed between the experimental conditions, indicating modifications in the initial distribution of body weight between the legs according to the load distribution. While the parameters related to the forward progression remained unchanged, the alterations in body weight distribution elicited adaptive changes in the amplitude of APA in the mediolateral direction (i.e., maximal mediolateral shift of the center of pressure (CoP)), without variation in their duration. Specifically, it was observed that the amplitude of APA was modulated in such a way that mediolateral dynamic stability at swing foot-contact, quantified by the margin of stability (i.e., the distance between the base of support boundary and

  18. Body mass index, gestational weight gain and fatty acid concentrations during pregnancy: the Generation R Study.

    PubMed

    Vidakovic, Aleksandra Jelena; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Gishti, Olta; Felix, Janine F; Williams, Michelle A; Hofman, Albert; Demmelmair, Hans; Koletzko, Berthold; Tiemeier, Henning; Gaillard, Romy

    2015-11-01

    Obesity during pregnancy may be correlated with an adverse nutritional status affecting pregnancy and offspring outcomes. We examined the associations of prepregnancy body mass index and gestational weight gain with plasma fatty acid concentrations in mid-pregnancy. This study was embedded in a population-based prospective cohort study among 5636 women. We obtained prepregnancy body mass index and maximum weight gain during pregnancy by questionnaires. We measured concentrations of saturated fatty acid (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA), n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-6 PUFA) at a median gestational age of 20.5 (95% range 17.1-24.9) weeks. We used multivariate linear regression models. As compared to normal weight women, obese women had higher total SFA concentrations [difference: 0.10 standard deviation (SD) (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0, 0.19)] and lower total n-3 PUFA concentrations [difference: - 0.11 SD (95% CI - 0.20, - 0.02)]. As compared to women with sufficient gestational weight gain, those with excessive gestational weight gain had higher SFA concentrations [difference: 0.16 SD (95% CI 0.08, 0.25)], MUFA concentrations [difference: 0.16 SD (95% CI 0.08, 0.24)] and n-6 PUFA concentrations [difference: 0.12 SD (95% CI 0.04, 0.21)]. These results were not materially affected by adjustment for maternal characteristics. Our results suggest that obesity and excessive weight gain during pregnancy are associated with an adverse fatty acids profile. Further studies are needed to assess causality and direction of the observed associations.

  19. The Effect of Medical Marijuana Laws on Body Weight.

    PubMed

    Sabia, Joseph J; Swigert, Jeffrey; Young, Timothy

    2017-01-01

    This study is the first to examine the effects of medical marijuana laws (MMLs) on body weight, physical wellness, and exercise. Using data from the 1990 to 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and a difference-in-difference approach, we find that the enforcement of MMLs is associated with a 2% to 6% decline in the probability of obesity. We find some evidence of age-specific heterogeneity in mechanisms. For older individuals, MML-induced increases in physical mobility may be a relatively important channel, while for younger individuals, a reduction in consumption of alcohol, a substitute for marijuana, appears more important. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that MMLs may be more likely to induce marijuana use for health-related reasons among older individuals, and cause substitution toward lower-calorie recreational 'highs' among younger individuals. Our estimates suggest that MMLs induce a $58 to $115 per-person annual reduction in obesity-related medical costs. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Spinal cord injury affects the interplay between visual and sensorimotor representations of the body

    PubMed Central

    Ionta, Silvio; Villiger, Michael; Jutzeler, Catherine R; Freund, Patrick; Curt, Armin; Gassert, Roger

    2016-01-01

    The brain integrates multiple sensory inputs, including somatosensory and visual inputs, to produce a representation of the body. Spinal cord injury (SCI) interrupts the communication between brain and body and the effects of this deafferentation on body representation are poorly understood. We investigated whether the relative weight of somatosensory and visual frames of reference for body representation is altered in individuals with incomplete or complete SCI (affecting lower limbs’ somatosensation), with respect to controls. To study the influence of afferent somatosensory information on body representation, participants verbally judged the laterality of rotated images of feet, hands, and whole-bodies (mental rotation task) in two different postures (participants’ body parts were hidden from view). We found that (i) complete SCI disrupts the influence of postural changes on the representation of the deafferented body parts (feet, but not hands) and (ii) regardless of posture, whole-body representation progressively deteriorates proportionally to SCI completeness. These results demonstrate that the cortical representation of the body is dynamic, responsive, and adaptable to contingent conditions, in that the role of somatosensation is altered and partially compensated with a change in the relative weight of somatosensory versus visual bodily representations. PMID:26842303

  1. Spinal cord injury affects the interplay between visual and sensorimotor representations of the body.

    PubMed

    Ionta, Silvio; Villiger, Michael; Jutzeler, Catherine R; Freund, Patrick; Curt, Armin; Gassert, Roger

    2016-02-04

    The brain integrates multiple sensory inputs, including somatosensory and visual inputs, to produce a representation of the body. Spinal cord injury (SCI) interrupts the communication between brain and body and the effects of this deafferentation on body representation are poorly understood. We investigated whether the relative weight of somatosensory and visual frames of reference for body representation is altered in individuals with incomplete or complete SCI (affecting lower limbs' somatosensation), with respect to controls. To study the influence of afferent somatosensory information on body representation, participants verbally judged the laterality of rotated images of feet, hands, and whole-bodies (mental rotation task) in two different postures (participants' body parts were hidden from view). We found that (i) complete SCI disrupts the influence of postural changes on the representation of the deafferented body parts (feet, but not hands) and (ii) regardless of posture, whole-body representation progressively deteriorates proportionally to SCI completeness. These results demonstrate that the cortical representation of the body is dynamic, responsive, and adaptable to contingent conditions, in that the role of somatosensation is altered and partially compensated with a change in the relative weight of somatosensory versus visual bodily representations.

  2. Effects of the exposure to self- and other-referential bodies on state body image and negative affect in resistance-trained men.

    PubMed

    Cordes, Martin; Vocks, Silja; Düsing, Rainer; Waldorf, Manuel

    2017-03-09

    Previous body image research suggests that first, exposure to body stimuli can negatively affect men's body satisfaction and second, body concerns are associated with dysfunctional gaze behavior. To date, however, the effects of self- vs. other-referential body stimuli and of gaze behavior on body image in men under exposure conditions have not been investigated. Therefore, 49 weight-trained men were presented with pictures of their own and other bodies of different builds (i.e., normal, muscular, hyper-muscular) while being eye-tracked. Participants completed pre- and post-exposure measures of body image and affect. Results indicated that one's own and the muscular body negatively affected men's body image to a comparable degree. Exposure to one's own body also led to increased negative affect. Increased attention toward disliked own body parts was associated with a more negative post-exposure body image and affect. These results suggest a crucial role of critical self-examination in maintaining body dissatisfaction.

  3. Body weight and health-related quality of life in Catalonia, Spain.

    PubMed

    Oliva-Moreno, Juan; Gil-Lacruz, Ana

    2013-02-01

    Obesity poses important burdens not only on the individuals whose quality of life is reduced but on national welfare systems that have to face growing premature mortality rates, increase healthcare expenditures to treat obesity-related diseases, and earmark vast amounts of healthcare resources for prevention. The main goal of this paper is to analyze the relationship between excess body weight and different dimensions of health-related quality of life for people 16 years and older and to identify the health dimensions most affected by excess weight. We have drawn data from the Catalonia Health Survey (2006). Our results reveal a relationship between excess weight and health-related quality of life. Even after controlling for socio-economic status and objective health variables, excess weight is shown to have a significant negative effect on health-related quality of life. Subjects responses revealed that the negative effect of excess weight was felt the strongest in the health-related quality of life dimensions of mobility and pain/discomfort. Our results indicate there are important differences among gender and age groups. Women and older people are more likely to suffer from the negative consequences of excess weight.

  4. Effect of increasing dietary calcium through supplements and dairy food on body weight and body composition: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Booth, Alison O; Huggins, Catherine E; Wattanapenpaiboon, Naiyana; Nowson, Caryl A

    2015-10-14

    This meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials assessed the effect of Ca on body weight and body composition through supplementation or increasing dairy food intake. Forty-one studies met the inclusion criteria (including fifty-one trial arms; thirty-one with dairy foods (n 2091), twenty with Ca supplements (n 2711). Ca intake was approximately 900 mg/d higher in the supplement groups compared with control. In the dairy group, Ca intake was approximately 1300 mg/d. Ca supplementation did not significantly affect body weight (mean change ( - 0·17, 95% CI - 0·70, 0·37) kg) or body fat (mean change ( - 0·19, 95% CI - 0·51, 0·13) kg) compared to control. Similarly, increased dairy food intake did not affect body weight ( - 0·06, 95% CI - 0·54, 0·43) kg or body fat change ( - 0·36, 95% CI - 0·80, 0·09) kg compared to control. Sub-analyses revealed that dairy supplementation resulted in no change in body weight (nineteen studies, n 1010) ( - 0·32, 95% CI - 0·93, 0·30 kg, P= 0·31), but a greater reduction in body fat (thirteen studies, n 564) ( - 0·96, 95% CI - 1·46, - 0·46 kg, P < 0·001) in the presence of energy restriction over a mean of 4 months compared to control. Increasing dietary Ca intake by 900 mg/d as supplements or increasing dairy intake to approximately 3 servings daily (approximately 1300 mg of Ca/d) is not an effective weight reduction strategy in adults. There is, however, an indication that approximately 3 servings of dairy may facilitate fat loss on weight reduction diets in the short term.

  5. Perceiving the Black female body: Race and gender in police constructions of body weight.

    PubMed

    Kwate, Naa Oyo A; Threadcraft, Shatema

    2015-09-01

    Representations of Black women in United States popular culture and public discourse frequently depict them stereotypically as fat and in need of policing for moral failures. As well, research has shown that Black women are perceived and constructed as non-prototypical for their gender. Taken together, observers within a White dominant social frame could be said to have difficulty correctly seeing Black women's bodies and gender presentations. In this study we examined how Black women are seen in the context of New York City Police Department (NYPD) stops and searches (known as Stop & Frisk). We examined how officers categorized Black women's body weight; investigated whether stops took place in public or private space; and assessed the extent to which body weight brought additional sanctions (i.e., being frisked). We used publicly available datasets from the NYPD's Stop & Frisk program, in which stops numbering in the hundreds of thousands were recorded in yearly databases from 2003 to 2012. For each stop, officers record a number of attributes about the potential suspect and context, including race, gender, physique, date, and precinct. We conducted logistic regressions to model the odds of being categorized as heavy by race and gender, controlling for age, calculated BMI, location in a Black precinct, and season of the year. Results showed that across 10 years of data, Black women were more likely than White women to be labeled heavy. Black women were also much more likely than all other subgroups to be stopped inside rather than outside. Body size showed little association with stop locations or frisks. We interpret these findings as a reflection of Black women's positioning with regard to racial and gender representations and the disciplinary projects of the state.

  6. Perceiving the Black female body: Race and gender in police constructions of body weight

    PubMed Central

    Threadcraft, Shatema

    2015-01-01

    Representations of Black women in United States popular culture and public discourse frequently depict them stereotypically as fat and in need of policing for moral failures. As well, research has shown that Black women are perceived and constructed as non-prototypical for their gender. Taken together, observers within a White dominant social frame could be said to have difficulty correctly seeing Black women’s bodies and gender presentations. In this study we examined how Black women are seen in the context of New York City Police Department (NYPD) stops and searches (known as Stop & Frisk). We examined how officers categorized Black women’s body weight; investigated whether stops took place in public or private space; and assessed the extent to which body weight brought additional sanctions (i.e., being frisked). We used publicly available datasets from the NYPD’s Stop & Frisk program, in which stops numbering in the hundreds of thousands were recorded in yearly databases from 2003 to 2012. For each stop, officers record a number of attributes about the potential suspect and context, including race, gender, physique, date, and precinct. We conducted logistic regressions to model the odds of being categorized as heavy by race and gender, controlling for age, calculated BMI, location in a Black precinct, and season of the year. Results showed that across 10 years of data, Black women were more likely than White women to be labeled heavy. Black women were also much more likely than all other subgroups to be stopped inside rather than outside. Body size showed little association with stop locations or frisks. We interpret these findings as a reflection of Black women’s positioning with regard to racial and gender representations and the disciplinary projects of the state. PMID:26478750

  7. The Effect of Weight Reduction on Body Composition and Strength in High School Wrestlers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hejna, William F.; And Others

    A study assessed the relationship of weight reduction to the strength of various muscle groups in conjunction with a pre-season and in-season training and conditioning program. Twenty-nine high school wrestlers, with an average age of 16 years 4 months, significantly reduced their body weight. In the process, there were losses in lean body weight.…

  8. Shuttle-food consumption, body composition and body weight in women

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, Helen W.; Frye, Sherrie; Kloeris, Vickie; Rice, Barbara; Siconolfi, Steven F.; Spector, Elisabeth; Gretebeck, Randall J.

    1992-01-01

    An experiment is conducted to determine whether the NASA Space Shuttle food system can provide the food and fluid required to mitigate weight loss and physical decomposition in 12 female subjects for 28 days. Subjects receive only foods from the Space Shuttle system for four weeks within an 11-wk monitoring period. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry is employed throughout the trial period to study lean body mass, percent body fat, and energy-intake levels with attention given to differences the experimental diet and the subjects' typical diet. Percent body fat is found to change significantly with losses of less than 0.05 percent, whereas energy intake based on autonomous diet choices by the participants does not vary significantly. Lean body mass remains unchanged throughout the study in which the subjects receive a relatively low-fat and low-protein menu. The 100 items on the space shuttle list of approved food items are shown to provide a palatable dietary framework for maintaining the health of female astronauts.

  9. Inactivation of β-catenin results in the reduction of postnatal body weight gain.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-Tao; Zeng, Lin; Zhang, Xin; Li, Kui; Zu, Yong; Liu, Ji-wei; Liu, Yong-jie; Zhu, Zhi-chuan; Xiong, Zhi-Qi; Zheng, Jing; Hu, Ze-Lan

    2014-01-01

    Arcuate nucleus of hypothalamus (ARH) is the core component in the regulation circuits of food intake and energy homeostasis. ARH projections to other parts of the hypothalamus and to extrahypothalamic areas are established in the postnatal two weeks, which is a pivotal stage for individual development. β-Catenin, a cell adhesion protein and also the mediator of canonical Wnt signaling pathway, plays an important role in embryonic development and adult homeostasis. However, whether β-catenin plays any roles in the development of hypothalamus is not clear. Here, we report that perinatal conditional knockout of β-catenin by CamKIIα-Cre in forebrain reduces body weight gain from P8 and dramatically shortens life span. Quantitative PCR and in situ hybridization results showed the expression of NPY mRNA in the ARH of β-catenin CKO mice at P15 is obviously increased compared with that of littermate controls, whereas the expression of POMC mRNA is significantly decreased, which suggested the reduction of postnatal body weight gain might be due to the deficiency of food intake. Together, β-catenin might play an important role in the regulation of food intake and postnatal body weight gain probably through affecting the development of ARH circuits.

  10. Association of Smoking with Body Weight in US High School Students, 1999-2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Jiang, Nan; Kolbe, Lloyd J.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the association of current smoking with body mass index (BMI) and perceived body weight among high school students in the United States. Methods: We analyzed data from the 1999-2005 Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Results: Perceived body weight and BMI were associated with adolescents' current smoking. Adjusted odds ratios…

  11. Influential sources affecting Bangkok adolescent body image perceptions.

    PubMed

    Thianthai, Chulanee

    2006-01-01

    The study of body image-related problems in non-Western countries is still very limited. Thus, this study aims to identify the main influential sources and show how they affect the body image perceptions of Bangkok adolescents. The researcher recruited 400 Thai male and female adolescents in Bangkok, attending high school to freshmen level, ranging from 16-19 years, to participate in this study. Survey questionnaires were distributed to every student and follow-up interviews conducted with 40 students. The findings showed that there are eight main influential sources respectively ranked from the most influential to the least influential: magazines, television, peer group, familial, fashion trend, the opposite gender, self-realization and health knowledge. Similar to those studies conducted in Western countries, more than half of the total percentage was the influence of mass media and peer groups. Bangkok adolescents also internalized Western ideal beauty through these mass media channels. Alike studies conducted in the West, there was similarities in the process of how these influential sources affect Bangkok adolescent body image perception, with the exception of familial source. In conclusion, taking the approach of identifying the main influential sources and understanding how they affect adolescent body image perceptions can help prevent adolescents from having unhealthy views and taking risky measures toward their bodies. More studies conducted in non-Western countries are needed in order to build a cultural sensitive program, catered to the body image problems occurring in adolescents within that particular society.

  12. Associations between dairy protein intake and body weight and risk markers of diabetes and CVD during weight maintenance.

    PubMed

    Bendtsen, Line Q; Lorenzen, Janne K; Larsen, Thomas M; van Baak, Marleen; Papadaki, Angeliki; Martinez, J Alfredo; Handjieva-Darlenska, Teodora; Jebb, Susan A; Kunešová, Marie; Pfeiffer, Andreas F H; Saris, Wim H M; Astrup, Arne; Raben, Anne

    2014-03-14

    Dairy products have previously been reported to be associated with beneficial effects on body weight and metabolic risk markers. Moreover, primary data from the Diet, Obesity and Genes (DiOGenes) study indicate a weight-maintaining effect of a high-protein-low-glycaemic index diet. The objective of the present study was to examine putative associations between consumption of dairy proteins and changes in body weight and metabolic risk markers after weight loss in obese and overweight adults. Results were based on secondary analyses of data obtained from overweight and obese adults who completed the DiOGenes study. The study consisted of an 8-week weight-loss phase and a 6-month weight-maintenance (WM) phase, where the subjects were given five different diets varying in protein content and glycaemic index. In the present study, data obtained from all the subjects were pooled. Dairy protein intake was estimated from 3 d dietary records at two time points (week 4 and week 26) during the WM phase. Body weight and metabolic risk markers were determined at baseline (week -9 to -11) and before and at the end of the WM phase (week 0 and week 26). Overall, no significant associations were found between consumption of dairy proteins and changes in body weight and metabolic risk markers. However, dairy protein intake tended to be negatively associated with body weight gain (P=0·08; β=-0·17), but this was not persistent when controlled for total protein intake, which indicates that dairy protein adds no additional effect to the effect of total protein. Therefore, the present study does not report that dairy proteins are more favourable than other proteins for body weight regulation.

  13. Effects of chronic forced circadian desynchronization on body weight and metabolism in male mice.

    PubMed

    Casiraghi, Leandro P; Alzamendi, Ana; Giovambattista, Andrés; Chiesa, Juan J; Golombek, Diego A

    2016-04-01

    Metabolic functions are synchronized by the circadian clock setting daily patterns of food intake, nutrient delivery, and behavioral activity. Here, we study the impact of chronic jet-lag (CJL) on metabolism, and test manipulations aimed to overcome potential alterations. We recorded weight gain in C57Bl/6 mice under chronic 6 h advances or delays of the light-dark cycle every 2 days (ChrA and ChrD, respectively). We have previously reported ChrA, but not ChrD, to induce forced desynchronization of locomotor activity rhythms in mice (Casiraghi et al. 2012). Body weight was rapidly increased under ChrA, with animals tripling the mean weight gain observed in controls by day 10, and doubling it by day 30 (6% vs. 2%, and 15% vs. 7%, respectively). Significant increases in retroperitoneal and epidydimal adipose tissue masses (172% and 61%, respectively), adipocytes size (28%), and circulating triglycerides (39%) were also detected. Daily patterns of food and water intake were abolished under ChrA In contrast, ChrD had no effect on body weight. Wheel-running, housing of animals in groups, and restriction of food availability to hours of darkness prevented abnormal increase in body weight under ChrA Our findings suggest that the observed alterations under ChrA may arise either from a direct effect of circadian disruption on metabolism, from desynchronization between feeding and metabolic rhythms, or both. Direction of shifts, timing of feeding episodes, and other reinforcing signals deeply affect the outcome of metabolic function under CJL Such features should be taken into account in further studies of shift working schedules in humans.

  14. Body weight and mortality among adults who never smoked.

    PubMed

    Singh, P N; Lindsted, K D; Fraser, G E

    1999-12-01

    In a 12-year prospective study, the authors examined the relation between body mass index (BMI) and mortality among the 20,346 middle-aged (25-54 years) and older (55-84 years) non-Hispanic white cohort members of the Adventist Health Study (California, 1976-1988) who had never smoked cigarettes and had no history of coronary heart disease, cancer, or stroke. In analyses that accounted for putative indicators (weight change relative to 17 years before baseline, death during early follow-up) of pre-existing illness, the authors found a direct positive relation between BMI and all-cause mortality among middle-aged men (minimum risk at BMI (kg/m2) 15-22.3, older men (minimum risk at BMI 13.5-22.3), middle-aged women (minimum risk at BMI 13.9-20.6), and older women who had undergone postmenopausal hormone replacement (minimum risk at BMI 13.4-20.6). Among older women who had not undergone postmenopausal hormone replacement, the authors found a J-shaped relation (minimum risk at BMI 20.7-27.4) in which BMI <20.7 was associated with a twofold increase in mortality risk (hazard ratio (HR) = 2.2, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3, 3.5) that was primarily due to cardiovascular and respiratory disease. These findings not only identify adiposity as a risk factor among adults, but also raise the possibility that very lean older women can experience an increased mortality risk that may be due to their lower levels of adipose tissue-derived estrogen.

  15. Fermented kimchi reduces body weight and improves metabolic parameters in overweight and obese patients.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Kyoung; An, So-Yeon; Lee, Min-Seok; Kim, Tae Ho; Lee, Hye-Kyoung; Hwang, Won Sun; Choe, Sun Jung; Kim, Tae-Young; Han, Seung Jin; Kim, Hae Jin; Kim, Dae Jung; Lee, Kwan-Woo

    2011-06-01

    Kimchi is a traditional fermented Korean food that has garnered international interest due to its various beneficial effects. Focusing on the effect of fermentation, this study hypothesized that consumption of fermented kimchi would have more beneficial effects compared with that of fresh kimchi on metabolic parameters that are related to cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome risks in overweight and obese subjects. Twenty-two overweight and obese patients with body mass indexes greater than 25 kg/m(2) were randomly assigned to two 4-week diet phases separated by a 2-week washout period (crossover design). During each diet phase, the subjects consumed either fresh or fermented kimchi. Anthropometric data showed significant decreases in body weight, body mass index, and body fat in both groups, and the fermented kimchi group showed a significant decrease in the waist-hip ratio and fasting blood glucose. Net differences in the systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, percent body fat, fasting glucose, and total cholesterol in the fermented kimchi group were significantly greater than those in the fresh kimchi group. There was also a tendency for a decrease in fasting insulin after consumption of fermented kimchi. Therefore, the ingestion of fermented kimchi had positive effects on various factors associated with metabolic syndrome, including systolic and diastolic blood pressures, percent body fat, fasting glucose, and total cholesterol, compared with the fresh kimchi. These results suggest that the maturity of kimchi (fresh vs fermented) may affect obesity, lipid metabolism, and inflammatory processes.

  16. Prospect theory and body mass: characterizing psychological parameters for weight-related risk attitudes and weight-gain aversion

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Seung-Lark; Bruce, Amanda S.

    2015-01-01

    We developed a novel decision-making paradigm that allows us to apply prospect theory in behavioral economics to body mass. 67 healthy young adults completed self-report measures and two decision-making tasks for weight-loss, as well as for monetary rewards. We estimated risk-related preference and loss aversion parameters for each individual, separately for weight-loss and monetary rewards choice data. Risk-seeking tendency for weight-loss was positively correlated with body mass index in individuals who desired to lose body weight, whereas the risk-seeking for momentary rewards was not. Risk-seeking for weight-loss was correlated to excessive body shape preoccupations, while aversion to weight-gain was correlated with self-reports of behavioral involvement for successful weight-loss. We demonstrated that prospect theory can be useful in explaining the decision-making process related to body mass. Applying prospect theory is expected to advance our understanding of decision-making mechanisms in obesity, which might prove helpful for improving healthy choices. PMID:25852628

  17. Prospect theory and body mass: characterizing psychological parameters for weight-related risk attitudes and weight-gain aversion.

    PubMed

    Lim, Seung-Lark; Bruce, Amanda S

    2015-01-01

    We developed a novel decision-making paradigm that allows us to apply prospect theory in behavioral economics to body mass. 67 healthy young adults completed self-report measures and two decision-making tasks for weight-loss, as well as for monetary rewards. We estimated risk-related preference and loss aversion parameters for each individual, separately for weight-loss and monetary rewards choice data. Risk-seeking tendency for weight-loss was positively correlated with body mass index in individuals who desired to lose body weight, whereas the risk-seeking for momentary rewards was not. Risk-seeking for weight-loss was correlated to excessive body shape preoccupations, while aversion to weight-gain was correlated with self-reports of behavioral involvement for successful weight-loss. We demonstrated that prospect theory can be useful in explaining the decision-making process related to body mass. Applying prospect theory is expected to advance our understanding of decision-making mechanisms in obesity, which might prove helpful for improving healthy choices.

  18. Use of starting condition score to estimate changes in body weight and composition during weight loss in obese dogs.

    PubMed

    German, A J; Holden, S L; Bissot, T; Morris, P J; Biourge, V

    2009-10-01

    Prior to starting a weight loss programme, target weight (TW) is often estimated, using starting body condition score (BCS). The current study assessed how well such estimates perform in clinical practice. Information on body weight, BCS and body composition was assessed before and after weight loss in 28 obese, client-owned dogs. Median decrease in starting weight per BCS unit was 10% (5-15%), with no significant difference between dogs losing moderate (1-2 BCS points) or marked (3-4 BCS points) amounts of weight (P=0.627). Mean decrease in body fat per BCS unit change was 5% (3-9%). A model based on a change of 10% of starting weight per unit of BCS above ideal (5/9) most closely estimated actual TW, but marked variability was seen. Therefore, although such calculations may provide a guide to final TW in obese dogs, they can either over- or under-estimate the appropriate end point of weight loss.

  19. Salicylate as a partial inhibitor of emotional fever and body weight set-point in rats: behavioral and neuroendocrine study.

    PubMed

    Michel, C; Frankham, P; Cabanac, M

    2003-03-01

    In this article, we report findings from behavioral and neuroendocrine experiments in rats under pharmacologically induced antipyretic conditions. Endpoints included emotional fever, body weight setpoint, and in situ corticotropin-releasing hormone mRNA (CRHmRNA) expression. Nine male Wistar rats were treated with acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) 0.04 g/kg ip in vehicle. On alternating days, all rats received saline (0.9% w/v) as a control. ASA was selected chiefly for its antipyretic and also for effects on metabolism. It has been demonstrated that gentle handling affects body weight and body temperature in rats. In Experiment 1, we investigated whether blocking emotional fever by ASA treatment would inhibit the lowering of the body weight setpoint induced by handling of the rats. Rats were exposed to a daily food-hoarding session under handling stress, and their body weight setpoints were calculated from the hoarding measurements. As rats received ASA and saline in an alternating manner, two setpoints were calculated. In Experiment 2, we performed neuroendocrine analyses of CRHmRNA expression in the same group of animals from Experiment 1. CRHmRNA was determined by in situ hybridization. Results indicated that ASA treatment in rats significantly decreased the body weight setpoint (P=.02) and significantly prevented increases in body temperature due to emotional fever (P=.03) when compared to their control values. Findings also revealed that hypothalamic CRH expression was increased when rats were treated with ASA. ASA did partially block fever induced by handling, but it is difficult to confirm whether emotion was also inhibited by treatment. Taken together, these results indicate that salicylates affect energy balance and might be a good inhibitor of body weight gain in rats.

  20. Direct versus indirect effects of social rank, maternal weight, body condition and age on milk production in Iberian red deer ( Cervus elaphus hispanicus).

    PubMed

    Landete-Castillejos, Tomás; Ceacero, Francisco; García, Andrés J; Estevez, Jose A; Gallego, Laureano

    2010-02-01

    Social rank in cervids and other mammals is not entirely predicted by body weight, but in most cases influences access to food directly. Milk provisioning depends on maternal weight and on daily food intake. Usually, body weight, body condition, age and social rank are inter-correlated making it very difficult to discern the relative importance of each variable to milk production. This study used path analysis to assess direct versus indirect effects of these variables on milk production of 62 Iberian red deer hinds (Cervus elaphus hispanicus). Once the known direct effects of body weight and body condition were set as fixed, hind age and social rank did not affect milk production directly. In contrast, they exerted an indirect influence through the correlation both with hind body weight and body condition. Body weight exerted an effect on milk production nearly twice as great as that of body condition. This study shows, for the first time in a wild mammal, the relative importance of social rank, body weight, body condition and age in affecting milk production ability.

  1. Measurements and profiles of body weight misperceptions among Taiwanese teenagers: a national survey.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Ya-Wen; Liou, Tsan-Hon; Liou, Yiing Mei; Chen, Hsin-Jen; Chien, Li-Yin

    2016-01-01

    Children and adolescents tend to lose weight, which may be associated with misperceptions of weight. Previous studies have emphasized establishing correlations between eating disorders and an overestimated perception of body weight, but few studies have focused on an underestimated perception of body weight. The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between misperceptions of body weight and weight-related risk factors, such as eating disorders, inactivity, and unhealthy behaviors, among overweight children who underestimated their body weight. We conducted a cross-sectional, descriptive study between December 1, 2006 and February 15, 2007. A total of 29,313 children and adolescents studying in grades 4-12 were enrolled in this nationwide, cross-sectional survey, and they were asked to complete questionnaires. A multivariate logistic regression using maximum likelihood estimates was used. The prevalence of body weight misperception was 43.2% (26.4% overestimation and 16.8% underestimation). Factors associated with the underestimated perception of weight among overweight children were parental obesity, dietary control for weight loss, breakfast consumption, self-induced vomiting as a weight control strategy, fried food consumption, engaging in vigorous physical activities, and sleeping for >8 hours per day (odds ratios=0.86, 0.42, 0.88, 1.37, 1.13, 1.11, and 1.17, respectively). In conclusion, the early establishment of an accurate perception of body weight may mitigate unhealthy behaviors.

  2. Short-day-like body weight changes do not prevent fat pad compensation after lipectomy in Siberian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Mauer, M M; Bartness, T J

    1997-01-01

    Long-day (LD)-housed Siberian hamsters show compensatory increases in white adipose tissue (WAT) weight after lipectomy, whereas hamsters exposed to short days (SDs) for a long duration (22 wk) do not. We tested whether SD-induced body weight changes prevent fat pad compensation after lipectomy. In experiment 1, hamsters with lesions of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVNx) rapidly increased body weight similarly to 22-wk SD-exposed hamsters. In experiment 2, LD-housed hamsters were food restricted for 22 wk and then pair fed with SD-housed hamsters for 12 wk to produce body weight changes mimicking those of ad libitum-fed SD-exposed animals. Epididymal WAT (EWAT) lipectomy (EWATx) of PVNx or food-restricted hamsters elicited compensatory increases in retroperitoneal and inguinal WAT (RWAT and IWAT) weights. Unlike other fat pads, EWAT was less affected by food restriction or PVNx than by SD exposure. In general, food restriction decreased adipocyte number, whereas SD exposure decreased adipocyte size. PVNx increased RWAT adipocyte size and IWAT adipocyte number. These results suggest that the lack of body fat compensation by EWATx hamsters exposed to SDs for a long duration is due to SD-associated responses other than body weight changes per se.

  3. Captopril intake decreases body weight gain via angiotensin-(1-7).

    PubMed

    Oh, Young-Bin; Kim, Jong Hun; Park, Byung Mun; Park, Byung Hyun; Kim, Suhn Hee

    2012-09-01

    Angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)] plays a beneficial role in cardiovascular physiology by providing a counterbalance to the function of angiotensin II (Ang II). Although Ang II has been shown to be an adipokine secreted by adipocyte and affect lipid metabolism, the role of Ang-(1-7) in adipose tissue remains to be clarified. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether Ang-(1-7) affects lipid metabolism in adipose tissue. Ang-(1-7) increased glycerol release from primary adipocytes in a dose-dependent manner. A lipolytic effect of Ang-(1-7) was attenuated by pretreatment with A-779, a Mas receptor blocker and with an inhibitor of phosphoinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), or eNOS. However, losartan and PD123319 did not cause any change in Ang-(1-7)-induced lipolysis. Ang-(1-7)-induced lipolysis had an addictive effect with isoproterenol. In normal rats, chronic intake of captopril for 4 wks decreased body weight gain and the amount of adipose tissue and increased plasma Ang-(1-7) level. These effects were attenuated by administration of A-779. The levels of Mas receptor and phosphorylation of hormone-sensitive lipase (p-HSL) were significantly increased by treatment with captopril and these captopril-mediated effects were attenuated by the administration of A-779. There was no difference in diameter of adipocytes among sham, captopril- and captopril+A-779-treated groups. The similar effects of captopril on body weight, expression of Mas receptor, and p-HSL were observed in Ang-(1-7)-treated rats. These results suggest that captopril intake decreased body weight gain partly through Ang-(1-7)/Mas receptor/PI3K pathway.

  4. Effects of mobile phone electromagnetic fields at nonthermal SAR values on melatonin and body weight of Djungarian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus).

    PubMed

    Lerchl, Alexander; Krüger, Heike; Niehaus, Michael; Streckert, Joachim R; Bitz, Andreas K; Hansen, Volkert

    2008-04-01

    In three experiments, adult male Djungarian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) were exposed 24 hr/day for 60 days to radio frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) at 383, 900, and 1800 MHz, modulated according to the TETRA (383 MHz) and GSM standards (900 and 1800 MHz), respectively. A radial waveguide system ensured a well defined and uniform exposure at whole-body averaged specific absorption rates of 80 mW/kg, which is equal to the upper limit of whole-body exposure of the general population in Germany and other countries. For each experiment, using two identical waveguides, hamsters were exposed (n = 120) and sham-exposed (n = 120) in a blind fashion. In all experiments, pineal and serum melatonin levels as well as the weights of testes, brain, kidneys, and liver were not affected. At 383 MHz, exposure resulted in a significant transient increase in body weight up to 4%, while at 900 MHz this body weight increase was more pronounced (up to 6%) and not transient. At 1800 MHz, no effect on body weight was seen. The results corroborate earlier findings which have shown no effects of RF-EMF on melatonin levels in vivo and in vitro. The data are in accordance with the hypothesis that absorbed RF energy may result in metabolic changes which eventually cause body weight increases in exposed animals. The data support the notion that metabolic effects of RF-EMFs need to be investigated in more detail in future studies.

  5. Does this book make me look fat? The effect of protagonist body weight and body esteem on female readers' body esteem.

    PubMed

    Kaminski, Melissa J; Magee, Robert G

    2013-03-01

    Effects of visual representations of the thin ideal in the media have been widely explored, but textual representations of the thin ideal in novels have received scant attention. The chick literature genre has been criticized for depicting characters who worry about their body weight and who have poor body esteem. Excerpts from two chick lit novels were used to examine the effect of a protagonist's body weight and body esteem on college women's (N=159) perceptions of their sexual attractiveness and weight concern. Two narratives were used to minimize the possibility that idiosyncratic characteristics of one excerpt might influence the study's results. Underweight (vs. healthy weight) protagonists predicted readers' lower perceived sexual attractiveness. Protagonists with low body esteem (vs. control) predicted readers' increased weight concern. Scholars and health officials should be concerned about the effect chick lit novels might have on women's body image.

  6. The impact of weight, sex, and race/ethnicity on body dissatisfaction among urban children.

    PubMed

    Xanthopoulos, Melissa S; Borradaile, Kelley E; Hayes, Sharon; Sherman, Sandy; Vander Veur, Stephanie; Grundy, Karen M; Nachmani, Joan; Foster, Gary D

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the relative contributions of weight status, race/ethnicity, sex, and age on body dissatisfaction in a large group of diverse children. Participants were 4th-6th graders (N=1212) in ten inner-city schools who participated in an obesity prevention study previously published. Children completed the body dissatisfaction subscale of the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI-2), and weight status was assessed by measured weights and heights. Multiple regression analyses were conducted. Relative weight status was the strongest predictor of body dissatisfaction, followed by race/ethnicity, and sex. Body dissatisfaction was greatest in obese, Asian, and female children. Overall, results indicated that children's body dissatisfaction varies based on relative weight status, as well as race/ethnicity and sex among urban children. Results highlight the strong need for additional research so that more definitive conclusions may be drawn regarding the development of body image among diverse groups of children.

  7. Effects of soybean agglutinin on body composition and organ weights in rats.

    PubMed

    Zang, Jianjun; Li, Defa; Piao, Xiangshu; Tang, Shusheng

    2006-06-01

    An experiment was conducted to assess the effect of soybean agglutinin dosage level on growth, body composition, plasma lipids, glucose, urea nitrogen content and aminotransferase activities in rats. Male and female rats (n=60) weaned at 19 d were given a dose of 0, 3.5, 7.0, 10.5, or 14.0 mg soybean agglutinin by gastric infusion once daily for 10 days. With increasing doses of soybean agglutinin, body weight, lipid content of carcass, spleen and kidneys relative dry weights decreased, while small intestine and pancreatic weight, the contents of urea nitrogen and triglyceride, and the activities of aspartate aminotransferase linearly increased in plasma. Though soybean agglutinin decreased plasma insulin content, changes in plasma glucose content due to soybean agglutinin were not detected. It is suggested that dietary soybean agglutinin may affect the secretion of other hormones besides insulin, which modulate blood glucose reserves. In conclusion, consumption of soybean agglutinin resulted in a depletion of lipid and an overgrowth of small intestine and pancreas in rats. Meanwhile, poor growth of spleen and kidneys was observed in the soybean agglutinin-fed rats.

  8. Sociocultural influences and body change strategies in Spanish adolescent boys of different weight status.

    PubMed

    Almenara, Carlos A; Fauquet, Jordi; López-Guimerà, Gemma; Pàmias-Massana, Montserrat; Sánchez-Carracedo, David

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the association between sociocultural influences to attain an ideal body and body change strategies (BCS) in Spanish adolescent boys of different weight status. A total of 594 Spanish boys (M=13.94 years, SD=0.20) participated. Measures included in the study were weight status according to body mass index (BMI), sociocultural influences (perceived pressures to attain an ideal body, general internalization of an ideal body, internalization of an athletic-ideal body), BCS to lose/control weight (dieting, healthy and unhealthy weight-control behaviors), and BCS to gain weight and muscles. Underweight boys engaged more frequently in weight-gain behaviors. Overweight boys reported higher levels of perceived sociocultural pressures and general internalization compared to normal-weight boys, and were more likely to be engaged in BCS to lose/control weight compared with the other weight-status groups. There were no differences between groups in terms of internalization of an athletic-ideal body and BCS to increase muscles. Future research and prevention programs should consider male-specific behaviors and weight-status differences.

  9. The Relationship between Body Weight Change and Body Constitutions of Traditional Chinese Medicine in Patients with Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jui-Fen; Liu, Te-Le; Wang, Ruey-Yun; Ching, Han-Yi

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To explore the relationship between body constitution (BC) types and weight change in patients with schizophrenia and who underwent second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) treatment. Method. Body weight and waist circumference of eighty-five participants were measured for 6 consecutive weeks. Constitutions of Yin-Xu, Yang-Xu, and Stasis were assessed using the Body Constitution Questionnaire (BCQ). Results. Participants with body constitutions Yin-Xu (50.6%), Yang-Xu (49.4%), or Stasis (38.8%) exhibited worse physical condition and unhealthy daily habits, particularly in Stasis constitution. Moreover, Stasis constitution was significantly associated with several factors, including BMI, body weight, waist circumference, perception of stress, perception of health, staying up late, and less physical exercise. However, perception of stress showed significant difference in Yin-Xu, Yang-Xu, and Stasis. Generalized estimating equation (GEE) analysis revealed that significant time effects in body weight increase in the imbalanced BC types and gentleness BC type. SGAs induced weight gain in imbalanced BC type as well as gentleness BC type, especially treated with olanzapine. Conclusions. This is the first study to explore the longitudinal relationship between BC and weight gain in schizophrenia patients undergoing SGAs treatment. Health care providers should focus on weight gain problems in schizophrenia patients who underwent SGAs treatment. PMID:27818703

  10. “Those Comments Last Forever”: Parents and Grandparents of Preschoolers Recount How They Became Aware of Their Own Body Weights as Children

    PubMed Central

    Eli, Karin; Howell, Kyndal; Fisher, Philip A.; Nowicka, Paulina

    2014-01-01

    Background Parents' and grandparents' willingness to talk about children's body weights may be influenced by their own childhood experiences of body weight awareness and ‘weight talk’ in the family; however, little is known about how adults describe their recollected weight-related childhood experiences. Aims This paper examines how parents and grandparents of preschoolers describe the emergence of their own body weight awareness in childhood or adolescence. The analysis highlights the sources that participants identify as having instigated their body weight awareness, the feelings and experiences participants associate with the experience of becoming aware of their body weights, and their framings of potential links between childhood experiences and attitudes and practices in adulthood. Methods 49 participants (22 parents, 27 grandparents, 70% women, 60% with overweight/obesity) from sixteen low-income families of children aged 3–5 years (50% girls, 56% with overweight/obesity) in the Pacific Northwest were interviewed. The interviews were videotaped, transcribed, and analyzed qualitatively. Results Twenty-five participants (51%) said they became aware of their body weights in childhood or adolescence. Fourteen participants said their body weight awareness emerged through comments made by others, with the majority citing parents or peers. No participant described the emergence of body weight awareness in positive terms. Four participants directly linked their own negative experiences to the decision not to discuss body weight with their preschoolers. All four cited critical comments from their parents as instigating their own body weight awareness in childhood. Conclusions In most cases, participants associated their emergent awareness of body weight with overtly negative feelings or consequences; some participants said these negative experiences continued to affect them as adults. Since family-based childhood obesity interventions involve open discussion of

  11. Associations among eating regulation and body mass index, weight, and body fat in college students: the moderating role of gender.

    PubMed

    Gropper, Sareen S; Arsiwalla, Dilbur D; Lord, Denali C; Huggins, Kevin W; Simmons, Karla P; Ulrich, Pamela V

    2014-04-01

    This study investigated associations between eating regulation behaviors and body mass index (BMI), weight, and percent body fat in male and female students over the first two years of college. Subjects included 328 college students (215 females and 113 males). Height and weight (via standard techniques), body composition (via bioelectrical impedance analysis), and eating regulation behaviors (using the Regulation of Eating Behavior Scale) were conducted two to three times during both the freshman and sophomore years. Significant associations between eating regulation and BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat were shown mostly in females. In females, higher BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat at the end of the second year of college were found in those with low levels of autonomous, intrinsic motivation, and identified regulation, and high levels of amotivation, while lower BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat were associated with high levels of autonomous, intrinsic motivation, and identified regulation, and low levels of amotivation. The findings that specific eating behaviors in females during the first two years of college influence BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat may be useful for inclusion in university programs focused on college student health to help decrease the risk of obesity and disordered eating/eating disorders in female college students.

  12. Suprathreshold measures of taste perception in children - Association with dietary quality and body weight.

    PubMed

    Feeney, Emma L; O'Brien, Sinead A; Scannell, Amalia G M; Markey, Anne; Gibney, Eileen R

    2017-02-21

    Childhood obesity is an increasing problem in the Western world, and is affected by a multitude of interacting factors. Recent evidence suggests that taste perception may differ between obese and normal weight children. Evidence also suggests that perception of sweet and bitter taste is linked to differential food liking of various foods. To date, most studies have focused on single food items or food groups, rather than an overall view of dietary quality, and mainly on bitterness. Thus it is unclear whether taste perception is associated with dietary quality in children. Our objective was to examine the link between taste perception, dietary quality and body weight in Irish school children, in conjunction with other known influences of body weight. Taste perception was measured using the gLMS for bitter, salty and sweet stimuli. Detailed dietary intake data were collected from 525 children aged 7-13 via a 3-day diet history. Energy misreporters were identified and excluded from the dietary analyses, leaving n = 483 children. Dietary quality was assessed using Healthy Eating Index. Salivary DNA was collected and analyzed for variations in the bitter receptor gene TAS2R38. Sex differences were observed whereby intensity perception of sweetness was lower in the overweight/obese males, while no association was observed for sweet taste in the females. Despite the differences in weight status, taste perception was not associated with differences in overall dietary quality, measured via HEI score, in this cohort. Prospective cohort studies in children are necessary to better understand the association between taste intensity, food intake and weight over time.

  13. Mid-winter food use and body weights of mallards and wood ducks in Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Delnicki, D.; Reinecke, K.J.

    1986-01-01

    We obtained esophageal food samples from 311 mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and 94 wood ducks (Aix sponsa) and body weights from 2,118 mallards and 315 wood ducks in western Mississippi during December and January 1979-83. On average, mallards ingested 3.0% animal food, principally aquatic invertebrates, and 97.0% plant food. Rice, soybeans, and seeds of 'moist soil' plants provided 41.3, 41.6, and 10-11% of the total food intake. Wood ducks ingested nearly 100% plant food, of which 23.4% was soybeans and 74.3% was acorns from Nuttall (Quercus nuttallii), water (Q. nigra), and willow oaks (Q. phellos). Mallard food use varied with water conditions; the use of rice decreased and soybeans increased during 1980-81 when cumulative November-January precipitation was < 50% of normal. Wood duck food use varied with habitat; the diet included more acorns at sites having larger acreages of intact bottomland hardwood forest. Mallard and wood duck body weights varied within and among winters. Mallard weights decreased by about 2% from December to January each year. We considered this a regulated loss, whereas we attributed increases and decreases of 4-5% in average weights during wet and dry winters to changes in feeding opportunities associated with winter precipitation. Wood duck weights followed similar trends. We concluded that continued drainage in the Mississippi Delta will adversely affect waterfowl foraging opportunities, and that research on winter feeding ecology will progress more rapidly if we develop an understanding of the foraging efficiencies associated with alternate food resources.

  14. UV radiation impacts body weight, oxygen consumption, and shelter selection in the intertidal vertebrate Girella laevifrons.

    PubMed

    Pulgar, José; Waldisperg, Melany; Galbán-Malagón, Cristóbal; Maturana, Diego; Pulgar, Victor M; Aldana, Marcela

    2017-02-01

    The amount of ultraviolet (UV) radiation reaching the earth's surface has increased due to ozone layer depletion, and this fact represents an opportunity to evaluate the physiological and behavioral responses of animals to this global-scale stressor. The transitory fish Girella laevifrons inhabits pools in the upper intertidal zone, which is characterized by exposure to a wide range of stressors, including UV radiation. We documented the field magnitude and the impact of UV radiation on oxygen consumption, body mass variations, and shelter (rocky and algae) selection by G. laevifrons. UV-exposed animals showed increased oxygen consumption, slower body weight increase, and active rocky shelter selection. Control fish showed increased body weight and no evident shelter selection. The results indicated that UV exposure affects fish energetic balance and habitat selection to favor greater protection against radiation. Increased UV exposure in transitory intertidal animals at levels observed in upper intertidal pools may alter the residency time of fish before leaving for the subtidal zone. Therefore, UV-induced energetic changes may determine animal performance and ontogenetic physiological itineraries, whereas shelter quality might determine habitat use.

  15. Effect of Dietary Protein Content on Weight Gain, Energy Expenditure, and Body Composition During Overeating

    PubMed Central

    Bray, George A.; Smith, Steven R.; de Jonge, Lilian; Xie, Hui; Rood, Jennifer; Martin, Corby K.; Most, Marlene; Brock, Courtney; Mancuso, Susan; Redman, Leanne M.

    2013-01-01

    Context The role of diet composition in response to overeating and energy dissipation in humans is unclear. Objective To evaluate the effects of overconsumption of low, normal, and high protein diets on weight gain, energy expenditure, and body composition. Design, Setting, and Participants A single-blind, randomized controlled trial of 25 US healthy, weight-stable male and female volunteers, aged 18 to 35 years with a body mass index between 19 and 30. The first participant was admitted to the inpatient metabolic unit in June 2005 and the last in October 2007. Intervention After consuming a weight-stabilizing diet for 13 to 25 days, participants were randomized to diets containing 5% of energy from protein (low protein), 15% (normal protein), or 25% (high protein), which they were overfed during the last 8 weeks of their 10- to 12-week stay in the inpatient metabolic unit. Compared with energy intake during the weight stabilization period, the protein diets provided approximately 40% more energy intake, which corresponds to 954 kcal/d (95% CI, 884–1022 kcal/d). Main Outcome Measures Body composition was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry biweekly, resting energy expenditure was measured weekly by ventilated hood, and total energy expenditure by doubly labeled water prior to the overeating and weight stabilization periods and at weeks 7 to 8. Results Overeating produced significantly less weight gain in the low protein diet group (3.16 kg; 95% CI, 1.88–4.44 kg) compared with the normal protein diet group (6.05 kg; 95% CI, 4.84–7.26 kg) or the high protein diet group (6.51 kg; 95% CI, 5.23–7.79 kg) (P=.002). Body fat increased similarly in all 3 protein diet groups and represented 50% to more than 90% of the excess stored calories. Resting energy expenditure, total energy expenditure, and body protein did not increase during overfeeding with the low protein diet. In contrast, resting energy expenditure (normal protein diet: 160 kcal/d [95% CI, 102

  16. Effects of neutering on food intake, body weight and body composition in growing female kittens.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Lucille G; Salt, Carina; Thomas, Gaelle; Butterwick, Richard

    2011-10-01

    To understand the effects of neutering on food intake, body weight (BW) and body composition in kittens, data from an unrelated study were subjected to post hoc analysis. A total of twelve pairs of 11-week-old female littermates were randomly assigned to either a neutered group (neutered at 19 weeks old) or an entire group (kept entire) and offered free access to a dry diet until the age of 1 year. Neutered kittens exhibited increased food intake and increased BW after neutering (both P < 0.00 001). Food intake (per kg BW) peaked 10 weeks after neutering; the mean intake of neutered kittens was 17 (95 % CI 8, 27) % more than entire littermates (P = 0.00 014). The intake was then reduced until there was no significant difference between the groups 18 weeks post-neutering. By 52 weeks of age, the neutered kittens were 24 (95 % CI 11, 39) % heavier than entire littermates (P < 0.0001) with a body condition score (BCS) 16.6 (95 % CI 0.9, 34.8) % higher (P = 0.0028). Neutered kittens continued to grow significantly fatter after neutering (all P < 0.0014), while entire kittens showed no significant change after 18 weeks of age. As neutered kittens consumed similar amounts of energy to their entire littermates from 18 weeks post-neutering, while their BW, BCS and percentage fat continued to increase, we suggest that neutered kittens have a reduced metabolisable energy requirement, and should therefore be fed to maintain an ideal BCS rather than ad libitum. Moreover, to maintain an ideal BCS, entire kittens consumed 93 (95 % CI 87, 100) % of their theoretical intake at 26 weeks of age, and 79 (95 % CI 72, 87) % at 52 weeks of age, suggesting that the current energy recommendation is inappropriate for these kittens.

  17. Chili pepper as a body weight-loss food.

    PubMed

    Varghese, Sharon; Kubatka, Peter; Rodrigo, Luis; Gazdikova, Katarina; Caprnda, Martin; Fedotova, Julia; Zulli, Anthony; Kruzliak, Peter; Büsselberg, Dietrich

    2016-11-29

    Chili has culinary as well as medical importance. Studies in humans, using a wide range of doses of chili intake (varying from a single meal to a continuous uptake for up to 12 weeks), concluded that it facilitates weight loss. In regard to this, the main targets of chili are fat metabolism, energy expenditure, and thermogenesis. To induce weight loss, the active substance of chili, capsaicin, activates Transient Receptor Potential Cation Channel sub-family V member 1 (TRPV1) channels) receptors causing an increase in intracellular calcium levels and triggering the sympathetic nervous system. Apart from TRPV1, chili directly reduces energy expenditure by activating Brown Adipose Tissue. Weight loss by chili is also the result of an improved control of insulin, which supports weight management and has positive effects for treatment for diseases like obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disorders. This review summarizes the major pathways by which chili contributes to ameliorating parameters that help weight management and how the consumption of chili can help in accelerating weight loss through dietary modifications.

  18. Relationship among serum taurine, serum adipokines, and body composition during 8-week human body weight control program.

    PubMed

    You, Jeong Soon; Park, Ji Yeon; Zhao, Xu; Jeong, Jin Seok; Choi, Mi Ja; Chang, Kyung Ja

    2013-01-01

    Human adipose tissue is not only a storage organ but also an active endocrine organ to release adipokines. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship among serum taurine and adipokine levels, and body composition during 8-week human body weight control program in obese female college students. The program consisted of diet therapy, exercise, and behavior modification. After the program, body weight, body fat mass, percent body fat, and body mass index (BMI) were significantly decreased. Serum triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels were significantly decreased. Also serum adiponectin level was significantly increased and serum leptin level was significantly decreased. There were no differences in serum taurine and homocysteine levels. The change of serum adiponectin level was positively correlated with change of body fat mass and percent body fat. These results may suggest that body fat loss by human body weight control program is associated with an increase in serum adiponectin in obese female college students. Therefore, further study such as taurine intervention study is needed to know more exact correlation between dietary taurine intake and serum adipokines or body composition.

  19. Effects of NUTRIOSE® dietary fiber supplementation on body weight, body composition, energy intake, and hunger in overweight men.

    PubMed

    Guerin-Deremaux, Laetitia; Li, Shuguang; Pochat, Marine; Wils, Daniel; Mubasher, Mohamed; Reifer, Cheryl; Miller, Larry E

    2011-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the effectiveness of a soluble dietary fiber, NUTRIOSE(®), on body weight, body composition, energy intake and hunger in overweight Chinese men. The volunteers were randomized in double-blind fashion to 250 ml fruit juice supplemented with NUTRIOSE(®) (Test, n = 60) or a maltodextrin (Control, n = 60) at a dosage of 17 g twice daily for 12 weeks. Body weight, body composition were performed at 0, 4, 8 and 12 weeks while daily energy intake and hunger were assessed every 3 days. Test subjects had reductions in body weight (1.5 kg, P < 0.001), body mass index (0.5 kg/m(2), P < 0.001) and body fat percentage (0.3%, P < 0.001) versus Controls. NUTRIOSE(®) supplementation resulted in a lower daily energy intake (3,079 kJ/day, P < 0.001) with group differences noted as early as 3 days. Test subjects reported less hunger across the study period versus Controls (P < 0.01). NUTRIOSE(®) supplementation for 12 weeks results in body composition improvements and reduces body weight, energy intake and hunger in overweight men.

  20. Endogenous ethanol affects biopolyester molecular weight in recombinant Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Hiroe, Ayaka; Hyakutake, Manami; Thomson, Nicholas M; Sivaniah, Easan; Tsuge, Takeharu

    2013-11-15

    In biopolyester synthesis, polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthase (PhaC) catalyzes the polymerization of PHA in bacterial cells, followed by a chain transfer (CT) reaction in which the PHA polymer chain is transferred from PhaC to a CT agent. Accordingly, the frequency of CT reaction determines PHA molecular weight. Previous studies have shown that exogenous alcohols are effective CT agents. This study aimed to clarify the effect of endogenous ethanol as a CT agent for poly[(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate] [P(3HB)] synthesis in recombinant Escherichia coli, by comparing with that of exogenous ethanol. Ethanol supplementation to the culture medium reduced P(3HB) molecular weights by up to 56% due to ethanol-induced CT reaction. NMR analysis of P(3HB) polymers purified from the culture supplemented with (13)C-labeled ethanol showed the formation of a covalent bond between ethanol and P(3HB) chain at the carboxyl end. Cultivation without ethanol supplementation resulted in the reduction of P(3HB) molecular weight with increasing host-produced ethanol depending on culture aeration. On the other hand, production in recombinant BW25113(ΔadhE), an alcohol dehydrogenase deletion strain, resulted in a 77% increase in molecular weight. Analysis of five E. coli strains revealed that the estimated number of CT reactions was correlated with ethanol production. These results demonstrate that host-produced ethanol acts as an equally effective CT agent as exogenous ethanol, and the control of ethanol production is important to regulate the PHA molecular weight.

  1. CHANGE IN KNEE CONTACT FORCE WITH SIMULATED CHANGE IN BODY WEIGHT

    PubMed Central

    Knarr, Brian A.; Higginson, Jill S.; Zeni, Joseph A.

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between obesity, weight gain and progression of knee osteoarthritis is well supported, suggesting that excessive joint loading may be a mechanism responsible for cartilage deterioration. Examining the influence of weight gain on joint compressive forces is difficult, as both muscles and ground reaction forces can have a significant impact on the forces experienced during gait. While previous studies have examined the relationship between body weight and knee forces, these studies have used models that were not validated using experimental data. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between changes in body weight and changes in knee joint contact forces for an individual’s gait pattern using musculoskeletal modeling that is validated against known internal compressive forces. Optimal weighting constants were determined for 3 subjects to generate valid predictions of knee contact forces using in vivo data collection with instrumented total knee arthroplasty. A total of five simulations per walking trial were generated for each subject, from 80–120% body weight in 10% increments, resulting in fifty total simulations. The change in peak knee contact force with respect to body weight was found to be constant and subject-specific, predominantly determined by the peak force during the baseline condition at 100% body weight. This relationship may be further altered by any change in kinematics or body mass distribution that may occur as a result of a change in body weight or exercise program. PMID:25760517

  2. Change in Diet, Physical Activity, and Body Weight in Female College Freshman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Scott M.; Black, David R.; Blue, Carolyn L.; Gretebeck, Randall J.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine diet, physical activity, and body-weight changes associated with relocation from home to university. Methods: Diet, fitness/physical activity, body-weight parameters and self-efficacy were assessed among 54 freshman women upon college entry and 5 months later. Results: Although caloric intake significantly decreased, a…

  3. Comparison of Methods for Assessing Body Composition Changes during Weight Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weyers, Anna M.; Mazzetti, Scott A.; Love, Dawn M.; Gomez, Ana L.; Kraemer, William J.; Volek, Jeff S.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated whether dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and air displacement plethysmography (ADP) would detect similar changes in body composition after moderate weight loss. Twenty adults had their body composition measured using DXA and ADP before and after an 8-week weight loss program. Overall, both DXA and ADP detected similar changes in…

  4. Progress in the molecular understanding of central regulation of body weight by estrogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Estrogens can act in the brain to prevent body weight gain. Tremendous research efforts have been focused on estrogen physiology in the brain in the context of body weight control; estrogen receptors and the related signals have been attractive targets for development of new obesity therapies. The o...

  5. Egg laying pattern, egg weight, body weight at hatch, and sex ratio bias relative to oviposition time of young-and mid-age broiler breeders.

    PubMed

    Zakaria, A H; Omar, O H

    2013-09-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine oviposition pattern and the effect of oviposition time on egg weight, body weight at hatch, and sex ratio of hatched chickens. In Experiment 1, eggs were collected from young and mid-age broiler flocks for 6 consecutive days at hourly intervals between 0400 and 2000h. In Experiment 2, eggs were categorized to represent eggs where oviposition occurred early, middle and late in the clutch (later in the day). These eggs were incubated to determine body weight at hatch and sex ratio of hatched chickens relative to oviposition time. Time of oviposition was affected by age. For the young flock, the percentage of ovipositions occurring before the 1100h was 79%. In contrast to the young flock, the percentage of ovipositions occurring before the 1100h in the mid-age flock was less (68%; P<0.01). Furthermore, for the mid-age flock, the percentage of ovipositions occurring from 1200 to 1700h was greater (P<0.01) at 32% in comparison to that of the younger flock at 21%. Egg weights when oviposition occurred earlier in the day were greater (P<0.01) than when oviposition occurred in the middle and later in the clutch (later in the day). Similarly, body weight at hatch of chicks from eggs where oviposition occurred earlier in the day was heavier than when oviposition occurred in the middle and later in the clutch (later in the day).With hatching of the eggs from hens when ovipositions occurred earlier in the day, there was a female sex bias. Differences in egg weights, body weight at hatch, and sex ratio due to time of oviposition suggest that oviposition time together with incubation conditions should be considered for obtaining greater uniformity and growth of chickens.

  6. The paradoxical moderating effect of body image investment on the impact of weight-based derogatory media.

    PubMed

    Boersma, Katelyn E; Jarry, Josée L

    2013-03-01

    Weight-based derogatory media consist of derogation of celebrities for failing to meet the thin ideal. This study examined the impact of weight-based derogatory media on women's body satisfaction, appearance self-esteem, fear of negative appearance evaluation, and negative affect. Female undergraduates (N=240) were exposed to either tabloid-style pictures and articles derogating average size celebrities for gaining weight, or to the same images accompanied by neutral information. Women in the derogation condition reported greater fear of negative appearance evaluation than did women in the neutral media condition. Contrary to predictions, women low in maladaptive body image investment reported lower body satisfaction and appearance self-esteem in the derogatory media condition than they did in the neutral condition, while women high in maladaptive investment did not differ across conditions. Highly invested women's unexpected reaction may be understood as a defence against a threat to a valued domain of the self.

  7. The influence of photoperiod on body weight gain, body composition, nutrient intake and hormone secretion.

    PubMed

    Tucker, H A; Petitclerc, D; Zinn, S A

    1984-12-01

    Increasing daily light exposure from 8 to 16 h increases average daily body weight gains of sheep and Holstein cattle but reduces gains of white-tailed doe fawns. Some of these effects on average daily gain in sheep are the result of increased gut fill and pelt weight. Increasing daily exposure to light increases feed intake when sheep or cattle are fed ad libitum. However, increased feed intake is not a prerequisite for the anabolic effects of long duration exposures to light because increased growth occurs in the animals given 16 h light:8 h dark (16L:8D) even when feed intake is restricted. The anabolic effects of increased duration photoperiods in sheep are independent of the gonads, whereas in cattle they are dependent on the gonads. Consistent increases in average daily gains of cattle in response to longer duration photoperiods have not always been achieved. The lack of consistency may be associated with sexual maturity or rate of fattening of the animal. For example, the stimulatory effects of 16L:8D photoperiods on live weight gain are not readily manifested in immature prepubertal heifers, but occur primarily during the peripubertal period. Short days are conducive to deposition of fat, which may account for the stimulatory effects of short days on live weight gain of white-tailed doe fawns and excessively fattened Holsteins. In contrast, long duration photoperiods stimulate protein accretion in cattle. The hormonal signals that mediate the anabolic effects of increasing exposure to light are not associated with change in insulin, thyroxine or growth hormone concentrations in the blood. Glucocorticoid concentrations in serum decrease with longer duration photoperiods which is consistent with an anabolic effect. Increasing daily light exposure to 16 h/d hastens the increase in concentrations of progesterone and testosterone in sera of peripubertal heifers and prepubertal bulls, respectively. Thus, change in secretion of reproductive hormones in the

  8. Administration of saccharin to neonatal mice influences body composition of adult males and reduces body weight of females.

    PubMed

    Parlee, Sebastian D; Simon, Becky R; Scheller, Erica L; Alejandro, Emilyn U; Learman, Brian S; Krishnan, Venkatesh; Bernal-Mizrachi, Ernesto; MacDougald, Ormond A

    2014-04-01

    Nutritional or pharmacological perturbations during perinatal growth can cause persistent effects on the function of white adipose tissue, altering susceptibility to obesity later in life. Previous studies have established that saccharin, a nonnutritive sweetener, inhibits lipolysis in mature adipocytes and stimulates adipogenesis. Thus, the current study tested whether neonatal exposure to saccharin via maternal lactation increased susceptibility of mice to diet-induced obesity. Saccharin decreased body weight of female mice beginning postnatal week 3. Decreased liver weights on week 14 corroborated this diminished body weight. Initially, saccharin also reduced male mouse body weight. By week 5, weights transiently rebounded above controls, and by week 14, male body weights did not differ. Body composition analysis revealed that saccharin increased lean and decreased fat mass of male mice, the latter due to decreased adipocyte size and epididymal, perirenal, and sc adipose weights. A mild improvement in glucose tolerance without a change in insulin sensitivity or secretion aligned with this leaner phenotype. Interestingly, microcomputed tomography analysis indicated that saccharin also increased cortical and trabecular bone mass of male mice and modified cortical bone alone in female mice. A modest increase in circulating testosterone may contribute to the leaner phenotype in male mice. Accordingly, the current study established a developmental period in which saccharin at high concentrations reduces adiposity and increases lean and bone mass in male mice while decreasing generalized growth in female mice.

  9. Administration of Saccharin to Neonatal Mice Influences Body Composition of Adult Males and Reduces Body Weight of Females

    PubMed Central

    Parlee, Sebastian D.; Simon, Becky R.; Scheller, Erica L.; Alejandro, Emilyn U.; Learman, Brian S.; Krishnan, Venkatesh; Bernal-Mizrachi, Ernesto

    2014-01-01

    Nutritional or pharmacological perturbations during perinatal growth can cause persistent effects on the function of white adipose tissue, altering susceptibility to obesity later in life. Previous studies have established that saccharin, a nonnutritive sweetener, inhibits lipolysis in mature adipocytes and stimulates adipogenesis. Thus, the current study tested whether neonatal exposure to saccharin via maternal lactation increased susceptibility of mice to diet-induced obesity. Saccharin decreased body weight of female mice beginning postnatal week 3. Decreased liver weights on week 14 corroborated this diminished body weight. Initially, saccharin also reduced male mouse body weight. By week 5, weights transiently rebounded above controls, and by week 14, male body weights did not differ. Body composition analysis revealed that saccharin increased lean and decreased fat mass of male mice, the latter due to decreased adipocyte size and epididymal, perirenal, and sc adipose weights. A mild improvement in glucose tolerance without a change in insulin sensitivity or secretion aligned with this leaner phenotype. Interestingly, microcomputed tomography analysis indicated that saccharin also increased cortical and trabecular bone mass of male mice and modified cortical bone alone in female mice. A modest increase in circulating testosterone may contribute to the leaner phenotype in male mice. Accordingly, the current study established a developmental period in which saccharin at high concentrations reduces adiposity and increases lean and bone mass in male mice while decreasing generalized growth in female mice. PMID:24456165

  10. The Light Weight Body Structure Technologies of Lexus LFA

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-01

    The original document contains color images. 14. ABSTRACT Lexus LFAs CFRP body structure has been developed from the ground level within Toyota...The development team has spent countless hours on technical discussions, especially as most of the member were not experienced at all in CFRP material...better, the key characteristics of the composite material. In fact, Toyota is one of the few automotive companies who manufacture CFRP body structure

  11. Does weight affect children's test scores and teacher assessments differently?

    PubMed

    Zavodny, Madeline

    2013-06-01

    The prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity increased dramatically in the United States during the past three decades. This increase has adverse public health implications, but its implication for children's academic outcomes is less clear. This paper uses data from five waves of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten to examine how children's weight is related to their scores on standardized tests and to their teachers' assessments of their academic ability. The results indicate that children's weight is more negatively related to teacher assessments of their academic performance than to test scores.

  12. Cocaine's appetite for fat and the consequences on body weight.

    PubMed

    Billing, Lawrence; Ersche, Karen D

    2015-03-01

    For many individuals in treatment for cocaine dependence, weight gain is a substantial problem during recovery. This weight gain causes significant distress and seems to increase the risk of relapse. The mechanisms underlying cocaine's effects on weight remain elusive. It is widely assumed that this weight gain reflects a metabolic or behavioural compensatory response to the cessation of cocaine use. Here we challenge this assumption and outline potential mechanisms by which chronic cocaine use produces disturbances in the regulation of fat intake and storage, through its effects on the central and peripheral nervous systems, specifically the sympathetic nervous system. We hypothesize that the cocaine-induced alteration in fat regulation results in cocaine users developing a pronounced appetite for fatty food but keeps their fat mass low. This altered fat appetite subsequently leads to excessive weight gain when individuals enter treatment and stop using cocaine. Our aim is to shed light on the neurobiological mechanisms that may underlie the alterations in eating and fat regulation in cocaine-dependent individuals, to open up potential new avenues to support these individuals in recovery.

  13. Effects of dietary fibre on subjective appetite, energy intake and body weight: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Wanders, A J; van den Borne, J J G C; de Graaf, C; Hulshof, T; Jonathan, M C; Kristensen, M; Mars, M; Schols, H A; Feskens, E J M

    2011-09-01

    Dietary fibres are believed to reduce subjective appetite, energy intake and body weight. However, different types of dietary fibre may affect these outcomes differently. The aim of this review was to systematically investigate the available literature on the relationship between dietary fibre types, appetite, acute and long-term energy intake, and body weight. Fibres were grouped according to chemical structure and physicochemical properties (viscosity, solubility and fermentability). Effect rates were calculated as the proportion of all fibre-control comparisons that reduced appetite (n = 58 comparisons), acute energy intake (n = 26), long-term energy intake (n = 38) or body weight (n = 66). For appetite, acute energy intake, long-term energy intake and body weight, there were clear differences in effect rates depending on chemical structure. Interestingly, fibres characterized as being more viscous (e.g. pectins, β-glucans and guar gum) reduced appetite more often than those less viscous fibres (59% vs. 14%), which also applied to acute energy intake (69% vs. 30%). Overall, effects on energy intake and body weight were relatively small, and distinct dose-response relationships were not observed. Short- and long-term effects of dietary fibres appear to differ and multiple mechanisms relating to their different physicochemical properties seem to interplay. This warrants further exploration.

  14. Anthropometry and Body Composition Status during Ramadan among Higher Institution Learning Centre Staffs with Different Body Weight Status

    PubMed Central

    Rozano, Nurismalina; Abd Hadi, Norhayati; Mat Nor, Mohd Nasir; Dandinasivara Venkateshaiah, Muralidhara

    2013-01-01

    This study was done to observe the anthropometry and body composition changes before, during, and after the holy month of Ramadan. This study was carried out on 46 staff from one of the local universities, which comprised of 14 males and 32 females ranging in age from 25 to 40 years old. There were four sessions done to complete this study, namely, a week before Ramadan (T1), 1st week of Ramadan (T2), 3rd week of Ramadan (T3), and a month after Ramadan (T4). All subjects were assessed according to weight, body circumference, and body composition status. It was found that subjects with different weight status showed a significant reduction in weight (P < 0.01) but no significant reduction in body fat percentage (P < 0.05). The findings suggest that weight reduction does not promise a reduction in body fat. Changes in neck circumference were only found in normal subjects. Hence, it can be said that overweight and obese subjects showed no changes in anthropometry status during Ramadan. No changes in body composition were reported in all three weight groups except for trunk body fat. In conclusion, normal subjects showed significant changes in various anthropometry parameters, but overweight and obese subjects showed no obvious difference. PMID:24311975

  15. Anthropometry and body composition status during Ramadan among higher institution learning centre staffs with different body weight status.

    PubMed

    Rohin, Mohd Adzim Khalili; Rozano, Nurismalina; Abd Hadi, Norhayati; Mat Nor, Mohd Nasir; Abdullah, Shaharudin; Dandinasivara Venkateshaiah, Muralidhara

    2013-01-01

    This study was done to observe the anthropometry and body composition changes before, during, and after the holy month of Ramadan. This study was carried out on 46 staff from one of the local universities, which comprised of 14 males and 32 females ranging in age from 25 to 40 years old. There were four sessions done to complete this study, namely, a week before Ramadan (T1), 1st week of Ramadan (T2), 3rd week of Ramadan (T3), and a month after Ramadan (T4). All subjects were assessed according to weight, body circumference, and body composition status. It was found that subjects with different weight status showed a significant reduction in weight (P < 0.01) but no significant reduction in body fat percentage (P < 0.05). The findings suggest that weight reduction does not promise a reduction in body fat. Changes in neck circumference were only found in normal subjects. Hence, it can be said that overweight and obese subjects showed no changes in anthropometry status during Ramadan. No changes in body composition were reported in all three weight groups except for trunk body fat. In conclusion, normal subjects showed significant changes in various anthropometry parameters, but overweight and obese subjects showed no obvious difference.

  16. ZResponse to selection, heritability and genetic correlations between body weight and body size in Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andriantahina, Farafidy; Liu, Xiaolin; Huang, Hao; Xiang, Jianhai

    2012-03-01

    To quantify the response to selection, heritability and genetic correlations between weight and size of Litopenaeus vannamei, the body weight (BW), total length (TL), body length (BL), first abdominal segment depth (FASD), third abdominal segment depth (TASD), first abdominal segment width (FASW), and partial carapace length (PCL) of 5-month-old parents and of offspnng were measured by calculating seven body measunngs of offspnng produced by a nested mating design. Seventeen half-sib families and 42 full-sib families of L. vannamei were produced using artificial fertilization from 2-4 dams by each sire, and measured at around five months post-metamorphosis. The results show that hentabilities among vanous traits were high: 0.515±0.030 for body weight and 0.394±0.030 for total length. After one generation of selection. the selection response was 10.70% for offspring growth. In the 5th month, the realized heritability for weight was 0.296 for the offspnng generation. Genetic correlations between body weight and body size were highly variable. The results indicate that external morphological parameters can be applied dunng breeder selection for enhancing the growth without sacrificing animals for determining the body size and breed ability; and selective breeding can be improved significantly, simultaneously with increased production.

  17. Maternal low-dose estradiol-17β exposure during pregnancy impairs postnatal progeny weight development and body composition

    SciTech Connect

    Werner Fürst, Rainer; Pistek, Veronika Leopoldine; Kliem, Heike; Skurk, Thomas; Hauner, Hans; Meyer, Heinrich Herman Dietrich; Ulbrich, Susanne Ernestine

    2012-09-15

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals with estrogenic activity play an important role as obesogens. However, studies investigating the most potent natural estrogen, estradiol-17β (E2), at low dose are lacking. We examined endocrine and physiological parameters in gilts receiving distinct concentrations of E2 during pregnancy. We then investigated whether adverse effects prevail in progeny due to a potential endocrine disruption. E2 was orally applied to gilts during the entire period of pregnancy. The concentrations represented a daily consumption at the recommended ADI level (0.05 μg/kg body weight/day), at the NOEL (10 μg/kg body weight/day) and at a high dosage (1000 μg/kg body weight/day). Plasma hormone concentrations were determined using enzyme immuno assays. Offspring body fat was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scanning. In treated gilts receiving 1000 μg E2/kg body weight/day we found significantly elevated plasma E2 levels during pregnancy, paralleled by an increased weight gain. While offspring showed similar weight at birth, piglets exhibited a significant reduction in weight at weaning even though their mothers had only received 0.05 μg E2/kg body weight/day. At 8 weeks of age, specifically males showed a significant increase in overall body fat percentage. In conclusion, prenatal exposure to low doses of E2 affected pig offspring development in terms of body weight and composition. In line with findings from other obesogens, our data suggest a programming effect during pregnancy for E2 causative for the depicted phenotypes. Therefore, E2 exposure may imply a possible contribution to childhood obesity. -- Highlights: ► We investigate the potential role of estradiol-17β (E2) as an obesogen. ► We orally apply E2 at the ADI, NOEL and a high dose to gilts during pregnancy. ► Offspring weight is similar at birth but reduced at weaning even after ADI treatment. ► Male offspring only exhibit an increase in overall body fat percentage

  18. Influence of ADRB2 Gln27Glu and ADRB3 Trp64Arg polymorphisms on body weight and body composition changes after a controlled weight-loss intervention.

    PubMed

    Szendrei, Barbara; González-Lamuño, Domingo; Amigo, Teresa; Wang, Guan; Pitsiladis, Yannis; Benito, Pedro J; Gomez-Candela, Carmen; Calderón, Francisco J; Cupeiro, Rocío

    2016-03-01

    The β-2 and β-3 adrenergic receptors (ADRB2 and ADRB3) are thought to play a role in energy expenditure and lipolysis. However, the effects of the ADRB2 glutamine (Gln) 27 glutamic acid (glutamate) (Glu) and ADRB3 tryptophan (Trp) 64 arginine (Arg) polymorphisms on weight loss remain controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of these polymorphisms on changes in weight and body composition during a controlled weight-loss program. One hundred seventy-three healthy overweight and obese participants (91 women, 82 men) aged 18-50 years participated in a 22-week-long intervention based on a hypocaloric diet and exercise. They were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups: strength, endurance, strength and endurance combined, and physical activity recommendations only. Body weight, body mass index (BMI), and body composition variables were assessed before and after the intervention. Genetic analysis was carried out according to standard protocols. No effect of the ADRB2 gene was shown on final weight, BMI, or body composition, although in the supervised male group, Glu27 carriers tended to have greater weight (p = 0.019, 2.5 kg) and BMI (p = 0.019, 0.88 kg/m(2)) reductions than did noncarriers. There seems to be an individual effect of the ADRB3 polymorphism on fat mass (p = 0.004) and fat percentage (p = 0.036), in addition to an interaction with exercise for fat mass (p = 0.038). After the intervention, carriers of the Arg64 allele had a greater fat mass and fat percentage than did noncarriers (p = 0.004, 2.8 kg). In conclusion, the ADRB2 Gln27Glu and ADRB3 Trp64Arg polymorphisms may influence weight loss and body composition, although the current evidence is weak; however, further studies are necessary to clarify their roles.

  19. Changes in body weight, composition, and shape: a 4-year study of college students.

    PubMed

    Gropper, Sareen S; Simmons, Karla P; Connell, Lenda Jo; Ulrich, Pamela V

    2012-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine changes in body weight, body mass index (BMI), body composition, and shape in a group of male and female students over the 4-year college period. Anthropometric assessments including height and weight (via standard techniques), body composition (via bioelectrical impedance analysis), and body shape (via 3-dimensional body scanning) were conducted at the beginning of the freshman year and end of the senior year in 131 college students. Four-year changes included significant (p < 0.0001) gains in weight (3.0 kg), BMI (1.0 kg·m(-2)), body fat (3.6%), and absolute fat mass (3.2 kg). Males gained significantly (p < 0.0001) greater amounts of weight, BMI, percent and absolute fat mass, and fat-free mass than females. Weight change ranged from (-)8.7 to (+)16.8 kg. About 70% of the participants gained weight, which averaged 5.3 kg; significant (p < 0.0001) gains in BMI, fat-free mass, absolute fat mass, and percent body fat and significant (p < 0.0005) increases in neck, chest-bust, waist, hips, seat, and biceps circumferences were also observed in this weight gain group. The percentage of participants classified as overweight-obese increased from 18% to 31%. The number of females and males with ≥30% and 20% body fat, respectively, increased from n = 14 to n = 26 (with n = 4 exhibiting normal weight obesity) over the 4-year period. The waist circumference changes were significantly (p < 0.0001) correlated with both weight and percent body fat changes. In conclusion, the increasing prevalence of obesity and normal weight obesity among this college population suggests the need for additional health promotion strategies on college campuses.

  20. Adipose tissue hormones and appetite and body weight regulators in insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Koleva, Daniela Iv; Orbetzova, Maria M; Atanassova, Pepa K

    2013-01-01

    Impaired sensitivity to insulin (the so called insulin resistance, IR) occurs in a number of genetic and acquired conditions, including obesity, non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and metabolic syndrome (MS). In this review we discuss the correlation between IR, the adipose tissue hormones and appetite and body weight regulators. Leptin acts as a major adipostat: it suppresses food intake and activates catabolic pathways associated with increased energy production. It improves the peripheral insulin sensitivity and affects beta-cell function. Adiponectin is the only adipocytokine discovered so far that has anti-atherogenic properties. There is a reverse correlation between the serum adiponectin levels and the degree of obesity, IR, impaired glucose tolerance, dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis. Ghrelin stimulates food intake; of all circulating orexigenic hormones ghrelin is the most thoroughly studied. Ghrelin levels are decreased in MS and PCOS patients as this hormone is negatively correlated with body mass. Resistin is a hormone secreted by adipose tissues; a growing body of evidence suggests that it might be implicated in the link between obesity and diabetes. It has been found that the hormone's levels are significantly higher in obese people than those in normal body mass people. The recently discovered adipose tissue hormones, vaspin, visfatin, omentin-1 and their effect on IR development, have been increasingly researched.

  1. Osteocalcin carboxylation is not associated with body weight or percent fat changes during weight loss in post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Centi, Amanda J; Booth, Sarah L; Gundberg, Caren M; Saltzman, Edward; Nicklas, Barbara; Shea, M Kyla

    2015-12-01

    Osteocalcin (OC) is a vitamin K-dependent bone protein used as a marker of bone formation. Mouse models have demonstrated a role for the uncarboxylated form of OC (ucOC) in energy metabolism, including energy expenditure and adiposity, but human data are equivocal. The purpose of this study was to determine the associations between changes in measures of OC and changes in body weight and percent body fat in obese, but otherwise healthy post-menopausal women undergoing a 20-week weight loss program. All participants received supplemental vitamins K and D and calcium. Body weight and body fat percentage (%BF) were assessed before and after the intervention. Serum OC [(total (tOC), ucOC, percent uncarboxylated (%ucOC)], and procollagen type 1N-terminal propeptide (P1NP; a measure of bone formation) were measured. Women lost an average of 10.9 ± 3.9 kg and 4 %BF. Serum concentrations of tOC, ucOC, %ucOC, and P1NP did not significantly change over the twenty-week intervention, nor were these measures associated with changes in weight (all p > 0.27) or %BF (all p > 0.54). Our data do not support an association between any serum measure of OC and weight or %BF loss in post-menopausal women supplemented with nutrients implicated in bone health.

  2. Body weight and food intake in Parkinson's disease. A review of the association to non-motor symptoms.

    PubMed

    Aiello, Marilena; Eleopra, Roberto; Rumiati, Raffella I

    2015-01-01

    Research on eating behaviours has extensively highlighted that cognitive systems interact with the metabolic system in driving food intake and in influencing body weight regulation. Parkinson's disease is a good model for studying these complex interactions since alterations in both body weight and cognitive domains have been frequently reported among these patients. Interestingly, even if different non-motor symptoms may characterize the course of the disease, their contribution to weight and food preference has been poorly investigated. This review describes body weight alterations and eating habits in patients with Parkinson's disease, including those who underwent deep brain stimulation surgery. In particular, the review considers the link between non-motor symptoms, affecting sensory perception, cognition, mood and motivation, and food intake and weight alterations. The take home message is twofold. First, we recommend a comprehensive approach in order to develop effective strategies in the management of patients' weight. Second, we also suggest that investigating this issue in patients with Parkinson's disease may provide some useful information about the mechanisms underlying food and weight regulation in healthy subjects.

  3. Change in body image and psychological well-being during behavioral obesity treatment: Associations with weight loss and maintenance.

    PubMed

    Palmeira, António L; Branco, Teresa L; Martins, Sandra C; Minderico, Cláudia S; Silva, Marlene N; Vieira, Paulo N; Barata, José T; Serpa, Sidónio O; Sardinha, Luís B; Teixeira, Pedro J

    2010-06-01

    This study reports on outcomes from a behavioral obesity treatment program, evaluating if treatment-related changes in body image and psychological well-being are predictors of weight change during treatment and after follow-up. Participants were 142 overweight/obese women (BMI=30.2+/-3.7kg/m(2); age=38.3+/-5.8 years) participants in a behavioral treatment program consisting of a 4-month treatment period and a 12-month follow-up. Psychosocial variables improved during treatment and these changes were correlated with 4-month weight reduction. Short-term changes in body size dissatisfaction (p=.002) and mood (p=.003) predicted long-term weight loss. Additional results suggest that there might be a predictive role of short-term changes in body size dissatisfaction and self-esteem on long-term weight loss after accounting for initial weight change (p<.028). We conclude that, along with weight changes, cognitive and affect-related processes influenced during obesity treatment may be related long-term success, in some cases independently of initial weight loss.

  4. Single rapamycin administration induces prolonged downward shift in defended body weight in rats.

    PubMed

    Hebert, Mark; Licursi, Maria; Jensen, Brittany; Baker, Ashley; Milway, Steve; Malsbury, Charles; Grant, Virginia L; Adamec, Robert; Hirasawa, Michiru; Blundell, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    Manipulation of body weight set point may be an effective weight loss and maintenance strategy as the homeostatic mechanism governing energy balance remains intact even in obese conditions and counters the effort to lose weight. However, how the set point is determined is not well understood. We show that a single injection of rapamycin (RAP), an mTOR inhibitor, is sufficient to shift the set point in rats. Intraperitoneal RAP decreased food intake and daily weight gain for several days, but surprisingly, there was also a long-term reduction in body weight which lasted at least 10 weeks without additional RAP injection. These effects were not due to malaise or glucose intolerance. Two RAP administrations with a two-week interval had additive effects on body weight without desensitization and significantly reduced the white adipose tissue weight. When challenged with food deprivation, vehicle and RAP-treated rats responded with rebound hyperphagia, suggesting that RAP was not inhibiting compensatory responses to weight loss. Instead, RAP animals defended a lower body weight achieved after RAP treatment. Decreased food intake and body weight were also seen with intracerebroventricular injection of RAP, indicating that the RAP effect is at least partially mediated by the brain. In summary, we found a novel effect of RAP that maintains lower body weight by shifting the set point long-term. Thus, RAP and related compounds may be unique tools to investigate the mechanisms by which the defended level of body weight is determined; such compounds may also be used to complement weight loss strategy.

  5. Xanthohumol lowers body weight and fasting plasma glucose in obese male Zucker fa/fa rats.

    PubMed

    Legette, Leecole L; Luna, Arlyn Y Moreno; Reed, Ralph L; Miranda, Cristobal L; Bobe, Gerd; Proteau, Rosita R; Stevens, Jan F

    2013-07-01

    Obesity contributes to increased risk for several chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Xanthohumol, a prenylated flavonoid from hops (Humulus lupulus), was tested for efficacy on biomarkers of metabolic syndrome in 4 week old Zucker fa/fa rats, a rodent model of obesity. Rats received daily oral doses of xanthohumol at 0, 1.86, 5.64, and 16.9 mg/kg BW for 6 weeks. All rats were maintained on a high fat (60% kcal) AIN-93G diet for 3 weeks to induce severe obesity followed by a normal AIN-93G (15% kcal fat) diet for the last 3 weeks of the study. Weekly food intake and body weight were recorded. Plasma cholesterol, glucose, insulin, triglyceride, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) levels were assessed using commercial assay kits. Plasma and liver tissue levels of XN and its metabolites were determined by liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Plasma and liver tissue levels of xanthohumol were similar between low and medium dose groups and significantly (p<0.05) elevated in the highest dose group. There was a dose-dependent effect on body weight and plasma glucose levels. The highest dose group (n=6) had significantly lower plasma glucose levels compared to the control group (n=6) in male but not female rats. There was also a significant decrease in body weight for male rats in the highest dose group (16.9 mg/kg BW) compared to rats that received no xanthohumol, which was also not seen for female rats. Plasma cholesterol, insulin, triglycerides, and MCP-1 as well as food intake were not affected by treatment. The findings suggest that xanthohumol has beneficial effects on markers of metabolic syndrome.

  6. The effect of exercise training on body weight and peptide hormone patterns in normal weight college-age men.

    PubMed

    Hurley, R S; Bossetti, B M; O'Dorisio, T M; Tenison, E B; Welch, M A; Rice, R R

    1991-03-01

    Resting and peak glucose, insulin, glucagon, gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) and pancreatic polypeptide (PP) levels were evaluated pretraining, 3 weeks and 10 weeks posttraining in seven college age males. The exercise consisted of thrice weekly session of jogging at 70% VO2max for 20 minutes plus warmup and cool down. Following the 10 weeks, VO2max increased significantly. Body weight remained constant and body fat decreased significantly. Fasting and peak blood glucose levels were normal at the beginning of the study yet improved with training. As expected, fasting and peak insulin levels decreased significantly with training. Although GIP did not change significantly with training, an uncoupling of GIP and insulin peak responses was observed. Glucagon levels were essentially unchanged. Fasting and peak PP levels increased slightly as training occurred. These hormone responses suggest that perhaps body weight and/or changes in body fat stores and fuel use might influence peptide hormone responses with training.

  7. Body Weight and the Quality of Interpersonal Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Deborah; Friedman, Michael A.

    2006-01-01

    We investigate whether underweight, normal-weight, overweight, and obese Americans differ in their evaluations of positive and negative aspects of their interpersonal relationships. Analyses are based on data from the Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS) study, a survey of more than 3,000 adults ages 25 to 74 in 1995. We find no…

  8. Body Weight and Matching with a Physically Attractive Romantic Partner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmalt, Julie H.; Cawley, John; Joyner, Kara; Sobal, Jeffery

    2008-01-01

    Matching and attribute trade are two perspectives used to explain mate selection. We investigated patterns of matching and trade, focusing on obesity, using Add Health Romantic Pair data (N = 1,405 couples). Obese individuals, relative to healthy weight individuals, were less likely to have physically attractive partners, with this disadvantage…

  9. Stability of Pigeon Body Weight under Free-Feeding Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kangas, Brian D.; Branch, Marc N.

    2006-01-01

    Increases in regulatory oversight of animal research require verification of effects of standard practices. There are no formal guidelines for establishing free-feeding weights in adult pigeons. In the present study, pigeons were obtained from a commercial supplier, weighed upon arrival, and then held in quarantine for 7 days with free access to…

  10. Longitudinal Trajectories of Perceived Body Weight: Adolescence to Early Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Li, Kaigang

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine longitudinal trajectories of perceived weight from adolescence to early adulthood by gender. Methods: We analyzed 9 waves (1997-2005) of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N = 8302) using Mplus. Results: Perceived overweight increased over time among girls and did not level off until 23 years of age. Blacks…

  11. Scaling of sexual dimorphism in body weight and canine size in primates.

    PubMed

    Leutenegger, W

    1982-01-01

    Among primates sexual dimorphism in both body weight and canine size increases exponentially with increasing body size. This suggests that a full explanation of the variance in sexual dimorphism can only be attained if, in addition to sexual selection, parental investment, and various ecological factors, the influence of body size is taken into account. Positive allometry in both body weight dimorphism and canine size dimorphism is demonstrated to be associated with polygyny. In monogamous species the two dimorphisms not only remain constant throughout the size range but actually are minimal or lacking at any given body size.

  12. Longitudinal body composition of children born to normal weight, overweight and obese mothers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: The longitudinal trajectories of body composition of children born to normal weight, overweight and obese mothers have not been evaluated using precise body composition methods. This study investigated the relationship between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and offspring body composition traj...

  13. A Longitudinal Study of Body Image and Strategies to Lose Weight and Increase Muscles among Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, M. P.; Ricciardelli, L. A.

    2005-01-01

    A longitudinal study was used to examine age differences in the role of body mass index (BMI) and sociocultural pressures in predicting changes in body image and strategies to both lose weight and increase muscles among 443 children aged between 8 and 12 years (207 boys, 236 girls) over a 16-month period. The strongest predictors of body image and…

  14. The propeptide precursor proSAAS is involved in fetal neuropeptide processing and body weight regulation.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Daniel J; Wei, Suwen; Gomes, Ivone; Czyzyk, Traci; Mzhavia, Nino; Pan, Hui; Devi, Lakshmi A; Fricker, Lloyd D; Pintar, John E

    2010-06-01

    Mice with a targeted mutation in proSAAS have been generated to investigate whether peptides derived from this precursor could function as an inhibitor of prohormone convertase 1/3 (PC1/3) in vivo as well as to determine any alternate roles for proSAAS in nervous and endocrine tissues. Fetal mice lacking proSAAS exhibit complete, adult-like processing of prodynorphin in the prenatal brain instead of the incomplete processing seen in the brains of wild-type fetal mice where inhibitory proSAAS intermediates are transiently accumulated. This study provides evidence that proSAAS is directly involved in the prenatal regulation of neuropeptide processing in vivo. However, adult mice lacking proSAAS have normal levels of all peptides detected using a peptidomics approach, suggesting that PC1/3 activity is not affected by the absence of proSAAS in adult mice. ProSAAS knockout mice exhibit decreased locomotion and a male-specific 10-15% decrease in body weight, but maintain normal fasting blood glucose levels and are able to efficiently clear glucose from the blood in response to a glucose challenge. This work suggests that proSAAS-derived peptides can inhibit PC1/3 in embryonic brain, but in the adult brain proSAAS peptides may function as neuropeptides that regulate body weight and potentially other behaviors.

  15. The skinny on cocaine: insights into eating behavior and body weight in cocaine-dependent men.

    PubMed

    Ersche, Karen D; Stochl, Jan; Woodward, Jeremy M; Fletcher, Paul C

    2013-12-01

    There is a general assumption that weight loss associated with cocaine use reflects its appetite suppressing properties. We sought to determine whether this was justified by characterizing, in detail, alterations in dietary food intake and body composition in actively using cocaine-dependent individuals. We conducted a cross-sectional case-control comparison of 65 male volunteers from the local community, half of whom satisfied the DSM-IV-TR criteria for cocaine dependence (n=35) while the other half had no personal or family history of a psychiatric disorder, including substance abuse (n=30). Assessments were made of eating behavior and dietary food intake, estimation of body composition, and measurement of plasma leptin. Although cocaine users reported significantly higher levels of dietary fat and carbohydrates as well as patterns of uncontrolled eating, their fat mass was significantly reduced compared with their non-drug using peers. Levels of leptin were associated with fat mass, and with the duration of stimulant use. Tobacco smoking status or concomitant use of medication did not affect the significance of the results. Weight changes in cocaine users reflect fundamental perturbations in fat regulation. These are likely to be overlooked in clinical practice but may produce significant health problems when cocaine use is discontinued during recovery.

  16. Efficiency of food utilization during body weight gain in dormice (Glis glis).

    PubMed

    Melnyk, R B; Boshes, M

    1980-06-01

    During spontaneous body weight gain in dormice, Glis glis, progressive increases in the efficiency of food utilization as defined by weight gain (g)/food intake (g), and parallel increases in mean daily food intake were observed. Towards the end of the weight gain period, there was an abrupt drop in feeding efficiency with no significant change in food intake even when the latter was expressed relative to an index of each animal's "metabolic mass" (body weightkg0.62). Animals whose body weight increases followed a return to ad lib feeding after prolonged food restriction showed marked decreases in feeding efficiency from initially high values which were independent of changes in food intake. These results are discussed in relation to the sliding set point concept of body weight regulation in hibernators.

  17. Body weight changes during the menstrual cycle among university students in Ahvaz, Iran.

    PubMed

    Haghighizadeh, Mohammad Hossein; Karandish, Majid; Ghoreishi, Mahdiye; Soroor, Farshad; Shirani, Fatemeh

    2014-07-01

    Weight changes during menstrual cycle may be a cause of concern about body weight among most women. Limited data are available linking menstrual cycle and body weight changes. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between menstrual cycles and body weight changes among university students in Ahvaz, Iran. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 50 Iranian female students aged 18-24 years. Anthropometric indices were measured according to standard protocols. During a complete menstrual cycle, weights of participants were measured each morning. Seventy eight percent of participants had normal weight (Body Mass Index: 18.5-24.9 kg m(-2)). Body weight increased only slightly during the three days before beginning of the menstruation. By using repeated-measures ANOVA, no statistically significant differences were found in weigh during menstrual cycle (p-value = 0.301). No statistically significant changes were found in body weight during women's menstrual cycle in a group of healthy non-obese Iranian young women. Further studies on overweight and obese women are suggested.

  18. Effects of seasonal changes in dietary energy on body weight of captive Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata).

    PubMed

    Aoki, Kouhei; Mitsutsuka, Syuuhei; Yamazaki, Ato; Nagai, Kazumi; Tezuka, Atsuko; Tsuji, Yamato

    2015-01-01

    Food availability varies seasonally for wild animals, and body weight fluctuates accordingly in the wild. In contrast, controlling availability of diet under captive condition is difficult from keepers' standpoint, and monotonous diet often causes health problems in captive animals. We evaluated the effects of a seasonally controlled diet on body weight of captive Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) in an outside enclosure at Ueno Zoo, Tokyo, Japan. We fed a high-energy diet in spring and fall, and a more restricted diet in summer and winter for 3 years (2011-2013). Seasonal changes in body weight were similar to those that occur in wild macaques: for both sexes, body weight was higher in spring and fall and lower in winter. A decrease in body weight between fall and winter occurred only in adults, which implied that reducing dietary intake in winter had a more severe effect on adults than on juveniles. Different from wild populations, the body weight of captive macaques did not decrease between spring and summer, which we attributed to a lack of movement within the enclosure and to excess energy intake in summer. In addition to controlling dietary composition, providing large enclosure with complex structure and making efforts of giving unpredictability in feeding are necessary to motivate the captive animals to be more active, which would cause the macaques to show seasonal change in body weight, which is found in wild.

  19. Associations between body weight and depression, social phobia, insomnia, and self-esteem among Taiwanese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jia-In; Yen, Cheng-Fang

    2014-12-01

    The aims of this cross-sectional study were to examine the associations between body weight and mental health indicators including depression, social phobia, insomnia, and self-esteem among Taiwanese adolescents in Grades 7-12. The body mass index (BMI) of 5254 adolescents was calculated based on self-reported weight and height measurements. Body weight status was determined by the age- and gender-specific International Obesity Task Force reference tables. By using participants of average weight as the reference group, the association between body weight status (underweight, overweight, and obesity) and mental health indicators (depression, social phobia, insomnia, and self-esteem) were examined by using multiple regression analysis. The possible moderating effects of sociodemographic characteristics on the association were also examined. After controlling for the effects of sociodemographic characteristics, both overweight (p < 0.05) and obese adolescents (p < 0.001) had a lower level of self-esteem than did those of average weight; however, no significant differences in depression, social phobia, or insomnia were found between those who were overweight/obese and those of average weight. No significant differences in the four mental health indicators were found between those who were underweight and those of average weight. Sociodemographic characteristics had no moderating effect on the association between body weight and mental health indicators. In conclusion, mental health and school professionals must take the association between overweight/obesity and self-esteem into consideration when approaching the issue of mental health among adolescents.

  20. Nutraceuticals for body-weight management: The role of green tea catechins.

    PubMed

    Janssens, Pilou L H R; Hursel, Rick; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2016-08-01

    Green tea catechins mixed with caffeine have been proposed as adjuvants for maintaining or enhancing energy expenditure and for increasing fat oxidation, in the context of prevention and treatment of obesity. These catechins-caffeine mixtures seem to counteract the decrease in metabolic rate that occurs during weight loss. Their effects are of particular importance during weight maintenance after weight loss. Other metabolic targets may be fat absorption and the gut microbiota composition, but these effects still need further investigation in combination with weight loss. Limitations for the effects of green tea catechins are moderating factors such as genetic predisposition related to COMT-activity, habitual caffeine intake, and ingestion combined with dietary protein. In conclusion, a mixture of green tea catechins and caffeine has a beneficial effect on body-weight management, especially by sustained energy expenditure, fat oxidation, and preservation of fat free body-mass, after energy restriction induced body-weight loss, when taking the limitations into account.

  1. Linking cellular zinc status to body weight and fat mass: mapping quantitative trait loci in Znt7 knockout mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Zinc transporter 7 (Znt7, Slc30a7) knockout (KO) mice display abnormalities in body weight gain and body adiposity. Regulation of body weight and fatness is complex, involving multiple genetic and environmental factors. To understand how zinc homeostasis influences body weight gain and fat deposit a...

  2. Interleukin-6 gene transfer reverses body weight gain and fatty liver in obese mice.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yongjie; Gao, Mingming; Sun, Hao; Liu, Dexi

    2015-05-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a multifunctional protein and has a major influence on energy metabolism. The current study was designed to assess the therapeutic effect of overexpression of Il-6 gene through gene transfer on high fat diet-induced obese mice. Hydrodynamic delivery of 1 μg pLIVE-IL6 plasmid per mouse into C57BL/6 obese mice resulted in peak level at 10 ng/ml of circulating IL-6 1 day after gene transfer and above 1n g/ml thereafter for a period of 6 weeks. Persistent Il-6 gene expression did not affect food intake but induced a significant reduction in body weight and improved obesity-associated hepatic steatosis. Il-6 gene delivery enhanced thermogenic gene expression and elevated protein levels of phosphorylated STAT3, PGC1α and UCP1 in brown adipose tissue. Il-6 overexpression elevated mRNA levels of lipolysis genes, triggered phosphorylation of STAT3, AMPK, and ACC, and increased expression of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation in skeletal muscle. IL-6 did not affect macrophage infiltration but maintained the M2 macrophage population in adipose tissue. Collectively, these results suggest that overexpression of the Il-6 gene by hydrodynamic gene delivery induces weight loss and alleviates obesity-induced fatty liver and insulin resistance, supporting the notion that gene transfer is a valid approach in managing obesity epidemics.

  3. Appetite and body weight regulation after bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Münzberg, H; Laque, A; Yu, S; Rezai-Zadeh, K; Berthoud, H-R

    2015-02-01

    Bariatric surgery continues to be remarkably efficient in treating obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus and a debate has started whether it should remain the last resort only or also be used for the prevention of metabolic diseases. Intense research efforts in humans and rodent models are underway to identify the critical mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects with a view towards non-surgical treatment options. This non-systematic review summarizes and interprets some of this literature, with an emphasis on changes in the controls of appetite. Contrary to earlier views, surgery-induced reduction of energy intake and subsequent weight loss appear to be the main drivers for rapid improvements of glycaemic control. The mechanisms responsible for suppression of appetite, particularly in the face of the large weight loss, are not well understood. Although a number of changes in food choice, taste functions, hedonic evaluation, motivation and self-control have been documented in both humans and rodents after surgery, their importance and relative contribution to diminished appetite has not yet been demonstrated. Furthermore, none of the major candidate mechanisms postulated in mediating surgery-induced changes from the gut and other organs to the brain, such as gut hormones and sensory neuronal pathways, have been confirmed yet. Future research efforts should focus on interventional rather than descriptive approaches in both humans and rodent models.

  4. Appetite and body weight regulation after bariatric surgery

    PubMed Central

    Münzberg, Heike; Laque, Amanda; Yu, Sangho; Rezai-Zadeh, Kavon; Berthoud, Hans-Rudolf

    2016-01-01

    Bariatric surgery continues to be remarkably efficient in treating obesity and T2DM and a debate has started whether it should remain the last resort only or also be used for the prevention of metabolic diseases. Intense research efforts in humans and rodent models are underway to identify the critical mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects with a view towards non-surgical treatment options. This non-systematic review summarizes and interprets some of this literature, with an emphasis on changes in the controls of appetite. Contrary to earlier views, surgery-induced reduction of energy intake and subsequent weight loss appear to be the main drivers for rapid improvements of glycemic control. The mechanisms responsible for suppression of appetite, particularly in the face of the large weight loss, are not well understood. Although a number of changes in food choice, taste functions, hedonic evaluation, motivation, and self-control have been documented in both humans and rodents after surgery, their importance and relative contribution to diminished appetite has not yet been demonstrated. Furthermore, none of the major candidate mechanisms postulated in mediating surgery induced changes from the gut and other organs to the brain, such as gut hormones and sensory neuronal pathways, have been confirmed yet. Future research efforts should focus on interventional rather than descriptive approaches in both humans and rodent models. PMID:25614206

  5. Whey protein but not soy protein supplementation alters body weight and composition in free-living overweight and obese adults.

    PubMed

    Baer, David J; Stote, Kim S; Paul, David R; Harris, G Keith; Rumpler, William V; Clevidence, Beverly A

    2011-08-01

    A double-blind, randomized clinical trial was conducted to determine the effect of consumption of supplemental whey protein (WP), soy protein (SP), and an isoenergetic amount of carbohydrate (CHO) on body weight and composition in free-living overweight and obese but otherwise healthy participants. Ninety overweight and obese participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups for 23 wk: 1) WP; 2) SP (each providing ~56 g/d of protein and 1670 kJ/d); or 3) an isoenergetic amount of CHO. Supplements were consumed as a beverage twice daily. Participants were provided no dietary advice and continued to consume their free-choice diets. Participants' body weight and composition data were obtained monthly. Dietary intake was determined by 24-h dietary recalls collected every 10 d. After 23 wk, body weight and composition did not differ between the groups consuming the SP and WP or between SP and CHO; however, body weight and fat mass of the group consuming the WP were lower by 1.8 kg (P < 0.006) and 2.3 kg (P < 0.005), respectively, than the group consuming CHO. Lean body mass did not differ among any of the groups. Waist circumference was smaller in the participants consuming WP than in the other groups (P < 0.05). Fasting ghrelin was lower in participants consuming WP compared with SP or CHO. Through yet-unknown mechanisms, different sources of dietary protein may differentially facilitate weight loss and affect body composition. Dietary recommendations, especially those that emphasize the role of dietary protein in facilitating weight change, should also address the demonstrated clinical potential of supplemental WP.

  6. Relationships between Neonatal Weight, Limb Lengths, Skinfold Thicknesses, Body Breadths and Circumferences in an Australian Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Pomeroy, Emma; Stock, Jay T.; Cole, Tim J.; O'Callaghan, Michael; Wells, Jonathan C. K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Low birth weight has been consistently associated with adult chronic disease risk. The thrifty phenotype hypothesis assumes that reduced fetal growth impacts some organs more than others. However, it remains unclear how birth weight relates to different body components, such as circumferences, adiposity, body segment lengths and limb proportions. We hypothesized that these components vary in their relationship to birth weight. Methods We analysed the relationship between birth weight and detailed anthropometry in 1270 singleton live-born neonates (668 male) from the Mater-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy (Brisbane, Australia). We tested adjusted anthropometry for correlations with birth weight. We then performed stepwise multiple regression on birth weight of: body lengths, breadths and circumferences; relative limb to neck-rump proportions; or skinfold thicknesses. All analyses were adjusted for sex and gestational age, and used logged data. Results Circumferences, especially chest, were most strongly related to birth weight, while segment lengths (neck-rump, thigh, upper arm, and especially lower arm and lower leg) were relatively weakly related to birth weight, and limb lengths relative to neck-rump length showed no relationship. Skinfolds accounted for 36% of birth weight variance, but adjusting for size (neck-rump, thigh and upper arm lengths, and head circumference), this decreased to 10%. There was no evidence that heavier babies had proportionally thicker skinfolds. Conclusions Neonatal body measurements vary in their association with birth weight: head and chest circumferences showed the strongest associations while limb segment lengths did not relate strongly to birth weight. After adjusting for body size, subcutaneous fatness accounted for a smaller proportion of birth weight variance than previously reported. While heavier babies had absolutely thicker skinfolds, this was proportional to their size. Relative limb to trunk length

  7. The relationship between body weight and inflammation: Lesson from anti-TNF-α antibody therapy.

    PubMed

    Peluso, Ilaria; Palmery, Maura

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is associated with many pathological conditions. Tumor Necrosis Factor-α (TNF-α) is one of the key mediators of inflammation involved in the obesity-related insulin resistance development. We aim to review the human evidence useful to clarify the relationship between inflammation and body weight, with particular reference to TNF-α. Genetic polymorphisms and epigenetic factors, such as diet, could affect TNF-α activity. TNF-α is associated with obesity, but also with anorexia and cachexia. Despite the role of TNF-α in obesity-related diseases, anti-TNF-α antibody therapy is associated with an increase in adiposity. In conclusion the reviewed results suggest that inflammation is more likely a consequence rather than a cause of obesity.

  8. GLP-1 receptor signaling is not required for reduced body weight after RYGB in rodents.

    PubMed

    Ye, Jianping; Hao, Zheng; Mumphrey, Michael B; Townsend, R Leigh; Patterson, Laurel M; Stylopoulos, Nicholas; Münzberg, Heike; Morrison, Christopher D; Drucker, Daniel J; Berthoud, Hans-Rudolf

    2014-03-01

    Exaggerated GLP-1 and PYY secretion is thought to be a major mechanism in the reduced food intake and body weight after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery. Here, we use complementary pharmacological and genetic loss-of-function approaches to test the role of increased signaling by these gut hormones in high-fat diet-induced obese rodents. Chronic brain infusion of a supramaximal dose of the selective GLP-1 receptor antagonist exendin-9-39 into the lateral cerebral ventricle significantly increased food intake and body weight in both RYGB and sham-operated rats, suggesting that, while contributing to the physiological control of food intake and body weight, central GLP-1 receptor signaling tone is not the critical mechanism uniquely responsible for the body weight-lowering effects of RYGB. Central infusion of the selective Y2R-antagonist BIIE0246 had no effect in either group, suggesting that it is not critical for the effects of RYGB on body weight under the conditions tested. In a recently established mouse model of RYGB that closely mimics surgery and weight loss dynamics in humans, obese GLP-1R-deficient mice lost the same amount of body weight and fat mass and maintained similarly lower body weight compared with wild-type mice. Together, the results surprisingly provide no support for important individual roles of either gut hormone in the specific mechanisms by which RYGB rats settle at a lower body weight. It is likely that the beneficial effects of bariatric surgeries are expressed through complex mechanisms that require combination approaches for their identification.

  9. Perceived stress and freshman weight change: the moderating role of baseline body mass index.

    PubMed

    Boyce, Jessica A; Kuijer, Roeline G

    2015-02-01

    The transition from high-school to university is a critical period of weight change. Popular media suggest that freshman students gain 15 lb (6.80 kg) of body weight during their first year at university (i.e., the freshman 15). In contrast, a recent meta-analysis calculated freshman weight gain to be 1.75 kg, with statistics suggesting that only a proportion of freshman students are prone to gain weight. Researchers are beginning to investigate how certain variables and interactions between such variables predict freshman weight status. The current study focused on body mass index (BMI) and psychological stress. In isolation, previous research has tested how these two variables predict freshman student's weight status. However, because BMI and stress interact to predict weight gain and weight loss in adult samples, the current study tested the interaction between student's baseline BMI and baseline stress levels to predict weight change in a New Zealand sample of freshman students (N=65). Participants completed two separate online surveys in March and October 2012 (i.e., New Zealand's academic year). Although only three students gained over 6.80 kg (i.e., the freshman 15), participants did gain a statistically significant 1.10 kg of body weight during the year. Consistent with previous research, students with a higher baseline BMI gained a higher amount of body weight. However, this main effect was qualified by an interaction between stress and BMI. Students who entered university with high levels of stress gained weight if they also had high BMIs; if they had lower BMIs then they lost weight. In order to reduce unhealthy levels of freshman weight change, vulnerable students need to be taught stress-reduction techniques and coping strategies early in the academic year.

  10. Changes in Resting Energy Expenditure in Relation to Body Weight and Composition Following Gastric Restriction: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Browning, Matthew G; Franco, Robert L; Cyrus, John C; Celi, Francesco; Evans, Ronald K

    2016-07-01

    In comparison to gastric bypass surgery, gastric restriction without malabsorption more closely simulates dietary adherence while still producing durable weight loss. The latter is achieved despite considerable reductions in resting energy expenditure (REE), and whether REE is adjusted for body weight/composition using ratio- or regression-based methods could influence understanding of how these procedures affect energy balance. This systematic review identified studies that reported REE before and after gastric restriction in order to compare changes using each method. Ratio assessments revealed increases and decreases when REE was expressed per kilogram of body weight and per kilogram of fat-free mass, respectively. In comparison, measured REE tended to be less than predicted from linear regression after surgery. Explanations for these seemingly disparate findings and future directions are discussed.

  11. Explaining rigid dieting in normal-weight women: the key role of body image inflexibility.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Cláudia; Trindade, Inês A; Martinho, Ana

    2016-03-01

    Restrictive dieting is an increasing behavior presented by women in modern societies, independently of their weight. There are several known factors that motivate diet, namely a sense of dissatisfaction with one's body and unfavorable social comparisons based on physical appearance. However, dieting seems to have a paradoxical effect and has been considered a risk factor for weight gain and obesity in women and for maladaptive eating. Nevertheless, the study of the emotional regulation processes that explain the adoption of inflexible and rigid eating behaviors still remains little explored. In this line, the present study aims to explore why normal-weight women engage in highly rigid and inflexible diets. We hypothesize that body and weight dissatisfaction and unfavorable social comparisons based on physical appearance explain the adoption of inflexible eating rules, through the mechanisms of body image inflexibility. The current study comprised 508 normal-weight female college students. Path analyses were conducted to explore the study's hypotheses. Results revealed that the model explained 43 % of inflexible eating and revealed excellent fit indices. Furthermore, the unwillingness to experience unwanted events related to body image (body image inflexibility) mediated the impact of body dissatisfaction and unfavorable social comparisons on the adoption of inflexible eating rules. This study highlights the relevance of body image inflexibility to explain rigid eating attitudes, and it seems to be an important avenue for the development of interventions focusing on the promotion of adaptive attitudes towards body image and eating in young women.

  12. Body weight, body image, and eating behaviours: relationships with ethnicity and acculturation in a community sample of young Australian women.

    PubMed

    Ball, Kylie; Kenardy, Justin

    2002-01-01

    A study was conducted to investigate associations between ethnicity and acculturation status and risk factors for eating disorders among young adult women. A community sample of 14,779 women aged 18-23 completed a comprehensive mail-out survey, which incorporated questions on country of birth, length of time spent in Australia, body weight, weight dissatisfaction, dieting, binge eating, and compensatory disordered eating behaviours. Results showed that risk factors for eating disorders were present across a range of ethnic groups. Further, a strong acculturation effect was observed, such that the longer the time spent in Australia, the more women reported weight-related values and behaviours similar to those of Australian-born women. Results challenge claims that risk factors for disordered eating are restricted to Caucasian females in Western societies. Implications for understanding ethnic and sociocultural influences on body weight, dieting, and disordered eating are considered.

  13. Identifying hypothalamic pathways controlling food intake, body weight, and glucose homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Elmquist, Joel K; Coppari, Roberto; Balthasar, Nina; Ichinose, Masumi; Lowell, Bradford B

    2005-12-05

    The past decade has greatly increased our understanding and appreciation of the ability of the central nervous system (CNS) to regulate food intake and body weight. This was spearheaded by the discovery of key molecules regulating body weight homeostasis. It is now also apparent that the CNS, especially the hypothalamus, plays a primary role in directly regulating glucose homeostasis, independently of effects on body weight. These discoveries are important given the increasing incidences of obesity and type II diabetes in Western societies. In this article, we will highlight recent data from genetically modified mice. These data and other models have helped to dissect the CNS pathways regulating body weight and glucose homeostasis. Finally, although these studies have been illustrative, they also underscore our relative lack of knowledge and highlight the need for more definitive approaches to unravel the functional significance of these pathways.

  14. Anxiety level and body weight changes in rats living in overpopulated cages.

    PubMed

    Knyazeva, S I; Loginova, N A; Loseva, E V

    2012-11-01

    Behavioral indicators of anxiety and body weight dynamics were compared in rats kept under standard conditions (4-5 animals per cage) and in overpopulated cages (17 rats per cage). The behavior of rats exposed to overcrowding for a short and long period was evaluated in the open field, light-darkness, and elevated plus-maze tests. The anxiety parameters of animals increased only in the light-darkness test during the acute period of overcrowding and in all tests during chronic overcrowding. Behavioral tests had a negative impact on body weight gain in controls and rats living in overpopulated cages. If the behavioral tests were carried out at the beginning of the experiment, body weight ceased to increase in animals exposed to overcrowding and continued to increase in the controls. Overcrowding without behavioral tests had no effects on the body weight dynamics. The model of chronic (but not acute) overcrowding may be used for evaluation of anxiolytic effects of drugs.

  15. Effects of artificial sweeteners on body weight, food and drink intake.

    PubMed

    Polyák, Eva; Gombos, K; Hajnal, B; Bonyár-Müller, K; Szabó, Sz; Gubicskó-Kisbenedek, A; Marton, K; Ember, I

    2010-12-01

    Artificial sweeteners are widely used all over the world. They may assist in weight management, prevention of dental caries, control of blood glucose of diabetics, and also can be used to replace sugar in foods. In the animal experimentation mice were given oral doses of water solutions of table top artificial sweeteners (saccharin, cyclamate based, acesulfame-K based, and aspartame) the amount of maximum Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) ad libitum. The controls received only tap water with the same drinking conditions as the treated groups. The mice were fed chow ad libitum.We measured food intake and body weight once a week, water and solutions of artificial sweeteners intake twice a week. The data were analysed by statistical methods (T-probe, regression analysis).Consumption of sweeteners resulted in significantly increased body weight; however, the food intake did not change.These results question the effect of non-caloric artificial sweeteners on weight-maintenance or body weight decrease.

  16. Assessing stability of body weight in the brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula).

    PubMed

    Cameron, Kristie E; Bizo, Lewis A; Starkey, Nicola J

    2015-01-01

    When conducting controlled laboratory studies with non-traditional laboratory animals it is important that methods for determining body weight stability are reliable. This helps ensure the health and welfare of animals when they are maintained during periods of free feeding or food restriction. This study compared different methods for determining body weight stability in six common brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula) maintained on a free-feeding diet under laboratory conditions. A criterion of five consecutive weighings with less than ±2.5% change across days and no more than two consecutive days of weight loss or weight gain was judged to be the most suitable criteria for determining stability. It is important to study non-traditional animals, especially endangered or pest species, under controlled laboratory conditions and to have robust methods for establishing body weight stability.

  17. Do weight management interventions delivered by online social networks effectively improve body weight, body composition, and chronic disease risk factors? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Willis, Erik A; Szabo-Reed, Amanda N; Ptomey, Lauren T; Steger, Felicia L; Honas, Jeffery J; Washburn, Richard A; Donnelly, Joseph E

    2017-02-01

    Introduction Currently, no systematic review/meta-analysis has examined studies that used online social networks (OSN) as a primary intervention platform. Therefore, the purpose of this review was to evaluate the effectiveness of weight management interventions delivered through OSN. Methods PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Web of Science, and Scopus were searched (January 1990-November 2015) for studies with data on the effect of OSNs on weight loss. Only primary source articles that utilized OSN as the main platform for delivery of weight management/healthy lifestyle interventions, were published in English language peer-reviewed journals, and reported outcome data on weight were eligible for inclusion in this systematic review. Five articles were included in this review. Results One-hundred percent of the studies ( n = 5) reported a reduction in baseline weight. Three of the five studies (60%) reported significant decreases in body weight when OSN was paired with health educator support. Only one study reported a clinical significant weight loss of ≥5%. Conclusion Using OSN for weight management is in its early stages of development and, while these few studies show promise, more research is needed to acquire information about optimizing these interventions to increase their efficacy.

  18. Validity of weight loss to estimate improvement in body composition in individuals attending a wellness center

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Paulina; Johnson, Bruce D.; Karpinski, Susan C.; Limoges, Katherine A.; Warren, Beth A.; Olsen, Kerry D.; Somers, Virend K.; Jensen, Michael D.; Clark, Matthew M.; Lopez-Jimenez, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    The accuracy of weight loss in estimating successful changes in body composition (BC), namely fat mass loss, is not known and was addressed in our study. To assess the correlation between change in body weight and change in fat mass (FM), fat % and fat-free mass (FFM), 465 participants (41% male; 41±13years), who met the criteria for weight change at a wellness center, underwent air-displacement plethysmography. Body weight and BC were measured at the same time. We categorized the change in body weight, FM and FFM as an increase if there was >1 kg gain, a decrease if there was >1 kg loss and no change if the difference was ≤ 1 kg. We estimated the diagnostic performance of weight change to identify improvement in BC. After a median time of 132 days, 255 people who lost >1 kg of weight, 216(84.7%) had lost >1 kg of FM, but 69(27.1%) had lost >1 kg of FFM. Of the 143 people with no weight change, 42(29.4%) had actually lost >1kg of FM. Of the 67 who gained >1 kg of weight at follow-up, in 23(34.3%) this was due to an increase in FFM but not in FM. Weight change had a NPV of 73%. Mean weight change was 2.4 kg. Our results indicate that favorable improvements in BC may go undetected in almost 1/3 of people whose weight remains the same and in 1/3 of people who gain weight after attending a wellness center. These results underscore the potential role of BC measurements in people attempting lifestyle changes. PMID:21566566

  19. Ghrelin in the regulation of body weight and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Castañeda, T R; Tong, J; Datta, R; Culler, M; Tschöp, M H

    2010-01-01

    Ghrelin, a peptide hormone predominantly produced by the stomach, was isolated as the endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor. Ghrelin is a potent stimulator of growth hormone (GH) secretion and is the only circulatory hormone known to potently enhance feeding and weight gain and to regulate energy homeostasis following central and systemic administration. Therapeutic intervention with ghrelin in catabolic situations may induce a combination of enhanced food intake, increased gastric emptying and nutrient storage, coupled with an increase in GH thereby linking nutrient partitioning with growth and repair processes. These qualities have fostered the idea that ghrelin-based compounds may have therapeutic utility in treating malnutrition and wasting induced by various sub-acute and chronic disorders. Conversely, compounds that inhibit ghrelin action may be useful for the prevention or treatment of metabolic syndrome components such as obesity, impaired lipid metabolism or insulin resistance. In recent years, the effects of ghrelin on glucose homeostasis, memory function and gastrointestinal motility have attracted considerable amount of attention and revealed novel therapeutic targets in treating a wide range of pathologic conditions. Furthermore, discovery of ghrelin O-acyltransferase has also opened new research opportunities that could lead to major understanding of ghrelin physiology. This review summarizes the current knowledge on ghrelin synthesis, secretion, mechanism of action and biological functions with an additional focus on potential for ghrelin-based pharmacotherapies.

  20. Maternal Body Weight and Gestational Diabetes Differentially Influence Placental and Pregnancy Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Martino, J.; Sebert, S.; Segura, M. T.; García-Valdés, L.; Florido, J.; Padilla, M. C.; Marcos, A.; Rueda, R.; McArdle, H. J.; Budge, H.; Campoy, C.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Maternal obesity and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) can both contribute to adverse neonatal outcomes. The extent to which this may be mediated by differences in placental metabolism and nutrient transport remains to be determined. Objective: Our objective was to examine whether raised maternal body mass index (BMI) and/or GDM contributed to a resetting of the expression of genes within the placenta that are involved in energy sensing, oxidative stress, inflammation, and metabolic pathways. Methods: Pregnant women from Spain were recruited as part of the “Study of Maternal Nutrition and Genetics on the Foetal Adiposity Programming” survey at the first antenatal visit (12–20 weeks of gestation) and stratified according to prepregnancy BMI and the incidence of GDM. At delivery, placenta and cord blood were sampled and newborn anthropometry measured. Results: Obese women with GDM had higher estimated fetal weight at 34 gestational weeks and a greater risk of preterm deliveries and cesarean section. Birth weight was unaffected by BMI or GDM; however, women who were obese with normal glucose tolerance had increased placental weight and higher plasma glucose and leptin at term. Gene expression for markers of placental energy sensing and oxidative stress, were primarily affected by maternal obesity as mTOR was reduced, whereas SIRT-1 and UCP2 were both upregulated. In placenta from obese women with GDM, gene expression for AMPK was also reduced, whereas the downstream regulator of mTOR, p70S6KB1 was raised. Conclusions: Placental gene expression is sensitive to both maternal obesity and GDM which both impact on energy sensing and could modulate the effect of either raised maternal BMI or GDM on birth weight. PMID:26513002

  1. Serum albumin and body weight as biomarkers for the antemortem identification of bone and gastrointestinal disease in the common marmoset.

    PubMed

    Baxter, Victoria K; Shaw, Gillian C; Sotuyo, Nathaniel P; Carlson, Cathy S; Olson, Erik J; Zink, M Christine; Mankowski, Joseph L; Adams, Robert J; Hutchinson, Eric K; Metcalf Pate, Kelly A

    2013-01-01

    The increasing use of the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) in research makes it important to diagnose spontaneous disease that may confound experimental studies. Bone disease and gastrointestinal disease are two major causes of morbidity and mortality in captive marmosets, but currently no effective antemortem tests are available to identify affected animals prior to the terminal stage of disease. In this study we propose that bone disease and gastrointestinal disease are associated disease entities in marmosets and aim to establish the efficacy of several economical antemortem tests in identifying and predicting disease. Tissues from marmosets were examined to define affected animals and unaffected controls. Complete blood count, serum chemistry values, body weight, quantitative radiographs, and tissue-specific biochemical markers were evaluated as candidate biomarkers for disease. Bone and gastrointestinal disease were associated, with marmosets being over seven times more likely to have either concurrent bone and gastrointestinal disease or neither disease as opposed to lesions in only one organ system. When used in tandem, serum albumin <3.5 g/dL and body weight <325 g identified 100% of the marmosets affected with concurrent bone and gastrointestinal disease. Progressive body weight loss of 0.05% of peak body weight per day predicted which marmosets would develop disease prior to the terminal stage. Bone tissue-specific tests, such as quantitative analysis of radiographs and serum parathyroid hormone levels, were effective for distinguishing between marmosets with bone disease and those without. These results provide an avenue for making informed decisions regarding the removal of affected marmosets from studies in a timely manner, preserving the integrity of research results.

  2. Inadequacy of Body Weight-Based Recommendations for Individual Protein Intake-Lessons from Body Composition Analysis.

    PubMed

    Geisler, Corinna; Prado, Carla M; Müller, Manfred J

    2016-12-31

    Current body weight-based protein recommendations are ignoring the large variability in body composition, particularly lean mass (LM), which drives protein requirements. We explored and highlighted the inter-individual variability of weight versus body composition-adjusted protein intakes by secondary analysis in three cohorts of (1) 574 healthy adults (mean ± SD age: 41.4 ± 15.2 years); (2) 403 cirrhotic patients (age: 44.7 ± 12.3 years) and (3) 547 patients with lung cancer (age: 61.3 ± 8.2 years). LM was assessed using different devices (magnetic resonance imaging, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, computer tomography, total body potassium and bioelectrical impedance), body weight-based protein intake, its ratio (per kg LM) and mean protein requirement were calculated. Variability in protein intake in all cohorts ranged from 0.83 to 1.77 g protein per kg LM per day using (theoretical protein intake of 60 g protein per day). Calculated mean protein requirement was 1.63 g protein per kg LM per day; consequently, 95.3% of healthy subjects, 100% of cirrhotic and 97.4% of cancer patients would present with a low protein intake per kg LM. Weight-adjusted recommendations are inadequate to address the LM specific differences in protein needs of healthy subjects or clinical populations. Absolute protein intake seems to be more relevant compared to the relative proportion of protein, which in turn changes with different energy needs.

  3. Inadequacy of Body Weight-Based Recommendations for Individual Protein Intake—Lessons from Body Composition Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Geisler, Corinna; Prado, Carla M.; Müller, Manfred J.

    2016-01-01

    Current body weight-based protein recommendations are ignoring the large variability in body composition, particularly lean mass (LM), which drives protein requirements. We explored and highlighted the inter-individual variability of weight versus body composition-adjusted protein intakes by secondary analysis in three cohorts of (1) 574 healthy adults (mean ± SD age: 41.4 ± 15.2 years); (2) 403 cirrhotic patients (age: 44.7 ± 12.3 years) and (3) 547 patients with lung cancer (age: 61.3 ± 8.2 years). LM was assessed using different devices (magnetic resonance imaging, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, computer tomography, total body potassium and bioelectrical impedance), body weight-based protein intake, its ratio (per kg LM) and mean protein requirement were calculated. Variability in protein intake in all cohorts ranged from 0.83 to 1.77 g protein per kg LM per day using (theoretical protein intake of 60 g protein per day). Calculated mean protein requirement was 1.63 g protein per kg LM per day; consequently, 95.3% of healthy subjects, 100% of cirrhotic and 97.4% of cancer patients would present with a low protein intake per kg LM. Weight-adjusted recommendations are inadequate to address the LM specific differences in protein needs of healthy subjects or clinical populations. Absolute protein intake seems to be more relevant compared to the relative proportion of protein, which in turn changes with different energy needs. PMID:28042853

  4. Physical Activity, Body Size, Intentional Weight Loss and Breast Cancer Risk: Fellowship

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-10-01

    exercised frequently. More pronounced were results obtained from the model examining the joint effects of early-life physical activity and net lifetime...Number: DAMD17-97-1-7235 TITLE:. Physical Activity , Body Size, Intentional Weight Loss and Breast Cancer Risk: Fellowship PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Suzanne...SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Physical Activity , Body Size, Intentional Weight Loss and Breast Cancer: DAMD 17-97-1-7235 Risk: Fellowship 6. AUTHORIS

  5. The Stigma of Obesity: Does Perceived Weight Discrimination Affect Identity and Physical Health?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schafer, Markus H.; Ferraro, Kenneth F.

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is widely recognized as a health risk, but it also represents a disadvantaged social position. Viewing body weight within the framework of stigma and its effects on life chances, we examine how perceived weight-based discrimination influences identity and physical health. Using national survey data with a 10-year longitudinal follow-up, we…

  6. Genetics of body weight in the LXS recombinant inbred mouse strains

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, Beth; Carosone-Line, Phyllis; Lu, Lu; Chesler, Elissa J; Johnson, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    This is the first phenotypic analysis of 75 new recombinant inbred (RI) strains derived from ILS and ISS progenitors. We analyzed body weight in two independent cohorts of female mice at various ages and in males at 60 days. Body weight is a complex trait which has been mapped in numerous crosses in rodents. The LXS RI strains displayed a large range of weights, transgressing those of the inbred progenitors, supporting the utility of this large panel for mapping traits not selected in the progenitors. Numerous QTLs for body weight mapped in singleand multilocus scans. We assessed replication between these and previously reported QTLs based on overlapping confidence intervals of published QTLs for body weight at 60 days and used meta-analyses to determine combined p values for three QTL regions located on Chromosomes 4, 5, and 11. Strain distribution patterns of microsatellite marker genotypes, weight, and other phenotypes are available on Web- QTL (http://www.webqtl.org/search.html) and allow genetic mapping of any heritable quantitative phenotype measured in these strains. We report one such analysis, correlating brain and body weights. Large reference panels of RI strains, such as the LXS, are invaluable for identifying genetic correlations, GXE (Gene X Environment) interactions, and replicating previously identified QTLs.

  7. Evaluation of body weight of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus by computer vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hui; Xu, Qiang; Liu, Shilin; Zhang, Libin; Yang, Hongsheng

    2015-01-01

    A postichopus japonicus (Holothuroidea, Echinodermata) is an ecological and economic species in East Asia. Conventional biometric monitoring method includes diving for samples and weighing above water, with highly variable in weight measurement due to variation in the quantity of water in the respiratory tree and intestinal content of this species. Recently, video survey method has been applied widely in biometric detection on underwater benthos. However, because of the high flexibility of A. japonicus body, video survey method of monitoring is less used in sea cucumber. In this study, we designed a model to evaluate the wet weight of A. japonicus, using machine vision technology combined with a support vector machine (SVM) that can be used in field surveys on the A. japonicus population. Continuous dorsal images of free-moving A. japonicus individuals in seawater were captured, which also allows for the development of images of the core body edge as well as thorn segmentation. Parameters that include body length, body breadth, perimeter and area, were extracted from the core body edge images and used in SVM regression, to predict the weight of A. japonicus and for comparison with a power model. Results indicate that the use of SVM for predicting the weight of 33 A. japonicus individuals is accurate ( R 2=0.99) and compatible with the power model ( R 2 =0.96). The image-based analysis and size-weight regression models in this study may be useful in body weight evaluation of A. japonicus in lab and field study.

  8. Conjugated linoleic acid reduces body weight gain in ovariectomized female C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Kanaya, Noriko; Chen, Shiuan

    2010-10-01

    Estrogen is an important protective factor against obesity in females. Therefore, postmenopausal women have a higher rate of obesity than premenopausal women, which is associated with age-related loss of ovary function. It has been reported that a diet containing conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) reduced body weight and body fat mass in the animal model as well as in human trials. We hypothesized that ingestion of CLA would reduce body weight gain in ovariectomized (OVX) female C57BL/6J mice that is a model for postmenopausal women. We further hypothesized that body weight reduction may improve obesity-related complication. To test this hypothesis, the OVX mice were fed with a high-fat diet containing CLA for 3 months. Mice had significantly reduced body weight gain compared with OVX mice fed with a high-fat diet without CLA. Although CLA was effective in slowing down body weight gain of both sham and OVX mice, analysis of adipocyte size and number suggested different mechanisms for loss of fat tissue in these 2 groups of mice. Treatment with CLA did not increase liver weight and accumulation of fat in the livers of OVX mice. Furthermore, CLA intake did not change insulin resistance. Our results indicate that CLA is functional as an antiobesity supplement in the mouse model for postmenopausal women and that the antiobesity effect of CLA is not estrogen related.

  9. Conjugated linoleic acid reduces body weight gain in ovariectomized female C57BL/6J mice

    PubMed Central

    Kanaya, Noriko; Chen, Shiuan

    2010-01-01

    Estrogen is an important protective factor against obesity in females. Therefore, postmenopausal women have a higher rate of obesity than premenopausal women, which is associated with age-related loss of ovary function. It has been reported that a diet containing conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) reduced body weight and body fat mass in the animal model as well as in human trials. We hypothesized that ingestion of CLA would reduce body weight gain in ovariectomized (OVX) female C57BL/6J mice which is a model for postmenopaual women. We further hypothesized that body weight reduction may improve obesity-related complication. To test this hypothesis, the OVX mice fed with a high fat diet containing CLA for 3 months. Mice had significantly reduced body weight gain compared to OVX mice fed with a high fat diet without CLA. While CLA was effective in slowing down of body weight gain of both Sham and OVX mice, analysis of adipocyte size and number suggested different mechanisms for loss of fat tissue in these two groups of mice. CLA treatment did not increase liver weight and accumulation of fat in the livers of OVX mice. Furthermore, CLA intake did not change insulin resistance. Our results indicate that CLA is functional as an anti-obesity supplement in the mouse model for postmenopausal women, and the anti-obesity effect of CLA is not estrogen-related. PMID:21056287

  10. Age-related factors in the relationship between foot measurements and living stature and body weight.

    PubMed

    Atamturk, Derya; Duyar, Izzet

    2008-11-01

    The measurements of feet and footprints are especially important in forensic identification, as they have been used to predict the body height and weight of victims or suspects. It can be observed that the subjects of forensic-oriented studies are generally young adults. That is to say, researchers rarely take into consideration the body's proportional changes with age. Hence, the aim of this study is to generate equations which take age and sex into consideration, when stature and body weight are estimated from foot and footprints dimensions. With this aim in mind, we measured the stature, body weight, foot length and breadth, heel breadth, footprint length and breadth, and footprint heel breadth of 516 volunteers (253 males and 263 females) aged between 17.6 and 82.9 years using standard measurement techniques. The sample population was divided randomly into two groups. Group 1, the study group, consisted of 80% of the sample (n = 406); the remaining 20% were assigned to the cross-validation group or Group 2 (n = 110). In the first stage of the study, we produced equations for estimating stature and weight using a stepwise regression technique. Then, their reliability was tested on Group 2 members. Statistical analyses showed that the ratios of foot dimensions to stature and body weight change considerably with age and sex. Consequently, the regression equations which include these variables yielded more reliable results. Our results indicated that age and sex should be taken into consideration when predicting human body height and weight for forensic purposes.

  11. Toward a quantitative theory of food consumption choices and body weight.

    PubMed

    Buttet, Sebastien; Dolar, Veronika

    2015-04-01

    We propose a calibrated dynamic model of food consumption choices and body weight to study changes in daily caloric intake, weight, and the away-from-home share of calories consumed by adult men and women in the U.S. during the period between 1971 and 2006. Calibration reveals substantial preference heterogeneity between men and women. For example, utility losses stemming from weight gains are ten times greater for women compared to men. Counterfactual experiments show that changes in food prices and household income account for half of the increase in weight of adult men, but only a small fraction of women's weight. We argue that quantitative models of food consumption choices and body weight have a unique role to play in future research in the economics of obesity.

  12. Relationships between body weight at first mating and subsequent body development, feed intake, and reproductive performance of rabbit does.

    PubMed

    Rommers, J M; Meijerhoft, R; Noordhuizen, J P T M; Kemp, B

    2002-08-01

    A retrospective study was performed to evaluate the relationships between BW at first insemination and subsequent body development, feed intake, reproductive performance, and culling rate of rabbit does. Young rabbit does are vulnerable to body energy deficit in first lactation, resulting in decreased reproductive performance and high replacement rate. Heavy does at first insemination might be able to benefit from the extra amount of BW to cope with the energy deficit during first lactation. Data of three experiments were used in which does were given ad libitum access to feed during rearing and inseminated at 14.5 wk of age. The first two parities of each doe were recorded. Does were categorized in three groups based on their BW at 14.5 wk of age (first insemination): heavy (BW > or = 4,000 g), medium (BW 3,500 to 4,000 g), and small (BW < 3,500 g). Among does that kindled, differences in BW at first insemination were related to differences in voluntary feed intake and body growth rate during rearing. Heavy does consumed more feed per day (+ 45 g/d, P < 0.001) and had a higher BW gain (+ 12 g/d, P < 0.001) than small does from weaning (4.5 wk) to 14.5 wk of age. Body weight at first insemination did not affect BW, feed intake, and culling rate during the first two parities. Heavy does were heavier at first insemination and remained so throughout the reproductive period, but they followed a similar BW curve as medium and small does. A higher BW at first insemination (14.5 wk of age) improved litter size in the first parity (8.9, 7.7, and 6.4 for heavy, medium, and small does, respectively, P < 0.05). Extra BW at start of reproduction improves litter size in the first parity but does not contribute to an improved feed intake or increased BW development during reproduction.

  13. Body weight gain rate in patients with Parkinson's disease and deep brain stimulation.

    PubMed

    Barichella, Michela; Marczewska, Agnieszka M; Mariani, Claudio; Landi, Andrea; Vairo, Antonella; Pezzoli, Gianni

    2003-11-01

    We evaluated body weight changes in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) after electrode implantation for deep brain stimulation (DBS) in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in relation to clinical improvement. Thirty PD patients who received STN DBS were included (22 men, 8 women; mean age, 60.0 +/- 7.1 years; mean PD duration, 13.5 +/- 3.7 years; mean body mass index [BMI], 21.6 +/- 3.0 kg/m2). Body weight, physical activity, and Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) scores were noted before and 3 and 12 months after the procedure. Significant weight gain occurred in 29 patients; the mean increase was 14.8 +/- 9.8% of initial body weight in 1 year. Of the patients, 46.5% reported weight gain in the first 3 months, 21.4% gradual weight gain in the first 6 months, and 32.1% a slow increase for 1 year. Mean BMI increased up to 24.7 +/- 3.7 kg/m2. After 1 year, mean UPDRS motor score improved significantly in off and in on; and therapy complications improved by 91.0 +/- 17.0%. BMI changes at 3 and 12 months were significantly correlated to dyskinesia score changes, and levodopa dosage was not. In PD, STN DBS produces not only symptom control, but also weight gain. DBS candidates should be given nutritional counseling before the intervention to prevent rapid and/or excessive weight gain.

  14. Chronic disease trends due to excess body weight in Australia.

    PubMed

    Atlantis, E; Lange, K; Wittert, G A

    2009-09-01

    Trends in chronic diseases provide insights into strategies required to improve population health. The authors determined prevalence and multiple-adjusted population attributable risk (PAR) estimates of chronic diseases because of lifestyle factors among Australian adults between 1989-90 and 2004-5, accounting for demographic factors. Between 1989-90 and 2004-5, prevalence increased for diabetes (3.8-6.0%, P < 0.001) and high cholesterol (11.3-13.9%, P < 0.001), but decreased for high blood pressure (21.4-20.4%, P = 0.003) and cardiovascular disease (CVD, 6.2-5.4%, P < 0.001). Prevalence increased for body mass index (BMI) 25-29.9 (30.3-34.9%, P < 0.001), BMI 30-34.9 (7.4-13.5%, P < 0.001) and BMI 35+ (2.1-5.4%, P < 0.001), but decreased for metabolic equivalent-hours per week (MET-hr/week) 0 (36.8-33.1%, P < 0.001) and current smokers (27.6-24.4%, P < 0.001). Diabetes, high cholesterol and high blood pressure burden increased mostly for 60+ years, lowest income quintiles and high BMI (30-34.9 and 35+). Diabetes and CVD burden increased mostly for MET-hr/week 0. Many chronic disease cases would have been theoretically prevented if adults had no prior exposure to BMI 25-29.9 (PAR 9-17%), BMI 30+ (PAR 1-14%) and MET-hr/week 0 (PAR 6-14%). Reducing exposure to lifestyle hazards across the lifespan is required for reversing the rising burden of chronic diseases. Decreases in CVD and high blood pressure prevalence were likely due to targeted improvements in health care, indicating that more can and should be done.

  15. Impact of a healthy body image program among adolescent boys on body image, negative affect, and body change strategies.

    PubMed

    McCabe, Marita P; Ricciardelli, Lina A; Karantzas, Gery

    2010-03-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of a healthy body image program. In total, 421 adolescent boys completed a five-session intervention program or a wait list control group. There were no differences between the intervention and the control group at post-intervention or any of the follow-up times. Boys in the intervention group who were one standard deviation above the mean on body dissatisfaction at baseline, demonstrated a reduction in negative affect in the intervention group at post-test and 6 months follow-up. Prevention programs need to target boys who are at risk of adopting health risk behaviors, rather than being universally applied.

  16. Association between Indices of Body Composition and Abnormal Metabolic Phenotype in Normal-Weight Chinese Adults.

    PubMed

    Xia, Lili; Dong, Fen; Gong, Haiying; Xu, Guodong; Wang, Ke; Liu, Fen; Pan, Li; Zhang, Ling; Yan, Yuxiang; Gaisano, Herbert; He, Yan; Shan, Guangliang

    2017-04-07

    We aimed to determine the association of indices of body composition with abnormal metabolic phenotype, and to examine whether the strength of association was differentially distributed in different age groups in normal-weight Chinese adults. A total of 3015 normal-weight adults from a survey of Chinese people encompassing health and basic physiological parameters was included in this cross-sectional study. We investigated the association of body composition measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis and conventional body indices with metabolically unhealthy normal-weight (MUHNW) adults, divided by age groups and gender. Associations were assessed by multiple logistic regression analysis. We found abnormal metabolism in lean Chinese adults to be associated with higher adiposity indices (body mass index, BMI), waist circumference, and percentage body fat), lower skeletal muscle %, and body water %. Body composition was differentially distributed in age groups within the metabolically healthy normal weight (MHNW)/MUHNW groups. The impact of factors related to MUHNW shows a decreasing trend with advancing age in females and disparities of factors (BMI, body fat %, skeletal muscle %, and body water %) associated with the MUHNW phenotype in the elderly was noticed. Those factors remained unchanged in males throughout the age range, while the association of BMI, body fat %, skeletal muscle %, and body water % to MUHNW attenuated and grip strength emerged as a protective factor in elderly females. These results suggest that increased adiposity and decreased skeletal muscle mass are associated with unfavorable metabolic traits in normal-weight Chinese adults, and that MUHNW is independent of BMI, while increased waist circumference appears to be indicative of an abnormal metabolic phenotype in elderly females.

  17. The body weight loss during acute exposure to high-altitude hypoxia in sea level residents.

    PubMed

    Ge, Ri-Li; Wood, Helen; Yang, Hui-Huang; Liu, Yi-Ning; Wang, Xiu-Juan; Babb, Tony

    2010-12-25

    Weight loss is frequently observed after acute exposure to high altitude. However, the magnitude and rate of weight loss during acute exposure to high altitude has not been clarified in a controlled prospective study. The present study was performed to evaluate weight loss at high altitude. A group of 120 male subjects [aged (32±6) years] who worked on the construction of the Golmud-Lhasa Railway at Kunlun Mountain (altitude of 4 678 m) served as volunteer subjects for this study. Eighty-five workers normally resided at sea level (sea level group) and 35 normally resided at an altitude of 2 200 m (moderate altitude group). Body weight, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference were measured in all subjects after a 7-day stay at Golmud (altitude of 2 800 m, baseline measurements). Measurements were repeated after 33-day working on Kunlun Mountain. In order to examine the daily rate of weight loss at high altitude, body weight was measured in 20 subjects from the sea level group (sea level subset group) each morning before breakfast for 33 d at Kunlun Mountain. According to guidelines established by the Lake Louise acute mountain sickness (AMS) consensus report, each subject completed an AMS self-report questionnaire two days after arriving at Kunlun Mountain. After 33-day stay at an altitude of 4 678 m, the average weight loss for the sea level group was 10.4% (range 6.5% to 29%), while the average for the moderate altitude group was 2.2% (-2% to 9.1%). The degree of weight loss (Δ weight loss) after a 33-day stay at an altitude of 4 678 m was significantly correlated with baseline body weight in the sea level group (r=0.677, P<0.01), while the correlation was absent in the moderate altitude group (r=0.296, P>0.05). In the sea level subset group, a significant weight loss was observed within 20 d, but the weight remained stable thereafter. AMS-score at high altitude was significantly higher in the sea level group (4.69±2.48) than that in the moderate

  18. My Body, My Weight: Body Perception Among African American and Caucasian First-Graders and Their Parents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-31

    behaviors toward weight, body shape, and eating: drive for thinness, bulimia , and body dissatisfaction. For the purposes of this investigation, only...American Mothers’ Eating Behavior and Acculturation (n=29). EDI Thinness Bulimia Body TEEQ-R DEBQ DEBQ-R AAAS Total -.10 p=.61 .02 p= .92 -.07 p= .73...5.91 (7.22) F(1,49)= 6.33* (.693) [.114] Bulimia 1.48 (2.84) 1.09 (2.45) F(1,49)= .27, p= .61 (.080) [.005] TFEQ-R Restraint 24.97 (7.75

  19. Multimodal Body Representation of Obese Children and Adolescents before and after Weight-Loss Treatment in Comparison to Normal-Weight Children

    PubMed Central

    Sauer, Helene; Dammann, Dirk; Zipfel, Stephan; Teufel, Martin; Junne, Florian; Enck, Paul; Giel, Katrin Elisabeth; Mack, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of the study was to investigate whether obese children and adolescents have a disturbed body representation as compared to normal-weight participants matched for age and gender and whether their body representation changes in the course of an inpatient weight-reduction program. Methods Sixty obese (OBE) and 27 normal-weight (NW) children and adolescents (age: 9–17) were assessed for body representation using a multi-method approach. Therefore, we assessed body size estimation, tactile size estimation, heartbeat detection accuracy, and attitudes towards one’s own body. OBE were examined upon admission and before discharge of an inpatient weight-reduction program. NW served as cross-sectional control group. Results Body size estimation and heartbeat detection accuracy were similar in OBE and NW. OBE overestimated sizes in tactile size estimation and were more dissatisfied with their body as compared to NW. In OBE but not in NW, several measures of body size estimation correlated with negative body evaluation. After weight-loss treatment, OBE had improved in heartbeat detection accuracy and were less dissatisfied with their body. None of the assessed variables predicted weight-loss success. Conclusions Although OBE children and adolescents generally perceived their body size and internal status of the body accurately, weight reduction improved their heartbeat detection accuracy and body dissatisfaction. PMID:27875563

  20. Does Body Mass Index Affect Mortality in Coronary Surgery?

    PubMed Central

    Protopapas, Aristotle D.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The Body Mass Index (BMI) quantifies nutritional status and classifies humans as underweight, of normal weight, overweight, mildly obese, moderately obese or morbidly obese. Obesity is the excessive accumulation of fat, defined as BMI higher than 30 kg/m2. Obesity is widely accepted to complicate anaesthesia and surgery, being a risk factor for mediastinitis after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). We sought the evidence on operative mortality of CABG between standard BMI groups. Materials and Methodology: A simple literature review of papers presenting the mortality of CABG by BMI group: Underweight (BMI ≤ 18.49 kg/m2), normal weight (BMI 18.5–24.9 kg/m2), overweight (BMI 25.0–29.9 kg/m2), mild obesity (BMI 30.0–34.9 kg/m2), moderate obesity (BMI 35.0–39.9 kg/m2), or morbid obesity (BMI ≥ 40.0 kg/m2). Results: We identified 18 relevant studies with 1,027,711 patients in total. Their variability in size of samples and choice of BMI groups precluded us from attempting inferential statistics. The overall cumulative mortality was 2.7%. Underweight patients had by far the highest mortality (6.6%). Overweight patients had the lowest group mortality (2.1%). The group mortality for morbidly obese patients was 3.44%. Discussion: Patients with extreme BMI’s undergoing CABG (underweight ones more than morbidly obese) suffer increased crude mortality. This simple observation indicates that under nutrition and morbid obesity need be further explored as risk factors for coronary surgery. PMID:28217179

  1. Eating style in seasonal affective disorder: who will gain weight in winter?

    PubMed

    Kräuchi, K; Reich, S; Wirz-Justice, A

    1997-01-01

    Patients with seasonal affective disorder (SAD) selectively eat more carbohydrates (CHO), particularly sweets but also starch-rich foods, during their depression in winter. The Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (DEBQ) was administered to female SAD patients, healthy female controls, and female medical students to determine their eating style, together with the modified Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ+). SAD patients showed higher values for "emotional" (EMOT) eating than the students, and these in turn had higher values than the controls. In comparison to controls, SAD patients and students head high values for the factor "external" (EXT) eating, but there was no difference between the groups with respect to "restraint" (REST) eating. This is in strong contrast to patients with bulimia and anorexia nervosa, who are high REST eaters, indicating that SAD patients do not have a similar eating disorder. Additional items showed that SAD patients selectively eat sweets under emotionally difficult conditions (when depressed, anxious, or lonely). Configural frequency analysis showed that seasonal body weight change (SBWC) is high in subjects with high EMOT and REST eating together with a high body mass index (BMI). This result is in accordance with the concept of disinhibition of dietary restraint in extreme emotional situations, e.g., the depressive state.

  2. Glutamatergic Preoptic Area Neurons That Express Leptin Receptors Drive Temperature-Dependent Body Weight Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Qualls-Creekmore, Emily; Rezai-Zadeh, Kavon; Jiang, Yanyan; Berthoud, Hans-Rudolf; Morrison, Christopher D.; Derbenev, Andrei V.; Zsombok, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    The preoptic area (POA) regulates body temperature, but is not considered a site for body weight control. A subpopulation of POA neurons express leptin receptors (LepRbPOA neurons) and modulate reproductive function. However, LepRbPOA neurons project to sympathetic premotor neurons that control brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis, suggesting an additional role in energy homeostasis and body weight regulation. We determined the role of LepRbPOA neurons in energy homeostasis using cre-dependent viral vectors to selectively activate these neurons and analyzed functional outcomes in mice. We show that LepRbPOA neurons mediate homeostatic adaptations to ambient temperature changes, and their pharmacogenetic activation drives robust suppression of energy expenditure and food intake, which lowers body temperature and body weight. Surprisingly, our data show that hypothermia-inducing LepRbPOA neurons are glutamatergic, while GABAergic POA neurons, originally thought to mediate warm-induced inhibition of sympathetic premotor neurons, have no effect on energy expenditure. Our data suggest a new view into the neurochemical and functional properties of BAT-related POA circuits and highlight their additional role in modulating food intake and body weight. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Brown adipose tissue (BAT)-induced thermogenesis is a promising therapeutic target to treat obesity and metabolic diseases. The preoptic area (POA) controls body temperature by modulating BAT activity, but its role in body weight homeostasis has not been addressed. LepRbPOA neurons are BAT-related neurons and we show that they are sufficient to inhibit energy expenditure. We further show that LepRbPOA neurons modulate food intake and body weight, which is mediated by temperature-dependent homeostatic responses. We further found that LepRbPOA neurons are stimulatory glutamatergic neurons, contrary to prevalent models, providing a new view on thermoregulatory neural circuits. In summary, our study

  3. Body weight gain during adulthood and uterine myomas: Pró-Saúde Study

    PubMed Central

    Boclin, Karine de Lima Sírio; Torres, Fernanda Pelegrini; Faerstein, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study intended to investigate whether body weight gain during adulthood is associated with uterine myomas. 1,560 subjects were evaluated in a Pró-Saúde Study. Weight gain was evaluated in a continuous fashion and also in quintiles. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated through logistic regression models that were adjusted for education levels, color/race, body mass indices at age 20, age of menarche, parity, use of oral contraceptive methods, smoking, health insurance, and the Papanicolaou tests. No relevant differences were observed regarding the presence of uterine myomas among weight gain quintiles in that studied population. PMID:26558353

  4. Changing Body Image and Well-Being: Following the Experience of Massive Weight Loss and Body Contouring Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Gilmartin, Jo; Long, Andrew F.; Soldin, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on the perception of changing body image and well-being for patients who had undergone plastic surgery following massive weight loss. The exploratory, qualitative study was undertaken with 20 patients from one teaching hospital in the south of England. Semi-structured interviews were carried out and a thematic analysis of the data undertaken. The results provide important insights regarding body contouring influencing body image change and the adjustment process involved. The ability to pursue self-esteem and the accruing social benefits is emphasized in the interrelated sub themes including social acceptance, undoing depression and sexual vitality. Body contouring surgery following massive weight loss appears to facilitate improvement in body image and well-being. Adjustment to the changing body image is both empowering and challenging. Supportive educational programmes need to be developed to assist this transition to a more positive body image and appreciation; these could usefully include access to and involvement with patient support groups. PMID:27429267

  5. Rural urban differences in weight, body image, and dieting behavior among adolescent Egyptian schoolgirls.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Robert T; Rashed, Motaza; Saad-Eldin, Rawia

    2003-01-01

    Overweight and obesity prevalence among adolescents is increasing worldwide and may be associated with increased risk for the development of obesity and chronic diseases in adulthood. Dissatisfaction with weight and body shapes is a contributor to the growing incidence of adolescent eating disorders. Our purpose was to compare the relationship between body weight and body image in a convenience sample of rural and urban girls. We also wanted to examine the influence of the mothers on their daughters by asking the girls how their mothers would classify their body shapes. Three hundred and forty adolescent Egyptian schoolgirls representing Cairo and surrounding rural areas were studied. The girls were from private and public schools. Weight, height, waist and hip circumferences were measured. Body image was determined by asking participants to indicate which of five silhouettes of a female body most closely resembled her own current body size. We also asked them to select the silhouette that closely resembled their mothers' current body size. Using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reference standards, 35% of the girls were > or = 85th percentile, while 13% were > or = 95th percentile. Overweight was more prevalent in urban than rural girls and in those with higher socio-economic status than in lower socio-economic status girls. Girls' perceptions of how their mothers viewed their bodies differed from how the girls viewed their own bodies. From a policy point of view, these data underscore the need to consider not only the health risks associated with overweight and its distribution on the body, but also the weight and body image of the target audience in the design of clinical and public health intervention programs worldwide.

  6. Derivation of Anthropometry Based Body Fat Equations for the Army’s Weight Control Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-01

    Histogram comparing male group means of % -* body fat by three methods as a function of BMI groupings 33 "Figure Sb. Histogram comparing female...group means of % body fat by three methods as a function of BMI groupings 33 .pi •’. iv 0O 9 LIST OF TABLES PAGE NO. Table 1. Age and ethnic distributions...index ( BMI ) (also referred to as quetelet index) (weight/height 2 ) or Ponderal Index (weight 1/ 3 /height). The correlation between BMI and % body fat

  7. More than just body weight: the role of body image in psychological and physical functioning.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Rebecca E; Latner, Janet D; Hayashi, Kentaro

    2013-09-01

    The current study examined BMI and body image dissatisfaction as predictors of physical and mental health-related quality of life (HRQL) and psychosocial functioning in a sample of 414 undergraduate students (mean age=21.5, SD=4.9; mean BMI=23.6, SD=5.2). In men and women, higher BMI was correlated with body image dissatisfaction and physical HRQL, but not with any measures of psychosocial functioning, whereas higher body image dissatisfaction was associated with poorer physical HRQL and psychosocial functioning. Furthermore, body image dissatisfaction was observed to mediate the relationship between BMI and physical HRQL in men and women. Interestingly, in this model, higher BMI predicted increased self-esteem. These findings suggest that body image dissatisfaction may be an important target for health interventions.

  8. Lifestyle Interventions Targeting Body Weight Changes during the Menopause Transition: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Jull, Janet; Stacey, Dawn; Beach, Sarah; Dumas, Alex; Strychar, Irene; Ufholz, Lee-Anne; Prince, Stephanie; Abdulnour, Joseph; Prud'homme, Denis

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To determine the effectiveness of exercise and/or nutrition interventions and to address body weight changes during the menopause transition. Methods. A systematic review of the literature was conducted using electronic databases, grey literature, and hand searching. Two independent researchers screened for studies using experimental designs to evaluate the impact of exercise and/or nutrition interventions on body weight and/or central weight gain performed during the menopausal transition. Studies were quality appraised using Cochrane risk of bias. Included studies were analyzed descriptively. Results. Of 3,564 unique citations screened, 3 studies were eligible (2 randomized controlled trials, and 1 pre/post study). Study quality ranged from low to high risk of bias. One randomized controlled trial with lower risk of bias concluded that participation in an exercise program combined with dietary interventions might mitigate body adiposity increases, which is normally observed during the menopause transition. The other two studies with higher risk of bias suggested that exercise might attenuate weight loss or weight gain and change abdominal adiposity patterns. Conclusions. High quality studies evaluating the effectiveness of interventions targeting body weight changes in women during their menopause transition are needed. Evidence from one higher quality study indicates an effective multifaceted intervention for women to minimize changes in body adiposity. PMID:24971172

  9. Short and long-term energy intake patterns and their implications for human body weight regulation.

    PubMed

    Chow, Carson C; Hall, Kevin D

    2014-07-01

    Adults consume millions of kilocalories over the course of a few years, but the typical weight gain amounts to only a few thousand kilocalories of stored energy. Furthermore, food intake is highly variable from day to day and yet body weight is remarkably stable. These facts have been used as evidence to support the hypothesis that human body weight is regulated by active control of food intake operating on both short and long time scales. Here, we demonstrate that active control of human food intake on short time scales is not required for body weight stability and that the current evidence for long term control of food intake is equivocal. To provide more data on this issue, we emphasize the urgent need for developing new methods for accurately measuring energy intake changes over long time scales. We propose that repeated body weight measurements can be used along with mathematical modeling to calculate long-term changes in energy intake and thereby quantify adherence to a diet intervention and provide dynamic feedback to individuals that seek to control their body weight.

  10. Body composition and energy and protein nutritional requirements for weight gain in Santa Ines crossbred sheep.

    PubMed

    Cutrim, Darley Oliveira; Alves, Kaliandra Souza; dos Santos, Rozilda da Conceição; da Mata, Vanessa Jaqueline Veloso; Oliveira, Luis Rennan Sampaio; Gomes, Daiany Íris; Mezzomo, Rafael

    2016-03-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the body composition and net energy and protein requirements for weight gain in Santa Ines crossbred sheep. Thirty woolless, 4-month-old, castrated male sheep with an initial body weight (BW) of 19.77 ± 1.99 kg were used. Six animals (reference group) were slaughtered after the adaptation period to estimate empty body weight (EBW) and initial body composition. The remaining 24 animals were randomly distributed among four treatments (experimental diets) and slaughtered when they reached 30.24 ± 0.78 kg BW. The body composition ranged from 162.88 to 160.4 g protein/kg EBW, from 59.49 to 164.23 g fat/kg EBW and from 1.54 to 2.46 Mcal energy/kg EBW for animals ranging between 20 and 30 kg BW. The net energy requirement for Santa Ines crossbred sheep linearly increased when BW increased from 20 to 30 kg. Within that same weight range, the net protein requirement for weight gain in sheep was constant, ranging from 12.61 to 12.42 g/day to 100 g daily weight gain.

  11. Body composition and weight dynamics of wintering greater white-fronted geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ely, Craig R.; Raveling, Dennis G.

    1989-01-01

    Adult greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons frontalis) wintering in southern Oregon and California increased or maintained body weight in autumn, lost weight from autumn through winter, and rapidly increased in weight before spring migration in late April. We documented significant annual differences in body weights for both sexes. We related seasonal changes in body weight to changes in lipid levels, which were lowest (12-13% of wet wt in M and F) in mid-March and highest in late April (24% in F). Greater white-fronted geese maintained lipid levels during winter similar to those reported for large subspecies of Canada geese (Branta canadensis), and greater than those reported for small subspecies of Canada geese and other small species of geese. Protein content of carcasses varied significantly in females; i.e., lowest in early October and highest in late October and late April. Differences among species in patterns of weight change and body composition during winter seem to be related to social organization, body size, food type, and foraging behavior. Females left spring staging areas weighing relatively less than most other species of geese and may have benefited from foraging opportunities on the nesting grounds.

  12. Tumor necrosis factor‐alpha levels in blood cord is directly correlated with the body weight of mothers

    PubMed Central

    de Toledo Baldi, E.; Dias Bóbbo, V. C.; Melo Lima, M. H.; Velloso, L. A.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Obesity has emerged as major public health problem leading to increased morbidity and mortality. Epidemiological studies indicate that in many regions of the world, children and teenagers are increasingly affected by obesity, which contributes for a pessimistic projection for the near future. Maternal obesity has been implicated in metabolic disorders of the offspring, but there are no biological markers that can be detected early on life that predict the development of obesity in the offspring. Objective To evaluate the expression of inflammatory markers in the umbilical cord blood of babies of mothers with obesity/overweight, and correlate these markers with the body weight at age 9 months. Methods Anthropometric data of mothers and babies were obtained during prenatal evaluation, at birth and 9 months after birth. Cord blood was collected during delivery of 54 babies from mothers with obesity/overweight and of 50 babies from lean mothers. Tumour necrosis factor‐alpha (TNF‐α), transforming growth factor 1 beta, monocyte chemoattractant protein‐1 and 2 (MCP‐1/MCP‐2) were determined in serum samples using enzyme‐linked immunosorbent assay methods. Correlations were evaluated using the Spearman correlation coefficient, and comparisons were evaluated using the non‐parametric Mann–Whitney U‐test. Results Cord blood TNF‐α was positively correlated with maternal body mass index. There was an inverse correlation between cord blood transforming growth factor 1 beta and baby body weight at birth. There was no biological marker that predicted body weight at age 9 months. Conclusion Although we have not found a biological marker to predict increased body weight at 9 months of age, the study shows that maternal obesity exposes the baby to higher TNF‐α level in the early stages of life, and this can affect metabolic and inflammatory parameters during adulthood. PMID:27840691

  13. Brain serotonin system in the coordination of food intake and body weight.

    PubMed

    Lam, Daniel D; Garfield, Alastair S; Marston, Oliver J; Shaw, Jill; Heisler, Lora K

    2010-11-01

    An inverse relationship between brain serotonin and food intake and body weight has been known for more than 30 years. Specifically, augmentation of brain serotonin inhibits food intake, while depletion of brain serotonin promotes hyperphagia and weight gain. Through the decades, serotonin receptors have been identified and their function in the serotonergic regulation of food intake clarified. Recent refined genetic studies now indicate that a primary mechanism through which serotonin influences appetite and body weight is via serotonin 2C receptor (5-HT(2C)R) and serotonin 1B receptor (5-HT(1B)R) influencing the activity of endogenous melanocortin receptor agonists and antagonists at the melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R). However, other mechanisms are also possible and the challenge of future research is to delineate them in the complete elucidation of the complex neurocircuitry underlying the serotonergic control of appetite and body weight.

  14. Watching reality weight loss TV. The effects on body satisfaction, mood, and snack food consumption.

    PubMed

    Bourn, Rebecca; Prichard, Ivanka; Hutchinson, Amanda D; Wilson, Carlene

    2015-08-01

    The present study investigated the influence of a weight loss reality TV show on body satisfaction, mood and food consumption. Young Australian women (N = 99) first completed baseline measures of state body satisfaction and mood. They were then randomly allocated to either a weight loss or a home renovation programme and were provided with snack foods during viewing. Post-measures included state body satisfaction, state mood and trait dietary restraint and snack food consumption. BMI moderated the relationship between condition and body satisfaction and mood. Larger women experienced less body satisfaction and less positive mood in response to the weight loss programme. Dietary restraint moderated the relationship between condition and food consumption. A greater percentage of women with lower dietary restraint ate in the control condition; whilst a greater percentage of women with higher dietary restraint ate food whilst watching the weight loss programme. These findings highlight the potential negative impact of weight-focused reality TV on mood, body satisfaction and snack food consumption among some women.

  15. Associations of body-related teasing with weight status, body image, and dieting behavior among Japanese adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Chisuwa-Hayami, Naomi; Haruki, Toshi

    2017-01-01

    Background: Body-related teasing is known to be linked to body dissatisfaction and dieting behavior in adolescents. However, little is known about it in non-Western countries. This study aims to examine the prevalence of body-related teasing among Japanese adolescents and its connection to weight status, body image, and dieting behavior to consider implications for public health. Methods: The design of this study is a cross-sectional study. An anonymous self-administrated survey was conducted with 1172 junior high school students in Higashi-Osaka City in Osaka Prefecture in Japan. The sampling method was non-random design. The survey items included self-reported height and weight, history and source of teasing, body image perception, and dieting behavior. A chi-square test and logistic regression analysis were used to examine the associations. Results: A history of teasing was reported by 16.4% of boys and 32.5% of girls (P < 0.001, effect size = 0.19). The most common answer for source of teasing was friends (84.7% of boys’ teasing, 67.1% of girls’ teasing, P = 0.003, effect size = 0.19). Students who were overweight, of an upper-normal weight status, and perceived themselves as "fat" were at a greater risk of being teased. Additionally, students with a history of teasing were significantly likelier to display dieting behavior (odds ratios with confidence intervals: boys 4.06 [2.08–7.93], girls 2.40 [1.53– 3.75]). Conclusion: Body-related teasing has a significant association with body image and dieting behavior in Japanese adolescents. A school-based education should be provided to reduce body-related teasing.

  16. Associations of body-related teasing with weight status, body image, and dieting behavior among Japanese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Chisuwa-Hayami, Naomi; Haruki, Toshi

    2017-01-01

    Background: Body-related teasing is known to be linked to body dissatisfaction and dieting behavior in adolescents. However, little is known about it in non-Western countries. This study aims to examine the prevalence of body-related teasing among Japanese adolescents and its connection to weight status, body image, and dieting behavior to consider implications for public health. Methods: The design of this study is a cross-sectional study. An anonymous self-administrated survey was conducted with 1172 junior high school students in Higashi-Osaka City in Osaka Prefecture in Japan. The sampling method was non-random design. The survey items included self-reported height and weight, history and source of teasing, body image perception, and dieting behavior. A chi-square test and logistic regression analysis were used to examine the associations. Results: A history of teasing was reported by 16.4% of boys and 32.5% of girls (P < 0.001, effect size = 0.19). The most common answer for source of teasing was friends (84.7% of boys' teasing, 67.1% of girls' teasing, P = 0.003, effect size = 0.19). Students who were overweight, of an upper-normal weight status, and perceived themselves as "fat" were at a greater risk of being teased. Additionally, students with a history of teasing were significantly likelier to display dieting behavior (odds ratios with confidence intervals: boys 4.06 [2.08-7.93], girls 2.40 [1.53- 3.75]). Conclusion: Body-related teasing has a significant association with body image and dieting behavior in Japanese adolescents. A school-based education should be provided to reduce body-related teasing.

  17. A Longitudinal Analysis of Adolescent Smoking: Using Smoking Status to Differentiate the Influence of Body Weight Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Traci; Johnson, Carolyn

    2013-01-01

    Background: Previous research has reported mixed results on the association between body weight measures (ie, perception of weight and weight loss goal) and cigarette smoking prevalence--and how these associations vary by sex and race. This longitudinal study assessed the relationship between these 2 body weight measures and smoking prevalence by…

  18. Randomized Comparison of Actual and Ideal Body Weight for Size Selection of the Laryngeal Mask Airway Classic in Overweight Patients.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Soo; Lee, Jong Seok; Nam, Sang Beom; Kang, Hyo Jong; Kim, Ji Eun

    2015-08-01

    Size selection of the laryngeal mask airway (LMA) Classic based on actual body weight remains a common practice. However, ideal body weight might allow for a better size selection in obese patients. The purpose of our study was to compare the utility of ideal body weight and actual body weight when choosing the appropriate size of the LMA Classic by a randomized clinical trial. One hundred patients with age 20 to 70 yr, body mass index ≥25 kg/m(2), and the difference between LMA sizes based on actual weight and ideal weight were allocated to insert the LMA Classic using either actual body weight or ideal body weight in a weight-based formula for size selection. After insertion of the device, several variables including insertion parameters, sealing function, fiberoptic imaging, and complications were investigated. The insertion success rate at the first attempt was lower in the actual weight group (82%) than in the ideal weight group (96%), even it did not show significant difference. The ideal weight group had significantly shorter insertion time and easier placement. However, fiberoptic views were significantly better in the actual weight group. Intraoperative complications, sore throat in the recovery room, and dysphonia at postoperative 24 hr occurred significantly less often in the ideal weight group than in the actual weight group. It is suggested that the ideal body weight may be beneficial to the size selection of the LMA Classic in overweight patients (Clinical Trial Registry, NCT 01843270).

  19. Neural network-based visual body weight estimation for drug dosage finding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfitzner, Christian; May, Stefan; Nüchter, Andreas

    2016-03-01

    Body weight adapted drug dosages are important for emergency treatments: Inaccuracies in body weight estimation may lead to inaccurate drug dosing. This paper describes an improved approach to estimating the body weight of emergency patients in a trauma room, based on images from an RGB-D and a thermal camera. The improvements are specific to several aspects: Fusion of RGB-D and thermal camera eases filtering and segmentation of the patient's body from the background. Robustness and accuracy is gained by an artificial neural network, which considers geometric features from the sensors as input, e.g. the patient's volume, and shape parameters. Preliminary experiments with 69 patients show an accuracy close to 90 percent, with less than 10 percent relative error and the results are compared with the physician's estimate, the patient's statement and an established anthropometric method.

  20. Calorie Labeling in Chain Restaurants and Body Weight: Evidence from New York.

    PubMed

    Restrepo, Brandon J

    2016-07-24

    This study analyzes the impact of local mandatory calorie labeling laws implemented by New York jurisdictions on body weight. The analysis indicates that on average the point-of-purchase provision of calorie information on chain restaurant menus reduced body mass index (BMI) by 1.5% and lowered the risk of obesity by 12%. Quantile regression results indicate that calorie labeling has similar impacts across the BMI distribution. An analysis of heterogeneity suggests that calorie labeling has a larger impact on the body weight of lower income individuals, especially lower income minorities. The estimated impacts of calorie labeling on physical activity, smoking, and the consumption of alcoholic beverages, fruits, and vegetables are small in magnitude, which suggests that other margins of adjustment drive the body-weight impacts estimated here. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Low body weight in male children and adolescents with schizoid personality disorder or Asperger's disorder.

    PubMed

    Hebebrand, J; Henninghausen, K; Nau, S; Himmelmann, G W; Schulz, E; Schäfer, H; Remschmidt, H

    1997-07-01

    This study explored the hypothesis that body weight is reduced in male children and adolescents with schizoid personality disorder or Asperger's disorder. The body weights of 33 consecutively admitted male subjects with one of these disorders were retrospectively assessed with percentiles for the body mass index (BMI). The mean percentile (+/- SD) for the BMI was 31.6 +/- 27.6 and differed significantly from the expected value of 50 (P<0.001). Ten subjects had a BMI of < or = 10th age percentile. Post hoc comparisons revealed that BMI percentiles were (a) reduced to a similar extent in patients with schizoid personality disorder and Asperger's disorder and (b) reduced to a greater extent in patients with abnormal eating behaviour. During childhood and adolescence both diagnoses are associated with an increased risk of being underweight. Population-based BMI percentiles are useful for detecting associations between specific psychopathological syndromes and body weight.

  2. Body size perception and weight control in youth: 9-year international trends from 24 countries

    PubMed Central

    Quick, Virginia; Nansel, Tonja R.; Liu, Danping; Lipsky, Leah M.; Due, Pernille; Iannotti, Ronald J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine nine-year trends and relationships regarding misperceptions of body size and dieting for weight loss among adolescents from 24 countries, and explore the influence of country-level overweight prevalence. Methods Socio-demographic characteristics, body size perception, and dieting for weight loss were assessed in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey conducted in 24 countries cross-sectionally at three time points (2001/02, 2005/06, 2009/10). Logistic regression models examined change over time in overestimation of body size in non-overweight adolescents, underestimation of body size in overweight adolescents, dieting for weight loss in non-overweight and overweight adolescents, and relationships between body size perception and dieting. Analyses were stratified by weight status and sex. Covariates included country-level overweight prevalence, family affluence, and country level of development. Body mass index was only included in models examining dieting for weight loss. Results Country-level overweight prevalence increased over time (11.6% to 14.7%). Compared to Time 1, overweight adolescents had greater odds of body size underestimation at Time 3 (OR=1.68 for girls, OR=1.10 for boys), while non-overweight adolescents had lower odds of body size overestimation at Time 3 (OR=0.87 for girls, OR=0.89 for boys). Controlling for country-level overweight prevalence attenuated these relationships. Compared to Time 1, overweight and non-overweight boys were 10% more likely to diet at Time 3, while overweight and non-overweight girls were 19% and 16%, respectively, less likely to diet at Time 3. Controlling for country-level overweight prevalence did not impact trends in dieting for weight loss. Additionally, the association of self-perceived overweight with increased odds of dieting diminished over time. Conclusions Body size perceptions among adolescents may have changed over time concurrent with shifts in country-level body weight

  3. Birth weight modifies the association between central nervous system gene variation and adult body mass index.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Narváez, Edward A; Haddad, Stephen A; Rosenberg, Lynn; Palmer, Julie R

    2016-03-01

    Genome wide association studies have identified ~100 loci associated with body mass index (BMI). Persons with low birth weight have an increased risk of metabolic disorders. We postulate that normal mechanisms of body weight regulation are disrupted in subjects with low birth weight. The present analyses included 2215 African American women from the Black Women's Health Study, and were based on genotype data on 20 BMI-associated loci and self-reported data on birth weight, weight at age 18 and adult weight. We used general linear models to assess the association of individual single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with BMI at age 18 and later in adulthood within strata of birth weight (above and below the median, 3200 g). Three SNPs (rs1320330 near TMEM18, rs261967 near PCSK1 and rs17817964 in FTO), and a genetic score combining these three variants, showed significant interactions with birth weight in relation to BMI. Among women with birth weight <3200 g, there was an inverse association between genetic score and BMI; beta-coefficient=-0.045 (95% confidence intervals (CI) -0.104, 0.013) for BMI at age 18, and -0.055 (95% CI -0.112, 0.002) for adult BMI. Among women with birth weight ⩾3200 g, genetic score was positively associated with BMI: beta-coefficient=0.110 (95% CI 0.051, 0.169) for BMI at age 18 (P for interaction=0.0002), and 0.112 (95% CI 0.054, 0.170) for adult BMI (P for interaction<0.0001). Because TMEM18, PCSK1 and FTO are highly expressed in the central nervous system (CNS), our results suggest that low-birth weight may disrupt mechanisms of CNS body weight regulation.

  4. Adaptive thermogenesis can make a difference in the ability of obese individuals to lose body weight.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, A; Royer, M-M; Chaput, J-P; Doucet, E

    2013-06-01

    The decrease in energy expenditure that occurs during weight loss is a process that attenuates over time the impact of a restrictive diet on energy balance up to a point beyond which no further weight loss seems to be possible. For some health professionals, such a diminished energy expenditure is the normal consequence of a progressive decrease in the motivation to exercise over the course of a weight-reducing program. Another explanation of decreased energy needs during weight loss is the decrease in body energy stores (that is, fat mass and muscle mass) and its related obligatory costs of living. Many studies have also documented the existence of adaptive thermogenesis in the context of weight loss, which represents a greater-than-predicted decrease in energy expenditure. In this paper, we pursue the analysis of this phenomenon by demonstrating that an adaptive decrease in thermogenesis can have a major role in the occurrence of resistance to further lose fat in weight-reduced obese individuals. Evidence is also presented to support the idea of greater hunger sensations in individuals displaying more pronounced thermogenic changes. Finally, as the decrease in thermogenesis persists over time, it is also likely associated with a greater predisposition to body-weight regain after weight loss. Globally, these observations suggest that the adaptive reduction in thermogenesis that accompanies a prolonged negative energy balance is a major determinant of the ability to spontaneously lose body fat.

  5. Psychobiological effects observed in obese men experiencing body weight loss plateau.

    PubMed

    Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Drapeau, Vicky; Hetherington, Marion; Lemieux, Simone; Provencher, Véronique; Tremblay, Angelo

    2007-01-01

    Our objective was to investigate the psychobiological impact associated with resistance to further weight loss in obese men. Anthropometric and body composition measurements, resting metabolic rate (RMR) measurement, appetite sensation markers, and three questionnaires [Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36), Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ), and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)] were assessed at baseline and after 1 month of body weight loss plateau induced by a supervised diet and exercise clinical intervention in 11 obese men. The weight loss plateau corresponded to 11.2% of initial body weight (93.9% from fat stores). However, this amount of weight loss induced a significant decrease in RMR (P <.05) and a significant increase in hunger (P <.05) and desire to eat (P <.05). Using the SF-36 Health Survey, physical and mental health were shown to be unchanged at plateau as compared to baseline. The TFEQ showed that cognitive dietary restraint increased (P <.001) compared to baseline. Finally, depression risk as measured by the BDI significantly increased at plateau (P <.01) compared to baseline. Weight loss until resistance to further weight loss may be detrimental for some psychobiological variables including depression, which emphasizes the relevance of caution and reasonable objectives when prescribing a weight reduction program for obese individuals.

  6. Effects of chronic testosterone administration on body weight and food intake differ among pre-pubertal, gonadal-intact, and ovariectomized female rats.

    PubMed

    Iwasa, Takeshi; Matsuzaki, Toshiya; Tungalagsuvd, Altankhuu; Munkhzaya, Munkhsaikhan; Yiliyasi, Mayila; Kato, Takeshi; Kuwahara, Akira; Irahara, Minoru

    2016-08-01

    In females, estrogens play pivotal roles in preventing excessive body weight gain. On the other hand, the roles of androgen in female appetite and body weight regulation have not been fully studied. In this study, whether the roles of androgen in the regulation of body weight and appetite were different among ages and/or the estrogen milieu in females was evaluated. Body weight gain and food intake were increased by chronic testosterone administration in pre-pubertal and gonadal-intact female rats, but not in ovariectomized female rats. Testosterone administration also affected the serum leptin level and adipose leptin gene expression levels differently in each experimental condition. Hypothalamic mRNA levels of ERα, which plays pivotal roles in regulation of body weight and metabolism, were decreased by chronic testosterone administration in pre-pubertal and gonadal-intact female rats, but not in ovariectomized female rats. These results indicate that the effects of testosterone on body weight and appetite differed among ages and/or estrogen milieu in female rats, and that attenuation of estrogens' actions on the hypothalamus might be partly involved in the androgen-induced increases of body weight gain and food intake in females.

  7. Long-term Excessive Body Weight and Adult Left Ventricular Hypertrophy Are Linked Through Later Life Body Size and Blood Pressure: The Bogalusa Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huijie; Zhang, Tao; Li, Shengxu; Guo, Yajun; Shen, Wei; Fernandez, Camilo; Harville, Emily W; Bazzano, Lydia A; Urbina, Elaine M; He, Jiang; Chen, Wei

    2017-02-23

    Rationale: Childhood adiposity is associated with cardiac structure in later life, but little is known regarding to what extent childhood body weight affects adult left ventricular geometric patterns through adult body size and blood pressure (BP). Objective: Determine quantitatively the mediation effect of adult body weight and BP on the association of childhood BMI with adult left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). Methods and Results: This longitudinal study consisted of 710 adults, age 26 to 48 years, who had been examined for BMI and BP measured 4 or more times during childhood and 2 or more times during adulthood, with a mean follow-up period of 28.0 years. After adjusting for age, race and sex, adult BMI had a significant mediation effect (76.4%, p<0.01) on the childhood BMI-adult LV mass index (LVMI) association. The mediation effects of adult systolic BP (SBP, 15.2%), long-term burden (12.1%) and increasing trends of SBP (7.9%) were all significant (p<0.01). Furthermore, these mediators also had significant mediation effects on the association of childhood BMI with adult LVH, eccentric and concentric hypertrophy. Importantly, the mediation effects of adult BMI were all significantly stronger than those of adult SBP on LVMI, LVH and LV remodeling patterns (p<0.01). Additionally, the mediation effect of SBP on concentric hypertrophy was significantly stronger than on eccentric hypertrophy (p<0.01). Conclusions: These findings suggest that increased childhood BMI has long-term adverse impact on subclinical changes in adult cardiac structure, and early life excessive body weight and adult LVH are linked through later life excessive body weight and elevated BP.

  8. Facial affective reactions to bitter-tasting foods and body mass index in adults.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Burgos, D; Zamora, M C

    2013-12-01

    Differences in food consumption among body-weight statuses (e.g., higher fruit intake linked with lower body mass index (BMI) and energy-dense products with higher BMI) has raised the question of why people who are overweight or are at risk of becoming overweight eat differently from thinner people. One explanation, in terms of sensitivity to affective properties of food, suggests that palatability-driven consumption is likely to be an important contributor to food intake, and therefore body weight. Extending this approach to unpalatable tastes, we examined the relationship between aversive reactions to foods and BMI. We hypothesized that people who have a high BMI will show more negative affective reactions to bitter-tasting stimuli, even after controlling for sensory perception differences. Given that hedonic reactions may influence consumption even without conscious feelings of pleasure/displeasure, the facial expressions were included in order to provide more direct access to affective systems than subjective reports. Forty adults (28 females, 12 males) participated voluntarily. Their ages ranged from 18 to 46 years (M=24.2, SD=5.8). On the basis of BMI, participants were classified as low BMI (BMI<20; n=20) and high BMI (BMI>23; n=20). The mean BMI was 19.1 for low BMI (SD=0.7) and 25.2 for high BMI participants (SD=1.8). Each subject tasted 5 mL of a grapefruit juice drink and a bitter chocolate drink. Subjects rated the drinks' hedonic and incentive value, familiarity and bitter intensity immediately after each stimulus presentation. The results indicated that high BMI participants reacted to bitter stimuli showing more profound changes from baseline in neutral and disgust facial expressions compared with low BMI. No differences between groups were detected for the subjective pleasantness and familiarity. The research here is the first to examine how affective facial reactions to bitter food, apart from taste responsiveness, can predict differences in BMI.

  9. A randomised pilot and feasibility study examining body weight tracking frequency and psychosocial health indicators.

    PubMed

    Linde, Jennifer A

    2014-01-01

    Daily weight tracking may enhance weight loss, but experimental data are scarce. This study tested feasibility of delivering varying weight tracking instructions, assessed adherence, and monitored psychosocial changes. Thirty adults were enrolled and randomised to daily or weekly tracking for 6 months. Study retention was 100%. Adherence averaged 97.5% with no group differences (p=.15). There were no group differences and minimal changes for depression, anxiety, and body image (p=.41-.82). Daily trackers reported fewer barriers (p<.01) at 3 months. The study was highly successful at delivering weight tracking instructions without adverse effects or diminished adherence.

  10. Sex difference in body weight gain and leptin signaling in hypocretin/orexin deficient mouse models.

    PubMed

    Fujiki, Nobuhiro; Yoshida, Yasushi; Zhang, Shengwen; Sakurai, Takeshi; Yanagisawa, Masashi; Nishino, Seiji

    2006-09-01

    Recent studies in human and animal models of narcolepsy have suggested that obesity in narcolepsy may be due to deficiency of hypocretin signaling, and is also under the influence of environmental factors and the genetic background. In the current study, using two hypocretin/orexin deficient narcoleptic mouse models (i.e. preproorexin knockout (KO) and orexin/ataxin-3 transgenic (TG) mice) with cross-sectional assessments, we have further analyzed factors affecting obesity. We found that both KO and TG narcoleptic mice with mixed genetic backgrounds (N4-5, 93.75-96.88% genetic composition of C57BL/6) tended to be heavier than wild type (WT) mice of 100-200 days old. The body weight of heterozygous mice was intermediate between those of KO and WT mice. Obesity was more prominent in females in both KO and TG narcoleptic mice and was associated with higher serum leptin levels, suggesting a partial leptin resistance. Obesity is less prominent in the congenic TG narcoleptic mice, but is still evident in females. Our results confirmed that hypocretin/orexin ligand deficiency is one of the critical factors for the obese tendency in narcolepsy. However, multiple factors are also likely to affect this phenotype, and a sex difference specific alteration of leptin-hypocretin signaling may be involved.

  11. Low-dose recombinant human growth hormone increases body weight and lean body mass in patients with short bowel syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Ellegård, L; Bosaeus, I; Nordgren, S; Bengtsson, B A

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors investigate the effects of low dose recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) on body composition and absorptive capacity in patients with short bowel syndrome from Crohn's disease. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Patients with short bowel syndrome usually are malnourished because of malabsorption. The anabolic effects of high doses of rhGH have been tested in different clinical catabolic conditions, recently including patients with short bowel syndrome. The authors have investigated the effects of low-dose rhGH in short bowel syndrome in a placebo-controlled crossover clinical trial. METHODS: Ten patients were treated with daily subcutaneous doses of rhGH/placebo (0.5 international units/kg-1 per week-1 = 0.024 mg/kg-1 per day-1) for 8 weeks in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover clinical trial with a minimum of 12 weeks wash-out. Absorptive capacity and biochemical parameters were investigated in a metabolic ward before treatment and during first and last week of treatment. Body composition was determined by DEXA-Scan (Lunar DPX, Scanexport Medical, Helsingborg, Sweden), impedance analysis, and whole body potassium counting. RESULTS: Low-dose rhGH doubled serum levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and increased body weight, lean body mass, and total body potassium by 5% (p < 0.05). Fat-free mass and total body water increased by 6% (p = 0.008). Increases in IGF-1 levels correlated with increases in fat-free mass (r = 0.77, p < 0.02). No significant changes in absorptive capacity of water, energy, or protein were detected. CONCLUSION: Eight weeks of low-dose rhGH treatment leads to increases in body weight, lean body mass, and fat-free mass in patients with short bowel syndrome, correlated to increases in IGF-1 levels. PMID:8998124

  12. Role of obesity and media in body weight concern among female university students in Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Musaiger, Abdulrahman O; Al-Mannai, Mariam

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to find out the association of media and obesity status with body weight concern among female university students in Kuwait. 228 female students, aged 19-25 years, were selected at convenience from the Women's College in Kuwait. A previously validated questionnaire was used to collect information on the role of media in body concern and how parents, peers and the girls themselves perceived girls' body shapes. Weight and height were gathered by self-reporting. Use of internet and reading women's magazines had a significant impact on dieting by the girls to lose weight (P<0.0007 and P<0.0114, respectively). The mass media had two to three times more influence on obese girls than non-obese girls. Only watching television had a significant impact on girls' body shape concern (P<0.053). About 30% of non-obese and 81% of obese girls were dissatisfied with their current weight. There were significant differences between obese and non-obese girls regarding the girls' views and the views of their peers and parents about the body weight of the girls (P<0.000 for all). The pressure from peers and parents, in addition to the mass media, may lead to disturbed attitudes towards eating among Kuwaiti girls.

  13. Successful maintenance of body weight reduction after individualized dietary counseling in obese subjects

    PubMed Central

    Stelmach-Mardas, Marta; Mardas, Marcin; Warchoł, Wojciech; Jamka, Małgorzata; Walkowiak, Jarosław

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the effectiveness of individualized dietary counseling in obese subjects based on narrative interview technique on the maintenance of body weight reduction, changes in dietary behaviors, including type of cooking and physical activity. One-hundred subjects out of four-hundred patients met the inclusion criteria. Individually, 45-minute educational program with motivation counseling was performed in 0, 6 and 12 weeks of the study. Patients were advised to follow individually well-balanced diet for 12 weeks. The individuals were asked about the changes in their dietary habits (Food Frequency Questionnaire). The mean percentage of body weight changes from the baseline were as follows: in 6th week- 5.9%, in 12th week - 10.9% and in 52th week - 9.7% (P < 0.0001), however there were no statistically significant changes while comparing body weight in 12th and 52th week. The maintenance of body weight reduction was connected with the dietary habits changes, mainly the type of cooking and increased consumption of vegetable oils. In conclusion, individualized dietary counseling, based on narrative interview technique is an effective intervention for obesity treatment that may help maintain body weight reduction and adapt the pro-healthy changes in type of cooking and sources of dietary fat. PMID:25311271

  14. Orthotic Body-Weight Support Through Underactuated Potential Energy Shaping with Contact Constraints.

    PubMed

    Lv, Ge; Gregg, Robert D

    2015-12-01

    Body-weight support is an effective clinical tool for gait rehabilitation after neurological impairment. Body-weight supported training systems have been developed to help patients regain mobility and confidence during walking, but conventional systems constrain the patient's treatment in clinical environments. We propose that this challenge could be addressed by virtually providing patients with body-weight support through the actuators of a powered orthosis (or exoskeleton) utilizing potential energy shaping control. However, the changing contact conditions and degrees of underactuation encountered during human walking present significant challenges to consistently matching a desired potential energy for the human in closed loop. We therefore introduce a generalized matching condition for shaping Lagrangian systems with holonomic contact constraints. By satisfying this matching condition for four phases of gait, we derive control laws to achieve virtual body-weight support through a powered knee-ankle orthosis. We demonstrate beneficial effects of virtual body-weight support in simulations of a human-like biped model, indicating the potential clinical value of this proposed control approach.

  15. Does reading keep you thin? Leisure activities, cultural tastes, and body weight in comparative perspective

    PubMed Central

    Pampel, Fred C.

    2011-01-01

    While sedentary leisure-time activities such as reading, going to movies, attending cultural events, attending sporting events, watching TV, listening to music, and socializing with friends would seem to contribute to excess weight, a perspective focusing on SES differences in cultural tastes suggests the opposite, that some sedentary activities are associated with lower rather than higher body weight. This study aims to test theories of cultural distinction by examining relationships between leisure-time activities and body weight. Using 2007 data on 17 nations from the International Social Survey Program, the analysis estimates relationships between the body mass index and varied leisure-time activities while controlling for SES, physical activities, and sociodemographic variables. Net of controls for SES and physical activities, participation time in cultural activities is associated with lower rather than higher body weight, particularly in high-income nations. The results suggest that both cultural activities and body weight reflect forms of distinction that separate SES-based lifestyles. PMID:21707664

  16. Orthotic Body-Weight Support Through Underactuated Potential Energy Shaping with Contact Constraints

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Ge; Gregg, Robert D.

    2015-01-01

    Body-weight support is an effective clinical tool for gait rehabilitation after neurological impairment. Body-weight supported training systems have been developed to help patients regain mobility and confidence during walking, but conventional systems constrain the patient's treatment in clinical environments. We propose that this challenge could be addressed by virtually providing patients with body-weight support through the actuators of a powered orthosis (or exoskeleton) utilizing potential energy shaping control. However, the changing contact conditions and degrees of underactuation encountered during human walking present significant challenges to consistently matching a desired potential energy for the human in closed loop. We therefore introduce a generalized matching condition for shaping Lagrangian systems with holonomic contact constraints. By satisfying this matching condition for four phases of gait, we derive control laws to achieve virtual body-weight support through a powered knee-ankle orthosis. We demonstrate beneficial effects of virtual body-weight support in simulations of a human-like biped model, indicating the potential clinical value of this proposed control approach. PMID:26900254

  17. [Relationship between body weight status and self-concept in schoolchildren].

    PubMed

    Gálvez Casas, Arancha; Rodríguez García, Pedro L; Rosa Guillamón, Andrés; García-Cantó, Eliseo; Pérez-Soto, Juan J; Tarraga Marcos, Loreto; Tarraga López, Pedro

    2014-11-30

    Body weight status has been linked to other health parameters. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between body weight status and self-concept in a sample of 216 students (9.26 ± 1.26 years) from schools of the Southeast of Spain. BMI (Body-mass index) was used to evaluate the body weight status. Subjects were classified into normal weight, overweight and obesity according to international standards. The six dimensions of self-concept (intellectual, behavioral, physical, lack of anxiety, social and life satisfaction) were assessed using the Piers-Harris Self-Concept Scale. The results showed significant associations between BMI and intellectual self-concept, life satisfaction, global self-concept and physical self. Subjects categorized as overweight or obese were those who showed lower scores on the self-concept scale. Interventions focused on improving the body weight status are needed in order to achieve better self-concept levels and health among young people.

  18. Successful maintenance of body weight reduction after individualized dietary counseling in obese subjects.

    PubMed

    Stelmach-Mardas, Marta; Mardas, Marcin; Warchoł, Wojciech; Jamka, Małgorzata; Walkowiak, Jarosław

    2014-10-14

    The aim of this study was to describe the effectiveness of individualized dietary counseling in obese subjects based on narrative interview technique on the maintenance of body weight reduction, changes in dietary behaviors, including type of cooking and physical activity. One-hundred subjects out of four-hundred patients met the inclusion criteria. Individually, 45-minute educational program with motivation counseling was performed in 0, 6 and 12 weeks of the study. Patients were advised to follow individually well-balanced diet for 12 weeks. The individuals were asked about the changes in their dietary habits (Food Frequency Questionnaire). The mean percentage of body weight changes from the baseline were as follows: in 6th week- 5.9%, in 12th week - 10.9% and in 52th week - 9.7% (P < 0.0001), however there were no statistically significant changes while comparing body weight in 12th and 52th week. The maintenance of body weight reduction was connected with the dietary habits changes, mainly the type of cooking and increased consumption of vegetable oils. In conclusion, individualized dietary counseling, based on narrative interview technique is an effective intervention for obesity treatment that may help maintain body weight reduction and adapt the pro-healthy changes in type of cooking and sources of dietary fat.

  19. Deletion of Lkb1 in adult mice results in body weight reduction and lethality.

    PubMed

    Shan, Tizhong; Xiong, Yan; Kuang, Shihuan

    2016-11-08

    Liver kinase B1 (Lkb1) plays crucial roles in development, metabolism and survival. As constitutive knockout of Lkb1 in mice leads to embryonic lethality, whether Lkb1 is required for the growth and survival of adult mice is unclear. Here we address this question using a tamoxifen-inducible Lkb1 knockout (KO) mouse model: Rosa26-Cre(ER): Lkb1(flox/flox) (abbreviated as Rosa-Lkb1). The Rosa-Lkb1 mice exhibited body weight reduction and died within 6 weeks after tamoxifen induction. The body weight reduction was due to reduced weight of various tissues but the brown and white adipose tissues underwent much more pronounced weight reduction relative to the overall body weight reduction. Accordingly, the Rosa-Lkb1 mice had increased blood glucose levels and were intolerant to glucose challenge. Expression levels of adipogenic and lipogenic genes in adipose tissues were also dramatically reduced by Lkb1 deletion. Additionally, Lkb1 deletion reduced lipid deposition and increased expression of mitochondrial (Pgc1a, Cox5b and Cox7a) and hepatic gluconeogenesis related genes (Pepck) in liver. Finally, the Rosa-Lkb1 mice had much reduced oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, and energy expenditure. These results demonstrate that Lkb1 plays an important role in maintaining body weight, liver and adipose tissue function, blood glucose homeostasis and survival in adult mice.

  20. Mechanism of Body Weight Reducing Effect of Oral Boric Acid Intake

    PubMed Central

    Aysan, Erhan; Telci, Dilek; Erdem, Merve; Muslumanoglu, Mahmut; Yardımcı, Erkan; Bektasoglu, Huseyin

    2013-01-01

    Objective. The effect of oral boric acid intake on reducing body weight has been previously demonstrated although the mechanism has been unclear. This research study reveals the mechanism. Subjects. Twelve mice were used, in groups of six each in the control and study groups. For five days, control group mice drank standard tap water while during the same time period the study group mice drank tap water which contains 0.28 mg/250 mL boric acid. After a 5-day period, gene expression levels for uncoupling proteins (UCPs) in the white adipose tissue (WAT), brown adipose tissue (BAT), and skeletal muscle tissue (SMT) and total body weight changes were analyzed. Results. Real time PCR analysis revealed no significant change in UCP3 expressions, but UCP2 in WAT (P: 0.0317), BAT (P: 0.014), and SMT (P: 0.0159) and UCP1 in BAT (P: 0.026) were overexpressed in the boric acid group. In addition, mice in the boric acid group lost body weight (mean 28.1%) while mice in the control group experienced no weight loss but a slight weight gain (mean 0.09%, P < 0.001). Conclusion. Oral boric acid intake causes overexpression of thermogenic proteins in the adipose and skeletal muscle tissues. Increasing thermogenesis through UCP protein pathway results in the accelerated lipolysis and body weight loss. PMID:23861682

  1. Low birth weight may increase body fat mass in adult women with polycystic ovarian syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Minooee, Sonia; Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh; Mirmiran, Parvin; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2016-01-01

    Background: Women engaged with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), as the commonest endocrine disorder, are known to have a specific type of adiposity. Birth weight is among different contributors reported to be responsible for this diversity. Objective: We aimed to compare the relation between birth weight and body fat mass (BFM)/ body lean mass (BLM) in PCOS and their age and body mass index (BMI) matched normal controls. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, a total number of 70 reproductive aged women, diagnosed with PCOS and 70 age- BMI matched healthy women without hirsutism and/or ovulatory dysfunction were recruited., control group had no polycystic ovaries in ultrasonographic scans. A detailed history of birth weight was taken and was divided into the following categories: <2,500 (low birth weight, LBW) and 2,500-4,000 (normal birth weight; NBW). Results: Results showed that LBW prevalence was higher in women with PCOS than in controls (19.3% (27) vs. 15.7% (22)). Also body fat and lean mass (BFM, BLM) have increased in adult women with PCOS who were born underweight compared to their normal (19.8±9.05 vs. 12.9±4.5, p=0.001 and 48.9±6.9 vs. 43.2±5.8, p=0.004 respectively). Conclusion: Fetal birth weight influences on the adulthood obesity, BFM and BLM. This impact is different among women with and without PCOS. PMID:27326419

  2. Prenatal Centrifugation: A Mode1 for Fetal Programming of Body Weight?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baer, Lisa A.; Rushing, Linda; Wade, Charles E.; Ronca, April E.

    2005-01-01

    'Fetal programming' is a newly emerging field that is revealing astounding insights into the prenatal origins of adult disease, including metabolic, endocrine, and cardiovascular pathophysiology. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that rat pups conceived, gestated and born at 2-g have significantly reduced birth weights and increased adult body weights as compared to 1-g controls. Offspring were produced by mating young adult male and female rats that were adapted to 2-g centrifugation. Female rats underwent conception, pregnancy and birth at 2-g. Newborn pups in the 2-g condition were removed from the centrifuge and fostered to non-manipulated, newly parturient dams maintained at 1 -g. Comparisons were made with 1-g stationary controls, also crossfostered at birth. As compared to 1-g controls, birth weights of pups gestated and born at 2-g were significantly reduced. Pup body weights were significantly reduced until Postnatal day (P) 12. Beginning on P63, body weights of 2-g-gestated offspring exceeded those of 1-g controls by 7-10%. Thus, prenatal rearing at 2-g restricts neonatal growth and increases adult body weight. Collectively, these data support the hypothesis that 2-g centrifugation alters the intrauterine milieu, thereby inducing persistent changes in adult phenotype.

  3. Thylakoids suppress appetite by increasing cholecystokinin resulting in lower food intake and body weight in high-fat fed mice.

    PubMed

    Köhnke, Rickard; Lindqvist, Andreas; Göransson, Nathanael; Emek, Sinan C; Albertsson, Per-Ake; Rehfeld, Jens F; Hultgårdh-Nilsson, Anna; Erlanson-Albertsson, Charlotte

    2009-12-01

    Thylakoids are membranes isolated from plant chloroplasts which have previously been shown to inhibit pancreatic lipase/colipase catalysed hydrolysis of fat in vitro and induce short-term satiety in vivo. The purpose of the present study was to examine if dietary supplementation of thylakoids could affect food intake and body weight during long-term feeding in mice. Female apolipoprotein E-deficient mice were fed a high-fat diet containing 41% of fat by energy with and without thylakoids for 100 days. Mice fed the thylakoid-enriched diet had suppressed food intake, body weight gain and body fat compared with the high-fat fed control mice. Reduced serum glucose, serum triglyceride and serum free fatty acid levels were found in the thylakoid-treated animals. The satiety hormone cholecystokinin was elevated, suggesting this hormone mediates satiety. Leptin levels were reduced, reflecting a decreased fat mass. There was no sign of desensitization in the animals treated with thylakoids. The results suggest that thylakoids are useful to suppress appetite and body weight gain when supplemented to a high-fat food during long-term feeding.

  4. Can the controversial relationship between dietary calcium and body weight be mechanistically explained by alterations in appetite and food intake?

    PubMed Central

    Teegarden, Dorothy; Gunther, Carolyn W

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity has reached epidemic proportions worldwide and the incidence of overweight and obesity continues to rise. Diet plays a significant role in the modulation of body weight and there is some evidence to suggest that calcium or dairy intake may modulate body weight and body fat mass. Several mechanisms through which calcium or dairy products may affect body weight or fat have been suggested, including a possible effect on appetite and food intake. A recent study investigated to what extent people could compensate for increased energy intake from dairy products and found that a 7-day increase in dairy intake had no effect on appetite and no evidence of complete compensation for the raised energy intake. In another study, the effects of altered calcium content of a dairy-based test meal was evaluated in obese subjects; the findings indicated that although a higher calcium content of the meal reduced the extent of post-prandial chylomicron-associated triglyceridemia, there was no effect on appetite-related hormones (CCK, ghrelin, GLP-1, or PPY) or on energy intake from a subsequent ad libitum test meal. Thus, this new evidence does not support the hypothesis that high calcium or dairy intake reduces appetite or food intake. PMID:18826456

  5. Can the controversial relationship between dietary calcium and body weight be mechanistically explained by alterations in appetite and food intake?

    PubMed

    Teegarden, Dorothy; Gunther, Carolyn W

    2008-10-01

    The prevalence of obesity has reached epidemic proportions worldwide and the incidence of overweight and obesity continues to rise. Diet plays a significant role in the modulation of body weight and there is some evidence to suggest that calcium or dairy intake may modulate body weight and body fat mass. Several mechanisms through which calcium or dairy products may affect body weight or fat have been suggested, including a possible effect on appetite and food intake. A recent study investigated to what extent people could compensate for increased energy intake from dairy products and found that a 7-day increase in dairy intake had no effect on appetite and no evidence of complete compensation for the raised energy intake. In another study, the effects of altered calcium content of a dairy-based test meal was evaluated in obese subjects; the findings indicated that although a higher calcium content of the meal reduced the extent of post-prandial chylomicron-associated triglyceridemia, there was no effect on appetite-related hormones (CCK, ghrelin, GLP-1, or PPY) or on energy intake from a subsequent ad libitum test meal. Thus, this new evidence does not support the hypothesis that high calcium or dairy intake reduces appetite or food intake.

  6. Incidence of dental lesions in musk shrews (Suncus murinus) and their association with sex, age, body weight and diet.

    PubMed

    Dudley, Emily S; Grunden, Beverly K; Crocker, Conan; Boivin, Gregory P

    2013-10-22

    Both wild and laboratory strains of the musk shrew (Suncus murinus) have a high incidence of periodontitis. The authors completed necropsy examinations in 51 shrews to identify dental lesions including tooth loss, mobility and fractures. Dental lesions were identified in significantly more females than males, and older animals were more likely to have lesions present. Shrews with one or more dental lesions weighed significantly less than those without lesions present. Dietary supplementation with mealworms did not significantly affect the incidence of dental lesions or the body weight of male or female shrews. The authors recommend routine body weight measurement as a simple, noninvasive method of detecting shrews with an increased likelihood of having dental lesions.

  7. The Association between Helicobacter pylori Infection and Body Weight among Children

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jun Sik; Ko, Kyung Og; Lim, Jae Woo; Cheon, Eun Jeong; Lee, Gyung Min

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We performed to reveal the association between the Helicobacter pylori infection and body weight among children. Methods Out retrospective study included patients who underwent the H. pylori immunoglobulin G testing at Konyang University Hospital between March 2011 and June 2014. These patients were classified as seropositive (28 boys, 27 girls; mean age: 9.89±3.28 years) or seronegative (55 boys, 54 girls; mean age: 9.84±3.02 years). Next, we compared various characteristics between the seropositive and negative groups, as well as between obese children (body weight ≥90th percentile) and non-obese children (body weight <90th percentile). Furthermore, we compared the change in body weight after 2 months of treatment with amoxicillin, clarithromycin and omeprazole among the 55 seropositive children (14 treated children and 41 non-treated children). Results There were no differences in the weights and laboratory data for the 55 seropositive children and 109 seronegative children (weight; 40.96±18.11 kg vs. 36.85±13.72 kg, respectively; p=0.14). And, there was no difference in the prevalence of H. pylori infection among the 29 obese and 135 non-obese children (p=0.581). However, after 2 months of eradication, the 14 treated patients exhibited a significant weight gain (+0.91±0.52 kg), compared to the 41 non-treated patients (-0.29±1.16 kg, p=0.025). Conclusion Our findings present that obesity was not associated with the H. pylori infection, although H. pylori eradication led to significant increase in body weight. PMID:27437187

  8. Effects of graded doses of the pesticide heptachlor on body weight, mating success, oestrous cycle, gestation length and litter size in laboratory rats.

    PubMed

    Oduma, J A; Wango, E O; Makawiti, D W; Einer-Jensen, N; Oduor-Okelo, D

    1995-02-01

    Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with 5 or 20 mg/kg body weight heptachlor solution every other day for up to 18 days. They were weighed every day and the stage of oestrus determined by vaginal smears. One experimental group was mated and pregnancy characteristics studied. Heptachlor affected body weights, cycle patterns, length of gestation period and litter sizes in a dose-related manner. At a dose of 20 mg/kg body weight, heptachlor caused a significant decrease in average body weight (P < 0.01), disrupted and/or prolonged oestrous cycles, decreased mating success (P < 0.001), slightly increased gestation length (P < 0.05) and decreased litter size (P < 0.01).

  9. Influence of dietary aflatoxin, zinc, and copper on bone size, organ weight, and body weight in hamsters and rats

    SciTech Connect

    Llewellyn, G.C.; Floyd, E.A.; Hoke, G.D.; Weekley, L.B.; Kimbrough, T.D.

    1985-08-01

    Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus have been shown to produce aflatoxins in stored foodstuffs such as peanuts, cottonseed meal, rice, and grains. Aflatoxin-treated animals, especially those that have not matured, fail to gain body weight as rapidly as controls and protein synthesis is reduced. Zinc is a necessary trace element in the diet. Slight deficiencies produce growth retardation, an inhibition of the animal's general well-being, and a reduction in feed efficiency. Many changes observed in bone of zinc deficient animals were similar to those observed with decreased feed intake. High levels of zinc are relatively non-toxic. Copper is required in the diet for prevention of anemia. It has been suggested to have a protective effect against several carcinogens, and is an essential component of many oxidative enzyme systems. In an effort to determine the potential effects of the interaction of metals and aflatoxins, these studies were initiated. Reported herein are body weights, organ weights, bone sizes and radiographic evaluations.

  10. Men, muscles, and body image: comparisons of competitive bodybuilders, weight trainers, and athletically active controls

    PubMed Central

    Pickett, T; Lewis, R; Cash, T; Pope, H

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate body image and psychosocial adjustment among competitive bodybuilders, non-competitive weight trainers, and athletically active men. Methods: Participants were 40 men in each of the three groups who were assessed on body composition and multiple facets of body image evaluation, investment and anxiety, eating attitudes, and social self esteem. Results: Relative to the other two groups, competitive bodybuilders had greater body mass due to fat-free body mass. Although groups did not differ in their situational body image discomfort, competitive bodybuilders and weight trainers had a more positive global appearance evaluation and were more psychologically invested in their physical appearance. Compared with active controls, men in both weightlifting groups were more satisfied with their upper torso and muscle tone. Competitive bodybuilders reported more mid torso satisfaction than the other two groups. Competitive bodybuilders also wished to be significantly heavier than controls did and reported higher social self esteem but greater eating disturbance. Conclusions: The findings suggest that competitive bodybuilders as a group are not more "muscle dysmorphic" than either non-competitive weight trainers or physically active men who do not train with weights. PMID:15793091

  11. IQP-GC-101 reduces body weight and body fat mass: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Chong, Pee-Win; Beah, Zhi-Ming; Grube, Barbara; Riede, Linda

    2014-10-01

    IQP-GC-101 is a patented blend of the standardized extracts of Garcinia cambogia, Camellia sinensis, unroasted Coffea arabica, and Lagerstroemia speciosa. These individual ingredients of IQP-GC-101 have each shown promise in promoting weight loss; however, the efficacy of the blend has not been established. This randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel group study conducted over 14 weeks (including a 2-week run-in phase) aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of IQP-GC-101 in reducing body weight and body fat mass in overweight Caucasian adults. Subjects took three IQP-GC-101 or placebo tablets, twice a day, 30 min before main meals. All subjects also adhered to a 500 kcal/day energy deficit diet with 30% of energy from fat. Ninety-one overweight and mildly obese subjects (46 in the IQP-GC-101 group, 45 in the placebo group) completed the study. After 12-week intervention, IQP-GC-101 resulted in a mean (±SD) weight loss of 2.26 ± 2.37 kg compared with 0.56 ± 2.34 kg for placebo (pU  = 0.002). There was also significantly more reduction in body fat mass, waist circumference, and hip circumference in the IQP-GC-101 group. No serious adverse events were reported. The use of IQP-GC-101 has been shown to result in body weight and body fat reduction in the current study, with good tolerability.

  12. Percentage of Body Fat and Weight Gain in Participants in the Tehran High School Wrestling Championship

    PubMed Central

    Kordi, Ramin; Nourian, Ruhollah; Rostami, Mohsen; Wallace, W. Angus

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Weight loss in wrestling has been found to be an interesting issue for researchers. In this regard, complications of weight loss in wrestlers before the competitions and their weight gain in course of competitions have been debated in previous studies. The objective of this study was to investigate the extent of weight gain and to estimate the percentage of body fat in participants in the Tehran high school male wrestling championship. Methods This study was a cross sectional survey. Subjects were participants of the Tehran high school male wrestling championship (n = 365). Weight gain in course of competitions and body fat levels (based on skin fold measurements) of subjects were measured. Results Between the first weigh-in of the wrestlers which was done one day before the competitions and the second weigh-in which was conducted immediately before the first round of their first competition (20 hours), 69% of subjects gained on average 1.3±0.9 kg (range: 0.1 to 6.10 kg) or 2.2±1.7% of the wrestler’s weight (range: 0.1 to 9.3). Among the subjects, the mean of fat body percentage was found to be 15.2%. Conclusions Rapid weight loss for matches was prevalent among subjects. It was also found that Iranian wrestlers have a relatively higher body fat percentage in comparison to American wrestlers. Therefore, it can be concluded that weight loss behavior of these wrestlers should be changed from using dehydration methods to using gradual methods of weight loss such as fat reduction methods. PMID:22942998

  13. Chronic psychological stress alters body weight and blood chemistry in European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Awerman, J L; Romero, L M

    2010-05-01

    One hallmark of chronic stress is a decrease in body weight that rebounds once chronic stress is alleviated. We applied chronic psychological stress by exposing European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) to a previously validated chronic stress protocol (CSP) consisting of 4 different randomly applied stressors per day. Experimental design consisted of a 21 day CSP (CSP1), a 60day recovery (R1), a second 14 day CSP (CSP2), and a second 30 day recovery (R2). Body weight decreased by approximately 5% during CSP1, but overshot to 5-10% above initial body weight during R1. To investigate underlying mechanisms, we periodically measured 12 biochemical analytes, including aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine kinase (CK), bile acids, total protein, albumin, globulin, glucose, uric acid, calcium (Ca(++)), phosphorus (PHOS), potassium (K(+)), and sodium (Na(+)). AST and CK increased at the beginning of CSP1, suggesting muscle breakdown. Additionally, decreases in albumin and total protein paired with stable uric acid, but no associated change in glucose, suggested protein breakdown as a secondary energy source. Changes in blood parameters that occurred during CSP1 did not reverse during R1. During CSP2 and R2, weight loss and gain occurred in different proportions. CSP2 produced an approximate 15% decrease in body weight, but R2 resulted in only re-gaining 5% of this weight, although this was equivalent to the pre-CSP1 weight. In summary, protein metabolism appeared to mediate weight loss during chronic stress, but over-gaining weight was not a good indicator of recovery.

  14. Effects of Body Weight Reduction on Serum Irisin and Metabolic Parameters in Obese Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Kurose, Satoshi; Shinno, Hiromi; Thi Thu, Ha Cao; Takao, Nana; Tsutsumi, Hiromi; Hasegawa, Takaaki; Nakajima, Toshiaki; Kimura, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    Background Irisin is a myokine implicated in lipid and glucose metabolism. The objective of this study is to examine the effect of a body weight reduction on the serum irisin level and physical indicators in obese Japanese patients without diabetes. Methods The subjects were 22 patients (male/female, 5/17; age, 46.1±16.0 years; body mass index [BMI], 36.9±5.0 kg/m2) who completed a 6-month body weight reduction program at our clinic. The program included diet, exercise therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy. Blood parameters, body composition, exercise tolerance, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and serum irisin were determined before and after intervention, and relationships among changes in these data were examined. Results There were significant decreases in body weight and BMI after the intervention. Irisin before the intervention was significantly positively correlated with HOMA-IR (r=0.434, P<0.05). The mean irisin level showed no significant change after the intervention in all participants. However, improvements in % body fat, subcutaneous fat area, triglycerides, and fasting glucose were significantly greater in patients with an increase in irisin compared to those with a decrease in irisin after the intervention. Patients with an increase in irisin also had significantly lower fasting insulin (9.7±4.8 vs. 16.4±8.2, P<0.05) and HOMA-IR (2.2±1.1 vs. 3.7±1.6, P<0.05) after the intervention, compared to patients with a decrease in irisin. Conclusion Body weight reduction did not alter irisin levels. However, irisin may play important roles in fat and glucose metabolism and insulin resistance, and the effects of body weight reduction on irisin kinetics may be a key for obesity treatment. PMID:27766246

  15. Detraining increases body fat and weight and decreases VO2peak and metabolic rate.

    PubMed

    Ormsbee, Michael J; Arciero, Paul J

    2012-08-01

    Competitive collegiate swimmers commonly take a month off from swim training after their last major competition. This abrupt cessation of intense physical training has not been well studied and may lead to physiopsychological decline. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of swim detraining (DT) on body composition, aerobic fitness, resting metabolism, mood state, and blood lipids in collegiate swimmers. Eight healthy endurance-trained swimmers (V(O2)peak, 46.7 ± 10.8 ml · kg(-1) · min(-1)) performed 2 identical test days, 1 in the trained (TR) state and 1 in the detrained (~5 weeks) state (DT). Body composition and circumferences, maximal oxygen consumption (V(O2)peak), resting metabolism (RMR), blood lipids, and mood state were measured. After DT, body weight (TR, 68.9 ± 9.7 vs. DT, 69.8 ± 9.8 kg; p = 0.03), fat mass (TR, 14.7 ± 7.6 vs. DT, 16.5 ± 7.4 kg; p = 0.001), and waist circumference (TR, 72.7 ± 3.1 vs. DT, 73.8 ± 3.6 cm; p = 0.03) increased, whereas V(O2)peak (TR, 46.7 ± 10.8 vs. DT, 43.1 ± 10.3 ml · kg(-1) · min(-1); p = 0.02) and RMR (TR, 1.34 ± 0.2 vs. DT, 1.25 ± 0.17 kcal · min(-1); p = 0.008) decreased, and plasma triglycerides showed a trend to increase (p = 0.065). Our data suggest that DT after a competitive collegiate swim season adversely affects body composition, fitness, and metabolism. Athletes and coaches need to be aware of the negative consequences of detraining from swimming, and plan off-season training schedules accordingly to allow for adequate rest/recovery and prevent overuse injuries. It's equally important to mitigate the negative effects on body composition, aerobic fitness and metabolism so performance may continue to improve over the long term.

  16. Effects of hydroxyurea administration on the body weight, body composition and exercise performance of patients with sickle-cell anaemia.

    PubMed

    Hackney, A C; Hezier, W; Gulledge, T P; Jones, S; Strayhorn, D; Busby, M; Hoffman, E; Orringer, E P

    1997-05-01

    1. As an ancillary study carried out during the recently completed Multicenter Study of Hydroxyurea, we examined the effect of hydroxyurea on the body weight, body composition and exercise capacity of adult patients with sickle-cell anaemia. 2. The subjects received either hydroxyurea (six males and four females) or placebo (eight males and six females). Data for each subject were generated during four separate 24 h admissions to the General Clinical Research Center. These admissions occurred at baseline and then at 6, 12 and 18 months after the start of study drug (hydroxyurea or placebo) administration. During each admission, body composition was measured by using a dual X-ray absorptiometer, and exercise testing was performed by cycle ergometry. Anaerobic performance was assessed according to a 'Wingate' protocol (20 s at maximal intensity against a cycling resistance of 7.5% body weight). Aerobic performance was examined using a steady state submaximal exercise protocol (10 min cycling time). 3. At baseline, no significant difference in any parameter was found between the hydroxyurea- and placebo-treated groups. At 18 months, the hydroxyurea-treated subjects exhibited an average weight gain of 3.16 kg. The mean weight gain in the placebo-treated subjects was 1.82 kg. Body composition analysis showed that the additional weight in both groups involved both lean and fat body mass components. In anaerobic performance, the subjects given hydroxyurea showed an increase in peak muscle power of 104.9 W. The placebo group also showed an increase, but theirs was a more modest gain of 57.7 W. The most marked improvement in anaerobic performance was observed in the hydroxyurea-treated men (P < 0.05). In aerobic performance, the hydroxyurea-treated subjects exhibited a decrease in peak heart rate response to a standardized workload of 15.2 beats/min, as compared with a decrease of only 4.3 beats/min in the placebo-treated patients. 4. Taken together, the overall weight gain

  17. The value of body weight measurement to assess dehydration in children.

    PubMed

    Pruvost, Isabelle; Dubos, François; Chazard, Emmanuel; Hue, Valérie; Duhamel, Alain; Martinot, Alain

    2013-01-01

    Dehydration secondary to gastroenteritis is one of the most common reasons for office visits and hospital admissions. The indicator most commonly used to estimate dehydration status is acute weight loss. Post-illness weight gain is considered as the gold-standard to determine the true level of dehydration and is widely used to estimate weight loss in research. To determine the value of post-illness weight gain as a gold standard for acute dehydration, we conducted a prospective cohort study in which 293 children, aged 1 month to 2 years, with acute diarrhea were followed for 7 days during a 3-year period. The main outcome measures were an accurate pre-illness weight (if available within 8 days before the diarrhea), post-illness weight, and theoretical weight (predicted from the child's individual growth chart). Post-illness weight was measured for 231 (79%) and both theoretical and post-illness weights were obtained for 111 (39%). Only 62 (21%) had an accurate pre-illness weight. The correlation between post-illness and theoretical weight was excellent (0.978), but bootstrapped linear regression analysis showed that post-illness weight underestimated theoretical weight by 0.48 kg (95% CI: 0.06-0.79, p<0.02). The mean difference in the fluid deficit calculated was 4.0% of body weight (95% CI: 3.2-4.7, p<0.0001). Theoretical weight overestimated accurate pre-illness weight by 0.21 kg (95% CI: 0.08-0.34, p = 0.002). Post-illness weight underestimated pre-illness weight by 0.19 kg (95% CI: 0.03-0.36, p = 0.02). The prevalence of 5% dehydration according to post-illness weight (21%) was significantly lower than the prevalence estimated by either theoretical weight (60%) or clinical assessment (66%, p<0.0001).These data suggest that post-illness weight is of little value as a gold standard to determine the true level of dehydration. The performance of dehydration signs or scales determined by using post-illness weight as a gold standard has to be reconsidered.

  18. Blended-Wing-Body (BWB) Fuselage Structural Design for Weight Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukhopadhyay, V.

    2005-01-01

    Structural analysis and design of efficient pressurized fuselage configurations for the advanced Blended-Wing-Body (BWB) flight vehicle is a challenging problem. Unlike a conventional cylindrical pressurized fuselage, stress level in a box type BWB fuselage is an order of magnitude higher, because internal pressure primarily results in bending stress instead of skin-membrane stress. In addition, resulting deformation of aerodynamic surface could significantly affect performance advantages provided by lifting body. The pressurized composite conformal multi-lobe tanks of X-33 type space vehicle also suffered from similar problem. In the earlier BWB design studies, Vaulted Ribbed Shell (VLRS), Flat Ribbed Shell (FRS); Vaulted shell Honeycomb Core (VLHC) and Flat sandwich shell Honeycomb Core (FLHC) concepts were studied. The flat and vaulted ribbed shell concepts were found most efficient. In a recent study, a set of composite sandwich panel and cross-ribbed panel were analyzed. Optimal values of rib and skin thickness, rib spacing, and panel depth were obtained for minimal weight under stress and buckling constraints. In addition, a set of efficient multi-bubble fuselage (MBF) configuration concept was developed. The special geometric configuration of this concept allows for balancing internal cabin pressure load efficiently, through membrane stress in inner-stiffened shell and inter-cabin walls, while the outer-ribbed shell prevents buckling due to external resultant compressive loads. The initial results from these approximate finite element analyses indicate progressively lower maximum stresses and deflections compared to the earlier study. However, a relative comparison of the FEM weight per unit floor area of the segment unit indicates that the unit weights are still relatively higher that the conventional B777 type cylindrical or A380 type elliptic fuselage design. Due to the manufacturing concern associated with multi-bubble fuselage, a Y braced box

  19. Impact of excess body weight on walking at the preferred speed.

    PubMed

    Błaszczyk, Janusz W; Plewa, Michał; Cieślinska-Swider, Joanna; Bacik, Bogdan; Zahorska-Markiewicz, Barbara; Markiewicz, Andrzej

    2011-01-01

    The implications of a long-lasting mechanical load on the locomotor activity are poorly understood. The objective of the present studies was to determine an impact of excess body weight on basic spatiotemporal gait measures and to test the hypothesis that leg swing phase may account for a load-related adaptation of the stride characteristics. To this end the basic spatial and temporal stride measures were assessed in 100 obese and 36 lean women (age range between 18 and 67 years) walking with their self-selected pace on a 10-meter long and 1 meter wide instrumented pathway. Among the subjects there were: 44 with class I obesity, 27 with class II obesity, and 29 with class III. Subjects' stance and swing times as well as the stride lengths were recorded by means of contact copper-film electrodes attached to a sole of subject' footwear. The acquired gait measures were used then to compute: a mean velocity of walking, double support times and a mean velocity of a foot during swing phase. Data analysis showed that subjects from every experimental groups walked with a very similar speed (1.08 +/- 0.2 m/s) and cadence (106 +/- 10 steps/min). Their stance time was not affected by body weight and it remained at the mean level of 746 +/- 90 ms for all groups. The temporal stride characteristics and the stance-to-swing ratio were, however, substantially modified in obese individuals due to attenuation of the swing time. As a consequence, the remaining normalized (i.e., expressed as percentage of gait cycle time) phases of stride: the stance and the double support were relatively longer. While the swing time negatively correlated with the body mass index (BMI), the normalized stance and the double support exhibited strong positive correlation (r=0.46) with the BMI. The increase of leg swing velocity seems the main and unique adaptation mechanism that is utilized in the preferred walking gait in obese women.

  20. A novel body weight support system extension: initial concept and simulation study.

    PubMed

    Pennycott, Andrew; Vallery, Heike; Wyss, Dario; Spindler, Markus; Dewarrat, Antoine; Riener, Robert

    2013-06-01

    Body weight supported treadmill training is an approach to gait rehabilitation following a stroke or spinal cord injury. Although lateral control of balance is an important aspect of walking, many of the currently available body weight support systems have a fixed pulley configuration which can lead to lateral forces being developed in the supporting cables, interfering with the lateral balance task. In this paper, a novel extension for body weight support systems, used for treadmill walking, is presented which features a system of pulleys and trolleys. A model is developed for the device along with a basic feedback controller in order to enable simulation of the concept. The lateral forces induced by the novel system are greatly reduced in comparison to a fixed pulley system. This device has applications in balance training within gait rehabilitation programs.

  1. Molecular and neural bases underlying roles of BDNF in the control of body weight

    PubMed Central

    Vanevski, Filip; Xu, Baoji

    2013-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a potent regulator of neuronal development and synaptic plasticity that is fundamental to neural circuit formation and cognition. It is also involved in the control of appetite and body weight, with mutations in the genes for BDNF and its receptor, TrkB, resulting in remarkable hyperphagia and severe obesity in humans and mice. Recent studies have made significant progress in elucidating the source, action sites, and regulatory pathways of BDNF with regard to its role in the control of energy homeostasis, and have shed light on the relationships between BDNF and other molecules involved in the control of body weight. Here we provide a comprehensive review of evidence from pharmacological, genetic, and mechanistic studies, linking BDNF to the control of body weight. This review also aims to organize the main findings on this subject into a more refined framework and to discuss the future research directions necessary to advance the field. PMID:23519010

  2. Effect of short-term cigarette smoke exposure on body weight, appetite and brain neuropeptide Y in mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui; Vlahos, Ross; Bozinovski, Steve; Jones, Jessica; Anderson, Gary P; Morris, Margaret J

    2005-04-01

    Although nicotinic receptors have been demonstrated in hypothalamic appetite-regulating areas and nicotine administration alters food intake and body weight in both animals and humans, the mechanisms underlying the effects of smoking on appetite circuits remain unclear. Conflicting effects of nicotine on the major orexigenic peptide, neuropeptide Y (NPY), have been observed in the brain, but the effects of smoking are unknown. Thus, we aimed to investigate how cigarette smoking affects body weight, food intake, plasma leptin concentration, hypothalamic NPY peptide, adipose mass and mRNA expression of uncoupling proteins (UCP), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha. Balb/C mice (8 weeks) were exposed to cigarette smoke (three cigarettes, three times a day for 4 consecutive days) or sham exposed. Body weight and food intake were recorded. Plasma leptin and brain NPY were measured by radioimmunoassay. UCPs and TNF alpha mRNA were measured by real-time PCR. Food intake dropped significantly from the first day of smoking, and weight loss became evident within 2 days. Brown fat and retroperitoneal white fat masses were significantly reduced, and plasma leptin concentration was decreased by 34%, in line with the decreased fat mass. NPY concentrations in hypothalamic subregions were similar between two groups. UCP1 mRNA was decreased in white fat and UCP3 mRNA increased in brown fat in smoking group. Short-term cigarette smoke exposure led to reduced body weight, food intake, and fat mass. The reduction in plasma leptin concentration may have been too modest to increase NPY production; alternatively, change in NPY or its function might have been offset by nicotine or other elements in cigarette smoke.

  3. From "overweight" to "about right": evidence of a generational shift in body weight norms.

    PubMed

    Burke, Mary A; Heiland, Frank W; Nadler, Carl M

    2010-06-01

    In this article, we describe differences in the self-perception of weight status in the United States between the two most recent National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) periods (1988-1994 and 1999-2004), and test the hypothesis that secular increases in adult mean BMI, adult obesity, and childhood obesity contributed to changes over time in weight perceptions. We find that the probability of self-classifying as overweight is significantly lower on average in the more recent survey, for both women and men, controlling for objective weight status and other factors. Among women, the decline in the tendency to self-classify as overweight is concentrated in the 17-35 age range, and is more pronounced among women with normal BMI than those with overweight BMI. Among men, the shift away from feeling overweight is roughly equal across age groups. Overweight men exhibit a sharper decline in feeling overweight than normal weight men. Despite the declines in feeling overweight between surveys, weight misperception did not increase significantly for men and decreased by a sizable margin among women. We interpret the findings as evidence of a generational shift in social norms related to body weight. As a result, people may be less likely to desire weight loss than previously, limiting the effectiveness of public health campaigns aimed at weight reduction. On the other hand, there may be health benefits associated with improved body image.

  4. Is obesity stigmatizing? Body weight, perceived discrimination, and psychological well-being in the United States.

    PubMed

    Carr, Deborah; Friedman, Michael A

    2005-09-01

    We investigate the frequency and psychological correlates of institutional and interpersonal discrimination reported by underweight, normal weight, overweight, obese I, and obese II/III Americans. Analyses use data from the Midlife Development in the United States study, a national survey of more than 3,000 adults ages 25 to 74 in 1995. Compared to normal weight persons, obese II/III persons (body mass index of 35 or higher) are more likely to report institutional and day-to-day interpersonal discrimination. Among obese II/III persons, professional workers are more likely than nonprofessionals to report employment discrimination and interpersonal mistreatment. Obese II/III persons report lower levels of self-acceptance than normal weight persons, yet this relationship is fully mediated by the perception that one has been discriminated against due to body weight or physical appearance. Our findings offer further support for the pervasive stigma of obesity and the negative implications of stigmatized identities for life chances.

  5. Effect of Shilianhua extract and its fractions on body weight of obese mice.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jun; Zuberi, Aamir; Gao, Zhanguo; Liu, Dong; Liu, Zhijun; Cefalu, William T; Ye, Jianping

    2008-07-01

    Five commercial botanical products (Shilianhua [SLH] tablets, Shiu Huo pills, Fenulyn, Bitter Melon, and Glucose Metabolic Support), available in the US market, with reported claims for regulation of metabolism were screened for their effect on body weight gain in high-fat diet-induced obese mice. Pilot results suggested that SLH tablets attenuated body weight gain, whereas Shiu Huo pills and Fenulyn tended to promote weight gain in the mice on the high-fat diet. To investigate the bioactive components in the SLH tablet, the wild SLH plant (Sinocrassula indica Berge) was collected from China and used to make a variety of extracts including aqueous extract, ethanol extract (SLH-E), and subfraction F100. In the study of metabolic activities, the extracts were administrated through food intake by incorporating them into the diet. A rigorous evaluation of the extracts on body weight was conducted in 2 animal models. The aqueous extract and SLH-E were tested in dietary obese mice, while F100 together with SLH-E was tested in KK-Ay mice, a genetic diabetic model. In the 12- to 16-week study, body weight was not significantly altered by the SLH extracts in the 2 animal models. The results suggest that neither the total extract nor the purified components from the SLH plant have a clear effect in the regulation of body weight. The weight reduction observed with the over-the-counter SLH tablet in the pilot studies may be secondary to other components in the tablet, but not from the SLH extract.

  6. Observation of sympathomimetic effect of ear acupuncture stimulation for body weight reduction.

    PubMed

    Shen, Ein-Yiao; Hsieh, Ching-Liang; Chang, Yung-Hsien; Lin, Jaung-Geng

    2009-01-01

    Ear acupuncture stimulation has been used for body weight reduction as early as the 1970s. Several hypotheses have been proposed in literature regarding its mechanism of action, among which are the effects of the stimulation of the hypothalamic satiety center on decreased neuropeptide Y production. Here, we present another possible mechanism to account for the temporary and short-term effects of ear acupuncture stimulation in the treatment of obesity, the sympathetic effects of the autonomic nervous system. 14 female volunteers underwent a randomized clinical trial of the ear acupuncture stimulation. A prospective, sham-point control, crossover study was performed with two sequential four-week stimulation periods separated by a two-week washout interval. The clinical features of and effects on the autonomic nervous system were recorded and analyzed. Decreased body weight was observed in both the experimental and the control groups in the first 4 weeks of stimulation. Sympathomimetic effects were also noted in both groups. Whereas the sympathomimetic effects and body weight reduction were sustained in the experimental group in the second 4 weeks of stimulation, such effects were not observed in the control group. Some sympathomimetic effects were noted in both the experimental and the control groups initially. This effect remained apparent in the experimental group in sequential stimulation but was lost in the control group. Consequently, we believe that sympathomimetic effects may account for the reduction in body weight by temporarily increasing basal metabolic rate and decreasing appetite, but the body may regain weight after the termination of such effects. Accordingly, the combination of an optimal exercise and diet program with repeated acupoint therapy may be necessary to maintain a healthy body weight.

  7. Ghrelin and the short- and long-term regulation of appetite and body weight.

    PubMed

    Cummings, David E

    2006-08-30

    Ghrelin, an acylated upper gastrointestinal peptide, is the only known orexigenic hormone. Considerable evidence implicates ghrelin in mealtime hunger and meal initiation. Circulating levels decrease with feeding and increase before meals, achieving concentrations sufficient to stimulate hunger and food intake. Preprandial ghrelin surges occur before every meal on various fixed feeding schedules and also among individuals initiating meals voluntarily without time- or food-related cues. Ghrelin injections stimulate food intake rapidly and transiently, primarily by increasing appetitive feeding behaviors and the number of meals. Preprandial ghrelin surges are probably triggered by sympathetic nervous output. Postprandial suppression is not mediated by nutrients in the stomach or duodenum, where most ghrelin is produced. Rather, it results from post-ingestive increases in lower intestinal osmolarity (information probably relayed to the foregut via enteric nervous signaling), as well as from insulin surges. Consequently, ingested lipids suppress ghrelin poorly compared with other macronutrients. Beyond a probable role in meal initiation, ghrelin also fulfills established criteria for an adiposity-related hormone involved in long-term body-weight regulation. Ghrelin levels circulate in relation to energy stores and manifest compensatory changes in response to body-weight alterations. Ghrelin crosses the blood-brain barrier and stimulates food intake by acting on several classical body-weight regulatory centers, including the hypothalamus, hindbrain, and mesolimbic reward system. Chronic ghrelin administration increases body weight via diverse, concerted actions on food intake, energy expenditure, and fuel utilization. Congenital ablation of the ghrelin or ghrelin-receptor gene causes resistance to diet-induced obesity, and pharmacologic ghrelin blockade reduces food intake and body weight. Ghrelin levels are high in Prader-Willi syndrome and low after gastric bypass

  8. Aster spathulifolius Maxim extract reduces body weight and fat mass in obese humans.

    PubMed

    Cho, In-Jin; Choung, Se Young; Hwang, You-Cheol; Ahn, Kyu Jeung; Chung, Ho Yeon; Jeong, In-Kyung

    2016-07-01

    Aster spathulifolius Maxim (AS), a perennial herb of the genus Aster within the family Asteraceae, induced weight loss in a rat model of diet-induced obesity. We hypothesized that AS could also reduce body weight in obese humans. Therefore, we performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial in Korea to evaluate the effect of AS extract (ASE) on body weight and fat mass and its safety in obese humans. Forty-four obese participants (body mass index [BMI], 25-30 kg/m(2)) aged ≥20 years were randomly assigned to the placebo or ASE group (700 mg/d of ASE) and were instructed to take a once-daily pill for 12 weeks. Weight, BMI, waist circumference, fat mass (measured using bioimpedance, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and computed tomography), and laboratory tests were assessed at baseline and at 12 weeks. Body weight significantly decreased after 12 weeks of treatment in the ASE group (placebo vs ASE: -0.08 ± 2.11 kg vs -3.30 ± 3.15 kg, P < .05), and so did body fat mass (placebo vs ASE; bioimpedance method: -0.51 ± 1.89 kg vs -2.38 ± 2.30 kg, P < .05; dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry: 0.38 ± 1.59 kg vs -2.26 ± 2.37 kg, P < .05). Changes in lipid profiles, fasting plasma glucose, and hemoglobin A1c did not differ between the 2 groups. No drug-related adverse events were observed during the study. In conclusion, ASE significantly decreases body weight and fat mass in obese humans, suggesting that ASE may be a potential therapeutic candidate for reducing obesity.

  9. Excess body weight in children may increase the length of hospital stay

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Maria Teresa Bechere; Danti, Gabriel Vecchi; Garcia, Denise Maximo Lellis; Ferraro, Alexandre A

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prevalence of excess body weight in the pediatric ward of University Hospital and to test both the association between initial nutritional diagnosis and the length of stay and the in-hospital variation in nutritional status. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study based on information entered in clinical records from University Hospital. The data were collected from a convenience sample of 91 cases among children aged one to 10 years admitted to the hospital in 2009. The data that characterize the sample are presented in a descriptive manner. Additionally, we performed a multivariate linear regression analysis adjusted for age and gender. RESULTS: Nutritional classification at baseline showed that 87.8% of the children had a normal weight and that 8.9% had excess weight. The linear regression models showed that the average weight loss z-score of the children with excess weight compared with the group with normal weight was −0.48 (p = 0.018) and that their length of stay was 2.37 days longer on average compared with that of the normal-weight group (p = 0.047). CONCLUSIONS: The length of stay and loss of weight at the hospital may be greater among children with excess weight than among children with normal weight. PMID:25789515

  10. Weight and Body Composition Compartments do Not Predict Therapeutic Thiopurine Metabolite Levels in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Holt, Darcy Q; Strauss, Boyd JG; Moore, Gregory T

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Thiopurine drugs are the most commonly used steroid-sparing therapies in moderate-to-severe inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Their complex metabolism and their narrow therapeutic windows means that optimal dosing is difficult. However, weight-based dosing is the norm. Similar antimetabolites are dosed by body composition parameters. In IBD, treatment response and toxicity has been shown to correlate with thiopurine metabolite levels. We sought to determine whether weight or body composition parameters predicted therapeutic 6-thioguanine nucleotide (6TGN) or toxic 6-methylmercaptopurine (6MMP) levels. METHODS: This single-center retrospective cohort study identified 66 IBD patients who had body composition analysis and thiopurine metabolite levels tested. Statistical analysis was performed using Spearman correlation, Kruskal–Wallis, Mann–Whitney, and unpaired t tests and receiver-operator operating characteristic curves. A P value of <0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: No correlation was identified between 6TGN and any body composition parameters, absolute drug dose or drug dose/kg of fat mass, fat-free mass (FFM), subcutaneous adipose tissue area, or visceral adipose tissue area. However, 6MMP correlated with azathioprine dose, thiopurine dose/kg of body weight, and with several body composition parameters. CONCLUSIONS: No relationship was found between therapeutic metabolite levels and weight or body composition compartments. Higher thiopurine doses, especially in relation to FFM, are associated with higher levels of potentially hepatotoxic 6MMP and shunting toward this metabolite. Conventional weight-based dosing to attain therapeutic metabolite levels appears unreliable and may be replaced by metabolite level testing. PMID:27787512

  11. Literature review: perceptions and management of body size among normal weight and moderately overweight people.

    PubMed

    Nissen, N K; Holm, L

    2015-02-01

    Improved understanding of how normal weight and moderately overweight people manage their body weight and shape could be used to inform initiatives to prevent and treat obesity. This literature review offers a thorough appraisal of existing research into perceptions and management of own body size among normal weight and moderately overweight people. The studies reported in the 47 publications reviewed here address various themes based on different conceptualizations. The studies point out that normal weight and moderately overweight people are much concerned about their body size, but huge discrepancies are found between their own perceptions and study categorizations. The studies also indicate that normal weight and moderately overweight people are actively engaged in managing their body size through numerous managing strategies, and dieting is widespread. Together the studies do not form a unified and coherent research field, and there is a bias towards North American study populations. Methodological problems were identified in some publications, raising questions about generalizability of the findings. Moreover, only few studies give deeper insight into the specific perceptions and actions. Repeated studies are needed in broader and more differentiated geographical, social and cultural contexts, and longitudinal studies and more in-depth explorations are especially needed.

  12. A short note on economic development and socioeconomic inequality in female body weight.

    PubMed

    Deuchert, Eva; Cabus, Sofie; Tafreschi, Darjusch

    2014-07-01

    The origin of the obesity epidemic in developing countries is still poorly understood. It has been prominently argued that economic development provides a natural interpretation of the growth in obesity. This paper tests the main aggregated predictions of the theoretical framework to analyze obesity. Average body weight and health inequality should be associated with economic development. Both hypotheses are confirmed: we find higher average female body weight in economically more advanced countries. In relatively nondeveloped countries, obesity is a phenomenon of the socioeconomic elite. With economic development, obesity shifts toward individuals with lower socioeconomic status.

  13. Responses to Selection for Body Weight in Descendants of X-Irradiated Rats

    PubMed Central

    Gianola, Daniel; Chapman, A. B.; Rutledge, J. J.

    1979-01-01

    The effectiveness of selection for high and low body weight at six weeks of age was studied in descendants of X-irradiated (R) and nonirradiated (C) inbred rats. There were two replicates of each of the direction of selection-irradiation treatments. In C lines, there were no consistent responses to selection, probably due to a low level of genetic variability. In R rats, selection was effective only for decreased body weight. The results of this experiment do not suggest the use of irradiation combined with selection as a means of enhancing responses to selection in animals. PMID:456888

  14. [24-hour energy metabolism in the human: circadian rhythm, relation to body weight and nutrition].

    PubMed

    Steiniger, J

    1985-04-15

    In 7 men with normal weight and 9 man with overweight and healthy metabolism the resting and fasting energy expenditure was indirectly calorimetrically pursued in the open system over 24 hours. The total energy expenditure over 24 hours revealed an ascertained dependence on body-weight and nutrition. The persons with overweight had a higher absolute energy expenditure, however, the activity of the energy metabolism of the body mass free from fat and the active body mass, respectively, decreased with increasing overweight. The resting and fasting energy expenditure showed in all measured parameters (oxygen consumption, respiratory quotient and nitrogen excretion in the urine) an ascertained daily periodicity (circadian rhythm), which was widely independent of body weight. Only the average daily level C0 (rhythm adjusted level) of the resting and fasting energy expenditure was positively correlated with the body weight and the food energy intake. A negative energy balance (reduction 1.2 MJ/d over 28 days) influenced only the total energy and substrate balance over 24 hours and the daily average level, respectively. The circadian conditions remained unchanged (Chossat's phenomenon). The variability in daily rhythm of the energy expenditure of nearly 25% of the daily average should be taken into consideration in the judgment of exogenically stimulated changes in the energy metabolism.

  15. Plasma BDNF Levels Vary in Relation to Body Weight in Females

    PubMed Central

    Pillai, Anilkumar; Bruno, Davide; Sarreal, Antero S.; Hernando, Raymundo T.; Saint-Louis, Leslie A.; Nierenberg, Jay; Ginsberg, Stephen D.; Pomara, Nunzio; Mehta, Pankaj D.; Zetterberg, Henrik; Blennow, Kaj; Buckley, Peter F.

    2012-01-01

    Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been implicated in the pathophysiology of depression as well as neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. Recent studies show a role of BDNF in energy metabolism and body weight regulation. We examined BDNF levels in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from age matched elderly depressed and control subjects. Also, the association of BDNF levels with age, gender, body weight, body mass index (BMI), and cognitive performance was evaluated. We did not find any significant differences in plasma and CSF BDNF levels between depressed and control subjects. Plasma BDNF levels were negatively correlated with age (but not with BMI and body weight), when analyses were performed including both depressed and control subjects. A significant reduction in plasma BDNF levels was observed in females as compared to male subjects, and the change in BDNF levels were significantly and positively related to body weight in females. Furthermore, significant increases in Total Recall and Delayed Recall values were found in females as compared to males. In conclusion, the lower BDNF levels observed in females suggest that changes in peripheral BDNF levels are likely secondary to an altered energy balance. However, further studies using larger sample size are warranted. PMID:22768299

  16. Kinematic assessment of treadmill running using different body-weight support harnesses.

    PubMed

    Millslagle, Duane; Levy, Morris; Matack, Nicholas

    2006-10-01

    10 male collegiate runners (M age = 21.4, SD = 1.5 yr.) ran on a treadmill with no body-weight support (BWS), 20% BWS, and 40% BWS conditions. In addition, they wore three different commercially available harnesses at the 20% and 40% BWS conditions. The aim was to run on the treadmill at a fast speed while maintaining an adequate step length. The purpose was to investigate how each harness changed running gait, and the differences in running gait between the harnesses with various body-weight support. Analysis of variance indicated significant restriction of upper body torso rotation between the harnesses at the 40% BWS conditions. Body-weight support resulted in a longer stride, decreased cadence, less vertical displacement of the center of mass, and diminished hip and ankle joint excursions. These changes indicated that increased body-weight support results in longer steps with the foot contacting the belt for a shorter period of time with less leg angular changes throughout the running cycling.

  17. Influence of Body Mass Index on the Association of Weight Changes with Mortality in Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Cabezas-Rodriguez, Iván; Carrero, Juan Jesús; Zoccali, Carmine; Qureshi, Abdul Rashid; Ketteler, Markus; Floege, Jürgen; London, Gérard; Locatelli, Francesco; Gorriz, José Luis; Rutkowski, Boleslaw; Memmos, Dimitrios; Ferreira, Anibal; Covic, Adrian; Teplan, Vladimir; Bos, Willem-Jan; Kramar, Reinhard; Pavlovic, Drasko; Goldsmith, David; Nagy, Judit; Benedik, Miha; Verbeelen, Dierik; Tielemans, Christian; Wüthrich, Rudolf P.; Martin, Pierre-Yves; Martínez-Salgado, Carlos; Fernández-Martín, José Luis; Cannata-Andia, Jorge B.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background and Objectives A high body mass index (BMI) is associated with lower mortality in patients undergoing hemodialysis. Short-term weight gains and losses are also related to lower and higher mortality risk, respectively. The implications of weight gain or loss may, however, differ between obese individuals and their nonobese counterparts. Design, Setting, Participants, & Measurements The Current Management of Secondary Hyperparathyroidism: A Multicenter Observational Study (COSMOS) is an observational study including 6797 European hemodialysis patients recruited between February 2005 and July 2007, with prospective data collection every 6 months for 3 years. Time-dependent Cox proportional hazard regressions assessed the effect of BMI and weight changes on mortality. Analyses were performed after patient stratification according to their starting BMI. Results Among 6296 patients with complete data, 1643 died. At study entry, 42% of patients had a normal weight (BMI, 20–25 kg/m2), 11% were underweight, 31% were overweight, and 16% were obese (BMI ≥30 kg/m2). Weight loss or gain (<1% or >1% of body weight) was strongly associated with higher rates of mortality or survival, respectively. After stratification by BMI categories, this was true in nonobese categories and especially in underweight patients. In obese patients, however, the association between weight loss and mortality was attenuated (hazard ratio, 1.28 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.74 to 2.14]), and no survival benefit of gaining weight was seen (hazard ratio, 0.98 [95% CI, 0.59 to 1.62]). Conclusions Assuming that these weight changes were unintentional, our study brings attention to rapid weight variations as a clinical sign of health monitoring in hemodialysis patients. In addition, a patient’s BMI modifies the strength of the association between weight changes with mortality. PMID:24009217

  18. Energy Density, Energy Intake, and Body Weight Regulation in Adults12345

    PubMed Central

    Karl, J. Philip; Roberts, Susan B.

    2014-01-01

    The role of dietary energy density (ED) in the regulation of energy intake (EI) is controversial. Methodologically, there is also debate about whether beverages should be included in dietary ED calculations. To address these issues, studies examining the effects of ED on EI or body weight in nonelderly adults were reviewed. Different approaches to calculating dietary ED do not appear to alter the direction of reported relations between ED and body weight. Evidence that lowering dietary ED reduces EI in short-term studies is convincing, but there are currently insufficient data to determine long-term effectiveness for weight loss. The review also identified key barriers to progress in understanding the role of ED in energy regulation, in particular the absence of a standard definition of ED, and the lack of data from multiple long-term clinical trials examining the effectiveness of low-ED diet recommendations for preventing both primary weight gain and weight regain in nonobese individuals. Long-term clinical trials designed to examine the impact of dietary ED on energy regulation, and including multiple ED calculation methods within the same study, are still needed to determine the importance of ED in the regulation of EI and body weight. PMID:25398750

  19. Oesophageal foreign bodies in dogs: factors affecting success of endoscopic retrieval

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Oesophageal foreign bodies are common in dogs. Endoscopic removal is a viable treatment option but few studies have assessed the clinical and radiographic features that would be useful in decision-making and prognosis. Dogs (n = 44) with oesophageal foreign bodies presented to the University Veterinary Hospital were assessed. Terriers and West Highland White Terriers were significantly overrepresented (p < 0.0001) and in those breeds the foreign body was significantly (p < 0.0001) more likely to be located caudal to the heart base. The majority (88.6%) of foreign bodies were bones or bone fragments. Group 1 (n = 30) included animals where endoscopic removal was successful and Group 2 (n = 14) animals where it was unsuccessful or not attempted because of evidence of oesophageal rupture. There was no statistically significant difference in age, sex, body weight, type, location and size of foreign body, recovery rate, short-term complications and long-term outcome between the two groups. Duration of signs prior to presentation and time to spontaneous oral feeding were significantly longer (p < 0.01 in each case) in Group 2 (five days and 120 hours, respectively) compared to Group 1 (2 days and 24 hours, respectively). Mortality was 11.1%. Long-term follow-up of 29 dogs suggested oesophageal stricture formation manageable by feeding alone in seven (24.1%) cases. Terriers appear predisposed to oesophageal foreign bodies. Success of endoscopic removal is adversely affected by duration of signs prior to presentation. Surgical removal negatively influences time to recovery. Stricture formation appears to be a relatively common complication and alternate measures for its prevention should be sought. PMID:21851744

  20. Developmental charts for children with osteogenesis imperfecta, type I (body height, body weight and BMI).

    PubMed

    Graff, Krzysztof; Syczewska, Malgorzata

    2017-03-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a rare genetic disorder of type I collagen. Type I is the most common, which is called a non-deforming type of OI, as in this condition, there are no major bone deformities. This type is characterised by blue sclera and vertebral fractures, leading to mild scoliosis. The body height of these patients is regarded as normal, or only slightly reduced, but there are no data proving this in the literature. The aim of this study is the preparation of the developmental charts of children with OI type I. The anthropometric data of 117 patients with osteogenesis imperfecta were used in this study (61 boys and 56 girls). All measurements were pooled together into one database (823 measurements in total). To overcome the problem of the limited number of data being available in certain age classes and gender groups, the method called reverse transformation was used. The body height of the youngest children, aged 2 and 3 years, is less than that of their healthy peers. Children between 4 and 7 years old catch up slightly, but at later ages, development slows down, and in adults, the median body height shows an SDS of -2.7.

  1. How weight-related cues affect food intake in a modeling situation.

    PubMed

    Brunner, Thomas A

    2010-12-01

    In a standard modeling experiment, a naïve participant eats in the presence of an experimental confederate who has been instructed to eat a lot or a little. Results from such experiments show that people eat more when eating companions eat more and less when eating companions eat less. This modeling effect has been shown to be highly powerful. In the current report, two studies demonstrate that the effect is moderated when participants are exposed to weight-related cues. In Study 1, a body-weight scale was present in the experimental room; in Study 2, a weight-related verbal statement was uttered. Results of both of the chocolate tasting studies show that without the weight-related cues, participants consumed more chocolate when the confederate ate a large quantity than when she ate little. However, in the sessions including the weight-related cues, participants ate little chocolate, regardless of how much the confederate consumed. Weight-related cues might function as primes that elicit cognitions about body weight and these cognitions might, unbeknownst to the individual, render him or her more vigilant concerning food intake, thereby decreasing consumption.

  2. Weight and body mass index in Parkinson's disease patients after deep brain stimulation surgery.

    PubMed

    Tuite, Paul J; Maxwell, Robert E; Ikramuddin, Sayeed; Kotz, Catherine M; Kotzd, Catherine M; Billington, Charles J; Billingtond, Charles J; Laseski, Maggie A; Thielen, Scott D

    2005-06-01

    A retrospective chart review characterizing changes in 17 male and 10 female Parkinson's disease (PD) patients undergoing deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery indicated that 6 mo before surgery, patients lost a mean of 5.1 lbs, whereas in the 6 mo after surgery, subjects gained a mean of 10.1 lbs; 22% gained more than 14 lbs. In 10 patients followed an additional 6 mo, weight gain continued. This weight gain may be associated with decreased energy expenditure due to subsidence of chronic tremor. The magnitude of gain underscores the need for proactive management of body weight in PD patients undergoing DBS.

  3. The effect of dietary restriction, pregnancy, and fetal type in different ewe types on fetal weight, maternal body weight, and visceral organ mass in ewes.

    PubMed

    Scheaffer, A N; Caton, J S; Redmer, D A; Reynolds, L P

    2004-06-01

    Our objectives were to evaluate maternal body changes in response to dietary restriction or the increased nutrient requirement of fetal growth. In Exp. 1, 28 mature crossbred ewes (61.6 +/- 1.8 kg initial BW) were fed a pelleted forage-based diet to evaluate effects of pregnancy and nutrient restriction on visceral organ mass. Treatments were arranged in 2 x 3 factorially, with dietary restriction (60% restriction vs. 100% maintenance) and reproductive status (nonpregnant [NP], d 90 or d 130 of gestation) as main effects. Dietary treatments were begun at d 50 of gestation, and restricted ewes remained at 60% of maintenance throughout the experiment. Nonpregnant and d-90 ewes were fed dietary treatments for 40 d and slaughtered. The d-130 ewes were fed dietary treatments for 80 d and then slaughtered. In Exp. 2, four Romanov ewes were naturally mated (Romanov fetus and Romanov dam; R/ R), and two Romanov embryos were transferred to each of four Columbia recipients (Romanov embryos and Columbia recipient; R/C). Three Columbia ewes were naturally mated (Columbia fetus and Columbia recipient; C/C). In both experiments, maternal organ weights were reported as fresh weight (grams), scaled to empty body weight (EBW; grams per kilogram) and maternal body weight (MBW; grams per kilogram). In Exp. 1, ewe EBW and fetal mass were decreased (P < 0.02) with restriction compared with maintenance. Dietary restriction decreased liver mass (16.7 vs. 14.5 g/kg EBW or 18.8 vs. 16.4 g/kg MBW; P < 0.01), but dietary restriction did not affect total digestive tract mass. In Exp. 2, ewe BW was less for the R/R compared with R/C and C/C (44.8 vs. 110.4 and 98.1 +/- 7.9 kg, respectively; P < 0.01). Fetal weight at d 130 was less for the R/R than for R/C and C/C (2.2 vs. 3.3 and 4.7 +/- 0.3 kg, respectively; P < 0.01) when measured as individual fetuses; however, when measured as total fetal mass carried in each ewe, there was no effect of ewe type. These data suggest that the

  4. Dynamic modeling of methylprednisolone effects on body weight and glucose regulation in rats

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Jing; DuBois, Debra C.; He, Yang; Almon, Richard R.

    2012-01-01

    Influences of methylprednisolone (MPL) and food consumption on body weight (BW), and the effects of MPL on glycemic control including food consumption and the dynamic interactions among glucose, insulin, and free fatty acids (FFA) were evaluated in normal male Wistar rats. Six groups of animals received either saline or MPL via subcutaneous infusions at the rate of 0.03, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4 mg/kg/h for different treatment periods. BW and food consumption were measured twice a week. Plasma concentrations of MPL and corticosterone (CST) were determined at animal sacrifice. Plasma glucose, insulin, and FFA were measured at various times after infusion. Plasma MPL concentrations were simulated by a two-compartment model and used as the driving force in the pharmacodynamic (PD) analysis. All data were modeled using ADAPT 5. The MPL treatments caused reduction of food consumption and body weights in all dosing groups. The steroid also caused changes in plasma glucose, insulin, and FFA concentrations. Hyper-insulinemia was achieved rapidly at the first sampling time of 6 h; significant elevations of FFA were observed in all drug treatment groups; whereas only modest increases in plasma glucose were observed in the low dosing groups (0.03 and 0.1 mg/kg/h). Body weight changes were modeled by dual actions of MPL: inhibition of food consumption and stimulation of weight loss, with food consumption accounting for the input of energy for body weight. Dynamic models of glucose and insulin feedback interactions were extended to capture the major metabolic effects of FFA: stimulation of insulin secretion and inhibition of insulin-stimulated glucose utilization. These models of body weight and glucose regulation adequately captured the experimental data and reflect significant physiological interactions among glucose, insulin, and FFA. These mechanism-based PD models provide further insights into the multi-factor control of this essential metabolic system. PMID:21394487

  5. Impact of Orexin-A Treatment on Food Intake, Energy Metabolism and Body Weight in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Blais, Anne; Drouin, Gaëtan; Chaumontet, Catherine; Voisin, Thierry; Couvelard, Anne; Even, Patrick Christian; Couvineau, Alain

    2017-01-01

    Orexin-A and -B are hypothalamic neuropeptides of 33 and 28-amino acids, which regulate many homeostatic systems including sleep/wakefulness states, energy balance, energy homeostasis, reward seeking and drug addiction. Orexin-A treatment was also shown to reduce tumor development in xenografted nude mice and is thus a potential treatment for carcinogenesis. The aim of this work was to explore in healthy mice the consequences on energy expenditure components of an orexin-A treatment at a dose previously shown to be efficient to reduce tumor development. Physiological approaches were used to evaluate the effect of orexin-A on food intake pattern, energy metabolism body weight and body adiposity. Modulation of the expression of brain neuropeptides and receptors including NPY, POMC, AgRP, cocaine- and amphetamine related transcript (CART), corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and prepro-orexin (HCRT), and Y2 and Y5 neuropeptide Y, MC4 (melanocortin), OX1 and OX2 orexin receptors (Y2R, Y5R, MC4R, OX1R and OX2R, respectively) was also explored. Our results show that orexin-A treatment does not significantly affect the components of energy expenditure, and glucose metabolism but reduces intraperitoneal fat deposit, adiposity and the expression of several brain neuropeptide receptors suggesting that peripheral orexin-A was able to reach the central nervous system. These findings establish that orexin-A treatment which is known for its activity as an inducer of tumor cell death, do have minor parallel consequence on energy homeostasis control. PMID:28085909

  6. The role of transcriptional regulators in central control of appetite and body weight.

    PubMed

    Coppari, Roberto; Ramadori, Giorgio; Elmquist, Joel K

    2009-03-01

    Individuals who live in industrialized countries often eat a calorie-rich diet and perform little physical activity. These habits are thought to be critical contributors to the rapidly rising incidence of obesity, a condition that affects hundreds of millions of people worldwide. High-calorie intake alters metabolic-sensing pathways in central nervous system neurons, and these changes have pathogenic roles in the development of obesity. This review aims to summarize our current knowledge about the neuronal populations (the central melanocortin system in particular) and transcriptional regulators, including STAT3 and FOXO1, that are involved in the maintenance of normal body weight. We describe the interactions between these transcriptional factors and their target genes, which encode the main appetite-regulating neuropeptides (agouti-related peptide and alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone). We discuss the transcriptional co-activator PGC-1-alpha and the supposed metabolic-sensor protein SIRT1, and their potential roles as targets for novel antiobesity medications.

  7. Managing type 2 diabetes: balancing HbA1c and body weight.

    PubMed

    Mavian, Annie A; Miller, Stephan; Henry, Robert R

    2010-05-01

    Most patients with type 2 diabetes present with comorbid overweight or obesity. Reaching and maintaining acceptable glycemic control is more difficult in overweight and obese patients, and these conditions are associated with increased risk for cardiovascular and other diseases. Glycemic management for these patients is complicated by the fact that insulin and many of the oral medications available to treat type 2 diabetes produce additional weight gain. However, an increasing number of therapeutic options are available that are weight neutral or lead to weight loss in addition to their glycemic benefits. This article evaluates the evidence from clinical trials regarding the relative glycemic benefits, measured in terms of glycated hemoglobin change, versus the impact on body weight of each medication currently approved for type 2 diabetes. In general, the sulfonylureas, thiazolidinediones, and D-phenylalanine derivatives have been shown to promote weight gain. The dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors are weight neutral, while the biguanides, incretin mimetics, and amylin mimetics promote weight loss. Trials examining the glycemic benefits of the weight loss agents orlistat and sibutramine are also examined. Awareness of this evidence base can be used to inform medication selection in support of weight management goals for patients with type 2 diabetes.

  8. Weight misperceptions and racial and ethnic disparities in adolescent female body mass index.

    PubMed

    Krauss, Ramona C; Powell, Lisa M; Wada, Roy

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigated weight misperceptions as determinants of racial/ethnic disparities in body mass index (BMI) among adolescent females using data from the National Survey of Youth 1997. Compared to their white counterparts, higher proportions of black and Hispanic adolescent females underperceived their weight status; that is, they misperceived themselves to have lower weight status compared to their clinically defined weight status. Compared to their black counterparts, higher proportions of white and Hispanic adolescent females misperceived themselves to be heavier than their clinical weight status. Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition analysis showed that accounting for weight misperceptions, in addition to individual and contextual factors, increased the total explained portion of the black-white female BMI gap from 44.7% to 54.3% but only slightly increased the total explained portion of the Hispanic-white gap from 62.8% to 63.1%. Weight misperceptions explained 13.0% of the black-white female BMI gap and 3.3% of the Hispanic-white female BMI gap. The regression estimates showed that weight underperceptions were important determinants of adolescent female BMI, particularly among black and Hispanic adolescents. Education regarding identification and interpretation of weight status may play an important role to help reduce the incidence and racial disparity of female adolescent obesity.

  9. Novel modulators for body weight changes induced by fasting and re-feeding in mice.

    PubMed

    Nonogaki, Katsunori; Ohba, Yukie; Sumii, Makiko; Wakameda, Mamoru; Tamari, Tomohiro

    2009-01-09

    Catch-up weight gain after malnutrition is a risk factor for metabolic syndrome. Here we show that social isolation enhanced fasting-induced weight loss and suppressed weight gain induced by re-feeding for 6 days following a 24-h fast in prepubertal wild-type mice. These effects of social isolation on weight gain were not associated with significant changes in daily average food consumption. Under the same housing condition, genetic deletion of beta-endorphin reduced the fasting-induced weight loss and enhanced the re-feeding-induced weight gain in prepubertal mice. These effects of social isolation or genetic deletion of beta-endorphin on these weight changes were attenuated and reversed in postpubertal mice. Moreover, genetic deletion of beta-endorphin attenuated these effects of social isolation on the catch-up weight gain in prepubertal mice and reversed them in postpubertal mice. Thus, social isolation, endogenous beta-endorphin, and age can be novel modulators for body weight changes induced by fasting and re-feeding in mice.

  10. Enhanced amylin-mediated body weight loss in estradiol-deficient diet-induced obese rats.

    PubMed

    Trevaskis, James L; Turek, Victoria F; Wittmer, Carrie; Griffin, Peter S; Wilson, Julie K; Reynolds, James M; Zhao, Yu; Mack, Christine M; Parkes, David G; Roth, Jonathan D

    2010-12-01

    In rodents, ovariectomy (OVX) elicits weight gain and diminished responsiveness to homeostatic signals. Here we characterized the response of obese OVX rats to peripheral amylin. Rats received sham surgery (SHAM), OVX, or OVX with hormonal replacement (17β-estradiol, 2 μg per 4 d; OVX+E) and were infused with vehicle or amylin (50 μg/kg · d) for 28 d. Amylin reduced body weight (5.1 ± 1.1%) and food intake (10.9 ± 3.4%) in SHAM rats but was twice as efficacious in OVX rats in reducing weight (11.2 ± 1.9%) and food intake (23.0 ± 2.0%). There were no differences between amylin-treated SHAM and OVX+E rats. OVX decreased metabolic rate (∼24%) and increased respiratory exchange ratio relative to SHAM. Amylin partially normalized metabolic rate (13% increase) in OVX rats and decreased respiratory exchange ratio in OVX and SHAM rats. Regarding central mechanisms, amylin infusion corrected the OVX-induced decrease in hippocampal neurogenesis and increased immobility in the forced swim test. Additionally, amylin increased neurogenesis (∼2-fold) within the area postrema of OVX rats. To assess the contribution of endogenous leptin to amylin-mediated weight loss in OVX rats, amylin was administered to SHAM or OVX Zucker diabetic fatty rats. In SHAM rats, amylin infusion reduced food intake but not body weight, whereas in OVX Zucker diabetic fatty rats, food intake, body weight, and insulin were reduced. Overall, amylin induced greater body weight loss in the absence of estradiol via central and peripheral actions that did not require leptin. These findings support the clinical investigation of amylin in low estradiol (e.g. postmenopausal) states.

  11. Obstructive sleep apnoea in adults: body postures and weight changes interactions.

    PubMed

    Oksenberg, Arie; Dynia, Aida; Nasser, Khitam; Gadoth, Natan

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this work was to study the relationship between changes of body posture dominance and changes of body weight overtime in adults with obstructive sleep apnoea. The participants were 112 non-treated adults with obstructive sleep apnoea who underwent two polysomnographic evaluations at our Sleep Disorders Unit during an average of 6.2years interval. Positional patients - having most of their breathing abnormalities in the supine posture and who became non-positional patients - had a significant gain in weight and a significant increase in apnoea-hypopnoea index, mainly in lateral apnoea-hypopnoea index. On the contrary, non-positional patients who became positional patients had a significant decrease in weight (but less than the increase in weight of positional patients who became non-positional patients) and showed a significant improvement in apnoea-hypopnoea index, again mainly in lateral apnoea-hypopnoea index. These non-positional patients who became positional patients initially had a less severe disease, as judged by apnoea-hypopnoea index, lateral apnoea-hypopnoea index and minimum SaO(2) during non-rapid eye movement sleep, and were less obese than non-positional patients who remained non-positional patients. The later were the patients who showed initially the worst disease and were more obese than the rest of the patients, and their condition did not change significantly over time. Non-positional patients who converted to positional patients showed a decrease in body weight and improvement of obstructive sleep apnoea, while positional patients who converted to non-positional patients showed an increase in body weight and worsening of obstructive sleep apnoea. It appears that weight changes have a modulatory effect on positional dominance, and lateral apnoea-hypopnoea index appears to be a sensitive parameter of these changes.

  12. Body mass index at early adulthood, subsequent weight change and cancer incidence and mortality.

    PubMed

    Han, Xuesong; Stevens, June; Truesdale, Kimberly P; Bradshaw, Patrick T; Kucharska-Newton, Anna; Prizment, Anna E; Platz, Elizabeth A; Joshu, Corinne E

    2014-12-15

    Obesity later in adulthood is associated with increased risks of many cancers. However, the effect of body fatness in early adulthood, and change in weight from early to later adulthood on cancer risk later in life is less clear. We used data from 13,901 people aged 45-64 in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities cohort who at baseline (1987-1989) self-reported their weight at the age of 25 and had weight and height measured. Incident cancers were identified through 2006 and cancer deaths were ascertained through 2009. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard models were used to relate body mass index (BMI) at age 25 and percent weight change from age 25 to baseline to cancer incidence and mortality. After adjusting for weight change from age 25 until baseline, a 5 kg/m(2) increment in BMI at age 25 was associated with a greater risk of incidence of all cancers in women [hazard ratio (95% confidence interval): 1.10 (1.02-1.20)], but not in men. Associations with incident endometrial cancer were strong [1.83 (1.47-2.26)]. After adjusting for BMI at age 25, a 5% increment in weight from age 25 to baseline was associated with a greater risk of incident postmenopausal breast cancer [1.05 (1.02-1.07)] and endometrial cancer [1.09 (1.04-1.14)] in women and incident colorectal cancer [1.05 (1.00-1.10)] in men. Excess weight during young adulthood and weight gain from young to older adulthood may be independently associated with subsequent cancer risk. Excess weight and weight gain in early adulthood should be avoided.

  13. Maternal body weight gain and fetus development of rats fed a moderately altered olive oil.

    PubMed

    López-Varela, S; Sánchez-Muniz, F J; Pérez-Granados, A M; Cuesta, C

    1998-03-01

    The present study examines whether the consumption of a moderately altered olive oil influenced body weight gain and food efficiency ratio of pregnant rats as well as placental and fetal development. Olive oil used for frying 15 times undergoes a relatively slight alteration involving a statistically significant increase in polar content (9.0+/-0.1 mg/100 mg oil vs 2.0+/-0.1 mg/100 mg oil; p < 0.001). The methyl ester content also increased (5.1+/-0.8 mg/100 mg oil vs 1.8+/-0.5 mg/100 mg oil; p < 0.02), while the linoleic acid and oleic acid contents decreased significantly (6.2+/-0.6% oil vs 7.2+/-0.2% oil and 75.8+/-0.6% vs 78.9+/-0.2%, respectively, both p < 0.05). Wistar rats were divided into four groups, two of which included pregnant rats (P1 and P2) and the other two, non-pregnant rats (NP1 and NP2). Groups NP1 and P1 received a diet containing 15% of fat as unused olive oil, while groups NP2 and P2 were fed a diet with a fat content of 15% as the olive oil used in 15 fryings. Pregnancy increased food intake, body weight, weight gain and food efficiency ratio (P1 vs NP1, and P2 vs NP1), while consumption of the used olive oil diet with respect to the unused oil diet did not alter food intake, body weight, weight gain and food efficiency ratio, placental weight, fetal weight and the number of fetuses in P2 rats with respect to P1 ones. These results suggest that in pregnant rats consumption of olive oil with a moderate level of alteration, as the only dietary fat source, exerts no detrimental effects on the mother weight gain or conceptus development.

  14. Birth weight, Early Life Course BMI, and Body Size Change: Chains of Risk to Adult Inflammation?

    PubMed Central

    Goosby, Bridget J.; Cheadle, Jacob E.; McDade, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines how body size changes over the early life course predict high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in a U.S. based sample. Using three waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), we test the chronic disease epidemiological models of fetal origins, sensitive periods, and chains of risk from birth into adulthood. Few studies link birth weight and changes in obesity status over adolescence and early adulthood to adult obesity and inflammation. Consistent with fetal origins and sensitive periods hypotheses, body size and obesity status at each developmental period, along with increasing body size between periods, are highly correlated with adult CRP. However, the predictive power of earlier life course periods is mediated by body size and body size change at later periods in a pattern consistent with the chains of risk model. Adult increases in obesity had effect sizes of nearly .3sd, and effect sizes from overweight to the largest obesity categories were between .3–1sd. There was also evidence that risk can be offset by weight loss, which suggests that interventions can reduce inflammation and cardiovascular risk, that females are more sensitive to body size changes, and that body size trajectories over the early life course account for African American-and Hispanic-white disparities in adult inflammation. PMID:26685708

  15. Prednisone dosing per body weight or body surface area in children with nephrotic syndrome: is it equivalent?

    PubMed

    Feber, Janusz; Al-Matrafi, Jamila; Farhadi, Elham; Vaillancourt, Régis; Wolfish, Norman

    2009-05-01

    The current guidelines recommend a dosage of prednisone of 60 mg/m(2) body surface area per day (BSA PRED) for the initial therapy of nephrotic syndrome (NS). Alternatively, a dosage of 2 mg/kg body weight per day (W PRED) can be used. We hypothesized that the BSA PRED and W PRED are not equivalent and analyzed the differences between BSA PRED calculated with various formulas for body surface area (BSA), W PRED and the dose of prednisone prescribed for our patients. We performed a retrospective chart review of the patients at their initial presentation of NS. Thirty-three children were included, of median age 3.34 years at presentation. The W PRED was significantly lower than BSA PRED (P < 0.05), with a median W PRED:BSA PRED ratio of 0.85 [interquartile range (IQR) 0.8 to 0.9]. The difference between W PRED and BSA PRED decreased proportionally to patients' weights up to 30 kg. No differences were noted between the various BSA formulas using both weight and height for the calculation of BSA. The Bland-Altman analysis showed a proportional error between W PRED and BSA PRED up to the average daily dose of 60 mg, with a mean bias of 0.86 (95% limits of agreement = 0.68 to 1.05). Ten out of the 33 patients (30%) were given a lower than recommended BSA PRED dose by more than 5 mg/day. In conclusion, the dosage of prednisone at 2 mg/kg per day versus 60 mg/m(2) per day is not equivalent for patients with weights <30 kg and/or dose <60 mg/day.

  16. Glutamate mediates the function of melanocortin receptor 4 on sim1 neurons in body weight regulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R) is a well-established mediator of body weight homeostasis. However, the neurotransmitter(s) that mediate MC4R function remain largely unknown; as a result, little is known about the second-order neurons of the MC4R neural pathway. Single-minded 1 (Sim1)-expressing ...

  17. Estrogen receptor-a in medial amygdala neurons regulates body weight

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Estrogen receptor–a (ERa) activity in the brain prevents obesity in both males and females. However, the ERa-expressing neural populations that regulate body weight remain to be fully elucidated. Here we showed that single-minded–1 (SIM1) neurons in the medial amygdala (MeA) express abundant levels ...

  18. Developmental Coordination Disorder, Gender, and Body Weight: Examining the Impact of Participation in Active Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cairney, John; Kwan, Matthew Y. W.; Hay, John A.; Faught, Brent E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: To examine whether differences in participation in active play (PAP) can account for gender differences in the relationship between Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) and body weight/fat (BMI and percentage fat) in youth. Methods: A cross-sectional investigation of students in grades four through eight (n = 590). Height, weight…

  19. Heritability of sudden death syndrome and its associated correlations to ascites and body weight in broilers.

    PubMed

    Moghadam, H K; McMillan, I; Chambers, J R; Julian, R J; Tranchant, C C

    2005-02-01

    (1) Genetic parameters for the sudden death syndrome (SDS) were estimated in meat-type chickens. Data were collected over 11 generations of selection for body weight within two distinct breeds (Cornish and White Rock). (2) The animal model was used exclusively with linear methods (LM) to estimate genetic parameters. Heritability (h2) of SDS on the liability scale was 0.30 +/- 0.002 and 0.25 +/- 0.002 in the Cornish and White Rock breeds, respectively. (3) A positive genetic correlation (r(g)) with ascites (AS) was determined (approximately 0.3 +/- 0.006). However, it was not possible to estimate the rg of SDS with body weight because of the low prevalence of the defect trait studied (1.8% in the Cornish and 1-5% in the White Rock). (4) Heritability of SDS calculated using male records only was 0.45 +/- 0.009 and 0.35 +/- 0.009, and r(g) with body weight was 0.30 +/- 0.010 and 0.27 +/- 0.009, in the Cornish and White Rock breeds, respectively. (5) In conclusion, the heart defect investigated was heritable with a positive genetic correlation with AS and body weight.

  20. High Blood Pressure in Adults with Disabilities: Influence of Gender, Body Weight and Health Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Lan-Ping; Liu, Chien-Ting; Liou, Shih-Wen; Hsu, Shang-Wei; Lin, Jin-Ding

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were to explore the mean and distribution of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and to examine the influence of gender, body weight and health behaviors on hypertension in adults with disabilities. We analyzed the 2010 annual community health examination chart of adults with disabilities in east Taiwan. The study samples…

  1. Food Consumption Patterns of Nigerian Adolescents and Effect on Body Weight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olumakaiye, M. F.; Atinmo, Tola; Olubayo-Fatiregun, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Association between nutritional status of adolescents and food consumption pattern. Design: Data on number of meals and snacks consumed daily were collected using structured questionnaires. Nutritional status was assessed as weight-for-age body mass index score less than fifth percentile of the National Center for Health…

  2. Effects of Royal Jelly Supplementation on Body Weight and Dietary Intake in Type 2 Diabetic Females

    PubMed Central

    Pourmoradian, Samira; Mahdavi, Reza; Mobasseri, Majid; Faramarzi, Elnaz; Mobasseri, Mehrnoosh

    2012-01-01

    Background: The objective of the current study was to assess the effects of royal jelly supple-mentation on body weight, total daily energy and macronutrients intakes in type2 diabetic fe-males. Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, fifty female volunteers with type2 diabetes were as-signed into the supplemented (n=25) and placebo (n=25) groups, given a daily dose of 1000 mg royal jelly soft gel or placebo, for 8 weeks, respectively. Before and after the intervention, body weight and height of subjects were measured and body mass index was calculated. Dietary intake of patients was assessed using 24-hour food recall questionnaire for three non consecutive days (including 1 weekend day) and analyzed with Nutritionist IV software. The normally distributed data were compared using paired and independent t-tests, where appropriate. Results: Royal jelly supplementation significantly (P<0.01) decreased the mean body weight (72.45±4.42 vs. 71.00±6.44 kg) while it increased insignificantly in placebo group (73.02±6.44 vs 73.52±6.80 kg). Royal jelly supplementation resulted in significant decrease of mean daily total energy (P<0.01) and carbohydrate (P<0.01) intakes, while in placebo group the mean daily total energy and fat intakes were increased significantly (P<0.05). Conclusion: Supplementation with royal jelly may be beneficial in weight management of di-abetic patients. PMID:24688939

  3. Treadmill Training with Partial Body-Weight Support in Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mutlu, Akmer; Krosschell, Kristin; Spira, Deborah Gaebler

    2009-01-01

    OKAim: The aim of this systematic review was to examine the literature on the effects of partial body-weight support treadmill training (PBWSTT) in children with cerebral palsy (CP) on functional outcomes and attainment of ambulation. Method: We searched the relevant literature from 1950 to July 2007. We found eight studies on the use of PWSBTT on…

  4. Genetic variations of body weight and GCRV resistance in a random mating population of grass carp

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Rong; Sun, Jiaxian; Luo, Qing; He, Libo; Liao, Lanjie; Li, Yongming; Guo, Fuhua; Zhu, Zuoyan; Wang, Yaping

    2015-01-01

    The grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) is an important species in freshwater aquaculture both in China and on a global scale. Variety degeneration and frequent diseases have limited the further development of grass carp aquaculture. Thus, new and improved varieties are required. Here, we identified and assessed the body weight and disease resistance in a random mating population of 19 ♀ × 22 ♂ grass carp, which were derived from different water systems. In both the growth experimental group of 10,245 fish and grass carp reovirus (GCRV)-infected group with 10,000 fish, 78 full-sib families were statistically analyzed for body weight and GCRV resistance. The findings showed that body weight traits had low heritability (0.11 ± 0.04, 0.10 ± 0.03 and 0.12 ± 0.05), GCRV resistance traits had high heritability (0.63 ± 0.11); body weight was higher in 3 families, whereas GCRV resistance was significantly greater in 11 families. Our results confirmed that the natural germplasm resources of wild grass carp were genetically diverse. Breeding of GCRV resistant varieties of grass carp have better genetic basis. This study provides the basis for constructing basal populations for grass carp selective breeding, quantitative trait loci (QTL) and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) analysis. PMID:26439690

  5. Body weight manipulation, reinforcement value and choice between sucrose and wheel running: a behavioral economic analysis.

    PubMed

    Belke, Terry W; Pierce, W David

    2009-02-01

    Twelve female Long-Evans rats were exposed to concurrent variable (VR) ratio schedules of sucrose and wheel-running reinforcement (Sucrose VR 10 Wheel VR 10; Sucrose VR 5 Wheel VR 20; Sucrose VR 20 Wheel VR 5) with predetermined budgets (number of responses). The allocation of lever pressing to the sucrose and wheel-running alternatives was assessed at high and low body weights. Results showed that wheel-running rate and lever-pressing rates for sucrose and wheel running increased, but the choice of wheel running decreased at the low body weight. A regression analysis of relative consumption as a function of relative price showed that consumption shifted toward sucrose and interacted with price differences in a manner consistent with increased substitutability. Demand curves showed that demand for sucrose became less elastic while demand for wheel running became more elastic at the low body weight. These findings reflect an increase in the difference in relative value of sucrose and wheel running as body weight decreased. Discussion focuses on the limitations of response rates as measures of reinforcement value. In addition, we address the commonalities between matching and demand curve equations for the analysis of changes in relative reinforcement value.

  6. The metabolic syndrome of omega3-depleted rats. II. Body weight, adipose tissue mass and glycemic homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Sener, Abdullah; Zhang, Ying; Bulur, Nurdan; Louchami, Karim; Malaisse, Willy J; Carpentier, Yvon A

    2009-07-01

    Exposure of 7-week-old normal rats for 3-7 months to a diet deprived of long-chain polyunsaturated omega3 fatty acids was recently reported to induce changes in the fatty acid content and pattern of liver phospholipids and triglycerides similar to those otherwise found in second generation omega3-depleted rats. In the present study, the changes in body weight, parametrial adipose tissue mass, plasma glucose and insulin concentrations and insulin resistance index were investigated in the same control and omega3-depleted rats, which were then given access for 2 to 4-5 weeks to either a flaxseed oil-enriched diet (control and omega3-depleted rats) or a soybean oil-enriched diet (control rats). The body weight failed to differ between control and omega3-depleted rats. The latter rats, however, displayed increases in adipose tissue mass, plasma glucose and insulin concentrations, and insulin resistance index. In the control rats given access to the soybean or flaxseed oil-enriched diet, body weight and adipose tissue mass were little affected, but both the plasma glucose concentration and insulin resistance index decreased. In the omega3-depleted rats given access to the flaxseed oil-enriched diet, both body weight and adipose tissue mass underwent a rapid, pronounced and sustained increase, whilst the plasma glucose concentration and insulin resistance index decreased similarly to those in the control rats. The present design of omega3 fatty acid dietary deprivation thus reproduces the visceral obesity and insulin resistance otherwise observed in second-generation omega3-depleted rats. However, the supply of exogenous omega3 fatty acids to the omega3-depleted rats failed to oppose visceral obesity, possibly as a result of the orexigenic effects of these omega3 fatty acids.

  7. Effects of soy vs. casein protein on body weight and glycemic control in female monkeys and their offspring.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Janice D; Jorgensen, Matthew J; Cline, J Mark; Lees, Cynthia J; Franke, Adrian A; Zhang, Li; Ayers, Melissa R; Schultz, Carrie; Kaplan, Jay R

    2009-09-01

    Nutritional interventions are important for reducing obesity and related conditions. Soy is a good source of protein and also contains isoflavones that may affect plasma lipids, body weight, and insulin action. Described here are data from a monkey breeding colony in which monkeys were initially fed a standard chow diet that is low fat with protein derived from soy. Monkeys were then randomized to a defined diet with a fat content similar to the typical American diet (TAD) containing either protein derived from soy (TAD soy) or casein-lactalbumin (TAD casein). The colony was followed for over two years to assess body weight, and carbohydrate and lipid measures in adult females (n=19) and their offspring (n=25). Serum isoflavone concentrations were higher with TAD soy than TAD casein, but not as high as when monkey chow was fed. Offspring consuming TAD soy had higher serum isoflavone concentrations than adults consuming TAD soy. Female monkeys consuming TAD soy had better glycemic control, as determined by fructosamine concentrations, but no differences in lipids or body weight compared with those consuming diets with TAD casein. Offspring born to dams consuming TAD soy had similar body weights at birth but over a two-year period weighed significantly less, had significantly lower triglyceride concentrations, and like adult females, had significantly lower fructosamine concentrations compared to TAD casein. Glucose tolerance tests in adult females were not significantly different with diet, but offspring eating TAD soy had increased glucose disappearance with overall lower glucose and insulin responses to the glucose challenge compared with TAD casein. Potential reasons for the additional benefits of TAD soy observed in offspring but not in adults may be related to higher serum isoflavone concentrations in offspring, presence of the diet differences throughout more of their lifespan (including gestation), or different tissue susceptibilities in younger animals.

  8. Link between Food Energy Density and Body Weight Changes in Obese Adults.

    PubMed

    Stelmach-Mardas, Marta; Rodacki, Tomasz; Dobrowolska-Iwanek, Justyna; Brzozowska, Anna; Walkowiak, Jarosław; Wojtanowska-Krosniak, Agnieszka; Zagrodzki, Paweł; Bechthold, Angela; Mardas, Marcin; Boeing, Heiner

    2016-04-20

    Regulating the energy density of food could be used as a novel approach for successful body weight reduction in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to conduct a systemic review of the literature on the relationship between food energy density and body weight changes in obese adults to obtain solid evidence supporting this approach. The search process was based on the selection of publications in the English language listed in public databases. A meta-analysis was performed to combine individual study results. Thirteen experimental and observational studies were identified and included in the final analysis. The analyzed populations consist of 3628 individuals aged 18 to 66 years. The studies varied greatly in terms of study populations, study design and applied dietary approaches. The meta-analysis revealed a significant association between low energy density foods and body weight reduction, i.e., -0.53 kg when low energy density foods were eaten (95% CI: -0.88, -0.19). In conclusions, this study adds evidence which supports the energy density of food as a simple but effective measure to manage weight in the obese with the aim of weight reduction.

  9. PGC-1α and exercise in the control of body weight.

    PubMed

    Summermatter, S; Handschin, C

    2012-11-01

    The increasing prevalence of obesity and its comorbidities represents a major threat to human health globally. Pharmacological treatments exist to achieve weight loss, but the subsequent weight maintenance is prone to fail in the long run. Accordingly, efficient new strategies to persistently control body weight need to be elaborated. Exercise and dietary interventions constitute classical approaches to reduce and maintain body weight, yet people suffering from metabolic diseases are often unwilling or unable to move adequately. The administration of drugs that partially mimic exercise adaptation might circumvent this problem by easing and supporting physical activity. The thermogenic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) largely mediates the adaptive response of skeletal muscle to endurance exercise and is a potential target for such interventions. Here, we review the role of PGC-1α in mediating exercise adaptation, coordinating metabolic circuits and enhancing thermogenic capacity in skeletal muscle. We suggest a combination of elevated muscle PGC-1α and exercise as a modified approach for the efficient long-term control of body weight and the treatment of the metabolic syndrome.

  10. For Researchers on Obesity: Historical Review of Extra Body Weight Definitions.

    PubMed

    Komaroff, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Rationale. The concept of obesity has been known since ancient world; however, the current standard definition of obesity was endorsed only about a decade ago. There is a need for researches to understand multiple approaches to defining obesity and how and why the standard definition was developed. The review will help to grasp the complexity of the problem and can lead to novel hypotheses in obesity research. Objective. This paper focuses on the objective to understand historical background on the development of "reference and standard tables" of weight as a platform for normal versus abnormal body weight definition. Methods. A systematic literature review was performed to chronologically summarize the definition of body weight from time of Hippocrates till the year of 2010. Conclusion. This paper presents the historical background on the development of "reference and standard tables" of weight as a platform for normal versus abnormal body weight definition. Knowledge of historical approaches to the concept of obesity can motivate researchers to find new hypotheses and utilize the appropriate obesity assessments to address their objectives.

  11. For Researchers on Obesity: Historical Review of Extra Body Weight Definitions

    PubMed Central

    Komaroff, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Rationale. The concept of obesity has been known since ancient world; however, the current standard definition of obesity was endorsed only about a decade ago. There is a need for researches to understand multiple approaches to defining obesity and how and why the standard definition