Science.gov

Sample records for affected environment describes

  1. Sensorimotor Interference When Reasoning About Described Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avraamides, Marios N.; Kyranidou, Melina-Nicole

    The influence of sensorimotor interference was examined in two experiments that compared pointing with iconic arrows and verbal responding in a task that entailed locating target-objects from imagined perspectives. Participants studied text narratives describing objects at locations around them in a remote environment and then responded to targets from memory. Results revealed only minor differences between the two response modes suggesting that bodily cues do not exert severe detrimental interference on spatial reasoning from imagined perspective when non-immediate described environments are used. The implications of the findings are discussed.

  2. Spatial Updating of Environments Described in Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avraamides, Marios N.

    2003-01-01

    People update egocentric spatial relations in an effortless and on-line manner when they move in the environment, but not when they only imagine themselves moving. In contrast to previous studies, the present experiments examined egocentric updating with spatial scenes that were encoded linguistically instead of perceived directly. Experiment 1…

  3. 40 CFR 1502.15 - Affected environment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Affected environment. 1502.15 Section 1502.15 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT § 1502.15 Affected environment. The environmental impact statement shall succinctly describe...

  4. 40 CFR 1502.15 - Affected environment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Affected environment. 1502.15 Section 1502.15 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT § 1502.15 Affected environment. The environmental impact statement shall succinctly describe...

  5. 40 CFR 1502.15 - Affected environment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Affected environment. 1502.15 Section 1502.15 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT § 1502.15 Affected environment. The environmental impact statement shall succinctly describe...

  6. 40 CFR 1502.15 - Affected environment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Affected environment. 1502.15 Section 1502.15 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT § 1502.15 Affected environment. The environmental impact statement shall succinctly describe...

  7. 40 CFR 1502.15 - Affected environment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Affected environment. 1502.15 Section 1502.15 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT § 1502.15 Affected environment. The environmental impact statement shall succinctly describe...

  8. Infant Affect and Home Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luster, Tom; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examined data from National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to investigate relationship between infant affect and quality of home environment. Found that infant irritability was negatively correlated with quality of home environment in both low-risk and high-risk families. Infant positive affect was more strongly related to quality of care in…

  9. Using a task analysis to describe nursing work in acute care patient environments.

    PubMed

    Battisto, Dina; Pak, Richard; Vander Wood, Melissa A; Pilcher, June J

    2009-12-01

    To improve the healthcare environment where nurses work and patients receive care, it is necessary to understand the elements that define the healthcare environment. Primary elements include (a) the occupants of the room and what knowledge, skills, and abilities they bring to the situation; (b) what tasks the occupants will be doing in the room; and (c) the characteristics of the built environment. To better understand these components, a task analysis from human factor research was conducted to study nurses as they cared for hospitalized patients. Multiple methods, including a review of nursing textbooks, observations, and interviews, were used to describe nurses' capabilities, nursing activities, and the environmental problems with current patient room models. Findings from this initial study are being used to inform the design and evaluation of an inpatient room prototype and to generate future research in improving clinical environments to support nursing productivity. PMID:19955968

  10. Early environment affects neuroendocrine regulation in adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Karlamangla, Arun S.; Friedman, Esther M.; Seeman, Teresa E.

    2011-01-01

    Animal and human research indicates that the early environment can exert effects on hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis functioning across the lifespan. Using data from the National Study of Midlife Development in the United States and the National Study of Daily Experience substudy, we identified curvilinear relations between adult reports of parental affection in childhood and adult diurnal cortisol rhythms. Reports of both very affectionate and very unaffectionate parental relations in childhood were associated with flatter diurnal rhythms, suggesting potential dysregulation of the HPA axis at both extremes of family environment. Participants in the bottom tertile showed more signs of HPA axis dysregulation than those in the top tertile. We discuss processes that may underlie these effects, with reference to the theory of allostatic load. PMID:20400490

  11. Describing and recognizing patterns of events in smart environments with description logic.

    PubMed

    Scalmato, Antonello; Sgorbissa, Antonio; Zaccaria, Renato

    2013-12-01

    This paper describes a system for context awareness in smart environments, which is based on an ontology expressed in description logic and implemented in OWL 2 EL, which is a subset of the Web Ontology Language that allows for reasoning in polynomial time. The approach is different from all other works in the literature since the proposed system requires only the basic reasoning mechanisms of description logic, i.e., subsumption and instance checking, without any additional external reasoning engine. Experiments performed with data collected in three different scenarios are described, i.e., the CASAS Project at Washington State University, the assisted living facility Villa Basilea in Genoa, and the Merry Porter mobile robot at the Polyclinic of Modena. PMID:23757579

  12. Analytical Solution Describing Pesticide Volatilization from Soil Affected by a Change in Surface Condition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An analytical solution describing the fate and transport of pesticides applied to soils has been developed. Two pesticide application methods can be simulated: point-source applications such as a hot-gas injection method and a shank-source application method that includes a vertical pesticide distr...

  13. Hot Plasma Environment Model (HPEM): A empirical model for describing time-dependent processes of the jovian energetic electron environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roussos, E.; Krupp, N.; Fraenz, M.; Kollmann, P.; Truscott, P.; Futaana, Y.

    2015-10-01

    HPEM is a model designed in order to provide time-series of energetic electron differential or integral energy-flux spectra for Jupiter's magnetosphere which can be used as input for internal charging studies of the JUICE spacecraft. The model describes the electron distribution function between 150 keV keV up to ~50 MeV. It is designed to be applicable between the orbit of Europa (9.5 Rj) up to 30 Rj, which is near Callisto's orbit, and in a latitude range of 40 degrees from the planetary equatorial plane, but it can be extended to larger distances and latitudes. The model is constructed with a goal to describe the time variability that a spacecraft can encounter in Jupiter's energetic electron environment. This variability can have two components: the first comes from the motion of the spacecraft within a spatially-varying jovian magnetosphere. For this purpose an average radiation belt model for the differential electron energy-flux spectra was constructed based on Galileo EPD/LEMMS observations, dependent on L, magnetospheric local time and equatorial pitch angle. The second component includes an empirical description of magnetospheric transients that result from dynamics in the magnetosphere. For this purpose, the probability for a given spectrum to deviate from the average one (at a given location) has been modeled with log-normal distributions and such probabilities are obtained with a Monte-Carlo approach. Temporal changes in the electron spectra are constrained by the L- or time gradients observed with Galileo's EPD/LEMMS detector so as to prevent extreme and unrealistic changes between sequential spectra of the model's output. The model is able to reproduce both the statistical scatter of energetic electron fluxes observed with Galileo/EPD, as well as the lifetimes/time scales and the occurence probability of extreme flux enhancements (temporal radiation belts) that Galileo encountered. An application to the JUICE mission is also shown.

  14. Design Matters: How School Environment Affects Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hebert, Elizabeth A.

    1998-01-01

    The organization of space profoundly affects learning. Students feel better connected to a building that anticipates their needs and respects them as individuals. Built in 1971, Crow Island School, in Winnetka, Illinois, is a prize-winning facility that has provided generations of children with windowed classrooms, skylights, adjacent workrooms,…

  15. Query Processing for Probabilistic State Diagrams Describing Multiple Robot Navigation in an Indoor Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Czejdo, Bogdan; Bhattacharya, Sambit; Ferragut, Erik M

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the syntax and semantics of multi-level state diagrams to support probabilistic behavior of cooperating robots. The techniques are presented to analyze these diagrams by querying combined robots behaviors. It is shown how to use state abstraction and transition abstraction to create, verify and process large probabilistic state diagrams.

  16. Describing individual variation in local sweating during exercise in a temperate environment.

    PubMed

    Bain, Anthony R; Deren, Tomasz M; Jay, Ollie

    2011-08-01

    It has been previously demonstrated that the individual variation in whole-body sweat rate is described by differences in each participant's heat balance status. It was hypothesized that the individual variation in local sweat rate of the forehead (LSR(head)) and forearm (LSR(arm)) would be similarly described using a whole-body heat balance approach, specifically the ratio of evaporation required for heat balance relative to the maximum evaporation possible (i.e. E (req):E (max)). Twelve males cycled at 60% [Formula: see text] for 60 min at 24.9 ± 0.5°C, 31 ± 14% relative humidity. Rectal (T (re)) and aural canal (T (au)) temperatures as well as mean skin temperature ([Formula: see text]), metabolic energy expenditure (M) and rate of external work (W) were measured throughout. In addition, whole-body sweat rate at steady state (WBSR(ss)) was estimated using the change in body mass over the last 15 min of exercise, with LSR(head) and LSR(arm) estimated using technical absorbent patches applied between the 50th and 55th minute. WBSR(ss) significantly correlated with M-W (r = 0.66, P = 0.021), E (req) (r = 0.69, P = 0.013) and E (req):E (max) (r = 0.87, P < 0.001); LSR(head) was significantly correlated with E (req):E (max) (r = 0.82, P = 0.001), but not M-W (r = 0.31, P = 0.328) or E (req) (r = 0.38, P = 0.227); and LSR(arm) significantly correlated with E (req) (r = 0.62, P = 0.031) and E (req):E (max) (r = 0.78, P = 0.003) but not M-W (r = 0.56, P = 0.059). None of WBSR(ss), LSR(head) or LSR(arm) significantly correlated with any variations in T (re), T (au) or [Formula: see text] (i.e. 0.8T (re) + 0.2[Formula: see text]). Secondary analyses also demonstrated that both LSR(head) (r = 0.79, P = 0.002) and LSR(arm) (r = 0.89, P < 0.001) correlated with WBSR(ss). In conclusion, the individual variation in WBSR(ss), LSR(head) and LSR(arm) is described by the ratio of E (req) relative to E (max). PMID:21190033

  17. Considering Affective Responses towards Environments for Enhancing Location Based Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, H.; Gartner, G.; Klettner, S.; Schmidt, M.

    2014-04-01

    A number of studies in the field of environmental psychology show that humans perceive and evaluate their surroundings affectively. Some places are experienced as unsafe, while some others as attractive and interesting. Experiences from daily life show that many of our daily behaviours and decision-making are often influenced by this kind of affective responses towards environments. Location based services (LBS) are often designed to assist and support people's behaviours and decision-making in space. In order to provide services with high usefulness (usability and utility), LBS should consider these kinds of affective responses towards environments. This paper reports on the results of a research project, which studies how people's affective responses towards environments can be modelled and acquired, as well as how LBS can benefit by considering these affective responses. As one of the most popular LBS applications, mobile pedestrian navigation systems are used as an example for illustration.

  18. Experiences and Implications of Social Workers Practicing in a Pediatric Hospital Environment Affected by SARS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gearing, Robin Edward; Saini, Michael; McNeill, Ted

    2007-01-01

    This phenomenological study's purpose was threefold: to detail the experiences of social workers practicing in a hospital environment affected by severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), to describe essential themes and structures of social work practices within this crisis environment, and to explore recommendations for better preparedness to…

  19. Birth order, family environments, academic and affective outcomes.

    PubMed

    Marjoribanks, Kevin

    2003-06-01

    Relations were examined among birth order, family social status, family learning environments, and a set of affective and academic outcomes. Data were collected as part of an Australian longitudinal study (4,171 females and 3,718 males). Analysis suggested that birth order continued to have small but significant associations with adolescents' self-concept and educational aspirations and with young adults' educational attainment, after taking into account differences in family social status and family learning environments. PMID:12931949

  20. Sibsize, Family Environment, Cognitive Performance, and Affective Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marjoribanks, Kevin

    1976-01-01

    Incorporates measures of family environment (parent-child interaction) into research methodology to study the effects of sibsize (family size and birth order) on a child's cognitive performance and affective behavior. Provides tentative support for the confluence model of sibsize influences on children's behaviors. (RL)

  1. Genetic by environment interactions affect plant–soil linkages

    PubMed Central

    Pregitzer, Clara C; Bailey, Joseph K; Schweitzer, Jennifer A

    2013-01-01

    The role of plant intraspecific variation in plant–soil linkages is poorly understood, especially in the context of natural environmental variation, but has important implications in evolutionary ecology. We utilized three 18- to 21-year-old common gardens across an elevational gradient, planted with replicates of five Populus angustifolia genotypes each, to address the hypothesis that tree genotype (G), environment (E), and G × E interactions would affect soil carbon and nitrogen dynamics beneath individual trees. We found that soil nitrogen and carbon varied by over 50% and 62%, respectively, across all common garden environments. We found that plant leaf litter (but not root) traits vary by genotype and environment while soil nutrient pools demonstrated genotype, environment, and sometimes G × E interactions, while process rates (net N mineralization and net nitrification) demonstrated G × E interactions. Plasticity in tree growth and litter chemistry was significantly related to the variation in soil nutrient pools and processes across environments, reflecting tight plant–soil linkages. These data overall suggest that plant genetic variation can have differential affects on carbon storage and nitrogen cycling, with implications for understanding the role of genetic variation in plant–soil feedback as well as management plans for conservation and restoration of forest habitats with a changing climate. PMID:23919173

  2. How Environment Affects Galaxy Metallicity: Lessons from the Illustris Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genel, S.

    2016-06-01

    Recent studies have found higher galaxy metallicities in richer environments. It is not yet clear, however, whether metallicity-environment dependencies are merely an indirect consequence of environmentally dependent formation histories, or of environment related processes directly affecting metallicity. Here, we present a detailed study of metallicity-environment correlations in a cosmological hydrodynamical simulation, in particular the Illustris simulation. Illustris galaxies display similar relations to those observed. Utilizing our knowledge of simulated formation histories, and leveraging the large simulation volume, we construct galaxy samples of satellites and centrals that are matched in formation histories. This allows us to find that ˜1/3 of the metallicity-environment correlation is due to different formation histories in different environments. This is a combined effect of satellites (in particular, in denser environments) having on average lower z=0 star formation rates (SFRs), and of their older stellar ages, even at a given z=0 SFR. Most of the difference, ˜2/3, however, is caused by the higher concentration of star-forming disks of satellite galaxies, as this biases their SFR-weighted metallicities toward their inner, more metal-rich parts. With a newly defined quantity, the `radially averaged' metallicity, which captures the metallicity profile but is independent of the SFR profile, the metallicities of satellites and centrals become environmentally independent once they are matched in formation history. This effect may also explain most of the differences between metallicities of galaxies in different large-scale environmental densities. A prediction for observations is that those differences become smaller as smaller apertures are considered.

  3. Does the sole description of a tax authority affect tax evasion?--the impact of described coercive and legitimate power.

    PubMed

    Hartl, Barbara; Hofmann, Eva; Gangl, Katharina; Hartner-Tiefenthaler, Martina; Kirchler, Erich

    2015-01-01

    Following the classic economic model of tax evasion, taxpayers base their tax decisions on economic determinants, like fine rate and audit probability. Empirical findings on the relationship between economic key determinants and tax evasion are inconsistent and suggest that taxpayers may rather rely on their beliefs about tax authority's power. Descriptions of the tax authority's power may affect taxpayers' beliefs and as such tax evasion. Experiment 1 investigates the impact of fines and beliefs regarding tax authority's power on tax evasion. Experiments 2-4 are conducted to examine the effect of varying descriptions about a tax authority's power on participants' beliefs and respective tax evasion. It is investigated whether tax evasion is influenced by the description of an authority wielding coercive power (Experiment 2), legitimate power (Experiment 3), and coercive and legitimate power combined (Experiment 4). Further, it is examined whether a contrast of the description of power (low to high power; high to low power) impacts tax evasion (Experiments 2-4). Results show that the amount of fine does not impact tax payments, whereas participants' beliefs regarding tax authority's power significantly shape compliance decisions. Descriptions of high coercive power as well as high legitimate power affect beliefs about tax authority's power and positively impact tax honesty. This effect still holds if both qualities of power are applied simultaneously. The contrast of descriptions has little impact on tax evasion. The current study indicates that descriptions of the tax authority, e.g., in information brochures and media reports, have more influence on beliefs and tax payments than information on fine rates. Methodically, these considerations become particularly important when descriptions or vignettes are used besides objective information. PMID:25923770

  4. Does the Sole Description of a Tax Authority Affect Tax Evasion? - The Impact of Described Coercive and Legitimate Power

    PubMed Central

    Hartl, Barbara; Hofmann, Eva; Gangl, Katharina; Hartner-Tiefenthaler, Martina; Kirchler, Erich

    2015-01-01

    Following the classic economic model of tax evasion, taxpayers base their tax decisions on economic determinants, like fine rate and audit probability. Empirical findings on the relationship between economic key determinants and tax evasion are inconsistent and suggest that taxpayers may rather rely on their beliefs about tax authority’s power. Descriptions of the tax authority’s power may affect taxpayers’ beliefs and as such tax evasion. Experiment 1 investigates the impact of fines and beliefs regarding tax authority’s power on tax evasion. Experiments 2-4 are conducted to examine the effect of varying descriptions about a tax authority’s power on participants’ beliefs and respective tax evasion. It is investigated whether tax evasion is influenced by the description of an authority wielding coercive power (Experiment 2), legitimate power (Experiment 3), and coercive and legitimate power combined (Experiment 4). Further, it is examined whether a contrast of the description of power (low to high power; high to low power) impacts tax evasion (Experiments 2-4). Results show that the amount of fine does not impact tax payments, whereas participants’ beliefs regarding tax authority’s power significantly shape compliance decisions. Descriptions of high coercive power as well as high legitimate power affect beliefs about tax authority’s power and positively impact tax honesty. This effect still holds if both qualities of power are applied simultaneously. The contrast of descriptions has little impact on tax evasion. The current study indicates that descriptions of the tax authority, e.g., in information brochures and media reports, have more influence on beliefs and tax payments than information on fine rates. Methodically, these considerations become particularly important when descriptions or vignettes are used besides objective information. PMID:25923770

  5. A sea anemone's environment affects discharge of its isolated nematocysts.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, Paul G; Balboni, Imelda M; Lohmann, Cynthia

    2003-02-01

    Nematocysts were isolated from individuals of Calliactis tricolor maintained under different feeding schedules or in different salinities in an attempt to determine how these culture conditions influence the discharge of isolated nematocysts. In addition, the discharge frequencies of nematocysts isolated from two different populations of sea anemones found in two different environments were also compared. Undischarged acontial nematocysts were isolated by extrusion into 1 M sodium citrate and were then treated with 5 mM EGTA to initiate discharge. Nematocysts isolated from anemones maintained under three different feeding schedules showed significantly different responses to the test solution. Nematocysts isolated from anemones maintained in two different salinities did not differ significantly in discharge frequency. Nematocysts isolated from individuals from two separate populations of C. tricolor responded significantly differently to 5 mM EGTA and to deionized water, and these responses also depended upon the isolation solution used. Environmental conditions are known to have an impact on the physiological state of most organisms, but this is the first study providing evidence that the environment or feeding state of an anemone affects discharge of isolated nematocysts. Inherent differences in ionic and osmotic characteristics among nematocysts could explain some of the ambiguities when comparing past studies of isolated nematocyst discharge. PMID:12547257

  6. Goals and Values in School: A Model Developed for Describing, Evaluating and Changing the Social Climate of Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allodi, Mara Westling

    2010-01-01

    This paper defines a broad model of the psychosocial climate in educational settings. The model was developed from a general theory of learning environments, on a theory of human values and on empirical studies of children's evaluations of their schools. The contents of the model are creativity, stimulation, achievement, self-efficacy, creativity,…

  7. Video-Based Affect Detection in Noninteractive Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yuxuan; Bosch, Nigel; D'Mello, Sidney

    2015-01-01

    The current paper explores possible solutions to the problem of detecting affective states from facial expressions during text/diagram comprehension, a context devoid of interactive events that can be used to infer affect. These data present an interesting challenge for face-based affect detection because likely locations of affective facial…

  8. Using a Virtual Classroom Environment to Describe the Attention Deficits Profile of Children with Neurofibromatosis Type 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilboa, Yafit; Rosenblum, Sara; Fattal-Valevski, Aviva; Toledano-Alhadef, Hagit; Rizzo, Albert; Josman, Naomi

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe the nature of the attention deficits in children with Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) in comparison with typically developing (TD) children, using the Virtual Classroom (VC), and to assess the utility of this instrument for detecting attention deficits. Twenty-nine NF1 children and 25 age-and…

  9. To hide or not to hide, that is the question! Lesbians and gay men describe experiences from nursing work environment.

    PubMed

    Röndahl, Gerd; Innala, Sune; Carlsson, Marianne

    2007-01-01

    Homosexual nursing staff (n = 21) from different parts of Sweden were interviewed about experiences from their psychosocial work environment and about what they consider important points to communicate about lesbians and gay men in nursing. The findings show that most of the informants were partly open about their sexual orientation at work, the women less so than the men. All informants spoke of the fear of being socially excluded. Reported negative experiences included being neglected, harassment, and verbal discomfort based on sexual prejudices. The informants regarded responsibility, the need for knowledge, the consequences of invisibility, and the lesbian's specific situation, important points to communicate regarding homosexuality and nursing. PMID:17594978

  10. Charge-exchange plasma environment for an ion drive spacecraft. [a model for describing mercury ion engines and its effect on spacecraft subsystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, H. R.; Carruth, M. R., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The charge exchange plasma environment around a spacecraft that uses mercury ion thrusters for propulsion is described. The interactions between the plasma environment and the spacecraft are determined and a model which describes the propagation of the mercury charge exchange plasma is discussed. The model is extended to describe the flow of the molybdenum component of the charge exchange plasma. The uncertainties in the models for various conditions are discussed and current drain to the solar array, charge exchange plasma material deposition, and the effects of space plasma on the charge exchange plasma propagation are addressed.

  11. LIGHT-INDUCED PROCESSES AFFECTING ENTEROCOCCI IN AQUATIC ENVIRONMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fecal indicator bacteria such as enterococci have been used to assess contamination of freshwater and marine environments by pathogenic microorganisms. Various past studies have shown that sunlight plays an important role in reducing concentrations of culturable enterococci and ...

  12. Office Space: How Will Technology Affect the Education Office Environment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, C. William

    2009-01-01

    The office environment 10 years from now will be different from the one today. More office personnel will be organized around processes rather than functions. More work activities will be done by teams rather than individuals, and those teams will change over time, as will the nature of the work projects and the people who constitute the team. The…

  13. A Case Study Describing Student Experiences of Learning in a Context of Synchronous Computer-Mediated Communication in a Distance Education Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorg, Judith J.; McElhinney, James H.

    Based on collaborative learning theories, this qualitative study describes seven adult students' experiences of learning in a context of synchronous computer-mediated communication within a distance education environment. The setting was an 8-week, Internet-based undergraduate/graduate sociology course sponsored by Indiana University Purdue…

  14. Affective Behavior and Nonverbal Interaction in Collaborative Virtual Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peña, Adriana; Rangel, Nora; Muñoz, Mirna; Mejia, Jezreel; Lara, Graciela

    2016-01-01

    While a person's internal state might not be easily inferred through an automatic computer system, within a group, people express themselves through their interaction with others. The group members' interaction can be then helpful to understand, to certain extent, its members' affective behavior in any case toward the task at hand. In this…

  15. Designing for Automatic Affect Inference in Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afzal, Shazia; Robinson, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Emotions play a significant role in healthy cognitive functioning; they impact memory, attention, decision-making and attitude; and are therefore influential in learning and achievement. Consequently, affective diagnoses constitute an important aspect of human teacher-learner interactions motivating efforts to incorporate skills of affect…

  16. Neural networks underlying affective states in a multimodal virtual environment: contributions to boredom

    PubMed Central

    Mathiak, Krystyna A.; Klasen, Martin; Zvyagintsev, Mikhail; Weber, René; Mathiak, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    The interaction of low perceptual stimulation or goal-directed behavior with a negative subjective evaluation may lead to boredom. This contribution to boredom may shed light on its neural correlates, which are poorly characterized so far. A video game served as simulation of free interactive behavior without interruption of the game’s narrative. Thirteen male German volunteers played a first-person shooter game (Tactical Ops: Assault on Terror) during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Two independent coders performed the time-based analysis of the audio-visual game content. Boredom was operationalized as interaction of prolonged absence of goal-directed behavior with lowered affect in the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). A decrease of positive affect (PA) correlated with response amplitudes in bilateral insular clusters extending into the amygdala to prolonged inactive phases in a game play and an increase in negative affect (NA) was associated with higher responses in bilateral ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). Precuneus and hippocampus responses were negatively correlated with changes in NA. We describe for the first time neural contributions to boredom, using a video game as complex virtual environment. Further our study confirmed that PA and NA are separable constructs, reflected by distinct neural patterns. PA may be associated with afferent limbic activity whereas NA with affective control. PMID:24348366

  17. Critical processes affecting Cryptosporidium oocyst survival in the environment.

    PubMed

    King, B J; Monis, P T

    2007-03-01

    Cryptosporidium are parasitic protozoans that cause gastrointestinal disease and represent a significant risk to public health. Cryptosporidium oocysts are prevalent in surface waters as a result of human, livestock and native animal faecal contamination. The resistance of oocysts to the concentrations of chlorine and monochloramine used to disinfect potable water increases the risk of waterborne transmission via drinking water. In addition to being resistant to commonly used disinfectants, it is thought that oocysts can persist in the environment and be readily mobilized by precipitation events. This paper will review the critical processes involved in the inactivation or removal of oocysts in the terrestrial and aquatic environments and consider how these processes will respond in the context of climate change. PMID:17096874

  18. Physical processes affecting the sedimentary environments of Long Island Sound

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Signell, R.P.; Knebel, H. J.; List, J.H.; Farris, A.S.

    1997-01-01

    A modeling study was undertaken to simulate the bottom tidal-, wave-, and wind-driven currents in Long Island Sound in order to provide a general physical oceanographic framework for understanding the characteristics and distribution of seafloor sedimentary environments. Tidal currents are important in the funnel-shaped eastern part of the Sound, where a strong gradient of tidal-current speed was found. This current gradient parallels the general westward progression of sedimentary environments from erosion or non-deposition, through bedload transport and sediment sorting, to fine-grained deposition. Wave-driven currents, meanwhile, appear to be important along the shallow margins of the basin, explaining the occurrence of relatively coarse sediments in regions where tidal currents alone are not strong enough to move sediment. Finally, westerly wind events are shown to locally enhance bottom currents along the axial depression of the sound, providing a possible explanation for the relatively coarse sediments found in the depression despite tide- and wave-induced currents below the threshold of sediment movement. The strong correlation between the near-bottom current intensity based on the model results and the sediment response as indicated by the distribution of sedimentary environments provides a framework for predicting the long-term effects of anthropogenic activities.

  19. Developmental and Evolutionary History Affect Survival in Stressful Environments

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, Gareth R.; Brodie, Edmund D.; French, Susannah S.

    2014-01-01

    The world is increasingly impacted by a variety of stressors that have the potential to differentially influence life history stages of organisms. Organisms have evolved to cope with some stressors, while with others they have little capacity. It is thus important to understand the effects of both developmental and evolutionary history on survival in stressful environments. We present evidence of the effects of both developmental and evolutionary history on survival of a freshwater vertebrate, the rough-skinned newt (Taricha granulosa) in an osmotically stressful environment. We compared the survival of larvae in either NaCl or MgCl2 that were exposed to salinity either as larvae only or as embryos as well. Embryonic exposure to salinity led to greater mortality of newt larvae than larval exposure alone, and this reduced survival probability was strongly linked to the carry-over effect of stunted embryonic growth in salts. Larval survival was also dependent on the type of salt (NaCl or MgCl2) the larvae were exposed to, and was lowest in MgCl2, a widely-used chemical deicer that, unlike NaCl, amphibian larvae do not have an evolutionary history of regulating at high levels. Both developmental and evolutionary history are critical factors in determining survival in this stressful environment, a pattern that may have widespread implications for the survival of animals increasingly impacted by substances with which they have little evolutionary history. PMID:24748021

  20. Constructing Affective Security in Children: Case Study in Educational Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margenat, Montserrat; Dalmau, Mariona; Vendrell, Roser; Ibarz, Lidia

    2016-01-01

    In line with Bowlby's theoretical approach, where he established a relationship between the quality of experiences lived in the first relationships and subsequent behaviours, we are carrying out a case study research project. The objectives are as follows: (1) To describe interactive patterns as observed in natural contexts and focusing on the…

  1. Understanding processes affecting mineral deposits in humid environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seal, Robert R., II; Ayuso, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    Recent interdisciplinary studies by the U.S. Geological Survey have resulted in substantial progress toward understanding the influence that climate and hydrology have on the geochemical signatures of mineral deposits and the resulting mine wastes in the eastern United States. Specific areas of focus include the release, transport, and fate of acid, metals, and associated elements from inactive mines in temperate coastal areas and of metals from unmined mineral deposits in tropical to subtropical areas; the influence of climate, geology, and hydrology on remediation options for abandoned mines; and the application of radiogenic isotopes to uniquely apportion source contributions that distinguish natural from mining sources and extent of metal transport. The environmental effects of abandoned mines and unmined mineral deposits result from a complex interaction of a variety of chemical and physical factors. These include the geology of the mineral deposit, the hydrologic setting of the mineral deposit and associated mine wastes, the chemistry of waters interacting with the deposit and associated waste material, the engineering of a mine as it relates to the reactivity of mine wastes, and climate, which affects such factors as temperature and the amounts of precipitation and evapotranspiration; these factors, in turn, influence the environmental behavior of mineral deposits. The role of climate is becoming increasingly important in environmental investigations of mineral deposits because of the growing concerns about climate change.

  2. Psychosocial Environment and Affective Outcomes in Technology-Rich Classrooms: Testing a Causal Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorman, Jeffrey P.; Fraser, Barry J.

    2009-01-01

    Research investigated classroom environment antecedent variables and student affective outcomes in Australian high schools. The Technology-Rich Outcomes-Focused Learning Environment Inventory (TROFLEI) was used to assess 10 classroom environment dimensions: student cohesiveness, teacher support, involvement, investigation, task orientation,…

  3. 49 CFR 520.5 - Guidelines for identifying major actions significantly affecting the environment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... significantly affecting the quality of the human environment,” as used in this part, shall be construed with a... actions should ordinarily be considered as significantly affecting the quality of the human...

  4. 49 CFR 520.5 - Guidelines for identifying major actions significantly affecting the environment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... significantly affecting the quality of the human environment,” as used in this part, shall be construed with a... actions should ordinarily be considered as significantly affecting the quality of the human...

  5. Early prediction of student goals and affect in narrative-centered learning environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sunyoung

    Recent years have seen a growing recognition of the role of goal and affect recognition in intelligent tutoring systems. Goal recognition is the task of inferring users' goals from a sequence of observations of their actions. Because of the uncertainty inherent in every facet of human computer interaction, goal recognition is challenging, particularly in contexts in which users can perform many actions in any order, as is the case with intelligent tutoring systems. Affect recognition is the task of identifying the emotional state of a user from a variety of physical cues, which are produced in response to affective changes in the individual. Accurately recognizing student goals and affect states could contribute to more effective and motivating interactions in intelligent tutoring systems. By exploiting knowledge of student goals and affect states, intelligent tutoring systems can dynamically modify their behavior to better support individual students. To create effective interactions in intelligent tutoring systems, goal and affect recognition models should satisfy two key requirements. First, because incorrectly predicted goals and affect states could significantly diminish the effectiveness of interactive systems, goal and affect recognition models should provide accurate predictions of user goals and affect states. When observations of users' activities become available, recognizers should make accurate early" predictions. Second, goal and affect recognition models should be highly efficient so they can operate in real time. To address key issues, we present an inductive approach to recognizing student goals and affect states in intelligent tutoring systems by learning goals and affect recognition models. Our work focuses on goal and affect recognition in an important new class of intelligent tutoring systems, narrative-centered learning environments. We report the results of empirical studies of induced recognition models from observations of students

  6. Genotype-environment interactions affecting preflowering physiological and morphological traits of Brassica rapa grown in two watering regimes.

    PubMed

    El-Soda, Mohamed; Boer, Martin P; Bagheri, Hedayat; Hanhart, Corrie J; Koornneef, Maarten; Aarts, Mark G M

    2014-02-01

    Plant growth and productivity are greatly affected by drought, which is likely to become more threatening with the predicted global temperature increase. Understanding the genetic architecture of complex quantitative traits and their interaction with water availability may lead to improved crop adaptation to a wide range of environments. Here, the genetic basis of 20 physiological and morphological traits is explored by describing plant performance and growth in a Brassica rapa recombinant inbred line (RIL) population grown on a sandy substrate supplemented with nutrient solution, under control and drought conditions. Altogether, 54 quantitative trait loci (QTL) were identified, of which many colocated in 11 QTL clusters. Seventeen QTL showed significant QTL-environment interaction (Q×E), indicating genetic variation for phenotypic plasticity. Of the measured traits, only hypocotyl length did not show significant genotype-environment interaction (G×E) in both environments in all experiments. Correlation analysis showed that, in the control environment, stomatal conductance was positively correlated with total leaf dry weight (DW) and aboveground DW, whereas in the drought environment, stomatal conductance showed a significant negative correlation with total leaf DW and aboveground DW. This correlation was explained by antagonistic fitness effects in the drought environment, controlled by a QTL cluster on chromosome A7. These results demonstrate that Q×E is an important component of the genetic variance and can play a great role in improving drought tolerance in future breeding programmes. PMID:24474811

  7. Adolescents' Cognitive "Habitus", Learning Environments, Affective Outcomes of Schooling, and Young Adults' Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marjoribanks, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    A moderation-mediation model was constructed to examine relationships among adolescents' cognitive "habitus" (their cognitive dispositions), learning environments, affective outcomes of schooling, and young adults' educational attainment. Data were collected as part of a longitudinal survey of Australian youth (4,171 females, 3,718 males). The…

  8. Can Mood-Inducing Videos Affect Problem-Solving Activities in a Web-Based Environment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verleur, Ria; Verhagen, Plon W.; Heuvelman, Ard

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether a video-induced positive and negative mood has a differential effect on subsequent problem-solving activities in a web-based environment. The study also examined whether task conditions (task demands) moderated the mood effect. As in traditional experimental mood-effect studies, the affective video…

  9. 49 CFR 520.5 - Guidelines for identifying major actions significantly affecting the environment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Guidelines for identifying major actions significantly affecting the environment. 520.5 Section 520.5 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PROCEDURES FOR CONSIDERING ENVIRONMENTAL...

  10. 49 CFR 520.5 - Guidelines for identifying major actions significantly affecting the environment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Guidelines for identifying major actions significantly affecting the environment. 520.5 Section 520.5 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PROCEDURES FOR CONSIDERING ENVIRONMENTAL...

  11. 49 CFR 520.5 - Guidelines for identifying major actions significantly affecting the environment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Guidelines for identifying major actions significantly affecting the environment. 520.5 Section 520.5 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PROCEDURES FOR CONSIDERING ENVIRONMENTAL...

  12. Assessing the Utility of a Virtual Environment for Enhancing Facial Affect Recognition in Adolescents with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bekele, Esubalew; Crittendon, Julie; Zheng, Zhi; Swanson, Amy; Weitlauf, Amy; Warren, Zachary; Sarkar, Nilanjan

    2014-01-01

    Teenagers with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and age-matched controls participated in a dynamic facial affect recognition task within a virtual reality (VR) environment. Participants identified the emotion of a facial expression displayed at varied levels of intensity by a computer generated avatar. The system assessed performance (i.e.,…

  13. Challenges in researching violence affecting health service delivery in complex security environments.

    PubMed

    Foghammar, Ludvig; Jang, Suyoun; Kyzy, Gulzhan Asylbek; Weiss, Nerina; Sullivan, Katherine A; Gibson-Fall, Fawzia; Irwin, Rachel

    2016-08-01

    Complex security environments are characterized by violence (including, but not limited to "armed conflict" in the legal sense), poverty, environmental disasters and poor governance. Violence directly affecting health service delivery in complex security environments includes attacks on individuals (e.g. doctors, nurses, administrators, security guards, ambulance drivers and translators), obstructions (e.g. ambulances being stopped at checkpoints), discrimination (e.g. staff being pressured to treat one patient instead of another), attacks on and misappropriation of health facilities and property (e.g. vandalism, theft and ambulance theft by armed groups), and the criminalization of health workers. This paper examines the challenges associated with researching the context, scope and nature of violence directly affecting health service delivery in these environments. With a focus on data collection, it considers how these challenges affect researchers' ability to analyze the drivers of violence and impact of violence. This paper presents key findings from two research workshops organized in 2014 and 2015 which convened researchers and practitioners in the fields of health and humanitarian aid delivery and policy, and draws upon an analysis of organizational efforts to address violence affecting healthcare delivery and eleven in-depth interviews with representatives of organizations working in complex security environments. Despite the urgency and impact of violence affecting healthcare delivery, there is an overall lack of research that is of health-specific, publically accessible and comparable, as well as a lack of gender-disaggregated data, data on perpetrator motives and an assessment of the 'knock-on' effects of violence. These gaps limit analysis and, by extension, the ability of organizations operating in complex security environments to effectively manage the security of their staff and facilities and to deliver health services. Increased research

  14. Research Into the Role of Students’ Affective Domain While Learning Geology in Field Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elkins, J.

    2009-12-01

    Existing research programs in field-based geocognition include assessment of cognitive, psychomotor, and affective domains. Assessment of the affective domain often involves the use of instruments and techniques uncommon to the geosciences. Research regarding the affective domain also commonly results in the collection and production of qualitative data that is difficult for geoscientists to analyze due to their lack of familiarity with these data sets. However, important information about students’ affective responses to learning in field environments can be obtained by using these methods. My research program focuses on data produced by students’ affective responses to field-based learning environments, primarily among students at the introductory level. For this research I developed a Likert-scale Novelty Space Survey, which presents student ‘novelty space’ (Orion and Hofstien, 1993) as a polygon; the larger the polygons, the more novelty students are experiencing. The axises for these polygons correspond to novelty domains involving geographic, social, cognitive, and psychological factors. In addition to the Novelty Space Survey, data which I have collected/generated includes focus group interviews on the role of recreational experiences in geology field programs. I have also collected data concerning the motivating factors that cause students to take photographs on field trips. The results of these studies give insight to the emotional responses students have to learning in the field and are important considerations for practitioners of teaching in these environments. Collaborative investigations among research programs that cross university departments and include multiple institutions is critical at this point in development of geocognition as a field due to unfamiliarity with cognitive science methodology by practitioners teaching geosciences and the dynamic nature of field work by cognitive scientists. However, combining the efforts of cognitive

  15. The effects of physical environments in medical wards on medication communication processes affecting patient safety.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Manias, Elizabeth; Gerdtz, Marie

    2014-03-01

    Physical environments of clinical settings play an important role in health communication processes. Effective medication management requires seamless communication among health professionals of different disciplines. This paper explores how physical environments affect communication processes for managing medications and patient safety in acute care hospital settings. Findings highlighted the impact of environmental interruptions on communication processes about medications. In response to frequent interruptions and limited space within working environments, nurses, doctors and pharmacists developed adaptive practices in the local clinical context. Communication difficulties were associated with the ward physical layout, the controlled drug key and the medication retrieving device. Health professionals should be provided with opportunities to discuss the effects of ward environments on medication communication processes and how this impacts medication safety. Hospital administrators and architects need to consider health professionals' views and experiences when designing hospital spaces. PMID:24486620

  16. External built residential environment characteristics that affect mental health of adults.

    PubMed

    Ochodo, Charles; Ndetei, D M; Moturi, W N; Otieno, J O

    2014-10-01

    External built residential environment characteristics include aspects of building design such as types of walls, doors and windows, green spaces, density of houses per unit area, and waste disposal facilities. Neighborhoods that are characterized by poor quality external built environment can contribute to psychosocial stress and increase the likelihood of mental health disorders. This study investigated the relationship between characteristics of external built residential environment and mental health disorders in selected residences of Nakuru Municipality, Kenya. External built residential environment characteristics were investigated for 544 residents living in different residential areas that were categorized by their socioeconomic status. Medically validated interview schedules were used to determine mental health of residents in the respective neighborhoods. The relationship between characteristics of the external built residential environment and mental health of residents was determined by multivariable logistic regression analyses and chi-square tests. The results show that walling materials used on buildings, density of dwelling units, state of street lighting, types of doors, states of roofs, and states of windows are some built external residential environment characteristics that affect mental health of adult males and females. Urban residential areas that are characterized by poor quality external built environment substantially expose the population to daily stressors and inconveniences that increase the likelihood of developing mental health disorders. PMID:24464242

  17. Enriching early adult environment affects the copulation behaviour of a tephritid fly.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Fleischer, Francisco; Arredondo, José; Aluja, Martín

    2009-07-01

    Early adult experiences in enriched environments favours animal brain and behavioural development ultimately resulting in an increased fitness. However, measuring the effect of environmental enrichment in animal behaviour in nature is often a complicated task, considering the complexity of the natural environment. We expanded previous studies to evaluate how early experience in an enriched environment affects copulation behaviour when animals are confronted with a complex semi-natural environment. Anastrepha ludens flies are an ideal model system for studying these effects because their natural habitats differ significantly from the cage environments in which these flies are reared for biological control purposes. For example, in the field, males form leks of up to six individuals. Each male defends a territory represented by a tree leaf whereas in rearing cages, territories are completely reduced because of the high population density. In a series of three experiments, we observed that male density represented the most influential stimulus for A. ludens male copulation success. Males that experienced lower densities in early adulthood obtained the highest proportion of copulations. By contrast, female copulation behaviour was not altered by female density. However, exposure to natural or artificial leaves in cages in which flies were kept until tested influenced female copulation behaviour. Females that were exposed to enriched environments exhibited a shorter latency to mate and shorter copulation durations with males than females reared in poor environments. We discuss the influence of early experience on male copulation success and female-mating choosiness. PMID:19525439

  18. Beyond Describing Affect: Reconceptualizing Emotions in Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horner, Michelle S.

    2009-01-01

    Several research that examine emotions as a way to diagnose and treat pediatric depression are discussed. The growing research into this field may one day elevate emotion to be included in the standard diagnostic and clinical interview.

  19. Affective e-Learning: Using "Emotional" Data to Improve Learning in Pervasive Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Liping; Wang, Minjuan; Shen, Ruimin

    2009-01-01

    Using emotion detection technologies from biophysical signals, this study explored how emotion evolves during learning process and how emotion feedback could be used to improve learning experiences. This article also described a cutting-edge pervasive e-Learning platform used in a Shanghai online college and proposed an affective e-Learning model,…

  20. Person-centered work environments, psychological safety, and positive affect in healthcare: a theoretical framework.

    PubMed

    Rathert, Cheryl; May, Douglas R

    2008-01-01

    We propose that in order to systematically improve healthcare quality, healthcare organizations (HCOs) need work environments that are person-centered: environments that support the careprovider as well as the patient. We further argue that HCOs have a moral imperative to provide a workplace where professional care standards can be achieved. We draw upon a large body of research from several disciplines to propose and articulate a theoretical framework that explains how the work environment should be related to the well-being of patients and careproviders, that is, the potential mediating mechanisms. Person-centered work environments include: 1. Climates for patient-centered care. 2. Climates for quality improvement. 3. Benevolent ethical climates. Such a work environment should support the provision of patient-centered care, and should lead to positive psychological states for careproviders, including psychological safety and positive affect. The model contributes to theory by specifying relationships between important organizational variables. The model can potentially contribute to practice by linking specific work environment attributes to outcomes for careproviders and patients. PMID:18839753

  1. Effects of personal relevance and simulated darkness on the affective appraisal of a virtual environment.

    PubMed

    Toet, Alexander; Houtkamp, Joske M; Vreugdenhil, Paul E

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated whether personal relevance influences the affective appraisal of a desktop virtual environment (VE) in simulated darkness. In the real world, darkness often evokes thoughts of vulnerability, threat, and danger, and may automatically precipitate emotional responses consonant with those thoughts (fear of darkness). This influences the affective appraisal of a given environment after dark and the way humans behave in that environment in conditions of low lighting. Desktop VEs are increasingly deployed to study the effects of environmental qualities and (architectural or lighting) interventions on human behaviour and feelings of safety. Their (ecological) validity for these purposes depends critically on their ability to correctly address the user's cognitive and affective experience. Previous studies with desktop (i.e., non-immersive) VEs found that simulated darkness only slightly affects the user's behavioral and emotional responses to the represented environment, in contrast to the responses observed for immersive VEs. We hypothesize that the desktop VE scenarios used in previous studies less effectively induced emotional and behavioral responses because they lacked personal relevance. In addition, factors like signs of social presence and relatively high levels of ambient lighting may also have limited these responses. In this study, young female volunteers explored either a daytime or a night-time (low ambient light level) version of a desktop VE representing a deserted (no social presence) prototypical Dutch polder landscape. To enhance the personal relevance of the simulation, a fraction of the participants were led to believe that the virtual exploration tour would prepare them for a follow-up tour through the real world counterpart of the VE. The affective appraisal of the VE and the emotional response of the participants were measured through self-report. The results show that the VE was appraised as slightly less pleasant and more

  2. Effects of personal relevance and simulated darkness on the affective appraisal of a virtual environment

    PubMed Central

    Houtkamp, Joske M.; Vreugdenhil, Paul E.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated whether personal relevance influences the affective appraisal of a desktop virtual environment (VE) in simulated darkness. In the real world, darkness often evokes thoughts of vulnerability, threat, and danger, and may automatically precipitate emotional responses consonant with those thoughts (fear of darkness). This influences the affective appraisal of a given environment after dark and the way humans behave in that environment in conditions of low lighting. Desktop VEs are increasingly deployed to study the effects of environmental qualities and (architectural or lighting) interventions on human behaviour and feelings of safety. Their (ecological) validity for these purposes depends critically on their ability to correctly address the user’s cognitive and affective experience. Previous studies with desktop (i.e., non-immersive) VEs found that simulated darkness only slightly affects the user’s behavioral and emotional responses to the represented environment, in contrast to the responses observed for immersive VEs. We hypothesize that the desktop VE scenarios used in previous studies less effectively induced emotional and behavioral responses because they lacked personal relevance. In addition, factors like signs of social presence and relatively high levels of ambient lighting may also have limited these responses. In this study, young female volunteers explored either a daytime or a night-time (low ambient light level) version of a desktop VE representing a deserted (no social presence) prototypical Dutch polder landscape. To enhance the personal relevance of the simulation, a fraction of the participants were led to believe that the virtual exploration tour would prepare them for a follow-up tour through the real world counterpart of the VE. The affective appraisal of the VE and the emotional response of the participants were measured through self-report. The results show that the VE was appraised as slightly less pleasant and

  3. How Environment Affects Galaxy Metallicity through Stripping and Formation History: Lessons from the Illustris Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genel, Shy

    2016-05-01

    Recent studies have found higher galaxy metallicities in richer environments. It is not yet clear, however, whether metallicity-environment dependencies are merely an indirect consequence of environmentally dependent formation histories, or of environmentally related processes directly affecting metallicity. Here, we present a first detailed study of metallicity-environment correlations in a cosmological hydrodynamical simulation, in particular, we focus on the Illustris simulation. Illustris galaxies display similar relations to those observed. Utilizing our knowledge of simulated formation histories, and leveraging the large simulation volume, we construct galaxy samples of satellites and centrals with matching formation histories. This allows us to find that ∼ 1/3 of the metallicity-environment correlation is due to different formation histories in different environments. This is a combined effect of satellites (in particular, in denser environments) having on average lower z = 0 star formation rates (SFRs), and of their older stellar ages, even at a given z = 0 SFR. Most of the difference, ∼ 2/3, however, is caused by the higher concentration of star-forming disks of satellite galaxies, as this biases their SFR-weighted metallicities toward their inner, more metal-rich parts. With a newly defined quantity, the “radially averaged” metallicity, which captures the metallicity profile but is independent of the SFR profile, the metallicities of satellites and centrals become environmentally independent once they are matched in formation history. We find that circumgalactic metallicity (defined as rapidly inflowing gas around the virial radius), while sensitive to environment, has no measurable effect on the metallicity of the star-forming gas inside the galaxies.

  4. The maternal environment affects offspring viability via an indirect effect of yolk investment on offspring size.

    PubMed

    Warner, Daniel A; Lovern, Matthew B

    2014-01-01

    Environmental conditions that reproductive females experience can influence patterns of offspring provisioning and fitness. In particular, prey availability can influence maternal reproduction and, in turn, affect the viability of their offspring. Although such maternal effects are widespread, the mechanisms by which these effects operate are poorly understood. We manipulated the amount of prey available to female brown anole lizards (Anolis sagrei) to evaluate how this factor affects patterns of reproductive investment (total egg output, egg size, yolk steroids) and offspring viability (morphology, growth, survival). Experimental reduction of yolk in a subset of eggs enabled us to evaluate a potential causal mechanism (yolk investment) that mediates the effect of maternal prey availability on offspring viability. We show that limited prey availability significantly reduced egg size, which negatively influenced offspring size, growth, and survival. Experimental yolk removal from eggs directly reduced offspring size, which, in turn, negatively affected offspring growth and survival. These findings show that maternal environments (i.e., low prey) can affect offspring fitness via an indirect effect of yolk investment on offspring size and highlight the complex set of indirect effects by which maternal effects can operate. PMID:24642545

  5. Assessing the Utility of a Virtual Environment for Enhancing Facial Affect Recognition in Adolescents with Autism

    PubMed Central

    Crittendon, Julie; Zheng, Zhi; Swanson, Amy; Weitlauf, Amy; Warren, Zachary; Sarkar, Nilanjan

    2014-01-01

    Teenagers with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and age-matched controls participated in a dynamic facial affect recognition task within a virtual reality (VR) environment. Participants identified the emotion of a facial expression displayed at varied levels of intensity by a computer generated avatar. The system assessed performance (i.e., accuracy, confidence ratings, response latency, and stimulus discrimination) as well as how participants used their gaze to process facial information using an eye tracker. Participants in both groups were similarly accurate at basic facial affect recognition at varied levels of intensity. Despite similar performance characteristics, ASD participants endorsed lower confidence in their responses and substantial variation in gaze patterns in absence of perceptual discrimination deficits. These results add support to the hypothesis that deficits in emotion and face recognition for individuals with ASD are related to fundamental differences in information processing. We discuss implications of this finding in a VR environment with regards to potential future applications and paradigms targeting not just enhanced performance, but enhanced social information processing within intelligent systems capable of adaptation to individual processing differences. PMID:24419871

  6. Litter Environment Affects Behavior and Brain Metabolic Activity of Adult Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Crews, David; Rushworth, David; Gonzalez-Lima, Francisco; Ogawa, Sonoko

    2009-01-01

    In mammals, the formative environment for social and anxiety-related behaviors is the family unit; in the case of rodents, this is the litter and the mother-young bond. A deciding factor in this environment is the sex ratio of the litter and, in the case of mice lacking functional copies of gene(s), the ratio of the various genotypes in the litter. Both Sex and Genotype ratios of the litter affect the nature and quality of the individual's behavior later in adulthood, as well as metabolic activity in brain nuclei that underlie these behaviors. Mice were raised in litters reconstituted shortly after to birth to control for sex ratio and genotype ratio (wild type pups versus pups lacking a functional estrogen receptor α). In both males and females, the Sex and Genotype of siblings in the litter affected aggressive behaviors as well as patterns of metabolic activity in limbic nuclei in the social behavior network later in adulthood. Further, this pattern in males varied depending upon the Genotype of their brothers and sisters. Principal Components Analysis revealed two components comprised of several amygdalar and hypothalamic nuclei; the VMH showed strong correlations in both clusters, suggesting its pivotal nature in the organization of two neural networks. PMID:19707539

  7. The affect of a clearcut environment on woody debris respiration rate dynamics, Harvard Forest, Massachusetts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanderhoof, M. K.; Williams, C. L.

    2011-12-01

    At an ecosystem scale, the distribution of carbon is largely a function of stand development and disturbance processes. Clearcut logging remains a common practice both in the United States and globally and typically results in elevated storage of carbon in onsite woody debris and detritus. The residence time and decomposition rate of this woody debris and detritus will affect the rate of CO2 efflux to the atmosphere and thus affect the long term consequences of such disturbances on carbon flux and storage. The removal of a forest canopy also affects a site's microclimate including the albedo, air temperature, air humidity, as well as soil temperature and moisture, many of the same factors that affect the rate of woody debris decomposition. Thus it could be expected that differences in woody debris characteristics (e.g. size, abundance, state of decay), as well as differences in microclimate, between mature and recently clearcut forest sites, would result in differences in piece and site-level woody debris decomposition rates. Although woody debris stocks post-harvest have been well characterized, few studies have explored post-disturbance woody debris respiration rates, which directly measures carbon emissions from woody debris, distinguishing decomposition from mass loss due to fragmentation or leaching. This study addressed the question: does a clearcut environment in a temperate forest affect the rate of decomposition of coarse woody debris? The rate of respiration of downed spruce logs were repeatedly measured in-situ using an LI-6250 gas analyzer in Harvard Forest, Petersham, Massachusetts. Treatments included clear-cut, shaded clear-cut, mature spruce stand, and transfer (from clearcut to spruce stand). Gas analyzer measurements were accompanied by measurements of log temperature and percent water, soil temperature, moisture and pH, as well as light levels, air temperature and humidity to determine dominant drivers of respiration rates.

  8. Bacterial communities from shoreline environments (costa da morte, northwestern Spain) affected by the prestige oil spill.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Gutiérrez, Jorge; Figueras, Antonio; Albaigés, Joan; Jiménez, Núria; Viñas, Marc; Solanas, Anna M; Novoa, Beatriz

    2009-06-01

    The bacterial communities in two different shoreline matrices, rocks and sand, from the Costa da Morte, northwestern Spain, were investigated 12 months after being affected by the Prestige oil spill. Culture-based and culture-independent approaches were used to compare the bacterial diversity present in these environments with that at a nonoiled site. A long-term effect of fuel on the microbial communities in the oiled sand and rock was suggested by the higher proportion of alkane and polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) degraders and the differences in denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis patterns compared with those of the reference site. Members of the classes Alphaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria were the prevailing groups of bacteria detected in both matrices, although the sand bacterial community exhibited higher species richness than the rock bacterial community did. Culture-dependent and -independent approaches suggested that the genus Rhodococcus could play a key role in the in situ degradation of the alkane fraction of the Prestige fuel together with other members of the suborder Corynebacterineae. Moreover, other members of this suborder, such as Mycobacterium spp., together with Sphingomonadaceae bacteria (mainly Lutibacterium anuloederans), were related as well to the degradation of the aromatic fraction of the Prestige fuel. The multiapproach methodology applied in the present study allowed us to assess the complexity of autochthonous microbial communities related to the degradation of heavy fuel from the Prestige and to isolate some of their components for a further physiological study. Since several Corynebacterineae members related to the degradation of alkanes and PAHs were frequently detected in this and other supralittoral environments affected by the Prestige oil spill along the northwestern Spanish coast, the addition of mycolic acids to bioremediation amendments is proposed to favor the presence of these degraders in long-term fuel pollution-affected

  9. Early Life in a Barren Environment Adversely Affects Spatial Cognition in Laying Hens (Gallus gallus domesticus)

    PubMed Central

    Tahamtani, Fernanda M.; Nordgreen, Janicke; Nordquist, Rebecca E.; Janczak, Andrew M.

    2015-01-01

    Spatial cognition in vertebrates is adversely affected by a lack of environmental complexity during early life. However, to our knowledge, no previous studies have tested the effect of early exposure to varying degrees of environmental complexity on specific components of spatial cognition in chickens. There are two main rearing systems for laying hens in the EU: aviaries and cages. These two systems differ from one another in environmental complexity. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that rearing in a barren cage environment relative to a complex aviary environment causes long-lasting deficits in the ability to perform spatial tasks. For this purpose, 24 white Dekalb laying hens, half of which had been reared in an aviary system and the other half in a conventional cage system, were tested in a holeboard task. Birds from both treatment groups learnt the task; however, the cage-reared hens required more time to locate rewards and had poorer levels of working memory. The latter finding supports the hypothesis that rearing in a barren environment causes long-term impairment of short-term memory in chickens. PMID:26664932

  10. Learning to Describe, Describing to Understand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knoester, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    In this essay, the author describes his understanding and experience with descriptive review processes, as developed by Patricia Carini (Himley 2000) and members of the Prospect Center in North Bennington, VT. The author critically reviews the benefits and limitations of using descriptive review as a form of assessment of students, teaching…

  11. Space Environment Factors Affecting the Performance of International Space Station Materials: The First Two Years of Flight Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koontz, Steven L.; Peldey, Michael; Mayeaux, Brian; Milkatarian, Ronald R.; Golden, John; Boeder, paul; Kern, John; Barsamian, Hagop; Alred, John; Soares, Carlos; Christiansen, Eric; Schneider, Todd; Edwards, Dave

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the natural and induced space environment factors affecting materials performance on ISS are described in some detail. The emphasis will be on ISS flight experience and the more significant design and development issues of the last two years. The intent is to identify and document the set of space environment factors, affecting materials, that are producing the largest impacts on the ISS flight hardware verification and acceptance process and on ISS flight operations. Orbital inclination (S1.6 ) and altitude (nominal3S0 km to 400 km altitude) determine the set of natural environment factors affecting the functional life of materials and subsystems on ISS. ISS operates in the F2 region of Earth's ionosphere in well-defined fluxes of atomic oxygen, other ionospheric plasma species, and solar UV, VUV, and x-ray radiation, as well as galactic cosmic rays, trapped radiation, and solar cosmic rays (1,2). The high latitude orbital environment also exposes external surfaces to significantly less well-defined or predictable fluxes of higher energy trapped electrons and auroral electrons (3 ,4). The micrometeoroid and orbital debris environment is an important determinant of spacecraft design and operations in any orbital inclination. Environment factors induced by ISS flight operations include ram-wake effects, magnetic induction voltages arising from flight through Earth's magnetic field, hypergolic thruster plume impingement from proximity operations of visiting vehicles, materials outgassing, venting and dumping of fluids, ISS thruster operations, as well as specific electrical power system interactions with the ionospheric plasma (S-7). ISS must fly in a very limited number of approved flight attitudes leading to location specific environmental exposures and extreme local thermal environments (8). ISS is a large vehicle and produces a deep wake structure from which both ionospheric plasma and neutrals (atomic oxygen) are largely excluded (9-11). At high

  12. ARTIE: An Integrated Environment for the Development of Affective Robot Tutors

    PubMed Central

    Imbernón Cuadrado, Luis-Eduardo; Manjarrés Riesco, Ángeles; De La Paz López, Félix

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decade robotics has attracted a great deal of interest from teachers and researchers as a valuable educational tool from preschool to highschool levels. The implementation of social-support behaviors in robot tutors, in particular in the emotional dimension, can make a significant contribution to learning efficiency. With the aim of contributing to the rising field of affective robot tutors we have developed ARTIE (Affective Robot Tutor Integrated Environment). We offer an architectural pattern which integrates any given educational software for primary school children with a component whose function is to identify the emotional state of the students who are interacting with the software, and with the driver of a robot tutor which provides personalized emotional pedagogical support to the students. In order to support the development of affective robot tutors according to the proposed architecture, we also provide a methodology which incorporates a technique for eliciting pedagogical knowledge from teachers, and a generic development platform. This platform contains a component for identiying emotional states by analysing keyboard and mouse interaction data, and a generic affective pedagogical support component which specifies the affective educational interventions (including facial expressions, body language, tone of voice,…) in terms of BML (a Behavior Model Language for virtual agent specification) files which are translated into actions of a robot tutor. The platform and the methodology are both adapted to primary school students. Finally, we illustrate the use of this platform to build a prototype implementation of the architecture, in which the educational software is instantiated with Scratch and the robot tutor with NAO. We also report on a user experiment we carried out to orient the development of the platform and of the prototype. We conclude from our work that, in the case of primary school students, it is possible to identify, without

  13. ARTIE: An Integrated Environment for the Development of Affective Robot Tutors.

    PubMed

    Imbernón Cuadrado, Luis-Eduardo; Manjarrés Riesco, Ángeles; De La Paz López, Félix

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decade robotics has attracted a great deal of interest from teachers and researchers as a valuable educational tool from preschool to highschool levels. The implementation of social-support behaviors in robot tutors, in particular in the emotional dimension, can make a significant contribution to learning efficiency. With the aim of contributing to the rising field of affective robot tutors we have developed ARTIE (Affective Robot Tutor Integrated Environment). We offer an architectural pattern which integrates any given educational software for primary school children with a component whose function is to identify the emotional state of the students who are interacting with the software, and with the driver of a robot tutor which provides personalized emotional pedagogical support to the students. In order to support the development of affective robot tutors according to the proposed architecture, we also provide a methodology which incorporates a technique for eliciting pedagogical knowledge from teachers, and a generic development platform. This platform contains a component for identiying emotional states by analysing keyboard and mouse interaction data, and a generic affective pedagogical support component which specifies the affective educational interventions (including facial expressions, body language, tone of voice,…) in terms of BML (a Behavior Model Language for virtual agent specification) files which are translated into actions of a robot tutor. The platform and the methodology are both adapted to primary school students. Finally, we illustrate the use of this platform to build a prototype implementation of the architecture, in which the educational software is instantiated with Scratch and the robot tutor with NAO. We also report on a user experiment we carried out to orient the development of the platform and of the prototype. We conclude from our work that, in the case of primary school students, it is possible to identify, without

  14. Early Social Environment Affects the Endogenous Oxytocin System: A Review and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Emily; Fielder, Andrea; Ghabriel, Nerelle; Sawyer, Michael; Buisman-Pijlman, Femke T. A.

    2015-01-01

    Endogenous oxytocin plays an important role in a wide range of human functions including birth, milk ejection during lactation, and facilitation of social interaction. There is increasing evidence that both variations in the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) and concentrations of oxytocin are associated with differences in these functions. The causes for the differences that have been observed in tonic and stimulated oxytocin release remain unclear. Previous reviews have suggested that across the life course, these differences may be due to individual factors, e.g., genetic variation (of the OXTR), age or sex, or be the result of early environmental influences, such as social experiences, stress, or trauma partly by inducing epigenetic changes. This review has three aims. First, we briefly discuss the endogenous oxytocin system, including physiology, development, individual differences, and function. Second, current models describing the relationship between the early life environment and the development of the oxytocin system in humans and animals are discussed. Finally, we describe research designs that can be used to investigate the effects of the early environment on the oxytocin system, identifying specific areas of research that need further attention. PMID:25814979

  15. Recent social environment affects colour-assortative shoaling in juvenile angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare).

    PubMed

    Gómez-Laplaza, Luis M

    2009-09-01

    Theory predicts that fish should show colour-assortative shoaling in order to avoid the oddity effect whereby individuals that differ in some feature from the group majority appear to incur increased risk of predation. It has also been shown that early experience plays an important role in affecting social preferences in some fish species. In this study, the importance of colour phenotype in promoting assortative shoaling and the role played by the recent social environment on its expression were investigated in juvenile angelfish, Pterophyllum scalare. Individuals of the uniformly black and golden colour morphs were housed in a group with conspecifics of like and unlike body colour to themselves, as well as in mixed-colour groups for 4 weeks. Subsequently, they were subjected to a binary choice to shoal with a group of conspecifics composed of unfamiliar fish of either a like or unlike colour phenotype to themselves. The response of the individuals to the colour attributes of the shoals was related to their recent social environment. Fish in like- and mixed-colour previous treatments showed a preferential association with like colour conspecifics. In contrast, the shoaling behaviour exhibited by fish previously maintained with a group of unlike-coloured conspecifics (cross-housed treatment) indicated no significant preference for any of the shoals. The results suggest that angelfish use body colouration as an intraspecific shoaling cue and that learning, in the form of recent familiarization with a specific colour phenotype of conspecifics, can affect colour-assortative shoaling preferences in this species. This learning component of the choice need not be restricted to early developmental stages. PMID:19376208

  16. The geomagnetic environment in which sea turtle eggs incubate affects subsequent magnetic navigation behaviour of hatchlings

    PubMed Central

    Fuxjager, Matthew J.; Davidoff, Kyla R.; Mangiamele, Lisa A.; Lohmann, Kenneth J.

    2014-01-01

    Loggerhead sea turtle hatchlings (Caretta caretta) use regional magnetic fields as open-ocean navigational markers during trans-oceanic migrations. Little is known, however, about the ontogeny of this behaviour. As a first step towards investigating whether the magnetic environment in which hatchlings develop affects subsequent magnetic orientation behaviour, eggs deposited by nesting female loggerheads were permitted to develop in situ either in the natural ambient magnetic field or in a magnetic field distorted by magnets placed around the nest. In orientation experiments, hatchlings that developed in the normal ambient field oriented approximately south when exposed to a field that exists near the northern coast of Portugal, a direction consistent with their migratory route in the northeastern Atlantic. By contrast, hatchlings that developed in a distorted magnetic field had orientation indistinguishable from random when tested in the same north Portugal field. No differences existed between the two groups in orientation assays involving responses to orbital movements of waves or sea-finding, neither of which involves magnetic field perception. These findings, to our knowledge, demonstrate for the first time that the magnetic environment present during early development can influence the magnetic orientation behaviour of a neonatal migratory animal. PMID:25100699

  17. Microbial environment affects innate immunity in two closely related earthworm species Eisenia andrei and Eisenia fetida.

    PubMed

    Dvořák, Jiří; Mančíková, Veronika; Pižl, Václav; Elhottová, Dana; Silerová, Marcela; Roubalová, Radka; Skanta, František; Procházková, Petra; Bilej, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Survival of earthworms in the environment depends on their ability to recognize and eliminate potential pathogens. This work is aimed to compare the innate defense mechanisms of two closely related earthworm species, Eisenia andrei and Eisenia fetida, that inhabit substantially different ecological niches. While E. andrei lives in a compost and manure, E. fetida can be found in the litter layer in forests. Therefore, the influence of environment-specific microbiota on the immune response of both species was followed. Firstly, a reliable method to discern between E. andrei and E. fetida based on species-specific primers for cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) and stringent PCR conditions was developed. Secondly, to analyze the immunological profile in both earthworm species, the activity and expression of lysozyme, pattern recognition protein CCF, and antimicrobial proteins with hemolytic function, fetidin and lysenins, have been assessed. Whereas, CCF and lysozyme showed only slight differences in the expression and activity, fetidin/lysenins expression as well as the hemolytic activity was considerably higher in E. andrei as compared to E. fetida. The expression of fetidin/lysenins in E. fetida was not affected upon the challenge with compost microbiota, suggesting more substantial changes in the regulation of the gene expression. Genomic DNA analyses revealed significantly higher level of fetidin/lysenins (determined using universal primer pairs) in E. andrei compared to E. fetida. It can be hypothesized that E. andrei colonizing compost as a new habitat acquired an evolutionary selection advantage resulting in a higher expression of antimicrobial proteins. PMID:24223917

  18. Microbial Environment Affects Innate Immunity in Two Closely Related Earthworm Species Eisenia andrei and Eisenia fetida

    PubMed Central

    Dvořák, Jiří; Mančíková, Veronika; Pižl, Václav; Elhottová, Dana; Šilerová, Marcela; Roubalová, Radka; Škanta, František; Procházková, Petra; Bilej, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Survival of earthworms in the environment depends on their ability to recognize and eliminate potential pathogens. This work is aimed to compare the innate defense mechanisms of two closely related earthworm species, Eisenia andrei and Eisenia fetida, that inhabit substantially different ecological niches. While E. andrei lives in a compost and manure, E. fetida can be found in the litter layer in forests. Therefore, the influence of environment-specific microbiota on the immune response of both species was followed. Firstly, a reliable method to discern between E. andrei and E. fetida based on species-specific primers for cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) and stringent PCR conditions was developed. Secondly, to analyze the immunological profile in both earthworm species, the activity and expression of lysozyme, pattern recognition protein CCF, and antimicrobial proteins with hemolytic function, fetidin and lysenins, have been assessed. Whereas, CCF and lysozyme showed only slight differences in the expression and activity, fetidin/lysenins expression as well as the hemolytic activity was considerably higher in E. andrei as compared to E. fetida. The expression of fetidin/lysenins in E. fetida was not affected upon the challenge with compost microbiota, suggesting more substantial changes in the regulation of the gene expression. Genomic DNA analyses revealed significantly higher level of fetidin/lysenins (determined using universal primer pairs) in E. andrei compared to E. fetida. It can be hypothesized that E. andrei colonizing compost as a new habitat acquired an evolutionary selection advantage resulting in a higher expression of antimicrobial proteins. PMID:24223917

  19. Factors Affecting the Hydrogen Environment Assisted Cracking Resistance of an AL-Zn-Mg-(Cu) Alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Young, G A; Scully, J R

    2002-04-09

    Precipitation hardenable Al-Zn-Mg alloys are susceptible to hydrogen environment assisted cracking (HEAC) when exposed to aqueous environments. In Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys, overaged tempers are used to increase HEAC resistance at the expense of strength but overaging has little benefit in low copper alloys. However, the mechanism or mechanisms by which overaging imparts HEAC resistance is poorly understood. The present research investigated hydrogen uptake, diffusion, and crack growth rate in 90% relative humidity (RH) air for both a commercial copper bearing Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy (AA 7050) and a low copper variant of this alloy in order to better understand the factors which affect HEAC resistance. Experimental methods used to evaluate hydrogen concentrations local to a surface and near a crack tip include nuclear reaction analysis (NRA), focused ion beam, secondary ion mass spectroscopy (FIB/SIMS) and thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS). Results show that overaging the copper bearing alloys both inhibits hydrogen ingress from oxide covered surfaces and decreases the apparent hydrogen diffusion rates in the metal.

  20. A review on factors affecting microcystins production by algae in aquatic environments.

    PubMed

    Dai, Ruihua; Wang, Pinfei; Jia, Peili; Zhang, Yi; Chu, Xincheng; Wang, Yifei

    2016-03-01

    Microcystins, a toxin produced by Microcystis aeruginosa have become a global environmental issue in recent years. As a consequence of eutrophication, microcystins have become widely disseminated in drinking water sources, seriously impairing drinking water quality. This review focuses on the relationship between microcystins synthesis and physical, chemical, and biological environmental factors that are significant in controlling their production. Light intensity and temperature are the more important physical factors, and in many cases, an optimum level for these two factors has been observed. Nitrogen and phosphorus are the key chemical factors causing frequent occurrence of harmful algal blooms and microcystins production. The absorption of nutrients and metabolic activities of algae are affected by different concentrations and forms of nitrogen and phosphorus, leading to variations in microcystins production Metal ions and emerging pollutants are other significant chemical factors, whose comprehensive impact is still being studied. Algae can also interact with biological agents like predators and competitors in aquatic environments, and such interactions are suggested to promote MCs production and release. This review further highlights areas that require further research in order to gain a better understanding of microcystins production. It provides a theoretical basis for the control of microcystins production and releasing into aquatic environments. PMID:26874538

  1. Second-Hand Eating? Maternal perception of the food environment affects reproductive investment in mice

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Tonia S.; Gainer, Renee; Dohm, Erik D.; Johnson, Maria S.; Wyss, J. Michael; Allison, David B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Little information exists on how perception of the food (or ‘energetic’) environment affects body composition and reproductive investment. We test the hypothesis that female mice, who are themselves consuming standard chow diets, but who are exposed to conspecifics eating a rich “cafeteria diet”, will exhibit altered weight gain and reproductive investment. Design and Methods Female C57BL/6 mice were raised on a cafeteria diet. At maturity, subjects were switched to a standard chow diet and their cage-mate was assigned to consume either a cafeteria diet (treatment, n=20), or standard chow (control, n=20). Subjects were mated, and pups raised to weaning. Subjects and pups were analyzed for body composition. Results Treatment had no discernable effect on dam body weight or composition, but caused pups to have lower body weight (p=0.036), and less fat mass (p=0.041). We found a nearly significant treatment effect on ‘time to successful reproduction’ (avg. 55 vs. 44 days) likely due to increased failed first pregnancies (14/19 versus 8/19, p=0.099). Conclusions These data indicate that perceived food environment (independent of the diet actually consumed) can produce small pups with less body fat, and possibly induce difficulties in pregnancy for dams. Replication and mechanistic studies should follow. PMID:25864567

  2. Crack growth rates of irradiated austenitic stainless steel weld heat affected zone in BWR environments.

    SciTech Connect

    Chopra, O. K.; Alexandreanu, B.; Gruber, E. E.; Daum, R. S.; Shack, W. J.; Energy Technology

    2006-01-31

    Austenitic stainless steels (SSs) are used extensively as structural alloys in the internal components of reactor pressure vessels because of their superior fracture toughness. However, exposure to high levels of neutron irradiation for extended periods can exacerbate the corrosion fatigue and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behavior of these steels by affecting the material microchemistry, material microstructure, and water chemistry. Experimental data are presented on crack growth rates of the heat affected zone (HAZ) in Types 304L and 304 SS weld specimens before and after they were irradiated to a fluence of 5.0 x 10{sup 20} n/cm{sup 2} (E > 1 MeV) ({approx} 0.75 dpa) at {approx}288 C. Crack growth tests were conducted under cycling loading and long hold time trapezoidal loading in simulated boiling water reactor environments on Type 304L SS HAZ of the H5 weld from the Grand Gulf reactor core shroud and on Type 304 SS HAZ of a laboratory-prepared weld. The effects of material composition, irradiation, and water chemistry on growth rates are discussed.

  3. Nest Bacterial Environment Affects Microbiome of Hoopoe Eggshells, but Not That of the Uropygial Secretion.

    PubMed

    Martínez-García, Ángela; Martín-Vivaldi, Manuel; Rodríguez-Ruano, Sonia M; Peralta-Sánchez, Juan Manuel; Valdivia, Eva; Soler, Juan J

    2016-01-01

    The study of associations between symbiotic bacterial communities of hosts and those of surrounding environments would help to understand how bacterial assemblages are acquired, and how they are transmitted from one to another location (i.e. symbiotic bacteria acquisition by hosts). Hoopoes (Upupa epops) smear their eggshells with uropygial secretion (oily secretion produced in their uropygial gland) that harbors antibiotic producing bacteria. Trying to elucidate a possible role of nest material and cloaca microbiota in determining the bacterial community of the uropygial gland and the eggshells of hoopoes, we characterized bacterial communities of nest material, cloaca, uropygial gland and eggshells by the ARISA fingerprinting. Further, by adding material with scarce bacteria and antimicrobial properties, we manipulated the bacterial community of nest material and thus tested experimentally its effects on the microbiomes of the uropygial secretion and of the eggshells. The experiment did not influence the microbiome of the uropygial secretion of females, but affected the community established on eggshells. This is the first experimental evidence indicating that nest material influences the bacterial community of the eggshells and, therefore, probability of embryo infection. Some of the bacterial strains detected in the secretion were also in the bacterial communities of the nest material and of cloaca, but their occurrence within nests was not associated, which suggests that bacterial environments of nest material and cloaca are not sources of symbiotic bacteria for the gland. These results do not support a role of nest environments of hoopoes as reservoirs of symbiotic bacteria. We discuss possible scenarios explaining bacterial acquisition by hoopoes that should be further explored. PMID:27409772

  4. Nest Bacterial Environment Affects Microbiome of Hoopoe Eggshells, but Not That of the Uropygial Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-García, Ángela; Martín-Vivaldi, Manuel; Rodríguez-Ruano, Sonia M.; Peralta-Sánchez, Juan Manuel; Valdivia, Eva; Soler, Juan J.

    2016-01-01

    The study of associations between symbiotic bacterial communities of hosts and those of surrounding environments would help to understand how bacterial assemblages are acquired, and how they are transmitted from one to another location (i.e. symbiotic bacteria acquisition by hosts). Hoopoes (Upupa epops) smear their eggshells with uropygial secretion (oily secretion produced in their uropygial gland) that harbors antibiotic producing bacteria. Trying to elucidate a possible role of nest material and cloaca microbiota in determining the bacterial community of the uropygial gland and the eggshells of hoopoes, we characterized bacterial communities of nest material, cloaca, uropygial gland and eggshells by the ARISA fingerprinting. Further, by adding material with scarce bacteria and antimicrobial properties, we manipulated the bacterial community of nest material and thus tested experimentally its effects on the microbiomes of the uropygial secretion and of the eggshells. The experiment did not influence the microbiome of the uropygial secretion of females, but affected the community established on eggshells. This is the first experimental evidence indicating that nest material influences the bacterial community of the eggshells and, therefore, probability of embryo infection. Some of the bacterial strains detected in the secretion were also in the bacterial communities of the nest material and of cloaca, but their occurrence within nests was not associated, which suggests that bacterial environments of nest material and cloaca are not sources of symbiotic bacteria for the gland. These results do not support a role of nest environments of hoopoes as reservoirs of symbiotic bacteria. We discuss possible scenarios explaining bacterial acquisition by hoopoes that should be further explored. PMID:27409772

  5. Exploring Undergraduate Students' Mental Models of the Environment: Are They Related to Environmental Affect and Behavior?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Shu-Chiu; Lin, Huann-shyang

    2015-01-01

    A draw-and-explain task and questionnaire were used to explore Taiwanese undergraduate students' mental models of the environment and whether and how they relate to their environmental affect and behavioral commitment. We found that students generally held incomplete mental models of the environment, focusing on objects rather than on…

  6. The Importance of Social Learning Environment Factors for Affective Well-Being among Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idsoe, Ella Maria Cosmovici

    2016-01-01

    We investigated whether perceived inclusion and exclusion with peers at school, as well as self-reported bullying exposure, affected positive and negative affect among 1161 students from grades five through seven. Positive affect was significantly, but only weakly, affected by perceived exclusion and inclusion. Negative affect was not related to…

  7. Surface coating affects behavior of metallic nanoparticles in a biological environment

    PubMed Central

    Jurašin, Darija Domazet; Ćurlin, Marija; Capjak, Ivona; Crnković, Tea; Lovrić, Marija; Babič, Michal; Horák, Daniel; Gajović, Srećko

    2016-01-01

    Summary Silver (AgNPs) and maghemite, i.e., superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) are promising candidates for new medical applications, which implies the need for strict information regarding their physicochemical characteristics and behavior in a biological environment. The currently developed AgNPs and SPIONs encompass a myriad of sizes and surface coatings, which affect NPs properties and may improve their biocompatibility. This study is aimed to evaluate the effects of surface coating on colloidal stability and behavior of AgNPs and SPIONs in modelled biological environments using dynamic and electrophoretic light scattering techniques, as well as transmission electron microscopy to visualize the behavior of the NP. Three dispersion media were investigated: ultrapure water (UW), biological cell culture medium without addition of protein (BM), and BM supplemented with common serum protein (BMP). The obtained results showed that different coating agents on AgNPs and SPIONs produced different stabilities in the same biological media. The combination of negative charge and high adsorption strength of coating agents proved to be important for achieving good stability of metallic NPs in electrolyte-rich fluids. Most importantly, the presence of proteins provided colloidal stabilization to metallic NPs in biological fluids regardless of their chemical composition, surface structure and surface charge. In addition, an assessment of AgNP and SPION behavior in real biological fluids, rat whole blood (WhBl) and blood plasma (BlPl), revealed that the composition of a biological medium is crucial for the colloidal stability and type of metallic NP transformation. Our results highlight the importance of physicochemical characterization and stability evaluation of metallic NPs in a variety of biological systems including as many NP properties as possible. PMID:26977382

  8. Surface coating affects behavior of metallic nanoparticles in a biological environment.

    PubMed

    Jurašin, Darija Domazet; Ćurlin, Marija; Capjak, Ivona; Crnković, Tea; Lovrić, Marija; Babič, Michal; Horák, Daniel; Vinković Vrček, Ivana; Gajović, Srećko

    2016-01-01

    Silver (AgNPs) and maghemite, i.e., superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) are promising candidates for new medical applications, which implies the need for strict information regarding their physicochemical characteristics and behavior in a biological environment. The currently developed AgNPs and SPIONs encompass a myriad of sizes and surface coatings, which affect NPs properties and may improve their biocompatibility. This study is aimed to evaluate the effects of surface coating on colloidal stability and behavior of AgNPs and SPIONs in modelled biological environments using dynamic and electrophoretic light scattering techniques, as well as transmission electron microscopy to visualize the behavior of the NP. Three dispersion media were investigated: ultrapure water (UW), biological cell culture medium without addition of protein (BM), and BM supplemented with common serum protein (BMP). The obtained results showed that different coating agents on AgNPs and SPIONs produced different stabilities in the same biological media. The combination of negative charge and high adsorption strength of coating agents proved to be important for achieving good stability of metallic NPs in electrolyte-rich fluids. Most importantly, the presence of proteins provided colloidal stabilization to metallic NPs in biological fluids regardless of their chemical composition, surface structure and surface charge. In addition, an assessment of AgNP and SPION behavior in real biological fluids, rat whole blood (WhBl) and blood plasma (BlPl), revealed that the composition of a biological medium is crucial for the colloidal stability and type of metallic NP transformation. Our results highlight the importance of physicochemical characterization and stability evaluation of metallic NPs in a variety of biological systems including as many NP properties as possible. PMID:26977382

  9. Growth and social behavior in a cichlid fish are affected by social rearing environment and kinship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hesse, Saskia; Thünken, Timo

    2014-04-01

    Living in groups is a widespread phenomenon in many animal taxa. The reduction of predation risk is thought to be an important cause for the formation of groups. Consequently, grouping behavior is particularly pronounced during vulnerable life stages, i.e., as juveniles. However, group living does not only provide benefits but also imposes costs on group members, e.g., increased competition for food. Thus, benefits of grouping behavior might not be evident when predation risk is absent. The adaptive significance of living and also developing in a group independent from predation risk has received relatively little attention although this might have important implications on the evolution and maintenance of group living. The first aim of the present study was to examine whether the social environment affects juvenile performance in the cichlid fish Pelvicachromis taeniatus and, secondly, whether kinship affects social behavior. Kin selection theory predicts benefits from grouping with kin. Here, we demonstrate that juveniles reared in a group grow on average faster compared to juveniles reared in isolation under standardized laboratory conditions without predation risk. Furthermore, we found significant differences in social behavior between juveniles reared in a group and reared in isolation. Fish reared in isolation were significantly more aggressive and less willing to shoal than group-reared fish. As expected, genetic relatedness influenced social behavior in group-reared fish as well: dyads of juveniles consisting of kin showed increased group cohesiveness compared to non-kin dyads. We discuss the potential benefits of group living in general and living with kin in particular.

  10. Factors Affecting the Hydrogen Environment Assisted Cracking Resistance of an Al-Zn-Mg-(Cu) Alloy

    SciTech Connect

    G.A. Young; J.R. Scully

    2001-09-12

    It is well established that Al-Zn-Mg-(Cu) aluminum alloys are susceptible to hydrogen environment assisted cracking (HEAC) when exposed to aqueous environments. In Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys, overaged tempers are commonly used to increase HEAC resistance at the expense of strength. Overaging has little benefit in low copper alloys. However, the mechanism or mechanisms by which overaging imparts HEAC resistance is poorly understood. The present research investigated hydrogen uptake, diffusion, and crack growth rate in 90% relative humidity (RH) air for both a commercial copper bearing Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy (AA 7050) and a low copper variant of this alloy in order to better understand the factors which affect HEAC resistance. Experimental methods used to evaluate hydrogen concentrations local to a surface and near a crack tip include nuclear reaction analysis (NRA), focused ion beam, secondary ion mass spectroscopy (FIB/SIMS) and thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS). When freshly bared coupons of AA 7050 are exposed to 90 C, 90% RH air, hydrogen ingress follows inverse-logarithmic-type kinetics and is equivalent for underaged (HEAC susceptible) and overaged (HEAC resistant) tempers. However, when the native oxide is allowed to form (24 hrs in 25 C, 40% RH lab air) prior to exposure to 90 C, 90% RH air, underaged alloy shows significantly greater hydrogen ingress than the overaged alloy. Humid air is a very aggressive environment producing local ({approx}1{micro}m) hydrogen concentrations in excess of 10,000 wt. ppm at 90 C. In the copper bearing alloy, overaging also effects the apparent diffusivity of hydrogen. As AA 7050 is aged from underaged {yields} peak aged {yields} overaged, the activation energy for hydrogen diffusion increases and the apparent diffusivity for hydrogen decreases, In the low copper alloy, overaging has little effect on hydrogen diffusion. Comparison of the apparent activation energies for hydrogen diffusion and for K independent (stage II) crack growth

  11. Aging and the environment affect gamete and embryo potential: can we intervene?

    PubMed

    Meldrum, David R; Casper, Robert F; Diez-Juan, Antonio; Simon, Carlos; Domar, Alice D; Frydman, Rene

    2016-03-01

    Optimal maturation of the oocyte depends on its environment and determines embryo competence, because the embryonic genome is not active until the cleavage stage and new mitochondria are not produced until blastulation. Adverse environmental factors include aging, andropause, oxidative stress, obesity, smoking, alcohol, and psychologic stress, whereas androgen supplementation, a prudent diet, exercise, nutritional supplements, and psychologic interventions have beneficial effects. Mitochondrial function and energy production deteriorate with age, adversely affecting ovarian reserve, chromosome segregation, and embryo competence. In aging mice, the mitochondrial cofactor coenzyme Q10 reverses most of these changes. Early human experience has been encouraging, although only a small study using a shorter duration of intervention compared with the murine model has been carried out. Mitochondrial metabolic stress can result in an abnormal compensatory increase in mitochondrial DNA, which can be assessed in biopsied blastomeres of trophectoderm as a predictive biomarker of implantation failure. Psychologic stress may reduce oocyte competence by shifting blood flow away from the ovary as part of the classic "fight or flight" physiologic response, and methods to reduce stress or the body's reaction to stress improve pregnancy success. Enhancing oocyte competence is a key intervention that promises to reduce the number of euploid embryos failing to produce viable deliveries. PMID:26812244

  12. The social environment affects mate guarding behavior in Japanese beetles, Popillia japonica

    PubMed Central

    Saeki, Yoriko; Kruse, Kipp C.; Switzer, Paul V.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of the social environment on post-copulatory mate guarding duration in Japanese beetles, (Popillia japonica Newman), was examined in a laboratory experiment. The mate guarding durations of beetles in different sex ratios and densities were observed for 10 hours. Guarding duration was longer when females were larger, suggesting the presence of ‘cryptic’ male mate choice. Densities, but not sex ratio, affected the duration of guarding bouts, with males guarding for longer at higher densities. This result implies that males increase their guarding duration under conditions in which their female may be likely to be encountered by other males. The lack of a sex ratio effect on the duration of guarding bouts is consistent with other studies on this species that indicate males have difficulty distinguishing females from males. Consequently, because the sex ratio on food plants is typically male-biased, a paired male may react just to density, treating surrounding individuals as if they were mostly males. The total amount of time males spent guarding was lower at lower densities and at male-biased sex ratios; this suggests that after ceasing to guard one female, males were less able to find a subsequent mate under these conditions. PMID:16341250

  13. No Effect of Ambient Odor on the Affective Appraisal of a Desktop Virtual Environment with Signs of Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Toet, Alexander; van Schaik, Martin; Theunissen, Nicolet C. M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Desktop virtual environments (VEs) are increasingly deployed to study the effects of environmental qualities and interventions on human behavior and safety related concerns in built environments. For these applications it is essential that users appraise the affective qualities of the VE similar to those of its real world counterpart. Previous studies have shown that factors like simulated lighting, sound and dynamic elements all contribute to the affective appraisal of a desktop VE. Since ambient odor is known to affect the affective appraisal of real environments, and has been shown to increase the sense of presence in immersive VEs, it may also be an effective tool to tune the affective appraisal of desktop VEs. This study investigated if exposure to ambient odor can modulate the affective appraisal of a desktop VE with signs of public disorder. Method Participants explored a desktop VE representing a suburban neighborhood with signs of public disorder (neglect, vandalism and crime), while being exposed to either room air or subliminal levels of unpleasant (tar) or pleasant (cut grass) ambient odor. Whenever they encountered signs of disorder they reported their safety related concerns and associated affective feelings. Results Signs of crime in the desktop VE were associated with negative affective feelings and concerns for personal safety and personal property. However, there was no significant difference between reported safety related concerns and affective connotations in the control (no-odor) and in each of the two ambient odor conditions. Conclusion Ambient odor did not affect safety related concerns and affective connotations associated with signs of disorder in the desktop VE. Thus, semantic congruency between ambient odor and a desktop VE may not be sufficient to influence its affective appraisal, and a more realistic simulation in which simulated objects appear to emit scents may be required to achieve this goal. PMID:24250810

  14. Epilepsy due to PNPO mutations: genotype, environment and treatment affect presentation and outcome

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Philippa B.; Camuzeaux, Stephane S.M.; Footitt, Emma J.; Mills, Kevin A.; Gissen, Paul; Fisher, Laura; Das, Krishna B.; Varadkar, Sophia M.; Zuberi, Sameer; McWilliam, Robert; Stödberg, Tommy; Plecko, Barbara; Baumgartner, Matthias R.; Maier, Oliver; Calvert, Sophie; Riney, Kate; Wolf, Nicole I.; Livingston, John H.; Bala, Pronab; Morel, Chantal F.; Feillet, François; Raimondi, Francesco; Del Giudice, Ennio; Chong, W. Kling; Pitt, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    The first described patients with pyridox(am)ine 5’-phosphate oxidase deficiency all had neonatal onset seizures that did not respond to treatment with pyridoxine but responded to treatment with pyridoxal 5’-phosphate. Our data suggest, however, that the clinical spectrum of pyridox(am)ine 5’-phosphate oxidase deficiency is much broader than has been reported in the literature. Sequencing of the PNPO gene was undertaken for a cohort of 82 individuals who had shown a reduction in frequency and severity of seizures in response to pyridoxine or pyridoxal 5’-phosphate. Novel sequence changes were studied using a new cell-free expression system and a mass spectrometry-based assay for pyridoxamine phosphate oxidase. Three groups of patients with PNPO mutations that had reduced enzyme activity were identified: (i) patients with neonatal onset seizures responding to pyridoxal 5’-phosphate (n = 6); (ii) a patient with infantile spasms (onset 5 months) responsive to pyridoxal 5’-phosphate (n = 1); and (iii) patients with seizures starting under 3 months of age responding to pyridoxine (n = 8). Data suggest that certain genotypes (R225H/C and D33V) are more likely to result in seizures that to respond to treatment with pyridoxine. Other mutations seem to be associated with infertility, miscarriage and prematurity. However, the situation is clearly complex with the same combination of mutations being seen in patients who responded and did not respond to pyridoxine. It is possible that pyridoxine responsiveness in PNPO deficiency is affected by prematurity and age at the time of the therapeutic trial. Other additional factors that are likely to influence treatment response and outcome include riboflavin status and how well the foetus has been supplied with vitamin B6 by the mother. For some patients there was a worsening of symptoms on changing from pyridoxine to pyridoxal 5’-phosphate. Many of the mutations in PNPO affected residues involved in binding flavin

  15. Epilepsy due to PNPO mutations: genotype, environment and treatment affect presentation and outcome.

    PubMed

    Mills, Philippa B; Camuzeaux, Stephane S M; Footitt, Emma J; Mills, Kevin A; Gissen, Paul; Fisher, Laura; Das, Krishna B; Varadkar, Sophia M; Zuberi, Sameer; McWilliam, Robert; Stödberg, Tommy; Plecko, Barbara; Baumgartner, Matthias R; Maier, Oliver; Calvert, Sophie; Riney, Kate; Wolf, Nicole I; Livingston, John H; Bala, Pronab; Morel, Chantal F; Feillet, François; Raimondi, Francesco; Del Giudice, Ennio; Chong, W Kling; Pitt, Matthew; Clayton, Peter T

    2014-05-01

    The first described patients with pyridox(am)ine 5'-phosphate oxidase deficiency all had neonatal onset seizures that did not respond to treatment with pyridoxine but responded to treatment with pyridoxal 5'-phosphate. Our data suggest, however, that the clinical spectrum of pyridox(am)ine 5'-phosphate oxidase deficiency is much broader than has been reported in the literature. Sequencing of the PNPO gene was undertaken for a cohort of 82 individuals who had shown a reduction in frequency and severity of seizures in response to pyridoxine or pyridoxal 5'-phosphate. Novel sequence changes were studied using a new cell-free expression system and a mass spectrometry-based assay for pyridoxamine phosphate oxidase. Three groups of patients with PNPO mutations that had reduced enzyme activity were identified: (i) patients with neonatal onset seizures responding to pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (n = 6); (ii) a patient with infantile spasms (onset 5 months) responsive to pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (n = 1); and (iii) patients with seizures starting under 3 months of age responding to pyridoxine (n = 8). Data suggest that certain genotypes (R225H/C and D33V) are more likely to result in seizures that to respond to treatment with pyridoxine. Other mutations seem to be associated with infertility, miscarriage and prematurity. However, the situation is clearly complex with the same combination of mutations being seen in patients who responded and did not respond to pyridoxine. It is possible that pyridoxine responsiveness in PNPO deficiency is affected by prematurity and age at the time of the therapeutic trial. Other additional factors that are likely to influence treatment response and outcome include riboflavin status and how well the foetus has been supplied with vitamin B6 by the mother. For some patients there was a worsening of symptoms on changing from pyridoxine to pyridoxal 5'-phosphate. Many of the mutations in PNPO affected residues involved in binding flavin mononucleotide or

  16. Environment temperature affects cell proliferation in the spinal cord and brain of juvenile turtles.

    PubMed

    Radmilovich, Milka; Fernández, Anabel; Trujillo-Cenóz, Omar

    2003-09-01

    The spinal cords and brains--comprising dorsal cortex (DC), medial cortex (MC) and diencephalon (Dien)--of juvenile turtles acclimated to warm temperature [27-30 degrees C; warm-acclimated turtles (WATs)] revealed higher density values of bromodeoxyuridine-labeled cells (BrdU-LCs) than those acclimated to a cooler environment [5-14 degrees C; cold-acclimated turtles (CATs)]. Both populations were under the influence of the seasonal daily light-dark rhythms. Pronounced differences between WATs and CATs (independent t-test; confidence level, P<0.01) were found in the central area of the spinal gray matter and in the ependymal epithelium lining the brain ventricles. Forebrain regions (DC, MC and Dien) also revealed significant differences between WATs and CATs (independent t-test; confidence level, P<0.01-0.05). Unexplored biological clocks that may be affecting cell proliferation were equalized by performing paired experiments involving one WAT and one CAT. Both animals were injected on the same day at the same time and both were sacrificed 24 h later. These experiments confirmed that a warm environment increased cell proliferation in the CNS of turtles. Double- and triple-labeling experiments involving anti-BrdU antibody together with anti-glial protein antibodies revealed that temperature modulates not only cell populations expressing glial markers but also other cells that do not express them. As expected, in the case of short post-injection (BrdU) surviving time points, no cells were found colabeling for BrdU and NeuN (neuronal marker). The probable direct effect of temperature on the cell division rate should be analyzed together with potential indirect effects involving increased motor activity and increased food intake. The fate of the increased BrdU-LCs (death, permanence as progenitor cells or differentiation following neuronal or glial lines) remains a matter for further investigation. Results are discussed in the light of current opinions concerned with

  17. Describing Cognitive Structure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Richard T.

    This paper discusses questions pertinent to a definition of cognitive structure as the knowledge one possesses and the manner in which it is arranged, and considers how to select or devise methods of describing cognitive structure. The main purpose in describing cognitive structure is to see whether differences in memory (or cognitive structure)…

  18. Storminess and geo-hydrological events affecting small coastal basins in a terraced Mediterranean environment.

    PubMed

    Cevasco, Andrea; Diodato, Nazzareno; Revellino, Paola; Fiorillo, Francesco; Grelle, Gerardo; Guadagno, Francesco M

    2015-11-01

    This study was prompted by the occurrence of an extreme Damaging geo-Hydrological Event (DHE) which occurred on October 25th 2011 and which affected a wide area of the northern Mediterranean region. After analysing the storm by means of the precipitation time series, the study attempts to relate the October 25th 2011 DHE with a series of other DHEs that occurred in the period 1954-2012, assessed via the use of historical data and classified according to severity, with a Storm Erosivity Indicator (Ra). The annual mean of the Ra value (2582 MJ mm ha(-1) h(-1) y(-1)) confirmed that the study area is one of the European regions with the highest rainfall erosivity level. A shift in storminess during 1991-2012 with respect to 1954-1990 was observed. A return period of 1000 years was calculated for the single storm erosivity of October 25th, which contributed to 84% of the total annual storm erosivity of 2011 A quite good agreement was found comparing DHE distribution and severity with Ra anomalies over time. As a matter of fact, most of the low severity DHEs (62.5%) occurred in years in which the Ra was below the average value. Moreover, almost all DHEs (93%) ranging from medium- to very high-severity occurred in years for which the Ra exceeded the average value. With regard to the occurrence of the most severe DHE classes, a threshold of the Ra and a recurrence time of approximately 3300 MJ mm ha(-1) h(-1) y(-1) and 12 years, respectively, were identified. Finally, some evidences suggest that an increasing frequency of DHEs is expected in the forthcoming years. It is argued that understanding these issues is a major priority for future research in order to improve land and urban planning strategies for preserving people and the environment, leading ultimately to an effective risk reduction. PMID:26071962

  19. Chinese herbal medicine for miscarriage affects decidual micro-environment and fetal growth

    PubMed Central

    Piao, L.; Chen, C.-P.; Yeh, C.-C.; Basar, M.; Masch, R.; Cheng, Y.-C.; Lockwood, C. J.; Schatz, F.; Huang, S. J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Intrauterine growth restriction complicates 5 - 10% of pregnancies. This study aims to test the hypothesis that Chinese herbal formula, JLFC01, affects pregnancy and fetal development by modulating the pro-inflammatory decidual micro-environment. Methods Human decidua from gestational age-matched elective terminations or incomplete/missed abortion was immunostained using anti-CD68 + anti-CD86 or anti-CD163 antibodies. qRT-PCR and Luminex assay measured the effects of JLFC01 on IL-1β- or TNF-α-induced cytokine expression in first trimester decidual cells and on an established spontaneous abortion/intrauterine growth restriction (SA/IUGR)-prone mouse placentae. The effect of JLFC01 on human endometrial endothelial cell angiogenesis was evaluated by average area, length and numbers of branching points of tube formation. Food intake, litter size, fetal weight, placental weight and resorption rate were recorded in SA/IUGR-prone mouse treated with JLFC01. qRT-PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemistry assessed the expression of mouse placental IGF-I and IGF-IR. Results In spontaneous abortion, numbers of decidual macrophages expressing CD86 and CD163 are increased and decreased, respectively. JLFC01 reduces IL-1β- or TNF-α-induced GM-CSF, M-CSF, C-C motif ligand 2 (CCL2), interferon-γ-inducible protein-10 (IP-10), CCL5 and IL-8 production in first trimester decidual cells. JLFC01 suppresses the activity of IL-1β- or TNF-α-treated first trimester decidual cells in enhancing macrophage-inhibited angiogenesis. In SA/IUGR-prone mice, JLFC01 increases maternal food intake, litter size, fetal and placental weight, and reduces fetal resorption rate. JLFC01 induces IGF-I and IGF-IR expression and inhibits M-CSF, CCL2, CCL5, CCL11, CCL3 and G-CSF expression in the placentae. Discussion JLFC01 improves gestation by inhibiting decidual inflammation, enhancing angiogenesis and promoting fetal growth. PMID:25771406

  20. FATE OF FENTHION IN SALT-MARSH ENVIRONMENTS: 1. FACTORS AFFECTING BIOTIC AND ABIOTIC DEGRADATION RATES IN WATER AND SEDIMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fenthion (Baytex), an organophosphate insecticide, is frequently applied to salt-marsh environments to control mosquitoes. hake-flask tests were used to study rates of abiotic and biotic degradation of fenthion and the environmental parameters that affect these rates. Water or wa...

  1. Elementary Students' Affective Variables in a Networked Learning Environment Supported by a Blog: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allaire, Stéphane; Thériault, Pascale; Gagnon, Vincent; Lalancette, Evelyne

    2013-01-01

    This study documents to what extent writing on a blog in a networked learning environment could influence the affective variables of elementary-school students' writing. The framework is grounded more specifically in theory of self-determination (Deci & Ryan, 1985), relationship to writing (Chartrand & Prince, 2009) and the…

  2. Avoidance of Affect Mediates the Effect of Invalidating Childhood Environments on Borderline Personality Symptomatology in a Non-Clinical Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturrock, Bonnie A.; Francis, Andrew; Carr, Steven

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the Linehan (1993) proposal regarding associations between invalidating childhood environments, distress tolerance (e.g., avoidance of affect), and borderline personality disorder (BPD) symptoms. The sample consisted of 141 non-clinical participants (51 men, 89 women, one gender unknown), ranging in age from 18 to…

  3. Describe Your Favorite Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dill, Isaac; Dill, Vicky

    1993-01-01

    A third grader describes Ms. Gonzalez, his favorite teacher, who left to accept a more lucrative teaching assignment. Ms. Gonzalez' butterflies unit covered everything from songs about social butterflies to paintings of butterfly wings, anatomy studies, and student haiku poems and biographies. Students studied biology by growing popcorn plants…

  4. The Mediating Role of Affective Commitment in the Relation of the Feedback Environment to Work Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris-Watts, Christina; Levy, Paul E.

    2004-01-01

    The Feedback Environment, as opposed to the formal performance appraisal process, is comprised of the daily interactions between members of an organization (Steelman, Levy, & Snell, in press). Relations between the feedback environment and work outcome variables such as Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) were examined through the mediating…

  5. Societal Trends Affecting the Environment of Early Childhood Education. Follow Through Planning Project. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katzman, Martin T.; Vandell, Deborah

    This monograph documents the magnitude and likely prognosis of demographic changes in the 1970's and suggests the impact of these trends on the problems of early childhood education. The implications of this changing environment for designing a new Follow Through program are also examined. With respect to the changing demographic environment,…

  6. Affective Dimensions of Participatory Design Research in Informal Learning Environments: Placemaking, Belonging, and Correspondence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehret, Christian; Hollett, Ty

    2016-01-01

    This article argues that current approaches to participatory design research (PDR) risk eliding the affective life of making educational change by locating change in cultural mediation alone. Locating change only in mediation subordinates affect, potentially overlooking lived dimensions of learning and being essential to lasting, transformative…

  7. Sunlight affects aggregation and deposition of graphene oxide in the aquatic environment.

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this study, we investigate the role of simulated sunlight on the physicochemical properties, aggregation, and deposition of graphene oxide (GO) in aquatic environments. Results show that light exposure under varied environmental conditions significantly impacts the physicochem...

  8. New described dermatological disorders.

    PubMed

    Gönül, Müzeyyen; Cevirgen Cemil, Bengu; Keseroglu, Havva Ozge; Kaya Akis, Havva

    2014-01-01

    Many advances in dermatology have been made in recent years. In the present review article, newly described disorders from the last six years are presented in detail. We divided these reports into different sections, including syndromes, autoinflammatory diseases, tumors, and unclassified disease. Syndromes included are "circumferential skin creases Kunze type" and "unusual type of pachyonychia congenita or a new syndrome"; autoinflammatory diseases include "chronic atypical neutrophilic dermatosis with lipodystrophy and elevated temperature (CANDLE) syndrome," "pyoderma gangrenosum, acne, and hidradenitis suppurativa (PASH) syndrome," and "pyogenic arthritis, pyoderma gangrenosum, acne, and hidradenitis suppurativa (PAPASH) syndrome"; tumors include "acquired reactive digital fibroma," "onychocytic matricoma and onychocytic carcinoma," "infundibulocystic nail bed squamous cell carcinoma," and "acral histiocytic nodules"; unclassified disorders include "saurian papulosis," "symmetrical acrokeratoderma," "confetti-like macular atrophy," and "skin spicules," "erythema papulosa semicircularis recidivans." PMID:25243162

  9. Developing Instruments to Capture Young People's Perceptions of How School as a Learning Environment Affects Their Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awartani, Marwan; Whitman, Cheryl Vince; Gordon, Jean

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the Universal Education Foundation's (UEF) activities to create research tools and methodologies that capture the voices of children concerning their perceptions of the effect of the school learning environment on their well-being. UEF defines well-being as the realisation of one's physical, emotional, mental, social and…

  10. Strategies to Affect Student Sensory Awareness of the Environment in a Rural Schools Setting: Grade Seven through Grade Twelve.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Richard O.

    Describing the Union 58 Experimental Schools Program (ESP) in northern, rural New Hampshire, this curriculum guide presents the concept of "proximity congruency" as a means for developing secondary level student sensory awareness of the environment in outdoor and/or environmental education procedures. Proximity congruency is defined as a state of…

  11. Strategies to Affect Student Sensory Awareness of the Environment in a Rural Schools Setting: Grade Four through Grade Six.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Richard O.

    Describing the Union 58 Experimental Schools Program (ESP) in northern, rural New Hampshire, this curriculum guide presents the concept of "proximity congruency" as a means for developing elementary level (grades four through six) student sensory awareness of the environment in outdoor and/or environmental education procedures. Proximity…

  12. New Described Dermatological Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Cevirgen Cemil, Bengu; Keseroglu, Havva Ozge; Kaya Akis, Havva

    2014-01-01

    Many advances in dermatology have been made in recent years. In the present review article, newly described disorders from the last six years are presented in detail. We divided these reports into different sections, including syndromes, autoinflammatory diseases, tumors, and unclassified disease. Syndromes included are “circumferential skin creases Kunze type” and “unusual type of pachyonychia congenita or a new syndrome”; autoinflammatory diseases include “chronic atypical neutrophilic dermatosis with lipodystrophy and elevated temperature (CANDLE) syndrome,” “pyoderma gangrenosum, acne, and hidradenitis suppurativa (PASH) syndrome,” and “pyogenic arthritis, pyoderma gangrenosum, acne, and hidradenitis suppurativa (PAPASH) syndrome”; tumors include “acquired reactive digital fibroma,” “onychocytic matricoma and onychocytic carcinoma,” “infundibulocystic nail bed squamous cell carcinoma,” and “acral histiocytic nodules”; unclassified disorders include “saurian papulosis,” “symmetrical acrokeratoderma,” “confetti-like macular atrophy,” and “skin spicules,” “erythema papulosa semicircularis recidivans.” PMID:25243162

  13. Does solar radiation affect the growth of tomato seeds relative to their environment?

    SciTech Connect

    Holzer, K.

    1995-09-01

    The purpose of this experiment is to sequentially study and analyze the data collected from the germination and growth of irradiated Rutgers Supreme tomato seeds to adult producing plants. This experiment will not use irradiated seeds as a control as the authors plans to note growth in artificial verses natural environment as the basic experiment.

  14. Does solar radiation affect the growth of tomato seeds relative to their environment?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holzer, Kristi

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment is to sequentially study and analyze the data collected from the germination and growth of irradiated Rutgers Supreme tomato seeds to adult producing plants. This experiment will not use irradiated seeds as a control as I plan to note growth in artificial verses natural environment as the basic experiment.

  15. FACTORS AFFECTING COLORED DISSOLVED ORGANIC MATTER IN AQUATIC ENVIRONMENTS OF THE SOUTHEASTERN UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The sunlight-absorbing (colored) component of dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in aquatic environments is widely distributed in freshwaters and coastal regions where it influences the fate and transport of toxic organic substances and biologically-important metals such as mercury,...

  16. Time flies: time of day and social environment affect cuticular hydrocarbon sexual displays in Drosophila serrata

    PubMed Central

    Gershman, Susan N.; Toumishey, Ethan; Rundle, Howard D.

    2014-01-01

    Recent work on Drosophila cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) challenges a historical assumption that CHCs in flies are largely invariant. Here, we examine the effect of time of day and social environment on a suite of sexually selected CHCs in Drosophila serrata. We demonstrate that males become more attractive to females during the time of day that flies are most active and when most matings occur, but females become less attractive to males during the same time of day. These opposing temporal changes may reflect differences in selection among the sexes. To evaluate the effect of social environment on male CHC attractiveness, we manipulated male opportunity for mating: male flies were housed either alone, with five females, with five males or with five males and five females. We found that males had the most attractive CHCs when with females, and less attractive CHCs when with competitor males. Social environment mediated how male CHC attractiveness cycled: males housed with females and/or other males showed temporal changes in CHC attractiveness, whereas males housed alone did not. In total, our results demonstrate temporal patterning of male CHCs that is dependent on social environment, and suggest that such changes may be beneficial to males. PMID:25143030

  17. Does the restoration of an inner-city stream in Seoul affect local thermal environment?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y.-H.; Ryoo, S.-B.; Baik, J.-J.; Park, I.-S.; Koo, H.-J.; Nam, J.-C.

    2008-05-01

    Changes in local thermal environment associated with the restoration of an inner-city stream in Seoul, Korea, are investigated using observational data. The stream, called the Cheonggye stream, which had been hidden and covered with cement/asphalt for 46 years, runs 5.8 km eastward through a central region of Seoul. Intensive observations were made in the stream area for a number of summertime periods before, during, and after the stream restoration to detect the effects of the stream on local environment and to quantify them. It is estimated that after the stream restoration the near-surface temperature averaged over the stream area dropped by 0.4 °C, with the largest local temperature drop being 0.9 °C. However, it cannot be stated that this 0.4 °C temperature drop is due entirely to the stream effect only, because synoptic-scale and local-scale weather conditions during the two periods were inevitably not identical. The stream effect on air temperature is also evident in the temperature distribution along a street traversing the stream. In the daytime after the stream restoration, the sensible heat flux was greatly reduced and the ratio of sensible heat flux to net radiative flux dramatically decreased. These first-time results of the restored-stream effects on urban thermal environment could contribute to the scientific basis of urban planning which aims to make a large city comfortable to live in and nature- and environment-friendly.

  18. Time flies: Time of day and social environment affect cuticular hydrocarbon sexual displays in Drosophila serrata.

    PubMed

    Gershman, Susan N; Toumishey, Ethan; Rundle, Howard D

    2014-10-01

    Recent work on Drosophila cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) challenges a historical assumption that CHCs in flies are largely invariant. Here, we examine the effect of time of day and social environment on a suite of sexually selected CHCs in Drosophila serrata. We demonstrate that males become more attractive to females during the time of day that flies are most active and when most matings occur, but females become less attractive to males during the same time of day. These opposing temporal changes may reflect differences in selection among the sexes. To evaluate the effect of social environment on male CHC attractiveness, we manipulated male opportunity for mating: male flies were housed either alone, with five females, with five males or with five males and five females. We found that males had the most attractive CHCs when with females, and less attractive CHCs when with competitor males. Social environment mediated how male CHC attractiveness cycled: males housed with females and/or other males showed temporal changes in CHC attractiveness, whereas males housed alone did not. In total, our results demonstrate temporal patterning of male CHCs that is dependent on social environment, and suggest that such changes may be beneficial to males. PMID:25143030

  19. Low-radiation environment affects the development of protection mechanisms in V79 cells.

    PubMed

    Fratini, E; Carbone, C; Capece, D; Esposito, G; Simone, G; Tabocchini, M A; Tomasi, M; Belli, M; Satta, L

    2015-05-01

    Very little is known about the influence of environmental radiation on living matter. In principle, important information can be acquired by analysing possible differences between parallel biological systems, one in a reference-radiation environment (RRE) and the other in a low-radiation environment (LRE). We took advantage of the unique opportunity represented by the cell culture facilities at the Gran Sasso National Laboratories of the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, where environment dose rate reduction factors in the underground (LRE), with respect to the external laboratory (RRE), are as follows: 10(3) for neutrons, 10(7) for directly ionizing cosmic rays and 10 for total γ-rays. Chinese hamster V79 cells were cultured for 10 months in both RRE and LRE. At the end of this period, all the cultures were kept in RRE for another 6 months. Changes in the activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT; glutathione peroxidase, GPX) and spontaneous mutation frequency at the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (hprt) locus were investigated. The results obtained suggest that environmental radiation might act as a trigger of defence mechanisms in V79 cells, specifically those in reference conditions, showing a higher degree of defence against endogenous damage as compared to cells grown in a very low-radiation environment. Our findings corroborate the hypothesis that environmental radiation contributes to the development of defence mechanisms in today living organisms/systems. PMID:25636513

  20. How Gene-Environment Interaction Affects Children's Anxious and Fearful Behavior. Science Briefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, 2007

    2007-01-01

    "Science Briefs" summarize the findings and implications of a recent study in basic science or clinical research. This brief reports on the study "Evidence for a Gene-Environment Interaction in Predicting Behavioral Inhibition in Middle Childhood" (N. A. Fox, K E. Nichols, H. A. Henderson, K. Rubin, L. Schmidt, D. Hamer, M. Ernst, and D. S.…

  1. Work environment factors affecting quality work in Swedish oral and maxillofacial surgery.

    PubMed

    Pilgård, Göran; Söderfeldt, Björn; Hjalmers, Karin; Rosenquist, Jan

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how work environment influenced attitudes to and knowledge of quality among employees of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery (OMFS) clinics in Sweden. Data were collected with a questionnaire of 67 questions, related to quality management at the clinic, working situation, content of "good work", physical environment and health. 22 clinics with 297 employees responded, 65% of the clinics and 86% of the employees. A multiple regression analysis with the dependent variable "Attitude towards quality work" showed that only "work environment" (p = 0.010) revealed a significant association (p < 0.05). The personnel will have a more favourable attitude to quality work if they regard work environment to be important. Dental nurses and assistant nurses had more than four times more knowledge of the used quality management system than had the maxillo-facial surgeons. Women had nearly four times more knowledge of quality management than men. Clinic size was important, with better knowledge of quality management in bigger clinics. Soft demands were defined as demands for "flexibility, creativity, quality, service, engagement/commitment and ability to work together, and competence". Hard demands included economy as important, and emphasis on efficiency and productivity. There was a weak association with knowledge of quality management systems if soft demands increased, but negative if hard demands increased. In conclusion, mainly work environment was of significance for the attitude towards quality work among the employees of OMFS clinics in Sweden. Profession, gender, clinic size, and the hard demands were significantly associated with knowledge of the quality management system used. PMID:18973085

  2. The Role of Affective and Motivational Factors in Designing Personalized Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, ChanMin

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, guidelines for designing virtual change agents (VCAs) are proposed to support students' affective and motivational needs in order to promote personalized learning in online remedial mathematics courses. Automated, dynamic, and personalized support is emphasized in the guidelines through maximizing "interactions" between VCAs and…

  3. Weathering the Preschool Environment: Affect Moderates the Relations between Meteorology and Preschool Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lagace-Seguin, Daniel G.; d'Entremont, Marc-Robert L.

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the relations among various meteorological conditions, affective states and behavior in young children. Results from past research have revealed many weather effects on behavior and emotions with adult samples. However, there is a paucity of empirical evidence to support this link with children. Thirty-three…

  4. Affective Learning Outcomes in Workplace Training: A Test of Synchronous vs. Asynchronous Online Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleveland-Innes, Martha; Ally, Mohamed

    2004-01-01

    Research employing an experimental design pilot-tested two delivery platforms, WebCT™ and vClass™, for the generation of affective learning outcomes in the workplace. Using a sample of volunteer participants in the help-desk industry, participants were randomly assigned to one of the two types of delivery software. Thirty-eight subjects…

  5. Effects of Modality and Pace on Achievement, Mental Effort, and Positive Affect in Multimedia Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Izmirli, Serkan; Kurt, Adile Askim

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of instruction given with different multimedia modalities (written text + animation or narration + animation) on the academic achievement, cognitive load, and positive affect in different paces (learner-paced or system-paced); 97 freshmen university students divided into four groups taught in…

  6. The Fear Factor: How It Affects Students Learning to Program in a Tertiary Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogerson, Christine; Scott, Elsje

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines how students' experiences of learning to program are affected by feelings of fear, using a phenomenological approach to elicit rich descriptions of personal experiences from the narratives of final year undergraduate students. In the course of reviewing current work concerning learning or teaching programming, certain focal…

  7. Contribution of lone-pairs to birefringence affected by the Pb(II) coordination environment: a DFT investigation.

    PubMed

    Jing, Qun; Yang, Zhihua; Pan, Shilie; Xue, Dongfeng

    2015-09-14

    Pb(II) cations have long been associated with lone-pairs which can help to enhance the optical anisotropic birefringence. In this paper, the contribution of lead cations to birefringence has been investigated using first-principles and real-space atom-cutting methods. The results show that the contribution of lead cations to birefringence is determined by the degree of stereochemical activity, which is affected by the coordination environment of lead cations. PMID:26234398

  8. Parents and Early Life Environment Affect Behavioral Development of Laying Hen Chickens

    PubMed Central

    de Haas, Elske N.; Bolhuis, J. Elizabeth; Kemp, Bas; Groothuis, Ton G. G.; Rodenburg, T. Bas

    2014-01-01

    Severe feather pecking (SFP) in commercial laying hens is a maladaptive behavior which is associated with anxiety traits. Many experimental studies have shown that stress in the parents can affect anxiety in the offspring, but until now these effects have been neglected in addressing the problem of SFP in commercially kept laying hens. We therefore studied whether parental stock (PS) affected the development of SFP and anxiety in their offspring. We used flocks from a brown and white genetic hybrid because genetic background can affect SFP and anxiety. As SFP can also be influenced by housing conditions on the rearing farm, we included effects of housing system and litter availability in the analysis. Forty-seven rearing flocks, originating from ten PS flocks were followed. Behavioral and physiological parameters related to anxiety and SFP were studied in the PS at 40 weeks of age and in the rearing flocks at one, five, ten and fifteen weeks of age. We found that PS had an effect on SFP at one week of age and on anxiety at one and five weeks of age. In the white hybrid, but not in the brown hybrid, high levels of maternal corticosterone, maternal feather damage and maternal whole-blood serotonin levels showed positive relations with offsprings’ SFP at one week and offsprings’ anxiety at one and five weeks of age. Disruption and limitation of litter supply at an early age on the rearing farms increased SFP, feather damage and fearfulness. These effects were most prominent in the brown hybrid. It appeared that hens from a brown hybrid are more affected by environmental conditions, while hens from a white hybrid were more strongly affected by parental effects. These results are important for designing measures to prevent the development of SFP, which may require a different approach in brown and white flocks. PMID:24603500

  9. Changes in a middle school food environment affect food behavior and food choices.

    PubMed

    Wordell, Doug; Daratha, Kenn; Mandal, Bidisha; Bindler, Ruth; Butkus, Sue Nicholson

    2012-01-01

    Increasing rates of obesity among children ages 12 to 19 years have led to recommendations to alter the school food environment. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there are associations between an altered school food environment and food choices of middle school students both in and outside of school. In a midsized western city, two of six middle schools allowed only bottled water in vending machines, only milk and fruit on à la carte menus, and offered a seasonal fruit and vegetable bar. Three years after the intervention was initiated, seventh- and eighth-grade students attending the two intervention schools and four control middle schools were surveyed about their food choices. A total of 2,292 surveys were completed. Self-reported frequency of consumption for nine food groups in the survey was low; consumption was higher outside than in school. Boys consumed more milk than girls although girls consumed more fruits and vegetables. Significant socioeconomic differences existed. Compared with students who paid the full lunch fee, students qualifying for free and reduced-price meals consumed more milk and juice in schools but less outside school; more candy and energy drinks in school; and more sweet drinks, candy, pastries, and energy drinks outside school. Students in intervention schools were 24% more likely to consume milk outside school, 27% less likely to consume juice in school, and 56% less likely to consume sweet pastries in school. There were no differences in fruit and vegetable consumption reported by children in control and intervention schools. Overall, there was a positive association between a modified school food environment and student food behavior in and outside school. Policies related to the school food environment are an important strategy to address the obesity epidemic in our country. PMID:22709644

  10. Species sorting and patch dynamics in harlequin metacommunities affect the relative importance of environment and space.

    PubMed

    Leibold, Mathew A; Loeuille, Nicolas

    2015-12-01

    Metacommunity theory indicates that variation in local community structure can be partitioned into components including those related to local environmental conditions vs. spatial effects and that these can be quantified using statistical methods based on variation partitioning. It has been hypothesized that joint associations of community composition with environment and space could be due to patch dynamics involving colonization-extinction processes in environmentally heterogeneous landscapes but this has yet to be theoretically shown. We develop a two-patch, type-two, species competition model in such a "harlequin" landscape (where different patches have different environments) to evaluate how composition is related to environmental and spatial effects as a function of background extinction rate. Using spatially implicit analytical models, we find that the environmental association of community composition declines with extinction rate as expected. Using spatially explicit simulation models, we further find that there is an increase in the spatial structure with extinction due to spatial patterning into clusters that are not related to environmental conditions but that this increase is limited. Natural metacommunities often show both environment and spatial determination even under conditions of relatively high isolation and these could be more easily explained by our model than alternative metacommunity models. PMID:26909428

  11. Habitats as Complex Odour Environments: How Does Plant Diversity Affect Herbivore and Parasitoid Orientation?

    PubMed Central

    Wäschke, Nicole; Hardge, Kristin; Hancock, Christine; Hilker, Monika; Obermaier, Elisabeth; Meiners, Torsten

    2014-01-01

    Plant diversity is known to affect success of host location by pest insects, but its effect on olfactory orientation of non-pest insect species has hardly been addressed. First, we tested in laboratory experiments the hypothesis that non-host plants, which increase odour complexity in habitats, affect the host location ability of herbivores and parasitoids. Furthermore, we recorded field data of plant diversity in addition to herbivore and parasitoid abundance at 77 grassland sites in three different regions in Germany in order to elucidate whether our laboratory results reflect the field situation. As a model system we used the herb Plantago lanceolata, the herbivorous weevil Mecinus pascuorum, and its larval parasitoid Mesopolobus incultus. The laboratory bioassays revealed that both the herbivorous weevil and its larval parasitoid can locate their host plant and host via olfactory cues even in the presence of non-host odour. In a newly established two-circle olfactometer, the weeviĺs capability to detect host plant odour was not affected by odours from non-host plants. However, addition of non-host plant odours to host plant odour enhanced the weeviĺs foraging activity. The parasitoid was attracted by a combination of host plant and host volatiles in both the absence and presence of non-host plant volatiles in a Y-tube olfactometer. In dual choice tests the parasitoid preferred the blend of host plant and host volatiles over its combination with non-host plant volatiles. In the field, no indication was found that high plant diversity disturbs host (plant) location by the weevil and its parasitoid. In contrast, plant diversity was positively correlated with weevil abundance, whereas parasitoid abundance was independent of plant diversity. Therefore, we conclude that weevils and parasitoids showed the sensory capacity to successfully cope with complex vegetation odours when searching for hosts. PMID:24416354

  12. Characterization of high-yield performance as affected by genotype and environment in rice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Song; Zeng, Fang-rong; Pao, Zong-zhi; Zhang, Guo-ping

    2008-05-01

    We characterized yield-relevant characters and their variations over genotypes and environments (locations and years) by examining two rice varieties (9746 and Jinfeng) with high yield potential. 9746 and Jinfeng were planted in two locations of Shanghai, China, during 2005 and 2006. The results show that there was a large variation in grain yield between locations and years. The realization of high yield potential for the two types of rice was closely related to the improved sink size, such as more panicles per square meter or grains per panicle. Stem and leaf biomasses were mainly accumulated from tillering stage to heading stage, and showed slow decline during grain filling. Meanwhile, some photosynthetic characters including net photosynthesis rate (Pn), leaf area index (LAI), specific leaf area (SLA), fluorescence parameter (maximum quantum yield of PSII, Fv/Fm), chlorophyll content (expressed as SPAD value), as well as nutrient (N, P, K) uptake were also measured to determine their variations over genotypes and environments and their relationships with grain yield. Although there were significant differences between years or locations for most measurements, SLA at tillering and heading stages, Fv/Fm and LAI at heading stage, stem biomass at heading and maturity stages, and leaf nitrogen concentration at tillering and heading stages remained little changed, indicating their possible applications as selectable characters in breeding programs. It was also found that stem nitrogen accumulation at tillering stage is one of the most important and stable traits for high yield formation. PMID:18500775

  13. New index for the stability of a type I collagen affected by hydrophobic environment.

    PubMed

    Nezu, Takashi; Morikawa, Tomohiro; Sasaki, Kaori; Saitoh, Setsuo; Taira, Masayuki; Terada, Yoshihiro; Araki, Yoshima

    2007-05-01

    Effects of hydrophobic environment adjusted by various alcohols on the structural stability of calfskin collagen (CSC) were studied to elucidate the nature of collagen-monomer interaction in adhesion. The stability of CSC in aqueous alcohol solutions was represented by its denaturation temperature, Td, measured by DSC. The hydrophobicity of the alcohol solutions was quantified with their specific dielectric constants, epsilon(r), calculated from their concentrations. The effect of each alcohol to stabilize or destabilize CSC was evaluated by the initial slope of each Td vs. epsilon(r) plot, denoted as -(dTd/d epsilon(r))ini and termed as stabilization power. Results showed that a hydrophobic environment with a smaller epsilon(r) lowered the stabilization power. Stabilization power ranged from -3 (strong destabilization) for phenol (epsilon(r) =12) to +0.3 (weak stabilization) for glycerol (epsilon(r)=47). In view of the encouraging results obtained in this study, the new index was therefore helpful in predicting the effects of new dental materials of known epsilon(r) values on the stability of dentinal collagen. PMID:17694747

  14. Biotic interactions affect the colonization behavior of aquatic detritivorous macroinvertebrates in a heterogeneous environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verschut, Thomas A.; Meineri, Eric; Basset, Alberto

    2015-05-01

    It has previously been suggested that macroinvertebrates actively search for suitable patches to colonize. However, it is not well understood how the spatial arrangement of patches can affect colonization rates. In this study, we determined the importance of the environmental factors (distance, connectivity and resource availability) for patch colonization in an experimental system using Gammarus aequicauda (Amphipoda), Lekanesphaera hookeri (Isopoda) and Ecrobia ventrosa (Gastropoda). Furthermore, we also assessed how the relative importance of each of these environmental factors differed in interactions between the three species. The single species experiments showed that distance was the most important factor for G. aequicauda and E. ventrosa. However, while E. ventrosa preferred patches close to the release point, G. aequicauda strongly preferred patches further from the release point. High resource availability was a strong determinant for the patch colonization of G. aequicauda and L. hookeri. Connectivity was only of moderate importance in the study system for L. hookeri and E. ventrosa. The effects of the environmental factors were strongly affected by interspecific interactions in the multispecies experiments. For G. aequicauda, the distance preference was lowered in the presence of E. ventrosa. Moreover, while for L. hookeri the effect of resource availability was ruled out by the species interactions, resource availability gained importance for E. ventrosa in the presence of any of the other species. Our results suggest a strong link between environmental factors and biotic interactions in the colonization of habitat patches and indicate that the effect of biotic interactions is especially important for species sharing similar traits.

  15. The importance of evaluating the physicochemical and toxicological properties of a contaminant for remediating environments affected by chemical incidents.

    PubMed

    Wyke, S; Peña-Fernández, A; Brooke, N; Duarte-Davidson, R

    2014-11-01

    In the event of a major chemical incident or accident, appropriate tools and technical guidance need to be available to ensure that a robust approach can be adopted for developing a remediation strategy. Remediation and restoration strategies implemented in the aftermath of a chemical incident are a particular concern for public health. As a result an innovative methodology has been developed to help design an effective recovery strategy in the aftermath of a chemical incident that has been developed; the UK Recovery Handbook for Chemical Incidents (UKRHCI). The handbook consists of a six-step decision framework and the use of decision trees specifically designed for three different environments: food production systems, inhabited areas and water environments. It also provides a compendium of evidence-based recovery options (techniques or methods for remediation) that should be selected in relation to their efficacy for removing contaminants from the environment. Selection of effective recovery options in this decision framework involves evaluating the physicochemical and toxicological properties of the chemical(s) involved. Thus, the chemical handbook includes a series of tables with relevant physicochemical and toxicological properties that should be assessed in function of the environment affected. It is essential that the physicochemical properties of a chemical are evaluated and interpreted correctly during the development of a remedial plan in the aftermath of a chemical incident to ensure an effective remedial response. This paper presents a general overview of the key physicochemical and toxicological properties of chemicals that should be evaluated when developing a recovery strategy. Information on how physicochemical properties have impacted on previous remedial responses reported in the literature is also discussed and a number of challenges for remediation are highlighted to include the need to develop novel approaches to remediate sites contaminated

  16. Factors affecting crystallization, dispersion, and aggregation of calcium oxalate monohydrate in various urinary environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christmas, Kimberly Gail

    The mechanisms for the formation of kidney stones are not well understood. One possible mechanism is the formation of aggregates in the nephron tubules of the kidneys. However, altering the urinary environment may be a method to help prevent the recurrence of the formation of kidney stones. The primary inorganic constituent found in kidney stones of North American patients is calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM). In this research, studies on the effect of mixing rate on COM precipitation showed that rapid mixing compared to slow mixing produced smaller particle sizes and a narrower particle size distribution due to the more uniform supersaturation level. The findings are consistent with the general contention that mixing directly influences nucleation rate while mixing rate has relatively little influence over rate of growth in precipitation processes. Screening and central composite experimental designs are used to determine the effect of various factors on the aggregation and dispersion characteristics of previously grown calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals in artificial urinary environments of controlled variables. The variables examined are pH, calcium, oxalate, pyrophosphate, citrate, and protein concentrations in ultrapure water and artificial urine. Optical density measurements, zeta potential analysis, particle size analyzer, optical microscopy, AFM force measurements, protein adsorption, and ions and small molecule adsorption have been used to assess the state of aggregation and dispersion of the COM crystals and to elucidate the mechanisms involved in such a complex system. The data indicate that our model protein, mucin, acts as a dispersant. This is attributed to steric hindrance resulting from the adsorbed mucoprotein. Oxalate, however, promotes aggregation. Interesting interactions between protein and oxalate along with protein and citrate are observed. Such interactions (synergistic or antagonistic) are found to depend on the concentrations of

  17. The influential child: How children affect their environment and influence their own risk and resilience.

    PubMed

    Davidov, Maayan; Knafo-Noam, Ariel; Serbin, Lisa A; Moss, Ellen

    2015-11-01

    Views regarding children's influence on their environment and their own development have undergone considerable changes over the years. Following Bell's (1968) seminal paper, the notion of children's influence and the view of socialization as a bidirectional process have gradually gained wide acceptance. However, empirical research implementing this theoretical advancement has lagged behind. This Special Section compiles a collection of new empirical works addressing multiple forms of influential child processes, with special attention to their consequences for children's and others' positive functioning, risk and resilience. By addressing a wide variety of child influences, this Special Section seeks to advance integration of influential child processes into myriad future studies on development and psychopathology and to promote the translation of such work into preventive interventions. PMID:26439055

  18. Environment-related and host-related factors affecting the occurrence of lice on rodents in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Stanko, Michal; Fričová, Jana; Miklisová, Dana; Khokhlova, Irina S; Krasnov, Boris R

    2015-06-01

    We studied the effects of environment- (habitat, season) and host-related (sex, body mass) factors on the occurrence of four species of lice (Insecta:Phthiraptera:Anoplura) on six rodent species (Rodentia:Muridae). We asked how these factors influence the occurrence of lice on an individual host and whether different rodent-louse associations demonstrate consistent trends in these effects. We found significant effects of at least one environment-related and at least one host-related factor on the louse occurrence in five of six host-louse associations. The effect of habitat was significant in two associations with the occurrence of lice being more frequent in lowland than in mountain habitats. The effect of season was significant in five associations with a higher occurrence of infestation during the warm season in four associations and the cold season in one association. Host sex affected significantly the infestation by lice in three associations with a higher frequency of infestation in males. Host body mass affected the occurrence of lice in all five associations, being negative in wood mice and positive in voles. In conclusion, lice were influenced not only by the host- but also by environment-related factors. The effects of the latter could be mediated via life history parameters of a host. PMID:25651932

  19. Acid environments affect biofilm formation and gene expression in isolates of Salmonella enterica Typhimurium DT104.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, Denis; McCabe, Evonne M; McCusker, Matthew P; Martins, Marta; Fanning, Séamus; Duffy, Geraldine

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the survival and potential virulence of biofilm-forming Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 under mild acid conditions. Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 employs an acid tolerance response (ATR) allowing it to adapt to acidic environments. The threat that these acid adapted cells pose to food safety could be enhanced if they also produce biofilms in acidic conditions. The cells were acid-adapted by culturing them in 1% glucose and their ability to form biofilms on stainless steel and on the surface of Luria Bertani (LB) broth at pH7 and pH5 was examined. Plate counts were performed to examine cell survival. RNA was isolated from cells to examine changes in the expression of genes associated with virulence, invasion, biofilm formation and global gene regulation in response to acid stress. Of the 4 isolates that were examined only one (1481) that produced a rigid biofilm in LB broth at pH7 also formed this same structure at pH5. This indicated that the lactic acid severely impeded the biofilm producing capabilities of the other isolates examined under these conditions. Isolate 1481 also had higher expression of genes associated with virulence (hilA) and invasion (invA) with a 24.34-fold and 13.68-fold increase in relative gene expression respectively at pH5 compared to pH7. Although genes associated with biofilm formation had increased expression in response to acid stress for all the isolates this only resulted in the formation of a biofilm by isolate 1481. This suggests that in addition to the range of genes associated with biofilm production at neutral pH, there are genes whose protein products specifically aid in biofilm production in acidic environments. Furthermore, it highlights the potential for the use of lactic acid for the inhibition of Salmonella biofilms. PMID:25912312

  20. Gene–environment interplay in Drosophila melanogaster: Chronic food deprivation in early life affects adult exploratory and fitness traits

    PubMed Central

    Burns, James Geoffrey; Svetec, Nicolas; Rowe, Locke; Mery, Frederic; Dolan, Michael J.; Boyce, W. Thomas; Sokolowski, Marla B.

    2012-01-01

    Early life adversity has known impacts on adult health and behavior, yet little is known about the gene–environment interactions (GEIs) that underlie these consequences. We used the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster to show that chronic early nutritional adversity interacts with rover and sitter allelic variants of foraging (for) to affect adult exploratory behavior, a phenotype that is critical for foraging, and reproductive fitness. Chronic nutritional adversity during adulthood did not affect rover or sitter adult exploratory behavior; however, early nutritional adversity in the larval period increased sitter but not rover adult exploratory behavior. Increasing for gene expression in the mushroom bodies, an important center of integration in the fly brain, changed the amount of exploratory behavior exhibited by sitter adults when they did not experience early nutritional adversity but had no effect in sitters that experienced early nutritional adversity. Manipulation of the larval nutritional environment also affected adult reproductive output of sitters but not rovers, indicating GEIs on fitness itself. The natural for variants are an excellent model to examine how GEIs underlie the biological embedding of early experience. PMID:23045644

  1. Transgenerational sex determination: the embryonic environment experienced by a male affects offspring sex ratio

    PubMed Central

    Warner, Daniel A.; Uller, Tobias; Shine, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Conditions experienced during embryonic development can have lasting effects, even carrying across generations. Most evidence for transgenerational effects comes from studies of female mammals, with much less known about egg-laying organisms or paternally-mediated effects. Here we show that offspring sex can be affected by the incubation temperature its father experiences years earlier. We incubated eggs of an Australian lizard with temperature-dependent sex determination under three thermal regimes; some eggs were given an aromatase inhibitor to produce sons at temperatures that usually produce only daughters. Offspring were raised to maturity and freely interbred within field enclosures. After incubating eggs of the subsequent generation and assigning parentage, we found that the developmental temperature experienced by a male significantly influences the sex of his future progeny. This transgenerational effect on sex ratio may reflect an epigenetic influence on paternally-inherited DNA. Clearly, sex determination in reptiles is far more complex than is currently envisaged. PMID:24048344

  2. Factors affecting metacognition of undergraduate nursing students in a blended learning environment.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Li-Ling; Hsieh, Suh-Ing

    2014-06-01

    This paper is a report of a study to examine the influence of demographic, learning involvement and learning performance variables on metacognition of undergraduate nursing students in a blended learning environment. A cross-sectional, correlational survey design was adopted. Ninety-nine students invited to participate in the study were enrolled in a professional nursing ethics course at a public nursing college. The blended learning intervention is basically an assimilation of classroom learning and online learning. Simple linear regression showed significant associations between frequency of online dialogues, the Case Analysis Attitude Scale scores, the Case Analysis Self Evaluation Scale scores, the Blended Learning Satisfaction Scale scores, and Metacognition Scale scores. Multiple linear regression indicated that frequency of online dialogues, the Case Analysis Self Evaluation Scale and the Blended Learning Satisfaction Scale were significant independent predictors of metacognition. Overall, the model accounted for almost half of the variance in metacognition. The blended learning module developed in this study proved successful in the end as a catalyst for the exercising of metacognitive abilities by the sample of nursing students. Learners are able to develop metacognitive ability in comprehension, argumentation, reasoning and various forms of higher order thinking through the blended learning process. PMID:24888995

  3. Reassembling the "Environment": Science, Affect, and Multispecies Educative Practice at the Aquarium of the Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloro-Bidart, Teresa Katrina

    Drawing on 14 months of ethnographic fieldwork at the Aquarium of the Pacific and Michel Foucault's governmentality and biopolitics as an overarching theoretical frame, this dissertation engages in a political ecological analysis to explore how the institution, its staff, and nonhumans work to produce various sorts of knowledge about the environment. I argue that the educative assemblages imagined and formed there, which are intimately linked to institutional fiscal survivability, politically deploy nonhuman animals in the Aquarium's "edutainment" project. Through the use of storytelling as a pedagogical tool to entertain, invoke compassion, and convey science to the public, staff encourage guests to have tactile, auditory, and visual encounters with live ocean creatures in order to construct a natural world worthy of being saved, due to its instrumental and intrinsic value. I show how this public conservation re-education project attempts to highlight the voices of the animals being represented there, but not necessarily the voices of the animals actually residing there. I also draw out the implications of these representative practices and argue that the institution ought to utilize staff-nonhuman relationships, which are grounded in care and empathy, as a framework for developing visitor-nonhuman relationships.

  4. Meiobenthos and free-living nematodes as tools for biomonitoring environments affected by riverine impact.

    PubMed

    Semprucci, F; Frontalini, F; Sbrocca, C; du Châtelet, E Armynot; Bout-Roumazeilles, V; Coccioni, R; Balsamo, M

    2015-05-01

    The effects of the human impact on the coastal environments and relative biota can be different and even greater than those derived by natural fluctuations. The major disturbance causes in the coastal systems are rivers that may be important sources of nutrients and pollutants, particularly in a semi-closed basin such as the Adriatic Sea. In this context, we investigated the distribution of both meiobenthic and nematode assemblages in the Central Adriatic Sea to evaluate whether and how they are influenced by riverine discharges and which faunal descriptors are the most effective in detecting this type of stress. On the basis of our results, the disturbance effects in the studied area might be caused by both local streams and Po plume, and even if the latter might be considered of lesser extent, it is worthy to note its real impact at a short distance from the coastline. Meiobenthic assemblage structure appears as a good tool for detecting short-term responses of the benthic domain, whereas nematode assemblages seem more useful for defining long-term responses. Accordingly, the former highlighted from poor to sufficient ecological quality status (EQS) of this area, whereas the latter from moderate to bad EQS. Life strategy traits prove to be the most informative faunal descriptor due to their high correspondence with the environmental variables and particularly with this type of disturbance. PMID:25877645

  5. How age-related strategy switching deficits affect wayfinding in complex environments.

    PubMed

    Harris, Mathew A; Wolbers, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Although most research on navigation in aging focuses on allocentric processing deficits, impaired strategy switching may also contribute to navigational decline. Using a specifically designed task involving navigating a town-like virtual environment, we assessed the ability of young and old participants to switch from following learned routes to finding novel shortcuts. We found large age differences in the length of routes taken during testing and in use of shortcuts, as, while nearly all young participants switched from the egocentric route-following strategy to the allocentric wayfinding strategy, none of the older participants stably switched. Although secondary tasks confirmed that older participants were impaired both at strategy switching and allocentric processing, the difficulty in using shortcuts was selectively related to impaired strategy switching. This may in turn relate to dysfunction of the prefrontal-noradrenergic network responsible for coordinating switching behavior. We conclude that the large age difference in performance at the shortcutting task demonstrates for the first time, how strategy switching deficits can have a severe impact on navigation in aging. PMID:24239438

  6. How Environment Affects Star Formation: Tracing Activity in High Redshift Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alberts, Stacey; Pope, A.; Brodwin, M.; Atlee, D. W.; Lin, Y.; Chary, R.; Dey, A.; Eisenhardt, P. R.; Gettings, D.; Gonzalez, A. H.; Jannuzi, B.; Mancone, C.; Moustakas, J.; Snyder, G. F.; Stanford, S. A.; Stern, D.; Weiner, B. J.; Zeimann, G.

    2014-01-01

    The emerging picture of the evolution of cluster galaxies indicates that the epoch of z>1 is a crucial period of active star formation and mass assembly in clusters. In this dissertation, I leverage a uniformly-selected cluster sample from the IRAC Shallow Cluster Survey (ISCS) with Herschel imaging to analyse the star formation (SF) activity in cluster galaxies over the past ten billion years. This analysis is two-fold: 1) using 274 clusters across the 9 square degree Bootes field, I perform a stacking analysis of mass-limited samples of cluster and field galaxies using wide-field Herschel observations over a long redshift baseline, z=0.3-1.5. I find that the average SF activity in cluster galaxies is evolving faster than in the field, with field-like SF in the cluster cores and enhanced SF activity in the cluster outskirts at z>1.2. By further breaking down my analysis by galaxy mass and type, I determine which mechanisms are capable of driving this evolution. 2) I use unique, deep Herschel imaging of 11 spectroscopically-confirmed clusters from z=1.1-1.8 to study the properties of individual infrared bright cluster galaxies as a function of redshift and cluster-centric radius. Combined with ancillary data, I determine the star formation, dust, and AGN properties of the most active cluster galaxies and tie the evolution of these properties back to the environment by comparing to field populations. By combining these two approaches, I constrain cluster galaxy properties during a pivotal epoch of dust-obscured star formation activity and mass assembly in some of the most extreme structures in the Universe.

  7. Changes of the soil environment affected by fly ash dumping site of the electric power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Jerzy; Gwizdz, Marta; Jamroz, Elzbieta; Debicka, Magdalena; Kocowicz, Andrzej

    2014-05-01

    In this study the effect of fly ash dumping site of the electric power plant on the surrounding soil environment was investigated. The fly ash dumping site collect wastes form brown coal combustion of Belchatow electric power station, central Poland. The dumping site is surrounding by forest, where pine trees overgrow Podzols derived from loose quartz sands. The soil profiles under study were located at a distance of 50, 100, 400 and 500 m from the dumping site, while control profiles were located 8 km away from the landfill. In all horizons of soil profiles the mpain hysico-chemical and chemical properties were determined. The humic substances were extracted from ectohumus horizons by Shnitzer's method, purified using XAD resin and freeze-dried. The fulvic acids were passed through a cation exchange column and freeze-dried. Optical density, elemental composition and atomic ratios were determined in the humic and fulvic acids. Organic carbon by KMnO4 oxidation was also determined in the organic soil horizons. The fly ash from the landfill characterized by high salinity and strong alkaline reaction (pH=10), which contributed significantly to the changes of the pH values in soils horizons. The alkalization of soils adjacent to the landfill was found, which manifested in increasing of pH values in the upper soil horizons. The impact of the landfill was also noted in the changes of the soil morphology of Podzols analysed. As a result of the alkalization, Bhs horizons have been converted into a Bs horizons. Leaching of low molecular humus fraction - typical for podzolization - has been minimized as a result of pH changes caused by the impact of the landfill, and originally occurring humic substances in the Bhs horizon (present in the control profiles) have been probably transported out of the soil profile and then into the groundwater.

  8. Behavior of steelhead fry in a laboratory stream is affected by fish density but not rearing environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Riley, Stephen C.; Tatara, Christopher P.; Berejikian, Barry A.; Flagg, Thomas A.

    2009-01-01

    We quantified the aggression, feeding, dominance, position choice, and territory size of naturally reared steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss fry stocked with two types of hatchery-reared fry (from conventional and enriched rearing environments) at two densities in experimental flumes to determine how rearing environment and fish density affect the behavior of steelhead fry. We found that fry density had a significant effect on most response variables but that rearing treatment did not. The rates of threats and attacks were positively correlated with fry density, but the overall feeding rate was negatively correlated. Naturally reared fry were dominant more often at low densities, and hatchery-reared fry were dominant more often at high densities. There were no significant effects of hatchery rearing treatment on aggression, feeding, dominance, or territory size. The only significant effect of rearing treatment was on the position of naturally reared fry, which occupied more upstream positions when stocked with conventional than with enriched hatchery-reared fry. Overall, rearing environment had relatively little influence on the behavior of steelhead fry. Our results indicate that stocking hatchery-reared steelhead fry at low densities may have effects on similar-size wild fish comparable to an equivalent increase in the density of wild fish. We suggest that releasing hatchery-reared steelhead fry as a supplementation strategy may have few direct negative ecological effects on wild fry.

  9. Age and duration of inflammatory environment differentially affect the neuroimmune response and catecholaminergic neurons in the midbrain and brainstem.

    PubMed

    Bardou, Isabelle; Kaercher, Roxanne M; Brothers, Holly M; Hopp, Sarah C; Royer, Sarah; Wenk, Gary L

    2014-05-01

    Neuroinflammation and degeneration of ascending catecholaminergic systems occur early in the neurodegenerative process. Age and the duration of a pro-inflammatory environment induced by continuous intraventricular lipopolysaccharide (LPS) differentially affect the expression profile of pro- and anti-inflammatory genes and proteins as well as the number of activated microglia (express major histocompatibility complex II; MHC II) and the integrity and density of ascending catecholaminergic neural systems originating from the locus coeruleus (LC) and substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) in rats. LPS infusion increased gene expression and/or protein levels for both pro- and anti-inflammatory biomarkers. Although LPS infusion stimulated a robust increase in IL-1ß gene and protein expression, this increase was blunted with age. LPS infusion also increased the density of activated microglia cells throughout the midbrain and brainstem. Corresponding to the development of a pro-inflammatory environment, LC and SNpc neurons immunopositive for tyrosine-hydroxylase (the rate-limiting synthetic enzyme for dopamine and norepinephrine) decreased in number, along with a decrease in tyrosine-hydroxylase gene expression in the midbrain and/or brainstem region. Our data support the concept that continuous exposure to a pro-inflammatory environment drives exaggerated changes in the production and release of inflammatory mediators that interact with age to impair functional capacity of the SNpc and LC. PMID:24315728

  10. A Longitudinal Investigation of the Affective Environment in Families with Young Children: From Infancy to Early School Age

    PubMed Central

    Barry, Robin A.; Kochanska, Grazyna

    2010-01-01

    We examined the affective environment in 102 families studied longitudinally when children were 7, 15, 25, 38, 52, and 67 months. At each assessment, every mother-child and father-child dyad was observed in typical daily contexts. Each person’s emotions of affection, joy, and anger were coded. Both parents rated marital quality when children were 15, 52, and 67 months. Growth curve analyses, using Actor-Partner Interdependence Modeling, examined (a) developmental changes in emotions, (b) within-relationship influence of the partner’s emotions, (c) across-relationship influences of emotions in other parent’s interactions with the child, and (d) associations between marital quality and emotions over time. Parents’ emotional expressiveness was highest early in the child’s development, and declined thereafter. Children’s anger was highest at 15 months, and declined thereafter, and their positive emotions, particularly with mothers, increased over time. Generally, one’s positive emotions and better marital quality were associated with greater positive emotion within- and across-relationships, whereas one’s anger was associated with greater anger within- and across-relationships. However, any emotion expression elicited greater affection in the interaction partner. Parents’ neuroticism did not account for the convergence of emotions across relationships. PMID:20364900

  11. Arousal regulation and affective adaptation to human responsiveness by a robot that explores and learns a novel environment.

    PubMed

    Hiolle, Antoine; Lewis, Matthew; Cañamero, Lola

    2014-01-01

    In the context of our work in developmental robotics regarding robot-human caregiver interactions, in this paper we investigate how a "baby" robot that explores and learns novel environments can adapt its affective regulatory behavior of soliciting help from a "caregiver" to the preferences shown by the caregiver in terms of varying responsiveness. We build on two strands of previous work that assessed independently (a) the differences between two "idealized" robot profiles-a "needy" and an "independent" robot-in terms of their use of a caregiver as a means to regulate the "stress" (arousal) produced by the exploration and learning of a novel environment, and (b) the effects on the robot behaviors of two caregiving profiles varying in their responsiveness-"responsive" and "non-responsive"-to the regulatory requests of the robot. Going beyond previous work, in this paper we (a) assess the effects that the varying regulatory behavior of the two robot profiles has on the exploratory and learning patterns of the robots; (b) bring together the two strands previously investigated in isolation and take a step further by endowing the robot with the capability to adapt its regulatory behavior along the "needy" and "independent" axis as a function of the varying responsiveness of the caregiver; and (c) analyze the effects that the varying regulatory behavior has on the exploratory and learning patterns of the adaptive robot. PMID:24860492

  12. Arousal regulation and affective adaptation to human responsiveness by a robot that explores and learns a novel environment

    PubMed Central

    Hiolle, Antoine; Lewis, Matthew; Cañamero, Lola

    2014-01-01

    In the context of our work in developmental robotics regarding robot–human caregiver interactions, in this paper we investigate how a “baby” robot that explores and learns novel environments can adapt its affective regulatory behavior of soliciting help from a “caregiver” to the preferences shown by the caregiver in terms of varying responsiveness. We build on two strands of previous work that assessed independently (a) the differences between two “idealized” robot profiles—a “needy” and an “independent” robot—in terms of their use of a caregiver as a means to regulate the “stress” (arousal) produced by the exploration and learning of a novel environment, and (b) the effects on the robot behaviors of two caregiving profiles varying in their responsiveness—“responsive” and “non-responsive”—to the regulatory requests of the robot. Going beyond previous work, in this paper we (a) assess the effects that the varying regulatory behavior of the two robot profiles has on the exploratory and learning patterns of the robots; (b) bring together the two strands previously investigated in isolation and take a step further by endowing the robot with the capability to adapt its regulatory behavior along the “needy” and “independent” axis as a function of the varying responsiveness of the caregiver; and (c) analyze the effects that the varying regulatory behavior has on the exploratory and learning patterns of the adaptive robot. PMID:24860492

  13. External factors affecting decision-making and use of evidence in an Australian public health policy environment.

    PubMed

    Zardo, Pauline; Collie, Alex; Livingstone, Charles

    2014-05-01

    This study examined external factors affecting policy and program decision-making in a specific public health policy context: injury prevention and rehabilitation compensation in the Australian state of Victoria. The aim was twofold: identify external factors that affect policy and program decision-making in this specific context; use this evidence to inform targeting of interventions aimed at increasing research use in this context. Qualitative interviews were undertaken from June 2011 to January 2012 with 33 employees from two state government agencies. Key factors identified were stakeholder feedback and action, government and ministerial input, legal feedback and action, injured persons and the media. The identified external factors were able to significantly influence policy and program decision-making processes: acting as both barriers and facilitators, depending on the particular issue at hand. The factors with the most influence were the Minister and government, lawyers, and agency stakeholders, particularly health providers, trade unions and employer groups. This research revealed that interventions aimed at increasing use of research in this context must target and harness the influence of these groups. This research provides critical insights for researchers seeking to design interventions to increase use of research in policy environments and influence decision-making in Victorian injury prevention and rehabilitation compensation. PMID:24632115

  14. THE ZURICH ENVIRONMENTAL STUDY OF GALAXIES IN GROUPS ALONG THE COSMIC WEB. I. WHICH ENVIRONMENT AFFECTS GALAXY EVOLUTION?

    SciTech Connect

    Carollo, C. Marcella; Cibinel, Anna; Lilly, Simon J.; Miniati, Francesco; Cameron, Ewan; Peng, Yingjie; Pipino, Antonio; Rudick, Craig S.; Norberg, Peder; Silverman, John D.; Van Gorkom, Jacqueline; Finoguenov, Alexis

    2013-10-20

    The Zurich Environmental Study (ZENS) is based on a sample of ∼1500 galaxy members of 141 groups in the mass range ∼10{sup 12.5-14.5} M{sub ☉} within the narrow redshift range 0.05 < z < 0.0585. ZENS adopts novel approaches, described here, to quantify four different galactic environments, namely: (1) the mass of the host group halo; (2) the projected halo-centric distance; (3) the rank of galaxies as central or satellites within their group halos; and (4) the filamentary large-scale structure density. No self-consistent identification of a central galaxy is found in ∼40% of <10{sup 13.5} M{sub ☉} groups, from which we estimate that ∼15% of groups at these masses are dynamically unrelaxed systems. Central galaxies in relaxed and unrelaxed groups generally have similar properties, suggesting that centrals are regulated by their mass and not by their environment. Centrals in relaxed groups have, however, ∼30% larger sizes than in unrelaxed groups, possibly due to accretion of small satellites in virialized group halos. At M > 10{sup 10} M{sub ☉}, satellite galaxies in relaxed and unrelaxed groups have similar size, color, and (specific) star formation rate distributions; at lower galaxy masses, satellites are marginally redder in relaxed relative to unrelaxed groups, suggesting quenching of star formation in low-mass satellites by physical processes active in relaxed halos. Overall, relaxed and unrelaxed groups show similar stellar mass populations, likely indicating similar stellar mass conversion efficiencies. In the enclosed ZENS catalog, we publish all environmental diagnostics as well as the galaxy structural and photometric measurements described in companion ZENS papers II and III.

  15. The Zurich Environmental Study of Galaxies in Groups along the Cosmic Web. I. Which Environment Affects Galaxy Evolution?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carollo, C. Marcella; Cibinel, Anna; Lilly, Simon J.; Miniati, Francesco; Norberg, Peder; Silverman, John D.; van Gorkom, Jacqueline; Cameron, Ewan; Finoguenov, Alexis; Peng, Yingjie; Pipino, Antonio; Rudick, Craig S.

    2013-10-01

    The Zurich Environmental Study (ZENS) is based on a sample of ~1500 galaxy members of 141 groups in the mass range ~1012.5-14.5 M ⊙ within the narrow redshift range 0.05 < z < 0.0585. ZENS adopts novel approaches, described here, to quantify four different galactic environments, namely: (1) the mass of the host group halo; (2) the projected halo-centric distance; (3) the rank of galaxies as central or satellites within their group halos; and (4) the filamentary large-scale structure density. No self-consistent identification of a central galaxy is found in ~40% of <1013.5 M ⊙ groups, from which we estimate that ~15% of groups at these masses are dynamically unrelaxed systems. Central galaxies in relaxed and unrelaxed groups generally have similar properties, suggesting that centrals are regulated by their mass and not by their environment. Centrals in relaxed groups have, however, ~30% larger sizes than in unrelaxed groups, possibly due to accretion of small satellites in virialized group halos. At M > 1010 M ⊙, satellite galaxies in relaxed and unrelaxed groups have similar size, color, and (specific) star formation rate distributions; at lower galaxy masses, satellites are marginally redder in relaxed relative to unrelaxed groups, suggesting quenching of star formation in low-mass satellites by physical processes active in relaxed halos. Overall, relaxed and unrelaxed groups show similar stellar mass populations, likely indicating similar stellar mass conversion efficiencies. In the enclosed ZENS catalog, we publish all environmental diagnostics as well as the galaxy structural and photometric measurements described in companion ZENS papers II and III. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, La Silla Chile. Program ID 177.A-0680.

  16. How nurses and their work environment affect patient experiences of the quality of care: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Healthcare organisations monitor patient experiences in order to evaluate and improve the quality of care. Because nurses spend a lot of time with patients, they have a major impact on patient experiences. To improve patient experiences of the quality of care, nurses need to know what factors within the nursing work environment are of influence. The main focus of this research was to comprehend the views of Dutch nurses on how their work and their work environment contribute to positive patient experiences. Methods A descriptive qualitative research design was used to collect data. Four focus groups were conducted, one each with 6 or 7 registered nurses in mental health care, hospital care, home care and nursing home care. A total of 26 nurses were recruited through purposeful sampling. The interviews were audiotaped, transcribed and subjected to thematic analysis. Results The nurses mentioned essential elements that they believe would improve patient experiences of the quality of nursing care: clinically competent nurses, collaborative working relationships, autonomous nursing practice, adequate staffing, control over nursing practice, managerial support and patient-centred culture. They also mentioned several inhibiting factors, such as cost-effectiveness policy and transparency goals for external accountability. Nurses feel pressured to increase productivity and report a high administrative workload. They stated that these factors will not improve patient experiences of the quality of nursing care. Conclusions According to participants, a diverse range of elements affect patient experiences of the quality of nursing care. They believe that incorporating these elements into daily nursing practice would result in more positive patient experiences. However, nurses work in a healthcare context in which they have to reconcile cost-efficiency and accountability with their desire to provide nursing care that is based on patient needs and preferences, and

  17. Farm Management, Environment, and Weather Factors Jointly Affect the Probability of Spinach Contamination by Generic Escherichia coli at the Preharvest Stage

    PubMed Central

    Navratil, Sarah; Gregory, Ashley; Bauer, Arin; Srinath, Indumathi; Szonyi, Barbara; Nightingale, Kendra; Anciso, Juan; Jun, Mikyoung; Han, Daikwon; Lawhon, Sara; Ivanek, Renata

    2014-01-01

    The National Resources Information (NRI) databases provide underutilized information on the local farm conditions that may predict microbial contamination of leafy greens at preharvest. Our objective was to identify NRI weather and landscape factors affecting spinach contamination with generic Escherichia coli individually and jointly with farm management and environmental factors. For each of the 955 georeferenced spinach samples (including 63 positive samples) collected between 2010 and 2012 on 12 farms in Colorado and Texas, we extracted variables describing the local weather (ambient temperature, precipitation, and wind speed) and landscape (soil characteristics and proximity to roads and water bodies) from NRI databases. Variables describing farm management and environment were obtained from a survey of the enrolled farms. The variables were evaluated using a mixed-effect logistic regression model with random effects for farm and date. The model identified precipitation as a single NRI predictor of spinach contamination with generic E. coli, indicating that the contamination probability increases with an increasing mean amount of rain (mm) in the past 29 days (odds ratio [OR] = 3.5). The model also identified the farm's hygiene practices as a protective factor (OR = 0.06) and manure application (OR = 52.2) and state (OR = 108.1) as risk factors. In cross-validation, the model showed a solid predictive performance, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of 81%. Overall, the findings highlighted the utility of NRI precipitation data in predicting contamination and demonstrated that farm management, environment, and weather factors should be considered jointly in development of good agricultural practices and measures to reduce produce contamination. PMID:24509926

  18. Farm management, environment, and weather factors jointly affect the probability of spinach contamination by generic Escherichia coli at the preharvest stage.

    PubMed

    Park, Sangshin; Navratil, Sarah; Gregory, Ashley; Bauer, Arin; Srinath, Indumathi; Szonyi, Barbara; Nightingale, Kendra; Anciso, Juan; Jun, Mikyoung; Han, Daikwon; Lawhon, Sara; Ivanek, Renata

    2014-04-01

    The National Resources Information (NRI) databases provide underutilized information on the local farm conditions that may predict microbial contamination of leafy greens at preharvest. Our objective was to identify NRI weather and landscape factors affecting spinach contamination with generic Escherichia coli individually and jointly with farm management and environmental factors. For each of the 955 georeferenced spinach samples (including 63 positive samples) collected between 2010 and 2012 on 12 farms in Colorado and Texas, we extracted variables describing the local weather (ambient temperature, precipitation, and wind speed) and landscape (soil characteristics and proximity to roads and water bodies) from NRI databases. Variables describing farm management and environment were obtained from a survey of the enrolled farms. The variables were evaluated using a mixed-effect logistic regression model with random effects for farm and date. The model identified precipitation as a single NRI predictor of spinach contamination with generic E. coli, indicating that the contamination probability increases with an increasing mean amount of rain (mm) in the past 29 days (odds ratio [OR] = 3.5). The model also identified the farm's hygiene practices as a protective factor (OR = 0.06) and manure application (OR = 52.2) and state (OR = 108.1) as risk factors. In cross-validation, the model showed a solid predictive performance, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of 81%. Overall, the findings highlighted the utility of NRI precipitation data in predicting contamination and demonstrated that farm management, environment, and weather factors should be considered jointly in development of good agricultural practices and measures to reduce produce contamination. PMID:24509926

  19. Communication, support and psychosocial work environment affecting psychological distress among working women aged 20 to 39 years in Japan.

    PubMed

    Honda, Ayumi; Date, Yutaka; Abe, Yasuyo; Aoyagi, Kiyoshi; Honda, Sumihisa

    2016-01-29

    When compared with their older counterparts, younger women are more likely to have depressive symptoms because they more often experience interrupted work history and a heavy childrearing burden. The purposes of the present study were 1) to investigate the possible association of psychosocial work environment with psychological distress and 2) to examine the way by which communication and support in the workplace affect to psychological distress among young women. We studied 198 women aged 20 to 39 yr in a cross-sectional study. The Kessler Scale-10 (K10 Scale) was used to examine psychological distress. In employees who experienced interpersonal conflict, those who had little or no conversations with their supervisor and/or co-workers had a significantly increased risk of psychological distress (OR, 4.2), and those who received little or no support from their supervisor and/or co-workers had a significantly increased risk of psychological distress (OR, 3.8) compared to those who had more frequent communication and received more support. Harmonious communication in the workplace can help prevent psychological distress among employees, which in turn may enable them to be satisfied with their work. PMID:26320729

  20. Communication, support and psychosocial work environment affecting psychological distress among working women aged 20 to 39 years in Japan

    PubMed Central

    HONDA, Ayumi; DATE, Yutaka; ABE, Yasuyo; AOYAGI, Kiyoshi; HONDA, Sumihisa

    2015-01-01

    When compared with their older counterparts, younger women are more likely to have depressive symptoms because they more often experience interrupted work history and a heavy childrearing burden. The purposes of the present study were 1) to investigate the possible association of psychosocial work environment with psychological distress and 2) to examine the way by which communication and support in the workplace affect to psychological distress among young women. We studied 198 women aged 20 to 39 yr in a cross-sectional study. The Kessler Scale-10 (K10 Scale) was used to examine psychological distress. In employees who experienced interpersonal conflict, those who had little or no conversations with their supervisor and/or co-workers had a significantly increased risk of psychological distress (OR, 4.2), and those who received little or no support from their supervisor and/or co-workers had a significantly increased risk of psychological distress (OR, 3.8) compared to those who had more frequent communication and received more support. Harmonious communication in the workplace can help prevent psychological distress among employees, which in turn may enable them to be satisfied with their work. PMID:26320729

  1. Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Gilbert F.

    1980-01-01

    Presented are perspectives on the emergence of environmental problems. Six major trends in scientific thinking are identified including: holistic approaches to examining environments, life support systems, resource management, risk assessment, streamlined methods for monitoring environmental change, and emphasis on the global framework. (Author/SA)

  2. How salinity and temperature combine to affect physiological state and performance in red knots with contrasting non-breeding environments.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Jorge S; Soriano-Redondo, Andrea; Dekinga, Anne; Villegas, Auxiliadora; Masero, José A; Piersma, Theunis

    2015-08-01

    Migratory shorebirds inhabit environments that may yield contrasting salinity-temperature regimes-with widely varying osmoregulatory demands, even within a given species-and the question is: by which physiological means and at which organisational level do they show adjustments with respect to these demands? Red knots Calidris canutus winter in coastal areas over a range of latitudes. The nominal subspecies winters in salty areas in the tropics, whereas the subspecies Calidris canutus islandica winters in north-temperate regions of comparatively lower salinities and temperatures. In this study, both subspecies of red knot were acclimated to different salinity (28/40‰)-temperature (5/35 °C) combinations for 2-week periods. We then measured food/salt intakes, basal metabolic rate (BMR), body mass and temperature, fat and salt gland scores, gizzard mass, heat-shock proteins, heterophils/lymphocytes (H/L) ratio and plasma Na(+) to assess the responses of each taxon to osmoregulatory challenges. High salinity (HS)-warm-acclimated birds reduced food/salt intake, BMR, body mass, fat score and gizzard mass, showing that salt/heat loads constrained energy acquisition rates. Higher salt gland scores in saltier treatments indicated that its size was adjusted to higher osmoregulatory demands. Elevated plasma Na(+) and H/L ratio in high-salinity-warm-acclimated birds indicated that salt/heat loads might have a direct effect on the water-salt balance and stress responses of red knots. Subspecies had little or no effect on most measured parameters, suggesting that most adjustments reflect phenotypic flexibility rather than subspecific adaptations. Our results demonstrate how salinity and temperature affect various phenotypic traits in a migrant shorebird, highlighting the importance of considering these factors jointly when evaluating the environmental tolerances of air-breathing marine taxa. PMID:25851406

  3. Situated Cognition: Describing the Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altalib, Hasan

    This paper presents an overview of the theory of situated cognition by providing its origin, a listing of its main principles and then discussing in detail the principles of, authentic learning environments, legitimate peripheral participation, and assessment. It also provides two examples of the application of situated cognition principles. The…

  4. Quantitative Analysis of Major Factors Affecting Black Carbon Transport and Concentrations in the Unique Atmospheric Structures of Urban Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Marissa Shuang

    combined contribution from both traffic and atmospheric circulation accounted for observed spatiotemporal variability in PM2.5 concentrations. Based on these experimental and quantitative analyses, a three-dimensional model is proposed for contaminant's transport in highly urbanized Cincinnati region. Furthermore this dissertation explored implications on roadside pollutant evaluation, and on the risk analysis of future fuel substitution using biodiesel. The Gaussian-type models are poor in determining the effective emission factor particularly under nocturnal thermal inversion for which the effective emission factor is a function of lapse rate in the morning. The Gaussian models are applicable in daytime after the breakdown of thermal inversion. Lastly, among three types of fuels examined, the proposed butanol-added biodiesel-diesel blend (D80B15Bu5) yielded a good compromise between black carbon and NOx emissions while maintaining proper combustion properties. It is also found that the emission contained less black carbon and had higher organic carbon (OC) and elemental (EC) ratio than tested petroleum diesel. As demonstrated in other parts of this study, the OC-enriched emission will likely affect the black carbon occurrence and PM concentrations in the urban environments. Overall, it is suggested that urban formation and biofuel usage define the environmental impacts of black carbon, and are the focus for climate change mitigation and adaptation.

  5. Freshwater environment affects growth rate and muscle fibre recruitment in seawater stages of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.).

    PubMed

    Johnston, Ian A; Manthri, Sujatha; Alderson, Richard; Smart, Alistair; Campbell, Patrick; Nickell, David; Robertson, Billy; Paxton, Charles G M; Burt, M Louise

    2003-04-01

    The influence of freshwater environment on muscle growth in seawater was investigated in an inbred population of farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). The offspring from a minimum of 64 families per group were incubated at either ambient temperature (ambient treatment) or in heated water (heated treatment). Growth was investigated using a mixed-effect statistical model with repeated measures, which included terms for treatment effect and random fish effects for individual growth rate (alpha) and the instantaneous growth rate per unit change in temperature (gamma). Prior to seawater transfer, fish were heavier in the heated (61.6+/-1.0 g; N=298) than in the ambient (34.1+/-0.4 g; N=206) treatments, reflecting their greater growth opportunity: 4872 degree-days and 4281 degree-days, respectively. However, the subsequent growth rate of the heated group was lower, such that treatments had a similar body mass (3.7-3.9 kg) after approximately 450 days in seawater. The total cross-sectional area of fast muscle and the number (FN) and size distribution of the fibres was determined in a subset of the fish. We tested the hypothesis that freshwater temperature regime affected the rate of recruitment and hypertrophy of muscle fibres. There were differences in FN between treatments and a significant age x treatment interaction but no significant cage effect (ANOVA). Cessation of fibre recruitment was identified by the absence of fibres of <10 micro m diameter. The maximum fibre number was 22.4% more in the ambient (9.3 x 10(5)+/-2.0 x 10(4) than in the heated (7.6 x 10(5)+/-1.5 x 10(4)) treatments (N=44 and 40 fish, respectively; P<0.001). For fish that had completed fibre recruitment, there was a significant correlation between FN and individual growth rate, explaining 35% of the total variation. The density of myogenic progenitor cells was quantified using an antibody to c-met and was approximately 2-fold higher in the ambient than in the heated group, equivalent to 2-3% of

  6. Wheat Phenological Development and Growth Studies As Affected by Drought and Late Season High Temperature Stress under Arid Environment.

    PubMed

    Ihsan, Muhammad Z; El-Nakhlawy, Fathy S; Ismail, Saleh M; Fahad, Shah; Daur, Ihsanullah

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluates the potential for adaptability and tolerance of wheat genotypes (G) to an arid environment. We examined the influence of drought stress (DS) (100, 75, and 50% field capacity), planting times (PT) (16-November, 01-December, 16-December and 01-January), and G (Yocoro Rojo, FKAU-10, Faisalabad-08, and Galaxy L-7096) on phenological development, growth indices, grain yield, and water use efficiency of drip-irrigated wheat. Development measured at five phenological growth stages (GS) (tillering, jointing, booting, heading, and maturity) and growth indices 30, 45, 60, and 75 days after sowing (DAS) were also correlated with final grain yield. Tillering occurred earlier in DS plots, to a maximum of 31 days. Days to complete 50% heading and physiological crop maturity were the most susceptible GS that denoted 31-72% reduction in number of days to complete these GS at severe DS. Wheat G grown with severe DS had the shortest grain filling duration. Genotype Fsd-08 presented greater adaptability to studied arid climate and recorded 31, 35, and 38% longer grain filling period as compared with rest of the G at 100-50% field capacity respectively. December sowing mitigated the drought and delayed planting effects by producing superior growth and yield (2162 kg ha(-1)) at severe DS. Genotypes Fsd-08 and L-7096 attained the minimum plant height (36 cm) and the shortest growth cycle (76 days) for January planting with 50% field capacity. At severe DS leaf area index, dry matter accumulation, crop growth rate and net assimilation rate were decreased by 67, 57, 34, and 38% as compared to non-stressed plots. Genotypes Fsd-08 and F-10 were the superior ones and secured 14-17% higher grain yield than genotype YR for severely stressed plots. The correlation between crop growth indices and grain yield depicted the highest value (0.58-0.71) at 60-75 DAS. So the major contribution of these growth indices toward grain yield was at the start of reproductive phase. It

  7. Wheat Phenological Development and Growth Studies As Affected by Drought and Late Season High Temperature Stress under Arid Environment

    PubMed Central

    Ihsan, Muhammad Z.; El-Nakhlawy, Fathy S.; Ismail, Saleh M.; Fahad, Shah; daur, Ihsanullah

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluates the potential for adaptability and tolerance of wheat genotypes (G) to an arid environment. We examined the influence of drought stress (DS) (100, 75, and 50% field capacity), planting times (PT) (16-November, 01-December, 16-December and 01-January), and G (Yocoro Rojo, FKAU-10, Faisalabad-08, and Galaxy L-7096) on phenological development, growth indices, grain yield, and water use efficiency of drip-irrigated wheat. Development measured at five phenological growth stages (GS) (tillering, jointing, booting, heading, and maturity) and growth indices 30, 45, 60, and 75 days after sowing (DAS) were also correlated with final grain yield. Tillering occurred earlier in DS plots, to a maximum of 31 days. Days to complete 50% heading and physiological crop maturity were the most susceptible GS that denoted 31–72% reduction in number of days to complete these GS at severe DS. Wheat G grown with severe DS had the shortest grain filling duration. Genotype Fsd-08 presented greater adaptability to studied arid climate and recorded 31, 35, and 38% longer grain filling period as compared with rest of the G at 100–50% field capacity respectively. December sowing mitigated the drought and delayed planting effects by producing superior growth and yield (2162 kg ha−1) at severe DS. Genotypes Fsd-08 and L-7096 attained the minimum plant height (36 cm) and the shortest growth cycle (76 days) for January planting with 50% field capacity. At severe DS leaf area index, dry matter accumulation, crop growth rate and net assimilation rate were decreased by 67, 57, 34, and 38% as compared to non-stressed plots. Genotypes Fsd-08 and F-10 were the superior ones and secured 14–17% higher grain yield than genotype YR for severely stressed plots. The correlation between crop growth indices and grain yield depicted the highest value (0.58–0.71) at 60–75 DAS. So the major contribution of these growth indices toward grain yield was at the start of reproductive

  8. Factors affecting secondary science teachers' appraisal and adoption of technology-rich project-based learning environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luehmann, April Lynn

    We are learning much about how to design project-based curriculum that leverages technology, but we know less about the everyday needs of teachers and the implicit and explicit factors that influence their curriculum adoption decisions. Given that teachers are the gatekeepers of their classrooms, it is essential that designers and reformers understand the criteria teachers use to support their judgments regarding the appraisal and adoption of innovative curricula if they wish to see widespread use of their designs. Toward this end, this dissertation examines the perceptions of teachers as they appraise and consider the adoption of one innovative, technology-rich, project-based curriculum. Thirty secondary science teachers in Indiana were recruited. This study took place in two phases. During the first phase, data consisted of teachers' comments in the form of "think aloud's" and observations as teachers interacted with an Internet-based science program: Web-Based Inquiry Science Environment. Through an examination of these data, six implicit factors were identified: Trust, Identity, Self-Efficacy, Process Goals, Situational Constraints, and Contextual Idiosyncrasies. Examination of the content related to these categories suggests that curricular adoption is not simply an academic process but is also a personal one. Also, trust between the teacher and both the change facilitator and the innovation plays an influential role. Data collected during the second phase included item analysis of factors that emerged during semi structured interviews and rated by the teachers in terms of their importance in influencing their adoption of the WISE-water quality program. Teacher identified factors were collapsed into 26 explicit factors and analyzed using cluster analysis, resulting in five clusters of teacher profiles: Logistically Focused, Subject-Matter Focused, Scaffolded Optimists, Accountability Focused, and Pedagogically Savvy. This study reveals that factors affecting

  9. Enhancing Learning Environments for Students Affected by Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: An Exploratory Study of Canadian Pre-Service Teacher Knowledge and Conceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pei, Jacqueline; Job, Jenelle; Poth, Cheryl; O'Brien-Langer, Anna; Tang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    There is a pressing need for enhancing the learning environment for students affected by Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs). To develop relevant professional learning opportunities for teachers, a logical initial step is to explore the extent to which pre-service teachers accurately understand the unique neuropsychological functioning…

  10. Social Presence and its Relevancy to Cognitive and Affective Learning in an Asynchronous Distance-Learning Environment: A Preliminary Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jolivette, Brenda J.

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the literature on the theory of social presence and its relevancy to cognitive and affective learning in an asynchronous distance-learning environment. With the evolution of distance education, colleges and universities have found themselves on the cutting edge of an unprecedented new era. This review explores the…

  11. Environments. Our Common Home: Earth. A Curriculum Strategy to Affect Student Skills Development and Exposure to Diverse Global Natural/Social Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Richard

    One of a series of global education instructional units, this unit on environments was designed to be infused with existing social studies courses aimed at students in grades 5-12. Concept-based and skills-oriented, the curriculum provides opportunities for students to develop an understanding of the nature and character of diverse global natural…

  12. Describing Control in Educational Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renihan, P. J.; Renihan, F. I.

    This paper describes the construction and application of a framework to investigate control at the policy-making level in education. The minutes of the regular meetings of 21 school boards in British Columbia were analyzed for the period January to December of 1975. Construction of the framework involved (1) definitions of control and…

  13. How to describe disordered structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishio, Kengo; Miyazaki, Takehide

    2016-04-01

    Disordered structures such as liquids and glasses, grains and foams, galaxies, etc. are often represented as polyhedral tilings. Characterizing the associated polyhedral tiling is a promising strategy to understand the disordered structure. However, since a variety of polyhedra are arranged in complex ways, it is challenging to describe what polyhedra are tiled in what way. Here, to solve this problem, we create the theory of how the polyhedra are tiled. We first formulate an algorithm to convert a polyhedron into a codeword that instructs how to construct the polyhedron from its building-block polygons. By generalizing the method to polyhedral tilings, we describe the arrangements of polyhedra. Our theory allows us to characterize polyhedral tilings, and thereby paves the way to study from short- to long-range order of disordered structures in a systematic way.

  14. How to describe disordered structures.

    PubMed

    Nishio, Kengo; Miyazaki, Takehide

    2016-01-01

    Disordered structures such as liquids and glasses, grains and foams, galaxies, etc. are often represented as polyhedral tilings. Characterizing the associated polyhedral tiling is a promising strategy to understand the disordered structure. However, since a variety of polyhedra are arranged in complex ways, it is challenging to describe what polyhedra are tiled in what way. Here, to solve this problem, we create the theory of how the polyhedra are tiled. We first formulate an algorithm to convert a polyhedron into a codeword that instructs how to construct the polyhedron from its building-block polygons. By generalizing the method to polyhedral tilings, we describe the arrangements of polyhedra. Our theory allows us to characterize polyhedral tilings, and thereby paves the way to study from short- to long-range order of disordered structures in a systematic way. PMID:27064833

  15. How to describe disordered structures

    PubMed Central

    Nishio, Kengo; Miyazaki, Takehide

    2016-01-01

    Disordered structures such as liquids and glasses, grains and foams, galaxies, etc. are often represented as polyhedral tilings. Characterizing the associated polyhedral tiling is a promising strategy to understand the disordered structure. However, since a variety of polyhedra are arranged in complex ways, it is challenging to describe what polyhedra are tiled in what way. Here, to solve this problem, we create the theory of how the polyhedra are tiled. We first formulate an algorithm to convert a polyhedron into a codeword that instructs how to construct the polyhedron from its building-block polygons. By generalizing the method to polyhedral tilings, we describe the arrangements of polyhedra. Our theory allows us to characterize polyhedral tilings, and thereby paves the way to study from short- to long-range order of disordered structures in a systematic way. PMID:27064833

  16. Genotype-by-Environment Interactions and Adaptation to Local Temperature Affect Immunity and Fecundity in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Lazzaro, Brian P.; Flores, Heather A.; Lorigan, James G.; Yourth, Christopher P.

    2008-01-01

    Natural populations of most organisms harbor substantial genetic variation for resistance to infection. The continued existence of such variation is unexpected under simple evolutionary models that either posit direct and continuous natural selection on the immune system or an evolved life history “balance” between immunity and other fitness traits in a constant environment. However, both local adaptation to heterogeneous environments and genotype-by-environment interactions can maintain genetic variation in a species. In this study, we test Drosophila melanogaster genotypes sampled from tropical Africa, temperate northeastern North America, and semi-tropical southeastern North America for resistance to bacterial infection and fecundity at three different environmental temperatures. Environmental temperature had absolute effects on all traits, but there were also marked genotype-by-environment interactions that may limit the global efficiency of natural selection on both traits. African flies performed more poorly than North American flies in both immunity and fecundity at the lowest temperature, but not at the higher temperatures, suggesting that the African population is maladapted to low temperature. In contrast, there was no evidence for clinal variation driven by thermal adaptation within North America for either trait. Resistance to infection and reproductive success were generally uncorrelated across genotypes, so this study finds no evidence for a fitness tradeoff between immunity and fecundity under the conditions tested. Both local adaptation to geographically heterogeneous environments and genotype-by-environment interactions may explain the persistence of genetic variation for resistance to infection in natural populations. PMID:18369474

  17. Large robotized turning centers described

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirsanov, V. V.; Tsarenko, V. I.

    1985-09-01

    The introduction of numerical control (NC) machine tools has made it possible to automate machining in series and small series production. The organization of automated production sections merged NC machine tools with automated transport systems. However, both the one and the other require the presence of an operative at the machine for low skilled operations. Industrial robots perform a number of auxiliary operations, such as equipment loading-unloading and control, changing cutting and auxiliary tools, controlling workpieces and parts, and cleaning of location surfaces. When used with a group of equipment they perform transfer operations between the machine tools. Industrial robots eliminate the need for workers to form auxiliary operations. This underscores the importance of developing robotized manufacturing centers providing for minimal human participation in production and creating conditions for two and three shift operation of equipment. Work carried out at several robotized manufacturing centers for series and small series production is described.

  18. A Methodology to Assess the Content and Structure of Affective and Descriptive Meanings Associated with the Work Environment. Research and Development Series No. 98.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Essex, Duane W.; Liu, Cheng C.

    The study describes an exploratory effort to develop procedures and techniques to assess work-relevant affect. A stimulus word list, consisting of 211 words in 10 work and one miscellaneous categories, was tested on 10 female secretaries and 10 male auto mechanics to determine from their single-word responses the hierarchical structure of work…

  19. How Are Changing Solar Ultraviolet Radiation and Climate Affecting Light-induced Chemical Processes in Aquatic Environments?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Changes in the ozone layer over the past three decades have resulted in increases in solar UV-B radiation (280-315 nm) that reach the surface of aquatic environments. These changes have been accompanied by unprecedented changes in temperature and precipitation patterns around the...

  20. Learning Environments and Inquiry Behaviors in Science Inquiry Learning: How Their Interplay Affects the Development of Conceptual Understanding in Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bumbacher, Engin; Salehi, Shima; Wierzchula, Miriam; Blikstein, Paulo

    2015-01-01

    Studies comparing virtual and physical manipulative environments (VME and PME) in inquiry-based science learning have mostly focused on students' learning outcomes but not on the actual processes they engage in during the learning activities. In this paper, we examined experimentation strategies in an inquiry activity and their relation to…

  1. Being Nontraditional and Learning Online: Assessing the Psychosocial Learning Environments, Self-Efficacy, and Affective Outcomes among College Student Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashford, Roslyn La'Toya

    2014-01-01

    The study compared traditional and nontraditional students' attitudes about the psychosocial learning environment and their influence on self-efficacy, enjoyment of online learning, and student satisfaction by using Moos' (1979) Model of Environmental and Personal Variables and the three dimensions of social climate as its theoretical framework.…

  2. Song environment affects singing effort and vasotocin immunoreactivity in the forebrain of male Lincoln’s sparrows

    PubMed Central

    Sewall, Kendra B.; Dankoski, Elyse C.; Sockman, Keith W.

    2010-01-01

    Male songbirds often establish territories and attract mates by singing, and some song features can reflect the singer’s condition or quality. The quality of the song environment can change, so male songbirds should benefit from assessing the competitiveness of the song environment and appropriately adjusting their own singing behavior and the neural substrates by which song is controlled. In a wide range of taxa social modulation of behavior is partly mediated by the arginine vasopressin or vasotocin (AVP/AVT) systems. To examine the modulation of singing behavior in response to the quality of the song environment we compared the song output of laboratory-housed male Lincoln’s sparrows (Melospiza lincolnii) exposed to one week of chronic playback of songs categorized as either high or low quality, based on song length, complexity and trill performance. To explore the neural basis of any facultative shifts in behavior, we also quantified the subjects’ AVT immunoreactivity (AVT-IR) in three forebrain regions that regulate socio-sexual behavior: the medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTm), the lateral septum (LS) and the preoptic area. We found that high quality songs increased singing effort and reduced AVT-IR in the BSTm and LS, relative to low quality songs. The effect of the quality of the song environment on both singing effort and forebrain AVT-IR raises the hypothesis that AVT within these brain regions plays a role in the modulation of behavior in response to competition that individual males may assess from the prevailing song environment. PMID:20399213

  3. Manipulation of the Self-Determined Learning Environment on Student Motivation and Affect within Secondary Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlman, Dana

    2013-01-01

    Secondary physical education (PE) has become a popular area of inquiry because students are not meeting overarching goals of PE programs, are less motivated, and demonstrate negative affect while in class. As such, teachers and researchers are starting to examine pedagogical approaches that support student motivation as a means to alleviate some…

  4. The Influence of Environment and Personality on the Affective and Cognitive Component of Subjective Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schimmack, Ulrich; Schupp, Jurgen; Wagner, Gert G.

    2008-01-01

    Subjective well-being (SWB) has two components: affective well-being (AWB) and cognitive well-being (CWB). The present study demonstrated that AWB and CWB have are influenced by different factors in a nationally representative sample in Germany (N = 1053). Neuroticism was a stronger predictor of AWB than CWB. Unemployment and regional differences…

  5. Five Describing Factors of Dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Tamboer, Peter; Vorst, Harrie C M; Oort, Frans J

    2016-09-01

    Two subtypes of dyslexia (phonological, visual) have been under debate in various studies. However, the number of symptoms of dyslexia described in the literature exceeds the number of subtypes, and underlying relations remain unclear. We investigated underlying cognitive features of dyslexia with exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. A sample of 446 students (63 with dyslexia) completed a large test battery and a large questionnaire. Five factors were found in both the test battery and the questionnaire. These 10 factors loaded on 5 latent factors (spelling, phonology, short-term memory, rhyme/confusion, and whole-word processing/complexity), which explained 60% of total variance. Three analyses supported the validity of these factors. A confirmatory factor analysis fit with a solution of five factors (RMSEA = .03). Those with dyslexia differed from those without dyslexia on all factors. A combination of five factors provided reliable predictions of dyslexia and nondyslexia (accuracy >90%). We also looked for factorial deficits on an individual level to construct subtypes of dyslexia, but found varying profiles. We concluded that a multiple cognitive deficit model of dyslexia is supported, whereas the existence of subtypes remains unclear. We discussed the results in relation to advanced compensation strategies of students, measures of intelligence, and various correlations within groups of those with and without dyslexia. PMID:25398549

  6. Growing environment and nutrient availability affect the content of some phenolic compounds in Echinacea purpurea and Echinacea angustifolia.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Youbin; Dixon, Mike; Saxena, Praveen K

    2006-12-01

    Medicinal plant production is different from other agricultural production systems in that the plants are grown for the production of specific phytochemical(s) for human use. To address this need, a Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP)-compliant, controlled-environment production system was developed for production of Echinacea purpurea and Echinacea angustifolia. Within the prototype facility, the growing systems, nutrient availability, water and physical environment were highly controlled. The current study was designed to evaluate the effects of different hydroponic systems, nutrient solution NO (3)(-)/NH (4)(+) ratios and mild water stress on the content of some phenolic compounds in Echinacea plants. The deep-flow solution culture system in which the plant roots were continuously immersed in the nutrient solutions was optimum for the growth of E. purpurea. Higher concentrations of caftaric acid, cynarin and echinacoside were produced in E. angustifolia plants grown in the soil-based growing media while the plants grown in the deep-flow solution system had higher levels of cichoric acid. Altering the NO (3)(-)/NH (4)(+) ratio or limited water stress did not have any significant effect on the phytochemical content of Echinacea plants. Echinacea plants grown in the controlled environment systems had higher or similar amounts of cynarin, caftaric acid, echinacoside and cichoric acid as previously reported in the literature for both field-cultivated and wild-harvested Echinacea plants. This growing system offers the advantages of year-round crop production with minimal contamination by environmental pollutants and common microbes. PMID:17054043

  7. Urban microbiomes and urban ecology: how do microbes in the built environment affect human sustainability in cities?

    PubMed

    King, Gary M

    2014-09-01

    Humans increasingly occupy cities. Globally, about 50% of the total human population lives in urban environments, and in spite of some trends for deurbanization, the transition from rural to urban life is expected to accelerate in the future, especially in developing nations and regions. The Republic of Korea, for example, has witnessed a dramatic rise in its urban population, which now accounts for nearly 90% of all residents; the increase from about 29% in 1955 has been attributed to multiple factors, but has clearly been driven by extraordinary growth in the gross domestic product accompanying industrialization. While industrialization and urbanization have unarguably led to major improvements in quality of life indices in Korea and elsewhere, numerous serious problems have also been acknowledged, including concerns about resource availability, water quality, amplification of global warming and new threats to health. Questions about sustainability have therefore led Koreans and others to consider deurbanization as a management policy. Whether this offers any realistic prospects for a sustainable future remains to be seen. In the interim, it has become increasingly clear that built environments are no less complex than natural environments, and that they depend on a variety of internal and external connections involving microbes and the processes for which microbes are responsible. I provide here a definition of the urban microbiome, and through examples indicate its centrality to human function and wellbeing in urban systems. I also identify important knowledge gaps and unanswered questions about urban microbiomes that must be addressed to develop a robust, predictive and general understanding of urban biology and ecology that can be used to inform policy-making for sustainable systems. PMID:25224504

  8. Nature versus Nurture: How Parent Galaxy Environments Affect the Rates and Properties of their Type Ia Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Melissa Lynn

    2010-08-01

    Supernovae of Type Ia, SNe Ia, are currently the most powerful tool of modern cosmology, but their progenitor scenario is not yet well constrained. Recent studies of SN Ia rates in radio-loud early-type galaxies, and members of rich clusters, suggest a possible influence on SN Ia explosions outside of the established correlation with the age of the parent galaxy's stellar population (via the current specific star formation rate, sSFR). These rates were used to show that the characteristics of SN Ia progenitor systems may be inconsistent with theoretical expectations of the most popular scenarios. The astrophysical question of this thesis is: do parent galaxy and environment influence the rates and properties of Type Ia supernovae, and, if so, how? Towards this end, we combine the database of Type Ia supernovae from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope's Supernova Legacy Survey with publicly available catalogs including: galaxy photometric and spectroscopic redshifts, radio and infrared sources, and members of galaxy groups and clusters. This is the most comprehensive set of multi-wavelength host properties and environment parameters for intermediate redshift Type Ia supernovae yet compiled. We present the SNLS SN Ia rate per unit mass in a variety of parent galaxy and environment samples. We also statistically assess the probability of discrepancies between our rates, those of previous works at low redshift, rates in the general population of galaxies, and predictions of established empirical SN Ia rate models. In general, we do not find statistically significant evidence for SN Ia rate enhancements over the general population in galaxies which are radio-loud, infrared-bright, or associated with galaxy groups and clusters. In cases where we do find a suggestive rate enhancement, it is always with less than 2-sigma confidence. These rates agree with established empirical rate models, which in turn are consistent with theoretical expectations of the most plausible

  9. Does the local food environment around schools affect diet? Longitudinal associations in adolescents attending secondary schools in East London

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The local retail food environment around schools may act as a potential risk factor for adolescent diet. However, international research utilising cross-sectional designs to investigate associations between retail food outlet proximity to schools and diet provides equivocal support for an effect. In this study we employ longitudinal perspectives in order to answer the following two questions. First, how has the local retail food environment around secondary schools changed over time and second, is this change associated with change in diet of students at these schools? Methods The locations of retail food outlets and schools in 2001 and 2005 were geo-coded in three London boroughs. Network analysis in a Geographic Information System (GIS) ascertained the number, minimum and median distances to food outlets within 400 m and 800 m of the school location. Outcome measures were ‘healthy’ and ‘unhealthy’ diet scores derived from adolescent self-reported data in the Research with East London Adolescents: Community Health Survey (RELACHS). Adjusted associations between distance from school to food retail outlets, counts of outlets near schools and diet scores were assessed using longitudinal (2001–2005 n=757) approaches. Results Between 2001 and 2005 the number of takeaways and grocers/convenience stores within 400 m of schools increased, with many more grocers reported within 800 m of schools in 2005 (p< 0.001). Longitudinal analyses showed a decrease of the mean healthy (−1.12, se 0.12) and unhealthy (−0.48, se 0.16) diet scores. There were significant positive relationships between the distances travelled to grocers and healthy diet scores though effects were very small (0.003, 95%CI 0.001 – 0.006). Significant negative relationships between proximity to takeaways and unhealthy diet scores also resulted in small parameter estimates. Conclusions The results provide some evidence that the local food environment around secondary schools

  10. The Host Genotype and Environment Affect Strain Types of Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum Inhabiting the Intestinal Tracts of Twins

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Min; Hang, Xiaomin; Tan, Jing

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the influences of host genotype and environment on Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum inhabiting human intestines at the strain level, six pairs of twins, divided into two groups (children and adults), were recruited. Each group consisted of two monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs and one dizygotic (DZ) twin pair. Child twins had been living together from birth, while adult twins had been living separately for 5 to 10 years. A total of 345 B. longum subsp. longum isolates obtained from 60 fecal samples from these twins were analyzed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and 35 sequence types (STs) were finally acquired. Comparison of strains within and between the twin pairs showed that no strains with identical STs were observed between unrelated individuals or within adult DZ twin pairs. Eight STs were found to be monophyletic, existing within MZ twins and child DZ twins. The similarity of strain types within child cotwins was significantly higher than that within adult cotwins, which indicated that environment was one of the important determinants in B. longum subsp. longum strain types inhabiting human intestines. However, although these differences between MZ and DZ twins were observed, it is still difficult to reach an exact conclusion about the impact of host genotype. This is mainly because of the limited number of subjects tested in the present study and the lack of strain types tracing in the same twin pairs from birth until adulthood. PMID:25956768

  11. What affects teacher ratings of student behaviors? The potential influence of teachers' perceptions of the school environment and experiences.

    PubMed

    Pas, Elise T; Bradshaw, Catherine P

    2014-12-01

    Teachers serve as the natural raters of students within the school and classroom contexts. Yet teachers' ratings of their students may vary based on these contextual factors. The current study explored the extent to which teacher perceptions of the school environment predict their longitudinal ratings of student behaviors. Data for this study come from 702 teachers in 42 elementary schools. Teachers self-reported their perceptions of the school context at a single time point, and provided ratings of their students' behavior via the Teacher Observation of Classroom Adaption-Checklist (TOCA-C) across three school years. Latent profile analysis identified three latent classes of teachers based on their ratings of school organizational health, burnout, and efficacy. A regression framework demonstrated an association between the baseline profiles in relation to TOCA-C ratings of student behavior across 3 years. Teachers with more favorable perceptions of the environment had lower initial ratings of concentration problems, disruptive behavior, and internalizing symptoms, and higher ratings of prosocial behaviors and family involvement. They also showed slower growth in their ratings of emotion dysregulation and greater increases of their ratings of family involvement over time. This work is particularly important for determining the extent to which teacher ratings may be biased by teacher and contextual factors, and may have implications for the identification of teachers who may rate students poorly over time. PMID:23949475

  12. Visceral pain perception in patients with irritable bowel syndrome and healthy volunteers is affected by the MRI scanner environment

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Reuben K; Van Oudenhove, Lukas; Li, Xinhua; Cao, Yang; Ho, Khek Yu

    2015-01-01

    Background The MRI scanner environment induces marked psychological effects, but specific effects on pain perception and processing are unknown and relevant to all brain imaging studies. Objectives and methods We performed visceral and somatic quantitative sensory and pain testing and studied endogenous pain modulation by heterotopic stimulation outside and inside the functional MRI scanner in 11 healthy controls and 13 patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Results Rectal pain intensity (VAS 0–100) during identical distension pressures increased from 39 (95% confidence interval: 35–42) outside the scanner to 53 (43–63) inside the scanner in irritable bowel syndrome, and from 42 (31–52) to 49 (39–58), respectively, in controls (ANOVA for scanner effect: p = 0.006, group effect: p = 0.92). The difference in rectal pain outside versus inside correlated significantly with stress (r = −0.76, p = 0.006), anxiety (r = −0.68, p = 0.02) and depression scores (r = −0.67, p = 0.02) in controls, but not in irritable bowel syndrome patients, who a priori had significantly higher stress and anxiety scores. ANOVA analysis showed trends for effect of the scanner environment and subject group on endogenous pain modulation (p = 0.09 and p = 0.1, respectively), but not on somatic pain (p > 0.3). Conclusion The scanner environment significantly increased visceral, but not somatic, pain perception in irritable bowel syndrome patients and healthy controls in a protocol specifically aimed at investigating visceral pain. Psychological factors, including anxiety and stress, are the likely underlying causes, whereas classic endogenous pain modulation pathways activated by heterotopic stimulation play a lesser role. These results are highly relevant to a wide range of imaging applications and need to be taken into account in future pain research. Further controlled studies are indicated to clarify these findings. PMID:26966533

  13. Quantitative trait loci affecting survival and fertility-related traits in Caenorhabditis elegans show genotype-environment interactions, pleiotropy and epistasis.

    PubMed Central

    Shook, D R; Johnson, T E

    1999-01-01

    We have identified, using composite interval mapping, quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting a variety of life history traits (LHTs) in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Using recombinant inbred strains assayed on the surface of agar plates, we found QTL for survival, early fertility, age of onset of sexual maturity, and population growth rate. There was no overall correlation between survival on solid media and previous measures of survival in liquid media. Of the four survival QTL found in these two environments, two have genotype-environment interactions (GEIs). Epistatic interactions between markers were detected for four traits. A multiple regression approach was used to determine which single markers and epistatic interactions best explained the phenotypic variance for each trait. The amount of phenotypic variance accounted for by genetic effects ranged from 13% (for internal hatching) to 46% (for population growth). Epistatic effects accounted for 9-11% of the phenotypic variance for three traits. Two regions containing QTL that affected more than one fertility-related trait were found. This study serves as an example of the power of QTL mapping for dissecting the genetic architecture of a suite of LHTs and indicates the potential importance of environment and GEIs in the evolution of this architecture. PMID:10545455

  14. Real noise from the urban environment: how ambient community noise affects health and what can be done about it.

    PubMed

    Moudon, Anne Vernez

    2009-08-01

    The increasing interest in the potential effects of the community environment on individual health has so far excluded those of the acoustic environment. Yet it has long been recognized that continued exposure to elevated sound levels leads to noise-induced hearing loss. Noise is defined as unwanted sound that disturbs communication and speech intelligibility and interferes with sleep and mental tasks. Evidence points to numerous psychophysiologic outcomes of sustained exposure, including annoyance, reduced performance, aggressive behavior, and increased risk of myocardial infarction. Populated areas have experienced a steady rise in outdoor ambient noise resulting from increases in vehicular traffic and the ubiquitous use of machinery. In 2000, the WHO produced guidelines on occupational and community noise. The European Union mandated noise surveillance and abatement programs in cities. In the U.S., a few cities have revised their noise ordinances, but proactive noise reduction initiatives remain confined to new transportation infrastructure projects, thus leaving a large portion of the population at risk. Adding community noise to the public health agenda seems timely. Research needs to measure population-wide health effects of involuntary long-term exposure to ambient noise. Further study of the range and severity of co-morbidities will help refine the thresholds used to protect health. Policies and interventions, including health impact assessments, will require detailed data on actual ambient noise levels. Reducing noise at the source will likely require new road standards and lower allowable engine noise levels. Finally, noise abatement programs have an environmental justice dimension and need to target the at-risk population. PMID:19589452

  15. Effect of radiocesium transfer on ambient dose rate in forest environments affected by the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, H.

    2015-12-01

    We investigated the transfer of canopy-intercepted radiocesium to the forest floor during 3 years following the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. The cesium-137 (Cs-137) contents in throughfall, stemflow, and litterfall were monitored in two coniferous stands (plantation of Japanese cedar) and a deciduous broad-leaved forest stand (Japanese oak with red pine). We also measured the ambient dose rate (ADR) at different heights in the forest using a survey meter and a portable Ge gamma-ray detector. Total Cs-137 deposition flux from the canopy to forest floor for the mature cedar, young cedar, and the mixed broad-leaved stands were 166 kBq/m2, 174 kBq/m2, and 60 kBq/m2, respectively. These values correspond to 38%, 40% and 13% of total atmospheric input after the accident. The ambient dose rate in forest exhibited height dependency and its vertical distribution varied with forest type and stand age. The ambient dose rate showed an exponential decrease with time for all the forest sites, however the decreasing trend differed depending on the height of dose measurement and forest type. The ambient dose rate at the canopy (approx. 10 m-height) decreased faster than that expected from physical decay of the two radiocesium isotopes, whereas those at the forest floor varied between the three forest stands. The radiocesium deposition via throughfall seemed to increase ambient dose rate during the first 200 days after the accident, however there was no clear relationship between litterfall and ambient dose rate since 400 days after the accident. These data suggested that the ambient dose rate in forest environment varied both spatially and temporally reflecting the transfer of radiocesium from canopy to forest floor. However, further monitoring investigation and analysis are required to determine the effect of litterfall on long-term trend of ambient dose rate in forest environments.

  16. Interaction of the neuropeptide S receptor gene Asn¹⁰⁷Ile variant and environment: contribution to affective and anxiety disorders, and suicidal behaviour.

    PubMed

    Laas, Kariina; Reif, Andreas; Akkermann, Kirsti; Kiive, Evelyn; Domschke, Katharina; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Veidebaum, Toomas; Harro, Jaanus

    2014-04-01

    Neuropeptide S is involved in anxiety and arousal modulation, and the functional polymorphism Asn107Ile (rs324981, A > T) of the neuropeptide S receptor gene (NPSR1) is associated with panic disorder and anxiety/fear-related traits. NPSR1 also interacts with the environment in shaping personality and impulsivity. We therefore examined whether the NPSR1 A/T polymorphism is associated with affective and anxiety disorders in a population-representative sample. Lifetime psychiatric disorders were assessed by MINI interview (n = 501) in the older cohort of the longitudinal Estonian Children Personality, Behaviour and Health Study (ECPBHS). Anxiety (STAI), self-esteem (RSES), depression (MÅDRS), suicide attempts and environmental factors were self-reported in both the younger (original n = 583) and the older cohort (original n = 593). Most of the NPSR1 effects were sex-specific and depended on environmental factors. Females with the functionally least active NPSR1 AA genotype and exposed to environmental adversity had affective/anxiety disorders more frequently; they also exhibited higher anxiety and depressiveness, and lower self-esteem. Female AA homozygotes also reported suicidal behaviour more frequently, and this was further accentuated by adverse family environment. In the general population, the NPSR1 A/T polymorphism together with environmental factors is associated with anxious, depressive and activity-related traits, increased prevalence of affective/anxiety disorders and a higher likelihood of suicidal behaviour. PMID:24331455

  17. Alkaloid Quantities in Endophyte-Infected Tall Fescue are Affected by the Plant-Fungus Combination and Environment.

    PubMed

    Helander, M; Phillips, T; Faeth, S H; Bush, L P; McCulley, R; Saloniemi, I; Saikkonen, K

    2016-02-01

    Many grass species are symbiotic with systemic, vertically-transmitted, asymptomatic Epichloë endophytic fungi. These fungi often produce alkaloids that defend the host against herbivores. We studied how environmental variables affect alkaloids in endophyte-infected tall fescue (Schedonorus phoenix) from three Northern European wild origins and the widely planted US cultivar 'Kentucky-31' (KY31). The plants were grown in identical common garden experiments in Finland and Kentucky for two growing seasons. Plants were left as controls (C) or given water (W), nutrient (N) or water and nutrient (WN) treatments. For 8-10 replications of each plant origin and treatment combination in both experiments, we analyzed ergot alkaloids, lysergic acid, and lolines. In Finland, tall fescue plants produced 50 % more ergot alkaloids compared to plants of the same origin and treatments in Kentucky. Origin of the plants affected the ergot alkaloid concentration at both study sites: the wild origin plants produced 2-4 times more ergot alkaloids than KY31, but the ergot alkaloid concentration of KY31 plants was the same at both locations. Overall lysergic acid content was 60 % higher in plants grown in Kentucky than in those grown in Finland. Nutrient treatments (N, WN) significantly increased ergot alkaloid concentrations in plants from Finland but not in plants from Kentucky. These results suggest that the success of KY31 in US is not due to selection for high ergot alkaloid production but rather other traits associated with the endophyte. In addition, the environmental effects causing variation in alkaloid production of grass-endophyte combinations should be taken into account when using endophyte-infected grasses agriculturally. PMID:26815170

  18. Altered environment and risk of malaria outbreak in South Andaman, Andaman & Nicobar Islands, India affected by tsunami disaster

    PubMed Central

    Krishnamoorthy, Kaliannagoun; Jambulingam, Purushothaman; Natarajan, R; Shriram, AN; Das, Pradeep K; Sehgal, SC

    2005-01-01

    Background Pools of salt water and puddles created by giant waves from the sea due to the tsunami that occurred on 26th December 2004 would facilitate increased breeding of brackish water malaria vector, Anopheles sundaicus. Land uplifts in North Andaman and subsidence in South Andaman have been reported and subsidence may lead to environmental disturbances and vector proliferation. This warrants a situation analysis and vector surveillance in the tsunami hit areas endemic for malaria transmitted by brackish water mosquito, An. sundaicus to predict the risk of outbreak. Methods An extensive survey was carried out in the tsunami-affected areas in Andaman district of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India to assess the extent of breeding of malaria vectors in the habitats created by seawater flooding. Types of habitats in relation to source of seawater inundation and frequency were identified. The salinity of the water samples and the mosquito species present in the larval samples collected from these habitats were recorded. The malaria situation in the area was also analysed. Results South Andaman, covering Port Blair and Ferrargunj sub districts, is still under the recurring phenomenon of seawater intrusion either directly from the sea or through a network of creeks. Both daily cycles of high tides and periodical spring tides continue to cause flooding. Low-lying paddy fields and fallow land, with a salinity ranging from 3,000 to 42,505 ppm, were found to support profuse breeding of An. sundaicus, the local malaria vector, and Anopheles subpictus, a vector implicated elsewhere. This area is endemic for both vivax and falciparum malaria. Malaria slide positivity rate has started increasing during post-tsunami period, which can be considered as an indication of risk of malaria outbreak. Conclusion Paddy fields and fallow land with freshwater, hitherto not considered as potential sites for An. sundaicus, are now major breeding sites due to saline water. Consequently

  19. Goal-oriented training affects decision-making processes in virtual and simulated fire and rescue environments.

    PubMed

    Cohen-Hatton, Sabrina R; Honey, R C

    2015-12-01

    Decisions made by operational commanders at emergency incidents have been characterized as involving a period of information gathering followed by courses of action that are often generated without explicit plan formulation. We examined the efficacy of goal-oriented training in engendering explicit planning that would enable better communication at emergency incidents. While standard training mirrored current operational guidance, goal-oriented training incorporated "decision controls" that highlighted the importance of evaluating goals, anticipated consequences, and risk/benefit analyses once a potential course of action has been identified. In Experiment 1, 3 scenarios (a house fire, road traffic collision, and skip fire) were presented in a virtual environment, and in Experiment 2 they were recreated on the fireground. In Experiment 3, the house fire was recreated as a "live burn," and incident commanders and their crews responded to this scenario as an emergency incident. In all experiments, groups given standard training showed the reported tendency to move directly from information gathering to action, whereas those given goal-oriented training were more likely to develop explicit plans and show anticipatory situational awareness. These results indicate that training can be readily modified to promote explicit plan formulation that could facilitate plan sharing between incident commanders and their teams. PMID:26523338

  20. Reciprocal associations between negative affect, binge eating, and purging in the natural environment in women with bulimia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Lavender, Jason M; Utzinger, Linsey M; Cao, Li; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Engel, Scott G; Mitchell, James E; Crosby, Ross D

    2016-04-01

    Although negative affect (NA) has been identified as a common trigger for bulimic behaviors, findings regarding NA following such behaviors have been mixed. This study examined reciprocal associations between NA and bulimic behaviors using real-time, naturalistic data. Participants were 133 women with bulimia nervosa (BN) according to the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders who completed a 2-week ecological momentary assessment protocol in which they recorded bulimic behaviors and provided multiple daily ratings of NA. A multilevel autoregressive cross-lagged analysis was conducted to examine concurrent, first-order autoregressive, and prospective associations between NA, binge eating, and purging across the day. Results revealed positive concurrent associations between all variables across all time points, as well as numerous autoregressive associations. For prospective associations, higher NA predicted subsequent bulimic symptoms at multiple time points; conversely, binge eating predicted lower NA at multiple time points, and purging predicted higher NA at 1 time point. Several autoregressive and prospective associations were also found between binge eating and purging. This study used a novel approach to examine NA in relation to bulimic symptoms, contributing to the existing literature by directly examining the magnitude of the associations, examining differences in the associations across the day, and controlling for other associations in testing each effect in the model. These findings may have relevance for understanding the etiology and/or maintenance of bulimic symptoms, as well as potentially informing psychological interventions for BN. PMID:26692122

  1. Parameters Describing Earth Observing Remote Sensing Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zanoni, Vicki; Ryan, Robert E.; Pagnutti, Mary; Davis, Bruce; Markham, Brian; Storey, Jim

    2003-01-01

    The Earth science community needs to generate consistent and standard definitions for spatial, spectral, radiometric, and geometric properties describing passive electro-optical Earth observing sensors and their products. The parameters used to describe sensors and to describe their products are often confused. In some cases, parameters for a sensor and for its products are identical; in other cases, these parameters vary widely. Sensor parameters are bound by the fundamental performance of a system, while product parameters describe what is available to the end user. Products are often resampled, edge sharpened, pan-sharpened, or compressed, and can differ drastically from the intrinsic data acquired by the sensor. Because detailed sensor performance information may not be readily available to an international science community, standardization of product parameters is of primary performance. Spatial product parameters described include Modulation Transfer Function (MTF), point spread function, line spread function, edge response, stray light, edge sharpening, aliasing, ringing, and compression effects. Spectral product parameters discussed include full width half maximum, ripple, slope edge, and out-of-band rejection. Radiometric product properties discussed include relative and absolute radiometry, noise equivalent spectral radiance, noise equivalent temperature diffenence, and signal-to-noise ratio. Geometric product properties discussed include geopositional accuracy expressed as CE90, LE90, and root mean square error. Correlated properties discussed include such parameters as band-to-band registration, which is both a spectral and a spatial property. In addition, the proliferation of staring and pushbroom sensor architectures requires new parameters to describe artifacts that are different from traditional cross-track system artifacts. A better understanding of how various system parameters affect product performance is also needed to better ascertain the

  2. An analysis on how switching to a more balanced and naturally improved milk would affect consumer health and the environment.

    PubMed

    Roibás, Laura; Martínez, Ismael; Goris, Alfonso; Barreiro, Rocío; Hospido, Almudena

    2016-10-01

    This study compares a premium brand of UHT milk, Unicla, characterised by an improved nutritional composition, to conventional milk, in terms of health effects and environmental impacts. Unlike enriched milks, in which nutrients are added to the final product, Unicla is obtained naturally by improving the diet of the dairy cows. Health effects have been analysed based on literature findings, while the environmental analysis focused on those spheres of the environment where milk is expected to cause the higher impacts, and thus carbon (CF) and water footprints (WF) have been determined. Five final products have been compared: 3 conventional (skimmed, semi-skimmed, whole) and 2 Unicla (skimmed, semi-skimmed) milks. As a functional unit, one litre of packaged UHT milk entering the regional distribution centre has been chosen. The improved composition of Unicla milk is expected to decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease and to protect consumers against oxidative damage, among other health benefits. Concerning the environmental aspect, CF of Unicla products are, on average, 10% lower than their conventional equivalents, mainly due to the lower enteric emissions of caused by the Unicla diet. No significant differences were found between the WF of Unicla and conventional milk. Raw milk is the main contributor to both footprints (on average, 83.2 and 84.3% of the total CF of Unicla and conventional milk, respectively, and 99.9% of WF). The results have been compared to those found in literature, and a sensitivity analysis has been performed to verify their robustness. The study concludes that switching to healthier milk compositions can help slowing down global warming, without contributing to other environmental issues such as water scarcity. The results should encourage other milk companies to commit to the development of healthier, less environmentally damaging products, and also to stimulate consumers to bet on them. PMID:27239712

  3. Timed food availability affects circadian behavior but not the neuropeptide Y expression in Indian weaverbirds exposed to atypical light environment.

    PubMed

    Singh, Devraj; Trivedi, Neerja; Malik, Shalie; Rani, Sangeeta; Kumar, Vinod

    2016-07-01

    We tested the hypothesis whether daily food availability period would restore rhythmicity in individuals with disrupted circadian behavior with no effect on appetite regulation. Particularly, we investigated the effects of timed food availability on activity behavior, and Fos and neuropeptide Y expressions in Indian weaverbirds (Ploceus philippinus) under atypical light conditions. Initially, weaverbirds in 3 groups of 7-8 each were entrained to 7L:17D (25: <0.3lx) with food ad libitum. Thereafter, food availability was restricted for 7h such that it overlapped with the light period. After a week, 7L:17D was replaced with 3.5L: 3.5D (T7, group 1), 3.5L: 20.5D (T24, group 2) or constant dim light, LLdim (<0.3lx, group 3) for 5weeks. Food cycles synchronized the circadian activity behavior, albeit with group differences, but did not affect body mass, blood glucose levels or testis size. Further, Fos, not NPY mRNA or peptide, expression measured at ZT2 and ZT14 (ZT0=time of food given) showed significant group differences in the hippocampus, dorsomedial hypothalamus and infundibular nuclear complex. Another identical experiment examined after-effects of the 3 light conditions on persistence of the circadian rhythms. Weaverbirds exposed for 4weeks to identical food but different light conditions, as above, were released into the free-running condition of food ad libitum and LLdim. Circadian rhythms were decayed in birds previously exposed to T7 LD cycle. Overall, these results show that timed meal restores rhythmicity in individuals with circadian rhythm disruptions without involving neuropeptide Y, the key appetite regulatory molecule. PMID:27085910

  4. Resilience through participation and coping-enabling social environments: the case of HIV-affected children in sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Skovdal, Morten; Daniel, Marguerite

    2012-01-01

    Many children and youths living in low-resource and high-HIV-prevalence communities in sub-Saharan Africa are presented with daily hardships that few of us can even imagine. It is therefore no surprise that most research reporting on the experiences of HIV-affected children in resource-poor settings focuses on their poor health and development outcomes, casting them as victims. However, there is a growing trend to draw on more strengths-based conceptualisations in the study and support of HIV-affected children and youths. In this introduction to a special issue of The African Journal of AIDS Research, we cement this trend by providing a theoretical exposition and critique of the ‘coping’ and ‘resilience’ concepts and draw on the 11 empirical studies that make up this special issue to develop a framework that appropriates the concepts for a particular context and area of study: HIV-affected children in sub-Saharan Africa. The articles included here show, albeit in different ways and to different degrees, that the resilience of HIV-affected children in the region is an outcome of their agency and interactions with their social environment. Policy actors and practitioners working to support HIV-affected children in Africa should take heed of the proposed framework and draw on the research presented here to build coping-enabling social environments—presenting children and youths in Africa with greater opportunity to actively deal with hardship and work towards a more promising future. PMID:24482634

  5. Stimulated recall interviews for describing pragmatic epistemology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shubert, Christopher W.; Meredith, Dawn C.

    2015-12-01

    Students' epistemologies affect how and what they learn: do they believe physics is a list of equations, or a coherent and sensible description of the physical world? In order to study these epistemologies as part of curricular assessment, we adopt the resources framework, which posits that students have many productive epistemological resources that can be brought to bear as they learn physics. In previous studies, these epistemologies have been either inferred from behavior in learning contexts or probed through surveys or interviews outside of the learning context. We argue that stimulated recall interviews provide a contextually and interpretively valid method to access students' epistemologies that complement existing methods. We develop a stimulated recall interview methodology to assess a curricular intervention and find evidence that epistemological resources aptly describe student epistemologies.

  6. Using the WTO/TBT enquiry point to monitor tendencies in the regulation of environment, health, and safety issues affecting the chemical industry.

    PubMed

    Pio Borges Menezes, Rodrigo; Maria de Souza Antunes, Adelaide

    2005-04-01

    The growing importance of technical regulation affecting the use and sale of chemical products is a topic of interest not only for the chemical industry, but also for governments, nongovernmental organizations, consumers, and interested communities. The results of such regulation on behalf of the environment, health and safety of individuals, as well as its economic effects on industrial activity, are well understood in the United States and recently in the European Union. In less developed countries, however, the general level of public understanding of these issues is still minimal. It is common knowledge that the so-called "regulatory asymmetry" between countries at different levels of development contributes to the establishment of technical barriers to trade. Such asymmetries, however, also have other impacts: the displacement of polluting industrial sectors to countries which have less demanding regulations, the concentration of unsafe and harmful environmental conditions in certain parts of the globe, and the competitive disadvantage for industries located in countries where control is more rigid. This study analyses information on a wide range of technical regulations issued by World Trade Organization (WTO) members, and focuses on those regulations that affect the chemical industry. This information is available through the WTO Enquiry Points, organizations created in each country to administrate the Technical Barriers to Trade Agreement (TBT). This article consists of an analysis of 4,301 notifications of technical regulations by WTO member states in the 7-year period following the establishment of the WTO in 1995. Starting from this mass of information, 585 notifications that affect the circulation or use of chemical products were isolated. Of this group, 71% refer to only 15 countries. This group of notifications was further classified according to their motivation (the environment, health, safety), by the type of product affected (medications, fuels

  7. Canada issues booklet describing acid rain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A booklet recently released by Environment Canada describes acid rain in terms easily understood by the general public. Although Acid Rain — The Facts tends somewhat to give the Canadian side of this intercountry controversial subject, it nevertheless presents some very interesting, simple statistics of interest to people in either the U.S. or Canada. Copies of the booklet can be obtained from Inquiry Environment Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A OH3, Canada, tel. 613-997-2800.The booklet points out that acid rain is caused by emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). Once released into the atmosphere, these substances can be carried long distances by prevailing winds and return to Earth as acidic rain, snow, fog, or dust. The main sources of SO2 emissions in North America are coal-fired power generating stations and nonferrous ore smelters. The main sources of NOx emissions are vehicles and fuel combustion. From economical and environmental viewpoints, Canada believes acid rain is one of the most serious problems presently facing the country: increasing the acidity of more than 20% of Canada's 300,000 lakes to the point that aquatic life is depleted and acidity of soil water and shallow groundwater is increasing, causing decline in forest growth and water fowl populations, and eating away at buildings and monuments. Acid rain is endangering fisheries, tourism, agriculture, and forest resources in an area of 2.6 million km2 (one million square miles) of eastern Canada, about 8% of Canada's gross national product.

  8. The challenging environment on board the International Space Station affects endothelial cell function by triggering oxidative stress through thioredoxin interacting protein overexpression: the ESA-SPHINX experiment.

    PubMed

    Versari, Silvia; Longinotti, Giulia; Barenghi, Livia; Maier, Jeanette Anne Marie; Bradamante, Silvia

    2013-11-01

    Exposure to microgravity generates alterations that are similar to those involved in age-related diseases, such as cardiovascular deconditioning, bone loss, muscle atrophy, and immune response impairment. Endothelial dysfunction is the common denominator. To shed light on the underlying mechanism, we participated in the Progress 40P mission with Spaceflight of Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVECs): an Integrated Experiment (SPHINX), which consisted of 12 in-flight and 12 ground-based control modules and lasted 10 d. Postflight microarray analysis revealed 1023 significantly modulated genes, the majority of which are involved in cell adhesion, oxidative phosphorylation, stress responses, cell cycle, and apoptosis. Thioredoxin-interacting protein was the most up-regulated (33-fold), heat-shock proteins 70 and 90 the most down-regulated (5.6-fold). Ion channels (TPCN1, KCNG2, KCNJ14, KCNG1, KCNT1, TRPM1, CLCN4, CLCA2), mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, and focal adhesion were widely affected. Cytokine detection in the culture media indicated significant increased secretion of interleukin-1α and interleukin-1β. Nitric oxide was found not modulated. Our data suggest that in cultured HUVECs, microgravity affects the same molecular machinery responsible for sensing alterations of flow and generates a prooxidative environment that activates inflammatory responses, alters endothelial behavior, and promotes senescence. PMID:23913861

  9. Animated pedagogical agents: How the presence and nonverbal communication of a virtual instructor affect perceptions and learning outcomes in a computer-based environment about basic physics concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frechette, M. Casey

    One important but under-researched area of instructional technology concerns the effects of animated pedagogical agents (APAs), or lifelike characters designed to enhance learning in computer-based environments. This research sought to broaden what is currently known about APAs' instructional value by investigating the effects of agents' visual presence and nonverbal communication. A theoretical framework based on APA literature published in the past decade guided the design of the study. This framework sets forth that APAs impact learning through their presence and communication. The communication displayed by an APA involves two distinct kinds of nonverbal cues: cognitive (hand and arm gestures) and affective (facial expressions). It was predicted that the presence of an agent would enhance learning and that nonverbal communication would amplify these effects. The research utilized a between-subjects experimental design. Participants were randomly assigned to treatment conditions in a controlled lab setting, and group means were compared with a MANCOVA. Participants received (1) a non-animated agent, (2) an agent with hand and arm gestures, (3) an agent with facial expressions, or (4) a fully animated agent. The agent appeared in a virtual learning environment focused on Kepler's laws of planetary motion. A control group did not receive the visual presence of an agent. Two effects were studied: participants' perceptions and their learning outcomes. Perceptions were measured with an attitudinal survey with five subscales. Learning outcomes were measured with an open-ended recall test, a multiple choice comprehension test, and an open-ended transfer test. Learners presented with an agent with affective nonverbal communication comprehended less than learners exposed to a non-animated agent. No significant differences were observed when a group exposed to a fully animated agent was compared to a group with a non-animated agent. Adding both nonverbal communication

  10. Plans should abstractly describe intended behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Pfleger, K.; Hayes-Roth, B.

    1996-12-31

    Planning is the process of formulating a potential course of action. How courses of action (plans) produced by a planning module are represented and how they are used by execution-oriented modules of a complex agent to influence or dictate behavior are critical architectural issues. In contrast to the traditional model of plans as executable programs that dictate precise behaviors, we claim that autonomous agents inhabiting dynamic, unpredictable environments can make better use of plans that only abstractly describe their intended behavior. Such plans only influence or constrain behavior, rather than dictating it. This idea has been discussed in a variety of contexts, but it is seldom incorporated into working complex agents. Experiments involving instantiations of our Adaptive Intelligent Systems architecture in a variety of domains have demonstrated the generality and usefulness of the approach, even with our currently simple plan representation and mechanisms for plan following. The behavioral benefits include (1) robust improvisation of goal-directed behavior in response to dynamic situations, (2) ready exploitation of dynamically acquired knowledge or behavioral capabilities, and (3) adaptation based on dynamic aspects of coordinating diverse behaviors to achieve multiple goals. In addition to these run-time advantages, the approach has useful implications for the design and configuration of agents. Indeed, the core ideas of the approach are natural extensions of fundamental ideas in software engineering.

  11. Some computational techniques for estimating human operator describing functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levison, W. H.

    1986-01-01

    Computational procedures for improving the reliability of human operator describing functions are described. Special attention is given to the estimation of standard errors associated with mean operator gain and phase shift as computed from an ensemble of experimental trials. This analysis pertains to experiments using sum-of-sines forcing functions. Both open-loop and closed-loop measurement environments are considered.

  12. Small Variations in Early-Life Environment Can Affect Coping Behaviour in Response to Foraging Challenge in the Three-Spined Stickleback

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Context An increasing concern in the face of human expansion throughout natural habitats is whether animal populations can respond adaptively when confronted with challenges like environmental change and novelty. Behavioural flexibility is an important factor in estimating the adaptive potential of both individuals and populations, and predicting the degree to which they can cope with change. Study Design This study on the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) is an empiric illustration of the degree of behavioural variation that can emerge between semi-natural systems within only a single generation. Wild-caught adult sticklebacks (P, N = 400) were randomly distributed in equal densities over 20 standardized semi-natural environments (ponds), and one year later offspring (F1, N = 652) were presented with repeated behavioural assays. Individuals were challenged to reach a food source through a novel transparent obstacle, during which exploration, activity, foraging, sociability and wall-biting behaviours were recorded through video observation. We found that coping responses of individuals from the first generation to this unfamiliar foraging challenge were related to even relatively small, naturally diversified variation in developmental environment. All measured behaviours were correlated with each other. Especially exploration, sociability and wall-biting were found to differ significantly between ponds. These differences could not be explained by stickleback density or the turbidity of the water. Findings Our findings show that a) differences in early-life environment appear to affect stickleback feeding behaviour later in life; b) this is the case even when the environmental differences are only small, within natural parameters and diversified gradually; and c) effects are present despite semi-natural conditions that fluctuate during the year. Therefore, in behaviourally plastic animals like the stickleback, the adaptive response to human

  13. Describing functions for nonlinear optical systems.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, A K

    1997-10-10

    The concept of describing functions is useful for analyzing and designing nonlinear systems. A proposal for using the idea of describing functions for studying the behavior of a nonlinear optical processing system is given. The describing function can be used in the same way that a coherent transfer function or optical transfer function is used to characterize linear, shift-invariant optical processors. Two coherent optical systems for measuring the magnitude of the describing function of nonlinear optical processors are suggested. PMID:18264243

  14. Evolution of Linked Avirulence Effectors in Leptosphaeria maculans Is Affected by Genomic Environment and Exposure to Resistance Genes in Host Plants

    PubMed Central

    Van de Wouw, Angela P.; Cozijnsen, Anton J.; Hane, James K.; Brunner, Patrick C.; McDonald, Bruce A.; Oliver, Richard P.; Howlett, Barbara J.

    2010-01-01

    Brassica napus (canola) cultivars and isolates of the blackleg fungus, Leptosphaeria maculans interact in a ‘gene for gene’ manner whereby plant resistance (R) genes are complementary to pathogen avirulence (Avr) genes. Avirulence genes encode proteins that belong to a class of pathogen molecules known as effectors, which includes small secreted proteins that play a role in disease. In Australia in 2003 canola cultivars with the Rlm1 resistance gene suffered a breakdown of disease resistance, resulting in severe yield losses. This was associated with a large increase in the frequency of virulence alleles of the complementary avirulence gene, AvrLm1, in fungal populations. Surprisingly, the frequency of virulence alleles of AvrLm6 (complementary to Rlm6) also increased dramatically, even though the cultivars did not contain Rlm6. In the L. maculans genome, AvrLm1 and AvrLm6 are linked along with five other genes in a region interspersed with transposable elements that have been degenerated by Repeat-Induced Point (RIP) mutations. Analyses of 295 Australian isolates showed deletions, RIP mutations and/or non-RIP derived amino acid substitutions in the predicted proteins encoded by these seven genes. The degree of RIP mutations within single copy sequences in this region was proportional to their proximity to the degenerated transposable elements. The RIP alleles were monophyletic and were present only in isolates collected after resistance conferred by Rlm1 broke down, whereas deletion alleles belonged to several polyphyletic lineages and were present before and after the resistance breakdown. Thus, genomic environment and exposure to resistance genes in B. napus has affected the evolution of these linked avirulence genes in L. maculans. PMID:21079787

  15. Cellular automata to describe seismicity: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez, Abigail

    2013-12-01

    Cellular Automata have been used in the literature to describe seismicity. We first historically introduce Cellular Automata and provide some important definitions. Then we proceed to review the most important models, most of them being variations of the spring-block model proposed by Burridge and Knopoff, and describe the most important results obtained from them. We discuss the relation with criticality and also describe some models that try to reproduce real data.

  16. In vitro experimental environments lacking or containing soil disparately affect competition experiments of Aspergillus flavus and co-occurring fungi in maize grains.

    PubMed

    Falade, Titilayo D O; Syed Mohdhamdan, Sharifah H; Sultanbawa, Yasmina; Fletcher, Mary T; Harvey, Jagger J W; Chaliha, Mridusmita; Fox, Glen P

    2016-07-01

    In vitro experimental environments are used to study interactions between microorganisms, and to predict dynamics in natural ecosystems. This study highlights that experimental in vitro environments should be selected to match closely the natural environment of interest during in vitro studies to strengthen extrapolations about aflatoxin production by Aspergillus and competing organisms. Fungal competition and aflatoxin accumulation were studied in soil, cotton wool or tube (water-only) environments, for Aspergillus flavus competition with Penicillium purpurogenum, Fusarium oxysporum or Sarocladium zeae within maize grains. Inoculated grains were incubated in each environment at two temperature regimes (25 and 30°C). Competition experiments showed interaction between the main effects of aflatoxin accumulation and the environment at 25°C, but not so at 30°C. However, competition experiments showed fungal populations were always interacting with their environments. Fungal survival differed after the 72-h incubation in different experimental environments. Whereas all fungi incubated within the soil environment survived, in the cotton wool environment none of the competitors of A. flavus survived at 30°C. With aflatoxin accumulation, F. oxysporum was the only fungus able to interdict aflatoxin production at both temperatures. This occurred only in the soil environment and fumonisins accumulated instead. Smallholder farmers in developing countries face serious mycotoxin contamination of their grains, and soil is a natural reservoir for the associated fungal propagules, and a drying and storage surface for grains on these farms. Studying fungal dynamics in the soil environment and other environments in vitro can provide insights into aflatoxin accumulation post-harvest. PMID:27264786

  17. Venus general atmosphere circulation described by Pioneer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The predominant weather pattern for Venus is described. Wind directions and wind velocities are given. Possible driving forces of the winds are presented and include solar heating, planetary rotation, and the greenhouse effect.

  18. Stimulated Recall Interviews for Describing Pragmatic Epistemology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shubert, Christopher W.; Meredith, Dawn C.

    2015-01-01

    Students' epistemologies affect how and what they learn: do they believe physics is a list of equations, or a coherent and sensible description of the physical world? In order to study these epistemologies as part of curricular assessment, we adopt the resources framework, which posits that students have many productive epistemological resources…

  19. Describing content in middle school science curricula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz-Ballard, Jennifer A.

    As researchers and designers, we intuitively recognize differences between curricula and describe them in terms of design strategy: project-based, laboratory-based, modular, traditional, and textbook, among others. We assume that practitioners recognize the differences in how each requires that students use knowledge, however these intuitive differences have not been captured or systematically described by the existing languages for describing learning goals. In this dissertation I argue that we need new ways of capturing relationships among elements of content, and propose a theory that describes some of the important differences in how students reason in differently designed curricula and activities. Educational researchers and curriculum designers have taken a variety of approaches to laying out learning goals for science. Through an analysis of existing descriptions of learning goals I argue that to describe differences in the understanding students come away with, they need to (1) be specific about the form of knowledge, (2) incorporate both the processes through which knowledge is used and its form, and (3) capture content development across a curriculum. To show the value of inquiry curricula, learning goals need to incorporate distinctions among the variety of ways we ask students to use knowledge. Here I propose the Epistemic Structures Framework as one way to describe differences in students reasoning that are not captured by existing descriptions of learning goals. The usefulness of the Epistemic Structures framework is demonstrated in the four curriculum case study examples in Part II of this work. The curricula in the case studies represent a range of content coverage, curriculum structure, and design rationale. They serve both to illustrate the Epistemic Structures analysis process and make the case that it does in fact describe learning goals in a way that captures important differences in students reasoning in differently designed curricula

  20. Factors Affecting Study-Related Burnout among Finnish University Students: Teaching-Learning Environment, Achievement Motivation and the Meaning of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meriläinen, Matti

    2014-01-01

    This study of a large sample (n = 3035) examined relationships between study-related burnout and components of the teaching-learning environment, achievement motivation and the perceived meaning of life. The overall model, tested with structural equation modelling, revealed that the factor of the teaching-learning environment correlated with both…

  1. Chinese Students' Perceptions of a Collaborative E-Learning Environment and Factors Affecting Their Performance: Implementing a Flemish E-Learning Course in a Chinese Educational Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Chang; Valcke, Martin; Schellens, Tammy; Li, Yifei

    2009-01-01

    This study was set up in a Chinese university in Beijing by implementing a Flemish e-learning course in a Chinese setting. A main feature of the e-learning environment is the asynchronous "task-based" online group discussion. The purpose of the study is to understand Chinese students' perceptions of a collaborative e-learning environment and the…

  2. An Evolving Framework for Describing Student Engagement in Classroom Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azevedo, Flavio S.; diSessa, Andrea A.; Sherin, Bruce L.

    2012-01-01

    Student engagement in classroom activities is usually described as a function of factors such as human needs, affect, intention, motivation, interests, identity, and others. We take a different approach and develop a framework that models classroom engagement as a function of students' "conceptual competence" in the "specific content" (e.g., the…

  3. Consistent approach to describing aircraft HIRF protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rimbey, P. R.; Walen, D. B.

    1995-01-01

    The high intensity radiated fields (HIRF) certification process as currently implemented is comprised of an inconsistent combination of factors that tend to emphasize worst case scenarios in assessing commercial airplane certification requirements. By examining these factors which include the process definition, the external HIRF environment, the aircraft coupling and corresponding internal fields, and methods of measuring equipment susceptibilities, activities leading to an approach to appraising airplane vulnerability to HIRF are proposed. This approach utilizes technically based criteria to evaluate the nature of the threat, including the probability of encountering the external HIRF environment. No single test or analytic method comprehensively addresses the full HIRF threat frequency spectrum. Additional tools such as statistical methods must be adopted to arrive at more realistic requirements to reflect commercial aircraft vulnerability to the HIRF threat. Test and analytic data are provided to support the conclusions of this report. This work was performed under NASA contract NAS1-19360, Task 52.

  4. Quantum formalism to describe binocular rivalry.

    PubMed

    Manousakis, Efstratios

    2009-11-01

    On the basis of the general character and operation of the process of perception, a formalism is sought to mathematically describe the subjective or abstract/mental process of perception. It is shown that the formalism of orthodox quantum theory of measurement, where the observer plays a key role, is a broader mathematical foundation which can be adopted to describe the dynamics of the subjective experience. The mathematical formalism describes the psychophysical dynamics of the subjective or cognitive experience as communicated to us by the subject. Subsequently, the formalism is used to describe simple perception processes and, in particular, to describe the probability distribution of dominance duration obtained from the testimony of subjects experiencing binocular rivalry. Using this theory and parameters based on known values of neuronal oscillation frequencies and firing rates, the calculated probability distribution of dominance duration of rival states in binocular rivalry under various conditions is found to be in good agreement with available experimental data. This theory naturally explains an observed marked increase in dominance duration in binocular rivalry upon periodic interruption of stimulus and yields testable predictions for the distribution of perceptual alteration in time. PMID:19520143

  5. DESCRIBING LYMPHEDEMA IN FEMALES WITH TURNER SYNDROME.

    PubMed

    Rothbauer, J; Driver, S; Callender, L

    2015-09-01

    Turner syndrome (TS) is a chromosomal condition affecting an estimated 1 in 2,500 girls where the second X chromosome is missing, or partially formed. This abnormality affects multiple body systems and can lead to short stature, cardiac, neural, and renal abnormalities. Due to the chronic, non-life threatening nature of lymphedema in comparison to other symptoms of TS, it is often ignored by girls and women with TS and their physicians. Consequently, little is known about how lymphedema affects girls and women with TS across the lifespan. Therefore, the objective of the study was to deliver an online survey for females with TS and caregivers in the US, UK, and Canada to provide a worldwide perspective on their current experience with lymphedema within the spectrum of TS. There were 219 participants who completed the survey, and we were able to identify incidence and characteristics of lymphedema across the lifespan. In addition, we found that females with 45,X karyotyping were more likely to report lymphedema symptoms. Lymphedema is not the most significant concern of females with TS, but education, physician evaluation, and assistance with referrals for treatment and management would improve the ease of managing lymphedema in girls and women with TS. PMID:26939161

  6. Recently described neoplasms of the sinonasal tract.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Justin A

    2016-03-01

    Surgical pathology of the sinonasal region (i.e., nasal cavity and the paranasal sinuses) is notoriously difficult, due in part to the remarkable diversity of neoplasms that may be encountered in this area. In addition, a number of neoplasms have been only recently described in the sinonasal tract, further compounding the difficulty for pathologists who are not yet familiar with them. This manuscript will review the clinicopathologic features of some of the recently described sinonasal tumor types: NUT midline carcinoma, HPV-related carcinoma with adenoid cystic-like features, SMARCB1 (INI-1) deficient sinonasal carcinoma, biphenotypic sinonasal sarcoma, and adamantinoma-like Ewing family tumor. PMID:26776744

  7. USING TRACERS TO DESCRIBE NAPL HETEROGENEITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Tracers are frequently used to estimate both the average travel time for water flow through the tracer swept volume and NAPL saturation. The same data can be used to develop a statistical distribution describing the hydraulic conductivity in the sept volume and a possible distri...

  8. Describing Technological Paradigm Transitions: A Methodological Exploration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Danny P.; Van Fleet, Connie

    1997-01-01

    Presents a humorous treatment of the "sessio taurino" (or humanistic inquiry) technique for describing changes in technological models. The fundamental tool of "sessio taurino" is a loosely-structured event known as the session, which is of indeterminate length, involves a flexible number of participants, and utilizes a preundetermined set of…

  9. Is the Water Heating Curve as Described?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riveros, H. G.; Oliva, A. I.

    2008-01-01

    We analysed the heating curve of water which is described in textbooks. An experiment combined with some simple heat transfer calculations is discussed. The theoretical behaviour can be altered by changing the conditions under which the experiment is modelled. By identifying and controlling the different parameters involved during the heating…

  10. How Digital Native Learners Describe Themselves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Penny

    2015-01-01

    Eight university students from the "digital native" generation were interviewed about the connections they saw between technology use and learning, and also their reactions to the popular press claims about their generation. Themes that emerged from the interviews were coded to show patterns in how digital natives describe themselves.…

  11. Describing functional requirements for knowledge sharing communities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrett, Sandra; Caldwell, Barrett

    2002-01-01

    Human collaboration in distributed knowledge sharing groups depends on the functionality of information and communication technologies (ICT) to support performance. Since many of these dynamic environments are constrained by time limits, knowledge must be shared efficiently by adapting the level of information detail to the specific situation. This paper focuses on the process of knowledge and context sharing with and without mediation by ICT, as well as issues to be resolved when determining appropriate ICT channels. Both technology-rich and non-technology examples are discussed.

  12. CANDLE syndrome: a recently described autoinflammatory syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tüfekçi, Özlem; Bengoa, ŞebnemYilmaz; Karapinar, Tuba Hilkay; Ataseven, Eda Büke; İrken, Gülersu; Ören, Hale

    2015-05-01

    CANDLE syndrome (chronic atypical neutrophilic dermatosis with lipodystrophy and elevated temperature) is a recently described autoinflammatory syndrome characterized by early onset, recurrent fever, skin lesions, and multisystemic inflammatory manifestations. Most of the patients have been shown to have mutation in PSMB8 gene. Herein, we report a 2-year-old patient with young onset recurrent fever, atypical facies, widespread skin lesions, generalized lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, joint contractures, hypertrglyceridemia, lipodystrophy, and autoimmune hemolytic anemia. Clinical features together with the skin biopsy findings were consistent with the CANDLE syndrome. The pathogenesis and treatment of this syndrome have not been fully understood. Increased awareness of this recently described syndrome may lead to recognition of new cases and better understanding of its pathogenesis which in turn may help for development of an effective treatment. PMID:25036278

  13. LiveDescribe: Can Amateur Describers Create High-Quality Audio Description?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branje, Carmen J.; Fels, Deborah I.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The study presented here evaluated the usability of the audio description software LiveDescribe and explored the acceptance rates of audio description created by amateur describers who used LiveDescribe to facilitate the creation of their descriptions. Methods: Twelve amateur describers with little or no previous experience with…

  14. Multiscale Model Describing Bacterial Adhesion and Detachment.

    PubMed

    Ostvar, Sassan; Wood, Brian D

    2016-05-24

    Bacterial surfaces are complex structures with nontrivial adhesive properties. The physics of bacterial adhesion deviates from that of ideal colloids as a result of cell-surface roughness and because of the mechanical properties of the polymers covering the cell surface. In the present study, we develop a simple multiscale model for the interplay between the potential energy functions that characterize the cell surface biopolymers and their interaction with the extracellular environment. We then use the model to study a discrete network of bonds in the presence of significant length heterogeneities in cell-surface polymers. The model we present is able to generate force curves (both approach and retraction) that closely resemble those measured experimentally. Our results show that even small-length-scale heterogeneities can lead to macroscopically nonlinear behavior that is qualitatively and quantitatively different from the homogeneous case. We also report on the energetic consequences of such structural heterogeneity. PMID:27129780

  15. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Adult Mental Health: Evidence for Gene-Environment Interplay as a Function of Maternal and Paternal Discipline and Affection.

    PubMed

    South, Susan C; Jarnecke, Amber M

    2015-07-01

    Researchers have long theorized that genetic influence on mental health may differ as a function of environmental risk factors. One likely moderator of genetic and environmental influences on psychopathological symptoms is parenting behavior, as phenotypic research shows that negative aspects of parent-child relationships are associated with greater likelihood of mental illness in adulthood. The current study examined whether levels of reported parental discipline and affection experienced in childhood act as a trigger, or buffer, for adult mental health problems. Results from a nationwide twin sample suggest level of father's discipline and affection, as reported by now-adult twins, moderated genetic and environmental influences on internalizing symptoms in adulthood, such that heritability was greatest at the highest levels of discipline and affection. Father's affection also moderated the etiological influences on alcohol use problems, with greater heritability at the lowest levels of affection. No moderating effect was found for mothers. Findings suggest relationships with fathers in childhood can have long-lasting effects on the etiological influences on adult mental health outcomes. PMID:25842345

  16. [Who really first described lesser blood circulation?].

    PubMed

    Masić, Izet; Dilić, Mirza

    2007-01-01

    Today, at least 740 years since professor and director of the Al Mansouri Hospital in Cairo Ibn al-Nafis (1210-1288), in his paper about pulse described small (pulmonary) blood circulatory system. At the most popular web search engines very often we can find its name, especially in English language. Majority of quotes about Ibn Nefis are on Arabic or Turkish language, although Ibn Nefis discovery is of world wide importance. Author Masić I. (1993) is among rare ones who in some of the indexed journals emphasized of that event, and on that debated also some authors from Great Britain and USA in the respectable magazine Annals of Internal Medicine. Citations in majority mentioning other two "describers" or "discoverers" of pulmonary blood circulation, Michael Servetus (1511-1553), physician and theologist, and William Harvey (1578-1657), which in his paper "Exercitatio anatomica de motu cordis et sanguinis in animalibus" published in 1628 described blood circulatory system. Ibn Nefis is due to its scientific work called "Second Avicenna". Some of his papers, during centuries were translated into Latin, and some published as a reprint in Arabic language. Professor Fuat Sezgin from Frankfurt published a compendium of Ibn Nefis papers in 1997. Also, Masić I. (1997) has published one monography about Ibn Nefis. Importance of Ibn Nefis epochal discovery is the fact that it is solely based on deductive impressions, because his description of the small circulation is not occurred by observation on corps during section. It is known that he did not pay attention to the Galen's theories about blood circulation. His prophecy sentence say: "If I don't know that my work will not last up to ten thousand years after me, I would not write them". Sapient sat. PMID:21553447

  17. Is an eclipse described in the Odyssey?

    PubMed Central

    Baikouzis, Constantino; Magnasco, Marcelo O.

    2008-01-01

    Plutarch and Heraclitus believed a certain passage in the 20th book of the Odyssey (“Theoclymenus's prophecy”) to be a poetic description of a total solar eclipse. In the late 1920s, Schoch and Neugebauer computed that the solar eclipse of 16 April 1178 B.C.E. was total over the Ionian Islands and was the only suitable eclipse in more than a century to agree with classical estimates of the decade-earlier sack of Troy around 1192–1184 B.C.E. However, much skepticism remains about whether the verses refer to this, or any, eclipse. To contribute to the issue independently of the disputed eclipse reference, we analyze other astronomical references in the Epic, without assuming the existence of an eclipse, and search for dates matching the astronomical phenomena we believe they describe. We use three overt astronomical references in the epic: to Boötes and the Pleiades, Venus, and the New Moon; we supplement them with a conjectural identification of Hermes's trip to Ogygia as relating to the motion of planet Mercury. Performing an exhaustive search of all possible dates in the span 1250–1115 B.C., we looked to match these phenomena in the order and manner that the text describes. In that period, a single date closely matches our references: 16 April 1178 B.C.E. We speculate that these references, plus the disputed eclipse reference, may refer to that specific eclipse. PMID:18577587

  18. Is an eclipse described in the Odyssey?

    PubMed

    Baikouzis, Constantino; Magnasco, Marcelo O

    2008-07-01

    Plutarch and Heraclitus believed a certain passage in the 20th book of the Odyssey ("Theoclymenus's prophecy") to be a poetic description of a total solar eclipse. In the late 1920s, Schoch and Neugebauer computed that the solar eclipse of 16 April 1178 B.C.E. was total over the Ionian Islands and was the only suitable eclipse in more than a century to agree with classical estimates of the decade-earlier sack of Troy around 1192-1184 B.C.E. However, much skepticism remains about whether the verses refer to this, or any, eclipse. To contribute to the issue independently of the disputed eclipse reference, we analyze other astronomical references in the Epic, without assuming the existence of an eclipse, and search for dates matching the astronomical phenomena we believe they describe. We use three overt astronomical references in the epic: to Boötes and the Pleiades, Venus, and the New Moon; we supplement them with a conjectural identification of Hermes's trip to Ogygia as relating to the motion of planet Mercury. Performing an exhaustive search of all possible dates in the span 1250-1115 B.C., we looked to match these phenomena in the order and manner that the text describes. In that period, a single date closely matches our references: 16 April 1178 B.C.E. We speculate that these references, plus the disputed eclipse reference, may refer to that specific eclipse. PMID:18577587

  19. Using Neural Networks to Describe Tracer Correlations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lary, D. J.; Mueller, M. D.; Mussa, H. Y.

    2003-01-01

    Neural networks are ideally suited to describe the spatial and temporal dependence of tracer-tracer correlations. The neural network performs well even in regions where the correlations are less compact and normally a family of correlation curves would be required. For example, the CH4-N2O correlation can be well described using a neural network trained with the latitude, pressure, time of year, and CH4 volume mixing ratio (v.m.r.). In this study a neural network using Quickprop learning and one hidden layer with eight nodes was able to reproduce the CH4-N2O correlation with a correlation co- efficient of 0.9995. Such an accurate representation of tracer-tracer correlations allows more use to be made of long-term datasets to constrain chemical models. Such as the dataset from the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) which has continuously observed CH4, (but not N2O) from 1991 till the present. The neural network Fortran code used is available for download.

  20. The Growing Phenomenon of School Gardens: Measuring Their Variation and Their Affect on Students' Sense of Responsibility and Attitudes toward Science and the Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skelly, Sonja M.; Bradley, Jennifer Campbell

    2007-01-01

    This article summarizes a 2000 study of school garden programs and their variation and the impact of such variation on 427 third-grade students' sense of responsibility and attitudes toward science and the environment. A teacher questionnaire was developed to gain insight into how teachers use school gardens with their students and in their…

  1. Describing Story Evolution from Dynamic Information Streams

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, Stuart J.; Butner, R. Scott; Cowley, Wendy E.; Gregory, Michelle L.; Walker, Julia

    2009-10-12

    Sources of streaming information, such as news syndicates, publish information continuously. Information portals and news aggregators list the latest information from around the world enabling information consumers to easily identify events in the past 24 hours. The volume and velocity of these streams causes information from prior days’ to quickly vanish despite its utility in providing an informative context for interpreting new information. Few capabilities exist to support an individual attempting to identify or understand trends and changes from streaming information over time. The burden of retaining prior information and integrating with the new is left to the skills, determination, and discipline of each individual. In this paper we present a visual analytics system for linking essential content from information streams over time into dynamic stories that develop and change over multiple days. We describe particular challenges to the analysis of streaming information and explore visual representations for showing story change and evolution over time.

  2. Does Guru Granth Sahib describe depression?

    PubMed Central

    Kalra, Gurvinder; Bhui, Kamaldeep; Bhugra, Dinesh

    2013-01-01

    Sikhism is a relatively young religion, with Guru Granth Sahib as its key religious text. This text describes emotions in everyday life, such as happiness, sadness, anger, hatred, and also more serious mental health issues such as depression and psychosis. There are references to the causation of these emotional disturbances and also ways to get out of them. We studied both the Gurumukhi version and the English translation of the Guru Granth Sahib to understand what it had to say about depression, its henomenology, and religious prescriptions for recovery. We discuss these descriptions in this paper and understand its meaning within the context of clinical depression. Such knowledge is important as explicit descriptions about depression and sadness can help encourage culturally appropriate assessment and treatment, as well as promote public health through education. PMID:23858254

  3. Describing Ecosystem Complexity through Integrated Catchment Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shope, C. L.; Tenhunen, J. D.; Peiffer, S.

    2011-12-01

    Land use and climate change have been implicated in reduced ecosystem services (ie: high quality water yield, biodiversity, and agricultural yield. The prediction of ecosystem services expected under future land use decisions and changing climate conditions has become increasingly important. Complex policy and management decisions require the integration of physical, economic, and social data over several scales to assess effects on water resources and ecology. Field-based meteorology, hydrology, soil physics, plant production, solute and sediment transport, economic, and social behavior data were measured in a South Korean catchment. A variety of models are being used to simulate plot and field scale experiments within the catchment. Results from each of the local-scale models provide identification of sensitive, local-scale parameters which are then used as inputs into a large-scale watershed model. We used the spatially distributed SWAT model to synthesize the experimental field data throughout the catchment. The approach of our study was that the range in local-scale model parameter results can be used to define the sensitivity and uncertainty in the large-scale watershed model. Further, this example shows how research can be structured for scientific results describing complex ecosystems and landscapes where cross-disciplinary linkages benefit the end result. The field-based and modeling framework described is being used to develop scenarios to examine spatial and temporal changes in land use practices and climatic effects on water quantity, water quality, and sediment transport. Development of accurate modeling scenarios requires understanding the social relationship between individual and policy driven land management practices and the value of sustainable resources to all shareholders.

  4. Using Interviews and Peer Pairs to Better Understand How School Environments Affect Young Children's Playground Physical Activity Levels: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrish, Anne-Maree; Yeatman, Heather; Iverson, Don; Russell, Ken

    2012-01-01

    School break times provide a daily opportunity for children to be active; however, research indicates this time is underutilized. Reasons for low children's playground activity levels have primarily focused on physical barriers. This research aimed to contribute to physical environmental findings affecting children's playground physical activity…

  5. Risk factors affecting child cognitive development: a summary of nutrition, environment, and maternal-child interaction indicators for sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Ford, N D; Stein, A D

    2016-04-01

    An estimated 200 million children worldwide fail to meet their development potential due to poverty, poor health and unstimulating environments. Missing developmental milestones has lasting effects on adult human capital. Africa has a large burden of risk factors for poor child development. The objective of this paper is to identify scope for improvement at the country level in three domains--nutrition, environment, and mother-child interactions. We used nationally representative data from large-scale surveys, data repositories and country reports from 2000 to 2014. Overall, there was heterogeneity in performance across domains, suggesting that each country faces distinct challenges in addressing risk factors for poor child development. Data were lacking for many indicators, especially in the mother-child interaction domain. There is a clear need to improve routine collection of high-quality, country-level indicators relevant to child development to assess risk and track progress. PMID:26358240

  6. Learning Environment and Type of Goals: How It Affects Preschool Children's Performance and Their Perceptions of Their Performance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsiakara, Angeliki; Digelidis, Nikolaos

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research was to study the effect of learning environment and type of goals on: (a) preschool children's performance during a play, (b) preschool children's perception of their performance and (c) preschool children's satisfaction. Fifty-six preschool children (24 boys and 32 girls; M[subscript age]?=?5.5 years) took…

  7. Can Breast Tumors Affect the Oxidative Status of the Surrounding Environment? A Comparative Analysis among Cancerous Breast, Mammary Adjacent Tissue, and Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Panis, C.; Victorino, V. J.; Herrera, A. C. S. A.; Cecchini, A. L.; Simão, A. N. C.; Tomita, L. Y.; Cecchini, R.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we investigated the oxidative profile of breast tumors in comparison with their normal adjacent breast tissue. Our study indicates that breast tumors present enhanced oxidative/nitrosative stress, with concomitant augmented antioxidant capacity when compared to the adjacent normal breast. These data indicate that breast cancers may be responsible for the induction of a prooxidant environment in the mammary gland, in association with enhanced TNF-α and nitric oxide. PMID:26697139

  8. The ETS Test Collection Catalog, Volume 6: Affective Measures and Personality Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Testing Service, Princeton, NJ. Test Collection.

    This volume, sixth in the Educational Testing Service (ETS) collection catalog series, describes 1,560 personality and affective measures. The instruments described are used to assess the psychological, social, and affective reactions of individuals to their environment. Tests include: (1) 13 self-reports; (2) 59 interviews; (3) 101 projective…

  9. Outdoor Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomascoff, Rocky

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes an art project in which students create their own outdoor environments using a tri-wall frame--a triple-layered cardboard, which is very lightweight and strong. Then the students compose a few sentences describing the scene or place.

  10. The social environment during a post-match video presentation affects the hormonal responses and playing performance in professional male athletes.

    PubMed

    Cook, Christian J; Crewther, Blair T

    2014-05-10

    This study examined the social environment effects during a post-match video presentation on the hormonal responses and match performance in professional male rugby union players. The study participants (n=12) watched a 1-hour video of mixed content (player mistakes and successes) from a match played 1 day earlier in the presence of; (1) strangers who were bigger (SB), (2) strangers who were smaller (SS), (3) friends who were bigger (FB) and (4) friends who were smaller (FS). The salivary testosterone (T) and cortisol (C) responses to a physical stress test were assessed 3 days later, along with pre-match T levels and match-ranked performance 6-7 days later. All treatments were associated with elevated T responses (% change from baseline) to the stress test with SS>SB and FB>FS. The C stress responses after the SS and SB interventions were both greater than FS and FB. On match-day, the FB approach was linked to higher T concentrations than SB and better ranked performance than FS and SS. The subsequent testing of a population sub-group (n=8) across a video (V) and a non-video (NV) presentation in a neutral social environment produced similar stress-test and performance outcomes, but pre-match T concentrations differed (V>NV). In conclusion, the presence of other males during a post-match video assessment had some influence on the hormonal responses of male athletes and match performance in the week that followed. Thus, the social environment during a post-match assessment could moderate performance and recovery in elite sport and, in a broader context, could be a possible modulator of human stress responses. PMID:24726389

  11. Love and Fear (A Look at Describing, Monitoring and Teaching Affective Behavior). Iowa Monograph.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starlin, Clay M.

    This monograph examines the emotions of love and fear and proposes that an individual's understanding of his loving and fearful responses is fundamental to his interactions with himself and with others. This guide is designed to facilitate such understanding. A definition of love is provided in chapter I and fear is explored in chapter II. Chapter…

  12. Solvent environments significantly affect the enzymatic function of Escherichia coli dihydrofolate reductase: comparison of wild-type protein and active-site mutant D27E.

    PubMed

    Ohmae, Eiji; Miyashita, Yurina; Tate, Shin-Ichi; Gekko, Kunihiko; Kitazawa, Soichiro; Kitahara, Ryo; Kuwajima, Kunihiro

    2013-12-01

    To investigate the contribution of solvent environments to the enzymatic function of Escherichia coli dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), the salt-, pH-, and pressure-dependence of the enzymatic function of the wild-type protein were compared with those of the active-site mutant D27E in relation to their structure and stability. The salt concentration-dependence of enzymatic activity indicated that inorganic cations bound to and inhibited the activity of wild-type DHFR at neutral pH. The BaCl2 concentration-dependence of the (1)H-(15)N HSQC spectra of the wild-type DHFR-folate binary complex showed that the cation-binding site was located adjacent to the Met20 loop. The insensitivity of the D27E mutant to univalent cations, the decreased optimal pH for its enzymatic activity, and the increased Km and Kd values for its substrate dihydrofolate suggested that the substrate-binding cleft of the mutant was slightly opened to expose the active-site side chain to the solvent. The marginally increased fluorescence intensity and decreased volume change due to unfolding of the mutant also supported this structural change or the modified cavity and hydration. Surprisingly, the enzymatic activity of the mutant increased with pressurization up to 250MPa together with negative activation volumes of -4.0 or -4.8mL/mol, depending on the solvent system, while that of the wild-type was decreased and had positive activation volumes of 6.1 or 7.7mL/mol. These results clearly indicate that the insertion of a single methylene at the active site could substantially change the enzymatic reaction mechanism of DHFR, and solvent environments play important roles in the function of this enzyme. PMID:24140567

  13. Insights into factors affecting nitrate in PM2.5 in a polluted high NOx environment through hourly observations and size distribution measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Jian; Yuan, Zibing; Lau, Alexis K. H.; Yu, Jian Zhen

    2014-04-01

    Nitrate, a major PM2.5 component in polluted environments, could be greatly elevated during pollution episodes. In this study, nitrate and other inorganic ions on PM2.5 were measured half hourly at a residential location in Hong Kong in December 2009. Hourly nitrate concentrations in PM2.5 varied from 0.8 to 40.5 µg m-3. In an episode during which hourly visibility was down to 3.7 ± 1.0 km and NO2 was 80.7 ± 14.4 ppb, PM2.5 NO3- reached 27.8 ± 8.0 µg m-3, ~6 times the level during the normal hours. Nitrate was fully balanced by NH4+, indicating abundant presence of NH3. Size-segregated measurements showed 84% of nitrate was in the fine mode during the episode and also suggested that less acidic fine particles and less abundant sea-salt particles were the contributing factors to the dominant presence in the fine mode. An observation-based model for secondary inorganic aerosols was applied to investigate the relative importance of homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions to production of NO3- potential (sum of HNO3 (g) and aerosol nitrate). The modeling analysis shows that both formation pathways were significantly more active during the episode. Gas phase production of HNO3 through reaction of NO2 + OH dominated during the initial rapid buildup of nitrate around noon time, but the heterogeneous N2O5 hydrolysis pathway made a sizable contribution in the subsequent few hours due to sustained high-NO2 concentrations combined with reduced photolysis loss of N2O5. This case study illustrates the important role of NH3 and NO2 in elevating PM2.5 in a high-NOx environment through the formation of nitrate.

  14. Three-year monitoring study of radiocesium transfer and ambient dose rate in forest environments affected by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Hiroaki; Onda, Yuichi; Loffredo, Nicolas; Kawamori, Ayumi; Hisadome, Keigo

    2015-04-01

    We investigated the transfer of canopy-intercepted radiocesium to the forest floor during 3 years (July 2011~) following the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. The cesium-137 (Cs-137) contents of throughfall, stemflow, and litterfall were monitored in two coniferous stands (plantation of Japanese cedar) and a deciduous broad-leaved forest stand (Japanese oak with red pine). We also measured an ambient dose rate at different height in the forest by using a survey meter (TCS-172B, Hitachi-Aloka Medical, LTD.) and a portable Ge gamma-ray detector (Detective-DX-100T, Ortec, Ametek, Inc.). Furthermore, effects of forest decontamination on the reduction of ambient dose rate were assessed quantitatively. Total Cs-137 deposition flux from the canopy to forest floor for the mature cedar, young cedar, and the mixed broad-leaved stands were 157 kBq/m^2, 167 kBq/m^2, and 54 kBq/m^2, respectively. These values correspond to 36%, 39% and 12% of total atmospheric input after the accident. The ambient dose rate showed an exponential decrease with time for all the forest sites, however the decreasing trend differed depending on the forest type. These data suggested that an ambient dose rate in forest environment can be variable in spatially and temporally reflecting the transfer of radiocesium from canopy to forest floor. We presented the analysis results of the relationship between radiocesium deposition flux and ambient dose rate at the forest floor. In addition to that, we reported the effects of forest decontamination (e.g., tree felling, removal of organic materials, woodchip pavement) on the reduction of ambient dose rate in the forest environment.

  15. Can CA describe collective effects of polluting agents?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troisi, A.

    2015-03-01

    Pollution represents one of the most relevant issues of our time. Several studies are on stage but, generally, they do not consider competitive effects, paying attention only to specific agents and their impact. In this paper, it is suggested a different scheme. At first, it is proposed a formal model of competitive noxious effects. Second, by generalizing a previous algorithm capable of describing urban growth, it is developed a cellular automata (CA) model that provides the effective impact of a variety of pollutants. The final achievement is a simulation tool that can model pollution combined effects and their dynamical evolution in relation to anthropized environments.

  16. The influence of gender and self-efficacy on healthy eating in a low-income urban population affected by structural changes to the food environment.

    PubMed

    Robles, Brenda; Smith, Lisa V; Ponce, Mirna; Piron, Jennifer; Kuo, Tony

    2014-01-01

    Although U.S. obesity prevention efforts have begun to implement a variety of system and environmental change strategies to address the underlying socioecological barriers to healthy eating, factors which can impede or facilitate community acceptance of such interventions are often poorly understood. This is due, in part, to the paucity of subpopulation health data that are available to help guide local planning and decision-making. We contribute to this gap in practice by examining area-specific health data for a population targeted by federally funded nutrition interventions in Los Angeles County. Using data from a local health assessment that collected information on sociodemographics, self-reported health behaviors, and objectively measured height, weight, and blood pressure for a subset of low-income adults (n = 720), we compared health risks and predictors of healthy eating across at-risk groups using multivariable modeling analyses. Our main findings indicate being a woman and having high self-efficacy in reading Nutrition Facts labels were strong predictors of healthy eating (P < 0.05). These findings suggest that intervening with women may help increase the reach of these nutrition interventions, and that improving self-efficacy in healthy eating through public education and/or by other means can help prime at-risk groups to accept and take advantage of these food environment changes. PMID:24800064

  17. The scent of stress: environmental challenge in the peripartum environment of mice affects emotional behaviours of the adult offspring in a sex-specific manner.

    PubMed

    Lerch, S; Dormann, C; Brandwein, C; Gass, P; Chourbaji, S

    2016-06-01

    Early adverse experiences are known to influence the risk of developing psychiatric disorders later. To shed further light on the development of laboratory mice, we systematically examined the influence of a prenatal or postnatal olfactory stressor, namely unfamiliar male mouse faeces, presented to pregnant or nursing mouse dams. Maternal and offspring behaviours were then examined. Maternal behaviours relative to controls revealed changes in nest building by the pregnant dams exposed to the unfamiliar faeces. There were no differences among groups on pup retrieval or exploration by the dams. Behavioural phenotyping of male and female offspring as adults included measures of exploration, anxiety, social and depressive-like behaviours. Additionally, serum corticosterone was assessed as a marker of physiological stress response. Group differences were dependent on the sex of the adult offspring. Males raised by dams that were stressed during pregnancy presented elevated emotionality as indicated by increased numbers of faecal boluses in the open field paradigm. Consistent with the effects of prenatal stress on the males only the prenatally stressed females had higher body weights than their respective controls. Indeed, males in both experimental groups had higher circulating corticosterone levels. By contrast, female offspring of dams exposed to the olfactory stressor after parturition were more anxious in the O-maze as indicated by increased latencies in entering the exposed areas of the maze. These findings emphasize the necessity for researchers to consider the pre- and postnatal environments, even of mice with almost identical genetic backgrounds, in designing experiments and interpreting their data. PMID:26408077

  18. How a Nanostructure's Shape Affects its Lifetime in the Environment: Comparing a Silver Nanocube to a Nanoparticle When Dispersed in Aqueous Media.

    PubMed

    Formo, Eric V; Potterf, Caroline B; Yang, Miaoxin; Unocic, Raymond R; Leonard, Donovan N; Pawel, Michelle

    2016-07-01

    Herein, we detail how the morphology of a nanomaterial affects its environmental lifetime in aquatic ecosystems. In particular, we focus on the cube and particle nanostructures of Ag and age them in various aquatic mediums including synthetic hard water, pond water, and seawater. Our results show that in the synthetic hard water and pond water cases, there was little difference in the rate of morphological changes as determined by UV-vis spectroscopy. However, when these samples were analyzed with transmission electron microscopy, radically different mechanisms in the loss of their original nanostructures were observed. Specifically, for the nanocube we observed that the corners of the cubes had become more rounded, whereas the aged nanoparticles formed large aggregates. Most interestingly, when the seawater samples were analyzed, the nanocubes showed a substantially higher stability in maintaining the nano length scale in comparison to nanoparticles overtime. Moreover, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy analysis allowed us to determine that Ag+ ions diffused away from both the edge and from the faces of the cube, whereas the nanoparticle rapidly aggregated under the harsh seawater conditions. PMID:27253183

  19. Using interviews and peer pairs to better understand how school environments affect young children's playground physical activity levels: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Parrish, Anne-Maree; Yeatman, Heather; Iverson, Don; Russell, Ken

    2012-04-01

    School break times provide a daily opportunity for children to be active; however, research indicates this time is underutilized. Reasons for low children's playground activity levels have primarily focused on physical barriers. This research aimed to contribute to physical environmental findings affecting children's playground physical activity levels by identifying additional variables through the interview process. Thirteen public schools were included in the sample (total 2946 children). Physical activity and environmental data were collected over 3 days. Environmental variables were manually assessed at each of the 13 schools. Observational data were used to determine which three schools were the most and least active. The principal, three teachers and 20 students in Grades 4-6 from these six schools (four lower and two average socioeconomic status) were invited to participate in the interview process. Student interviews involved the paired interview technique. The main themes generated from the school interviews included the effect of non-fixed equipment (including balls), playground markings, playground aesthetics, activity preference, clothing, the amount of break time available for play, teacher playground involvement, gender, bullying, school policies, student confidence in break-time activity and fundamental movement skills. The effect of bullying on playground physical activity levels was concerning. PMID:21712499

  20. Climatic conditions, twining and frequency of milking as factors affecting the risk of fetal losses in high-yielding Holstein cows in a hot environment.

    PubMed

    Mellado, Miguel; López, Ricardo; de Santiago, Ángeles; Veliz, Francisco G; Macías-Cruz, Ulises; Avendaño-Reyes, Leonel; García, José Eduardo

    2016-08-01

    An epidemiological study of risk factors for fetal losses was carried out on 62,403 high-yielding Holstein cows in 29 large highly technified dairy herds in northern Mexico (25° N; 23.5 °C mean annual temperature). Multivariate multiple-group response model indicated that fetal losses between 43 and 260 days of pregnancy were 23 %. Heat-stressed cows at conception (temperature-humidity index, THI >82) were 14 times more likely (P < 0.01) to present fetal losses than not heat-stressed cows (27 vs. 18 %). Heat-stressed cows at 60 days of pregnancy (THI >82) were 4.5 times more likely (P < 0.01) to present fetal losses than cows suffering heat stress in early gestation (29.1 vs. 17.7 %). The proportion of cows experiencing fetal loss was lower for multiparous than primiparous cows (odds ratio; OR = 0.7). Cows with twin pregnancies had significantly increased chances of losing their fetuses than cows with a single fetus (33.6 vs. 20.7 %; P < 0.01). Cows with three milkings per day were 30 % more likely (P < 0.01) to lose their fetuses than cows milked twice daily. Cows calving in winter and spring had significantly increased chances of losing their fetuses than cows calving in summer and fall (30-35 vs. 4-5 %; P < 0.01). It was concluded that, in this particular environment, heat stress exert a great influence on fetal losses in high producing Holstein cows. PMID:27225752

  1. Factors affecting the thermal environment of Agassiz’s Desert Tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) cover sites in the Central Mojave Desert during periods of temperature extremes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mack, Jeremy S.; Berry, Kristin H.; Miller, David; Carlson, Andrea S.

    2015-01-01

    Agassiz's Desert Tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) spend >95% of their lives underground in cover sites that serve as thermal buffers from temperatures, which can fluctuate >40°C on a daily and seasonal basis. We monitored temperatures at 30 active tortoise cover sites within the Soda Mountains, San Bernardino County, California, from February 2004 to September 2006. Cover sites varied in type and structural characteristics, including opening height and width, soil cover depth over the opening, aspect, tunnel length, and surficial geology. We focused our analyses on periods of extreme temperature: in summer, between July 1 and September 1, and winter, between November 1 and February 15. With the use of multivariate regression tree analyses, we found cover-site temperatures were influenced largely by tunnel length and subsequently opening width and soil cover. Linear regression models further showed that increasing tunnel length increased temperature stability and dampened seasonal temperature extremes. Climate change models predict increased warming for southwestern North America. Cover sites that buffer temperature extremes and fluctuations will become increasingly important for survival of tortoises. In planning future translocation projects and conservation efforts, decision makers should consider habitats with terrain and underlying substrate that sustain cover sites with long tunnels and expanded openings for tortoises living under temperature extremes similar to those described here or as projected in the future.

  2. Evidence of water limited affects in tree density in a subalpine/alpine environment as inferred from hyperspatial image data and climate gradient analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenberg, J. A.; Vanderbilt, V. C.; Dobrowski, S. Z.

    2005-12-01

    We investigated the probability of a tree to establish, grow and survive, independent of species, in a topographically heterogeneous landscape along the eastern side of the Lake Tahoe Basin, NV. The goal was to determine if direct and indirect gradients, all derived from a digital elevation model (DEM), could be used to infer which abiotic variable(s) relate to tree density. We used a relatively new suite of analysis tools and technologies that can identify and describe each tree in a hyperspatial image (ground resolution smaller than the object(s) of interest; in our case, a tree). We generated continuous individual tree maps across the entire eastern side of the Lake Tahoe basin, which completely circumvents ground-based sampling and scaling issues. We found the expected pattern of decreasing tree density with higher elevations. In this region, increasing elevation is correlated with decreasing temperatures, increasing precipitation, and lower soil water holding capacity. This leads to two possible explanations for decreasing stem densities with elevation: temperature limitations or water limitations. To decouple these effects, we examined the effects of yearly potential relative radiation (PRR): low PRR sites ('north facing') showed a significantly higher tree density than high ('south facing') sites at the same elevation. The only explanation for the low and mid-elevation patterns is widespread water limitation, not light or temperature limitation. Increasing temperature with no further input of water, therefore, would only serve to further stress the trees and cause a lower densities and, therefore, a loss of forest habitat.

  3. The Affect of the Space Environment on the Survival of Halorubrum Chaoviator and Synechococcus (Nageli): Data from the Space Experiment OSMO on EXPOSE-R

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mancinelli, R. L.

    2014-01-01

    We have shown using ESA's Biopan facility flown in Earth orbit that when exposed to the space environment for 2 weeks the survival rate of Synechococcus (Nageli), a halophilic cyanobacterium isolated from the evaporitic gypsum-halite crusts that form along the marine intertidal, and Halorubrum chaoviator a member of the Halobacteriaceae isolated from an evaporitic NaCl crystal obtained from a salt evaporation pond, were higher than all other test organisms except Bacillus spores. These results led to the EXPOSE-R mission to extend and refine these experiments as part of the experimental package for the external platform space exposure facility on the ISS. The experiment was flown in February 2009 and the organisms were exposed to low-Earth orbit for nearly 2 years. Samples were either exposed to solar ultraviolet (UV)-radiation (lambda is greater than 110 nm or lambda is greater than 200 nm, cosmic radiation (dosage range 225-320 mGy), or kept in darkness shielded from solar UV-radiation. Half of each of the UV-radiation exposed samples and dark samples were exposed to space vacuum and half kept at 105 pascals in argon. Duplicate samples were kept in the laboratory to serve as unexposed controls. Ground simulation control experiments were also performed. After retrieval, organism viability was tested using Molecular Probes Live-Dead Bac-Lite stain and by their reproduction capability. Samples kept in the dark, but exposed to space vacuum had a 90 +/- 5% survival rate compared to the ground controls. Samples exposed to full UV-radiation for over a year were bleached and although results from Molecular Probes Live-Dead stain suggested approximately 10% survival, the data indicate that no survival was detected using cell growth and division using the most probable number method. Those samples exposed to attenuated UV-radiation exhibited limited survival. Results from of this study are relevant to understanding adaptation and evolution of life, the future of life

  4. The affect of the space environment on the survival of Halorubrum chaoviator and Synechococcus (Nägeli): data from the Space Experiment OSMO on EXPOSE-R

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mancinelli, R. L.

    2015-01-01

    We have shown using ESA's Biopan facility flown in Earth orbit that when exposed to the space environment for 2 weeks the survival rate of Synechococcus (Nägeli), a halophilic cyanobacterium isolated from the evaporitic gypsum-halite crusts that form along the marine intertidal, and Halorubrum chaoviator a member of the Halobacteriaceae isolated from an evaporitic NaCl crystal obtained from a salt evaporation pond, were higher than all other test organisms except Bacillus spores. These results led to the EXPOSE-R mission to extend and refine these experiments as part of the experimental package for the external platform space exposure facility on the ISS. The experiment was flown in February 2009 and the organisms were exposed to low-Earth orbit for nearly 2 years. Samples were either exposed to solar ultraviolet (UV)-radiation (λ > 110 nm or λ > 200 nm, cosmic radiation (dosage range 225-320 mGy), or kept in darkness shielded from solar UV-radiation. Half of each of the UV-radiation exposed samples and dark samples were exposed to space vacuum and half kept at 105 pascals in argon. Duplicate samples were kept in the laboratory to serve as unexposed controls. Ground simulation control experiments were also performed. After retrieval, organism viability was tested using Molecular Probes Live-Dead Bac-Lite stain and by their reproduction capability. Samples kept in the dark, but exposed to space vacuum had a 90 +/- 5% survival rate compared to the ground controls. Samples exposed to full UV-radiation for over a year were bleached and although results from Molecular Probes Live-Dead stain suggested ~10% survival, the data indicate that no survival was detected using cell growth and division using the most probable number method. Those samples exposed to attenuated UV-radiation exhibited limited survival. Results from of this study are relevant to understanding adaptation and evolution of life, the future of life beyond earth, the potential for interplanetary

  5. Population age and initial density in a patchy environment affect the occurrence of abrupt transitions in a birth-and-death model of Taylor's law

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jiang, Jiang; DeAngelis, Donald L.; Zhang, B.; Cohen, J.E.

    2014-01-01

    Taylor's power law describes an empirical relationship between the mean and variance of population densities in field data, in which the variance varies as a power, b, of the mean. Most studies report values of b varying between 1 and 2. However, Cohen (2014a) showed recently that smooth changes in environmental conditions in a model can lead to an abrupt, infinite change in b. To understand what factors can influence the occurrence of an abrupt change in b, we used both mathematical analysis and Monte Carlo samples from a model in which populations of the same species settled on patches, and each population followed independently a stochastic linear birth-and-death process. We investigated how the power relationship responds to a smooth change of population growth rate, under different sampling strategies, initial population density, and population age. We showed analytically that, if the initial populations differ only in density, and samples are taken from all patches after the same time period following a major invasion event, Taylor's law holds with exponent b=1, regardless of the population growth rate. If samples are taken at different times from patches that have the same initial population densities, we calculate an abrupt shift of b, as predicted by Cohen (2014a). The loss of linearity between log variance and log mean is a leading indicator of the abrupt shift. If both initial population densities and population ages vary among patches, estimates of b lie between 1 and 2, as in most empirical studies. But the value of b declines to ~1 as the system approaches a critical point. Our results can inform empirical studies that might be designed to demonstrate an abrupt shift in Taylor's law.

  6. Temporal Issues in the Design of Virtual Learning Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergeron, Bryan; Obeid, Jihad

    1995-01-01

    Describes design methods used to influence user perception of time in virtual learning environments. Examines the use of temporal cues in medical education and clinical competence testing. Finds that user perceptions of time affects user acceptance, ease of use, and the level of realism of a virtual learning environment. Contains 51 references.…

  7. Managing Multiple Tasks in Complex, Dynamic Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freed, Michael; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Sketchy planners are designed to achieve goals in realistically complex, time-pressured, and uncertain task environments. However, the ability to manage multiple, potentially interacting tasks in such environments requires extensions to the functionality these systems typically provide. This paper identifies a number of factors affecting how interacting tasks should be prioritized, interrupted, and resumed, and then describes a sketchy planner called APEX that takes account of these factors when managing multiple tasks.

  8. Magnet hospital nurses describe control over nursing practice.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Marlene; Schmalenberg, Claudia E

    2003-06-01

    Staff nurses describe control over nursing practice (C/NP) as a professional nursing function made up of a variety of activities and outcomes. Greater acclaim, status, and prestige for nursing in the organization are viewed as a result, not a precursor, of C/NP. Interviews with 279 staff nurses working in 14 magnet hospitals indicated that effective C/NP requires some kind of empowered, formal organizational structure, extends beyond clinical decision making at the patient care interface, and is the same as or highly similar to what the literature describes as professional autonomy. From constant comparative analysis of nurses' descriptions of C/NP activities, five ranked categories of this real-life event emerged. The basis for the categories and ranking was "who owned the problem, issue, and solution" and the "degree of effectiveness of control" as reflected in visibility, viability, and recognition of a formal structure allowing and encouraging nurses' control over practice. Hospital mergers and structural reorganization were reported to negatively affect the structure needed for effective C/NP. Almost 60% of these magnet hospital staff nurses stated and/or described little or no C/NP. PMID:12790058

  9. Understanding Children's Collaborative Interactions in Shared Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Stacey D.; Mandryk, R. L.; Inkpen, K. M.

    2003-01-01

    Explores how various collaborative settings affect elementary school children's interactions with each other and with technology. Describes the development of co-located groupware systems offering support for concurrent, multi-user interactions around a shared display, which offer a collaborative environment in which users share both the physical…

  10. Information Environment of Preschool Educational Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shmakova, Anna Pavlovna

    2016-01-01

    The paper considers the elements of the information environment of preschool educational institutions by the example of the Ulyanovsk region. The article describes the interconnected system of factors that includes qualified personnel, logistics support, methodological basis, and management structures that affect the development of the information…

  11. Compounds affecting cholesterol absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hua, Duy H. (Inventor); Koo, Sung I. (Inventor); Noh, Sang K. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A class of novel compounds is described for use in affecting lymphatic absorption of cholesterol. Compounds of particular interest are defined by Formula I: ##STR1## or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

  12. Concepts and methods for describing critical phenomena in fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sengers, J. V.; Sengers, J. M. H. L.

    1977-01-01

    The predictions of theoretical models for a critical-point phase transistion in fluids, namely the classical equation with third-degree critical isotherm, that with fifth-degree critical isotherm, and the lattice gas, are reviewed. The renormalization group theory of critical phenomena and the hypothesis of universality of critical behavior supported by this theory are discussed as well as the nature of gravity effects and how they affect cricital-region experimentation in fluids. The behavior of the thermodynamic properties and the correlation function is formulated in terms of scaling laws. The predictions of these scaling laws and of the hypothesis of universality of critical behavior are compared with experimental data for one-component fluids and it is indicated how the methods can be extended to describe critical phenomena in fluid mixtures.

  13. A broadly applicable function for describing luminescence dose response

    SciTech Connect

    Burbidge, C. I.

    2015-07-28

    The basic form of luminescence dose response is investigated, with the aim of developing a single function to account for the appearance of linear, superlinear, sublinear, and supralinear behaviors and variations in saturation signal level and rate. A function is assembled based on the assumption of first order behavior in different major factors contributing to measured luminescence-dosimetric signals. Different versions of the function are developed for standardized and non-dose-normalized responses. Data generated using a two trap two recombination center model and experimental data for natural quartz are analyzed to compare results obtained using different signals, measurement protocols, pretreatment conditions, and radiation qualities. The function well describes a range of dose dependent behavior, including sublinear, superlinear, supralinear, and non-monotonic responses and relative response to α and β radiation, based on change in relative recombination and trapping probability affecting signals sourced from a single electron trap.

  14. A broadly applicable function for describing luminescence dose response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burbidge, C. I.

    2015-07-01

    The basic form of luminescence dose response is investigated, with the aim of developing a single function to account for the appearance of linear, superlinear, sublinear, and supralinear behaviors and variations in saturation signal level and rate. A function is assembled based on the assumption of first order behavior in different major factors contributing to measured luminescence-dosimetric signals. Different versions of the function are developed for standardized and non-dose-normalized responses. Data generated using a two trap two recombination center model and experimental data for natural quartz are analyzed to compare results obtained using different signals, measurement protocols, pretreatment conditions, and radiation qualities. The function well describes a range of dose dependent behavior, including sublinear, superlinear, supralinear, and non-monotonic responses and relative response to α and β radiation, based on change in relative recombination and trapping probability affecting signals sourced from a single electron trap.

  15. Affective Involvement Instrument.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemlech, Johanna K.

    1970-01-01

    The Affective Involvement Instrument (AII) describes and classifies affective involvement in the process of decision-making as it occurs during classroom activities such as role-playing or group discussions. The thirty-celled instrument behaviorizes the six processes involved in decision-making and combines them with the taxonomic levels of the…

  16. Conceptual hierarchical modeling to describe wetland plant community organization

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Little, A.M.; Guntenspergen, G.R.; Allen, T.F.H.

    2010-01-01

    Using multivariate analysis, we created a hierarchical modeling process that describes how differently-scaled environmental factors interact to affect wetland-scale plant community organization in a system of small, isolated wetlands on Mount Desert Island, Maine. We followed the procedure: 1) delineate wetland groups using cluster analysis, 2) identify differently scaled environmental gradients using non-metric multidimensional scaling, 3) order gradient hierarchical levels according to spatiotem-poral scale of fluctuation, and 4) assemble hierarchical model using group relationships with ordination axes and post-hoc tests of environmental differences. Using this process, we determined 1) large wetland size and poor surface water chemistry led to the development of shrub fen wetland vegetation, 2) Sphagnum and water chemistry differences affected fen vs. marsh / sedge meadows status within small wetlands, and 3) small-scale hydrologic differences explained transitions between forested vs. non-forested and marsh vs. sedge meadow vegetation. This hierarchical modeling process can help explain how upper level contextual processes constrain biotic community response to lower-level environmental changes. It creates models with more nuanced spatiotemporal complexity than classification and regression tree procedures. Using this process, wetland scientists will be able to generate more generalizable theories of plant community organization, and useful management models. ?? Society of Wetland Scientists 2009.

  17. A Physiology-Based Model Describing Heterogeneity in Glucose Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Maas, Anne H.; Rozendaal, Yvonne J. W.; van Pul, Carola; Hilbers, Peter A. J.; Cottaar, Ward J.; Haak, Harm R.; van Riel, Natal A. W.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Current diabetes education methods are costly, time-consuming, and do not actively engage the patient. Here, we describe the development and verification of the physiological model for healthy subjects that forms the basis of the Eindhoven Diabetes Education Simulator (E-DES). E-DES shall provide diabetes patients with an individualized virtual practice environment incorporating the main factors that influence glycemic control: food, exercise, and medication. Method: The physiological model consists of 4 compartments for which the inflow and outflow of glucose and insulin are calculated using 6 nonlinear coupled differential equations and 14 parameters. These parameters are estimated on 12 sets of oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) data (226 healthy subjects) obtained from literature. The resulting parameter set is verified on 8 separate literature OGTT data sets (229 subjects). The model is considered verified if 95% of the glucose data points lie within an acceptance range of ±20% of the corresponding model value. Results: All glucose data points of the verification data sets lie within the predefined acceptance range. Physiological processes represented in the model include insulin resistance and β-cell function. Adjusting the corresponding parameters allows to describe heterogeneity in the data and shows the capabilities of this model for individualization. Conclusion: We have verified the physiological model of the E-DES for healthy subjects. Heterogeneity of the data has successfully been modeled by adjusting the 4 parameters describing insulin resistance and β-cell function. Our model will form the basis of a simulator providing individualized education on glucose control. PMID:25526760

  18. Interactions between environment, species traits, and human uses describe patterns of plant invasions.

    PubMed

    Thuiller, Wilfried; Richardson, David M; Rouget, Mathieu; Procheş, Serban; Wilson, John R U

    2006-07-01

    Although invasive alien species (IAS) are a major threat to biodiversity, human health, and economy, our understanding of the factors controlling their distribution and abundance is limited. Here, we determine how environmental factors, land use, life-history traits of the invaders, residence time, origin, and human usage interact to shape the spatial pattern of invasive alien plant species in South Africa. Relationships between the environmental factors and the extrinsic and intrinsic attributes of species were investigated using RLQ analysis, a multivariate method for relating a species-attribute table to an environmental table by way of a species presence/absence table. We then clustered species according to their position on the RLQ axes, and tested these groups for phylogenetic independence. The first three axes of the RLQ explained 99% of the variation and were strongly related to the species attributes. The clustering showed that, after accounting for environmental factors, the spatial pattern of IAS in South Africa was driven by human uses, life forms, and reproductive traits. The seven clusters of species strongly reflected geographical distribution, but also intrinsic species attributes and patterns of human use. Two of the clusters, centered on the genera Acacia and Opuntia, were phylogenetically non-independent. The remaining clusters comprised species of diverse taxonomic affinities, but sharing traits facilitating invasion in particular habitats. This information is useful for assessing the extent to which the potential spread of recent introductions can be predicted by considering the interaction of their biological attributes, region of origin, and human use. PMID:16922325

  19. Psychological Factor Affecting English Speaking Performance for the English Learners in Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haidara, Youssouf

    2016-01-01

    In every learning situation or environment, human psychology plays a significant role. English speaking is a language skill that is highly affected by human psychology. This research aimed at describing the psychological factor that affects negatively the English speaking performance for the English learners in Indonesia. A descriptive qualitative…

  20. Stabilizing the Policy Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, A. P.

    1977-01-01

    Organizations seek stability in the policy environment, initially through direct control mechanism, but depending on risk propensity and uncertainty of the environment, through other means as well. A repertoire of seven such means are described and discussed. (Author/IRT)

  1. Describing current and potential markets for alternative-fuel vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-26

    Motor vehicles are a major source of greenhouse gases, and the rising numbers of motor vehicles and miles driven could lead to more harmful emissions that may ultimately affect the world`s climate. One approach to curtailing such emissions is to use, instead of gasoline, alternative fuels: LPG, compressed natural gas, or alcohol fuels. In addition to the greenhouse gases, pollutants can be harmful to human health: ozone, CO. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 authorized EPA to set National Ambient Air Quality Standards to control this. The Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT) was the first new law to emphasize strengthened energy security and decreased reliance on foreign oil since the oil shortages of the 1970`s. EPACT emphasized increasing the number of alternative-fuel vehicles (AFV`s) by mandating their incremental increase of use by Federal, state, and alternative fuel provider fleets over the new few years. Its goals are far from being met; alternative fuels` share remains trivial, about 0.3%, despite gains. This report describes current and potential markets for AFV`s; it begins by assessing the total vehicle stock, and then it focuses on current use of AFV`s in alternative fuel provider fleets and the potential for use of AFV`s in US households.

  2. “I Always Worry about What Might Happen Ahead”: Implementing Safer Conception Services in the Current Environment of Reproductive Counseling for HIV-Affected Men and Women in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Bajunirwe, Francis; Kastner, Jasmine; Sanyu, Naomi; Akatukwasa, Cecilia; Ng, Courtney; Rifkin, Rachel; Milford, Cecilia; Moore, Lizzie; Wilson, Ira B.; Bangsberg, David R.; Smit, Jennifer A.; Kaida, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Background. We explored healthcare provider perspectives and practices regarding safer conception counseling for HIV-affected clients. Methods. We conducted semistructured interviews with 38 providers (medical and clinical officers, nurses, peer counselors, and village health workers) delivering care to HIV-infected clients across 5 healthcare centres in Mbarara District, Uganda. Interview transcripts were analyzed using content analysis. Results. Of 38 providers, 76% were women with median age 34 years (range 24–57). First, we discuss providers' reproductive counseling practices. Emergent themes include that providers (1) assess reproductive goals of HIV-infected female clients frequently, but infrequently for male clients; (2) offer counseling focused on “family planning” and maternal and child health; (3) empathize with the importance of having children for HIV-affected clients; and (4) describe opportunities to counsel HIV-serodiscordant couples. Second, we discuss provider-level challenges that impede safer conception counseling. Emergent themes included the following: (1) providers struggle to translate reproductive rights language into individualized risk reduction given concerns about maternal health and HIV transmission and (2) providers lack safer conception training and support needed to provide counseling. Discussion. Tailored guidelines and training are required for providers to implement safer conception counseling. Such support must respond to provider experiences with adverse HIV-related maternal and child outcomes and a national emphasis on pregnancy prevention. PMID:27051664

  3. HERMES: A Model to Describe Deformation, Burning, Explosion, and Detonation

    SciTech Connect

    Reaugh, J E

    2011-11-22

    HERMES (High Explosive Response to MEchanical Stimulus) was developed to fill the need for a model to describe an explosive response of the type described as BVR (Burn to Violent Response) or HEVR (High Explosive Violent Response). Characteristically this response leaves a substantial amount of explosive unconsumed, the time to reaction is long, and the peak pressure developed is low. In contrast, detonations characteristically consume all explosive present, the time to reaction is short, and peak pressures are high. However, most of the previous models to describe explosive response were models for detonation. The earliest models to describe the response of explosives to mechanical stimulus in computer simulations were applied to intentional detonation (performance) of nearly ideal explosives. In this case, an ideal explosive is one with a vanishingly small reaction zone. A detonation is supersonic with respect to the undetonated explosive (reactant). The reactant cannot respond to the pressure of the detonation before the detonation front arrives, so the precise compressibility of the reactant does not matter. Further, the mesh sizes that were practical for the computer resources then available were large with respect to the reaction zone. As a result, methods then used to model detonations, known as {beta}-burn or program burn, were not intended to resolve the structure of the reaction zone. Instead, these methods spread the detonation front over a few finite-difference zones, in the same spirit that artificial viscosity is used to spread the shock front in inert materials over a few finite-difference zones. These methods are still widely used when the structure of the reaction zone and the build-up to detonation are unimportant. Later detonation models resolved the reaction zone. These models were applied both to performance, particularly as it is affected by the size of the charge, and to situations in which the stimulus was less than that needed for reliable

  4. Quantitative metrics that describe river deltas and their channel networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edmonds, Douglas A.; Paola, Chris; Hoyal, David C. J. D.; Sheets, Ben A.

    2011-12-01

    Densely populated river deltas are losing land at an alarming rate and to successfully restore these environments we must understand the details of their morphology. Toward this end we present a set of five metrics that describe delta morphology: (1) the fractal dimension, (2) the distribution of island sizes, (3) the nearest-edge distance, (4) a synthetic distribution of sediment fluxes at the shoreline, and (5) the nourishment area. The nearest-edge distance is the shortest distance to channelized or unchannelized water from a given location on the delta and is analogous to the inverse of drainage density in tributary networks. The nourishment area is the downstream delta area supplied by the sediment coming through a given channel cross section and is analogous to catchment area in tributary networks. As a first step, we apply these metrics to four relatively simple, fluvially dominated delta networks. For all these deltas, the average nearest-edge distances are remarkably constant moving down delta suggesting that the network organizes itself to maintain a consistent distance to the nearest channel. Nourishment area distributions can be predicted from a river mouth bar model of delta growth, and also scale with the width of the channel and with the length of the longest channel, analogous to Hack's law for drainage basins. The four delta channel networks are fractal, but power laws and scale invariance appear to be less pervasive than in tributary networks. Thus, deltas may occupy an advantageous middle ground between complete similarity and complete dissimilarity, where morphologic differences indicate different behavior.

  5. Probabilistic models to describe the dynamics of migrating microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Joanna L; Lunn, Mary; Pinto, Ameet J; Raskin, Lutgarde; Sloan, William T

    2015-01-01

    In all but the most sterile environments bacteria will reside in fluid being transported through conduits and some of these will attach and grow as biofilms on the conduit walls. The concentration and diversity of bacteria in the fluid at the point of delivery will be a mix of those when it entered the conduit and those that have become entrained into the flow due to seeding from biofilms. Examples include fluids through conduits such as drinking water pipe networks, endotracheal tubes, catheters and ventilation systems. Here we present two probabilistic models to describe changes in the composition of bulk fluid microbial communities as they are transported through a conduit whilst exposed to biofilm communities. The first (discrete) model simulates absolute numbers of individual cells, whereas the other (continuous) model simulates the relative abundance of taxa in the bulk fluid. The discrete model is founded on a birth-death process whereby the community changes one individual at a time and the numbers of cells in the system can vary. The continuous model is a stochastic differential equation derived from the discrete model and can also accommodate changes in the carrying capacity of the bulk fluid. These models provide a novel Lagrangian framework to investigate and predict the dynamics of migrating microbial communities. In this paper we compare the two models, discuss their merits, possible applications and present simulation results in the context of drinking water distribution systems. Our results provide novel insight into the effects of stochastic dynamics on the composition of non-stationary microbial communities that are exposed to biofilms and provides a new avenue for modelling microbial dynamics in systems where fluids are being transported. PMID:25803866

  6. Affective Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Charles T.

    This paper addresses itself to the question, "What does feeling have to do with knowing?" Two movements in affective education are discussed which have come into focus in recent years and which attempt to define the relationship between knowing and feeling. The first, a conscious application of the role of arousal in learning, emphasizes arousal…

  7. Describing the learning climate of general practice training: the learner's perspective.

    PubMed

    Smith, Victor Charles; Wiener-Ogilvie, Sharon

    2009-11-01

    The learning climate is an important aspect of educational environments that impacts on learner satisfaction, stress and attitudes to learning. Quality management of educational environments has traditionally focused on teacher development and aspects of the environment that are easily quantifiable. This study describes the learning climate of GP training practices from the perspective of the learners. The information can be used to inform a learner-centred and evidence-based system of quality management. Further development of the themes could produce a quantitative tool, to provide data on the learning climate of GP training practices. This could assist in the quality management of GP training in the UK. PMID:20132638

  8. Damage and fatigue described by a fractional derivative model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caputo, Michele; Fabrizio, Mauro

    2015-07-01

    As in [1], damage is associated with fatigue that a material undergoes. In this paper, because we work with viscoelastic solids represented by a fractional model, damage is described by the order of the fractional derivative, which represents the phase field satisfying Ginzburg-Landau equation, which describes the evolution of damage. Finally, in our model, damage is caused, not only by fatigue, but also directly by a source related to environmental factors and described by a positive time function.

  9. [Affective dependency].

    PubMed

    Scantamburlo, G; Pitchot, W; Ansseau, M

    2013-01-01

    Affective dependency is characterized by emotional distress (insecure attachment) and dependency to another person with a low self-esteem and reassurance need. The paper proposes a reflection on the definition of emotional dependency and the confusion caused by various denominations. Overprotective and authoritarian parenting, cultural and socio-environmental factors may contribute to the development of dependent personality. Psychological epigenetic factors, such as early socio-emotional trauma could on neuronal circuits in prefronto-limbic regions that are essential for emotional behaviour.We also focus on the interrelations between dependent personality, domestic violence and addictions. The objective for the clinician is to propose a restoration of self-esteem and therapeutic strategies focused on autonomy. PMID:23888587

  10. Measuring the Accuracy of Prediction in a Simulated Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mailles, Stephanie; Batatia, Hadj

    1998-01-01

    Describes use of a computerized simulation to study prediction in a complex environment (i.e., bus traffic control). Nature of the task, presentation method, number of repetitions, and length of time taken for prediction were measured. Prediction was significantly affected by all factors except number of repetitions. No learning effect was…

  11. The Effects of Sociocultural Factors on the Navajo Literacy Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Diane C.

    This paper describes an ethnographic study of school and community characteristics affecting the literacy development of Navajo children, and provides an overview of sociocultural factors in the literacy environment of one Navajo community. The researcher was a principal at Pinon Public School District #4 in Pinon, Arizona, in the heart of the…

  12. Healthful School Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Charles C., Ed.; Wilson, Elizabeth Avery, Ed.

    A broad range of topics deals with the development, maintenance, and full utilization of a healthful school environment, encompassing such areas as--(1) school organizations which affect the student environment, (2) accident prevention, (3) the criteria for healthful food services, (4) physical education and the necessary athletic facilities, (5)…

  13. Describing function theory as applied to thermal and neutronic problems

    SciTech Connect

    Nassersharif, B.

    1983-01-01

    Describing functions have traditionally been used to obtain the solutions of systems of ordinary differential equations. In this work the describing function concept has been extended to include nonlinear, distributed parameter partial differential equations. A three-stage solution algorithm is presented which can be applied to any nonlinear partial differential equation. Two generalized integral transforms were developed as the T-transform for the time domain and the B-transform for the spatial domain. The thermal diffusion describing function (TDDF) is developed for conduction of heat in solids and a general iterative solution along with convergence criteria is presented. The proposed solution method is used to solve the problem of heat transfer in nuclear fuel rods with annular fuel pellets. As a special instance the solid cylindrical fuel pellet is examined. A computer program is written which uses the describing function concept for computing fuel pin temperatures in the radial direction during reactor transients. The second problem investigated was the neutron diffusion equation which is intrinsically different from the first case. Although, for most situations, it can be treated as a linear differential equation, the describing function method is still applicable. A describing function solution is derived for two possible cases: constant diffusion coefficient and variable diffusion coefficient. Two classes of describing functions are defined for each case which portray the leakage and absorption phenomena. For the specific case of a slab reactor criticality problem the comparison between analytical and describing function solutions revealed an excellent agreement.

  14. Continuous and discrete describing function analysis of the LST system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuo, B. C.; Singh, G.; Yackel, R. A.

    1973-01-01

    A describing function of the control moment gyros (CMG) frictional nonlinearity is derived using the analytic torque equation. Computer simulation of the simplified Large Space Telescope (LST) system with the analytic torque expression is discussed along with the transfer functions of the sampled-data LST system, and the discrete describing function of the GMC frictionality.

  15. Audio-Described Educational Materials: Ugandan Teachers' Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wormnaes, Siri; Sellaeg, Nina

    2013-01-01

    This article describes and discusses a qualitative, descriptive, and exploratory study of how 12 visually impaired teachers in Uganda experienced audio-described educational video material for teachers and student teachers. The study is based upon interviews with these teachers and observations while they were using the material either…

  16. CRITICAL ELEMENTS IN DESCRIBING AND UNDERSTANDING OUR NATION'S AQUATIC RESOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Despite spending $115 billion per year on environmental actions in the United States, we have only a limited ability to describe the effectiveness of these expenditures. Moreover, after decades of such investments, we cannot accurately describe status and trends in the nation's a...

  17. Sinusoidal input describing function for hysteresis followed by elementary backlash

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ringland, R. F.

    1976-01-01

    The author proposes a new sinusoidal input describing function which accounts for the serial combination of hysteresis followed by elementary backlash in a single nonlinear element. The output of the hysteresis element drives the elementary backlash element. Various analytical forms of the describing function are given, depending on the a/A ratio, where a is the half width of the hysteresis band or backlash gap, and A is the amplitude of the assumed input sinusoid, and on the value of the parameter representing the fraction of a attributed to the backlash characteristic. The negative inverse describing function is plotted on a gain-phase plot, and it is seen that a relatively small amount of backlash leads to domination of the backlash character in the describing function. The extent of the region of the gain-phase plane covered by the describing function is such as to guarantee some form of limit cycle behavior in most closed-loop systems.

  18. The Space Radiation Environment as it Relates to Electronic System Performance: Or Why Not to Fly Commercial Electronic Components in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, Janet L.; Xapsos, Michael A.; LaBel, Kenneth A.; Polvey, Christian

    2005-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation offers an overview of the space radiation environment, primarily in near-Earth environments such as Low Earth Orbit (LEO). The presentation describes the Halloween solar event of 2003 as an example of how solar activity can affect spacecraft electronic systems. The lunar radiation environment is also briefly summarized.

  19. Encapsulated environment.

    PubMed

    McLellan, Tom M; Daanen, Hein A M; Cheung, Stephen S

    2013-07-01

    In many occupational settings, clothing must be worn to protect individuals from hazards in their work environment. However, personal protective clothing (PPC) restricts heat exchange with the environment due to high thermal resistance and low water vapor permeability. As a consequence, individuals who wear PPC often work in uncompensable heat stress conditions where body heat storage continues to rise and the risk of heat injury is greatly enhanced. Tolerance time while wearing PPC is influenced by three factors: (i) initial core temperature (Tc), affected by heat acclimation, precooling, hydration, aerobic fitness, circadian rhythm, and menstrual cycle (ii) Tc tolerated at exhaustion, influenced by state of encapsulation, hydration, and aerobic fitness; and (iii) the rate of increase in Tc from beginning to end of the heat-stress exposure, which is dependent on the clothing characteristics, thermal environment, work rate, and individual factors like body composition and economy of movement. Methods to reduce heat strain in PPC include increasing clothing permeability for air, adjusting pacing strategy, including work/rest schedules, physical training, and cooling interventions, although the additional weight and bulk of some personal cooling systems offset their intended advantage. Individuals with low body fatness who perform regular aerobic exercise have tolerance times in PPC that exceed those of their sedentary counterparts by as much as 100% due to lower resting Tc, the higher Tc tolerated at exhaustion and a slower increase in Tc during exercise. However, questions remain about the importance of activity levels, exercise intensity, cold water ingestion, and plasma volume expansion for thermotolerance. PMID:23897690

  20. A comparison of hardware description languages. [describing digital systems structure and behavior to a computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiva, S. G.

    1978-01-01

    Several high level languages which evolved over the past few years for describing and simulating the structure and behavior of digital systems, on digital computers are assessed. The characteristics of the four prominent languages (CDL, DDL, AHPL, ISP) are summarized. A criterion for selecting a suitable hardware description language for use in an automatic integrated circuit design environment is provided.

  1. Describing Simple Data Access Services Version 1.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plante, Raymond; Delago, Jesus; Harrison, Paul; Tody, Doug; IVOA Registry Working Group; Plante, Raymond

    2013-11-01

    An application that queries or consumes descriptions of VO resources must be able to recognize a resource's support for standard IVOA protocols. This specification describes how to describe a service that supports any of the four fundamental data access protocols Simple Cone Search (SCS), Simple Image Access (SIA), Simple Spectral Access (SSA), Simple Line Access (SLA) using the VOResource XML encoding standard. A key part of this specification is the set of VOResource XML extension schemas that define new metadata that are specific to those protocols. This document describes in particular rules for describing such services within the context of IVOA Registries and data discovery as well as the VO Standard Interface (VOSI) and service selfdescription. In particular, this document spells out the essential markup needed to identify support for a standard protocol and the base URL required to access the interface that supports that protocol.

  2. How Early Adolescents Describe Their Dreams: A Quantitative Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzone, Paolo; Freni, Salvatore; Maggiolini, Alfio; Provantini, Katia; Vigano, Daniele

    1998-01-01

    Narratives of the dreams of 145 early adolescents were tape-recorded and transcribed, and the frequencies of various grammar forms and common words were calculated. The most common nouns were "house" and "mother;" the most common verbs were "go" and "do." Results indicate that linguistic features of dream narrative are affected by age and sex.…

  3. Gender and Ethnic Effects in Describing Toddler Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rave, Elizabeth J.; Hannah, Gregory L.

    Focusing on gender as a stimulus variable, this study explored whether performer and respondent's gender and ethnicity would affect the labeling of toddler behavior. In addition, such demographic variables as age, education level, and contact with children were investigated. From a subject pool of 928, a total of 528 subjects were drawn, equally…

  4. Thermodynamic model to describe miscibility in complex fluid systems

    SciTech Connect

    Guerrero, M.I.

    1982-01-01

    In the basic studies of tertiary oil recovery, it is necessary to describe the phase diagrams of mixtures of hydrocarbons, surfactants and brine. It has been observed that certain features of those phase diagrams, such as the appearance of 3-phase regions, can be correlated to ultra-low interfacial tensions. In this work, a simple thermodynamic model is described. The phase diagram obtained is qualitatively identical to that of real, more complex systems. 13 references.

  5. On three new Orchestina species (Araneae: Oonopidae) described from China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Keke; Xiao, Yonghong; Xu, Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Three new species of oonopid spider from China are diagnosed, described and illustrated: Orchestina apiculata sp. nov. from Hunan, O. bialata sp. nov. and O. multipunctata sp. nov. from Jiangxi. The total number of the known species of Orchestina from China rises to 11 with the addition of three new species described in the present paper. Relationships with Asian and Afrotropical representatives are discussed. PMID:27395233

  6. Using Neural Networks to Describe Complex Phase Transformation Behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Vitek, J.M.; David, S.A.

    1999-05-24

    Final microstructures can often be the end result of a complex sequence of phase transformations. Fundamental analyses may be used to model various stages of the overall behavior but they are often impractical or cumbersome when considering multicomponent systems covering a wide range of compositions. Neural network analysis may be a useful alternative method of identifying and describing phase transformation beavior. A neural network model for ferrite prediction in stainless steel welds is described. It is shown that the neural network analysis provides valuable information that accounts for alloying element interactions. It is suggested that neural network analysis may be extremely useful for analysis when more fundamental approaches are unavailable or overly burdensome.

  7. Model framework for describing the dynamics of evolving networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobochnik, Jan; Strandburg, Katherine; Csardi, Gabor; Erdi, Peter

    2007-03-01

    We present a model framework for describing the dynamics of evolving networks. In this framework the addition of edges is stochastically governed by some important intrinsic and structural properties of network vertices through an attractiveness function. We discuss the solution of the inverse problem: determining the attractiveness function from the network evolution data. We also present a number of example applications: the description of the US patent citation network using vertex degree, patent age and patent category variables, and we show how the time-dependent version of the method can be used to find and describe important changes in the internal dynamics. We also compare our results to scientific citation networks.

  8. Stability of interconnected dynamical systems described on Banach spaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rasmussen, R. D.; Michel, A. N.

    1976-01-01

    New stability results for a large class of interconnected dynamical systems (also called composite systems or large scale systems) described on Banach spaces are established. In the present approach, the objective is always the same: to analyze large scale systems in terms of their lower order and simpler subsystems and in terms of their interconnecting structure. The present results provide a systematic procedure of analyzing hybrid dynamical systems (i.e., systems that are described by a mixture of different types of equations). To demonstrate the method of analysis advanced, two specific examples are considered.

  9. College Students' Judgment of Others Based on Described Eating Pattern

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Rebecca; Young, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Background: The literature available on attitudes toward eating patterns and people choosing various foods suggests the possible importance of "moral" judgments and desirable personality characteristics associated with the described eating patterns. Purpose: This study was designed to replicate and extend a 1993 study of college students'…

  10. Method for describing fractures in subterranean earth formations

    DOEpatents

    Shuck, Lowell Z.

    1977-01-01

    The configuration and directional orientation of natural or induced fractures in subterranean earth formations are described by introducing a liquid explosive into the fracture, detonating the explosive, and then monitoring the resulting acoustic emissions with strategically placed acoustic sensors as the explosion propagates through the fracture at a known rate.

  11. 25. VIEW LOOKING EAST THROUGH 'TUNNEL' DESCRIBED ABOVE. RAILCAR LOADING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. VIEW LOOKING EAST THROUGH 'TUNNEL' DESCRIBED ABOVE. RAILCAR LOADING TUBES AT TOP FOREGROUND, SPERRY CORN ELEVATOR COMPLEX AT RIGHT AND ADJOINING WAREHOUSE AT LEFT - Sperry Corn Elevator Complex, Weber Avenue (North side), West of Edison Street, Stockton, San Joaquin County, CA

  12. Describing an "Effective" Principal: Perceptions of the Central Office Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parylo, Oksana; Zepeda, Sally J.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine how district leaders of two school systems in the USA describe an effective principal. Membership categorisation analysis revealed that district leaders believed an effective principal had four major categories of characteristics: (1) documented characteristics (having a track record and being a…

  13. New North American Chrysauginae (Pyralidae) described by Cashatt (1968)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The dissertation entitled “Revision of the Chrysauginae of North America” included new taxa that were never published and do not meet the requirements for availability by the International Code of Nomenclature. Therefore, the following taxa from this dissertation are described and illustrated: Arta ...

  14. A General Problem Describer for Computer Assisted Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wools, Ronald Joe

    Currently in computer-assisted instruction (CAI) systems a number of problems are presented to each student during a session, with each individual problem being specified by the author of the session. A better approach might be to provide the author with a language in which he can describe to the computer the general type of problem he wants his…

  15. 23. FISH CONVEYOR Conveyor described in Photo No. 21. A ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. FISH CONVEYOR Conveyor described in Photo No. 21. A portion of a second conveyor is seen on the left. Vertical post knocked askew and cracked cement base of the conveyor, attest to the condition of the building. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  16. Learning Communities and Community Development: Describing the Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Allen B.; Brooks, Rusty

    2000-01-01

    Describes features of learning communities: they transform themselves, share wisdom and recognition, bring others in, and share results. Provides the case example of the Upper Savannah River Economic Coalition. Discusses actions of learning communities, barriers to their development, and future potential. (SK)

  17. Tools for describing the reference architecture for space data systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shames, Peter; Yamada, Takahiro

    2004-01-01

    This paper has briefly presented the Reference Architecture for Space Data Systems (RASDS) that is being developed by the CCSDS Systems Architecture Working Group (SAWG). The SAWG generated some sample architectures (spacecraft onboard architectures, space link architectures, cross-support architectures) using this RASDS approach, and RASDS was proven to be a powerful tool for describing and relating different space data system architectures.

  18. Describing Elementary Teachers' Operative Systems: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dotger, Sharon; McQuitty, Vicki

    2014-01-01

    This case study introduces the notion of an operative system to describe elementary teachers' knowledge and practice. Drawing from complex systems theory, the operative system is defined as the network of knowledge and practices that constituted teachers' work within a lesson study cycle. Data were gathered throughout a lesson study…

  19. Describing Soils: Calibration Tool for Teaching Soil Rupture Resistance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seybold, C. A.; Harms, D. S.; Grossman, R. B.

    2009-01-01

    Rupture resistance is a measure of the strength of a soil to withstand an applied stress or resist deformation. In soil survey, during routine soil descriptions, rupture resistance is described for each horizon or layer in the soil profile. The lower portion of the rupture resistance classes are assigned based on rupture between thumb and…

  20. How Vocational Teachers Describe Their Vocational Teacher Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Köpsén, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Given the current demands of Swedish vocational education and the withdrawal of the requirement for formal teacher competence in vocational subject teachers, the aim of this article is to develop knowledge of what it means to be a vocational subject teacher in an upper secondary school, i.e. how vocational subject teachers describe their…

  1. Judgments about Forces in Described Interactions between Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Peter A.

    2011-01-01

    In 4 experiments, participants made judgments about forces exerted and resistances put up by objects involved in described interactions. Two competing hypotheses were tested: (1) that judgments are derived from the same knowledge base that is thought to be the source of perceptual impressions of forces that occur with visual stimuli, and (2) that…

  2. Describing Middle School Students' Organization of Statistical Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Yolanda; Hofbauer, Pamela

    The purpose of this study was to describe how middle school students physically arrange and organize statistical data. A case-study analysis was used to define and characterize the styles in which students handle, organize, and group statistical data. A series of four statistical tasks (Mooney, Langrall, Hofbauer, & Johnson, 2001) were given to…

  3. School District Personnel Describe One Example of Effective Change Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Toni Griego

    Three large urban school districts located in the Midwest, Southwest, and West Coast regions were involved in a study designed to reveal district personnel's perceptions of change within their school district. After describing the study, this document analyzes perceptions of change related to one district's new bilingual program that was…

  4. Describing Acupuncture: A New Challenge for Technical Communicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karanikas, Marianthe

    1997-01-01

    Considers acupuncture as an increasingly popular alternative medical therapy, but difficult to describe in technical communication. Notes that traditional Chinese medical explanations of acupuncture are unscientific, and that scientific explanations of acupuncture are inconclusive. Finds that technical communicators must translate acupuncture for…

  5. Electronic Health Records: Describing Technological Stressors of Nurse Educators.

    PubMed

    Burke, Mary S; Ellis, D Michele

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the technological stressors that nurse educators experienced when using electronic health records while teaching clinical courses. Survey results indicated that educators had mild to moderate technological stress when teaching the use of electronic health records to students in clinical nursing courses. PMID:26164324

  6. Describing dengue epidemics: Insights from simple mechanistic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguiar, Maíra; Stollenwerk, Nico; Kooi, Bob W.

    2012-09-01

    We present a set of nested models to be applied to dengue fever epidemiology. We perform a qualitative study in order to show how much complexity we really need to add into epidemiological models to be able to describe the fluctuations observed in empirical dengue hemorrhagic fever incidence data offering a promising perspective on inference of parameter values from dengue case notifications.

  7. Superintendents Describe Their Leadership Styles: Implications for Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, James J.; Wang, Chuang

    2013-01-01

    Superintendents from eight southeastern United States school districts self-described their leadership styles across the choices of autocratic, laissez-faire, democratic, situational, servant, or transformational. When faced with this array of choices, the superintendents chose with arguable equitableness, indicating that successful leaders can…

  8. Describing temperament in an ungulate: a multidimensional approach.

    PubMed

    Graunke, Katharina L; Nürnberg, Gerd; Repsilber, Dirk; Puppe, Birger; Langbein, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Studies on animal temperament have often described temperament using a one-dimensional scale, whereas theoretical framework has recently suggested two or more dimensions using terms like "valence" or "arousal" to describe these dimensions. Yet, the valence or assessment of a situation is highly individual. The aim of this study was to provide support for the multidimensional framework with experimental data originating from an economically important species (Bos taurus). We tested 361 calves at 90 days post natum (dpn) in a novel-object test. Using a principal component analysis (PCA), we condensed numerous behaviours into fewer variables to describe temperament and correlated these variables with simultaneously measured heart rate variability (HRV) data. The PCA resulted in two behavioural dimensions (principal components, PC): novel-object-related (PC 1) and exploration-activity-related (PC 2). These PCs explained 58% of the variability in our data. The animals were distributed evenly within the two behavioural dimensions independent of their sex. Calves with different scores in these PCs differed significantly in HRV, and thus in the autonomous nervous system's activity. Based on these combined behavioural and physiological data we described four distinct temperament types resulting from two behavioural dimensions: "neophobic/fearful--alert", "interested--stressed", "subdued/uninterested--calm", and "neoophilic/outgoing--alert". Additionally, 38 calves were tested at 90 and 197 dpn. Using the same PCA-model, they correlated significantly in PC 1 and tended to correlate in PC 2 between the two test ages. Of these calves, 42% expressed a similar behaviour pattern in both dimensions and 47% in one. No differences in temperament scores were found between sexes or breeds. In conclusion, we described distinct temperament types in calves based on behavioural and physiological measures emphasising the benefits of a multidimensional approach. PMID:24040289

  9. Key of Packaged Grain Quantity Recognition - - Research on Processing and Describing of "fish and Describing of "fish Scale Body"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Ying; Fang, Xinglin; Sun, Yueheng; Sun, Yanhong

    The key to identifying the packaged grain is the shape of package, and the key to identifying shape is processing and describing the boundary of package. Based on a lot of analysis and experiment, this article select the canny operator and chain code to process and describe the boundary of package. Aiming at the boundary is not absolute connectivity, the closure operation of Mathematical Morphology is introduced to do pretreatment on binary image of packaged grain. Finally the boundary is absolute connectivity. Experiments show that the proposed method enhances the anti-jamming and robustness of edge detection.

  10. A model describing vestibular detection of body sway motion.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nashner, L. M.

    1971-01-01

    An experimental technique was developed which facilitated the formulation of a quantitative model describing vestibular detection of body sway motion in a postural response mode. All cues, except vestibular ones, which gave a subject an indication that he was beginning to sway, were eliminated using a specially designed two-degree-of-freedom platform; body sway was then induced and resulting compensatory responses at the ankle joints measured. Hybrid simulation compared the experimental results with models of the semicircular canals and utricular otolith receptors. Dynamic characteristics of the resulting canal model compared closely with characteristics of models which describe eye movement and subjective responses to body rotational motions. The average threshold level, in the postural response mode, however, was considerably lower. Analysis indicated that the otoliths probably play no role in the initial detection of body sway motion.

  11. A gene feature enumeration approach for describing HLA allele polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Mack, Steven J

    2015-12-01

    HLA genotyping via next generation sequencing (NGS) poses challenges for the use of HLA allele names to analyze and discuss sequence polymorphism. NGS will identify many new synonymous and non-coding HLA sequence variants. Allele names identify the types of nucleotide polymorphism that define an allele (non-synonymous, synonymous and non-coding changes), but do not describe how polymorphism is distributed among the individual features (the flanking untranslated regions, exons and introns) of a gene. Further, HLA alleles cannot be named in the absence of antigen-recognition domain (ARD) encoding exons. Here, a system for describing HLA polymorphism in terms of HLA gene features (GFs) is proposed. This system enumerates the unique nucleotide sequences for each GF in an HLA gene, and records these in a GF enumeration notation that allows both more granular dissection of allele-level HLA polymorphism and the discussion and analysis of GFs in the absence of ARD-encoding exon sequences. PMID:26416087

  12. Dynamics of dislocations described as evolving curves interacting with obstacles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauš, Petr; Beneš, Michal; Kolář, Miroslav; Kratochvíl, Jan

    2016-03-01

    In this paper we describe the model of glide dislocation interaction with obstacles based on the planar curve dynamics. The dislocations are represented as smooth curves evolving in a slip plane according to the mean curvature motion law, and are mathematically described by the parametric approach. We enhance the parametric model by employing so called tangential redistribution of curve points to increase the stability during numerical computation. We developed additional algorithms for topological changes (i.e. merging and splitting of dislocation curves) enabling a detailed modelling of dislocation interaction with obstacles. The evolving dislocations are approximated as a moving piece-wise linear curves. The obstacles are represented as idealized circular areas of a repulsive stress. Our model is numerically solved by means of semi-implicit flowing finite volume method. We present results of qualitative and quantitative computational studies where we demonstrate the topological changes and discuss the effect of tangential redistribution of curve points on computational results.

  13. Describing spatial pattern in stream networks: A practical approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ganio, L.M.; Torgersen, C.E.; Gresswell, R.E.

    2005-01-01

    The shape and configuration of branched networks influence ecological patterns and processes. Recent investigations of network influences in riverine ecology stress the need to quantify spatial structure not only in a two-dimensional plane, but also in networks. An initial step in understanding data from stream networks is discerning non-random patterns along the network. On the other hand, data collected in the network may be spatially autocorrelated and thus not suitable for traditional statistical analyses. Here we provide a method that uses commercially available software to construct an empirical variogram to describe spatial pattern in the relative abundance of coastal cutthroat trout in headwater stream networks. We describe the mathematical and practical considerations involved in calculating a variogram using a non-Euclidean distance metric to incorporate the network pathway structure in the analysis of spatial variability, and use a non-parametric technique to ascertain if the pattern in the empirical variogram is non-random.

  14. Cooperation with school nurses described by Finnish sixth graders.

    PubMed

    Mäenpää, Tiina; Paavilainen, Eija; Astedt-Kurki, Päivi

    2007-10-01

    This paper deals with research on cooperation with the school nurse described by sixth graders. The data were collected via six focus group interviews in 2003-2004. Twenty-two sixth graders (aged 11-12 years) participated in the research. The data were analysed by the constant comparison method based on grounded theory. The analysis yielded a number of concepts that describe the basis of the cooperation: the trusted expertise of the school nurse, informative interaction with the family and knowing the family situation. The cooperation consisted of supporting the pupil's growth and development, need for individual counselling and supporting coping at school. The cooperation was characterized by an open atmosphere and friendliness, a low level of reciprocity, the school nurse's stereotyped activities and respect for the pupil's privacy. Pupils' experiences and perspectives can be used to develop more holistic strategies for the school health service. PMID:17883717

  15. A geostatistical approach for describing spatial pattern in stream networks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ganio, L.M.; Torgersen, C.E.; Gresswell, R.E.

    2005-01-01

    The shape and configuration of branched networks influence ecological patterns and processes. Recent investigations of network influences in riverine ecology stress the need to quantify spatial structure not only in a two-dimensional plane, but also in networks. An initial step in understanding data from stream networks is discerning non-random patterns along the network. On the other hand, data collected in the network may be spatially autocorrelated and thus not suitable for traditional statistical analyses. Here we provide a method that uses commercially available software to construct an empirical variogram to describe spatial pattern in the relative abundance of coastal cutthroat trout in headwater stream networks. We describe the mathematical and practical considerations involved in calculating a variogram using a non-Euclidean distance metric to incorporate the network pathway structure in the analysis of spatial variability, and use a non-parametric technique to ascertain if the pattern in the empirical variogram is non-random.

  16. An alternative to soil taxonomy for describing key soil characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duniway, Michael C.; Miller, Mark E.; Brown, Joel R.; Toevs, Gordon

    2013-01-01

    is not a simple task. Furthermore, because the US system of soil taxonomy is not applied universally, its utility as a means for effectively describing soil characteristics to readers in other countries is limited. Finally, and most importantly, even at the finest level of soil classification there are often large within-taxa variations in critical properties that can determine ecosystem responses to drivers such as climate and land-use change.

  17. New model describing the dynamical behaviour of penetration rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tashiro, Tohru; Minagawa, Hiroe; Chiba, Michiko

    2013-02-01

    We propose a hierarchical logistic equation as a model to describe the dynamical behaviour of a penetration rate of a prevalent stuff. In this model, a memory, how many people who already possess it a person who does not process it yet met, is considered, which does not exist in the logistic model. As an application, we apply this model to iPod sales data, and find that this model can approximate the data much better than the logistic equation.

  18. Can the Non-linear Ballooning Model describe ELMs?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henneberg, S. A.; Cowley, S. C.; Wilson, H. R.

    2015-11-01

    The explosive, filamentary plasma eruptions described by the non-linear ideal MHD ballooning model is tested quantitatively against experimental observations of ELMs in MAST. The equations describing this model were derived by Wilson and Cowley for tokamak-like geometry which includes two differential equations: the linear ballooning equation which describes the spatial distribution along the field lines and the non-linear ballooning mode envelope equation, which is a two-dimensional, non-linear differential equation which can involve fractional temporal-derivatives, but is often second-order in time and space. To employ the second differential equation for a specific geometry one has to evaluate the coefficients of the equation which is non-trivial as it involves field line averaging of slowly converging functions. We have solved this system for MAST, superimposing the solutions of both differential equations and mapping them onto a MAST plasma. Comparisons with the evolution of ELM filaments in MAST will be reported in order to test the model. The support of the EPSRC for the FCDT (Grant EP/K504178/1), of Euratom research and training programme 2014-2018 (No 633053) and of the RCUK Energy Programme [grant number EP/I501045] is gratefully acknowledged.

  19. How to describe genes: enlightenment from the quaternary number system.

    PubMed

    Ma, Bin-Guang

    2007-01-01

    As an open problem, computational gene identification has been widely studied, and many gene finders (software) become available today. However, little attention has been given to the problem of describing the common features of known genes in databanks to transform raw data into human understandable knowledge. In this paper, we draw attention to the task of describing genes and propose a trial implementation by treating DNA sequences as quaternary numbers. Under such a treatment, the common features of genes can be represented by a "position weight function", the core concept for a number system. In principle, the "position weight function" can be any real-valued function. In this paper, by approximating the function using trigonometric functions, some characteristic parameters indicating single nucleotide periodicities were obtained for the bacteria Escherichia coli K12's genome and the eukaryote yeast's genome. As a byproduct of this approach, a single-nucleotide-level measure is derived that complements codon-based indexes in describing the coding quality and expression level of an open reading frame (ORF). The ideas presented here have the potential to become a general methodology for biological sequence analysis. PMID:16945479

  20. Spacecraft Environment Interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrett, Henry B.; Jun, Insoo

    2011-01-01

    As electronic components have grown smaller in size and power and have increased in complexity, their enhanced sensitivity to the space radiation environment and its effects has become a major source of concern for the spacecraft engineer. As a result, the description of the sources of space radiation, the determination of how that radiation propagates through material, and, ultimately, how radiation affects specific circuit components are primary considerations in the design of modern spacecraft. The objective of this paper will be to address the first 2 aspects of the radiation problem. This will be accomplished by first reviewing the natural and man-made space radiation environments. These environments include both the particulate and, where applicable, the electromagnetic (i.e., photon) environment. As the "ambient" environment is typically only relevant to the outer surface of a space vehicle, it will be necessary to treat the propagation of the external environment through the complex surrounding structures to the point inside the spacecraft where knowledge of the internal radiation environment is required. While it will not be possible to treat in detail all aspects of the problem of the radiation environment within a spacecraft, by dividing the problem into these parts-external environment, propagation, and internal environment-a basis for understanding the practical process of protecting a spacecraft from radiation will be established. The consequences of this environment will be discussed by the other presenters at this seminar.

  1. Collective Philanthropy: Describing and Modeling the Ecology of Giving

    PubMed Central

    Gottesman, William L.; Reagan, Andrew James; Dodds, Peter Sheridan

    2014-01-01

    Reflective of income and wealth distributions, philanthropic gifting appears to follow an approximate power-law size distribution as measured by the size of gifts received by individual institutions. We explore the ecology of gifting by analysing data sets of individual gifts for a diverse group of institutions dedicated to education, medicine, art, public support, and religion. We find that the detailed forms of gift-size distributions differ across but are relatively constant within charity categories. We construct a model for how a donor's income affects their giving preferences in different charity categories, offering a mechanistic explanation for variations in institutional gift-size distributions. We discuss how knowledge of gift-sized distributions may be used to assess an institution's gift-giving profile, to help set fundraising goals, and to design an institution-specific giving pyramid. PMID:24983864

  2. How early adolescents describe their dreams: a quantitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Azzone, P; Freni, S; Maggiolini, A; Provantini, K; Viganó, D

    1998-01-01

    Most empirical research on dreams has focused on content and structure, while linguistic features have received far less attention. The present study investigated dream language in a critical developmental stage: early adolescence. Narratives of the dreams of 145 early adolescents were tape-recorded and transcribed, and the frequencies of various grammar forms and common words were calculated. The most common nouns for the entire sample were house and mother. The most frequent verbs were go and do. Males' dream narratives contained a greater number of such words as animal, long, enter, and kill. Females more often used intransitive verbs and such words as teacher, horse, and put. Several features differentiated older from younger early adolescents' dreams. The results indicate that linguistic features of dream narratives are affected by age and sex, displaying interesting parallels with clinical theories on dreams and early adolescence. PMID:9583674

  3. Effect of Display Color on Pilot Performance and Describing Functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chase, Wendell D.

    1997-01-01

    A study has been conducted with the full-spectrum, calligraphic, computer-generated display system to determine the effect of chromatic content of the visual display upon pilot performance during the landing approach maneuver. This study utilizes a new digital chromatic display system, which has previously been shown to improve the perceived fidelity of out-the-window display scenes, and presents the results of an experiment designed to determine the effects of display color content by the measurement of both vertical approach performance and pilot-describing functions. This method was selected to more fully explore the effects of visual color cues used by the pilot. Two types of landing approaches were made: dynamic and frozen range, with either a landing approach scene or a perspective array display. The landing approach scene was presented with either red runway lights and blue taxiway lights or with the colors reversed, and the perspective array with red lights, blue lights, or red and blue lights combined. The vertical performance measures obtained in this experiment indicated that the pilots performed best with the blue and red/blue displays. and worst with the red displays. The describing-function system analysis showed more variation with the red displays. The crossover frequencies were lowest with the red displays and highest with the combined red/blue displays, which provided the best overall tracking, performance. Describing-function performance measures, vertical performance measures, and pilot opinion support the hypothesis that specific colors in displays can influence the pilots' control characteristics during the final approach.

  4. A proposal to describe a phenomenon of expanding language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swietorzecka, Kordula

    Changes of knowledge, convictions or beliefs are subjects of interest in frame of so called epistemic logic. There are various proposed descriptions of a process (or its results) in which so a called agent may invent certain changes in a set of sentences that he had already chosen as a point of his knowledge, convictions or beliefs (and this is also considered in case of many agents). In the presented paper we are interested in the changeability of an agent's language which is by its own independent from already mentioned changes. Modern epistemic formalizations assume that the agent uses a fixed (and so we could say: static) language in which he expresses his various opinions which may change. Our interest is to simulate a situation when a language is extended by adding to it new expressions which were not known by the agent so he couldn't even consider them as subjects of his opinions. Actually such a phenomenon happens both in natural and scientific languages. Let us mention a fact of expanding languages in process of learning or in result of getting of new data about some described domain. We propose a simple idealization of extending sentential language used by one agent. Actually the language is treated as a family of so called n-languages which get some epistemic interpretation. Proposed semantics enables us to distinguish between two different types of changes - these which occur because of changing agent's convictions about logical values of some n-sentences - we describe them using one place operator C to be read it changes that - and changes that consist in increasing the level of n-language by adding to it new expressions. However the second type of change - symbolized by variable G - may be also considered independently of the first one. The logical frame of our considerations comes from and it was originally used to describe Aristotelian theory of substantial changes. This time we apply the mentioned logic in epistemology.

  5. Newly Described Clinical and Immunopathological Feature of Dermatitis Herpetiformis

    PubMed Central

    Bonciolini, Veronica; Bonciani, Diletta; Verdelli, Alice; D'Errico, Antonietta; Antiga, Emiliano; Fabbri, Paolo; Caproni, Marzia

    2012-01-01

    Dermatitis herpetiformis (DH) is an inflammatory cutaneous disease with typical histopathological and immunopathological findings clinically characterized by intensely pruritic polymorphic lesions with a chronic-relapsing course. In addition to classic clinical manifestations of DH, atypical variants are more and more frequently reported and histological and immunological are added to them, whereas the impact on quality of life of patients with DH is increasingly important to a certain diagnosis. The aim of this paper is to describe all the possible clinical, histological, and immunological variants of DH in order to facilitate the diagnosis of a rare disease and, therefore, little known. PMID:22701503

  6. Feshbach resonance described by boson-fermion coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Domanski, T.

    2003-07-01

    We consider a possibility to describe the Feshbach resonance in terms of the boson-fermion (BF) model. Using such a model, we show that after a gradual disentangling of the boson from fermion subsystem, the resonant-type scattering between fermions is indeed generated. We decouple the subsystems via (a) the single step and (b) the continuous canonical transformation. With the second one, we investigate the feedback effects effectively leading to the finite amplitude of the scattering strength. We study them in detail in the normal T>T{sub c} and superconducting T{<=}T{sub c} states.

  7. Diffusion model to describe osteogenesis within a porous titanium scaffold.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, M; Allena, R; Schouman, T; Frasca, S; Collombet, J M; Holy, X; Rouch, P

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we develop a two-dimensional finite element model, which is derived from an animal experiment and allows simulating osteogenesis within a porous titanium scaffold implanted in ewe's hemi-mandible during 12 weeks. The cell activity is described through diffusion equations and regulated by the stress state of the structure. We compare our model to (i) histological observations and (ii) experimental data obtained from a mechanical test done on sacrificed animal. We show that our mechano-biological approach provides consistent numerical results and constitutes a useful tool to predict osteogenesis pattern. PMID:25573031

  8. Quantization method for describing the motion of celestial systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christianto, Victor; Smarandache, Florentin

    2015-11-01

    Criticism arises concerning the use of quantization method for describing the motion of celestial systems, arguing that the method is oversimplifying the problem, and cannot explain other phenomena, for instance planetary migration. Using quantization method like Nottale-Schumacher did, one can expect to predict new exoplanets with remarkable result. The ``conventional'' theories explaining planetary migration normally use fluid theory involving diffusion process. Gibson have shown that these migration phenomena could be described via Navier-Stokes approach. Kiehn's argument was based on exact-mapping between Schrodinger equation and Navier-Stokes equations, while our method may be interpreted as an oversimplification of the real planetary migration process which took place sometime in the past, providing useful tool for prediction (e.g. other planetoids, which are likely to be observed in the near future, around 113.8AU and 137.7 AU). Therefore, quantization method could be seen as merely a ``plausible'' theory. We would like to emphasize that the quantization method does not have to be the true description of reality with regards to celestial phenomena. This method could explain some phenomena, while perhaps lacks explanation for other phenomena.

  9. Macro parameters describing the mechanical behavior of classical guitars.

    PubMed

    Elie, Benjamin; Gautier, François; David, Bertrand

    2012-12-01

    Since the 1960s and 1970s, researchers have proposed simplified models using only a few parameters to describe the vibro-acoustical behavior of string instruments in the low-frequency range. This paper presents a method for deriving and estimating a few important parameters or features describing the mechanical behavior of classical guitars over a broader frequency range. These features are selected under the constraint that the measurements may readily be made in the workshop of an instrument maker. The computations of these features use estimates of the modal parameters over a large frequency range, made with the high-resolution subspace ESPRIT algorithm (Estimation of Signal Parameters via Rotational Invariant Techniques) and the signal enumeration technique ESTER (ESTimation of ERror). The methods are applied to experiments on real metal and wood plates and numerical simulations of them. The results on guitars show a nearly constant mode density in the mid- and high-frequency ranges, as it is found for a flat panel. Four features are chosen as characteristic parameters of this equivalent plate: Mass, rigidity, characteristic admittance, and the mobility deviation. Application to a set of 12 guitars indicates that these features are good candidates to discriminate different classes of classical guitars. PMID:23231130

  10. Differentiable Neural Substrates for Learned and Described Value and Risk

    PubMed Central

    FitzGerald, Thomas H.B.; Seymour, Ben; Bach, Dominik R.; Dolan, Raymond J.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Studies of human decision making emerge from two dominant traditions: learning theorists [1–3] study choices in which options are evaluated on the basis of experience, whereas behavioral economists and financial decision theorists study choices in which the key decision variables are explicitly stated. Growing behavioral evidence suggests that valuation based on these different classes of information involves separable mechanisms [4–8], but the relevant neuronal substrates are unknown. This is important for understanding the all-too-common situation in which choices must be made between alternatives that involve one or another kind of information. We studied behavior and brain activity while subjects made decisions between risky financial options, in which the associated utilities were either learned or explicitly described. We show a characteristic effect in subjects' behavior when comparing information acquired from experience with that acquired from description, suggesting that these kinds of information are treated differently. This behavioral effect was reflected neurally, and we show differential sensitivity to learned and described value and risk in brain regions commonly associated with reward processing. Our data indicate that, during decision making under risk, both behavior and the neural encoding of key decision variables are strongly influenced by the manner in which value information is presented. PMID:20888231

  11. Colour in flux: describing and printing colour in art

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parraman, Carinna

    2008-01-01

    This presentation will describe artists, practitioners and scientists, who were interested in developing a deeper psychological, emotional and practical understanding of the human visual system who were working with wavelength, paint and other materials. From a selection of prints at The Prints and Drawings Department at Tate London, the presentation will refer to artists who were motivated by issues relating to how colour pigment was mixed and printed, to interrogate and explain colour perception and colour science, and in art, how artists have used colour to challenge the viewer and how a viewer might describe their experience of colour. The title Colour in Flux refers, not only to the perceptual effect of the juxtaposition of one colour pigment with another, but also to the changes and challenges for the print industry. In the light of screenprinted examples from the 60s and 70s, the presentation will discuss 21 st century ideas on colour and how these notions have informed the Centre for Fine Print Research's (CFPR) practical research in colour printing. The latter part of this presentation will discuss the implications for the need to change methods in mixing inks that moves away from existing colour spaces, from non intuitive colour mixing to bespoke ink sets, colour mixing approaches and colour mixing methods that are not reliant on RGB or CMYK.

  12. In their own words: describing Canadian physician leadership.

    PubMed

    Snell, Anita J; Dickson, Graham; Wirtzfeld, Debrah; Van Aerde, John

    2016-07-01

    Purpose This is the first study to compile statistical data to describe the functions and responsibilities of physicians in formal and informal leadership roles in the Canadian health system. This mixed-methods research study offers baseline data relative to this purpose, and also describes physician leaders' views on fundamental aspects of their leadership responsibility. Design/methodology/approach A survey with both quantitative and qualitative fields yielded 689 valid responses from physician leaders. Data from the survey were utilized in the development of a semi-structured interview guide; 15 physician leaders were interviewed. Findings A profile of Canadian physician leadership has been compiled, including demographics; an outline of roles, responsibilities, time commitments and related compensation; and personal factors that support, engage and deter physicians when considering taking on leadership roles. The role of health-care organizations in encouraging and supporting physician leadership is explicated. Practical implications The baseline data on Canadian physician leaders create the opportunity to determine potential steps for improving the state of physician leadership in Canada; and health-care organizations are provided with a wealth of information on how to encourage and support physician leaders. Using the data as a benchmark, comparisons can also be made with physician leadership as practiced in other nations. Originality/value There are no other research studies available that provide the depth and breadth of detail on Canadian physician leadership, and the embedded recommendations to health-care organizations are informed by this in-depth knowledge. PMID:27397749

  13. Asphere, O asphere, how shall we describe thee?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forbes, G. W.; Brophy, C. P.

    2008-09-01

    Two key criteria govern the characterization of nominal shapes for aspheric optical surfaces. An efficient representation describes the spectrum of relevant shapes to the required accuracy by using the fewest decimal digits in the associated coefficients. Also, a representation is more effective if it can, in some way, facilitate other processes - such as optical design, tolerancing, or direct human interpretation. With the development of better tools for their design, metrology, and fabrication, aspheric optics are becoming ever more pervasive. As part of this trend, aspheric departures of up to a thousand microns or more must be characterized at almost nanometre precision. For all but the simplest of shapes, this is not as easy as it might sound. Efficiency is therefore increasingly important. Further, metrology tools continue to be one of the weaker links in the cost-effective production of aspheric optics. Interferometry particularly struggles to deal with steep slopes in aspheric departure. Such observations motivated the ideas described in what follows for modifying the conventional description of rotationally symmetric aspheres to use orthogonal bases that boost efficiency. The new representations can facilitate surface tolerancing as well as the design of aspheres with cost-effective metrology options. These ideas enable the description of aspheric shapes in terms of decompositions that not only deliver improved efficiency and effectiveness, but that are also shown to admit direct interpretations. While it's neither poetry nor a cure-all, an old blight can be relieved.

  14. CPT: an open system that describes all that you do.

    PubMed

    Thorwarth, William T

    2008-04-01

    The American Medical Association, with the cooperation of multiple major medical specialty societies, including the ACR, responded in 1966 to the need for a complete coding system for describing medical procedures and services with the first publication of Current Procedural Terminology (CPT). This system, now CPT IV, forms the basis of reporting of virtually all inpatient and outpatient services performed by physicians and nonphysician health care providers as well as facilities. This coding system and its maintenance process have evolved in complexity and sophistication, particularly in the past decade, such that it is now integral to all facets of health care, including tracking new and investigational procedures and reporting and monitoring performance measures (read "pay for performance"), in addition to its long-standing use for reporting for reimbursement. To paraphrase a recent automobile commercial, "This is not your father's CPT." The author describes the development of CPT as it exists today, examining the forces that molded its current form, the input opportunities available to medical specialty societies and others, the ever increasing transparency of the CPT maintenance process, and the availability of resources allowing all to stay current. Understanding this system, critical to the practice of all of medicine, including radiology, will aid all health care providers in maintaining the quality, efficiency, and accuracy of their practices' business operations as well as assist them in a world of increasingly complex reporting requirements. PMID:18359442

  15. Describing the impact of health research: a Research Impact Framework

    PubMed Central

    Kuruvilla, Shyama; Mays, Nicholas; Pleasant, Andrew; Walt, Gill

    2006-01-01

    Background Researchers are increasingly required to describe the impact of their work, e.g. in grant proposals, project reports, press releases and research assessment exercises. Specialised impact assessment studies can be difficult to replicate and may require resources and skills not available to individual researchers. Researchers are often hard-pressed to identify and describe research impacts and ad hoc accounts do not facilitate comparison across time or projects. Methods The Research Impact Framework was developed by identifying potential areas of health research impact from the research impact assessment literature and based on research assessment criteria, for example, as set out by the UK Research Assessment Exercise panels. A prototype of the framework was used to guide an analysis of the impact of selected research projects at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. Additional areas of impact were identified in the process and researchers also provided feedback on which descriptive categories they thought were useful and valid vis-à-vis the nature and impact of their work. Results We identified four broad areas of impact: I. Research-related impacts; II. Policy impacts; III. Service impacts: health and intersectoral and IV. Societal impacts. Within each of these areas, further descriptive categories were identified. For example, the nature of research impact on policy can be described using the following categorisation, put forward by Weiss: Instrumental use where research findings drive policy-making; Mobilisation of support where research provides support for policy proposals; Conceptual use where research influences the concepts and language of policy deliberations and Redefining/wider influence where research leads to rethinking and changing established practices and beliefs. Conclusion Researchers, while initially sceptical, found that the Research Impact Framework provided prompts and descriptive categories that helped them

  16. Describing Sequence-Ensemble Relationships for Intrinsically Disordered Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Albert H.; Lyle, Nicholas; Pappu, Rohit V.

    2014-01-01

    Synopsis Intrinsically disordered proteins participate in important protein-protein and protein-nucleic acid interactions and control cellular phenotypes through their prominence as dynamic organizers of transcriptional, post-transcriptional, and signaling networks. These proteins challenge the tenets of the structure-function paradigm and their functional mechanisms remain a mystery given that they fail to fold autonomously into specific structures. Solving this mystery requires a first principles understanding of the quantitative relationships between information encoded in the sequences of disordered proteins and the ensemble of conformations they sample. Advances in quantifying sequence-ensemble relationships have been facilitated through a four-way synergy between bioinformatics, biophysical experiments, computer simulations, and polymer physics theories. Here, we review these advances and the resultant insights that allow us to develop a concise quantitative framework for describing sequence-ensemble relationships of intrinsically disordered proteins. PMID:23240611

  17. Effects of display format on pilot describing function and remnant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jex, H. R.; Allen, R. W.; Magdaleno, R. E.

    1972-01-01

    As part of a program to develop a comprehensive theory of manual control displays, six display formats were used by three instrument-rated pilots to regulate against random disturbances with a controlled element under both foveal and 10 deg parafoveal viewing conditions. The six display formats were: CRT line, CRT thermometer bar, 14-bar quantized on a CRT, a rotary dial and pointer, and two variations of a moving scale tape-drive. All were scaled to equivalent movement and apparent brightness. Measures included overall performance, describing functions, error remnant power spectra, critical instability scores, and subjective display ratings. The results show that the main effect of display format is on the loop closure properties. Less desirable displays induce lower bandwidth closures with consequent effects on the closed-loop remnant and performance.

  18. Intervention Taxonomy (ITAX): Describing Essential Features of Interventions (HMC)

    PubMed Central

    Czaja, Sara J.; McKay, James R.; Ory, Marcia G; Belle, Steven H

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To identify key features of interventions that need to be considered in the design, execution, and reporting of interventions. Methods Based on prior work on decomposing psychosocial and clinical interventions, current guidelines for describing interventions, and a review of a broad range of intervention studies, we developed a comprehensive intervention taxonomy. Results Specific recommendations, rationales, and definitions of intervention delivery and content characteristics including mode, materials, location, schedule, scripting, and sensitivity to participant characteristics, interventionist characteristics, adaptability, implementation, content strategies, and mechanisms of action are provided. Conclusions Applying this taxonomy will advance intervention science by (a) improving intervention designs, (b) enhancing replication and follow-up of intervention studies, (c) facilitating systematic exploration of the efficacy and effectiveness of intervention components through cross-study analysis, and (d) informing decisions about the feasibility of implementation in broader community settings. PMID:20604704

  19. Using Persistent Homology to Describe Rayleigh-Bénard Convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tithof, Jeffrey; Suri, Balachandra; Xu, Mu; Kramar, Miroslav; Levanger, Rachel; Mischaikow, Konstantin; Paul, Mark; Schatz, Michael

    2015-11-01

    Complex spatial patterns that exhibit aperiodic dynamics commonly arise in a wide variety of systems in nature and technology. Describing, understanding, and predicting the behavior of such patterns is an open problem. We explore the use of persistent homology (a branch of algebraic topology) to characterize spatiotemporal dynamics in a canonical fluid mechanics problem, Rayleigh Bénard convection. Persistent homology provides a powerful mathematical formalism in which the topological characteristics of a pattern (e.g. the midplane temperature field) are encoded in a so-called persistence diagram. By applying a metric to measure the pairwise distances across multiple persistence diagrams, we can quantify the similarities between different states in a time series. Our results show that persistent homology yields new physical insights into the complex dynamics of large spatially extended systems that are driven far-from-equilibrium. This work is supported under NSF grant DMS-1125302.

  20. A new way of describing the Dirac bands in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kissinger, Gregory; Satpathy, Sashi

    We develop a new way of describing the electronic structure of graphene, by treating the honeycomb lattice as a network of one-dimensional quantum wires. The electrons travel as free particles along these quantum wires and interfere at the three-way junctions formed by the carbon atoms. The model generates the linearly dispersive Dirac cone band structure as well as the chiral nature of the pseudo-spin sublattice wave functions. When vacancies are incorporated, we find that it also reproduces the well known zero mode states. This simple approach might have advantages over other methods for some applications, such as in analyzing electronic transport through graphene nanoribbons. In addition, this finding suggests new ways of constructing Dirac band materials in the laboratory by nano-patterning for investigating Dirac fermions.

  1. Quark and lepton mass matrices described by charged lepton masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koide, Yoshio; Nishiura, Hiroyuki

    2016-06-01

    Recently, we proposed a unified mass matrix model for quarks and leptons, in which, mass ratios and mixings of the quarks and neutrinos are described by using only the observed charged lepton mass values as family-number-dependent parameters and only six family-number-independent free parameters. In spite of quite few parameters, the model gives remarkable agreement with observed data (i.e. Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) mixing, Pontecorvo-Maki-Nakagawa-Sakata (PMNS) mixing and mass ratios). Taking this phenomenological success seriously, we give a formulation of the so-called Yukawaon model in detail from a theoretical aspect, especially for the construction of superpotentials and R charge assignments of fields. The model is considerably modified from the previous one, while the phenomenological success is kept unchanged.

  2. Dynamics of rotating fluids described by scalar potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyed-Mahmoud, Behnam; Rochester, Michael

    2006-06-01

    The oscillatory dynamics of a rotating, self-gravitating, stratified, compressible, inviscid fluid body is simplified by an exact description in terms of three scalar fields which are constructed from the dilatation, and the perturbations in pressure and gravitational potential [Seyed-Mahmoud, B., 1994. Wobble/nutation of a rotating ellipsoidal Earth with liquid core: implementation of a new set of equations describing dynamics of rotating fluids M.Sc. Thesis, Memorial University of Newfoundland]. We test the method by applying it to compressible, but neutrally-stratified, models of the Earth's liquid core, including a solid inner core, and compute the frequencies of some of the inertial modes. We conclude the method should be further exploited for astrophysical and geophysical normal mode computations.

  3. A modeling approach to describe ZVI-based anaerobic system.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xiao; Sheng, Guo-Ping; Mu, Yang; Yu, Han-Qing

    2013-10-15

    Zero-valent iron (ZVI) is increasingly being added into anaerobic reactors to enhance the biological conversion of various less biodegradable pollutants (LBPs). Our study aimed to establish a new structure model based on the Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1) to simulate such a ZVI-based anaerobic reactor. Three new processes, i.e., electron release from ZVI corrosion, H2 formation from ZVI corrosion, and transformation of LBPs, were integrated into ADM1. The established model was calibrated and tested using the experimental data from one published study, and validated using the data from another work. A good relationship between the predicted and measured results indicates that the proposed model was appropriate to describe the performance of the ZVI-based anaerobic system. Our model could provide more precise strategies for the design, development, and application of anaerobic systems especially for treating various LBPs-containing wastewaters. PMID:23932771

  4. Method to describe stochastic dynamics using an optimal coordinate.

    PubMed

    Krivov, Sergei V

    2013-12-01

    A general method to describe the stochastic dynamics of Markov processes is suggested. The method aims to solve three related problems: the determination of an optimal coordinate for the description of stochastic dynamics; the reconstruction of time from an ensemble of stochastic trajectories; and the decomposition of stationary stochastic dynamics into eigenmodes which do not decay exponentially with time. The problems are solved by introducing additive eigenvectors which are transformed by a stochastic matrix in a simple way - every component is translated by a constant distance. Such solutions have peculiar properties. For example, an optimal coordinate for stochastic dynamics with detailed balance is a multivalued function. An optimal coordinate for a random walk on a line corresponds to the conventional eigenvector of the one-dimensional Dirac equation. The equation for the optimal coordinate in a slowly varying potential reduces to the Hamilton-Jacobi equation for the action function. PMID:24483410

  5. Diffraction described by virtual particle momentum exchange: the "diffraction force"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mobley, Michael J.

    2011-09-01

    Particle diffraction can be described by an ensemble of particle paths determined through a Fourier analysis of a scattering lattice where the momentum exchange probabilities are defined at the location of scattering, not the point of detection. This description is compatible with optical wave theories and quantum particle models and provides deeper insights to the nature of quantum uncertainty. In this paper the Rayleigh-Sommerfeld and Fresnel-Kirchoff theories are analyzed for diffraction by a narrow slit and a straight edge to demonstrate the dependence of particle scattering on the distance of virtual particle exchange. The quantized momentum exchange is defined by the Heisenberg uncertainty principle and is consistent with the formalism of QED. This exchange of momentum manifests the "diffraction force" that appears to be a universal construct as it applies to neutral and charged particles. This analysis indicates virtual particles might form an exchange channel that bridges the space of momentum exchange.

  6. The remarkable ability of turbulence model equations to describe transition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, David C.

    1992-01-01

    This paper demonstrates how well the k-omega turbulence model describes the nonlinear growth of flow instabilities from laminar flow into the turbulent flow regime. Viscous modifications are proposed for the k-omega model that yield close agreement with measurements and with Direct Numerical Simulation results for channel and pipe flow. These modifications permit prediction of subtle sublayer details such as maximum dissipation at the surface, k approximately y(exp 2) as y approaches 0, and the sharp peak value of k near the surface. With two transition specific closure coefficients, the model equations accurately predict transition for an incompressible flat-plate boundary layer. The analysis also shows why the k-epsilon model is so difficult to use for predicting transition.

  7. Describing linguistic information in a behavioural framework: Possible or not?

    SciTech Connect

    De Cooman, G.

    1996-12-31

    The paper discusses important aspects of the representation of linguistic information, using imprecise probabilities with a behavioural interpretation. We define linguistic information as the information conveyed by statements in natural language, but restrict ourselves to simple affirmative statements of the type {open_quote}subject-is-predicate{close_quote}. Taking the behavioural stance, as it is described in detail, we investigate whether it is possible to give a mathematical model for this kind of information. In particular, we evaluate Zadeli`s suggestion that we should use possibility measures to this end. We come to tile conclusion that, generally speaking, possibility measures are possibility models for linguistic information, but that more work should be done in order to evaluate the suggestion that they may be the only ones.

  8. A framework for describing health care delivery organizations and systems.

    PubMed

    Piña, Ileana L; Cohen, Perry D; Larson, David B; Marion, Lucy N; Sills, Marion R; Solberg, Leif I; Zerzan, Judy

    2015-04-01

    Describing, evaluating, and conducting research on the questions raised by comparative effectiveness research and characterizing care delivery organizations of all kinds, from independent individual provider units to large integrated health systems, has become imperative. Recognizing this challenge, the Delivery Systems Committee, a subgroup of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality's Effective Health Care Stakeholders Group, which represents a wide diversity of perspectives on health care, created a draft framework with domains and elements that may be useful in characterizing various sizes and types of care delivery organizations and may contribute to key outcomes of interest. The framework may serve as the door to further studies in areas in which clear definitions and descriptions are lacking. PMID:24922130

  9. Nomenclature proposal to describe vocal fold motion impairment.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Clark A; Mau, Ted; Remacle, Marc; Hess, Markus; Eckel, Hans E; Young, VyVy N; Hantzakos, Anastasios; Yung, Katherine C; Dikkers, Frederik G

    2016-08-01

    The terms used to describe vocal fold motion impairment are confusing and not standardized. This results in a failure to communicate accurately and to major limitations of interpreting research studies involving vocal fold impairment. We propose standard nomenclature for reporting vocal fold impairment. Overarching terms of vocal fold immobility and hypomobility are rigorously defined. This includes assessment techniques and inclusion and exclusion criteria for determining vocal fold immobility and hypomobility. In addition, criteria for use of the following terms have been outlined in detail: vocal fold paralysis, vocal fold paresis, vocal fold immobility/hypomobility associated with mechanical impairment of the crico-arytenoid joint and vocal fold immobility/hypomobility related to laryngeal malignant disease. This represents the first rigorously defined vocal fold motion impairment nomenclature system. This provides detailed definitions to the terms vocal fold paralysis and vocal fold paresis. PMID:26036851

  10. Complex coastal oceanographic fields can be described by universal multifractals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skákala, Jozef; Smyth, Timothy J.

    2015-09-01

    Characterization of chlorophyll and sea surface temperature (SST) structural heterogeneity using their scaling properties can provide a useful tool to estimate the relative importance of key physical and biological drivers. Seasonal, annual, and also instantaneous spatial distributions of chlorophyll and SST, determined from satellite measurements, in seven different coastal and shelf-sea regions around the UK have been studied. It is shown that multifractals provide a very good approximation to the scaling properties of the data: in fact, the multifractal scaling function is well approximated by universal multifractal theory. The consequence is that all of the statistical information about data structure can be reduced to being described by two parameters. It is further shown that also bathymetry scales in the studied regions as multifractal. The SST and chlorophyll multifractal structures are then explained as an effect of bathymetry and turbulence.

  11. Describing Directional Cell Migration with a Characteristic Directionality Time

    PubMed Central

    Loosley, Alex J.; O’Brien, Xian M.; Reichner, Jonathan S.; Tang, Jay X.

    2015-01-01

    Many cell types can bias their direction of locomotion by coupling to external cues. Characteristics such as how fast a cell migrates and the directedness of its migration path can be quantified to provide metrics that determine which biochemical and biomechanical factors affect directional cell migration, and by how much. To be useful, these metrics must be reproducible from one experimental setting to another. However, most are not reproducible because their numerical values depend on technical parameters like sampling interval and measurement error. To address the need for a reproducible metric, we analytically derive a metric called directionality time, the minimum observation time required to identify motion as directionally biased. We show that the corresponding fit function is applicable to a variety of ergodic, directionally biased motions. A motion is ergodic when the underlying dynamical properties such as speed or directional bias do not change over time. Measuring the directionality of nonergodic motion is less straightforward but we also show how this class of motion can be analyzed. Simulations are used to show the robustness of directionality time measurements and its decoupling from measurement errors. As a practical example, we demonstrate the measurement of directionality time, step-by-step, on noisy, nonergodic trajectories of chemotactic neutrophils. Because of its inherent generality, directionality time ought to be useful for characterizing a broad range of motions including intracellular transport, cell motility, and animal migration. PMID:25992908

  12. Angular momentum and torque described with the complex octonion

    SciTech Connect

    Weng, Zi-Hua

    2014-08-15

    The paper aims to adopt the complex octonion to formulate the angular momentum, torque, and force etc in the electromagnetic and gravitational fields. Applying the octonionic representation enables one single definition of angular momentum (or torque, force) to combine some physics contents, which were considered to be independent of each other in the past. J. C. Maxwell used simultaneously two methods, the vector terminology and quaternion analysis, to depict the electromagnetic theory. It motivates the paper to introduce the quaternion space into the field theory, describing the physical feature of electromagnetic and gravitational fields. The spaces of electromagnetic field and of gravitational field can be chosen as the quaternion spaces, while the coordinate component of quaternion space is able to be the complex number. The quaternion space of electromagnetic field is independent of that of gravitational field. These two quaternion spaces may compose one octonion space. Contrarily, one octonion space can be separated into two subspaces, the quaternion space and S-quaternion space. In the quaternion space, it is able to infer the field potential, field strength, field source, angular momentum, torque, and force etc in the gravitational field. In the S-quaternion space, it is capable of deducing the field potential, field strength, field source, current continuity equation, and electric (or magnetic) dipolar moment etc in the electromagnetic field. The results reveal that the quaternion space is appropriate to describe the gravitational features, including the torque, force, and mass continuity equation etc. The S-quaternion space is proper to depict the electromagnetic features, including the dipolar moment and current continuity equation etc. In case the field strength is weak enough, the force and the continuity equation etc can be respectively reduced to that in the classical field theory.

  13. Angular momentum and torque described with the complex octonion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, Zi-Hua

    2014-08-01

    The paper aims to adopt the complex octonion to formulate the angular momentum, torque, and force etc in the electromagnetic and gravitational fields. Applying the octonionic representation enables one single definition of angular momentum (or torque, force) to combine some physics contents, which were considered to be independent of each other in the past. J. C. Maxwell used simultaneously two methods, the vector terminology and quaternion analysis, to depict the electromagnetic theory. It motivates the paper to introduce the quaternion space into the field theory, describing the physical feature of electromagnetic and gravitational fields. The spaces of electromagnetic field and of gravitational field can be chosen as the quaternion spaces, while the coordinate component of quaternion space is able to be the complex number. The quaternion space of electromagnetic field is independent of that of gravitational field. These two quaternion spaces may compose one octonion space. Contrarily, one octonion space can be separated into two subspaces, the quaternion space and S-quaternion space. In the quaternion space, it is able to infer the field potential, field strength, field source, angular momentum, torque, and force etc in the gravitational field. In the S-quaternion space, it is capable of deducing the field potential, field strength, field source, current continuity equation, and electric (or magnetic) dipolar moment etc in the electromagnetic field. The results reveal that the quaternion space is appropriate to describe the gravitational features, including the torque, force, and mass continuity equation etc. The S-quaternion space is proper to depict the electromagnetic features, including the dipolar moment and current continuity equation etc. In case the field strength is weak enough, the force and the continuity equation etc can be respectively reduced to that in the classical field theory.

  14. Chapter 35: Describing Data and Data Collections in the VO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, B. R.; Hanisch, R. J.; Williams, R. D.

    The list of numbers: 19.22, 17.23, 18.11, 16.98, and 15.11, is of little intrinsic interest without information about the context in which they appear. For instance, are these daily closing stock prices for your favorite investment, or are they hourly photometric measurements of an increasingly bright quasar? The information needed to define this context is called metadata. Metadata are data about data. Astronomers are familiar with metadata through the headers of FITS files and the names and units associated with columns in a table or database. In the VO, metadata describe the contents of tables, images, and spectra, as well as aggregate collections of data (archives, surveys) and computational services. Moreover, VO metadata are constructed according to rules that avoid ambiguity and make it clear whether, in the example above, the stock prices are in dollars or euros, or the photometry is Johnson V or Sloan g. Organization of data is important in any scientific discipline. Equally crucial are the descriptions of that data: the organization publishing the data, its creator or the person making it available, what instruments were used, units assigned to measurement, calibration status, and data quality assessment. The Virtual Observatory metadata scheme not only applies to datasets, but to resources as well, including data archive facilities, searchable web forms, and online analysis and display tools. Since the scientific output flowing from large datasets depends greatly on how well the data are described, it is important for users to understand the basics of the metadata scheme in order to locate the data that they want and use it correctly. Metadata are the key to data discovery and data and service interoperability in the Virtual Observatory.

  15. Assessing the State of Substitution Models Describing Noncoding RNA Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Allen, James E.; Whelan, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Phylogenetic inference is widely used to investigate the relationships between homologous sequences. RNA molecules have played a key role in these studies because they are present throughout life and tend to evolve slowly. Phylogenetic inference has been shown to be dependent on the substitution model used. A wide range of models have been developed to describe RNA evolution, either with 16 states describing all possible canonical base pairs or with 7 states where the 10 mismatched nucleotides are reduced to a single state. Formal model selection has become a standard practice for choosing an inferential model and works well for comparing models of a specific type, such as comparisons within nucleotide models or within amino acid models. Model selection cannot function across different sized state spaces because the likelihoods are conditioned on different data. Here, we introduce statistical state-space projection methods that allow the direct comparison of likelihoods between nucleotide models and 7-state and 16-state RNA models. To demonstrate the general applicability of our new methods, we extract 287 RNA families from genomic alignments and perform model selection. We find that in 281/287 families, RNA models are selected in preference to nucleotide models, with simple 7-state RNA models selected for more conserved families with shorter stems and more complex 16-state RNA models selected for more divergent families with longer stems. Other factors, such as the function of the RNA molecule or the GC-content, have limited impact on model selection. Our models and model selection methods are freely available in the open-source PHASE 3.0 software. PMID:24391153

  16. Issues with Describing the Uncertainties in Atmospheric Remote Sensing Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haffner, D. P.; Bhartia, P. K.; Kramarova, N. A.

    2014-12-01

    Uncertainty in atmospheric measurements from satellites and other remote sensing platforms comes from several sources. Users are familiar with concepts of accuracy and precision for physical measurements made using instrumentation, but retrieval algorithms also frequently require statistical information since measurements alone may not completely determine the parameter of interest. This statistical information has uncertainty associated with it as well, and it often contributes a sizeable fraction to the total uncertainty. The precise combination of physical and statistical information in remotely sensed data can vary with season, latitude, altitude, and conditions of measurement. While this picture is complex, it is important to clearly define the overall uncertainty for users without oversimplifying so they can interpret the data correctly. Assessment of trends, quantification of radiative forcing and chemical budgets, and comparisons of models with satellite observations all benefit from having adequate uncertainty information. But even today, terminology and interpretation of these uncertainties is a hot topic of discussion among experts. Based on our experience producing a 44 year-long dataset of total ozone and ozone profiles, we discuss our ideas for describing uncertainty in atmospheric datasets for global change research. Assumptions about the atmosphere used in retrievals can also be provided with exact information detailing how the final product depends on these assumptions. As a practical example, we discuss our modifications to the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) algorithm in Version 9 to provide robust uncertainties for each measurement and supply as much useful information to users as possible. Finally, we describe how uncertainties in individual measurements combine when the data are aggregated in time and space.

  17. Factors Affecting the Tutoring Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartman, Hope J.

    1990-01-01

    Analyzes factors internal to the tutor and tutee (i.e., cognition, metacognition, and affect) and external to them (e.g., teacher/tutor background knowledge, educational environment, content to be learned, socioeconomic status, family background, and cultural forces) that influence the tutoring process. Suggests a theoretical framework for…

  18. Mood Swings: An Affective Interactive Art System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bialoskorski, Leticia S. S.; Westerink, Joyce H. D. M.; van den Broek, Egon L.

    The progress in the field of affective computing enables the realization of affective consumer products, affective games, and affective art. This paper describes the affective interactive art system Mood Swings, which interprets and visualizes affect expressed by a person. Mood Swings is founded on the integration of a framework for affective movements and a color model. This enables Mood Swings to recognize affective movement characteristics as expressed by a person and display a color that matches the expressed emotion. With that, a unique interactive system is introduced, which can be considered as art, a game, or a combination of both.

  19. Histopathological aspects described in patients with chronic hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Petrescu, Florin; Petrescu, Octavia Ileana; Taisescu, Citto Iulian; Comănescu, Maria Victoria; Forţofoiu, Mircea Cătălin; Predescu, Ion Octavian; Roşu, Alexandra Floriana; Gheonea, Cristian; Biciuşcă, Viorel

    2015-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis C affects an estimated 170 million people worldwide and causes approximately 350 000 deaths each year. The current antiviral therapy allows the virus eradication or the permanent inhibition of the virus replication (sustained virological response, SVR), the reduction of the inflammation, and the prevention or the reduction of liver fibrogenesis (histological response). We studied the histopathological aspects found during percutaneous liver biopsy in patients with chronic hepatitis C viral infection who were treated and monitored over a period of two years. The assessment of the histological activity index through Ishak score determined the presence of: mild chronic hepatitis in 12 (23.1%) patients, moderate chronic hepatitis in 21 (40.4%) patients, and severe chronic hepatitis in 19 (36.5%) patients. The percutaneous liver biopsy performed on the patients with chronic viral hepatitis C showed a series of histological alterations, the most frequent being: portal inflammation, periportal necrosis, lobular inflammation, focal necrosis, and hepatic fibrosis (scarring). The severity degree of this histopathological aspect was correlated with the hepatitis activity index. The association of piecemeal with bridging necrosis is the deadline at which the antiviral treatment can still be effective. Evidence of early fibrosis represent the important moment for the antiviral treatment start. The specific histopathological aspects, but not pathognomonic, of chronic hepatitis C (hepatic steatosis, portal lymphoid infiltrates and bile duct damage) had a reduced incidence, occurring in only half (hepatic steatosis), a quarter (portal lymphoid infiltrates) and a fifth (destruction of biliary ducts) of all the patients with chronic viral hepatitis C, and these patterns was correlated with advanced degree of necroinflammatory process of the liver, particularly in the portal tracts. PMID:26193211

  20. A six-parameter space to describe galaxy diversification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraix-Burnet, D.; Chattopadhyay, T.; Chattopadhyay, A. K.; Davoust, E.; Thuillard, M.

    2012-09-01

    Context. The diversification of galaxies is caused by transforming events such as accretion, interaction, or mergers. These explain the formation and evolution of galaxies, which can now be described by many observables. Multivariate analyses are the obvious tools to tackle the available datasets and understand the differences between different kinds of objects. However, depending on the method used, redundancies, incompatibilities, or subjective choices of the parameters can diminish the usefulness of these analyses. The behaviour of the available parameters should be analysed before any objective reduction in the dimensionality and any subsequent clustering analyses can be undertaken, especially in an evolutionary context. Aims: We study a sample of 424 early-type galaxies described by 25 parameters, 10 of which are Lick indices, to identify the most discriminant parameters and construct an evolutionary classification of these objects. Methods: Four independent statistical methods are used to investigate the discriminant properties of the observables and the partitioning of the 424 galaxies: principal component analysis, K-means cluster analysis, minimum contradiction analysis, and Cladistics. Results: The methods agree in terms of six parameters: central velocity dispersion, disc-to-bulge ratio, effective surface brightness, metallicity, and the line indices NaD and OIII. The partitioning found using these six parameters, when projected onto the fundamental plane, looks very similar to the partitioning obtained previously for a totally different sample and based only on the parameters of the fundamental plane. Two additional groups are identified here, and we are able to provide some more constraints on the assembly history of galaxies within each group thanks to the larger number of parameters. We also identify another "fundamental plane" with the absolute K magnitude, the linear diameter, and the Lick index Hβ. We confirm that the Mg b vs. velocity dispersion

  1. Describing Changes in Undergraduate Students' Preconceptions of Research Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartrette, David P.; Melroe-Lehrman, Bethany M.

    2012-12-01

    Research has shown that students bring naïve scientific conceptions to learning situations which are often incongruous with accepted scientific explanations. These preconceptions are frequently determined to be misconceptions; consequentially instructors spend time to remedy these beliefs and bring students' understanding of scientific concepts to acceptable levels. It is reasonable to assume that students also maintain preconceptions about the processes of authentic scientific research and its associated activities. This study describes the most commonly held preconceptions of authentic research activities among students with little or no previous research experience. Seventeen undergraduate science majors who participated in a ten week research program discussed, at various times during the program, their preconceptions of research and how these ideas changed as a result of direct participation in authentic research activities. The preconceptions included the belief that authentic research is a solitary activity which most closely resembles the type of activity associated with laboratory courses in the undergraduate curriculum. Participants' views showed slight maturation over the research program; they came to understand that authentic research is a detail-oriented activity which is rarely successfully completed alone. These findings and their implications for the teaching and research communities are discussed in the article.

  2. INCAS: an analytical model to describe displacement cascades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jumel, Stéphanie; Claude Van-Duysen, Jean

    2004-07-01

    REVE (REactor for Virtual Experiments) is an international project aimed at developing tools to simulate neutron irradiation effects in Light Water Reactor materials (Fe, Ni or Zr-based alloys). One of the important steps of the project is to characterise the displacement cascades induced by neutrons. Accordingly, the Department of Material Studies of Electricité de France developed an analytical model based on the binary collision approximation. This model, called INCAS (INtegration of CAScades), was devised to be applied on pure elements; however, it can also be used on diluted alloys (reactor pressure vessel steels, etc.) or alloys composed of atoms with close atomic numbers (stainless steels, etc.). INCAS describes displacement cascades by taking into account the nuclear collisions and electronic interactions undergone by the moving atoms. In particular, it enables to determine the mean number of sub-cascades induced by a PKA (depending on its energy) as well as the mean energy dissipated in each of them. The experimental validation of INCAS requires a large effort and could not be carried out in the framework of the study. However, it was verified that INCAS results are in conformity with those obtained from other approaches. As a first application, INCAS was applied to determine the sub-cascade spectrum induced in iron by the neutron spectrum corresponding to the central channel of the High Flux Irradiation Reactor of Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  3. Folding superfunnel to describe cooperative folding of interacting proteins.

    PubMed

    Smeller, László

    2016-07-01

    This paper proposes a generalization of the well-known folding funnel concept of proteins. In the funnel model the polypeptide chain is treated as an individual object not interacting with other proteins. Since biological systems are considerably crowded, protein-protein interaction is a fundamental feature during the life cycle of proteins. The folding superfunnel proposed here describes the folding process of interacting proteins in various situations. The first example discussed is the folding of the freshly synthesized protein with the aid of chaperones. Another important aspect of protein-protein interactions is the folding of the recently characterized intrinsically disordered proteins, where binding to target proteins plays a crucial role in the completion of the folding process. The third scenario where the folding superfunnel is used is the formation of aggregates from destabilized proteins, which is an important factor in case of several conformational diseases. The folding superfunnel constructed here with the minimal assumption about the interaction potential explains all three cases mentioned above. Proteins 2016; 84:1009-1016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27090200

  4. Describing the Breakbone Fever: IDODEN, an Ontology for Dengue Fever

    PubMed Central

    Mitraka, Elvira; Topalis, Pantelis; Dritsou, Vicky; Dialynas, Emmanuel; Louis, Christos

    2015-01-01

    Background Ontologies represent powerful tools in information technology because they enhance interoperability and facilitate, among other things, the construction of optimized search engines. To address the need to expand the toolbox available for the control and prevention of vector-borne diseases we embarked on the construction of specific ontologies. We present here IDODEN, an ontology that describes dengue fever, one of the globally most important diseases that are transmitted by mosquitoes. Methodology/Principal Findings We constructed IDODEN using open source software, and modeled it on IDOMAL, the malaria ontology developed previously. IDODEN covers all aspects of dengue fever, such as disease biology, epidemiology and clinical features. Moreover, it covers all facets of dengue entomology. IDODEN, which is freely available, can now be used for the annotation of dengue-related data and, in addition to its use for modeling, it can be utilized for the construction of other dedicated IT tools such as decision support systems. Conclusions/Significance The availability of the dengue ontology will enable databases hosting dengue-associated data and decision-support systems for that disease to perform most efficiently and to link their own data to those stored in other independent repositories, in an architecture- and software-independent manner. PMID:25646954

  5. Transformationally Describing Halo Bias and Exposing Cosmological Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neyrinck, Mark C.; Aragon-Calvo, M.; Jeong, D.; Wang, X.

    2014-01-01

    Local density transforms have many uses in large-scale structure. If a logarithm is applied to the matter density field, the statistics are much better-behaved (covariances are reduced), and redshift-space distortions even become easier to model. Also, the biasing of haloes compared to matter is well-described by local transforms, even deeply into voids. For the first time, we cleanly resolve an exponential suppression of halo formation in voids, which is well-fit by the excursion-set model. A void is like a local low-density (open) universe, where fluctuations are suppressed. So forming a galaxy inside a void is as rare as forming a rich cluster in a high-density region. What enables this measurement is the MIP ensemble of N-body simulations, in which halo discreteness, exclusion, and stochasticity are made negligible by stacking hundreds of simulations with the same large-scale cosmic web, but which differ on small scales, i.e. in the way the cosmic web is populated with haloes.

  6. Jan Evangelista Purkynje (1787-1869): first to describe fingerprints.

    PubMed

    Grzybowski, Andrzej; Pietrzak, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    Fingerprints have been used for years as the accepted tool in criminology and for identification. The first system of classification of fingerprints was introduced by Jan Evangelista Purkynje (1787-1869), a Czech physiologist, in 1823. He divided the papillary lines into nine types, based on their geometric arrangement. This work, however, was not recognized internationally for many years. In 1858, Sir William Herschel (1833-1917) registered fingerprints for those signing documents at the Indian magistrate's office in Jungipoor. Henry Faulds (1843-1930) in 1880 proposed using ink for fingerprint determination and people identification, and Francis Galton (1822-1911) collected 8000 fingerprints and developed their classification based on the spirals, loops, and arches. In 1892, Juan Vucetich (1858-1925) created his own fingerprint identification system and proved that a woman was responsible for killing two of her sons. In 1896, a London police officer Edward Henry (1850-1931) expanded on earlier systems of classification and used papillary lines to identify criminals; it was his system that was adopted by the forensic world. The work of Jan Evangelista Purkynje (1787-1869) (Figure 1), who in 1823 was the first to describe in detail fingerprints, is almost forgotten. He also established their classification. The year 2013 marked the 190th anniversary of the publication of his work on this topic. Our contribution is an attempt to introduce the reader to this scientist and his discoveries in the field of fingerprint identification. PMID:25530005

  7. Formal verification of digital circuits described in VHDL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salem, Ashraf Mohammed El-Farghly

    1992-01-01

    The formal verification of digital circuits described in VHSIC (very high speed integrated circuit) hardware description language (VHDL) is presented. VHDL is made processable by proof tools. A subset, called P-VHDL, dedicated to the description of combinatorial and synchronous sequential circuits is defined. The semantics of this subset is much simpler than the complete VHDL. The delta delay is replaced by a serialization function, and the time scale is chosen equal to the clock period. The use of the finite state machine as a formal model for the subset became possible. The finite state machine semantics is shown to represent the P-VHDL semantics. Based on this formal model, a proof oriented compiler for P-VHDL is written. A complete denotational semantic for P-VHDL is defined. Three different domains for the three values holders in the language are proposed: the variables, the signals, and the registers. Formal semantics for the VHDL timing constructs are given. The equivalence between these semantics and the VHDL informal operational semantics is proven. It is shown that semantics can form a basis for building a formal timing verifier.

  8. Hierarchical structure analysis describing abnormal base composition of genomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, Zhengqing; Liu, Jian-Kun; She, Zhen-Su

    2005-10-01

    Abnormal base compositional patterns of genomic DNA sequences are studied in the framework of a hierarchical structure (HS) model originally proposed for the study of fully developed turbulence [She and Lévêque, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 336 (1994)]. The HS similarity law is verified over scales between 103bp and 105bp , and the HS parameter β is proposed to describe the degree of heterogeneity in the base composition patterns. More than one hundred bacteria, archaea, virus, yeast, and human genome sequences have been analyzed and the results show that the HS analysis efficiently captures abnormal base composition patterns, and the parameter β is a characteristic measure of the genome. Detailed examination of the values of β reveals an intriguing link to the evolutionary events of genetic material transfer. Finally, a sequence complexity (S) measure is proposed to characterize gradual increase of organizational complexity of the genome during the evolution. The present study raises several interesting issues in the evolutionary history of genomes.

  9. Inference of random walk models to describe leukocyte migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Phoebe J. M.; Sim, Aaron; Taylor, Harriet B.; Bugeon, Laurence; Dallman, Magaret J.; Pereira, Bernard; Stumpf, Michael P. H.; Liepe, Juliane

    2015-12-01

    While the majority of cells in an organism are static and remain relatively immobile in their tissue, migrating cells occur commonly during developmental processes and are crucial for a functioning immune response. The mode of migration has been described in terms of various types of random walks. To understand the details of the migratory behaviour we rely on mathematical models and their calibration to experimental data. Here we propose an approximate Bayesian inference scheme to calibrate a class of random walk models characterized by a specific, parametric particle re-orientation mechanism to observed trajectory data. We elaborate the concept of transition matrices (TMs) to detect random walk patterns and determine a statistic to quantify these TM to make them applicable for inference schemes. We apply the developed pipeline to in vivo trajectory data of macrophages and neutrophils, extracted from zebrafish that had undergone tail transection. We find that macrophage and neutrophils exhibit very distinct biased persistent random walk patterns, where the strengths of the persistence and bias are spatio-temporally regulated. Furthermore, the movement of macrophages is far less persistent than that of neutrophils in response to wounding.

  10. Inference of random walk models to describe leukocyte migration.

    PubMed

    Jones, Phoebe J M; Sim, Aaron; Taylor, Harriet B; Bugeon, Laurence; Dallman, Magaret J; Pereira, Bernard; Stumpf, Michael P H; Liepe, Juliane

    2015-12-01

    While the majority of cells in an organism are static and remain relatively immobile in their tissue, migrating cells occur commonly during developmental processes and are crucial for a functioning immune response. The mode of migration has been described in terms of various types of random walks. To understand the details of the migratory behaviour we rely on mathematical models and their calibration to experimental data. Here we propose an approximate Bayesian inference scheme to calibrate a class of random walk models characterized by a specific, parametric particle re-orientation mechanism to observed trajectory data. We elaborate the concept of transition matrices (TMs) to detect random walk patterns and determine a statistic to quantify these TM to make them applicable for inference schemes. We apply the developed pipeline to in vivo trajectory data of macrophages and neutrophils, extracted from zebrafish that had undergone tail transection. We find that macrophage and neutrophils exhibit very distinct biased persistent random walk patterns, where the strengths of the persistence and bias are spatio-temporally regulated. Furthermore, the movement of macrophages is far less persistent than that of neutrophils in response to wounding. PMID:26403334

  11. Canonical quantization of a string describing N branes at angles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesando, Igor

    2014-12-01

    We study the canonical quantization of a bosonic string in presence of N twist fields. This generalizes the quantization of the twisted string in two ways: the in and out states are not necessarily twisted and the number of twist fields N can be bigger than 2. In order to quantize the theory we need to find the normal modes. Then we need to define a product between two modes which is conserved. Because of this we need to use the Klein-Gordon product and to separate the string coordinate into the classical and the quantum part. The quantum part has different boundary conditions than the original string coordinates but these boundary conditions are precisely those which make the operator describing the equation of motion self adjoint. The splitting of the string coordinates into a classical and quantum part allows the formulation of an improved overlap principle. Using this approach we then proceed in computing the generating function for the generic correlator with L untwisted operators and N (excited) twist fields for branes at angles. We recover as expected the results previously obtained using the path integral. This construction explains why these correlators are given by a generalization of the Wick theorem.

  12. A hybrid model describing ion induced kinetic electron emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanke, S.; Duvenbeck, A.; Heuser, C.; Weidtmann, B.; Wucher, A.

    2015-06-01

    We present a model to describe the kinetic internal and external electron emission from an ion bombarded metal target. The model is based upon a molecular dynamics treatment of the nuclear degree of freedom, the electronic system is assumed as a quasi-free electron gas characterized by its Fermi energy, electron temperature and a characteristic attenuation length. In a series of previous works we have employed this model, which includes the local kinetic excitation as well as the rapid spread of the generated excitation energy, in order to calculate internal and external electron emission yields within the framework of a Richardson-Dushman-like thermionic emission model. However, this kind of treatment turned out to fail in the realistic prediction of experimentally measured internal electron yields mainly due to the restriction of the treatment of electronic transport to a diffusive manner. Here, we propose a slightly modified approach additionally incorporating the contribution of hot electrons which are generated in the bulk material and undergo ballistic transport towards the emitting interface.

  13. An ontological approach to describing neurons and their relationships

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, David J.; Shepherd, Gordon M.; Martone, Maryann E.; Ascoli, Giorgio A.

    2012-01-01

    The advancement of neuroscience, perhaps one of the most information rich disciplines of all the life sciences, requires basic frameworks for organizing the vast amounts of data generated by the research community to promote novel insights and integrated understanding. Since Cajal, the neuron remains a fundamental unit of the nervous system, yet even with the explosion of information technology, we still have few comprehensive or systematic strategies for aggregating cell-level knowledge. Progress toward this goal is hampered by the multiplicity of names for cells and by lack of a consensus on the criteria for defining neuron types. However, through umbrella projects like the Neuroscience Information Framework (NIF) and the International Neuroinformatics Coordinating Facility (INCF), we have the opportunity to propose and implement an informatics infrastructure for establishing common tools and approaches to describe neurons through a standard terminology for nerve cells and a database (a Neuron Registry) where these descriptions can be deposited and compared. This article provides an overview of the problem and outlines a solution approach utilizing ontological characterizations. Based on illustrative implementation examples, we also discuss the need for consensus criteria to be adopted by the research community, and considerations on future developments. A scalable repository of neuron types will provide researchers with a resource that materially contributes to the advancement of neuroscience. PMID:22557965

  14. Positive affect and psychobiological processes

    PubMed Central

    Dockray, Samantha; Steptoe, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Positive affect has been associated with favourable health outcomes, and it is likely that several biological processes mediate the effects of positive mood on physical health. There is converging evidence that positive affect activates the neuroendocrine, autonomic and immune systems in distinct and functionally meaningful ways. Cortisol, both total output and the awakening response, has consistently been shown to be lower among individuals with higher levels of positive affect. The beneficial effects of positive mood on cardiovascular function, including heart rate and blood pressure, and the immune system have also been described. The influence of positive affect on these psychobiological processes are independent of negative affect, suggesting that positive affect may have characteristic biological correlates. The duration and conceptualisation of positive affect may be important considerations in understanding how different biological systems are activated in association with positive affect. The association of positive affect and psychobiological processes has been established, and these biological correlates may be partly responsible for the protective effects of positive affect on health outcomes. PMID:20097225

  15. Environment-Assisted Precision Measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, G.; Maze, J. R.; Lukin, M. D.; Cappellaro, P.; Hodges, J. S.; Jiang, L.; Soerensen, A. S.

    2011-04-08

    We describe a method to enhance the sensitivity of precision measurements that takes advantage of the environment of a quantum sensor to amplify the response of the sensor to weak external perturbations. An individual qubit is used to sense the dynamics of surrounding ancillary qubits, which are in turn affected by the external field to be measured. The resulting sensitivity enhancement is determined by the number of ancillas that are coupled strongly to the sensor qubit; it does not depend on the exact values of the coupling strengths and is resilient to many forms of decoherence. The method achieves nearly Heisenberg-limited precision measurement, using a novel class of entangled states. We discuss specific applications to improve clock sensitivity using trapped ions and magnetic sensing based on electronic spins in diamond.

  16. Environment-assisted precision measurement.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, G; Cappellaro, P; Maze, J R; Hodges, J S; Jiang, L; Sørensen, A S; Lukin, M D

    2011-04-01

    We describe a method to enhance the sensitivity of precision measurements that takes advantage of the environment of a quantum sensor to amplify the response of the sensor to weak external perturbations. An individual qubit is used to sense the dynamics of surrounding ancillary qubits, which are in turn affected by the external field to be measured. The resulting sensitivity enhancement is determined by the number of ancillas that are coupled strongly to the sensor qubit; it does not depend on the exact values of the coupling strengths and is resilient to many forms of decoherence. The method achieves nearly Heisenberg-limited precision measurement, using a novel class of entangled states. We discuss specific applications to improve clock sensitivity using trapped ions and magnetic sensing based on electronic spins in diamond. PMID:21561175

  17. Autopathography and depression: describing the 'despair beyond despair'.

    PubMed

    Moran, Stephen T

    2006-01-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, emphasizes diagnosis and statistically significant commonalities in mental disorders. As stated in the Introduction, "[i]t must be admitted that no definition adequately specifies precise boundaries for the concept of 'mental disorder' " (DSM-IV, 1994, xxi). Further, "[t]he clinician using DSM-IV should ... consider that individuals sharing a diagnosis are likely to be heterogeneous, even in regard to the defining features of the diagnosis, and that boundary cases will be difficult to diagnose in any but a probabilistic fashion" (DSM-IV, 1994, xxii). This article proposes that it may be helpful for clinicians to study narratives of illness which emphasize this heterogeneity over statistically significant symptoms. This paper examines the recorded experiences of unusually articulate sufferers of the disorder classified as Major Depression. Although sharing a diagnosis, Hemingway, Fitzgerald, and Styron demonstrated different understandings of their illness and its symptoms and experienced different resolutions, which may have had something to do with the differing meanings they made of it. I have proposed a word, autopathography, to describe a type of literature in which the author's illness is the primary lens through which the narrative is filtered. This word is an augmentation of an existing word, pathography, which The Oxford English Dictionary, Second Edition, defines as "a) [t]he, or a, description of a disease," and "b) [t]he, or a, study of the life and character of an individual or community as influenced by a disease." The second definition is the one that I find relevant and which I feel may be helpful to clinicians in broadening their understanding of the patient's experience. PMID:16721676

  18. Describing phase coexistence in systems with small phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovett, R.

    2007-02-01

    Clusters of atoms can be studied in molecular beams and by computer simulation; 'liquid drops' provide elementary models for atomic nuclei and for the critical nuclei of nucleation theory. These clusters are often described in thermodynamic terms, but the behaviour of small clusters near a phase boundary is qualitatively different from the behaviour at a first order phase transition in idealized thermodynamics. In the idealized case the density and entropy show mathematically sharp discontinuities when the phase boundary is crossed. In large, but finite, systems, the phase boundaries become regions of state space wherein these properties vary rapidly but continuously. In small clusters with a large surface/volume ratio, however, the positive interfacial free energy makes it unlikely, even in states on phase boundaries, that a cluster will have a heterogeneous structure. What is actually seen in these states is a structure that fluctuates in time between homogeneous structures characteristic of the two sides of the phase boundary. That is, structural fluctuations are observed. Thermodynamics only predicts average properties; statistical mechanics is required to understand these fluctuations. Failure to distinguish thermodynamic properties and characterizations of fluctuations, particularly in the context of first order phase transitions, has led to suggestions that the classical rules for thermodynamic stability are violated in small systems and that classical thermodynamics provides an inconsistent description of these systems. Much of the confusion stems from taking statistical mechanical identifications of thermodynamic properties, explicitly developed for large systems, and applying them uncritically to small systems. There are no inconsistencies if thermodynamic properties are correctly identified and the distinction between thermodynamic properties and fluctuations is made clear.

  19. Sensitivity analysis approach to multibody systems described by natural coordinates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiufeng; Wang, Yabin

    2014-03-01

    The classical natural coordinate modeling method which removes the Euler angles and Euler parameters from the governing equations is particularly suitable for the sensitivity analysis and optimization of multibody systems. However, the formulation has so many principles in choosing the generalized coordinates that it hinders the implementation of modeling automation. A first order direct sensitivity analysis approach to multibody systems formulated with novel natural coordinates is presented. Firstly, a new selection method for natural coordinate is developed. The method introduces 12 coordinates to describe the position and orientation of a spatial object. On the basis of the proposed natural coordinates, rigid constraint conditions, the basic constraint elements as well as the initial conditions for the governing equations are derived. Considering the characteristics of the governing equations, the newly proposed generalized-α integration method is used and the corresponding algorithm flowchart is discussed. The objective function, the detailed analysis process of first order direct sensitivity analysis and related solving strategy are provided based on the previous modeling system. Finally, in order to verify the validity and accuracy of the method presented, the sensitivity analysis of a planar spinner-slider mechanism and a spatial crank-slider mechanism are conducted. The test results agree well with that of the finite difference method, and the maximum absolute deviation of the results is less than 3%. The proposed approach is not only convenient for automatic modeling, but also helpful for the reduction of the complexity of sensitivity analysis, which provides a practical and effective way to obtain sensitivity for the optimization problems of multibody systems.

  20. Describing Willow Flycatcher habitats: scale perspectives and gender differences

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sedgwick, James A.; Knopf, Fritz L.

    1992-01-01

    We compared habitat characteristics of nest sites (female-selected sites) and song perch sites (male-selected sites) with those of sites unused by Willow Flycatchers (Empidonax traillii) at three different scales of vegetation measurement: (1) microplot (central willow [Salix spp.] bush and four adjacent bushes); (2) mesoplot (0.07 ha); and, (3) macroplot (flycatcher territory size). Willow Flycatchers exhibited vegetation preferences at all three scales. Nest sites were distinguished by high willow density and low variability in willow patch size and bush height. Song perch sites were characterized by large central shrubs, low central shrub vigor, and high variability in shrub size. Unused sites were characterized by greater distances between willows and willow patches, less willow coverage, and a smaller riparian zone width than either nest or song perch sites. At all scales, nest sites were situated farther from unused sites in multivariate habitat space than were song perch sites, suggesting (1) a correspondence among scales in their ability to describe Willow Flycatcher habitat, and (2) females are more discriminating in habitat selection than males. Microhabitat differences between male-selected (song perch) and female-selected (nest) sites were evident at the two smaller scales; at the finest scale, the segregation in habitat space between male-selected and female-selected sites was greater than that between male-selected and unused sites. Differences between song perch and nest sites were not apparent at the scale of flycatcher territory size, possibly due to inclusion of (1) both nest and song perch sites, (2) defended, but unused habitat, and/or (3) habitat outside of the territory, in larger scale analyses. The differences between nest and song perch sites at the finer scales reflect their different functions (e.g., nest concealment and microclimatic requirements vs. advertising and territorial defense, respectively), and suggest that the exclusive use

  1. Interactive Multimodal Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno, Roxana; Mayer, Richard

    2007-01-01

    What are interactive multimodal learning environments and how should they be designed to promote students' learning? In this paper, we offer a cognitive-affective theory of learning with media from which instructional design principles are derived. Then, we review a set of experimental studies in which we found empirical support for five design…

  2. Environment, energy, and society

    SciTech Connect

    Humphrey, C.R.; Buttel, F.R.

    1986-01-01

    This book delineates the major ways in which human society and the environment affect each other. To study the structure of societies, it employs three conceptual models, or sociological paradigms, conservative, liberal, and radical. The book explains the courses in environmental sociology, international development, natural resources, agriculture, and urban or regional planning.

  3. Investigating Your Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forest Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    The goal of this interdisciplinary curriculum is to enable students to make informed and responsible decisions about natural resources management by promoting an understanding of natural, social, and economic environments and the student's role in affecting all three. The included investigations utilize processes and techniques that help people…

  4. Authentic leaders creating healthy work environments for nursing practice.

    PubMed

    Shirey, Maria R

    2006-05-01

    Implementation of authentic leadership can affect not only the nursing workforce and the profession but the healthcare delivery system and society as a whole. Creating a healthy work environment for nursing practice is crucial to maintain an adequate nursing workforce; the stressful nature of the profession often leads to burnout, disability, and high absenteeism and ultimately contributes to the escalating shortage of nurses. Leaders play a pivotal role in retention of nurses by shaping the healthcare practice environment to produce quality outcomes for staff nurses and patients. Few guidelines are available, however, for creating and sustaining the critical elements of a healthy work environment. In 2005, the American Association of Critical-Care Nurses released a landmark publication specifying 6 standards (skilled communication, true collaboration, effective decision making, appropriate staffing, meaningful recognition, and authentic leadership) necessary to establish and sustain healthy work environments in healthcare. Authentic leadership was described as the "glue" needed to hold together a healthy work environment. Now, the roles and relationships of authentic leaders in the healthy work environment are clarified as follows: An expanded definition of authentic leadership and its attributes (eg, genuineness, trustworthiness, reliability, compassion, and believability) is presented. Mechanisms by which authentic leaders can create healthy work environments for practice (eg, engaging employees in the work environment to promote positive behaviors) are described. A practical guide on how to become an authentic leader is advanced. A research agenda to advance the study of authentic leadership in nursing practice through collaboration between nursing and business is proposed. PMID:16632768

  5. Reaction norm model to describe environmental sensitivity across first lactation in dairy cattle under tropical conditions.

    PubMed

    Bignardi, Annaiza Braga; El Faro, Lenira; Pereira, Rodrigo Junqueira; Ayres, Denise Rocha; Machado, Paulo Fernando; de Albuquerque, Lucia Galvão; Santana, Mário Luiz

    2015-10-01

    Reaction norm models have been widely used to study genotype by environment interaction (G × E) in animal breeding. The objective of this study was to describe environmental sensitivity across first lactation in Brazilian Holstein cows using a reaction norm approach. A total of 50,168 individual monthly test day (TD) milk yields (10 test days) from 7476 complete first lactations of Holstein cattle were analyzed. The statistical models for all traits (10 TDs and for 305-day milk yield) included the fixed effects of contemporary group, age of cow (linear and quadratic effects), and days in milk (linear effect), except for 305-day milk yield. A hierarchical reaction norm model (HRNM) based on the unknown covariate was used. The present study showed the presence of G × E in milk yield across first lactation of Holstein cows. The variation in the heritability estimates implies differences in the response to selection depending on the environment where the animals of this population are evaluated. In the average environment, the heritabilities for all traits were rather similar, in range from 0.02 to 0.63. The scaling effect of G × E predominated throughout most of lactation. Particularly during the first 2 months of lactation, G × E caused reranking of breeding values. It is therefore important to include the environmental sensitivity of animals according to the phase of lactation in the genetic evaluations of Holstein cattle in tropical environments. PMID:26143280

  6. Describing an Environment for a Self-Sustaining Technology Transfer Service in a Small Research Budget University: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nieb, Sharon Lynn

    2014-01-01

    This single-site qualitative study sought to identify the characteristics that contribute to the self sustainability of technology transfer services at universities with small research budgets through a case study analysis of a small research budget university that has been operating a financially self-sustainable technology transfer service for…

  7. Genesis Radiation Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minow, Joseph I.; Altstatt, Richard L.; Skipworth, William C.

    2007-01-01

    The Genesis spacecraft launched on 8 August 2001 sampled solar wind environments at L1 from 2001 to 2004. After the Science Capsule door was opened, numerous foils and samples were exposed to the various solar wind environments during periods including slow solar wind from the streamer belts, fast solar wind flows from coronal holes, and coronal mass ejections. The Survey and Examination of Eroded Returned Surfaces (SEERS) program led by NASA's Space Environments and Effects program had initiated access for the space materials community to the remaining Science Capsule hardware after the science samples had been removed for evaluation of materials exposure to the space environment. This presentation will describe the process used to generate a reference radiation Genesis Radiation Environment developed for the SEERS program for use by the materials science community in their analyses of the Genesis hardware.

  8. Fatigue in operational settings: Examples from the aviation environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosekind, Mark R.; Gander, Philippa H.; Miller, Donna L.; Gregory, Kevin B.; Smith, Roy M.; Weldon, Keri J.; Co, Elizabeth L.; Mcnally, Karen L.; Lebacqz, J. Victor

    1994-01-01

    The need for 24-h operations creates nonstandard and altered work schedules that can lead to cumulative sleep loss and circadian disruption. These factors can lead to fatigue and sleepiness and affect performance and productivity on the job. The approach, research, and results of the NASA Ames Fatigue Countermeasures Program are described to illustrate one attempt to address these issues in the aviation environment. The scientific and operational relevance of these factors is discussed, and provocative issues for future research are presented.

  9. Identification of multiloop pilot describing functions obtained from simulated approaches to an aircraft carrier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jewell, W. F.

    1981-01-01

    Predicted results of a simulation of the pilot's approach control strategy in the presence of pilot remnant are presented. The aircraft dynamics and the turbulence environment are representative of a trainer-type aircraft. The non-intrusive pilot identification program (NIPIP) was used to identify the pilot's control strategy required by this highly-coupled, multiloop control task. The results are presented in terms of frequency responses of the individual elements of the pilot's control strategy and indicate that NIPIP can identify the pilot's describing functions even in the presence of significant amounts of pilot remnant.

  10. Project BEST-PAL (Basic Education Skills Through-Parenting Affective Learning): Process Manual for Program Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brevard Community Coll., Cocoa, FL.

    This manual describes and evaluates the implementation of Project BEST-PAL (Basic Education Skills Through-Parent Affective Learning), Brevard Community College's special demonstration training project intended to return adults who have dropped out of the educational system back into the learning environment by bringing them to parenting classes…

  11. Iowa's Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruth, Amy, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This theme issue explores the changes in Iowa's environment. When Native Americans lived in Iowa hundreds of years ago, the land was rich in tall grasslands, fertile soil, wildlife, wetlands, and unpolluted waters. When European-American pioneers settled Iowa in 1833, they changed the environment in order to survive. The first article in this…

  12. Aquatic Environments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aquatic microbiology can be defined as the study of microorganisms and microbial communities in water environments. Aquatic environments occupy more than 70% of the earth’s surface including oceans, estuaries, rivers, lakes, wetlands, streams, springs, and aquifers. Water is essential for life and m...

  13. A numerical model of the fracture healing process that describes tissue development and revascularisation.

    PubMed

    Simon, U; Augat, P; Utz, M; Claes, L

    2011-01-01

    A dynamic model was developed to simulate complex interactions of mechanical stability, revascularisation and tissue differentiation in secondary fracture healing. Unlike previous models, blood perfusion was included as a spatio-temporal state variable to simulate the revascularisation process. A 2D, axisymmetrical finite element model described fracture callus mechanics. Fuzzy logic rules described the following biological processes: angiogenesis, intramembranous ossification, chondrogenesis, cartilage calcification and endochondral ossification, all of which depended on local strain state and local blood perfusion. In order to evaluate how the predicted revascularisation depended on the mechanical environment, we simulated two different healing cases according to two groups of transverse metatarsal osteotomies in sheep with different axial stability. The model predicted slower revascularisation and delayed bony bridging for the less stable case, which corresponded well to the experimental observations. A revascularisation sensitivity analysis demonstrated the potential of the model to account for different conditions regarding the blood supply. PMID:21086207

  14. Children and the Environment. The State of the Environment, 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Children's Fund, New York, NY.

    This report summarizes the ways in which children in developing nations have been adversely affected by their environment and what changes could be made to mitigate these circumstances. Chapter 1 discusses the environment, children, and future generations, pointing out the special needs children have now and will have in the future, the role of…

  15. Depression Affects the Whole Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hojnar, Laura; Thomas, Dawn V.; Stillwell, Margaret; Bennett, Tess; Allison, Anita

    1997-01-01

    Discusses how expanding one's knowledge of depression can help in supporting Head Start families. Defines depression and lists symptoms of depression for adults and children of various ages, describes how parent's depression can affect child development and the family, and considers how Head Start and support agencies can support children and…

  16. The systematic approach to describing conformational rearrangements in G-quadruplexes.

    PubMed

    Tsvetkov, Vladimir; Pozmogova, Galina; Varizhuk, Anna

    2016-04-01

    Conformational changes in DNA G-quadruplex (GQ)-forming regions affect genome function and, thus, compose an interesting research topic. Computer modelling may yield insight into quadruplex folding and rearrangement, particularly molecular dynamics simulations. Here, we show that specific parameters, which are distinct from those commonly used in DNA conformational analyses, must be introduced for adequate interpretation and, most importantly, convenient visual representation of the quadruplex modelling results. We report a set of parameters that comprehensively and systematically describe GQ geometry in dynamics. The parameters include those related to quartet planarity, quadruplex twist, and quartet stacking; they are used to quantitatively characterise various types of quadruplexes and rearrangements, such as quartet distortion/disruption or deviation/bulging of a single nucleotide from the quartet plane. Our approach to describing conformational changes in quadruplexes using the new parameters is exemplified by telomeric quadruplex rearrangement, and the benefits of applying this approach to analyse other structures are discussed. PMID:26017012

  17. The systematic approach to describing conformational rearrangements in G-quadruplexes

    PubMed Central

    Tsvetkov, Vladimir; Pozmogova, Galina; Varizhuk, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Conformational changes in DNA G-quadruplex (GQ)-forming regions affect genome function and, thus, compose an interesting research topic. Computer modelling may yield insight into quadruplex folding and rearrangement, particularly molecular dynamics simulations. Here, we show that specific parameters, which are distinct from those commonly used in DNA conformational analyses, must be introduced for adequate interpretation and, most importantly, convenient visual representation of the quadruplex modelling results. We report a set of parameters that comprehensively and systematically describe GQ geometry in dynamics. The parameters include those related to quartet planarity, quadruplex twist, and quartet stacking; they are used to quantitatively characterise various types of quadruplexes and rearrangements, such as quartet distortion/disruption or deviation/bulging of a single nucleotide from the quartet plane. Our approach to describing conformational changes in quadruplexes using the new parameters is exemplified by telomeric quadruplex rearrangement, and the benefits of applying this approach to analyse other structures are discussed. PMID:26017012

  18. Using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) to describe the functioning of traumatised refugees.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Ulrik; Melchiorsen, Hanne; Gottlieb, Annemarie Graae; Hallas, Vibeke; Nielsen, Claus Vinther

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this project was to use the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) to develop an interdisciplinary instrument consisting of a Core Set, a number of codes selected from ICF, to describe the overall health condition of traumatised refugees. We intended to test 1) whether this tool could prove suitable for an overall description of the functional abilities of traumatised refugees before, during and after the intervention, and 2) whether the Core Set could be used to trace a significant change in the functional abilities of the traumatised refugees by comparing measurements before and after the intervention. In 2007, eight rehabilitation centres for traumatised refugees in Denmark agreed on a joint project to develop a tool for interdisciplinary documentation and monitoring, including physical, mental and social aspects of the person's health condition. ICF, developed and approved by WHO in 2001, was found suitable because it offers a common and standardised language and a corresponding frame of reference to describe health and associated conditions in terms of functioning rather than symptoms and diagnosis. Traumatised refugees are in most cases severely affected mentally by the traumas they have been subjected to, physically by injuries suffered during torture and war, psycho-somatically with pain, and socially by cultural uprooting, as well as by social difficulties in the exile community. The rehabilitation perspective thus seems to be more meaningful than the traditional treatment perspective because it takes into account the very complex situation of this group. The aim of the project was to find out whether any functional changes could be monitored using the instrument. The aim was neither to study nor to describe the effect of rehabilitation approaches, such as conditions related to traumatised refugees' networks or environments that might affect the refugees' living conditions. It was also not the intention to

  19. An Overview of Program Development for NASA's Space Environments and Effects (SEE) Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minor, Jody L.; Newton, Robby

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes many of the changes affecting NASA's Space Environments and Effects (SEE) Program since the initiation of the Vision for Space Exploration. Programmatic and procedural changes are discussed, six new technical tasks applicable to any return to the Moon or onward towards Mars are highlighted, and personnel changes and new contact information is given.

  20. Embedding an Integrated Learning Environment and Digital Repository in Design Engineering Education: Lessons Learned for Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breslin, Caroline; Nicol, David; Grierson, Hilary; Wodehouse, Andrew; Juster, Neal; Ion, William

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes how a system comprising a learning environment and digital repository is being embedded into the teaching and learning of Design Engineering at the University of Strathclyde. It then maps out the issues that have been encountered, how these have been overcome and how other departments or institutions would be affected if they…

  1. Affective Commitment among Student Affairs Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boehman, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    Student affairs professionals in the United States were surveyed to determine the predictive value of overall job satisfaction, organizational support, organizational politics, and work/nonwork interaction on affective organizational commitment. Results indicate that a supportive work environment leads to increased affective attachment to the…

  2. Evaluation in the Affective Domain. NSPER: 76.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gephart, William J.; And Others

    The National Symposium for Professors of Educational Research for 1976 focused on two topics: the nature of affect, and principles and guidelines for measuring individual affect and learning environment. This document contains five major papers presented at the conference. The first paper contrasted the physiological and emotional concept of…

  3. The space radiation environment for electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Stassinopoulos, E.G.; Raymond, J.P.

    1988-11-01

    The earth's space radiation environment is described in terms of charged particles as relevant to effects on spacecraft electronics. The nature and magnitude of the trapped and transiting environments are described in terms of spatial distribution and temporal variation. The internal radiation environment of the spacecraft is described in terms of shielding the high-energy particles of the free-field environment. Exposure levels are presented in terms of ionizing radiation dose and particle fluence for comparison to electronic component susceptibility.

  4. Virtual interface environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Scott S.

    1988-01-01

    A head-mounted, wide-angle, stereoscopic display system controlled by operator position, voice and gesture is under development for use as a multipurpose interface environment. Initial applications of the system are in telerobotics, data-management and human factors research. System configuration and research directions are described.

  5. Describing-function analysis of a ripple regulator with slew-rate limits and time delays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wester, Gene W.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of time delays and slew-rate limits on the steady-state operating points and performance of a free-running ripple regulator are evaluated using describing-function analysis. The describing function of an ideal comparator (no time delays or slew rate limits) has no phase shift and is independent of frequency. It is found that turn-on delay and turn-off delay have different effects on gain and phase and cannot be combined. Comparator hysteresis affects both gain and phase; likewise, time delays generally affect both gain and phase. It is found that the effective time delay around the feedback loop is one half the sum of turn-on and turn-off delays, regardless of whether the delays are caused by storage time or slew rate limits. Expressions are formulated for the switching frequency, switch duty ratio, dc output, and output ripple. For the case of no hysteresis, a simple, graphical solution for the switching frequency is possible, and the resulting switching frequency is independent of first-order variations of input or load.

  6. Rotorcraft Conceptual Design Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Wayne; Sinsay, Jeffrey D.

    2010-01-01

    Requirements for a rotorcraft conceptual design environment are discussed, from the perspective of a government laboratory. Rotorcraft design work in a government laboratory must support research, by producing technology impact assessments and defining the context for research and development; and must support the acquisition process, including capability assessments and quantitative evaluation of designs, concepts, and alternatives. An information manager that will enable increased fidelity of analysis early in the design effort is described. This manager will be a framework to organize information that describes the aircraft, and enable movement of that information to and from analyses. Finally, a recently developed rotorcraft system analysis tool is described.

  7. Rotorcraft Conceptual Design Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Wayne; Sinsay, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    Requirements for a rotorcraft conceptual design environment are discussed, from the perspective of a government laboratory. Rotorcraft design work in a government laboratory must support research, by producing technology impact assessments and defining the context for research and development; and must support the acquisition process, including capability assessments and quantitative evaluation of designs, concepts, and alternatives. An information manager that will enable increased fidelity of analysis early in the design effort is described. This manager will be a framework to organize information that describes the aircraft, and enable movement of that information to and from analyses. Finally, a recently developed rotorcraft system analysis tool is described.

  8. Visualization Design Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Pomplun, A.R.; Templet, G.J.; Jortner, J.N.; Friesen, J.A.; Schwegel, J.; Hughes, K.R.

    1999-02-01

    Improvements in the performance and capabilities of computer software and hardware system, combined with advances in Internet technologies, have spurred innovative developments in the area of modeling, simulation and visualization. These developments combine to make it possible to create an environment where engineers can design, prototype, analyze, and visualize components in virtual space, saving the time and expenses incurred during numerous design and prototyping iterations. The Visualization Design Centers located at Sandia National Laboratories are facilities built specifically to promote the ''design by team'' concept. This report focuses on designing, developing and deploying this environment by detailing the design of the facility, software infrastructure and hardware systems that comprise this new visualization design environment and describes case studies that document successful application of this environment.

  9. Affective processing requires awareness.

    PubMed

    Lähteenmäki, Mikko; Hyönä, Jukka; Koivisto, Mika; Nummenmaa, Lauri

    2015-04-01

    Studies using backward masked emotional stimuli suggest that affective processing may occur outside visual awareness and imply primacy of affective over semantic processing, yet these experiments have not strictly controlled for the participants' awareness of the stimuli. Here we directly compared the primacy of affective versus semantic categorization of biologically relevant stimuli in 5 experiments (n = 178) using explicit (semantic and affective discrimination; Experiments 1-3) and implicit (semantic and affective priming; Experiments 4-5) measures. The same stimuli were used in semantic and affective tasks. Visual awareness was manipulated by varying exposure duration of the masked stimuli, and subjective level of stimulus awareness was measured after each trial using a 4-point perceptual awareness scale. When participants reported no awareness of the stimuli, semantic and affective categorization were at chance level and priming scores did not differ from zero. When participants were even partially aware of the stimuli, (a) both semantic and affective categorization could be performed above chance level with equal accuracy, (b) semantic categorization was faster than affective categorization, and (c) both semantic and affective priming were observed. Affective categorization speed was linearly dependent on semantic categorization speed, suggesting dependence of affective processing on semantic recognition. Manipulations of affective and semantic categorization tasks revealed a hierarchy of categorization operations beginning with basic-level semantic categorization and ending with superordinate level affective categorization. We conclude that both implicit and explicit affective and semantic categorization is dependent on visual awareness, and that affective recognition follows semantic categorization. PMID:25559654

  10. Measuring Physical Activity Environments

    PubMed Central

    Sallis, James F.

    2010-01-01

    Physical activity is usually done in specific types of places, referred to as physical activity environments. These often include parks, trails, fitness centers, schools, and streets. In recent years, scientific interest has increased notably in measuring physical activity environments. The present paper provides an historical overview of the contributions of the health, planning, and leisure studies fields to the development of contemporary measures. The emphasis is on attributes of the built environment that can be affected by policies to contribute to the promotion of physical activity. Researchers from health fields assessed a wide variety of built environment variables expected to be related to recreational physical activity. Settings of interest were schools, workplaces, and recreation facilities, and most early measures used direct observation methods with demonstrated inter-observer reliability. Investigators from the city planning field evaluated aspects of community design expected to be related to people’s ability to walk from homes to destinations. GIS was used to assess walkability defined by the 3Ds of residential density, land-use diversity, and pedestrian-oriented designs. Evaluating measures for reliability or validity was rarely done in the planning-related fields. Researchers in the leisure studies and recreation fields studied mainly people’s use of leisure time rather than physical characteristics of parks and other recreation facilities. Although few measures of physical activity environments were developed, measures of aesthetic qualities are available. Each of these fields made unique contributions to the contemporary methods used to assess physical activity environments. PMID:19285214

  11. Synthetic environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukes, George E.; Cain, Joel M.

    1996-02-01

    The Advanced Distributed Simulation (ADS) Synthetic Environments Program seeks to create robust virtual worlds from operational terrain and environmental data sources of sufficient fidelity and currency to interact with the real world. While some applications can be met by direct exploitation of standard digital terrain data, more demanding applications -- particularly those support operations 'close to the ground' -- are well-served by emerging capabilities for 'value-adding' by the user working with controlled imagery. For users to rigorously refine and exploit controlled imagery within functionally different workstations they must have a shared framework to allow interoperability within and between these environments in terms of passing image and object coordinates and other information using a variety of validated sensor models. The Synthetic Environments Program is now being expanded to address rapid construction of virtual worlds with research initiatives in digital mapping, softcopy workstations, and cartographic image understanding. The Synthetic Environments Program is also participating in a joint initiative for a sensor model applications programer's interface (API) to ensure that a common controlled imagery exploitation framework is available to all researchers, developers and users. This presentation provides an introduction to ADS and the associated requirements for synthetic environments to support synthetic theaters of war. It provides a technical rationale for exploring applications of image understanding technology to automated cartography in support of ADS and related programs benefitting from automated analysis of mapping, earth resources and reconnaissance imagery. And it provides an overview and status of the joint initiative for a sensor model API.

  12. The history of endemic Iberian ground beetle description (Insecta, Coleoptera, Carabidae): which species were described first?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez-Valverde, Alberto; Ortuño, Vicente M.

    2007-01-01

    iological correlates of species description dates can be used to predict the characteristics of yet-to-be-described species. Such information can be useful in the planning of biodiversity field surveys. This paper explores the influence of five factors—body size, geographic range size, geographic location, habitat and number of congeners—on the probability of description of endemic Iberian ground-beetles, and attempts to identify the effects of each factor, alone or in combination, through variation partitioning. Small-bodied and hypogean species were found to have been described later, as were those with smaller geographic ranges, while the number of congeners did not significantly affect description date. Additionally, Eastern hypogean species were described earlier than Western ones because of major lithology differences from east to west in the Iberian Peninsula, and concomitant geographic taxonomic bias. However, effects of each factor alone are quite small in comparison with effects of the combination of factors, due to their considerable correlation. Thus, "rarity", in its broadest sense, has been the determining factor of date of description of endemic Iberian ground-beetles. Previously, the technical difficulty encountered in the study of rare species retarded their description, whereas now they have become a "fashionable" object of study among carabidologists, due to the possibility of rapid publication. In order to improve the incomplete checklist of Iberian ground beetles it would be necessary to focus sampling efforts on marginal habitats and hypogean fauna.

  13. A Duty to Describe: Better the Devil You Know Than the Devil You Don't.

    PubMed

    Brown, Sacha D; Furrow, David; Hill, Daniel F; Gable, Jonathon C; Porter, Liam P; Jacobs, W Jake

    2014-11-01

    Although many researchers have discussed replication as a means to facilitate self-correcting science, in this article, we identify meta-analyses and evaluating the validity of correlational and causal inferences as additional processes crucial to self-correction. We argue that researchers have a duty to describe sampling decisions they make; without such descriptions, self-correction becomes difficult, if not impossible. We developed the Replicability and Meta-Analytic Suitability Inventory (RAMSI) to evaluate the descriptive adequacy of a sample of studies taken from current psychological literature. Authors described only about 30% of the sampling decisions necessary for self-correcting science. We suggest that a modified RAMSI can be used by authors to guide their written reports and by reviewers to inform editorial recommendations. Finally, we claim that when researchers do not describe their sampling decisions, both readers and reviewers may assume that those decisions do not matter to the outcome of the study, do not affect inferences made from the research findings, do not inhibit inclusion in meta-analyses, and do not inhibit replicability of the study. If these assumptions are in error, as they often are, and the neglected decisions are relevant, then the neglect may create a good deal of mischief in the field. PMID:26186113

  14. Development and testing of conceptual models describing plutonium subsurface transport (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, B. A.

    2009-12-01

    Understanding coupled chemical, physical, and biological processes controlling plutonium subsurface transport is fundamental to predicting the fate and transport of actinides in the subsurface. In previous conceptual models of plutonium transport, it is assumed that low solubility and high affinity for mineral surfaces will limit the mobility of plutonium in the environment. However, this traditional model has been challenged based on observations of accelerated subsurface migration. Revised conceptual models developed through a combination of field scale observations and targeted laboratory experiments will be discussed in the context of two subsurface environments. Conceptual models of colloid facilitated plutonium transport in the southwestern United States will be discussed. Field observations and measurements show kilometer scale transport of plutonium. However, the identity of the colloidal fraction has not yet been confirmed. Laboratory experiments indicate that plutonium has strong interactions with smectite clays and iron oxide colloids. Interfacial modeling of plutonium interactions with smectite indicate that sorption of plutonium occurs through both ion exchange and surface complexation mechanisms. Batch, column, and batch flow-through experiments examining plutonium interactions with metal (oxyhydr)oxide minerals indicate strong sorption hysteresis which is believed to be the result of plutonium reduction to more strongly sorbing oxidation states as well as dehydration of the plutonium ion upon formation of a surface complex. Furthermore, nanoscale plutonium hydrous oxide colloids also appear to have strong interactions with iron oxide colloids. These data aid in the validation of the observed kilometer scale transport of plutonium in subsurface environments. A second set of long-term experiments have focused on vadoze zone transport of plutonium at the Savannah River Site in the southeastern United States. Based on a series of batch and column studies

  15. Effect of Speaking Environment on Speech Production and Perception

    PubMed Central

    Howell, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Environments affect speaking and listening performance. This contribution reviews some of the main ways in which all sounds are affected by the environment they propagate into. These influences are used to assess how environments affect speakers and listeners. The article concludes with a brief consideration of factors that designers may wish to take into account to address the effects. PMID:21258629

  16. Preservation Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Reagan W.

    2004-01-01

    The long-term preservation of digital entities requires mechanisms to manage the authenticity of massive data collections that are written to archival storage systems. Preservation environments impose authenticity constraints and manage the evolution of the storage system technology by building infrastructure independent solutions. This seeming paradox, the need for large archives, while avoiding dependence upon vendor specific solutions, is resolved through use of data grid technology. Data grids provide the storage repository abstractions that make it possible to migrate collections between vendor specific products, while ensuring the authenticity of the archived data. Data grids provide the software infrastructure that interfaces vendor-specific storage archives to preservation environments.

  17. Quantum robots plus environments.

    SciTech Connect

    Benioff, P.

    1998-07-23

    A quantum robot is a mobile quantum system, including an on board quantum computer and needed ancillary systems, that interacts with an environment of quantum systems. Quantum robots carry out tasks whose goals include making specified changes in the state of the environment or carrying out measurements on the environment. The environments considered so far, oracles, data bases, and quantum registers, are seen to be special cases of environments considered here. It is also seen that a quantum robot should include a quantum computer and cannot be simply a multistate head. A model of quantum robots and their interactions is discussed in which each task, as a sequence of alternating computation and action phases,is described by a unitary single time step operator T {approx} T{sub a} + T{sub c} (discrete space and time are assumed). The overall system dynamics is described as a sum over paths of completed computation (T{sub c}) and action (T{sub a}) phases. A simple example of a task, measuring the distance between the quantum robot and a particle on a 1D lattice with quantum phase path dispersion present, is analyzed. A decision diagram for the task is presented and analyzed.

  18. Near Field Environment Process Model Report

    SciTech Connect

    R.A. Wagner

    2000-11-14

    Waste emplacement and activities associated with construction of a repository system potentially will change environmental conditions within the repository system. These environmental changes principally result from heat generated by the decay of the radioactive waste, which elevates temperatures within the repository system. Elevated temperatures affect distribution of water, increase kinetic rates of geochemical processes, and cause stresses to change in magnitude and orientation from the stresses resulting from the overlying rock and from underground construction activities. The recognition of this evolving environment has been reflected in activities, studies and discussions generally associated with what has been termed the Near-Field Environment (NFE). The NFE interacts directly with waste packages and engineered barriers as well as potentially changing the fluid composition and flow conditions within the mountain. As such, the NFE defines the environment for assessing the performance of a potential Monitored Geologic Repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The NFe evolves over time, and therefore is not amenable to direct characterization or measurement in the ambient system. Analysis or assessment of the NFE must rely upon projections based on tests and models that encompass the long-term processes of the evolution of this environment. This NFE Process Model Report (PMR) describes the analyses and modeling based on current understanding of the evolution of the near-field within the rock mass extending outward from the drift wall.

  19. Quantum robots and environments

    SciTech Connect

    Benioff, P.

    1998-08-01

    Quantum robots and their interactions with environments of quantum systems are described, and their study justified. A quantum robot is a mobile quantum system that includes an on-board quantum computer and needed ancillary systems. Quantum robots carry out tasks whose goals include specified changes in the state of the environment, or carrying out measurements on the environment. Each task is a sequence of alternating computation and action phases. Computation phase activites include determination of the action to be carried out in the next phase, and recording of information on neighborhood environmental system states. Action phase activities include motion of the quantum robot and changes in the neighborhood environment system states. Models of quantum robots and their interactions with environments are described using discrete space and time. A unitary step operator T that gives the single time step dynamics is associated with each task. T=T{sub a}+T{sub c} is a sum of action phase and computation phase step operators. Conditions that T{sub a} and T{sub c} should satisfy are given along with a description of the evolution as a sum over paths of completed phase input and output states. A simple example of a task{emdash}carrying out a measurement on a very simple environment{emdash}is analyzed in detail. A decision tree for the task is presented and discussed in terms of the sums over phase paths. It is seen that no definite times or durations are associated with the phase steps in the tree, and that the tree describes the successive phase steps in each path in the sum over phase paths. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  20. Carbon oxidation state as a metric for describing the chemistry of atmospheric organic aerosol

    SciTech Connect

    Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Kroll, Jesse H.; Donahue, Neil M.; Jimenez, Jose L.; Kessler, Sean H.; Canagaratna, Manjula R.; Wilson, Kevin R.; Altieri, Katye E.; Mazzoleni, Lynn R.; Wozniak, Andrew S.; Bluhm, Hendrik; Mysak, Erin R.; Smith, Jared D.; Kolb, Charles E.; Worsnop, Douglas R.

    2010-11-05

    A detailed understanding of the sources, transformations, and fates of organic species in the environment is crucial because of the central roles that organics play in human health, biogeochemical cycles, and Earth's climate. However, such an understanding is hindered by the immense chemical complexity of environmental mixtures of organics; for example, atmospheric organic aerosol consists of at least thousands of individual compounds, all of which likely evolve chemically over their atmospheric lifetimes. Here we demonstrate the utility of describing organic aerosol (and other complex organic mixtures) in terms of average carbon oxidation state (OSC), a quantity that always increases with oxidation, and is readily measured using state-of-the-art analytical techniques. Field and laboratory measurements of OSC , using several such techniques, constrain the chemical properties of the organics and demonstrate that the formation and evolution of organic aerosol involves simultaneous changes to both carbon oxidation state and carbon number (nC).

  1. Thermal Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutgers, Norman

    The role that a good thermal environment plays in the educational process is discussed. Design implications arise from an analysis of the heating and ventilating principles as apply to vocational-technical facilities. The importance of integrating thermal components in the total design is emphasized. (JS)

  2. Library Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Computers in Libraries, 1993

    1993-01-01

    This special section includes two articles that review products and services for the automated library environment. Highlights include ergonomic products; products for visually, hearing-, and speech-impaired users; analog film recorders; computer filters; document imaging systems; electric filing systems; and printers. A list of vendors is…

  3. Architecture & Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Mary; Delahunt, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Most art teachers would agree that architecture is an important form of visual art, but they do not always include it in their curriculums. In this article, the authors share core ideas from "Architecture and Environment," a teaching resource that they developed out of a long-term interest in teaching architecture and their fascination with the…

  4. Open system environment procurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Gary

    1994-01-01

    Relationships between the request for procurement (RFP) process and open system environment (OSE) standards are described. A guide was prepared to help Federal agency personnel overcome problems in writing an adequate statement of work and developing realistic evaluation criteria when transitioning to an OSE. The guide contains appropriate decision points and transition strategies for developing applications that are affordable, scalable and interoperable across a broad range of computing environments. While useful, the guide does not eliminate the requirement that agencies posses in-depth expertise in software development, communications, and database technology in order to evaluate open systems.

  5. A Poroelastic Model Describing Nutrient Transport and Cell Stresses Within a Cyclically Strained Collagen Hydrogel

    PubMed Central

    Vaughan, Benjamin L.; Galie, Peter A.; Stegemann, Jan P.; Grotberg, James B.

    2013-01-01

    In the creation of engineered tissue constructs, the successful transport of nutrients and oxygen to the contained cells is a significant challenge. In highly porous scaffolds subject to cyclic strain, the mechanical deformations can induce substantial fluid pressure gradients, which affect the transport of solutes. In this article, we describe a poroelastic model to predict the solid and fluid mechanics of a highly porous hydrogel subject to cyclic strain. The model was validated by matching the predicted penetration of a bead into the hydrogel from the model with experimental observations and provides insight into nutrient transport. Additionally, the model provides estimates of the wall-shear stresses experienced by the cells embedded within the scaffold. These results provide insight into the mechanics of and convective nutrient transport within a cyclically strained hydrogel, which could lead to the improved design of engineered tissues. PMID:24209865

  6. Sensitivity analysis of three-parallel-DAEM-reaction model for describing rice straw pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Cai, Junmeng; Wu, Weixuan; Liu, Ronghou

    2013-03-01

    The three-parallel-DAEM-reaction model was used to study the slow pyrolysis kinetics of rice straw based on thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) data. The kinetic parameters of the model were calculated using the pattern search method. A comparison between the predicted DTG data and experimental values showed good agreement. The influences of the kinetic parameters on the model for describing the experimental data of rice straw were analyzed by means of local parametric sensitivity analysis. The results indicated that the frequency factor and the mean value of the activation distribution for cellulose decomposition affect the model more strongly than other parameters, followed by the corresponding parameters for hemicellulose and lignin. The sensitivity of the model to the standard deviations of the activation energy distributions for all pseudocomponents is very slight. PMID:23280091

  7. A dynamical model for describing behavioural interventions for weight loss and body composition change.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Barrientos, J-Emeterio; Rivera, Daniel E; Collins, Linda M

    2011-01-12

    We present a dynamical model incorporating both physiological and psychological factors that predicts changes in body mass and composition during the course of a behavioral intervention for weight loss. The model consists of a three-compartment energy balance integrated with a mechanistic psychological model inspired by the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). The latter describes how important variables in a behavioural intervention can influence healthy eating habits and increased physical activity over time. The novelty of the approach lies in representing the behavioural intervention as a dynamical system, and the integration of the psychological and energy balance models. Two simulation scenarios are presented that illustrate how the model can improve the understanding of how changes in intervention components and participant differences affect outcomes. Consequently, the model can be used to inform behavioural scientists in the design of optimised interventions for weight loss and body composition change. PMID:21673826

  8. Dispersion corrections to the Gaussian profile describing the Doppler broadening of spectral lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wójtewicz, S.; Wcisło, P.; Lisak, D.; Ciuryło, R.

    2016-04-01

    A dispersionally corrected Gaussian profile describing Doppler-broadened spectral line shapes is presented. Proposed corrections include the frequency dependence of the Doppler shifting caused by dispersion as well as by light frequency variation over the whole spectral line shape. It is shown that the frequency dependence of the Doppler shifting can have a non-negligible influence on the line-shape model and can affect the line shape even at the relative level of 10-5. Moreover, this effect also influences the determination of the line position at the level of kilohertz. Finally, the impact of the presented results on the Doppler width thermometry and precise molecular spectroscopy for fundamental studies is emphasized.

  9. Turbulence in Natural Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Tirtha

    Problems in the area of land/biosphere-atmosphere interaction, hydrology, climate modeling etc. can be systematically organized as a study of turbulent flow in presence of boundary conditions in an increasing order of complexity. The present work is an attempt to study a few subsets of this general problem of turbulence in natural environments- in the context of neutral and thermally stratified atmospheric surface layer, the presence of a heterogeneous vegetation canopy and the interaction between air flow and a static water body in presence of flexible protruding vegetation. The main issue addressed in the context of turbulence in the atmospheric surface layer is whether it is possible to describe the macro-states of turbulence such as mean velocity and turbulent velocity variance in terms of the micro-states of the turbulent flow, i.e., a distribution of turbulent kinetic energy across a multitude of scales. This has been achieved by a `spectral budget approach' which is extended for thermal stratification scenarios as well, in the process unifying the seemingly different and unrelated theories of turbulence such as Kolmogorov's hypothesis, Heisenberg's eddy viscosity, Monin Obukhov Similarity Theory (MOST) etc. under a common framework. In the case of a more complex scenario such as presence of a vegetation canopy with edges and gaps, the question that is addressed is in what detail the turbulence is needed to be resolved in order to capture the bulk flow features such as recirculation patterns. This issue is addressed by a simple numerical framework and it has been found out that an explicit prescription of turbulence is not necessary in presence of heterogeneities such as edges and gaps where the interplay between advection, pressure gradients and drag forces are sufficient to capture the first order dynamics. This result can be very important for eddy-covariance flux calibration strategies in non-ideal environments and the developed numerical model can be

  10. [Poststroke-bipolar affective disorder].

    PubMed

    Bengesser, S A; Wurm, W E; Lackner, N; Birner, A; Reininghaus, B; Kapfhammer, H-P; Reininghaus, E

    2013-08-01

    A few weeks after suffering from a basal ganglia infarction (globus pallidus) with left-sided hemiplegia, a 23-year-old woman exhibited for the first time a pronounced mania with self-endangerment. The use of oral contraceptives was the only determinable risk factor. During the further course, the mother also developed a depressive disorder. Thus a certain genetic predisposition for affective disorders may be relevant, although this would not explain the outbreak by itself. An association between the right-sided basal ganglia infarction and the occurrence of a bipolar affective disorder has been described in the literature. Vascular or, respectively, inflammatory risk factors in synopsis with the aetiopathogenesis of bipolar affective disorders are also discussed in depth in this case report. PMID:23939559

  11. Magnitude of genotype x environment interactions affecting tomato fruit quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is a growing interest by consumers to purchase fresh tomato with improved quality traits including lycopene, total soluble solids (TSS), vitamin C and titratable acid (TA) content. Therefore, there are considerable efforts by tomato breeders to improve tomato for these traits. However, suitabl...

  12. Examining Factors that Affect Performance in Complex Simulation Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayrath, Michael Charles

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effects of manipulating the modality (text-only, voice-only, voice+text) of a tutorial and restriction (restricted vs. unrestricted) of a simulation's interface on retention and transfer of tutorial content. The tutorial prepared novice students to use Packet Tracer, a simulation developed by Cisco that teaches network…

  13. The Impact of the Affective Environment on Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zahn-Waxler, Carolyn; And Others

    The outcomes of children's exposures to others' positive and negative emotions were examined developmentally. Twenty-four infants in three age cohorts (10, 15, and 20 months old) were studied for 9 months. Mothers reported the child's reactions to naturally occurring events in which emotions were expressed; in addition, each week mothers simulated…

  14. Factors Affecting University Teaching Team Effectiveness in Detached Working Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Roger; Kane, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the outcomes of a study of the factors that contribute to teaching team effectiveness in situations where team members rarely meet face to face. Academic faculty within a university Business School were asked to report the degrees to which they believed that the module teaching teams to which they belonged contained members who…

  15. Investigating Factors Affecting Group Processes in Virtual Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazari, Sunil; Thompson, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    With the widespread popularity of distance learning, there is a need to investigate elements of online courses that continue to pose significant challenges for educators. One of the challenges relates to creating and managing group projects. This study investigated business students' perceptions of group work in online classes. The constructs…

  16. Exploration of the Electromagnetic Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fullekrug, M.

    2009-01-01

    The electromagnetic environment is composed of electric and magnetic fields which result from man-made and natural sources. An elementary experiment is described to explore the electromagnetic environment by measuring electric fields in the frequency range from approximately equal to 10 to 24 000 Hz. The equipment required to conduct the…

  17. Assessing and Improving Classroom Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorp, Howard S.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Describes a convenient and economical questionnaire that science teachers can use to assess their students' perceptions of classroom environment and reports a case study of a science teacher's successful use of this questionnaire in guiding improvements in his classroom environment. (16 references) (Author)

  18. Software reuse environment user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    This document describes the services provided by the prototype Software Reuse Environment, which was developed by CTA for NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 520. This is one of three guides delivered by CTA as part of the environment. The other two guides are: Software Generation and Installation Guide; and SEMANTX--Defining the Schema. The Software Generation and Installation Guide describes the software source modules that make up the Reuse Environment, with instructions on how to generate and install an executable system from the source code. SEMANTX--Defining the Schema describes how a reuse database is created. Actually this guide is more general than the reuse database, as it describes how to generate a SEMANTX database. SEMANTX is an off-the-shelf tool that we have used to implement the reuse database. It is a product of Semantyk Systems, Inc. The Software Reuse Environment is built upon SEMANTX as well as on the IDE Structured Analysis Integrated Environment. (IDE is Interactive Development Environments, Inc.) SEMANTX itself is built on top of the Unify Database Management System. To use the Software Reuse Environment you should have the User's Manuals for SEMANTX, for Unify, and for the IDE software. CTA has provided all of these with the environment.

  19. Teaching in a Cold Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewert, Alan

    1979-01-01

    Designed to help teachers deal with students in a cold environment, this article explains cold physiology and fundamental laws of heat; describes 14 common cold injuries and their current treatment; and lists a number of useful teaching techniques for cold environments. (SB)

  20. Obesogenic Environments in Youth

    PubMed Central

    Boone-Heinonen, Janne; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2012-01-01

    To effectively prevent and reduce childhood obesity through healthy community design, it is essential to understand which neighborhood environment features influence weight gain in various age groups. However, most neighborhood environment research is cross-sectional, focuses on adults, and is often carried out in small, nongeneralizable geographic areas. Thus, there is a great need for longitudinal neighborhood environment research in diverse populations across the lifecycle. This paper describes: (1) insights and challenges of longitudinal neighborhood environment research and (2) advancements and remaining gaps in measurement and study design that examine individuals and neighborhoods within the context of the broader community. Literature-based research and findings from the “Obesity and Neighborhood Environment Database” (ONEdata), a unique longitudinal GIS that is spatially and temporally linked to data in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N=20,745), provide examples of current limitations in this area of research. Findings suggest a need for longitudinal methodologic advancements to better control for dynamic sources of bias, investigate and capture appropriate temporal frameworks, and address complex residential location processes within families. Development of improved neighborhood environment measures that capture relevant geographic areas within complex communities and investigation of differences across urbanicity and sociodemographic composition are needed. Further longitudinal research is needed to identify, refine, and evaluate national and local policies to most effectively reduce childhood obesity. PMID:22516502

  1. Urban Environment Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The Urban Environment Initiative (UEI), has been established as part of a Cooperative Agreement with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The UEI is part of NASA's overall High Performance Computing and Communications (HPCC) and the Information Infrastructure Technology Applications (IITA) programs. The goal of the UEI is to provide public access to Earth Science information and promote its use with a focus on the environment of urban areas. This goal will be accomplished through collaborative efforts of the UEI team with both community-based and local/regional governmental organizations. The UEI team is comprised of four organizations representing private industry, NASA, and universities: Prime Technologies Service Corporation, NASA's Minority University Space Interdisciplinary Network (MU-SPIN) California State University, at Los Angeles, and Central State University (Wilberforce, OH). "Urban Environment" refers to the web of environmental, economic, and social factors that combine to create the urban world in which we live. Examples of these factors are population distribution, neighborhood demographic profiles, economic resources, business activities, location and concentration of environmental hazards and various pollutants, proximity and level of urban services, which form the basis of the urban environment and ultimately affect our lives and experiences. The use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and remote sensing allows data to be visualized in the forms of maps and spatial images. The use of these tools allow analysis of information about urban environments. Also included are descriptions of the four query types which will assist in understanding the maps.

  2. Human Adaptation To Isolated And Confined Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Gary W.; Stokols, Daniel; Carrere, Sna Sybil

    1992-01-01

    Data from Antarctic research station analyzed. Report describes study of physiology and psychology of humans in isolated and confined environment. Suggests ways in which such environments made more acceptable to human inhabitants.

  3. The twilight envelope: a user-centered approach to describing roadway illumination at night.

    PubMed

    Andre, J; Owens, D A

    2001-01-01

    Visual recognition functions, such as acuity and contrast sensitivity, deteriorate rapidly over the declining luminances found during civil twilight. Thus civil twilight, a critical part of the transition between daylight and darkness, represents lighting conditions that may be useful to describe artificial illumination. Automotive headlamps project a three-dimensional beam that ranges from illumination levels comparable to daylight at the vehicle to the dark limit of civil twilight (3.3 1x) at some distance ahead. This twilight envelope is characterized as a distance beyond which foveal visual functions are severely impaired, and thus it provides a general, functional description of the useful extent of the headlamp beam. This user-centered approach to describing illumination is useful for characterizing visibility when driving at night or in other artificially lit environments. This paper discusses the twilight envelope approach and its application to intervehicle variations in headlamp systems. Actual or potential applications of this research include user-centered description of artificial illumination and driver/pedestrian safety education. PMID:12002010

  4. Describing the apprenticeship of chemists through the language of faculty scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skjold, Brandy Ann

    Attempts to bring authentic science into the K-16 classroom have led to the use of sociocultural theories of learning, particularly apprenticeship, to frame science education research. Science educators have brought apprenticeship to science classrooms and have brought students to research laboratories in order to gauge its benefits. The assumption is that these learning opportunities are representative of the actual apprenticeship of scientists. However, there have been no attempts in the literature to describe the apprenticeship of scientists using apprenticeship theory. Understanding what science apprenticeship looks like is a critical component of translating this experience into the classroom. This study sought to describe and analyze the apprenticeship of chemists through the talk of faculty scientists. It used Lave and Wenger’s (1991) theory of Legitimate Peripheral Participation as its framework, concentrating on describing the roles of the participants, the environment and the tasks in the apprenticeship, as per Barab, Squire and Dueber (2000). A total of nine chemistry faculty and teaching assistants were observed across 11 settings representing a range of learning experiences from introductory chemistry lectures to research laboratories. All settings were videotaped, focusing on the instructor. About 89 hours of video was taken, along with observer field notes. All videos were transcribed and transcriptions and field notes were analyzed qualitatively as a broad level discourse analysis. Findings suggest that learners are expected to know basic chemistry content and how to use basic research equipment before entering the research lab. These are taught extensively in classroom settings. However, students are also required to know how to use the literature base to inform their own research, though they were rarely exposed to this in the classrooms. In all settings, conflicts occurred when student under or over-estimated their role in the learning

  5. Urban Teens and Young Adults Describe Drama, Disrespect, Dating Violence and Help- seeking Preferences

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Caitlin Eileen; Houston, Avril Melissa; Mmari, Kristin N.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Adolescent dating violence is increasingly recognized as a public health problem. Our qualitative investigation sought input from urban, African-American adolescents at risk for dating violence concerning (1) dating violence descriptions, (2) preferences for help-seeking for dating violence, and (3) recommendations for a teen dating violence resource center. Methods Four focus groups were conducted with urban, African American adolescents (n=32) aged 13 to 24 recruited from an urban adolescent clinic's community outreach partners. Qualitative analysis was conducted. Results Participants assigned a wide range of meanings for the term “relationship drama”, and used dating violence using language not typically heard among adults, e.g., “disrespect”. Participants described preferences for turning to family or friends before seeking formal services for dating violence, but reported barriers to their ability to rely on these informal sources. When asked to consider formal services, they described their preferred resource center as confidential and safe, with empathetic, non-judgmental staff. Teens also gave insight into preferred ways to outreach and publicize dating violence resources. Conclusions Findings inform recommendations for youth-specific tailoring of violence screening and intervention efforts. Current evidence that slang terms, i.e., “drama”, lack specificity suggests that they should not be integrated within screening protocols. These data highlight the value of formative research in understanding terminology and help-seeking priorities so as to develop and refine dating violence prevention and intervention efforts for those most affected. PMID:21611717

  6. Affective Dynamics in Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Trull, Timothy J.; Lane, Sean P.; Koval, Peter; Ebner-Priemer, Ulrich W.

    2016-01-01

    We discuss three varieties of affective dynamics (affective instability, emotional inertia, and emotional differentiation). In each case, we suggest how these affective dynamics should be operationalized and measured in daily life using time-intensive methods, like ecological momentary assessment or ambulatory assessment, and recommend time-sensitive analyses that take into account not only the variability but also the temporal dependency of reports. Studies that explore how these affective dynamics are associated with psychological disorders and symptoms are reviewed, and we emphasize that these affective processes are within a nexus of other components of emotion regulation.

  7. Modern sedimentary environments in Boston Harbor, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knebel, H. J.; Rendigs, R. R.; Bothner, Michael H.

    1991-01-01

    1) Environments of erosion appear on the sonographs either as patterns with isolated strong reflections or as uniform patterns of strong reflectivity. 2) Environments of deposition are depicted on the sidescan-sonar records as smooth, featureless surfaces that have low to moderate reflectivity. 3) Environments of sediment reworking constitute areas affected by a combination of erosional and depositional processes. -from Authors

  8. Novel insights into early neuroanatomical evolution in penguins from the oldest described penguin brain endocast.

    PubMed

    Proffitt, J V; Clarke, J A; Scofield, R P

    2016-08-01

    Digital methodologies for rendering the gross morphology of the brain from X-ray computed tomography data have expanded our current understanding of the origin and evolution of avian neuroanatomy and provided new perspectives on the cognition and behavior of birds in deep time. However, fossil skulls germane to extracting digital endocasts from early stem members of extant avian lineages remain exceptionally rare. Data from early-diverging species of major avian subclades provide key information on ancestral morphologies in Aves and shifts in gross neuroanatomical structure that have occurred within those groups. Here we describe data on the gross morphology of the brain from a mid-to-late Paleocene penguin fossil from New Zealand. This most basal and geochronologically earliest-described endocast from the penguin clade indicates that described neuroanatomical features of early stem penguins, such as lower telencephalic lateral expansion, a relatively wider cerebellum, and lack of cerebellar folding, were present far earlier in penguin history than previously inferred. Limited dorsal expansion of the wulst in the new fossil is a feature seen in outgroup waterbird taxa such as Gaviidae (Loons) and diving Procellariiformes (Shearwaters, Diving Petrels, and allies), indicating that loss of flight may not drastically affect neuroanatomy in diving taxa. Wulst enlargement in the penguin lineage is first seen in the late Eocene, at least 25 million years after loss of flight and cooption of the flight stroke for aquatic diving. Similar to the origin of avian flight, major shifts in gross brain morphology follow, but do not appear to evolve quickly after, acquisition of a novel locomotor mode. Enlargement of the wulst shows a complex pattern across waterbirds, and may be linked to sensory modifications related to prey choice and foraging strategy. PMID:26916364

  9. Risk Analysis Virtual ENvironment

    2014-02-10

    RAVEN has 3 major functionalities: 1. Provides a Graphical User Interface for the pre- and post-processing of the RELAP-7 input and output. 2. Provides the capability to model nuclear power plants control logic for the RELAP-7 code and dynamic control of the accident scenario evolution. This capability is based on a software structure that realizes a direct connection between the RELAP-7 solver engine (MOOSE) and a python environment where the variables describing the plant statusmore » are accessible in a scripting environment. RAVEN support the generation of the probabilistic scenario control by supplying a wide range of probability and cumulative distribution functions and their inverse functions. 3. Provides a general environment to perform probability risk analysis for RELAP-7, RELAP-5 and any generic MOOSE based applications. The probabilistic analysis is performed by sampling the input space of the coupled code parameters and it is enhanced by using modern artificial intelligence algorithms that accelerate the identification of the areas of major risk (in the input parameter space). This environment also provides a graphical visualization capability to analyze the outcomes. Among other approaches, the classical Monte Carlo and Latin Hypercube sampling algorithms are available. For the acceleration of the convergence of the sampling methodologies, Support Vector Machines, Bayesian regression, and collocation stochastic polynomials chaos are implemented. The same methodologies here described could be used to solve optimization and uncertainties propagation problems using the RAVEN framework.« less

  10. Risk Analysis Virtual ENvironment

    SciTech Connect

    2014-02-10

    RAVEN has 3 major functionalities: 1. Provides a Graphical User Interface for the pre- and post-processing of the RELAP-7 input and output. 2. Provides the capability to model nuclear power plants control logic for the RELAP-7 code and dynamic control of the accident scenario evolution. This capability is based on a software structure that realizes a direct connection between the RELAP-7 solver engine (MOOSE) and a python environment where the variables describing the plant status are accessible in a scripting environment. RAVEN support the generation of the probabilistic scenario control by supplying a wide range of probability and cumulative distribution functions and their inverse functions. 3. Provides a general environment to perform probability risk analysis for RELAP-7, RELAP-5 and any generic MOOSE based applications. The probabilistic analysis is performed by sampling the input space of the coupled code parameters and it is enhanced by using modern artificial intelligence algorithms that accelerate the identification of the areas of major risk (in the input parameter space). This environment also provides a graphical visualization capability to analyze the outcomes. Among other approaches, the classical Monte Carlo and Latin Hypercube sampling algorithms are available. For the acceleration of the convergence of the sampling methodologies, Support Vector Machines, Bayesian regression, and collocation stochastic polynomials chaos are implemented. The same methodologies here described could be used to solve optimization and uncertainties propagation problems using the RAVEN framework.

  11. Audio-visual affective expression recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Thomas S.; Zeng, Zhihong

    2007-11-01

    Automatic affective expression recognition has attracted more and more attention of researchers from different disciplines, which will significantly contribute to a new paradigm for human computer interaction (affect-sensitive interfaces, socially intelligent environments) and advance the research in the affect-related fields including psychology, psychiatry, and education. Multimodal information integration is a process that enables human to assess affective states robustly and flexibly. In order to understand the richness and subtleness of human emotion behavior, the computer should be able to integrate information from multiple sensors. We introduce in this paper our efforts toward machine understanding of audio-visual affective behavior, based on both deliberate and spontaneous displays. Some promising methods are presented to integrate information from both audio and visual modalities. Our experiments show the advantage of audio-visual fusion in affective expression recognition over audio-only or visual-only approaches.

  12. Implicit Processing of Visual Emotions Is Affected by Sound-Induced Affective States and Individual Affective Traits

    PubMed Central

    Quarto, Tiziana; Blasi, Giuseppe; Pallesen, Karen Johanne; Bertolino, Alessandro; Brattico, Elvira

    2014-01-01

    The ability to recognize emotions contained in facial expressions are affected by both affective traits and states and varies widely between individuals. While affective traits are stable in time, affective states can be regulated more rapidly by environmental stimuli, such as music, that indirectly modulate the brain state. Here, we tested whether a relaxing or irritating sound environment affects implicit processing of facial expressions. Moreover, we investigated whether and how individual traits of anxiety and emotional control interact with this process. 32 healthy subjects performed an implicit emotion processing task (presented to subjects as a gender discrimination task) while the sound environment was defined either by a) a therapeutic music sequence (MusiCure), b) a noise sequence or c) silence. Individual changes in mood were sampled before and after the task by a computerized questionnaire. Additionally, emotional control and trait anxiety were assessed in a separate session by paper and pencil questionnaires. Results showed a better mood after the MusiCure condition compared with the other experimental conditions and faster responses to happy faces during MusiCure compared with angry faces during Noise. Moreover, individuals with higher trait anxiety were faster in performing the implicit emotion processing task during MusiCure compared with Silence. These findings suggest that sound-induced affective states are associated with differential responses to angry and happy emotional faces at an implicit stage of processing, and that a relaxing sound environment facilitates the implicit emotional processing in anxious individuals. PMID:25072162

  13. Implicit processing of visual emotions is affected by sound-induced affective states and individual affective traits.

    PubMed

    Quarto, Tiziana; Blasi, Giuseppe; Pallesen, Karen Johanne; Bertolino, Alessandro; Brattico, Elvira

    2014-01-01

    The ability to recognize emotions contained in facial expressions are affected by both affective traits and states and varies widely between individuals. While affective traits are stable in time, affective states can be regulated more rapidly by environmental stimuli, such as music, that indirectly modulate the brain state. Here, we tested whether a relaxing or irritating sound environment affects implicit processing of facial expressions. Moreover, we investigated whether and how individual traits of anxiety and emotional control interact with this process. 32 healthy subjects performed an implicit emotion processing task (presented to subjects as a gender discrimination task) while the sound environment was defined either by a) a therapeutic music sequence (MusiCure), b) a noise sequence or c) silence. Individual changes in mood were sampled before and after the task by a computerized questionnaire. Additionally, emotional control and trait anxiety were assessed in a separate session by paper and pencil questionnaires. Results showed a better mood after the MusiCure condition compared with the other experimental conditions and faster responses to happy faces during MusiCure compared with angry faces during Noise. Moreover, individuals with higher trait anxiety were faster in performing the implicit emotion processing task during MusiCure compared with Silence. These findings suggest that sound-induced affective states are associated with differential responses to angry and happy emotional faces at an implicit stage of processing, and that a relaxing sound environment facilitates the implicit emotional processing in anxious individuals. PMID:25072162

  14. Virus-host interplay in high salt environments.

    PubMed

    Atanasova, Nina S; Bamford, Dennis H; Oksanen, Hanna M

    2016-08-01

    Interaction of viruses and cells has tremendous impact on cellular and viral evolution, nutrient cycling and decay of organic matter. Thus, viruses can indirectly affect complex processes such as climate change and microbial pathogenicity. During recent decades, studies on extreme environments have introduced us to archaeal viruses and viruses infecting extremophilic bacteria or eukaryotes. Hypersaline environments are known to contain strikingly high numbers of viruses (∼10(9) particles per ml). Halophilic archaea, bacteria and eukaryotes inhabiting hypersaline environments have only a few cellular predators, indicating that the role of viruses is highly important in these ecosystems. Viruses thriving in high salt are called haloviruses and to date more than 100 such viruses have been described. Virulent, temperate, and persistent halovirus life cycles have been observed among the known isolates including the recently described SNJ1-SNJ2 temperate virus pair which is the first example of an interplay between two haloviruses in one host cell. In addition to direct virus and cell isolations, metagenomics have provided a wealth of information about virus-host dynamics in hypersaline environments suggesting that halovirus populations and halophilic microorganisms are dynamic over time and spatially distributed around the highly saline environments on the Earth. PMID:26929102

  15. Mexican environments

    SciTech Connect

    Babcock, L.; Nieder, P.

    1995-06-01

    This paper addresses the broad Mexican demographic/economic environment as it influences/interacts with the Mexican physical environment. Mexico is relatively resource-rich, but a high population yields a low per capita income, one sixth that of the United States an Canada, still above levels of most other American countries. The Mexican population has become highly urbanized, and population will continue to increase well into the next century. Mexico City will continue to dominate the Mexican urban hierarchy into the future, and the heavy concentration of people has resulted in a heavy concentration of environmental problems in the Mexico City region. A multi-billion-dollar program has been implemented with a goal of limiting air emissions in 2010 to the levels experienced in 1990. Numerous Mexican environmental problems exist beyond Mexico City, in border areas, and throughout Mexico, but qualified professionals and other resources needed for assessments and management are lacking. The authors conclude that continued economic/environmental cooperation among Canada, the United States, and Mexico will help Mexico to acquire resources needed to improve its infrastructure, environmental education, and environmental education, and environmental management, but the authors question whether Mexico, even with reduced population growth, will be able to attain levels of affluence currently enjoyed in the United State and Canada. They raise, but leave unanswered, the larger question of the level of environmentally sound development which is achievable, appropriate, and sustainable for Mexico and for the North American continent as a whole.

  16. Fetal environment

    PubMed Central

    Kinare, Arun

    2008-01-01

    The intrauterine environment has a strong influence on pregnancy outcome. The placenta and the umbilical cord together form the main supply line of the fetus. Amniotic fluid also serves important functions. These three main components decide whether there will be an uneventful pregnancy and the successful birth of a healthy baby. An insult to the intrauterine environment has an impact on the programming of the fetus, which can become evident in later life, mainly in the form of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and certain learning disabilities. The past two decades have witnessed major contributions from researchers in this field, who have included ultrasonologists, epidemiologists, neonatologists, and pediatricians. Besides being responsible for these delayed postnatal effects, abnormalities of the placenta, umbilical cord, and amniotic fluid also have associations with structural and chromosomal disorders. Population and race also influence pregnancy outcomes to some extent in certain situations. USG is the most sensitive imaging tool currently available for evaluation of these factors and can offer considerable information in this area. This article aims at reviewing the USG-related developments in this area and the anatomy, physiology, and various pathologies of the placenta, umbilical cord, and the amniotic fluid. PMID:19774194

  17. The Open Geospatial Consortium PUCK Standard: Building Sensor Networks with Self-Describing Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Reilly, T. C.; Broering, A.; del Rio, J.; Headley, K. L.; Toma, D.; Bermudez, L. E.; Edgington, D.; Fredericks, J.; Manuel, A.

    2012-12-01

    Sensor technology is rapidly advancing, enabling smaller and cheaper instruments to monitor Earth's environment. It is expected that many more kinds and quantities of networked environmental sensors will be deployed in coming years. Knowledge of each instrument's command protocol is required to operate and acquire data from the network. Making sense of these data streams to create an integrated picture of environmental conditions requires that each instrument's data and metadata be accurately processed and that "suspect" data be flagged. Use of standards to operate an instrument and retrieve and describe its data generally simplifies instrument software development, integration, operation and data processing. The Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) PUCK protocol enables instruments that describe themselves in a standard way. OGC PUCK defines a small "data sheet" that describes key instrument characteristics, and a standard protocol to retrieve the data sheet from the device itself. Data sheet fields include a universal serial number that is unique across all PUCK-compliant instruments. Other fields identify the instrument manufacturer and model. In addition to the data sheet, the instrument may also provide a "PUCK payload" which can contain additional descriptive information (e.g. a SensorML document or IEEE 1451 TEDS), as well as actual instrument "driver" code. Computers on the sensor network can use PUCK protocol to retrieve this information from installed instruments and utilize it appropriately, e.g. to automatically identify, configure and operate the instruments, and acquire and process their data. The protocol is defined for instruments with an RS232 or Ethernet interface. OGC members recently voted to adopt PUCK as a component of the OGC's Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) standards. The protocol is also supported by a consortium of hydrographic instrument manufacturers and has been implemented by several of them (https://sites.google.com/site/soscsite/). Thus far

  18. Prions in the environment

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, Samuel E

    2008-01-01

    Scrapie and CWD are horizontally transmissible, and the environment likely serves as a stable reservoir of infectious prions, facilitating a sustained incidence of CWD in free-ranging cervid populations and complicating efforts to eliminate disease in captive herds. Prions will enter the environment through mortalities and/or shedding from live hosts. Unfortunately, a sensitive detection method to identify prion contamination in environmental samples has not yet been developed. An environmentally-relevant prion model must be used in experimental studies. Changes in PrPSc structure upon environmental exposure may be as significant as changes in PrPSc quantity, since the structure can directly affect infectivity and disease pathology. Prions strongly bind to soil and remain infectious. Conformational changes upon adsorption, competitive sorption and potential for desorption and transport all warrant further investigation. Mitigation of contaminated carcasses or soil might be accomplished with enzyme treatments or composting in lieu of incineration. PMID:19242120

  19. Rockford, Ill.: Cognitive and Affective Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Thomas F.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Describes the operational tests of the two-way interactive cable television system using a firefighter training series administered to the Rockford (Illinois) fire department. Cognitive and affective measurement instruments described indicate a significant difference favoring two-way systems of in-service training programs. (JMF)

  20. SNS programming environment user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tennille, Geoffrey M.; Howser, Lona M.; Humes, D. Creig; Cronin, Catherine K.; Bowen, John T.; Drozdowski, Joseph M.; Utley, Judith A.; Flynn, Theresa M.; Austin, Brenda A.

    1992-01-01

    The computing environment is briefly described for the Supercomputing Network Subsystem (SNS) of the Central Scientific Computing Complex of NASA Langley. The major SNS computers are a CRAY-2, a CRAY Y-MP, a CONVEX C-210, and a CONVEX C-220. The software is described that is common to all of these computers, including: the UNIX operating system, computer graphics, networking utilities, mass storage, and mathematical libraries. Also described is file management, validation, SNS configuration, documentation, and customer services.

  1. Environment matters

    SciTech Connect

    2005-07-01

    This year's annual review is devoted to the theme of environmental health. It contains: an overview by the Director of the World Bank's Environment Department, J. Warren Evans; viewpoints on health risks of environmental pollution, integrating health concerns into carbon planning, sanitation in the world's poorest countries and impacts of indoor air pollution on health; and reviews on the World Bank's efforts to adapt safeguards to demanding priorities and on the Banks' 2005 environmental portfolio. Feature articles include a review of the Bank's Clean Air Initiative (now active in Africa, South and East Asia and Latin America). Reviews of work in the Bank's six regions focus on efforts to address the linkages among poverty, environmental pollution and human health.

  2. Urban teens and young adults describe drama, disrespect, dating violence and help-seeking preferences.

    PubMed

    Martin, Caitlin Eileen; Houston, Avril Melissa; Mmari, Kristin N; Decker, Michele R

    2012-07-01

    Adolescent dating violence is increasingly recognized as a public health problem. Our qualitative investigation sought input from urban, African-American adolescents at risk for dating violence concerning (Tjaden and Thoennes in Full report of the prevelance, incidence, and consequences of violence against women: findings from the national violence against women survey. US Department of Justice, Washington, DC, 2000) dating violence descriptions, (WHO multi-country study on women's health and domestic violence against women: Summary report of initial results on prevalence, health outcomes and women's responses. World Health Organization, Geneva, 2005) preferences for help-seeking for dating violence, and (Intimate partner violence in the United States. Bureau of Justice Statistics, US Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Washington, DC, 2007) recommendations for a teen dating violence resource center. Four focus groups were conducted with urban, African American adolescents (n = 32) aged 13-24 recruited from an urban adolescent clinic's community outreach partners. Qualitative analysis was conducted. Participants assigned a wide range of meanings for the term "relationship drama", and used dating violence using language not typically heard among adults, e.g., "disrespect". Participants described preferences for turning to family or friends before seeking formal services for dating violence, but reported barriers to their ability to rely on these informal sources. When asked to consider formal services, they described their preferred resource center as confidential and safe, with empathetic, non-judgmental staff. Teens also gave insight into preferred ways to outreach and publicize dating violence resources. Findings inform recommendations for youth-specific tailoring of violence screening and intervention efforts. Current evidence that slang terms, i.e., "drama", lack specificity suggests that they should not be integrated within screening protocols

  3. Assessing Student Affect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popham, W. James

    2009-01-01

    Student affect--the attitudes, interests, and values that students exhibit and acquire in school--can play a profoundly important role in students' postschool lives, possibly an even more significant role than that played by students' cognitive achievements. If student affect is so crucial, then why don't teachers assess it? One deterrent is that…

  4. Affectional Patterns of Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, William J.

    1979-01-01

    This study sought to determine if there is a shift with age in affection (1) from parents to friends, (2) from one parent to the other, and (3) from same-sex to opposite-sex friends. Subjects, eighth graders and eleventh graders, completed the Measurement of Family Affective Structure. (Author)

  5. Design of Affectively Evocative Smart Ambient Media for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwok, Ron Chi-Wai; Cheng, Shuk Han; Ip, Horace Ho-Shing; Kong, Joseph Siu-Lung

    2011-01-01

    This study proposes a teaching and research initiative, named SAMAL (Smart AMbience for Affective Learning) that will provide a unique ambient mediated environment for integrating cognitive and affective approaches to enhance learning. Also, this study illustrates a design of SAMAL classroom with affectively evocative scenarios for learning de…

  6. Describing two-photon absorptivity of fluorescent proteins with a new vibronic coupling mechanism.

    PubMed

    Drobizhev, M; Makarov, N S; Tillo, S E; Hughes, T E; Rebane, A

    2012-02-01

    Fluorescent proteins (FPs) are widely used in two-photon microscopy as genetically encoded probes. Understanding the physical basics of their two-photon absorption (2PA) properties is therefore crucial for creation of two-photon brighter mutants. On the other hand, it can give us better insight into molecular interactions of the FP chromophore with a complex protein environment. It is known that, compared to the one-photon absorption spectrum, where the pure electronic transition is the strongest, the 2PA spectrum of a number of FPs is dominated by a vibronic transition. The physical mechanism of such intensity redistribution is not understood. Here, we present a new physical model that explains this effect through the "Herzberg-Teller"-type vibronic coupling of the difference between the permanent dipole moments in the ground and excited states (Δμ) to the bond-length-alternating coordinate. This model also enables us to quantitatively describe a large variability of the 2PA peak intensity in a series of red FPs with the same chromophore through the interference between the "Herzberg-Teller" and Franck-Condon terms. PMID:22224830

  7. Cell population modelling describes intrinsic heterogeneity: a case study for hematopoietic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Luni, C; Doyle, F J; Elvassore, N

    2011-05-01

    The control of stem cell properties during in vitro expansion is of paramount importance for their clinical use. According to Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidelines, phenotypic heterogeneity is a critical aspect influencing therapeutic response. Even if the authors ability to reduce heterogeneity were limited, the sources from which it arises should be well understood for safe clinical applications. The aim of this work was to describe theoretically the intrinsic cell population heterogeneity that is present even when cells are cultured in a perfectly homogeneous environment. A bivariate population balance model is developed to account for the heterogeneity in the number of receptors and receptor-ligand complexes per cell, and is coupled with a ligand conservation equation. As a case study, the model is applied to the hematopoietic stem cell expansion, considering the c-Kit receptor and stem cell factor pair. Results show the dependence of intrinsic heterogeneity from ligand concentration and the kinetics of its administration. By tracking the cell generations within the total population, the authors highlight intra- and an inter-generational contributions to total population heterogeneity. In terms of dimensionless variables, intrinsic heterogeneity is dependent on the ratio of the characteristic time of cell division to that needed by a newborn cell to reach its single-cell steady state. [Includes supplementary material]. PMID:21639590

  8. The coevolution of culture and environment.

    PubMed

    Safarzynska, Karolina

    2013-04-01

    We propose a model of multi level (group) selection in the presence of climate variability, where environment and culture coevolve. The model describes a population subdivided into groups, each with access to a renewable resource. Individuals employ different harvesting strategies: Defectors harvest more resources than cooperators and punishers. In groups with many defectors, resource extraction may exceed the level of sustainable harvests, causing resource exhaustion. Weather shocks accelerate resource scarcity and eliminate groups with many defectors. The model is used to study conditions under which resource conservation evolves. Conservation is costly but enhances group's chances of survival. We study conditions under which environmental crises enhance the evolution of cooperation. We examine how between-group interactions such as resource-conflict and harvest-sharing affect the probability of resource exhaustion. PMID:23333763

  9. Orientation and movement in unusual force environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lackner, J. R.

    1993-01-01

    A manned space mission to Mars might take as long as 1 year each way. Consequently, artificial gravity is being considered as a way of preventing the debilitating effects of long-duration exposure to microgravity on the human body. The present article discusses some of the problems associated with adapting to the rotation levels that might be used to generate artificial gravity. It also describes how exposure to background-force levels greater or less than the 1-G force of Earth gravity affects orientation and movement control. The primary emphasis of the article is that human movement and orientation control are dynamically adapted to the 1-G force background of Earth and that accommodation to altered force levels or to rotating environments requires a wide range of adaptive changes.

  10. Orientation and movement in unusual force environments.

    PubMed

    Lackner, J R

    1993-05-01

    A manned space mission to Mars might take as long as 1 year each way. Consequently, artificial gravity is being considered as a way of preventing the debilitating effects of long-duration exposure to microgravity on the human body. The present article discusses some of the problems associated with adapting to the rotation levels that might be used to generate artificial gravity. It also describes how exposure to background-force levels greater or less than the 1-G force of Earth gravity affects orientation and movement control. The primary emphasis of the article is that human movement and orientation control are dynamically adapted to the 1-G force background of Earth and that accommodation to altered force levels or to rotating environments requires a wide range of adaptive changes. PMID:11537188

  11. Assessing the Physical Environment in an Early Childhood Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Joy

    1999-01-01

    Describes Montessori's vision of developmentally appropriate physical environment, considers some effective design principles and characteristics of environments for young children, and identifies criteria for assessing the indoor and outdoor physical environments. (Author/KB)

  12. 'Inner voices': the cerebral representation of emotional voice cues described in literary texts.

    PubMed

    Brück, Carolin; Kreifelts, Benjamin; Gößling-Arnold, Christina; Wertheimer, Jürgen; Wildgruber, Dirk

    2014-11-01

    While non-verbal affective voice cues are generally recognized as a crucial behavioral guide in any day-to-day conversation their role as a powerful source of information may extend well beyond close-up personal interactions and include other modes of communication such as written discourse or literature as well. Building on the assumption that similarities between the different 'modes' of voice cues may not only be limited to their functional role but may also include cerebral mechanisms engaged in the decoding process, the present functional magnetic resonance imaging study aimed at exploring brain responses associated with processing emotional voice signals described in literary texts. Emphasis was placed on evaluating 'voice' sensitive as well as task- and emotion-related modulations of brain activation frequently associated with the decoding of acoustic vocal cues. Obtained findings suggest that several similarities emerge with respect to the perception of acoustic voice signals: results identify the superior temporal, lateral and medial frontal cortex as well as the posterior cingulate cortex and cerebellum to contribute to the decoding process, with similarities to acoustic voice perception reflected in a 'voice'-cue preference of temporal voice areas as well as an emotion-related modulation of the medial frontal cortex and a task-modulated response of the lateral frontal cortex. PMID:24396008

  13. ‘Inner voices’: the cerebral representation of emotional voice cues described in literary texts

    PubMed Central

    Kreifelts, Benjamin; Gößling-Arnold, Christina; Wertheimer, Jürgen; Wildgruber, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    While non-verbal affective voice cues are generally recognized as a crucial behavioral guide in any day-to-day conversation their role as a powerful source of information may extend well beyond close-up personal interactions and include other modes of communication such as written discourse or literature as well. Building on the assumption that similarities between the different ‘modes’ of voice cues may not only be limited to their functional role but may also include cerebral mechanisms engaged in the decoding process, the present functional magnetic resonance imaging study aimed at exploring brain responses associated with processing emotional voice signals described in literary texts. Emphasis was placed on evaluating ‘voice’ sensitive as well as task- and emotion-related modulations of brain activation frequently associated with the decoding of acoustic vocal cues. Obtained findings suggest that several similarities emerge with respect to the perception of acoustic voice signals: results identify the superior temporal, lateral and medial frontal cortex as well as the posterior cingulate cortex and cerebellum to contribute to the decoding process, with similarities to acoustic voice perception reflected in a ‘voice’-cue preference of temporal voice areas as well as an emotion-related modulation of the medial frontal cortex and a task-modulated response of the lateral frontal cortex. PMID:24396008

  14. Describing the appearance and flavor profiles of fresh fig (Ficus carica L.) cultivars.

    PubMed

    King, Ellena S; Hopfer, Helene; Haug, Megan T; Orsi, Jennifer D; Heymann, Hildegarde; Crisosto, Gayle M; Crisosto, Carlos H

    2012-12-01

    Twelve fig cultivars, including cultivars destined for the fresh and dried markets, were harvested from 6 locations and evaluated by a trained panel using descriptive sensory analysis. Instrumental measurements were taken at harvest and also during sensory analysis. Each fresh fig cultivar had a characteristic appearance and flavor sensory profile regardless of the source. The primary flavor attributes used to describe the fig cultivars were "fruity,"melon,"stone fruit,"berry,"citrus,"honey,"green," and "cucumber." Maturity levels significantly affected the chemical composition and sensory profiles of the fig cultivars. Less mature figs had a higher compression force, a thicker outer skin, and higher ratings for "green" and "latex" flavors, firmness, graininess, bitterness, tingling, and seed adhesiveness. Meanwhile, more mature figs had higher soluble solids concentration, and were perceptibly higher in "fruit" flavors, juiciness, stickiness, sliminess, and sweetness. The specific sensory terminology used for fig appearance and flavor profiles will assist with communication between marketers and consumers, which can increase fresh fig consumption. PMID:23170947

  15. A population pharmacokinetic approach to describe cephalexin disposition in adult and aged dogs.

    PubMed

    Prados, Ana Paula; Schaiquevich, Paula; Kreil, Verónica; Monfrinotti, Agustina; Quaine, Pamela; Tarragona, Lisa; Hallu, Ruben; Rebuelto, Marcela

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to characterize the pharmacokinetics of orally administered cephalexin to healthy adult and aged dogs, using a population pharmacokinetic approach. Two hundred and eighty-six cephalexin plasma concentrations obtained from previous pharmacokinetic studies were used. Sex, age, pharmaceutical formulation, and breed were evaluated as covariates. A one-compartment model with an absorption lag-time (Tlag) best described the data. The final model included age (adult; aged) on apparent volume of distribution (Vd/F), apparent elimination rate (ke/F), and Tlag; sex (female; male) on ke/F, and breed (Beagle; mixed-breed) on Vd/F. Addition of the covariates to the model explained 78% of the interindividal variability (IIV) in Vd/F, 36% in ke/F, and 24% in Tlag, respectively. Formulation did not affect the variability of any of the pharmacokinetic parameters. Tlag was longer, whereas Vd/F and ke/F were lower in aged compared to adult animals; in female aged dogs ke/F was lower than in male aged dogs; however, the differences were of low magnitude. Different disposition of cephalexin may be expected in aged dogs. PMID:25431741

  16. A Population Pharmacokinetic Approach to Describe Cephalexin Disposition in Adult and Aged Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Prados, Ana Paula; Kreil, Verónica; Monfrinotti, Agustina; Quaine, Pamela; Tarragona, Lisa; Hallu, Ruben

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to characterize the pharmacokinetics of orally administered cephalexin to healthy adult and aged dogs, using a population pharmacokinetic approach. Two hundred and eighty-six cephalexin plasma concentrations obtained from previous pharmacokinetic studies were used. Sex, age, pharmaceutical formulation, and breed were evaluated as covariates. A one-compartment model with an absorption lag-time (Tlag) best described the data. The final model included age (adult; aged) on apparent volume of distribution (Vd/F), apparent elimination rate (ke/F), and Tlag; sex (female; male) on ke/F, and breed (Beagle; mixed-breed) on Vd/F. Addition of the covariates to the model explained 78% of the interindividal variability (IIV) in Vd/F, 36% in ke/F, and 24% in Tlag, respectively. Formulation did not affect the variability of any of the pharmacokinetic parameters. Tlag was longer, whereas Vd/F and ke/F were lower in aged compared to adult animals; in female aged dogs ke/F was lower than in male aged dogs; however, the differences were of low magnitude. Different disposition of cephalexin may be expected in aged dogs. PMID:25431741

  17. Dimensionality of Collective Variables for Describing Conformational Changes of a Multi-Domain Protein.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, Yasuhiro; Komuro, Yasuaki; Kobayashi, Chigusa; Jung, Jaewoon; Mori, Takaharu; Sugita, Yuji

    2016-04-21

    Collective variables (CVs) are often used in molecular dynamics simulations based on enhanced sampling algorithms to investigate large conformational changes of a protein. The choice of CVs in these simulations is essential because it affects simulation results and impacts the free-energy profile, the minimum free-energy pathway (MFEP), and the transition-state structure. Here we examine how many CVs are required to capture the correct transition-state structure during the open-to-close motion of adenylate kinase using a coarse-grained model in the mean forces string method to search the MFEP. Various numbers of large amplitude principal components are tested as CVs in the simulations. The incorporation of local coordinates into CVs, which is possible in higher dimensional CV spaces, is important for capturing a reliable MFEP. The Bayesian measure proposed by Best and Hummer is sensitive to the choice of CVs, showing sharp peaks when the transition-state structure is captured. We thus evaluate the required number of CVs needed in enhanced sampling simulations for describing protein conformational changes. PMID:27049936

  18. Embodied affectivity: on moving and being moved

    PubMed Central

    Fuchs, Thomas; Koch, Sabine C.

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing body of research indicating that bodily sensation and behavior strongly influences one's emotional reaction toward certain situations or objects. On this background, a framework model of embodied affectivity1 is suggested: we regard emotions as resulting from the circular interaction between affective qualities or affordances in the environment and the subject's bodily resonance, be it in the form of sensations, postures, expressive movements or movement tendencies. Motion and emotion are thus intrinsically connected: one is moved by movement (perception; impression; affection2) and moved to move (action; expression; e-motion). Through its resonance, the body functions as a medium of emotional perception: it colors or charges self-experience and the environment with affective valences while it remains itself in the background of one's own awareness. This model is then applied to emotional social understanding or interaffectivity which is regarded as an intertwinement of two cycles of embodied affectivity, thus continuously modifying each partner's affective affordances and bodily resonance. We conclude with considerations of how embodied affectivity is altered in psychopathology and can be addressed in psychotherapy of the embodied self. PMID:24936191

  19. Embodied affectivity: on moving and being moved.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Thomas; Koch, Sabine C

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing body of research indicating that bodily sensation and behavior strongly influences one's emotional reaction toward certain situations or objects. On this background, a framework model of embodied affectivity is suggested: we regard emotions as resulting from the circular interaction between affective qualities or affordances in the environment and the subject's bodily resonance, be it in the form of sensations, postures, expressive movements or movement tendencies. Motion and emotion are thus intrinsically connected: one is moved by movement (perception; impression; affection) and moved to move (action; expression; e-motion). Through its resonance, the body functions as a medium of emotional perception: it colors or charges self-experience and the environment with affective valences while it remains itself in the background of one's own awareness. This model is then applied to emotional social understanding or interaffectivity which is regarded as an intertwinement of two cycles of embodied affectivity, thus continuously modifying each partner's affective affordances and bodily resonance. We conclude with considerations of how embodied affectivity is altered in psychopathology and can be addressed in psychotherapy of the embodied self. PMID:24936191

  20. [Affect and mimetic behavior].

    PubMed

    Zepf, S; Ullrich, B; Hartmann, S

    1998-05-01

    The relationship between facial expression and experienced affect presents many problems. The two diametrically opposed positions proposing solutions to this problem are exemplified using the conceptions of Mandler u. Izard. The underlying premises of both conceptions still prevail in various forms. The authors reject the concepts according to which facial expression is merely correlated to the affects (see Mandler 1975) as well as the view that facial expression controls the affects (see Izard 1977). The relationship between affect and facial expression is reexamined, subjecting it to a semiotic, essentially semantic analysis similar to the Ogden and Richards' language and meaning approach. This analysis involves a critical discussion of Scherer's attempt of a purely communicational interpretation using Bühler's organon model. In the author's approach, facial expression is seen not simply as a system of signals, but as a system of representative signs which signify the affects and refer to the emotive meaning of things for the subject. The authors develop the thesis that human beings are not born simply with the ability to speak, but also with the abstract possibility of performing facial expressions. This ability develops by way of coordinating patterns of expressions, which are presumably phylogenetically determined, with affects that take on a socially determined individual form, similar to language acquisition during socialisation. The authors discuss the methodological implications arising for studies investigating the affective meaning of facial expressions. PMID:9632951