Science.gov

Sample records for affected hydro generation

  1. Brigham City Hydro Generation Project

    SciTech Connect

    Ammons, Tom B.

    2015-10-31

    Brigham City owns and operates its own municipal power system which currently includes several hydroelectric facilities. This project was to update the efficiency and capacity of current hydro production due to increased water flow demands that could pass through existing generation facilities. During 2006-2012, this project completed efficiency evaluation as it related to its main objective by completing a feasibility study, undergoing necessary City Council approvals and required federal environmental reviews. As a result of Phase 1 of the project, a feasibility study was conducted to determine feasibility of hydro and solar portions of the original proposal. The results indicated that the existing Hydro plant which was constructed in the 1960’s was running at approximately 77% efficiency or less. Brigham City proposes that the efficiency calculations be refined to determine the economic feasibility of improving or replacing the existing equipment with new high efficiency equipment design specifically for the site. Brigham City completed the Feasibility Assessment of this project, and determined that the Upper Hydro that supplies the main culinary water to the city was feasible to continue with. Brigham City Council provided their approval of feasibility assessment’s results. The Upper Hydro Project include removal of the existing powerhouse equipment and controls and demolition of a section of concrete encased penstock, replacement of penstock just upstream of the turbine inlet, turbine bypass, turbine shut-off and bypass valves, turbine and generator package, control equipment, assembly, start-up, commissioning, Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA), and the replacement of a section of conductors to the step-up transformer. Brigham City increased the existing 575 KW turbine and generator with an 825 KW turbine and generator. Following the results of the feasibility assessment Brigham City pursued required environmental reviews with the DOE and

  2. 78 FR 929 - TransCanada Hydro Northeast Inc.; FirstLight Hydro Generating Company; Notice of Intent To File...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-07

    ...-081 and P-2485-063] TransCanada Hydro Northeast Inc.; FirstLight Hydro Generating Company; Notice of... Northeast Inc. (P-1892-026, P- 1855-045, and P-1904-073); FirstLight Hydro Generating Company (P-1889- 081..., and Vernon Projects-- John Ragonese, Relicensing Project Manager, TransCanada Hydro Northeast Inc.,...

  3. 77 FR 56637 - FirstLight Hydro Generating Company; Notice of Authorization for Continued Project Operation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-13

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission FirstLight Hydro Generating Company; Notice of Authorization for Continued Project Operation On August 30, 2007, the FirstLight Hydro Generating Company, licensee for the Scotland... annual license for Project No. 2662 ] is issued to the FirstLight Hydro Generating Company for a...

  4. Modeling strategic competition in hydro-thermal electricity generation markets with cascaded reservoir-hydroelectric generation plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uluca, Basak

    This dissertation aims to achieve two goals. The first is to model the strategic interactions of firms that own cascaded reservoir-hydro plants in oligopolistic and mixed oligopolistic hydrothermal electricity generation markets. Although competition in thermal generation has been extensively modeled since the beginning of deregulation, the literature on competition in hydro generation is still limited; in particular, equilibrium models of oligopoly that study the competitive behavior of firms that own reservoir-hydro plants along the same river in hydrothermal electricity generation markets are still under development. In competitive markets, when the reservoirs are located along the same river, the water released from an upstream reservoir for electricity generation becomes input to the immediate downstream reservoir, which may be owned by a competitor, for current or future use. To capture the strategic interactions among firms with cascaded reservoir-hydro plants, the Upstream-Conjecture approach is proposed. Under the Upstream-Conjecture approach, a firm with an upstream reservoir-hydro plant assumes that firms with downstream reservoir-hydro plants will respond to changes in the upstream firm's water release by adjusting their water release by the same amount. The results of the Upstream Conjecture experiments indicate that firms that own upstream reservoirs in a cascade may have incentive to withhold or limit hydro generation, forcing a reduction in the utilization of the downstream hydro generation plants that are owned by competitors. Introducing competition to hydroelectricity generation markets is challenging and ownership allocation of the previously state-owned cascaded reservoir-hydro plants through privatization can have significant impact on the competitiveness of the generation market. The second goal of the dissertation is to extract empirical guidance about best policy choices for the ownership of the state-owned generation plants, including the

  5. Technical requirements to connect parallel generators to the Ontario Hydro Distribution Electricity System

    SciTech Connect

    Kundu, D. )

    1992-03-01

    The demand for connecting small generators to the distribution system has increased considerably since 1986. Therefore, there is a need to summarize the technical requirements for generator connection. This paper highlights the technical requirements for connecting parallel generators to the Ontario Hydro Distribution Electricity System. It also discusses some applications to connect synchronous and induction generators to the DES.

  6. Large-scale numerical modeling of hydro-acoustic waves generated by tsunamigenic earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecioni, C.; Abdolali, A.; Bellotti, G.; Sammarco, P.

    2015-03-01

    Tsunamigenic fast movements of the seabed generate pressure waves in weakly compressible seawater, namely hydro-acoustic waves, which travel at the sound celerity in water (about 1500 m s-1). These waves travel much faster than the counterpart long free-surface gravity waves and contain significant information on the source. Measurement of hydro-acoustic waves can therefore anticipate the tsunami arrival and significantly improve the capability of tsunami early warning systems. In this paper a novel numerical model for reproduction of hydro-acoustic waves is applied to analyze the generation and propagation in real bathymetry of these pressure perturbations for two historical catastrophic earthquake scenarios in Mediterranean Sea. The model is based on the solution of a depth-integrated equation, and therefore results are computationally efficient in reconstructing the hydro-acoustic waves propagation scenarios.

  7. Preventive Maintenance Prioritization by Fuzzy Logic for Seamless Hydro Power Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, P. K.; Adhikary, P.; Mazumdar, A.

    2014-06-01

    Preventive maintenance prioritization is one of the most important criteria for the electricity generation planners to minimize the down time and production costs. Break down of equipments increases costs and plant down time results in loss of business. This work focuses on prioritizing the preventive maintenance for seamless hydro power generation considering (24 × 7) client's power demand using fuzzy logic. The main task involves prioritizing the maintenance work considering constraints of varied power demand and hydro turbine plant breakdown. Fuzzy logic is used to optimize the preventive maintenance prioritization under the main constraints. Manual fuzzy arithmetic is used to develop the model and MATLAB Fuzzy Inference System editor used to validate the same. This novel fuzzy logic approach of preventive maintenance prioritizing for hydro power generation is absent in renewable power generation and industrial engineering literatures due to its assessment complexity.

  8. 78 FR 58533 - FirstEnergy Generation, LLC, Allegheny Energy Supply Company, LLC, and Green Valley Hydro, LLC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-24

    ... Company, LLC, and Green Valley Hydro, LLC, Seneca Generation, LLC, Lake Lynn Generation, LLC, All Dams... Locations P-2280-017 FirstEnergy Seneca Generation, Kinzua Pumped Allegheny River, Generation, LLC....

  9. 78 FR 4843 - FirstLight Hydro Generating Company, City of Norwich Dept. of Public Utilities; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-23

    ... part 380 (Order No. 486, 52 FR 47897), the Office of Energy Projects has reviewed competing... Energy Regulatory Commission FirstLight Hydro Generating Company, City of Norwich Dept. of Public..., Connecticut. The existing licensee for the project is FirstLight Hydro Generating Company (FirstLight)....

  10. 76 FR 26284 - FirstLight Hydro Generating Company, City of Norwich Dept. of Public Utilities; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission FirstLight Hydro Generating Company, City of Norwich Dept. of Public... will meet with FirstLight Hydro Generating Company and the City of Norwich Dept. of Public Utilities...

  11. Demonstration of variable speed permanent magnet generator at small, low-head hydro site

    SciTech Connect

    Brown Kinloch, David

    2015-12-18

    Small hydro developers face a limited set of bad choices when choosing a generator for a small low-head hydro site. Direct drive synchronous generators are expensive and technically complex to install. Simpler induction generators are higher speed, requiring a speed increaser, which results in inefficiencies and maintenance problems. In addition, both induction and synchronous generators turn at a fixed speed, causing the turbine to run off its peak efficiency curve whenever the available head is different than the designed optimum head.The solution to these problems is the variable speed Permanent Magnet Generators (PMG). At the Weisenberger Mill in Midway, KY, a variable speed Permanent Magnet Generator has been installed and demonstrated. This new PMG system replaced an existing induction generator that had a HTD belt drive speed increaser system. Data was taken from the old generator before it was removed and compared to data collected after the PMG system was installed. The new variable speed PMG system is calculated to produce over 96% more energy than the old induction generator system during an average year. This significant increase was primarily due to the PMG generator operating at the correct speed at the maximum head, and the ability for the PMG generator to reduce its speed to lower optimum speeds as the stream flow increased and the net head decreased.This demonstration showed the importance of being able to adjust the speed of fixed blade turbines. All fixed blade turbines with varying net heads could achieve higher efficiencies if the speed can be matched to the optimum speed as the head changes. In addition, this demonstration showed that there are many potential efficiencies that could be realized with variable speed technology at hydro sites where mismatched turbine and generator speeds result in lower power output, even at maximum head. Funding for this project came from the US Dept. of Energy, through Award Number DE-EE0005429.

  12. Operation modes of a hydro-generator as a part of the inverter micro hydropower plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukutin, B. V.; Shandarova, E. B.; Matukhin, D. L.; Makarova, A. F.; Fuks, I. L.

    2016-04-01

    The paper dwells on the selection problem of power equipment for a stand-alone inverter micro hydropower plant, in particular a hydro-generator, and evaluation of its operation modes. Numerical experiments included the modes calculation of hydroelectric units of the same type with various nominal power, supplied to the consumer according to the unchanged electric load curve. The studies developed requirements for a hydro-turbine and a synchronous generator in terms of a speed range and installed capacity, depending on the load curve. The possibility of using general industrial hydroelectric units with nominal power equal to half-maximum capacity of a typical daily load curve in rural areas was shown.

  13. 78 FR 56690 - PE Hydro Generation, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-13

    ...-referenced proceeding, of PE Hydro Generation, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate schedule, noting that such application includes a request for blanket authorization, under 18 CFR Part 34, of future issuances of securities and assumptions of liability. Any person desiring...

  14. Shock-Generated Cosmic Rays in AMR Hydro/N-body Cosmological Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skillman, Samuel W.; O'Shea, B. W.; Hallman, E. J.; Burns, J. O.; Norman, M. L.

    2007-12-01

    Shock waves in cosmological simulations arise due to supersonic accretion onto large scale structures such as filaments and galaxy clusters as well as from complex flows within the clusters themselves. Along with thermal dissipation due to shock heating, cosmic rays can be generated through diffusive shock acceleration (DSA). By using the results from one-dimensional DSA simulations, we compute the energy dissipation into non-thermal cosmic ray particles from shocks. This cosmic ray pressure is found to be a significant fraction of the total thermal pressure, suggesting that in order to perform precision cosmological studies with galaxy clusters, this additional non-thermal physics must be included. Here we present new numerical simulations using a Hydro/N-body Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) code, ENZO, to analyze cosmic ray generation. Whereas previous analyses have been performed on a fixed grid or within individual galaxy clusters, we are able for the first time to study cosmic ray generation over a spatial dynamic range of up to 2^8. In addition, a shock-finding algorithm has been developed that does not rely on studying shock waves in each of the three coordinate directions separately. Instead, our algorithm casts a ray in the direction of the shock propagation and then determines the Mach number using Rankine-Hyugenot jump conditions for the adiabatic gas.

  15. HYDRO + JETS (HYDJET+ +) event generator for Pb+Pb collisions at LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bravina, L.; Brusheim Johansson, B. H.; Crkovská, J.; Eyyubova, G.; Korotkikh, V.; Lokhtin, I.; Malinina, L.; Nazarova, E.; Petrushanko, S.; Snigirev, A.; Zabrodin, E.

    2016-08-01

    The Monte Carlo event generator HYDJET++ is one of the few generators, designed for the calculations of heavy-ion collisions at ultrarelativistic energies, which combine treatment of soft hydro-like processes with the description of jets traversing the hot and dense partonic medium. The model is employed to study the azimuthal anisotropy phenomena, dihadron angular correlations and event-by-event (EbyE) fluctuations of the anisotropic flow in Pb+Pb collisions at ^/snn = 2.76 TeV. The interplay of soft and hard processes describes the violation of the mass hierarchy of meson and baryon elliptic and triangular flows at pT > 2 GeV/c, the fall-off of the flow harmonics at intermediate transverse momenta, and the worsening of the number-of-constituent-quark (NCQ) scaling of elliptic/triangular flow at LHC compared to RHIC energies. The cross-talk of v2 and v3 leads to emergence of higher order harmonics in the model and to appearance of the ridge structure in dihadron angular correlations in a broad pseudorapidity range. HYDJET++ possesses also the dynamical EbyE fluctuations of the anisotropic flow. The model results agree well with the experimental data.

  16. Short-term hydro generation and interchange contract scheduling for Swiss Rail

    SciTech Connect

    Christoforidis, M.; Awobamise, B.; Tong, S.; Aganagic, M.; Frowd, R.J.; Rahimi, F.A.

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes the Short-Term Resource Scheduling (STRS) function that has been developed by Siemens-Empros as part of the new SBB/Direktion Kraftwerk (Swiss Rail) Energy Management System. Optimal scheduling of the single-phase hydro plants, single-phase and three-phase energy accounts, and purchase and sale of three phase energy subject to a multitude of physical and contractual constraints (including spinning and regulating reserve requirements), is the main objective of the STRS function. The operations planning horizon of STRS is one day to one week using an hourly time increment.

  17. Short-term hydro generation and interchange contract scheduling for Swiss Rail

    SciTech Connect

    Christoforidis, M.; Awobamise, B.; Tong, S.; Aganagic, M.; Frowd, R.J.; Rahimi, F.A.

    1996-02-01

    This paper describes the Short-Term Resource Scheduling (STRS) function that has been developed by Siemens-Empros as part of the new SBB/Direktion Kraftwerk (Swiss Rail) Energy Management System. Optimal scheduling of the single-phase hydro plants, single-phase and three-phase energy accounts, and purchase and sale of three phase energy subject to a multitude of physical and contractual constraints (including spinning and regulating reserve requirements), is the main objective of the STRS function. The operations planning horizon of STRS is one day to one week using an hourly time increment.

  18. Building a Global Network of Hydro-climatology Sites in Cloud-affected Tropical Montane Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, G. W.; Asbjornsen, H.; Bruijnzeel, S., Sr.; Berry, Z. C.; Giambelluca, T. W.; Martin, P.; Mulligan, M.

    2015-12-01

    Tropical montane forests are characteristically wet environments with low evapotranspiration and sometimes significant contributions from fog interception. They are often located at headwater catchments critical for water supplies, but ecohydroclimate data in these regions are sparse. Such evidence may be crucial for assessing climate alterations in these sensitive ecosystems. As part of a global effort led by the Tropical Montane Cloud Forest Research Coordination Network (Cloudnet - http://cloudnet.agsci.colostate.edu), we aim to extend the network of tropical montane forest sites and establish robust protocols for measuring key ecohydroclimatic parameters, including fog interception, windblown rain, throughfall, leaf wetness, and micrometeorological conditions. Specific recommendations for standardized protocols include (1) rain and fog collectors uniquely designed to separately quantify fog interception from direct rain inputs, even in windy conditions, (2) trough-style throughfall gages that collect 40 times the area of a typical tipping bucket gage with added features to reduce splash-out, (3) clusters of leaf wetness sensors to differentiate frequency and duration of wetness caused by rain and fog on windward and leeward exposures, and (4) basic micrometeorological sensors for solar radiation, temperature, humidity, and wind. At sites where resources allow for additional measurements, we developed protocols for quantifying soil moisture, soil saturation, and plant water uptake from both roots and leaves (i.e. foliar absorption), since these are also important drivers in these systems. Participating sites will be invited to contribute to a global meta-analysis that will provide new insights into the ecohydrology of cloud-affected tropical montane forests.

  19. Power generation by high head water in a building using micro hydro turbine-a greener approach.

    PubMed

    M M S R S, Bhargav; V, Ratna Kishore; S P, Anbuudayasankar; K, Balaji

    2016-05-01

    Demand for green energy production is arising all over the world. A lot of emphasis is laid in making the buildings green. Even a small amount of energy savings made contribute to saving the environment. In this study, an idea is proposed and studied to extract power from the high head water in the pipelines of a building. A building of height 15 m is considered for this study. Water flowing in the pipe has sufficient energy to run a micro hydro turbine. The feasibility of producing electrical energy from the energy of pipe water is found. The motivation is to find the feasibility of generating power using a low-cost turbine. The experimental setup consists of micro turbine of 135 mm diameter coupled to a 12-V DC generator; LEDs and resistors are employed to validate the results. The theoretical calculations were presented using the fundamental equations of fluid mechanics. The theoretical results are validated using experimental and numerical results using CFD simulation. In addition, exergy analysis has been carried out to quantify the irreversibilities during the process in the system.

  20. Power generation by high head water in a building using micro hydro turbine-a greener approach.

    PubMed

    M M S R S, Bhargav; V, Ratna Kishore; S P, Anbuudayasankar; K, Balaji

    2016-05-01

    Demand for green energy production is arising all over the world. A lot of emphasis is laid in making the buildings green. Even a small amount of energy savings made contribute to saving the environment. In this study, an idea is proposed and studied to extract power from the high head water in the pipelines of a building. A building of height 15 m is considered for this study. Water flowing in the pipe has sufficient energy to run a micro hydro turbine. The feasibility of producing electrical energy from the energy of pipe water is found. The motivation is to find the feasibility of generating power using a low-cost turbine. The experimental setup consists of micro turbine of 135 mm diameter coupled to a 12-V DC generator; LEDs and resistors are employed to validate the results. The theoretical calculations were presented using the fundamental equations of fluid mechanics. The theoretical results are validated using experimental and numerical results using CFD simulation. In addition, exergy analysis has been carried out to quantify the irreversibilities during the process in the system. PMID:26354115

  1. Analysis of performance with variable stroke of a torque based renewable micro hydro power generation plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Muhammad Mahbubul; Rahman, Md. Shad; Sultan, Rasel A.; Naif, M. Ahmed

    2016-07-01

    The most important addition of modern science is renewable energy. And the most useful and the most cheaply renewable power generation source is Hydropower. Flowing water creates energy that can be captured and turned into electricity. This is called Hydroelectric power or Hydropower. Hydropower is considered a renewable energy resource because it uses the earth's water cycle to generate electricity. Water evaporates from the earth's surface, forms clouds, precipitates back to earth, and flows toward the ocean. As far as Bangladesh is concerned, only a small fraction of electricity is generated by hydropower. The government has set a target of meeting 5 per cent of the electricity demand by 2015 by utilizing renewable energy and 10 per cent by the year 2020. Currently, renewable energies contribute to less than 1 per cent of the country's total electricity generation. The aim of our analysis is to demonstrate and observe the hydropower of our country in micro-scale by our experimental setup which is completely new in concept. This paper consists results of our findings and we find larger the number of stroke higher the rpm correspondingly higher efficiency. We find maximum rpm for 2stroke when fixed fly wheel weight was 18Kg and water was 10liter. It might help in case of utilizing this renewable energy potential at high scale.

  2. Generating and Describing Affective Eye Behaviors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Xia; Li, Zheng

    The manner of a person's eye movement conveys much about nonverbal information and emotional intent beyond speech. This paper describes work on expressing emotion through eye behaviors in virtual agents based on the parameters selected from the AU-Coded facial expression database and real-time eye movement data (pupil size, blink rate and saccade). A rule-based approach to generate primary (joyful, sad, angry, afraid, disgusted and surprise) and intermediate emotions (emotions that can be represented as the mixture of two primary emotions) utilized the MPEG4 FAPs (facial animation parameters) is introduced. Meanwhile, based on our research, a scripting tool, named EEMML (Emotional Eye Movement Markup Language) that enables authors to describe and generate emotional eye movement of virtual agents, is proposed.

  3. HydroPulse Drilling

    SciTech Connect

    J.J. Kolle

    2004-04-01

    Tempress HydroPulse{trademark} tool increases overbalanced drilling rates by generating intense suction pulses at the drill bit. This report describes the operation of the tool; results of pressure drilling tests, wear tests and downhole drilling tests; and the business case for field applications. The HydroPulse{trademark} tool is designed to operate on weighted drilling mud at conventional flow rates and pressures. Pressure drilling tests confirm that the HydroPulse{trademark} tool provides 33% to 200% increased rate of penetration. Field tests demonstrated conventional rotary and mud motor drilling operations. The tool has been operated continuous for 50 hours on weighted mud in a wear test stand. This level of reliability is the threshold for commercial application. A seismic-while-drilling version of the tool was also developed and tested. This tool was used to demonstrate reverse vertical seismic profiling while drilling an inclined test well with a PDC bit. The primary applications for the HydroPulse{trademark} tool are deep onshore and offshore drilling where rate of penetration drives costs. The application of the seismic tool is vertical seismic profiling-while-drilling and look-ahead seismic imaging while drilling.

  4. Analysis of terahertz generation characteristic affected by injured photoconductive antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hui; Fan, Wen-hui; Liu, Jia

    2013-08-01

    In this paper, we deployed a home-made THz time-domain system and experimentally investigated the influence of impairment on photoconductive antenna. The low temperature grown GaAs photoconductive antenna (PCA) was used as THz emitter and a <110< ZnTe crystal modulating the probe beam to detect the THz field based on electro-optic sampling. By adjusting the position of laser spot on PCA gap, we found that the generated THz signal was quite different as the laser beam irradiating on different position of the antenna's gap. Moreover, we found that the small burned holes on the edge of both metal electrodes may affect the electric field of the antenna. Furthermore, we simulated the electric field of the PCA with a DC biased voltage applied across the electrodes, and found that the simulation results agreed with the experimental phenomenon, which can well demonstrated that the impairments on the antenna electrodes have a great influence on THz generation.

  5. Field testing of behavioral barriers for fish exclusion at cooling-water intake systems: Ontario Hydro Pickering Nuclear Generating Station: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    McKinley, R.S.; Patrick, P.H.; Matousek, J.A.; Wells, A.W.

    1989-03-01

    A field sampling program was conducted during the spring--summer of 1985 and 1986 at a test facility located offshore of Ontario Hydro's Pickering Nuclear Generating Station (NGS) on Lake Ontario. The objective of the field program was to evaluate the effectiveness of selected behavioral barriers for fish exclusion at generating facilities located on large freshwater lakes or impoundments. Three commercially available devices (air bubble curtain, pneumatic gun, and underwater strobe lights) were tested alone and in combination to determine their effectiveness in reducing impingement. Sampling was conducted at two identical structures with the behavioral barrier devices installed on one of the structures and the other structure acting as a control. The effectiveness of the devices at excluding alewife (the dominant local species) was determined by comparing net catches covering 2-h test periods between the two structures. All of the behavioral barrier devices or combinations of devices tested exhibited effectiveness index values greater than 50%. The greatest deterrent capability was associated with the pneumatic gun; the least with the air bubble curtain. Device combinations that included the pneumatic gun were generally less effective than the pneumatic gun alone. The underwater strobe light was only marginally effective at excluding alewife. The air bubble curtain and underwater strobe light combination was more effective than each device separately, but the results were variable. 48 refs., 41 figs., 21 tabs.

  6. Noggin 1 overexpression in retinal progenitors affects bipolar cell generation.

    PubMed

    Messina, Andrea; Bridi, Simone; Bozza, Angela; Bozzi, Yuri; Baudet, Marie-Laure; Casarosa, Simona

    2016-01-01

    Waves of Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs) and their antagonists are present during initial eye development, but their possible roles in retinogenesis are still unknown. We have recently shown that noggin 1, a BMP antagonist, renders pluripotent cells able to differentiate into retinal precursors, and might be involved in the maintenance of retinal structures in the adult vertebrate eye. Here, we report that noggin 1, differently from noggin 2 and noggin 4, is expressed during all phases of Xenopus laevis retinal development. Gain-of-function experiments by electroporation in the optic vesicle show that overexpression of noggin 1 significantly decreases the number of bipolar cells in the inner nuclear layer of the retina, without significantly affecting the generation of the other retinal cell types. Our data suggest that BMP signaling could be involved in the differentiation of retinal progenitors into specific retinal subtypes during late phases of vertebrate retinal development. PMID:27389985

  7. Modular small hydro configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-09-01

    Smaller sites (those under 750 kilowatts) which previously were not attractive to develop using equipment intended for application at larger scale sites, were the focal point in the conception of a system which utilizes standard industrial components which are generally available within short procurement times. Such components were integrated into a development scheme for sites having 20 feet to 150 feet of head. The modular small hydro configuration maximizes the use of available components and minimizes modification of existing civil works. A key aspect of the development concept is the use of a vertical turbine multistage pump, used in the reverse mode as a hydraulic turbine. The configuration allows for automated operation and control of the hydroelectric facilities with sufficient flexibility for inclusion of potential hydroelectric sites into dispersed storage and generation (DSG) utility grid systems.

  8. Generating a Spanish Affective Dictionary with Supervised Learning Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bermudez-Gonzalez, Daniel; Miranda-Jiménez, Sabino; García-Moreno, Raúl-Ulises; Calderón-Nepamuceno, Dora

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, machine learning techniques are being used in several Natural Language Processing (NLP) tasks such as Opinion Mining (OM). OM is used to analyse and determine the affective orientation of texts. Usually, OM approaches use affective dictionaries in order to conduct sentiment analysis. These lexicons are labeled manually with affective…

  9. Literature Review: Factors Affecting the Development of Generation X and Millennials. Societal Factors Affecting Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denham, Thomas J.; adbow, Nancy

    Generation X, or "Xers," refers to those born in the United States between 1960 and 1980 and Generation Y, also known as "Millennials," refers to those born between 1980 and 2000. An examination of these two generations is important to educators as the new generation of Millennials begins to access higher education. A large and growing body of…

  10. Listeners discern affective variation in computer-generated musical sounds.

    PubMed

    Bailes, Freya; Dean, Roger T

    2009-01-01

    We carried out two experiments to test the relationship between real-time perception of structural change in stylistically unusual musical sounds, and perception of its affect (arousal and valence). Computer music was used because of its unfamiliarity and our capacity to control it in ecologically appropriate ways. In experiment 1, thirteen participants unselected for musical training participated in tasks to detect segmentation and changes in affect. Changes in affect occurred upon detection of segmentation; but not all algorithmically distinct segments conveyed distinct affect. Short segments followed by long segments led to greater changes in arousal and valence at the point of segmentation than vice versa. In experiment 2, intra-segment sound transitions were introduced. Sixteen musicians performed the same affect task as in experiment 1, and a novel change in sound task. Participants were slow to respond to a continuous transition, but quick to respond to instantaneous transitions. Contrary to literature on the perception of affect in more familiar music, the musician participants in experiment 2 differed more in their ratings of arousal than of valence, in spite of a strong correlation of arousal with the composition of the stimuli. These findings are discussed in relation to the positive valence attributed to the more familiar sounds in both experiments.

  11. Analysis of Alaska hydro power development

    SciTech Connect

    Sieber, O.V.

    1983-12-01

    Alaska leads the world in terms of total potential for hydropower development, yet Alaska is 91% dependent on fossil fuels. A mix of gas, diesel and coal-fired power plants generate all but 9% of its electricity. This dependence on fossil fuels stems from the abundance of cheap gas, coal and oil-nonrenewable resources that are becoming more costly. Hydro power is also costly; however, most hydro projects are justified by long term returns. Once the water hits the turbine in a hydro project, the operating and maintenance cost is practically nil. The successful completion of two complex thin-arch concrete dams and several other hydro projects are discussed in order to meet Alaska's power demand.

  12. 76 FR 67167 - Riverbank Hydro No. 1 LLC; Qualified Hydro 20 LLC; Lock Hydro Friends Fund XXXVII; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-31

    ... generation of 142.0 gigawatt-hours (GWh) and operate run-of-river utilizing surplus water from the Aberdeen.... (416) 861-0092 x 154. Qualified Hydro's Project No. 14135-000 would consist of: (1) An 130-foot-long... an average annual generation of 32.0 GWh and operate run-of-river utilizing surplus water from...

  13. Hydro-Quebec is at it again

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, G.

    1993-12-31

    When New York governor Mario Cuomo pulled the plug on a purchase of 1,000 megawatts of power from Hydro-Quebec last June, the provincial utility talked tough. The cancellation, a senior Hydro-Quebec official claimed, would not jeopardize the future of its controversial Great Whale hydro project in the North. Bu Hydro-Quebec has quietly shoved Great Whale onto the back burner while an environmental review is underway. In the meantime the utility is barreling ahead with another mega-dam. The Ste. Marquerite project planned for north-eastern Quebec is modest by Hydro-Quebec standards, generating less than a third the power of Great Whale. Still, with an 880-megawatt power station and 190 square miles of reservoirs, it is one of the largest hydro projects on any drawing board in North America. Environmentalists say it is being pushed ahead without a serious study of its impacts. This article details the environmental impacts of the project, and the extended impacts, not yet accounted for.

  14. [How generativity affects motivation for altruistic behavior toward the young generation in elderly people].

    PubMed

    Tabuchi, Megumi; Gondo, Yasuyuki

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to verify a model of motivation for altruistic behavior toward the young generation in elderly people. Erikson's developmental task theory and concept of "generativity" was used as the basis of a hypothetic model. We assumed that memory about parents in childhood has a direct impact on motivation for participating in child-support, and has an indirect impact through generativity and the view of child rearing. Also, the view of child rearing has an indirect impact through generativity. Data was analyzed from questionnaires completed by 236 elderly people (M=68.35 years old, SD=7.64 years). Structural equation modeling showed that the effect of memory about parents and the view of child rearing on the motivation for participating in child-support were mediated by generativity. These results suggested that generativity is a key concept in explaining the motivation for altruistic behavior toward the young generation in elderly people.

  15. Lac Courte Oreilles Hydro Dam Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, Jason; Meyers, Amy

    2014-12-31

    The main objective of this project was to investigate upgrading the existing hydro power generating system at the Winter Dam. The tribe would like to produce more energy and receive a fair market power purchase agreement so the dam is no longer a drain on our budget but a contributor to our economy. We contracted Kiser Hydro, LLC Engineering for this project and received an engineering report that includes options for producing more energy with cost effective upgrades to the existing turbines. Included in this project was a negotiation of energy price sales negotiations.

  16. Navigating the hydro market in Latin America

    SciTech Connect

    Yermoli, C.A.

    1995-03-15

    The governments of most Latin American countries have yet to establish clear policies about the future ownership of existing generation assets, but they do expect future capacity to be largely developed by the private sector. There were at one time plans for many government-financed hydro projects in the area, but these projects produced much paper and little electricity. Present trends will take the area toward independent power projects, both hydro projects and thermal power projects. This article is a review of those present trends.

  17. 77 FR 12280 - Riverbank Hydro No. 1, LLC, Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXVII; Qualified Hydro 20, LLC; Notice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-29

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Riverbank Hydro No. 1, LLC, Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXVII; Qualified Hydro... tiebreaker. Based on the drawing, the order of priority is as follows: 1. Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXVII, Project No. 14138-000. 2. Qualified Hydro 20, LLC, Project No. 14135-000. 3. Riverbank Hydro No. 1,...

  18. 77 FR 13317 - Riverbank Hydro No. 2, LLC, Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXVI, Qualified Hydro 21, LLC; Notice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-06

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Riverbank Hydro No. 2, LLC, Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXVI, Qualified Hydro... tiebreaker. Based on the drawing, the order of priority is as follows: 1. Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXVI: Project No. 14137-000. 2. Qualified Hydro 21, LLC: Project No. 14134-000. 3. Riverbank Hydro No. 2,...

  19. 77 FR 11530 - Riverbank Hydro No. 2, LLC, Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXVI, Qualified Hydro 21, LLC; Notice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Riverbank Hydro No. 2, LLC, Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXVI, Qualified Hydro... by Riverbank Hydro No. 2, LLC for Project No. 14130-000, Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXVI for Project No. 14137-000, and Qualified Hydro 21, LLC for Project No. 14134-000. \\1\\ Under the...

  20. Ontario Hydro and SGML.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockley, Ann

    1993-01-01

    Describes how an analysis of Ontario Hydro's conversion of 20,000 pages of paper manuals to online documentation established the scope of the project, provided a set of design criteria, and recommended the use of Standard Generalized Markup Language to create the new documentation and the purchase of the "Dinatext" program to produce it. (SR)

  1. Diagnostic system monitors gearboxes at hydro plant

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    This article describes how, by applying real-time, tooth-by-tooth vibration ``imaging,`` this system detects gear-tooth defects -- such as pitting and cracking. To keep Swan Falls hydroelectric generating station in service, Idaho Power Co constructed a new two-unit, open-pit-turbine powerhouse. Swan Falls, Kuna, Idaho, the oldest on the Snake River, services southern Idaho and parts of Oregon -- one of 17 hydroelectric plants maintained by the utility. The hydro units use speed increasers (gearboxes) so higher-speed generators are possible. To monitor these gearboxes, engineers at Swan Falls required a continuous on-line predictive maintenance system. The system monitors the planetary step-up gearboxes in the two main 12.5-MW pit turbine/generators. In some Idaho Power plants with a similar hydro turbine/generator design, the gearboxes have experienced major failures, leading to hundreds of thousands of dollars in collateral damage.

  2. Cognitive and Affective Aspects of Creative Option Generation in Everyday Life Situations

    PubMed Central

    Schweizer, T. Sophie; Schmalenberger, Katja M.; Eisenlohr-Moul, Tory A.; Mojzisch, Andreas; Kaiser, Stefan; Funke, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Which factors influence a human being’s ability to develop new perspectives and be creative? This ability is pivotal for any context in which new cognitions are required, such as innovative endeavors in science and art, or psychotherapeutic settings. In this article, we seek to bring together two research programs investigating the generation of creative options: On the one hand, research on option generation in the decision-making literature and, on the other hand, cognitive and clinical creativity research. Previous decision-making research has largely neglected the topic of generating creative options. Experiments typically provided participants with a clear set of options to choose from, but everyday life situations are less structured and allow countless ways to react. Before choosing an option, agents have to self-generate a set of options to choose from. Such option generation processes have only recently moved to the center of attention. The present study examines the creative quality of self-generated options in daily life situations. A student sample (N = 48) generated options for action in 70 briefly described everyday life scenarios. We rated the quality of the options on three dimensions of creativity- originality, feasibility, and divergence -and linked these qualities to option generation fluency (speed and number of generated options), situational features like the familiarity and the affective valence of the situation in which the options were generated, and trait measures of cognitive performance. We found that when situations were familiar to the participant, greater negative affective valence of the situation was associated with more originality and divergence of generated options. We also found that a higher option generation fluency was associated with a greater maximal originality of options. We complete our article with a joint research agenda for researchers in the decision-making field focusing on option generation and, on the other hand

  3. Cognitive and Affective Aspects of Creative Option Generation in Everyday Life Situations.

    PubMed

    Schweizer, T Sophie; Schmalenberger, Katja M; Eisenlohr-Moul, Tory A; Mojzisch, Andreas; Kaiser, Stefan; Funke, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Which factors influence a human being's ability to develop new perspectives and be creative? This ability is pivotal for any context in which new cognitions are required, such as innovative endeavors in science and art, or psychotherapeutic settings. In this article, we seek to bring together two research programs investigating the generation of creative options: On the one hand, research on option generation in the decision-making literature and, on the other hand, cognitive and clinical creativity research. Previous decision-making research has largely neglected the topic of generating creative options. Experiments typically provided participants with a clear set of options to choose from, but everyday life situations are less structured and allow countless ways to react. Before choosing an option, agents have to self-generate a set of options to choose from. Such option generation processes have only recently moved to the center of attention. The present study examines the creative quality of self-generated options in daily life situations. A student sample (N = 48) generated options for action in 70 briefly described everyday life scenarios. We rated the quality of the options on three dimensions of creativity- originality, feasibility, and divergence -and linked these qualities to option generation fluency (speed and number of generated options), situational features like the familiarity and the affective valence of the situation in which the options were generated, and trait measures of cognitive performance. We found that when situations were familiar to the participant, greater negative affective valence of the situation was associated with more originality and divergence of generated options. We also found that a higher option generation fluency was associated with a greater maximal originality of options. We complete our article with a joint research agenda for researchers in the decision-making field focusing on option generation and, on the other hand

  4. 77 FR 9230 - Riverbank Hydro No. 1, LLC; Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXVII; Qualified Hydro 20, LLC; Notice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-16

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Riverbank Hydro No. 1, LLC; Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXVII; Qualified Hydro... on the Tombigbee River, in Monroe County, Mississippi. The applications were filed by Riverbank Hydro No. 1, LLC for Project No. 14131-000, Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXVII for Project No. 14138- 000,...

  5. Factors affecting waste generation: a study in a waste management program in Dhaka City, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Afroz, Rafia; Hanaki, Keisuke; Tudin, Rabaah

    2011-08-01

    Information on waste generation, socioeconomic characteristics, and willingness of the households to separate waste was obtained from interviews with 402 respondents in Dhaka city. Ordinary least square regression was used to determine the dominant factors that might influence the waste generation of the households. The results showed that the waste generation of the households in Dhaka city was significantly affected by household size, income, concern about the environment, and willingness to separate the waste. These factors are necessary to effectively improve waste management, growth and performance, as well as to reduce the environmental degradation of the household waste. PMID:21046234

  6. Hydro turbine innovations: 1985 in review

    SciTech Connect

    Stoiaken, L.N.

    1986-02-01

    In many ways, 1985 could be called the year of the first for hydro turbine manufacturers. Voith Hydro Inc. introduced their first new pressure flume machine, while both Allis-Chalmers and Axel Johnson saw their first pit turbines installed in this country. In Virginia, Columbia Mills became one of the first siphon projects to come on line in the U.S. and, in Maine, C-E/Neyrpic's right-angle bulb turbine, long used in Europe, was installed in the U.S. for the first time. Flygt Corp. installed their submersible turbine generators in an irrigation project for the first time, and the Marlow project in New Hampshire was the first site in the U.S. to feature the HYDROLEC EH model turbine-generator sets.

  7. 77 FR 55205 - Barren River Lake Hydro LLC; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Motions To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-07

    ... generation of 25.8 GWh, and operate in a run-of- release mode utilizing surplus water from the Barren River... Energy Regulatory Commission Barren River Lake Hydro LLC; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and.... d. Applicant: Barren River Lake Hydro LLC (Barren River Hydro) e. Name of Project: Barren River...

  8. Ventromedial prefrontal-subcortical systems and the generation of affective meaning

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Mathieu; Shohamy, Daphna; Wager, Tor D.

    2012-01-01

    The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) comprises a set of interconnected regions that integrate information from affective sensory and social cues, long-term memory, and representations of the ‘self’. Though the vmPFC is implicated in a variety of seemingly disparate processes, these processes are organized around a common theme. The vmPFC is not necessary for affective responses per se, but is critical when affective responses are shaped by conceptual information about specific outcomes. The vmPFC thus functions as a hub that links concepts with brainstem systems capable of coordinating organism-wide emotional behavior, a process we describe in terms of the generation of affective meaning, and which could explain the common role played by the vmPFC in a range of experimental paradigms. PMID:22310704

  9. Working together to ensure safety at hydro projects

    SciTech Connect

    Bartel, J.W. )

    1993-05-01

    Providing for public safety around a hydroelectric facility can be critically important to the welfare of a hydro-power producer. With this in mind, Wisconsin Electric Power Company and Wisconsin Public Service Corporation have worked together to develop consistent safety signage and several for their hydro projects. Although the two utilities sometimes compete for electric customers, they cooperate to ensure the safety to those customers. Both WE and WPS took steps in 1986 to make their operations safer through involvement in the Wisconsin/Michigan Hydro User Group. The organization has 25 members-primarily of electric utilities and paper companies-who operate hydro facilities in the two states. The two areas that the HUG studied in public safety were signs and warning systems. HUG established a sign committee to study how to increase safety of people around hydro plants through signs, explained Ted Handrick, hydro plant superintendent at WPS. The committee's recommendations led to development of a statewide uniform sign system adopted by all HUG members. The committee used Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources' guidelines for warning signs and portages in developing the signage standards. HUG members are converting to these new sign standards as they replace old signs and/or install new signs. Notices describing the new signage system have been placed near each hydro plant, at boat landings, and in campgrounds. The signs are mounted well above ground level so they can be seen and easily read by recreationalists. Warning systems, in accordance with HUG warning standards, were installed at WE and WPS hydro facilities. These systems alert nearby recreational users of rapid increases in water flow when generating units are turned on or when spillway gates are opened. Soon after the authors installed equipment to remotely operate its hydro facilities, the utility experienced a dramatic increase increase in intrusion on dams and other structures at the projects.

  10. Dentinogenesis Imperfecta : A Family which was Affected for Over Three Generations.

    PubMed

    Surendra, Poornima; Shah, Rohan; N M, Roshan; Reddy, V V Subba

    2013-08-01

    Dentinogenesis Imperfecta (DI) or hereditary opalescent dentin is inherited in a simple autosomal dominant mode with high penetrance and low mutation rates. It generally affects both the deciduous and the permanent dentitions. DI corresponds to a localized form of mesodermal dysplasia which is observed in the histo-differentiation. An early diagnosis and treatment are therefore fundamental, which aim at obtaining a favourable prognosis, since at late intervention makes the treatment more complex. We are presenting here a case of DI in which the disease affected the three generations of a family in India.

  11. Prereproductive stress in adolescent female rats affects behavior and corticosterone levels in second-generation offspring.

    PubMed

    Zaidan, Hiba; Gaisler-Salomon, Inna

    2015-08-01

    Human and animal studies indicate that vulnerability to stress may be heritable. We have previously shown that chronic, mild prereproductive stress (PRS) in adolescent female rats affects behavior and corticotropin releasing factor 1 (CRF1) expression in the brain of first-generation (F1) offspring. Here, we investigated the effects of PRS on anxiogenic behavior and CRF1 expression in male and female second-generation (F2) offspring. Furthermore, we assessed levels of the stress hormone corticosterone (CORT), a direct marker of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function, in PRS females and their F1 and F2 progeny. F2 offspring demonstrated decreased CRF1 mRNA expression at birth, and alterations in anxiogenic behavior in adulthood. CORT levels were elevated in PRS females and in their F1 female, but not male, offspring. In F2, CORT levels in PRS offspring also varied in a sex-dependent manner. These findings indicate that PRS in adolescent females leads to behavioral alterations that extend to second-generation offspring, and has transgenerational effects on endocrine function. Together with our previous findings, these data indicate that PRS to adolescent females affects behavior and HPA axis function across three generations, and highlight the importance of examining the transgenerational effects of stress in both male and female offspring.

  12. 75 FR 17706 - FPL Energy Maine Hydro LLC, Complainant v. Great Lakes Hydro America LLC Rumford Falls Hydro LLC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-07

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission FPL Energy Maine Hydro LLC, Complainant v. Great Lakes Hydro America LLC Rumford Falls Hydro LLC, Respondents; Notice of Complaint March 29, 2010. Take notice that on March 26.... 803 and 825(e), FPL Energy Maine Hydro LLC (Complainant) filed a formal complaint against Great...

  13. 76 FR 4892 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXIX, FFP Missouri 3, LLC, Allegheny 3 Hydro, LLC, Three Rivers Hydro...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-27

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXIX, FFP Missouri 3, LLC, Allegheny 3 Hydro, LLC, Three Rivers Hydro, LLC; Notice Announcing Preliminary Permit Drawing January 20, 2011. On May 18, 2010..., Pennsylvania.\\1\\ The applications were filed by Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXIX, for Project No. 13740-000,...

  14. 76 FR 6612 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XL; FFP Missouri 4, LLC; Allegheny 4 Hydro, LLC; Three Rivers Hydro, LLC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-07

    ...; Project No. 13782-000] Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XL; FFP Missouri 4, LLC; Allegheny 4 Hydro, LLC; Three Rivers Hydro, LLC; Notice Announcing Filing Priority for Preliminary Permit Applications January 28, 2011... Rivers Hydro, LLC--Project No. 13782-000 2. FFP Missouri 4, LLC--Project No. 13750-000 3. Allegheny...

  15. The Hydro Models Session

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, J. A.

    2004-07-01

    Hydrodynamic models play a central role in our understanding of how planetary nebulae form and evolve. The hydro models session at this conference was particularly interesting for it included excellent talks ranging from the development of large scale structures in PNe, such as halos, to studies of collimated outflows and hypersonic bullets, the effects of stellar rotation on the nebular shell and warped toroids as a way to explain the origin of point-symmetry and poly-polarity. This diversity of topics exemplifies the current vigorous quest in the field for answers to topical problems in PN research. I present here a brief overview of these talks in the order they were scheduled during the conference.

  16. Hydrodynamic Impact-Load Alleviation with a Penetrating Hydro-Ski

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edge, Philip M., Jr.

    1959-01-01

    A penetrating hydro-ski was mounted below a model tested previously in the study reported in NACA Technical Note 4401, and a series of impacts were made in the Langley impact basin to determine load alleviation with this type of hydro-ski. The hydro-ski was designed to penetrate through seaway irregularities with a minimum of drag and with small impact loads. The penetrating hydro-ski was small (beam-loading coefficient of 111) and of a streamline shape with the bottom designed for flush retraction into the main model. A series of impacts at fixed trim angles of 8, 16, and 30 deg were made in smooth water and at a fixed trim angle of 8 deg in rough water. The loads and motions of the model were recorded, and photographic observations of the flow and cavities generated in the water by the penetrating hydro-ski were made. The data are presented and the maximum impact loads and maximum drafts of the model with the penetrating hydro-ski are compared with those of the model obtained without the penetrating hydro-ski. Maximum load reductions of 30 to 70 percent in smooth water and of 50 to 80 percent in rough water are indicated. Cavity and flow generation by the penetrating hydro-ski are discussed, and it is indicated that the penetrating hydro-ski moved smoothly through the water and generated deep cavities which are shown by stereophotographs.

  17. 78 FR 12049 - Marlborough Hydro Associates; Ashuelot River Hydro, Inc.; Notice of Application for Transfer of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-21

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Marlborough Hydro Associates; Ashuelot River Hydro, Inc.; Notice of..., Marlborough Hydro Associates (transferor) and Ashuelot River Hydro, Inc. (transferee) filed an application for...: Mr. John Webster, General Partner, Marlborough Hydro Associates, P.O. Box 178, South Berwick,...

  18. 78 FR 2985 - Moretown Hydro Energy Company; Ampersand Moretown Hydro, LLC; Notice of Application for Transfer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-15

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Moretown Hydro Energy Company; Ampersand Moretown Hydro, LLC; Notice of..., Moretown Hydro Energy Company (transferor) and Ampersand Moretown Hydro, LLC (transferee) filed an..., Canada L6H 7H7. For Transferee: Ms. Julie Perry, c/o Ampersand Hydro, LLC, 717 Atlantic Avenue, Suite...

  19. Overview of Hydrometeorologic Forecasting Procedures at BC Hydro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCollor, D.

    2004-12-01

    Energy utility companies must balance production from limited sources with increasing demand from industrial, business, and residential consumers. The utility planning process requires a balanced, efficient, and effective distribution of energy from source to consumer. Therefore utility planners must consider the impact of weather on energy production and consumption. Hydro-electric companies should be particularly tuned to weather because their source of energy is water, and water supply depends on precipitation. BC Hydro operates as the largest hydro-electric company in western Canada, managing over 30 reservoirs within the province of British Columbia, and generating electricity for 1.6 million people. BC Hydro relies on weather forecasts of watershed precipitation and temperature to drive hydrologic reservoir inflow models and of urban temperatures to meet energy demand requirements. Operations and planning specialists in the company rely on current, value-added weather forecasts for extreme high-inflow events, daily reservoir operations planning, and long-term water resource management. Weather plays a dominant role for BC Hydro financial planners in terms of sensitive economic responses. For example, a two percent change in hydropower generation, due in large part to annual precipitation patterns, results in an annual net change of \\50 million in earnings. A five percent change in temperature produces a \\5 million change in yearly earnings. On a daily basis, significant precipitation events or temperature extremes involve potential profit/loss decisions in the tens of thousands of dollars worth of power generation. These factors are in addition to environmental and societal costs that must be considered equally as part of a triple bottom line reporting structure. BC Hydro water resource managers require improved meteorological information from recent advancements in numerical weather prediction. At BC Hydro, methods of providing meteorological forecast data

  20. 76 FR 67169 - Solia 9 Hydroelectric LLC Riverbank Hydro No. 17 LLC Lock Hydro Friends Fund XLI FFP Project 54...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-31

    ...) transmission line. The proposed project would have an average annual generation of 75.0 gigawatt-hours (GWh... would have an estimated average annual generation of 72.6 GWh, and operate run-of- river utilizing... 3230, Toronto, ON, Canada M5J2J4. (416) 861-0092 x 154. Lock Hydro's Project No. 14182-000...

  1. 76 FR 67167 - Riverbank Hydro No. 6 LLC, Lock Hydro Friends Fund XLVII, FFP Project 52 LLC; Notice of Competing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-31

    ... would have an estimated average annual generation of 78.8 gigawatt-hours (GWh), and operate run-of-river... Street, Suite 3230, Toronto, ON, Canada M5J2J4. (416) 861-0092 x 154. Lock Hydro's Project No. 14178-000... distribution line. The proposed project would have an average annual generation of 147.926 GWh, and operate...

  2. 76 FR 67174 - Solia 2 Hydroelectric LLC; Riverbank Hydro No. 7 LLC; Lock Hydro Friends Fund XXXVIII Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-31

    ... project would have an average annual generation of 154.0 gigawatt-hours (GWh), and operate run-of-river... generation of 190.0 GWh, and operate run-of- river utilizing surplus water from the Arkansas Lock & Dam No. 5...) 861-0092 x 154. Lock Hydro's Project No. 14184-000 would consist of: (1) One lock frame modules,...

  3. 76 FR 67172 - Riverbank Hydro No. 16 LLC, Lock Hydro Friends Fund IV, FFP Project 55 LLC; Notice of Competing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-31

    ... would have an estimated average annual generation of 31.0 gigawatt-hours (GWh), and operate run-of-river... Bay Street, Suite 3230, Toronto, ON, Canada M5J2J4. (416) 861-0092 x 154. Lock Hydro's Project No... distribution line. The proposed project would have an average annual generation of 13.149 GWh, and operate...

  4. Role of Pumped Storage Hydro Resources in Electricity Markets and System Operation: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Ela, E.; Kirby, B.; Botterud, A.; Milostan, C.; Krad, I.; Koritarov, V.

    2013-05-01

    The most common form of utility- sized energy storage system is the pumped storage hydro system. Originally, these types of storage systems were economically viable simply because they displace more expensive generating units. However, over time, as those expensive units became more efficient and costs declined, pumped hydro storage units no longer have the operational edge. As a result, in the current electricity market environment, pumped storage hydro plants are struggling. To offset this phenomenon, certain market modifications should be addressed. This paper will introduce some of the challenges faced by pumped storage hydro plants in today's markets and purpose some solutions to those problems.

  5. Spontaneous miniature hyperpolarizations affect threshold for action potential generation in mudpuppy cardiac neurons.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Rodney L; Barstow, Karen L; Scornik, Fabiana S

    2002-09-01

    Mudpuppy parasympathetic neurons exhibit spontaneous miniature hyperpolarizations (SMHs) that are generated by potassium currents, which are spontaneous miniature outward currents (SMOCs), flowing through clusters of large conductance voltage- and calcium (Ca(2+))-activated potassium (BK) channels. The underlying SMOCs are initiated by a Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+) release (CICR) mechanism. Perforated-patch whole cell voltage recordings were used to determine whether activation of SMHs contributed to action potential (AP) repolarization or affected the latency to AP generation. Blockade of BK channels by iberiotoxin (IBX, 100 nM) slowed AP repolarization and increased AP duration. Treatment with omega-conotoxin GVIA (3 microM) or nifedipine (10 microM) to inhibit Ca(2+) influx through N- or L-type voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCCs), respectively, also decreased the rate of AP repolarization and increased AP duration. Elimination of CICR by treatment with either thapsigargin (1 microM) or ryanodine (10 microM) produced no significant change in AP repolarization or duration. Blockade of BK channels with IBX and inhibition of N-type VDCCs with omega-conotoxin GVIA, but not inhibition of L-type VDCCs with nifedipine, decreased the latency of AP generation. A decrease in latency to AP generation occurred with elimination of SMHs by inhibition of CICR following treatment with thapsigargin. Ryanodine treatment decreased AP latency in three of six cells. Apamin (100 nM) had no affect on AP repolarization, duration, or latency to AP generation, but did decrease the hyperpolarizing afterpotential (HAP). Inhibition of L-type VDCCs by nifedipine also decreased HAP amplitude. Inhibition of CICR by either thapsigargin or ryanodine treatment increased the number of APs generated with long depolarizing current pulses, whereas exposure to IBX or omega-conotoxin GVIA depressed excitability. We conclude that CICR, the process responsible for SMH generation, represents a unique

  6. Power generation and oil sands process-affected water treatment in microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jeongdong; Liu, Yang

    2014-10-01

    Oil sands process-affected water (OSPW), a product of bitumen isolation in the oil sands industry, is a source of pollution if not properly treated. In present study, OSPW treatment and voltage generation were examined in a single chamber air-cathode microbial fuel cell (MFC) under the effect of inoculated carbon source and temperature. OSPW treatment with an anaerobic sludge-inoculated MFC (AS-MFC) generated 0.55 ± 0.025 V, whereas an MFC inoculated with mature-fine tailings (MFT-MFC) generated 0.41 ± 0.01 V. An additional carbon source (acetate) significantly improved generated voltage. The voltage detected increased to 20-23% in MFCs when the condition was switched from ambient to mesophilic. The mesophilic condition increased OSPW treatment efficiency in terms of lowering the chemical oxygen demand and acid-extractable organics. Pyrosequencing analysis of microbial consortia revealed that Proteobacteria were the most abundant in MFCs and microbial communities in the AS-MFC were more diverse than those in the MFT-MFC.

  7. 75 FR 65312 - Vortex Hydro Energy, LLC; Notice of Competing Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Vortex Hydro Energy, LLC; Notice of Competing Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Comments and Interventions October 15, 2010. On August 9, 2010, Vortex... average annual generation of 0.788 gigawatt-hours. Applicant Contact: Gus Simiao, CEO, Vortex Hydro...

  8. Using affective knowledge to generate and validate a set of emotion-related, action words.

    PubMed

    Portch, Emma; Havelka, Jelena; Brown, Charity; Giner-Sorolla, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Emotion concepts are built through situated experience. Abstract word meaning is grounded in this affective knowledge, giving words the potential to evoke emotional feelings and reactions (e.g., Vigliocco et al., 2009). In the present work we explore whether words differ in the extent to which they evoke 'specific' emotional knowledge. Using a categorical approach, in which an affective 'context' is created, it is possible to assess whether words proportionally activate knowledge relevant to different emotional states (e.g., 'sadness', 'anger', Stevenson, Mikels & James, 2007a). We argue that this method may be particularly effective when assessing the emotional meaning of action words (e.g., Schacht & Sommer, 2009). In study 1 we use a constrained feature generation task to derive a set of action words that participants associated with six, basic emotional states (see full list in Appendix S1). Generation frequencies were taken to indicate the likelihood that the word would evoke emotional knowledge relevant to the state to which it had been paired. In study 2 a rating task was used to assess the strength of association between the six most frequently generated, or 'typical', action words and corresponding emotion labels. Participants were presented with a series of sentences, in which action words (typical and atypical) and labels were paired e.g., "If you are feeling 'sad' how likely would you be to act in the following way?" … 'cry.' Findings suggest that typical associations were robust. Participants always gave higher ratings to typical vs. atypical action word and label pairings, even when (a) rating direction was manipulated (the label or verb appeared first in the sentence), and (b) the typical behaviours were to be performed by the rater themselves, or others. Our findings suggest that emotion-related action words vary in the extent to which they evoke knowledge relevant for different emotional states. When measuring affective grounding, it may then be

  9. Analgesic exposure in pregnant rats affects fetal germ cell development with inter-generational reproductive consequences

    PubMed Central

    Dean, Afshan; van den Driesche, Sander; Wang, Yili; McKinnell, Chris; Macpherson, Sheila; Eddie, Sharon L.; Kinnell, Hazel; Hurtado-Gonzalez, Pablo; Chambers, Tom J.; Stevenson, Kerrie; Wolfinger, Elke; Hrabalkova, Lenka; Calarrao, Ana; Bayne, Rosey AL; Hagen, Casper P.; Mitchell, Rod T.; Anderson, Richard A.; Sharpe, Richard M.

    2016-01-01

    Analgesics which affect prostaglandin (PG) pathways are used by most pregnant women. As germ cells (GC) undergo developmental and epigenetic changes in fetal life and are PG targets, we investigated if exposure of pregnant rats to analgesics (indomethacin or acetaminophen) affected GC development and reproductive function in resulting offspring (F1) or in the F2 generation. Exposure to either analgesic reduced F1 fetal GC number in both sexes and altered the tempo of fetal GC development sex-dependently, with delayed meiotic entry in oogonia but accelerated GC differentiation in males. These effects persisted in adult F1 females as reduced ovarian and litter size, whereas F1 males recovered normal GC numbers and fertility by adulthood. F2 offspring deriving from an analgesic-exposed F1 parent also exhibited sex-specific changes. F2 males exhibited normal reproductive development whereas F2 females had smaller ovaries and reduced follicle numbers during puberty/adulthood; as similar changes were found for F2 offspring of analgesic-exposed F1 fathers or mothers, we interpret this as potentially indicating an analgesic-induced change to GC in F1. Assuming our results are translatable to humans, they raise concerns that analgesic use in pregnancy could potentially affect fertility of resulting daughters and grand-daughters. PMID:26813099

  10. Solid images generated from UAVs to analyze areas affected by rock falls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giordan, Daniele; Manconi, Andrea; Allasia, Paolo; Baldo, Marco

    2015-04-01

    The study of rock fall affected areas is usually based on the recognition of principal joints families and the localization of potential instable sectors. This requires the acquisition of field data, although as the areas are barely accessible and field inspections are often very dangerous. For this reason, remote sensing systems can be considered as suitable alternative. Recently, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have been proposed as platform to acquire the necessary information. Indeed, mini UAVs (in particular in the multi-rotors configuration) provide versatility for the acquisition from different points of view a large number of high resolution optical images, which can be used to generate high resolution digital models relevant to the study area. By considering the recent development of powerful user-friendly software and algorithms to process images acquired from UAVs, there is now a need to establish robust methodologies and best-practice guidelines for correct use of 3D models generated in the context of rock fall scenarios. In this work, we show how multi-rotor UAVs can be used to survey areas by rock fall during real emergency contexts. We present two examples of application located in northwestern Italy: the San Germano rock fall (Piemonte region) and the Moneglia rock fall (Liguria region). We acquired data from both terrestrial LiDAR and UAV, in order to compare digital elevation models generated with different remote sensing approaches. We evaluate the volume of the rock falls, identify the areas potentially unstable, and recognize the main joints families. The use on is not so developed but probably this approach can be considered the better solution for a structural investigation of large rock walls. We propose a methodology that jointly considers the Structure from Motion (SfM) approach for the generation of 3D solid images, and a geotechnical analysis for the identification of joint families and potential failure planes.

  11. Alterations in welding process voltage affect the generation of ultrafine particles, fume composition, and pulmonary toxicity.

    PubMed

    Antonini, James M; Keane, Michael; Chen, Bean T; Stone, Samuel; Roberts, Jenny R; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Andrews, Ronnee N; Frazer, David G; Sriram, Krishnan

    2011-12-01

    The goal was to determine if increasing welding voltage changes the physico-chemical properties of the fume and influences lung responses. Rats inhaled 40 mg/m³ (3 h/day × 3 days) of stainless steel (SS) welding fume generated at a standard voltage setting of 25 V (regular SS) or at a higher voltage (high voltage SS) of 30 V. Particle morphology, size and composition were characterized. Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed at different times after exposures to assess lung injury. Fumes collected from either of the welding conditions appeared as chain-like agglomerates of nanometer-sized primary particles. High voltage SS welding produced a greater number of ultrafine-sized particles. Fume generated by high voltage SS welding was higher in manganese. Pulmonary toxicity was more substantial and persisted longer after exposure to the regular SS fume. In summary, a modest raise in welding voltage affected fume size and elemental composition and altered the temporal lung toxicity profile.

  12. Reduced short term adaptation to robot generated dynamic environment in children affected by Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background It is known that healthy adults can quickly adapt to a novel dynamic environment, generated by a robotic manipulandum as a structured disturbing force field. We suggest that it may be of clinical interest to evaluate to which extent this kind of motor learning capability is impaired in children affected by cerebal palsy. Methods We adapted the protocol already used with adults, which employs a velocity dependant viscous field, and compared the performance of a group of subjects affected by Cerebral Palsy (CP group, 7 subjects) with a Control group of unimpaired age-matched children. The protocol included a familiarization phase (FA), during which no force was applied, a force field adaptation phase (CF), and a wash-out phase (WO) in which the field was removed. During the CF phase the field was shut down in a number of randomly selected "catch" trials, which were used in order to evaluate the "learning index" for each single subject and the two groups. Lateral deviation, speed and acceleration peaks and average speed were evaluated for each trajectory; a directional analysis was performed in order to inspect the role of the limb's inertial anisotropy in the different experimental phases. Results During the FA phase the movements of the CP subjects were more curved, displaying greater and variable directional error; over the course of the CF phase both groups showed a decreasing trend in the lateral error and an after-effect at the beginning of the wash-out, but the CP group had a non significant adaptation rate and a lower learning index, suggesting that CP subjects have reduced ability to learn to compensate external force. Moreover, a directional analysis of trajectories confirms that the control group is able to better predict the force field by tuning the kinematic features of the movements along different directions in order to account for the inertial anisotropy of arm. Conclusions Spatial abnormalities in children affected by cerebral palsy may be

  13. HydroNEXT Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy

    2015-02-01

    Through its HydroNEXT initiative, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) invests in the development of innovative technologies that dramatically change the way we think about hydropower by lowering cost, improving performance, and promoting environmental stewardship of hydropower development. HydroNEXT is pursuing a comprehensive technology research, development, demonstration, and deployment strategy across three resource classes to increase the contribution of clean, renewable hydropower to the nation’s energy mix: existing water infrastructure, undeveloped streams, and pumped-storage hydropower.

  14. 78 FR 56224 - Hydro Nelson, Ltd.; Hydro-WM, LLC; Notice of Transfer of Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-12

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Hydro Nelson, Ltd.; Hydro-WM, LLC; Notice of Transfer of Exemption 1. By documentation filed July 8, 2013 and supplemented on September 4, 2013, Hydro-WM, LLC informed the Commission... March 26, 1982,\\1\\ has been transferred to Hydro-WM, LLC. The project is located on the Rockfish...

  15. Runner upgrading: Learning from Ontario Hydro`s experience

    SciTech Connect

    Kee, D.C.; Markovich, M.S.; Munro, R.I.

    1997-02-01

    Planning, design, and implementation of turbine runner replacement at Ontario Hydro is described in the article. The use of fully homologous modeling for upgrade projects, including both francis and propeller runner types, is outlined. Confirmation of physical model efficiency is obtained through numerical modeling. Inlet connections, setting cavitation-erosion guarantees, and other guarantees included in tender documents are also described in some detail.

  16. 76 FR 74779 - SV Hydro LLC; Coffeeville LLC; FFP Project 99 LLC; Lock Hydro Friends Fund XIV; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-01

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission SV Hydro LLC; Coffeeville LLC; FFP Project 99 LLC; Lock Hydro Friends Fund..., Motions To Intervene, and Competing Applications On October 3, 2011, SV Hydro LLC (SV Hydro), Coffeeville LLC (Coffeeville), FFP Project 99 LLC (FFP 99), and Lock Hydro Friends Fund XIV (Lock Hydro)...

  17. Apparent autosomal recessive inheritance in families with proximal spinal muscular atrophy affecting individuals in two generations

    SciTech Connect

    Rudnik-Schoeneborn, S.; Zerres, K.; Hahnen, E.

    1996-11-01

    With the evidence that deletions in the region responsible for childhood- and juvenile-onset proximal spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) are on chromosome 5 it is now possible to confirm autosomal recessive inheritance in most patients (denoted {open_quotes}SMA 5q{close_quotes}). Homozygous deletions in the telomeric copy of the survival motor neuron (SMN) gene can be detected in 95%-98% of patients with early-onset SMA (types I and II), whereas as many as 10%-20% of patients with the milder, juvenile-onset form (type III SMA) do not show deletions. In families with affected subjects in two generations, it is difficult to decide whether they are autosomal dominantly inherited or caused by three independent recessive mutations (pseudodominant inheritance). Given an incidence of >1/10,000 of SMA 5q, patients with autosomal recessive SMA have an {approximately}1% recurrence risk to their offspring. Although the dominant forms are not linked to chromosome 5q, pseudodominant families can now be identified by the presence of homozygous deletions in the SMN gene. 5 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  18. Hydro-mechanical regimes of deforming subduction interface: modeling versus observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, L.; Gerya, T.; May, D.

    2015-12-01

    A lot of evidence indicates that fluid flows exist in the subduction interface, including seismic observation, magnetotelluric imaging, heat flow modeling, etc. Fluid percolation should strongly modify rock deformation affected by fluid-induced weakening within the subduction interface. Hence, we study the fluid-rock interaction along the subduction interface using a visco-plastic hydro-mechanical model, in which rock deformation and fluid percolation are self-consistently coupled. Based on a series of 2D numerical experiments, we found two typical hydro-mechanical regimes of deforming subduction interface: (1) coupled and (2) decoupled. In the case of the coupled regime, the tectonic movement of the subduction interface is divided into blocks; newly generated faults are distributed uniformly , say fault band; fluid activity concentrates inside the faults. In the case of the decoupled regime, the upper layer of the subduction interface stops moving while the lower layer continues moving along with the subduction slab; a primary fault is generated at the centre of the subduction interface, or namely decoupled interface. Available observations suggests that both coupled and decoupled regimes can be observed in the nature at different scales. Systematic parameter study suggests that it is mainly the magnitude of the yield strength of subducted rocks depending on their cohesion and friction coefficient, which control the transition between the coupled and decoupled subduction interface regimes.

  19. Selenium status affects selenoprotein expression, reproduction, and F₁ generation locomotor activity in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Penglase, Sam; Hamre, Kristin; Rasinger, Josef D; Ellingsen, Staale

    2014-06-14

    Se is an essential trace element, and is incorporated into selenoproteins which play important roles in human health. Mammalian selenoprotein-coding genes are often present as paralogues in teleost fish, and it is unclear whether the expression patterns or functions of these fish paralogues reflect their mammalian orthologues. Using the model species zebrafish (Danio rerio; ZF), we aimed to assess how dietary Se affects key parameters in Se metabolism and utilisation including glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity, the mRNA expression of key Se-dependent proteins (gpx1a, gpx1b, sepp1a and sepp1b), oxidative status, reproductive success and F1 generation locomotor activity. From 27 d until 254 d post-fertilisation, ZF were fed diets with graded levels of Se ranging from deficient ( < 0·10 mg/kg) to toxic (30 mg/kg). The mRNA expression of gpx1a and gpx1b and GPX activity responded in a similar manner to changes in Se status. GPX activity and mRNA levels were lowest when dietary Se levels (0·3 mg/kg) resulted in the maximum growth of ZF, and a proposed bimodal mechanism in response to Se status below and above this dietary Se level was identified. The expression of the sepp1 paralogues differed, with only sepp1a responding to Se status. High dietary Se supplementation (30 mg/kg) decreased reproductive success, while the offspring of ZF fed above 0·3 mg Se/kg diet had lower locomotor activity than the other groups. Overall, the novel finding of low selenoprotein expression and activity coinciding with maximum body growth suggests that even small Se-induced variations in redox status may influence cellular growth rates. PMID:24666596

  20. 76 FR 67176 - Riverbank Hydro No. 13 LLC, Lock Hydro Friends Fund XXXIV, FFP Project 55 LLC; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-31

    ... annual generation of 29.0 gigawatt-hours (GWh), and operate run-of-river utilizing surplus water from the..., Canada M5J2J4. (416) 861-0092 x 154. Lock Hydro's Project No. 14187-000 would consist of: (1) One lock... would have an average annual generation of 10.957 GWh, and operate run-of-river utilizing surplus...

  1. 76 FR 67169 - Riverbank Hydro No. 10 LLC Lock Hydro Friends Fund XL FFP Project 56 LLC; Notice of Competing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-31

    ... annual generation of 28.6 gigawatt-hours (GWh), and operate run-of-river utilizing surplus water from the..., Canada M5J2J4. (416) 861-0092 x 154. Lock Hydro's Project No. 14189-000 would consist of: (1) One lock... would have an average annual generation of 13.149 GWh, and operate run-of-river utilizing surplus...

  2. 76 FR 67168 - Riverbank Hydro No. 19 LLC; Lock Hydro Friends Fund XXXIV; FFP Project 59 LLC; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-31

    ... annual generation of 33.0 gigawatt-hours (GWh), and operate run-of-river utilizing surplus water from the..., Canada M5J2J4. (416) 861-0092 x 154. Lock Hydro's Project No. 14188-000 would consist of: (1) One lock... would have an average annual generation of 8.766 GWh, and operate run-of-river utilizing surplus...

  3. Hydro power plants on the Middle Sava River section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kryžanowski, A.; Horvat, A.; Brilly, M.

    2008-11-01

    Construction of a chain of hydro power plants is planned on the Sava River from Medvode to the Slovenian-Croatian border which will, apart from the chain of HPPs on the Drava River, represent the linchpin of renewable energy production within the Slovenian power system. The mentioned chain of HPPs will also be one of the country's main renewable energy sources that can still be developed for power generation. Three hydro power plants, Moste, Mavčciče and Medvode, are already operating on the Upper Sava River section. Construction of the chain is underway in the lower part of the stream where Vrhovo and Bošstanj HPPs are already in operation; HPP Blanca is under construction and the site planning procedures are taking place for Krško, Brežice and Mokrice HPPs. The planned HPPs on the Middle Sava River section between Medvode and Zidani most will connect the HPPs on the Upper and Lower Sava River into a closed chain which will operate on the principle of run-of-river type power plants with daily storage. Completion of all stages will enable optimal development of available hydro potential. Apart from the energy effects, also other beneficial effects of hydro power plant construction in the region can be expected: flood protection; better water supply; waste water treatment; development of transport and energy networks as well as positive economic and social effects.

  4. Stimulus-dependent amygdala involvement in affective theory of mind generation.

    PubMed

    Schmitgen, Mike M; Walter, Henrik; Drost, Sarah; Rückl, Sarah; Schnell, Knut

    2016-04-01

    Successful social interaction requires knowledge about another person's emotional states, represented in an affective theory of mind (ToM). This information can be acquired either directly or indirectly, i.e., by observing emotional facial expressions (EFE) or indirectly by inferring emotions through cognitive perspective taking. Therefore, it is of great interest how the function of the cortical ToM network and the limbic system in affective ToM depends on the presence of facial expressions. We addressed this question in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study. The experimental paradigm applied a well-established ToM cartoon task to test functional effects of EFE on the activation of the amygdala and the anterior ToM network during affective ToM judgments. During the task, 22 healthy participants had to judge the changes of the emotional state of the stories protagonist in the presence or absence of EFE. After quality control, 21 data sets entered the final analyses. The presence of EFE during affective ToM judgments was associated with shorter reaction times as well as increased activation of the right amygdala, most probably located in the basolateral nucleus (BLA), coincident with reduced activation of ToM-related regions of the prefrontal cortex. Psychophysiological interactions (PPI) revealed EFE-dependent modulation of connectivity between the right BLA and the contralateral ToM network regions. In combination with the functional interaction of EFE and affective ToM in the right amygdala, our data suggest a complementary but parallel organization of EFE processing and affective ToM. In this framework, the amygdala seems to act as an EFE detector when affective ToM judgments are demanded. Additionally, the facts that EFE induced exclusively right-sided amygdala activation and modulated the connectivity with the contralateral ToM network support the idea of a functional lateralization of stimulus driven components of affective ToM. PMID:26803059

  5. 78 FR 21931 - Pelzer Hydro Company, Inc. Consolidated Hydro Southeast, Inc.; Notice of Intent To File License...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-12

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Pelzer Hydro Company, Inc. Consolidated Hydro Southeast, Inc.; Notice...: November 11, 2012. d. Submitted by: Pelzer Hydro Company, Inc. and Consolidated Hydro Southeast, Inc., both...-6145 or via email at sean.murphy@ferc.gov . j. Pelzer Hydro Company, Inc. and Consolidated...

  6. 75 FR 73064 - Lock Hydro Friends Fund XLI; Allegheny 7 Hydro, LLC; Notice of Competing Preliminary Permit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-29

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Lock Hydro Friends Fund XLI; Allegheny 7 Hydro, LLC; Notice of Competing... 19, 2010. On May 18, 2010, Lock Hydro Friends Fund XLI, and Allegheny 7 Hydro, LLC filed applications... Allegheny River Lock & Dam No. 7 Projects Lock Hydro Friends Fund XLI's project (Project No....

  7. 76 FR 67172 - Riverbank Hydro No. 8 LLC Lock Hydro Friends Fund XLIV FFP Project 51 LLC; Notice of Competing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-31

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Riverbank Hydro No. 8 LLC Lock Hydro Friends Fund XLIV FFP Project 51 LLC... on May 3, 2011, Lock Hydro Friends Fund XLIV (Lock Hydro) and FFP Project 51 LLC (FFP 51) filed.... Krouse, Hydro Green Energy, 5090 Richmond Avenue 390, Houston, TX 77056. (877) 556-6566 x 709. FFP...

  8. How muscle fiber lengths and velocities affect muscle force generation as humans walk and run at different speeds

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Edith M.; Hamner, Samuel R.; Seth, Ajay; Millard, Matthew; Delp, Scott L.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The lengths and velocities of muscle fibers have a dramatic effect on muscle force generation. It is unknown, however, whether the lengths and velocities of lower limb muscle fibers substantially affect the ability of muscles to generate force during walking and running. We examined this issue by developing simulations of muscle–tendon dynamics to calculate the lengths and velocities of muscle fibers from electromyographic recordings of 11 lower limb muscles and kinematic measurements of the hip, knee and ankle made as five subjects walked at speeds of 1.0–1.75 m s−1 and ran at speeds of 2.0–5.0 m s−1. We analyzed the simulated fiber lengths, fiber velocities and forces to evaluate the influence of force–length and force–velocity properties on force generation at different walking and running speeds. The simulations revealed that force generation ability (i.e. the force generated per unit of activation) of eight of the 11 muscles was significantly affected by walking or running speed. Soleus force generation ability decreased with increasing walking speed, but the transition from walking to running increased the force generation ability by reducing fiber velocities. Our results demonstrate the influence of soleus muscle architecture on the walk-to-run transition and the effects of muscle–tendon compliance on the plantarflexors' ability to generate ankle moment and power. The study presents data that permit lower limb muscles to be studied in unprecedented detail by relating muscle fiber dynamics and force generation to the mechanical demands of walking and running. PMID:23470656

  9. How muscle fiber lengths and velocities affect muscle force generation as humans walk and run at different speeds.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Edith M; Hamner, Samuel R; Seth, Ajay; Millard, Matthew; Delp, Scott L

    2013-06-01

    The lengths and velocities of muscle fibers have a dramatic effect on muscle force generation. It is unknown, however, whether the lengths and velocities of lower limb muscle fibers substantially affect the ability of muscles to generate force during walking and running. We examined this issue by developing simulations of muscle-tendon dynamics to calculate the lengths and velocities of muscle fibers from electromyographic recordings of 11 lower limb muscles and kinematic measurements of the hip, knee and ankle made as five subjects walked at speeds of 1.0-1.75 m s(-1) and ran at speeds of 2.0-5.0 m s(-1). We analyzed the simulated fiber lengths, fiber velocities and forces to evaluate the influence of force-length and force-velocity properties on force generation at different walking and running speeds. The simulations revealed that force generation ability (i.e. the force generated per unit of activation) of eight of the 11 muscles was significantly affected by walking or running speed. Soleus force generation ability decreased with increasing walking speed, but the transition from walking to running increased the force generation ability by reducing fiber velocities. Our results demonstrate the influence of soleus muscle architecture on the walk-to-run transition and the effects of muscle-tendon compliance on the plantarflexors' ability to generate ankle moment and power. The study presents data that permit lower limb muscles to be studied in unprecedented detail by relating muscle fiber dynamics and force generation to the mechanical demands of walking and running.

  10. Sustainable income-generating projects for HIV-affected households in Zimbabwe: evidence from two high-density suburbs.

    PubMed

    Mutenje, Munyaradzi J; Nyakudya, Innocent W; Katsinde, Constance; Chikuvire, Tichaedza J

    2007-04-01

    An estimated 25% of the adults in urban areas of Zimbabwe are living as HIV-positive. In HIV-affected households the need for income increases with the demand for medicines, food and funeral costs. One way to mitigate this effect of the epidemic is by expanding micro enterprises that can enhance the livelihoods of urban households affected by HIV. To identify viable income-generating projects for such households, five possible projects facilitated by two HIV/AIDS support organisations were selected for assessment. These were: selling second-hand clothing, poultry-keeping and nutritional/herbal gardens, freezit-making, mobile kitchens, and payphone set-ups. A case study of 200 households benefiting from one of these projects was done in two high-density suburbs in the town of Bindura, northern Zimbabwe. Information was collected from each household four times per year, over four years (2001-2004). Information on the income generated from the micro enterprises was collected monthly during the period. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse household demographic data; income data was analysed using cost-benefit analysis and analysis of variance. The results show that all five income-generating projects were viable for these households, although some were not feasible for the most vulnerable HIV-affected households. Making more efficient use of micro enterprises can be a valuable part of mainstreaming HIV-affected people and households in urban areas, and so allow people living with HIV to have longer and more meaningful lives.

  11. Factors affecting alkalinity generation by successive alkalinity-producing systems: regression analysis.

    PubMed

    Jage, C R; Zipper, C E; Noble, R

    2001-01-01

    Use of successive alkalinity-producing systems (SAPS) for treatment of acidic mine drainage (AMD) has grown in recent years. However, inconsistent performance has hampered widespread acceptance of this technology. This research was conducted to determine the influence of system design and influent AMD chemistry on net alkalinity generation by SAPS. Monthly observations were obtained from eight SAPS cells in southern West Virginia and southwestern Virginia. Analysis of these data revealed strong, positive correlations between net alkalinity generation and three variables: the natural log of limestone residence time, influent dissolved Fe concentration, and influent non-Mn acidity. A statistical model was constructed to describe SAPS performance. Subsequent analysis of data obtained from five systems in western Pennsylvania (calibration data set) was used to reevaluate the model form, and the statistical model was adjusted using the combined data sets. Limestone residence time exhibited a strong, positive logarithmic correlation with net alkalinity generation, indicating net alkalinity generation occurs most rapidly within the first few hours of AMD-limestone contact and additional residence time yields diminishing gains in treatment. Influent Fe and non-Mn acidity concentrations both show strong positive linear relationships with net alkalinity generation, reflecting the increased solubility of limestone under acidic conditions. These relationships were present in the original and the calibration data sets, separately, and in the statistical model derived from the combined data set. In the combined data set, these three factors accounted for 68% of the variability in SAPS systems performance. PMID:11401248

  12. 76 FR 73612 - Lock Hydro Friends Fund XVIII; Upper Hydroelectric LLC; FFP Project 95 LLC; Riverbank Hydro No...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    ...) a proposed 1.9-mile-long, 34.5 kilo-volt (kV) transmission line to an existing power line. The... Hydro's Project No. 14268-000 would consist of: (1) a 250- foot-long, 100-foot-wide headrace channel; (2) a powerhouse containing two generating units with a total capacity of 15.0 MW; (3) a 275-foot-...

  13. [Electrode configuration as a factor affecting electricity generation in air-cathode microbial fuel cell].

    PubMed

    You, Shi-Jie; Zhao, Qing-Liang; Jiang, Jun-Qiu

    2006-11-01

    In air-cathode microbial fuel cell (ACMFC), oxygen diffused into the reactor from cathode without PEM can be reduced as electron acceptor via aerobic respiration by facultative microorganisms, resulting in either a decreasing of power generation or electron loss. In this study, ACMFC1 and ACMFC2 with different electrode configuration were compared to examine power density and electron recovery from glucose. The results showed that ACMFC1 generated a maximum power density of 3 070mW/m3 with internal resistance of 302.141 and anode potential of -323mV; while maximum power density of 9 800mW/m3 for ACMFC2 was obtained with internal resistance of 107.79omega and anode potential of -442mV. ACMFC2 could sustain generating electricity for nearly 220 h (ERE of 30.1%), comparing with ACMFC1 of less than 50 h (ERE of 9.78%) under batch operation. Therefore, an improved design for electrode configuration of ACMFC can be performed to generate higher power with low internal resistance, meanwhile, achieve increasing electron recovery simultaneously.

  14. Low power laser irradiation does not affect the generation of signals in a sensory receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Lundeberg, T.; Zhou, J.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of low power Helium-Neon (He-Ne) and Gallium-Arsenide (Ga-As) laser on the slowly adapting crustacean stretch receptor was studied. The results showed that low power laser irradiation did not affect the membrane potential of the stretch receptor. These results are discussed in relation to the use of low power laser irradiation on the skin overlaying acupuncture points in treatment of pain syndrome.

  15. NFPA, 1996 revisions to National Electrical Code, NFPA 110, and NFPA 99 that affect on-site power generation

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, G.S.; Bell, J.; Whittall, H.

    1995-12-31

    The three most important NFPA standards for the on-site power industry are: NFPA 70-The National Electrical Code, NFPA 110 Emergency and Standby Power Systems and NFPA 99-Health Care Facilities. This paper will cover the important revisions affecting on-site power generation systems for the 1996 editions. Each of the three authors is a member of one or more of the technical committees that have responsibility for writing these standards.

  16. Factors affecting eluation characteristics of sorption generators of technetium-99m

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skuridin, V. S.; Chernov, V. I.; Sadkin, V. L.; Stasyuk, E. S.; Varlamova, N. V.; Rogov, A. S.; Nesterov, E. A.; Ilina, E. A.; Larionova, L. A.; Medvedeva, A. A.

    2016-08-01

    The influence of the adsorbed mass of molybdenum on the width of eluation profiles of generators and the patterns of molybdenum distribution in the amount of chromatographic columns by scanning them on the germanium-gallium detector using collimating device are studied. The boundary conditions under which the maximum value of 99mTc yield from generators Ye = 1 are defined. After scanning the columns, it was found out that the degree of filling the columns with molybdenum Q and the value of its maximum adsorption depend naturally on the total weight of the adsorbed mass. In order to achieve the condition Ye = 1 the value of Q should be at least 85%.

  17. Infection before pregnancy affects immunity and response to social challenge in the next generation.

    PubMed

    Curno, Olivia; Reader, Tom; McElligott, Alan G; Behnke, Jerzy M; Barnard, Chris J

    2011-12-12

    Natural selection should favour parents that are able to adjust their offspring's life-history strategy and resource allocation in response to changing environmental and social conditions. Pathogens impose particularly strong and variable selective pressure on host life histories, and parental genes will benefit if offspring are appropriately primed to meet the immunological challenges ahead. Here, we investigated transgenerational immune priming by examining reproductive resource allocation by female mice in response to direct infection with Babesia microti prior to pregnancy. Female mice previously infected with B. microti gained more weight over pregnancy, and spent more time nursing their offspring. These offspring generated an accelerated response to B. microti as adults, clearing the infection sooner and losing less weight as a result of infection. They also showed an altered hormonal response to novel social environments, decreasing instead of increasing testosterone production upon social housing. These results suggest that a dominance-resistance trade-off can be mediated by cues from the previous generation. We suggest that strategic maternal investment in response to an infection leads to increased disease resistance in the following generation. Offspring from previously infected mothers downregulate investment in acquisition of social dominance, which in natural systems would reduce access to mating opportunities. In doing so, however, they avoid the reduced disease resistance associated with increased testosterone and dominance. The benefits of accelerated clearance of infection and reduced weight loss during infection may outweigh costs associated with reduced social dominance in an environment where the risk of disease is high.

  18. 75 FR 11153 - Hydro Energy Technologies, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-10

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Hydro Energy Technologies, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application.... On November 6, 2009, Hydro Energy Technologies, LLC (Hydro Energy Technologies) filed an application...-hours. Hydro Energy Technologies: Anthony J. Marra Jr., President, Hydro Energy Technologies, LLC.,...

  19. Source reliability in a combined wind-solar-hydro system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traca de Almeida, A.; Martins, A.; Jesus, H.; Climaco, J.

    1983-06-01

    The results of an examination of the feasibility of using coupled wind-solar-hydro power generation systems to provide all of Portugal's electricity by the year 2000 are reported. Portugal used 15.6 TWh of electricity in 1981, of which hydro supplied 10 TWh. Demand is expected to reach 34 TWh in 2000 AD. The full development of hydropower resource would furnish 18 TWh and a storage capacity of 4.5 TWh. The installed hydro system could meet the peak demand of 6 GW, while solar cells and wind turbines must produce 16 TWh annually plus a reserve. The Growian wind turbine, 100 m tall, is considered for its 2.2 MW output. A coastal strip of wind turbines 150 x 20 km, with 1 km spacing between the machines, would be needed to produce 5.4 GW of power. Partially tracking solar cell arrays generating 9.4 GW of electricity would require an area of 100 sq km. Computer simulations of the annual rainfall, combined with projections of the variations in wind-solar output, demonstrates that a reserve margin of 1.20 will be necessary. The costs of installation of the renewable energy converters are estimated at about three times that currently necessary for obtaining the same capacity from fission power plants, although the situation may change due to import and technical considerations.

  20. The weaver gene expression affects neuronal generation patterns depending on age and encephalic region.

    PubMed

    Martí, Joaquín; Carmen Santa-Cruz, M; Bayer, Shirley A; Hervás, José P

    2006-04-01

    Cell generation and survival are investigated in three different neuronal populations of weaver mice: Purkinje and fastigial neurons in the cerebellum, and dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Tritiated thymidine was supplied to pregnant females at the time that these neurons were being produced. Autoradiography was then applied on brain sections obtained from the control and weaver offspring at postnatal (P) day 8 and 90. This makes it possible to assess the differential survival of neurons that were born at distinct embryonic times on the basis of the proportion of labeled cells at two postnatal ages. When labeling profiles were measured at P8, the inferred time of origin was similar between +/+ and wv/wv genotypes for each neuronal population considered. The same occurred at P90 for Purkinje or fastigial neurons, but the labeling profiles of midbrain neurons were different between wild type and weaver homozygotes. There is already a substantial reduction in the number of Purkinje and fastigial cells at P8, but loss of dopaminergic neurons was only detected in 90-day-old weavers and, therefore, vulnerability is built into this midbrain neural system during its late postnatal development. Our results show that depletion of Purkinje and fastigial cells is random with respect to the time of their birth, whereas the weaver gene seems to be specifically targeting the late-generated dopaminergic neurons.

  1. Unconventional Shale-Gas Resource Systems and Processes Affecting Gas Generation, Retention, Storage, and Flow Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarvie, D. M.; Philp, R. P.; Jarvie, B. M.

    2009-04-01

    Geochemical and petrophysical characterization of various shale-gas systems in the U.S. indicates a variety of unconventional shale-gas system types. The most basic distinction is gas type: biogenic and thermogenic, although there can also be mixtures of the two gas types. Thermogenic shale-gas systems are further segregated into various sub-types depending on geochemistry and geology. The shale-gas system categories are: (1) high thermal maturity shale; (2) low thermal maturity shales; (3) mixed lithology intra-formational systems containing shale, sands, and silts; (4) inter-formational systems where gas is generated in a mature shale and stored in a less mature shale, and (5) mixed systems. A key difference among these shale-gas systems are initial gas flow rates. High thermal maturity systems tend to have much higher gas flow rates than low maturity systems because of gas charge and storage mechanisms. Certainly other non-geochemical factors, such as shale mineralogy, are extremely important in being able to stimulate these shales to flow gas. Geochemical comparison of the Antrim Shale (Michigan Basin), New Albany Shale (Illinois Basin), and Barnett Shale (Fort Worth Basin) are used to illustrate these different systems as well as other systems. These systems show significant differences in gas type, organic richness, thermal maturity, and gas flow rates. Gas flow rates are then dependent upon the amount of gas stored (or generated) and the ability to release gas from adsorption sites as well as connecting to micro-reservoir compartments.

  2. How run-of-river operation affects hydropower generation and value.

    PubMed

    Jager, Henriette I; Bevelhimer, Mark S

    2007-12-01

    Regulated rivers in the United States are required to support human water uses while preserving aquatic ecosystems. However, the effectiveness of hydropower license requirements nationwide has not been demonstrated. One requirement that has become more common is "run-of-river" (ROR) operation, which restores a natural flow regime. It is widely believed that ROR requirements (1) are mandated to protect aquatic biota, (2) decrease hydropower generation per unit flow, and (3) decrease energy revenue. We tested these three assumptions by reviewing hydropower projects with license-mandated changes from peaking to ROR operation. We found that ROR operation was often prescribed in states with strong water-quality certification requirements and migratory fish species. Although benefits to aquatic resources were frequently cited, changes were often motivated by other considerations. After controlling for climate, the overall change in annual generation efficiency across projects because of the change in operation was not significant. However, significant decreases were detected at one quarter of individual hydropower projects. As expected, we observed a decrease in flow during peak demand at 7 of 10 projects. At the remaining projects, diurnal fluctuations actually increased because of operation of upstream storage projects. The economic implications of these results, including both producer costs and ecologic benefits, are discussed. We conclude that regional-scale studies of hydropower regulation, such as this one, are long overdue. Public dissemination of flow data, license provisions, and monitoring data by way of on-line access would facilitate regional policy analysis while increasing regulatory transparency and providing feedback to decision makers.

  3. Source segregation of food waste in office areas: Factors affecting waste generation rates and quality.

    PubMed

    Edjabou, Maklawe Essonanawe; Boldrin, Alessio; Scheutz, Charlotte; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2015-12-01

    Existing legislation mandates that the amount of waste being recycled should be increased. Among others, in its Resource Strategy Plan, the Danish Government decided that at least 60% of food waste generated by the service sector, including in office areas, should be source-sorted and collected separately by 2018. To assess the achievability of these targets, source-sorted food waste and residual waste from office areas was collected and weighed on a daily basis during 133 working days. Waste composition analyses were conducted every week to investigate the efficiency of the source-sorting campaign and the purity of the source-sorted food waste. The moisture content of source-sorted food waste and residual waste fractions, and potential methane production from source-sorted food waste, was also investigated. Food waste generation equated to 23 ± 5 kg/employee/year, of which 20 ± 5 kg/employee/year was source-sorted, with a considerably high purity of 99%. Residual waste amounted to 10 ± 5 kg/employee/year and consisted mainly of paper (29 ± 13%), plastic (23 ± 9%) and missorted food waste (24 ± 16%). The moisture content of source-sorted food waste was significantly higher (8%) than missorted food waste, and the methane potential of source-sorted food waste was 463 ± 42 mL CH4/g VS. These results show that food waste in office areas offers promising potential for relatively easily collectable and pure source-sorted food waste, suggesting that recycling targets for food waste could be achieved with reasonable logistical ease in office areas.

  4. Source segregation of food waste in office areas: Factors affecting waste generation rates and quality.

    PubMed

    Edjabou, Maklawe Essonanawe; Boldrin, Alessio; Scheutz, Charlotte; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2015-12-01

    Existing legislation mandates that the amount of waste being recycled should be increased. Among others, in its Resource Strategy Plan, the Danish Government decided that at least 60% of food waste generated by the service sector, including in office areas, should be source-sorted and collected separately by 2018. To assess the achievability of these targets, source-sorted food waste and residual waste from office areas was collected and weighed on a daily basis during 133 working days. Waste composition analyses were conducted every week to investigate the efficiency of the source-sorting campaign and the purity of the source-sorted food waste. The moisture content of source-sorted food waste and residual waste fractions, and potential methane production from source-sorted food waste, was also investigated. Food waste generation equated to 23 ± 5 kg/employee/year, of which 20 ± 5 kg/employee/year was source-sorted, with a considerably high purity of 99%. Residual waste amounted to 10 ± 5 kg/employee/year and consisted mainly of paper (29 ± 13%), plastic (23 ± 9%) and missorted food waste (24 ± 16%). The moisture content of source-sorted food waste was significantly higher (8%) than missorted food waste, and the methane potential of source-sorted food waste was 463 ± 42 mL CH4/g VS. These results show that food waste in office areas offers promising potential for relatively easily collectable and pure source-sorted food waste, suggesting that recycling targets for food waste could be achieved with reasonable logistical ease in office areas. PMID:26260965

  5. Effects of particle size and hydro-thermal treatment of feed on performance and stomach health in fattening pigs.

    PubMed

    Liermann, Wendy; Berk, Andreas; Böschen, Verena; Dänicke, Sven

    2015-01-01

    Effects of grinding and hydro-thermal treatment of feed on growth performance, slaughter traits, nutrient digestibility, stomach content and stomach health were examined by using 96 crossbred fattening pigs. Pigs were fed a grain-soybean meal-based diet processed by various technical treatments. Feeding groups differed in particle size after grinding (finely vs. coarsely ground feed) and hydro-thermal treatment (without hydro-thermal treatment, pelleting, expanding, expanding and pelleting). Fine grinding and hydro-thermal treatment showed significant improvements on the digestibility of crude nutrients and content of metabolisable energy. Hydro-thermal treatment influenced average daily gain (ADG) and average daily feed intake (DFI) significantly. Finely ground pelleted feed without expanding enhanced performances by increasing ADG and decreasing feed-to-gain ratio (FGR) of fattening pigs. Coarsely ground feed without hydro-thermal treatment resulted in the highest ADG and DFI, however also in the highest FGR. Expanded feed decreased DFI and ADG. Slaughter traits were not affected by treatments. Coarsely ground feed without hydro-thermal treatment had protective effects on the health of gastric pars nonglandularis, however, pelleting increased gastric lesions. Hydro-thermal treatment, especially expanding, resulted in clumping of stomach content which possibly induced satiety by slower ingesta passage rate and thus decreased feed intake. Pigs fed pelleted feed showed less pronounced development of clumps in stomach content compared with expanded feed. PMID:26426163

  6. Effects of particle size and hydro-thermal treatment of feed on performance and stomach health in fattening pigs.

    PubMed

    Liermann, Wendy; Berk, Andreas; Böschen, Verena; Dänicke, Sven

    2015-01-01

    Effects of grinding and hydro-thermal treatment of feed on growth performance, slaughter traits, nutrient digestibility, stomach content and stomach health were examined by using 96 crossbred fattening pigs. Pigs were fed a grain-soybean meal-based diet processed by various technical treatments. Feeding groups differed in particle size after grinding (finely vs. coarsely ground feed) and hydro-thermal treatment (without hydro-thermal treatment, pelleting, expanding, expanding and pelleting). Fine grinding and hydro-thermal treatment showed significant improvements on the digestibility of crude nutrients and content of metabolisable energy. Hydro-thermal treatment influenced average daily gain (ADG) and average daily feed intake (DFI) significantly. Finely ground pelleted feed without expanding enhanced performances by increasing ADG and decreasing feed-to-gain ratio (FGR) of fattening pigs. Coarsely ground feed without hydro-thermal treatment resulted in the highest ADG and DFI, however also in the highest FGR. Expanded feed decreased DFI and ADG. Slaughter traits were not affected by treatments. Coarsely ground feed without hydro-thermal treatment had protective effects on the health of gastric pars nonglandularis, however, pelleting increased gastric lesions. Hydro-thermal treatment, especially expanding, resulted in clumping of stomach content which possibly induced satiety by slower ingesta passage rate and thus decreased feed intake. Pigs fed pelleted feed showed less pronounced development of clumps in stomach content compared with expanded feed.

  7. Engineering the Implementation of Pumped Hydro Energy Storage in the Arizona Power Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, William Jesse J.

    This thesis addresses the issue of making an economic case for bulk energy storage in the Arizona bulk power system. Pumped hydro energy storage (PHES) is used in this study. Bulk energy storage has often been suggested for large scale electric power systems in order to levelize load (store energy when it is inexpensive [energy demand is low] and discharge energy when it is expensive [energy demand is high]). It also has the potential to provide opportunities to avoid transmission and generation expansion, and provide for generation reserve margins. As the level of renewable energy resources increases, the uncertainty and variability of wind and solar resources may be improved by bulk energy storage technologies. For this study, the MATLab software platform is used, a mathematical based modeling language, optimization solvers (specifically Gurobi), and a power flow solver (PowerWorld) are used to simulate an economic dispatch problem that includes energy storage and transmission losses. A program is created which utilizes quadratic programming to analyze various cases using a 2010 summer peak load from the Arizona portion of the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) system. Actual data from industry are used in this test bed. In this thesis, the full capabilities of Gurobi are not utilized (e.g., integer variables, binary variables). However, the formulation shown here does create a platform such that future, more sophisticated modeling may readily be incorporated. The developed software is used to assess the Arizona test bed with a low level of energy storage to study how the storage power limit effects several optimization outputs such as the system wide operating costs. Large levels of energy storage are then added to see how high level energy storage affects peak shaving, load factor, and other system applications. Finally, various constraint relaxations are made to analyze why the applications tested eventually approach a constant value. This

  8. Chronic Social Stress Affects Synaptic Maturation of Newly Generated Neurons in the Adult Mouse Dentate Gyrus

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chien-Chung; Huang, Chiung-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Background: Chronic stress has been found to suppress adult neurogenesis, but it remains unclear whether it may affect the maturation process of adult-born neurons. Here, we examined the influence of chronic social defeat stress on the morphological and electrophysiological properties of adult-born dentate granule cells at different developmental stages. Methods: Adult C57BL/6 mice were subjected to 10 days of chronic social defeat stress followed by a social interaction test 24 hours after the last defeat. Defeated mice were segregated into susceptible and unsusceptible subpopulations based on a measure of social interaction test. Combining electrophysiology with retrovirus-mediated birth-dating and labeling, we examined the impact of chronic social defeat stress on temporal regulation of synaptic plasticity of adult-born dentate granule cells along their maturation. Results: Chronic social defeat stress decreases the survival and dendritic complexity of adult-born dentate granule cells. While chronic social defeat stress doesn’t alter the intrinsic electrophysiological properties and synaptic transmission of surviving adult-born dentate granule cells, it promotes the developmental switch in synaptic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors from predominant GluN2B- to GluN2A-containing receptors, which transform the immature synapse of adult-born dentate granule cells from one that exhibits enhanced long-term potentiation to one that has normal levels of long-term potentiation. Furthermore, chronic social defeat stress increases the level of endogenous repressor element-1 silencing transcription factor mRNA in adult-born dentate granule cells, and knockdown of the repressor element-1 silencing transcription factor in adult-born dentate granule cells rescues chronic social defeat stress-induced morphological deficits and accelerated developmental switch in synaptic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit composition. Conclusions: These results uncover a previously

  9. Factors affecting the pore space transformation during hydrocarbon generation in source rock (shales): laboratory experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giliazetdinova, D. R.; Korost, D. V.

    2014-12-01

    Oil and gas generation is a set of processes which taking place in the interior, the processes can't be observable in nature. In the process of dumping the source rock, organic matter is transformed into a complex of high-molecular compounds - precursors of oil and gas (kerogen). Entering of a source column for specific thermobaric conditions, triggers the formation of low molecular weight hydrocarbon compounds. Generation of sufficient quantities of hydrocarbons leads to the primary fluid migration within the source rock. For the experiment were selected mainly siliceous-carbonate composition rocks from Domanic horizon South-Tatar arch. The main aim of experiment was heating the rocks in the pyrolyzer to temperatures which correspond katagenes stages. For monitoring changes in the morphology of the pore space X-ray microtomography method was used. As a result, when was made a study of the composition of mineral and organic content of the rocks, as well as textural and structural features, have been identified that the majority of the rock samples within the selected collection are identical. However, characteristics such as organic content and texture of rocks are different. Thus, the experiment was divided into two parts: 1) the study of the influence of organic matter content on the morphology of the rock in the process of thermal effects; 2) study the effect of texture on the primary migration processes for the same values of organic matter. Also, an additional experiment was conducted to study the dynamics of changes in the structure of the pore space. At each stage of the experiment morphology of altered rocks characterized by the formation of new pores and channels connecting the primary voids. However, it was noted that the samples with a relatively low content of the organic matter had less changes in pore space morphology, in contrast to rocks with a high organic content. At the second stage of the research also revealed that the conversion of the pore

  10. Photosynthesis of Quercus suber is affected by atmospheric NH3 generated by multifunctional agrosystems.

    PubMed

    Pintó-Marijuan, Marta; Da Silva, Anabela Bernardes; Flexas, Jaume; Dias, Teresa; Zarrouk, Olfa; Martins-Loução, Maria Amélia; Chaves, Maria Manuela; Cruz, Cristina

    2013-12-01

    Montados are evergreen oak woodlands dominated by Quercus species, which are considered to be key to biodiversity conservation and ecosystem services. This ecosystem is often used for cattle breeding in most regions of the Iberian Peninsula, which causes plants to receive extra nitrogen as ammonia (NH(3)) through the atmosphere. The effect of this atmospheric NH(3) (NH(3atm)) on ecosystems is still under discussion. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of an NH(3atm) concentration gradient downwind of a cattle barn in a Montado area. Leaves from the selected Quercus suber L. trees along the gradient showed a clear influence of the NH(3) on δ(13)C, as a consequence of a strong limitation on the photosynthetic machinery by a reduction of both stomatal and mesophyll conductance. A detailed study of the impact of NH(3atm) on the photosynthetic performance of Q. suber trees is presented, and new mechanisms by which NH(3) affects photosynthesis at the leaf level are suggested.

  11. Overland flow generation mechanisms affected by topsoil treatment: Application to soil conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hueso-González, P.; Ruiz-Sinoga, J. D.; Martínez-Murillo, J. F.; Lavee, H.

    2015-01-01

    Hortonian overland-flow is responsible for significant amounts of soil loss in Mediterranean geomorphological systems. Restoring the native vegetation is the most effective way to control runoff and sediment yield. During the seeding and plant establishment, vegetation cover may be better sustained if soil is amended with an external source. Four amendments were applied in an experimental set of plots: straw mulching (SM); mulch with chipped branches of Aleppo Pine (Pinus halepensis L.) (PM); TerraCottem hydroabsorbent polymer (HP); and sewage sludge (RU). Plots were afforested following the same spatial pattern, and amendments were mixed with the soil at the rate 10 Mg ha- 1. This research demonstrates the role played by the treatments in overland flow generation mechanism. On one hand, the high macroporosity of SM and PM, together with the fact that soil moisture increased with depth, explains weak overland flow and thus low sediment yield due to saturation conditions. Therefore, regarding overland flow and sediment yield, RU behaves similarly to SM and PM. On the other hand, when HP was applied, overland flow developed quickly with relatively high amounts. This, together with the decrease downward in soil moisture along the soil profile, proved that mechanisms of overland flow are of the Hortonian type.

  12. Diabetic Autonomic Neuropathy Affects Symptom Generation and Brain-Gut Axis

    PubMed Central

    Brock, Christina; Søfteland, Eirik; Gunterberg, Veronica; Frøkjær, Jens Brøndum; Lelic, Dina; Brock, Birgitte; Dimcevski, Georg; Gregersen, Hans; Simrén, Magnus; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Long-term diabetes leads to severe peripheral, autonomous, and central neuropathy in combination with clinical gastrointestinal symptoms. The brain-gut axis thus expresses a neurophysiological profile, and heart rate variability (HRV) can be correlated with clinical gastrointestinal symptoms. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Fifteen healthy volunteers and 15 diabetic patients (12 with type 1 diabetes) with severe gastrointestinal symptoms and clinical suspicion of autonomic neuropathy were included. Psychophysics and evoked brain potentials were assessed after painful rectosigmoid electrostimulations, and brain activity was modeled by brain electrical source analysis. Self-reported gastrointestinal symptoms (per the Patient Assessment of Upper Gastrointestinal Disorder Severity Symptom Index) and quality of life (SF-36 Short Form Survey) were collected. RESULTS Diabetic patients had autonomous neuropathy, evidenced by decreased electrocardiographic R-R interval (P = 0.03) and lower HRV (P = 0.008). Patients were less sensitive to painful stimulation (P = 0.007), had prolonged latencies of evoked potentials (P ≤ 0.001), and showed diminished amplitude of the N2–P2 component in evoked potentials (P = 0.01). There was a caudoanterior shift of the insular brain source (P = 0.01) and an anterior shift of the cingulate generator (P = 0.01). Insular source location was associated with HRV assessments (all P < 0.02), and the shift (expressed in mm) correlated negatively with physical health (P < 0.001) and positively with nausea (P = 0.03) and postprandial fullness (P = 0.03). Cingulate source shift was correlated negatively with physical health (P = 0.005) and positively with postprandial fullness (P ≤ 0.001). CONCLUSIONS This study provides evidence for interaction between autonomic neuropathy and peripheral nervous degeneration, as well as changes in dipole sources in diabetic patients with gastrointestinal symptoms. The findings may lead to improved

  13. Overland flow generation mechanisms affected by topsoil treatment: Application to soil conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González Paloma, Hueso; Juan Francisco, Martinez-Murillo; Damian, Ruiz-Sinoga Jose; Hanoch, Lavee

    2015-04-01

    Hortonian overland-flow is responsible for significant amounts of soil loss in Mediterranean geomorphological systems. Restoring the native vegetation is the most effective way to control runoff and sediment yield. During the seeding and plant establishment, vegetation cover may be better sustained if soil is amended with an external source. Four amendments were applied in an experimental set of plots: straw mulching (SM); mulch with chipped branches of Aleppo Pine (Pinus halepensis L.) (PM); TerraCotten hydroabsobent polymers (HP); sewage sludge (RU); and control (C). Plots were afforested following the same spatial pattern, and amendments were mixed with the soil at the rate 10 Mg ha-1. This research demonstrates the role played by the treatments in overland flow generation mechanism (runoff, overland flow and soil moisture along the soil profile). The general overland flow characteristics showed that in the C plots the average overland flow was 8.0 ± 22.0 l per event, and the HP plots produced a similar mean value (8.1 ± 20.1 l). The average overland flow per event was significantly less for soil amended with SM, PM or RU (2.7 ± 8.3 l; 1.3 ± 3.5 l and 2.2 ± 5.9 l, respectively). There was a similar trend with respect to the maximum overland flow. The mean sediment yield per event was relatively high in the C and HP plots (8.6 ± 27.8 kg and 14.8 ± 43.4 kg, respectively), while significantly lower values were registered in the SM, PM and RU plots (0.4 ± 1.0 kg; 0.2 ± 0.3 kg and 0.2 ± 0.3 kg, respectively). Very similar trends were found for the maximum sediment yield. Regarding to the soil moisture values, there was a difference in the trends between the C and HP plots and the SM, PM and RU plots. In the C and HP plots the general trend was for a decrease in soil moisture downward through the soil profile, while in the SM, PM and RU plots the soil moisture remained relatively constant or increased, except for the RU treatment in which the soil moisture

  14. Implications of the Bangor Hydro decision on FERC relicensings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pizzi, L.

    1997-01-01

    In the next 15 years, over 400 existing nonfederal dams will require new licenses by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) in order to continue operations. In many cases, state or federal agencies have a unique opportunity to condition the hydropower licenses to protect environmental values. In 1996, the Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit issued an opinion striking down a mandatory license condition imposed by the U.S. Department of the Interior in a FERC relicensing. The case, Bangor Hydro-Electric Company v.Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, is instructive for agencies regarding the procedures to be followed in imposing mandatory FERC licensing conditions in the future. After Bangor Hydro, agencies should: (1) support their decisions by substantial evidence in the FERC record, (2) request applicant studies to support agency decisions and allow public comment on the decisions as a means to test the facts and analysis, and (3) consider intervening in a case to defend the condition on appeal. Bangor Hydro also raises, but does not decide, the issue of whether the agency imposing the mandatory condition should engage in balancing the economics of the hydropower project with the public resources affected by the project.

  15. HydroShare: An online, collaborative environment for the sharing of hydrologic data and models (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarboton, D. G.; Idaszak, R.; Horsburgh, J. S.; Ames, D.; Goodall, J. L.; Band, L. E.; Merwade, V.; Couch, A.; Arrigo, J.; Hooper, R. P.; Valentine, D. W.; Maidment, D. R.

    2013-12-01

    HydroShare is an online, collaborative system being developed for sharing hydrologic data and models. The goal of HydroShare is to enable scientists to easily discover and access data and models, retrieve them to their desktop or perform analyses in a distributed computing environment that may include grid, cloud or high performance computing model instances as necessary. Scientists may also publish outcomes (data, results or models) into HydroShare, using the system as a collaboration platform for sharing data, models and analyses. HydroShare is expanding the data sharing capability of the CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System by broadening the classes of data accommodated, creating new capability to share models and model components, and taking advantage of emerging social media functionality to enhance information about and collaboration around hydrologic data and models. One of the fundamental concepts in HydroShare is that of a Resource. All content is represented using a Resource Data Model that separates system and science metadata and has elements common to all resources as well as elements specific to the types of resources HydroShare will support. These will include different data types used in the hydrology community and models and workflows that require metadata on execution functionality. HydroShare will use the integrated Rule-Oriented Data System (iRODS) to manage federated data content and perform rule-based background actions on data and model resources, including parsing to generate metadata catalog information and the execution of models and workflows. This presentation will introduce the HydroShare functionality developed to date, describe key elements of the Resource Data Model and outline the roadmap for future development.

  16. Adrenergic and serotonin receptors affect retinal superoxide generation in diabetic mice: relationship to capillary degeneration and permeability

    PubMed Central

    Du, Yunpeng; Cramer, Megan; Lee, Chieh Allen; Tang, Jie; Muthusamy, Arivalagan; Antonetti, David A.; Jin, Hui; Palczewski, Krzysztof; Kern, Timothy S.

    2015-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species play an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. We studied the role of adrenergic and serotonin receptors in the generation of superoxide by retina and 661W retinal cells in high glucose and of the α1-adrenergic receptor (AR) on vascular lesions of the retinopathy in experimentally diabetic C57Bl/6J mice (and controls) after 2 and 8 months. Compared with 5 mM glucose, incubating cells or retinal explants in 30 mM glucose induced superoxide generation. This response was reduced or ablated by pharmacologic inhibition of the α1-AR (a Gq-coupled receptor) or Gs-coupled serotonin (5-HT2, 5-HT4, 5-HT6, and 5-HT7) receptors or by activation of the Gi-coupled α2-AR. In elevated glucose, the α1-AR produced superoxide via phospholipase C, inositol triphosphate-induced Ca2+ release, and NADPH oxidase, and pharmacologic inhibition of these reactions prevented the superoxide increase. Generation of retinal superoxide, expression of proinflammatory proteins, and degeneration of retinal capillaries in diabetes all were significantly inhibited with daily doxazosin or apocynin (inhibitors of α1-AR and NADPH oxidase, respectively), but increased vascular permeability was not significantly affected. Adrenergic receptors, and perhaps other GPCRs, represent novel targets for inhibiting the development of important features of diabetic retinopathy.—Du, Y., Cramer, M., Lee, C. A., Tang, J., Muthusamy, A., Antonetti, D. A., Jin, H., Palczewski, K., Kern, T. S. Adrenergic and serotonin receptors affect retinal superoxide generation in diabetic mice: relationship to capillary degeneration and permeability. PMID:25667222

  17. 76 FR 67720 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXV; Riverbank Hydro No. 4, LLC; Notice Announcing Filing Priority for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXV; Riverbank Hydro No. 4, LLC; Notice Announcing... priority is as follows: 1. Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXV--Project No. 14136-000 2. Riverbank Hydro No....

  18. 75 FR 71104 - Lock Hydro Friends Fund XXXV; FFP Missouri 7, LLC; Dashields Hydro, LLC; Notice of Competing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-22

    ...; Project No. 13779-000] Lock Hydro Friends Fund XXXV; FFP Missouri 7, LLC; Dashields Hydro, LLC; Notice of... Intervene November 15, 2010. On May 18, 2010, Lock Hydro Friends Fund XXXV, FFP Missouri 7, LLC, and Dashields Hydro, LLC filed applications, pursuant to section 4(f) of the Federal Power Act, proposing...

  19. 77 FR 10741 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XII, BOST2, LLC, Riverbank Hydro No. 21, LLC, FFP Project 96, LLC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-23

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XII, BOST2, LLC, Riverbank Hydro No. 21, LLC..., in Greene and Hale counties, Alabama. The applications were filed by Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XII for Project No. 14260-000, BOST2, LLC for Project No. 14264-000, Riverbank Hydro No. 21, LLC for Project...

  20. 77 FR 13316 - FFP Project 91, LLC, Riverbank Hydro No. 23, LLC, Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund III; Notice Announcing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission FFP Project 91, LLC, Riverbank Hydro No. 23, LLC, Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund.... 2. Riverbank Hydro No. 23, LLC: Project No. 14279-000. 3. Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund III: Project...

  1. 76 FR 65720 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXV, Riverbank Hydro No. 4, LLC; Notice Announcing Preliminary Permit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-24

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXV, Riverbank Hydro No. 4, LLC; Notice Announcing..., Minnesota, and Buffalo County, Wisconsin.\\1\\ The applications were filed by Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXV for Project No. 14136 and Riverbank Hydro No. 4, LLC, for Project No. 14139. \\1\\ The applications...

  2. 77 FR 13317 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XVIII, Upper Hydroelectric, LLC, FFP Project 95, LLC, Riverbank Hydro No...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-06

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XVIII, Upper Hydroelectric, LLC, FFP Project 95, LLC, Riverbank Hydro No. 25, LLC; Notice Announcing Filing Priority for Preliminary Permit...+ Hydro Friends Fund XVIII: Project No. 14261-000. 2. Riverbank Hydro No. 25, LLC: Project No....

  3. 77 FR 9916 - Riverbank Hydro No. 2, LLC; Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXVI; Notice Announcing Preliminary Permit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-21

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Riverbank Hydro No. 2, LLC; Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXVI; Notice... Lincoln County and Jefferson County, Arkansas. The applications were filed by Riverbank Hydro No. 2, LLC for Project No. 14130-000 and Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXVI for Project No. 14137-000. \\1\\ Under...

  4. 77 FR 10740 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund VIII, FFP Project 92, LLC, Riverbank Hydro No. 24, LLC; Notice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-23

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund VIII, FFP Project 92, LLC, Riverbank Hydro No. 24... Madison Counties, Kentucky. The applications were filed by Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund VIII for Project No. 14262-000, FFP Project 92, LLC for Project No. 14276-000, and Riverbank Hydro No. 24, LLC for Project...

  5. 75 FR 14437 - North Eastern Wisconsin Hydro Inc. (N.E.W. Hydro); Notice of Intent To File License Application...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-25

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission North Eastern Wisconsin Hydro Inc. (N.E.W. Hydro); Notice of Intent To File.... Submitted by: North Eastern Wisconsin Hydro, Inc. (N.E.W. Hydro) e. Name of Project: Menominee/Park Mill...-4628. i. FERC Contact: Mark Ivy, (202) 502-6156 or by e-mail at mark.ivy@ferc.gov . j. N.E.W....

  6. 78 FR 56871 - SilverStreet Hydro, LLC; Ampersand Olcott Harbor Hydro, LLC; Notice of Transfer of Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission SilverStreet Hydro, LLC; Ampersand Olcott Harbor Hydro, LLC; Notice of... 15, 1986,\\1\\ has been transferred from SilverStreet Hydro, LLC to Ampersand Olcott Harbor Hydro,...

  7. HYDROS: The Hydrosphere State Exploratory Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Entekhabi, D.; Njoku, E.; Houser, P.; Belair, S.; Jackson, T.; Kerr, Y.; Kimball, J.; Koster, R.; McDonald, K.; O'Neill, P.; Pulz, T.; Running, S.; Shi, J.; van Zyl, J.; Wood, E.

    2001-12-01

    In order to better understand and monitor the total Earth system, to learn how it is changing, and to predict the effects of changes on the global environment the HYDROS - the Hydrosphere State Exploratory Mission - is proposed to investigate two high-priority science questions about the Earth system: (1) How are global precipitation, evaporation, and the cycling of water changing? and (2) How do ecosystems respond to and affect global environmental change and the carbon cycle? HYDROS will provide global observations of the Earth's changing soil moisture and surface freeze/thaw conditions which together define the land hydrosphere state. Knowledge of this state is vital to understanding the Earth system cycling of water, energy, and carbon because fluxes of these quantities at the land-atmosphere boundary are strongly influenced by a surface resistance that is linked to the soil moisture and surface freeze/thaw condition. This resistance exerts the primary control on evaporation, transpiration, and carbon exchange over most of the global land surface and, hence, is a fundamental determinant of the global water, energy and carbon cycles. The characteristics of a space-borne and high-resolution mapping system is presented. The baseline mission builds on the heritage of ground-based and airborne passive and active low-frequency microwave measurements that have demonstrated and validated the effectiveness of the measurements. The radiometer design provides polarized brightness temperature fields at 1.4 GHz across a wide swath ( ~900 km) at a resolution of 40 km. The 1.2 GHz (VV, HH, and HV) radar design is capable of high-resolution mapping (<3 km) over 70 percent of the swath and low-resolution across the remainder. All terrestrial land regions are revisited within 2-3 days. A light-weight deployable mesh reflector rotates at 6rpm to make conical scans at a constant-incidence angle. Finally we present a strategy for using data assimilation to use the synergy of

  8. Hydro Impact Basin Ribbon-Cutting Ceremony

    NASA Video Gallery

    August 9, 2011 -- Ribbon-cutting ceremony for the Hydro Impact Basin at NASA's Langley Research Center in Hampton, Va. The HIB expands NASA's capability to test and certify future spacecraft for wa...

  9. Making friends for hydro: Providing recreational opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Cosgrove, J.M. )

    1991-07-01

    One northeastern U.S. utility has been forming friendly ties with the public, offering recreation amenities at its hydro projects. As a result, the company has a strong base of public support as it enters relicensing.

  10. Pseudo-inflammatory chorioretinal degeneration of the posterior pole. Study of a family of four affected generations, associated with tapetoretinal amaurosis (Leber) in the fifth generation.

    PubMed

    Babel, J; Cabernard, E; Klein, D; Korol, S; Kräuchi, H; Schafroth, P

    1982-01-01

    A description is given of a large family in which a particular form of posterior pole dystrophy occurs, but in which (except for one 21-year-old patient) no symptoms occur before the age of forty. Although it is of dominant transmission through four generations with a high degree of penetrance, slight forms do occur. The disease evolves in 2-4 years and in serious cases there is total loss of the central vision. Peripheral vision is conserved, so that affected patients are never entirely disabled and dependent. Early or slight cases may be precociously detected by angiography or sensitive functional tests (EOG, VER, and perhaps colour vision). The rapid evolution is due to exudative or haemorrhagic phenomena. This observation corresponds with the description of the disease individualized by Sorsby (pseudo-inflammatory posterior pole dystrophy) and is related to colloid degeneration. In the fifth generation a case of Leber's congenital amaurosis occurs, which is difficult to relate to the late posterior pole dystrophy.

  11. Enrofloxacin hydro-chloride dihydrate.

    PubMed

    Miranda-Calderón, Jorge E; Gutiérrez, Lilia; Flores-Alamo, Marcos; García-Gutiérrez, Ponciano; Sumano, Héctor

    2014-04-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C19H23FN3O3 (+)·Cl(-)·2H2O [systematic name: 4-(3-carb-oxy-1-cyclo-propyl-6-fluoro-4-oxo-1,4-di-hydro-quin-o-lin-7-yl)-1-ethyl-piperazin-1-ium chloride dihydrate], consists of two independent monocations of the protonated enrofloxacin, two chloride anions and four water mol-ecules. In the cations, the piperazinium rings adopt chair conformations and the dihedral angles between the cyclo-propyl ring and the 10-membered quinoline ring system are 56.55 (2) and 51.11 (2)°. An intra-molecular O-H⋯O hydrogen bond is observed in each cation. In the crystal, the components are connected via O-H⋯Cl, N-H⋯Cl and O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, and a π-π inter-action between the benzene rings [centroid-centroid distance = 3.6726 (13) Å], resulting in a three-dimensional array.

  12. A comparison of the aquatic impacts of large hydro and small hydro projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Lara A.

    The expansion of small hydro development in British Columbia has raised concerns surrounding the effects of these projects, and the provincial government's decision to proceed with Site C has brought attention to the impacts of large hydro. Together, these decisions highlight that there are impacts associated with all energy development. My study examines the aquatic effects of large and small hydro projects using two case study sites: Site C and the Upper Harrison Water Power Project. I first determine the aquatic effects of each of the case study sites. Next, I use existing literature and benefits transfer to determine the monetary value of these effects. My results suggest that, with mitigation, small hydro projects have less of an effect on the environment than a large hydro project per unit of electricity. I also describe the implications of my study in the context of current British Columbia energy policy. Keywords: hydropower; aquatic effects. Subject Terms: environmental impact assessment; benefits transfer.

  13. A Hydro-Economic Model for Water Level Fluctuations: Combining Limnology with Economics for Sustainable Development of Hydropower

    PubMed Central

    Hirsch, Philipp Emanuel; Schillinger, Sebastian; Weigt, Hannes; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Water level fluctuations in lakes lead to shoreline displacement. The seasonality of flooding or beaching of the littoral area affects nutrient cycling, redox gradients in sediments, and life cycles of aquatic organisms. Despite the ecological importance of water level fluctuations, we still lack a method that assesses water levels in the context of hydropower operations. Water levels in reservoirs are influenced by the operator of a hydropower plant, who discharges water through the turbines or stores water in the reservoir, in a fashion that maximizes profit. This rationale governs the seasonal operation scheme and hence determines the water levels within the boundaries of the reservoir's water balance. For progress towards a sustainable development of hydropower, the benefits of this form of electricity generation have to be weighed against the possible detrimental effects of the anthropogenic water level fluctuations. We developed a hydro-economic model that combines an economic optimization function with hydrological estimators of the water balance of a reservoir. Applying this model allowed us to accurately predict water level fluctuations in a reservoir. The hydro-economic model also allowed for scenario calculation of how water levels change with climate change scenarios and with a change in operating scheme of the reservoir (increase in turbine capacity). Further model development will enable the consideration of a variety of additional parameters, such as water withdrawal for irrigation, drinking water supply, or altered energy policies. This advances our ability to sustainably manage water resources that must meet both economic and environmental demands. PMID:25526619

  14. A hydro-economic model for water level fluctuations: combining limnology with economics for sustainable development of hydropower.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, Philipp Emanuel; Schillinger, Sebastian; Weigt, Hannes; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Water level fluctuations in lakes lead to shoreline displacement. The seasonality of flooding or beaching of the littoral area affects nutrient cycling, redox gradients in sediments, and life cycles of aquatic organisms. Despite the ecological importance of water level fluctuations, we still lack a method that assesses water levels in the context of hydropower operations. Water levels in reservoirs are influenced by the operator of a hydropower plant, who discharges water through the turbines or stores water in the reservoir, in a fashion that maximizes profit. This rationale governs the seasonal operation scheme and hence determines the water levels within the boundaries of the reservoir's water balance. For progress towards a sustainable development of hydropower, the benefits of this form of electricity generation have to be weighed against the possible detrimental effects of the anthropogenic water level fluctuations. We developed a hydro-economic model that combines an economic optimization function with hydrological estimators of the water balance of a reservoir. Applying this model allowed us to accurately predict water level fluctuations in a reservoir. The hydro-economic model also allowed for scenario calculation of how water levels change with climate change scenarios and with a change in operating scheme of the reservoir (increase in turbine capacity). Further model development will enable the consideration of a variety of additional parameters, such as water withdrawal for irrigation, drinking water supply, or altered energy policies. This advances our ability to sustainably manage water resources that must meet both economic and environmental demands.

  15. Analysis of Pre-Analytic Factors Affecting the Success of Clinical Next-Generation Sequencing of Solid Organ Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hui; Luthra, Rajyalakshmi; Goswami, Rashmi S.; Singh, Rajesh R.; Roy-Chowdhuri, Sinchita

    2015-01-01

    Application of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology to routine clinical practice has enabled characterization of personalized cancer genomes to identify patients likely to have a response to targeted therapy. The proper selection of tumor sample for downstream NGS based mutational analysis is critical to generate accurate results and to guide therapeutic intervention. However, multiple pre-analytic factors come into play in determining the success of NGS testing. In this review, we discuss pre-analytic requirements for AmpliSeq PCR-based sequencing using Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM) (Life Technologies), a NGS sequencing platform that is often used by clinical laboratories for sequencing solid tumors because of its low input DNA requirement from formalin fixed and paraffin embedded tissue. The success of NGS mutational analysis is affected not only by the input DNA quantity but also by several other factors, including the specimen type, the DNA quality, and the tumor cellularity. Here, we review tissue requirements for solid tumor NGS based mutational analysis, including procedure types, tissue types, tumor volume and fraction, decalcification, and treatment effects. PMID:26343728

  16. 78 FR 1853 - EH California Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-09

    ..., Corps of Engineer's North Fork dam on the North Fork of the American River, near the City of Auburn... the spillway of the North Fork Dam, the applicant plans to install two hydro generating units, with a..., 888 First Street NE., Washington, DC 20426. More information about this project, including a copy...

  17. A Fusion Model of Seismic and Hydro-Acoustic Propagation for Treaty Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arora, Nimar; Prior, Mark

    2014-05-01

    We present an extension to NET-VISA (Network Processing Vertically Integrated Seismic Analysis), which is a probabilistic generative model of the propagation of seismic waves and their detection on a global scale, to incorporate hydro-acoustic data from the IMS (International Monitoring System) network. The new model includes the coupling of seismic waves into the ocean's SOFAR channel, as well as the propagation of hydro-acoustic waves from underwater explosions. The generative model is described in terms of multiple possible hypotheses -- seismic-to-hydro-acoustic, under-water explosion, other noise sources such as whales singing or icebergs breaking up -- that could lead to signal detections. We decompose each hypothesis into conditional probability distributions that are carefully analyzed and calibrated. These distributions include ones for detection probabilities, blockage in the SOFAR channel (including diffraction, refraction, and reflection around obstacles), energy attenuation, and other features of the resulting waveforms. We present a study of the various features that are extracted from the hydro-acoustic waveforms, and their correlations with each other as well the source of the energy. Additionally, an inference algorithm is presented that concurrently infers the seismic and under-water events, and associates all arrivals (aka triggers), both from seismic and hydro-acoustic stations, to the appropriate event, and labels the path taken by the wave. Finally, our results demonstrate that this fusion of seismic and hydro-acoustic data leads to very good performance. A majority of the under-water events that IDC (International Data Center) analysts built in 2010 are correctly located, and the arrivals that correspond to seismic-to-hydroacoustic coupling, the T phases, are mostly correctly identified. There is no loss in the accuracy of seismic events, in fact, there is a slight overall improvement.

  18. Acoustic Propagation Modeling for Marine Hydro-Kinetic Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, C. N.; Johnson, E.

    2014-12-01

    The combination of riverine, tidal, and wave energy have the potential to supply over one third of the United States' annual electricity demand. However, in order to deploy and test prototypes, and commercial installations, marine hydrokinetic (MHK) devices must meet strict regulatory guidelines that determine the maximum amount of noise that can be generated and sets particular thresholds for determining disturbance and injury caused by noise. An accurate model for predicting the propagation of a MHK source in a real-life hydro-acoustic environment has been established. This model will help promote the growth and viability of marine, water, and hydrokinetic energy by confidently assuring federal regulations are meet and harmful impacts to marine fish and wildlife are minimal. Paracousti, a finite difference solution to the acoustic equations, was originally developed for sound propagation in atmospheric environments and has been successfully validated for a number of different geophysical activities. The three-dimensional numerical implementation is advantageous over other acoustic propagation techniques for a MHK application where the domains of interest have complex 3D interactions from the seabed, banks, and other shallow water effects. A number of different cases for hydro-acoustic environments have been validated by both analytical and numerical results from canonical and benchmark problems. This includes a variety of hydrodynamic and physical environments that may be present in a potential MHK application including shallow and deep water, sloping, and canyon type bottoms, with varying sound speed and density profiles. With the model successfully validated for hydro-acoustic environments more complex and realistic MHK sources from turbines and/or arrays can be modeled.

  19. 78 FR 938 - Burton Creek Hydro Inc., Sollos Energy, LLC'

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-07

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Burton Creek Hydro Inc., Sollos Energy, LLC' Notice of Transfer of Exemption 1. By letter filed December 19, 2012, Burton Creek Hydro Inc. informed the Commission that its exemption from licensing for the Burton Creek Hydro Project, FERC No. 7577, originally issued September...

  20. Factors affecting the appreciation generated through applying human factors/ergonomics (HFE) principles to systems of work.

    PubMed

    So, R H Y; Lam, S T

    2014-01-01

    This retrospective study examined the levels of appreciation (applause) given by clients to Human Factors/Ergonomic (HFE) specialists after they have modified the systems of work. Thirteen non-academic projects were chosen because the HFE interventions involved changed the way workers work at their workplaces. Companies involved range from multi-national corporations and military organizations with thousands of employees to small trading companies with less than 10 employees. In 5 cases the HFE recommendations were fully adopted and well appreciated. In 4 they were largely ignored and not appreciated, with partial adoption and some appreciation in the other 4 cases. Three factors that predict appreciation were identified: (i) alignment between the benefits HFE can provide and the project's key performance indices; (ii) awareness of HFE among the client's senior management; and (iii) a team organization appropriate for applying HFE recommendations. Having an HFE specialist on the client's side can greatly increase levels of appreciation, but lack of such a specialist will not affect levels of appreciation. A clear contractual requirement for HFE intervention does not promote appreciation significantly, but its absence can greatly reduce levels of appreciation. These relationships are discussed using the Kano's model of quality. Means to generate greater appreciation of the benefits of HFE are discussed.

  1. Factors affecting the appreciation generated through applying human factors/ergonomics (HFE) principles to systems of work.

    PubMed

    So, R H Y; Lam, S T

    2014-01-01

    This retrospective study examined the levels of appreciation (applause) given by clients to Human Factors/Ergonomic (HFE) specialists after they have modified the systems of work. Thirteen non-academic projects were chosen because the HFE interventions involved changed the way workers work at their workplaces. Companies involved range from multi-national corporations and military organizations with thousands of employees to small trading companies with less than 10 employees. In 5 cases the HFE recommendations were fully adopted and well appreciated. In 4 they were largely ignored and not appreciated, with partial adoption and some appreciation in the other 4 cases. Three factors that predict appreciation were identified: (i) alignment between the benefits HFE can provide and the project's key performance indices; (ii) awareness of HFE among the client's senior management; and (iii) a team organization appropriate for applying HFE recommendations. Having an HFE specialist on the client's side can greatly increase levels of appreciation, but lack of such a specialist will not affect levels of appreciation. A clear contractual requirement for HFE intervention does not promote appreciation significantly, but its absence can greatly reduce levels of appreciation. These relationships are discussed using the Kano's model of quality. Means to generate greater appreciation of the benefits of HFE are discussed. PMID:23726141

  2. Multi-epitope Models Explain How Pre-existing Antibodies Affect the Generation of Broadly Protective Responses to Influenza

    PubMed Central

    Zarnitsyna, Veronika I.; Lavine, Jennie; Ellebedy, Ali; Ahmed, Rafi; Antia, Rustom

    2016-01-01

    The development of next-generation influenza vaccines that elicit strain-transcendent immunity against both seasonal and pandemic viruses is a key public health goal. Targeting the evolutionarily conserved epitopes on the stem of influenza’s major surface molecule, hemagglutinin, is an appealing prospect, and novel vaccine formulations show promising results in animal model systems. However, studies in humans indicate that natural infection and vaccination result in limited boosting of antibodies to the stem of HA, and the level of stem-specific antibody elicited is insufficient to provide broad strain-transcendent immunity. Here, we use mathematical models of the humoral immune response to explore how pre-existing immunity affects the ability of vaccines to boost antibodies to the head and stem of HA in humans, and, in particular, how it leads to the apparent lack of boosting of broadly cross-reactive antibodies to the stem epitopes. We consider hypotheses where binding of antibody to an epitope: (i) results in more rapid clearance of the antigen; (ii) leads to the formation of antigen-antibody complexes which inhibit B cell activation through Fcγ receptor-mediated mechanism; and (iii) masks the epitope and prevents the stimulation and proliferation of specific B cells. We find that only epitope masking but not the former two mechanisms to be key in recapitulating patterns in data. We discuss the ramifications of our findings for the development of vaccines against both seasonal and pandemic influenza. PMID:27336297

  3. Computer forecasting: The future of hydro management

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D.E.; Stover, C.M.

    1994-06-01

    Hydro managers must consider the demands of power production, flood control, environmental mitigation, and downstream water use when making decisions about operating their facilities. Alabama Power Company uses a computer-based real-time decision support system to achieve the best balance possible among the competing uses.

  4. LANL hydro test update(u)

    SciTech Connect

    Aragon, Ezekiel D

    2011-01-06

    Briefings presenting W78 programmatic activities for FY11 and the status and plan for associated Hydro 3617, is included wherewith in support of the NNSA W78 Program Review Meeting scheduled for January 11 thru 13, 2011, at the Savannah River Plant, SC.

  5. 77 FR 58371 - Allegheny Hydro No. 8, L.P., Allegheny Hydro No. 9, L.P., and U.S. Bank National Association...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-20

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Allegheny Hydro No. 8, L.P., Allegheny Hydro No. 9, L.P., and U.S. Bank National Association Allegheny Hydro, LLC; Notice of Application for Transfer of License, and Soliciting Comments and Motions To Intervene On August 31, 2012, Allegheny Hydro No. 8, L.P., Allegheny Hydro No. 9,...

  6. HydroQGIS: Hydrological Geospatial Data Manipulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frazier, N.

    2015-12-01

    Many aspects of hydrology are tightly coupled with geospatial data. For this reason, geospatial information systems (GIS) are often incorporated into work flows for analyzing hydrological data. These disjoint work flows, however, often require many steps and different applications to achieve the desired results. Simplifying the workflow involved in regional flood peak scaling studies motivated the creation of the HydroQGIS plugin. Flood frequency analysis presents one of the largest hurdles in studying regional flood peak scaling. HydroQGIS aids these studies with a set of tools that reduce the time to perform flood frequency analsyis on USGS gauging stations. HydroQGIS is a framework for hydrological geospatial plugin development for Quantum GIS (QGIS). It uses the cross-platform nature of QGIS, QT, and Python to create a set of tools to help simplify the work flow of hydrological data searching, gathering, and analysis into a single application that can be used by users on any platform. HydroQGIS combines the Quantum GIS plugin framework with various web-services to couple data and analysis in a uniform environment. QGIS provides a fully functioning GIS application on top of which plugins can be developed. The HydroQGIS plugin focuses on data acquisition and analysis from the geospatial domain. The design of HydroQGIS facilitates quick development of additional tools, used independently or in conjunction with other developed utilities, to streamline data acquisition and analysis. HydroQGIS currently implements an Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Watershed Delineation tool using the EPA Waters web service, as well as a United States Geological Survey (USGS) gauging station search using the USGS Instantaneous Values web service. These tools provide a unified GIS interface that allows users to locate and map gauging stations and watersheds using any base map of their choice. These tools, while useful by themselves, also support a flood frequency analysis (FFA

  7. 76 FR 24471 - Qualified Hydro 26, LLC; Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund VII; Western Minnesota Municipal Power Agency...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-02

    ... Mississippi Lock and Dam 11 structure. Applicant Contact: Mr. Wayne F. Krouse, Chairman, Hydro Green Energy... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Qualified Hydro 26, LLC; Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund VII; Western...

  8. 76 FR 67177 - Riverbank Hydro No. 18 LLC, Lock Hydro Friends Fund XXXV, FFP Project 57 LLC; Notice of Competing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-31

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Riverbank Hydro No. 18 LLC, Lock Hydro Friends Fund XXXV, FFP Project 57 LLC... To Intervene, and Competing Applications On May 2, 2011, Riverbank Hydro No. 18 LLC (Riverbank), and... notice. Competing applications and notices of intent must meet the requirements of 18 CFR 4.36....

  9. 77 FR 37035 - Goose River Hydro, Inc.; Independence Hydro, LLC; Notice of Application for Transfer of License...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-20

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Goose River Hydro, Inc.; Independence Hydro, LLC; Notice of Application for Transfer of License, and Soliciting Comments and Motions to Intervene On June 6, 2012, Goose River Hydro... license for the Goose River Project (FERC No. 2804), located on the Goose River in Waldo County,...

  10. Generations.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2005-01-01

    Groups naturally promote their strengths and prefer values and rules that give them an identity and an advantage. This shows up as generational tensions across cohorts who share common experiences, including common elders. Dramatic cultural events in America since 1925 can help create an understanding of the differing value structures of the Silents, the Boomers, Gen Xers, and the Millennials. Differences in how these generations see motivation and values, fundamental reality, relations with others, and work are presented, as are some applications of these differences to the dental profession. PMID:16623137

  11. High Resolution Hydro-climatological Projections for Western Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erler, Andre Richard

    Accurate identification of the impact of global warming on water resources and hydro-climatic extremes represents a significant challenge to the understanding of climate change on the regional scale. Here an analysis of hydro-climatic changes in western Canada is presented, with specific focus on the Fraser and Athabasca River basins and on changes in hydro-climatic extremes. The analysis is based on a suite of simulations designed to characterize internal variability, as well as model uncertainty. A small ensemble of Community Earth System Model version 1 (CESM1) simulations was employed to generate global climate projections, which were downscaled to 10 km resolution using the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF V3.4.1) with several sets of physical parameterizations. Downscaling was performed for a historical validation period and a mid- and end-21st-century projection period, using the RCP8.5 greenhouse gas trajectory. Daily station observations and monthly gridded datasets were used for validation. Changes in hydro-climatic extremes are characterized using Extreme Value Analysis. A novel method of aggregating data from climatologically similar stations was employed to increase the statistical power of the analysis. Changes in mean and extreme precipitation are found to differ strongly between seasons and regions, but (relative) changes in extremes generally follow changes in the (seasonal) mean. At the end of the 21st century, precipitation and precipitation extremes are projected to increase by 30% at the coast in fall and land-inwards in winter, while the projected increase in summer precipitation is smaller and changes in extremes are often not statistically significant. Reasons for the differences between seasons, the role of precipitation recycling in atmospheric water transport, and the sensitivity to physics parameterizations are discussed. Major changes are projected for the Fraser River basin, including earlier snowmelt and a 50% reduction in

  12. Earthquake design criteria for small hydro projects in the Philippines

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, P.P.; McCandless, D.H.; Asce, M.

    1995-12-31

    The definition of the seismic environment and seismic design criteria of more than twenty small hydro projects in the northern part of the island of Luzon in the Philippines took a special urgency on the wake of the Magnitude 7.7 earthquake that shook the island on July 17, 1990. The paper describes the approach followed to determine design shaking level criteria at each hydro site consistent with the seismic environment estimated at that same site. The approach consisted of three steps: (1) Seismicity: understanding the mechanisms and tectonic features susceptible to generate seismicity and estimating the associated seismicity levels, (2) Seismic Hazard: in the absence of an accurate historical record, using statistics to determine the expected level of ground shaking at a site during the operational 100-year design life of each Project, and (3) Criteria Selection: finally and most importantly, exercising judgment in estimating the final proposed level of shaking at each site. The resulting characteristics of estimated seismicity and seismic hazard and the proposed final earthquake design criteria are provided.

  13. Estimating Runoff Using Hydro-Geodetic Approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sneeuw, Nico; Lorenz, Christof; Devaraju, Balaji; Tourian, Mohammad J.; Riegger, Johannes; Kunstmann, Harald; Bárdossy, András

    2014-11-01

    Given the continuous decline in global runoff data availability over the past decades, alternative approaches for runoff determination are gaining importance. When aiming for global scale runoff at a sufficient temporal resolution and with homogeneous accuracy, the choice to use spaceborne sensors is only a logical step. In this respect, we take water storage changes from Gravity Recovery And Climate Explorer ( grace) results and water level measurements from satellite altimetry, and present a comprehensive assessment of five different approaches for river runoff estimation: hydrological balance equation, hydro-meteorological balance equation, satellite altimetry with quantile function-based stage-discharge relationships, a rudimentary instantaneous runoff-precipitation relationship, and a runoff-storage relationship that takes time lag into account. As a common property, these approaches do not rely on hydrological modeling; they are either purely data driven or make additional use of atmospheric reanalyses. Further, these methods, except runoff-precipitation ratio, use geodetic observables as one of their inputs and, therefore, they are termed hydro-geodetic approaches. The runoff prediction skill of these approaches is validated against in situ runoff and compared to hydrological model predictions. Our results show that catchment-specific methods (altimetry and runoff-storage relationship) clearly outperform the global methods (hydrological and hydro-meteorological approaches) in the six study regions we considered. The global methods have the potential to provide runoff over all landmasses, which implies gauged and ungauged basins alike, but are still limited due to inconsistencies in the global hydrological and hydro-meteorological datasets that they use.

  14. Estimating Runoff Using Hydro-Geodetic Approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sneeuw, Nico; Lorenz, Christof; Devaraju, Balaji; Tourian, Mohammad J.; Riegger, Johannes; Kunstmann, Harald; Bárdossy, András

    2014-09-01

    Given the continuous decline in global runoff data availability over the past decades, alternative approaches for runoff determination are gaining importance. When aiming for global scale runoff at a sufficient temporal resolution and with homogeneous accuracy, the choice to use spaceborne sensors is only a logical step. In this respect, we take water storage changes from Gravity Recovery And Climate Explorer (uc(grace)) results and water level measurements from satellite altimetry, and present a comprehensive assessment of five different approaches for river runoff estimation: hydrological balance equation, hydro-meteorological balance equation, satellite altimetry with quantile function-based stage-discharge relationships, a rudimentary instantaneous runoff-precipitation relationship, and a runoff-storage relationship that takes time lag into account. As a common property, these approaches do not rely on hydrological modeling; they are either purely data driven or make additional use of atmospheric reanalyses. Further, these methods, except runoff-precipitation ratio, use geodetic observables as one of their inputs and, therefore, they are termed hydro-geodetic approaches. The runoff prediction skill of these approaches is validated against in situ runoff and compared to hydrological model predictions. Our results show that catchment-specific methods (altimetry and runoff-storage relationship) clearly outperform the global methods (hydrological and hydro-meteorological approaches) in the six study regions we considered. The global methods have the potential to provide runoff over all landmasses, which implies gauged and ungauged basins alike, but are still limited due to inconsistencies in the global hydrological and hydro-meteorological datasets that they use.

  15. Effects of Laser-Plasma Instabilities on Hydro Evolution in Direct-Drive Inertial Confinement Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.; Hu, S. X.; Ren, C.

    2015-11-01

    Laser-plasma instabilities and hydro evolution of coronal plasmas in an OMEGA EP long-scale-length experiment with planar targets are studied with particle-in-cell (PIC) and hydrodynamics simulations. Plasma and laser conditions are first obtained in a DRACO simulation with only inverse-bremsstrahlung absorption. Using these conditions, an OSIRIS simulation is performed to study laser absorption and hot-electron generation caused by laser-plasma instabilities near the quarter-critical region. The obtained PIC information has subsequently been coupled to another DRACO simulation to examine how the laser-plasma instabilities affect the overall hydrodynamics. The results show that the more-realistic laser absorption can increase the electron temperature but only slightly changes the density scale length in the corona. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944, DE-FC02-04ER54789 (Fusion Science Center), and DE-SC0012316.

  16. Secured electrical supply at least cost: Coal, gas, nuclear, hydro

    SciTech Connect

    Gavor, J.; Stary, O.; Vasicek, J.

    1995-12-01

    Electric power sector in East Central European countries finds in a difficult period. In the situation of demand stagnation, enormous investments must be realized in a very short time. Today`s decisions in the development strategy will influence the long term future of the industry. The optimal structure of the sources is one of the most important problem to be solved. Paper describes the current structure of the sources in electric power sector in the Czech Republic. The importance of coal, oil and gas, nuclear and hydro in electric power generation is compared. Taking into account the different position in the load coverage, economy of individual sources is evaluated and basic results of discounted cash flow calculations are presented. Information on specific investment programs and projects are included and further trends are estimated.

  17. 11. AERIAL VIEW OF CROSSCUT FACILITY, LOOKING NORTH. THE HYDRO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. AERIAL VIEW OF CROSSCUT FACILITY, LOOKING NORTH. THE HYDRO PLANT CENTER SITS ON THE EDGE OF RAVINE WHICH IS ACTUALLY THE BEGINNING OF THE GRAND CANAL. THE CROSS-CUT STEAM PLANT IS THE LARGE WHITE BUILDING JUST WEST OF THE HYDRO PLANT, WITH THE TRANSMISSION SWITCHYARD IN BETWEEN. THE OTHER BUILDINGS ARE SALT RIVER PROJECT FABRICATION AND EQUIPMENT SHOPS Photographer unknown, August 22, 1958 - Cross Cut Hydro Plant, North Side of Salt River, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  18. The hydro-geomorphological event of December 1909 in Iberia: social impacts and triggering conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Susana; Ramos, Alexandre M.; Zêzere, José L.; Trigo, Ricardo M.; Vaquero, José M.

    2015-04-01

    22nd of December mainly associated to severe floods generated in the Douro and Tagus hydrographic basins. The atmospheric circulation during the December 1909 and prior months was assessed at the monthly, daily and sub-daily scales. This was achieved with the 20th Century Reanalysis from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/Earth System Research Laboratory Physical Sciences Division (NOAA/ERSL PSD), where several fields were analysed related to both surface and different tropospheric levels. Results show that, between 20 and 22 of December, a low pressure system become stationary over the North Atlantic Ocean near Azores, moving towards the British Isles and its frontal system affected the Iberian Peninsula on the 21 and 22 of December. The intense precipitation observed on the 22nd of December was also associated to a combination of wind and specific moisture characteristics at 900hPa (concentrated in a quite narrow strip) clearly suggesting the presence of an Atmospheric River. Compo, G. P., et al. (2011) The twentieth century reanalysis project. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 137A, 1-28 Zêzere, J. L., et al. (2014) DISASTER: a GIS database on hydro-geomorphologic disasters in Portugal. Nat. Hazards, 71: 1029-1050 This research was supported by the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT). The first author is a Post-Doc fellow funded by FCT (SFRH/BPD/69002/2010).

  19. Model Sharing and Collaboration using HydroShare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodall, J. L.; Morsy, M. M.; Castronova, A. M.; Miles, B.; Merwade, V.; Tarboton, D. G.

    2015-12-01

    HydroShare is a web-based system funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF) for sharing hydrologic data and models as resources. Resources in HydroShare can either be assigned a generic type, meaning the resource only has Dublin Core metadata properties, or one of a growing number of specific resource types with enhanced metadata profiles defined by the HydroShare development team. Examples of specific resource types in the current release of HydroShare (http://www.hydroshare.org) include time series, geographic raster, Multidimensional (NetCDF), model program, and model instance. Here we describe research and development efforts in HydroShare project for model-related resources types. This work has included efforts to define metadata profiles for common modeling resources, execute models directly through the HydroShare user interface using Docker containers, and interoperate with the 3rd party application SWATShare for model execution and visualization. These examples demonstrate the benefit of HydroShare to support model sharing and address collaborative problems involving modeling. The presentation will conclude with plans for future modeling-related development in HydroShare including supporting the publication of workflow resources, enhanced metadata for additional hydrologic models, and linking model resources with other resources in HydroShare to capture model provenance.

  20. Integration of hydrologic parameter ontology in CUAHSI HydroCatalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaslavsky, I.; Valentine, D. W.; Whitenack, T.; Piasecki, M.; Hooper, R. P.; Choi, Y.; Maidment, D. R.

    2010-12-01

    group time series into “data carts”, which are the basis for generating hydrologic themes; thus the main issue is recording themes’ semantic provenance and supporting reconciliation of units, time support and other characteristics that prepare a theme for visualization or modeling use. We describe the organization of semantic information in the CUAHSI HydroCatalog, introduce software tools for managing hydrologic parameter ontology, and present initial results of concept-variable tagging. In particular, we discuss the results of using a hydrologic concept hierarchy based on the USGS and EPA Substance Registry System (SRS) for tagging hydrologic parameters in the metadata catalog. Currently, over 2000 catalog variables are available for concept-based search, primarily from observations made in water or suspended sediment. Additional work is needed for tagging variables in other media, and for managing concept-variable mapping as concept hierarchy evolves.

  1. Submarine hydro-electro-osmotic power plants for an efficient exploitation of salinity gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reali, M.

    1981-03-01

    An energy-conversion scheme, which allows efficient exploitation of salinity gradients, is proposed. This is a submarine hydro-electro-osmotic power plant in which fresh surface water is conveyed through a penstock to a submerged hydraulic turbine for the generation of electric power. The water leaves the turbine outlet depressurized and finally diffuses out in the sea, by osmosis, through a semipermeable barrier.

  2. [open quote]Endangered[close quote] salmon: More than just a Northwest hydro problem

    SciTech Connect

    Pfeiffer, D.E. )

    1992-06-01

    In the US, about 600 species of plants and animals are considered threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species Act. One of those, the Snake River sockeye salmon, has been making news in the Pacific Northwest. In November 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) declared Snake River sockeye salmon an endangered species, mandating the creation of a recovery plan that could cost more than $70 million a year. Many in the Northwest believe that the Endangered Species Act has never been applied in a case affecting so large an area or such a wide range of economic interests, including hydropower, agriculture, hatcheries, and commercial and sport fishing. Implications of this listing go far beyond regional economics, though. The way in which the federal government applied the Endangered Species Act in this instance has set a precedent that could affect hydro development throughout the US. The Endangered Species Act must be reauthorized by Congress by late October 1992. As explained in the accompanying story, [open quotes]Reauthorizing the ESA: Many Groups Calling for Change,[close quotes] the majority opinion in the US is that the act needs reform. Reviewing the act and its application in the Pacific Northwest will help members of the US hydro industry understand how hydro developments could be affected.

  3. Application of a Coupled WRF-Hydro Model for Extreme Flood Events in the Mediterranean Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fredj, Erick; Givati, Amir

    2015-04-01

    More accurate simulation of precipitation and streamflow is a challenge that can be addressed by using the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) in conjunction with the hydrological model coupling extension package (WRF-Hydro).This is demonstrated for the country of Israel and surrounding regions. Simulations from the coupled WRF/WRF-Hydro system were verified against measurements from rain gauges and hydrometric stations in the domain for the 2012-2013 and 2013-2014 winters (wet seasons). These periods were characterized by many punctuated hydrometeorological and hydroclimatic events, including both severe drought and extreme floods events. The WRF model simulations were initialized with 0.5 degree NOAA/NCEP GFS model data. The model domain was set up with 3 domains, up to 3km grid spacing resolution. The model configuration used here constitutes a fully distributed, 3-dimensional, variably-saturated surface and subsurface flow model. Application of terrain routing and, subsequently, channel and reservoir routing functions, to the uni-dimensional NOAA land surface model was motivated by the need to account for increased complexity in land surface states and fluxes and to provide a more physically-realistic conceptualization of terrestrial hydrologic processes. The simulation results indicated a good agreement with actual peak discharges for extreme flood events and for full hydrographs. Specifically the coupled WRF/WRF-Hydro model as configured in this study shows improvement in simulated precipitation over one way WRF precipitation simulations. The correlation between the observed and the simulated precipitation using the fully coupled WRF/WRF-Hydro system was higher than the standalone WRF model, especially for convective precipitation events that affect arid regions in the domain. The results suggest that the coupled WRF/WRF-Hydro system has potential for flood forecasting and flood warning purposes at 0-72 hour lead times for large cool season storm

  4. Assessment of the leak tightness integrity of the steam generator tubes affected by ODSCC at the tube support plates

    SciTech Connect

    Cuvelliez, Ch.; Roussel, G.

    1997-02-01

    An EPRI report gives a method for predicting a conservative value of the total primary-to-secondary leak rate which may occur during, a postulated steam generator depressurization accident such as a Main Steam Line Break (MSLB) in a steam generator with axial through-wall ODSCC at the TSP intersections. The Belgian utility defined an alternative method deviating somewhat from the EPRI method. When reviewing this proposed method, the Belgian safety authorities performed some calculations to investigate its conservatism. This led them to recommend some modifications to the EPRI method which should reduce its undue conservatism while maintaining the objective of conservatism in the offsite dose calculations.

  5. Application of heat- and steam-generating sheets to the lumbar or abdominal region affects autonomic nerve activity.

    PubMed

    Nagashima, Yoshinao; Oda, Hideshi; Igaki, Michihito; Suzuki, Megumi; Suzuki, Atsushi; Yada, Yukihiro; Tsuchiya, Shuichi; Suzuki, Toshiyuki; Ohishi, Sachiko

    2006-06-30

    Effects of applying a heat- and steam-generating (HSG) sheet on peripheral hemodynamics and autonomic nerve activity were examined. An HSG sheet was applied to the lumbar or abdominal region. Measurements included skin temperature at the lumbar and abdominal regions and the fingertip, total hemoglobin, tissue oxygen saturation ratio (StO2), pupillary light reflex, changes in ECG R-R interval blood pressure and percutaneous electrogastrography (EGG). A heat-generating sheet without steam was used as the control. Based on the present findings, application of the HSG sheet to the lumbar or abdominal region may improve peripheral hemodynamics and inhibit sympathetic nerve activity, resulting in parasympathetic nerve activity dominance.

  6. Quantitative trait loci affecting response to crowding stress in an F2 generation of rainbow trout produced through phenotypic selection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Selective breeding programs for salmonids typically aim to improve traits associated with growth and disease resistance. It has been established that stressors common to production environments can adversely affect these and other traits which are important to producers and consumers. Previously,...

  7. Hydro-abrasive erosion: Problems and solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkler, K.

    2014-03-01

    The number of hydro power plants with hydro-abrasive erosion is increasing worldwide. An overall approach is needed to minimize the impact of this phenomenon. Already at the start of the planning phase an evaluation should be done to quantify the erosion and the impact on the operation. For this, the influencing parameters and their impact on the erosion have to be known. The necessary information for the evaluation comprises among others the future design, the particle parameters of the water, which will pass the turbine, and the power plant owner's framework for the future operation like availability or maximum allowable efficiency loss, before an overhaul needs to be done. Based on this evaluation of the erosion, an optimised solution can then be found, by analysing all measures in relation to investments, energy production and maintenance costs as decision parameters. Often a more erosion-resistant design, instead of choosing the turbine design with the highest efficiency, will lead to higher revenue. The paper will discuss the influencing parameters on hydro-abrasive erosion and the problems to acquire this information. There are different optimisation possibilities, which will be shown in different case studies. One key aspect to reduce the erosion and prolong the operation time of the components is to coat all relevant parts. But it is very important that this decision is taken early in the design stage, as the design has to be adapted to the requirements of the coating process. The quality of coatings and their impact on the operation will be discussed in detail in the paper as due to the non-availability of standards many questions arise in projects.

  8. Influences That Affect First-Generation College Students' College Choice: A Qualitative Inquiry of Student Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cresswell-Yeager, Tiffany J.

    2012-01-01

    College choice is the three-stage process of aspiring, searching and choosing to attend college. There are many models pertaining to college choice, however, this study uses the Hossler and Gallagher Model---aspiration, search and choice. This qualitative study explored first-generation college students' perceptions about the influences…

  9. Assessing the variables affecting on the rate of solid waste generation and recycling: An empirical analysis in Prespa Park.

    PubMed

    Grazhdani, Dorina

    2016-02-01

    Economic development, urbanization, and improved living standards increase the quantity and complexity of generated solid waste. Comprehensive study of the variables influencing household solid waste production and recycling rate is crucial and fundamental for exploring the generation mechanism and forecasting future dynamics of household solid waste. The present study is employed in the case study of Prespa Park. A model, based on the interrelationships of economic, demographic, housing structure and waste management policy variables influencing the rate of solid waste generation and recycling is developed and employed. The empirical analysis is based on the information derived from a field questionnaire survey conducted in Prespa Park villages for the year 2014. Another feature of this study is to test whether a household's waste generation can be decoupled from its population growth. Descriptive statistics, bivariate correlation analysis and F-tests are used to know the relationship between variables. One-way and two-way fixed effects models data analysis techniques are used to identify variables that determine the effectiveness of waste generation and recycling at household level in the study area. The results reveal that households with heterogeneous characteristics, such as education level, mean building age and income, present different challenges of waste reduction goals. Numerically, an increase of 1% in education level of population corresponds to a waste reduction of 3kg on the annual per capita basis. A village with older buildings, in the case of one year older of the median building age, corresponds to a waste generation increase of 12kg. Other economic and policy incentives such as the mean household income, pay-as-you-throw, percentage of population with access to curbside recycling, the number of drop-off recycling facilities available per 1000 persons and cumulative expenditures on recycling education per capita are also found to be effective

  10. Assessing the variables affecting on the rate of solid waste generation and recycling: An empirical analysis in Prespa Park.

    PubMed

    Grazhdani, Dorina

    2016-02-01

    Economic development, urbanization, and improved living standards increase the quantity and complexity of generated solid waste. Comprehensive study of the variables influencing household solid waste production and recycling rate is crucial and fundamental for exploring the generation mechanism and forecasting future dynamics of household solid waste. The present study is employed in the case study of Prespa Park. A model, based on the interrelationships of economic, demographic, housing structure and waste management policy variables influencing the rate of solid waste generation and recycling is developed and employed. The empirical analysis is based on the information derived from a field questionnaire survey conducted in Prespa Park villages for the year 2014. Another feature of this study is to test whether a household's waste generation can be decoupled from its population growth. Descriptive statistics, bivariate correlation analysis and F-tests are used to know the relationship between variables. One-way and two-way fixed effects models data analysis techniques are used to identify variables that determine the effectiveness of waste generation and recycling at household level in the study area. The results reveal that households with heterogeneous characteristics, such as education level, mean building age and income, present different challenges of waste reduction goals. Numerically, an increase of 1% in education level of population corresponds to a waste reduction of 3kg on the annual per capita basis. A village with older buildings, in the case of one year older of the median building age, corresponds to a waste generation increase of 12kg. Other economic and policy incentives such as the mean household income, pay-as-you-throw, percentage of population with access to curbside recycling, the number of drop-off recycling facilities available per 1000 persons and cumulative expenditures on recycling education per capita are also found to be effective

  11. 78 FR 34090 - New Hampshire Water Resources Board, Hydro Dynamics Corporation; Notice of Transfer of Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission New Hampshire Water Resources Board, Hydro Dynamics Corporation; Notice of... and the New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services, as successor agency, and Hydro Dynamics Corporation as co- exemptee, Goffstown Hydro Corporation, successor in interest informed the Commission...

  12. HydroClimATe: hydrologic and climatic analysis toolkit

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dickinson, Jesse E.; Hanson, Randall T.; Predmore, Steven K.

    2014-01-01

    The potential consequences of climate variability and climate change have been identified as major issues for the sustainability and availability of the worldwide water resources. Unlike global climate change, climate variability represents deviations from the long-term state of the climate over periods of a few years to several decades. Currently, rich hydrologic time-series data are available, but the combination of data preparation and statistical methods developed by the U.S. Geological Survey as part of the Groundwater Resources Program is relatively unavailable to hydrologists and engineers who could benefit from estimates of climate variability and its effects on periodic recharge and water-resource availability. This report documents HydroClimATe, a computer program for assessing the relations between variable climatic and hydrologic time-series data. HydroClimATe was developed for a Windows operating system. The software includes statistical tools for (1) time-series preprocessing, (2) spectral analysis, (3) spatial and temporal analysis, (4) correlation analysis, and (5) projections. The time-series preprocessing tools include spline fitting, standardization using a normal or gamma distribution, and transformation by a cumulative departure. The spectral analysis tools include discrete Fourier transform, maximum entropy method, and singular spectrum analysis. The spatial and temporal analysis tool is empirical orthogonal function analysis. The correlation analysis tools are linear regression and lag correlation. The projection tools include autoregressive time-series modeling and generation of many realizations. These tools are demonstrated in four examples that use stream-flow discharge data, groundwater-level records, gridded time series of precipitation data, and the Multivariate ENSO Index.

  13. Hydro-thermal Commitment Scheduling by Tabu Search Method with Cooling-Banking Constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayak, Nimain Charan; Rajan, C. Christober Asir

    This paper presents a new approach for developing an algorithm for solving the Unit Commitment Problem (UCP) in a Hydro-thermal power system. Unit Commitment is a nonlinear optimization problem to determine the minimum cost turn on/off schedule of the generating units in a power system by satisfying both the forecasted load demand and various operating constraints of the generating units. The effectiveness of the proposed hybrid algorithm is proved by the numerical results shown comparing the generation cost solutions and computation time obtained by using Tabu Search Algorithm with other methods like Evolutionary Programming and Dynamic Programming in reaching proper unit commitment.

  14. Role of gustatory and postingestive actions of sweeteners in the generation of positive affect as evaluated by place preference conditioning.

    PubMed

    Agmo, A; Marroquin, E

    1997-12-01

    Either an 18% sucrose or a 0.1% saccharin solution was used as reward in a conditioned place preference procedure. The respective solution was consumed immediately before the subject was confined to the non-preferred compartment of a place preference box. In this way only the affective reaction produced by the rewarding stimulus participated in place conditioning. Non-deprived rats consumed similar quantities of the two solutions, suggesting that they were equally rewarding. Yet only sucrose induced place preference. The lack of effect of saccharin may have been due to weaker positive affect or to an inability to induce an affective state that outlasted consummatory behavior. The first possibility was evaluated in the second experiment. Food-deprived rats were subjected to a discrimination learning task in a runway with plain water, sucrose or saccharin as reinforcer. Sucrose sustained running responses and produced improvement of discrimination behavior. Saccharin had a small effect at the first sessions only. It was concluded that saccharin is less rewarding than sucrose. In a final experiment, one group of rats was injected with glucose (2 g/kg) 17 min before being introduced in the non-preferred compartment of a place preference box. Another group was given the same dose of glucose just before drinking saccharin for 15 min. Immediately thereafter place conditioning was performed. Glucose alone had no effect, while a place preference was established when glucose injection was combined with saccharin drinking. These results show that the positive affect produced by sweet substances does not outlast consummatory behavior in the absence of postabsorptive actions. PMID:9468761

  15. Crash Performance Evaluation of Hydro-formed DP-steel Tubes Considering Welding Heat Effects, Formability and Spring-back

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Kyung-Hwan; Kim, Junehyung; Lee, Wonoh; Chung, Kwansoo; Lim, Ji-Ho; Kim, Chongmin; Wenner, Michael. L.

    2007-04-07

    In order to numerically evaluate hydro-formed DP-steel tubes on crash performance considering welding heat effects, finite element simulations of crash behavior were performed for hydro-formed tubes with and without heat treatment effects. Also, finite element simulations were performed for the sequential procedures of bending and hydro-forming of tubes in order to design process parameters, particularly for the boost condition and axial feeding, considering formability and spring-back. Effects of the material property including strain-rate sensitivity on formability as well as spring-back were also considered. The mechanical properties of the metal active gas (MAG) weld zone and the heat affected zone (HAZ) were obtained utilizing the continuous indentation method in this work.

  16. Advances in equipment technology: Helping hydro meet today's challenges

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connor, J.P.

    1992-10-01

    In today's hydro industry, power producers have several challenges. To be successful, they must keep operating costs low, protect the environment, and ensure the safety of the public and their employees. New high-tech equipment and sophisticated improvements to existing devices are helping hydro operators meet these challenges.

  17. Expanding PNe: Distances and Hydro Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balick, Bruce

    2007-07-01

    We propose to obtain repeat narrowband images of a sample of eighteen planetary nebulae {PNe} which have HST/WFPC2 archival data spanning time baselines of a decade. All of these targets have previous high signal-to-noise WFPC2/PC observations and are sufficiently nearby to have readily detectable expansion signatures after a few years. Our main scientific objectives are {a} to determine precise distances to these PNe based on their angular expansions, {b} to test detailed and highly successful hydrodynamic models that predict nebular morphologies and expansions for subsamples of round/elliptical and axisymmetric PNe, and {c} to monitor the proper motions of nebular microstructures in an effort to learn more about their physical nature and formation mechanisms.The proposed observations will result in high-precision distances to a healthy subsample of PNe, and from this their expansion ages, luminosities, CSPN properties, and masses of their ionized cores. With good distances and our hydro models, we will be able to determine fundamental parameters {such as nebular and central star masses, luminosity, age}. The same images allow us to monitor the changing overall ionization state and to search for the surprisingly non-homologous growth patterns to bright elliptical PNe of the same sort seen by Balick & Hajian {2004} in NGC 6543. Non-uniform growth is a sure sign of active pressure imbalances within the nebula that require careful hydro models to understand.

  18. Second harmonic generation microscopy investigation of the crystalline ultrastructure of three barley starch lines affected by hydration

    PubMed Central

    Cisek, Richard; Tokarz, Danielle; Steup, Martin; Tetlow, Ian J.; Emes, Michael J.; Hebelstrup, Kim H.; Blennow, Andreas; Barzda, Virginijus

    2015-01-01

    Second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy is employed to study changes in crystalline organization due to altered gene expression and hydration in barley starch granules. SHG intensity and susceptibility ratio values (R’SHG) are obtained using reduced Stokes-Mueller polarimetric microscopy. The maximum R’SHG values occur at moderate moisture indicating the narrowest orientation distribution of nonlinear dipoles from the cylindrical axis of glucan helices. The maximum SHG intensity occurs at the highest moisture and amylopectin content. These results support the hypothesis that SHG is caused by ordered hydrogen and hydroxyl bond networks which increase with hydration of starch granules. PMID:26504621

  19. Hydro-environmental changes and their influence on the subsurface environment in the context of urban development.

    PubMed

    Yoshikoshi, Akihisa; Adachi, Itsu; Taniguchi, Tomomasa; Kagawa, Yuichi; Kato, Masahiro; Yamashita, Akio; Todokoro, Taiko; Taniguchi, Makoto

    2009-04-15

    The relationship between urban development and hydro-environmental change, particularly with regard to the subsurface environment is examined for three coastal cities affected by Asian monsoons (Tokyo and Osaka in Japan, and Bangkok in Thailand). Major differences in subsurface changes among these cities are closely related to city size, urban structure, and the timing, stage and extent of urbanization as well as the natural environment. The work shows that the urban development has not affected the Bangkok subsurface hydro-environment in the same way it has in Tokyo and Osaka. Three reasons for the difference account for this, (1) Bangkok's abundant annual rainfall, (2) Bangkok has the smallest ratio of impervious pavement surface area, meaning that surface water can more easily infiltrate underground., (3) the degree and extent of urbanization. Bangkok's subsurface hydro-environment has not been heavily affected because underground development has not yet reached deep subterranean areas. By researching yet more cities, at different stages of urbanization to that of Tokyo, Osaka and Bangkok, we plan to quantitatively examine urbanization and its influence on subsurface hydro-environments. This research will help limit damage to developing cities that are not yet experiencing subsurface failures but which are expected to confront these problems in the future.

  20. Plantarflexor training affects propulsive force generation during gait in children with spastic hemiplegic cerebral palsy: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Misako; Higuchi, Yumi; Yonetsu, Ryo; Kitajima, Hiromi

    2015-05-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this preliminary study was to assess the trade-off relationship between the hip and ankle joints after plantarflexor training in children with spastic hemiplegic cerebral palsy (CP). [Subjects and Methods] Three boys aged 9, 10, and 13 years with spastic hemiplegic CP participated in the study. Gait analysis was performed using a three-dimensional motion analysis device and a floor reaction force detection device before and after plantarflexor training. Data on gait speed and stride length for both sides were collected. Peak hip and ankle powers in the sagittal plane and ankle-to-hip power ratio (A2/H3 ratio) were calculated. Plantarflexor training comprised heel raises and exercise band resistance at the participant's home (3 times/week for 12 weeks). [Results] The A2/H3 ratio increased significantly on both sides in two of three subjects after training. Peak A2 power increased significantly on both sides in subject 3 and on the affected side of subject 2. Peak H3 power decreased significantly on the non-affected side of subjects 1 and 2. [Conclusion] This study confirmed that two of three subjects demonstrated a trade-off relationship between the hip and ankle joints during gait after plantarflexor training.

  1. 77 FR 10740 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XVIII, Upper Hydroelectric, LLC, FFP Project 95, LLC, Riverbank Hydro No...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-23

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XVIII, Upper Hydroelectric, LLC, FFP Project 95, LLC, Riverbank Hydro No. 25, LLC; Notice Announcing Preliminary Permit Drawing The Commission has... Tennessee-Tombigbee Waterway in Lowndes County, Mississippi. The applications were filed by Lock+...

  2. A love affair with hydro in New England: Producing environmentally sound energy

    SciTech Connect

    Kamberg, M.L.

    1993-04-01

    A small, abandoned hydropower plant on the Assabet River in Acton, Massachusetts, first sparked Bob King's interest in renewable energy when he was 11 years old. King and his family discovered the plant while taking their traditional after-dinner Thanksgiving Day walk. Thirteen years later after graduating from Cornell University with a degree in mechanical engineering, King set out to find an abandoned hydro plant suitable for reconstruction. Today, King owns and operates the Nashaway Plant, a 275-kW run-of-river hydro project on the French River in Thompson, Connecticut. King sells the electricity generated at the plant-about 1 gigawatt-hour a year-to Connecticut Light Power Co. The plant requires only minor maintenance, and operating costs are low. Based on current buyback rates, King estimates the plant grosses $35,000 annually.

  3. Prenatal stress programs neuroendocrine stress responses and affective behaviors in second generation rats in a sex-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Grundwald, Natalia J.; Brunton, Paula J.

    2015-01-01

    An adverse environment in early life is often associated with dysregulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and higher rates of mood disorders in adulthood. In rats, exposure to social stress during pregnancy results in hyperactive HPA axis responses to stress in the adult offspring and heightened anxiety behavior in the males, but not the females. Here we tested whether, without further intervention, the effects of prenatal stress (PNS) in the first filial generation (F1) are transmitted to the F2 generation via the maternal line. F1 control and PNS female rats were mated with control males and housed under non-stress conditions throughout pregnancy. HPA axis responses to acute stress, anxiety- and depressive-like behavior were assessed in the adult F2 offspring. ACTH and corticosterone responses to an acute stressor were markedly enhanced in F2 PNS females compared with controls. This was associated with greater corticotropin releasing hormone (Crh) mRNA expression in the paraventricular nucleus and reduced hippocampal glucocorticoid (Gr) and mineralocorticoid receptor (Mr) mRNA expression. Conversely, in the F2 PNS males, HPA axis responses to acute stress were attenuated and hippocampal Gr mRNA expression was greater compared with controls. F2 PNS males exhibited heightened anxiety-like behavior (light-dark box and elevated plus maze) compared with F2 control males. Anxiety-like behavior did not differ between F2 control and PNS females during metestrus/diestrus, however at proestrus/estrus, F2 control females displayed a reduction in anxiety-like behavior, but this effect was not observed in the F2 PNS females. Heightened anxiety in the F2 PNS males was associated with greater Crh mRNA expression in the central nucleus of the amygdala compared with controls. Moreover, Crh receptor-1 (Crhr1) mRNA expression was significantly increased, whereas Crhr2 mRNA was significantly decreased in discrete regions of the amygdala in F2 PNS males compared

  4. Hydro-geomorphic differentiation of an artificial catchment during the initial phase of ecosystem development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, A.; Gerke, H. H.; Maurer, T.; Nenov, R.; Raab, T. A.

    2011-12-01

    Initial landscapes are characterized by non-equilibrium conditions and are thus susceptible to rapid modification by accelerated hydro-geomorphic activity. Initial conditions and early changes in surface morphology in such landscapes can be formative for their further development. The objective of this study was to reconstruct the initial hydro-geomorphic evolution of the artificially-created catchment 'Chicken Creek' and to explore the interrelations between morphological structures and processes of sediment redistribution. Erosion-affected development of the catchment's surface over a time period of 4 1/2 years, beginning with the initial state, was analyzed using high-resolution aerial photographs and photogrammetry- as well as LIDAR-based digital elevation models (DEMs) recorded at different states of surface evolution. The evolving network of erosion rills was mapped from aerial photographs and its geometry was quantitatively analyzed. Based on the DEMs, surface development was characterized by morphometric parameters, which were analyzed specifically for different morphological units. Additionally, differential models were constructed from pairs of DEMs to characterize spatially distributed erosion-sedimentation dynamics in time intervals. For the first two years of catchment evolution, rapid development of an erosion rill network was observed. Rill network geometry as well as the spatial distribution of erosion intensity differed between areas with differing sediment properties and initial surface structures. For the subsequent years, aerial photographs showed a decrease of the area of actively eroding rills and the colonization of peripheric rills by vegetation, while morphometric analyses showed an increased concentration of runoff in the central areas of the erosion rill network. Results show that early hydro-geomorphic surface evolution was highly dependent on different types of abiotic initial conditions, while it is increasingly affected by biotic

  5. Advancing the Strategic Messages Affecting Robot Trust Effect: The Dynamic of User- and Robot-Generated Content on Human-Robot Trust and Interaction Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yuhua Jake; Lee, Seungcheol Austin

    2016-09-01

    Human-robot interaction (HRI) will soon transform and shift the communication landscape such that people exchange messages with robots. However, successful HRI requires people to trust robots, and, in turn, the trust affects the interaction. Although prior research has examined the determinants of human-robot trust (HRT) during HRI, no research has examined the messages that people received before interacting with robots and their effect on HRT. We conceptualize these messages as SMART (Strategic Messages Affecting Robot Trust). Moreover, we posit that SMART can ultimately affect actual HRI outcomes (i.e., robot evaluations, robot credibility, participant mood) by affording the persuasive influences from user-generated content (UGC) on participatory Web sites. In Study 1, participants were assigned to one of two conditions (UGC/control) in an original experiment of HRT. Compared with the control (descriptive information only), results showed that UGC moderated the correlation between HRT and interaction outcomes in a positive direction (average Δr = +0.39) for robots as media and robots as tools. In Study 2, we explored the effect of robot-generated content but did not find similar moderation effects. These findings point to an important empirical potential to employ SMART in future robot deployment.

  6. The mvp2 mutation affects the generative transition through the modification of transcriptome pattern, salicylic acid and cytokinin metabolism in Triticum monococcum.

    PubMed

    Boldizsár, Ákos; Vanková, Radomíra; Novák, Aliz; Kalapos, Balázs; Gulyás, Zsolt; Pál, Magda; Floková, Kristyna; Janda, Tibor; Galiba, Gábor; Kocsy, Gábor

    2016-09-01

    Wild type and mvp2 (maintained vegetative phase) deletion mutant T. monococcum plants incapable of flowering were compared in order to determine the effect of the deleted region of chromosome 5A on transcript profile and hormone metabolism. This region contains the vernalization1 (VRN1) gene, a major regulator of the vegetative/generative transition. Transcript profiling in the crowns of T. monococcum during the transition and the subsequent formation of flower primordia showed that 306 genes were affected by the mutation, 198 by the developmental phase and 14 by the interaction of these parameters. In addition, 546 genes were affected by two or three factors. The genes controlled by the deleted region encode transcription factors, antioxidants and enzymes of hormone, carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism. The observed changes in the expression of the gene encoding phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) might indicate the effect of mvp2 mutation on the metabolism of salicylic acid, which was corroborated by the differences in 2-hydroxycinnamic acid and cinnamic acid contents in both of the leaves and crowns, and in the concentrations of salicylic acid and benzoic acid in crowns during the vegetative/generative transition. The amount and ratio of active cytokinins and their derivatives (ribosides, glucosides and phosphates) were affected by developmental changes as well as by mvp2 mutation, too. PMID:27450491

  7. Advancing the Strategic Messages Affecting Robot Trust Effect: The Dynamic of User- and Robot-Generated Content on Human-Robot Trust and Interaction Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yuhua Jake; Lee, Seungcheol Austin

    2016-09-01

    Human-robot interaction (HRI) will soon transform and shift the communication landscape such that people exchange messages with robots. However, successful HRI requires people to trust robots, and, in turn, the trust affects the interaction. Although prior research has examined the determinants of human-robot trust (HRT) during HRI, no research has examined the messages that people received before interacting with robots and their effect on HRT. We conceptualize these messages as SMART (Strategic Messages Affecting Robot Trust). Moreover, we posit that SMART can ultimately affect actual HRI outcomes (i.e., robot evaluations, robot credibility, participant mood) by affording the persuasive influences from user-generated content (UGC) on participatory Web sites. In Study 1, participants were assigned to one of two conditions (UGC/control) in an original experiment of HRT. Compared with the control (descriptive information only), results showed that UGC moderated the correlation between HRT and interaction outcomes in a positive direction (average Δr = +0.39) for robots as media and robots as tools. In Study 2, we explored the effect of robot-generated content but did not find similar moderation effects. These findings point to an important empirical potential to employ SMART in future robot deployment. PMID:27585068

  8. MES Buffer Affects Arabidopsis Root Apex Zonation and Root Growth by Suppressing Superoxide Generation in Root Apex.

    PubMed

    Kagenishi, Tomoko; Yokawa, Ken; Baluška, František

    2016-01-01

    In plants, growth of roots and root hairs is regulated by the fine cellular control of pH and reactive oxygen species (ROS). MES, 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid as one of the Good's buffers has broadly been used for buffering medium, and it is thought to suit for plant growth with the concentration at 0.1% (w/v) because the buffer capacity of MES ranging pH 5.5-7.0 (for Arabidopsis, pH 5.8). However, many reports have shown that, in nature, roots require different pH values on the surface of specific root apex zones, namely meristem, transition zone, and elongation zone. Despite the fact that roots always grow on a media containing buffer molecule, little is known about impact of MES on root growth. Here, we have checked the effects of different concentrations of MES buffer using growing roots of Arabidopsis thaliana. Our results show that 1% of MES significantly inhibited root growth, the number of root hairs and length of meristem, whereas 0.1% promoted root growth and root apex area (region spanning from the root tip up to the transition zone). Furthermore, superoxide generation in root apex disappeared at 1% of MES. These results suggest that MES disturbs normal root morphogenesis by changing the ROS homeostasis in root apex. PMID:26925066

  9. Do social disadvantage and early family adversity affect the diurnal cortisol rhythm in infants? The Generation R Study.

    PubMed

    Saridjan, Nathalie S; Huizink, Anja C; Koetsier, Jitske A; Jaddoe, Vincent W; Mackenbach, Johan P; Hofman, Albert; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Verhulst, Frank C; Tiemeier, Henning

    2010-02-01

    Dysregulation of diurnal cortisol secretion patterns may explain the link between adversities early in life and later mental health problems. However, few studies have investigated the influence of social disadvantage and family adversity on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis early in life. In 366 infants aged 12-20 months from the Generation R Study, a population-based cohort from fetal life onwards, parents collected saliva samples from their infant at 5 moments over the course of 1 day. The area under the curve (AUC), the cortisol awakening response (CAR) and the diurnal cortisol slope were calculated as different composite measures of the diurnal cortisol rhythm. Information about social disadvantage and early adversity was collected using prenatal and postnatal questionnaires. We found that older infants showed lower AUC levels; moreover, infants with a positive CAR were significantly older. Both the AUC and the CAR were related to indicators of social disadvantage and early adversity. Infants of low income families, in comparison to high income families, showed higher AUC levels and a positive CAR. Infants of mothers who smoked during pregnancy were also significantly more likely to show a positive CAR. Furthermore, infants of mothers experiencing parenting stress showed higher AUC levels. The results of our study show that effects of social disadvantage and early adversity on the diurnal cortisol rhythm are already observable in infants. This may reflect the influence of early negative life events on early maturation of the HPA axis. PMID:20006614

  10. MES Buffer Affects Arabidopsis Root Apex Zonation and Root Growth by Suppressing Superoxide Generation in Root Apex

    PubMed Central

    Kagenishi, Tomoko; Yokawa, Ken; Baluška, František

    2016-01-01

    In plants, growth of roots and root hairs is regulated by the fine cellular control of pH and reactive oxygen species (ROS). MES, 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid as one of the Good’s buffers has broadly been used for buffering medium, and it is thought to suit for plant growth with the concentration at 0.1% (w/v) because the buffer capacity of MES ranging pH 5.5–7.0 (for Arabidopsis, pH 5.8). However, many reports have shown that, in nature, roots require different pH values on the surface of specific root apex zones, namely meristem, transition zone, and elongation zone. Despite the fact that roots always grow on a media containing buffer molecule, little is known about impact of MES on root growth. Here, we have checked the effects of different concentrations of MES buffer using growing roots of Arabidopsis thaliana. Our results show that 1% of MES significantly inhibited root growth, the number of root hairs and length of meristem, whereas 0.1% promoted root growth and root apex area (region spanning from the root tip up to the transition zone). Furthermore, superoxide generation in root apex disappeared at 1% of MES. These results suggest that MES disturbs normal root morphogenesis by changing the ROS homeostasis in root apex. PMID:26925066

  11. Quantifying the Operational Benefits of Conventional and Advanced Pumped Storage Hydro on Reliability and Efficiency: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Krad, I.; Ela, E.; Koritarov, V.

    2014-07-01

    Pumped storage hydro (PSH) plants have significant potential to provide reliability and efficiency benefits in future electric power systems with high penetrations of variable generation. New PSH technologies, such as adjustable-speed PSH, have been introduced that can also present further benefits. This paper demonstrates and quantifies some of the reliability and efficiency benefits afforded by PSH plants by utilizing the Flexible Energy Scheduling Tool for the Integration of Variable generation (FESTIV), an integrated power system operations tool that evaluates both reliability and production costs.

  12. Flood generation and sediment transport in experimental catchments affected by land use changes in the central Pyrenees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Ruiz, José M.; Regüés, David; Alvera, Bernardo; Lana-Renault, Noemí; Serrano-Muela, Pilar; Nadal-Romero, Estela; Navas, Ana; Latron, Jérôme; Martí-Bono, Carlos; Arnáez, José

    2008-07-01

    SummaryThree small catchments (<2.5 km2 in size) were monitored in the Central Spanish Pyrenees to analyse the hydrological and geomorphological consequences of different land covers under the same climate scenario: (i) the San Salvador catchment represents a dense, undisturbed forest environment; (ii) the Arnás catchment corresponds to an old, abandoned cultivated area subjected to colonisation by plants; and (iii) the Araguás catchment consists in part of active badlands. The obtained results demonstrate that plant cover is a key factor, influencing (i) the seasonality and intensity of floods, (ii) the annual volume of discharge, and (iii) the suspended sediment concentration, total sediment yield and proportions of different types of sediment. The forested catchment tends to generate floods in late winter and spring, when the water table is close to the surface, and flood hydrographs are generally gentle, with solutes largely prevailing over suspended sediment. The old agricultural catchment produces in average twice the number of floods as that recorded in the forested catchment, with the highest floods recorded in autumn and spring; this catchment behaves as a complex mosaic, with a large spatial and temporal variability in terms of both sediment- and runoff-contributing areas; in addition, suspended sediment is equal to solutes, and bedload reaches a relatively high importance. Finally, the badland catchment reacts to all rainstorm events throughout the year, with a high suspended-sediment load. Sediment outputs from the Araguás catchment are two orders of magnitude higher than in the Arnás and San Salvador catchments. Suspended sediment concentrations exceed 300 g l-1 in the Araguás catchment, whereas they rarely exceed 20 g l-1 in the Arnás and rarely 1.5 g l-1 in the San Salvador catchment.

  13. ‘Second-Generation' Mephedrone Analogs, 4-MEC and 4-MePPP, Differentially Affect Monoamine Transporter Function

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Kusumika; Partilla, John S; Lehner, Kurt R; Seddik, Amir; Stockner, Thomas; Holy, Marion; Sandtner, Walter; Ecker, Gerhard F; Sitte, Harald H; Baumann, Michael H

    2015-01-01

    The nonmedical use of synthetic cathinones is increasing on a global scale. 4-Methyl-N-methylcathinone (mephedrone) is a popular synthetic cathinone that is now illegal in the United States and other countries. Since the legislative ban on mephedrone, a number of ‘second-generation' analogs have appeared in the street drug marketplace, including 4-methyl-N-ethylcathinone (4-MEC) and 4′-methyl-α-pyrrolidinopropiophenone (4-MePPP). Here we characterized the interactions of 4-MEC and 4-MePPP with transporters for 5-HT (SERT) and dopamine (DAT) using molecular, cellular, and whole-animal methods. In vitro transporter assays revealed that 4-MEC displays unusual ‘hybrid' activity as a SERT substrate (ie, 5-HT releaser) and DAT blocker, whereas 4-MePPP is a blocker at both transporters but more potent at DAT. In vivo microdialysis experiments in rat brain demonstrated that 4-MEC (1–3 mg/kg, i.v.) produced large increases in extracellular 5-HT, small increases in dopamine, and minimal motor stimulation. In contrast, 4-MePPP (1–3 mg/kg, i.v.) produced selective increases in dopamine and robust motor stimulation. Consistent with its activity as a SERT substrate, 4-MEC evoked inward current in SERT-expressing Xenopus oocytes, whereas 4-MePPP was inactive in this regard. To examine drug–transporter interactions at the molecular level, we modeled the fit of 4-MEC and 4-MePPP into the binding pockets for DAT and SERT. Subtle distinctions in ligand–transporter binding were found that account for the differential effects of 4-MEC and 4-MePPP at SERT. Collectively, our results provide key information about the pharmacology of newly emerging mephedrone analogs, and give clues to structural requirements that govern drug selectivity at DAT vs SERT. PMID:25502630

  14. Chemical modification of extracellular matrix by cold atmospheric plasma-generated reactive species affects chondrogenesis and bone formation.

    PubMed

    Eisenhauer, Peter; Chernets, Natalie; Song, You; Dobrynin, Danil; Pleshko, Nancy; Steinbeck, Marla J; Freeman, Theresa A

    2016-09-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate whether cold plasma generated by dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) modifies extracellular matrices (ECM) to influence chondrogenesis and endochondral ossification. Replacement of cartilage by bone during endochondral ossification is essential in fetal skeletal development, bone growth and fracture healing. Regulation of this process by the ECM occurs through matrix remodelling, involving a variety of cell attachment molecules and growth factors, which influence cell morphology and protein expression. The commercially available ECM, Matrigel, was treated with microsecond or nanosecond pulsed (μsp or nsp, respectively) DBD frequencies conditions at the equivalent frequencies (1 kHz) or power (~1 W). Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 was added and the mixture subcutaneously injected into mice to simulate ectopic endochondral ossification. Two weeks later, the masses were extracted and analysed by microcomputed tomography. A significant increase in bone formation was observed in Matrigel treated with μsp DBD compared with control, while a significant decrease in bone formation was observed for both nsp treatments. Histological and immunohistochemical analysis showed Matrigel treated with μsp plasma increased the number of invading cells, the amount of vascular endothelial growth factor and chondrogenesis while the opposite was true for Matrigel treated with nsp plasma. In support of the in vivo Matrigel study, 10 T1/2 cells cultured in vitro on μsp DBD-treated type I collagen showed increased expression of adhesion proteins and activation of survival pathways, which decreased with nsp plasma treatments. These results indicate DBD modification of ECM can influence cellular behaviours to accelerate or inhibit chondrogenesis and endochondral ossification. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27510797

  15. Chemical modification of extracellular matrix by cold atmospheric plasma-generated reactive species affects chondrogenesis and bone formation.

    PubMed

    Eisenhauer, Peter; Chernets, Natalie; Song, You; Dobrynin, Danil; Pleshko, Nancy; Steinbeck, Marla J; Freeman, Theresa A

    2016-09-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate whether cold plasma generated by dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) modifies extracellular matrices (ECM) to influence chondrogenesis and endochondral ossification. Replacement of cartilage by bone during endochondral ossification is essential in fetal skeletal development, bone growth and fracture healing. Regulation of this process by the ECM occurs through matrix remodelling, involving a variety of cell attachment molecules and growth factors, which influence cell morphology and protein expression. The commercially available ECM, Matrigel, was treated with microsecond or nanosecond pulsed (μsp or nsp, respectively) DBD frequencies conditions at the equivalent frequencies (1 kHz) or power (~1 W). Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 was added and the mixture subcutaneously injected into mice to simulate ectopic endochondral ossification. Two weeks later, the masses were extracted and analysed by microcomputed tomography. A significant increase in bone formation was observed in Matrigel treated with μsp DBD compared with control, while a significant decrease in bone formation was observed for both nsp treatments. Histological and immunohistochemical analysis showed Matrigel treated with μsp plasma increased the number of invading cells, the amount of vascular endothelial growth factor and chondrogenesis while the opposite was true for Matrigel treated with nsp plasma. In support of the in vivo Matrigel study, 10 T1/2 cells cultured in vitro on μsp DBD-treated type I collagen showed increased expression of adhesion proteins and activation of survival pathways, which decreased with nsp plasma treatments. These results indicate DBD modification of ECM can influence cellular behaviours to accelerate or inhibit chondrogenesis and endochondral ossification. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. 76 FR 42124 - River Bounty, Inc.; Renew Hydro, LLC; Notice of Transfer of Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-18

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission River Bounty, Inc.; Renew Hydro, LLC; Notice of Transfer of Exemption 1. By...\\ has been transferred to Renew Hydro, LLC. The project is located on the Susquehanna River in...\\ American Hydro Power Co., 19 FERC ] 62,426 (1982). 2. Renew Hydro, LLC, located at 1800 Route 34, Suite...

  17. 77 FR 63311 - Lake Clementine Hydro, LLC; Notice of Successive Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-16

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Lake Clementine Hydro, LLC; Notice of Successive Preliminary Permit... October 2, 2012, Lake Clementine Hydro, LLC (Lake Clementine Hydro) filed an application for a successive preliminary permit, pursuant to section 4(f) of the Federal Power Act (FPA). Lake Clementine Hydro proposes...

  18. Dyadic design interface between energy and agriculture: the case of Pinthali micro hydro system in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Regmi, A

    2003-01-01

    Technology, like society, is heterogeneous. It mirrors the context in which it operates. Micro hydro development in Nepal is a rural energy strategy, which relies on technology and innovation and takes place in a specific social context. In designing this energy strategy, both technology and its social context, therefore, need to be considered seriously. In technical design processes, the interplay between the content (technology) and the context (society) needs to be considered, as the outcome will affect the people. For example, the content--micro hydro system--in the domain of the context--agriculture--provides an arena for an integrated water control system. Thus, it is possible to control water for two purposes: to produce power and to provide irrigation. The end product will be "energy" as a "consumptive" output and improved food security as a "productive" output of water. Therefore, within a sociotechnical framework, energy and irrigation become constitutive outputs of the sacrosanct "water". Thus, the metaphor of power--the "sociotechnical code" of "content" and "context"--can be used with the term "agro-anergy" in the design process of micro hydro systems. Evidence suggests that this interaction can lead to a transformed water use system for both productive and consumptive output for the benefit of rural communities.

  19. Integrating Water, Actors, and Structure to Study Socio-Hydro-Ecological Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hale, R. L.; Armstrong, A.; Baker, M. A.; Bedingfield, S.; Betts, D.; Buahin, C. A.; Buchert, M.; Crowl, T.; Dupont, R.; Endter-Wada, J.; Flint, C.; Grant, J.; Hinners, S.; Horns, D.; Horsburgh, J. S.; Jackson-Smith, D.; Jones, A. S.; Licon, C.; Null, S. E.; Odame, A.; Pataki, D. E.; Rosenberg, D. E.; Runburg, M.; Stoker, P.; Strong, C.

    2014-12-01

    Urbanization, climate uncertainty, and ecosystem change represent major challenges for managing water resources. Water systems and the forces acting upon them are complex, and there is a need to understand and generically represent the most important system components and linkages. We developed a framework to facilitate understanding of water systems including potential vulnerabilities and opportunities for sustainability. Our goal was to produce an interdisciplinary framework for water resources research to address water issues across scales (e.g., city to region) and domains (e.g., water supply and quality, urban and transitioning landscapes). An interdisciplinary project (iUTAH - innovative Urban Transitions and Aridregion Hydro-sustainability) with a large (N=~100), diverse team having expertise spanning the hydrologic, biological, ecological, engineering, social, planning, and policy sciences motivated the development of this framework. The framework was developed through review of the literature, meetings with individual researchers, and workshops with participants. The Structure-Water-Actor Framework (SWAF) includes three main components: water (quality and quantity), structure (natural, built, and social), and actors (individual and organizational). Key linkages include: 1) ecological and hydrological processes, 2) ecosystem and geomorphic change, 3) planning, design, and policy, 4) perceptions, information, and experience, 5) resource access, and 6) operational water use and management. Our expansive view of structure includes natural, built, and social components, allowing us to examine a broad set of tools and levers for water managers and decision-makers to affect system sustainability and understand system outcomes. We validate the SWAF and illustrate its flexibility to generate insights for three research and management problems: green stormwater infrastructure in an arid environment, regional water supply and demand, and urban river restoration

  20. Hydro-climatic forecasting using sea surface temperatures: methodology and application for the southeast US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chia-Jeng; Georgakakos, Aris P.

    2014-06-01

    Sea surface temperatures (SSTs) are often used for the development of hydro-climatic variable forecasts based on teleconnection methods. Such methods rely on projections or linear combinations of teleconnection indices [e.g. El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO)] and other predictor fields. This study introduces a new hydro-climatic forecasting method identifying SST "dipole" predictors motivated by major teleconnection patterns. An SST dipole is defined as a function of average SST anomalies over two oceanic areas of specific sizes and geographic locations. An optimization algorithm is developed to search for the most significant SST dipole predictors of an external hydro-climatic series based on the Gerrity Skill Score. The significant dipoles are cross-validated and used to generate multiple forecast values. The new method is applied to the forecasting of seasonal precipitation over the southeast US. Hindcasting results show that significant dipoles related to ENSO as well as other prominent patterns at different lead times can indeed be identified. The dipole method also compares favorably with existing statistical forecasting schemes with respect to multiple skill measures. Furthermore, an operational forecasting framework able to produce ensemble forecast traces and uncertainty intervals that can support regional water resources planning and management is also developed.

  1. Analysis of a pico tubular-type hydro turbine performance by runner blade shape using CFD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J. H.; Lee, N. J.; Wata, J. V.; Hwang, Y. C.; Kim, Y. T.; Lee, Y. H.

    2012-11-01

    There has been a considerable interest recently in the topic of renewable energy. This is primarily due to concerns about environmental impacts of fossil fuels. Moreover, fluctuating and rising oil prices, increase in demand, supply uncertainties and other factors have led to increased calls for alternative energy sources. Small hydropower, among other renewable energy sources, has been evaluated to have adequate development value because it is a clean, renewable and abundant energy resource. In addition, small hydropower has the advantage of low cost development by using rivers, agricultural reservoirs, sewage treatment plants, waterworks and water resources. The main concept of the tubular-type hydro turbine is based on the difference in water pressure levels in pipe lines, where the energy which was initially wasted by using a reducing valve at the pipeline of waterworks, is collected by turbine in the hydro power generator. In this study, in order to acquire the performance data of a pico tubular-type hydro turbine, the output power, head and efficiency characteristics by different runner blade shapes are examined. The pressure and velocity distributions with the variation of guide vane and runner vane angle on turbine performance are investigated by using a commercial CFD code.

  2. Numerical investigation of the hydro-mechanical contribution to seismic attenuation in damaged rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollmann, Nele; Jänicke, Ralf; Renner, Jörg; Steeb, Holger

    2016-04-01

    The investigation of hydro-mechanical processes, in particular the modeling of seismic waves in fractured porous media, is essential for the physical interpretation of data obtained from seismic exploration. Here, we specifically investigate attenuation processes in fluid-saturated porous rock containing fracture networks to identify effective hydro-mechanical properties by numerical simulation. The main purpose of this work is the characterization of the overall hydro-mechanical properties by computational homogenization. We determine an effective Skempton coefficient by investigating the fluid pressure and the solid displacement of the skeleton saturated by compressible fluids. Fracture networks are stochastically generated to mimic geological in-situ situations. The fractures are approximated as ellipses with aspect ratios up to 1/100, i.e. they constitute thin and long hydraulic conduits with high permeabilities. Simulations are designed on the material scale with and without conservation of fluid mass in the control volume. Using computational homogenization approaches, we define an effective Skempton coefficient. A range of fracture networks with different characteristic properties is studied for different varieties of fractures. On the material scale we find strongly heterogeneous pressure propagation in the fracture network and the surrounding rock, respectively. The pressure diffusion is much faster in the fracture network than in the matrix, rendering the macroscopic hydro-mechanical behavior strongly time dependent. The effective Skempton coefficient converges to an ensemble-specific instantaneous value and to 1 for long-time studies. The ultimate objective of our study is to evaluate whether constraints on the structure of fracture networks can be deduced from observations of attenuation and its frequency dependence.

  3. Effects of Scandinavian hydro power on storage needs in a fully renewable European power system for various transmission capacity scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kies, Alexander; Nag, Kabitri; von Bremen, Lueder; Lorenz, Elke; Heinemann, Detlev

    2015-04-01

    The penetration of renewable energies in the European power system has increased in the last decades (23.5% share of renewables in the gross electricity consumption of the EU-28 in 2012) and is expected to increase further up to very high shares close to 100%. Planning and organizing this European energy transition towards sustainable power sources will be one of the major challenges of the 21st century. It is very likely that in a fully renewable European power system wind and photovoltaics (pv) will contribute the largest shares to the generation mix followed by hydro power. However, feed-in from wind and pv is due to the weather dependant nature of their resources fluctuating and non-controllable. To match generation and consumption several solutions and their combinations were proposed like very high backup-capacities of conventional power generation (e.g. fossile or nuclear), storages or the extension of the transmission grid. Apart from those options hydro power can be used to counterbalance fluctuating wind and pv generation to some extent. In this work we investigate the effects of hydro power from Norway and Sweden on residual storage needs in Europe depending on the overlaying grid scenario. High temporally and spatially resolved weather data with a spatial resolution of 7 x 7 km and a temporal resolution of 1 hour was used to model the feed-in from wind and pv for 34 investigated European countries for the years 2003-2012. Inflow into hydro storages and generation by run-of-river power plants were computed from ERA-Interim reanalysis runoff data at a spatial resolution of 0.75° x 0.75° and a daily temporal resolution. Power flows in a simplified transmission grid connecting the 34 European countries were modelled minimizing dissipation using a DC-flow approximation. Previous work has shown that hydro power, namely in Norway and Sweden, can reduce storage needs in a renewable European power system by a large extent. A 15% share of hydro power in Europe

  4. Analysis of system drought for Manitoba Hydro using stochastic methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akintug, Bertug

    Stochastic time series models are commonly used in the analysis of large-scale water resources systems. In the stochastic approach, synthetic flow scenarios are generated and used for the analysis of complex events such as multi-year droughts. Conclusions drawn from such analyses are only plausible to the extent that the underlying time series model realistically represents the natural variability of flows. Traditionally, hydrologists have favoured autoregressive moving average (ARMA) models to describe annual flows. In this research project, a class of model called Markov-Switching (MS) model (also referred to as a Hidden Markov model) is presented as an alternative to conventional ARMA models. The basic assumption underlying this model is that a limited number of flow regimes exists and that each flow year can be classified as belonging to one of these regimes. The persistence of and switching between regimes is described by a Markov chain. Within each regime, it is assumed that annual flows follow a normal distribution with mean and variance that depend on the regime. The simplicity of this model makes it possible to derive a number of model characteristics analytically such as moments, autocorrelation, and crosscorrelation. Model estimation is possible with the maximum likelihood method implemented using the Expectation Maximization (EM) algorithm. The uncertainty in the model parameters can be assessed through Bayesian inference using Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods. A Markov-Switching disaggregation (MSD) model is also proposed in this research project to disaggregate higher-level flows generated using the MS model into lower-level flows. The MSD model preserves the additivity property because for a given year both the higher-level and lower-level variables are generated from normal distributions. The 2-state MS and MSD models are applied to Manitoba Hydro's system along with more conventional first order autoregressive and disaggregation models and

  5. Evaluation of hydro-mechanical pulsation for rocket injector research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Matthew B.

    The Propulsion Research Center at the University of Alabama in Huntsville has designed and built a hydro-mechanical pulsator to simulate the pressure fluctuations created by high frequency combustion instability. The pressure response characteristics were evaluated in an atmospheric test rig using filtered de-ionized water as the working fluid. The outlet of the pulsator was connected to a swirl injector post to provide downstream flow resistance. Previous low pressure and mass flow experimental data revealed a complex relationship between the control parameters and the pulsation response. For each test, the average mass flow rates of the waste water, water lost through the seals, and injector mass flow rates are measured. A dynamic pressure transducer at the pulsator exit measures and records the pressure waveform. Pulsation magnitude, reliability, repeatability, pulsation effects, and detailed variable control are examined. The data shows the pulsator is capable of generating 30% pulsation at 1575 Hz input. The repeatability of the pulsator is questionable because the standard deviations exceeded 40% of the average. The detailed data obtained during this research provides is sufficient to develop a pulsator tuning procedure for future applications.

  6. Final Report - Wind and Hydro Energy Feasibility Study - June 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Jim Zoellick; Richard Engel; Rubin Garcia; Colin Sheppard

    2011-06-17

    This feasibility examined two of the Yurok Tribe's most promising renewable energy resources, wind and hydro, to provide the Tribe detailed, site specific information that will result in a comprehensive business plan sufficient to implement a favorable renewable energy project.

  7. 57. ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT PLOT PLAN, SANTA ANA NO. 1 HYDRO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    57. ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT PLOT PLAN, SANTA ANA NO. 1 HYDRO PLANT, OCTOBER 10, 1958. SCE drawing no. 428615-0. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-1 Powerhouse, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  8. Orion MPCV Water Landing Test at Hydro Impact Basin

    NASA Video Gallery

    This is the third Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) water landing test conducted at the Hydro Impact Basin at NASA Langley Research Center. This test represented the worst-case scenario for l...

  9. Applying hydraulic transient analysis: The Grizzly Hydro Project

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, T.H.; Stutsman, R.D. )

    1992-04-01

    No matter the size of the hydro plant, if it has a long waterway and will operate in peaking mode, the project designer needs to address the issue of hydraulic transients-known as water hammer-early in the design. This article describes the application of transient analysis to the design of a 20-MW hydro plant in California. In this case, a Howell Bunger valve was used as a pressure regulating valve to control transient pressures and speed rise.

  10. Water withdrawal and consumption reduction analysis for electrical energy generation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nouri, Narjes

    There is an increasing concern over shrinking water resources. Water use in the energy sector primarily occurs in electricity generation. Anticipating scarcer supplies, the value of water is undoubtedly on the rise and design, implementation, and utilization of water saving mechanisms in energy generation systems are becoming inevitable. Most power plants generate power by boiling water to produce steam to spin electricity-generating turbines. Large quantities of water are often used to cool the steam in these plants. As a consequence, most fossil-based power plants in addition to consuming water, impact the water resources by raising the temperature of water withdrawn for cooling. A comprehensive study is conducted in this thesis to analyze and quantify water withdrawals and consumption of various electricity generation sources such as coal, natural gas, renewable sources, etc. Electricity generation for the state of California is studied and presented as California is facing a serious drought problem affecting more than 30 million people. Integrated planning for the interleaved energy and water sectors is essential for both water and energy savings. A linear model is developed to minimize the water consumption while considering several limitations and restrictions. California has planned to shut down some of its hydro and nuclear plants due to environmental concerns. Studies have been performed for various electricity generation and water saving scenarios including no-hydro and no-nuclear plant and the results are presented. Modifications to proposed different scenarios have been applied and discussed to meet the practical and reliability constraints.

  11. Is the green promise of Hydro fading to brown

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, D.

    1992-12-07

    Long a favorite of of sustainable energy groups opposed to more traditional fuels like coal, nuclear and oil, in the last 10 years environmentalists have turned on hydropower - the nation's primary renewable energy resource. Environmentalists say that in most cases hydro has left fish high and dry, transformed once-mighty rivers into pathetic streams and destroyed fragile ecosystems. Suddenly hydro is being mentioned in the same breath with coal, oil and nuclear - precisely the fuels hydro, touted early on as an environmentally benign energy source, was to replace. Today environmentalists talk of [open quotes]non-hydro renewables[close quotes] like wind, solar and biomass. Nowhere is this new-found antipathy more apparent than in the recently passed national energy bill. In amendments to the landmark legislation, environmental groups united to overturn Federal Energy Regulatory Committee regulations that had relaxed federal oversight of hydro projects. Also, the groups insured that hydro projects would be prohibited from national recreational and historic areas. And in an energy blueprint sent to President-elect Clinton last month, 40 organizations urged the Arkansas governor to greatly reduce funding of mature energy technologies, one of which was hydropower.

  12. B.C. Hydro-IPC review: Interim report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    This report is a review of the activities surrounding the creation of IPC (International Power Corporation) and its joint venture with the British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority (BC Hydro) for the development of international power projects, including the Raiwind project in Pakistan. The scope of the review included determination of: The process followed in establishing IPC and the structure of corporations associated with the Raiwind project; the process of conducting the IPC share offering; whether the conduct of participants was in accordance with sound public policy and good business practice; what guidelines and checks existed to protect the public interest; and whether there were any system or governance failures either inside or outside BC Hydro. Sections of the review examine the offshore economic development strategies of BC Hydro; the nature and scope of the Raiwind project; the principal participants involved in that project; the choice of a Cayman Islands planning structure; the investment of BC Hydro funds in the project; the private sector component of Raiwind project funding; accounting for funds invested; standards of conduct of government and BC Hydro-related personnel, including conflicts of interest; and governance issues.

  13. Enrofloxacin hydro­chloride dihydrate

    PubMed Central

    Miranda-Calderón, Jorge E.; Gutiérrez, Lilia; Flores-Alamo, Marcos; García-Gutiérrez, Ponciano; Sumano, Héctor

    2014-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C19H23FN3O3 +·Cl−·2H2O [systematic name: 4-(3-carb­oxy-1-cyclo­propyl-6-fluoro-4-oxo-1,4-di­hydro­quin­o­lin-7-yl)-1-ethyl­piperazin-1-ium chloride dihydrate], consists of two independent monocations of the protonated enrofloxacin, two chloride anions and four water mol­ecules. In the cations, the piperazinium rings adopt chair conformations and the dihedral angles between the cyclo­propyl ring and the 10-membered quinoline ring system are 56.55 (2) and 51.11 (2)°. An intra­molecular O—H⋯O hydrogen bond is observed in each cation. In the crystal, the components are connected via O—H⋯Cl, N—H⋯Cl and O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, and a π–π inter­action between the benzene rings [centroid–centroid distance = 3.6726 (13) Å], resulting in a three-dimensional array. PMID:24826167

  14. Hydro-Balanced Stuffing Box field test

    SciTech Connect

    Giangiacomo, L.A.

    1999-05-28

    The Hydro-Balanced Stuffing Box is a seal assembly for polished rod pumping installations commonly used in oil and gas pumping well installations to contain produced well fluids. The improved stuffing box was developed and patented by Harold H. Palmour of The Palmour Group of Livingston, TX. The stuffing box is designed to reduce the incidence of seal leakage and to utilize an environmentally safe fluid, so that if there is any leakage, environmental damage is reduced or eliminated. The unit was tested on two wells at the Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center. During the test period, the performance of the stuffing box was measured by monitoring the pressure on the tubing and the inner chamber with a Barton Two-pen recorder. The amount of safe fluid consumed, fluid leakage at the top of the stuffing box, pressure supplied from the nitrogen bottle, ambient temperature, and polish rod temperature was recorded. The stuffing box is capable of providing a better seal between well fluids an d the environment than conventional stuffing boxes. It allows the polished rod to operate cooler and with lubrication, extending the life of the packing elements, and reducing the amount of attention required to prevent leakage.

  15. Development of a Spatial Decision Support System for Analyzing Changes in Hydro-meteorological Risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Westen, Cees

    2013-04-01

    In the framework of the EU FP7 Marie Curie ITN Network "CHANGES: Changing Hydro-meteorological Risks, as Analyzed by a New Generation of European Scientists (http://www.changes-itn.eu)", a spatial decision support system is under development with the aim to analyze the effect of risk reduction planning alternatives on reducing the risk now and in the future, and support decision makers in selecting the best alternatives. The SDSS is one of the main outputs of the CHANGES network, which will develop an advanced understanding of how global changes, related to environmental and climate change as well as socio-economical change, may affect the temporal and spatial patterns of hydro-meteorological hazards and associated risks in Europe; how these changes can be assessed, modeled, and incorporated in sustainable risk management strategies, focusing on spatial planning, emergency preparedness and risk communication. The CHANGES network consists of 11 full partners and 6 associate partners of which 5 private companies, representing 10 European countries. The CHANGES network has hired 12 Early Stage Researchers (ESRs) and is currently hiring 3-6 researchers more for the implementation of the SDSS. The Spatial Decision Support System will be composed of a number of integrated components. The Risk Assessment component allows to carry out spatial risk analysis, with different degrees of complexity, ranging from simple exposure (overlay of hazard and assets maps) to quantitative analysis (using different hazard types, temporal scenarios and vulnerability curves) resulting into risk curves. The platform does not include a component to calculate hazard maps, and existing hazard maps are used as input data for the risk component. The second component of the SDSS is a risk reduction planning component, which forms the core of the platform. This component includes the definition of risk reduction alternatives (related to disaster response planning, risk reduction measures and

  16. An Overview of Manganese Recovery by Hydro and Pyro-Metallurgical Routes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwivedi, Deepak; Randhawa, Navneet Singh; Saroj, Sanjay; Jana, Ranjeet Kumar

    2016-06-01

    This review comprises of information about the recovery of manganese through leaching and carbothermic reduction routes. In industrial processes, various critical parameters such as ore size, temperature, pressure, gas atmosphere and ore composition etc. affect the reduction or recovery of Mn from ores. Authors have tried to bring those critical parameters in this review which is currently being considered as important industrial parameters for Mn ore processing. This paper deals with both pyro-metallurgical and hydro-metallurgical routes for Mn ore reduction and gives brief summary about the critical parameters.

  17. 75 FR 75999 - Lock + Hydro Friends Fund XlVI; FFP Missouri 17, LLC; Solia 3 Hydroelectric, LLC; Three Rivers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ...; Project No. 13783-000; Project No. 13790-000] Lock + Hydro Friends Fund XlVI; FFP Missouri 17, LLC; Solia 3 Hydroelectric, LLC; Three Rivers Hydro, LLC; Hildebrand Hydro, LLC; Notice of Competing... 30, 2010. On May 18, 2010, Lock + Hydro Friends Fund XLVI, FFP Missouri 17, LLC, Solia 3 Hydro,...

  18. The different modes of hydro-economic analysis (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harou, J. J.; Binions, O.; Erfani, T.

    2013-12-01

    In the face of growing water demands, climate change and spatial and temporal water access variability, accurately assessing the economic impacts of proposed water resource management changes is useful. The objective of this project funded by UK Water Industry Research was to present and demonstrate a framework for identifying and using the ';value of water' to enable water utilities and their regulators to make better decisions. A hydro-economic model can help evaluate water management options in terms of their hydrological and economic impact at different locations throughout a catchment over time. In this talk we discuss three modes in which hydro-economic models can be implemented: evaluative, behavioral and prescriptive. In evaluation mode economic water demand and benefit functions are used to post-process water resource management model results to assess the economic impacts (over space and time) of a policy under consideration. In behavioral hydro-economic models users are represented as agents and the economics is used to help predict their actions. In prescriptive mode optimization is used to find the most economically efficient management actions such as allocation patterns or source selection. These three types of hydro-economic analysis are demonstrated on a UK watershed (Great River Ouse) that includes 97 different water abstractors from amongst the public water supply, agriculture, industry and energy plant cooling sectors. The following issues under dry and normal historical conditions were investigated: Supply/demand investment planning, societal cost of environmental flows, water market prices, and scarcity-sensitive charges for water rights. The talk discusses which hydro-economic modeling mode is used to study each of these issues and why; example results are shown and discussed. The topic of how hydro-economic models can be built and deployed effectively is covered along with how existing water utility operational and planning tools can be

  19. Mortality Patterns of Hydro-Geomorphologic Disasters.

    PubMed

    Pereira, S; Zêzere, J L; Quaresma, I; Santos, P P; Santos, M

    2016-06-01

    Social impacts caused by floods and landslides in Portugal in the period of 1865-2010 are gathered in the DISASTER database. This database contains 1,902 hydro-geomorphologic cases that caused 1,248 fatalities (81% and 19% associated with floods and landslides, respectively). The use of the DISASTER database allowed for: (i) the analysis of the frequency and the temporal evolution of fatal floods and landslides; (ii) the analysis of the spatio-temporal distribution of fatalities; (iii) the identification of the most deadly flood and landside types; (iv) the verification of gender tendencies in mortalities; and (v) the evaluation of individual and societal risk. The highest number of flood and landslide cases and related mortalities occurred in the period of 1935-1969. After this period, the number of flood and landslide mortalities decreased, although landslide fatalities remained higher than those registered in the period of 1865-1934. The occurrence of flood fatalities was widespread in the country, with an important cluster in the Lisbon region and in the Tagus valley, while fatalities caused by landslides mainly occurred in the north of the Tagus valley. Flash floods caused the majority of fatalities associated with floods, while falls and flows were responsible for the highest number of fatalities associated with landslides. Males were found to have the highest frequency of fatalities. In the case of floods, the majority of fatalities were found both outdoors and inside of buildings in rural areas while fatalities inside buildings were dominant in landslide cases, mostly in rural areas.

  20. Assessing Hydro-Ecological Vulnerability from Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stampoulis, D.; Andreadis, K.; Granger, S. L.; Fisher, J. B.; Turk, F. J.; Behrangi, A.; Das, N. N.; Ines, A.

    2015-12-01

    The main driver of economic growth in East Africa is agriculture. However, climate change and the resulting intensification of the hydrologic cycle will increase water limitation in this already drought-burdened region, and the challenge of ensuring food security is bound to become critical. Efforts must, therefore, be made to develop appropriate adaptation strategies for agriculture in such regions. Assessing and predicting ecosystem responses to global environmental change can advance management and decision support systems that would improve food security and economic development. The current study uses a plethora of multi-year remote sensing earth observations to study the hydro-ecological vulnerability of the various ecosystems in the water-stressed East African region to droughts. More specifically, we assess the hydrologic sensitivity and resilience of soil moisture and vegetation water content (derived from NRL's WindSat radiometer), during dry spells, for different dry-period durations, and for various vegetation categories. Spatiotemporal patterns and characteristics of the response of the two aforementioned variables to sustained precipitation deficits (derived from TRMM 3B42 V7), as well as their persistence in maintaining their stability are identified. We also assess changes, in space and time, in the normalized radar surface-backscattering cross-sections from NASA's QuikSCAT Scatterometer, to obtain information on the vegetation regimes, as well as changes in vegetation phenometrics using the enhanced vegetation index (EVI) derived from MODIS. Quantifying the response and characterizing the resilience of the two aforementioned major hydrological attributes using various remote sensing techniques that complement each other, can provide critical insight into the region's vulnerability and adaptive capacity with respect to rainfall variability.

  1. Mortality Patterns of Hydro-Geomorphologic Disasters.

    PubMed

    Pereira, S; Zêzere, J L; Quaresma, I; Santos, P P; Santos, M

    2016-06-01

    Social impacts caused by floods and landslides in Portugal in the period of 1865-2010 are gathered in the DISASTER database. This database contains 1,902 hydro-geomorphologic cases that caused 1,248 fatalities (81% and 19% associated with floods and landslides, respectively). The use of the DISASTER database allowed for: (i) the analysis of the frequency and the temporal evolution of fatal floods and landslides; (ii) the analysis of the spatio-temporal distribution of fatalities; (iii) the identification of the most deadly flood and landside types; (iv) the verification of gender tendencies in mortalities; and (v) the evaluation of individual and societal risk. The highest number of flood and landslide cases and related mortalities occurred in the period of 1935-1969. After this period, the number of flood and landslide mortalities decreased, although landslide fatalities remained higher than those registered in the period of 1865-1934. The occurrence of flood fatalities was widespread in the country, with an important cluster in the Lisbon region and in the Tagus valley, while fatalities caused by landslides mainly occurred in the north of the Tagus valley. Flash floods caused the majority of fatalities associated with floods, while falls and flows were responsible for the highest number of fatalities associated with landslides. Males were found to have the highest frequency of fatalities. In the case of floods, the majority of fatalities were found both outdoors and inside of buildings in rural areas while fatalities inside buildings were dominant in landslide cases, mostly in rural areas. PMID:26616470

  2. 77 FR 62535 - Hydro Aluminum North America, Inc., Midwest Region, Including On-Site Leased Workers From...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-15

    ... Employment and Training Administration Hydro Aluminum North America, Inc., Midwest Region, Including On- Site Leased Workers From Employment Group, Aerotek, and Manpower, Kalamazoo, Michigan; Hydro Aluminum North... and former workers of Hydro Aluminum North America, Inc., Kalamazoo, Michigan. The subject...

  3. Dynamic hydro-climatic networks in pristine and regulated rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botter, G.; Basso, S.; Lazzaro, G.; Doulatyari, B.; Biswal, B.; Schirmer, M.; Rinaldo, A.

    2014-12-01

    Flow patterns observed at-a-station are the dynamical byproduct of a cascade of processes involving different compartments of the hydro-climatic network (e.g., climate, rainfall, soil, vegetation) that regulates the transformation of rainfall into streamflows. In complex branching rivers, flow regimes result from the heterogeneous arrangement around the stream network of multiple hydrologic cascades that simultaneously occur within distinct contributing areas. As such, flow regimes are seen as the integrated output of a complex "network of networks", which can be properly characterized by its degree of temporal variability and spatial heterogeneity. Hydrologic networks that generate river flow regimes are dynamic in nature. In pristine rivers, the time-variance naturally emerges at multiple timescales from climate variability (namely, seasonality and inter-annual fluctuations), implying that the magnitude (and the features) of the water flow between two nodes may be highly variable across different seasons and years. Conversely, the spatial distribution of river flow regimes within pristine rivers involves scale-dependent transport features, as well as regional climatic and soil use gradients, which in small and meso-scale catchments (A < 103 km2) are usually mild enough to guarantee quite uniform flow regimes and high spatial correlations. Human-impacted rivers, instead, constitute hybrid networks where observed spatio-temporal patterns are dominated by anthropogenic shifts, such as landscape alterations and river regulation. In regulated rivers, the magnitude and the features of water flows from node to node may change significantly through time due to damming and withdrawals. However, regulation may impact river regimes in a spatially heterogeneous manner (e.g. in localized river reaches), with a significant decrease of spatial correlations and network connectivity. Provided that the spatial and temporal dynamics of flow regimes in complex rivers may strongly

  4. Ethyl 1-benzoyl-4-hy­droxy-2,6-diphenyl-1,2,5,6-tetra­hydro­pyridine-3-carboxyl­ate

    PubMed Central

    Aridoss, G.; Sundaramoorthy, S.; Velmurugan, D.; Jeong, Y. T.

    2011-01-01

    In the title compound, C27H25NO4, the tetra­hydro­pyridine ring adopts a half-chair conformation. The three phenyl rings form dihedral angles of 66.33 (7), 87.36 (8) and 36.90 (7)° with the least-squares plane through the tetra­hydro­pyridine ring. The mol­ecular conformation is stabilized by an intra­molecular O—H⋯O hydrogen bond, generating an S(6) motif. PMID:21522308

  5. Tacrolimus ointment does not affect the immediate response to vaccination, the generation of immune memory, or humoral and cell‐mediated immunity in children

    PubMed Central

    Hofman, T; Cranswick, N; Kuna, P; Boznanski, A; Latos, T; Gold, M; Murrell, D F; Gebauer, K; Behre, U; Machura, E; Ólafsson, J; Szalai, Z

    2006-01-01

    Background Concern exists that the prolonged application of immunomodulators to treat atopic dermatitis may cause systemic immunosuppression. Aims In a 7‐month, multicentre, randomised, controlled trial, we investigated the equivalence of response to vaccination against meningococcal serogroup C disease with a protein‐conjugate vaccine in children (2–11 years) with moderate to severe atopic dermatitis, by applying either 0.03% tacrolimus ointment (TAC‐O; n = 21) or a hydrocortisone ointment regimen (HC‐O; n = 111). Methods TAC‐O was applied twice daily (bid) for 3 weeks, and thereafter daily until clearance. 1% hydrocortisone acetate (HA) for head/neck and 0.1% hydrocortisone butyrate ointment for trunk/limbs was applied bid for 2 weeks; thereafter HA was applied bid to all affected areas. At week 1, patients were vaccinated with protein‐conjugate vaccine against meningococcal serogroup C, and challenged at month 6 with low dose meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine. The control group (44 non‐atopic dermatatits children) received the primary vaccination and challenge dose. Assessments were made at baseline, weeks 1 and 5, and months 6 and 7. The primary end point was the percentage of patients with a serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) titre ⩾8 at the week 5 visit. Results The response rate (patients with SBA titre ⩾8) was 97.5% (confidence interval (CI) approximately 97.3 to 100), 99.1% (94.8 to 100) and 97.7% (93.3 to 100) in the TAC‐O, HC‐O and control groups, respectively. Conclusions The immune response to vaccination against meningococcal serogroup C in children with atopic dermatitis applying either 0.03% TAC‐O or HC is equivalent. Ointment application does not affect the immediate response to vaccination, generation of immune memory or humoral and cell‐mediated immunity. PMID:16798785

  6. Power Management Based Current Control Technique for Photovoltaic-Battery Assisted Wind-Hydro Hybrid System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ram Prabhakar, J.; Ragavan, K.

    2013-07-01

    This article proposes new power management based current control strategy for integrated wind-solar-hydro system equipped with battery storage mechanism. In this control technique, an indirect estimation of load current is done, through energy balance model, DC-link voltage control and droop control. This system features simpler energy management strategy and necessitates few power electronic converters, thereby minimizing the cost of the system. The generation-demand (G-D) management diagram is formulated based on the stochastic weather conditions and demand, which would likely moderate the gap between both. The features of management strategy deploying energy balance model include (1) regulating DC-link voltage within specified tolerances, (2) isolated operation without relying on external electric power transmission network, (3) indirect current control of hydro turbine driven induction generator and (4) seamless transition between grid-connected and off-grid operation modes. Furthermore, structuring of the hybrid system with appropriate selection of control variables enables power sharing among each energy conversion systems and battery storage mechanism. By addressing these intricacies, it is viable to regulate the frequency and voltage of the remote network at load end. The performance of the proposed composite scheme is demonstrated through time-domain simulation in MATLAB/Simulink environment.

  7. On the relationship between hydro-meteorological patterns and flood types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nied, Manuela; Pardowitz, Tobias; Nissen, Katrin; Ulbrich, Uwe; Hundecha, Yeshewatesfa; Merz, Bruno

    2014-11-01

    Flood generation is triggered by the interaction of the hydrological pre-conditions and the meteorological conditions at different space-time scales. This interaction results in floods of diverse characteristics, e.g. spatial flood extent and temporal flood progression. While previous studies have either linked flood occurrence to weather patterns neglecting the hydrological pre-conditions or categorised floods according to their generating mechanisms into flood types, this study combines both approaches. Exemplary for the Elbe River basin, the influence of pre-event soil moisture as an indicator of hydrological pre-conditions, on the link between weather patterns and flood occurrence is investigated. Flood favouring soil moisture and weather patterns as well as their combined influence on flood occurrence are examined. Flood types are identified and linked to soil moisture and weather patterns. The results show that the flood favouring hydro-meteorological patterns vary between seasons and can be linked to flood types. The highest flood potential for long-rain floods is associated with a weather pattern that is often identified in the presence of so called ';Vb' cyclones. Rain-on-snow and snowmelt floods are associated with westerly and north-westerly wind directions. In the analysis period, 18% of weather patterns only caused flooding in case of preceding soil saturation. The presented concept is part of a paradigm shift from pure flood frequency analysis to a frequency analysis that bases itself on process understanding by describing flood occurrence and characteristics in dependence of hydro-meteorological patterns.

  8. 76 FR 44323 - National Grid Transmission Services Corporation; Bangor Hydro Electric Company; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission National Grid Transmission Services Corporation; Bangor Hydro Electric... Services Corporation and Bangor Hydro Electric Company (collectively, NEL Parties) filed a petition...

  9. 77 FR 22568 - Madison Paper Industries, FPL Energy Maine Hydro, LLC, Merimil Limited Partnership; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Madison Paper Industries, FPL Energy Maine Hydro, LLC, Merimil Limited... Industries, FPL Energy Maine Hydro, LLC, and Merimil Limited Partnership, licensees for the...

  10. 6. INTERIOR VIEW OF CROSSCUT HYDRO PLANT, SHOWING 25 CYCLE60 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. INTERIOR VIEW OF CROSSCUT HYDRO PLANT, SHOWING 25 CYCLE-60 CYCLE FREQUENCY CHANGER Photographer unknown, December 14, 1940 - Cross Cut Hydro Plant, North Side of Salt River, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  11. The HydroServer Platform for Sharing Hydrologic Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarboton, D. G.; Horsburgh, J. S.; Schreuders, K.; Maidment, D. R.; Zaslavsky, I.; Valentine, D. W.

    2010-12-01

    The CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System (HIS) is an internet based system that supports sharing of hydrologic data. HIS consists of databases connected using the Internet through Web services, as well as software for data discovery, access, and publication. The HIS system architecture is comprised of servers for publishing and sharing data, a centralized catalog to support cross server data discovery and a desktop client to access and analyze data. This paper focuses on HydroServer, the component developed for sharing and publishing space-time hydrologic datasets. A HydroServer is a computer server that contains a collection of databases, web services, tools, and software applications that allow data producers to store, publish, and manage the data from an experimental watershed or project site. HydroServer is designed to permit publication of data as part of a distributed national/international system, while still locally managing access to the data. We describe the HydroServer architecture and software stack, including tools for managing and publishing time series data for fixed point monitoring sites as well as spatially distributed, GIS datasets that describe a particular study area, watershed, or region. HydroServer adopts a standards based approach to data publication, relying on accepted and emerging standards for data storage and transfer. CUAHSI developed HydroServer code is free with community code development managed through the codeplex open source code repository and development system. There is some reliance on widely used commercial software for general purpose and standard data publication capability. The sharing of data in a common format is one way to stimulate interdisciplinary research and collaboration. It is anticipated that the growing, distributed network of HydroServers will facilitate cross-site comparisons and large scale studies that synthesize information from diverse settings, making the network as a whole greater than the sum of its

  12. KONJAC1 and 2 Are Key Factors for GDP-Mannose Generation and Affect l-Ascorbic Acid and Glucomannan Biosynthesis in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Sawake, Shota; Tajima, Noriaki; Mortimer, Jenny C; Lao, Jeemeng; Ishikawa, Toshiki; Yu, Xiaolan; Yamanashi, Yukiko; Yoshimi, Yoshihisa; Kawai-Yamada, Maki; Dupree, Paul; Tsumuraya, Yoichi; Kotake, Toshihisa

    2015-12-01

    Humans are unable to synthesize l-ascorbic acid (AsA), yet it is required as a cofactor in many critical biochemical reactions. The majority of human dietary AsA is obtained from plants. In Arabidopsis thaliana, a GDP-mannose pyrophosphorylase (GMPP), VITAMIN C DEFECTIVE1 (VTC1), catalyzes a rate-limiting step in AsA synthesis: the formation of GDP-Man. In this study, we identified two nucleotide sugar pyrophosphorylase-like proteins, KONJAC1 (KJC1) and KJC2, which stimulate the activity of VTC1. The kjc1kjc2 double mutant exhibited severe dwarfism, indicating that KJC proteins are important for growth and development. The kjc1 mutation reduced GMPP activity to 10% of wild-type levels, leading to a 60% reduction in AsA levels. On the contrary, overexpression of KJC1 significantly increased GMPP activity. The kjc1 and kjc1kjc2 mutants also exhibited significantly reduced levels of glucomannan, which is also synthesized from GDP-Man. Recombinant KJC1 and KJC2 enhanced the GMPP activity of recombinant VTC1 in vitro, while KJCs did not show GMPP activity. Yeast two-hybrid assays suggested that the stimulation of GMPP activity occurs via interaction of KJCs with VTC1. These results suggest that KJCs are key factors for the generation of GDP-Man and affect AsA level and glucomannan accumulation through the stimulation of VTC1 GMPP activity.

  13. Coupling X-band dual-polarized mini-radars and hydro-meteorological forecast models: the HYDRORAD project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picciotti, E.; Marzano, F. S.; Anagnostou, E. N.; Kalogiros, J.; Fessas, Y.; Volpi, A.; Cazac, V.; Pace, R.; Cinque, G.; Bernardini, L.; De Sanctis, K.; Di Fabio, S.; Montopoli, M.; Anagnostou, M. N.; Telleschi, A.; Dimitriou, E.; Stella, J.

    2013-05-01

    Hydro-meteorological hazards like convective outbreaks leading to torrential rain and floods are among the most critical environmental issues world-wide. In that context weather radar observations have proven to be very useful in providing information on the spatial distribution of rainfall that can support early warning of floods. However, quantitative precipitation estimation by radar is subjected to many limitations and uncertainties. The use of dual-polarization at high frequency (i.e. X-band) has proven particularly useful for mitigating some of the limitation of operational systems, by exploiting the benefit of easiness to transport and deploy and the high spatial and temporal resolution achievable at small antenna sizes. New developments on X-band dual-polarization technology in recent years have received the interest of scientific and operational communities in these systems. New enterprises are focusing on the advancement of cost-efficient mini-radar network technology, based on high-frequency (mainly X-band) and low-power weather radar systems for weather monitoring and hydro-meteorological forecasting. Within the above context, the main objective of the HYDRORAD project was the development of an innovative integrated decision support tool for weather monitoring and hydro-meteorological applications. The integrated system tool is based on a polarimetric X-band mini-radar network which is the core of the decision support tool, a novel radar products generator and a hydro-meteorological forecast modelling system that ingests mini-radar rainfall products to forecast precipitation and floods. The radar products generator includes algorithms for attenuation correction, hydrometeor classification, a vertical profile reflectivity correction, a new polarimetric rainfall estimators developed for mini-radar observations, and short-term nowcasting of convective cells. The hydro-meteorological modelling system includes the Mesoscale Model 5 (MM5) and the Army Corps

  14. 75 FR 11527 - KC Hydro LLC; Notice of Competing Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-11

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission KC Hydro LLC; Notice of Competing Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Comments March 4, 2010. On November 6, 2009, KC Hydro LLC filed an... gigawatt-hours. Applicant Contact: Kelly Sackheim, KC Hydro LLC, 5096 Cocoa Palm Way, Fair Oaks, CA...

  15. 40 CFR 721.1880 - Borate(1-), tris(acetato-.kappa.O)hydro-, sodium, (T-4)-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...)hydro-, sodium, (T-4)-. 721.1880 Section 721.1880 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1880 Borate(1-), tris(acetato-.kappa.O)hydro-, sodium... substance identified as borate(1-), tris(acetato-.kappa.O)hydro-, sodium, (T-4)- (PMN P-00-0922; CAS...

  16. 77 FR 55466 - Barren River Lake Hydro LLC; Notice Soliciting Scoping Comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-10

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Barren River Lake Hydro LLC; Notice Soliciting Scoping Comments Take notice... filed: December 9, 2011 and amended on June 21, 2012. d. Applicant: Barren River Lake Hydro LLC (Barren River Hydro). e. Name of Project: Barren River Lake Dam Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: At the...

  17. 75 FR 48664 - Turnbull Hydro, LLC; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-11

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Turnbull Hydro, LLC; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment... (Order No. 486, 52 Federal Register 47897), the Office of Energy Projects has reviewed Turnbull Hydro, LLC's (Turnbull Hydro's) application for amendment of license for the Lower Turnbull Drop and...

  18. 76 FR 36533 - Bangor Hydro Electric Company; Notice of Request for Waiver

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Bangor Hydro Electric Company; Notice of Request for Waiver Take notice that...), Bangor Hydro Electric Company (Bangor Hydro) requests a limited waiver of Part 358 of the...

  19. 77 FR 13317 - Notice Announcing Filing Priority for Preliminary Permit Applications: Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-06

    ...] Notice Announcing Filing Priority for Preliminary Permit Applications: Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund VIII; FFP Project 92, LLC; Riverbank Hydro No. 24, LLC On February 28, 2012, the Commission held a drawing to... order of priority is as follows: 1. FFP Project 92, LLC: Project No. 14276-000. 2. Riverbank Hydro...

  20. 76 FR 75543 - Missisquoi River Technologies; Missisquoi River Hydro LLC; Notice of Transfer of Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-02

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Missisquoi River Technologies; Missisquoi River Hydro LLC; Notice of... issued June 29, 1989,\\1\\ has been transferred to Missisquoi River Hydro LLC. The project is located on... Commission approval. \\1\\ 47 FERC ] 62,284 (1989). 2. Missisquoi River Hydro LLC, located at 453 East Hill...

  1. 40 CFR 721.1880 - Borate(1-), tris(acetato-.kappa.O)hydro-, sodium, (T-4)-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...)hydro-, sodium, (T-4)-. 721.1880 Section 721.1880 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1880 Borate(1-), tris(acetato-.kappa.O)hydro-, sodium... substance identified as borate(1-), tris(acetato-.kappa.O)hydro-, sodium, (T-4)- (PMN P-00-0922; CAS...

  2. 76 FR 12947 - Bear Creek Hydro Associates, LLC; Notice of Declaration of Intention and Soliciting Comments...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Bear...: DI11-3-000. c. Date Filed: February 14, 2011. ] d. Applicant: Bear Creek Hydro Associates, LLC. e. Name of Project: Bear Creek Hydro Project. f. Location: The Bear Creek Hydro Project will be located...

  3. 75 FR 71106 - Deer Creek Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-22

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Deer Creek Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for... October 14, 2010, Deer Creek Hydro, LLC (Deer Creek Hydro) filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to section 4(f) of the Federal Power Act (FPA), proposing to study the feasibility of the...

  4. 78 FR 71601 - KC Small Hydro LLC; Advanced Hydropower, Inc.; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-29

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission KC Small Hydro LLC; Advanced Hydropower, Inc.; Notice of Preliminary Permit... the applicant to KC Small Hydro LLC. (KCS Hydro). On November 5, 2013, Advanced Hydropower, Inc... the feasibility of a hydropower project to be located at the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers'...

  5. 78 FR 28838 - Hamilton Street Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Hamilton Street Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application..., 2013, Hamilton Street Hydro, LLC, filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to section 4... Boumansour, Hamilton Street Hydro, LLC, 1401 Walnut Street, Suite 301, Boulder, CO 80302; phone: (303)...

  6. 77 FR 26796 - HydroGenetics, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-07

    ... COMMISSION HydroGenetics, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading May 2, 2012. It appears to the Securities and... HydroGenetics, Inc. (``HydroGenetics'') because it has not filed a periodic report since its Form 10... interest and the protection of investors require a suspension of trading in the securities of...

  7. Imparting super hydro/oleophobic properties to cotton fabric by means of molecular and nanoparticles vapor deposition methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aminayi, Payam; Abidi, Noureddine

    2013-12-01

    Super hydro/oleophobic cotton fabrics were prepared using nanoparticle vapor deposition and molecular vapor deposition techniques. The surface was roughened by trimethylaluminum/water nanoparticles followed by functionalization with (tridecafluoro-1,1,2,2-tetrahydrooctyl)trichlorosilane. This process imparted unique hydro/oleophobic properties (contact angle >160°). In contrast to wet chemistry processes, the chemicals used and the thickness of the coatings produced by this method could be controlled precisely, which allowed for the minimization of waste generation while preserving the original properties of the fabric. Dynamic contact angles were measured and the fabrics that were coated using this technique showed low-contact-angle hysteresis properties. Scanning electron microscopy and universal attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed the formation of a nanostructure-roughened surface. Drop dynamics such as the force of droplet movement, work of adhesion, and surface free energy were also calculated.

  8. Modeling the hydro-mechanical responses of strip and circular punch loadings on water-saturated collapsible geomaterials

    DOE PAGES

    Sun, WaiChing; Chen, Qiushi; Ostien, Jakob T.

    2013-11-22

    A stabilized enhanced strain finite element procedure for poromechanics is fully integrated with an elasto-plastic cap model to simulate the hydro-mechanical interactions of fluid-infiltrating porous rocks with associative and non-associative plastic flow. We present a quantitative analysis on how macroscopic plastic volumetric response caused by pore collapse and grain rearrangement affects the seepage of pore fluid, and vice versa. Results of finite element simulations imply that the dissipation of excess pore pressure may significantly affect the stress path and thus alter the volumetric plastic responses.

  9. 75 FR 45607 - Application To Export Electric Energy; Manitoba Hydro

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-03

    ... Application To Export Electric Energy; Manitoba Hydro AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy... authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to Canada pursuant to section 202(e) of the... Order No. EA-281, which authorized Manitoba to transmit electric energy from the United States to...

  10. Virtues of simple hydro-economic optimization: Baja California, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Medellín-Azuara, J; Mendoza-Espinosa, L G; Lund, J R; Harou, J J; Howitt, R E

    2009-08-01

    This paper uses simple hydro-economic optimization to investigate a wide range of regional water system management options for northern Baja California, Mexico. Hydro-economic optimization models, even with parsimonious model formulations, enable investigation of promising water management portfolios for supplying water to agricultural, environmental and urban users. CALVIN, a generalized hydro-economic model, is used in a case study of Baja California. This drought-prone region faces significant challenges to supply water to agriculture and its fast growing border cities. Water management portfolios include water markets, wastewater reuse, seawater desalination and infrastructure expansions. Water markets provide the flexibility to meet future urban demands; however conveyance capacity limits their use. Wastewater reuse and conveyance expansions are economically promising. At current costs desalination is currently uneconomical for Baja California compared to other alternatives. Even simple hydro-economic models suggest ways to increase efficiency of water management in water scarce areas, and provide an economic basis for evaluating long-term water management solutions.

  11. Hydro-Geomorphic Variability as an Ecological Template for Aquatic and Riparian Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, D. R.

    2002-12-01

    Hydro-geomorphic processes act as ecological disturbances that shape ecosystem characteristics and dynamics and play key roles in creating, modifying, and destroying aquatic habitat. Within the broad regional context set by general patterns of climate, geology, topography, and vegetation, the combined influences of the hydrologic, geomorphic, and vegetation regimes dominate the variability of river systems. Of particular relevance to aquatic and riparian ecosystems are the main processes that transport and store water, sediment, and wood, and how differences in current and potential conditions are related to both local conditions and basin-wide tends. The concept of process domains, distinct areas of a landscape that correspond to different disturbance regimes, provides a framework for integrating the inherent interplay of spatial and temporal variability in channel processes. The intensity of the impact, the size of the area affected, and the frequency of occurrence together define the disturbance regime associated with particular hydro-geomorphic processes. The disturbance regime sets the physical habitat template that influences potentially successful behavioral and life-history strategies of stream dwelling organisms. The distribution of some organisms is strongly associated with different process domains, whereas that of habitat generalists are not. Three general principles apply to the use of hydro-geomorphic variability as an ecological template for aquatic and riparian ecosystems. (1) What constitutes a disturbance is species specific and will vary according to the system or community under consideration and focusing on needs of a single target species and life stage can unintentionally degrade the system for other species or life stages. For example, river restoration efforts focused on spawning reaches and water levels for chinook salmon may ignore or exacerbate the loss of off-channel habitat such as side channels, groundwater-fed floodplain channels

  12. Next-Generation Pyrosequencing Analysis of Microbial Biofilm Communities on Granular Activated Carbon in Treatment of Oil Sands Process-Affected Water

    PubMed Central

    Islam, M. Shahinoor; Zhang, Yanyan; McPhedran, Kerry N.

    2015-01-01

    The development of biodegradation treatment processes for oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) has been progressing in recent years with the promising potential of biofilm reactors. Previously, the granular activated carbon (GAC) biofilm process was successfully employed for treatment of a large variety of recalcitrant organic compounds in domestic and industrial wastewaters. In this study, GAC biofilm microbial development and degradation efficiency were investigated for OSPW treatment by monitoring the biofilm growth on the GAC surface in raw and ozonated OSPW in batch bioreactors. The GAC biofilm community was characterized using a next-generation 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing technique that revealed that the phylum Proteobacteria was dominant in both OSPW and biofilms, with further in-depth analysis showing higher abundances of Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria sequences. Interestingly, many known polyaromatic hydrocarbon degraders, namely, Burkholderiales, Pseudomonadales, Bdellovibrionales, and Sphingomonadales, were observed in the GAC biofilm. Ozonation decreased the microbial diversity in planktonic OSPW but increased the microbial diversity in the GAC biofilms. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed similar bacterial gene copy numbers (>109 gene copies/g of GAC) for both raw and ozonated OSPW GAC biofilms. The observed rates of removal of naphthenic acids (NAs) over the 2-day experiments for the GAC biofilm treatments of raw and ozonated OSPW were 31% and 66%, respectively. Overall, a relatively low ozone dose (30 mg of O3/liter utilized) combined with GAC biofilm treatment significantly increased NA removal rates. The treatment of OSPW in bioreactors using GAC biofilms is a promising technology for the reduction of recalcitrant OSPW organic compounds. PMID:25841014

  13. Simulations of Blade Angle Effects on EGAT-Micro Hydro Turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuantong, Weerapon; Taechajedcadarungsri, Sirivit

    2010-06-01

    Following the feasibility study of design phase of EGAT (Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand) in-house micro hydro bulb turbine at Huai Kum Dam drainage pipeline from the reservoir for irrigation, the simulation of blade angle effects had been performed. In this case study, the turbine was designed at the average head of 21 m and water flow rate of 0.424 m3/s. The simulation was conducted in order to study of the effects of blade angle on the fluid flow for this specific case. The LES turbulence model under the practical condition of unsteady flow and incompressible fluid at Huai Kum Dam was investigated. The rotating blades effect the change in pressure and momentum which depend on head and flow rate of fluid. The research studied pressure and velocity of fluid flow on blades solving the pre-design for the improvement of hydro turbine efficiency. The computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) was used to simulate the pressure and velocity distributions on blades of hydro bulb turbine which consists of five-blade runner and rotates at 980 rpm by using Fluent Software. The model was set at the blade twist angle of 25o and blade camber angle of 32o and then adjusted the guide vane angle to 60o, 65o and 70o respectively for comparing the maximum and minimum pressure on both sides of the blades as well as the corresponding efficiency. The results have shown that by setting guide vane angle to 60o, 65o and 70o, the maximum pressure, located at the leading edge of pressure side, are 213 kPa, 217 kPa and 207 kPa and the minimum pressure, located at the leading edge of suction side are -473 kPa, -465 kPa, and -581 kPa respectively. The flow profiles of pressure, velocity and stream line showed the guidelines of better blade angle comparisons. The maximum efficiency of hydro bulb turbine found in this study was 67.8% at blade angle of 32o and guide vane of 60o. This case study will be further investigated on the blade design for the improvement of the turbine efficiency

  14. Satellite Based Probabilistic Snow Cover Extent Mapping (SCE) at Hydro-Québec

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teasdale, Mylène; De Sève, Danielle; Angers, Jean-François; Perreault, Luc

    2016-04-01

    Over 40% of Canada's water resources are in Quebec and Hydro-Quebec has developed potential to become one of the largest producers of hydroelectricity in the world, with a total installed capacity of 36,643 MW. The Hydro-Québec fleet park includes 27 large reservoirs with a combined storage capacity of 176 TWh, and 668 dams and 98 controls. Thus, over 98% of all electricity used to supply the domestic market comes from water resources and the excess output is sold on the wholesale markets. In this perspective the efficient management of water resources is needed and it is based primarily on a good river flow estimation including appropriate hydrological data. Snow on ground is one of the significant variables representing 30% to 40% of its annual energy reserve. More specifically, information on snow cover extent (SCE) and snow water equivalent (SWE) is crucial for hydrological forecasting, particularly in northern regions since the snowmelt provides the water that fills the reservoirs and is subsequently used for hydropower generation. For several years Hydro Quebec's research institute ( IREQ) developed several algorithms to map SCE and SWE. So far all the methods were deterministic. However, given the need to maximize the efficient use of all resources while ensuring reliability, the electrical systems must now be managed taking into account all risks. Since snow cover estimation is based on limited spatial information, it is important to quantify and handle its uncertainty in the hydrological forecasting system. This paper presents the first results of a probabilistic algorithm for mapping SCE by combining Bayesian mixture of probability distributions and multiple logistic regression models applied to passive microwave data. This approach allows assigning for each grid point, probabilities to the set of the mutually exclusive discrete outcomes: "snow" and "no snow". Its performance was evaluated using the Brier score since it is particularly appropriate to

  15. Hydro-climatic fluctuations driven by natural and anthropogenic forcing in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, S.; Yang, D.

    2014-12-01

    Hydrological change is one of the most profound parts of global change which is associated with freshwater resources, food security and balance of ecosystem. Its driving factors in the past need to be understood and quantified for projection of future changes and management of water available. Here by applying the Budyko water-energy balance framework, we analyse the hydro-climatic fluctuations at annual scale and their natural and anthropogenic drivers during past fifty years in six major Chinese drainage basins, from south to north, and from natural basins to human-modified basins. Natural forcing here means the fluctuations in precipitation and temperature, and the shift of precipitation from snow towards rain. And we focus on the impact of change in vegetational coverage, agricultural irrigation and water division as anthropogenic effect. By cross-regional comparison and within-region comparison, we explore the spatial variability of the hydro-climatic change and the type and contribution of different driven factors, especially various human modifications, throughout China. This study shows how the complex coupled system of climate, human and eco-hydrology can be described and explored by an effective and simple model and how the water balance constraints of hydrological basins affect water available throughout China and their spatial variability in the past half century.

  16. Neuro-Fuzzy Computational Technique to Control Load Frequency in Hydro-Thermal Interconnected Power System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, S.; Sinha, S. K.

    2015-09-01

    In this research work, two areas hydro-thermal power system connected through tie-lines is considered. The perturbation of frequencies at the areas and resulting tie line power flows arise due to unpredictable load variations that cause mismatch between the generated and demanded powers. Due to rising and falling power demand, the real and reactive power balance is harmed; hence frequency and voltage get deviated from nominal value. This necessitates designing of an accurate and fast controller to maintain the system parameters at nominal value. The main purpose of system generation control is to balance the system generation against the load and losses so that the desired frequency and power interchange between neighboring systems are maintained. The intelligent controllers like fuzzy logic, artificial neural network (ANN) and hybrid fuzzy neural network approaches are used for automatic generation control for the two area interconnected power systems. Area 1 consists of thermal reheat power plant whereas area 2 consists of hydro power plant with electric governor. Performance evaluation is carried out by using intelligent (ANFIS, ANN and fuzzy) control and conventional PI and PID control approaches. To enhance the performance of controller sliding surface i.e. variable structure control is included. The model of interconnected power system has been developed with all five types of said controllers and simulated using MATLAB/SIMULINK package. The performance of the intelligent controllers has been compared with the conventional PI and PID controllers for the interconnected power system. A comparison of ANFIS, ANN, Fuzzy and PI, PID based approaches shows the superiority of proposed ANFIS over ANN, fuzzy and PI, PID. Thus the hybrid fuzzy neural network controller has better dynamic response i.e., quick in operation, reduced error magnitude and minimized frequency transients.

  17. Financier's view of today's hydro industry

    SciTech Connect

    McLeod, H.

    1985-01-01

    In the last 4 years, the independent hydroelectric industry has undergone important changes that have affected the financing of the industry. In this article, Mr. Mcleod identifies some of the key developments; identifies the special characteristics of hydroelectric projects; discusses financing hydroelectric projects today; and offers some hints on how to obtain project financing in today's market.

  18. Formation of Hydro-acoustic Waves in Dissipative Coupled Weakly Compressible Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdolali, A.; Kirby, J. T., Jr.; Bellotti, G.

    2014-12-01

    Recent advances in deep sea measurement technology provide an increasing opportunity to detect and interpret hydro-acoustic waves as a component in improved Tsunami Early Warning Systems (TEWS). For the idealized case of a homogeneous water column above a moving but otherwise rigid bottom (in terms of assessing acoustic wave interaction), the description of the infinite family of acoustic modes is characterized by local water depth at source area; i.e. the period of the first acoustic mode is given by four times the required time for sound to travel from the seabed to the surface. Spreading off from earthquake zone, the dominant spectrum is filtered and enriched by seamounts and barriers. This study focuses on the characteristics of hydro-acoustic waves generated by sudden sea bottom motion in a weakly compressible fluid coupled with an underlying sedimentary layer, where the added complexity of the sediment layer rheology leads to both the lowering of dominant spectral peaks and wave attenuation across the full spectrum. To overcome the computational difficulties of three-dimensional models, we derive a depth integrated equation valid for varying water depth and sediment thickness. Damping behavior of the two layered system is initially taken into account by introducing the viscosity of fluid-like sedimentary layer. We show that low frequency pressure waves which are precursor components of tsunamis contain information of seafloor motion.

  19. The Trans-African Hydro-Meteorological Observatory: Leapfrogging in water and climate science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van De Giesen, N.; Hut, R.; Andreini, M.; Selker, J. S.

    2012-12-01

    The Trans-African Hydro-Meteorological Observatory (www.tahmo.org) is a multi-national initiative to design, build, and operate 20,000 hydro-meteorological measurement stations in sub-Saharan Africa. Design, Education, and Operation are the three main lines along which the initiative is being developed. The Design line follows a set of rules that serves easy deployment and reliable, low maintenance operation, such as absence of moving parts and cavities, self- and cross calibration of sensors, and low cost (€ 200-300 per station). Some first results are improved raingauges (disdrometers) and pyrgeometers. Much of the project revolves around Education. Stations will be deployed at secondary schools and their data will be integrated in the environmental science curriculum. Collaboration with schools will improve the students' awareness of the processes that govern their physical environment and create a generation of scientists and technicians with hands-on environmental monitoring experience. Finally, the Operation line focuses on the development of a financially sustainable network. Raw data will be made available for scientific use but value added products will be produced to finance maintenance and operation. Estimated total costs for establishing the network will be in the order of US 20 million, whereas operational costs will be around US 2 million per year. The presentation will focus on recent activities, specifically concerning crowd sourcing activities at African universities, and an open invitation to contribute to TAHMO.

  20. Stochastic hydro-economic model for groundwater quality management using Bayesian networks.

    PubMed

    Molina, José-Luis; Pulido-Velázquez, Manuel; Llopis-Albert, Carlos; Peña-Haro, Salvador

    2013-01-01

    A strong normative development in Europe, including the Nitrate Directive (1991) and the Water Framework Directive (WFD) (2000), has been promulgated. The WFD states that all water bodies have to reach a good quantitative and chemical status by 2015. It is necessary to consider different objectives, often in conflict, for tackling a suitable assessment of the impacts generated by water policies aimed to reduce nitrate pollution in groundwater. For that, an annual lumped probabilistic model based on Bayesian networks (BNs) has been designed for hydro-economic modelling of groundwater quality control under uncertain conditions. The information introduced in the BN model comes from different sources such as previous groundwater flow and mass transport simulations, hydro-economic models, stakeholders and expert opinion, etc. The methodology was applied to the El Salobral-Los Llanos aquifer unit within the 'Easter Mancha' groundwater body, which is one of the largest aquifers in Spain (7,400 km(2)), included in the Júcar River Basin. Over the past 30 years, socioeconomic development within the region has been mainly depending on intensive use of groundwater resources for irrigating crops. This has provoked a continuous groundwater level fall in the last two decades and significant streamflow depletion in the connected Júcar River. This BN model has proved to be a robust Decision Support System for helping water managers in the decision making process.

  1. Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical-Chemical Coupled Modeling of Geothermal Doublet Systems in Limestones -revised

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rühaak, Wolfram; Heldmann, Claus-Dieter; Pei, Liang; Bartels, Jörn; Weinert, Sebastian; Sass, Ingo

    2016-04-01

    Limestone aquifers in Southern Germany have been used within the last decade very successfully for geothermal heating and - to a lesser extent - for power generation. As an example the region around Munich has been extensively explored. While the extent of usage of this reservoir is increasing there is also an increased interest in better understanding of the reservoir properties and its change in the course of operation. For instance, the observed production and injection pressures are partly hard to explain. They may be related to mechanical or chemical processes, or both. Based on extensive data of outcrop studies and drillings, a data-base for the relevant physical properties of the respective limestones has been complied. The data include thermal conductivity, density, specific heat capacity, permeability, as well as mechanical properties like thermal expansion coefficient and elasticity modules. By using the hydro-thermo-chemical simulator FEFLOW together with an extension for thermo- and hydro-mechanical coupling the relevant processes are studied and compared with observed data. At the EGU Meeting in 2015 results of an initial study have been presented. This time results based on a completely new model setup and also using newly developed code will be presented. As a conclusion main challenges while modeling THMC fracture flow by using a multi-continua approach will be discussed.

  2. Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical-Chemical Coupled Modeling of Geothermal Doublet Systems in Limestones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rühaak, Wolfram; Pei, Liang; Heldmann, Claus-Dieter; Bartels, Jörn; Sass, Ingo

    2015-04-01

    Limestone aquifers in Southern Germany have been used within the last decade very successfully for geothermal heating and - to a lesser extent - for power generation. As an example the region around Munich has been extensively explored. While the extent of usage of this reservoir is increasing there is also an increased interest in better understanding of the reservoir properties and its change in the course of operation. For instance, the observed production and injection pressures are partly hard to explain. They may be related to mechanical or chemical processes, or both. Based on extensive data of outcrop studies and drillings, a data-base for the relevant physical properties of the respective limestones has been complied. The data include thermal conductivity, density, specific heat capacity, permeability, as well as mechanical properties like thermal expansion coefficient and elasticity modules. By using the hydro-thermo-chemical simulator FEFLOW together with an extension for thermo- and hydro-mechanical coupling the relevant processes are studied and compared with observed data. Conclusions for an optimized operation of geothermal systems in limestones are given and discussed.

  3. 76 FR 66713 - Hydro Green Energy, LLC; Notice of Intent To File License Applications and Approving Use of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-27

    ...-001, 13651-001] Hydro Green Energy, LLC; Notice of Intent To File License Applications and Approving.... Submitted By: Hydro Green Energy, LLC (Hydro Green). e. Name of Projects: Lock and Dam 5a, Project 13391-001..., Designated Representative, Vice President of Corporate Affairs, Hydro Green Energy, LLC., 900 Oakmont...

  4. Antioxidant capacities and total polyphenol contents of hydro-ethanolic extract of phytococktail from trans-Himalaya.

    PubMed

    Dhar, P; Tayade, A B; Bajpai, P K; Sharma, V K; Das, S K; Chaurasia, O P; Srivastava, R B; Singh, S B

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant potential of hydro-ethanolic extract of a novel phytococktail comprising of sea buckthorn, apricot, and Rhodiola (SAR) from trans-Himalaya. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) activity of the extract increased in a dose-dependent manner (upto 0.1 mg/mL), and was found to be about 38% of that of ascorbic acid at 0.1 mg/mL. The hydro-ethanolic extract of SAR also scavenged the ABTS(.+) radical generated by ABTS/potassium persulfate (PPS) system and was found to be about 62% of that of ascorbic acid at 0.1 mg/ mL. The total antioxidant power of the extract was determined by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. Total phenolic content was found to be 1.28016 × 10(-3) mol gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g extract. Total flavonoid and flavonol contents were estimated to be 2.5970 × 10(-4) mol and 4.87 × 10(-4) mol quercetin equivalent/g extract, respectively. The hydro-ethanolic extract of this phytococktail indicated presence of essential phytoconstituents of polyphenols, flavonoids, flavonols, and ascorbic acid, which contributed significantly to its antioxidant capacity. The combination of the 3 plants may well support their use in traditional medicine to combat oxidative stress and high-altitude sickness. PMID:22225422

  5. Laboratory Investigations of the Hydro-Mechanical-Chemical Coupling Behaviour of Sandstone in CO2 Storage in Aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Hui; Hu, Dawei; Zhang, Fan; Shao, Jianfu; Feng, Xiating

    2016-02-01

    This paper is devoted to experimental investigations of the hydro-mechanical-chemical coupling behaviour of sandstone in the context of CO2 storage in aquifers. We focused on the evolution of creep strain, the transport properties and the elastic modulus of sandstone under the effect of CO2-brine or CO2 alone. A summary of previous laboratory results is first presented, including mechanical, poromechanical and hydro-mechanical-chemical coupling properties. Tests were then performed to investigate the evolution of the creep strain and permeability during the injection of CO2-brine or CO2 alone. After the injection of CO2-brine or CO2 alone, an instantaneous volumetric dilatancy was observed due to the decrease in the effective confining stress. However, CO2 alone had a significant influence on the creep strain and permeability compared to the small influence of CO2-brine. This phenomenon can be attributed to the acceleration of the CO2-brine-rock reaction by the generation of carbonic acid induced by the dissolution of CO2 into the brine. The original indentation tests on samples after the CO2-brine-rock reaction were also performed and indicated that the elastic modulus decreased with an increasing reaction time. The present laboratory results can advance our knowledge of the hydro-mechanical-chemical coupling behaviour of sandstone in CO2 storage in aquifers.

  6. Growth and characterization of a new NLO material: L-Glutamic acid hydro bromide [L-GluHBr

    SciTech Connect

    Sathyalakshmi, R.; Bhagavannarayana, G.; Ramasamy, P.

    2009-05-06

    L-(+)-Glutamic acid hydro bromide, an isomorphic salt of L-glutamic acid hydrochloride, was synthesized and the synthesis was confirmed using Fourier transform infrared analysis. Solubility of the material in water was determined. L-Glutamic acid hydro bromide crystals were grown by low temperature solution growth using the solvent evaporation technique. Single crystal X-ray diffraction studies were carried out and the cell parameters, atomic co-ordinates, bond lengths and bond angles were reported. High-resolution X-ray diffraction studies were carried out and good crystallinity for the grown crystal was observed from the diffraction curve. The grown crystals were subjected to dielectric studies. Ultraviolet-visible-near infrared spectral analysis shows good optical transmission in the visible and infrared region of the grown crystals. The second harmonic generation efficiency of L-glutamic acid hydro bromide crystal was determined using the Kurtz powder test and it was found that it had efficiency comparable with that of the potassium di-hydrogen phosphate crystal.

  7. [Temporal-spatial Variation and Source Identification of Hydro-chemical Characteristics in Shima River Catchment, Dongguan City].

    PubMed

    Gao, Lei; Chen, Jian-yao; Wang, Jiang; Ke, Zhi-ting; Zhu, Ai-ping; Xu, Kai

    2015-05-01

    Shima River catchment is of strategic importance to urban water supply in Dongjiang portable water source area. To investigate the hydro-chemical characteristics of Shima River, 39 river water samples were collected in February, June and November, 2012 to analyze the major ions (K+, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl-, SO4(2-) , HCO3-) and nutritive salts (PO4(3-), NO3- and NH4+) and to discuss the temporal-spatial variation and controlling factors of hydro-chemical composition, relative sources identification of varied ions was performed as well. The results showed that the hydro-chemical composition exhibited significant differences in different periods. The average concentration of total dissolved solid ( TDS) and nutritive salts in different investigated periods followed the decreasing order of November > February > June. The dominant anion of Shima River was HCO3-, and Na+ + K+ were the major cations in February and November which were changed to Ca2+ in June, the hydro-chemical types were determined as HCO(3-)-Na+ and HCO(3-)- Ca2+ in dry (February and November) and rainy (June) seasons, respectively. Spatial variations of concentration of nutritive salts were mainly affected by the discharges of N- and P-containing waste water resulted from human activities. The ratio between N and P of water sample (R7) was 18.4:1 which boosted the "crazy growth" of phytoplankton and led to severe eutrophication. According to Gibbs distribution of water samples, dissolution of hydatogenic rocks was the primary factor to control the major cations of river water in dry season, however, the hydro-chemical composition was significantly affected by the combination of hydatogenic and carbonate rocks in rainy season. The deposition of sea-salts contributed less to chemical substances in river. Correlation analysis revealed that K+, Na+, Mg2+, Cl- and SO4(2-) were partly derived from the application of fertilizer and the discharge of industrial effluent; Waste water of poultry feeding and

  8. Hydro trash rack rake built by Riegel Textile (Engineering Materials)

    SciTech Connect

    Rinehart, B.N.

    1981-11-05

    The Fries, Virginia plant of the Riegel Textile Corporation of Ware Shoals, South Carolina, found it necessary to install a trash rack rake for proper operation of their hydro plant. They put the job out for bid, but when they received bids above budget they decided to build their own rack rake. Mr. Sanford Byrd, plant engineer, put together a design that included use of standard off-the-shelf items and readily available structural steel components. The rake was built by the Fries maintenance personnel for only $50,000. The unit operates hydraulically and runs on a set of tracks placed on the intake canal wall. This unit can be adapted to most low-head hydro projects. The information furnished in this package will allow you to build your own trash rack rake.

  9. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION: JOINT (NSF-EPA) VERIFICATION STATEMENT AND REPORT HYDRO COMPLIANCE MANAGEMENT, INC. HYDRO-KLEEN FILTRATION SYSTEM, 03/07/WQPC-SWP, SEPTEMBER 2003

    EPA Science Inventory

    Verification testing of the Hydro-Kleen(TM) Filtration System, a catch-basin filter designed to reduce hydrocarbon, sediment, and metals contamination from surface water flows, was conducted at NSF International in Ann Arbor, Michigan. A Hydro-Kleen(TM) system was fitted into a ...

  10. Hydro- and solvothermolysis of kraft lignin for maximizing production of monomeric aromatic chemicals.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hong-shik; Jae, Jungho; Ha, Jeong-Myeong; Suh, Dong Jin

    2016-03-01

    The hydro-/solvothermolysis of kraft lignin using water and ethanol as a solvent were investigated in this study. The effect of the water-to-ethanol ratio on the yields of monomeric aromatic chemicals (MACs) and the kinetic behavior of MACs was studied in a series of batch experiments. The yields of MACs other than catechol increased as the ratio of ethanol increased, and the content of the total MACs in bio-crude oil (BCO) reached 35% when the ratio of ethanol was 100% at a reaction temperature of 300 °C. The formation of phenol, guaiacol, and alkylguaiacols was enhanced in ethanol, while the formation of catechol was dominant in water. The formation of more substituted MACs such as vanillin, acetoguaiacone, and homovanillic acid was not affected by the solvent. The role of reaction parameters on the yields of MACs was elucidated, and the main reaction pathways in water and in ethanol were proposed. PMID:26722814

  11. Hydro- and solvothermolysis of kraft lignin for maximizing production of monomeric aromatic chemicals.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hong-shik; Jae, Jungho; Ha, Jeong-Myeong; Suh, Dong Jin

    2016-03-01

    The hydro-/solvothermolysis of kraft lignin using water and ethanol as a solvent were investigated in this study. The effect of the water-to-ethanol ratio on the yields of monomeric aromatic chemicals (MACs) and the kinetic behavior of MACs was studied in a series of batch experiments. The yields of MACs other than catechol increased as the ratio of ethanol increased, and the content of the total MACs in bio-crude oil (BCO) reached 35% when the ratio of ethanol was 100% at a reaction temperature of 300 °C. The formation of phenol, guaiacol, and alkylguaiacols was enhanced in ethanol, while the formation of catechol was dominant in water. The formation of more substituted MACs such as vanillin, acetoguaiacone, and homovanillic acid was not affected by the solvent. The role of reaction parameters on the yields of MACs was elucidated, and the main reaction pathways in water and in ethanol were proposed.

  12. Hydro's future: revitalization of a national treasure

    SciTech Connect

    Birk, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    The author, manager of the Electric Power Research Institute's hydropower program, has worked with other industry experts to formulate a concept of hydropower's future. The view, as discussed in this article, is one of hydropower as a national treasure which deserves improvement and revitalization. Further, this revitalization would occur mainly as a result of vigilant attention to the numerous possibilities for technological improvement. Dr. Birk is optimistic about the future, but his optimism is tempered by the realities that now surround the hydropower industry. He holds out the hope that, although the forces affecting hydropower in the US may not permit it to become much bigger, it will become a yet more valuable national treasure.

  13. Effect of Spray Particle Velocity on Cavitation Erosion Resistance Characteristics of HVOF and HVAF Processed 86WC-10Co4Cr Hydro Turbine Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, R. K.; Kamaraj, M.; Seetharamu, S.; Pramod, T.; Sampathkumaran, P.

    2016-08-01

    The hydro plants utilizing silt-laden water for power generation suffer from severe metal wastage due to particle-induced erosion and cavitation. High-velocity oxy-fuel process (HVOF)-based coatings is widely applied to improve the erosion life. The process parameters such as particle velocity, size, powder feed rate, temperature, affect their mechanical properties. The high-velocity air fuel (HVAF) technology, with higher particle velocities and lower spray temperatures, gives dense and substantially nonoxidized coating. In the present study, the cavitation resistance of 86WC-10Co4Cr-type HVOF coating processed at 680 m/s spray particle velocity was compared with HVAF coatings made at 895, 960, and 1010 m/s. The properties such as porosity, hardness, indentation toughness, and cavitation resistance were investigated. The surface damage morphology has been analyzed in SEM. The cohesion between different layers has been examined qualitatively through scratch depth measurements across the cross section. The HVAF coatings have shown a lower porosity, higher hardness, and superior cavitation resistance. Delamination, extensive cracking of the matrix interface, and detachment of the WC grains were observed in HVOF coating. The rate of metal loss is low in HVAF coatings implying that process parameters play a vital role in achieving improved cavitation resistance.

  14. Extreme floods and storms in Switzerland since 1868: Case studies and hydro-meteorological patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stucki, Peter; Brönnimann, Stefan; Martius, Olivia; Dierer, Silke

    2013-04-01

    Numerical studies on the generation of extreme floods or windstorms in the Central Alps have been practicable for events which occurred since around 1950. Analyses of earlier events are restricted to increasingly sparse instrumental and documentary data, e.g., ground observations, surface synoptic charts, annals and damage reports. Despite such restrictions, it is desirable to have an extended catalog of extreme heavy precipitation or storm events in order to understand the underlying hydro-meteorological dynamics and to anticipate potential damage to forested areas, cultivated land, buildings or infrastructure. We use a range of available sources to elect a set of historical extreme events. Among these are damage statistics by insurance companies, the EuroClimHist data base on weather and climate history, forestry reports as well as meteorological annals. Moreover, recently digitized and partly homogenized (sub-) daily measurements of precipitation and wind observations (DigiHom project by MeteoSwiss) and the Twentieth Century Reanalysis (20CR) reach back to 1868 or beyond. In addition, we integrate information from a regional version of 20CR which is downscaled by use of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model. These datasets cover extreme events on the north and south side of the Alps and hence enable comprehensive, quantitative analyses of Swiss extreme events. For a selection of events prior to 1950, descriptions are given of the spatial extent and intensities, antecedent hydro-climatological settings such as snowmelt as well as of the direct socio-economic impact and costs. Likewise, we assess the meteorological conditions leading to and during the extreme events, including parameters like uplift and moisture transport or propagation of the three-dimensional wind field. We propose five subjective classes of specific flood-generating weather conditions for Switzerland from 24 investigated cases since 1868. Furthermore, we address the applicability of

  15. Evaluation of blade-strike models for estimating the biological performance of large Kaplan hydro turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Z.; Carlson, T. J.; Ploskey, G. R.; Richmond, M. C.

    2005-11-01

    Bio-indexing of hydro turbines has been identified as an important means to optimize passage conditions for fish by identifying operations for existing and new design turbines that minimize the probability of injury. Cost-effective implementation of bio-indexing requires the use of tools such as numerical and physical turbine models to generate hypotheses for turbine operations that can be tested at prototype scales using live fish. Blade strike has been proposed as an index variable for the biological performance of turbines. Report reviews an evaluation of the use of numerical blade-strike models as a means with which to predict the probability of blade strike and injury of juvenile salmon smolt passing through large Kaplan turbines on the mainstem Columbia River.

  16. Hydro-geochemical appraisal of groundwater quality from weathered basement aquifers in Northern Malawi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wanda, Elijah; Monjerezi, Maurice; Mwatseteza, Jonas F.; Kazembe, Lawrence N.

    The obligation to ensure adequate potable water supply to everyone, has necessitated the development of groundwater resources for reliable rural water supply in most developing countries. An understanding of spatial variation and processes affecting water quality is essential in sustaining usable water supplies under changing climate and local environmental pressures. In this study, an assessment of quality and dominant hydro-geochemical processes affecting the quality of groundwater from weathered basement aquifers in Mzimba district, Northern Malawi, has been conducted. Groundwater samples were collected from 172 hand-pumped boreholes, drilled for domestic rural water supply and analysed for major and minor ions, pH and total dissolved solids (TDS). In general, groundwater is of low mineralisation (TDS range: 29-1896 mg L -1 for the dry season), with hydro-geochemical facies dominated by Ca-HCO 3, which evolves to Ca-Cl water type. Multivariate statistical analysis (HCA and PCA) and geochemical interpretation showed that the Ca-HCO 3 groundwater type result from hydrolysis of silicate minerals, which causes the solution to reach equilibrium with kaolinite. The processes of cation exchange of Na + and K + in the groundwater for Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ on clay minerals, carbonate precipitation and evaporation, are shown to modify the chemical composition from Ca-HCO 3 types to Ca-Cl types. Groundwater is generally of good quality in both rainy and dry seasons, with little seasonal changes. The United States Salinity Laboratory Staff and Wilcox diagrams showed that most samples were also suitable for irrigation except for 4% (eight samples) of the groundwater samples (with EC > 2000 μS cm -1). These are located in alluviums and colluviums localised near river banks and in inter hill valleys.

  17. Streamflow estimation using WRF-Hydro with dynamically downscaled climate variables over southern tropical Indian region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, S.; Sudheer, K. P.; Gunthe, S. S.

    2015-12-01

    Indian summer monsoon rainfall (ISMR; June to September), which constitutes around 80% of India's annual rainfall, has shown an increasing trend in intensity and frequency of extreme events (Goswami et al., 2006). It is a widely recognized fact that the increasing temperature in association with anthropogenic activities can affect the hydrological cycle, which leads to extreme events. In addition a shift in extremes of the spatial pattern of ISMR has recently been observed (Ghosh et al., 2011). Such changes in rainfall on temporal and spatial scale can further affect the stream flow over a given region subsequently making water resource management a difficult task (Mondal and Mujumdar, 2015). The hydrological models used for the stream flow estimation are dependent on various climate variables as input data. These climate variables could be obtained through either observational networks or climate model outputs. Due to the scarcity of the observational data over the Indian region and the coarse resolution of global climate model output, which is used as input to hydrologic models, large uncertainties are introduced in stream flow output (Overgaard et al., 2007). In the present study we have used the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model (Skamarock et al. 2008) to downscale the essential climate variables (surface temperature, precipitation, relative humidity, etc.) as an input for its coupled hydrological extension, WRF Hydro (NCAR user's guide). We will present the results obtained from the WRF-hydro simulation to estimate the stream flow over the Thamirabarani river basin in Southern Tropical Indian region. Preliminary simulations using WRF to estimate the precipitation showed the reasonable quantitative agreement with observed values. An attempt will be made to demonstrate how these results can further be used for developing flood-forecasting techniques and for local regional water resource management.

  18. Dynamics and stability of wind turbine generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinrichsen, E. N.; Nolan, P. J.

    1981-01-01

    Synchronous and induction generators are considered. A comparison is made between wind turbines, steam, and hydro units. The unusual phenomena associated with wind turbines are emphasized. The general control requirements are discussed, as well as various schemes for torsional damping such as speed sensitive stabilizer and blade pitch control. Integration between adjacent wind turbines in a wind farm is also considered.

  19. Old Harbor Scammon Bay Hydro Feasibility

    SciTech Connect

    Brent Petrie

    2007-06-27

    The grantee, Alaska Village Electric Cooperative (AVEC), is a non-profit member owned rural electric generation and distribution cooperative. The proposed Project is located near the community of Old Harbor, Alaska. Old Harbor is on the southeastern coast of Kodiak Island, approximately 70 miles southwest of the City of Kodiak and 320 miles southwest of Anchorage. In 1998 sufficient information had been developed to apply for a license to construct the project and the cost was estimated to be $2,445,000 for a 500 KW project on Lagoon Creek. Major features of the project included an eight-foot high diversion dam on Mountain Creek, a desander box, a 9,800-foot long penstock to the powerhouse on Lagoon Creek, and a 5,500-foot long access road. It was also anticipated that the project could provide an additional source of water to Old Harbor. The report details the history and lessons learned in designing and permiting the proposed hydroelectric facility.

  20. Computer Security for Commercial Nuclear Power Plants - Literature Review for Korea Hydro Nuclear Power Central Research Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Duran, Felicia Angelica; Waymire, Russell L.

    2013-10-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is providing training and consultation activities on security planning and design for the Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Central Research Institute (KHNPCRI). As part of this effort, SNL performed a literature review on computer security requirements, guidance and best practices that are applicable to an advanced nuclear power plant. This report documents the review of reports generated by SNL and other organizations [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Nuclear Energy Institute, and International Atomic Energy Agency] related to protection of information technology resources, primarily digital controls and computer resources and their data networks. Copies of the key documents have also been provided to KHNP-CRI.

  1. HYDRO: a computer program for the prediction of hydrodynamic properties of macromolecules.

    PubMed Central

    Garcia de la Torre, J; Navarro, S; Lopez Martinez, M C; Diaz, F G; Lopez Cascales, J J

    1994-01-01

    HYDRO is a program for the calculation of sedimentation and diffusion coefficients, rotational relaxation times, and intrinsic viscosities of rigid macromolecules of arbitrary shape that are represented by bead models. Actually, HYDRO contains various FORTRAN callable subroutines that can be linked to the user's own programs to account for variability of shape or flexibility. Some hints are given for the use of HYDRO in various situations. PMID:7948671

  2. A novel method to characterize bacterial communities affected by carbon source and electricity generation in microbial fuel cells using stable isotope probing and Illumina sequencing.

    PubMed

    Song, Yang; Xiao, Li; Jayamani, Indumathy; He, Zhen; Cupples, Alison M

    2015-01-01

    Stable isotope probing and high throughput sequencing were used to characterize the microbial communities involved in carbon uptake in microbial fuel cells at two levels of electricity generation. With acetate, the dominant phylotypes involved in carbon uptake included Geobacter and Rhodocyclaceae. With glucose, both Enterobacteriaceae and Geobacter were dominant.

  3. Hydro*Star: A Directed Water-Cooled DD-Fueled IFE Fusion-Chamber Concept

    SciTech Connect

    Orth, C D

    2001-04-01

    We introduce a new IFE fusion-chamber concept called Hydro*Star that uses DT-ignited DD targets and a water blanket. The driver can be either a 13 to 16-MJ diode-pumped solid-state laser (DPSSL) with fast ignition, or a 4-MJ heavy-ion accelerator operating at a reprate 10 times faster than the fusion chamber to accumulate sufficient energy in storage rings to direct 40 MJ at the target. The driver employs a prepulse system to burn an ionized path through the ambient fusion-chamber vapors, whose operating pressure is about 20 atm. We assume that the targets, which have a yield of about 2800 MJ, can be indirectly driven with two-sided illumination. The blanket, which is 1 to 2-m thick and placed immediately inside the structural wall, is operated just over 100 C either in a liquid or frothed-liquid state, the latter being preferred to reduce stresses in the structural wall. The structural wall, at a radius of 4 to 5 m, is composed of low-carbon steels to avoid the stress-corrosion cracking problems that have plagued certain light-water-reactor (LWR) systems. The functions of the blanket are (1) to shield the structural wall and exterior components from neutron and gamma-ray target emissions, and (2) to supply water for the direct generation of steam. Each fusion pulse vaporizes nearly one-half centimeter of the inside surface of the water blanket, thereby creating hot steam which is vented directly from the fusion chamber into ordinary steam turbines. Thus, Hydro*Star operates just like a simple steam engine, with a basic reprate of only 0.8 Hz per GWe of net output. Because the steam temperature is 900 to 1200 K, the plant thermal efficiency is nearly 50%. This efficiency is much better than the typical 35-40% now being achieved in commercial reactors, and much better than the efficiencies estimated for previous fusion-chamber concepts except CASCADE (55%). Other advantages for the new concept include reduced plant radioactivity (reduced radionuclides inventory

  4. Real time hydro-metereological hazards monitoring system for the Ravenna municipality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertoni, W.; Cattarossi, A.; Gonella, M.

    2003-04-01

    The Ravenna municipality (Italy, Emilia Romagna region), through a cooperative agreement with ENI S.p.A’s., AGIP division, is carrying out a research study for the development of a real time monitoring system of hydro-meteorological conditions. The system aims to support the city Crisis Response Unit to provide more efficient support all over the municipal territory that is the largest in Italy with more than 700 km2. The support unit, a GIS computer based application, directly links to a broad range of sources, gathering real time information from a Local Area Model (meteorological data), a Wave Model (sea hydrodynamic circulation), monitoring stations, located partially on the Adriatic sea (AGIP offshore platform, SIMN) and partially over the Ravenna inland (SPDS, SIN). In the first phase, now completed and undergoing testing, this vast and diversified collection of data feeds a number of statistical models with up to 72 hours of forecast capabilities. The GIS application displays actual and forecast sea conditions offshore of Ravenna littorals in addition to actual and forecast flood conditions along the Ravenna Province inland. Model generated data are used for the forecast, which is then calibrated using the measured data. When the predefined warning limits are exceeded, end users are alerted via prerecorded phone messages, SMS, or visually through the direct or remote interaction with the GIS system (remotely accessible via portable computers). In the second stage, the statistical approach will be substituted by a more deterministic approach. A coupled hydrologic-hydraulic model will be used to forecast water stages along rivers and runoff volume along major watersheds. Moreover, already functioning capabilities allows direct control of remote monitoring points (stream and rain gages, etc.) The entire Real Time Monitoring System was developed on a GIS platform. The GEOdatabase, a relational database based on MSDE technology, is the core of the application

  5. Experimental optimization of a free vortex propeller runner for micro hydro application

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Punit; Nestmann, Franz

    2009-09-15

    The turbine technology for low head application in the micro hydro range has been vastly neglected despite niche available in scattered regions of valley flows as well as in wastewater canals and other energy recovery schemes, where the available head does not exceed 2 meters. The goal of this study is to develop hydraulically optimized propeller turbines for the micro hydro range with a particular focus on ease of manufacture. This paper presents a wide range of geometrical optimization steps carried out on a propeller runner, whose blades have been designed using the free vortex theory, and operating with a gross head from 1.5 to 2 m and discharge of approximately 75 l/s. It further illustrates 3 stages of geometrical modifications carried out on the runner with an objective of optimizing the runner performance. These modifications comprised of changes to the tip angles (both at the runner inlet and exit) as well as the hub angles (at the runner inlet) of the runner blades. The paper also presents an interesting theoretical methodology to analyze the effects of each optimization stage. This method looks at the relative changes to shaft power and discharge at constant head and speed and gives wonderful insight as to how the internal parameters like Euler shaft work and runner hydraulic losses are behaving with respect to each optimization stage. It was found that the performance of the runner was very sensitive to changes to exit tip angle. At two levels of modification, the discharge increased in the range of 15-30%, while shaft power increased in the range of 12-45%, thus influencing the efficiency characteristics. The results of the runner inlet tip modification were very interesting in that a very significant rise of turbine efficiency was recorded from 55% to 74% at the best efficiency point, which was caused by a reduced discharge consumption as well as a higher power generation. It was also found that the optimization study on a propeller runner has

  6. Building a Bright Future. The Hydro Research Foundation's Fellowship Program

    SciTech Connect

    Vaughn, Brenna; Linke, Deborah M.

    2015-12-29

    The Hydro Fellowship Program (program) began as an experiment to discover whether the hydropower industry could find mechanisms to attract new entrants through conducting relevant research to benefit the industry. This nationwide, new-to-the-world program was started through funding from the Wind and Water Power Technologies Office of the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Office of the Department of Energy (DOE). Between 2010-2015, the Hydro Research Foundation (HRF) designed and implemented a program to conduct valuable research and attract new entrants to the hydro workforce. This historic grant has empowered and engaged industry members from 25 organizations by working with 91 students and advisors at 24 universities in 19 states. The work funded answered pressing research needs in the fields of civil, mechanical, environmental, and electrical engineering, as well as law, energy engineering and materials innovation. In terms of number of individuals touched through funding, 148 individuals were supported by this work through direct research, mentorship, oversight of the work, partnerships and the day-to-day program administration. Based on the program results, it is clear that the funding achieved the hoped-for outcomes and has the capacity to draw universities into the orbit of hydropower and continue the conversation about industry research and development needs. The Foundation has fostered unique partnerships at the host universities and has continued to thrive with the support of the universities, advisors, industry and the DOE. The Foundation has demonstrated industry support through mentorships, partnerships, underwriting the costs and articulating the universities’ support through in-kind cost sharing. The Foundation recommends that future work be continued to nurture these graduate level programs using the initial work and improvements in the successor program, the Research Awards Program, while stimulating engagement of academia at the

  7. Output improvement of Sg. Piah run-off river hydro-electric station with a new computed river flow-based control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jidin, Razali; Othman, Bahari

    2013-06-01

    The lower Sg. Piah hydro-electric station is a river run-off hydro scheme with generators capable of generating 55MW of electricity. It is located 30km away from Sg. Siput, a small town in the state of Perak, Malaysia. The station has two turbines (Pelton) to harness energy from water that flow through a 7km tunnel from a small intake dam. The trait of a run-off river hydro station is small-reservoir that cannot store water for a long duration; therefore potential energy carried by the spillage will be wasted if the dam level is not appropriately regulated. To improve the station annual energy output, a new controller based on the computed river flow has been installed. The controller regulates the dam level with an algorithm based on the river flow derived indirectly from the intake-dam water level and other plant parameters. The controller has been able to maintain the dam at optimum water level and regulate the turbines to maximize the total generation output.

  8. An evaluation of conditions that may affect the performance of houseboat exhaust stacks in prevention of carbon monoxide poisonings from generators.

    PubMed

    Hammond, Duane R; Earnest, G Scott; Hall, Ronald M; Feng, Amy

    2006-06-01

    National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) researchers evaluated two exhaust stack designs for reducing carbon monoxide (CO) exposures from gasoline-powered generator exhaust on houseboats. Tests were conducted (a) after dark, (b) in high-temperature and high-humidity environments, (c) during temperature inversions, (d) under various generator loads, and (e) at different houseboat trim angles. Two different designs of houseboat exhaust stacks were evaluated and compared with the side-exhaust configuration, which is standard on many houseboats. The two designs were flagpole and vertical stack. Both exhaust stacks performed dramatically better than the standard water level, side-exhaust configuration. The highest mean CO concentrations on the upper and lower decks of the houseboat with the vertical exhaust stack were 27 ppm and 17 ppm. The highest mean CO concentrations on the upper and lower decks of the houseboat with the modified flagpole stack were 5 ppm and 2 ppm. These findings are much lower than the 67 ppm and 341 ppm for the highest mean CO concentrations found on the upper and lower decks of houseboats having the usual side-exhausted configuration. The NIOSH evaluation also indicated that high-temperature and high-humidity levels, temperature inversions, generator loading, and houseboat trim angles had little effect on the exhaust stack performance. It also demonstrated the importance of proper design and installation of exhaust stacks to ensure that all exhaust gases are released through the stack. Based on the results of this work, NIOSH investigators continue to recommend that houseboat manufacturers, rental companies, and owners retrofit their gasoline-powered generators with exhaust stacks to reduce the hazard of CO poisoning and death to individuals on or near the houseboat.

  9. Minimum flow unit installation at the South Edwards Hydro Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Bernhardt, P.; Bates, D.

    1995-12-31

    Niagara Mohawk Power Corp. owns and operates the 3.3 MW South Edwards Hydro Plant in Northern New York. The FERC license for this plant requires a minimum flow release in the bypass region of the river. NMPC submitted a license amendment to the FERC to permit the addition of a minimum flow unit to take advantage of this flow. The amendment was accepted, permitting the installation of the 236 kw, 60 cfs unit to proceed. The unit was installed and commissioned in 1994.

  10. Optical ground wire for Hydro-Quebec`s telecommunication network

    SciTech Connect

    Ghannoum, E.; Chouteau, J.P.; Miron, M.; Yaacoub, S.; Yoshida, K.

    1995-10-01

    An extensive telecommunication network of 6,000 km of Optical Ground Wire (OPGW) is currently planned by Hydro-Quebec for progressive installation from 1992 to 2004. By 1994, about 1,600 km of OPGW have already been purchased and installed mostly on new 735 kV lines. This document provides information relative to the OPGW selection, characteristics, design, fabrication, and testing. Other sections are devoted to the installation experience, description of current and future R and D OPGW projects, and Authors` biography.

  11. Applications of ripple analysis in hydro-acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leducq, D.; Schlegel, R.

    Software developed for ripple analysis in hydro-acoustic applications is described. Noise and vibration analysis using this software is shown to be particularly effective. The importance of post treatment of the data in order to obtain dependable results is stressed. Examples are presented of the use of the ripple analysis software in measuring the noise and vibration produced by a pump. The software is used in the analysis of cavitation noise. Cavitation noise frequency graphs are presented to illustrate the experimented results. The advantages of the ripple analysis techniques in obtaining a better understanding of the underlying physics of the processes studied are stressed.

  12. Freudenau hydro: Engineering for power and the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Byers, W.

    1997-03-01

    Design and construction of the Freudenau Hydro Power Plant is discussed in the article. The plant is in Vienna, Austria, one of Europe`s oldest cities; therefore, environmental, social, and economic considerations were given a high priority. The planning process is the focus of the article; it centered on an open exchange of ideas between the project development group and an international array of technical experts and interested parties. The approach included supervision of the project by a panel of international technical and environmental experts, and a tender process that sought contractors and creative ideas.

  13. Computer configuration for Ontario Hydro's new Energy Management System

    SciTech Connect

    Barrie, D.; Hill, D.S.; Yuen, A.

    1989-08-01

    In 1985, Ontario Hydro decided to build a new System Control Centre and install a new Energy Management System. This decision was primarily due to obsolescence, space restrictions and other site considerations rather than dissatisfaction with the existing Energy Management System. Indeed, the existing Energy Management System had several features (eg, the suite of custom-developed application programs) which were considered so valuable to the System Operators that they should be retained in the new Energy Management System. Nevertheless, because new hardware was being installed, it provided an opportunity to review the standards of performance demanded of the Energy Management System and technological advances that could be utilized to best effect.

  14. Fundamental economic issues in the development of small scale hydro

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-01

    Some basic economic issues involved in the development of small-scale hydroelectric power are addressed. The discussion represents an economist's view of the investment process in this resource. Very little investment has been made in small-scale hydro development and an attempt is made to show that the reason for this may not be that the expected present worth of the returns of the project do not exceed the construction cost by a sufficient amount. Rather, a set of factors in combination impose costs on the project not normally incurred in small businesses. The discussion covers costs, supply, demand, and profitability.

  15. The hydro nuclear services dry active waste processing system

    SciTech Connect

    Bunker, A.S.

    1985-04-01

    There is a real need for a dry active waste processing system that can separate clean trash and recoverable items from radwaste safely and efficiently. This paper reports that Hydro Nuclear Services has produced just such a system and is marketing it as a DAW Segregation/Volume Reduction Process. The system is a unique, semi-automated package of sensitive monitoring instruments of volume reduction equipment that separates clean trash from contaminated and recoverable items in the waste stream and prepares the clean trash for unrestricted release. What makes the HNS system truly unique is its end product - clean trash.

  16. 18 CFR 801.12 - Electric power generation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Electric power... COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES § 801.12 Electric power generation. (a) Significant uses are presently being made of the waters of the basin for the generation of electric power at hydro, pumped storage,...

  17. 18 CFR 801.12 - Electric power generation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electric power... COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES § 801.12 Electric power generation. (a) Significant uses are presently being made of the waters of the basin for the generation of electric power at hydro, pumped storage,...

  18. Airborne particulate matter PM2.5 from Mexico City affects the generation of reactive oxygen species by blood neutrophils from asthmatics: an in vitro approach

    PubMed Central

    Sierra-Vargas, Martha Patricia; Guzman-Grenfell, Alberto Martin; Blanco-Jimenez, Salvador; Sepulveda-Sanchez, Jose David; Bernabe-Cabanillas, Rosa Maria; Cardenas-Gonzalez, Beatriz; Ceballos, Guillermo; Hicks, Juan Jose

    2009-01-01

    Background The Mexico City Metropolitan Area is densely populated, and toxic air pollutants are generated and concentrated at a higher rate because of its geographic characteristics. It is well known that exposure to particulate matter, especially to fine and ultra-fine particles, enhances the risk of cardio-respiratory diseases, especially in populations susceptible to oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of fine particles on the respiratory burst of circulating neutrophils from asthmatic patients living in Mexico City. Methods In total, 6 subjects diagnosed with mild asthma and 11 healthy volunteers were asked to participate. Neutrophils were isolated from peripheral venous blood and incubated with fine particles, and the generation of reactive oxygen species was recorded by chemiluminescence. We also measured plasma lipoperoxidation susceptibility and plasma myeloperoxidase and paraoxonase activities by spectrophotometry. Results Asthmatic patients showed significantly lower plasma paraoxonase activity, higher susceptibility to plasma lipoperoxidation and an increase in myeloperoxidase activity that differed significantly from the control group. In the presence of fine particles, neutrophils from asthmatic patients showed an increased tendency to generate reactive oxygen species after stimulation with fine particles (PM2.5). Conclusion These findings suggest that asthmatic patients have higher oxidation of plasmatic lipids due to reduced antioxidant defense. Furthermore, fine particles tended to increase the respiratory burst of blood human neutrophils from the asthmatic group. On the whole, increased myeloperoxidase activity and susceptibility to lipoperoxidation with a concomitant decrease in paraoxonase activity in asthmatic patients could favor lung infection and hence disrupt the control of asthmatic crises. PMID:19563660

  19. Fatherhood reduces the survival of adult-generated cells and affects various types of behavior in the prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster ).

    PubMed

    Lieberwirth, Claudia; Wang, Yue; Jia, Xixi; Liu, Yan; Wang, Zuoxin

    2013-11-01

    Motherhood has profound effects on physiology, neuronal plasticity, and behavior. We conducted a series of experiments to test the hypothesis that fatherhood, similarly to motherhood, affects brain plasticity (such as cell proliferation and survival) and various behaviors in the highly social prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster). In Experiment 1, adult males were housed with their same-sex cage mate (control), single-housed (isolation), or housed with a receptive female to mate and produce offspring (father) for 6 weeks. Fatherhood significantly reduced cell survival (assessed by bromodeoxyuridine labeling), but not cell proliferation (assessed by Ki67-labeling), in the amygdala, dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, and ventromedial hypothalamus, suggesting that fatherhood affects brain plasticity. In Experiment 2, neither acute (20 min) nor chronic (20 min daily for 10 consecutive days) pup exposure altered cell proliferation or survival in the brain, but chronic pup exposure increased circulating corticosterone levels. These data suggest that reduced cell survival in the brain of prairie vole fathers was unlikely to be due to the level of pup exposure and display of paternal behavior, and may not be mediated by circulating corticosterone. The effects of fatherhood on various behaviors (including anxiety-like, depression-like, and social behaviors) were examined in Experiment 3. The data indicated that fatherhood increased anxiety- and depression-like behaviors as well as altered aggression and social recognition memory in male prairie voles. These results warrant further investigation of a possible link between brain plasticity and behavioral changes observed due to fatherhood.

  20. 75 FR 27770 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund VIII; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-18

    .... Applicant Contact: Wayne F. Krouse, Chairman & CEO, Hydro Green Energy, LLC, 5090 Richmond Ave., 390... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund VIII; Notice of Preliminary...

  1. 78 FR 62350 - FFP Qualified Hydro 14, LLC; Western Minnesota Municipal Power Agency; Notice Announcing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission FFP Qualified Hydro 14, LLC; Western Minnesota Municipal Power Agency... Polk County, Iowa. The applications were filed by FFP Qualified Hydro 14, LLC for Project No....

  2. 78 FR 70549 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund III, LLC, Western Minnesota Municipal Power Agency; Notice Announcing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund III, LLC, Western Minnesota Municipal Power Agency... applications were filed by Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund III, LLC for Project No. 14539-000 and Western...

  3. 77 FR 25999 - Wickiup Hydro Group, LLC; Oregon; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-02

    ..., 52 FR 47897), the Office of Energy Projects has reviewed Wickiup Hydro Group, LLC's application for... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Wickiup Hydro Group, LLC; Oregon; Notice of Availability of...

  4. 78 FR 62359 - Red River Hydro LLC; Notice of Availability of Final Environmental Assessment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-21

    ..., 52 FR 47897), the Office of Energy Projects has reviewed Red River Hydro LLC's application for an... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Red River Hydro LLC; Notice of Availability of Final...

  5. 77 FR 25715 - Mississippi 8 Hydro, LLC; FFP Project 98, LLC, ; Notice Announcing Filing Priority for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Mississippi 8 Hydro, LLC; FFP Project 98, LLC, ; Notice Announcing Filing... priority is as follows: 1. Mississippi 8 Hydro, LLC--Project No. 13010-002. 2. FFP Project 98,...

  6. 33 CFR 100.1305 - Richland, Washington, west coast outboard championship hydro races.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Richland, Washington, west coast outboard championship hydro races. 100.1305 Section 100.1305 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Richland, Washington, west coast outboard championship hydro races. (a) Regulated area. By this...

  7. 33 CFR 100.1305 - Richland, Washington, west coast outboard championship hydro races.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Richland, Washington, west coast outboard championship hydro races. 100.1305 Section 100.1305 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Richland, Washington, west coast outboard championship hydro races. (a) Regulated area. By this...

  8. 76 FR 4893 - FFP Missouri 13, LLC, Grays Hydro, LLC; Notice Announcing Preliminary Permit Drawing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission FFP Missouri 13, LLC, Grays Hydro, LLC; Notice Announcing Preliminary Permit... Project No. 13763-000, and Grays Hydro, LLC, for Project No. 13772-000. \\1\\ The Commission is open...

  9. 78 FR 36767 - Red River Hydro LLC; Notice of Availability of Draft Environmental Assessment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-19

    ..., 52 FR 47897), the Office of Energy Projects has reviewed Red River Hydro LLC's application for an... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Red River Hydro LLC; Notice of Availability of Draft...

  10. 78 FR 62350 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund III, LLC; Western Minnesota Municipal Power Agency; Notice Announcing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund III, LLC; Western Minnesota Municipal Power Agency... applications were filed by Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund III, LLC for Project No. 14539-000 and Western...

  11. 75 FR 80487 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLVIII; FFP Missouri 15, LLC;

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLVIII; FFP Missouri 15, LLC; Notice Announcing.... 14, near Hampton, Illinois.\\1\\ The applications ] were filed by Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLVIII,...

  12. 78 FR 35624 - Shelbyville Hydro LLC; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Shelbyville Hydro LLC; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment In... Register 47897), the Office of Energy Projects has reviewed Shelbyville Hydro LLC's application for...

  13. 76 FR 8728 - Bear Creek Hydro Associates, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Bear Creek Hydro Associates, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application... 22, 2010, the Bear Creek Hydro Associates, LLC filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to section 4(f) of the Federal Power Act (FPA), proposing to study the ] feasibility of the...

  14. 75 FR 27769 - Mississippi 16 Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-18

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Mississippi 16 Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted... April 5, 2010 Mississippi 16 Hydro, LLC filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to section 4(f) of the Federal Power Act, proposing to study the feasibility of the Mississippi River...

  15. 75 FR 49929 - Music Mountain Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-16

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Music Mountain Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted.... On May 18, 2010, Music Mountain Hydro, LLC filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to section 4(f) of the Federal Power Act, proposing to study the feasibility of the Music ] Mountain...

  16. 76 FR 74783 - Apache Hydro LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-01

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Apache Hydro LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for..., Apache Hydro LLC filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to section 4(f) of the Federal... Wash, Apache Canyon, in Hudspeth, Culberson, and Reeves Counties, Texas. The sole purpose of...

  17. 78 FR 45523 - Davis Hydro, LLC Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Davis Hydro, LLC Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Comments, Motions To Intervene, and Competing Applications On June 4, 2013, the Davis Hydro, LLC, filed an application for...

  18. 78 FR 11170 - North Country Community College Foundation, Inc., Chasm Hydro, Inc.; Notice of Application for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-15

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission North Country Community College Foundation, Inc., Chasm Hydro, Inc.; Notice... 31, 2013, North Country Community College Foundation, Inc. (transferor) and Chasm Hydro, Inc... Community College Foundation, Inc., 23 Santanoni Avenue, P.O. Box 89, Saranac Lake, NY 12983, telephone...

  19. Advances in remote sensing and modeling of terrestrial hydro-meteorological processes and extremes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Remote sensing is an indispensable tool for monitoring and detecting the evolution of the Earth’s hydro-meteorological processes. Fast-growing remote sensing observations and technologies have been a primary impetus to advancing our knowledge of hydro-meteorological processes and their extremes ove...

  20. 75 FR 43956 - 5440 Hydro Inc.; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-27

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission 5440 Hydro Inc.; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for..., 2010, 5440 Hydro Inc. filed an application, pursuant to section 4(f) of the Federal Power Act... instructions on the Commission's Web site ( http://www.ferc.gov/docs-filing/ferconline.asp ) under the...

  1. 77 FR 67359 - Wickiup Hydro Group, LLC, Oregon; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-09

    ..., 52 FR 47897), the Office of Energy Projects has reviewed Wickiup Hydro Group, LLC's application for... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Wickiup Hydro Group, LLC, Oregon; Notice of Availability of...

  2. 75 FR 12229 - Sweetwater Hydro, LLC and Ute Mountain Ute Tribe; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Sweetwater Hydro, LLC and Ute Mountain Ute Tribe; Notice of Preliminary... Applications March 8, 2010. On November 4, 2009, Sweetwater Hydro, LLC and Ute Mountain Ute Tribe filed...

  3. 78 FR 52172 - Don W. Gilbert Hydro Power, LLC; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-22

    ... temporarily increase soil erosion during vegetation clearing and excavation for the drop inlet structure... Gilbert Hydro but with site-specific measures, would minimize project effects on soil erosion. Operating..., powerhouse, and transmission line could cause a minor amount of soil erosion. Gilbert Hydro's proposal...

  4. 78 FR 64494 - FFP Qualified Hydro 14, LLC, Western Minnesota Municipal Power Agency; Notice Announcing Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission FFP Qualified Hydro 14, LLC, Western Minnesota Municipal Power Agency... drawing, the order of priority is as follows: 1. FFP Qualified Hydro 14, LLC--Project No. 13579-002...

  5. 33 CFR 100.1305 - Richland, Washington, west coast outboard championship hydro races.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Richland, Washington, west coast outboard championship hydro races. 100.1305 Section 100.1305 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Richland, Washington, west coast outboard championship hydro races. (a) Regulated area. By this...

  6. 33 CFR 100.1305 - Richland, Washington, west coast outboard championship hydro races.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Richland, Washington, west coast outboard championship hydro races. 100.1305 Section 100.1305 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Richland, Washington, west coast outboard championship hydro races. (a) Regulated area. By this...

  7. 78 FR 66785 - Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., and Korea Electric Power Corporation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., and Korea Electric Power Corporation AGENCY: Nuclear... APR1400 Standard Plant Design submitted by Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd. (KHNP) and...

  8. 76 FR 67181 - Qualified Hydro 21 LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Qualified Hydro 21 LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted..., Qualified Hydro 21 LLC filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to section 4(f) of...

  9. 76 FR 2370 - Mount Storm Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-13

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Mount Storm Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted.... On October 14, 2010, Mount Storm Hydro, LLC filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to section 4(f) of the Federal Power Act (FPA), proposing to study the feasibility of the Mount...

  10. 76 FR 28766 - Black Canyon Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-18

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Black Canyon Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted..., Black Canyon Hydro, LLC filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to section 4(f) of the Federal Power Act (FPA), proposing to study the feasibility of the Black Canyon Hydroelectric...

  11. Parallel, grid-adaptive approaches for relativistic hydro and magnetohydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keppens, R.; Meliani, Z.; van Marle, A. J.; Delmont, P.; Vlasis, A.; van der Holst, B.

    2012-02-01

    Relativistic hydro and magnetohydrodynamics provide continuum fluid descriptions for gas and plasma dynamics throughout the visible universe. We present an overview of state-of-the-art modeling in special relativistic regimes, targeting strong shock-dominated flows with speeds approaching the speed of light. Significant progress in its numerical modeling emerged in the last two decades, and we highlight specifically the need for grid-adaptive, shock-capturing treatments found in several contemporary codes in active use and development. Our discussion highlights one such code, MPI-AMRVAC (Message-Passing Interface-Adaptive Mesh Refinement Versatile Advection Code), but includes generic strategies for allowing massively parallel, block-tree adaptive simulations in any dimensionality. We provide implementation details reflecting the underlying data structures as used in MPI-AMRVAC. Parallelization strategies and scaling efficiencies are discussed for representative applications, along with guidelines for data formats suitable for parallel I/O. Refinement strategies available in MPI-AMRVAC are presented, which cover error estimators in use in many modern AMR frameworks. A test suite for relativistic hydro and magnetohydrodynamics is provided, chosen to cover all aspects encountered in high-resolution, shock-governed astrophysical applications. This test suite provides ample examples highlighting the advantages of AMR in relativistic flow problems.

  12. Hydro-Responsive Curling of the Resurrection Plant Selaginella lepidophylla

    PubMed Central

    Rafsanjani, Ahmad; Brulé, Véronique; Western, Tamara L.; Pasini, Damiano

    2015-01-01

    The spirally arranged stems of the spikemoss Selaginella lepidophylla, an ancient resurrection plant, compactly curl into a nest-ball shape upon dehydration. Due to its spiral phyllotaxy, older outer stems on the plant interlace and envelope the younger inner stems forming the plant centre. Stem curling is a morphological mechanism that limits photoinhibitory and thermal damages the plant might experience in arid environments. Here, we investigate the distinct conformational changes of outer and inner stems of S. lepidophylla triggered by dehydration. Outer stems bend into circular rings in a relatively short period of desiccation, whereas inner stems curl slowly into spirals due to hydro-actuated strain gradient along their length. This arrangement eases both the tight packing of the plant during desiccation and its fast opening upon rehydration. The insights gained from this work shed light on the hydro-responsive movements in plants and might contribute to the development of deployable structures with remarkable shape transformations in response to environmental stimuli. PMID:25623361

  13. HydroCube: an entity-relationship hydrogeological data model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojda, Piotr; Brouyère, Serge; Derouane, Johan; Dassargues, Alain

    2010-12-01

    Managing, handling and accessing hydrogeological information depends heavily on the applied hydrogeological data models, which differ between institutions and countries. The effective dissemination of hydrogeological information requires the convergence of such models to make hydrogeological information accessible to multiple users such as universities, water suppliers, and administration and research organisations. Furthermore, because hydrogeological studies are complex, they require a wide variety of high-quality hydrogeological data with appropriate metadata in clearly designed and coherent structures. A need exists, therefore, to develop and implement hydrogeological data models that cover, as much as possible, the full hydrogeological domain. A new data model, called HydroCube, was developed for the Walloon Region in Belgium in 2005. The HydroCube model presents an innovative holistic project-based approach which covers a full set of hydrogeological concepts and features, allowing for effective hydrogeological project management. The model stores data relating to the project locality, hydrogeological equipment, and related observations and measurements. In particular, it focuses on specialized hydrogeological field experiments such as pumping and tracer tests. This logical data model uses entity-relationship diagrams and it has been implemented in the Microsoft Access environment. It has been enriched with a fully functional user interface.

  14. A new type of Alcaligenes eutrophus CH34 zinc resistance generated by mutations affecting regulation of the cnr cobalt-nickel resistance system.

    PubMed Central

    Collard, J M; Provoost, A; Taghavi, S; Mergeay, M

    1993-01-01

    Spontaneous mutants that were resistant to zinc were isolated from Alcaligenes eutrophus CH34 containing either the native plasmid pMOL28 or a derivative derepressed for its self-transfer, pMOL50. With the cured plasmid-free derivative of CH34, strain AE104, such mutants were not detected. The mutations, which were shown to be located in the plasmid, increased the level of the nickel and cobalt resistance determined by the cnr locus. The chromate resistance closely linked to the cnr locus was not affected by these mutations. In the Znr mutants, the resistance to zinc and nickel was constitutively expressed. Uptake studies showed that the zinc resistance in a Znr mutant resulted from reduced accumulation of zinc ions in comparison with that in the plasmid-free strain. Reduced accumulation of zinc was also observed to a lesser degree in the parental strain induced with nickel, suggesting that zinc interferes with the Ni2+ and Co2+ efflux system. A 12.2-kb EcoRI-XbaI restriction endonuclease fragment containing the cnr locus was cloned from plasmid pMOL28 harboring the mutation and shortened to an 8.5-kb EcoRI-PstI-PstI fragment conferring resistance to zinc, nickel, and cobalt. The 12.2-kb EcoRI-XbaI fragment was also reduced to a 9.7-kb BamHI fragment still encoding weak resistance to nickel and cobalt but not to zinc. Complementation studies demonstrated the recessivity of the cnr mutations with a Znr phenotype. Such mutations thus allow positive selection of mutants affected in the expression of the cnr operon. PMID:8423150

  15. A spatially explicit hydro-ecological modeling framework (BEPS-TerrainLab V2.0): Model description and test in a boreal ecosystem in Eastern North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govind, Ajit; Chen, Jing Ming; Margolis, Hank; Ju, Weimin; Sonnentag, Oliver; Giasson, Marc-André

    2009-04-01

    SummaryA spatially explicit, process-based hydro-ecological model, BEPS-TerrainLab V2.0, was developed to improve the representation of ecophysiological, hydro-ecological and biogeochemical processes of boreal ecosystems in a tightly coupled manner. Several processes unique to boreal ecosystems were implemented including the sub-surface lateral water fluxes, stratification of vegetation into distinct layers for explicit ecophysiological representation, inclusion of novel spatial upscaling strategies and biogeochemical processes. To account for preferential water fluxes common in humid boreal ecosystems, a novel scheme was introduced based on laboratory analyses. Leaf-scale ecophysiological processes were upscaled to canopy-scale by explicitly considering leaf physiological conditions as affected by light and water stress. The modified model was tested with 2 years of continuous measurements taken at the Eastern Old Black Spruce Site of the Fluxnet-Canada Research Network located in a humid boreal watershed in eastern Canada. Comparison of the simulated and measured ET, water-table depth (WTD), volumetric soil water content (VSWC) and gross primary productivity (GPP) revealed that BEPS-TerrainLab V2.0 simulates hydro-ecological processes with reasonable accuracy. The model was able to explain 83% of the ET, 92% of the GPP variability and 72% of the WTD dynamics. The model suggests that in humid ecosystems such as eastern North American boreal watersheds, topographically driven sub-surface baseflow is the main mechanism of soil water partitioning which significantly affects the local-scale hydrological conditions.

  16. Long Pathways for Outgassing Generated by a Rapid and Large Shear Strain of Bubbly Fluids Reducing Effective Viscosity and Affecting Eruption Styles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namiki, A.; Tanaka, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The styles of basaltic explosive eruptions have a wide variety, which is usually attributed to the separation of volcanic gas from the surrounding silicate melt. As a mechanism of gas separation, shear deformation has been suggested. However, the bubble shape evolution under large strain at high strain rate and its effects on viscosity have not yet understood well. We thus performed shear deformation experiments of bubbly liquid under high shear rate and large strain with in situ observation of bubble deformation and viscosity measurements. We used syrup solution as a magma analogue whose viscosity of 3, 50, 500 Pa s, similar to that of basaltic magma. We rotated disc-shaped bubbly syrup at shear rates of 0.03-10 s-1 with strains of 3-1000. Experiments show that deformed bubbles coalesce into larger bubbles and finally generate concentric air rings, resulting that the striped shape of air and liquid parts appears. The widths of air rings greatly exceed the bubble sizes and can be long outgassing pathways if those exist in a volcanic conduit. During the evolution of air rings the measured effective viscosity decreases, while after reaching to a steady state, viscous resistance increases again. At this stage, bubble volume and size in the liquid parts become considerably small. Time evolution of bubble size distribution suggests that most of bubbles are assimilated into the air rings and the remnants in the liquid parts break up into small bubbles. Similar shear deformation of bubbly magma could occur in volcanic conduits, which generates large bubbles at a depth where the lower effective viscosity enhances the ascending velocity. The large bubbles may originate Strombolian eruption or suppresses the explosive eruption by making the long outgassing pathways reaching to the Earth's surface. In both cases, bubble free dense melt accumulates at a shallow conduit. Our experiments suggest that, for larger melt viscosity and narrower conduit, the gas separation occurs

  17. 77 FR 55202 - Oliver Hydro LLC; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Motions To Intervene...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-07

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Oliver Hydro LLC; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting... License. b. Project No.: 13005-003. c. Date filed: December 14, 2011. d. Applicant: Oliver Hydro LLC. e... application will be processed according to the following Hydro Licensing Schedule. Revisions to the...

  18. 78 FR 71602 - Lock 12 Hydro Partners, LLC; Notice of Proposed Restricted Service List for a Programmatic Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-29

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Lock 12 Hydro Partners, LLC; Notice of Proposed Restricted Service List for... listed below. Lock 12 Hydro Partners, LLC, as the applicant for Project No. 13214-003, is invited to... Kinloch, Lock 14 Hydro Partners, 414 South Wenzel St., Louisville, KY 40204. Any person on the...

  19. 78 FR 71603 - Lock 14 Hydro Partners, LLC; Notice of Proposed Restricted Service List for a Programmatic Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-29

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Lock 14 Hydro Partners, LLC; Notice of Proposed Restricted Service List for... listed below. Lock 14 Hydro Partners, LLC, as the applicant for Project No. 13213-003, is invited to... Kinloch, Lock 14 Hydro Partners, 414 South Wenzel St., Louisville, KY 40204. Any person on the...

  20. 77 FR 10739 - SV Hydro, LLC, Coffeeville, LLC, FFP Project 99, LLC; Notice Announcing Preliminary Permit Drawing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-23

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission SV Hydro, LLC, Coffeeville, LLC, FFP Project 99, LLC; Notice Announcing... were filed by SV Hydro, LLC for Project No. 14298-000, Coffeeville, LLC for Project No. 14299-000, and... regular business day. 18 CFR 385.2001(a)(2) (2011). \\2\\ Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XIV, also filed a...

  1. 77 FR 99 - Barren River Lake Hydro LLC; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-03

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Barren River Lake Hydro LLC; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission, Soliciting Additional Study Requests, and Establishing Procedural Schedule for... River Lake Hydro LLC (Barren Hydro). e. Name of Project: Barren River Lake Dam Hydroelectric Project....

  2. 77 FR 37031 - Don W. Gilbert Hydro Power, LLC; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-20

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Don W. Gilbert Hydro Power, LLC; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing... W. Gilbert Hydro Power, LLC. e. Name of Project: Gilbert Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: The....] h. Applicant Contact: Don W. Gilbert and DeAnn G. Somonich, Don W. Gilbert Hydro Power, LLC,...

  3. 77 FR 55212 - North Star Hydro Services CA, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-07

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission North Star Hydro Services CA, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application..., 2012, North Star Hydro Services CA, LLC, Oklahoma, filed an application for a preliminary permit...: David Holland, North Star Hydro Services CA, LLC, 1110 West 131st Street South, Jenks, Oklahoma...

  4. 77 FR 55212 - North Star Hydro Services CA, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-07

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission North Star Hydro Services CA, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application..., 2012, North Star Hydro Services CA, LLC, Oklahoma, filed an application for a preliminary permit... Holland, North Star Hydro Services CA, LLC, 1110 West 131st Street South, Jenks, Oklahoma 74037;...

  5. 76 FR 34228 - FPL Energy Maine Hydro, LLC; Notice of Application for Amendment of License and Soliciting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-13

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Project No. 2283-064 FPL Energy Maine Hydro, LLC; Notice of Application for....: 2283-064. c. Date Filed: March 25, 2011. d. Applicant: FPL Energy Maine Hydro, LLC. e. Name of Project... Recreation Plan and Land/Trail Management Plan issued March 25, 2010, FPL Energy Maine Hydro, LLC...

  6. 77 FR 63303 - FPL Energy Maine Hydro LLC; Notice of Intent To File License Application, Filing of Pre...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-16

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission FPL Energy Maine Hydro LLC; Notice of Intent To File License Application... Energy Maine Hydro LLC, 26 Katherine Drive, Hallowell, ME 04347. i. FERC Contact: Amy Chang at (202) 502... Act. m. FPL Energy Maine Hydro LLC filed with the Commission a Pre- Application Document...

  7. 76 FR 40904 - FPL Energy Maine Hydro LLC; Notice of Application for Amendment of License and Soliciting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-12

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission FPL Energy Maine Hydro LLC; Notice of Application for Amendment of License... Energy Maine Hydro LLC. e. Name of Project: Wyman Project. f. Location: The project is located on the.... Applicant Contact: Chad P. Clark, Vice President, FPL Energy Maine Hydro LLC, 26 Katherine Drive,...

  8. 77 FR 38043 - Great Lakes Hydro America, LLC; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Comments...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-26

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Great Lakes Hydro America, LLC; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing.... Applicant: Great Lakes Hydro America, LLC. e. Name of Project: Penobscot Mills. f. Location: North Twin.... h. Applicant Contact: Kevin Bernier, Manager, Licensing and Compliance, ] Great Lakes Hydro...

  9. 78 FR 34092 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXX, LLC; FFP Project 121, LLC; Notice of Competing Preliminary Permit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXX, LLC; FFP Project 121, LLC; Notice of Competing... Competing Applications Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXX, LLC and FFP Project 121, LLC filed preliminary permit... 8:30 a.m. on the next regular business day. See id. at 385.2001(a)(2). Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund...

  10. 78 FR 12304 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLII, LLC; Notice of Application Ready for Environmental Analysis and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLII, LLC; Notice of Application Ready for...). h. Applicant Contact: Mr. Mark R. Stover, Lock+\\TM\\ Hydro Friends Fund XLII, LLC, c/o Hydro...

  11. 77 FR 9222 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLII, LLC; Notice of Intent To File License Application, Filing of Pre...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-16

    ..., Lock+\\TM\\ Hydro Friends Fund XLII, c/o Hydro Green Energy, LLC, 900 Oakmont Lane, Suite 310, Westmont... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLII, LLC; Notice of Intent To File...

  12. 77 FR 16217 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXIX, LLC; Notice of Intent To File License Application, Filing of Pre...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-20

    ... R. Stover, Lock+\\TM\\ Hydro Friends Fund XXXIX, c/o Hydro Green Energy, LLC, 900 Oakmont Lane, Suite... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXIX, LLC; Notice of Intent To File...

  13. 77 FR 16216 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLVI, LLC; Notice of Intent To File License Application, Filing of Pre...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-20

    ... R. Stover, Lock+\\TM\\ Hydro Friends Fund XLVI, c/o Hydro Green Energy, LLC, 900 Oakmont Lane, Suite... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLVI, LLC; Notice of Intent To File...

  14. 77 FR 60971 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLII, LLC; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-05

    ... Hydro Friends Fund XLII, c/o Hydro Green Energy, LLC, 900 Oakmont Lane, Suite 310, Westmont, IL 60559... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLII, LLC; Notice of Application Tendered...

  15. 77 FR 68765 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLII, LLC; Notice of Scoping Meetings and Environmental Site Review and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-16

    ...\\ Hydro Friends Fund XLII, LLC, c/o Hydro Green Energy, LLC, 900 Oakmont Lane, Suite 310, Westmont, IL... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLII, LLC; Notice of Scoping Meetings...

  16. 77 FR 64971 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLII, LLC; Notice of Waiver, in Part, of Prefiling Consultation Required...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-24

    ...\\ Hydro Friends Fund XLII, c/o Hydro Green Energy, LLC, 900 Oakmont Lane, Suite 310, Westmont, IL 60559... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLII, LLC; Notice of Waiver, in Part, of...

  17. Structural factors affecting pore space transformation during hydrocarbon generation in source rock (shales): laboratory experiments and X-ray microtomography/SEM study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giliazetdinova, Dina; Korost, Dmitry; Gerke, Kirill

    2015-04-01

    Oil and gas generation is a complex superposition of processes which take place in the interiors and are not readily observable in nature in human life time-frames. During burial of the source rocks organic matter is transformed into a mixture of high-molecular compounds - precursors of oil and gas (kerogen). Specific thermobaric conditions trigger formation of low molecular weight hydrocarbon compounds. Generation of sufficient quantities of hydrocarbons leads to the primary fluid migration. For series of our experiments we selected mainly siliceous-carbonate composition shale rocks from Domanic horizon of South-Tatar arch. Rock samples were heated in the pyrolyzer to temperatures closely corresponding to different catagenesis stages. X-ray microtomography method was used to monitor changes in the morphology of the pore space within studied shale rocks. By routine measurements we made sure that all samples (10 in total) had similar composition of organic and mineral phases. All samples in the collection were grouped according to initial structure and amount of organics and processed separately to: 1) study the influence of organic matter content on the changing morphology of the rock under thermal effects; 2) study the effect of initial structure on the primary migration processes for samples with similar organic matter content. An additional experiment was conducted to study the dynamics of changes in the structure of the pore space and prove the validity of our approach. At each stage of heating the morphology of altered rocks was characterized by formation of new pores and channels connecting primary voids. However, it was noted that the samples with a relatively low content of the organic matter had less changes in pore space morphology, in contrast to rocks with a high organic content. Second part of the study also revealed significant differences in resulting pore structures depending on initial structure of the unaltered rocks and connectivity of original

  18. Generation of 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone from rhamnose as affected by reaction parameters: experimental design approach.

    PubMed

    Illmann, Silke; Davidek, Tomas; Gouézec, Elisabeth; Rytz, Andreas; Schuchmann, Heike P; Blank, Imre

    2009-04-01

    The formation of 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (HDMF) was studied in aqueous model systems containing L-rhamnose and L-lysine. The approach consisted in systematically varying four reaction parameters (rhamnose concentration, rhamnose to lysine ratio, pH, and phosphate concentration) at 3 levels. A fractional factorial design was used to reduce the number of trials. The degradation of rhamnose was followed by high performance anion exchange chromatography and the formation of HDMF by solid phase extraction in combination with GC/MS. The study permitted the identification of critical reaction parameters that affect the formation of HDMF from rhamnose in aqueous systems. Although all studied parameters have some impact on the HDMF formation and rhamnose degradation kinetics, the effect of phosphate is by far the most important, followed by concentration of precursors and pH. The experimental design approach permitted us, with a limited number of experiments, to accurately model the effects of the four investigated reaction parameters on the kinetics of rhamnose degradation and HDMF formation (R(2)>0.93). Overall, the results indicate that rhamnose can be an excellent precursor of HDMF (yield >40 mol%), if the reaction conditions are well mastered. PMID:19256512

  19. 'Does my Diet Affect my Perfume?' Identification and Quantification of Cuticular Compounds in Five Drosophila melanogaster Strains Maintained over 300 Generations on Different Diets.

    PubMed

    Pavković-Lučić, Sofija; Todosijević, Marina; Savić, Tatjana; Vajs, Vlatka; Trajković, Jelena; Anđelković, Boban; Lučić, Luka; Krstić, Gordana; Makarov, Slobodan; Tomić, Vladimir; Miličić, Dragana; Vujisić, Ljubodrag

    2016-02-01

    Cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) in Drosophila melanogaster represent the basis of chemical communication being involved in many important biological functions. The aim of this study was to characterize chemical composition and variation of cuticular profiles in five D. melanogaster strains. These strains were reared for approximately 300 generations on five diets: standard cornmeal medium and substrates prepared with apple, banana, tomato, and carrot. Differences in quantity and/or quality in CHCs were assumed as a result of activation of different metabolic pathways involved in food digestion and adaptations to the particular diet type. In total, independently of sex and strain, 66 chemical compounds were identified. In females of all strains, 60 compounds were identified, while, in males, 47 compounds were extracted. Certain new chemical compounds for D. melanogaster were found. MANOVA confirmed that CHC amounts significantly depend on sex and substrates, as well as on their interactions. Discriminant analysis revealed that flies belonging to 'apple' and 'carrot' strains exhibited the most noticeable differences in CHC repertoires. A non-hydrocarbon pheromone, cis-vaccenyl acetate (cVA) also contributed to the variation in the pheromone bouquet among the strains. Variability detected in CHCs and cVA may be used in the explanation of differences in mating behaviour previously determined in analyzed fly strains. PMID:26880435

  20. 'Does my Diet Affect my Perfume?' Identification and Quantification of Cuticular Compounds in Five Drosophila melanogaster Strains Maintained over 300 Generations on Different Diets.

    PubMed

    Pavković-Lučić, Sofija; Todosijević, Marina; Savić, Tatjana; Vajs, Vlatka; Trajković, Jelena; Anđelković, Boban; Lučić, Luka; Krstić, Gordana; Makarov, Slobodan; Tomić, Vladimir; Miličić, Dragana; Vujisić, Ljubodrag

    2016-02-01

    Cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) in Drosophila melanogaster represent the basis of chemical communication being involved in many important biological functions. The aim of this study was to characterize chemical composition and variation of cuticular profiles in five D. melanogaster strains. These strains were reared for approximately 300 generations on five diets: standard cornmeal medium and substrates prepared with apple, banana, tomato, and carrot. Differences in quantity and/or quality in CHCs were assumed as a result of activation of different metabolic pathways involved in food digestion and adaptations to the particular diet type. In total, independently of sex and strain, 66 chemical compounds were identified. In females of all strains, 60 compounds were identified, while, in males, 47 compounds were extracted. Certain new chemical compounds for D. melanogaster were found. MANOVA confirmed that CHC amounts significantly depend on sex and substrates, as well as on their interactions. Discriminant analysis revealed that flies belonging to 'apple' and 'carrot' strains exhibited the most noticeable differences in CHC repertoires. A non-hydrocarbon pheromone, cis-vaccenyl acetate (cVA) also contributed to the variation in the pheromone bouquet among the strains. Variability detected in CHCs and cVA may be used in the explanation of differences in mating behaviour previously determined in analyzed fly strains.

  1. DRIHM: Distributed Research Infrastructure for Hydro-Meteorology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parodi, A.; Rebora, N.; Kranzlmueller, D.; Schiffers, M.; Clematis, A.; Tafferner, A.; Garrote, L. M.; Llasat Botija, M.; Caumont, O.; Richard, E.; Cros, P.; Dimitrijevic, V.; Jagers, B.; Harpham, Q.; Hooper, R. P.

    2012-12-01

    Hydro-Meteorology Research (HMR) is an area of critical scientific importance and of high societal relevance. It plays a key role in guiding predictions relevant to the safety and prosperity of humans and ecosystems from highly urbanized areas, to coastal zones, and to agricultural landscapes. Of special interest and urgency within HMR is the problem of understanding and predicting the impacts of severe hydro-meteorological events, such as flash-floods and landslides in complex orography areas, on humans and the environment, under the incoming climate change effects. At the heart of this challenge lies the ability to have easy access to hydrometeorological data and models, and facilitate the collaboration between meteorologists, hydrologists, and Earth science experts for accelerated scientific advances in this field. To face these problems the DRIHM (Distributed Research Infrastructure for Hydro-Meteorology) project is developing a prototype e-Science environment to facilitate this collaboration and provide end-to-end HMR services (models, datasets and post-processing tools) at the European level, with the ability to expand to global scale (e.g. cooperation with Earth Cube related initiatives). The objectives of DRIHM are to lead the definition of a common long-term strategy, to foster the development of new HMR models and observational archives for the study of severe hydrometeorological events, to promote the execution and analysis of high-end simulations, and to support the dissemination of predictive models as decision analysis tools. DRIHM combines the European expertise in HMR, in Grid and High Performance Computing (HPC). Joint research activities will improve the efficient use of the European e-Infrastructures, notably Grid and HPC, for HMR modelling and observational databases, model evaluation tool sets and access to HMR model results. Networking activities will disseminate DRIHM results at the European and global levels in order to increase the cohesion

  2. Hydro-geological process chain for building a flood scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longoni, Laura; Brambilla, Davide; Papini, Monica; Ivanov, Vladislav; Radice, Alessio

    2015-04-01

    Flash-flood events in mountain environments are often related to the transport of large amounts of sediment from the slopes through the stream network. As a consequence, significant morphological changes may occur in rivers during a single, short-duration event, with possibly significant effect on the water elevation. An appropriate hazard evaluation would therefore require the thorough modelling of the flood-related phenomena and of their interconnection. In this context, this work is focused on an attempt of integrated modelling of event-scale water and sediment transport processes for a reference case-study of the Mallero basin in the Italian Alps. The area of the catchments is about 320 square km, the main stream being almost 25 km long and having slopes in the range from 1 to 40 %. A town (Sondrio) is present at the downstream end of the river. In 1987, Sondrio was at risk of inundation due to a combined effect of relatively high discharge and aggradation of the river bed up to 5 m (almost equal to the bankfull depth in the in-town reach). A 100-year flood scenario was produced including (i) a sediment supply model, (ii) a one-dimensional, hydro-morphologic model of the river bed evolution, and (iii) an estimation of the outflowing discharge at river sections where the bank elevation was exceeded by water. Rainfall-runoff transformation was not included into the modelling chain as the 100-year water hydrograph was already available from previous studies. For the sediment production model, a downscaling in time of the Gavrilovic equation was attempted using rainfall estimation from depth-duration-frequency curves, which furnished values in reasonable agreement with some available data. The hydro-morphologic model, based on the Saint-Venant and Exner equations, was preliminarily calibrated against data for bed aggradation measured in 1987. A point of separation was chosen at an appropriate location in the basin, and the sediment yield estimated upstream of this

  3. Geovisualization in the HydroProg web map service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spallek, Waldemar; Wieczorek, Malgorzata; Szymanowski, Mariusz; Niedzielski, Tomasz; Swierczynska, Malgorzata

    2016-04-01

    The HydroProg system, built at the University of Wroclaw (Poland) in frame of the research project no. 2011/01/D/ST10/04171 financed by the National Science Centre of Poland, has been designed for computing predictions of river stages in real time on a basis of multimodelling. This experimental system works on the upper Nysa Klodzka basin (SW Poland) above the gauge in the town of Bardo, with the catchment area of 1744 square kilometres. The system operates in association with the Local System for Flood Monitoring of Klodzko County (LSOP), and produces hydrograph prognoses as well as inundation predictions. For presenting the up-to-date predictions and their statistics in the online mode, the dedicated real-time web map service has been designed. Geovisualisation in the HydroProg map service concerns: interactive maps of study area, interactive spaghetti hydrograms of water level forecasts along with observed river stages, animated images of inundation. The LSOP network offers a high spatial and temporal resolution of observations, as the length of the sampling interval is equal to 15 minutes. The main environmental elements related to hydrological modelling are shown on the main map. This includes elevation data (hillshading and hypsometric tints), rivers and reservoirs as well as catchment boundaries. Furthermore, we added main towns, roads as well as political and administrative boundaries for better map understanding. The web map was designed as a multi-scale representation, with levels of detail and zooming according to scales: 1:100 000, 1:250 000 and 1:500 000. Observations of water level in LSOP are shown on interactive hydrographs for each gauge. Additionally, predictions and some of their statistical characteristics (like prediction errors and Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency) are shown for selected gauges. Finally, predictions of inundation are presented on animated maps which have been added for four experimental sites. The HydroProg system is a strictly

  4. A hydro-meteorological ensemble prediction system for real-time flood forecasting purposes in the Milano area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravazzani, Giovanni; Amengual, Arnau; Ceppi, Alessandro; Romero, Romualdo; Homar, Victor; Mancini, Marco

    2015-04-01

    Analysis of forecasting strategies that can provide a tangible basis for flood early warning procedures and mitigation measures over the Western Mediterranean region is one of the fundamental motivations of the European HyMeX programme. Here, we examine a set of hydro-meteorological episodes that affected the Milano urban area for which the complex flood protection system of the city did not completely succeed before the occurred flash-floods. Indeed, flood damages have exponentially increased in the area during the last 60 years, due to industrial and urban developments. Thus, the improvement of the Milano flood control system needs a synergism between structural and non-structural approaches. The flood forecasting system tested in this work comprises the Flash-flood Event-based Spatially distributed rainfall-runoff Transformation, including Water Balance (FEST-WB) and the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) models, in order to provide a hydrological ensemble prediction system (HEPS). Deterministic and probabilistic quantitative precipitation forecasts (QPFs) have been provided by WRF model in a set of 48-hours experiments. HEPS has been generated by combining different physical parameterizations (i.e. cloud microphysics, moist convection and boundary-layer schemes) of the WRF model in order to better encompass the atmospheric processes leading to high precipitation amounts. We have been able to test the value of a probabilistic versus a deterministic framework when driving Quantitative Discharge Forecasts (QDFs). Results highlight (i) the benefits of using a high-resolution HEPS in conveying uncertainties for this complex orographic area and (ii) a better simulation of the most of extreme precipitation events, potentially enabling valuable probabilistic QDFs. Hence, the HEPS copes with the significant deficiencies found in the deterministic QPFs. These shortcomings would prevent to correctly forecast the location and timing of high precipitation rates and

  5. After BRCA1 and BRCA2-what next? Multifactorial segregation analyses of three-generation, population-based Australian families affected by female breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Cui, J; Antoniou, A C; Dite, G S; Southey, M C; Venter, D J; Easton, D F; Giles, G G; McCredie, M R; Hopper, J L

    2001-02-01

    Mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 that cause a dominantly inherited high risk of female breast cancer seem to explain only a small proportion of the aggregation of the disease. To study the possible additional genetic components, we conducted single-locus and two-locus segregation analyses, with and without a polygenic background, using three-generation families ascertained through 858 women with breast cancer diagnosed at age <40 years, ascertained through population cancer registries in Melbourne and Sydney, Australia. Extensive testing for deleterious mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2, to date, has identified 34 carriers. Our analysis suggested that, after other possible unmeasured familial factors are adjusted for and the known BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers are excluded, there appears to be a residual dominantly inherited risk of female breast cancer in addition to that derived from mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2. This study also suggests that there is a substantial recessively inherited risk of early-onset breast cancer. According to the best-fitting model, after excluding known carriers of mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2, about 1/250 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1/500 to 1/125) women have a recessive risk of 86% (95% CI 69%-100%) by age 50 years and of almost 100% by age 60 years. Possible reasons that our study has implicated a novel strong recessive effect include our inclusion of data on lineal aunts and grandmothers, study of families ascertained through women with early-onset breast cancer, allowance for multiple familial factors in the analysis, and removal of families for whom the cause (i.e., BRCA1 or BRCA2) is known. Our findings may have implications for attempts to identify new breast cancer-susceptibility genes. PMID:11133358

  6. Soil stability characteristics of mulberry lands at hydro-fluctuation belt in the Three Gorges Reservoir area, China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ping; Shi, Dongmei; Hu, Xueqin; Huang, Xianzhi; Li, Yexin; Guo, Tianlei

    2015-10-01

    The hydro-fluctuation belt in the Three Gorges Reservoir area is a typical seasonal and artificial wetland system and ecologically fragile zone. Using the widely existing mulberry forest lands in the hydro-fluctuation belt as an example and the 180-m water-level forest land as a control, this paper analyzes the soil stability of mulberry forestlands at different water levels in the hydro-fluctuation belt by analyzing and comparing the changes between soil physical and mechanical properties. The results indicated that (1) water-level changes, such as rising, flooding, draining, and exposure, affect the soil structure in mulberry forestlands. The soil agglomeration statuses for the soil layers decreased from 180 > 175 > 170 > 165 m, and the soil agglomeration statuses at a depth of 0∼20 cm decreased by 43.79, 44.95, and 57.45% compared with the control. (2) The soil water stability index decreased as follows: 180 > 170 > 175 > 165 m, which only accounted for 50.00, 47.73, and 40.91% of the control. In addition, the soil water stability indexes for the topsoils at various water levels were 1.87 (180 m), 1.67 (175 m), 2.92 (170 m), and 1.86 (165 m) times greater than those of the subsoils; thus, the resistance to hydraulic dispersion and disintegration were greater in the topsoil than in the subsoil. (3) The soil aggregate stability index decreased from 180 > 165 > 170 > 175 m and by 22.75, 23.53, and 35.29% compared with the control. (4) The soil shear strengths (composed of the cohesive force C and the internal friction angle φ) of the topsoils at water levels of 175, 170, and 165 m were significantly lower than in the control, and the internal friction angles decreased by 10.52, 19.08, and 43.25% and the cohesive force decreased by 9.88, 16.36, and 27.51%, respectively. The stability of the soil structure was greatly influenced by the soil clay content, soil organic matter content, and waterlogging duration. The study results

  7. Soil stability characteristics of mulberry lands at hydro-fluctuation belt in the Three Gorges Reservoir area, China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ping; Shi, Dongmei; Hu, Xueqin; Huang, Xianzhi; Li, Yexin; Guo, Tianlei

    2015-10-01

    The hydro-fluctuation belt in the Three Gorges Reservoir area is a typical seasonal and artificial wetland system and ecologically fragile zone. Using the widely existing mulberry forest lands in the hydro-fluctuation belt as an example and the 180-m water-level forest land as a control, this paper analyzes the soil stability of mulberry forestlands at different water levels in the hydro-fluctuation belt by analyzing and comparing the changes between soil physical and mechanical properties. The results indicated that (1) water-level changes, such as rising, flooding, draining, and exposure, affect the soil structure in mulberry forestlands. The soil agglomeration statuses for the soil layers decreased from 180 > 175 > 170 > 165 m, and the soil agglomeration statuses at a depth of 0∼20 cm decreased by 43.79, 44.95, and 57.45% compared with the control. (2) The soil water stability index decreased as follows: 180 > 170 > 175 > 165 m, which only accounted for 50.00, 47.73, and 40.91% of the control. In addition, the soil water stability indexes for the topsoils at various water levels were 1.87 (180 m), 1.67 (175 m), 2.92 (170 m), and 1.86 (165 m) times greater than those of the subsoils; thus, the resistance to hydraulic dispersion and disintegration were greater in the topsoil than in the subsoil. (3) The soil aggregate stability index decreased from 180 > 165 > 170 > 175 m and by 22.75, 23.53, and 35.29% compared with the control. (4) The soil shear strengths (composed of the cohesive force C and the internal friction angle φ) of the topsoils at water levels of 175, 170, and 165 m were significantly lower than in the control, and the internal friction angles decreased by 10.52, 19.08, and 43.25% and the cohesive force decreased by 9.88, 16.36, and 27.51%, respectively. The stability of the soil structure was greatly influenced by the soil clay content, soil organic matter content, and waterlogging duration. The study results

  8. Zolpidem, a clinical hypnotic that affects electronic transfer, alters synaptic activity through potential GABA receptors in the nervous system without significant free radical generation.

    PubMed

    Kovacic, Peter; Somanathan, Ratnasamy

    2009-01-01

    Zolpidem (trade name Ambien) has attracted much interest as a sleep-inducing agent and also in research. Attention has been centered mainly on receptor binding and electrochemistry in the central nervous system which are briefly addressed herein. A novel integrated approach to mode of action is presented. The pathways to be discussed involve basicity, reduction potential, electrostatics, cell signaling, GABA receptor binding, electron transfer (ET), pharmacodynamics, structure activity relationships (SAR) and side effects. The highly conjugated pyridinium salt formed by protonation of the amidine moiety is proposed to be the active form acting as an ET agent. Extrapolation of reduction potentials for related compounds supports the premise that zolpidem may act as an ET species in vivo. From recent literature reports, electrostatics is believed to play a significant role in drug action. The pyridinium cation displays molecular electrostatic potential which may well play a role energetically or as a bridging mechanism. An SAR analysis points to analogy with other physiologically active xenobiotics, namely benzodiazepines and paraquat in the conjugated iminium category. Inactivity of metabolites indicates that the parent is the active form of zolpidem. Absence of reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress is in line with minor side effects. In contrast, generally, the prior literature contains essentially no discussion of these fundamental biochemical relationships. Pharmacodynamics may play an important role. Concerning behavior at the blood-brain barrier, useful insight can be gained from investigations of the related cationic anesthetics that are structurally related to acetyl choline. Evidently, the neutral form of the drug penetrates the neuronal membrane, with the salt form operating at the receptor. The pathways of zolpidem have several clinical implications since the agent affects sedation, electroencephalographic activity, oxidative metabolites and

  9. Web services for distributed and interoperable hydro-information systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horak, J.; Orlik, A.; Stromsky, J.

    2007-06-01

    Web services support the integration and interoperability of Web-based applications and enable machine-to-machine interaction. The concepts of web services and open distributed architecture were applied to the development of T-DSS, the prototype customised for web based hydro-information systems. T-DSS provides mapping services, database related services and access to remote components, with special emphasis placed on output flexibility (e.g. multilingualism), where SOAP web services are mainly used for communication. The remote components are represented above all by distant data and mapping services (e.g. eteorological predictions), modelling and analytical systems (currently HEC-HMS, Modflow and additional utilities), which support decision making in water management.

  10. Web services for distributed and interoperable hydro-information systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horak, J.; Orlik, A.; Stromsky, J.

    2008-03-01

    Web services support the integration and interoperability of Web-based applications and enable machine-to-machine interaction. The concepts of web services and open distributed architecture were applied to the development of T-DSS, the prototype customised for web based hydro-information systems. T-DSS provides mapping services, database related services and access to remote components, with special emphasis placed on the output flexibility (e.g. multilingualism), where SOAP web services are mainly used for communication. The remote components are represented above all by remote data and mapping services (e.g. meteorological predictions), modelling and analytical systems (currently HEC-HMS, MODFLOW and additional utilities), which support decision making in water management.

  11. Development of Nutrient Model for i-Tree Hydro using Sampling Results from the Mianus River Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephan, E. A.; Endreny, T. A.; Nowak, D. J.

    2013-12-01

    Urbanization has created an 'urban biogeochemistry' with accelerated and imbalanced nutrient cycles, polluted waterways, and compromised ecosystems due to poorly coupled interactions between society and the urban environment. Our research group tests nitrogen and phosphorus cycle algorithms in I-Tree Hydro to quantify the changes in water quality and quantity that result from changes in urbanization and land use. This presentation focuses on i-Tree Hydro nitrogen and phosphorus dynamics with changing tree and green infrastructure cover. The model is tested using water chemistry and land cover analyses from the Mianus River watershed, a 91 sq km area in Bedford, New York and Stamford, Connecticut. Storm samples are taken from areas draining a variety of land uses, and are analyzed for all nitrogen species, as well as in-situ denitrification measurements. Emphasis is placed on best management practices and structures and their effectiveness in storm event nutrient removal; comparisons between drainage areas that have green space and those that do not will be analyzed. This research should inform model simulation of how water chemistry is affected by management decisions, and how land can be best managed to promote effective nutrient cycling.

  12. Hydro-mechanical behaviour of bentonite pellet mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, C.; Alonso, E. E.; Romero, E.

    Granular mixtures made of high-density pellets of bentonite are being evaluated as an alternative buffer material for waste isolation. Ease of handling is an often-mentioned advantage. The paper described the experimental program performed to characterize the hydro-mechanical behaviour of compacted pellet’s mixtures used in the engineered barrier (EB) experiment. The material tested in the laboratory was based in the pellet’s mixtures actually used for the emplacement of the EB in situ experiment. Grain size distribution was adjusted to a maximum pellet size compatible with the specimen’s dimensions. Dry densities of statically compacted specimens varied in most of the cases in the range: 1.3-1.5 Mg/m 3. Pellets had a very high dry density, close to 2 Mg/m 3. The outstanding characteristic of these mixtures is its discontinuous porosity. Pore sizes of the compacted pellets vary around 10 nm. However the inter-pellet size of the pores is four to five orders of magnitude higher. This double porosity and the highly expansive nature of the pellets controlled all the hydraulic and mechanical properties of the mixture. Tests performed include infiltration tests using different water injection rates and mechanisms of water transfer (in liquid and vapour phases), suction controlled oedometer tests and swelling pressure tests. The interpretation of some of the tests performed required backanalysis procedures using a hydro-mechanical (HM) computer code. Material response was studied within the framework of the elastoplastic constitutive model proposed by Alonso et al. [Alonso, E.E., Gens, A., Josa, A., 1990. A constitutive model for partially saturated soils. Géotechnique 40 (3), 405-430] (Barcelona Basic Model, BBM). Parameters for the model were identified and also a set of hydraulic laws necessary to perform coupled HM analysis.

  13. Modeling the effect of urban infrastructure on hydrologic processes within i-Tree Hydro, a statistically and spatially distributed model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taggart, T. P.; Endreny, T. A.; Nowak, D.

    2014-12-01

    Gray and green infrastructure in urban environments alters many natural hydrologic processes, creating an urban water balance unique to the developed environment. A common way to assess the consequences of impervious cover and grey infrastructure is by measuring runoff hydrographs. This focus on the watershed outlet masks the spatial variation of hydrologic process alterations across the urban environment in response to localized landscape characteristics. We attempt to represent this spatial variation in the urban environment using the statistically and spatially distributed i-Tree Hydro model, a scoping level urban forest effects water balance model. i-Tree Hydro has undergone expansion and modification to include the effect of green infrastructure processes, road network attributes, and urban pipe system leakages. These additions to the model are intended to increase the understanding of the altered urban hydrologic cycle by examining the effects of the location of these structures on the water balance. Specifically, the effect of these additional structures and functions on the spatially varying properties of interception, soil moisture and runoff generation. Differences in predicted properties and optimized parameter sets between the two models are examined and related to the recent landscape modifications. Datasets used in this study consist of watersheds and sewersheds within the Syracuse, NY metropolitan area, an urban area that has integrated green and gray infrastructure practices to alleviate stormwater problems.

  14. Integrated hydrometeorological predictions with the fully-coupled WRF-Hydro modeling system in western North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gochis, D. J.; Yu, W.

    2013-12-01

    Prediction of heavy rainfall and associated streamflow responses remain as critical hydrometeorological challenges and require improved understanding of the linkages between atmospheric and land surface processes. Streamflow prediction skill is intrinsically liked to quantitative precipitation forecast skill, which emphasizes the need to produce mesoscale predictions of rainfall of high fidelity. However, in many cases land surface parameters can also exert significant control on the runoff response to heavy rainfall and on the formation or localization of heavy rainfall as well. A new generation of integrated atmospheric-hydrologic modeling systems is emerging from different groups around the world to meet the challenge of integrated water cycle predictions. In this talk the community WRF-Hydro modeling system will be presented. After a brief reviewing the architectural features of the WRF-Hydro system short-term forecasting and regional hydroclimate prediction applications of the model from western North America will be presented. In these applications, analyses will present results from observation-validated prediction experiments where atmospheric and terrestrial hydrologic model components are run in both a fully coupled mode and separately without two-way interactions. Emphasis is placed on illustrating an assessment framework using an initial state perturbation methodology to quantify the role of land-atmosphere energy and moisture flux partitioning in controlling precipitation and runoff forecast skill. Issues related to experimental design of fully-coupled model prediction experiments will also be discussed as will issues related to computational performance.

  15. Is It Better to Burn or Bury Waste for Clean Electricity Generation?

    EPA Science Inventory

    The generation of electricity through renewables has increased 5% since 2002. Although considerably less prominent than solar and wind, the use of municipal solid waste (MSW) to generate electricity represents roughly 14 percent of U.S. non-hydro renewable electricity generation....

  16. Evaluating Stream Discharge-Concentration Relationships for a Range of Hydro-climatic Regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunawan, S.; Barco, J.; Hogue, T.

    2008-12-01

    Complex interactions between hydrological and biogeochemical processes have served as a constant challenge in ecosystem studies. These inter-related processes are highly affected by watershed characteristics and regional atmospheric deposition rates. Deposition of pollutants has been linked to the degradation of ecosystems by altering both stream water and soil chemistry. The current study focuses on establishing relationships between discharge-concentration trends, watershed characteristics and regional atmospheric deposition. We evaluate data from a number of watersheds located across a range of hydro- climatic regimes and varying physical characteristics. Water quality data for each stream system was obtained from the United States Geological Survey (USGS), with a focused analysis on calcium, magnesium, and nitrate concentrations. Atmospheric deposition data for the same constituents was also gathered from regional National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) sites. Discharge-concentration hyperbolic dilution models were fitted for each selected watershed system. Trends in hyperbolic model parameters were related to differing watershed characteristics and regional deposition rates, i.e. higher parameter values were observed for highly disturbed watersheds and lower parameter values were observed for undisturbed watersheds. Developing relationships between model parameters and atmospheric and watershed characteristics can be used to establish pollutant loads and outputs from similar systems where chemical data may not be readily available.

  17. System Modeling to Improve the Hydro-Ecological Performance of Diked Wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alminagorta, O.; Rosenberg, D. E.; Kettenring, K.

    2012-12-01

    Managing scarce water resources and invasive vegetation are common problems in wetlands. A systems model was developed to recommend water allocations and vegetation control actions among diked wetland units that will improve wetland habitat for bird species. Model recommendations are subject to constraints such as water availability, spatial connectivity of wetland units, hydraulic infrastructure capacities, vegetation growth and responses to management activities, plus financial and time resources available to manage water and invasive vegetation. Wetland habitat performance is quantified using two performance metrics. The first metric is a habitat suitability index (H) that represents the capacity of a given habitat attribute (such as water depth or vegetation cover) to support selected bird species. Suitability ranges from 0 (poor) to 1 (excellent) habitat quality. We combine the habitat suitability of water depth and vegetation coverage, weight by species and the wetted surface area to create the second metric defined as the weighted usable area for wetlands (WU). The WU represents the available surface area that provides suitable hydrological and ecological conditions for priority bird species. We apply the model at the Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge (the Refuge), which is the largest wetland complex on the Great Salt Lake, Utah. The Refuge provides important habitat for large populations of migratory birds that follow the North American Pacific and Central Flyways. Wetland managers and stakeholders participated throughout this study from identifying the problem, defining performance metrics, collecting data, through interpreting results. We ran the model for a base case representing hydrologic conditions in 2008 and eight scenarios that independently considered changes in water availability, financial budget, vegetation responses, and gate operation. Results of these analysis show that performance of wetland habitat are more affected by changes in

  18. Hydro-economic Risk Assessment in the Eastern Nile River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arjoon, D.; Tilmant, A.; Mohamed, Y.

    2013-12-01

    In 2011, the Ethiopian government announced plans for the construction of the Grand Renaissance Dam (GRD) on the Blue Nile, just east of its border with Sudan, at a cost of almost 5 billion dollars. The project is expected to generate over 15 TWh of energy and will include a reservoir of more than 60 km3 capacity, which roughly corresponds to the average annual flow of the Blue Nile. This project is part of a larger scheme, by the government, to expand its hydroelectric power capacity, however, the scheme faces strong opposition from downstream Egypt and Sudan. Egypt and Sudan are highly dependent on flows that originate in Ethiopia (it has been estimated that 86% of Nile flow originates in the Ethiopian highlands). The Ethiopian government argues that the dam would supply electricity for Ethiopians as well as generate surplus energy for export to neighboring countries. The Ethiopians also argue that the huge reservoir would generate positive externalities downstream by reducing floods and providing more constant and predictable lows. This study attempts to provide an independent analysis of the hydrologic and economic risks faced by downstream countries when GRD will be online. To achieve this, an integrated, stochastic hydro-economic model of the entire Eastern Nile basin is used to analyze various development and management scenarios. The results indicate that if countries agree to co- operative management of the Eastern Nile River basin, GRD would indeed significantly increase basin-wide benefits, especially in Ethiopia and in Sudan. An alternative management scenario, whereby GRD would be operated by Sudan and Egypt, does not yield significant economic gains in these countries. However, massive unilateral irrigation developments in Ethiopia will be detrimental for all countries, including Ethiopia itself, due to the huge opportunity costs involved.

  19. DRIHM Portal - A Scientific Gateway for Complex Hydro-Meteorological Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danovaro, Emanuele; Clematis, Andrea; D'Agostino, Daniele; Galizia, Antonella; Quarati, Alfonso; Schiffers, Michael; Straube, Christian; gentschen Felde, Nils; Delogu, Fabio; Fiori, Elisabetta

    2014-05-01

    Hydro-meteorological simulations rely on complex, computationally intensive, simulation models. The accuracy of the simulation is strongly dependent on an extensive set of configuration parameters. Moreover, a full simulation (from rainfall to impact on urban areas) requires the execution of several models organized trough a workflow. This can lead to compatibility issues among different models. DRIHM Portal is the scientific gateway developed by DRIHM project. It is able to support HM researcher in the design on new experiment. It expose a simple, web-based, UI that let the user to compose the desired workflow, then the user is driven trough parameter selection and job execution. The portal takes care of generating all the configuration files and handles the execution of simulation steps on a heterogeneous computing infrastructure composed by PRACE and EGI resources and on dedicated clusters. A large effort in model standardization give the possibility to easily swap among analogous model within a workflow, and evaluate the benefit of different models or configuration parameters, thus speeding-up the HM research. The portal is further evolving with a new set of user-driven requests: in-place analysis of simulation results and ability to share experiment with the HMR community as well as with citizen scientists.

  20. The Trans-African Hydro-Meteorological Observatory: Recent progress and planned activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Giesen, N.; Hut, R.; Pieron, M.; Andreini, M.; Selker, J.

    2012-04-01

    The Trans-African Hydro-Meteorological Observatory (www.tahmo.org) is an initiative to develop, deploy, and operate 20,000 measurement stations in sub-Saharan Africa. Until recently, the activities have been limited but the project is now moving ahead and has developed activities in Zambia and Ghana. Design, Education, and Operation are the three main lines along which the initiative has been developing. Design follows a set of rules that serve easy deployment and operation, such as absence of moving parts and cavities, self- and cross calibration of sensors, and low cost (€ 200-300 per station). Education is central to the success of the project. The idea is that stations will be deployed at high schools and that educational material will be developed for the science curriculum. This approach will ensure good social embedding and acceptance as well as help create a generation of scientists and technicians with hands-on environmental monitoring experience. Operation focuses on the long-term financial sustainability of the network. Raw data will be made available for scientific use but value added products will be produced to financed maintenance and operation. The main purposes of the presentation are to provide details on recent developments, broaden the number of institutes involved and, especially, open discussion on further development of the initiative.

  1. Negotiating river ecosystems: Impact assessment and conflict mediation in the cases of hydro-power construction

    SciTech Connect

    Karjalainen, Timo P.; Jaervikoski, Timo

    2010-09-15

    In this paper we discuss how the legitimacy of the impact assessment process is a key issue in conflict mediation in environmental impact assessment. We contrast two EIA cases in hydro-power generation plans made for the Ii River, Finland in different decades, and evaluate how impact assessment in these cases has contributed to the creation, mediation and resolution of conflicts. We focus on the elements of distributional and procedural justice that made the former EIA process more legitimate and consensual and the latter more conflictual. The results indicate that it is crucial for conflict mediation to include all the values and interests of the parties in the goal-setting process and in the definition and assessment of alternatives. The analysis also indicates that procedural justice is the most important to help the people and groups involved to accept the legitimacy of the impact assessment process: how different parties and their values and interests are recognized, and how participation and distribution of power are organized in an impact assessment process. It is confirmed in this article that SIA may act as a mediator or a forum providing a process through which competing knowledge claims, various values and interests can be discussed and linked to the proposed alternatives and interventions.

  2. Hydro-economic modeling of the role of forests on water resources production in Andalusia, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beguería, Santiago; Serrano-Notivoli, Roberto; Álvarez-Palomino, Alejandro; Campos, Pablo

    2014-05-01

    The development of more refined information tools is a pre-requisite for supporting decision making in the context of integrated water resources management. Among these tools, hydro-economic models are favoured because they allow integrating the ecological, hydrological, infrastructure and economic aspects into a coherent, scientifically-informed framework. We present a case study that assesses physically the water resources of forest lands of the Andalusia region in Spain and conducts an economic environmental income and asset valuation of the forest surface water yield. We show how, based on available hydrologic and economic data, we can develop a comprehensive water account for all the forest lands at the regional scale. This forest water environmental valuation is part of the larger RECAMAN project, which aims at providing a robust and easily replicable accounting tool to evaluate yearly the total income an capital generated by the forest land, encompassing all measurable sources of private and public incomes (timber and cork production, auto-consumption, recreational activities, biodiversity conservation, carbon sequestration, water production, etc.). Only a comprehensive integrated tool such as the one built within the RECAMAN project may serve as a basis for the development of integrated policies such as those internationally agreed and recommended for the management of water resources.

  3. When clusters collide - A numerical Hydro/N-body simulation of merging galaxy clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roettiger, Kurt; Burns, Jack; Loken, Chris

    1993-01-01

    A 3D numerical simulation of two merging clusters of galaxies, using a hybrid Hydro/N-body code, is presented. The hydrodynamics of the code is solved by an Eulerian finite difference method. Initial results disclose that the X-ray emission of the dominant cluster becomes elongated and broadened; heating occurs at the core of the dominant cluster as a result of multiple shocks, and high velocity gas motions within the intracluster medium. It is predicted that clusters which have undergone recent mergers and do not have cooling flows will have high peculiar gas velocities and that the shocks and turbulence generated during the merger may power cluster-wide radio halos. Prolonged high-velocity gas motions through the dominant cluster core possibly play a major role in the formation and shaping of wide-angle tailed radio sources associated with central dominant galaxies. The N-body component of the simulation reveals the subcluster to be dispersed as it passes through the dominant cluster.

  4. Designs and applications for floating-hydro power systems in small streams

    SciTech Connect

    Rehder, J.B.

    1983-01-01

    The project focuses on an appropriate technology for small-scale hydro power: floating waterwheels and turbines. For background, relic and existing systems such as early floating mills, traditional Amish waterwheels, and micro-hydro systems are examined. In the design phase of the project, new designs for Floating Hydro Power Systems include: an analysis of floatation materials and systems; a floating undershot waterwheel design; a floating cylinder (fiberglass storage tank) design; a submerged tube design; and a design for a floating platform with submerged propellers. Finally, in the applications phase, stream flow data from East Tennessee streams are used in a discussion of the potential applications of floating hydro power systems in small streams.

  5. 76 FR 35873 - Blue Heron Hydro LLC; Notice of Application Ready for Environmental Analysis and Soliciting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ...)-825(r). h. Applicant Contact: Lori Barg, Blue Heron Hydro LLC, 113 Bartlett Road, Plainfield, Vermont..., contact FERC Online Support. n. Public notice of the filing of the initial development application, which.... Bose, Secretary. BILLING CODE 6717-01-P...

  6. 77 FR 51022 - Clark Canyon Hydro, LLC; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing, Ready for Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Clark Canyon Hydro, LLC; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing, Ready..., Recommendations, Terms and Conditions, and Fishway Prescriptions Take notice that the following...

  7. 78 FR 26342 - Small Hydro of Texas, Inc.; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing, Soliciting Comments...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Small Hydro of Texas, Inc.; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing, Soliciting Comments, Motions To Intervene, and Protests Take notice that the following...

  8. 78 FR 7770 - Boyce Hydro Power, LLC; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing, Soliciting Motions To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Boyce Hydro Power, LLC; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing, Soliciting Motions To Intervene, Protests, and Comments Take notice that the following...

  9. Using GA-Ridge regression to select hydro-geological parameters influencing groundwater pollution vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Jae Joon; Kim, Young Min; Yoo, Keunje; Park, Joonhong; Oh, Kyong Joo

    2012-11-01

    For groundwater conservation and management, it is important to accurately assess groundwater pollution vulnerability. This study proposed an integrated model using ridge regression and a genetic algorithm (GA) to effectively select the major hydro-geological parameters influencing groundwater pollution vulnerability in an aquifer. The GA-Ridge regression method determined that depth to water, net recharge, topography, and the impact of vadose zone media were the hydro-geological parameters that influenced trichloroethene pollution vulnerability in a Korean aquifer. When using these selected hydro-geological parameters, the accuracy was improved for various statistical nonlinear and artificial intelligence (AI) techniques, such as multinomial logistic regression, decision trees, artificial neural networks, and case-based reasoning. These results provide a proof of concept that the GA-Ridge regression is effective at determining influential hydro-geological parameters for the pollution vulnerability of an aquifer, and in turn, improves the AI performance in assessing groundwater pollution vulnerability.

  10. 77 FR 2290 - Modern Hydro; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-17

    ... Hydro filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to section 4(f) of the Federal Power Act (FPA), to study the feasibility of the proposed Delhi Milldam Water Power Project No. 14311 to...

  11. Impacts of extreme hydro-meteorological conditions on ecosystem functioning and productivity patterns across Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huete, Alfredo; Ma, Xuanlong; Xie, Zunyi; Restrepo-Coupe, Natalia; Ponce-Campos, Guillermo

    2016-04-01

    significant drought-induced mortality. Semi-arid rangelands were most sensitive to drought and wet pulses, generating large land carbon sinks with subsequent rapid carbon dissipation rates. We also found an intensification of drought and wet cycles from the 1980's, inducing similar impacts on the carbon cycle. More efforts are needed to understand and generalize vegetation responses to extreme hydro-meteorological conditions in order to better inform land managers and other stakeholders of potential environmental and economic impacts.

  12. Experimental monitoring of the hydro-mechanical state of a discontinuity using controlled source seismic method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Place, Joachim; Blake, Oshaine; Rietbrock, Andreas; Faulkner, Dan

    2013-04-01

    Great earthquakes often occur in crystalline rocks, and basement rocks can host geothermal and hydrocarbon resources. In such rocks, the fluid storage and transfer properties depend mainly on the natural fault and fracture networks. Therefore, it is of primary importance to characterise the physical properties of the fault zones in order to better understand the seismogenic processes and how the resources can be exploited. Seismic waves are known to be sensitive to many parameters which evolve depending on the fault response to stresses and fluid type. Therefore seismic methods show a great potential to monitor the hydro-mechanical state of structures remotely, with no need for drilling through the structures. We developed a basic experimental approach at sample scale to monitor the mechanical coupling through a discontinuity between a granite sample in contact with a piece of steel, when the effective pressure (Peff) and the nature of the filling fluid vary. Piezoceramics utilised both as sources and sensors are located on the steel (in which the attenuation is assumed to be zero) and both generate and record the P and S wave fields reflected off the discontinuity at normal incidence. This permits the normal (Bn) and tangential (Bt) fracture compliances to be calculated after Schoenberg's linear slip theory from the measurement of P-P and S-S reflection coefficients. The roughness of the sample surface, as well as the effect of fluid type (air or water) and Peff were studied. Under dry conditions, it is observed that the poorer the contact area, the higher Bn and Bt, meaning that the seismic energy of P and S waves is less transmitted. Increasing the effective pressure decreases the compliances, which is interpreted as the effect of the closure of the voids at the interface; this permits more seismic energy to be transmitted through the interface. It is also observed that Bn is significantly higher than Bt at low Peff (<60 MPa). Under water saturated conditions

  13. HydroViz: design and evaluation of a Web-based tool for improving hydrology education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habib, E.; Ma, Y.; Williams, D.; Sharif, H. O.; Hossain, F.

    2012-10-01

    HydroViz is a Web-based, student-centered, educational tool designed to support active learning in the field of Engineering Hydrology. The design of HydroViz is guided by a learning model that is based on learning with data and simulations, using real-world natural hydrologic systems to convey theoretical concepts, and using Web-based technologies for dissemination of the hydrologic education developments. This model, while being used in a hydrologic education context, can be adapted in other engineering educational settings. HydroViz leverages the free Google Earth resources to enable presentation of geospatial data layers and embed them in web pages that have the same look and feel of Google Earth. These design features significantly facilitate the dissemination and adoption of HydroViz by any interested educational institutions regardless of their access to data or computer models. To facilitate classroom usage, HydroViz is populated with a set of course modules that can be used incrementally within different stages of an engineering hydrology curriculum. A pilot evaluation study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of the HydroViz tool in delivering its educational content, to examine the buy-in of the program by faculty and students, and to identify specific project components that need to be further pursued and improved. A total of 182 students from seven freshmen and senior-level undergraduate classes in three universities participated in the study. HydroViz was effective in facilitating students' learning and understanding of hydrologic concepts and increasing related skills. Students had positive perceptions of various features of HydroViz and they believe that HydroViz fits well in the curriculum. In general, HydroViz tend to be more effective with students in senior-level classes than students in freshmen classes. Lessons gained from this pilot study provide guidance for future adaptation and expansion studies to scale-up the application and

  14. A Comprehensive View of Global Potential for Hydro-generated Electricity

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Yuyu; Hejazi, Mohamad I.; Smith, Steven J.; Edmonds, James A.; Li, Hongyi; Clarke, Leon E.; Calvin, Katherine V.; Thomson, Allison M.

    2015-09-01

    In this study, we assess global hydropower potential using runoff and stream flow data, along with turbine technology performance, cost assumptions, and environmental considerations. The results provide the first comprehensive quantification of global hydropower potential including gross, technical, economic, and exploitable estimates. Total global potential of gross, technical, economic, and exploitable hydropower are estimated to be approximately 128, 39, 32, and 27 petawatt hours per year, respectively. The economic and exploitable potential of hydropower are calculated at less than 9 cents/kWh. We find that hydropower has the potential to supply a significant portion of the world energy needs, although this potential varies substantially by region. Globally, hydropower can potentially supply about 1.5 times the total electricity demand in 2005. Estimated hydropower resources in a number of countries are sufficient to accommodate their demand for electricity in 2005, e.g., Brazil (5.6 times), Russia (4.6 times), and Canada (3.5 times). A sensitivity analysis indicates that hydropower estimates are not highly sensitive to five key parameters: design flow (varying by -2% to +1% at less than 9 cents/kWh), cost and financing options (by -7% to +6%), turbine efficiency (by -10% to +10%), stream flow (by -10% to +10%), and fixed charge rate (by -6% to 5%). This sensitivity analysis emphasizes the reliable role of hydropower for future energy systems, when compared to other renewable energy resources with larger uncertainty in their future potentials.

  15. 76 FR 8724 - First Light Hydro Generating Company; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing, Soliciting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ... characters, without prior registration, using the eComment system at http://www.ferc.gov/docs-filing/ecomment...). The applicant states that the proposed 2MW utility grade photovoltaic solar array will provide...

  16. Trouble-shooting bearing problems in large hydroturbine generators

    SciTech Connect

    Abramovitz, S. )

    1991-10-01

    If hydro plant operators are aware of the signals that can alert them to potential harm to generator bearings and act promptly to investigate and evaluate any problems, failures should be averted. This article reviews two aspects of trouble-shooting: discovering and defining potential problems that might cause bearing failure; and pinpointing the cause of failures to prevent similar ones in the future.

  17. Spatial impact and triggering conditions of the exceptional hydro-geomorphological event of December 1909 in Iberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, S.; Ramos, A. M.; Zêzere, J. L.; Trigo, R. M.; Vaquero, J. M.

    2016-02-01

    According to the DISASTER database the 20-28 December 1909 event was the hydro-geomorphologic event with the highest number of flood and landslide cases that occurred in Portugal in the period 1865-2010 (Zêzere et al., 2014). This event also caused important social impacts over the Spanish territory, especially in the Douro Basin, having triggered the highest floods in more than 100 years at the river's mouth in the city of Oporto. This work has a dual purpose: (i) to characterize the spatial distribution and social impacts of the December 1909 hydro-geomorphologic DISASTER event over Portugal and Spain; (ii) to analyse the meteorological conditions that triggered the event and the spatial distribution of the precipitation anomalies. Social impacts that occurred in Portugal were obtained from the Disaster database (Zêzere et al., 2014) whereas the data collection for Spain was supported by the systematic analysis of Spanish daily newspapers. In addition, the meteorological conditions that triggered the event are analysed using the 20th Century Reanalysis data set from NOAA and precipitation data from Iberian meteorological stations. The Iberian Peninsula was spatially affected during this event along the SW-NE direction spanning from Lisbon, Santarém, Oporto, and Guarda (in Portugal), to Salamanca, Valladolid, Zamora, Orense, León, and Palencia (in Spain). In Iberia, 134 DISASTER cases were recorded (130 flood cases; 4 landslides cases) having caused 89 casualties (57 due to floods and 32 due to landslides) and a further total of 3876 affected people, including fatalities, injured, missing, evacuated, and homeless people. This event was associated with outstanding precipitation registered at Guarda (Portugal) on 22 December 1909 and unusual meteorological conditions characterized by the presence of a deep low-pressure system located over the NW Iberian Peninsula with a stationary frontal system striking the western Iberian Peninsula. The presence of an upper

  18. Spatial impact and triggering conditions of the exceptional hydro-geomorphological event of December 1909 in Iberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, S.; Ramos, A. M.; Zêzere, J. L.; Trigo, R. M.; Vaquero, J. M.

    2015-09-01

    According to the DISASTER database the 20-28 December 1909 was the hydro-geomorphologic event with the highest number of flood and landslide cases occurred in Portugal in the period 1865-2010 (Zêzere et al., 2014). This event also caused important social impacts over the Spanish territory, especially in the Douro basin, having triggered the highest floods in more than 100 years at the river's mouth in the city of Oporto. This work aims to characterize the spatial distribution and social impacts of the December 1909 hydro-geomorphologic event over Iberia. In addition, the meteorological conditions that triggered the event are analysed using the 20 Century Reanalysis dataset from NOAA and precipitation data from Iberian meteorological stations. The Iberian Peninsula was spatially affected during this event along the SW-NE direction spanning from Lisbon, Santarém, Oporto and Guarda (in Portugal), until Salamanca, Valladolid, Zamora, Orense, León and Palencia (in Spain). In Iberia, 134 DISASTER cases were recorded (130 flood cases; 4 landslides cases) having caused a total of 89 casualties (57 in floods and 32 in landslides) and a total of 3876 people were affected, including fatalities, injured, missing, evacuated and homeless people. This event was associated with some outstanding precipitation values at Guarda station (Portugal) in 22 December 1909 and unusual meteorological conditions characterized by the presence of a deep low pressure system located over NW Iberian Peninsula with a stationary frontal system striking the Western Iberian Peninsula. The presence of an upper-level jet (250 hPa) and low-level jet (900 hPa) located on SW-NE oriented towards the Iberia along with upper-level divergence and lower-level convergence favoured large-scale precipitation. Finally, associated with these features it is possible to state that this extreme event was clearly associated to the presence of an elongated Atmospheric River, crossing the entire northern Atlantic basin

  19. HydroDesktop as a Community Designed and Developed Resource for Hydrologic Data Discovery and Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ames, D. P.

    2013-12-01

    As has been seen in other informatics fields, well-documented and appropriately licensed open source software tools have the potential to significantly increase both opportunities and motivation for inter-institutional science and technology collaboration. The CUAHSI HIS (and related HydroShare) projects have aimed to foster such activities in hydrology resulting in the development of many useful community software components including the HydroDesktop software application. HydroDesktop is an open source, GIS-based, scriptable software application for discovering data on the CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System and related resources. It includes a well-defined plugin architecture and interface to allow 3rd party developers to create extensions and add new functionality without requiring recompiling of the full source code. HydroDesktop is built in the C# programming language and uses the open source DotSpatial GIS engine for spatial data management. Capabilities include data search, discovery, download, visualization, and export. An extension that integrates the R programming language with HydroDesktop provides scripting and data automation capabilities and an OpenMI plugin provides the ability to link models. Current revision and updates to HydroDesktop include migration of core business logic to cross platform, scriptable Python code modules that can be executed in any operating system or linked into other software front-end applications.

  20. Experimental investigations on the magneto-hydro-dynamic interaction around a blunt body in a hypersonic unseeded air flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristofolini, Andrea; Borghi, Carlo A.; Neretti, Gabriele; Schettino, Antonio; Trifoni, Eduardo; Battista, Francesco; Passaro, Andrea; Baccarella, Damiano

    2012-11-01

    This paper deals with the experimental investigation on the MHD (magneto-hydro-dynamic or magneto-fluid-dynamic) interaction around a test body immersed into a hypersonic unseeded air flow. The experiments have been carried out in the CIRA plasma wind tunnel SCIROCCO. Two test conditions have been utilized for the experiments with a total pressure of 2.5 and 2.3 bar respectively, a total specific enthalpy of 16 and 12.1 MJ/kg respectively. The air flow was accelerated in the nozzle up to Mach 10. The magnetic induction field is generated by an electromagnet enclosed in the test body and reaches a 0.8 T maximum value in the interaction region.

  1. Development of a fully integrated water cycle model: HydroGeoSphere-Weather Research and Forecasting (HGS-WRF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davison, J. H.; Hwang, H. T.; Sudicky, E. A.; Lin, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    Recent advances in modern process-based hydrological models have drastically outpaced the capabilities of current-generation land surface schemes (LSS) found within atmospheric and climate models. In order to improve climate simulations and, in particular, more accurately represent the hydrological cycle, we suggest implementing state-of-the-art integrated surface/subsurface hydrological models as advanced LSS. This study explores the coupling process of HydroGeoSphere (HGS), a finite-element control volume variably saturated subsurface and surface water model with energy transport processes, to Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF), a finite difference fully-compressible nonhydrostatic mesoscale climate model. Our flexible coupling method advances water cycle modeling by tightly integrating the moisture fluxes between the subsurface, surface, and atmospheric domains. We expect to increase the overall modeling skill of precipitation and moisture fluxes between domains.

  2. Application of HydroGeoSphere to model the response to anthropogenic climate change of three-dimensional hydrological processes in the geologically, geothermally, and topographically complex Valles Caldera super volcano, New Mexico: Preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wine, M.; Cadol, D. D.

    2014-12-01

    Anthropogenic climate change is expected to reduce streamflow in the southwestern USA due to reduction in precipitation and increases in evaporative demand. Understanding the effects of climate change in this region is particularly important for mountainous areas since these are primary sources of recharge in arid and semi-arid environments. Therefore we undertook to model effects of climate change on the hydrological processes in Valles Caldera (448 km2), located in the Jemez Mountains of northern New Mexico. In Valles Caldera modeling the surficial, hydrogeological, and geothermal processes that influence hydrologic fluxes each present challenges. The surficial dynamics of evaporative demand and snowmelt both serve to control recharge dynamics, but are complicated by the complex topography and spatiotemporal vegetation dynamics. Complex factors affecting evaporative demand include leaf area index, temperature, albedo, and radiation affected by topographic shading; all of these factors vary in space and time. Snowmelt processes interact with evaporative demand and geology to serve as an important control on streamflow generation, but modeling the effects of spatiotemporal snow distributions on streamflow generation remains a challenge. The complexity of Valles Caldera's geology—and its associated hydraulic properties—rivals that of its surficial hydrologic forcings. Hydrologically important geologic features that have formed in the Valles Caldera are three-dimensionally intricate and include a dense system of faults, alluvium, landslides, lake deposits, and features associated with the eruption and collapse of this super volcano. Coupling geothermally-driven convection to the hydrologic cycle in this still-active geothermal system presents yet an additional challenge in modeling Valles Caldera. Preliminary results from applying the three-dimensional distributed hydrologic finite element model HydroGeoSphere to a sub-catchment of Valles Caldera will be

  3. How Affiliation Disclosure and Control Over User-Generated Comments Affects Consumer Health Knowledge and Behavior: A Randomized Controlled Experiment of Pharmaceutical Direct-to-Consumer Advertising on Social Media

    PubMed Central

    Vendemia, Megan Ashley

    2016-01-01

    Background More people are seeking health information online than ever before and pharmaceutical companies are increasingly marketing their drugs through social media. Objective The aim was to examine two major concerns related to online direct-to-consumer pharmaceutical advertising: (1) how disclosing an affiliation with a pharmaceutical company affects how people respond to drug information produced by both health organizations and online commenters, and (2) how knowledge that health organizations control the display of user-generated comments affects consumer health knowledge and behavior. Methods We conducted a 2×2×2 between-subjects experiment (N=674). All participants viewed an infographic posted to Facebook by a health organization about a prescription allergy drug. Across conditions, the infographic varied in the degree to which the health organization and commenters appeared to be affiliated with a drug manufacturer, and the display of user-generated comments appeared to be controlled. Results Affiliation disclosure statements on a health organization’s Facebook post increased perceptions of an organization-drug manufacturer connection, which reduced trust in the organization (point estimate –0.45, 95% CI –0.69 to –0.24) and other users who posted comments about the drug (point estimate –0.44, 95% CI –0.68 to –0.22). Furthermore, increased perceptions of an organization-manufacturer connection reduced the likelihood that people would recommend the drug to important others (point estimate –0.35, 95% CI –0.59 to –0.15), and share the drug post with others on Facebook (point estimate –0.37, 95% CI –0.64 to –0.16). An affiliation cue next to the commenters' names increased perceptions that the commenters were affiliated with the drug manufacturer, which reduced trust in the comments (point estimate –0.81, 95% CI –1.04 to –0.59), the organization that made the post (point estimate –0.68, 95% CI –0.90 to –0.49), the

  4. Determining the minimum instream flow for hydro peaking projects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milhous, Robert T.

    1992-01-01

    A new analytical technique is available for quantifying and predicting the effect that a proposed hydro peaking operation, or a change in an existing project's operation, will have on physical habitat for aquatic populations downstream of the project. The technique, known as the dual flow analysis, is based on elements of the US Fish and Wildlife Service's Physical Habitat Simulation System (PHABSIM). PHABSIM is used to calculate the physical habitat for aquatic organisms in a stream. The assumption behind the development of this technique is that if the effects of a proposed project on physical habitat are known, one can better understand the effects on aquatic organisms. Thus, a defensible selection of an instream flow requirement can be made. The technique was developed as a result of a joint study by the US Fish and Wildlife Service and Niagara Mohawk Power Corp. at the 26.4-MW Bennetts Bridge and the 7.8-MW Lighthouse Hill developments on the Salmon river in upstate New York.

  5. Hydro-dynamic damping theory in flowing water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monette, C.; Nennemann, B.; Seeley, C.; Coutu, A.; Marmont, H.

    2014-03-01

    Fluid-structure interaction (FSI) has a major impact on the dynamic response of the structural components of hydroelectric turbines. On mid-head to high-head Francis runners, the rotor-stator interaction (RSI) phenomenon always has to be considered carefully during the design phase to avoid operational issues later on. The RSI dynamic response amplitudes are driven by three main factors: (1) pressure forcing amplitudes, (2) excitation frequencies in relation to natural frequencies and (3) damping. The prediction of the two first factors has been largely documented in the literature. However, the prediction of fluid damping has received less attention in spite of being critical when the runner is close to resonance. Experimental damping measurements in flowing water on hydrofoils were presented previously. Those results showed that the hydro-dynamic damping increased linearly with the flow. This paper presents development and validation of a mathematical model, based on momentum exchange, to predict damping due to fluid structure interaction in flowing water. The model is implemented as an analytical procedure for simple structures, such as cantilever beams, but is also implemented in more general ways using three different approaches for more complex structures such as runner blades: a finite element procedure, a CFD modal work based approach and a CFD 1DOF approach. The mathematical model and all three implementation approaches are shown to agree well with experimental results.

  6. Determining the minimum instream flow for hydro peaking projects

    SciTech Connect

    Milhous, R.T. )

    1992-10-01

    A new analytical technique is available for quantifying and predicting the effect that a proposed hydro peaking operation, or a change in an existing project's operation, will have on physical habitat for aquatic populations downstream of the project. The technique, known as the dual flow analysis, is based on elements of the US Fish and Wildlife Service's Physical Habitat Simulation System (PHABSIM). PHABSIM is used to calculate the physical habitat for aquatic organisms in a stream. The assumption behind the development of this technique is that if the effects of a proposed project on physical habitat are known, one can better understand the effects on aquatic organisms. Thus, a defensible selection of an instream flow requirement can be made. The technique was developed as a result of a joint study by the US Fish and Wildlife Service and Niagara Mohawk Power Corp. at the 26.4-MW Bennetts Bridge and the 7.8-MW Lighthouse Hill developments on the Salmon river in upstate New York.

  7. Magneto-Hydro-Dynamic Waves In The Collisionless Space Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzhalilov, N. S.; Kuznetsov, V. D.; Staude, J.

    2007-12-01

    The instability of magneto-hydro-dynamic (MHD) waves in an anisotropic, collisionless, rarefied hot plasma is studied. Anisotropy properties of such a plasma are caused by a strong magnetic field, when the thermal gas pressures across and along the field become unequal. Moreover, there appears an anisotropy of the thermal fluxes. The study of the anisotropy features of the plasma are motivated by observed solar coronal data. The 16 moments equations derived from the Boltzmann-Vlasov kinetic equation are used. These equations strongly differ from the usual isotropic MHD case. For linear disturbances the wave equations in homogenous anisotropic plasma are deduced. The general dispersion relation for the incompressible wave modes is derived, solved and analyzed. It is shown that a wide wave spectrum with stable and unstable behavior is possible, in contrast to the usual isotropic MHD case. The dependence of the instability on magnetic field, pressure anisotropy, and heat fluxes is investigated. The general instability condition is obtained. The results can be applied to the theory of solar and stellar coronal heating, to wind models and in other modeling, where the collisionless approximation is valid.

  8. A realistic 3+1D Viscous Hydro Algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Romatschke, Paul

    2015-05-31

    DoE funds were used as bridge funds for the faculty position for the PI at the University of Colorado. The total funds for the Years 3-5 of the JET Topical Collaboration amounted to about 50 percent of the academic year salary of the PI.The PI contributed to the JET Topical Collaboration by developing, testing and applying algorithms for a realistic simulation of the bulk medium created in relativistic ion collisions.Specifically, two approaches were studied, one based on a new Lattice-Boltzmann (LB) framework, and one on a more traditional viscous hydro-dynamics framework. Both approaches were found to be viable in principle, with the LB approach being more elegant but needing still more time to develop.The traditional approach led to the super-hybrid model of ion collisions dubbed 'superSONIC', and has been successfully used for phenomenology of relativistic heavy-ion and light-on-heavy-ion collisions.In the time-frame of the JET Topical Collaboration, the Colorado group has published 15 articles in peer-reviewed journals, three of which were published in Physical Review Letters. The group graduated one Master student during this time-frame and two more PhD students are expected to graduate in the next few years. The PI has given more than 28 talks and presentations during this period.

  9. Improving the efficiency of a four-unit generating station

    SciTech Connect

    Kornegay, D.L.

    1995-12-31

    Increasing the efficiency of hydro generating stations is gaining importance as more and more power stations become automated. The increase in annual revenues due to efficiency improvements is one factor in evaluating the cost justification of an automation project. Several previous works have stated that the efficiency of a generating can be improved by using certain generation dispatching methods. The purpose of this study is to quantify the gain in annual revenues for a four-unit hydro generating station, using actual data from an existing station. The method used in this study does not require a rigorous analytical study. It should, however, provide a reasonably accurate estimate of the potential revenue gain achievable by using an automated generation dispatching control. This method is adaptable to stations with any number of units.

  10. Collaborative Sharing of Multidimensional Space-time Data Using HydroShare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, T.; Tarboton, D. G.; Horsburgh, J. S.; Dash, P. K.; Idaszak, R.; Yi, H.; Blanton, B.

    2015-12-01

    HydroShare is a collaborative environment being developed for sharing hydrological data and models. It includes capability to upload data in many formats as resources that can be shared. The HydroShare data model for resources uses a specific format for the representation of each type of data and specifies metadata common to all resource types as well as metadata unique to specific resource types. The Network Common Data Form (NetCDF) was chosen as the format for multidimensional space-time data in HydroShare. NetCDF is widely used in hydrological and other geoscience modeling because it contains self-describing metadata and supports the creation of array-oriented datasets that may include three spatial dimensions, a time dimension and other user defined dimensions. For example, NetCDF may be used to represent precipitation or surface air temperature fields that have two dimensions in space and one dimension in time. This presentation will illustrate how NetCDF files are used in HydroShare. When a NetCDF file is loaded into HydroShare, header information is extracted using the "ncdump" utility. Python functions developed for the Django web framework on which HydroShare is based, extract science metadata present in the NetCDF file, saving the user from having to enter it. Where the file follows Climate Forecast (CF) convention and Attribute Convention for Dataset Discovery (ACDD) standards, metadata is thus automatically populated. Users also have the ability to add metadata to the resource that may not have been present in the original NetCDF file. HydroShare's metadata editing functionality then writes this science metadata back into the NetCDF file to maintain consistency between the science metadata in HydroShare and the metadata in the NetCDF file. This further helps researchers easily add metadata information following the CF and ACDD conventions. Additional data inspection and subsetting functions were developed, taking advantage of Python and command line

  11. Microfabrication and Test of a Three-Dimensional Polymer Hydro-focusing Unit for Flow Cytometry Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Ren; Feeback, Daniel L.; Wang, Wanjun

    2004-01-01

    This paper details a novel three-dimensional (3D) hydro-focusing micro cell sorter for micro flow cytometry applications. The unit was microfabricated by means of SU-8 3D lithography. The 3D microstructure for coaxial sheathing was designed, microfabricated, and tested. Three-dimensional hydro-focusing capability was demonstrated with an experiment to sort labeled tanned sheep erythrocytes (red blood cells). This polymer hydro-focusing microstructure is easily microfabricated and integrated with other polymer microfluidic structures.

  12. A large scale flume for hydro-environmental studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, Jose Alfonso; Giráldez, Juan Vicente; Castro-Orgaz, Oscar; Casalí, Javier; Hermosín, Maria del Carmen; Mateos, Luciano

    2013-04-01

    The understanding of key hydrologic processes such as, water erosion, rill network development or agrochemical transport, requires controlled experiments at the appropriate scale. This is the reason for experimentation at flume scale in hydro-environmental research, used for many decades in this field. This communication presents a research infrastructure, recently completed in its first stage, consisting of a large flume for studying soil water erosion, sediment transport, and environmental processes such as the transport of different substances (salts, fertilizers, herbicides, carbon, …) rather dissolved or absorbed with the sediment. It is located at the Institute for Sustainable Agriculture (CSIC) in Córdoba, Spain. The flume is 0.6 m deep, 12 m long, and 6 m wide. It may be divided longitudinally into three channels (6 m long, 1 m wide). The slope of the flume can be regulated from 0 % to 20 %. The device allows studying free surface flows over movable beds with different conditions of sediment transport by supplying clear or sediment-laden water from its head system. The head system consists of three triangular weirs for accurate measurement of water flow, three stilling tanks at the entrance of the flume, and three vibratory hoppers for applying sediments at pre-set rates. The water can be re-circulated, the maximum inflow is then about 30 l s-1, or evacuated, then the inflow is limited to about 20 l s-1. The infrastructure is within a shelter with an area of 400 m2 and height 8.7 m. The area of the shelter allows in-door mechanical preparation of soil and sediments. The height of the shelter will allow the installation of the rainfall simulator and a light rail crane in a second stage, not started yet. Several experiments have been planned at IAS-CSIC already, particularly investigation of the water erosion and sediment transport processes in concentrated flows under different soil conditions, as well as hydrodynamics aspects of suspended and bed

  13. Hydro-climatic Changes: Potential Non-linear Responses of Phosphorus Dynamic in Aquatic/Semi-aquatic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pant, H. K.

    2007-12-01

    Depending on resilience, threshold and lag times, hydro-climatic changes can cause nonlinear and/or irreversible changes in phosphorus (P) dynamic, and instigate P enrichment in aquatic/semi-aquatic systems. Thus, studying direct/indirect effects of expected global climate change on bioavailability of organic P in aquatic systems are in critical need, to help manage or increase the resilience of the ecosystem. The central hypothesis of this study is that P dynamic in aquatic, especially freshwater, ecosystem is likely to behave nonlinearly due to expected changes in sediment and water acidity, redox status, etc., because of potential hydro-climatic changes in the decades to come, thus, could face irreversible adverse changes. Devising possible biological and chemical treatments for the removal of P from eutrophic lakes, estuaries, etc, as well as helping in predicting the movement and fate of P under changing hydro-climatic conditions would be crucial to manage aquatic ecosystem in the near future. The critical question is not how much P is stored in any given aquatic/semi-aquatic system, but how the resilience and nonlinearity relate to the stability of stored P are affected due to the levels of environmental stressors, which are expected to fluctuate due to global change in the decades to come. Studies related to 31P Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy analysis, and multiple hydraulic retention cycles showed that, in general, frequent drying and reflooding of a semi-aquatic system such as wetland could significantly increase the bioavailability of P due to degradation of relatively less stable organic P, e.g., glycerophosphate and nucleoside monophosphate. Moreover, nutrients flux from sediments to the water column depended on the concentration gradients of the sediment-water interface and redox status. Shift in equilibrium P concentration of the water column as the water level rises, may cause release of adsorbed P from the sediments. Restoration of a

  14. DRIHM: Distributed Research Infrastructure for HydroMeteorology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parodi, A.

    2012-04-01

    Predicting weather and climate and its impacts on the environment, including hazards such as floods and landslides, is still one of the main challenges of the 21st century with significant societal and economic implications. At the heart of this challenge lies the ability to have easy access to hydrometeorological data and models, and facilitate the collaboration between meteorologists, hydrologists, and Earth science experts for accelerated scientific advances in hydrometeorological research (HMR). to face these problems the DRIHM (Distributed Research Infrastructure for Hydro-Meteorology) project intends to develop a prototype e-Science environment to facilitate this collaboration and provide end-to-end HMR services (models, datasets and post-processing tools) at the European level, with the ability to expand to global scale. The objectives of DRIHM are to lead the definition of a common long-term strategy, to foster the development of new HMR models and observational archives for the study of severe hydrometeorological events, to promote the execution and analysis of high-end simulations, and to support the dissemination of predictive models as decision analysis tools. DRIHM combines the European expertise in HMR, in Grid and High Performance Computing (HPC). Joint research activities will improve the efficient use of the European e-Infrastructures, notably Grid and HPC, for HMR modelling and observational databases, model evaluation tool sets and access to HMR model results. Networking activities will disseminate DRIHM results at the European and global levels in order to increase the cohesion of European and possibly worldwide HMR communities and increase the awareness of ICT potential for HMR. Service activities will deploy the end-to-end DRIHM services and tools in support of HMR networks and virtual organizations on top of the existing European e-Infrastructures.

  15. Hydro- abrasive jet machining modeling for computer control and optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groppetti, R.; Jovane, F.

    1993-06-01

    Use of hydro-abrasive jet machining (HAJM) for machining a wide variety of materials—metals, poly-mers, ceramics, fiber-reinforced composites, metal-matrix composites, and bonded or hybridized mate-rials—primarily for two- and three-dimensional cutting and also for drilling, turning, milling, and deburring, has been reported. However, the potential of this innovative process has not been explored fully. This article discusses process control, integration, and optimization of HAJM to establish a plat-form for the implementation of real-time adaptive control constraint (ACC), adaptive control optimiza-tion (ACO), and CAD/CAM integration. It presents the approach followed and the main results obtained during the development, implementation, automation, and integration of a HAJM cell and its computer-ized controller. After a critical analysis of the process variables and models reported in the literature to identify process variables and to define a process model suitable for HAJM real-time control and optimi-zation, to correlate process variables and parameters with machining results, and to avoid expensive and time-consuming experiments for determination of the optimal machining conditions, a process predic-tion and optimization model was identified and implemented. Then, the configuration of the HAJM cell, architecture, and multiprogramming operation of the controller in terms of monitoring, control, process result prediction, and process condition optimization were analyzed. This prediction and optimization model for selection of optimal machining conditions using multi-objective programming was analyzed. Based on the definition of an economy function and a productivity function, with suitable constraints relevant to required machining quality, required kerfing depth, and available resources, the model was applied to test cases based on experimental results.

  16. Research of Hydro-Geological Precursors of Earthquakes in Armenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pashayan, R.

    2007-12-01

    The observations of hydro-geological regime of underground waters in observed boreholes began in Armenia in 1986. Now these work is concentrated in National Seismic Service. For a long time observations are carried out studying several parameters (debit, temperature, chemical and gas composition) in several deposits of carbon mineral waters of Armenia. The interpretation of materials shows that that a number of strong and medium-strength earthquakes are accompanied by anomal changes in the level of underground waters. Regarding mineral waters, in connection with earthquakes some parameters are immediately changed: debit, temperature, chemical and gas composition. The study of hydrogeodynamic characteristics of precursors specify that the quantity of registered hydrogeodynamic precursors decreases with the increase of epicentrical distance. The majority of precursors is registered at the distance of 200 km from epicenter. There is a tendency of gradual increase of time and amplitude of a precursor of an earthquake depending on the rise of magnitude and epicentral distance. The behaviour of hydrogeodynamic precursors depends on the angle between the faults, to which this or that borehole reaches; with increase of this angle the deformation in the zone of the fault during the preparation of earthquakes is stronger, than in terms of small angles. 1. S1 2. Earthquake processes, Precursors and Forecasts 3. Garni Geophysical Observatory of the National Academy of Sciences of Armenia, 375019, Yerevan, Republic of Armenia, email: hakhleon@sci.am 4. O 5. 10808801 6. Artavazd Payment Type: select 'Purchase Order' PO Number: AGU WAIVER Billing Address: Enter Your Institution City: Enter Your City Country Code: Enter Your Country Name: Enter Your Name Phone: Enter Your Telephone Number

  17. Penstock failure detection system at the "Valsan" hydro power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgescu, A. M.; Coşoiu, C. I.; Alboiu, N.; Hlevca, D.; Tataroiu, R.; Popescu, O.

    2012-11-01

    "Valsan" is a small Hydro Power Plant, 5 MW, situated at about 160 km north of Bucharest, Romania, on the small "Valsan" river in a remote mountainous area. It is equipped with a single Francis turbine. The penstock is located in the access shaft of the HPP. "Hidroelectrica", the Romanian company that operates the HPP, was trying to implement a remote penstock failure detection system. Starting from a classic hydraulic problem, the authors of the paper derived a method for failure detection and localization on the pipe. The method assumes the existence of 2 flow meters and 2 pressure transducers at the inlet and outlet of the pressurized pipe. Calculations have to be based on experimental values measured in a permanent regime for different values of the flow rate. The method was at first tested on a pipe, in the Hydraulic Laboratory of the Technical University of Civil Engineering Bucharest. Pipe failure was modelled by opening of a valve on a tee branch of the analyzed pipe. Experimental results were found to be in good agreement with theoretical ones. The penstock of the "Valsan" HPP, was modelled in EPANET, in order to: i) test the method at a larger scale; ii) get the right flow and pressure transducers that are needed to implement it. At the request of "Hidroelectrica" a routine that computes the efficiency of the turbine was added to the monitoring software. After the system was implemented, another series of measurements were performed at the site in order to validate it. Failure was modelled by opening an existing valve on a branch of the penstock. Detection of the failure was correct and almost instantaneous, while failure location was accurate within 5% of the total penstock length.

  18. 2,6-Di­amino-4-(4-chloro­phen­yl)-1-methyl-1,4-di­hydro­pyridine-3,5-dicarbo­nitrile

    PubMed Central

    Purushothaman, Michael; Thanigaimani, Kaliyaperumal; Arshad, Suhana; Silambarasan, Sekar; Razak, Ibrahim Abdul; Ali, Kather Mohideen Sithick

    2014-01-01

    In the title compound, C14H12ClN5, the di­hydro­pyridine ring adopts a shallow boat conformation. The dihedral angle between the plane of this ring and that of the chloro­benzene ring is 69.15 (15)°. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked by N—H⋯N and N—H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds, generating (001) sheets. PMID:25161592

  19. Using object-based geomorphometry for hydro-geomorphological analysis in a Mediterranean research catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guida, Domenico; Cuomo, Albina; Palmieri, Vincenzo

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the paper is to apply an object-based geomorphometric procedure to define the runoff contribution areas and support a hydro-geomorphological analysis of a 3 km2 Mediterranean research catchment (southern Italy). Daily and sub-hourly discharge and electrical conductivity data were collected and recorded during a 3-year monitoring activity. Hydro-chemograph analyses carried out on these data revealed a strong seasonal hydrological response in the catchment that differed from the stormflow events that occur in the wet periods and in dry periods. This analysis enabled us to define the hydro-chemograph signatures related to increasing flood magnitude, which progressively involves various runoff components (baseflow, subsurface flow and surficial flow) and an increasing contributing area to discharge. Field surveys and water table/discharge measurements carried out during a selected storm event enabled us to identify and map specific runoff source areas with homogeneous geomorphological units previously defined as hydro-geomorphotypes (spring points, diffuse seepage along the main channel, seepage along the riparian corridors, diffuse outflow from hillslope taluses and concentrate sapping from colluvial hollows). Following the procedures previously proposed and used by authors for object-based geomorphological mapping, a hydro-geomorphologically oriented segmentation and classification was performed with the eCognition (Trimble, Inc.) package. The best agreement with the expert-based geomorphological mapping was obtained with weighted plan curvature at different-sized windows. By combining the hydro-chemical analysis and object-based hydro-geomorphotype map, the variability of the contribution areas was graphically modeled for the selected event, which occurred during the wet season, by using the log values of flow accumulation that better fit the contribution areas. The results allow us to identify the runoff component on hydro-chemographs for each time step

  20. Using ecosystem services to represent the environment in hydro-economic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momblanch, Andrea; Connor, Jeffery D.; Crossman, Neville D.; Paredes-Arquiola, Javier; Andreu, Joaquín

    2016-07-01

    Demand for water is expected to grow in line with global human population growth, but opportunities to augment supply are limited in many places due to resource limits and expected impacts of climate change. Hydro-economic models are often used to evaluate water resources management options, commonly with a goal of understanding how to maximise water use value and reduce conflicts among competing uses. The environment is now an important factor in decision making, which has resulted in its inclusion in hydro-economic models. We reviewed 95 studies applying hydro-economic models, and documented how the environment is represented in them and the methods they use to value environmental costs and benefits. We also sought out key gaps and inconsistencies in the treatment of the environment in hydro-economic models. We found that representation of environmental values of water is patchy in most applications, and there should be systematic consideration of the scope of environmental values to include and how they should be valued. We argue that the ecosystem services framework offers a systematic approach to identify the full range of environmental costs and benefits. The main challenges to more holistic representation of the environment in hydro-economic models are the current limits to understanding of ecological functions which relate physical, ecological and economic values and critical environmental thresholds; and the treatment of uncertainty.

  1. Precipitation- and soil moisture variability in Germany: Fully coupled WRF-Hydro vs. standard WRF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnault, Joel; Rummler, Thomas; Kunstmann, Harald

    2016-04-01

    Soil moisture plays a crucial role in land-atmosphere interactions. Land-atmosphere feedbacks are expected to be strongest in transition zones between wet and dry land surfaces. It is therefore questionable whether a physically-enhanced description of soil moisture variability in a numerical model would improve the realism of the simulated atmosphere. This question is investigated here for a two-year period in Germany, including a one-year spinup time, using the hydrologically enhanced version of the Weather Research and Forecasting WRF model, namely WRF-Hydro. The simulated domain covers Germany and neighboring areas. Atmospheric processes are resolved on a 4km resolution grid with explicit convection, whereas hydrological processes, namely overland flow, subsurface lateral flow and river flow, are resolved on a subgrid at 400 m resolution. This WRF-Hydro setup is run for several values of the surface infiltration parameter, in order to evaluate model result uncertainty originating from uncertainty in the description of terrestrial hydrological processes. Soil moisture variability deduced from this WRF-Hydro ensemble is compared with that deduced from a WRF-standalone ensemble. WRF and WRF-Hydro results are validated with daily gridded E-OBS datasets of precipitation and temperature from the European Climate Assessment & Dataset, and daily discharge data from the Global Runoff Data Center GRDC. The impact of the physically-enhanced description of soil moisture variability in WRF-Hydro is finally investigated with the concept of soil moisture memory.

  2. Hydro-oleophobic silica antireflective films with high laser-damage threshold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Lianghong; Lv, Haibing; Wang, Chengcheng; Yuan, Xiaodong

    2011-02-01

    A simple method of preparing hydro-oleophobic anitreflective films with high laser-damage threshold is reported in this article. By adding fluoroalkylsilanes (FAS) into reactant mixture as a co-precursor, FAS modified SiO 2 was obtained under base catalyzed hydrolysis and condensation of tetraethoxysilane. The dip-coating films were deposited on two sides of fused silica substrates. The experimental results on the effect of adding fluoroalkylsilanes (FAS) as a co-precursor on the hydro-oleophobicity and optical properties of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) based silica AR films, are reported. The hydro-oleophobicity of the films was tested by the contact angle measurements and the highest water contact angle of 136° and oil (peanut) contact angle of 93° were obtained. The surface chemical modification of the hydro-oleophobic films was confirmed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). For the films based on FAS and TEOS, additional absorption bands at 1100 cm -1 corresponding to C-F bond presented, clearly indicating the organic modification of the films. The highest optical transmittance of the hydro-oleophobic films was found to be 99.5%. By a Nd:YAG lasers the laser-damage threshold of as-deposited films was measured at 351 nm wavelength (1 ns). The laser-damage threshold was as high as 22.6 J/cm 2.

  3. Affective Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Charles T.

    This paper addresses itself to the question, "What does feeling have to do with knowing?" Two movements in affective education are discussed which have come into focus in recent years and which attempt to define the relationship between knowing and feeling. The first, a conscious application of the role of arousal in learning, emphasizes arousal…

  4. Is it worth protecting groundwater from diffuse pollution with agri-environmental schemes? A hydro-economic modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Hérivaux, Cécile; Orban, Philippe; Brouyère, Serge

    2013-10-15

    In Europe, 30% of groundwater bodies are considered to be at risk of not achieving the Water Framework Directive (WFD) 'good status' objective by 2015, and 45% are in doubt of doing so. Diffuse agricultural pollution is one of the main pressures affecting groundwater bodies. To tackle this problem, the WFD requires Member States to design and implement cost-effective programs of measures to achieve the 'good status' objective by 2027 at the latest. Hitherto, action plans have mainly consisted of promoting the adoption of Agri-Environmental Schemes (AES). This raises a number of questions concerning the effectiveness of such schemes for improving groundwater status, and the economic implications of their implementation. We propose a hydro-economic model that combines a hydrogeological model to simulate groundwater quality evolution with agronomic and economic components to assess the expected costs, effectiveness, and benefits of AES implementation. This hydro-economic model can be used to identify cost-effective AES combinations at groundwater-body scale and to show the benefits to be expected from the resulting improvement in groundwater quality. The model is applied here to a rural area encompassing the Hesbaye aquifer, a large chalk aquifer which supplies about 230,000 inhabitants in the city of Liege (Belgium) and is severely contaminated by agricultural nitrates. We show that the time frame within which improvements in the Hesbaye groundwater quality can be expected may be much longer than that required by the WFD. Current WFD programs based on AES may be inappropriate for achieving the 'good status' objective in the most productive agricultural areas, in particular because these schemes are insufficiently attractive. Achieving 'good status' by 2027 would demand a substantial change in the design of AES, involving costs that may not be offset by benefits in the case of chalk aquifers with long renewal times.

  5. 76 FR 28219 - Uniontown Hydro, LLC, Newburgh Hydro, LLC; Notice of Applications Tendered for Filing With the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-16

    ...-foot-wide powerhouse and inlet containing four Kaplan turbine-generators, with an installed capacity of... Kaplan turbine-generators, with an installed capacity of 13.0 MW each for a total plant capacity of...

  6. Collaborative development of land use change scenarios for analysing hydro-meteorological risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malek, Žiga; Glade, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Simulating future land use changes remains a difficult task, due to uncontrollable and uncertain driving forces of change. Scenario development emerged as a tool to address these limitations. Scenarios offer the exploration of possible futures and environmental consequences, and enable the analysis of possible decisions. Therefore, there is increasing interest of both decision makers and researchers to apply scenarios when studying future land use changes and their consequences. The uncertainties related to generating land use change scenarios are among others defined by the accuracy of data, identification and quantification of driving forces, and the relation between expected future changes and the corresponding spatial pattern. To address the issue of data and intangible driving forces, several studies have applied collaborative, participatory techniques when developing future scenarios. The involvement of stakeholders can lead to incorporating a broader spectrum of professional values and experience. Moreover, stakeholders can help to provide missing data, improve detail, uncover mistakes, and offer alternatives. Thus, collaborative scenarios can be considered as more reliable and relevant. Collaborative scenario development has been applied to study a variety of issues in environmental sciences on different spatial and temporal scales. Still, these participatory approaches are rarely spatially explicit, making them difficult to apply when analysing changes to hydro-meteorological risk on a local scale. Spatial explicitness is needed to identify potentially critical areas of land use change, leading to locations where the risk might increase. In order to allocate collaboratively developed scenarios of land change, we combined participatory modeling with geosimulation in a multi-step scenario generation framework. We propose a framework able to develop scenarios that are plausible, can overcome data inaccessibility, address intangible and external driving forces

  7. The effects of physical and geochemical heterogeneities on hydro-geochemical transport and effective reaction rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atchley, Adam L.; Navarre-Sitchler, Alexis K.; Maxwell, Reed M.

    2014-09-01

    The role of coupled physical and geochemical heterogeneities in hydro-geochemical transport is investigated by simulating three-dimensional transport in a heterogeneous system with kinetic mineral reactions. Ensembles of 100 physically heterogeneous realizations were simulated for three geochemical conditions: 1) spatially homogeneous reactive mineral surface area, 2) reactive surface area positively correlated to hydraulic heterogeneity, and 3) reactive surface area negatively correlated to hydraulic heterogeneity. Groundwater chemistry and the corresponding effective reaction rates were calculated at three transverse planes to quantify differences in plume evolution due to heterogeneity in mineral reaction rates and solute residence time (τ). The model is based on a hypothetical CO2 intrusion into groundwater from a carbon capture utilization and storage (CCUS) operation where CO2 dissolution and formation of carbonic acid created geochemical dis-equilibrium between fluids and the mineral galena that resulted in increased aqueous lead (Pb2 +) concentrations. Calcite dissolution buffered the pH change and created conditions of galena oversaturation, which then reduced lead concentrations along the flow path. Near the leak kinetic geochemical reactions control the release of solutes into the fluid, but further along the flow path mineral solubility controls solute concentrations. Simulation results demonstrate the impact of heterogeneous distribution of geochemical reactive surface area in coordination with physical heterogeneity on the effective reaction rate (Krxn,eff) and Pb2 + concentrations within the plume. Dissimilarities between ensemble Pb2 + concentration and Krxn,eff are attributed to how geochemical heterogeneity affects the time (τeq) and therefore advection distance (Leq) required for the system to re-establish geochemical equilibrium. Only after geochemical equilibrium is re-established, Krxn,eff and Pb2 + concentrations are the same for all three

  8. Assessing the impacts of anthropogenic and hydro-climatic drivers on estrogen legacies and trajectories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gall, Heather E.; Basu, Nandita B.; Mashtare, Michael L.; Rao, C.; Suresh, P.; Lee, Linda S.

    2016-01-01

    Intensification of concentrated animal feeding operations combined with the use of tile drains in agricultural fields has resulted in land-applied manure being a significant source of hormones to the environment. Currently, no model exists to simulate hormone fluxes from tile drains under field conditions. Therefore, we developed the Hormone Export and Recovery Dynamics (HERD) model, which incorporates hydro-climatic, biogeochemical, and anthropogenic drivers that affect hormone fate and transport. We validated HERD using known input (rainfall; lagoon effluent irrigation) and response data (tile drain flow; 17β-estradiol and estrone fluxes) from the 2009 growing season, 18 years after land-application activities began at a tile-drained field in Indiana. We used HERD to better understand the: (1) decision-making process underlying effluent irrigation activities; (2) contribution of macropore flow to estrogen transport; (3) potential for long-term applications to result in the development of legacy estrogen sources within the soil profile; and (4) potential recovery trajectory of estrogen transport following the cessation of animal waste applications. HERD adequately predicted irrigation events based on lagoon storage limits. Simple threshold exceedance logic for macropore flow activation accounted for ∼87% of the observed estrogen loads. Application history was found to be important, as not accounting for 18 years of application led to a severe underestimation of the observed estrogen loads; however, accounting for application history led to a much closer match between modeled and observed fluxes. Simulated trajectories after cessation of applications indicated that estrogens may continue to leach for several decades, which has important implications for mitigating hormone concentrations in receiving water bodies.

  9. A fuzzy stochastic framework for managing hydro-environmental and socio-economic interactions under uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subagadis, Yohannes Hagos; Schütze, Niels; Grundmann, Jens

    2014-05-01

    An amplified interconnectedness between a hydro-environmental and socio-economic system brings about profound challenges of water management decision making. In this contribution, we present a fuzzy stochastic approach to solve a set of decision making problems, which involve hydrologically, environmentally, and socio-economically motivated criteria subjected to uncertainty and ambiguity. The proposed methodological framework combines objective and subjective criteria in a decision making procedure for obtaining an acceptable ranking in water resources management alternatives under different type of uncertainty (subjective/objective) and heterogeneous information (quantitative/qualitative) simultaneously. The first step of the proposed approach involves evaluating the performance of alternatives with respect to different types of criteria. The ratings of alternatives with respect to objective and subjective criteria are evaluated by simulation-based optimization and fuzzy linguistic quantifiers, respectively. Subjective and objective uncertainties related to the input information are handled through linking fuzziness and randomness together. Fuzzy decision making helps entail the linguistic uncertainty and a Monte Carlo simulation process is used to map stochastic uncertainty. With this framework, the overall performance of each alternative is calculated using an Order Weighted Averaging (OWA) aggregation operator accounting for decision makers' experience and opinions. Finally, ranking is achieved by conducting pair-wise comparison of management alternatives. This has been done on the basis of the risk defined by the probability of obtaining an acceptable ranking and mean difference in total performance for the pair of management alternatives. The proposed methodology is tested in a real-world hydrosystem, to find effective and robust intervention strategies for the management of a coastal aquifer system affected by saltwater intrusion due to excessive groundwater

  10. Advancing global hydro-climatological data archives to support climate change impact assessments on water resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saile, P.

    2012-12-01

    Climate variations and changing climate will very likely alter the rate and nature of hydrological processes and consequently affect water resources in many regions. Current General Circulation Models and downscaling methods that are increasingly used to assess changes in the water cycle and water resource vulnerabilities introduce a cascade of uncertainties that cannot realistically be dealt with at the moment and are too inaccurate to support improved decision-making for water management and for future water systems design. Therefore, water managers need not only improved hydrological and climate modelling and downscaling methods but also access to adequate hydro-meteorological monitoring networks. The Global Terrestrial Network for Hydrology (GTN-H), a joint effort by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and several global observing systems, aims at integrating in-situ and remote sensing hydrological observations with hydrological model results held by its partner institutions to support a wide range of hydrological applications including research of global and regional climate change. Adhering to the different needs of all data users (scientists, policy makes and other stakeholders) and bridging the gap between the distributed datasets, currently a new information system is being developed to enable web-based discovery, access and analysis of observation data and derived products served through GTN-H. This system is built on international standards published by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) using open standardized web services, namely (1) Catalogue Services for data discovery, (2) Web Map Services for data visualization and (3) Web Feature Services, Web Coverage Services and Sensor Observation Services for data access. This presentation will give an overview about the GTN-H data archive and the design of the new information system including an outlook of its potential use for water related climate change impact assessments.

  11. Hydro-mechanical modelling of slow slip phenomena in subduction channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrini, Claudio; Gerya, Taras; Madonna, Claudio; van Dinther, Ylona

    2016-04-01

    Subduction zone seismicity is widely variable in origin and also includes more recently discovered families of "slow earthquakes", such as low- and very-low-frequency earthquakes, slow slip events and tremor. Several lines of evidence suggest that both regular and slow slip phenomena in subduction zones are intrinsically related to and controlled by fluid-related processes. It is therefore important to investigate and better understand the role that fluids play for the different events and processes in subduction zones. A finite difference fully coupled visco-elasto-plastic hydro-mechanical numerical code with marker-in-cell technique was developed to investigate how the presence of fluids in the pore space of a (de)compacting rock matrix affects shear band formation in subduction channels. Good correlations between shear band and fluid related parameters, such as porosity, permeability and fluid pressure factor have been observed. Tensile shear bands are present when no gravity is taken into account in the model, showing higher porosity and permeability than outside the shear zones. Gravity, however, plays an important role in stabilizing the model; confined shearbands (lower porosity and permeability than outside the shearbands) are observed in the presence of gravity. The model also spontaneously produces periodic slow slip events along plastic shear zones, which could be comparable to slow earthquakes observed in subduction zones. Slow-slip-like events develop in response to the process of propagation of individual fault zones through the subduction channel medium. This process is associated with lowering of total pressure along these zones at nearly constant fluid pressure, which notably reduces brittle/plastic strength of deforming fault rocks. Providing in this way a dynamic feedback for the accumulated elastic stress release in the channel.

  12. The effects of physical and geochemical heterogeneities on hydro-geochemical transport and effective reaction rates.

    PubMed

    Atchley, Adam L; Navarre-Sitchler, Alexis K; Maxwell, Reed M

    2014-09-01

    The role of coupled physical and geochemical heterogeneities in hydro-geochemical transport is investigated by simulating three-dimensional transport in a heterogeneous system with kinetic mineral reactions. Ensembles of 100 physically heterogeneous realizations were simulated for three geochemical conditions: 1) spatially homogeneous reactive mineral surface area, 2) reactive surface area positively correlated to hydraulic heterogeneity, and 3) reactive surface area negatively correlated to hydraulic heterogeneity. Groundwater chemistry and the corresponding effective reaction rates were calculated at three transverse planes to quantify differences in plume evolution due to heterogeneity in mineral reaction rates and solute residence time (τ). The model is based on a hypothetical CO2 intrusion into groundwater from a carbon capture utilization and storage (CCUS) operation where CO2 dissolution and formation of carbonic acid created geochemical dis-equilibrium between fluids and the mineral galena that resulted in increased aqueous lead (Pb(2+)) concentrations. Calcite dissolution buffered the pH change and created conditions of galena oversaturation, which then reduced lead concentrations along the flow path. Near the leak kinetic geochemical reactions control the release of solutes into the fluid, but further along the flow path mineral solubility controls solute concentrations. Simulation results demonstrate the impact of heterogeneous distribution of geochemical reactive surface area in coordination with physical heterogeneity on the effective reaction rate (Krxn,eff) and Pb(2+) concentrations within the plume. Dissimilarities between ensemble Pb(2+) concentration and Krxn,eff are attributed to how geochemical heterogeneity affects the time (τeq) and therefore advection distance (Leq) required for the system to re-establish geochemical equilibrium. Only after geochemical equilibrium is re-established, Krxn,eff and Pb(2+) concentrations are the same for all

  13. Bentonite alteration due to thermal-hydro-chemical processes during the early thermal period in a nuclear waste repository

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, T.; Senger, R.; Finsterle, S.

    2011-02-01

    After closure of an underground nuclear waste repository, the decay of radionuclides will raise temperature in the repository, and the bentonite buffer will resaturate by water inflow from the surrounding host rock. The perturbations from these thermal and hydrological processes are expected to dissipate within hundreds to a few thousand years. Here, we investigate coupled thermal-hydro-chemical processes and their effects on the short-term performance of a potential nuclear waste repository located in a clay formation. Using a simplified geometric configuration and abstracted hydraulic parameters of the clayey formation, we examine geochemical processes, coupled with thermo-hydrologic phenomena, and potential changes in porosity near the waste container during the early thermal period. The developed models were used for evaluating the mineral alterations and potential changes in porosity of the buffer, which can affect the repository performance. The results indicate that mineral alteration and associated changes in porosity induced by early thermal and hydrological processes are relatively small and are expected to not significantly affect flow and transport properties. Chlorite precipitation was obtained in all simulation cases. A maximum of one percent volume fraction of chlorite could be formed, whose process may reduce swelling and sorption capacity of bentonite clay, affecting the performance of the repository. llitisation process was not obtained from the present simulations.

  14. Coupling a hydro-maritime model and remotely sensed techniques to assess the shoreline positioning uncertainty: the Marsala coast study case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manno, Giorgio; Lo Re, Carlo; Ciraolo, Giuseppe; Maltese, Antonino

    2010-10-01

    The severe erosion phenomena affecting the Mediterranean coasts are strictly related to geophysical characteristics and socio-economic pressures. This suggests the need of monitoring and modelling the phenomenon in order to quantify its strength. In fact, the shoreline position, as well as its temporal evolution, provides important information for designing defence structures and for the development of a coastal management plan. The shoreline has a dynamic nature as it changes both in the short and long period. Those changes are caused by geo-morphological (e.g. bars and barrier island development etc.) and hydrodynamic (wave motion, tides and flows) processes, as well as by sudden and fast events such as sea storms, earthquakes and tsunamis. The research examines the uncertainty in positioning the shoreline coupling remotely sensed images and a hydro-maritime model. Although the assessment accuracy strongly relies on data availability and consistency, the resulting assessment of the shoreline erosion and accretion is crucial for an overall understanding of the hydro-maritime geo-morphological interaction. The study case is the Marsala coastline (western coast of Sicily, Italy), named 12th island physiographic unit. It is characterized by a low coast with sandy sediments from Holocene age. These sediments are in continuity of sedimentation on whitish debris composed by organogenic limestone from Pleistocene age. The diachronic analysis was carried out on both emerged and submerged parts of the beach and involves two distinct phases. In the first phase, geo-morphological in situ data have been compared with maps and georeferenced remote sensing images referred to the period 1994-2006. It allowed the identification of shoreline indicators [2] such as the beach cross-section and the shoreline positioning including its spatial and temporal variations. It should be noted that the comparison between EO (Earth Observation) images and cartographic maps is subjected to

  15. Restoring coastal wetlands that were ditched for mosquito control: a preliminary assessment of hydro-leveling as a restoration technique

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Thomas J.; Tiling, Ginger; Leasure, Pamela S.

    2007-01-01

    The wetlands surrounding Tampa Bay, Florida were extensively ditched for mosquito control in the 1950s. Spoil from ditch construction was placed adjacent to the wetlands ditches creating mound-like features (spoil-mounds). These mounds represent a loss of 14% of the wetland area in Tampa Bay. Spoil mounds interfere with tidal flow and are locations for non-native plants to colonize (e.g., Schinus terebinthifolius). Removal of the spoil mounds to eliminate exotic plants, restore native vegetation, and re-establish natural hydrology is a restoration priority for environmental managers. Hydro-leveling, a new technique, was tested in a mangrove forest restoration project in 2004. Hydro-leveling uses a high pressure stream of water to wash sediment from the spoil mound into the adjacent wetland and ditch. To assess the effectiveness of this technique, we conducted vegetation surveys in areas that were hydro-leveled and in non-hydro-leveled areas 3 years post-project. Adult Schinus were reduced but not eliminated from hydro-leveled mounds. Schinus seedlings however were absent from hydro-leveled sites. Colonization by native species was sparse. Mangrove seedlings were essentially absent (≈2 m−2) from the centers of hydro-leveled mounds and were in low density on their edges (17 m−2) in comparison to surrounding mangrove forests (105 m−2). Hydro-leveling resulted in mortality of mangroves adjacent to the mounds being leveled. This was probably caused by burial of pneumatophores during the hydro-leveling process. For hydro-leveling to be a useful and successful restoration technique several requirements must be met. Spoil mounds must be lowered to the level of the surrounding wetlands. Spoil must be distributed further into the adjacent wetland to prevent burial of nearby native vegetation. Finally, native species may need to be planted on hydro-leveled areas to speed up the re-vegetation process.

  16. Hydro-chemical specifications of thermal waters from different geographical regions in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seker, D. Z.; Aydin, S.; Sivri, N.; Bitik, E.; Cakir, Z.

    2014-12-01

    In many countries thermal springs are utilized for a variety of purposes, such as the generation of power, direct space heating, industrial processes, aquaculture and many more. The optimal use of a thermal spring is largely dependent upon its physical and chemical characteristics. The physical and chemical parameters of groundwater play a significant role in classifying and assessing water quality. Major ions constitute the most significant part of the total dissolved solids present in the groundwater and the concentration of these ions in ground water depends mainly on the hydro chemical processes that place in the aquifer system. This article focuses on the thermal and chemical features of 21 thermal springs located in the overall of the Turkey. Field data and water samples were collected for analysis of physical and chemical parameters. Thermal springs and thermal wells have temperatures ranging from 35 to 95°C. The pH values of the thermal waters change between 6.3 and 9.6. A Piper trilinear diagram and Schoeller diagram show that all the thermal waters are characterized by the dominance of anion-cation. Thermal waters display various chemical compositions and high temperature waters have Na-SO4, Na-HCO3, Na-Cl, Ca-SO4, Ca-HCO3 type. The springs are associated with faults and impermeable dykes and are assumed to be of meteoric origin. The mineral composition of the thermal waters reflects the geological formations found at the depth of origin. All thermal water springs are suitable for use in terms balneology since they contain high levels of mineral content and temperature. At the same time, some samples can be consumed by humans as soda water and mineral water. However, it is important to keep such limitations in mind when determining the ultimate use of the thermal springs.

  17. Research and development of the Osmo-Hydro Power heat engine. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1980-11-25

    The Osmo-Hydro Power (OHP) or Pressure-Retarded Osmosis (PRO) heat engine is a possible means for producing economical electric power from low-temperature heat sources. The engine utilizes semipermeable membranes to cause the permeation of a solvent from a dilute low-pressure solution to a concentrated high-pressure solution. The potential energy thus acquired is converted to useful energy by means of a turbogenerator. The process can be considered as one in which the free energy of mixing is converted to useful power. By appropriate application of a heat source and a heat sink, the original dilute and concentrated solutions are recovered, thus completing the heat engine cycle. The results of this initial project to study osmotic power generation from waste heat indicate what research paths must be followed to continue the development of distillation and conjugation as unmixing methods. In addition, precipitation and stratification have been shown to be desirable because of the possibility of readily matching a binary system with either a membrane presently available or one readily modified from an existing membrane. The OHP heat engine in its ultimate development would have the following general characteristics: it would be able to utilize low-grade heat sources, such as unconcentrated solar energy or waste heat below 100/sup 0/C., heat sources as low as 50/sup 0/C can be used; the engine should be able to produce electricity for 0.12 $/kWh, or less, but the thermal efficiency will be less than 25% of Carnot efficiency at the same temperature limits; and the engine would be modular; i.e., it could be scaled up or down largely by adding or subtracting discrete permeator and heat exchanger units.

  18. A hydro-chemical study of a mountainous watershed: the Ganga, India.

    PubMed

    Jain, C K

    2002-03-01

    A hydro-chemical study has been carried out on a 37-km stretch of the River Ganga from Deoprayag to Rishikesh (India) during the period from April 1999 to March 2000. The assessment of sediment and nutrient load has been considered to evaluate the current state of pollution through real time measurements. The values of pH and conductance are well within the limits prescribed for drinking water. The maximum suspended sediment concentrations of 1,405 and 2,002 mg/L were recorded at Deoprayag and Rishikesh, respectively, during the rainy season. A large amount of sediment and nutrient load is transported from the watershed during the rainy season. Concentrations of N(O3-)-N and N(H3-)-N at Deoprayag varied from 0.30 to 0.50 and 0.02 to 0.12 mg/L, respectively, depending on season. Examination of the results showed clearly that N(H3-)-N was generally low as compared to N03-N. Depending on the pH and temperature of soils, NH4+ and NO3- ions are produced in the watershed through ammonification and nitrification of organic matter and mobilized into rivers through run-off. Dissolved N and P from fertilizer application, sewage and non-point source run-off contribute significant quantities of these nutrients in river water. The nitrate and phosphate are transported from the cropland either by being adsorbed on to soil particles that are subsequently eroded, or dissolved in runoff water from agricultural land. The data generated through the study will be useful for development and management planning of the hilly watershed.

  19. Comparing different treatment modalities for partial nephrectomies without ischemic period: laser, Hydro-Jet and RF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Boorder, Tjeerd; Boeken Kruger, Arto; Klaessens, John; Grimbergen, Matthijs; Verdaasdonk, Rudolf

    2008-02-01

    The treatment of partial nefrectomies is usually performed under a warm ischemic period. Recently, various treatment modalities have become available to perform a partial nefrectomy without clamping off the blood circulation. We have studied three devices in laboratory setting, investigating the thermal and high speed imaging techniques in tissue models and consequently, applying the instruments in the clinic during open procedures especially looking at efficacy and blood loss. The continuous wave 2.0 micron laser of 70 W (Revolix, LISA laser) is used as a fiber delivered knife cutting through circulated tissue with controlled hemostasis for vessels up to 3 mm diameter. The 2 μm wavelength effectively vaporizes tissue water and coagulates the smaller vessels. The Hydro-Jet (ERBE, Germany) uses high pressure (20-80 bar) to ejects a water jet of 40 um diameter at high velocity (10-30 m/s). The parenchyma is resected while vessels are preserved. Consequently, the exposed vessels can be coagulated in a controlled way with minimal blood loss. The water jet showed to induce cavitation bubbles that resect the soft tissue from the matrix leaving the elastic microvessels intact. Various systems are based on bipolar RF technology. We are using the Habib device (Rita 1500X RF generator) to create a coagulation zone around the tumor. Subsequently, the tumor can be resected along the coagulation zone with minimal bleeding. The treatment modalities investigated, have their own advantages and, stand-alone or in combination, can facilitate laparoscopic partial nephrectomies without an ischemic period.

  20. Biofuel Crops Expansion: Evaluating the Impact on the Agricultural Water Scarcity Costs and Hydropower Production with Hydro Economic Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, G.

    2015-12-01

    Biofuels such as ethanol from sugar cane remain an important element to help mitigate the impacts of fossil fuels on the atmosphere. However, meeting fuel demands with biofuels requires technological advancement for water productivity and scale of production. This may translate into increased water demands for biofuel crops and potential for conflicts with incumbent crops and other water uses including domestic, hydropower generation and environmental. It is therefore important to evaluate the effects of increased biofuel production on the verge of water scarcity costs and hydropower production. The present research applies a hydro-economic optimization model to compare different scenarios of irrigated biofuel and hydropower production, and estimates the potential tradeoffs. A case study from the Araguari watershed in Brazil is provided. These results should be useful to (i) identify improved water allocation among competing economic demands, (ii) support water management and operations decisions in watersheds where biofuels are expected to increase, and (iii) identify the impact of bio fuel production in the water availability and economic value. Under optimized conditions, adoption of sugar cane for biofuel production heavily relies on the opportunity costs of other crops and hydropower generation. Areas with a lower value crop groups seem more suitable to adopt sugar cane for biofuel when the price of ethanol is sufficiently high and the opportunity costs of hydropower productions are not conflicting. The approach also highlights the potential for insights in water management from studying regional versus larger scales bundled systems involving water use, food production and power generation.

  1. Development of HydroImage, A User Friendly Hydrogeophysical Characterization Software

    SciTech Connect

    Mok, Chin Man; Hubbard, Susan; Chen, Jinsong; Suribhatla, Raghu; Kaback, Dawn Samara

    2014-01-29

    HydroImage, user friendly software that utilizes high-resolution geophysical data for estimating hydrogeological parameters in subsurface strate, was developed under this grant. HydroImage runs on a personal computer platform to promote broad use by hydrogeologists to further understanding of subsurface processes that govern contaminant fate, transport, and remediation. The unique software provides estimates of hydrogeological properties over continuous volumes of the subsurface, whereas previous approaches only allow estimation of point locations. thus, this unique tool can be used to significantly enhance site conceptual models and improve design and operation of remediation systems. The HydroImage technical approach uses statistical models to integrate geophysical data with borehole geological data and hydrological measurements to produce hydrogeological parameter estimates as 2-D or 3-D images.

  2. Quantification of Uncertainties in Projections of Hydro-meteorological Extremes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meresa, Hadush; Romanowicz, Renata; Lawrence, Deborah

    2016-04-01

    The impact of climate change on hydrological extremes has been widely studied particularly after the publication of the IPCC AR4 report in 2007. The methodology applied to derive hydrological extremes under climate change adopted by most scientists consists of running a cascade of models, starting from assumed emission scenarios applied to a global circulation model (GCM) and ending at hydrological model simulations. Therefore, the projected hydro-meteorological extremes are highly uncertain due to uncertainties inherent in all the links of the modelling chain. In addition, due to the complexity of hydrologic models that use a large number of parameters to characterize hydrologic processes, many challenges arise with respect to quantification of uncertainty. This issue needs to be properly quantified to understand possible confidence ranges in extremes in the future. This paper aims to quantify the uncertainty in the hydrological projection of future extremes in streamflow and precipitation indices in mountainous and lowland catchments in Poland, using a multi-model approach based on climate projections obtained from the ENSMEBLE and EUROCORDEX projects, multiple realizations of catchment scale downscaled rainfalls, two hydrological models (HBV and GR4J) and a number of hydrological model parameters. The time-span of projections covers the 21st century. The potential sources of hydrological projection uncertainties are quantified through a Monte Carlo based simulation approach. We compare the weights based on different goodness-of-fit criteria in their ability to constrain the uncertainty of the extremes. The results of the comparison show a considerable dependence of uncertainty ranges on the type of extremes (low or high flows) and on the criterion used. The predicted distribution of future streamflows considering all sources of uncertainty (climate model, bias correction and hydrological model) is used to derive marginal distributions of uncertainty related to

  3. Spatial variabilities in Sky Island subalpine hydro/micrometeorology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown-Mitic, C. M.; Harlow, C.; Shuttleworth, J.; Bales, R.

    2003-04-01

    In the semi-arid southwestern United States, most of the annual runoff generally comes from precipitation in the higher elevations, primarily as seasonal snow. Observation and modeling of the hydrological inputs and outputs of the alpine and upland portions of the basins are essential for understanding and predicting the water balance as it is only in this environment, as a long term average that precipitation exceeds evapotranspiration. It is therefore important to understanding the space-time interrelationships across the semiarid subalpine zone in order to interpret fluxes, energy budget, soil moisture, snow melt and ultimately the water balance in this portion of basin. Observations from four hydro-micrometeorologial stations which forms a supporting network for our eddy covariance tower, located on a Sky Island in the Southwestern USA, show that net radiation and surface/soil temperature varies among the sites while air temperature and relative humidity is fairly constant. During the summer there is a high correlation between air temperature and surface temperature at all four sites, and a moderate to high correlation between net radiation and surface temperature. During the winter, surface temperature is highly coupled to the air temperature at two sites while highly decoupled at the other two sites. This is a reflection of the differences in site characteristics such as canopy/exposure and aspect. The difference in sites at opposite ends of the range of exposure is clearly reflected in the characteristics of the soil temperature profiles. The most exposed site correlates fairly well with a modeled sine wave function while the least exposed site, while demonstrating the dampening with depth, would not be predicted with a simple sine wave function, an important observation when relating soil water content, a difficult component to measure in this terrain, to soil temperature. During the summer, similarity in air temperature and relative humidity and

  4. Protective Embolization of the Gastroduodenal Artery with a One-HydroCoil Technique in Radioembolization Procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez-Benitez, R.; Hallscheidt, P.; Kratochwil, C.; Ernst, C.; Kara, L.; Rusch, O.; Vock, P.; Kettenbach, J.

    2013-02-15

    Protective occlusion of the gastroduodenal artery (GDA) is required to avoid severe adverse effects and complications in radioembolization procedures. Because of the expandable features of HydroCoils, our goal was to occlude the GDA with only one HydroCoil to provide particle reflux protection. Twenty-three subjects with unresectable liver tumors, who were scheduled for protective occlusion of the GDA before radioembolization therapy, were included. The primary end point was to achieve a proximal occlusion of the GDA with only one detachable HydroCoil. Evaluated parameters were duration of deployment, and early (during the intervention) and late (7-21 days) occlusion rates of GDA. Secondary end points included complete duration of the intervention, amount of contrast medium used, fluoroscopy rates, and adverse effects. In all cases, the GDA was successfully occluded with only one HydroCoil. The selected diameter/length range was 4/10 mm in 2 patients, 4/15 mm in 6 patients, and 4/20 mm in 15 patients. HydroCoils were implanted, on average, 3.75 mm from the origin of the GDA (range 1.5-6.8 mm), with an average deployment time of 2:47 (median 2:42, range 2:30-3:07) min. In 21 (91%) of 23 patients, a complete occlusion of the GDA was achieved during the first 30 min after the coil implantation; however, in all patients, a late occlusion of the GDA was present after 6 to 29 days. No clinical or technical complications were reported. We demonstrated that occlusion of the GDA with a single HydroCoil is a safe procedure and successfully prevents extrahepatic embolization before radioembolization.

  5. 78 FR 36768 - Electron Hydro, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Electron Hydro, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding, of Electron Hydro, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  6. 77 FR 9231 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXVIII; FFP Project 59, LLC; Notice Announcing Preliminary Permit Drawing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXVIII; FFP Project 59, LLC; Notice Announcing... County and Garrard County, Kentucky. The applications were filed by Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXVIII...

  7. 77 FR 9230 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLVII; FFP Project 52, LLC; Notice Announcing Preliminary Permit Drawing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLVII; FFP Project 52, LLC; Notice Announcing... and Faulkner County, Arkansas. The applications were filed by Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLVII...

  8. 77 FR 12281 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund IV; FFP Project 55, LLC; Notice Announcing Preliminary Permit Drawing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund IV; FFP Project 55, LLC; Notice Announcing... and Owen County, Kentucky. The applications were filed by Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund IV for Project...

  9. 77 FR 9232 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXIV; FFP Project 58, LLC; Notice Announcing Preliminary Permit Drawing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXIV; FFP Project 58, LLC; Notice Announcing... County and Woodford County, Kentucky. The applications were filed by Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXIV...

  10. 77 FR 9230 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLIII; FFP Project 53, LLC; Notice Announcing Preliminary Permit Drawing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLIII; FFP Project 53, LLC; Notice Announcing... Sumter counties, Alabama. The applications were filed by Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLIII for Project...

  11. 77 FR 9231 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund IV; FFP Project 55, LLC; Notice Announcing Preliminary Permit Drawing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund IV; FFP Project 55, LLC; Notice Announcing... County and Owen County, Kentucky. The applications were filed by Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund IV for...

  12. 76 FR 3626 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLIX; FFP Missouri 14, LLC; Notice Announcing Preliminary Permit Drawing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLIX; FFP Missouri 14, LLC; Notice Announcing... the Savannah River, near Augusta, Georgia.\\1\\ The applications were filed by Lock+ Hydro Friends...

  13. 77 FR 10740 - Riverbank Hydro No. 22, LLC; FFP Project 93, LLC; Notice Announcing Preliminary Permit Drawing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Riverbank Hydro No. 22, LLC; FFP Project 93, LLC; Notice Announcing... applications were filed by Riverbank Hydro No. 22, LLC for Project No. 14269-000, and FFP Project 93, LLC...

  14. 77 FR 9231 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XL; FFP Project 56, LLC; Notice Announcing Preliminary Permit Drawing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XL; FFP Project 56, LLC; Notice Announcing... and Owen County, Kentucky. The applications were filed by Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XL for Project...

  15. 77 FR 35371 - Qualified Hydro 24, LLC; Notice of Cancellation of Scoping Meetings and Environmental Site Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Qualified Hydro 24, LLC; Notice of Cancellation of Scoping Meetings and Environmental Site Review Take notice that Qualified Hydro 24, LLC, filed a request on June 4, 2012,...

  16. 77 FR 9232 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXVIII; FFP Project 1, LLC; Notice Announcing Preliminary Permit Drawing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXVIII; FFP Project 1, LLC; Notice Announcing... County, Arkansas. The applications were filed by Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXVIII for Project No....

  17. 77 FR 9232 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXV; FFP Project 57, LLC; Notice Announcing Preliminary Permit Drawing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXV; FFP Project 57, LLC; Notice Announcing... County, Kentucky. The applications were filed by Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXV for Project No....

  18. 77 FR 9230 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLV; FFP Project 2, LLC; Notice Announcing Preliminary Permit Drawing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLV; FFP Project 2, LLC; Notice Announcing... County, Arkansas. The applications were filed by Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLV for Project No....

  19. Analysis of effluent filtrate in the hydro-entanglement process for producing cotton nonwovens: a progress report

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A number of hydro-entangled cotton nonwoven fabrics were produced on commercial equipment, using UltraCleanTM Cotton (T.J. Beall Company). Polypropylene “sock” filters were used in the production trials to clean the effluent water for recycling it in the hydro-entanglement process. After each trial ...

  20. Nanofiber based triple layer hydro-philic/-phobic membrane - a solution for pore wetting in membrane distillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prince, J. A.; Rana, D.; Matsuura, T.; Ayyanar, N.; Shanmugasundaram, T. S.; Singh, G.

    2014-11-01

    The innovative design and synthesis of nanofiber based hydro-philic/phobic membranes with a thin hydro-phobic nanofiber layer on the top and a thin hydrophilic nanofiber layer on the bottom of the conventional casted micro-porous layer which opens up a solution for membrane pore wetting and improves the pure water flux in membrane distillation.

  1. Nanofiber based triple layer hydro-philic/-phobic membrane--a solution for pore wetting in membrane distillation.

    PubMed

    Prince, J A; Rana, D; Matsuura, T; Ayyanar, N; Shanmugasundaram, T S; Singh, G

    2014-01-01

    The innovative design and synthesis of nanofiber based hydro-philic/phobic membranes with a thin hydro-phobic nanofiber layer on the top and a thin hydrophilic nanofiber layer on the bottom of the conventional casted micro-porous layer which opens up a solution for membrane pore wetting and improves the pure water flux in membrane distillation. PMID:25377488

  2. 77 FR 12279 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLIV FFP Project 51, LLC; Notice Announcing Filing Priority for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLIV FFP Project 51, LLC; Notice Announcing Filing... priority is as follows: 1. Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLIV, Project No. 14179-000. 2. FFP Project 51,...

  3. 76 FR 27310 - Coleman Hydro LLC; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission and Soliciting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-11

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Coleman Hydro LLC; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the...: Coleman Hydro LLC. e. Name of Project: Coleman Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: On Little Timber Creek..., joseph.hassell@ferc.gov . j. Cooperating agencies: Federal, state, local, and Tribal agencies...

  4. 75 FR 66083 - Iron Mask Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-27

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Iron Mask Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application..., 2010. On May 6, 2010, and supplemented on July 15, 2010, Iron Mask Hydro, LLC filed an application for... the feasibility of the Iron Mask Pumped Storage Project to be located near the U.S. Bureau...

  5. 75 FR 53963 - Iron Mask Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-02

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Iron Mask Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application..., 2010. On May 6, 2010, Iron Mask Hydro, LLC filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to section 4(f) of the Federal Power Act (FPA), proposing to study the feasibility of the Iron Mask...

  6. 78 FR 60271 - Hollow Dam Power Company; Ampersand Hollow Dam Hydro, LLC; Notice of Application for Transfer of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-01

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Hollow Dam Power Company; Ampersand Hollow Dam Hydro, LLC; Notice of..., Hollow Dam Power Company (transferor) and Ampersand Hollow Dam Hydro, LLC (transferee) filed an application for transfer of license for the Hollow Dam Project, FERC No. 6972, located on the West Branch...

  7. 77 FR 64973 - Don W. Gilbert Hydro Power, LLC; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing With the Commission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-24

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Don W. Gilbert Hydro Power, LLC; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing.... Date filed: May 30, 2012. d. Applicant: Don W. Gilbert Hydro Power, LLC. e. Name of Project: Gilbert... to: Federal Power Act, 16 U.S.C. 791(a)-825(r). (2006). h. Applicant Contact: Don W. Gilbert and...

  8. 78 FR 58301 - Go With the Flow Hydro Power, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-23

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Go With the Flow Hydro Power, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application..., 2013, Go with the Flow Hydro Power, LLC, filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to section 4(f) of the Federal Power Act (FPA), proposing to study the feasibility of the Go with the...

  9. 77 FR 61585 - FPL Energy Maine Hydro LLC; Notice of Intent To File License Application, Filing of Pre...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission FPL Energy Maine Hydro LLC; Notice of Intent To File License Application... Maine Hydro LLC (FPL Energy). e. Name of Project: West Buxton Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: On...

  10. 75 FR 16091 - Glen Falls Hydro, LLC; Essex Energy Partners, LLC; Notice of Application for Transfer of License...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Glen Falls Hydro, LLC; Essex Energy Partners, LLC; Notice of Application for..., Glen Falls Hydro, LLC (transferor) and Essex Energy Partners, LLC (transferee) filed an application...

  11. 76 FR 73617 - Riverbank Hydro No. 22 LLC; FFP Project 93 LLC; Notice of Competing Preliminary Permit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Riverbank Hydro No. 22 LLC; FFP Project 93 LLC; Notice of Competing... Competing Applications On September 1, 2011, Riverbank Hydro No. 22 LLC (Riverbank), and FFP Project 93...

  12. 77 FR 14775 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLV, FFP Project 2, LLC; Notice Announcing Filing Priority for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLV, FFP Project 2, LLC; Notice Announcing Filing... priority is as follows: 1. Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLV Project No. 14180-000. 2. FFP Project 2,...

  13. 78 FR 26768 - Great Lakes Hydro America, LLC; Notice of Intent To File License Application, Filing of Pre...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-08

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Great Lakes Hydro America, LLC; Notice of Intent To File License Application...-filing Process. b. Project No.: 2520-072. c. Dated Filed: March 1, 2013. d. Submitted By: Great Lakes... designating Great Lakes Hydro America, LLC as the Commission's non-federal representative for carrying...

  14. 78 FR 49509 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXX, LLC; FFP Project 121, LLC; Notice Announcing Preliminary Permit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXX, LLC; FFP Project 121, LLC; Notice Announcing... Virginia and Jefferson County, Ohio. The applications were filed by Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXX, LLC...

  15. 77 FR 23241 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXX, LLC; Notice of Intent To File License Application, Filing of Pre...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-18

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXX, LLC; Notice of Intent To File License... Friends Fund XXX, LLC. e. Name of Project: New Cumberland Locks and Dam Hydroelectric Project. f. Location... XXX, c/o Hydro Green Energy, LLC, 900 Oakmont Lane, Suite 310, Westmont, IL 60559; (877) 556-6566...

  16. 75 FR 49925 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLIX; FFP Missouri 14, LLC; Notice of Competing Preliminary Permit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-16

    .... Krouse, Chairman and CEO, Hydro Green Energy, LLC, 5090 Richmond Avenue 390, Houston, TX 77056. (877) 556... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLIX; FFP Missouri 14, LLC; Notice of...

  17. 76 FR 34071 - Lock Hydro Friends Fund I; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-10

    ... utility. Applicant Contact: Mr. Wayne Krouse, Hydro Green Energy LLC, 5090 Richmond Avenue 390, Houston... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock Hydro Friends Fund I; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application...

  18. 75 FR 27769 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund VII; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-18

    .... Krouse, Chairman & CEO, Hydro Green Energy, LLC, 5090 Richmond Ave, 390, Houston, Texas, 77056. FERC... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund VII; Notice of Preliminary Permit...

  19. 75 FR 61463 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLIX; FFP Missouri 15, LLC; Notice of Competing Preliminary Permit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    .... Krouse, Chairman and CEO, Hydro Green Energy, LLC, 5090 Richmond Avenue 390, Houston, TX 77056; Telephone... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLIX; FFP Missouri 15, LLC; Notice of...

  20. 77 FR 60419 - Lock + Hydro Friends Fund XIX, LLC; Notice of Intent To File License Application, Filing of Pre...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-03

    ..., Vice President of Corporate Affairs, Hydro Green Energy, LLC, 900 Oakmont Lane, Suite 310, Westmont, IL... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock + Hydro Friends Fund XIX, LLC; Notice of Intent To File...

  1. 77 FR 67352 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLII, LLC; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-09

    ... Friends Fund XLII, LLC, c/o Hydro Green Energy, LLC, 900 Oakmont Lane, Suite 310, Westmont, IL 60559; (877... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLII, LLC; Notice of Application Accepted...

  2. 78 FR 77118 - KC Small Hydro, LLC; Notice of Amended Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission KC Small Hydro, LLC; Notice of Amended Preliminary Permit Application... application to change its name to KC Small Hydro, LLC. Pursuant to 18 CFR 4.35, the August 28, 2013, Notice...

  3. Nanofiber based triple layer hydro-philic/-phobic membrane - a solution for pore wetting in membrane distillation

    PubMed Central

    Prince, J. A.; Rana, D.; Matsuura, T.; Ayyanar, N.; Shanmugasundaram, T. S.; Singh, G.

    2014-01-01

    The innovative design and synthesis of nanofiber based hydro-philic/phobic membranes with a thin hydro-phobic nanofiber layer on the top and a thin hydrophilic nanofiber layer on the bottom of the conventional casted micro-porous layer which opens up a solution for membrane pore wetting and improves the pure water flux in membrane distillation. PMID:25377488

  4. 76 FR 74780 - FFP Project 105 LLC; Hugo Lake Hydro LLC; Notice of Competing Preliminary Permit Applications...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-01

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission FFP Project 105 LLC; Hugo Lake Hydro LLC; Notice of Competing Preliminary... Applications On November 10, 2011, FFP Project 105 LLC (FFP 105), and on November 16, 2011, Hugo Lake Hydro LLC..., proposing to study the feasibility of a hydropower project at the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' (Corps)...

  5. 77 FR 12280 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XL; FFP Project 56, LLC; Notice Announcing Filing Priority for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XL; FFP Project 56, LLC; Notice Announcing Filing... priority is as follows: 1. Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XL, Project No. 14189-000. 2. FFP Project 56,...

  6. 77 FR 12280 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXV; FFP Project 57, LLC; Notice Announcing Filing Priority for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXV; FFP Project 57, LLC;Notice Announcing Filing... priority is as follows: 1. Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXV, Project No. 14186-000. 2. FFP Project 57,...

  7. 77 FR 13318 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund IV, FFP Project 55, LLC; Notice Announcing Filing Priority for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund IV, FFP Project 55, LLC; Notice Announcing Filing... order of priority is as follows: 1. Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund IV: Project No. 14185-000. 2. FFP...

  8. 77 FR 12281 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLIII; FFP Project 53, LLC; Notice Announcing Filing Priority for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLIII; FFP Project 53, LLC; Notice Announcing... order of priority is as follows: 1. Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLIII, Project No. 14181-000. 2....

  9. 77 FR 13317 - Riverbank Hydro No. 22, LLC, FFP Project 93, LLC; Notice Announcing Filing Priority for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Riverbank Hydro No. 22, LLC, FFP Project 93, LLC; Notice Announcing Filing... order of priority is as follows: 1. FFP Project 93, LLC: Project No. 14270-000. 2. Riverbank Hydro...

  10. 77 FR 12279 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXVIII; FFP Project 1, LLC; Notice Announcing Filing Priority for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXVIII; FFP Project 1, LLC; Notice Announcing... order of priority is as follows: 1. Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXVIII, Project No. 14184-000. 2....

  11. 77 FR 12280 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLI; FFP Project 54, LLC; Notice Announcing Filing Priority for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLI; FFP Project 54, LLC; Notice Announcing Filing... priority is as follows: 1. FFP Project 54, LLC, Project No. 14192-000. 2. Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund...

  12. 77 FR 12279 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLVII FFP Project 52, LLC; Notice Announcing Filing Priority for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLVII FFP Project 52, LLC; Notice Announcing Filing... priority is as follows: 1. Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLVII, Project No. 14178-000. 2. FFP Project 52,...

  13. 77 FR 12281 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXIV; FFP Project 58, LLC; Notice Announcing Filing Priority for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXIV; FFP Project 58, LLC; Notice Announcing... order of priority is as follows: 1. Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXIV, Project No. 14187-000. 2....

  14. 75 FR 351 - FFP Qualified Hydro 21 LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission FFP Qualified Hydro 21 LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application..., 2009. On September 4, 2009, FFP Qualified Hydro 21 LLC filed an application for a preliminary...

  15. 77 FR 59389 - Hawks Nest Hydro, LLC; Notice of Intent To File License Application, Filing of Pre-Application...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-27

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Hawks Nest Hydro, LLC; Notice of Intent To File License Application, Filing...: Hawks Nest Hydro, LLC. e. Name of Project: Hawks Nest Hydroelectric Project (P-2512-069) and Glen Ferris Hydroelectric Project (P-14439-000) f. Location: Hawks Nest Hydroelectric Project is on the New River in...

  16. 77 FR 34371 - Red River Hydro LLC; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-11

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Red River Hydro LLC; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the.... c. Date Filed: May 24, 2012. d. Applicant: Red River Hydro LLC (Red River), a wholly-owned...: The project would be located on the Red River in Rapides Parish, Louisiana at an existing lock and...

  17. 75 FR 352 - FFP Qualified Hydro 18 LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-05

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission FFP Qualified Hydro 18 LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application..., 2009. On September 8, 2009, FFP Qualified Hydro 18 LLC filed an application for a preliminary permit... competing applications may be filed electronically via the Internet. See 18 CFR 385.2001(a)(1)(iii) and...

  18. 78 FR 17389 - Clark Canyon Hydro, LLC; Notice of Application for Amendment of License and Soliciting Comments...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-21

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Clark Canyon Hydro, LLC; Notice of Application for Amendment of License and... Power Services on behalf of Clark Canyon Hydro, LLC. e. Name of Project: Clark Canyon Dam Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: The Clark Canyon Dam Hydroelectric Project is located on the Beaverhead River 18...

  19. 75 FR 71107 - Upper Peninsula Power Company; UP Hydro; Notice of Application for Transfer of License, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-22

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Upper Peninsula Power Company; UP Hydro; Notice of Application for Transfer..., Upper Peninsula Power Company (transferor) and UP Hydro (transferee) filed an application for transfer... under http://www.ferc.gov/docs-filing/efiling.asp . Commenters can submit brief comments up to...

  20. Hydrogen Resource Assessment: Hydrogen Potential from Coal, Natural Gas, Nuclear, and Hydro Power

    SciTech Connect

    Milbrandt, A.; Mann, M.

    2009-02-01

    This paper estimates the quantity of hydrogen that could be produced from coal, natural gas, nuclear, and hydro power by county in the United States. The study estimates that more than 72 million tonnes of hydrogen can be produced from coal, natural gas, nuclear, and hydro power per year in the country (considering only 30% of their total annual production). The United States consumed about 396 million tonnes of gasoline in 2007; therefore, the report suggests the amount of hydrogen from these sources could displace about 80% of this consumption.