Science.gov

Sample records for affected hydro generation

  1. Brigham City Hydro Generation Project

    SciTech Connect

    Ammons, Tom B.

    2015-10-31

    Brigham City owns and operates its own municipal power system which currently includes several hydroelectric facilities. This project was to update the efficiency and capacity of current hydro production due to increased water flow demands that could pass through existing generation facilities. During 2006-2012, this project completed efficiency evaluation as it related to its main objective by completing a feasibility study, undergoing necessary City Council approvals and required federal environmental reviews. As a result of Phase 1 of the project, a feasibility study was conducted to determine feasibility of hydro and solar portions of the original proposal. The results indicated that the existing Hydro plant which was constructed in the 1960’s was running at approximately 77% efficiency or less. Brigham City proposes that the efficiency calculations be refined to determine the economic feasibility of improving or replacing the existing equipment with new high efficiency equipment design specifically for the site. Brigham City completed the Feasibility Assessment of this project, and determined that the Upper Hydro that supplies the main culinary water to the city was feasible to continue with. Brigham City Council provided their approval of feasibility assessment’s results. The Upper Hydro Project include removal of the existing powerhouse equipment and controls and demolition of a section of concrete encased penstock, replacement of penstock just upstream of the turbine inlet, turbine bypass, turbine shut-off and bypass valves, turbine and generator package, control equipment, assembly, start-up, commissioning, Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA), and the replacement of a section of conductors to the step-up transformer. Brigham City increased the existing 575 KW turbine and generator with an 825 KW turbine and generator. Following the results of the feasibility assessment Brigham City pursued required environmental reviews with the DOE and

  2. Vibration analysis of a hydro generator for different operating regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haţiegan, C.; Pădureanu, I.; Jurcu, M.; Nedeloni, M. D.; Hamat, C. O.; Chioncel, C. P.; Trocaru, S.; Vasile, O.; Bădescu, O.; Micliuc, D.; (Filip Nedeloni, L.; Băra, A.; (Barboni Haţiegan, L.

    2017-01-01

    Based on experimental measurements, this paper presents the vibration analysis of a hydro generator that equips a Kaplan hydraulic turbine of a Hydropower plant in Romania. This analysis means vibrations measurement to different operating regimes of the hydro generator respectively before installing it and into operation, namely putting off load mode (unexcited and excited) respectively putting on load mode. By comparing, through the experimental results obtained before and after the operation of hydro aggregates are observed vibrations improvements.

  3. 77 FR 56637 - FirstLight Hydro Generating Company; Notice of Authorization for Continued Project Operation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-13

    .... 2662-000] FirstLight Hydro Generating Company; Notice of Authorization for Continued Project Operation On August 30, 2007, the FirstLight Hydro Generating Company, licensee for the Scotland Hydroelectric... annual license for Project No. 2662 [[Page 56638

  4. Islanding tests near a mini hydro generating plant

    SciTech Connect

    Jutras, R.; Lafond, C.; Srinivasan, K.; Plamondon, M.; Proulx, S.

    1995-12-31

    In this paper, the authors present the measurements taken while a mini hydro power plant and the adjoining load were islanded on a 25 kV distribution feeder. This was as a part of the acceptance tests before commissioning. The frequency was allowed to vary from 56.3 to 64.5 Hz before the generation was tripped off. They also present the estimation of the moment of inertia of the generating system from these measurements.

  5. Determining the operating performance through electrical measurements of a hydro generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haţiegan, C.; Chioncel, C. P.; Răduca, E.; Popescu, C.; Pădureanu, I.; Jurcu, M. R.; Bordeaşu, D.; Trocaru, S.; Dilertea, F.; Bădescu, O.; Terfăloagă, I. M.; Băra, A.; (Barboni Haţiegan, L.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the results obtained by experimental measurements regarding the determining of the operating performance of a Hydro generator, through electrical measurements before the refurbishment of hydro aggregates. Experimental measurements were taken to determine the characteristic by putting off load and also by putting on load regimes for power between 1 and 5 MW of hydro generator. These electrical measurements are to establish appropriate measures in terms of constructive and functional in order to bring the nominal parameters of that hydro aggregate.

  6. 76 FR 51961 - Brown Bear Power, LLC, Topsham Hydroelectric Generating Facility Trust No. 1, Topsham Hydro...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-19

    ..., Topsham Hydro Partners Limited Partnership; Notice of Application for Partial Transfer of License, and... Generating Facility (Trust No. 1), and Topsham Hydro Partners Limited Partnership (THP), co-licensees of the...; Christine M. Miller, Topsham Hydro Partners Limited Partnership, 200 Clarendon Street 55th Floor, Boston...

  7. A weather generator for hydro-meteorological hazard applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breinl, Korbinian; Turkington, Thea; Stowasser, Markus

    2014-05-01

    A new multi-site weather generator is proposed here. Multi-site weather generators are designed to simulate the space-time variation of precipitation and temperature at more than one location. A semi-parametric multi-site precipitation generator was recently proposed by Breinl et. al. (Breinl, K., Turkington, T. and Stowasser, M. 2013. Stochastic generation of multi-site daily precipitation for applications in risk management. Journal of Hydrology, 498: 23-35). A univariate Markov process was used to model precipitation occurrence at five sites in two study areas, with precipitation amounts simulated by resampling observations and then sampling and reshuffling from a parametric precipitation distribution (Breinl et. al., 2013). In this work, the precipitation model by Breinl et. al. (2013) is implemented in a weather generator for daily precipitation and temperature. The daily precipitation generator is extended for a considerably larger network of 19 sites in the Salzach catchment (Austria) and further improved to reduce the duplication of historical observations in the simulation output. Temperature is modelled using an autoregressive-moving average model (ARMA), simulating mean daily temperature at three of the 19 sites. Extreme values have also been considered, as they are often important for hydro-meteorological hazard applications. In the proposed weather generator, power transformations reduce the bias of generated extreme temperatures. The parametric models for precipitation are comprised of Weibull distributions for low precipitation amounts and Generalised Pareto distributions to more accurately capture moderate and extreme precipitation. With its abilities to reproduce the spatial variability of precipitation as well as unobserved extremes, the proposed weather generator is particularly recommended for flood hazard and risk assessment.

  8. Experimental and numerical investigation of hydro power generator ventilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamshidi, H.; Nilsson, H.; Chernoray, V.

    2014-03-01

    Improvements in ventilation and cooling offer means to run hydro power generators at higher power output and at varying operating conditions. The electromagnetic, frictional and windage losses generate heat. The heat is removed by an air flow that is driven by fans and/or the rotor itself. The air flow goes through ventilation channels in the stator, to limit the electrical insulation temperatures. The temperature should be kept limited and uniform in both time and space, avoiding thermal stresses and hot-spots. For that purpose it is important that the flow of cooling air is distributed uniformly, and that flow separation and recirculation are minimized. Improvements of the air flow properties also lead to an improvement of the overall efficiency of the machine. A significant part of the windage losses occurs at the entrance of the stator ventilation channels, where the air flow turns abruptly from tangential to radial. The present work focuses exclusively on the air flow inside a generator model, and in particular on the flow inside the stator channels. The generator model design of the present work is based on a real generator that was previously studied. The model is manufactured taking into consideration the needs of both the experimental and numerical methodologies. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) results have been used in the process of designing the experimental setup. The rotor and stator are manufactured using rapid-prototyping and plexi-glass, yielding a high geometrical accuracy, and optical experimental access. A special inlet section is designed for accurate air flow rate and inlet velocity profile measurements. The experimental measurements include Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and total pressure measurements inside the generator. The CFD simulations are performed based on the OpenFOAM CFD toolbox, and the steady-state frozen rotor approach. Specific studies are performed, on the effect of adding "pick-up" to spacers, and the effects of the

  9. Modeling strategic competition in hydro-thermal electricity generation markets with cascaded reservoir-hydroelectric generation plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uluca, Basak

    This dissertation aims to achieve two goals. The first is to model the strategic interactions of firms that own cascaded reservoir-hydro plants in oligopolistic and mixed oligopolistic hydrothermal electricity generation markets. Although competition in thermal generation has been extensively modeled since the beginning of deregulation, the literature on competition in hydro generation is still limited; in particular, equilibrium models of oligopoly that study the competitive behavior of firms that own reservoir-hydro plants along the same river in hydrothermal electricity generation markets are still under development. In competitive markets, when the reservoirs are located along the same river, the water released from an upstream reservoir for electricity generation becomes input to the immediate downstream reservoir, which may be owned by a competitor, for current or future use. To capture the strategic interactions among firms with cascaded reservoir-hydro plants, the Upstream-Conjecture approach is proposed. Under the Upstream-Conjecture approach, a firm with an upstream reservoir-hydro plant assumes that firms with downstream reservoir-hydro plants will respond to changes in the upstream firm's water release by adjusting their water release by the same amount. The results of the Upstream Conjecture experiments indicate that firms that own upstream reservoirs in a cascade may have incentive to withhold or limit hydro generation, forcing a reduction in the utilization of the downstream hydro generation plants that are owned by competitors. Introducing competition to hydroelectricity generation markets is challenging and ownership allocation of the previously state-owned cascaded reservoir-hydro plants through privatization can have significant impact on the competitiveness of the generation market. The second goal of the dissertation is to extract empirical guidance about best policy choices for the ownership of the state-owned generation plants, including the

  10. Preventive Maintenance Prioritization by Fuzzy Logic for Seamless Hydro Power Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, P. K.; Adhikary, P.; Mazumdar, A.

    2014-06-01

    Preventive maintenance prioritization is one of the most important criteria for the electricity generation planners to minimize the down time and production costs. Break down of equipments increases costs and plant down time results in loss of business. This work focuses on prioritizing the preventive maintenance for seamless hydro power generation considering (24 × 7) client's power demand using fuzzy logic. The main task involves prioritizing the maintenance work considering constraints of varied power demand and hydro turbine plant breakdown. Fuzzy logic is used to optimize the preventive maintenance prioritization under the main constraints. Manual fuzzy arithmetic is used to develop the model and MATLAB Fuzzy Inference System editor used to validate the same. This novel fuzzy logic approach of preventive maintenance prioritizing for hydro power generation is absent in renewable power generation and industrial engineering literatures due to its assessment complexity.

  11. 75 FR 55317 - FirstLight Hydro Generating Company; City of Norwich Department of Public Utilities; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-10

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission FirstLight Hydro Generating Company; City of Norwich Department of Public... Schedule for Licensing and Deadline for Submission of Final Amendments September 2, 2010. Take notice that...--FirstLight Hydro Generating Company (FirstLight); and Competitor--City of Norwich Department of...

  12. 76 FR 26284 - FirstLight Hydro Generating Company, City of Norwich Dept. of Public Utilities; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission FirstLight Hydro Generating Company, City of Norwich Dept. of Public... will meet with FirstLight Hydro Generating Company and the City of Norwich Dept. of Public Utilities...

  13. 78 FR 56690 - PE Hydro Generation, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission PE Hydro Generation, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...-referenced proceeding, of PE Hydro Generation, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  14. 76 FR 8724 - First Light Hydro Generating Company; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing, Soliciting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ... Request: First Light Hydro Generating Company proposes to add a solar array (encompassing approximately 10 acres of land) as a non-project use of project lands at the Northfield Pump Storage Project (P-2485-059). The applicant states that the proposed 2MW utility grade photovoltaic solar array will provide...

  15. Demonstration of variable speed permanent magnet generator at small, low-head hydro site

    SciTech Connect

    Brown Kinloch, David

    2015-12-18

    Small hydro developers face a limited set of bad choices when choosing a generator for a small low-head hydro site. Direct drive synchronous generators are expensive and technically complex to install. Simpler induction generators are higher speed, requiring a speed increaser, which results in inefficiencies and maintenance problems. In addition, both induction and synchronous generators turn at a fixed speed, causing the turbine to run off its peak efficiency curve whenever the available head is different than the designed optimum head.The solution to these problems is the variable speed Permanent Magnet Generators (PMG). At the Weisenberger Mill in Midway, KY, a variable speed Permanent Magnet Generator has been installed and demonstrated. This new PMG system replaced an existing induction generator that had a HTD belt drive speed increaser system. Data was taken from the old generator before it was removed and compared to data collected after the PMG system was installed. The new variable speed PMG system is calculated to produce over 96% more energy than the old induction generator system during an average year. This significant increase was primarily due to the PMG generator operating at the correct speed at the maximum head, and the ability for the PMG generator to reduce its speed to lower optimum speeds as the stream flow increased and the net head decreased.This demonstration showed the importance of being able to adjust the speed of fixed blade turbines. All fixed blade turbines with varying net heads could achieve higher efficiencies if the speed can be matched to the optimum speed as the head changes. In addition, this demonstration showed that there are many potential efficiencies that could be realized with variable speed technology at hydro sites where mismatched turbine and generator speeds result in lower power output, even at maximum head. Funding for this project came from the US Dept. of Energy, through Award Number DE-EE0005429.

  16. Operation modes of a hydro-generator as a part of the inverter micro hydropower plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukutin, B. V.; Shandarova, E. B.; Matukhin, D. L.; Makarova, A. F.; Fuks, I. L.

    2016-04-01

    The paper dwells on the selection problem of power equipment for a stand-alone inverter micro hydropower plant, in particular a hydro-generator, and evaluation of its operation modes. Numerical experiments included the modes calculation of hydroelectric units of the same type with various nominal power, supplied to the consumer according to the unchanged electric load curve. The studies developed requirements for a hydro-turbine and a synchronous generator in terms of a speed range and installed capacity, depending on the load curve. The possibility of using general industrial hydroelectric units with nominal power equal to half-maximum capacity of a typical daily load curve in rural areas was shown.

  17. Lattice Boltzmann approach for hydro-acoustic waves generated by tsunamigenic sea bottom displacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prestininzi, P.; Abdolali, A.; Montessori, A.; Kirby, J. T.; La Rocca, Michele

    2016-11-01

    Tsunami waves are generated by sea bottom failures, landslides and faults. The concurrent generation of hydro-acoustic waves (HAW), which travel much faster than the tsunami, has received much attention, motivated by their possible exploitation as precursors of tsunamis. This feature makes the detection of HAW particularly well-suited for building an early-warning system. Accuracy and efficiency of the modeling approaches for HAW thus play a pivotal role in the design of such systems. Here, we present a Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) for the generation and propagation of HAW resulting from tsunamigenic ground motions and verify it against commonly employed modeling solutions. LBM is well known for providing fast and accurate solutions to both hydrodynamics and acoustics problems, thus it naturally becomes a candidate as a comprehensive computational tool for modeling generation and propagation of HAW.

  18. Effect of turbine materials on power generation efficiency from free water vortex hydro power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sritram, P.; Treedet, W.; Suntivarakorn, R.

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this research was to study the effect of turbine materials on power generation efficiency from the water free vortex hydro power plant made of steel and aluminium. These turbines consisted of five blades and were twisted with angles along the height of water. These blades were the maximum width of 45 cm. and height of 32 cm. These turbines were made and experimented for the water free vortex hydro power plant in the laboratory with the water flow rate of 0.68, 1.33, 1.61, 2.31, 2.96 and 3.63 m3/min and an electrical load of 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 W respectively. The experimental results were calculated to find out the torque, electric power, and electricity production efficiency. From the experiment, the results showed that the maximum power generation efficiency of steel and aluminium turbine were 33.56% and 34.79% respectively. From the result at the maximum water flow rate of 3.63 m3/min, it was found that the torque value and electricity production efficiency of aluminium turbine was higher than that of steel turbine at the average of 8.4% and 8.14%, respectively. This result showed that light weight of water turbine can increase the torque and power generation efficiency.

  19. A practical design for an integrated HVDC unit - connected hydro-electric generating station

    SciTech Connect

    Ingram, L. )

    1988-10-01

    To date, several authors (see reference list) have proclaimed benefits which can be achieved by integrating HVDC converter stations directly with generating units. The cost of a significant amount of plant and facilities found in conventional schemes is thereby eliminated. So far as is known however, no detailed studies have been done to quantify these benefits. This paper outlines the results of a study made recently by the Manitoba HVDC Research Centre to determine the practicality of such a scheme. To give credence to the results an actual hydro station design was used incorporating a HVDC thyristor valve scheme in a hypothetical situation. Financial and other benefits were determined for this example together with conclusions and recommendations for future specific projects and further areas of study.

  20. a Novel Method for Automation of 3d Hydro Break Line Generation from LIDAR Data Using Matlab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toscano, G. J.; Gopalam, U.; Devarajan, V.

    2013-08-01

    Water body detection is necessary to generate hydro break lines, which are in turn useful in creating deliverables such as TINs, contours, DEMs from LiDAR data. Hydro flattening follows the detection and delineation of water bodies (lakes, rivers, ponds, reservoirs, streams etc.) with hydro break lines. Manual hydro break line generation is time consuming and expensive. Accuracy and processing time depend on the number of vertices marked for delineation of break lines. Automation with minimal human intervention is desired for this operation. This paper proposes using a novel histogram analysis of LiDAR elevation data and LiDAR intensity data to automatically detect water bodies. Detection of water bodies using elevation information was verified by checking against LiDAR intensity data since the spectral reflectance of water bodies is very small compared with that of land and vegetation in near infra-red wavelength range. Detection of water bodies using LiDAR intensity data was also verified by checking against LiDAR elevation data. False detections were removed using morphological operations and 3D break lines were generated. Finally, a comparison of automatically generated break lines with their semi-automated/manual counterparts was performed to assess the accuracy of the proposed method and the results were discussed.

  1. 75 FR 9591 - FirstLight Hydro Generating Company; Notice of Application for Amendment of License and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-03

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission FirstLight Hydro Generating Company; Notice of Application for Amendment of License and Soliciting Comments, Motions To Intervene, and Protests February 24, 2010. Take.... c. Date Filed: June 30, 2009 and supplemented on December 4, 2009. d. Applicant: FirstLight...

  2. Comparison of hydro-environmental impacts for ebb-only and two-way generation for a Severn Barrage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadian, Reza; Falconer, Roger A.; Bockelmann-Evans, Bettina

    2014-10-01

    Marine renewable energy is playing an increasing significant role in many parts of the world, mainly due to a rise in the awareness of climate change, and its detrimental effects, and the increasing cost of natural resources. The Severn Estuary, located between South West England and South Wales, has a tidal range of up to 14 m which makes it the second highest tidal range in the world. There are a number of barrage proposals amongst various marine renewable energy schemes proposed to be built in the estuary. The Cardiff-Weston STPG (Severn Tidal Power Group) Barrage, which would be one of the world's largest tidal renewable energy schemes if built, is one of the most publicised schemes to-date. This barrage would generate about 17 TWh/annum of power, which is approximately 5% of the UK's electricity consumption, whilst causing significant hydro-environmental and ecological impact on the estuary. This study mainly focuses on investigating the hydro-environmental impacts of the STPG barrage for the option of two-way generation, and compares this with the commonly investigated option of ebb-only generation. The impacts of the barrage were modelled by implementing a linked 1-D/2-D hydro-environmental model, with the capability of modelling several key environmental processes. The model predictions show that the hydro-environmental impacts of the barrage on the Severn Estuary and Bristol Channel, such as changes in the maximum velocity and reduction in suspended sediment and bacteria levels, were less significant for the two-way generation scheme when compared with the corresponding impacts for ebb-only generation.

  3. Word generation affects continuous hand movements.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lisai; Wininger, Michael; Rosenbaum, David A

    2014-01-01

    Understanding interactions between cognitive and motor performance is an important theoretical and practical aim of motor neuroscience. Toward this aim, we invited university students to move one hand back and forth at a self-paced rate either in silence or while overtly generating words from semantic categories. The same participants also generated words without movement. Word generation affected manual performance but manual performance did not affect word generation. Only the timing, but not the spatial features, of the hand movements were influenced by word generation. The simplicity of our procedure argues for its future use, both for theoretical and practical purposes.

  4. Hydro-acoustic and tsunami waves generated by the 2012 Haida Gwaii earthquake: Modeling and in situ measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdolali, Ali; Cecioni, Claudia; Bellotti, Giorgio; Kirby, James T.

    2015-02-01

    Detection of low-frequency hydro-acoustic waves as precursor components of destructive tsunamis can enhance the promptness and the accuracy of Tsunami Early Warning Systems (TEWS). We reconstruct the hydro-acoustic wave field generated by the 2012 Haida Gwaii tsunamigenic earthquake using a 2-D horizontal numerical model based on the integration over the depth of the compressible fluid wave equation and considering a mild sloped rigid seabed. Spectral analysis of the wave field obtained at different water depths and distances from the source revealed the frequency range of low-frequency elastic oscillations of sea water. The resulting 2-D numerical model gave us the opportunity to study the hydro-acoustic wave propagation in a large-scale domain with available computers and to support the idea of deep-sea observatory and data interpretation. The model provides satisfactory results, compared with in situ measurements, in the reproduction of the long-gravitational waves. Differences between numerical results and field data are probably due to the lack of exact knowledge of sea bottom motion and to the rigid seabed approximation, indicating the need for further study of poro-elastic bottom effects.

  5. Building a Global Network of Hydro-climatology Sites in Cloud-affected Tropical Montane Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, G. W.; Asbjornsen, H.; Bruijnzeel, S., Sr.; Berry, Z. C.; Giambelluca, T. W.; Martin, P.; Mulligan, M.

    2015-12-01

    Tropical montane forests are characteristically wet environments with low evapotranspiration and sometimes significant contributions from fog interception. They are often located at headwater catchments critical for water supplies, but ecohydroclimate data in these regions are sparse. Such evidence may be crucial for assessing climate alterations in these sensitive ecosystems. As part of a global effort led by the Tropical Montane Cloud Forest Research Coordination Network (Cloudnet - http://cloudnet.agsci.colostate.edu), we aim to extend the network of tropical montane forest sites and establish robust protocols for measuring key ecohydroclimatic parameters, including fog interception, windblown rain, throughfall, leaf wetness, and micrometeorological conditions. Specific recommendations for standardized protocols include (1) rain and fog collectors uniquely designed to separately quantify fog interception from direct rain inputs, even in windy conditions, (2) trough-style throughfall gages that collect 40 times the area of a typical tipping bucket gage with added features to reduce splash-out, (3) clusters of leaf wetness sensors to differentiate frequency and duration of wetness caused by rain and fog on windward and leeward exposures, and (4) basic micrometeorological sensors for solar radiation, temperature, humidity, and wind. At sites where resources allow for additional measurements, we developed protocols for quantifying soil moisture, soil saturation, and plant water uptake from both roots and leaves (i.e. foliar absorption), since these are also important drivers in these systems. Participating sites will be invited to contribute to a global meta-analysis that will provide new insights into the ecohydrology of cloud-affected tropical montane forests.

  6. Power generation by high head water in a building using micro hydro turbine-a greener approach.

    PubMed

    M M S R S, Bhargav; V, Ratna Kishore; S P, Anbuudayasankar; K, Balaji

    2016-05-01

    Demand for green energy production is arising all over the world. A lot of emphasis is laid in making the buildings green. Even a small amount of energy savings made contribute to saving the environment. In this study, an idea is proposed and studied to extract power from the high head water in the pipelines of a building. A building of height 15 m is considered for this study. Water flowing in the pipe has sufficient energy to run a micro hydro turbine. The feasibility of producing electrical energy from the energy of pipe water is found. The motivation is to find the feasibility of generating power using a low-cost turbine. The experimental setup consists of micro turbine of 135 mm diameter coupled to a 12-V DC generator; LEDs and resistors are employed to validate the results. The theoretical calculations were presented using the fundamental equations of fluid mechanics. The theoretical results are validated using experimental and numerical results using CFD simulation. In addition, exergy analysis has been carried out to quantify the irreversibilities during the process in the system.

  7. Analysis of performance with variable stroke of a torque based renewable micro hydro power generation plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Muhammad Mahbubul; Rahman, Md. Shad; Sultan, Rasel A.; Naif, M. Ahmed

    2016-07-01

    The most important addition of modern science is renewable energy. And the most useful and the most cheaply renewable power generation source is Hydropower. Flowing water creates energy that can be captured and turned into electricity. This is called Hydroelectric power or Hydropower. Hydropower is considered a renewable energy resource because it uses the earth's water cycle to generate electricity. Water evaporates from the earth's surface, forms clouds, precipitates back to earth, and flows toward the ocean. As far as Bangladesh is concerned, only a small fraction of electricity is generated by hydropower. The government has set a target of meeting 5 per cent of the electricity demand by 2015 by utilizing renewable energy and 10 per cent by the year 2020. Currently, renewable energies contribute to less than 1 per cent of the country's total electricity generation. The aim of our analysis is to demonstrate and observe the hydropower of our country in micro-scale by our experimental setup which is completely new in concept. This paper consists results of our findings and we find larger the number of stroke higher the rpm correspondingly higher efficiency. We find maximum rpm for 2stroke when fixed fly wheel weight was 18Kg and water was 10liter. It might help in case of utilizing this renewable energy potential at high scale.

  8. Random Item Generation Is Affected by Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Multani, Namita; Rudzicz, Frank; Wong, Wing Yiu Stephanie; Namasivayam, Aravind Kumar; van Lieshout, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Random item generation (RIG) involves central executive functioning. Measuring aspects of random sequences can therefore provide a simple method to complement other tools for cognitive assessment. We examine the extent to which RIG relates to specific measures of cognitive function, and whether those measures can be estimated using RIG…

  9. Generating and Describing Affective Eye Behaviors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Xia; Li, Zheng

    The manner of a person's eye movement conveys much about nonverbal information and emotional intent beyond speech. This paper describes work on expressing emotion through eye behaviors in virtual agents based on the parameters selected from the AU-Coded facial expression database and real-time eye movement data (pupil size, blink rate and saccade). A rule-based approach to generate primary (joyful, sad, angry, afraid, disgusted and surprise) and intermediate emotions (emotions that can be represented as the mixture of two primary emotions) utilized the MPEG4 FAPs (facial animation parameters) is introduced. Meanwhile, based on our research, a scripting tool, named EEMML (Emotional Eye Movement Markup Language) that enables authors to describe and generate emotional eye movement of virtual agents, is proposed.

  10. HydroPulse Drilling

    SciTech Connect

    J.J. Kolle

    2004-04-01

    Tempress HydroPulse{trademark} tool increases overbalanced drilling rates by generating intense suction pulses at the drill bit. This report describes the operation of the tool; results of pressure drilling tests, wear tests and downhole drilling tests; and the business case for field applications. The HydroPulse{trademark} tool is designed to operate on weighted drilling mud at conventional flow rates and pressures. Pressure drilling tests confirm that the HydroPulse{trademark} tool provides 33% to 200% increased rate of penetration. Field tests demonstrated conventional rotary and mud motor drilling operations. The tool has been operated continuous for 50 hours on weighted mud in a wear test stand. This level of reliability is the threshold for commercial application. A seismic-while-drilling version of the tool was also developed and tested. This tool was used to demonstrate reverse vertical seismic profiling while drilling an inclined test well with a PDC bit. The primary applications for the HydroPulse{trademark} tool are deep onshore and offshore drilling where rate of penetration drives costs. The application of the seismic tool is vertical seismic profiling-while-drilling and look-ahead seismic imaging while drilling.

  11. Hydrodynamic film thickness measurements and CFD analysis identify the root causes of repetitive thrust bearing failures on a 45 MW hydro generating unit at Hydro-Québec

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauvin, P.; Huard, P.

    2016-11-01

    High temperature level recorded on the thrust bearing of a 45 MW hydro generating unit was resulting in frequent production stoppage. In spite of improvements brought to the oil cooling system since the rehabilitation in 2008, the operator had to activate the bearing oil lift system to keep the temperature below acceptable limits. Primary root cause analysis first pointed to the design of the shoe that was centrally pivoted, not allowing the formation of a thick hydrodynamic film. The removal of a strip of the soft metal layer near the trailing edge of the shoe resulted in a significant surface temperature reduction (about 15 deg. C), as predicted by a CFD model of the oil film. The goal of this machining was to increase the pivoting angle by moving the centre of hydrodynamic pressure. Proximity sensors were installed at each corner of the redesigned shoe to measure the film thickness and the bearing attitude. Signal analysis revealed a step of a magnitude close to the oil film thickness between the two halves of the rotating thrust block. This was the cause of another failure few hours since restarting the unit. The lessons learnt through these measurements and analyses were carefully applied to the ultimate build. The unit now runs with a robust thrust bearing and even survived a significant cooling flow reduction event. This paper presents the CFD analysis results and the measurements acquired during these events.

  12. Lifting hydro's potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lihach, N.

    1980-12-01

    The advantages of hydroelectric power, in terms of capital, operating and maintenance costs and in terms of fuel and environmental considerations, are causing an upgrading of existing installations to provide more generating capacity. Hydrocapacity supplies 1/8 of the U.S. electric energy and will probably increase from 50 to 100% by the early 2000's as the price of other forms of energy rises. Ways of increasing output are: better water control, uprating of hydrogenerators, standardization of turbines, and methods of pumped hydro, an energy storage technique. An obstacle to this aim is the cumbersome licensing process of competing federal agencies which places a particular burden on small projects.

  13. An on-line monitoring system for oil-film, pressure and temperature distributions in large-scale hydro-generator bearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höbel, M.; Haffner, K.

    1999-05-01

    Instrumentation that allows the behaviour of a hydro-generator thrust bearing to be monitored during operation is described. The measurement system was developed at the Asea Brown Boveri corporate research centre in Switzerland and was tested under realistic operating conditions at the Harbin Electric Machinery Company bearing-testing facility in the People's Republic of China. Newly developed fibre-optical proximity probes were used for the on-line monitoring of the thin oil film between the static and rotating parts of the bearing. These sensors are based on a back-reflection technique and can be used for various target materials such as Babbitt and Teflon. The monitoring system comprises about 120 temperature sensors, four pressure sensors and five optical oil-film thickness sensors. Temperature sensors are installed at specific static locations, whereas pressure and oil-film sensors are positioned in the runner and generate data during rotation. A special feature of the monitoring equipment is its on-line processing capability. Digital signal processors operating in parallel handle pressure and oil-film thickness data. Important measurement parameters such as the maximum pressure, maximum temperature and minimum oil-film thickness are displayed on-line. Detailed three-dimensional temperature information on one of the load segments can be obtained from subsequent off-line data analysis. The system also calculates two-dimensional plots of the oil-film thickness and pressure for most of the 12 load segments.

  14. 78 FR 58533 - FirstEnergy Generation, LLC, Allegheny Energy Supply Company, LLC, and Green Valley Hydro, LLC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project Nos. 2280-017, 2343-084, 2459-245, 2516-057, 2517-036, 3494- 091, 3671-086, 2391-046, 2425-052, and 2509-046] FirstEnergy Generation, LLC, Allegheny Energy...

  15. How does the North Atlantic Oscillation affect the water levels of the Great Lakes with regard to hydro-climatic indicators?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dogan, Mustafa

    2016-11-01

    In this study, the changes of long-term mean annual water levels of the Great Lakes in North America are investigated, including the potential impacts of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). The levels of Lakes Superior, Michigan-Huron, St. Clair, Erie and Ontario and the hydro-climatic data, such as precipitation, evaporation and runoff, are evaluated together in view of the influence of NAO. The changes in the lake levels and hydro-climatic indicators are analysed. The annual hydro-climatic data, annual mean lake levels and the NAO indices are nondimensionalized through the nonparametric Mann-Kendall test. Then, the sequential Mann-Kendall test and paired t test are performed to gain insight into the trends of the time series and possible turning points. As a result of this study, the trend direction changes for all of the lakes are determined in the years 1965 and 1987, based on the records of the last 95 years. A similar tendency for evaporation, precipitation and runoff is found in 1982, 1935 and 1965. Regarding the effect of North Atlantic Oscillation on the changes of the lake levels, the same directional variations are found between the lake levels and the NAO FMA (February-March-April) indices. However, the directional variations between the lake levels and NAO JJA (June-July-August) indices are reversed. The absolute values of the correlation coefficients increase from west to east (from Lake Superior to Lake Ontario).

  16. Modular small hydro configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-09-01

    Smaller sites (those under 750 kilowatts) which previously were not attractive to develop using equipment intended for application at larger scale sites, were the focal point in the conception of a system which utilizes standard industrial components which are generally available within short procurement times. Such components were integrated into a development scheme for sites having 20 feet to 150 feet of head. The modular small hydro configuration maximizes the use of available components and minimizes modification of existing civil works. A key aspect of the development concept is the use of a vertical turbine multistage pump, used in the reverse mode as a hydraulic turbine. The configuration allows for automated operation and control of the hydroelectric facilities with sufficient flexibility for inclusion of potential hydroelectric sites into dispersed storage and generation (DSG) utility grid systems.

  17. Generating a Spanish Affective Dictionary with Supervised Learning Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bermudez-Gonzalez, Daniel; Miranda-Jiménez, Sabino; García-Moreno, Raúl-Ulises; Calderón-Nepamuceno, Dora

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, machine learning techniques are being used in several Natural Language Processing (NLP) tasks such as Opinion Mining (OM). OM is used to analyse and determine the affective orientation of texts. Usually, OM approaches use affective dictionaries in order to conduct sentiment analysis. These lexicons are labeled manually with affective…

  18. Literature Review: Factors Affecting the Development of Generation X and Millennials. Societal Factors Affecting Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denham, Thomas J.; adbow, Nancy

    Generation X, or "Xers," refers to those born in the United States between 1960 and 1980 and Generation Y, also known as "Millennials," refers to those born between 1980 and 2000. An examination of these two generations is important to educators as the new generation of Millennials begins to access higher education. A large and…

  19. Listeners discern affective variation in computer-generated musical sounds.

    PubMed

    Bailes, Freya; Dean, Roger T

    2009-01-01

    We carried out two experiments to test the relationship between real-time perception of structural change in stylistically unusual musical sounds, and perception of its affect (arousal and valence). Computer music was used because of its unfamiliarity and our capacity to control it in ecologically appropriate ways. In experiment 1, thirteen participants unselected for musical training participated in tasks to detect segmentation and changes in affect. Changes in affect occurred upon detection of segmentation; but not all algorithmically distinct segments conveyed distinct affect. Short segments followed by long segments led to greater changes in arousal and valence at the point of segmentation than vice versa. In experiment 2, intra-segment sound transitions were introduced. Sixteen musicians performed the same affect task as in experiment 1, and a novel change in sound task. Participants were slow to respond to a continuous transition, but quick to respond to instantaneous transitions. Contrary to literature on the perception of affect in more familiar music, the musician participants in experiment 2 differed more in their ratings of arousal than of valence, in spite of a strong correlation of arousal with the composition of the stimuli. These findings are discussed in relation to the positive valence attributed to the more familiar sounds in both experiments.

  20. How Causal Knowledge Affects Classification: A Generative Theory of Categorization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rehder, Bob; Kim, ShinWoo

    2006-01-01

    Several theories have been proposed regarding how causal relations among features of objects affect how those objects are classified. The assumptions of these theories were tested in 3 experiments that manipulated the causal knowledge associated with novel categories. There were 3 results. The 1st was a multiple cause effect in which a feature's…

  1. Lac Courte Oreilles Hydro Dam Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, Jason; Meyers, Amy

    2014-12-31

    The main objective of this project was to investigate upgrading the existing hydro power generating system at the Winter Dam. The tribe would like to produce more energy and receive a fair market power purchase agreement so the dam is no longer a drain on our budget but a contributor to our economy. We contracted Kiser Hydro, LLC Engineering for this project and received an engineering report that includes options for producing more energy with cost effective upgrades to the existing turbines. Included in this project was a negotiation of energy price sales negotiations.

  2. Infiltration and runoff generation processes in fire-affected soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moody, John A.; Ebel, Brian A.

    2014-01-01

    Post-wildfire runoff was investigated by combining field measurements and modelling of infiltration into fire-affected soils to predict time-to-start of runoff and peak runoff rate at the plot scale (1 m2). Time series of soil-water content, rainfall and runoff were measured on a hillslope burned by the 2010 Fourmile Canyon Fire west of Boulder, Colorado during cyclonic and convective rainstorms in the spring and summer of 2011. Some of the field measurements and measured soil physical properties were used to calibrate a one-dimensional post-wildfire numerical model, which was then used as a ‘virtual instrument’ to provide estimates of the saturated hydraulic conductivity and high-resolution (1 mm) estimates of the soil-water profile and water fluxes within the unsaturated zone.Field and model estimates of the wetting-front depth indicated that post-wildfire infiltration was on average confined to shallow depths less than 30 mm. Model estimates of the effective saturated hydraulic conductivity, Ks, near the soil surface ranged from 0.1 to 5.2 mm h−1. Because of the relatively small values of Ks, the time-to-start of runoff (measured from the start of rainfall),  tp, was found to depend only on the initial soil-water saturation deficit (predicted by the model) and a measured characteristic of the rainfall profile (referred to as the average rainfall acceleration, equal to the initial rate of change in rainfall intensity). An analytical model was developed from the combined results and explained 92–97% of the variance of  tp, and the numerical infiltration model explained 74–91% of the variance of the peak runoff rates. These results are from one burned site, but they strongly suggest that  tp in fire-affected soils (which often have low values of Ks) is probably controlled more by the storm profile and the initial soil-water saturation deficit than by soil hydraulic properties.

  3. [How generativity affects motivation for altruistic behavior toward the young generation in elderly people].

    PubMed

    Tabuchi, Megumi; Gondo, Yasuyuki

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to verify a model of motivation for altruistic behavior toward the young generation in elderly people. Erikson's developmental task theory and concept of "generativity" was used as the basis of a hypothetic model. We assumed that memory about parents in childhood has a direct impact on motivation for participating in child-support, and has an indirect impact through generativity and the view of child rearing. Also, the view of child rearing has an indirect impact through generativity. Data was analyzed from questionnaires completed by 236 elderly people (M=68.35 years old, SD=7.64 years). Structural equation modeling showed that the effect of memory about parents and the view of child rearing on the motivation for participating in child-support were mediated by generativity. These results suggested that generativity is a key concept in explaining the motivation for altruistic behavior toward the young generation in elderly people.

  4. 77 FR 11530 - Riverbank Hydro No. 2, LLC, Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXVI, Qualified Hydro 21, LLC; Notice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Riverbank Hydro No. 2, LLC, Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXVI, Qualified Hydro... by Riverbank Hydro No. 2, LLC for Project No. 14130-000, Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXVI for...

  5. 77 FR 73651 - North Star Hydro Services, CA LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-11

    ...-000] North Star Hydro Services, CA LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing... Star Hydro Services CA, LLC filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to section 4(f) of... generate 5.62 gigawatt-hours annually. Applicant Contact: Mr. David Holland, North Star Hydro Services...

  6. Hydro power flexibility for power systems with variable renewable energy sources: an IEA Task 25 collaboration: Hydro power flexibility for power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Huertas-Hernando, Daniel; Farahmand, Hossein; Holttinen, Hannele; Kiviluoma, Juha; Rinne, Erkka; Söder, Lennart; Milligan, Michael; Ibanez, Eduardo; Martínez, Sergio Martín; Gomez-Lazaro, Emilio; Estanqueiro, Ana; Rodrigues, Luis; Carr, Luis; van Roon, Serafin; Orths, Antje Gesa; Eriksen, Peter Børre; Forcione, Alain; Menemenlis, Nickie

    2016-06-20

    Hydro power is one of the most flexible sources of electricity production. Power systems with considerable amounts of flexible hydro power potentially offer easier integration of variable generation, e.g., wind and solar. However, there exist operational constraints to ensure mid-/long-term security of supply while keeping river flows and reservoirs levels within permitted limits. In order to properly assess the effective available hydro power flexibility and its value for storage, a detailed assessment of hydro power is essential. Due to the inherent uncertainty of the weather-dependent hydrological cycle, regulation constraints on the hydro system, and uncertainty of internal load as well as variable generation (wind and solar), this assessment is complex. Hence, it requires proper modeling of all the underlying interactions between hydro power and the power system, with a large share of other variable renewables. A summary of existing experience of wind integration in hydro-dominated power systems clearly points to strict simulation methodologies. Recommendations include requirements for techno-economic models to correctly assess strategies for hydro power and pumped storage dispatch. These models are based not only on seasonal water inflow variations but also on variable generation, and all these are in time horizons from very short term up to multiple years, depending on the studied system. Another important recommendation is to include a geographically detailed description of hydro power systems, rivers' flows, and reservoirs as well as grid topology and congestion.

  7. Cognitive and Affective Aspects of Creative Option Generation in Everyday Life Situations

    PubMed Central

    Schweizer, T. Sophie; Schmalenberger, Katja M.; Eisenlohr-Moul, Tory A.; Mojzisch, Andreas; Kaiser, Stefan; Funke, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Which factors influence a human being’s ability to develop new perspectives and be creative? This ability is pivotal for any context in which new cognitions are required, such as innovative endeavors in science and art, or psychotherapeutic settings. In this article, we seek to bring together two research programs investigating the generation of creative options: On the one hand, research on option generation in the decision-making literature and, on the other hand, cognitive and clinical creativity research. Previous decision-making research has largely neglected the topic of generating creative options. Experiments typically provided participants with a clear set of options to choose from, but everyday life situations are less structured and allow countless ways to react. Before choosing an option, agents have to self-generate a set of options to choose from. Such option generation processes have only recently moved to the center of attention. The present study examines the creative quality of self-generated options in daily life situations. A student sample (N = 48) generated options for action in 70 briefly described everyday life scenarios. We rated the quality of the options on three dimensions of creativity- originality, feasibility, and divergence -and linked these qualities to option generation fluency (speed and number of generated options), situational features like the familiarity and the affective valence of the situation in which the options were generated, and trait measures of cognitive performance. We found that when situations were familiar to the participant, greater negative affective valence of the situation was associated with more originality and divergence of generated options. We also found that a higher option generation fluency was associated with a greater maximal originality of options. We complete our article with a joint research agenda for researchers in the decision-making field focusing on option generation and, on the other hand

  8. 77 FR 13317 - Riverbank Hydro No. 2, LLC, Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXVI, Qualified Hydro 21, LLC; Notice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Riverbank Hydro No. 2, LLC, Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXVI, Qualified Hydro... tiebreaker. Based on the drawing, the order of priority is as follows: 1. Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund...

  9. 77 FR 12280 - Riverbank Hydro No. 1, LLC, Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXVII; Qualified Hydro 20, LLC; Notice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Riverbank Hydro No. 1, LLC, Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXVII; Qualified Hydro... tiebreaker. Based on the drawing, the order of priority is as follows: 1. Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund...

  10. Hydrodynamic Impact-Load Alleviation with a Penetrating Hydro-Ski

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edge, Philip M., Jr.

    1959-01-01

    A penetrating hydro-ski was mounted below a model tested previously in the study reported in NACA Technical Note 4401, and a series of impacts were made in the Langley impact basin to determine load alleviation with this type of hydro-ski. The hydro-ski was designed to penetrate through seaway irregularities with a minimum of drag and with small impact loads. The penetrating hydro-ski was small (beam-loading coefficient of 111) and of a streamline shape with the bottom designed for flush retraction into the main model. A series of impacts at fixed trim angles of 8, 16, and 30 deg were made in smooth water and at a fixed trim angle of 8 deg in rough water. The loads and motions of the model were recorded, and photographic observations of the flow and cavities generated in the water by the penetrating hydro-ski were made. The data are presented and the maximum impact loads and maximum drafts of the model with the penetrating hydro-ski are compared with those of the model obtained without the penetrating hydro-ski. Maximum load reductions of 30 to 70 percent in smooth water and of 50 to 80 percent in rough water are indicated. Cavity and flow generation by the penetrating hydro-ski are discussed, and it is indicated that the penetrating hydro-ski moved smoothly through the water and generated deep cavities which are shown by stereophotographs.

  11. Influence of COMT genotype and affective distractors on the processing of self-generated thought

    PubMed Central

    Dumontheil, Iroise; Wood, Nicholas W.; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

    2015-01-01

    The catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) enzyme is a major determinant of prefrontal dopamine levels. The Val158Met polymorphism affects COMT enzymatic activity and has been associated with variation in executive function and affective processing. This study investigated the effect of COMT genotype on the flexible modulation of the balance between processing self-generated and processing stimulus-oriented information, in the presence or absence of affective distractors. Analyses included 124 healthy adult participants, who were also assessed on standard working memory (WM) tasks. Relative to Val carriers, Met homozygotes made fewer errors when selecting and manipulating self-generated thoughts. This effect was partly accounted for by an association between COMT genotype and visuospatial WM performance. We also observed a complex interaction between the influence of affective distractors, COMT genotype and sex on task accuracy: male, but not female, participants showed a sensitivity to the affective distractors that was dependent on COMT genotype. This was not accounted for by WM performance. This study provides novel evidence of the role of dopaminergic genetic variation on the ability to select and manipulate self-generated thoughts. The results also suggest sexually dimorphic effects of COMT genotype on the influence of affective distractors on executive function. PMID:25190703

  12. Overview of Hydrometeorologic Forecasting Procedures at BC Hydro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCollor, D.

    2004-12-01

    Energy utility companies must balance production from limited sources with increasing demand from industrial, business, and residential consumers. The utility planning process requires a balanced, efficient, and effective distribution of energy from source to consumer. Therefore utility planners must consider the impact of weather on energy production and consumption. Hydro-electric companies should be particularly tuned to weather because their source of energy is water, and water supply depends on precipitation. BC Hydro operates as the largest hydro-electric company in western Canada, managing over 30 reservoirs within the province of British Columbia, and generating electricity for 1.6 million people. BC Hydro relies on weather forecasts of watershed precipitation and temperature to drive hydrologic reservoir inflow models and of urban temperatures to meet energy demand requirements. Operations and planning specialists in the company rely on current, value-added weather forecasts for extreme high-inflow events, daily reservoir operations planning, and long-term water resource management. Weather plays a dominant role for BC Hydro financial planners in terms of sensitive economic responses. For example, a two percent change in hydropower generation, due in large part to annual precipitation patterns, results in an annual net change of \\50 million in earnings. A five percent change in temperature produces a \\5 million change in yearly earnings. On a daily basis, significant precipitation events or temperature extremes involve potential profit/loss decisions in the tens of thousands of dollars worth of power generation. These factors are in addition to environmental and societal costs that must be considered equally as part of a triple bottom line reporting structure. BC Hydro water resource managers require improved meteorological information from recent advancements in numerical weather prediction. At BC Hydro, methods of providing meteorological forecast data

  13. Role of Pumped Storage Hydro Resources in Electricity Markets and System Operation: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Ela, E.; Kirby, B.; Botterud, A.; Milostan, C.; Krad, I.; Koritarov, V.

    2013-05-01

    The most common form of utility- sized energy storage system is the pumped storage hydro system. Originally, these types of storage systems were economically viable simply because they displace more expensive generating units. However, over time, as those expensive units became more efficient and costs declined, pumped hydro storage units no longer have the operational edge. As a result, in the current electricity market environment, pumped storage hydro plants are struggling. To offset this phenomenon, certain market modifications should be addressed. This paper will introduce some of the challenges faced by pumped storage hydro plants in today's markets and purpose some solutions to those problems.

  14. Chemical and physical parameters affecting the performance of the Os-191/Ir-191m generator

    SciTech Connect

    Packard, A.B.; Treves, S.; O'Brien, G.M.; Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Butler, T.A.

    1984-01-01

    The development of an Os-191/Ir-191m generator suitable for radionuclide angiography in humans has elicited much interest. This generator employs (OsO/sub 2/Cl/sub 4/)/sup 2 -/ on AG MP-1 anion exchange resin with a Dowex-2 scavenger column and is elute with normal saline at pH 1. The parent Os species is, however, neither well-defined nor homogeneous leading to less than optimal breakthrough of Os-191 (5 x 10/sup -3/%) and modest Ir-191m yield (10-15%). The effect of a range of parameters on generator performance has been evaluated as has been the way in which the assembly and loading process affects generator performance. In addition, a number of potential alternative generator systems have been evaluated. 11 references, 2 figures, 8 tables.

  15. Local network parameters can affect inter-network phase lags in central pattern generators.

    PubMed

    Jones, S R; Kopell, N

    2006-01-01

    Weakly coupled phase oscillators and strongly coupled relaxation oscillators have different mechanisms for creating stable phase lags. Many oscillations in central pattern generators combine features of each type of coupling: local networks composed of strongly coupled relaxation oscillators are weakly coupled to similar local networks. This paper analyzes the phase lags produced by this combination of mechanisms and shows how the parameters of a local network, such as the decay time of inhibition, can affect the phase lags between the local networks. The analysis is motivated by the crayfish central pattern generator used for swimming, and uses techniques from geometrical singular perturbation theory.

  16. Effects of laser-plasma instabilities on hydro evolution in an OMEGA-EP long-scale-length experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.; Hu, S. X.; Ren, C.

    2017-02-01

    Laser-plasma instabilities and hydro evolution of the coronal plasma in an OMEGA EP long-scale-length experiment with planar targets were studied with particle-in-cell (PIC) and hydrodynamic simulations. Plasma and laser conditions were first obtained in a two-dimensional DRACO hydro simulation with only inverse-bremsstrahlung absorption. Using these conditions, an OSIRIS PIC simulation was performed to study laser absorption and hot-electron generation caused by laser-plasma instabilities (LPIs) near the quarter-critical region. The obtained PIC information was subsequently coupled to another DRACO simulation to examine how the LPIs affect the overall hydrodynamics. The results showed that the LPI-induced laser absorption increased the electron temperature but did not significantly change the density scale length in the corona.

  17. 75 FR 17706 - FPL Energy Maine Hydro LLC, Complainant v. Great Lakes Hydro America LLC Rumford Falls Hydro LLC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission FPL Energy Maine Hydro LLC, Complainant v. Great Lakes Hydro America LLC.... 803 and 825(e), FPL Energy Maine Hydro LLC (Complainant) filed a formal complaint against Great...

  18. HydroNEXT Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy

    2015-02-01

    Through its HydroNEXT initiative, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) invests in the development of innovative technologies that dramatically change the way we think about hydropower by lowering cost, improving performance, and promoting environmental stewardship of hydropower development. HydroNEXT is pursuing a comprehensive technology research, development, demonstration, and deployment strategy across three resource classes to increase the contribution of clean, renewable hydropower to the nation’s energy mix: existing water infrastructure, undeveloped streams, and pumped-storage hydropower.

  19. Power generation and oil sands process-affected water treatment in microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jeongdong; Liu, Yang

    2014-10-01

    Oil sands process-affected water (OSPW), a product of bitumen isolation in the oil sands industry, is a source of pollution if not properly treated. In present study, OSPW treatment and voltage generation were examined in a single chamber air-cathode microbial fuel cell (MFC) under the effect of inoculated carbon source and temperature. OSPW treatment with an anaerobic sludge-inoculated MFC (AS-MFC) generated 0.55 ± 0.025 V, whereas an MFC inoculated with mature-fine tailings (MFT-MFC) generated 0.41 ± 0.01 V. An additional carbon source (acetate) significantly improved generated voltage. The voltage detected increased to 20-23% in MFCs when the condition was switched from ambient to mesophilic. The mesophilic condition increased OSPW treatment efficiency in terms of lowering the chemical oxygen demand and acid-extractable organics. Pyrosequencing analysis of microbial consortia revealed that Proteobacteria were the most abundant in MFCs and microbial communities in the AS-MFC were more diverse than those in the MFT-MFC.

  20. Using affective knowledge to generate and validate a set of emotion-related, action words

    PubMed Central

    Havelka, Jelena; Brown, Charity; Giner-Sorolla, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Emotion concepts are built through situated experience. Abstract word meaning is grounded in this affective knowledge, giving words the potential to evoke emotional feelings and reactions (e.g., Vigliocco et al., 2009). In the present work we explore whether words differ in the extent to which they evoke ‘specific’ emotional knowledge. Using a categorical approach, in which an affective ‘context’ is created, it is possible to assess whether words proportionally activate knowledge relevant to different emotional states (e.g., ‘sadness’, ‘anger’, Stevenson, Mikels & James, 2007a). We argue that this method may be particularly effective when assessing the emotional meaning of action words (e.g., Schacht & Sommer, 2009). In study 1 we use a constrained feature generation task to derive a set of action words that participants associated with six, basic emotional states (see full list in Appendix S1). Generation frequencies were taken to indicate the likelihood that the word would evoke emotional knowledge relevant to the state to which it had been paired. In study 2 a rating task was used to assess the strength of association between the six most frequently generated, or ‘typical’, action words and corresponding emotion labels. Participants were presented with a series of sentences, in which action words (typical and atypical) and labels were paired e.g., “If you are feeling ‘sad’ how likely would you be to act in the following way?” … ‘cry.’ Findings suggest that typical associations were robust. Participants always gave higher ratings to typical vs. atypical action word and label pairings, even when (a) rating direction was manipulated (the label or verb appeared first in the sentence), and (b) the typical behaviours were to be performed by the rater themselves, or others. Our findings suggest that emotion-related action words vary in the extent to which they evoke knowledge relevant for different emotional states. When measuring

  1. HydroSHEDS: A global comprehensive hydrographic dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickel, B. A.; Lehner, B.; Sindorf, N.

    2007-12-01

    The Hydrological data and maps based on SHuttle Elevation Derivatives at multiple Scales (HydroSHEDS) is an innovative product that, for the first time, provides hydrographic information in a consistent and comprehensive format for regional and global-scale applications. HydroSHEDS offers a suite of geo-referenced data sets, including stream networks, watershed boundaries, drainage directions, and ancillary data layers such as flow accumulations, distances, and river topology information. The goal of developing HydroSHEDS was to generate key data layers to support regional and global watershed analyses, hydrological modeling, and freshwater conservation planning at a quality, resolution and extent that had previously been unachievable. Available resolutions range from 3 arc-second (approx. 90 meters at the equator) to 5 minute (approx. 10 km at the equator) with seamless near-global extent. HydroSHEDS is derived from elevation data of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) at 3 arc-second resolution. The original SRTM data have been hydrologically conditioned using a sequence of automated procedures. Existing methods of data improvement and newly developed algorithms have been applied, including void filling, filtering, stream burning, and upscaling techniques. Manual corrections were made where necessary. Preliminary quality assessments indicate that the accuracy of HydroSHEDS significantly exceeds that of existing global watershed and river maps. HydroSHEDS was developed by the Conservation Science Program of the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) in partnership with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the International Centre for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT), The Nature Conservancy (TNC), and the Center for Environmental Systems Research (CESR) of the University of Kassel, Germany.

  2. Development of controlled deposition repair welding procedures at Ontario Hydro

    SciTech Connect

    Lau, T.W.; Lau, M.L.; Poon, G.C.

    1996-06-01

    Ontario Hydro, one of the largest utilities in North America, has an installed generating capacity in excess of 28,000 MW. The generating facilities include a mix of nuclear, fossil-fired, and hydroelectric units. Not unlike other utilities, advanced maintenance welding technology is crucial to maintain the equipment in the most reliable, safe, and economic manner. Since the late 1970s, one focus at Ontario Hydro has been the ability to weld repair heavy section components without postweld heat treatment (PWHT). Temper-bead procedures developed by Ontario Hydro have been used successfully for over a decade to repair carbon steel components. Recently, considerable efforts have been spent to expand the scope of the temper-bead techniques and other self-tempering welding techniques for low-alloy steel, P4 (1.25Cr-0.5Mo) and P5A (2.25Cr-1Mo) materials. To perform successful repairs in these components, it is essential to understand the welding metallurgy of these materials and welding process variables. This paper summarizes the work by Ontario Hydro in non-PWHT weld repair technology with special emphasis on recent developments for Cr-Mo materials.

  3. Solid images generated from UAVs to analyze areas affected by rock falls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giordan, Daniele; Manconi, Andrea; Allasia, Paolo; Baldo, Marco

    2015-04-01

    The study of rock fall affected areas is usually based on the recognition of principal joints families and the localization of potential instable sectors. This requires the acquisition of field data, although as the areas are barely accessible and field inspections are often very dangerous. For this reason, remote sensing systems can be considered as suitable alternative. Recently, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have been proposed as platform to acquire the necessary information. Indeed, mini UAVs (in particular in the multi-rotors configuration) provide versatility for the acquisition from different points of view a large number of high resolution optical images, which can be used to generate high resolution digital models relevant to the study area. By considering the recent development of powerful user-friendly software and algorithms to process images acquired from UAVs, there is now a need to establish robust methodologies and best-practice guidelines for correct use of 3D models generated in the context of rock fall scenarios. In this work, we show how multi-rotor UAVs can be used to survey areas by rock fall during real emergency contexts. We present two examples of application located in northwestern Italy: the San Germano rock fall (Piemonte region) and the Moneglia rock fall (Liguria region). We acquired data from both terrestrial LiDAR and UAV, in order to compare digital elevation models generated with different remote sensing approaches. We evaluate the volume of the rock falls, identify the areas potentially unstable, and recognize the main joints families. The use on is not so developed but probably this approach can be considered the better solution for a structural investigation of large rock walls. We propose a methodology that jointly considers the Structure from Motion (SfM) approach for the generation of 3D solid images, and a geotechnical analysis for the identification of joint families and potential failure planes.

  4. Hydro-mechanical regimes of deforming subduction interface: modeling versus observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, L.; Gerya, T.; May, D.

    2015-12-01

    A lot of evidence indicates that fluid flows exist in the subduction interface, including seismic observation, magnetotelluric imaging, heat flow modeling, etc. Fluid percolation should strongly modify rock deformation affected by fluid-induced weakening within the subduction interface. Hence, we study the fluid-rock interaction along the subduction interface using a visco-plastic hydro-mechanical model, in which rock deformation and fluid percolation are self-consistently coupled. Based on a series of 2D numerical experiments, we found two typical hydro-mechanical regimes of deforming subduction interface: (1) coupled and (2) decoupled. In the case of the coupled regime, the tectonic movement of the subduction interface is divided into blocks; newly generated faults are distributed uniformly , say fault band; fluid activity concentrates inside the faults. In the case of the decoupled regime, the upper layer of the subduction interface stops moving while the lower layer continues moving along with the subduction slab; a primary fault is generated at the centre of the subduction interface, or namely decoupled interface. Available observations suggests that both coupled and decoupled regimes can be observed in the nature at different scales. Systematic parameter study suggests that it is mainly the magnitude of the yield strength of subducted rocks depending on their cohesion and friction coefficient, which control the transition between the coupled and decoupled subduction interface regimes.

  5. Alterations in welding process voltage affect the generation of ultrafine particles, fume composition, and pulmonary toxicity.

    PubMed

    Antonini, James M; Keane, Michael; Chen, Bean T; Stone, Samuel; Roberts, Jenny R; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Andrews, Ronnee N; Frazer, David G; Sriram, Krishnan

    2011-12-01

    The goal was to determine if increasing welding voltage changes the physico-chemical properties of the fume and influences lung responses. Rats inhaled 40 mg/m³ (3 h/day × 3 days) of stainless steel (SS) welding fume generated at a standard voltage setting of 25 V (regular SS) or at a higher voltage (high voltage SS) of 30 V. Particle morphology, size and composition were characterized. Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed at different times after exposures to assess lung injury. Fumes collected from either of the welding conditions appeared as chain-like agglomerates of nanometer-sized primary particles. High voltage SS welding produced a greater number of ultrafine-sized particles. Fume generated by high voltage SS welding was higher in manganese. Pulmonary toxicity was more substantial and persisted longer after exposure to the regular SS fume. In summary, a modest raise in welding voltage affected fume size and elemental composition and altered the temporal lung toxicity profile.

  6. Reduced short term adaptation to robot generated dynamic environment in children affected by Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background It is known that healthy adults can quickly adapt to a novel dynamic environment, generated by a robotic manipulandum as a structured disturbing force field. We suggest that it may be of clinical interest to evaluate to which extent this kind of motor learning capability is impaired in children affected by cerebal palsy. Methods We adapted the protocol already used with adults, which employs a velocity dependant viscous field, and compared the performance of a group of subjects affected by Cerebral Palsy (CP group, 7 subjects) with a Control group of unimpaired age-matched children. The protocol included a familiarization phase (FA), during which no force was applied, a force field adaptation phase (CF), and a wash-out phase (WO) in which the field was removed. During the CF phase the field was shut down in a number of randomly selected "catch" trials, which were used in order to evaluate the "learning index" for each single subject and the two groups. Lateral deviation, speed and acceleration peaks and average speed were evaluated for each trajectory; a directional analysis was performed in order to inspect the role of the limb's inertial anisotropy in the different experimental phases. Results During the FA phase the movements of the CP subjects were more curved, displaying greater and variable directional error; over the course of the CF phase both groups showed a decreasing trend in the lateral error and an after-effect at the beginning of the wash-out, but the CP group had a non significant adaptation rate and a lower learning index, suggesting that CP subjects have reduced ability to learn to compensate external force. Moreover, a directional analysis of trajectories confirms that the control group is able to better predict the force field by tuning the kinematic features of the movements along different directions in order to account for the inertial anisotropy of arm. Conclusions Spatial abnormalities in children affected by cerebral palsy may be

  7. The Hydrosphere State (HYDROS) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spence, Michael W.; Njoku, Eni; Kim, Yunjin; Entekhabi, Dara; Doiron, Terence; Piepmeier, Jeffrey; Girard, Ralph

    2004-01-01

    The Hydrosphere State (HYDROS) Mission has been selected for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Earth System Science Pathfinder (ESSP) program. The objectives of HYDROS are to provide frequent, global measurements of surface soil moisture and surface freeze/thaw state. In order to adequately measure these geophysical parameters, a system capable of simultaneously measuring L-Band radiometer brightness temperatures at 40 km resolution and L-Band radar backscatter at 3 km resolution over a very wide swath is required. In addition, these science requirements must be satisfied under the stringent cost-cap imposed on all ESSP missions. As a solution to this challenging set of requirements, a relatively large, six meter, conically-scanning reflector antenna architecture was selected for the mission design. The HYDROS instrument will fly on a General Dynamics SA-200HP spacecraft bus. Although large deployable mesh antennas have been used in communication applications, this will mark the first time such technology is applied in a rotating configuration for high-resolution remote sensing.

  8. Parametric distribution approach for flow availability in small hydro potential analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Samizee; Basri, Mohd Juhari Mat; Jamaluddin, Zahrul Zamri; Azrulhisham, Engku Ahmad; Othman, Jamel

    2016-10-01

    Small hydro system is one of the important sources of renewable energy and it has been recognized worldwide as clean energy sources. Small hydropower generation system uses the potential energy in flowing water to produce electricity is often questionable due to inconsistent and intermittent of power generated. Potential analysis of small hydro system which is mainly dependent on the availability of water requires the knowledge of water flow or stream flow distribution. This paper presented the possibility of applying Pearson system for stream flow availability distribution approximation in the small hydro system. By considering the stochastic nature of stream flow, the Pearson parametric distribution approximation was computed based on the significant characteristic of Pearson system applying direct correlation between the first four statistical moments of the distribution. The advantage of applying various statistical moments in small hydro potential analysis will have the ability to analyze the variation shapes of stream flow distribution.

  9. Alteration of Mesoscopic Properties and Mechanical Behavior of Sandstone Due to Hydro-Physical and Hydro-Chemical Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Liping; Wang, Zhechao; Huang, Anda

    2017-02-01

    The hydro-physical and hydro-chemical interactions between groundwater and a rock mass can lead to changes in the mineral composition and structure of the rock (e.g., generation of voids and dissolution pores and an increase in the porosity), thereby altering the macroscopic mechanical characteristics of the rock mass. Sandstone specimens were saturated with distilled water and five aqueous solutions characterized by various ion concentrations and pH values for several months, and their porosity was measured in real time. Simultaneously, the concentration and pH of each aqueous solution were monitored every 30 days. The results indicate that after immersion in the aqueous solutions for 180 days, the porosity of the sandstone specimens and the ion concentrations and pH of the aqueous solutions tended to stabilize. Then, the immersed sandstone specimens were analyzed in thin section and subjected to computerized tomography scanning. It turns out that the mineral composition and structure of the specimens had all changed to various degrees. Finally, the uniaxial compression tests were conducted on the sandstone specimens to analyze the effects of the hydro-physical and hydro-chemical alteration on the macroscopic mechanical characteristics of the rock (e.g., the stress-strain relationship, elastic modulus, and peak strength). The results of this study can serve as a reference for investigations into theories and applications of water-rock interactions and for research in related fields.

  10. Second-Generation Antipsychotics and Tardive Syndromes in Affective Illness: A Public Health Problem With Neuropsychiatric Consequences

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Food and Drug Administration–approved information and public advertisements belie neurodegenerative risks for second-generation antipsychotics in affective illness. Package inserts label tardive syndromes “potentially reversible” while uniformly omitting patient counseling for long-term neurodegenerative side effects. I found that only 2 of 78 outpatients exposed to second-generation antipsychotics reported awareness of tardive syndromes. Updated literature challenges safety advantages of atypical versus typical antipsychotics. Physician and patient information regarding tardive syndromes from second-generation antipsychotics approved for affective illness is inadequate. PMID:25521884

  11. 78 FR 56224 - Hydro Nelson, Ltd.; Hydro-WM, LLC; Notice of Transfer of Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Hydro Nelson, Ltd.; Hydro-WM, LLC; Notice of Transfer of Exemption 1. By documentation filed July 8, 2013 and supplemented on September 4, 2013, Hydro-WM, LLC informed the...

  12. Apparent autosomal recessive inheritance in families with proximal spinal muscular atrophy affecting individuals in two generations

    SciTech Connect

    Rudnik-Schoeneborn, S.; Zerres, K.; Hahnen, E.

    1996-11-01

    With the evidence that deletions in the region responsible for childhood- and juvenile-onset proximal spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) are on chromosome 5 it is now possible to confirm autosomal recessive inheritance in most patients (denoted {open_quotes}SMA 5q{close_quotes}). Homozygous deletions in the telomeric copy of the survival motor neuron (SMN) gene can be detected in 95%-98% of patients with early-onset SMA (types I and II), whereas as many as 10%-20% of patients with the milder, juvenile-onset form (type III SMA) do not show deletions. In families with affected subjects in two generations, it is difficult to decide whether they are autosomal dominantly inherited or caused by three independent recessive mutations (pseudodominant inheritance). Given an incidence of >1/10,000 of SMA 5q, patients with autosomal recessive SMA have an {approximately}1% recurrence risk to their offspring. Although the dominant forms are not linked to chromosome 5q, pseudodominant families can now be identified by the presence of homozygous deletions in the SMN gene. 5 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  13. 76 FR 6612 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XL; FFP Missouri 4, LLC; Allegheny 4 Hydro, LLC; Three Rivers Hydro, LLC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 13746-000; Project No. 13750-000; Project No. 13776-000; Project No. 13782-000] Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XL; FFP Missouri 4, LLC; Allegheny 4 Hydro, LLC;...

  14. What are the hydro-meteorological controls on flood characteristics?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nied, Manuela; Schröter, Kai; Lüdtke, Stefan; Nguyen, Viet Dung; Merz, Bruno

    2017-02-01

    Flood events can be expressed by a variety of characteristics such as flood magnitude and extent, event duration or incurred loss. Flood estimation and management may benefit from understanding how the different flood characteristics relate to the hydrological catchment conditions preceding the event and to the meteorological conditions throughout the event. In this study, we therefore propose a methodology to investigate the hydro-meteorological controls on different flood characteristics, based on the simulation of the complete flood risk chain from the flood triggering precipitation event, through runoff generation in the catchment, flood routing and possible inundation in the river system and floodplains to flood loss. Conditional cumulative distribution functions and regression tree analysis delineate the seasonal varying flood processes and indicate that the effect of the hydrological pre-conditions, i.e. soil moisture patterns, and of the meteorological conditions, i.e. weather patterns, depends on the considered flood characteristic. The methodology is exemplified for the Elbe catchment. In this catchment, the length of the build-up period, the event duration and the number of gauges undergoing at least a 10-year flood are governed by weather patterns. The affected length and the number of gauges undergoing at least a 2-year flood are however governed by soil moisture patterns. In case of flood severity and loss, the controlling factor is less pronounced. Severity is slightly governed by soil moisture patterns whereas loss is slightly governed by weather patterns. The study highlights that flood magnitude and extent arise from different flood generation processes and concludes that soil moisture patterns as well as weather patterns are not only beneficial to inform on possible flood occurrence but also on the involved flood processes and resulting flood characteristics.

  15. Effects of particle size and hydro-thermal treatment of feed on performance and stomach health in fattening pigs.

    PubMed

    Liermann, Wendy; Berk, Andreas; Böschen, Verena; Dänicke, Sven

    2015-01-01

    Effects of grinding and hydro-thermal treatment of feed on growth performance, slaughter traits, nutrient digestibility, stomach content and stomach health were examined by using 96 crossbred fattening pigs. Pigs were fed a grain-soybean meal-based diet processed by various technical treatments. Feeding groups differed in particle size after grinding (finely vs. coarsely ground feed) and hydro-thermal treatment (without hydro-thermal treatment, pelleting, expanding, expanding and pelleting). Fine grinding and hydro-thermal treatment showed significant improvements on the digestibility of crude nutrients and content of metabolisable energy. Hydro-thermal treatment influenced average daily gain (ADG) and average daily feed intake (DFI) significantly. Finely ground pelleted feed without expanding enhanced performances by increasing ADG and decreasing feed-to-gain ratio (FGR) of fattening pigs. Coarsely ground feed without hydro-thermal treatment resulted in the highest ADG and DFI, however also in the highest FGR. Expanded feed decreased DFI and ADG. Slaughter traits were not affected by treatments. Coarsely ground feed without hydro-thermal treatment had protective effects on the health of gastric pars nonglandularis, however, pelleting increased gastric lesions. Hydro-thermal treatment, especially expanding, resulted in clumping of stomach content which possibly induced satiety by slower ingesta passage rate and thus decreased feed intake. Pigs fed pelleted feed showed less pronounced development of clumps in stomach content compared with expanded feed.

  16. The Multigenerational Workforce within Two-Year Public Community Colleges: A Study of Generational Factors Affecting Employee Learning and Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starks, Florida Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study is to broaden multigenerational workforce research involving factors affecting employee learning and interaction by using a population of Baby Boomer, Generation X, and Millennial faculty and staff age cohorts employed at two-year public community college organizations. Researchers have studied…

  17. Engineering the Implementation of Pumped Hydro Energy Storage in the Arizona Power Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, William Jesse J.

    This thesis addresses the issue of making an economic case for bulk energy storage in the Arizona bulk power system. Pumped hydro energy storage (PHES) is used in this study. Bulk energy storage has often been suggested for large scale electric power systems in order to levelize load (store energy when it is inexpensive [energy demand is low] and discharge energy when it is expensive [energy demand is high]). It also has the potential to provide opportunities to avoid transmission and generation expansion, and provide for generation reserve margins. As the level of renewable energy resources increases, the uncertainty and variability of wind and solar resources may be improved by bulk energy storage technologies. For this study, the MATLab software platform is used, a mathematical based modeling language, optimization solvers (specifically Gurobi), and a power flow solver (PowerWorld) are used to simulate an economic dispatch problem that includes energy storage and transmission losses. A program is created which utilizes quadratic programming to analyze various cases using a 2010 summer peak load from the Arizona portion of the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) system. Actual data from industry are used in this test bed. In this thesis, the full capabilities of Gurobi are not utilized (e.g., integer variables, binary variables). However, the formulation shown here does create a platform such that future, more sophisticated modeling may readily be incorporated. The developed software is used to assess the Arizona test bed with a low level of energy storage to study how the storage power limit effects several optimization outputs such as the system wide operating costs. Large levels of energy storage are then added to see how high level energy storage affects peak shaving, load factor, and other system applications. Finally, various constraint relaxations are made to analyze why the applications tested eventually approach a constant value. This

  18. HydroShare: An online, collaborative environment for the sharing of hydrologic data and models (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarboton, D. G.; Idaszak, R.; Horsburgh, J. S.; Ames, D.; Goodall, J. L.; Band, L. E.; Merwade, V.; Couch, A.; Arrigo, J.; Hooper, R. P.; Valentine, D. W.; Maidment, D. R.

    2013-12-01

    HydroShare is an online, collaborative system being developed for sharing hydrologic data and models. The goal of HydroShare is to enable scientists to easily discover and access data and models, retrieve them to their desktop or perform analyses in a distributed computing environment that may include grid, cloud or high performance computing model instances as necessary. Scientists may also publish outcomes (data, results or models) into HydroShare, using the system as a collaboration platform for sharing data, models and analyses. HydroShare is expanding the data sharing capability of the CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System by broadening the classes of data accommodated, creating new capability to share models and model components, and taking advantage of emerging social media functionality to enhance information about and collaboration around hydrologic data and models. One of the fundamental concepts in HydroShare is that of a Resource. All content is represented using a Resource Data Model that separates system and science metadata and has elements common to all resources as well as elements specific to the types of resources HydroShare will support. These will include different data types used in the hydrology community and models and workflows that require metadata on execution functionality. HydroShare will use the integrated Rule-Oriented Data System (iRODS) to manage federated data content and perform rule-based background actions on data and model resources, including parsing to generate metadata catalog information and the execution of models and workflows. This presentation will introduce the HydroShare functionality developed to date, describe key elements of the Resource Data Model and outline the roadmap for future development.

  19. PTTI applications at Hydro-Quebec

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Missout, G.; Beland, J.; Bedard, G.

    1981-01-01

    As a power utility, Hydro-Quebec used the PTTI techniques. The time dissemination system in the Hydro-Quebec Network (11th PTTI) is now installed in several points. A portable clock was built using a rubidium standard and associated circuitry which are necessary for the measurements. The apparatus and the experimental results obtained are described. The use of GOES synchronized clocks for making precise voltage angle measurement on the Hydro-Quebec Network is discussed. Some modifications were made on a commercial unit. Applications and results are presented.

  20. Stimulus-dependent amygdala involvement in affective theory of mind generation.

    PubMed

    Schmitgen, Mike M; Walter, Henrik; Drost, Sarah; Rückl, Sarah; Schnell, Knut

    2016-04-01

    Successful social interaction requires knowledge about another person's emotional states, represented in an affective theory of mind (ToM). This information can be acquired either directly or indirectly, i.e., by observing emotional facial expressions (EFE) or indirectly by inferring emotions through cognitive perspective taking. Therefore, it is of great interest how the function of the cortical ToM network and the limbic system in affective ToM depends on the presence of facial expressions. We addressed this question in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study. The experimental paradigm applied a well-established ToM cartoon task to test functional effects of EFE on the activation of the amygdala and the anterior ToM network during affective ToM judgments. During the task, 22 healthy participants had to judge the changes of the emotional state of the stories protagonist in the presence or absence of EFE. After quality control, 21 data sets entered the final analyses. The presence of EFE during affective ToM judgments was associated with shorter reaction times as well as increased activation of the right amygdala, most probably located in the basolateral nucleus (BLA), coincident with reduced activation of ToM-related regions of the prefrontal cortex. Psychophysiological interactions (PPI) revealed EFE-dependent modulation of connectivity between the right BLA and the contralateral ToM network regions. In combination with the functional interaction of EFE and affective ToM in the right amygdala, our data suggest a complementary but parallel organization of EFE processing and affective ToM. In this framework, the amygdala seems to act as an EFE detector when affective ToM judgments are demanded. Additionally, the facts that EFE induced exclusively right-sided amygdala activation and modulated the connectivity with the contralateral ToM network support the idea of a functional lateralization of stimulus driven components of affective ToM.

  1. Implications of the Bangor Hydro decision on FERC relicensings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pizzi, L.

    1997-01-01

    In the next 15 years, over 400 existing nonfederal dams will require new licenses by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) in order to continue operations. In many cases, state or federal agencies have a unique opportunity to condition the hydropower licenses to protect environmental values. In 1996, the Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit issued an opinion striking down a mandatory license condition imposed by the U.S. Department of the Interior in a FERC relicensing. The case, Bangor Hydro-Electric Company v.Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, is instructive for agencies regarding the procedures to be followed in imposing mandatory FERC licensing conditions in the future. After Bangor Hydro, agencies should: (1) support their decisions by substantial evidence in the FERC record, (2) request applicant studies to support agency decisions and allow public comment on the decisions as a means to test the facts and analysis, and (3) consider intervening in a case to defend the condition on appeal. Bangor Hydro also raises, but does not decide, the issue of whether the agency imposing the mandatory condition should engage in balancing the economics of the hydropower project with the public resources affected by the project.

  2. How muscle fiber lengths and velocities affect muscle force generation as humans walk and run at different speeds

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Edith M.; Hamner, Samuel R.; Seth, Ajay; Millard, Matthew; Delp, Scott L.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The lengths and velocities of muscle fibers have a dramatic effect on muscle force generation. It is unknown, however, whether the lengths and velocities of lower limb muscle fibers substantially affect the ability of muscles to generate force during walking and running. We examined this issue by developing simulations of muscle–tendon dynamics to calculate the lengths and velocities of muscle fibers from electromyographic recordings of 11 lower limb muscles and kinematic measurements of the hip, knee and ankle made as five subjects walked at speeds of 1.0–1.75 m s−1 and ran at speeds of 2.0–5.0 m s−1. We analyzed the simulated fiber lengths, fiber velocities and forces to evaluate the influence of force–length and force–velocity properties on force generation at different walking and running speeds. The simulations revealed that force generation ability (i.e. the force generated per unit of activation) of eight of the 11 muscles was significantly affected by walking or running speed. Soleus force generation ability decreased with increasing walking speed, but the transition from walking to running increased the force generation ability by reducing fiber velocities. Our results demonstrate the influence of soleus muscle architecture on the walk-to-run transition and the effects of muscle–tendon compliance on the plantarflexors' ability to generate ankle moment and power. The study presents data that permit lower limb muscles to be studied in unprecedented detail by relating muscle fiber dynamics and force generation to the mechanical demands of walking and running. PMID:23470656

  3. 77 FR 13316 - FFP Project 91, LLC, Riverbank Hydro No. 23, LLC, Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund III; Notice Announcing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission FFP Project 91, LLC, Riverbank Hydro No. 23, LLC, Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund.... 2. Riverbank Hydro No. 23, LLC: Project No. 14279-000. 3. Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund III: Project...

  4. 76 FR 67720 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXV; Riverbank Hydro No. 4, LLC; Notice Announcing Filing Priority for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXV; Riverbank Hydro No. 4, LLC; Notice Announcing... priority is as follows: 1. Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXV--Project No. 14136-000 2. Riverbank Hydro No....

  5. 78 FR 21931 - Pelzer Hydro Company, Inc. Consolidated Hydro Southeast, Inc.; Notice of Intent To File License...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-12

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Pelzer Hydro Company, Inc. Consolidated Hydro Southeast, Inc.; Notice...: November 11, 2012. d. Submitted by: Pelzer Hydro Company, Inc. and Consolidated Hydro Southeast, Inc., both fully owned subsidiaries of Enel Green Power North America, Inc. e. Name of Projects: Upper...

  6. 75 FR 73064 - Lock Hydro Friends Fund XLI; Allegheny 7 Hydro, LLC; Notice of Competing Preliminary Permit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-29

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Lock Hydro Friends Fund XLI; Allegheny 7 Hydro, LLC; Notice of Competing... 19, 2010. On May 18, 2010, Lock Hydro Friends Fund XLI, and Allegheny 7 Hydro, LLC filed applications, pursuant to section 4(f) of the Federal Power Act, proposing to study the feasibility of hydropower at...

  7. 78 FR 56871 - SilverStreet Hydro, LLC; Ampersand Olcott Harbor Hydro, LLC; Notice of Transfer of Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission SilverStreet Hydro, LLC; Ampersand Olcott Harbor Hydro, LLC; Notice of... 15, 1986,\\1\\ has been transferred from SilverStreet Hydro, LLC to Ampersand Olcott Harbor Hydro,...

  8. Sustainable income-generating projects for HIV-affected households in Zimbabwe: evidence from two high-density suburbs.

    PubMed

    Mutenje, Munyaradzi J; Nyakudya, Innocent W; Katsinde, Constance; Chikuvire, Tichaedza J

    2007-04-01

    An estimated 25% of the adults in urban areas of Zimbabwe are living as HIV-positive. In HIV-affected households the need for income increases with the demand for medicines, food and funeral costs. One way to mitigate this effect of the epidemic is by expanding micro enterprises that can enhance the livelihoods of urban households affected by HIV. To identify viable income-generating projects for such households, five possible projects facilitated by two HIV/AIDS support organisations were selected for assessment. These were: selling second-hand clothing, poultry-keeping and nutritional/herbal gardens, freezit-making, mobile kitchens, and payphone set-ups. A case study of 200 households benefiting from one of these projects was done in two high-density suburbs in the town of Bindura, northern Zimbabwe. Information was collected from each household four times per year, over four years (2001-2004). Information on the income generated from the micro enterprises was collected monthly during the period. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse household demographic data; income data was analysed using cost-benefit analysis and analysis of variance. The results show that all five income-generating projects were viable for these households, although some were not feasible for the most vulnerable HIV-affected households. Making more efficient use of micro enterprises can be a valuable part of mainstreaming HIV-affected people and households in urban areas, and so allow people living with HIV to have longer and more meaningful lives.

  9. Hydro Impact Basin Ribbon-Cutting Ceremony

    NASA Video Gallery

    August 9, 2011 -- Ribbon-cutting ceremony for the Hydro Impact Basin at NASA's Langley Research Center in Hampton, Va. The HIB expands NASA's capability to test and certify future spacecraft for wa...

  10. Unit-sizing of hydro power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruzewski, P.; Rogeaux, C.; Laurier, P.

    2012-11-01

    In developing countries with great and unexploited renewable energy potential, Governments can exploit local resources for electricity supply, substantial energy savings and sustainable socio-economic development of these own countries. The decision-making process regarding the choice of renewable energy sources for energy supply in these countries is multidimensional, made up of a number of aspects at different levels such as economic, technical, environmental, and social. Therefore, reaching clear and unambiguous solutions may be very difficult. It is from this difficulty that the need arises to develop a tool for the design of hydro energy sources for electricity. The work involved in seeking a compromise solution requires an adequate technical assessment based on multiple criteria methods. One of the criteria is the assessment of the appropriate size of the hydropower plant. This paper presents the state-of-art of preliminary sizing of hydropower plant for the given renewable energy potential. The main step consists of carefully selecting and sizing the innovative hydraulic units based upon the suitability of the flow and head range. Since the flow and head data have now been confirmed, the potential annual energy generation can be properly assessed.

  11. Cognitive and Interpersonal Predictors of Stress Generation in Children of Affectively Ill Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Josephine H.; Abela, John R. Z.; Starrs, Claire

    2009-01-01

    Stress generation is a process in which individuals, through their depressive symptoms, personal characteristics, and/or behaviors, contribute to the occurrence of stressful life events. While this process has been well documented in adults, few studies have examined it in children. The present study examines whether cognitive and interpersonal…

  12. Low power laser irradiation does not affect the generation of signals in a sensory receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Lundeberg, T.; Zhou, J.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of low power Helium-Neon (He-Ne) and Gallium-Arsenide (Ga-As) laser on the slowly adapting crustacean stretch receptor was studied. The results showed that low power laser irradiation did not affect the membrane potential of the stretch receptor. These results are discussed in relation to the use of low power laser irradiation on the skin overlaying acupuncture points in treatment of pain syndrome.

  13. NFPA, 1996 revisions to National Electrical Code, NFPA 110, and NFPA 99 that affect on-site power generation

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, G.S.; Bell, J.; Whittall, H.

    1995-12-31

    The three most important NFPA standards for the on-site power industry are: NFPA 70-The National Electrical Code, NFPA 110 Emergency and Standby Power Systems and NFPA 99-Health Care Facilities. This paper will cover the important revisions affecting on-site power generation systems for the 1996 editions. Each of the three authors is a member of one or more of the technical committees that have responsibility for writing these standards.

  14. Factors affecting eluation characteristics of sorption generators of technetium-99m

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skuridin, V. S.; Chernov, V. I.; Sadkin, V. L.; Stasyuk, E. S.; Varlamova, N. V.; Rogov, A. S.; Nesterov, E. A.; Ilina, E. A.; Larionova, L. A.; Medvedeva, A. A.

    2016-08-01

    The influence of the adsorbed mass of molybdenum on the width of eluation profiles of generators and the patterns of molybdenum distribution in the amount of chromatographic columns by scanning them on the germanium-gallium detector using collimating device are studied. The boundary conditions under which the maximum value of 99mTc yield from generators Ye = 1 are defined. After scanning the columns, it was found out that the degree of filling the columns with molybdenum Q and the value of its maximum adsorption depend naturally on the total weight of the adsorbed mass. In order to achieve the condition Ye = 1 the value of Q should be at least 85%.

  15. How run-of-river operation affects hydropower generation and value

    SciTech Connect

    Jager, Yetta; Bevelhimer, Mark S

    2007-01-01

    Although most rivers in the US are regulated to support human water uses, while preserving aquatic ecosystems, the effectiveness of regulations is rarely assessed. Concerns for restoring natural flow regimes have increased requirements for "run-of-river" (ROR) operation. It is widely believed that such restrictions (1) are mandated to protect aquatic biota, (2) decrease hydropower generation per unit flow, and (3) decrease energy revenue. In this study, we tested these three assumptions by reviewing hydropower projects that changed from peaking to ROR operation as a result of license modifications. ROR was often prescribed in states with strong water quality certification requirements and migratory fish species. Although benefits to aquatic resources were frequently cited, changes were often motivated by other considerations. When testing the second assumption, we found that the overall change in annual generation across projects was not significant, and much smaller than the effect of climate. However, we detected a significant decrease in generation efficiency at one-quarter of hydropower projects. When testing the third assumption, we found the expected decrease in flow during peak demand at seven of ten projects. At the remaining projects, diurnal fluctuations actually increased due to operation of upstream storage projects. We discuss the economic implications of these results, including both producer costs and ecological benefits. Regional- or national-scale studies of hydropower regulation are long overdue. Public dissemination of flow data, license provisions, and monitoring data would facilitate regional scale studies like this one, while increasing regulatory transparency and providing feedback to decision makers.

  16. Enrofloxacin hydro-chloride dihydrate.

    PubMed

    Miranda-Calderón, Jorge E; Gutiérrez, Lilia; Flores-Alamo, Marcos; García-Gutiérrez, Ponciano; Sumano, Héctor

    2014-04-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C19H23FN3O3 (+)·Cl(-)·2H2O [systematic name: 4-(3-carb-oxy-1-cyclo-propyl-6-fluoro-4-oxo-1,4-di-hydro-quin-o-lin-7-yl)-1-ethyl-piperazin-1-ium chloride dihydrate], consists of two independent monocations of the protonated enrofloxacin, two chloride anions and four water mol-ecules. In the cations, the piperazinium rings adopt chair conformations and the dihedral angles between the cyclo-propyl ring and the 10-membered quinoline ring system are 56.55 (2) and 51.11 (2)°. An intra-molecular O-H⋯O hydrogen bond is observed in each cation. In the crystal, the components are connected via O-H⋯Cl, N-H⋯Cl and O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, and a π-π inter-action between the benzene rings [centroid-centroid distance = 3.6726 (13) Å], resulting in a three-dimensional array.

  17. 78 FR 2985 - Moretown Hydro Energy Company; Ampersand Moretown Hydro, LLC; Notice of Application for Transfer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Moretown Hydro Energy Company; Ampersand Moretown Hydro, LLC; Notice of Application for Transfer of License, and Soliciting Comments and Motions To Intervene On September 25,...

  18. Salt reduction in slow fermented sausages affects the generation of aroma active compounds.

    PubMed

    Corral, Sara; Salvador, Ana; Flores, Mónica

    2013-03-01

    Slow fermented sausages with different salt content were manufactured: control (2.7% NaCl, S), 16% salt reduced (2.26% NaCl, RS) and 16% replaced by KCl (2.26% NaCl and 0.43% KCl, RSK). The effect of salt reduction on microbiology and chemical parameters, sensory characteristics, texture and volatile compounds was studied. The aroma compounds were identified by GC-MS and olfactometry analyses. Small salt reduction (16%) (RS) affected sausage quality producing a reduction in the acceptance of aroma, taste, juiciness and overall quality. The substitution by KCl (RSK) produced the same acceptability by consumers as for high salt (S) treatment except for the aroma that was not improved by KCl addition. The aroma was affected due to the reduction in sulfur and acids and the increase of aldehyde compounds. Aroma compounds that characterized the high salt treatment (S) were dimethyl trisulfide, 3-methyl thiophene, 2,3-butanedione, 2-nonanone and acetic acid.

  19. How run-of-river operation affects hydropower generation and value.

    PubMed

    Jager, Henriette I; Bevelhimer, Mark S

    2007-12-01

    Regulated rivers in the United States are required to support human water uses while preserving aquatic ecosystems. However, the effectiveness of hydropower license requirements nationwide has not been demonstrated. One requirement that has become more common is "run-of-river" (ROR) operation, which restores a natural flow regime. It is widely believed that ROR requirements (1) are mandated to protect aquatic biota, (2) decrease hydropower generation per unit flow, and (3) decrease energy revenue. We tested these three assumptions by reviewing hydropower projects with license-mandated changes from peaking to ROR operation. We found that ROR operation was often prescribed in states with strong water-quality certification requirements and migratory fish species. Although benefits to aquatic resources were frequently cited, changes were often motivated by other considerations. After controlling for climate, the overall change in annual generation efficiency across projects because of the change in operation was not significant. However, significant decreases were detected at one quarter of individual hydropower projects. As expected, we observed a decrease in flow during peak demand at 7 of 10 projects. At the remaining projects, diurnal fluctuations actually increased because of operation of upstream storage projects. The economic implications of these results, including both producer costs and ecologic benefits, are discussed. We conclude that regional-scale studies of hydropower regulation, such as this one, are long overdue. Public dissemination of flow data, license provisions, and monitoring data by way of on-line access would facilitate regional policy analysis while increasing regulatory transparency and providing feedback to decision makers.

  20. How Run-of-River Operation Affects Hydropower Generation and Value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jager, Henriette I.; Bevelhimer, Mark S.

    2007-12-01

    Regulated rivers in the United States are required to support human water uses while preserving aquatic ecosystems. However, the effectiveness of hydropower license requirements nationwide has not been demonstrated. One requirement that has become more common is “run-of-river” (ROR) operation, which restores a natural flow regime. It is widely believed that ROR requirements (1) are mandated to protect aquatic biota, (2) decrease hydropower generation per unit flow, and (3) decrease energy revenue. We tested these three assumptions by reviewing hydropower projects with license-mandated changes from peaking to ROR operation. We found that ROR operation was often prescribed in states with strong water-quality certification requirements and migratory fish species. Although benefits to aquatic resources were frequently cited, changes were often motivated by other considerations. After controlling for climate, the overall change in annual generation efficiency across projects because of the change in operation was not significant. However, significant decreases were detected at one quarter of individual hydropower projects. As expected, we observed a decrease in flow during peak demand at 7 of 10 projects. At the remaining projects, diurnal fluctuations actually increased because of operation of upstream storage projects. The economic implications of these results, including both producer costs and ecologic benefits, are discussed. We conclude that regional-scale studies of hydropower regulation, such as this one, are long overdue. Public dissemination of flow data, license provisions, and monitoring data by way of on-line access would facilitate regional policy analysis while increasing regulatory transparency and providing feedback to decision makers.

  1. Generation of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells from Extraembryonic Tissues of Fetuses Affected by Monogenic Diseases.

    PubMed

    Spitalieri, Paola; Talarico, Rosa V; Botta, Annalisa; Murdocca, Michela; D'Apice, Maria Rosaria; Orlandi, Augusto; Giardina, Emiliano; Santoro, Massimo; Brancati, Francesco; Novelli, Giuseppe; Sangiuolo, Federica

    2015-08-01

    The generation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) derived from an autologous extraembryonic fetal source is an innovative personalized regenerative technology that can transform own-self cells into embryonic stem-like ones. These cells are regarded as a promising candidate for cell-based therapy, as well as an ideal target for disease modeling and drug discovery. Thus, hiPSCs enable researchers to undertake studies for treating diseases or for future applications of in utero therapy. We used a polycistronic lentiviral vector (hSTEMCCA-loxP) encoding OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, and cMYC genes and containing loxP sites, excisible by Cre recombinase, to reprogram patient-specific fetal cells derived from prenatal diagnosis for several genetic disorders, such as myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1), β-thalassemia (β-Thal), lymphedema-distichiasis syndrome (LDS), spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), cystic fibrosis (CF), as well as from wild-type (WT) fetal cells. Because cell types tested to create hiPSCs influence both the reprogramming process efficiency and the kinetics, we used chorionic villus (CV) and amniotic fluid (AF) cells, demonstrating how they represent an ideal cell resource for a more efficient generation of hiPSCs. The successful reprogramming of both CV and AF cells into hiPSCs was confirmed by specific morphological, molecular, and immunocytochemical markers and also by their teratogenic potential when inoculated in vivo. We further demonstrated the stability of reprogrammed cells over 10 and more passages and their capability to differentiate into the three embryonic germ layers, as well as into neural cells. These data suggest that hiPSCs-CV/AF can be considered a valid cellular model to accomplish pathogenesis studies and therapeutic applications.

  2. Heat generation during ultrasonic instrumentation of dentin as affected by different irrigation methods.

    PubMed

    Nicoll, B K; Peters, R J

    1998-08-01

    Heat is produced by magnetostrictive ultrasonic scalers which may cause injury to pulpal and periodontal tissues. Water coolant flows around the instrument stack and is directed at the instrument tip to reduce the generation of heat. Sound surgical practice requires the use of a sterile coolant for ultrasonic scaling during surgery. Intermittent bulb irrigation is one way to deliver sterile coolant when using ultrasonic scalers not equipped with a dedicated sterile water reservoir. The purpose of this study was to compare the temperature rise in dentin during ultrasonic scaling using either ultrasonic handpiece irrigation or intermittent bulb irrigation. Twenty dentin/cementum root slabs were prepared for each thickness of 0.5, 1.5, and 2.5 mm. A 3.0 mm x 1.5 mm field was outlined on each slab to indicate the area of intended instrumentation. Each slab was mounted such that a thermocouple placed in contact with dentin opposite the area of instrumentation was shielded from irrigation. Twenty samples of each thickness were ultrasonically scaled during which dentin temperature was recorded every 5 seconds over a 30-second period. All 60 slabs were first treated with dental unit ultrasonic handpiece water irrigation, followed by no irrigation, and finally by bulb irrigation with sterile saline. Repeated measures analysis of variance indicated that there were differences among the three treatment groups for temperature change over the course of the study (P < 0.001). Dentin temperature increased with both decreasing slab thickness and with increasing duration of instrumentation. However, only scaling without irrigation produced a rise in dentin temperature from baseline to a level reported as deleterious to pulpal and periodontal tissues. Bulb syringe irrigation delivered as a continuous drip and ultrasonic unit water spray minimized heat generation to physiologically tolerable levels. Intermittent bulb irrigation appears to be a satisfactory alternative to use of

  3. Source segregation of food waste in office areas: Factors affecting waste generation rates and quality.

    PubMed

    Edjabou, Maklawe Essonanawe; Boldrin, Alessio; Scheutz, Charlotte; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2015-12-01

    Existing legislation mandates that the amount of waste being recycled should be increased. Among others, in its Resource Strategy Plan, the Danish Government decided that at least 60% of food waste generated by the service sector, including in office areas, should be source-sorted and collected separately by 2018. To assess the achievability of these targets, source-sorted food waste and residual waste from office areas was collected and weighed on a daily basis during 133 working days. Waste composition analyses were conducted every week to investigate the efficiency of the source-sorting campaign and the purity of the source-sorted food waste. The moisture content of source-sorted food waste and residual waste fractions, and potential methane production from source-sorted food waste, was also investigated. Food waste generation equated to 23 ± 5 kg/employee/year, of which 20 ± 5 kg/employee/year was source-sorted, with a considerably high purity of 99%. Residual waste amounted to 10 ± 5 kg/employee/year and consisted mainly of paper (29 ± 13%), plastic (23 ± 9%) and missorted food waste (24 ± 16%). The moisture content of source-sorted food waste was significantly higher (8%) than missorted food waste, and the methane potential of source-sorted food waste was 463 ± 42 mL CH4/g VS. These results show that food waste in office areas offers promising potential for relatively easily collectable and pure source-sorted food waste, suggesting that recycling targets for food waste could be achieved with reasonable logistical ease in office areas.

  4. A hydro-economic model for water level fluctuations: combining limnology with economics for sustainable development of hydropower.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, Philipp Emanuel; Schillinger, Sebastian; Weigt, Hannes; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Water level fluctuations in lakes lead to shoreline displacement. The seasonality of flooding or beaching of the littoral area affects nutrient cycling, redox gradients in sediments, and life cycles of aquatic organisms. Despite the ecological importance of water level fluctuations, we still lack a method that assesses water levels in the context of hydropower operations. Water levels in reservoirs are influenced by the operator of a hydropower plant, who discharges water through the turbines or stores water in the reservoir, in a fashion that maximizes profit. This rationale governs the seasonal operation scheme and hence determines the water levels within the boundaries of the reservoir's water balance. For progress towards a sustainable development of hydropower, the benefits of this form of electricity generation have to be weighed against the possible detrimental effects of the anthropogenic water level fluctuations. We developed a hydro-economic model that combines an economic optimization function with hydrological estimators of the water balance of a reservoir. Applying this model allowed us to accurately predict water level fluctuations in a reservoir. The hydro-economic model also allowed for scenario calculation of how water levels change with climate change scenarios and with a change in operating scheme of the reservoir (increase in turbine capacity). Further model development will enable the consideration of a variety of additional parameters, such as water withdrawal for irrigation, drinking water supply, or altered energy policies. This advances our ability to sustainably manage water resources that must meet both economic and environmental demands.

  5. A Hydro-Economic Model for Water Level Fluctuations: Combining Limnology with Economics for Sustainable Development of Hydropower

    PubMed Central

    Hirsch, Philipp Emanuel; Schillinger, Sebastian; Weigt, Hannes; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Water level fluctuations in lakes lead to shoreline displacement. The seasonality of flooding or beaching of the littoral area affects nutrient cycling, redox gradients in sediments, and life cycles of aquatic organisms. Despite the ecological importance of water level fluctuations, we still lack a method that assesses water levels in the context of hydropower operations. Water levels in reservoirs are influenced by the operator of a hydropower plant, who discharges water through the turbines or stores water in the reservoir, in a fashion that maximizes profit. This rationale governs the seasonal operation scheme and hence determines the water levels within the boundaries of the reservoir's water balance. For progress towards a sustainable development of hydropower, the benefits of this form of electricity generation have to be weighed against the possible detrimental effects of the anthropogenic water level fluctuations. We developed a hydro-economic model that combines an economic optimization function with hydrological estimators of the water balance of a reservoir. Applying this model allowed us to accurately predict water level fluctuations in a reservoir. The hydro-economic model also allowed for scenario calculation of how water levels change with climate change scenarios and with a change in operating scheme of the reservoir (increase in turbine capacity). Further model development will enable the consideration of a variety of additional parameters, such as water withdrawal for irrigation, drinking water supply, or altered energy policies. This advances our ability to sustainably manage water resources that must meet both economic and environmental demands. PMID:25526619

  6. Factors affecting the pore space transformation during hydrocarbon generation in source rock (shales): laboratory experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giliazetdinova, D. R.; Korost, D. V.

    2014-12-01

    Oil and gas generation is a set of processes which taking place in the interior, the processes can't be observable in nature. In the process of dumping the source rock, organic matter is transformed into a complex of high-molecular compounds - precursors of oil and gas (kerogen). Entering of a source column for specific thermobaric conditions, triggers the formation of low molecular weight hydrocarbon compounds. Generation of sufficient quantities of hydrocarbons leads to the primary fluid migration within the source rock. For the experiment were selected mainly siliceous-carbonate composition rocks from Domanic horizon South-Tatar arch. The main aim of experiment was heating the rocks in the pyrolyzer to temperatures which correspond katagenes stages. For monitoring changes in the morphology of the pore space X-ray microtomography method was used. As a result, when was made a study of the composition of mineral and organic content of the rocks, as well as textural and structural features, have been identified that the majority of the rock samples within the selected collection are identical. However, characteristics such as organic content and texture of rocks are different. Thus, the experiment was divided into two parts: 1) the study of the influence of organic matter content on the morphology of the rock in the process of thermal effects; 2) study the effect of texture on the primary migration processes for the same values of organic matter. Also, an additional experiment was conducted to study the dynamics of changes in the structure of the pore space. At each stage of the experiment morphology of altered rocks characterized by the formation of new pores and channels connecting the primary voids. However, it was noted that the samples with a relatively low content of the organic matter had less changes in pore space morphology, in contrast to rocks with a high organic content. At the second stage of the research also revealed that the conversion of the pore

  7. Photosynthesis of Quercus suber is affected by atmospheric NH3 generated by multifunctional agrosystems.

    PubMed

    Pintó-Marijuan, Marta; Da Silva, Anabela Bernardes; Flexas, Jaume; Dias, Teresa; Zarrouk, Olfa; Martins-Loução, Maria Amélia; Chaves, Maria Manuela; Cruz, Cristina

    2013-12-01

    Montados are evergreen oak woodlands dominated by Quercus species, which are considered to be key to biodiversity conservation and ecosystem services. This ecosystem is often used for cattle breeding in most regions of the Iberian Peninsula, which causes plants to receive extra nitrogen as ammonia (NH(3)) through the atmosphere. The effect of this atmospheric NH(3) (NH(3atm)) on ecosystems is still under discussion. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of an NH(3atm) concentration gradient downwind of a cattle barn in a Montado area. Leaves from the selected Quercus suber L. trees along the gradient showed a clear influence of the NH(3) on δ(13)C, as a consequence of a strong limitation on the photosynthetic machinery by a reduction of both stomatal and mesophyll conductance. A detailed study of the impact of NH(3atm) on the photosynthetic performance of Q. suber trees is presented, and new mechanisms by which NH(3) affects photosynthesis at the leaf level are suggested.

  8. Overland flow generation mechanisms affected by topsoil treatment: Application to soil conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hueso-González, P.; Ruiz-Sinoga, J. D.; Martínez-Murillo, J. F.; Lavee, H.

    2015-01-01

    Hortonian overland-flow is responsible for significant amounts of soil loss in Mediterranean geomorphological systems. Restoring the native vegetation is the most effective way to control runoff and sediment yield. During the seeding and plant establishment, vegetation cover may be better sustained if soil is amended with an external source. Four amendments were applied in an experimental set of plots: straw mulching (SM); mulch with chipped branches of Aleppo Pine (Pinus halepensis L.) (PM); TerraCottem hydroabsorbent polymer (HP); and sewage sludge (RU). Plots were afforested following the same spatial pattern, and amendments were mixed with the soil at the rate 10 Mg ha- 1. This research demonstrates the role played by the treatments in overland flow generation mechanism. On one hand, the high macroporosity of SM and PM, together with the fact that soil moisture increased with depth, explains weak overland flow and thus low sediment yield due to saturation conditions. Therefore, regarding overland flow and sediment yield, RU behaves similarly to SM and PM. On the other hand, when HP was applied, overland flow developed quickly with relatively high amounts. This, together with the decrease downward in soil moisture along the soil profile, proved that mechanisms of overland flow are of the Hortonian type.

  9. LES of shock wave/turbulent boundary layer interaction affected by microramp vortex generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joly, Laurent; Grebert, Arnaud; Jamme, Stéphane; Bodart, Julien; Aerodynamics, Energetics; Propulsion Dep. Team

    2016-11-01

    At large Mach numbers, the interaction of an oblique shock wave with a turbulent boundary layer (SWTBLI) developing over a flat plate gives rise to a separation bubble known to exhibit low-frequency streamwise oscillations around StL = 0 . 03 (a Strouhal number based on the separated region length). Because these oscillations yield wall pressure or load fluctuations, efforts are made to reduce their amplitude. We perform large eddy simulations to reproduce the experiments by Wang etal (2012) where a rake of microramp vortex generators (MVGs) were inserted upstream the SWTBLI with consequences yet to be fully understood. There is no consensus on the flow structure downstream MVGs and this is first clarified in the case of MVGs protruding by 0 . 47 δ in a TBL at Mach number M = 2 . 7 and Reynolds number Reθ = 3600 . Large-scale vortices intermittently shed downstream the MVGs are characterized by a streamwise period close to twice the TBL thickness and a frequency f 0 . 5Ue / δ , two orders of magnitude higher than the one of the uncontrolled SWTBLI. We then characterize the interaction between the unsteady wake of the MVGs with the SWTBLI resulting in the reduction of the interaction length and the high-frequency modulation of the shock feet motions.

  10. Evaluation of fossil plants versus hydro plants for load frequency control

    SciTech Connect

    Broadwater, R.P.; Johnson, R.L.; Duckett, F.E.; Boston, W.T.

    1985-01-01

    The economics of using hydroplants with Francis turbines or fossil plants for load frequency control are evaluated. Using data from the TVA Gallatin steam plant and the TVA Cherokee, Wilson, and Fontana hydroplants, a cost comparison of different modes of operation for load frequency control was performed considering two plants at a time. The results showed that when the fossil plant was used for load frequency control instead of a hydro plant a lower system generation cost was incurred. Dynamic responses of fossil and hydro units, improved controls for fossil plants, and maneuvering costs of the Gallatin plant are also considered.

  11. Overland flow generation mechanisms affected by topsoil treatment: Application to soil conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González Paloma, Hueso; Juan Francisco, Martinez-Murillo; Damian, Ruiz-Sinoga Jose; Hanoch, Lavee

    2015-04-01

    Hortonian overland-flow is responsible for significant amounts of soil loss in Mediterranean geomorphological systems. Restoring the native vegetation is the most effective way to control runoff and sediment yield. During the seeding and plant establishment, vegetation cover may be better sustained if soil is amended with an external source. Four amendments were applied in an experimental set of plots: straw mulching (SM); mulch with chipped branches of Aleppo Pine (Pinus halepensis L.) (PM); TerraCotten hydroabsobent polymers (HP); sewage sludge (RU); and control (C). Plots were afforested following the same spatial pattern, and amendments were mixed with the soil at the rate 10 Mg ha-1. This research demonstrates the role played by the treatments in overland flow generation mechanism (runoff, overland flow and soil moisture along the soil profile). The general overland flow characteristics showed that in the C plots the average overland flow was 8.0 ± 22.0 l per event, and the HP plots produced a similar mean value (8.1 ± 20.1 l). The average overland flow per event was significantly less for soil amended with SM, PM or RU (2.7 ± 8.3 l; 1.3 ± 3.5 l and 2.2 ± 5.9 l, respectively). There was a similar trend with respect to the maximum overland flow. The mean sediment yield per event was relatively high in the C and HP plots (8.6 ± 27.8 kg and 14.8 ± 43.4 kg, respectively), while significantly lower values were registered in the SM, PM and RU plots (0.4 ± 1.0 kg; 0.2 ± 0.3 kg and 0.2 ± 0.3 kg, respectively). Very similar trends were found for the maximum sediment yield. Regarding to the soil moisture values, there was a difference in the trends between the C and HP plots and the SM, PM and RU plots. In the C and HP plots the general trend was for a decrease in soil moisture downward through the soil profile, while in the SM, PM and RU plots the soil moisture remained relatively constant or increased, except for the RU treatment in which the soil moisture

  12. Adrenergic and serotonin receptors affect retinal superoxide generation in diabetic mice: relationship to capillary degeneration and permeability

    PubMed Central

    Du, Yunpeng; Cramer, Megan; Lee, Chieh Allen; Tang, Jie; Muthusamy, Arivalagan; Antonetti, David A.; Jin, Hui; Palczewski, Krzysztof; Kern, Timothy S.

    2015-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species play an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. We studied the role of adrenergic and serotonin receptors in the generation of superoxide by retina and 661W retinal cells in high glucose and of the α1-adrenergic receptor (AR) on vascular lesions of the retinopathy in experimentally diabetic C57Bl/6J mice (and controls) after 2 and 8 months. Compared with 5 mM glucose, incubating cells or retinal explants in 30 mM glucose induced superoxide generation. This response was reduced or ablated by pharmacologic inhibition of the α1-AR (a Gq-coupled receptor) or Gs-coupled serotonin (5-HT2, 5-HT4, 5-HT6, and 5-HT7) receptors or by activation of the Gi-coupled α2-AR. In elevated glucose, the α1-AR produced superoxide via phospholipase C, inositol triphosphate-induced Ca2+ release, and NADPH oxidase, and pharmacologic inhibition of these reactions prevented the superoxide increase. Generation of retinal superoxide, expression of proinflammatory proteins, and degeneration of retinal capillaries in diabetes all were significantly inhibited with daily doxazosin or apocynin (inhibitors of α1-AR and NADPH oxidase, respectively), but increased vascular permeability was not significantly affected. Adrenergic receptors, and perhaps other GPCRs, represent novel targets for inhibiting the development of important features of diabetic retinopathy.—Du, Y., Cramer, M., Lee, C. A., Tang, J., Muthusamy, A., Antonetti, D. A., Jin, H., Palczewski, K., Kern, T. S. Adrenergic and serotonin receptors affect retinal superoxide generation in diabetic mice: relationship to capillary degeneration and permeability. PMID:25667222

  13. Nonlinear modeling and dynamic analysis of a hydro-turbine governing system in the process of sudden load increase transient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Huanhuan; Chen, Diyi; Zhang, Hao; Wang, Feifei; Ba, Duoduo

    2016-12-01

    In order to study the nonlinear dynamic behaviors of a hydro-turbine governing system in the process of sudden load increase transient, we establish a novel nonlinear dynamic model of the hydro-turbine governing system which considers the elastic water-hammer model of the penstock and the second-order model of the generator. The six nonlinear dynamic transfer coefficients of the hydro-turbine are innovatively proposed by utilizing internal characteristics and analyzing the change laws of the characteristic parameters of the hydro-turbine governing system. Moreover, from the point of view of engineering, the nonlinear dynamic behaviors of the above system are exhaustively investigated based on bifurcation diagrams and time waveforms. More importantly, all of the above analyses supply theoretical basis for allowing a hydropower station to maintain a stable operation in the process of sudden load increase transient.

  14. Generation of a specific immunological response to FGF-2 does not affect wound healing or reproduction.

    PubMed

    Plum, Stacy M; Vu, Hong A; Mercer, Bobby; Fogler, William E; Fortier, Anne H

    2004-02-01

    in two models of pulmonary metastatic disease. In the present studies, we further characterize the immunological and physiological responses to this vaccine. Vaccinated animals generated a specific anti-FGF-2 antibody (titer of 1:5000) that was able to inhibit FGF-2 binding to heparin sulfate in a dose dependent fashion. Cell mediated immunity was evidenced by a delayed type hypersensitivity response following challenge with the heparin binding domain peptide. Despite an immune response toward FGF-2, vaccination with L(HBD) did not result in alterations in mean time to wound healing when compared to unvaccinated animals or those treated with a liposome control. In reproductive studies, vaccinated females were not impaired in their ability to: 1) become pregnant, 2) support the growth and development of their embryos, and 3) deliver viable offspring. Furthermore, when assessed histologically, these offspring did not demonstrate any alterations in organogenesis when compared to pups born to untreated or liposome control treated females. Thus, while vaccination against FGF-2 induces a specific FGF-2 antibody response, and inhibits angiogenesis and tumor development in a pathological setting, it does not adversely alter normal physiological events dependent on FGF-2.

  15. Hydro-Jet technology in urologic surgery.

    PubMed

    Shekarriz, Bijan

    2005-05-01

    Hydro-Jet technology utilizes an extremely thin, high-pressure stream of water. This technology has been routinely used in industry as a cutting tool for different materials such as metal, ceramic, wood and glass. Recently, Hydro-Jet technology has been used for dissection and resection during open and laparoscopic surgical procedures. A high-pressure jet of water allows selective dissection and isolation of vital structures such as blood vessels and nerves. This has resulted in improved dissection and decreased complication rate in recent experimental and clinical studies. This technology has been successfully applied during open and laparoscopic partial nephrectomy, cholecystecomy and retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy.

  16. 77 FR 77070 - Black Bear Hydro Partners, LLC;

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-31

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Black Bear Hydro Partners, LLC; Notice of Intent To File License Application...-filing Process. b. Project No.: 2727-086. c. Dated Filed: October 24, 2012. d. Submitted By: Black Bear Hydro Partners, LLC (Black Bear Hydro). e. Name of Project: Ellsworth Hydroelectric Project. f....

  17. 77 FR 37035 - Goose River Hydro, Inc.; Independence Hydro, LLC; Notice of Application for Transfer of License...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-20

    ...] [FR Doc No: 2012-15038] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 2804-027] Goose River Hydro, Inc.; Independence Hydro, LLC; Notice of Application for Transfer of License, and Soliciting Comments and Motions to Intervene On June 6, 2012, Goose River Hydro, Inc....

  18. Computer forecasting: The future of hydro management

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D.E.; Stover, C.M.

    1994-06-01

    Hydro managers must consider the demands of power production, flood control, environmental mitigation, and downstream water use when making decisions about operating their facilities. Alabama Power Company uses a computer-based real-time decision support system to achieve the best balance possible among the competing uses.

  19. HydroQGIS: Hydrological Geospatial Data Manipulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frazier, N.

    2015-12-01

    Many aspects of hydrology are tightly coupled with geospatial data. For this reason, geospatial information systems (GIS) are often incorporated into work flows for analyzing hydrological data. These disjoint work flows, however, often require many steps and different applications to achieve the desired results. Simplifying the workflow involved in regional flood peak scaling studies motivated the creation of the HydroQGIS plugin. Flood frequency analysis presents one of the largest hurdles in studying regional flood peak scaling. HydroQGIS aids these studies with a set of tools that reduce the time to perform flood frequency analsyis on USGS gauging stations. HydroQGIS is a framework for hydrological geospatial plugin development for Quantum GIS (QGIS). It uses the cross-platform nature of QGIS, QT, and Python to create a set of tools to help simplify the work flow of hydrological data searching, gathering, and analysis into a single application that can be used by users on any platform. HydroQGIS combines the Quantum GIS plugin framework with various web-services to couple data and analysis in a uniform environment. QGIS provides a fully functioning GIS application on top of which plugins can be developed. The HydroQGIS plugin focuses on data acquisition and analysis from the geospatial domain. The design of HydroQGIS facilitates quick development of additional tools, used independently or in conjunction with other developed utilities, to streamline data acquisition and analysis. HydroQGIS currently implements an Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Watershed Delineation tool using the EPA Waters web service, as well as a United States Geological Survey (USGS) gauging station search using the USGS Instantaneous Values web service. These tools provide a unified GIS interface that allows users to locate and map gauging stations and watersheds using any base map of their choice. These tools, while useful by themselves, also support a flood frequency analysis (FFA

  20. High Resolution Hydro-climatological Projections for Western Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erler, Andre Richard

    Accurate identification of the impact of global warming on water resources and hydro-climatic extremes represents a significant challenge to the understanding of climate change on the regional scale. Here an analysis of hydro-climatic changes in western Canada is presented, with specific focus on the Fraser and Athabasca River basins and on changes in hydro-climatic extremes. The analysis is based on a suite of simulations designed to characterize internal variability, as well as model uncertainty. A small ensemble of Community Earth System Model version 1 (CESM1) simulations was employed to generate global climate projections, which were downscaled to 10 km resolution using the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF V3.4.1) with several sets of physical parameterizations. Downscaling was performed for a historical validation period and a mid- and end-21st-century projection period, using the RCP8.5 greenhouse gas trajectory. Daily station observations and monthly gridded datasets were used for validation. Changes in hydro-climatic extremes are characterized using Extreme Value Analysis. A novel method of aggregating data from climatologically similar stations was employed to increase the statistical power of the analysis. Changes in mean and extreme precipitation are found to differ strongly between seasons and regions, but (relative) changes in extremes generally follow changes in the (seasonal) mean. At the end of the 21st century, precipitation and precipitation extremes are projected to increase by 30% at the coast in fall and land-inwards in winter, while the projected increase in summer precipitation is smaller and changes in extremes are often not statistically significant. Reasons for the differences between seasons, the role of precipitation recycling in atmospheric water transport, and the sensitivity to physics parameterizations are discussed. Major changes are projected for the Fraser River basin, including earlier snowmelt and a 50% reduction in

  1. Ethanol exposure during embryogenesis decreases the radial glial progenitorpool and affects the generation of neurons and astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Rubert, Gemma; Miñana, Rosa; Pascual, Maria; Guerri, Consuelo

    2006-08-15

    Prenatal ethanol exposure induces functional abnormalities during brain development affecting neurogenesis and gliogenesis. We have previously reported that alcohol exposure during embryogenesis disrupts radial glia (RG) and gliogenesis. Taking into account the new role of RG as neural progenitors, we have investigated whether ethanol affects RG as a neural stem cell. We found that in utero ethanol exposure impairs cell proliferation and decreases neurons and astrocytes generated in cultured RG and in embryonic cerebral cortex. Telencephalic cultures obtained at E12 from ethanol-treated rats displayed a reduction in the proportion of actively dividing RG progenitors, as demonstrated by 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation, and in the percentage of brain lipid binding protein-positive RG. Consistently, neurosphere formation assay from E12 telencephalon showed a reduced number of multipotent progenitor cells in cultures isolated from ethanol-treated rats in comparison with pair-fed control group. Moreover, levels of activated Notch1 and fibroblast growth factor receptor 2, which regulate the maintenance of the progenitor state of RG, are decreased by prenatal ethanol exposure. These findings demonstrate that ethanol reduces the telencephalic RG progenitor pool and its transformation into neurons and astrocytes, which may contribute to an explanation of the defects in brain function often observed in fetal alcohol syndrome.

  2. Analysis of Pre-Analytic Factors Affecting the Success of Clinical Next-Generation Sequencing of Solid Organ Malignancies.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui; Luthra, Rajyalakshmi; Goswami, Rashmi S; Singh, Rajesh R; Roy-Chowdhuri, Sinchita

    2015-08-28

    Application of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology to routine clinical practice has enabled characterization of personalized cancer genomes to identify patients likely to have a response to targeted therapy. The proper selection of tumor sample for downstream NGS based mutational analysis is critical to generate accurate results and to guide therapeutic intervention. However, multiple pre-analytic factors come into play in determining the success of NGS testing. In this review, we discuss pre-analytic requirements for AmpliSeq PCR-based sequencing using Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM) (Life Technologies), a NGS sequencing platform that is often used by clinical laboratories for sequencing solid tumors because of its low input DNA requirement from formalin fixed and paraffin embedded tissue. The success of NGS mutational analysis is affected not only by the input DNA quantity but also by several other factors, including the specimen type, the DNA quality, and the tumor cellularity. Here, we review tissue requirements for solid tumor NGS based mutational analysis, including procedure types, tissue types, tumor volume and fraction, decalcification, and treatment effects.

  3. The HYDROS Radiometer/Radar Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spencer, Michael W.; Njoku, Eni; Entekhabi, Dara; Doiron, Terence; Piepmeier, Jeffrey; Girard, Ralph

    2004-01-01

    The science objectives of the HYDROS mission are to provide frequent, global measurements of surface soil moisture and surface freeze/thaw state. In order to adequately measure these geophysical quantities, the key instrument requirements were determined by the HYDROS science team to be: 1) Dual-polarization L-Band passive radiometer measurements at 40 km resolution, 2) Dual-polarization L-Band active radar measurements at 3 km resolution, and 3) A wide swath to insure global three day refresh time for these measurements (1000 km swath at the selected orbit altitude of 670 km). As a solution to this challenging set of instrument requirements, a relatively large, 6 meter, conically-scanning reflector antenna architecture was selected for the instrument design. The deployable mesh antenna is shared by both the radiometer and radar electronics by employing a single L-Band feed.

  4. Time dissemination in the Hydro Quebec network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Missout, G.; Lefrancois, W.; Laroche, L.

    1979-01-01

    The ever increasing complexity of electrical networks combined with the increasing cost of power losses during a network failure has led public utilities to become equipped with more powerful and precise tools for pinpointing the causes of such a fault. Hydro Quebec has developed and is now using a time dissemination system which uses a modified IRIG B code transmitted on its own telecommunication network. The reasons for using such a system and the way it was carried out are discrete.

  5. Coupled Hydro-Mechanical Model of Bentonite Hydration and Swelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hancilova, Ilona; Hokr, Milan

    2016-10-01

    This paper deals with the modelling of coupled hydro-mechanical processes at the buffer and host rock interface (bentonite and granite) in the context of the safe disposal of spent nuclear fuel. Granite, as one of the barriers, includes fractures which are the source for hydration of bentonite and its subsequent swelling. It affects the mechanical behaviour and possibly the stability of the whole system. A non-linear solution for the stress-deformation problem with swelling was developed. This solution is coupled with the non-linear diffusion problem (for unsaturated flow). The swelling is defined using a coefficient dependent on water content according to literature data, with the effective Young's modulus decreasing close to zero corresponding to the plastic state. Results confirm the expected non-uniform saturation, swelling, and stresses in bentonite and small contribution to a fracture displacement.

  6. Secured electrical supply at least cost: Coal, gas, nuclear, hydro

    SciTech Connect

    Gavor, J.; Stary, O.; Vasicek, J.

    1995-12-01

    Electric power sector in East Central European countries finds in a difficult period. In the situation of demand stagnation, enormous investments must be realized in a very short time. Today`s decisions in the development strategy will influence the long term future of the industry. The optimal structure of the sources is one of the most important problem to be solved. Paper describes the current structure of the sources in electric power sector in the Czech Republic. The importance of coal, oil and gas, nuclear and hydro in electric power generation is compared. Taking into account the different position in the load coverage, economy of individual sources is evaluated and basic results of discounted cash flow calculations are presented. Information on specific investment programs and projects are included and further trends are estimated.

  7. Generations.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2005-01-01

    Groups naturally promote their strengths and prefer values and rules that give them an identity and an advantage. This shows up as generational tensions across cohorts who share common experiences, including common elders. Dramatic cultural events in America since 1925 can help create an understanding of the differing value structures of the Silents, the Boomers, Gen Xers, and the Millennials. Differences in how these generations see motivation and values, fundamental reality, relations with others, and work are presented, as are some applications of these differences to the dental profession.

  8. Factors affecting the appreciation generated through applying human factors/ergonomics (HFE) principles to systems of work.

    PubMed

    So, R H Y; Lam, S T

    2014-01-01

    This retrospective study examined the levels of appreciation (applause) given by clients to Human Factors/Ergonomic (HFE) specialists after they have modified the systems of work. Thirteen non-academic projects were chosen because the HFE interventions involved changed the way workers work at their workplaces. Companies involved range from multi-national corporations and military organizations with thousands of employees to small trading companies with less than 10 employees. In 5 cases the HFE recommendations were fully adopted and well appreciated. In 4 they were largely ignored and not appreciated, with partial adoption and some appreciation in the other 4 cases. Three factors that predict appreciation were identified: (i) alignment between the benefits HFE can provide and the project's key performance indices; (ii) awareness of HFE among the client's senior management; and (iii) a team organization appropriate for applying HFE recommendations. Having an HFE specialist on the client's side can greatly increase levels of appreciation, but lack of such a specialist will not affect levels of appreciation. A clear contractual requirement for HFE intervention does not promote appreciation significantly, but its absence can greatly reduce levels of appreciation. These relationships are discussed using the Kano's model of quality. Means to generate greater appreciation of the benefits of HFE are discussed.

  9. Meteorological Processes Affecting the Transport of Emissions from the Navajo Generating Station to Grand Canyon National Park.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsey, Charles G.; Chen, Jun; Dye, Timothy S.; Willard Richards, L.; Blumenthal, Donald L.

    1999-08-01

    During the 1990 Navajo Generating Station (NGS) Winter Visibility Study, a network of surface and upper-air meteorological measurement systems was operated in and around Grand Canyon National Park to investigate atmospheric processes in complex terrain that affected the transport of emissions from the nearby NGS. This network included 15 surface monitoring stations, eight balloon sounding stations (equipped with a mix of rawinsonde, tethersonde, and Airsonde sounding systems), three Doppler radar wind profilers, and four Doppler sodars. Measurements were made from 10 January through 31 March 1990. Data from this network were used to prepare objectively analyzed wind fields, trajectories, and streak lines to represent transport of emissions from the NGS, and to prepare isentropic analyses of the data. The results of these meteorological analyses were merged in the form of a computer animation that depicted the streak line analyses along with measurements of perfluorocarbon tracer, SO2, and sulfate aerosol concentrations, as well as visibility measurements collected by an extensive surface monitoring network. These analyses revealed that synoptic-scale circulations associated with the passage of low pressure systems followed by the formation of high pressure ridges accompanied the majority of cases when NGS emittants appeared to be transported to the Grand Canyon. The authors' results also revealed terrain influences on transport within the topography of the study area, especially mesoscale flows inside the Lake Powell basin and along the plain above the Marble Canyon.

  10. Multi-epitope Models Explain How Pre-existing Antibodies Affect the Generation of Broadly Protective Responses to Influenza

    PubMed Central

    Zarnitsyna, Veronika I.; Lavine, Jennie; Ellebedy, Ali; Ahmed, Rafi; Antia, Rustom

    2016-01-01

    The development of next-generation influenza vaccines that elicit strain-transcendent immunity against both seasonal and pandemic viruses is a key public health goal. Targeting the evolutionarily conserved epitopes on the stem of influenza’s major surface molecule, hemagglutinin, is an appealing prospect, and novel vaccine formulations show promising results in animal model systems. However, studies in humans indicate that natural infection and vaccination result in limited boosting of antibodies to the stem of HA, and the level of stem-specific antibody elicited is insufficient to provide broad strain-transcendent immunity. Here, we use mathematical models of the humoral immune response to explore how pre-existing immunity affects the ability of vaccines to boost antibodies to the head and stem of HA in humans, and, in particular, how it leads to the apparent lack of boosting of broadly cross-reactive antibodies to the stem epitopes. We consider hypotheses where binding of antibody to an epitope: (i) results in more rapid clearance of the antigen; (ii) leads to the formation of antigen-antibody complexes which inhibit B cell activation through Fcγ receptor-mediated mechanism; and (iii) masks the epitope and prevents the stimulation and proliferation of specific B cells. We find that only epitope masking but not the former two mechanisms to be key in recapitulating patterns in data. We discuss the ramifications of our findings for the development of vaccines against both seasonal and pandemic influenza. PMID:27336297

  11. 11. AERIAL VIEW OF CROSSCUT FACILITY, LOOKING NORTH. THE HYDRO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. AERIAL VIEW OF CROSSCUT FACILITY, LOOKING NORTH. THE HYDRO PLANT CENTER SITS ON THE EDGE OF RAVINE WHICH IS ACTUALLY THE BEGINNING OF THE GRAND CANAL. THE CROSS-CUT STEAM PLANT IS THE LARGE WHITE BUILDING JUST WEST OF THE HYDRO PLANT, WITH THE TRANSMISSION SWITCHYARD IN BETWEEN. THE OTHER BUILDINGS ARE SALT RIVER PROJECT FABRICATION AND EQUIPMENT SHOPS Photographer unknown, August 22, 1958 - Cross Cut Hydro Plant, North Side of Salt River, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  12. Model Sharing and Collaboration using HydroShare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodall, J. L.; Morsy, M. M.; Castronova, A. M.; Miles, B.; Merwade, V.; Tarboton, D. G.

    2015-12-01

    HydroShare is a web-based system funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF) for sharing hydrologic data and models as resources. Resources in HydroShare can either be assigned a generic type, meaning the resource only has Dublin Core metadata properties, or one of a growing number of specific resource types with enhanced metadata profiles defined by the HydroShare development team. Examples of specific resource types in the current release of HydroShare (http://www.hydroshare.org) include time series, geographic raster, Multidimensional (NetCDF), model program, and model instance. Here we describe research and development efforts in HydroShare project for model-related resources types. This work has included efforts to define metadata profiles for common modeling resources, execute models directly through the HydroShare user interface using Docker containers, and interoperate with the 3rd party application SWATShare for model execution and visualization. These examples demonstrate the benefit of HydroShare to support model sharing and address collaborative problems involving modeling. The presentation will conclude with plans for future modeling-related development in HydroShare including supporting the publication of workflow resources, enhanced metadata for additional hydrologic models, and linking model resources with other resources in HydroShare to capture model provenance.

  13. The hydro-geomorphological event of December 1909 in Iberia: social impacts and triggering conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Susana; Ramos, Alexandre M.; Zêzere, José L.; Trigo, Ricardo M.; Vaquero, José M.

    2015-04-01

    22nd of December mainly associated to severe floods generated in the Douro and Tagus hydrographic basins. The atmospheric circulation during the December 1909 and prior months was assessed at the monthly, daily and sub-daily scales. This was achieved with the 20th Century Reanalysis from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/Earth System Research Laboratory Physical Sciences Division (NOAA/ERSL PSD), where several fields were analysed related to both surface and different tropospheric levels. Results show that, between 20 and 22 of December, a low pressure system become stationary over the North Atlantic Ocean near Azores, moving towards the British Isles and its frontal system affected the Iberian Peninsula on the 21 and 22 of December. The intense precipitation observed on the 22nd of December was also associated to a combination of wind and specific moisture characteristics at 900hPa (concentrated in a quite narrow strip) clearly suggesting the presence of an Atmospheric River. Compo, G. P., et al. (2011) The twentieth century reanalysis project. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 137A, 1-28 Zêzere, J. L., et al. (2014) DISASTER: a GIS database on hydro-geomorphologic disasters in Portugal. Nat. Hazards, 71: 1029-1050 This research was supported by the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT). The first author is a Post-Doc fellow funded by FCT (SFRH/BPD/69002/2010).

  14. Free Surface Influence on Low Head Hydro Power Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelz, Peter F.; Froehlich, Thibaud

    2016-11-01

    The free surface influence on the power extraction of turbines in open-channel flow is analyzed under use of continuity, momentum and energy equations. The approach differs of previous models by avoiding two drawbacks: the exceeding of the available power with the Betz definition and the inaccurate assumption of an undisturbed approaching flow. The result is an energetic optimization focusing on the energy dissipation due to wake and shock losses downstream of the turbine.

  15. Submarine hydro-electro-osmotic power plants for an efficient exploitation of salinity gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reali, M.

    1981-03-01

    An energy-conversion scheme, which allows efficient exploitation of salinity gradients, is proposed. This is a submarine hydro-electro-osmotic power plant in which fresh surface water is conveyed through a penstock to a submerged hydraulic turbine for the generation of electric power. The water leaves the turbine outlet depressurized and finally diffuses out in the sea, by osmosis, through a semipermeable barrier.

  16. Application of a Coupled WRF-Hydro Model for Extreme Flood Events in the Mediterranean Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fredj, Erick; Givati, Amir

    2015-04-01

    More accurate simulation of precipitation and streamflow is a challenge that can be addressed by using the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) in conjunction with the hydrological model coupling extension package (WRF-Hydro).This is demonstrated for the country of Israel and surrounding regions. Simulations from the coupled WRF/WRF-Hydro system were verified against measurements from rain gauges and hydrometric stations in the domain for the 2012-2013 and 2013-2014 winters (wet seasons). These periods were characterized by many punctuated hydrometeorological and hydroclimatic events, including both severe drought and extreme floods events. The WRF model simulations were initialized with 0.5 degree NOAA/NCEP GFS model data. The model domain was set up with 3 domains, up to 3km grid spacing resolution. The model configuration used here constitutes a fully distributed, 3-dimensional, variably-saturated surface and subsurface flow model. Application of terrain routing and, subsequently, channel and reservoir routing functions, to the uni-dimensional NOAA land surface model was motivated by the need to account for increased complexity in land surface states and fluxes and to provide a more physically-realistic conceptualization of terrestrial hydrologic processes. The simulation results indicated a good agreement with actual peak discharges for extreme flood events and for full hydrographs. Specifically the coupled WRF/WRF-Hydro model as configured in this study shows improvement in simulated precipitation over one way WRF precipitation simulations. The correlation between the observed and the simulated precipitation using the fully coupled WRF/WRF-Hydro system was higher than the standalone WRF model, especially for convective precipitation events that affect arid regions in the domain. The results suggest that the coupled WRF/WRF-Hydro system has potential for flood forecasting and flood warning purposes at 0-72 hour lead times for large cool season storm

  17. Quantification and classification of hydro-meteorological flood controls in northeast Switzerland as a basis for robust impact modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Luise; Rössler, Ole; Weingartner, Rolf

    2016-04-01

    Flood events are generated and shaped by different hydro-meteorological processes. Taking these drivers into account is essential for understanding flood generation and for developing robust hydrological models. We call a hydrological model robust if it is able to reproduce different flood types with different drivers at the same quality. Such models are a prerequisite for assessing climate change impact as they minimize bias associated with a potential change in frequency of projected flood types. For the same reason, identification of the key hydro-meteorological processes is crucial to enable a suitable downscaling of meteorological parameters. To gain understanding of the main hydro-meteorological processes associated with floods in a mesoscale alpine catchment (Thur River, 1700 km2), we analyse all events exceeding a 2-year flood over the past 50 years. Resulting 47 events are temporally delineated based on an adapted constant-k approach (Blume et al., 2007) using hourly runoff data. Each flood event is then characterized based on a variety of hydro-meteorological parameters and indices descriptive of catchment distributed (pre-) event conditions based on daily meteorological data. This comprehensive data set is used to classify the events based on hydro-meteorological parameters only and to derive typical flood-generating "storylines". Changes in these storylines over the past 50 years are discussed. Furthermore, the importance of each hydro-meteorological parameter is quantified which in turn might help to assess uncertainties associated with climate change impact studies. References Blume, T., Zehe, E., and Bronstert, A.: Rainfall - runoff response, event-based runoff coefficients and hydrograph separation, Hydrological Sciences Journal, 52, 843-862, doi:10.1623/hysj.52.5.843, 2007.

  18. [open quote]Endangered[close quote] salmon: More than just a Northwest hydro problem

    SciTech Connect

    Pfeiffer, D.E. )

    1992-06-01

    In the US, about 600 species of plants and animals are considered threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species Act. One of those, the Snake River sockeye salmon, has been making news in the Pacific Northwest. In November 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) declared Snake River sockeye salmon an endangered species, mandating the creation of a recovery plan that could cost more than $70 million a year. Many in the Northwest believe that the Endangered Species Act has never been applied in a case affecting so large an area or such a wide range of economic interests, including hydropower, agriculture, hatcheries, and commercial and sport fishing. Implications of this listing go far beyond regional economics, though. The way in which the federal government applied the Endangered Species Act in this instance has set a precedent that could affect hydro development throughout the US. The Endangered Species Act must be reauthorized by Congress by late October 1992. As explained in the accompanying story, [open quotes]Reauthorizing the ESA: Many Groups Calling for Change,[close quotes] the majority opinion in the US is that the act needs reform. Reviewing the act and its application in the Pacific Northwest will help members of the US hydro industry understand how hydro developments could be affected.

  19. HydroClimATe: hydrologic and climatic analysis toolkit

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dickinson, Jesse E.; Hanson, Randall T.; Predmore, Steven K.

    2014-01-01

    The potential consequences of climate variability and climate change have been identified as major issues for the sustainability and availability of the worldwide water resources. Unlike global climate change, climate variability represents deviations from the long-term state of the climate over periods of a few years to several decades. Currently, rich hydrologic time-series data are available, but the combination of data preparation and statistical methods developed by the U.S. Geological Survey as part of the Groundwater Resources Program is relatively unavailable to hydrologists and engineers who could benefit from estimates of climate variability and its effects on periodic recharge and water-resource availability. This report documents HydroClimATe, a computer program for assessing the relations between variable climatic and hydrologic time-series data. HydroClimATe was developed for a Windows operating system. The software includes statistical tools for (1) time-series preprocessing, (2) spectral analysis, (3) spatial and temporal analysis, (4) correlation analysis, and (5) projections. The time-series preprocessing tools include spline fitting, standardization using a normal or gamma distribution, and transformation by a cumulative departure. The spectral analysis tools include discrete Fourier transform, maximum entropy method, and singular spectrum analysis. The spatial and temporal analysis tool is empirical orthogonal function analysis. The correlation analysis tools are linear regression and lag correlation. The projection tools include autoregressive time-series modeling and generation of many realizations. These tools are demonstrated in four examples that use stream-flow discharge data, groundwater-level records, gridded time series of precipitation data, and the Multivariate ENSO Index.

  20. 76 FR 74780 - FFP Project 105 LLC; Hugo Lake Hydro LLC; Notice of Competing Preliminary Permit Applications...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-01

    ... (HL Hydro) filed preliminary permit applications, pursuant to section 4(f) of the Federal Power Act... proposed project would have an average annual generation of 20.0 GWh, and operate run-of-river utilizing..., Free Flow Power Corp., 239 Causeway Street, Suite 300, Boston, MA 02114. (978) 283-2822. HL...

  1. 78 FR 938 - Burton Creek Hydro Inc., Sollos Energy, LLC'

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Burton Creek Hydro Inc., Sollos Energy, LLC' Notice of Transfer of Exemption 1. By letter filed December 19, 2012, Burton Creek Hydro Inc. informed the Commission that...

  2. The HYDROS mission: requirements and baseline system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Njoku, Eni; Spencer, Michael; McDonald, Kyle; Smith, Joel; Houser, Paul; Doiron, Terence; ONeill, Peggy; Girard, Ralph; Entekhabi, Dara

    2004-01-01

    The HYDROS mission is under development by NASA as part of its Earth System Science Pathfinder program. HYDROS is designed to provide global maps of the Earth's soil moisture and freeze/thaw state every 2-3 days, for weather and climate prediction, water and carbon cycle studies, natural hazards monitoring, and national security applications.

  3. Modeling of coupled hydro-mechanical problem for porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koudelka, T.; Krejci, T.; Broucek, M.

    2013-10-01

    The paper deals with numerical modelling of coupled hydro-mechanical problem for porous media. It is focused on coupled hydro-mechanical models for saturated - partially saturated soils. These models were implemented to the SIFEL software package and they were used for numerical simulation of a plate settlement experiment.

  4. 75 FR 45607 - Application To Export Electric Energy; Manitoba Hydro

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-03

    ... Application To Export Electric Energy; Manitoba Hydro AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: Manitoba Hydro (Manitoba) has applied to renew its... Federal Power Act (FPA). DATES: Comments, protests, or requests to intervene must be submitted on...

  5. Hydro-environmental changes and their influence on the subsurface environment in the context of urban development.

    PubMed

    Yoshikoshi, Akihisa; Adachi, Itsu; Taniguchi, Tomomasa; Kagawa, Yuichi; Kato, Masahiro; Yamashita, Akio; Todokoro, Taiko; Taniguchi, Makoto

    2009-04-15

    The relationship between urban development and hydro-environmental change, particularly with regard to the subsurface environment is examined for three coastal cities affected by Asian monsoons (Tokyo and Osaka in Japan, and Bangkok in Thailand). Major differences in subsurface changes among these cities are closely related to city size, urban structure, and the timing, stage and extent of urbanization as well as the natural environment. The work shows that the urban development has not affected the Bangkok subsurface hydro-environment in the same way it has in Tokyo and Osaka. Three reasons for the difference account for this, (1) Bangkok's abundant annual rainfall, (2) Bangkok has the smallest ratio of impervious pavement surface area, meaning that surface water can more easily infiltrate underground., (3) the degree and extent of urbanization. Bangkok's subsurface hydro-environment has not been heavily affected because underground development has not yet reached deep subterranean areas. By researching yet more cities, at different stages of urbanization to that of Tokyo, Osaka and Bangkok, we plan to quantitatively examine urbanization and its influence on subsurface hydro-environments. This research will help limit damage to developing cities that are not yet experiencing subsurface failures but which are expected to confront these problems in the future.

  6. 77 FR 10740 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XVIII, Upper Hydroelectric, LLC, FFP Project 95, LLC, Riverbank Hydro No...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-23

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XVIII, Upper Hydroelectric, LLC, FFP Project 95, LLC, Riverbank Hydro No. 25, LLC; Notice Announcing Preliminary Permit Drawing The Commission has received four preliminary permit applications deemed filed on September 1, 2011, at 8:30 a.m.,\\1\\...

  7. 77 FR 10740 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund VIII, FFP Project 92, LLC, Riverbank Hydro No. 24, LLC; Notice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-23

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund VIII, FFP Project 92, LLC, Riverbank Hydro No. 24, LLC; Notice Announcing Preliminary Permit Drawing The Commission has received three preliminary permit applications deemed filed on September 1, 2011, at 8:30 a.m.,\\1\\ for proposed projects to be located at the...

  8. 76 FR 28219 - Uniontown Hydro, LLC, Newburgh Hydro, LLC; Notice of Applications Tendered for Filing With the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Uniontown Hydro, LLC, Newburgh Hydro, LLC; Notice of Applications Tendered... 24.0 MW each for a total plant capacity of 96.0 MW; (2) a 520-foot-wide by 38-foot-high trash...

  9. Quantifying the Operational Benefits of Conventional and Advanced Pumped Storage Hydro on Reliability and Efficiency: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Krad, I.; Ela, E.; Koritarov, V.

    2014-07-01

    Pumped storage hydro (PSH) plants have significant potential to provide reliability and efficiency benefits in future electric power systems with high penetrations of variable generation. New PSH technologies, such as adjustable-speed PSH, have been introduced that can also present further benefits. This paper demonstrates and quantifies some of the reliability and efficiency benefits afforded by PSH plants by utilizing the Flexible Energy Scheduling Tool for the Integration of Variable generation (FESTIV), an integrated power system operations tool that evaluates both reliability and production costs.

  10. 76 FR 42124 - River Bounty, Inc.; Renew Hydro, LLC; Notice of Transfer of Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-18

    ...\\ American Hydro Power Co., 19 FERC ] 62,426 (1982). 2. Renew Hydro, LLC, located at 1800 Route 34, Suite 101... Energy Regulatory Commission River Bounty, Inc.; Renew Hydro, LLC; Notice of Transfer of Exemption 1. By...\\ has been transferred to Renew Hydro, LLC. The project is located on the Susquehanna River...

  11. Assessment of the leak tightness integrity of the steam generator tubes affected by ODSCC at the tube support plates

    SciTech Connect

    Cuvelliez, Ch.; Roussel, G.

    1997-02-01

    An EPRI report gives a method for predicting a conservative value of the total primary-to-secondary leak rate which may occur during, a postulated steam generator depressurization accident such as a Main Steam Line Break (MSLB) in a steam generator with axial through-wall ODSCC at the TSP intersections. The Belgian utility defined an alternative method deviating somewhat from the EPRI method. When reviewing this proposed method, the Belgian safety authorities performed some calculations to investigate its conservatism. This led them to recommend some modifications to the EPRI method which should reduce its undue conservatism while maintaining the objective of conservatism in the offsite dose calculations.

  12. Dyadic design interface between energy and agriculture: the case of Pinthali micro hydro system in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Regmi, A

    2003-01-01

    Technology, like society, is heterogeneous. It mirrors the context in which it operates. Micro hydro development in Nepal is a rural energy strategy, which relies on technology and innovation and takes place in a specific social context. In designing this energy strategy, both technology and its social context, therefore, need to be considered seriously. In technical design processes, the interplay between the content (technology) and the context (society) needs to be considered, as the outcome will affect the people. For example, the content--micro hydro system--in the domain of the context--agriculture--provides an arena for an integrated water control system. Thus, it is possible to control water for two purposes: to produce power and to provide irrigation. The end product will be "energy" as a "consumptive" output and improved food security as a "productive" output of water. Therefore, within a sociotechnical framework, energy and irrigation become constitutive outputs of the sacrosanct "water". Thus, the metaphor of power--the "sociotechnical code" of "content" and "context"--can be used with the term "agro-anergy" in the design process of micro hydro systems. Evidence suggests that this interaction can lead to a transformed water use system for both productive and consumptive output for the benefit of rural communities.

  13. Analysis of a pico tubular-type hydro turbine performance by runner blade shape using CFD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J. H.; Lee, N. J.; Wata, J. V.; Hwang, Y. C.; Kim, Y. T.; Lee, Y. H.

    2012-11-01

    There has been a considerable interest recently in the topic of renewable energy. This is primarily due to concerns about environmental impacts of fossil fuels. Moreover, fluctuating and rising oil prices, increase in demand, supply uncertainties and other factors have led to increased calls for alternative energy sources. Small hydropower, among other renewable energy sources, has been evaluated to have adequate development value because it is a clean, renewable and abundant energy resource. In addition, small hydropower has the advantage of low cost development by using rivers, agricultural reservoirs, sewage treatment plants, waterworks and water resources. The main concept of the tubular-type hydro turbine is based on the difference in water pressure levels in pipe lines, where the energy which was initially wasted by using a reducing valve at the pipeline of waterworks, is collected by turbine in the hydro power generator. In this study, in order to acquire the performance data of a pico tubular-type hydro turbine, the output power, head and efficiency characteristics by different runner blade shapes are examined. The pressure and velocity distributions with the variation of guide vane and runner vane angle on turbine performance are investigated by using a commercial CFD code.

  14. Influences That Affect First-Generation College Students' College Choice: A Qualitative Inquiry of Student Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cresswell-Yeager, Tiffany J.

    2012-01-01

    College choice is the three-stage process of aspiring, searching and choosing to attend college. There are many models pertaining to college choice, however, this study uses the Hossler and Gallagher Model---aspiration, search and choice. This qualitative study explored first-generation college students' perceptions about the influences…

  15. Assessing the variables affecting on the rate of solid waste generation and recycling: An empirical analysis in Prespa Park.

    PubMed

    Grazhdani, Dorina

    2016-02-01

    Economic development, urbanization, and improved living standards increase the quantity and complexity of generated solid waste. Comprehensive study of the variables influencing household solid waste production and recycling rate is crucial and fundamental for exploring the generation mechanism and forecasting future dynamics of household solid waste. The present study is employed in the case study of Prespa Park. A model, based on the interrelationships of economic, demographic, housing structure and waste management policy variables influencing the rate of solid waste generation and recycling is developed and employed. The empirical analysis is based on the information derived from a field questionnaire survey conducted in Prespa Park villages for the year 2014. Another feature of this study is to test whether a household's waste generation can be decoupled from its population growth. Descriptive statistics, bivariate correlation analysis and F-tests are used to know the relationship between variables. One-way and two-way fixed effects models data analysis techniques are used to identify variables that determine the effectiveness of waste generation and recycling at household level in the study area. The results reveal that households with heterogeneous characteristics, such as education level, mean building age and income, present different challenges of waste reduction goals. Numerically, an increase of 1% in education level of population corresponds to a waste reduction of 3kg on the annual per capita basis. A village with older buildings, in the case of one year older of the median building age, corresponds to a waste generation increase of 12kg. Other economic and policy incentives such as the mean household income, pay-as-you-throw, percentage of population with access to curbside recycling, the number of drop-off recycling facilities available per 1000 persons and cumulative expenditures on recycling education per capita are also found to be effective

  16. Numerical investigation of the hydro-mechanical contribution to seismic attenuation in damaged rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollmann, Nele; Jänicke, Ralf; Renner, Jörg; Steeb, Holger

    2016-04-01

    The investigation of hydro-mechanical processes, in particular the modeling of seismic waves in fractured porous media, is essential for the physical interpretation of data obtained from seismic exploration. Here, we specifically investigate attenuation processes in fluid-saturated porous rock containing fracture networks to identify effective hydro-mechanical properties by numerical simulation. The main purpose of this work is the characterization of the overall hydro-mechanical properties by computational homogenization. We determine an effective Skempton coefficient by investigating the fluid pressure and the solid displacement of the skeleton saturated by compressible fluids. Fracture networks are stochastically generated to mimic geological in-situ situations. The fractures are approximated as ellipses with aspect ratios up to 1/100, i.e. they constitute thin and long hydraulic conduits with high permeabilities. Simulations are designed on the material scale with and without conservation of fluid mass in the control volume. Using computational homogenization approaches, we define an effective Skempton coefficient. A range of fracture networks with different characteristic properties is studied for different varieties of fractures. On the material scale we find strongly heterogeneous pressure propagation in the fracture network and the surrounding rock, respectively. The pressure diffusion is much faster in the fracture network than in the matrix, rendering the macroscopic hydro-mechanical behavior strongly time dependent. The effective Skempton coefficient converges to an ensemble-specific instantaneous value and to 1 for long-time studies. The ultimate objective of our study is to evaluate whether constraints on the structure of fracture networks can be deduced from observations of attenuation and its frequency dependence.

  17. Effects of Scandinavian hydro power on storage needs in a fully renewable European power system for various transmission capacity scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kies, Alexander; Nag, Kabitri; von Bremen, Lueder; Lorenz, Elke; Heinemann, Detlev

    2015-04-01

    The penetration of renewable energies in the European power system has increased in the last decades (23.5% share of renewables in the gross electricity consumption of the EU-28 in 2012) and is expected to increase further up to very high shares close to 100%. Planning and organizing this European energy transition towards sustainable power sources will be one of the major challenges of the 21st century. It is very likely that in a fully renewable European power system wind and photovoltaics (pv) will contribute the largest shares to the generation mix followed by hydro power. However, feed-in from wind and pv is due to the weather dependant nature of their resources fluctuating and non-controllable. To match generation and consumption several solutions and their combinations were proposed like very high backup-capacities of conventional power generation (e.g. fossile or nuclear), storages or the extension of the transmission grid. Apart from those options hydro power can be used to counterbalance fluctuating wind and pv generation to some extent. In this work we investigate the effects of hydro power from Norway and Sweden on residual storage needs in Europe depending on the overlaying grid scenario. High temporally and spatially resolved weather data with a spatial resolution of 7 x 7 km and a temporal resolution of 1 hour was used to model the feed-in from wind and pv for 34 investigated European countries for the years 2003-2012. Inflow into hydro storages and generation by run-of-river power plants were computed from ERA-Interim reanalysis runoff data at a spatial resolution of 0.75° x 0.75° and a daily temporal resolution. Power flows in a simplified transmission grid connecting the 34 European countries were modelled minimizing dissipation using a DC-flow approximation. Previous work has shown that hydro power, namely in Norway and Sweden, can reduce storage needs in a renewable European power system by a large extent. A 15% share of hydro power in Europe

  18. Integrating Water, Actors, and Structure to Study Socio-Hydro-Ecological Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hale, R. L.; Armstrong, A.; Baker, M. A.; Bedingfield, S.; Betts, D.; Buahin, C. A.; Buchert, M.; Crowl, T.; Dupont, R.; Endter-Wada, J.; Flint, C.; Grant, J.; Hinners, S.; Horns, D.; Horsburgh, J. S.; Jackson-Smith, D.; Jones, A. S.; Licon, C.; Null, S. E.; Odame, A.; Pataki, D. E.; Rosenberg, D. E.; Runburg, M.; Stoker, P.; Strong, C.

    2014-12-01

    Urbanization, climate uncertainty, and ecosystem change represent major challenges for managing water resources. Water systems and the forces acting upon them are complex, and there is a need to understand and generically represent the most important system components and linkages. We developed a framework to facilitate understanding of water systems including potential vulnerabilities and opportunities for sustainability. Our goal was to produce an interdisciplinary framework for water resources research to address water issues across scales (e.g., city to region) and domains (e.g., water supply and quality, urban and transitioning landscapes). An interdisciplinary project (iUTAH - innovative Urban Transitions and Aridregion Hydro-sustainability) with a large (N=~100), diverse team having expertise spanning the hydrologic, biological, ecological, engineering, social, planning, and policy sciences motivated the development of this framework. The framework was developed through review of the literature, meetings with individual researchers, and workshops with participants. The Structure-Water-Actor Framework (SWAF) includes three main components: water (quality and quantity), structure (natural, built, and social), and actors (individual and organizational). Key linkages include: 1) ecological and hydrological processes, 2) ecosystem and geomorphic change, 3) planning, design, and policy, 4) perceptions, information, and experience, 5) resource access, and 6) operational water use and management. Our expansive view of structure includes natural, built, and social components, allowing us to examine a broad set of tools and levers for water managers and decision-makers to affect system sustainability and understand system outcomes. We validate the SWAF and illustrate its flexibility to generate insights for three research and management problems: green stormwater infrastructure in an arid environment, regional water supply and demand, and urban river restoration

  19. The HYDROS Mission: Requirements and Baseline System Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Njoku, Eni; Spencer, Michael; McDonald, Kyle; Smith, Joel; Houser, Paul; Doiron, Terence; O'Neill, Peggy; Girard, Ralph; Entekhabi, Dara

    2003-01-01

    The HYDROS mission is under development by NASA as part of its Earth System Science Pathfinder (ESSP) program. HYDROS is designed to provide global maps of the Earth's soil moisture and freezel/thaw state every 2-3 days, for weather and climate prediction, water and carbon cycle studies, natural hazards monitoring, and national security applications. HYDROS uses a unique active and passive L-band microwave system that optimizes measurement accuracy, spatial resolution, and coverage. It provides measurements in nearly all weather conditions, regardless of solar illumination. The designs of the radar and radiometer electronics, antenna feedhorn and reflector, and science data system, are driven by specific mission and science objectives. These objectives impose requirements on the frequencies, polarizations, sampling, spatial resolution, and accuracy of the system. In this paper we describe the HYDROS mission requirements, baseline design, and measurement capabilities.

  20. Final Report - Wind and Hydro Energy Feasibility Study - June 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Jim Zoellick; Richard Engel; Rubin Garcia; Colin Sheppard

    2011-06-17

    This feasibility examined two of the Yurok Tribe's most promising renewable energy resources, wind and hydro, to provide the Tribe detailed, site specific information that will result in a comprehensive business plan sufficient to implement a favorable renewable energy project.

  1. Orion MPCV Water Landing Test at Hydro Impact Basin

    NASA Video Gallery

    This is the third Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) water landing test conducted at the Hydro Impact Basin at NASA Langley Research Center. This test represented the worst-case scenario for l...

  2. Strength of visual percept generated by famous faces perceived without awareness: effects of affective valence, response latency, and visual field.

    PubMed

    Stone, Anna; Valentine, Tim

    2005-09-01

    Participants who were unable to detect familiarity from masked 17 ms faces (Stone and Valentine, 2004 and Stone and Valentine, in press-b) did report a vague, partial visual percept. Two experiments investigated the relative strength of the visual percept generated by famous and unfamiliar faces, using masked 17 ms exposure. Each trial presented simultaneously a famous and an unfamiliar face, one face in LVF and the other in RVF. In one task, participants responded according to which of the faces generated the stronger visual percept, and in the other task, they attempted an explicit familiarity decision. The relative strength of the visual percept of the famous face compared to the unfamiliar face was moderated by response latency and participants' attitude towards the famous person. There was also an interaction of visual field with response latency, suggesting that the right hemisphere can generate a visual percept differentiating famous from unfamiliar faces more rapidly than the left hemisphere. Participants were at chance in the explicit familiarity decision, confirming the absence of awareness of facial familiarity.

  3. Predictability and Diagnostics of Western Himalayan Hydro-climatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, I.; Lall, U.; Robertson, A. W.; Cane, M. A.

    2011-12-01

    Snowmelt dominated streamflow of the Western Himalayan rivers is an important water resource during the dry pre-monsoon months to meet the irrigation and hydropower needs in northern India. On the other hand, winter precipitation as the form of snow over Himalayas helps in maintaining the glaciers, which serve as a storehouse of freshwater throughout the year. With the help of the hydro-climatological data provided by the Bhakra Beas Management Board in India, we present the outcome of our research on the prediction and diagnostics of Satluj river basin hydro-climatology at the Indian side up to the upstream of Bhakra dam, which is a major source of water for irrigation and electricity generation (1325MW) for north India. Spring seasonal inflow anomalies to Bhakra dam are strongly correlated with large-scale precipitation and temperature in the preceding winter over the Western Himalayas and adjoining north and central Indian plains, suggesting a potentially usable predictability for reservoir managers. Winter precipitation in the Western Himalayas is mainly brought about by the mid-latitude jet stream leading to the formation of low-pressure synoptic systems known as Western Disturbances (WD). WDs originate over the North Atlantic Ocean or Mediterranean Sea, with secondaries developing over the Persian Gulf and Caspian Sea either directly or as a result of the arrival of low-pressure systems from southwest Arabia, and travel eastward over Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and northwest India. Winter WDs (and therefore the average volume of winter precipitation over Western Himalayas) are also modulated by the large-scale interaction between ocean and atmosphere led by the variation of the SSTs of the Indian Ocean and Pacific. As a result, average spring inflow volume, which is a function of the average volume of precipitation in winter, was also found to be positively correlated with the SSTs over the western and equatorial Indian Ocean, and with below-normal sea

  4. Evaluation of hydro-mechanical pulsation for rocket injector research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Matthew B.

    The Propulsion Research Center at the University of Alabama in Huntsville has designed and built a hydro-mechanical pulsator to simulate the pressure fluctuations created by high frequency combustion instability. The pressure response characteristics were evaluated in an atmospheric test rig using filtered de-ionized water as the working fluid. The outlet of the pulsator was connected to a swirl injector post to provide downstream flow resistance. Previous low pressure and mass flow experimental data revealed a complex relationship between the control parameters and the pulsation response. For each test, the average mass flow rates of the waste water, water lost through the seals, and injector mass flow rates are measured. A dynamic pressure transducer at the pulsator exit measures and records the pressure waveform. Pulsation magnitude, reliability, repeatability, pulsation effects, and detailed variable control are examined. The data shows the pulsator is capable of generating 30% pulsation at 1575 Hz input. The repeatability of the pulsator is questionable because the standard deviations exceeded 40% of the average. The detailed data obtained during this research provides is sufficient to develop a pulsator tuning procedure for future applications.

  5. Multi-Hydro: a multi-component model for evaluation of the hydrological behavior of peri-urban catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giangola-Murzyn, Agathe; Gires, Auguste; Ichiba, Abdellah; Richard, Julien; Schertzer, Daniel; Tchiguirinskaia, Iouila

    2013-04-01

    As cities are growing, urbanized areas tend to be settled in locations potentially affected by flooding (either pluvial or fluvial). With more and more people living in these peri-urban areas and therefore vulnerable to the flood risk, it becomes necessary to properly evaluate this risk. This requires to appropriately model the flooding processes in peri-urban areas. In this framework, the European FP7 SMARTeST project aimed to provide tools to stakeholders and affected people so that they can select the best flood resilience protection measures. In this way, the Multi-Hydro model was developed and improved at the Ecole des Ponts ParisTech. This model consists in an interactive coupling between four modules, each of them representing a portion of the water cycle in urban hydrology. Each module relies on widely validated physically based models contained in open source software packages. The first module deals with rainfall in the framework of Universal Multifractals which relies on the concept of multiplicative cascades. It can either downscale rain gauge or radar data to a desired resolution or generate synthetic rainfall events. The surface module relies on the TREX model (Two dimensional Runoff and EXport, Velleux et al., 2011) which computes the overland water runoff (depth and velocity) according to the land use, the elevation and the soil properties of the catchment. The subsurface module computes the vertical water profile in the soil and relies on the VS2DT model (Variably Saturated and two Dimensional Transport, Lapalla et al., 1987). Both the surface and subsurface modules are fully distributed to that small scale phenomenon can be taken into account. The drainage module computes discharges in the sewer system and is based on SWMM (Storm Water Management Model, Rossman, 2010). The main input data to the model consists in maps of the elevation, the land use, the soil type and a precise description of the sewer system. This can be a rather complex task to

  6. Is the green promise of Hydro fading to brown

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, D.

    1992-12-07

    Long a favorite of of sustainable energy groups opposed to more traditional fuels like coal, nuclear and oil, in the last 10 years environmentalists have turned on hydropower - the nation's primary renewable energy resource. Environmentalists say that in most cases hydro has left fish high and dry, transformed once-mighty rivers into pathetic streams and destroyed fragile ecosystems. Suddenly hydro is being mentioned in the same breath with coal, oil and nuclear - precisely the fuels hydro, touted early on as an environmentally benign energy source, was to replace. Today environmentalists talk of [open quotes]non-hydro renewables[close quotes] like wind, solar and biomass. Nowhere is this new-found antipathy more apparent than in the recently passed national energy bill. In amendments to the landmark legislation, environmental groups united to overturn Federal Energy Regulatory Committee regulations that had relaxed federal oversight of hydro projects. Also, the groups insured that hydro projects would be prohibited from national recreational and historic areas. And in an energy blueprint sent to President-elect Clinton last month, 40 organizations urged the Arkansas governor to greatly reduce funding of mature energy technologies, one of which was hydropower.

  7. Plantarflexor training affects propulsive force generation during gait in children with spastic hemiplegic cerebral palsy: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Ishihara, Misako; Higuchi, Yumi; Yonetsu, Ryo; Kitajima, Hiromi

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this preliminary study was to assess the trade-off relationship between the hip and ankle joints after plantarflexor training in children with spastic hemiplegic cerebral palsy (CP). [Subjects and Methods] Three boys aged 9, 10, and 13 years with spastic hemiplegic CP participated in the study. Gait analysis was performed using a three-dimensional motion analysis device and a floor reaction force detection device before and after plantarflexor training. Data on gait speed and stride length for both sides were collected. Peak hip and ankle powers in the sagittal plane and ankle-to-hip power ratio (A2/H3 ratio) were calculated. Plantarflexor training comprised heel raises and exercise band resistance at the participant’s home (3 times/week for 12 weeks). [Results] The A2/H3 ratio increased significantly on both sides in two of three subjects after training. Peak A2 power increased significantly on both sides in subject 3 and on the affected side of subject 2. Peak H3 power decreased significantly on the non-affected side of subjects 1 and 2. [Conclusion] This study confirmed that two of three subjects demonstrated a trade-off relationship between the hip and ankle joints during gait after plantarflexor training. PMID:26157201

  8. SUMF1 mutations affecting stability and activity of formylglycine generating enzyme predict clinical outcome in multiple sulfatase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Schlotawa, Lars; Ennemann, Eva Charlotte; Radhakrishnan, Karthikeyan; Schmidt, Bernhard; Chakrapani, Anupam; Christen, Hans-Jürgen; Moser, Hugo; Steinmann, Beat; Dierks, Thomas; Gärtner, Jutta

    2011-03-01

    Multiple Sulfatase Deficiency (MSD) is caused by mutations in the sulfatase-modifying factor 1 gene encoding the formylglycine-generating enzyme (FGE). FGE post translationally activates all newly synthesized sulfatases by generating the catalytic residue formylglycine. Impaired FGE function leads to reduced sulfatase activities. Patients display combined clinical symptoms of single sulfatase deficiencies. For ten MSD patients, we determined the clinical phenotype, FGE expression, localization and stability, as well as residual FGE and sulfatase activities. A neonatal, very severe clinical phenotype resulted from a combination of two nonsense mutations leading to almost fully abrogated FGE activity, highly unstable FGE protein and nearly undetectable sulfatase activities. A late infantile mild phenotype resulted from FGE G263V leading to unstable protein but high residual FGE activity. Other missense mutations resulted in a late infantile severe phenotype because of unstable protein with low residual FGE activity. Patients with identical mutations displayed comparable clinical phenotypes. These data confirm the hypothesis that the phenotypic outcome in MSD depends on both residual FGE activity as well as protein stability. Predicting the clinical course in case of molecularly characterized mutations seems feasible, which will be helpful for genetic counseling and developing therapeutic strategies aiming at enhancement of FGE.

  9. Enrofloxacin hydro­chloride dihydrate

    PubMed Central

    Miranda-Calderón, Jorge E.; Gutiérrez, Lilia; Flores-Alamo, Marcos; García-Gutiérrez, Ponciano; Sumano, Héctor

    2014-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C19H23FN3O3 +·Cl−·2H2O [systematic name: 4-(3-carb­oxy-1-cyclo­propyl-6-fluoro-4-oxo-1,4-di­hydro­quin­o­lin-7-yl)-1-ethyl­piperazin-1-ium chloride dihydrate], consists of two independent monocations of the protonated enrofloxacin, two chloride anions and four water mol­ecules. In the cations, the piperazinium rings adopt chair conformations and the dihedral angles between the cyclo­propyl ring and the 10-membered quinoline ring system are 56.55 (2) and 51.11 (2)°. An intra­molecular O—H⋯O hydrogen bond is observed in each cation. In the crystal, the components are connected via O—H⋯Cl, N—H⋯Cl and O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, and a π–π inter­action between the benzene rings [centroid–centroid distance = 3.6726 (13) Å], resulting in a three-dimensional array. PMID:24826167

  10. Hydro-Balanced Stuffing Box field test

    SciTech Connect

    Giangiacomo, L.A.

    1999-05-28

    The Hydro-Balanced Stuffing Box is a seal assembly for polished rod pumping installations commonly used in oil and gas pumping well installations to contain produced well fluids. The improved stuffing box was developed and patented by Harold H. Palmour of The Palmour Group of Livingston, TX. The stuffing box is designed to reduce the incidence of seal leakage and to utilize an environmentally safe fluid, so that if there is any leakage, environmental damage is reduced or eliminated. The unit was tested on two wells at the Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center. During the test period, the performance of the stuffing box was measured by monitoring the pressure on the tubing and the inner chamber with a Barton Two-pen recorder. The amount of safe fluid consumed, fluid leakage at the top of the stuffing box, pressure supplied from the nitrogen bottle, ambient temperature, and polish rod temperature was recorded. The stuffing box is capable of providing a better seal between well fluids an d the environment than conventional stuffing boxes. It allows the polished rod to operate cooler and with lubrication, extending the life of the packing elements, and reducing the amount of attention required to prevent leakage.

  11. Prenatal stress programs neuroendocrine stress responses and affective behaviors in second generation rats in a sex-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Grundwald, Natalia J.; Brunton, Paula J.

    2015-01-01

    An adverse environment in early life is often associated with dysregulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and higher rates of mood disorders in adulthood. In rats, exposure to social stress during pregnancy results in hyperactive HPA axis responses to stress in the adult offspring and heightened anxiety behavior in the males, but not the females. Here we tested whether, without further intervention, the effects of prenatal stress (PNS) in the first filial generation (F1) are transmitted to the F2 generation via the maternal line. F1 control and PNS female rats were mated with control males and housed under non-stress conditions throughout pregnancy. HPA axis responses to acute stress, anxiety- and depressive-like behavior were assessed in the adult F2 offspring. ACTH and corticosterone responses to an acute stressor were markedly enhanced in F2 PNS females compared with controls. This was associated with greater corticotropin releasing hormone (Crh) mRNA expression in the paraventricular nucleus and reduced hippocampal glucocorticoid (Gr) and mineralocorticoid receptor (Mr) mRNA expression. Conversely, in the F2 PNS males, HPA axis responses to acute stress were attenuated and hippocampal Gr mRNA expression was greater compared with controls. F2 PNS males exhibited heightened anxiety-like behavior (light-dark box and elevated plus maze) compared with F2 control males. Anxiety-like behavior did not differ between F2 control and PNS females during metestrus/diestrus, however at proestrus/estrus, F2 control females displayed a reduction in anxiety-like behavior, but this effect was not observed in the F2 PNS females. Heightened anxiety in the F2 PNS males was associated with greater Crh mRNA expression in the central nucleus of the amygdala compared with controls. Moreover, Crh receptor-1 (Crhr1) mRNA expression was significantly increased, whereas Crhr2 mRNA was significantly decreased in discrete regions of the amygdala in F2 PNS males compared

  12. An Overview of Manganese Recovery by Hydro and Pyro-Metallurgical Routes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwivedi, Deepak; Randhawa, Navneet Singh; Saroj, Sanjay; Jana, Ranjeet Kumar

    2017-04-01

    This review comprises of information about the recovery of manganese through leaching and carbothermic reduction routes. In industrial processes, various critical parameters such as ore size, temperature, pressure, gas atmosphere and ore composition etc. affect the reduction or recovery of Mn from ores. Authors have tried to bring those critical parameters in this review which is currently being considered as important industrial parameters for Mn ore processing. This paper deals with both pyro-metallurgical and hydro-metallurgical routes for Mn ore reduction and gives brief summary about the critical parameters.

  13. Water withdrawal and consumption reduction analysis for electrical energy generation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nouri, Narjes

    There is an increasing concern over shrinking water resources. Water use in the energy sector primarily occurs in electricity generation. Anticipating scarcer supplies, the value of water is undoubtedly on the rise and design, implementation, and utilization of water saving mechanisms in energy generation systems are becoming inevitable. Most power plants generate power by boiling water to produce steam to spin electricity-generating turbines. Large quantities of water are often used to cool the steam in these plants. As a consequence, most fossil-based power plants in addition to consuming water, impact the water resources by raising the temperature of water withdrawn for cooling. A comprehensive study is conducted in this thesis to analyze and quantify water withdrawals and consumption of various electricity generation sources such as coal, natural gas, renewable sources, etc. Electricity generation for the state of California is studied and presented as California is facing a serious drought problem affecting more than 30 million people. Integrated planning for the interleaved energy and water sectors is essential for both water and energy savings. A linear model is developed to minimize the water consumption while considering several limitations and restrictions. California has planned to shut down some of its hydro and nuclear plants due to environmental concerns. Studies have been performed for various electricity generation and water saving scenarios including no-hydro and no-nuclear plant and the results are presented. Modifications to proposed different scenarios have been applied and discussed to meet the practical and reliability constraints.

  14. Advancing the Strategic Messages Affecting Robot Trust Effect: The Dynamic of User- and Robot-Generated Content on Human-Robot Trust and Interaction Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yuhua Jake; Lee, Seungcheol Austin

    2016-09-01

    Human-robot interaction (HRI) will soon transform and shift the communication landscape such that people exchange messages with robots. However, successful HRI requires people to trust robots, and, in turn, the trust affects the interaction. Although prior research has examined the determinants of human-robot trust (HRT) during HRI, no research has examined the messages that people received before interacting with robots and their effect on HRT. We conceptualize these messages as SMART (Strategic Messages Affecting Robot Trust). Moreover, we posit that SMART can ultimately affect actual HRI outcomes (i.e., robot evaluations, robot credibility, participant mood) by affording the persuasive influences from user-generated content (UGC) on participatory Web sites. In Study 1, participants were assigned to one of two conditions (UGC/control) in an original experiment of HRT. Compared with the control (descriptive information only), results showed that UGC moderated the correlation between HRT and interaction outcomes in a positive direction (average Δr = +0.39) for robots as media and robots as tools. In Study 2, we explored the effect of robot-generated content but did not find similar moderation effects. These findings point to an important empirical potential to employ SMART in future robot deployment.

  15. The different modes of hydro-economic analysis (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harou, J. J.; Binions, O.; Erfani, T.

    2013-12-01

    In the face of growing water demands, climate change and spatial and temporal water access variability, accurately assessing the economic impacts of proposed water resource management changes is useful. The objective of this project funded by UK Water Industry Research was to present and demonstrate a framework for identifying and using the ';value of water' to enable water utilities and their regulators to make better decisions. A hydro-economic model can help evaluate water management options in terms of their hydrological and economic impact at different locations throughout a catchment over time. In this talk we discuss three modes in which hydro-economic models can be implemented: evaluative, behavioral and prescriptive. In evaluation mode economic water demand and benefit functions are used to post-process water resource management model results to assess the economic impacts (over space and time) of a policy under consideration. In behavioral hydro-economic models users are represented as agents and the economics is used to help predict their actions. In prescriptive mode optimization is used to find the most economically efficient management actions such as allocation patterns or source selection. These three types of hydro-economic analysis are demonstrated on a UK watershed (Great River Ouse) that includes 97 different water abstractors from amongst the public water supply, agriculture, industry and energy plant cooling sectors. The following issues under dry and normal historical conditions were investigated: Supply/demand investment planning, societal cost of environmental flows, water market prices, and scarcity-sensitive charges for water rights. The talk discusses which hydro-economic modeling mode is used to study each of these issues and why; example results are shown and discussed. The topic of how hydro-economic models can be built and deployed effectively is covered along with how existing water utility operational and planning tools can be

  16. Post-entrapment genome engineering: first exon size does not affect the expression of fusion transcripts generated by gene entrapment.

    PubMed

    Osipovich, Anna B; Singh, Aparna; Ruley, H Earl

    2005-03-01

    Gene trap mutagenesis in mouse embryonic stem cells has been widely used for genome-wide studies of mammalian gene function. However, while large numbers of genes can be disrupted, individual mutations may suffer from limitations due to the structure and/or placement of targeting vector. To extend the utility of gene trap mutagenesis, replaceable 3' [or poly(A)] gene trap vectors were developed that permit sequences inserted in individual entrapment clones to be engineered by Cre-mediated recombination. 3' traps incorporating different drug resistance genes could be readily exchanged, simply by selecting for the drug-resistance gene of the replacement vector. By substituting different 3' traps, we show that otherwise identical fusion genes containing a large first exon (804 nt) are not expressed at appreciably lower levels than genes expressing small first exons (384 and 151 nt). Thus, size appears to have less effect on the expression and processing of first exons than has been reported for internal exons. Finally, a retroviral poly(A) trap (consisting of a RNA polymerase II promoter, a neomycin-resistance gene, and 5'-splice site) typically produced mutagenized clones in which vector sequences spliced to the 3'-terminal exons of cellular transcription units, suggesting strong selection for fusion transcripts that evade nonsense-mediated decay. The efficient exchange of poly(A) traps should greatly extend the utility of mutant libraries generated by gene entrapment and provides new strategies to study the rules that govern the expression of exons inserted throughout the genome.

  17. MES Buffer Affects Arabidopsis Root Apex Zonation and Root Growth by Suppressing Superoxide Generation in Root Apex

    PubMed Central

    Kagenishi, Tomoko; Yokawa, Ken; Baluška, František

    2016-01-01

    In plants, growth of roots and root hairs is regulated by the fine cellular control of pH and reactive oxygen species (ROS). MES, 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid as one of the Good’s buffers has broadly been used for buffering medium, and it is thought to suit for plant growth with the concentration at 0.1% (w/v) because the buffer capacity of MES ranging pH 5.5–7.0 (for Arabidopsis, pH 5.8). However, many reports have shown that, in nature, roots require different pH values on the surface of specific root apex zones, namely meristem, transition zone, and elongation zone. Despite the fact that roots always grow on a media containing buffer molecule, little is known about impact of MES on root growth. Here, we have checked the effects of different concentrations of MES buffer using growing roots of Arabidopsis thaliana. Our results show that 1% of MES significantly inhibited root growth, the number of root hairs and length of meristem, whereas 0.1% promoted root growth and root apex area (region spanning from the root tip up to the transition zone). Furthermore, superoxide generation in root apex disappeared at 1% of MES. These results suggest that MES disturbs normal root morphogenesis by changing the ROS homeostasis in root apex. PMID:26925066

  18. Post-entrapment genome engineering: First exon size does not affect the expression of fusion transcripts generated by gene entrapment

    PubMed Central

    Osipovich, Anna B.; Singh, Aparna; Ruley, H. Earl

    2005-01-01

    Gene trap mutagenesis in mouse embryonic stem cells has been widely used for genome-wide studies of mammalian gene function. However, while large numbers of genes can be disrupted, individual mutations may suffer from limitations due to the structure and/or placement of targeting vector. To extend the utility of gene trap mutagenesis, replaceable 3′ [or poly(A)] gene trap vectors were developed that permit sequences inserted in individual entrapment clones to be engineered by Cre-mediated recombination. 3′ traps incorporating different drug resistance genes could be readily exchanged, simply by selecting for the drug-resistance gene of the replacement vector. By substituting different 3′ traps, we show that otherwise identical fusion genes containing a large first exon (804 nt) are not expressed at appreciably lower levels than genes expressing small first exons (384 and 151 nt). Thus, size appears to have less effect on the expression and processing of first exons than has been reported for internal exons. Finally, a retroviral poly(A) trap (consisting of a RNA polymerase II promoter, a neomycin-resistance gene, and 5′-splice site) typically produced mutagenized clones in which vector sequences spliced to the 3′-terminal exons of cellular transcription units, suggesting strong selection for fusion transcripts that evade nonsense-mediated decay. The efficient exchange of poly(A) traps should greatly extend the utility of mutant libraries generated by gene entrapment and provides new strategies to study the rules that govern the expression of exons inserted throughout the genome. PMID:15741512

  19. ‘Second-Generation' Mephedrone Analogs, 4-MEC and 4-MePPP, Differentially Affect Monoamine Transporter Function

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Kusumika; Partilla, John S; Lehner, Kurt R; Seddik, Amir; Stockner, Thomas; Holy, Marion; Sandtner, Walter; Ecker, Gerhard F; Sitte, Harald H; Baumann, Michael H

    2015-01-01

    The nonmedical use of synthetic cathinones is increasing on a global scale. 4-Methyl-N-methylcathinone (mephedrone) is a popular synthetic cathinone that is now illegal in the United States and other countries. Since the legislative ban on mephedrone, a number of ‘second-generation' analogs have appeared in the street drug marketplace, including 4-methyl-N-ethylcathinone (4-MEC) and 4′-methyl-α-pyrrolidinopropiophenone (4-MePPP). Here we characterized the interactions of 4-MEC and 4-MePPP with transporters for 5-HT (SERT) and dopamine (DAT) using molecular, cellular, and whole-animal methods. In vitro transporter assays revealed that 4-MEC displays unusual ‘hybrid' activity as a SERT substrate (ie, 5-HT releaser) and DAT blocker, whereas 4-MePPP is a blocker at both transporters but more potent at DAT. In vivo microdialysis experiments in rat brain demonstrated that 4-MEC (1–3 mg/kg, i.v.) produced large increases in extracellular 5-HT, small increases in dopamine, and minimal motor stimulation. In contrast, 4-MePPP (1–3 mg/kg, i.v.) produced selective increases in dopamine and robust motor stimulation. Consistent with its activity as a SERT substrate, 4-MEC evoked inward current in SERT-expressing Xenopus oocytes, whereas 4-MePPP was inactive in this regard. To examine drug–transporter interactions at the molecular level, we modeled the fit of 4-MEC and 4-MePPP into the binding pockets for DAT and SERT. Subtle distinctions in ligand–transporter binding were found that account for the differential effects of 4-MEC and 4-MePPP at SERT. Collectively, our results provide key information about the pharmacology of newly emerging mephedrone analogs, and give clues to structural requirements that govern drug selectivity at DAT vs SERT. PMID:25502630

  20. Mortality Patterns of Hydro-Geomorphologic Disasters.

    PubMed

    Pereira, S; Zêzere, J L; Quaresma, I; Santos, P P; Santos, M

    2016-06-01

    Social impacts caused by floods and landslides in Portugal in the period of 1865-2010 are gathered in the DISASTER database. This database contains 1,902 hydro-geomorphologic cases that caused 1,248 fatalities (81% and 19% associated with floods and landslides, respectively). The use of the DISASTER database allowed for: (i) the analysis of the frequency and the temporal evolution of fatal floods and landslides; (ii) the analysis of the spatio-temporal distribution of fatalities; (iii) the identification of the most deadly flood and landside types; (iv) the verification of gender tendencies in mortalities; and (v) the evaluation of individual and societal risk. The highest number of flood and landslide cases and related mortalities occurred in the period of 1935-1969. After this period, the number of flood and landslide mortalities decreased, although landslide fatalities remained higher than those registered in the period of 1865-1934. The occurrence of flood fatalities was widespread in the country, with an important cluster in the Lisbon region and in the Tagus valley, while fatalities caused by landslides mainly occurred in the north of the Tagus valley. Flash floods caused the majority of fatalities associated with floods, while falls and flows were responsible for the highest number of fatalities associated with landslides. Males were found to have the highest frequency of fatalities. In the case of floods, the majority of fatalities were found both outdoors and inside of buildings in rural areas while fatalities inside buildings were dominant in landslide cases, mostly in rural areas.

  1. Assessing Hydro-Ecological Vulnerability from Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stampoulis, D.; Andreadis, K.; Granger, S. L.; Fisher, J. B.; Turk, F. J.; Behrangi, A.; Das, N. N.; Ines, A.

    2015-12-01

    The main driver of economic growth in East Africa is agriculture. However, climate change and the resulting intensification of the hydrologic cycle will increase water limitation in this already drought-burdened region, and the challenge of ensuring food security is bound to become critical. Efforts must, therefore, be made to develop appropriate adaptation strategies for agriculture in such regions. Assessing and predicting ecosystem responses to global environmental change can advance management and decision support systems that would improve food security and economic development. The current study uses a plethora of multi-year remote sensing earth observations to study the hydro-ecological vulnerability of the various ecosystems in the water-stressed East African region to droughts. More specifically, we assess the hydrologic sensitivity and resilience of soil moisture and vegetation water content (derived from NRL's WindSat radiometer), during dry spells, for different dry-period durations, and for various vegetation categories. Spatiotemporal patterns and characteristics of the response of the two aforementioned variables to sustained precipitation deficits (derived from TRMM 3B42 V7), as well as their persistence in maintaining their stability are identified. We also assess changes, in space and time, in the normalized radar surface-backscattering cross-sections from NASA's QuikSCAT Scatterometer, to obtain information on the vegetation regimes, as well as changes in vegetation phenometrics using the enhanced vegetation index (EVI) derived from MODIS. Quantifying the response and characterizing the resilience of the two aforementioned major hydrological attributes using various remote sensing techniques that complement each other, can provide critical insight into the region's vulnerability and adaptive capacity with respect to rainfall variability.

  2. 77 FR 62535 - Hydro Aluminum North America, Inc., Midwest Region, Including On-Site Leased Workers From...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-15

    ... Employment and Training Administration Hydro Aluminum North America, Inc., Midwest Region, Including On- Site Leased Workers From Employment Group, Aerotek, and Manpower, Kalamazoo, Michigan; Hydro Aluminum North... and former workers of Hydro Aluminum North America, Inc., Kalamazoo, Michigan. The subject...

  3. Advances in Subcritical Hydro-/Solvothermal Processing of Graphene Materials.

    PubMed

    Sasikala, Suchithra Padmajan; Poulin, Philippe; Aymonier, Cyril

    2017-02-28

    Many promising graphene-based materials are kept away from mainstream applications due to problems of scalability and environmental concerns in their processing. Hydro-/solvothermal techniques overwhelmingly satisfy both the aforementioned criteria, and have matured as alternatives to wet-chemical methods with advances made over the past few decades. The insolubility of graphene in many solvents poses considerable difficulties in their processing. In this context hydro-/solvothermal techniques present an ideal opportunity for processing of graphenic materials with their versatility in manipulating the physical and thermodynamic properties of the solvent. The flexibility in hydro-/solvothermal techniques for manipulation of solvent composition, temperature and pressure provides numerous handles to manipulate graphene-based materials during synthesis. This review provides a comprehensive look at the subcritical hydro-/solvothermal synthesis of graphene-based functional materials and their applications. Several key synthetic strategies governing the morphology and properties of the products such as temperature, pressure, and solvent effects are elaborated. Advances in the synthesis, doping, and functionalization of graphene in hydro-/solvothermal media are highlighted together with our perspectives in the field.

  4. A fully coupled wave resolving hydro-morphodynamical model to predict beachface evolution within a storm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Incelli, Giorgio; Briganti, Riccardo; Dodd, Nicholas

    2014-05-01

    Sea storms change the shape of natural beaches, affecting this important environment. The evolution that occurs within a single storm is not yet well understood and modelled. Its knowledge is important in understanding the mechanisms involved in coastal erosion. The present study proposes an accurate and computationally efficient numerical prediction method for beachface evolution during an individual storm. A fully coupled hydro-morphodynamical numerical solver has been developed from the previous work of Briganti et al. (2012). The one-dimensional Non-Linear Shallow Water Equations are coupled with a bed evolution relationship and solved simultaneously by means of a TVD-MacCormack scheme. Preliminary analysis of the accuracy of the model performance was conducted against available analytical solutions and numerical results for single swash event. A suitable hydro-morphodynamic absorbing-generating condition at the seaward boundary has been developed. It prescribes the incoming wave while allows the wave reflected back by the beach to leave the domain. This boundary condition is fully coupled and based on the solution of the Riemann Equations, following previous work by Kelly and Dodd (2009). The performance of this technique was compared with existing, hydrodynamic-only boundary conditions. The evolution of an impermeable beach described by Dodd et al. (2008) was used as a reference case. Here only the bed load is considered in the sediment transport. The evolution of an erodible idealised beach is studied during 4000 regular waves cycles, comparable with the time scale of a storm event. The proposed model proved itself able to describe the shoreline retreat caused by the process of erosion of the beach. It experienced an increasing erosion in the upper (shoreward) and mid parts of the swash zone, with net offshore sediment transport, while the growth of a breaker bar occurred in the lower swash zone. The erosive action resulted of decreasing intensity in time

  5. Dynamic hydro-climatic networks in pristine and regulated rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botter, G.; Basso, S.; Lazzaro, G.; Doulatyari, B.; Biswal, B.; Schirmer, M.; Rinaldo, A.

    2014-12-01

    Flow patterns observed at-a-station are the dynamical byproduct of a cascade of processes involving different compartments of the hydro-climatic network (e.g., climate, rainfall, soil, vegetation) that regulates the transformation of rainfall into streamflows. In complex branching rivers, flow regimes result from the heterogeneous arrangement around the stream network of multiple hydrologic cascades that simultaneously occur within distinct contributing areas. As such, flow regimes are seen as the integrated output of a complex "network of networks", which can be properly characterized by its degree of temporal variability and spatial heterogeneity. Hydrologic networks that generate river flow regimes are dynamic in nature. In pristine rivers, the time-variance naturally emerges at multiple timescales from climate variability (namely, seasonality and inter-annual fluctuations), implying that the magnitude (and the features) of the water flow between two nodes may be highly variable across different seasons and years. Conversely, the spatial distribution of river flow regimes within pristine rivers involves scale-dependent transport features, as well as regional climatic and soil use gradients, which in small and meso-scale catchments (A < 103 km2) are usually mild enough to guarantee quite uniform flow regimes and high spatial correlations. Human-impacted rivers, instead, constitute hybrid networks where observed spatio-temporal patterns are dominated by anthropogenic shifts, such as landscape alterations and river regulation. In regulated rivers, the magnitude and the features of water flows from node to node may change significantly through time due to damming and withdrawals. However, regulation may impact river regimes in a spatially heterogeneous manner (e.g. in localized river reaches), with a significant decrease of spatial correlations and network connectivity. Provided that the spatial and temporal dynamics of flow regimes in complex rivers may strongly

  6. 78 FR 22873 - Hamilton Street Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Hamilton Street Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application... 19, 2013, Hamilton Street Hydro, LLC, filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant...

  7. 78 FR 48670 - Rivermill Hydroelectric, Inc., New Hampshire Hydro Associates; Notice of Transfer of Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Rivermill Hydroelectric, Inc., New Hampshire Hydro Associates; Notice of... New Hampshire Hydro Associates informed the Commission that the exemption from licensing for the...

  8. 78 FR 22872 - Hamilton Street Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Hamilton Street Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application... 19, 2013, Hamilton Street Hydro, LLC, filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant...

  9. 76 FR 44323 - National Grid Transmission Services Corporation; Bangor Hydro Electric Company; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-25

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission National Grid Transmission Services Corporation; Bangor Hydro Electric... of the Commission's Rules of Practice and Procedure, 18 CFR 385.207, National Grid Transmission Services Corporation and Bangor Hydro Electric Company (collectively, NEL Parties) filed a petition...

  10. 78 FR 34090 - New Hampshire Water Resources Board, Hydro Dynamics Corporation; Notice of Transfer of Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission New Hampshire Water Resources Board, Hydro Dynamics Corporation; Notice of... and the New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services, as successor agency, and Hydro...

  11. 6. INTERIOR VIEW OF CROSSCUT HYDRO PLANT, SHOWING 25 CYCLE60 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. INTERIOR VIEW OF CROSSCUT HYDRO PLANT, SHOWING 25 CYCLE-60 CYCLE FREQUENCY CHANGER Photographer unknown, December 14, 1940 - Cross Cut Hydro Plant, North Side of Salt River, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  12. Magnetic Characterization of Iron Oxide Cross Linked Hydro gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senaratne, U.; Powell, N.; Kroll, E.; Tsoi, G.; Naik, R.; Naik, V.; Vaishnava, P. P.; Wenger, L. E.

    2004-03-01

    Magnetic hydro gels have potential applications in drug delivery, cells sorting, sensors, and actuating technologies. Iron oxide alginate nanocomposites were synthesized following the method of Kroll et al^1 by cross linking sodium alginate with Fe^2+ and Fe^3+ in methanol: water. The ion-cross linked alginate hydro gels are oxidized in an alkaline solution. The resulting hydro gel consists of iron oxide cross linked alginate. The alginate hydro gels are inert to the reaction conditions and therefore the reaction sequence can be repeated. The multiple loadings result in an increase in the amount of iron oxide and the size of the iron oxide nanoparticles in the cross linked hydro gels. The third and sixth loaded iron oxide alginate hydro gels were dried and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), and Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) magnetometry. The XRD patterns have characteristic features of γ- Fe_2O3 or Fe_3O4 phases. The average particle size, calculated from the XRD peaks, for third loaded iron oxide alginate was 2 nm. The zero-field-cooled and field-cooled SQUID measurements show the iron oxide nanoparticles are superparamagnetic with blocking temperature (T_B) of approximately 35 K. Above the blocking temperature, the inverse susceptibility versus temperature relationship does not follow the Curie-Weiss law, indicating strong inter-particle interactions. The M vs. H data above the blocking temperature was fitted with a modified Langevin function to obtain additional information about the iron oxide particle size. Details of the relationship between coercive field and temperature as well as the particle size distribution obtained from XRD and TEM measurements will be presented. *Research supported by NSF grant # DGE ˜980720 **Supported by NSF REU grant # EEC-0097736 ^1E. Kroll, F.M. Winnik, and R.F. Ziolo, Chem. Mater, 8, 1594 (1996).

  13. Assimilation of Cloud- and Land-Affected TOVS/ATOVS Level 1B Radiances in DAO's Next Generation Finite-Volume Data Assimilation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joiner, J.; daSilva, A.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Physical-space/Finite-volume Data Assimilation System (fvDAS) is the next generation global atmospheric data assimilation system in development at the Data Assimilation Office (DAO) at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. It is based on a new finite-volume general circulation model jointly developed by NASA and NCAR, and on the Physical-Space Statistical Analysis System (PSAS) developed at the DAO. In this talk we will focus on the assimilation of data from the (Advanced) TIROS Operational Vertical Sounder (ATOVS), with emphasis on the impact of cloud- and land-affected level 1B radiances. Recently, it has been shown that the use of observations from satellite-borne microwave and infrared radiometers in data assimilation systems consistently increases forecast skill. Considerable effort has been expended over the past two decades, particularly with the (Advanced) TIROS Operational Vertical Sounder (ATOVS), to achieve this result. The positive impact on forecast skill has resulted from improvements in quality control algorithms, systematic error correction schemes, and more sophisticated data assimilation algorithms. Despite these advances, there are still many issues regarding the use of satellite data in data assimilation systems that remain unresolved. In particular, most operational centers still do not assimilate cloud- and land-affected TOVS data. In this study, we evaluate the impact of assimilating cloud-and land-affected TOVS/ATOVS level 1B data in DAO's next generation fvDAS, using a 1D variational scheme. We will discuss the impact of these data on both tropospheric and stratospheric forecasts, as well as on the general aspects of the earth climate system.

  14. Planting the [open quote]seeds[close quote] for increased water availability for hydro

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, D.A. )

    1993-08-01

    Cloud seeding programs are providing some hydro producers with a way of increasing their water reserves on short notice and with relatively low cost. The fundamental formula has been known for half a century: clouds plus cold plus solid particles equal precipitation. What was not certain until more recently is how that relationship could be effectively used to alter the weather in positive ways. Research and practical experience now show that cloud seeding -- adding tiny solid particles to the right clouds at the right temperature -- works. More pertinent, evidence is mounting that hydropower producers can use well-designed, carefully times seeding programs to increase the amount of water available to their systems and thus enhance electricity generation. Cloud seeding has several advantages as a tool to augment hydroelectric production. Seeding programs typically require no capital investment by the utility or other power producer, and can be started and stopped on relatively short notice. Operating costs usually are less than $10 per acre-foot of additional streamflow. More broadly, the additional water produced for hydro generation has the environmental and community relations benefits of being reusable and less expensive than thermal power alternatives. There also normally are the additional benefits of increased water supplies for other users.

  15. Power Management Based Current Control Technique for Photovoltaic-Battery Assisted Wind-Hydro Hybrid System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ram Prabhakar, J.; Ragavan, K.

    2013-07-01

    This article proposes new power management based current control strategy for integrated wind-solar-hydro system equipped with battery storage mechanism. In this control technique, an indirect estimation of load current is done, through energy balance model, DC-link voltage control and droop control. This system features simpler energy management strategy and necessitates few power electronic converters, thereby minimizing the cost of the system. The generation-demand (G-D) management diagram is formulated based on the stochastic weather conditions and demand, which would likely moderate the gap between both. The features of management strategy deploying energy balance model include (1) regulating DC-link voltage within specified tolerances, (2) isolated operation without relying on external electric power transmission network, (3) indirect current control of hydro turbine driven induction generator and (4) seamless transition between grid-connected and off-grid operation modes. Furthermore, structuring of the hybrid system with appropriate selection of control variables enables power sharing among each energy conversion systems and battery storage mechanism. By addressing these intricacies, it is viable to regulate the frequency and voltage of the remote network at load end. The performance of the proposed composite scheme is demonstrated through time-domain simulation in MATLAB/Simulink environment.

  16. The HydroServer Platform for Sharing Hydrologic Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarboton, D. G.; Horsburgh, J. S.; Schreuders, K.; Maidment, D. R.; Zaslavsky, I.; Valentine, D. W.

    2010-12-01

    The CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System (HIS) is an internet based system that supports sharing of hydrologic data. HIS consists of databases connected using the Internet through Web services, as well as software for data discovery, access, and publication. The HIS system architecture is comprised of servers for publishing and sharing data, a centralized catalog to support cross server data discovery and a desktop client to access and analyze data. This paper focuses on HydroServer, the component developed for sharing and publishing space-time hydrologic datasets. A HydroServer is a computer server that contains a collection of databases, web services, tools, and software applications that allow data producers to store, publish, and manage the data from an experimental watershed or project site. HydroServer is designed to permit publication of data as part of a distributed national/international system, while still locally managing access to the data. We describe the HydroServer architecture and software stack, including tools for managing and publishing time series data for fixed point monitoring sites as well as spatially distributed, GIS datasets that describe a particular study area, watershed, or region. HydroServer adopts a standards based approach to data publication, relying on accepted and emerging standards for data storage and transfer. CUAHSI developed HydroServer code is free with community code development managed through the codeplex open source code repository and development system. There is some reliance on widely used commercial software for general purpose and standard data publication capability. The sharing of data in a common format is one way to stimulate interdisciplinary research and collaboration. It is anticipated that the growing, distributed network of HydroServers will facilitate cross-site comparisons and large scale studies that synthesize information from diverse settings, making the network as a whole greater than the sum of its

  17. 77 FR 20808 - Black Bear Hydro Partners, LLC; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing, Ready for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-06

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Black Bear Hydro Partners, LLC; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing... October 7, 2011, January 20, 2012, and March 14, 2012. d. Applicant: Black Bear Hydro Partners, LLC. e...: Federal Power Act, 16 U.S.C. 791a-825r. h. Applicant Contact: Mr. Scott D. Hall, Black Bear Hydro...

  18. 78 FR 71601 - KC Small Hydro LLC; Advanced Hydropower, Inc.; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-29

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission KC Small Hydro LLC; Advanced Hydropower, Inc.; Notice of Preliminary Permit... the applicant to KC Small Hydro LLC. (KCS Hydro). On November 5, 2013, Advanced Hydropower, Inc... the feasibility of a hydropower project to be located at the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers'...

  19. 76 FR 12947 - Bear Creek Hydro Associates, LLC; Notice of Declaration of Intention and Soliciting Comments...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Bear...: DI11-3-000. c. Date Filed: February 14, 2011. ] d. Applicant: Bear Creek Hydro Associates, LLC. e. Name of Project: Bear Creek Hydro Project. f. Location: The Bear Creek Hydro Project will be located...

  20. 77 FR 55466 - Barren River Lake Hydro LLC; Notice Soliciting Scoping Comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-10

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Barren River Lake Hydro LLC; Notice Soliciting Scoping Comments Take notice... filed: December 9, 2011 and amended on June 21, 2012. d. Applicant: Barren River Lake Hydro LLC (Barren River Hydro). e. Name of Project: Barren River Lake Dam Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: At the...

  1. 76 FR 35875 - Blue Heron Hydro LLC; Notice of Application Ready for Environmental Analysis and Soliciting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ...] Blue Heron Hydro LLC; Notice of Application Ready for Environmental Analysis and Soliciting Comments... Heron Hydro LLC. e. Name of Project: Townshend Dam Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: At the U.S. Army..., Blue Heron Hydro LLC, 113 Bartlett Road, Plainfield, Vermont 05667. (802) 454-1874. i. FERC Contact:...

  2. 76 FR 35873 - Blue Heron Hydro LLC; Notice of Application Ready for Environmental Analysis and Soliciting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ...] Blue Heron Hydro LLC; Notice of Application Ready for Environmental Analysis and Soliciting Comments... Heron Hydro LLC. e. Name of Project: Ball Mountain Dam Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: At the U.S..., Blue Heron Hydro LLC, 113 Bartlett Road, Plainfield, Vermont 05667. (802) 454-1874. i. FERC Contact:...

  3. 75 FR 11153 - Hydro Energy Technologies, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-10

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Hydro Energy Technologies, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application.... On November 6, 2009, Hydro Energy Technologies, LLC (Hydro Energy Technologies) filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to section 4(f) of the Federal Power Act, proposing to study...

  4. 76 FR 7840 - American Hydro Power Company; Notice of Termination of Exemption by Implied Surrender and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-11

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission American Hydro Power Company; Notice of Termination of Exemption by Implied...: American Hydro Power Company. e. Name and Location of Project: The Gilpin Falls Project is located on... Information: Mr. Richard J. Halloran, American Hydro Power Company, 771 E. Lancaster Ave., Suite...

  5. 76 FR 52648 - Konohiki Hydro Power, Inc.; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Comments...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-23

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Konohiki Hydro Power, Inc.; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and...: May 9, 2011, and supplemented August 4, 2011. d. Applicant: Konohiki Hydro Power, Inc. e. Name of.... h. Applicant Contact: Mrs. Pamela Miller, Konohiki Hydro Power, Inc., P.O. Box 261, Anahola,...

  6. 80 FR 53510 - Owyhee Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2015-09-04

    ...-000] Owyhee Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Comments, Motions To Intervene, and Competing Applications On November 24, 2014, Owyhee Hydro, LLC (Owyhee..., 2015, Owyhee Hydro filed a revised application providing an additional alternative to the...

  7. 77 FR 26796 - HydroGenetics, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-07

    ... COMMISSION HydroGenetics, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading May 2, 2012. It appears to the Securities and... HydroGenetics, Inc. (``HydroGenetics'') because it has not filed a periodic report since its Form 10... interest and the protection of investors require a suspension of trading in the securities of...

  8. 75 FR 71106 - Deer Creek Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-22

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Deer Creek Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for... October 14, 2010, Deer Creek Hydro, LLC (Deer Creek Hydro) filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to section 4(f) of the Federal Power Act (FPA), proposing to study the feasibility of the...

  9. How induction generators work

    SciTech Connect

    Nailen, R.L.

    1980-06-01

    The operating principles of the induction generator, which is a standard squirrel cage motor in which the shaft is coupled to and driven by an engine or turbine at a rate above its synchronous speed and which, under these conditions, produces electrical power, are described. The advantages of induction generators, e.g., low cost, simplicity, frequency and voltage controlled by the utility system, no synchronizing controls needed, and the advantages of using small induction generators run by wind turbines, small gas turbines and in low head hydro plants are discussed. (LCL)

  10. Imparting super hydro/oleophobic properties to cotton fabric by means of molecular and nanoparticles vapor deposition methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aminayi, Payam; Abidi, Noureddine

    2013-12-01

    Super hydro/oleophobic cotton fabrics were prepared using nanoparticle vapor deposition and molecular vapor deposition techniques. The surface was roughened by trimethylaluminum/water nanoparticles followed by functionalization with (tridecafluoro-1,1,2,2-tetrahydrooctyl)trichlorosilane. This process imparted unique hydro/oleophobic properties (contact angle >160°). In contrast to wet chemistry processes, the chemicals used and the thickness of the coatings produced by this method could be controlled precisely, which allowed for the minimization of waste generation while preserving the original properties of the fabric. Dynamic contact angles were measured and the fabrics that were coated using this technique showed low-contact-angle hysteresis properties. Scanning electron microscopy and universal attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed the formation of a nanostructure-roughened surface. Drop dynamics such as the force of droplet movement, work of adhesion, and surface free energy were also calculated.

  11. Soil Moisture Time Stability in Two Hydro-climatic Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohanty, B. P.; Joshi, C.; Jacobs, J. M.

    2009-12-01

    In this study we present time stability analyses of soil moisture at different spatial measurement support scales (point-scale and airborne remote sensing footprint-scale 800 m X 800 m) in two different hydro-climatic regions. The data used in the analyses consist of in-situ and passive microwave remotely sensed soil moisture data from Southern Great Plains hydrology experiments 1997 and 1999 (SGP97 and SGP99) conducted in Little Washita (LW) watershed, Oklahoma, and Soil Moisture Experiments 2002 and 2005 (SMEX02 and SMEX05) in Walnut Creek (WC) watershed, Iowa. Results show that in both the regions soil properties (i.e., percentage clay, percentage sand, and soil texture), and topography (elevation and slope) are significant physical controls jointly affecting the spatio-temporal evolution and time stability of soil moisture at both point- and footprint-scale. In Iowa, using point scale soil moisture measurements, WC11 field having higher %clay and lower %sand content was found to be more time stable than the WC12 field. The common time stable points using data across the 3-year period (2002-2005) were mostly located at moderate to high elevations in both the fields. Drainage features and cropping practices also affected the field-scale soil moisture variability in the WC fields. At the remote sensing footprint-scale, the ANOVA tests show that the percentage clay and percentage sand are better able to discern the time stable features of the footprints compared to the soil texture in Iowa. Further, the footprints with steep slopes exhibited the best time stable characteristics in Iowa. On the other hand, in Oklahoma, ANOVA results show that the footprints with sandy clay and loam soil texture are better indicators of the time stability phenomena. In terms of the hill slope position, depressions (0-0.93%) followed by mild slopes (0.93-1.85%) are the best indicators of time stable footprints. Also, at both point- and footprint-scale in both the regions, land use

  12. 78 FR 929 - TransCanada Hydro Northeast Inc.; FirstLight Hydro Generating Company; Notice of Intent To File...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-07

    ... within the Connecticut River Basin. We invite all interested agencies, Indian tribes, NGOs, and... attended by individuals representing, local, state, and federal government agencies, NGOs, and members...

  13. Virtues of simple hydro-economic optimization: Baja California, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Medellín-Azuara, J; Mendoza-Espinosa, L G; Lund, J R; Harou, J J; Howitt, R E

    2009-08-01

    This paper uses simple hydro-economic optimization to investigate a wide range of regional water system management options for northern Baja California, Mexico. Hydro-economic optimization models, even with parsimonious model formulations, enable investigation of promising water management portfolios for supplying water to agricultural, environmental and urban users. CALVIN, a generalized hydro-economic model, is used in a case study of Baja California. This drought-prone region faces significant challenges to supply water to agriculture and its fast growing border cities. Water management portfolios include water markets, wastewater reuse, seawater desalination and infrastructure expansions. Water markets provide the flexibility to meet future urban demands; however conveyance capacity limits their use. Wastewater reuse and conveyance expansions are economically promising. At current costs desalination is currently uneconomical for Baja California compared to other alternatives. Even simple hydro-economic models suggest ways to increase efficiency of water management in water scarce areas, and provide an economic basis for evaluating long-term water management solutions.

  14. 77 FR 55468 - Oliver Hydro LLC; Notice Soliciting Scoping Comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-10

    ...: December 14, 2011. d. Applicant: Oliver Hydro LLC. e. Name of Project: William Bacon Oliver Lock and Dam Hydroelectric Project f. Location: At the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' (Corps) William Bacon Oliver Lock and... environmental analysis at this time. l. The proposed project would utilize the Corps' existing William...

  15. Zinc and cadmium in soils and plants near electrical transmission (hydro) towers

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.; Burgess, M.S.E.

    1984-10-01

    Concentrations of Zn and Cd were determined in plants and soils around and beneath corroding galvanized electrical transmission (hydro) towers located in different habitats near Peterborough, Ontario. High concentrations of Zn occurred in a well-drained, uncultivated drumlin soil around and beneath a tower. The pattern of contamination indicated spread of Zn by runoff and by wind-driven spray and water droplets from the tower. Plants growing close to this tower accumulated Zn but apparently were not adversely affected, probably because of low Zn availability in the soil. In a cultivated field, the distribution of Zn around the base of a tower seemed to be affected by soil cultivation and by crop removal. Concentrations of Cd were not elevated in plants or soils beneath or near towers in this study. 2 figures, 2 tables.

  16. Simulations of Blade Angle Effects on EGAT-Micro Hydro Turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuantong, Weerapon; Taechajedcadarungsri, Sirivit

    2010-06-01

    Following the feasibility study of design phase of EGAT (Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand) in-house micro hydro bulb turbine at Huai Kum Dam drainage pipeline from the reservoir for irrigation, the simulation of blade angle effects had been performed. In this case study, the turbine was designed at the average head of 21 m and water flow rate of 0.424 m3/s. The simulation was conducted in order to study of the effects of blade angle on the fluid flow for this specific case. The LES turbulence model under the practical condition of unsteady flow and incompressible fluid at Huai Kum Dam was investigated. The rotating blades effect the change in pressure and momentum which depend on head and flow rate of fluid. The research studied pressure and velocity of fluid flow on blades solving the pre-design for the improvement of hydro turbine efficiency. The computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) was used to simulate the pressure and velocity distributions on blades of hydro bulb turbine which consists of five-blade runner and rotates at 980 rpm by using Fluent Software. The model was set at the blade twist angle of 25o and blade camber angle of 32o and then adjusted the guide vane angle to 60o, 65o and 70o respectively for comparing the maximum and minimum pressure on both sides of the blades as well as the corresponding efficiency. The results have shown that by setting guide vane angle to 60o, 65o and 70o, the maximum pressure, located at the leading edge of pressure side, are 213 kPa, 217 kPa and 207 kPa and the minimum pressure, located at the leading edge of suction side are -473 kPa, -465 kPa, and -581 kPa respectively. The flow profiles of pressure, velocity and stream line showed the guidelines of better blade angle comparisons. The maximum efficiency of hydro bulb turbine found in this study was 67.8% at blade angle of 32o and guide vane of 60o. This case study will be further investigated on the blade design for the improvement of the turbine efficiency

  17. Satellite Based Probabilistic Snow Cover Extent Mapping (SCE) at Hydro-Québec

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teasdale, Mylène; De Sève, Danielle; Angers, Jean-François; Perreault, Luc

    2016-04-01

    Over 40% of Canada's water resources are in Quebec and Hydro-Quebec has developed potential to become one of the largest producers of hydroelectricity in the world, with a total installed capacity of 36,643 MW. The Hydro-Québec fleet park includes 27 large reservoirs with a combined storage capacity of 176 TWh, and 668 dams and 98 controls. Thus, over 98% of all electricity used to supply the domestic market comes from water resources and the excess output is sold on the wholesale markets. In this perspective the efficient management of water resources is needed and it is based primarily on a good river flow estimation including appropriate hydrological data. Snow on ground is one of the significant variables representing 30% to 40% of its annual energy reserve. More specifically, information on snow cover extent (SCE) and snow water equivalent (SWE) is crucial for hydrological forecasting, particularly in northern regions since the snowmelt provides the water that fills the reservoirs and is subsequently used for hydropower generation. For several years Hydro Quebec's research institute ( IREQ) developed several algorithms to map SCE and SWE. So far all the methods were deterministic. However, given the need to maximize the efficient use of all resources while ensuring reliability, the electrical systems must now be managed taking into account all risks. Since snow cover estimation is based on limited spatial information, it is important to quantify and handle its uncertainty in the hydrological forecasting system. This paper presents the first results of a probabilistic algorithm for mapping SCE by combining Bayesian mixture of probability distributions and multiple logistic regression models applied to passive microwave data. This approach allows assigning for each grid point, probabilities to the set of the mutually exclusive discrete outcomes: "snow" and "no snow". Its performance was evaluated using the Brier score since it is particularly appropriate to

  18. Modeling the hydro-mechanical responses of strip and circular punch loadings on water-saturated collapsible geomaterials

    DOE PAGES

    Sun, WaiChing; Chen, Qiushi; Ostien, Jakob T.

    2013-11-22

    A stabilized enhanced strain finite element procedure for poromechanics is fully integrated with an elasto-plastic cap model to simulate the hydro-mechanical interactions of fluid-infiltrating porous rocks with associative and non-associative plastic flow. We present a quantitative analysis on how macroscopic plastic volumetric response caused by pore collapse and grain rearrangement affects the seepage of pore fluid, and vice versa. Results of finite element simulations imply that the dissipation of excess pore pressure may significantly affect the stress path and thus alter the volumetric plastic responses.

  19. Generation of a Genome Scale Lentiviral Vector Library for EF1α Promoter-Driven Expression of Human ORFs and Identification of Human Genes Affecting Viral Titer

    PubMed Central

    Škalamera, Dubravka; Dahmer, Mareike; Purdon, Amy S.; Wilson, Benjamin M.; Ranall, Max V.; Blumenthal, Antje; Gabrielli, Brian; Gonda, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    The bottleneck in elucidating gene function through high-throughput gain-of-function genome screening is the limited availability of comprehensive libraries for gene overexpression. Lentiviral vectors are the most versatile and widely used vehicles for gene expression in mammalian cells. Lentiviral supernatant libraries for genome screening are commonly generated in the HEK293T cell line, yet very little is known about the effect of introduced sequences on the produced viral titer, which we have shown to be gene dependent. We have generated an arrayed lentiviral vector library for the expression of 17,030 human proteins by using the GATEWAY® cloning system to transfer ORFs from the Mammalian Gene Collection into an EF1alpha promoter-dependent lentiviral expression vector. This promoter was chosen instead of the more potent and widely used CMV promoter, because it is less prone to silencing and provides more stable long term expression. The arrayed lentiviral clones were used to generate viral supernatant by packaging in the HEK293T cell line. The efficiency of transfection and virus production was estimated by measuring the fluorescence of IRES driven GFP, co-expressed with the ORFs. More than 90% of cloned ORFs produced sufficient virus for downstream screening applications. We identified genes which consistently produced very high or very low viral titer. Supernatants from select clones that were either high or low virus producers were tested on a range of cell lines. Some of the low virus producers, including two previously uncharacterized proteins were cytotoxic to HEK293T cells. The library we have constructed presents a powerful resource for high-throughput gain-of-function screening of the human genome and drug-target discovery. Identification of human genes that affect lentivirus production may lead to improved technology for gene expression using lentiviral vectors. PMID:23251614

  20. Neuro-Fuzzy Computational Technique to Control Load Frequency in Hydro-Thermal Interconnected Power System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, S.; Sinha, S. K.

    2015-09-01

    In this research work, two areas hydro-thermal power system connected through tie-lines is considered. The perturbation of frequencies at the areas and resulting tie line power flows arise due to unpredictable load variations that cause mismatch between the generated and demanded powers. Due to rising and falling power demand, the real and reactive power balance is harmed; hence frequency and voltage get deviated from nominal value. This necessitates designing of an accurate and fast controller to maintain the system parameters at nominal value. The main purpose of system generation control is to balance the system generation against the load and losses so that the desired frequency and power interchange between neighboring systems are maintained. The intelligent controllers like fuzzy logic, artificial neural network (ANN) and hybrid fuzzy neural network approaches are used for automatic generation control for the two area interconnected power systems. Area 1 consists of thermal reheat power plant whereas area 2 consists of hydro power plant with electric governor. Performance evaluation is carried out by using intelligent (ANFIS, ANN and fuzzy) control and conventional PI and PID control approaches. To enhance the performance of controller sliding surface i.e. variable structure control is included. The model of interconnected power system has been developed with all five types of said controllers and simulated using MATLAB/SIMULINK package. The performance of the intelligent controllers has been compared with the conventional PI and PID controllers for the interconnected power system. A comparison of ANFIS, ANN, Fuzzy and PI, PID based approaches shows the superiority of proposed ANFIS over ANN, fuzzy and PI, PID. Thus the hybrid fuzzy neural network controller has better dynamic response i.e., quick in operation, reduced error magnitude and minimized frequency transients.

  1. 77 FR 10741 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XII, BOST2, LLC, Riverbank Hydro No. 21, LLC, FFP Project 96, LLC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-23

    ..., FFP Project 96, LLC; Notice Announcing Preliminary Permit Drawing The Commission has received four preliminary permit applications deemed filed on September 1, 2011, at 8:30 a.m.,\\1\\ for proposed projects to... Project No. 14260-000, BOST2, LLC for Project No. 14264-000, Riverbank Hydro No. 21, LLC for Project...

  2. Formation of Hydro-acoustic Waves in Dissipative Coupled Weakly Compressible Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdolali, A.; Kirby, J. T., Jr.; Bellotti, G.

    2014-12-01

    Recent advances in deep sea measurement technology provide an increasing opportunity to detect and interpret hydro-acoustic waves as a component in improved Tsunami Early Warning Systems (TEWS). For the idealized case of a homogeneous water column above a moving but otherwise rigid bottom (in terms of assessing acoustic wave interaction), the description of the infinite family of acoustic modes is characterized by local water depth at source area; i.e. the period of the first acoustic mode is given by four times the required time for sound to travel from the seabed to the surface. Spreading off from earthquake zone, the dominant spectrum is filtered and enriched by seamounts and barriers. This study focuses on the characteristics of hydro-acoustic waves generated by sudden sea bottom motion in a weakly compressible fluid coupled with an underlying sedimentary layer, where the added complexity of the sediment layer rheology leads to both the lowering of dominant spectral peaks and wave attenuation across the full spectrum. To overcome the computational difficulties of three-dimensional models, we derive a depth integrated equation valid for varying water depth and sediment thickness. Damping behavior of the two layered system is initially taken into account by introducing the viscosity of fluid-like sedimentary layer. We show that low frequency pressure waves which are precursor components of tsunamis contain information of seafloor motion.

  3. Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical-Chemical Coupled Modeling of Geothermal Doublet Systems in Limestones -revised

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rühaak, Wolfram; Heldmann, Claus-Dieter; Pei, Liang; Bartels, Jörn; Weinert, Sebastian; Sass, Ingo

    2016-04-01

    Limestone aquifers in Southern Germany have been used within the last decade very successfully for geothermal heating and - to a lesser extent - for power generation. As an example the region around Munich has been extensively explored. While the extent of usage of this reservoir is increasing there is also an increased interest in better understanding of the reservoir properties and its change in the course of operation. For instance, the observed production and injection pressures are partly hard to explain. They may be related to mechanical or chemical processes, or both. Based on extensive data of outcrop studies and drillings, a data-base for the relevant physical properties of the respective limestones has been complied. The data include thermal conductivity, density, specific heat capacity, permeability, as well as mechanical properties like thermal expansion coefficient and elasticity modules. By using the hydro-thermo-chemical simulator FEFLOW together with an extension for thermo- and hydro-mechanical coupling the relevant processes are studied and compared with observed data. At the EGU Meeting in 2015 results of an initial study have been presented. This time results based on a completely new model setup and also using newly developed code will be presented. As a conclusion main challenges while modeling THMC fracture flow by using a multi-continua approach will be discussed.

  4. Stochastic hydro-economic model for groundwater quality management using Bayesian networks.

    PubMed

    Molina, José-Luis; Pulido-Velázquez, Manuel; Llopis-Albert, Carlos; Peña-Haro, Salvador

    2013-01-01

    A strong normative development in Europe, including the Nitrate Directive (1991) and the Water Framework Directive (WFD) (2000), has been promulgated. The WFD states that all water bodies have to reach a good quantitative and chemical status by 2015. It is necessary to consider different objectives, often in conflict, for tackling a suitable assessment of the impacts generated by water policies aimed to reduce nitrate pollution in groundwater. For that, an annual lumped probabilistic model based on Bayesian networks (BNs) has been designed for hydro-economic modelling of groundwater quality control under uncertain conditions. The information introduced in the BN model comes from different sources such as previous groundwater flow and mass transport simulations, hydro-economic models, stakeholders and expert opinion, etc. The methodology was applied to the El Salobral-Los Llanos aquifer unit within the 'Easter Mancha' groundwater body, which is one of the largest aquifers in Spain (7,400 km(2)), included in the Júcar River Basin. Over the past 30 years, socioeconomic development within the region has been mainly depending on intensive use of groundwater resources for irrigating crops. This has provoked a continuous groundwater level fall in the last two decades and significant streamflow depletion in the connected Júcar River. This BN model has proved to be a robust Decision Support System for helping water managers in the decision making process.

  5. A new methodology for hydro-abrasive erosion tests simulating penstock erosive flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aumelas, V.; Maj, G.; Le Calvé, P.; Smith, M.; Gambiez, B.; Mourrat, X.

    2016-11-01

    Hydro-abrasive resistance is an important property requirement for hydroelectric power plant penstock coating systems used by EDF. The selection of durable coating systems requires an experimental characterization of coating performance. This can be achieved by performing accelerated and representative laboratory tests. In case of severe erosion induced by a penstock flow, there is no suitable method or standard representative of real erosive flow conditions. The presented study aims at developing a new methodology and an associated laboratory experimental device. The objective of the laboratory apparatus is to subject coated test specimens to wear conditions similar to the ones generated at the penstock lower generatrix in actual flow conditions. Thirteen preselected coating solutions were first been tested during a 45 hours erosion test. A ranking of the thirteen coating solutions was then determined after characterisation. To complete this first evaluation and to determine the wear kinetic of the four best coating solutions, additional erosion tests were conducted with a longer duration of 216 hours. A comparison of this new method with standardized tests and with real service operating flow conditions is also discussed. To complete the final ranking based on hydro-abrasive erosion tests, some trial tests were carried out on penstock samples to check the application method of selected coating systems. The paper gives some perspectives related to erosion test methodologies for materials and coating solutions for hydraulic applications. The developed test method can also be applied in other fields.

  6. A Hydro System Modeling Hierarchy to Optimize the Operation of the BC Hydroelectric System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shawwash, Z.

    2012-12-01

    We present the Hydro System Modeling Hierarchy that we have developed to optimize the operation of the BC Hydro system in British Columbia, Canada. The Hierarchy consists of a number of simulation and optimization models that we have developed over the past twelve years in a research program under the Grant-in-Aid Agreement between BC Hydro and the Department of Civil Engineering at UBC. We first provide an overview of the BC Hydro system and then present our modeling framework and discuss a number of optimization modeling tools that we have developed and are currently in use at BC Hydro and we briefly outline ongoing research and model development work supported by BC Hydro and leveraged by a Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council's (NSERC) Collaborative Research and Development (CRD) grants.he BC Hydro System Optimization Modeling Hierarchy

  7. 76 FR 66713 - Hydro Green Energy, LLC; Notice of Intent To File License Applications and Approving Use of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-27

    ...-001, 13651-001] Hydro Green Energy, LLC; Notice of Intent To File License Applications and Approving.... Submitted By: Hydro Green Energy, LLC (Hydro Green). e. Name of Projects: Lock and Dam 5a, Project 13391-001..., Designated Representative, Vice President of Corporate Affairs, Hydro Green Energy, LLC., 900 Oakmont...

  8. Hydro-Coupling Effects on Compression Symmetry in Gas-Filled Hohlraum Experiments at the Omega Laser

    SciTech Connect

    Dewalds, E L; Pollaine, S W; Landen, O L; Amendt, P A; Turner, R E; Wallace, R; Campbell, K M; Glenzer, S H

    2003-08-26

    Ignition hohlraum designs use low Z gas fill to slow down the inward progress of high Z ablated plasma from the hohlraum walls preventing large laser spot motion and capsule drive asymmetries. In order to optimize the ignition design, the gas hydro-coupling effect to a fusion capsule asymmetry is presently being assessed in experiments at the Omega laser facility with gas filled hohlraums and foam balls. Our experiments measure the effects of the pressure spike that is generated by direct gas heating by the drive laser beams on the capsule surrogate for various hohlraum gas fill densities (0-2.5 mg/cc). To isolate the effect of the gas-hydro coupling pressure, we have begun by using plastic ''hohlraums'' to reduce the x-ray ablation pressure. The foam ball images measured by x-ray backlighting show increasing pole-hot pressure asymmetry for increasing gas pressure. In addition, the gas hydrodynamics is studied by imaging of a low concentration Xe gas fill dopant. The gas fill self-emission. shows the early pressure spike and its propagation towards the foam ball, as well as the gas stagnation on the holraum axis at later times, both contributing to the capsule asymmetry. These first gas hydro-coupling results are compared to LASNEX simulations.

  9. Antioxidant capacities and total polyphenol contents of hydro-ethanolic extract of phytococktail from trans-Himalaya.

    PubMed

    Dhar, P; Tayade, A B; Bajpai, P K; Sharma, V K; Das, S K; Chaurasia, O P; Srivastava, R B; Singh, S B

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant potential of hydro-ethanolic extract of a novel phytococktail comprising of sea buckthorn, apricot, and Rhodiola (SAR) from trans-Himalaya. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) activity of the extract increased in a dose-dependent manner (upto 0.1 mg/mL), and was found to be about 38% of that of ascorbic acid at 0.1 mg/mL. The hydro-ethanolic extract of SAR also scavenged the ABTS(.+) radical generated by ABTS/potassium persulfate (PPS) system and was found to be about 62% of that of ascorbic acid at 0.1 mg/ mL. The total antioxidant power of the extract was determined by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. Total phenolic content was found to be 1.28016 × 10(-3) mol gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g extract. Total flavonoid and flavonol contents were estimated to be 2.5970 × 10(-4) mol and 4.87 × 10(-4) mol quercetin equivalent/g extract, respectively. The hydro-ethanolic extract of this phytococktail indicated presence of essential phytoconstituents of polyphenols, flavonoids, flavonols, and ascorbic acid, which contributed significantly to its antioxidant capacity. The combination of the 3 plants may well support their use in traditional medicine to combat oxidative stress and high-altitude sickness.

  10. Linking Hydro-Meteorological Hazards, Climate and Food Security: an Initiative of International Scientific Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail-Zadeh, A.; Beer, T.

    2013-05-01

    Humans face climatic and hydro-meteorological hazards on different scales in time and space. In particular natural hazards can have disastrous impact in the short term (flood) and in the long term (drought) as they affect human life and health as well as impacting dramatically on the sustainable development of society. They represent a pending danger for vulnerable lifelines, infrastructure and the agricultural systems that depend on the water supply, reservoirs, pipelines, and power plants. Developed countries are affected, but the impact is disproportionate within the developing world. Extreme natural events such as extreme floods or prolonged drought can change the life and economic development of developing nations and stifle their development for decades. The beginning of the XX1st century has been marked by a significant number of natural disasters, such as floods, severe storms, wildfires, hurricanes, and tsunamis. Extreme natural events cause devastation resulting in loss of human life, large environmental damage, and partial or total loss of infrastructure that, in the longer time, will affect the potential for agricultural recovery. Recent catastrophic events of the early 21st century (e.g. floods in Pakistan and Thailand, the 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami) remind us once again that there is a strong coupling between complex solid Earth, oceanic, and atmospheric processes and that even developed countries such as Japan are subject to agricultural declines as a result of disastrous hydro-meteorological events. Scientific community recognizes that communication between the groups of experts of various international organizations dealing with natural hazards and their activity in disaster risk reduction and food security needs to be strengthened. Several international scientific unions and intergovernmental institutions set up a consortium of experts to promote studies of weather, climate and their interaction with agriculture, food and their socio

  11. Planning a distribution automation pilot project at B.C. Hydro

    SciTech Connect

    Benedictson, E.; Dwyer, A.; Herejk, I.

    1994-12-31

    In 1989, a small team of engineers and managers from B.C. Hydro`s Customer Services Group made an exploratory partnership trip to a DA product supplier. While the partnership initiative failed, it served to raise corporate awareness of the need for a comprehensive DA approach. Shortly thereafter, the Window 2000 Project name were formulated. From the inception of the Window 2000 Project, it was clear that the team faced a major strategy challenge, due to recent corporate history. The corporation had just completed a major generation and transmission system expansion program, and enjoyed a considerable energy and capacity surplus, coupled with increased debt load. Concurrently, a select segment of the corporation was developing what was to become the internationally successful Power Smart energy conservation initiative. The team developed a communication plan based on several key principles. Presentations were made to various stakeholders including Customer Services and Corporate Management committees. Permission to proceed with the Window 2000 project was obtained in 1990. A multi-disciplined team of employees representing Customer Services, Power Smart, Production, System Planning, and Stations Engineering was assembled. Leadership was provided by a full-time project leader, and by a senior management steering committee. In addition, the project leader assembled an informal group of advisors for the purpose of defining alternative approaches, generating new information, and testing of ideas. The team members were encouraged to avoid concentrating on corporate or personal turf issues, and the team environment was maintained free of {open_quotes}politics{close_quotes}. This fostered cooperation and objectivity in idea generation and evaluation. The team was given an open mandate to define and to recommend DA functions for implementation.

  12. [Temporal-spatial Variation and Source Identification of Hydro-chemical Characteristics in Shima River Catchment, Dongguan City].

    PubMed

    Gao, Lei; Chen, Jian-yao; Wang, Jiang; Ke, Zhi-ting; Zhu, Ai-ping; Xu, Kai

    2015-05-01

    Shima River catchment is of strategic importance to urban water supply in Dongjiang portable water source area. To investigate the hydro-chemical characteristics of Shima River, 39 river water samples were collected in February, June and November, 2012 to analyze the major ions (K+, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl-, SO4(2-) , HCO3-) and nutritive salts (PO4(3-), NO3- and NH4+) and to discuss the temporal-spatial variation and controlling factors of hydro-chemical composition, relative sources identification of varied ions was performed as well. The results showed that the hydro-chemical composition exhibited significant differences in different periods. The average concentration of total dissolved solid ( TDS) and nutritive salts in different investigated periods followed the decreasing order of November > February > June. The dominant anion of Shima River was HCO3-, and Na+ + K+ were the major cations in February and November which were changed to Ca2+ in June, the hydro-chemical types were determined as HCO(3-)-Na+ and HCO(3-)- Ca2+ in dry (February and November) and rainy (June) seasons, respectively. Spatial variations of concentration of nutritive salts were mainly affected by the discharges of N- and P-containing waste water resulted from human activities. The ratio between N and P of water sample (R7) was 18.4:1 which boosted the "crazy growth" of phytoplankton and led to severe eutrophication. According to Gibbs distribution of water samples, dissolution of hydatogenic rocks was the primary factor to control the major cations of river water in dry season, however, the hydro-chemical composition was significantly affected by the combination of hydatogenic and carbonate rocks in rainy season. The deposition of sea-salts contributed less to chemical substances in river. Correlation analysis revealed that K+, Na+, Mg2+, Cl- and SO4(2-) were partly derived from the application of fertilizer and the discharge of industrial effluent; Waste water of poultry feeding and

  13. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION: JOINT (NSF-EPA) VERIFICATION STATEMENT AND REPORT HYDRO COMPLIANCE MANAGEMENT, INC. HYDRO-KLEEN FILTRATION SYSTEM, 03/07/WQPC-SWP, SEPTEMBER 2003

    EPA Science Inventory

    Verification testing of the Hydro-Kleen(TM) Filtration System, a catch-basin filter designed to reduce hydrocarbon, sediment, and metals contamination from surface water flows, was conducted at NSF International in Ann Arbor, Michigan. A Hydro-Kleen(TM) system was fitted into a ...

  14. Optimal design of axial hydro turbine for micro hydropower plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derakhshan, S.; Kasaeian, N.

    2012-11-01

    In our country we have enormous low head potation flows in agricultures and aquacultures with almost fix flow rates that can be used as micro hydro power plants for producing energy. But the main problem is the high capital price per kW. Therefore there is needed to design a simple machine with a good runner for covering the various potential flows. In this paper an axial hydro turbine has designed for some low heads micro potential flow with flow rates ranged from 50 lit/sec to 150 lit/sec and heads ranged from 1 m to 5 m. The initial runner designed using classical methods and then the runner geometry has been optimized by evolutionary optimization algorithms. The final design has been simulated by a commercial flow solver in a various blade positions. The results showed a wide range characteristic curve with a wide range high efficiency.

  15. Hydro trash rack rake built by Riegel Textile (Engineering Materials)

    SciTech Connect

    Rinehart, B.N.

    1981-11-05

    The Fries, Virginia plant of the Riegel Textile Corporation of Ware Shoals, South Carolina, found it necessary to install a trash rack rake for proper operation of their hydro plant. They put the job out for bid, but when they received bids above budget they decided to build their own rack rake. Mr. Sanford Byrd, plant engineer, put together a design that included use of standard off-the-shelf items and readily available structural steel components. The rake was built by the Fries maintenance personnel for only $50,000. The unit operates hydraulically and runs on a set of tracks placed on the intake canal wall. This unit can be adapted to most low-head hydro projects. The information furnished in this package will allow you to build your own trash rack rake.

  16. KONJAC1 and 2 Are Key Factors for GDP-Mannose Generation and Affect l-Ascorbic Acid and Glucomannan Biosynthesis in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Sawake, Shota; Tajima, Noriaki; Mortimer, Jenny C; Lao, Jeemeng; Ishikawa, Toshiki; Yu, Xiaolan; Yamanashi, Yukiko; Yoshimi, Yoshihisa; Kawai-Yamada, Maki; Dupree, Paul; Tsumuraya, Yoichi; Kotake, Toshihisa

    2015-12-01

    Humans are unable to synthesize l-ascorbic acid (AsA), yet it is required as a cofactor in many critical biochemical reactions. The majority of human dietary AsA is obtained from plants. In Arabidopsis thaliana, a GDP-mannose pyrophosphorylase (GMPP), VITAMIN C DEFECTIVE1 (VTC1), catalyzes a rate-limiting step in AsA synthesis: the formation of GDP-Man. In this study, we identified two nucleotide sugar pyrophosphorylase-like proteins, KONJAC1 (KJC1) and KJC2, which stimulate the activity of VTC1. The kjc1kjc2 double mutant exhibited severe dwarfism, indicating that KJC proteins are important for growth and development. The kjc1 mutation reduced GMPP activity to 10% of wild-type levels, leading to a 60% reduction in AsA levels. On the contrary, overexpression of KJC1 significantly increased GMPP activity. The kjc1 and kjc1kjc2 mutants also exhibited significantly reduced levels of glucomannan, which is also synthesized from GDP-Man. Recombinant KJC1 and KJC2 enhanced the GMPP activity of recombinant VTC1 in vitro, while KJCs did not show GMPP activity. Yeast two-hybrid assays suggested that the stimulation of GMPP activity occurs via interaction of KJCs with VTC1. These results suggest that KJCs are key factors for the generation of GDP-Man and affect AsA level and glucomannan accumulation through the stimulation of VTC1 GMPP activity.

  17. Physical exercise and environment exploration affect synaptogenesis in adult-generated neurons in the rat dentate gyrus: possible role of BDNF.

    PubMed

    Ambrogini, P; Lattanzi, D; Ciuffoli, S; Betti, M; Fanelli, M; Cuppini, R

    2013-10-09

    A brief training in a pool maze, with or without cognitive tasks, modifies the synaptogenesis and maturation of newborn neurons in adult rat dentate gyrus. These types of trainings have many aspects, including physical activity and exploration. Therefore, to evaluate whether physical exercise and environment exploration are able to affect synapse formation and the maturation of adult-generated neurons, GFP-retrovirus infusion was performed on rats which, on the fourth day after injection, were housed under running conditions or allowed to explore an enriched environment briefly in the absence of exercise for the following three days. Afterward, at the end of the trainings, electrophysiological and morphological studies were conducted. Considering that neurotrophic factors increase after exercise or environment exploration, hippocampal BDNF levels and TrkB receptor activation were evaluated. In this study, we show that both spontaneous physical activity and enriched environment exploration induced synaptogenesis and T-type voltage-dependent Ca(2+) currents in very immature neurons. Hippocampal BDNF levels and TrkB receptor activation were determined to be increasing following physical activity and exploration. A possible contribution of BDNF signaling in mediating the observed effects was supported by the use of 7-8-dihydroxyflavone, a selective TrkB agonist, and of ANA-12, an inhibitor of TrkB receptors.

  18. Hydro- and solvothermolysis of kraft lignin for maximizing production of monomeric aromatic chemicals.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hong-shik; Jae, Jungho; Ha, Jeong-Myeong; Suh, Dong Jin

    2016-03-01

    The hydro-/solvothermolysis of kraft lignin using water and ethanol as a solvent were investigated in this study. The effect of the water-to-ethanol ratio on the yields of monomeric aromatic chemicals (MACs) and the kinetic behavior of MACs was studied in a series of batch experiments. The yields of MACs other than catechol increased as the ratio of ethanol increased, and the content of the total MACs in bio-crude oil (BCO) reached 35% when the ratio of ethanol was 100% at a reaction temperature of 300 °C. The formation of phenol, guaiacol, and alkylguaiacols was enhanced in ethanol, while the formation of catechol was dominant in water. The formation of more substituted MACs such as vanillin, acetoguaiacone, and homovanillic acid was not affected by the solvent. The role of reaction parameters on the yields of MACs was elucidated, and the main reaction pathways in water and in ethanol were proposed.

  19. Extreme floods and storms in Switzerland since 1868: Case studies and hydro-meteorological patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stucki, Peter; Brönnimann, Stefan; Martius, Olivia; Dierer, Silke

    2013-04-01

    Numerical studies on the generation of extreme floods or windstorms in the Central Alps have been practicable for events which occurred since around 1950. Analyses of earlier events are restricted to increasingly sparse instrumental and documentary data, e.g., ground observations, surface synoptic charts, annals and damage reports. Despite such restrictions, it is desirable to have an extended catalog of extreme heavy precipitation or storm events in order to understand the underlying hydro-meteorological dynamics and to anticipate potential damage to forested areas, cultivated land, buildings or infrastructure. We use a range of available sources to elect a set of historical extreme events. Among these are damage statistics by insurance companies, the EuroClimHist data base on weather and climate history, forestry reports as well as meteorological annals. Moreover, recently digitized and partly homogenized (sub-) daily measurements of precipitation and wind observations (DigiHom project by MeteoSwiss) and the Twentieth Century Reanalysis (20CR) reach back to 1868 or beyond. In addition, we integrate information from a regional version of 20CR which is downscaled by use of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model. These datasets cover extreme events on the north and south side of the Alps and hence enable comprehensive, quantitative analyses of Swiss extreme events. For a selection of events prior to 1950, descriptions are given of the spatial extent and intensities, antecedent hydro-climatological settings such as snowmelt as well as of the direct socio-economic impact and costs. Likewise, we assess the meteorological conditions leading to and during the extreme events, including parameters like uplift and moisture transport or propagation of the three-dimensional wind field. We propose five subjective classes of specific flood-generating weather conditions for Switzerland from 24 investigated cases since 1868. Furthermore, we address the applicability of

  20. Evaluation of blade-strike models for estimating the biological performance of large Kaplan hydro turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Z.; Carlson, T. J.; Ploskey, G. R.; Richmond, M. C.

    2005-11-01

    Bio-indexing of hydro turbines has been identified as an important means to optimize passage conditions for fish by identifying operations for existing and new design turbines that minimize the probability of injury. Cost-effective implementation of bio-indexing requires the use of tools such as numerical and physical turbine models to generate hypotheses for turbine operations that can be tested at prototype scales using live fish. Blade strike has been proposed as an index variable for the biological performance of turbines. Report reviews an evaluation of the use of numerical blade-strike models as a means with which to predict the probability of blade strike and injury of juvenile salmon smolt passing through large Kaplan turbines on the mainstem Columbia River.

  1. Combining loss and cost objectives in daily hydro-thermal economic scheduling

    SciTech Connect

    El-Hawary, M.E. ); Ravindranath, K.M. )

    1991-08-01

    A formulation of optimal hydro-thermal power flow in electric power systems combining the minimum loss objective with the more conventional minimum fuel cost objective is considered. The implementation is based on a Newton's iterative procedure, with special initial guess and sparsity-based matrix manipulations to obtain improved convergence properties. The strategies are developed using three standard test systems. This paper discusses the question of assigning an equivalent cost to the loss objective component and compare results obtained using two proposed mechanisms. The first is based on results of conventional dispatch using Kron's loss formula and the second uses the bus incremental costs involved in the OPF solution. The effects of varying the relative weights assigned to each objective component on pertinent system variables such as active and reactive power generations as well as voltages are explored.

  2. Streamflow estimation using WRF-Hydro with dynamically downscaled climate variables over southern tropical Indian region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, S.; Sudheer, K. P.; Gunthe, S. S.

    2015-12-01

    Indian summer monsoon rainfall (ISMR; June to September), which constitutes around 80% of India's annual rainfall, has shown an increasing trend in intensity and frequency of extreme events (Goswami et al., 2006). It is a widely recognized fact that the increasing temperature in association with anthropogenic activities can affect the hydrological cycle, which leads to extreme events. In addition a shift in extremes of the spatial pattern of ISMR has recently been observed (Ghosh et al., 2011). Such changes in rainfall on temporal and spatial scale can further affect the stream flow over a given region subsequently making water resource management a difficult task (Mondal and Mujumdar, 2015). The hydrological models used for the stream flow estimation are dependent on various climate variables as input data. These climate variables could be obtained through either observational networks or climate model outputs. Due to the scarcity of the observational data over the Indian region and the coarse resolution of global climate model output, which is used as input to hydrologic models, large uncertainties are introduced in stream flow output (Overgaard et al., 2007). In the present study we have used the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model (Skamarock et al. 2008) to downscale the essential climate variables (surface temperature, precipitation, relative humidity, etc.) as an input for its coupled hydrological extension, WRF Hydro (NCAR user's guide). We will present the results obtained from the WRF-hydro simulation to estimate the stream flow over the Thamirabarani river basin in Southern Tropical Indian region. Preliminary simulations using WRF to estimate the precipitation showed the reasonable quantitative agreement with observed values. An attempt will be made to demonstrate how these results can further be used for developing flood-forecasting techniques and for local regional water resource management.

  3. Hydro-geochemical appraisal of groundwater quality from weathered basement aquifers in Northern Malawi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wanda, Elijah; Monjerezi, Maurice; Mwatseteza, Jonas F.; Kazembe, Lawrence N.

    The obligation to ensure adequate potable water supply to everyone, has necessitated the development of groundwater resources for reliable rural water supply in most developing countries. An understanding of spatial variation and processes affecting water quality is essential in sustaining usable water supplies under changing climate and local environmental pressures. In this study, an assessment of quality and dominant hydro-geochemical processes affecting the quality of groundwater from weathered basement aquifers in Mzimba district, Northern Malawi, has been conducted. Groundwater samples were collected from 172 hand-pumped boreholes, drilled for domestic rural water supply and analysed for major and minor ions, pH and total dissolved solids (TDS). In general, groundwater is of low mineralisation (TDS range: 29-1896 mg L -1 for the dry season), with hydro-geochemical facies dominated by Ca-HCO 3, which evolves to Ca-Cl water type. Multivariate statistical analysis (HCA and PCA) and geochemical interpretation showed that the Ca-HCO 3 groundwater type result from hydrolysis of silicate minerals, which causes the solution to reach equilibrium with kaolinite. The processes of cation exchange of Na + and K + in the groundwater for Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ on clay minerals, carbonate precipitation and evaporation, are shown to modify the chemical composition from Ca-HCO 3 types to Ca-Cl types. Groundwater is generally of good quality in both rainy and dry seasons, with little seasonal changes. The United States Salinity Laboratory Staff and Wilcox diagrams showed that most samples were also suitable for irrigation except for 4% (eight samples) of the groundwater samples (with EC > 2000 μS cm -1). These are located in alluviums and colluviums localised near river banks and in inter hill valleys.

  4. Effect of Spray Particle Velocity on Cavitation Erosion Resistance Characteristics of HVOF and HVAF Processed 86WC-10Co4Cr Hydro Turbine Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, R. K.; Kamaraj, M.; Seetharamu, S.; Pramod, T.; Sampathkumaran, P.

    2016-08-01

    The hydro plants utilizing silt-laden water for power generation suffer from severe metal wastage due to particle-induced erosion and cavitation. High-velocity oxy-fuel process (HVOF)-based coatings is widely applied to improve the erosion life. The process parameters such as particle velocity, size, powder feed rate, temperature, affect their mechanical properties. The high-velocity air fuel (HVAF) technology, with higher particle velocities and lower spray temperatures, gives dense and substantially nonoxidized coating. In the present study, the cavitation resistance of 86WC-10Co4Cr-type HVOF coating processed at 680 m/s spray particle velocity was compared with HVAF coatings made at 895, 960, and 1010 m/s. The properties such as porosity, hardness, indentation toughness, and cavitation resistance were investigated. The surface damage morphology has been analyzed in SEM. The cohesion between different layers has been examined qualitatively through scratch depth measurements across the cross section. The HVAF coatings have shown a lower porosity, higher hardness, and superior cavitation resistance. Delamination, extensive cracking of the matrix interface, and detachment of the WC grains were observed in HVOF coating. The rate of metal loss is low in HVAF coatings implying that process parameters play a vital role in achieving improved cavitation resistance.

  5. Tree ring-based chronology of hydro-geomorphic processes as a fundament for identification of hydro-meteorological triggers in the Hrubý Jeseník Mountains (Central Europe).

    PubMed

    Tichavský, Radek; Šilhán, Karel; Tolasz, Radim

    2017-02-01

    Hydro-geomorphic processes have significantly influenced the recent development of valley floors, river banks and depositional forms in mountain environments, have caused considerable damage to manmade developments and have disrupted forest management. Trees growing along streams are affected by the transported debris mass and provide valuable records of debris flow/flood histories in their tree-ring series. Dendrogeomorphic approaches are currently the most accurate methods for creating a chronology of the debris flow/flood events in forested catchments without any field-monitoring or a stream-gauging station. Comprehensive studies focusing on the detailed chronology of hydro-geomorphic events and analysis of meteorological triggers and weather circulation patterns are still lacking for the studied area. We provide a spatio-temporal reconstruction of hydro-geomorphic events in four catchments of the Hrubý Jeseník Mountains, Czech Republic, with an analysis of their triggering factors using meteorological data from four nearby rain gauges. Increment cores from 794 coniferous trees (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) allowed the identification of 40 hydro-geomorphic events during the period of 1889-2013. Most of the events can be explained by extreme daily rainfalls (≥50mm) occurring in at least one rain gauge. However, in several cases, there was no record of extreme precipitation at rain gauges during the debris flow/flood event year, suggesting extremely localised rainstorms at the mountain summits. We concluded that the localisation, intensity and duration of rainstorms; antecedent moisture conditions; and amount of available sediments all influenced the initiation, spatial distribution and characteristics of hydro-geomorphic events. The most frequent synoptic situations responsible for the extreme rainfalls (1946-2015) were related to the meridional atmospheric circulation pattern. Our results enhance current knowledge of the occurrences and triggers of debris flows

  6. Modeling the incremental cost and water conversion functions for hydro-thermal coordination studies

    SciTech Connect

    El-Hawary, M.E.; Mbamalu, G.A.N. )

    1991-01-01

    The solution of an optimization problem using variational means relies on Lagrange multiplier functions, called the adjoint variables to augment the physical constraints to the cost function. The multipliers usually have en economic interpretation, and in the optimal economic operation of an electric power system, one set of multipliers signifies the incremental cost of power delivered at a bus, and the other set relates to the water worth at a given reservoir. The solution of the optimization problem involves iterative techniques to obtain the optimal strategy in terms of power generations and water releases, as well as the adjoint variables. Good initial estimates are of paramount importance to a successful implementation of any iteration scheme specially those that are Newton based. There is an observed pattern of dependence of the adjoint variables and the system state as described by power demands and water availability. Finding such relationships is useful for generation planning activities as well as in providing initial guesses in the numerical solution of the problem. This paper proposes statistical models for predicting the incremental cost function {lambda} and the water conversion factor {nu} usually encountered in the hydro-thermal power system optimization problem. The method treats the active power demand and the volume of water available as the independent variables. The Least squares and the iteratively reweighted Least squares procedures are used to estimate model parameters. The approach treats the power system as a variable head hydro-thermal system, Kron's loss formula is used to characterize the system performance and losses. Results for an example using a 4 plant network are presented in order to demonstrate the applicability of this approach.

  7. Computer Security for Commercial Nuclear Power Plants - Literature Review for Korea Hydro Nuclear Power Central Research Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Duran, Felicia Angelica; Waymire, Russell L.

    2013-10-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is providing training and consultation activities on security planning and design for the Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Central Research Institute (KHNPCRI). As part of this effort, SNL performed a literature review on computer security requirements, guidance and best practices that are applicable to an advanced nuclear power plant. This report documents the review of reports generated by SNL and other organizations [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Nuclear Energy Institute, and International Atomic Energy Agency] related to protection of information technology resources, primarily digital controls and computer resources and their data networks. Copies of the key documents have also been provided to KHNP-CRI.

  8. Next-Generation Pyrosequencing Analysis of Microbial Biofilm Communities on Granular Activated Carbon in Treatment of Oil Sands Process-Affected Water

    PubMed Central

    Islam, M. Shahinoor; Zhang, Yanyan; McPhedran, Kerry N.

    2015-01-01

    The development of biodegradation treatment processes for oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) has been progressing in recent years with the promising potential of biofilm reactors. Previously, the granular activated carbon (GAC) biofilm process was successfully employed for treatment of a large variety of recalcitrant organic compounds in domestic and industrial wastewaters. In this study, GAC biofilm microbial development and degradation efficiency were investigated for OSPW treatment by monitoring the biofilm growth on the GAC surface in raw and ozonated OSPW in batch bioreactors. The GAC biofilm community was characterized using a next-generation 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing technique that revealed that the phylum Proteobacteria was dominant in both OSPW and biofilms, with further in-depth analysis showing higher abundances of Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria sequences. Interestingly, many known polyaromatic hydrocarbon degraders, namely, Burkholderiales, Pseudomonadales, Bdellovibrionales, and Sphingomonadales, were observed in the GAC biofilm. Ozonation decreased the microbial diversity in planktonic OSPW but increased the microbial diversity in the GAC biofilms. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed similar bacterial gene copy numbers (>109 gene copies/g of GAC) for both raw and ozonated OSPW GAC biofilms. The observed rates of removal of naphthenic acids (NAs) over the 2-day experiments for the GAC biofilm treatments of raw and ozonated OSPW were 31% and 66%, respectively. Overall, a relatively low ozone dose (30 mg of O3/liter utilized) combined with GAC biofilm treatment significantly increased NA removal rates. The treatment of OSPW in bioreactors using GAC biofilms is a promising technology for the reduction of recalcitrant OSPW organic compounds. PMID:25841014

  9. Next-generation pyrosequencing analysis of microbial biofilm communities on granular activated carbon in treatment of oil sands process-affected water.

    PubMed

    Islam, M Shahinoor; Zhang, Yanyan; McPhedran, Kerry N; Liu, Yang; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed

    2015-06-15

    The development of biodegradation treatment processes for oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) has been progressing in recent years with the promising potential of biofilm reactors. Previously, the granular activated carbon (GAC) biofilm process was successfully employed for treatment of a large variety of recalcitrant organic compounds in domestic and industrial wastewaters. In this study, GAC biofilm microbial development and degradation efficiency were investigated for OSPW treatment by monitoring the biofilm growth on the GAC surface in raw and ozonated OSPW in batch bioreactors. The GAC biofilm community was characterized using a next-generation 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing technique that revealed that the phylum Proteobacteria was dominant in both OSPW and biofilms, with further in-depth analysis showing higher abundances of Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria sequences. Interestingly, many known polyaromatic hydrocarbon degraders, namely, Burkholderiales, Pseudomonadales, Bdellovibrionales, and Sphingomonadales, were observed in the GAC biofilm. Ozonation decreased the microbial diversity in planktonic OSPW but increased the microbial diversity in the GAC biofilms. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed similar bacterial gene copy numbers (>10(9) gene copies/g of GAC) for both raw and ozonated OSPW GAC biofilms. The observed rates of removal of naphthenic acids (NAs) over the 2-day experiments for the GAC biofilm treatments of raw and ozonated OSPW were 31% and 66%, respectively. Overall, a relatively low ozone dose (30 mg of O3/liter utilized) combined with GAC biofilm treatment significantly increased NA removal rates. The treatment of OSPW in bioreactors using GAC biofilms is a promising technology for the reduction of recalcitrant OSPW organic compounds.

  10. Old Harbor Scammon Bay Hydro Feasibility

    SciTech Connect

    Brent Petrie

    2007-06-27

    The grantee, Alaska Village Electric Cooperative (AVEC), is a non-profit member owned rural electric generation and distribution cooperative. The proposed Project is located near the community of Old Harbor, Alaska. Old Harbor is on the southeastern coast of Kodiak Island, approximately 70 miles southwest of the City of Kodiak and 320 miles southwest of Anchorage. In 1998 sufficient information had been developed to apply for a license to construct the project and the cost was estimated to be $2,445,000 for a 500 KW project on Lagoon Creek. Major features of the project included an eight-foot high diversion dam on Mountain Creek, a desander box, a 9,800-foot long penstock to the powerhouse on Lagoon Creek, and a 5,500-foot long access road. It was also anticipated that the project could provide an additional source of water to Old Harbor. The report details the history and lessons learned in designing and permiting the proposed hydroelectric facility.

  11. Dynamics and stability of wind turbine generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinrichsen, E. N.; Nolan, P. J.

    1981-01-01

    Synchronous and induction generators are considered. A comparison is made between wind turbines, steam, and hydro units. The unusual phenomena associated with wind turbines are emphasized. The general control requirements are discussed, as well as various schemes for torsional damping such as speed sensitive stabilizer and blade pitch control. Integration between adjacent wind turbines in a wind farm is also considered.

  12. Time response of frequency of the hydro-turbine governing system under the coupled action of surge tank and power grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Z. Y.; Yang, J. D.; Guo, W. C.

    2016-11-01

    For grid connected hydropower plants with surge tanks, the time response of frequency of the hydro-turbine governing system under the coupled action of surge tank and power grid with load disturbance have been examined. On the basis of a mathematical model of a hydro-turbine governing system operating in an isolated grid with a surge tank, a power grid model of the hydro-turbine governing system connected to a grid has been developed. Using Laplace transformation, a comprehensive transfer function, taking the disturbance of the hydro-turbine as the input signal and the speed of the hydro-turbine as the output signal, has been developed for the mathematical model. Finally, by using MATLAB-Simulink to numerically simulate the time response of frequency of the system under the coupled action of the grid at different scales and the surge tank with different sectional areas, the mechanism of the coupled action of the surge tank and the power grid and the effect of grid scale on time response of frequency of system has been analysed. It is concluded that surge tank only affects the tail wave of the time response of frequency, and for surge tanks with large sectional area, the fluctuations in the tail wave are gentler. Hence, the system is easier to become steady. The power grid has an inhibiting effect, which becomes greater for larger grid scale, on both the head wave and the tail wave of the time response of frequency in which the head wave is separated into several wavelets and the tail wave become gentler.

  13. Integrated Numerical Simulation of Thermo-Hydro-Chemical Phenomena Associated with Geologic Disposal of High-Level Radioactive Waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sang-Uk; Kim, Jun-Mo; Kihm, Jung-Hwi

    2014-05-01

    A series of numerical simulations was performed using a multiphase thermo-hydro-chemical numerical model to predict integratedly and evaluate quantitatively thermo-hydro-chemical phenomena due to heat generation associated with geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The average mineralogical composition of the fifteen unweathered igneous rock bodies, which were classified as granite, in Republic of Korea was adopted as an initial (primary) mineralogical composition of the host rock of the repository of high-level radioactive waste in the numerical simulations. The numerical simulation results show that temperature rises and thus convective groundwater flow occurs near the repository due to heat generation associated with geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Under these circumstances, a series of water-rock interactions take place. As a result, among the primary minerals, quartz, plagioclase (albite), biotite (annite), and muscovite are dissolved. However, orthoclase is initially precipitated and is then dissolved, whereas microcline is initially dissolved and is then precipitated. On the other hand, the secondary minerals such as kaolinite, Na-smectite, chlorite, and hematite are precipitated and are then partly dissolved. In addition, such dissolution and precipitation of the primary and secondary minerals change groundwater chemistry (quality) and induce reactive chemical transport. As a result, in groundwater, Na+, Fe2+, and HCO3- concentrations initially decrease, whereas K+, AlO2-, and aqueous SiO2 concentrations initially increase. On the other hand, H+ concentration initially increases and thus pH initially decreases due to dissociation of groundwater in order to provide OH-, which is essential in precipitation of Na-smectite and chlorite. Thus, the above-mentioned numerical simulation results suggest that thermo-hydro-chemical numerical simulation can provide a better understanding of heat transport, groundwater flow, and reactive

  14. Hydro-geomorphologic disasters in Portugal: mortality trends in the past 150 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Susana; Zêzere, José L.; Quaresma, Ivânia; Santos, Pedro P.; Santos, Mónica

    2015-04-01

    For the first time in Portugal, an extensive analysis of the mortality caused by hydro-geomorphological hazards was made, for a long period (1865-2010) using the DISASTER database (Zêzere et al., 2014). This database was built under the assumption that social consequences (including fatalities) of floods and landslides are relevant enough to be reported by newspapers, which were the source for data collection. This database counts 1902 hydro-geomorphologic cases that caused 1248 fatalities, 14 191 evacuated persons and 41 844 homeless persons. Floods correspond to the majority of cases (85.2%) that caused 1012 fatalities. Landslides correspond to 14.8 % of the total hydro-geomorphologic cases and caused 236 fatalities. The exploitation of the DISASTER database allowed: (i) to analyze the frequency and the temporal evolution of fatal floods and landslides; (ii) to analyze the spatio-temporal distribution of fatalities; (iii) to identify the most deadly flood and landslide types; and (iv) to evaluate the individual and societal risk. The obtained results demonstrate the absence of any exponential growth with time of hydro-geomorphologic cases and associated fatalities in Portugal. The highest flood and landslide cases as well as the associated mortality were registered in the period 1935-1969. After this period, flood and landslide mortality decreased, although landslide fatalities remained higher than the registered in the period 1865-1934. These features do not account the exceptional flash flood event occurred in the Lisbon region in November 1967. This outlier event was responsible for 522 fatalities, which corresponds to more than half of the total mortality generated by floods in Portugal in the complete time series (1865 - 2010). Moreover, the 1967 flash flood event was the deadliest natural disaster registered in Portugal after the Lisbon earthquake occurred in 1755, not accounting heat waves. Flood fatalities occurred widespread in the country, with an

  15. Output improvement of Sg. Piah run-off river hydro-electric station with a new computed river flow-based control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jidin, Razali; Othman, Bahari

    2013-06-01

    The lower Sg. Piah hydro-electric station is a river run-off hydro scheme with generators capable of generating 55MW of electricity. It is located 30km away from Sg. Siput, a small town in the state of Perak, Malaysia. The station has two turbines (Pelton) to harness energy from water that flow through a 7km tunnel from a small intake dam. The trait of a run-off river hydro station is small-reservoir that cannot store water for a long duration; therefore potential energy carried by the spillage will be wasted if the dam level is not appropriately regulated. To improve the station annual energy output, a new controller based on the computed river flow has been installed. The controller regulates the dam level with an algorithm based on the river flow derived indirectly from the intake-dam water level and other plant parameters. The controller has been able to maintain the dam at optimum water level and regulate the turbines to maximize the total generation output.

  16. Building a Bright Future. The Hydro Research Foundation's Fellowship Program

    SciTech Connect

    Vaughn, Brenna; Linke, Deborah M.

    2015-12-29

    The Hydro Fellowship Program (program) began as an experiment to discover whether the hydropower industry could find mechanisms to attract new entrants through conducting relevant research to benefit the industry. This nationwide, new-to-the-world program was started through funding from the Wind and Water Power Technologies Office of the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Office of the Department of Energy (DOE). Between 2010-2015, the Hydro Research Foundation (HRF) designed and implemented a program to conduct valuable research and attract new entrants to the hydro workforce. This historic grant has empowered and engaged industry members from 25 organizations by working with 91 students and advisors at 24 universities in 19 states. The work funded answered pressing research needs in the fields of civil, mechanical, environmental, and electrical engineering, as well as law, energy engineering and materials innovation. In terms of number of individuals touched through funding, 148 individuals were supported by this work through direct research, mentorship, oversight of the work, partnerships and the day-to-day program administration. Based on the program results, it is clear that the funding achieved the hoped-for outcomes and has the capacity to draw universities into the orbit of hydropower and continue the conversation about industry research and development needs. The Foundation has fostered unique partnerships at the host universities and has continued to thrive with the support of the universities, advisors, industry and the DOE. The Foundation has demonstrated industry support through mentorships, partnerships, underwriting the costs and articulating the universities’ support through in-kind cost sharing. The Foundation recommends that future work be continued to nurture these graduate level programs using the initial work and improvements in the successor program, the Research Awards Program, while stimulating engagement of academia at the

  17. Freudenau hydro: Engineering for power and the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Byers, W.

    1997-03-01

    Design and construction of the Freudenau Hydro Power Plant is discussed in the article. The plant is in Vienna, Austria, one of Europe`s oldest cities; therefore, environmental, social, and economic considerations were given a high priority. The planning process is the focus of the article; it centered on an open exchange of ideas between the project development group and an international array of technical experts and interested parties. The approach included supervision of the project by a panel of international technical and environmental experts, and a tender process that sought contractors and creative ideas.

  18. Fundamental economic issues in the development of small scale hydro

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-01

    Some basic economic issues involved in the development of small-scale hydroelectric power are addressed. The discussion represents an economist's view of the investment process in this resource. Very little investment has been made in small-scale hydro development and an attempt is made to show that the reason for this may not be that the expected present worth of the returns of the project do not exceed the construction cost by a sufficient amount. Rather, a set of factors in combination impose costs on the project not normally incurred in small businesses. The discussion covers costs, supply, demand, and profitability.

  19. Pattern of injuries in a hydro-electric project.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, P; Dhar, S; Dogra, S; Kaul, S; Raina, R K

    1995-05-01

    A study of work-related injuries at a hydro-electric project site (May 1991-April 1992) was undertaken to determine the incidence and pattern of the injuries out of a total number of 119 injuries in the year. A significant proportion of these were orthopaedic in nature and the commonest site of injury was limbs (both upper and lower limbs) like auto-amputations and head injuries. A large proportion of these accidents (24.37%) resulted in permanent disability likely to interfere in the normal activities or locomotion of those injured.

  20. Raising the Dead without a Red Sea-Dead Sea project? Hydro-economics and governance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenberg, D. E.

    2011-04-01

    Seven decades of extractions have dramatically reduced Jordan River flows, lowered the Dead Sea level, opened sink holes, and caused other environmental problems. The fix Jordan, Israel, and the Palestinians propose would build an expensive multipurpose conveyance project from the Red Sea to the Dead Sea that would also generate hydropower and desalinate water. This paper compares the Red-Dead project to alternatives that may also raise the Dead Sea level. Hydro-economic model results for the Jordan-Israel-Palestinian inter-tied water systems show two restoration alternatives are more economically viable than the proposed Red-Dead project. Many decentralized new supply, wastewater reuse, conveyance, conservation, and leak reduction projects and programs in each country can together increase economic benefits and reliably deliver up to 900 MCM yr-1 to the Dead Sea. Similarly, a smaller Red-Dead project that only generates hydropower can deliver large flows to the Dead Sea when the sale price of generated electricity is sufficiently high. However, for all restoration options, net benefits fall and water scarcity rises as flows to the Dead Sea increase. This finding suggests (i) each country has no individual incentive to return water to the Dead Sea, and (ii) outside institutions that seek to raise the Dead must also offer countries direct incentives to deliver water to the Sea besides building the countries new infrastructure.

  1. Raising the dead without a Red Sea-Dead Sea canal? Hydro-economics and governance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenberg, D. E.

    2010-12-01

    Seven decades of extractions have dramatically reduced Jordan River flows, lowered the Dead Sea level, opened sink holes, and caused other environmental problems. The fix Jordan, Israel, and the Palestinians propose would build an expensive multipurpose canal from the Red Sea to the Dead Sea that would also generate hydropower and desalinated water. This paper compares the Red-Dead project to alternatives that may also raise the Dead Sea level. Hydro-economic model results for the Jordan-Israel-Palestinian inter-tied water systems show two restoration alternatives are more economically viable than the proposed Red-Dead project. Many decentralized new supply, wastewater reuse, conveyance, conservation, and leak reduction projects and programs in each country can together increase economic benefits and reliably deliver up to 900 MCM/year to the Dead Sea. Similarly, a smaller Red-Dead project that only generates hydropower can deliver large flows to the Dead Sea when the sale price of generated electricity is sufficiently high. However, for all restoration options, net benefits fall and water scarcity rises as flows to the Dead Sea increase. This finding suggests (i) each country has no individual incentive to return water to the Dead Sea, and (ii) outside institutions that seek to raise the Dead must also offer countries direct incentives to deliver water to the Sea besides building the countries new infrastructure.

  2. Optimizing hourly hydro operations at the Salt Lake City Area integrated projects

    SciTech Connect

    Veselka, T.D.; Hamilton, S.; McCoy, J.

    1995-06-01

    The Salt Lake City Area (SLCA) office of the Western Area Power Administration (Western) is responsible for marketing the capacity and energy generated by the Colorado Storage, Collbran, and Rio Grande hydropower projects. These federal resources are collectively called the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP). In recent years, stringent operational limitations have been placed on several of these hydropower plants including the Glen Canyon Dam, which accounts for approximately 80% of the SLCA/IP resources. Operational limitations on SLCA/IP hydropower plants continue to evolve as a result of decisions currently being made in the Glen Canyon Dam Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and the Power Marketing EIS. To analyze a broad range of issues associated with many possible future operational restrictions, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), with technical assistance from Western has developed the Hydro LP (Linear Program) Model. This model simulates hourly operations at SLCA/IP hydropower plants for weekly periods with the objective of maximizing Western`s net revenues. The model considers hydropower operations for the purpose of serving SLCA firm loads, loads for special projects, Inland Power Pool (IPP) spinning reserve requirements, and Western`s purchasing programs. The model estimates hourly SLCA/IP generation and spot market activities. For this paper, hourly SLCA/IP hydropower plant generation is simulated under three operational scenarios and three hydropower conditions. For each scenario an estimate of Western`s net revenue is computed.

  3. 75 FR 65312 - Vortex Hydro Energy, LLC; Notice of Competing Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Vortex Hydro Energy, LLC; Notice of Competing Preliminary Permit Application... Hydro Energy, LLC filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to section 4(f) of the Federal... grant the permit holder priority to file a license application during the permit term. A...

  4. 76 FR 18747 - Teton Power Funding, LLC; Topsham Hydro Partners Limited Partnership; Topsham Hydroelectric...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-05

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Teton Power Funding, LLC; Topsham Hydro Partners Limited Partnership... Power Funding, LLC (transferor), Topsham Hydro Partners Limited Partnership, Topsham Hydroelectric... Partnership: Christine M. Miller, Brown Bear GP, LLC, c/o ArcLight Capital Partners, LLC, 200 Clarendon...

  5. 76 FR 75543 - Missisquoi River Technologies; Missisquoi River Hydro LLC; Notice of Transfer of Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Missisquoi River Technologies; Missisquoi River Hydro LLC; Notice of... issued June 29, 1989,\\1\\ has been transferred to Missisquoi River Hydro LLC. The project is located...

  6. 77 FR 67359 - Wickiup Hydro Group, LLC, Oregon; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Wickiup Hydro Group, LLC, Oregon; Notice of Availability of Environmental..., 52 FR 47897), the Office of Energy Projects has reviewed Wickiup Hydro Group, LLC's application...

  7. 77 FR 10503 - Fall River Community Hydro Project; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-22

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Fall River Community Hydro Project; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application..., 2011, Fall River Valley Community Service District, California, filed an application for a preliminary... the Fall River Community Hydro Project to be located on Fall River, near the town of Fall River...

  8. 33 CFR 100.1305 - Richland, Washington, west coast outboard championship hydro races.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Richland, Washington, west coast outboard championship hydro races. 100.1305 Section 100.1305 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Richland, Washington, west coast outboard championship hydro races. (a) Regulated area. By this...

  9. Hydro-Piezoelectricity: A Renewable Energy Source for Autonomous Underwater Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-09-30

    Hydro-Piezoelectricity: A Renewable Energy Source For Autonomous Underwater Vehicles Dr. George W. Taylor Ocean Power Technologies, Inc. 1590 Reed...00-00-1999 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Hydro-Piezoelectricity: A Renewable Energy Source For Autonomous Underwater Vehicles 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b

  10. 40 CFR 721.1880 - Borate(1-), tris(acetato-.kappa.O)hydro-, sodium, (T-4)-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Borate(1-), tris(acetato-.kappa.O... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1880 Borate(1-), tris(acetato-.kappa.O)hydro-, sodium... substance identified as borate(1-), tris(acetato-.kappa.O)hydro-, sodium, (T-4)- (PMN P-00-0922; CAS...

  11. 40 CFR 721.1880 - Borate(1-), tris(acetato-.kappa.O)hydro-, sodium, (T-4)-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Borate(1-), tris(acetato-.kappa.O... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1880 Borate(1-), tris(acetato-.kappa.O)hydro-, sodium... substance identified as borate(1-), tris(acetato-.kappa.O)hydro-, sodium, (T-4)- (PMN P-00-0922; CAS...

  12. 77 FR 27767 - Milford Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-11

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Milford Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for..., Milford Hydro, LLC filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to section 4(f) of the Federal Power Act, proposing to study the feasibility of the Milford Dam Hydroelectric Project, which would...

  13. 76 FR 19355 - Oregon Winds Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-07

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Oregon Winds Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application..., 2011, Oregon Winds Hydro, LLC filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to section 4(f) of the Federal Power Act (FPA), proposing to study the feasibility of the Oregon Winds Pumped...

  14. 76 FR 8728 - Bear Creek Hydro Associates, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Bear Creek Hydro Associates, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application... 22, 2010, the Bear Creek Hydro Associates, LLC filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to section 4(f) of the Federal Power Act (FPA), proposing to study the ] feasibility of the...

  15. Advances in remote sensing and modeling of terrestrial hydro-meteorological processes and extremes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Remote sensing is an indispensable tool for monitoring and detecting the evolution of the Earth’s hydro-meteorological processes. Fast-growing remote sensing observations and technologies have been a primary impetus to advancing our knowledge of hydro-meteorological processes and their extremes ove...

  16. 76 FR 11240 - Qualified Hydro 34, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Qualified Hydro 34, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted..., 2010, Qualified Hydro 34, LLC filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to section...

  17. 75 FR 49929 - Music Mountain Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-16

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Music Mountain Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted.... On May 18, 2010, Music Mountain Hydro, LLC filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to section 4(f) of the Federal Power Act, proposing to study the feasibility of the Music ] Mountain...

  18. 78 FR 72879 - Western Minnesota Municipal Power Agency; Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund III, LLC; Notice Announcing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-04

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Western Minnesota Municipal Power Agency; Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund III, LLC.... Based on the drawing, the order of priority is as follows: 1. Western Minnesota Municipal Power Agency Project No. 14540-000 2. Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund III, LLC Project No. 14539-000 Dated: November 26,...

  19. 78 FR 64494 - FFP Qualified Hydro 14, LLC, Western Minnesota Municipal Power Agency; Notice Announcing Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-29

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission FFP Qualified Hydro 14, LLC, Western Minnesota Municipal Power Agency... drawing, the order of priority is as follows: 1. FFP Qualified Hydro 14, LLC--Project No. 13579-002 2. Western Minnesota Municipal Power Agency--Project No. 14491-000 Dated: October 23, 2013. Nathaniel...

  20. 76 FR 28766 - Black Canyon Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-18

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Black Canyon Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted..., Black Canyon Hydro, LLC filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to section 4(f) of the Federal Power Act (FPA), proposing to study the feasibility of the Black Canyon Hydroelectric...

  1. 75 FR 73066 - FFP Missouri 13, LLC; Grays Hydro, LLC; Notice of Competing Preliminary Permit Applications...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-29

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission FFP Missouri 13, LLC; Grays Hydro, LLC; Notice of Competing Preliminary..., 2010. On May 18, 2010, FFP Missouri 13, LLC and Grays Hydro, LLC filed applications, pursuant to section 4(f) of the Federal Power Act, proposing to study the feasibility of hydropower at the U.S....

  2. 78 FR 7770 - Boyce Hydro Power, LLC; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing, Soliciting Motions To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-04

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Boyce Hydro Power, LLC; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing.... Applicant Contact: Lee W. Mueller, Boyce Hydro Power, LLC, 6000 S. M-30, Edenville, MI 48620, (989) 689-3161...: Amendment to License. b. Project No: 2785-081. c. Date Filed: September 11, 2012. d. Applicant: Boyce...

  3. 78 FR 62350 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund III, LLC; Western Minnesota Municipal Power Agency; Notice Announcing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-18

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund III, LLC; Western Minnesota Municipal Power Agency... applications were filed by Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund III, LLC for Project No. 14539-000 and Western Minnesota Municipal Power Agency for Project No. 14540-000. \\1\\ Under the Commission's Rules of Practice and...

  4. 78 FR 62350 - FFP Qualified Hydro 14, LLC; Western Minnesota Municipal Power Agency; Notice Announcing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-18

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission FFP Qualified Hydro 14, LLC; Western Minnesota Municipal Power Agency... Polk County, Iowa. The applications were filed by FFP Qualified Hydro 14, LLC for Project No. 13579-002 and Western Minnesota Municipal Power Agency for Project No. 14491-000. \\1\\ Under the...

  5. 75 FR 16094 - Upper Peninsula Power Company; North American Hydro Holdings, LLC; Notice of Application for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-31

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Upper Peninsula Power Company; North American Hydro Holdings, LLC; Notice of... 17, 2010, Upper Peninsula Power Company (transferor) and North American Hydro Holdings, LLC.... Jensky, Upper Peninsula Power Company, 700 N Adams Street, Green Bay, WI 54307, phone (920) 433-2900....

  6. 76 FR 9345 - Soule Hydro, LLC; Notice of Draft License Application and Preliminary Draft Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-17

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Soule Hydro, LLC; Notice of Draft License Application and Preliminary Draft..., 2011. d. Applicant: Soule Hydro, LLC. e. Name of Project: Soule River Hydroelectric Project. f... U.S. Forest Service. g. Filed Pursuant to: Federal Power Act 16 USC 791(a)--825(r). h....

  7. 76 FR 2370 - Mount Storm Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-13

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Mount Storm Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted.... On October 14, 2010, Mount Storm Hydro, LLC filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to section 4(f) of the Federal Power Act (FPA), proposing to study the feasibility of the Mount...

  8. 33 CFR 100.1305 - Richland, Washington, west coast outboard championship hydro races.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Richland, Washington, west coast outboard championship hydro races. 100.1305 Section 100.1305 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Richland, Washington, west coast outboard championship hydro races. (a) Regulated area. By this...

  9. 75 FR 47808 - Verde Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-09

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Verde Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for... 21, 2010, Verde Hydro, LLC filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to section 4(f) of the Federal Power Act, proposing to study the feasibility of the Verde Hydroelectric Project,...

  10. Black Creek Hydro Project high-line cable penstock installation

    SciTech Connect

    Fonnesbeck, K.C.; Ellicock, R.

    1995-12-31

    The Black Creek Hydro Project is a remote, high head, run-of-river, small hydro project located near Seattle, Washington. The comparatively small size of this project was not indicative of the difficulties and challenges presented to the design engineers and construction contractors involved in it`s completion. The most difficult of these challenges was the design and installation of a buried penstock on very steep and heavily forested terrain. This paper will concentrate on construction of the Black Creek penstock, and specifically, that portion of the penstock which required innovative application of a suspended {open_quotes}high-line{close_quotes} cable operation as used is commonly for logging of steep slopes. For this project, the cable installation and yarder equipment were utilized for a variety of purposes including, clearing and logging of the slope, to secure heavy equipment and machinery required to excavate the penstock trench, transport and placement of the individual pipe joints and finally to encase the pipe with lean concrete. The successful application of this approach contributed greatly to the timely completion of the project. This paper will offer background information on the selection and design of the cable Installation as well as highlights of the solutions that were developed to overcome the design and construction problems encountered. Finally, cost data will be offered to those who may be faced with similar undertakings caused by the steep and difficult sites attracting more attention in present days.

  11. Hydro-responsive curling of the resurrection plant Selaginella lepidophylla.

    PubMed

    Rafsanjani, Ahmad; Brulé, Véronique; Western, Tamara L; Pasini, Damiano

    2015-01-27

    The spirally arranged stems of the spikemoss Selaginella lepidophylla, an ancient resurrection plant, compactly curl into a nest-ball shape upon dehydration. Due to its spiral phyllotaxy, older outer stems on the plant interlace and envelope the younger inner stems forming the plant centre. Stem curling is a morphological mechanism that limits photoinhibitory and thermal damages the plant might experience in arid environments. Here, we investigate the distinct conformational changes of outer and inner stems of S. lepidophylla triggered by dehydration. Outer stems bend into circular rings in a relatively short period of desiccation, whereas inner stems curl slowly into spirals due to hydro-actuated strain gradient along their length. This arrangement eases both the tight packing of the plant during desiccation and its fast opening upon rehydration. The insights gained from this work shed light on the hydro-responsive movements in plants and might contribute to the development of deployable structures with remarkable shape transformations in response to environmental stimuli.

  12. Hydro-Responsive Curling of the Resurrection Plant Selaginella lepidophylla

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafsanjani, Ahmad; Brulé, Véronique; Western, Tamara L.; Pasini, Damiano

    2015-01-01

    The spirally arranged stems of the spikemoss Selaginella lepidophylla, an ancient resurrection plant, compactly curl into a nest-ball shape upon dehydration. Due to its spiral phyllotaxy, older outer stems on the plant interlace and envelope the younger inner stems forming the plant centre. Stem curling is a morphological mechanism that limits photoinhibitory and thermal damages the plant might experience in arid environments. Here, we investigate the distinct conformational changes of outer and inner stems of S. lepidophylla triggered by dehydration. Outer stems bend into circular rings in a relatively short period of desiccation, whereas inner stems curl slowly into spirals due to hydro-actuated strain gradient along their length. This arrangement eases both the tight packing of the plant during desiccation and its fast opening upon rehydration. The insights gained from this work shed light on the hydro-responsive movements in plants and might contribute to the development of deployable structures with remarkable shape transformations in response to environmental stimuli.

  13. Hydro-Responsive Curling of the Resurrection Plant Selaginella lepidophylla

    PubMed Central

    Rafsanjani, Ahmad; Brulé, Véronique; Western, Tamara L.; Pasini, Damiano

    2015-01-01

    The spirally arranged stems of the spikemoss Selaginella lepidophylla, an ancient resurrection plant, compactly curl into a nest-ball shape upon dehydration. Due to its spiral phyllotaxy, older outer stems on the plant interlace and envelope the younger inner stems forming the plant centre. Stem curling is a morphological mechanism that limits photoinhibitory and thermal damages the plant might experience in arid environments. Here, we investigate the distinct conformational changes of outer and inner stems of S. lepidophylla triggered by dehydration. Outer stems bend into circular rings in a relatively short period of desiccation, whereas inner stems curl slowly into spirals due to hydro-actuated strain gradient along their length. This arrangement eases both the tight packing of the plant during desiccation and its fast opening upon rehydration. The insights gained from this work shed light on the hydro-responsive movements in plants and might contribute to the development of deployable structures with remarkable shape transformations in response to environmental stimuli. PMID:25623361

  14. 18 CFR 801.12 - Electric power generation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES § 801.12 Electric power generation. (a) Significant uses are presently being made of the waters of the basin for the generation of electric power at hydro, pumped storage, and... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Electric...

  15. 18 CFR 801.12 - Electric power generation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES § 801.12 Electric power generation. (a) Significant uses are presently being made of the waters of the basin for the generation of electric power at hydro, pumped storage, and... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electric...

  16. 18 CFR 801.12 - Electric power generation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Electric power... COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES § 801.12 Electric power generation. (a) Significant uses are presently being made of the waters of the basin for the generation of electric power at hydro, pumped storage,...

  17. 18 CFR 801.12 - Electric power generation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Electric power... COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES § 801.12 Electric power generation. (a) Significant uses are presently being made of the waters of the basin for the generation of electric power at hydro, pumped storage,...

  18. 18 CFR 801.12 - Electric power generation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Electric power... COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES § 801.12 Electric power generation. (a) Significant uses are presently being made of the waters of the basin for the generation of electric power at hydro, pumped storage,...

  19. A spatially explicit hydro-ecological modeling framework (BEPS-TerrainLab V2.0): Model description and test in a boreal ecosystem in Eastern North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govind, Ajit; Chen, Jing Ming; Margolis, Hank; Ju, Weimin; Sonnentag, Oliver; Giasson, Marc-André

    2009-04-01

    SummaryA spatially explicit, process-based hydro-ecological model, BEPS-TerrainLab V2.0, was developed to improve the representation of ecophysiological, hydro-ecological and biogeochemical processes of boreal ecosystems in a tightly coupled manner. Several processes unique to boreal ecosystems were implemented including the sub-surface lateral water fluxes, stratification of vegetation into distinct layers for explicit ecophysiological representation, inclusion of novel spatial upscaling strategies and biogeochemical processes. To account for preferential water fluxes common in humid boreal ecosystems, a novel scheme was introduced based on laboratory analyses. Leaf-scale ecophysiological processes were upscaled to canopy-scale by explicitly considering leaf physiological conditions as affected by light and water stress. The modified model was tested with 2 years of continuous measurements taken at the Eastern Old Black Spruce Site of the Fluxnet-Canada Research Network located in a humid boreal watershed in eastern Canada. Comparison of the simulated and measured ET, water-table depth (WTD), volumetric soil water content (VSWC) and gross primary productivity (GPP) revealed that BEPS-TerrainLab V2.0 simulates hydro-ecological processes with reasonable accuracy. The model was able to explain 83% of the ET, 92% of the GPP variability and 72% of the WTD dynamics. The model suggests that in humid ecosystems such as eastern North American boreal watersheds, topographically driven sub-surface baseflow is the main mechanism of soil water partitioning which significantly affects the local-scale hydrological conditions.

  20. 78 FR 34092 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXX, LLC; FFP Project 121, LLC; Notice of Competing Preliminary Permit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXX, LLC; FFP Project 121, LLC; Notice of Competing... Competing Applications Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXX, LLC and FFP Project 121, LLC filed preliminary permit... 8:30 a.m. on the next regular business day. See id. at 385.2001(a)(2). Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund...

  1. 77 FR 16216 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLVI, LLC; Notice of Intent To File License Application, Filing of Pre...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLVI, LLC; Notice of Intent To File License... R. Stover, Lock+\\TM\\ Hydro Friends Fund XLVI, c/o Hydro Green Energy, LLC, 900 Oakmont Lane,...

  2. 76 FR 40904 - FPL Energy Maine Hydro LLC; Notice of Application for Amendment of License and Soliciting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-12

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission FPL Energy Maine Hydro LLC; Notice of Application for Amendment of License... Energy Maine Hydro LLC. e. Name of Project: Wyman Project. f. Location: The project is located on the.... Applicant Contact: Chad P. Clark, Vice President, FPL Energy Maine Hydro LLC, 26 Katherine Drive,...

  3. 77 FR 63303 - FPL Energy Maine Hydro LLC; Notice of Intent To File License Application, Filing of Pre...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-16

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission FPL Energy Maine Hydro LLC; Notice of Intent To File License Application... Energy Maine Hydro LLC, 26 Katherine Drive, Hallowell, ME 04347. i. FERC Contact: Amy Chang at (202) 502... Act. m. FPL Energy Maine Hydro LLC filed with the Commission a Pre- Application Document...

  4. 75 FR 57745 - FPL Energy Maine Hydro LLC; Notice of Application for Amendment of License and Soliciting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-22

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission FPL Energy Maine Hydro LLC; Notice of Application for Amendment of License..., 2010. d. Applicant: FPL Energy Maine Hydro LLC. e. Name of Project: Wyman Project. f. Location: The... U.S.C. 791a-825r. h. Applicant Contact: Chad P. Clark, Vice President, FPL Energy Maine Hydro...

  5. 77 FR 16217 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXIX, LLC; Notice of Intent To File License Application, Filing of Pre...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXIX, LLC; Notice of Intent To File License... R. Stover, Lock+\\TM\\ Hydro Friends Fund XXXIX, c/o Hydro Green Energy, LLC, 900 Oakmont Lane,...

  6. 76 FR 34228 - FPL Energy Maine Hydro, LLC; Notice of Application for Amendment of License and Soliciting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-13

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Project No. 2283-064 FPL Energy Maine Hydro, LLC; Notice of Application for....: 2283-064. c. Date Filed: March 25, 2011. d. Applicant: FPL Energy Maine Hydro, LLC. e. Name of Project... Recreation Plan and Land/Trail Management Plan issued March 25, 2010, FPL Energy Maine Hydro, LLC...

  7. 75 FR 9592 - FPL Energy Maine Hydro, LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Document and Soliciting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-03

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission FPL Energy Maine Hydro, LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental.... Licensee: FPL Energy Maine Hydro, LLC. e. Name of Project: Upper and Middle Dam Storage Project. f... material: FPL Energy Maine Hydro, LLC has filed a copy of its application for a Maine Waterway...

  8. An Observing System Simulation Experiment for Hydros Radiometer-only Soil Moisture and Freeze-Thaw Products

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-25

    moisture products derived from the NASA ESSP Hydrosphere State (Hydros) mission. I. INTRODUCTION The Hydrosphere State (Hydros) mission has been...al., “The Hydrosphere State (Hydros) mission concept: An earth observing pathfinder for global mapping of soil moisture and land freeze/thaw,” IEEE

  9. 77 FR 55212 - North Star Hydro Services CA, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-07

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission North Star Hydro Services CA, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application..., 2012, North Star Hydro Services CA, LLC, Oklahoma, filed an application for a preliminary permit... Holland, North Star Hydro Services CA, LLC, 1110 West 131st Street South, Jenks, Oklahoma 74037;...

  10. 77 FR 55212 - North Star Hydro Services CA, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-07

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission North Star Hydro Services CA, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application..., 2012, North Star Hydro Services CA, LLC, Oklahoma, filed an application for a preliminary permit...: David Holland, North Star Hydro Services CA, LLC, 1110 West 131st Street South, Jenks, Oklahoma...

  11. 76 FR 4891 - Blue Heron Hydro LLC; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Motions To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-27

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Blue Heron Hydro LLC; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and... Heron Hydro LLC. e. Name of Project: Townshend Dam Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: U.S. Army Corps... Heron Hydro LLC, 113 Bartlett Road, Plainfield, Vermont 05667. (802) 454-1874. i. FERC Contact:...

  12. 76 FR 5147 - Blue Heron Hydro LLC; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Motions To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-28

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Blue Heron Hydro LLC; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and... Heron Hydro LLC. e. Name of Project: Ball Mountain Dam Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: U.S. Army..., Blue Heron Hydro LLC, 113 Bartlett Road, Plainfield, Vermont 05667. (802) 454 1874. i. FERC Contact:...

  13. 75 FR 49925 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLIX; FFP Missouri 14, LLC; Notice of Competing Preliminary Permit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-16

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLIX; FFP Missouri 14, LLC; Notice of Competing... Competing Applications August 9, 2010. Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLIX (Hydro Friends) and FFP Missouri 14, LLC (FFP) filed preliminary permit applications, pursuant to section 4(f) of the Federal Power...

  14. 75 FR 11150 - Free Flow Power Qualified Hydro 23, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-10

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Free Flow Power Qualified Hydro 23, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit... March 3, 2010. On November 5, 2009, Free Flow Power Qualified Hydro 23, LLC (FFP Qualified Hydro 23) filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to section 4(f) of the Federal Power...

  15. 76 FR 18755 - Lock Hydro Friends Fund LI; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-05

    ..., 2010, Lock Hydro Friends Fund LI, filed an application, pursuant to section 4(f) of the Federal Power... Energy Regulatory Commission Lock Hydro Friends Fund LI; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application... would be sold to a local utility. Applicant Contact: Mr. Wayne Krouse, Hydro Green Energy LLC,...

  16. 77 FR 64973 - Don W. Gilbert Hydro Power, LLC; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing With the Commission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-24

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Don W. Gilbert Hydro Power, LLC; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing.... Date filed: May 30, 2012. d. Applicant: Don W. Gilbert Hydro Power, LLC. e. Name of Project: Gilbert...Ann G. Somonich, Don W. Gilbert Hydro Power, LLC, 1805 Grace Power Plant Road, Grace, Idaho...

  17. 75 FR 71107 - Upper Peninsula Power Company; UP Hydro; Notice of Application for Transfer of License, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-22

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Upper Peninsula Power Company; UP Hydro; Notice of Application for Transfer..., Upper Peninsula Power Company (transferor) and UP Hydro (transferee) filed an application for transfer.... Alsberg, North American Hydro Holdings, Inc., 116 State Street, Neshkoro, WI 54960, (920) 293-4628 Ext....

  18. 75 FR 11153 - Free Flow Power Qualified Hydro 22, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-10

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Free Flow Power Qualified Hydro 22, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit... March 1, 2010. On November 05, 2009, Free Flow Power Qualified Hydro 22, LLC (FFP Qualified Hydro 22) filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to section 4(f) of the Federal Power...

  19. 76 FR 18755 - Lock Hydro Friends Fund LII; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-05

    ..., 2010, Lock Hydro Friends Fund LII, filed an application, pursuant to section 4(f) of the Federal Power... Energy Regulatory Commission Lock Hydro Friends Fund LII; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application... local utility. Applicant Contact: Mr. Wayne Krouse, Hydro Green Energy LLC, 5090 Richmond Avenue...

  20. 77 FR 60971 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLII, LLC; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLII, LLC; Notice of Application Tendered for... Hydro Friends Fund XLII, c/o Hydro Green Energy, LLC, 900 Oakmont Lane, Suite 310, Westmont, IL...

  1. 76 FR 62060 - NortHydro, LLC.; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-06

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission NortHydro, LLC.; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Comments, Motions To Intervene, and Competing Applications On July 29, 2011, NortHydro, LLC (NortHydro or applicant) filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to section...

  2. 76 FR 62060 - NortHydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-06

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission NortHydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Comments, Motions To Intervene, and Competing Applications On July 29, 2011, NortHydro, LLC (NortHydro or applicant) filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to section...

  3. 76 FR 62061 - NortHydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-06

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission NortHydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Comments, Motions To Intervene, and Competing Applications On July 29, 2011, NortHydro, LLC (NortHydro or applicant) filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to section...

  4. HydroViz: evaluation of a web-based tool for improving hydrology education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habib, E.; Ma, Y.; Williams, D.; Sharif, H.; Hossain, F.

    2012-02-01

    HydroViz is a web-based, student-centered, highly visual educational tool designed to support active learning in the field of Engineering Hydrology. The development of HydroViz is informed by recent advances in hydrologic data, numerical simulations, visualization and web-based technologies. An evaluation study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of HydroViz, to examine the buy-in of the program, and to identify project components that need to be improved. A total of 182 students from seven freshmen and junior-/senior-level undergraduate classes in three universities participated in the study over the course of two semesters (spring 2010 and fall 2010). Data sources included homework assignments, online surveys, and informal interviews with students. Descriptive statistics were calculated for homework and the survey. Qualitative analysis of students' comments and informal interview notes were also conducted to identify ideas and patterns. HydroViz was effective in facilitating students' learning and understanding of hydrologic concepts and increasing related skills. Students had positive perceptions of various features of HydroViz and they believe that HydroViz fits well in the curriculum. The experience with HydroViz was somewhat effective in raising freshmen civil engineering students' interest in hydrology. In general, HydroViz tend to be more effective with students in junior- or senior-level classes than students in freshmen classes. There does not seem to be obvious differences between different universities. Students identified some issues that can be addressed to improve HydroViz. Future adaptation and expansion studies are under planning to scale-up the application and utility of HydroViz into various hydrology and water-resource engineering curriculum settings.

  5. Crystal structure of 3-(3-oxo-2,3,4,4a,5,6-hexa-hydro-benzo[h]cinnolin-2-yl)propionic acid.

    PubMed

    Meneghetti, Fiorella; Masciocchi, Daniela; Gelain, Arianna; Villa, Stefania

    2014-10-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C15H16N2O3, contains two independent mol-ecules, which present a different conformation of the carb-oxy-lic acid side chain [C-C-C-OH torsion angles = 65.3 (7) and -170.1 (5)°]. In both mol-ecules, the di-hydro-pyridazinone ring adopts a geometry inter-mediate between a twisted-boat and a half-chair conformation, while the central six-membered ring is almost in a half-boat conformation. In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked by O-H⋯Ok (k = ketone) hydrogen bonds, generating [01-1] chains. Aromatic π-π stacking contacts between the benzene and the di-hydro-pyridazinone rings [centroid-centroid distance [3.879 (9) Å] are also observed.

  6. DRIHM: Distributed Research Infrastructure for Hydro-Meteorology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parodi, A.; Rebora, N.; Kranzlmueller, D.; Schiffers, M.; Clematis, A.; Tafferner, A.; Garrote, L. M.; Llasat Botija, M.; Caumont, O.; Richard, E.; Cros, P.; Dimitrijevic, V.; Jagers, B.; Harpham, Q.; Hooper, R. P.

    2012-12-01

    Hydro-Meteorology Research (HMR) is an area of critical scientific importance and of high societal relevance. It plays a key role in guiding predictions relevant to the safety and prosperity of humans and ecosystems from highly urbanized areas, to coastal zones, and to agricultural landscapes. Of special interest and urgency within HMR is the problem of understanding and predicting the impacts of severe hydro-meteorological events, such as flash-floods and landslides in complex orography areas, on humans and the environment, under the incoming climate change effects. At the heart of this challenge lies the ability to have easy access to hydrometeorological data and models, and facilitate the collaboration between meteorologists, hydrologists, and Earth science experts for accelerated scientific advances in this field. To face these problems the DRIHM (Distributed Research Infrastructure for Hydro-Meteorology) project is developing a prototype e-Science environment to facilitate this collaboration and provide end-to-end HMR services (models, datasets and post-processing tools) at the European level, with the ability to expand to global scale (e.g. cooperation with Earth Cube related initiatives). The objectives of DRIHM are to lead the definition of a common long-term strategy, to foster the development of new HMR models and observational archives for the study of severe hydrometeorological events, to promote the execution and analysis of high-end simulations, and to support the dissemination of predictive models as decision analysis tools. DRIHM combines the European expertise in HMR, in Grid and High Performance Computing (HPC). Joint research activities will improve the efficient use of the European e-Infrastructures, notably Grid and HPC, for HMR modelling and observational databases, model evaluation tool sets and access to HMR model results. Networking activities will disseminate DRIHM results at the European and global levels in order to increase the cohesion

  7. Geovisualization in the HydroProg web map service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spallek, Waldemar; Wieczorek, Malgorzata; Szymanowski, Mariusz; Niedzielski, Tomasz; Swierczynska, Malgorzata

    2016-04-01

    The HydroProg system, built at the University of Wroclaw (Poland) in frame of the research project no. 2011/01/D/ST10/04171 financed by the National Science Centre of Poland, has been designed for computing predictions of river stages in real time on a basis of multimodelling. This experimental system works on the upper Nysa Klodzka basin (SW Poland) above the gauge in the town of Bardo, with the catchment area of 1744 square kilometres. The system operates in association with the Local System for Flood Monitoring of Klodzko County (LSOP), and produces hydrograph prognoses as well as inundation predictions. For presenting the up-to-date predictions and their statistics in the online mode, the dedicated real-time web map service has been designed. Geovisualisation in the HydroProg map service concerns: interactive maps of study area, interactive spaghetti hydrograms of water level forecasts along with observed river stages, animated images of inundation. The LSOP network offers a high spatial and temporal resolution of observations, as the length of the sampling interval is equal to 15 minutes. The main environmental elements related to hydrological modelling are shown on the main map. This includes elevation data (hillshading and hypsometric tints), rivers and reservoirs as well as catchment boundaries. Furthermore, we added main towns, roads as well as political and administrative boundaries for better map understanding. The web map was designed as a multi-scale representation, with levels of detail and zooming according to scales: 1:100 000, 1:250 000 and 1:500 000. Observations of water level in LSOP are shown on interactive hydrographs for each gauge. Additionally, predictions and some of their statistical characteristics (like prediction errors and Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency) are shown for selected gauges. Finally, predictions of inundation are presented on animated maps which have been added for four experimental sites. The HydroProg system is a strictly

  8. Hydro-geological process chain for building a flood scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longoni, Laura; Brambilla, Davide; Papini, Monica; Ivanov, Vladislav; Radice, Alessio

    2015-04-01

    Flash-flood events in mountain environments are often related to the transport of large amounts of sediment from the slopes through the stream network. As a consequence, significant morphological changes may occur in rivers during a single, short-duration event, with possibly significant effect on the water elevation. An appropriate hazard evaluation would therefore require the thorough modelling of the flood-related phenomena and of their interconnection. In this context, this work is focused on an attempt of integrated modelling of event-scale water and sediment transport processes for a reference case-study of the Mallero basin in the Italian Alps. The area of the catchments is about 320 square km, the main stream being almost 25 km long and having slopes in the range from 1 to 40 %. A town (Sondrio) is present at the downstream end of the river. In 1987, Sondrio was at risk of inundation due to a combined effect of relatively high discharge and aggradation of the river bed up to 5 m (almost equal to the bankfull depth in the in-town reach). A 100-year flood scenario was produced including (i) a sediment supply model, (ii) a one-dimensional, hydro-morphologic model of the river bed evolution, and (iii) an estimation of the outflowing discharge at river sections where the bank elevation was exceeded by water. Rainfall-runoff transformation was not included into the modelling chain as the 100-year water hydrograph was already available from previous studies. For the sediment production model, a downscaling in time of the Gavrilovic equation was attempted using rainfall estimation from depth-duration-frequency curves, which furnished values in reasonable agreement with some available data. The hydro-morphologic model, based on the Saint-Venant and Exner equations, was preliminarily calibrated against data for bed aggradation measured in 1987. A point of separation was chosen at an appropriate location in the basin, and the sediment yield estimated upstream of this

  9. Soil stability characteristics of mulberry lands at hydro-fluctuation belt in the Three Gorges Reservoir area, China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ping; Shi, Dongmei; Hu, Xueqin; Huang, Xianzhi; Li, Yexin; Guo, Tianlei

    2015-10-01

    The hydro-fluctuation belt in the Three Gorges Reservoir area is a typical seasonal and artificial wetland system and ecologically fragile zone. Using the widely existing mulberry forest lands in the hydro-fluctuation belt as an example and the 180-m water-level forest land as a control, this paper analyzes the soil stability of mulberry forestlands at different water levels in the hydro-fluctuation belt by analyzing and comparing the changes between soil physical and mechanical properties. The results indicated that (1) water-level changes, such as rising, flooding, draining, and exposure, affect the soil structure in mulberry forestlands. The soil agglomeration statuses for the soil layers decreased from 180 > 175 > 170 > 165 m, and the soil agglomeration statuses at a depth of 0∼20 cm decreased by 43.79, 44.95, and 57.45% compared with the control. (2) The soil water stability index decreased as follows: 180 > 170 > 175 > 165 m, which only accounted for 50.00, 47.73, and 40.91% of the control. In addition, the soil water stability indexes for the topsoils at various water levels were 1.87 (180 m), 1.67 (175 m), 2.92 (170 m), and 1.86 (165 m) times greater than those of the subsoils; thus, the resistance to hydraulic dispersion and disintegration were greater in the topsoil than in the subsoil. (3) The soil aggregate stability index decreased from 180 > 165 > 170 > 175 m and by 22.75, 23.53, and 35.29% compared with the control. (4) The soil shear strengths (composed of the cohesive force C and the internal friction angle φ) of the topsoils at water levels of 175, 170, and 165 m were significantly lower than in the control, and the internal friction angles decreased by 10.52, 19.08, and 43.25% and the cohesive force decreased by 9.88, 16.36, and 27.51%, respectively. The stability of the soil structure was greatly influenced by the soil clay content, soil organic matter content, and waterlogging duration. The study results

  10. A hydro-meteorological ensemble prediction system for real-time flood forecasting purposes in the Milano area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravazzani, Giovanni; Amengual, Arnau; Ceppi, Alessandro; Romero, Romualdo; Homar, Victor; Mancini, Marco

    2015-04-01

    Analysis of forecasting strategies that can provide a tangible basis for flood early warning procedures and mitigation measures over the Western Mediterranean region is one of the fundamental motivations of the European HyMeX programme. Here, we examine a set of hydro-meteorological episodes that affected the Milano urban area for which the complex flood protection system of the city did not completely succeed before the occurred flash-floods. Indeed, flood damages have exponentially increased in the area during the last 60 years, due to industrial and urban developments. Thus, the improvement of the Milano flood control system needs a synergism between structural and non-structural approaches. The flood forecasting system tested in this work comprises the Flash-flood Event-based Spatially distributed rainfall-runoff Transformation, including Water Balance (FEST-WB) and the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) models, in order to provide a hydrological ensemble prediction system (HEPS). Deterministic and probabilistic quantitative precipitation forecasts (QPFs) have been provided by WRF model in a set of 48-hours experiments. HEPS has been generated by combining different physical parameterizations (i.e. cloud microphysics, moist convection and boundary-layer schemes) of the WRF model in order to better encompass the atmospheric processes leading to high precipitation amounts. We have been able to test the value of a probabilistic versus a deterministic framework when driving Quantitative Discharge Forecasts (QDFs). Results highlight (i) the benefits of using a high-resolution HEPS in conveying uncertainties for this complex orographic area and (ii) a better simulation of the most of extreme precipitation events, potentially enabling valuable probabilistic QDFs. Hence, the HEPS copes with the significant deficiencies found in the deterministic QPFs. These shortcomings would prevent to correctly forecast the location and timing of high precipitation rates and

  11. Introduction of organic/hydro-organic matrices in inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry and mass spectrometry: a tutorial review. Part I. Theoretical considerations.

    PubMed

    Leclercq, Amélie; Nonell, Anthony; Todolí Torró, José Luis; Bresson, Carole; Vio, Laurent; Vercouter, Thomas; Chartier, Frédéric

    2015-07-23

    Due to their outstanding analytical performances, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) are widely used for multi-elemental measurements and also for isotopic characterization in the case of ICP-MS. While most studies are carried out in aqueous matrices, applications involving organic/hydro-organic matrices become increasingly widespread. This kind of matrices is introduced in ICP based instruments when classical "matrix removal" approaches such as acid digestion or extraction procedures cannot be implemented. Due to the physico-chemical properties of organic/hydro-organic matrices and their associated effects on instrumentation and analytical performances, their introduction into ICP sources is particularly challenging and has become a full topic. In this framework, numerous theoretical and phenomenological studies of these effects have been performed in the past, mainly by ICP-OES, while recent literature is more focused on applications and associated instrumental developments. This tutorial review, divided in two parts, explores the rich literature related to the introduction of organic/hydro-organic matrices in ICP-OES and ICP-MS. The present Part I, provides theoretical considerations in connection with the physico-chemical properties of organic/hydro-organic matrices, in order to better understand the induced phenomena. This focal point is divided in four chapters highlighting: (i) the impact of organic/hydro-organic matrices from aerosol generation to atomization/excitation/ionization processes; (ii) the production of carbon molecular constituents and their spatial distribution in the plasma with respect to analytes repartition; (iii) the subsequent modifications of plasma fundamental properties; and (iv) the resulting spectroscopic and non spectroscopic interferences. This first part of this tutorial review is addressed either to beginners or to more experienced scientists who are interested in the

  12. Web services for distributed and interoperable hydro-information systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horak, J.; Orlik, A.; Stromsky, J.

    2007-06-01

    Web services support the integration and interoperability of Web-based applications and enable machine-to-machine interaction. The concepts of web services and open distributed architecture were applied to the development of T-DSS, the prototype customised for web based hydro-information systems. T-DSS provides mapping services, database related services and access to remote components, with special emphasis placed on output flexibility (e.g. multilingualism), where SOAP web services are mainly used for communication. The remote components are represented above all by distant data and mapping services (e.g. eteorological predictions), modelling and analytical systems (currently HEC-HMS, Modflow and additional utilities), which support decision making in water management.

  13. Web services for distributed and interoperable hydro-information systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horak, J.; Orlik, A.; Stromsky, J.

    2008-03-01

    Web services support the integration and interoperability of Web-based applications and enable machine-to-machine interaction. The concepts of web services and open distributed architecture were applied to the development of T-DSS, the prototype customised for web based hydro-information systems. T-DSS provides mapping services, database related services and access to remote components, with special emphasis placed on the output flexibility (e.g. multilingualism), where SOAP web services are mainly used for communication. The remote components are represented above all by remote data and mapping services (e.g. meteorological predictions), modelling and analytical systems (currently HEC-HMS, MODFLOW and additional utilities), which support decision making in water management.

  14. Hydro-mechanical overhead for internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Meistrick, Z.S.; Price, R.B.

    1987-05-12

    This patent describes a hydro-mechanical overhead for a multi-cylinder four-cycle internal combustion engine having a camshaft, intake valve pushtube means driven by the camshaft, exhaust valve pushtube means driven by the camshaft, at least one intake and exhaust valve for each cylinder of the multi-cylinder internal combustion engines and a piston for each cylinder of the engine. The process comprises an intake valve master piston means for each engine cylinder. Each intake valve master piston means is driven by one of the intake valve pushtube means. There is an exhaust valve master piston means for each engine cylinder, and each exhaust valve master piston means is driven by one of the exhaust valve pushtube means.

  15. Integrated hydrometeorological predictions with the fully-coupled WRF-Hydro modeling system in western North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gochis, D. J.; Yu, W.

    2013-12-01

    Prediction of heavy rainfall and associated streamflow responses remain as critical hydrometeorological challenges and require improved understanding of the linkages between atmospheric and land surface processes. Streamflow prediction skill is intrinsically liked to quantitative precipitation forecast skill, which emphasizes the need to produce mesoscale predictions of rainfall of high fidelity. However, in many cases land surface parameters can also exert significant control on the runoff response to heavy rainfall and on the formation or localization of heavy rainfall as well. A new generation of integrated atmospheric-hydrologic modeling systems is emerging from different groups around the world to meet the challenge of integrated water cycle predictions. In this talk the community WRF-Hydro modeling system will be presented. After a brief reviewing the architectural features of the WRF-Hydro system short-term forecasting and regional hydroclimate prediction applications of the model from western North America will be presented. In these applications, analyses will present results from observation-validated prediction experiments where atmospheric and terrestrial hydrologic model components are run in both a fully coupled mode and separately without two-way interactions. Emphasis is placed on illustrating an assessment framework using an initial state perturbation methodology to quantify the role of land-atmosphere energy and moisture flux partitioning in controlling precipitation and runoff forecast skill. Issues related to experimental design of fully-coupled model prediction experiments will also be discussed as will issues related to computational performance.

  16. Prioritized Reliability-Risk$ Optimization for a Hydro-Thermal System CddHoward Consulting Ltd

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, C. D.; Howard, J. C.

    2010-12-01

    This paper provides a real-world example of a hydro-economic model for risk estimation and impact assessment. Ensembles of forecasted reservoir inflows were used to drive an integrated hydro-thermal two-reservoir stochastic long term economic optimization model. The optimization objective was to minimize long term thermal energy purchases by recommending the best current operating decisions within policies on long-term Risk (probabilistic cost). Risk was determined as a function of Reliability to meet forecasted energy load. Reservoir End of Month Rule Curves Reliability: Thermal Risk and Hydro Revenue

  17. Hydro-climatic trends and water resource management implications based on multi-scale data for the Lake Victoria region, Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koutsouris, A. J.; Destouni, G.; Jarsjö, J.; Lyon, S. W.

    2010-07-01

    Unreliable rainfall may be a main cause of poverty in rural areas, such as the Kisumu district by Lake Victoria in Kenya. Climate change may further increase the negative effects of rainfall uncertainty. These effects could be mitigated to some extent through improved and adaptive water resource management and planning, which relies on our interpretations and projections of the coupled hydro-climatic system behaviour and its development trends. In order to identify and quantify the main differences and consistencies among such hydro-climatic assessments, this study investigates trends and exemplifies their use for important water management decisions for the Lake Victoria drainage basin (LVDB), based on local scale data for the Orongo village in the Kisumu district, and regional scale data for the whole LVDB. Results show low correlation between locally and regionally observed hydro-climatic trends, and large differences, which in turn affects assessments of important water resource management parameters. However, both data scales converge in indicating that observed local and regional hydrological discharge trends are primarily driven by local and regional water use and land use changes.

  18. Numerical Simulation of Non-Isothermal CO2 Injection Using the Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical Code CODE_BRIGHT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilarrasa, V.; Olivella, S.; Silva, O.; Carrera, J.

    2012-04-01

    Storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) in deep geological formations is considered an option for reducing greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere. Injecting CO2 into aquifers at depths greater than 800 m brings CO2 to a supercritical state where its density is large enough to ensure an efficient use of pore space. However, CO2 will always be lighter than the resident brine. Therefore, it will flow along the top of the aquifer because of buoyancy. Thus, suitable aquifers should be capped by a low-permeability rock to avoid CO2 migration to upper aquifers and the surface. Therefore, ensuring mechanical stability of the caprock is critical to avoid CO2 leakage. Yet, CO2 injection can result in significant pressure buildup, which affects the stress field and may induce large deformations (Vilarrasa et al., 2010b). These can eventually damage the caprock and open up new flow paths. Moreover, inflowing CO2 may not be in thermal equilibrium with the aquifer, which induces stress changes that may affect the caprock stability. We use the coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical finite element numerical code CODE_BRIGHT (Olivella et al., 1994, 1996) to simulate these processes. We have extended the code to simulate CO2 as a non-wetting phase. To this end, we have implemented the Redlich-Kwong equation of state for CO2. As a first step, two-phase flow studies (Vilarrasa et al., 2010a) were carried out. Next, coupled hydro-mechanical simulations were performed (Vilarrasa et al., 2010b). Finally, we have implemented CO2 thermal properties to simulate non-isothermal CO2 injection in deformable deep saline formations. Coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical simulations of CO2 injection produce a region in thermal equilibrium with the injected CO2. The thermal transition is abrupt. A small rise in the temperature of the supercritical CO2 region is produced by the exothermal reaction of CO2 dissolution into the brine. An induced thermal stress change due to thermal contraction/expansion of the rock

  19. Airborne particulate matter PM2.5 from Mexico City affects the generation of reactive oxygen species by blood neutrophils from asthmatics: an in vitro approach

    PubMed Central

    Sierra-Vargas, Martha Patricia; Guzman-Grenfell, Alberto Martin; Blanco-Jimenez, Salvador; Sepulveda-Sanchez, Jose David; Bernabe-Cabanillas, Rosa Maria; Cardenas-Gonzalez, Beatriz; Ceballos, Guillermo; Hicks, Juan Jose

    2009-01-01

    Background The Mexico City Metropolitan Area is densely populated, and toxic air pollutants are generated and concentrated at a higher rate because of its geographic characteristics. It is well known that exposure to particulate matter, especially to fine and ultra-fine particles, enhances the risk of cardio-respiratory diseases, especially in populations susceptible to oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of fine particles on the respiratory burst of circulating neutrophils from asthmatic patients living in Mexico City. Methods In total, 6 subjects diagnosed with mild asthma and 11 healthy volunteers were asked to participate. Neutrophils were isolated from peripheral venous blood and incubated with fine particles, and the generation of reactive oxygen species was recorded by chemiluminescence. We also measured plasma lipoperoxidation susceptibility and plasma myeloperoxidase and paraoxonase activities by spectrophotometry. Results Asthmatic patients showed significantly lower plasma paraoxonase activity, higher susceptibility to plasma lipoperoxidation and an increase in myeloperoxidase activity that differed significantly from the control group. In the presence of fine particles, neutrophils from asthmatic patients showed an increased tendency to generate reactive oxygen species after stimulation with fine particles (PM2.5). Conclusion These findings suggest that asthmatic patients have higher oxidation of plasmatic lipids due to reduced antioxidant defense. Furthermore, fine particles tended to increase the respiratory burst of blood human neutrophils from the asthmatic group. On the whole, increased myeloperoxidase activity and susceptibility to lipoperoxidation with a concomitant decrease in paraoxonase activity in asthmatic patients could favor lung infection and hence disrupt the control of asthmatic crises. PMID:19563660

  20. A GIS-Based Model for the analysis of an urban flash flood and its hydro-geomorphic response. The Valencia event of 1957

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portugués-Mollá, I.; Bonache-Felici, X.; Mateu-Bellés, J. F.; Marco-Segura, J. B.

    2016-10-01

    Flash floods are recurrent events around the Mediterranean region. Extreme episodes activate hydro-geomorphic high-intensity processes with low frequency. In urban environments, the complexity becomes higher due to the existence of very quick-response runoff. However, immediate recovery works remove the urban marks. After a short time both the significance and magnitude of the hydro-geomorphic event become completely unrecognizable. Nevertheless, these episodes generate extensive documentation which is testimony of the processes in almost real time. It is necessary to exploit this source typology in order to draw flood sketches when events far in time may lack a sufficiently rich database. This is particularly the case for the Valencia flash flood (October 1957), located in the lower Turia River basin (Eastern Spain). It left numerous pieces of hydro-geomorphic evidence, but its tracks were covered a short while after the flood. In any case, it remains part of a non-systematic legacy that has not yet been exploited, consisting of immediate aerial and oblique high resolution photography, pictures at street level, water marks and administrative records. Paradoxically, despite being considered a milestone in metropolitan territorial planning (the river was definitely diverted), an accurate reconstruction of the hydraulic behaviour was required from an integrated point of view. To this aim, the development of a GIS-Based Model enabled the utilisation of the above-mentioned materials. This non-conventional information was treated jointly from a new perspective. It provided database support through a vast amount of organised, structured and georeferenced information about the 1957 event. In a second stage, the GBM made it possible to characterise the Turia urban reach and interpret both the hydro-geomorphic (trenches along barrier beaches, erosion, deposition, etc.) and hydraulic (urban streams along the streets, flow directions, flood extent, levees breaks, overflows

  1. Investigation of the pump reshaping effect on the thermally-affected Helmholtz-Gauss beams generated by a solid-state laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadgaran, H.; Fallah, R.

    2015-08-01

    Reshaping is the gradual adaptation of the pump profile toward the laser output profile. This work investigates the effects of pump reshaping on the generation of Bessel-Gauss (BG), Mathieu-Gauss (MG) and cosine-Gauss (CG) beams. The study uses our previous thermal model and compares the outcome of the model for three different cases, with and without pump reshaping. The results show that in a high power regime, inclusion of reshaping effects in any thermal model is necessary for comprehensive analysis of the thermal problem, whereas this effect can be safely neglected in models describing low power lasers.

  2. The methodological approach for the generation of human dendritic cells from monocytes affects the maturation state of the resultant dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Mucci, Ilaria; Legitimo, Annalisa; Compagnino, Marta; Consolini, Rita; Migliaccio, Pasquale; Metelli, Maria Rita; Scatena, Fabrizio

    2009-10-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are effective as antigen-presenting cells in the immune system and are present at two functional stages depending on their maturation state. For experimental investigation of this concept, CD14(+) monocytes from blood are isolated and cultured to generate in vitro the DCs needed for functional analysis. For positive selection of CD14(+) monocytes we compared two immunomagnetic bead technologies: MACS Separation, created by Miltenyi Biotec, and EasySep Selection, created by StemCell Technologies. The monocytes provided dendritic cells for their functional analysis. Lipopolysaccharide was added to cultured DCs to induce maturation. Although both systems generated DCs from the positively selected CD14(+) cells, there were certain differences between them. Morphological, phenotypic, and functional analysis showed that MACS-selection provided DCs that have typical features corresponding to day 6 or 7 of maturation. EasySep-DCs exist in a partially-mature state from day 6 onward, even without the addition of a maturation stimulus. The reason behind this partial maturation is possibly based on the dextran-coated beads that are associated with the EasySep product. Both methods provide pure and viable DCs, but we would recommend using the MACS system for obtaining DCs suitable for functional studies.

  3. Is It Better to Burn or Bury Waste for Clean Electricity Generation?

    EPA Science Inventory

    The generation of electricity through renewables has increased 5% since 2002. Although considerably less prominent than solar and wind, the use of municipal solid waste (MSW) to generate electricity represents roughly 14 percent of U.S. non-hydro renewable electricity generation....

  4. Designs and applications for floating-hydro power systems in small streams

    SciTech Connect

    Rehder, J.B.

    1983-01-01

    The project focuses on an appropriate technology for small-scale hydro power: floating waterwheels and turbines. For background, relic and existing systems such as early floating mills, traditional Amish waterwheels, and micro-hydro systems are examined. In the design phase of the project, new designs for Floating Hydro Power Systems include: an analysis of floatation materials and systems; a floating undershot waterwheel design; a floating cylinder (fiberglass storage tank) design; a submerged tube design; and a design for a floating platform with submerged propellers. Finally, in the applications phase, stream flow data from East Tennessee streams are used in a discussion of the potential applications of floating hydro power systems in small streams.

  5. 77 FR 43584 - Shelbyville Hydro LLC; Notice of Application Ready for Environmental Analysis and Soliciting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Shelbyville Hydro LLC; Notice of Application Ready for Environmental..., Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, 888 First Street NE., Washington, DC 20426. The Commission's...

  6. Using GA-Ridge regression to select hydro-geological parameters influencing groundwater pollution vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Jae Joon; Kim, Young Min; Yoo, Keunje; Park, Joonhong; Oh, Kyong Joo

    2012-11-01

    For groundwater conservation and management, it is important to accurately assess groundwater pollution vulnerability. This study proposed an integrated model using ridge regression and a genetic algorithm (GA) to effectively select the major hydro-geological parameters influencing groundwater pollution vulnerability in an aquifer. The GA-Ridge regression method determined that depth to water, net recharge, topography, and the impact of vadose zone media were the hydro-geological parameters that influenced trichloroethene pollution vulnerability in a Korean aquifer. When using these selected hydro-geological parameters, the accuracy was improved for various statistical nonlinear and artificial intelligence (AI) techniques, such as multinomial logistic regression, decision trees, artificial neural networks, and case-based reasoning. These results provide a proof of concept that the GA-Ridge regression is effective at determining influential hydro-geological parameters for the pollution vulnerability of an aquifer, and in turn, improves the AI performance in assessing groundwater pollution vulnerability.

  7. 77 FR 2290 - Modern Hydro; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-17

    ... Hydro filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to section 4(f) of the Federal Power Act (FPA), to study the feasibility of the proposed Delhi Milldam Water Power Project No. 14311 to...

  8. Hydro-acoustic instabilities in compressible turbulent channel flow with porous walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scalo, Carlo; Rahbari, Iman

    2015-11-01

    C. Scalo, J. Bodart, and S. K. Lele, Phys. Fluids (2015) manipulated wall-bounded compressible turbulence by applying impedance boundary conditions (IBC) acoustically tuned to the characteristic time scale of the large-scale eddies. Near-wall turbulence was overhauled by hydro-acoustic instabilities - comprised of coherent spanwise Kelvin-Helmholtz rollers driven by Helmholtz-like acoustic resonance - while outer-layer turbulence was left structurally unaltered. We discuss linear modeling results of the observed flow response, supported by new high-fidelity simulations up to transonic bulk Mach numbers. For IBCs with zero reactance, corresponding to a Darcy-like formulation for porous walls, two dominant modes are identified whose Reynolds stress distributions overlap with the impermeable-wall turbulent buffer layer, directly affecting the near-wall turbulence cycle. For the range of wavenumbers investigated, the transition from subcritical to supercritical permeability does not significantly alter the structure of the unstable modes, showing that wall-permeability accentuates pre-existing, otherwise stable, modes. Implications on flow control strategies for compressible boundary layers over porous walls are discussed. School of Mechanical Engineering.

  9. Effects of EoS in viscous hydro + cascade model for the RHIC Beam Energy Scan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpenko, Iu.; Bleicher, M.; Huovinen, P.; Petersen, H.

    2016-12-01

    A state-of-the-art 3+1 dimensional cascade + viscous hydro + cascade model vHLLE+UrQMD has been applied to heavy ion collisions in RHIC Beam Energy Scan range √{sNN} = 7.7 , … , 200 GeV. Based on comparison to available experimental data it was estimated that an effective value of shear viscosity over entropy density ratio η / s in hydrodynamic stage has to decrease from η / s = 0.2 to 0.08 as collision energy increases from √{sNN} = 7.7 to 39 GeV, and to stay at η / s = 0.08 for 39 ≤√{ s} ≤ 200 GeV. In this work we show how an equation of state with first order phase transition affects the hydrodynamic evolution at those collision energies and changes the results of the model as compared to "default scenario" with a crossover type EoS from chiral model.

  10. System Modeling to Improve the Hydro-Ecological Performance of Diked Wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alminagorta, O.; Rosenberg, D. E.; Kettenring, K.

    2012-12-01

    Managing scarce water resources and invasive vegetation are common problems in wetlands. A systems model was developed to recommend water allocations and vegetation control actions among diked wetland units that will improve wetland habitat for bird species. Model recommendations are subject to constraints such as water availability, spatial connectivity of wetland units, hydraulic infrastructure capacities, vegetation growth and responses to management activities, plus financial and time resources available to manage water and invasive vegetation. Wetland habitat performance is quantified using two performance metrics. The first metric is a habitat suitability index (H) that represents the capacity of a given habitat attribute (such as water depth or vegetation cover) to support selected bird species. Suitability ranges from 0 (poor) to 1 (excellent) habitat quality. We combine the habitat suitability of water depth and vegetation coverage, weight by species and the wetted surface area to create the second metric defined as the weighted usable area for wetlands (WU). The WU represents the available surface area that provides suitable hydrological and ecological conditions for priority bird species. We apply the model at the Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge (the Refuge), which is the largest wetland complex on the Great Salt Lake, Utah. The Refuge provides important habitat for large populations of migratory birds that follow the North American Pacific and Central Flyways. Wetland managers and stakeholders participated throughout this study from identifying the problem, defining performance metrics, collecting data, through interpreting results. We ran the model for a base case representing hydrologic conditions in 2008 and eight scenarios that independently considered changes in water availability, financial budget, vegetation responses, and gate operation. Results of these analysis show that performance of wetland habitat are more affected by changes in

  11. HydroViz: design and evaluation of a Web-based tool for improving hydrology education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habib, E.; Ma, Y.; Williams, D.; Sharif, H. O.; Hossain, F.

    2012-10-01

    HydroViz is a Web-based, student-centered, educational tool designed to support active learning in the field of Engineering Hydrology. The design of HydroViz is guided by a learning model that is based on learning with data and simulations, using real-world natural hydrologic systems to convey theoretical concepts, and using Web-based technologies for dissemination of the hydrologic education developments. This model, while being used in a hydrologic education context, can be adapted in other engineering educational settings. HydroViz leverages the free Google Earth resources to enable presentation of geospatial data layers and embed them in web pages that have the same look and feel of Google Earth. These design features significantly facilitate the dissemination and adoption of HydroViz by any interested educational institutions regardless of their access to data or computer models. To facilitate classroom usage, HydroViz is populated with a set of course modules that can be used incrementally within different stages of an engineering hydrology curriculum. A pilot evaluation study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of the HydroViz tool in delivering its educational content, to examine the buy-in of the program by faculty and students, and to identify specific project components that need to be further pursued and improved. A total of 182 students from seven freshmen and senior-level undergraduate classes in three universities participated in the study. HydroViz was effective in facilitating students' learning and understanding of hydrologic concepts and increasing related skills. Students had positive perceptions of various features of HydroViz and they believe that HydroViz fits well in the curriculum. In general, HydroViz tend to be more effective with students in senior-level classes than students in freshmen classes. Lessons gained from this pilot study provide guidance for future adaptation and expansion studies to scale-up the application and

  12. Impacts of extreme hydro-meteorological conditions on ecosystem functioning and productivity patterns across Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huete, Alfredo; Ma, Xuanlong; Xie, Zunyi; Restrepo-Coupe, Natalia; Ponce-Campos, Guillermo

    2016-04-01

    significant drought-induced mortality. Semi-arid rangelands were most sensitive to drought and wet pulses, generating large land carbon sinks with subsequent rapid carbon dissipation rates. We also found an intensification of drought and wet cycles from the 1980's, inducing similar impacts on the carbon cycle. More efforts are needed to understand and generalize vegetation responses to extreme hydro-meteorological conditions in order to better inform land managers and other stakeholders of potential environmental and economic impacts.

  13. Commercial Impact and Optimum Capacity Determination of Pumped Storage Hydro Plant for a Practical Power System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latha, P. G.; Anand, S. R.; Imthias, Ahamed T. P.; Sreejith, P. S., Dr.

    2013-06-01

    This paper attempts to study the commercial impact of pumped storage hydro plant on the operation of a stressed power system. The paper further attempts to compute the optimum capacity of the pumped storage scheme that can be provided on commercial basis for a practical power system. Unlike the analysis of commercial aspects of pumped storage scheme attempted in several papers, this paper is presented from the point of view of power system management of a practical system considering the impact of the scheme on the economic operation of the system. A realistic case study is presented as the many factors that influence the pumped storage operation vary widely from one system to another. The suitability of pumped storage for the particular generation mix of a system is well explored in the paper. To substantiate the economic impact of pumped storage on the system, the problem is formulated as a short-term hydrothermal scheduling problem involving power purchase which optimizes the quantum of power to be scheduled and the duration of operation. The optimization model is formulated using an algebraic modeling language, AMPL, which is then solved using the advanced MILP solver CPLEX.

  14. Negotiating river ecosystems: Impact assessment and conflict mediation in the cases of hydro-power construction

    SciTech Connect

    Karjalainen, Timo P.; Jaervikoski, Timo

    2010-09-15

    In this paper we discuss how the legitimacy of the impact assessment process is a key issue in conflict mediation in environmental impact assessment. We contrast two EIA cases in hydro-power generation plans made for the Ii River, Finland in different decades, and evaluate how impact assessment in these cases has contributed to the creation, mediation and resolution of conflicts. We focus on the elements of distributional and procedural justice that made the former EIA process more legitimate and consensual and the latter more conflictual. The results indicate that it is crucial for conflict mediation to include all the values and interests of the parties in the goal-setting process and in the definition and assessment of alternatives. The analysis also indicates that procedural justice is the most important to help the people and groups involved to accept the legitimacy of the impact assessment process: how different parties and their values and interests are recognized, and how participation and distribution of power are organized in an impact assessment process. It is confirmed in this article that SIA may act as a mediator or a forum providing a process through which competing knowledge claims, various values and interests can be discussed and linked to the proposed alternatives and interventions.

  15. The Trans-African Hydro-Meteorological Observatory: Recent progress and planned activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Giesen, N.; Hut, R.; Pieron, M.; Andreini, M.; Selker, J.

    2012-04-01

    The Trans-African Hydro-Meteorological Observatory (www.tahmo.org) is an initiative to develop, deploy, and operate 20,000 measurement stations in sub-Saharan Africa. Until recently, the activities have been limited but the project is now moving ahead and has developed activities in Zambia and Ghana. Design, Education, and Operation are the three main lines along which the initiative has been developing. Design follows a set of rules that serve easy deployment and operation, such as absence of moving parts and cavities, self- and cross calibration of sensors, and low cost (€ 200-300 per station). Education is central to the success of the project. The idea is that stations will be deployed at high schools and that educational material will be developed for the science curriculum. This approach will ensure good social embedding and acceptance as well as help create a generation of scientists and technicians with hands-on environmental monitoring experience. Operation focuses on the long-term financial sustainability of the network. Raw data will be made available for scientific use but value added products will be produced to financed maintenance and operation. The main purposes of the presentation are to provide details on recent developments, broaden the number of institutes involved and, especially, open discussion on further development of the initiative.

  16. When clusters collide - A numerical Hydro/N-body simulation of merging galaxy clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roettiger, Kurt; Burns, Jack; Loken, Chris

    1993-01-01

    A 3D numerical simulation of two merging clusters of galaxies, using a hybrid Hydro/N-body code, is presented. The hydrodynamics of the code is solved by an Eulerian finite difference method. Initial results disclose that the X-ray emission of the dominant cluster becomes elongated and broadened; heating occurs at the core of the dominant cluster as a result of multiple shocks, and high velocity gas motions within the intracluster medium. It is predicted that clusters which have undergone recent mergers and do not have cooling flows will have high peculiar gas velocities and that the shocks and turbulence generated during the merger may power cluster-wide radio halos. Prolonged high-velocity gas motions through the dominant cluster core possibly play a major role in the formation and shaping of wide-angle tailed radio sources associated with central dominant galaxies. The N-body component of the simulation reveals the subcluster to be dispersed as it passes through the dominant cluster.

  17. Hydro-economic Risk Assessment in the Eastern Nile River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arjoon, D.; Tilmant, A.; Mohamed, Y.

    2013-12-01

    In 2011, the Ethiopian government announced plans for the construction of the Grand Renaissance Dam (GRD) on the Blue Nile, just east of its border with Sudan, at a cost of almost 5 billion dollars. The project is expected to generate over 15 TWh of energy and will include a reservoir of more than 60 km3 capacity, which roughly corresponds to the average annual flow of the Blue Nile. This project is part of a larger scheme, by the government, to expand its hydroelectric power capacity, however, the scheme faces strong opposition from downstream Egypt and Sudan. Egypt and Sudan are highly dependent on flows that originate in Ethiopia (it has been estimated that 86% of Nile flow originates in the Ethiopian highlands). The Ethiopian government argues that the dam would supply electricity for Ethiopians as well as generate surplus energy for export to neighboring countries. The Ethiopians also argue that the huge reservoir would generate positive externalities downstream by reducing floods and providing more constant and predictable lows. This study attempts to provide an independent analysis of the hydrologic and economic risks faced by downstream countries when GRD will be online. To achieve this, an integrated, stochastic hydro-economic model of the entire Eastern Nile basin is used to analyze various development and management scenarios. The results indicate that if countries agree to co- operative management of the Eastern Nile River basin, GRD would indeed significantly increase basin-wide benefits, especially in Ethiopia and in Sudan. An alternative management scenario, whereby GRD would be operated by Sudan and Egypt, does not yield significant economic gains in these countries. However, massive unilateral irrigation developments in Ethiopia will be detrimental for all countries, including Ethiopia itself, due to the huge opportunity costs involved.

  18. Familial late-onset Alzheimer's disease: description of an Italian family with four affected siblings and one case of early-onset dementia in the preceding generation.

    PubMed

    Abbate, Carlo; Arosio, Beatrice; Cantatore, Alessandra; Viti, Niccolò; Giunco, Fabrizio; Bagarolo, Renzo; Nicolini, Paola; Gussago, Cristina; Ferri, Evelyn; Casati, Martina; Rossi, Paolo Dionigi; Casè, Alessandra; Bergamaschini, Luigi; Vergani, Carlo; Mari, Daniela

    2016-10-01

    We describe a family composed of six siblings, four of which affected by late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD). We constructed the family pedigree, evaluated mutations usually associated with early-onset Alzheimer's disease (APP, PSEN1, PSEN2), and assessed polymorphisms in the apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene and in cytokine genes that we had previously found to be associated with a higher risk of LOAD (IL-10, IL-6, TNF-α). Results showed that all subjects carried one ε4 allele of the APOE gene and those with the earliest age of onset exhibited the AA (-1082) IL-10 and the CC (-174) IL-6 genotypes. The only male had a genetic profile which also included the A (-308) TNF-α allele. These data confirm the role of the APOE gene as genetic risk factor in LOAD, and suggest that the risk of developing AD may be governed by a "susceptibility profile" involving polymorphisms in inflammatory genes.

  19. Crystal structures of three 1-oxo-1,2-di-hydro-naphthalene derivatives: dimethyl 4-(4-meth-oxy-phen-yl)-2-(4-methyl-phen-yl)-1-oxo-1,2-di-hydro-naphthalene-2,3-di-carboxyl-ate, dimethyl 1-oxo-2-(pyren-4-yl)-4-(thio-phen-2-yl)-1,2-di-hydro-naphthalene-2,3-di-carboxyl-ate and ethyl 1-oxo-2-phenyl-2,4-bis-(thio-phen-2-yl)-1,2-di-hydro-naphthalene-3-carboxyl-ate.

    PubMed

    Gopinath, S; Narayanan, P; Sethusankar, K; Karunakaran, Jeyachandran; Nandakumar, Meganathan; Mohanakrishnan, Arasambattu K

    2017-02-01

    In the title 1-oxo-1,2-di-hydro-naphthalene derivatives, C28H24O6, (I), C34H22O5S, (II), and C27H20O3S2, (III), the cyclo-hexa-1,3-diene rings of the 1,2-di-hydro-naphthalene ring systems adopt half-chair, boat and half-chair conformations, respectively. The carbonyl O atoms attached to the di-hydro-naphthalene ring systems are each significantly deviated from the mean plane of the 1,2-di-hydro-naphthalene ring system, by 0.6162 (12) Å in (I), 0.6016 (16) Å in (II) and 0.515 (3) Å in (III). The mean planes of the 1,2-di-hydro-naphthalene ring systems make dihedral angles of 85.83 (3), 88.19 (3) and 81.67 (8)°, respectively, with the methyl-phenyl ring in (I), the pyrene ring in (II) and the phenyl ring in (III). In (I), the mol-ecular structure is stabilized by an intra-molecular C-H⋯O hydrogen bond, generating an S(6) ring motif. In the crystal of (I), mol-ecules are linked by an inter-molecular C-H⋯O hydrogen bond, which generates a C(8) zigzag chain running along [100]. Adjacent chains are further connected by C-H⋯π and offset π-π inter-actions [centroid-centroid distance = 3.6572 (9) Å], forming a double-chain structure. In the crystals of (II) and (III), mol-ecules are linked into chain structures by offset π-π inter-actions with centroid-centroid distances of 3.5349 (12) and 3.8845 (13) Å for (II) and 3.588 (2) Å for (III). In (II) and (III), the thio-phene rings are orientationally disordered over two sites, with occupancy ratios of 0.69:0.31 for (II), and 0.528 (4):0.472 (4) and 0.632 (5):0.368 (5) for (III).

  20. HydroDesktop as a Community Designed and Developed Resource for Hydrologic Data Discovery and Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ames, D. P.

    2013-12-01

    As has been seen in other informatics fields, well-documented and appropriately licensed open source software tools have the potential to significantly increase both opportunities and motivation for inter-institutional science and technology collaboration. The CUAHSI HIS (and related HydroShare) projects have aimed to foster such activities in hydrology resulting in the development of many useful community software components including the HydroDesktop software application. HydroDesktop is an open source, GIS-based, scriptable software application for discovering data on the CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System and related resources. It includes a well-defined plugin architecture and interface to allow 3rd party developers to create extensions and add new functionality without requiring recompiling of the full source code. HydroDesktop is built in the C# programming language and uses the open source DotSpatial GIS engine for spatial data management. Capabilities include data search, discovery, download, visualization, and export. An extension that integrates the R programming language with HydroDesktop provides scripting and data automation capabilities and an OpenMI plugin provides the ability to link models. Current revision and updates to HydroDesktop include migration of core business logic to cross platform, scriptable Python code modules that can be executed in any operating system or linked into other software front-end applications.

  1. Spatial impact and triggering conditions of the exceptional hydro-geomorphological event of December 1909 in Iberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, S.; Ramos, A. M.; Zêzere, J. L.; Trigo, R. M.; Vaquero, J. M.

    2015-09-01

    According to the DISASTER database the 20-28 December 1909 was the hydro-geomorphologic event with the highest number of flood and landslide cases occurred in Portugal in the period 1865-2010 (Zêzere et al., 2014). This event also caused important social impacts over the Spanish territory, especially in the Douro basin, having triggered the highest floods in more than 100 years at the river's mouth in the city of Oporto. This work aims to characterize the spatial distribution and social impacts of the December 1909 hydro-geomorphologic event over Iberia. In addition, the meteorological conditions that triggered the event are analysed using the 20 Century Reanalysis dataset from NOAA and precipitation data from Iberian meteorological stations. The Iberian Peninsula was spatially affected during this event along the SW-NE direction spanning from Lisbon, Santarém, Oporto and Guarda (in Portugal), until Salamanca, Valladolid, Zamora, Orense, León and Palencia (in Spain). In Iberia, 134 DISASTER cases were recorded (130 flood cases; 4 landslides cases) having caused a total of 89 casualties (57 in floods and 32 in landslides) and a total of 3876 people were affected, including fatalities, injured, missing, evacuated and homeless people. This event was associated with some outstanding precipitation values at Guarda station (Portugal) in 22 December 1909 and unusual meteorological conditions characterized by the presence of a deep low pressure system located over NW Iberian Peninsula with a stationary frontal system striking the Western Iberian Peninsula. The presence of an upper-level jet (250 hPa) and low-level jet (900 hPa) located on SW-NE oriented towards the Iberia along with upper-level divergence and lower-level convergence favoured large-scale precipitation. Finally, associated with these features it is possible to state that this extreme event was clearly associated to the presence of an elongated Atmospheric River, crossing the entire northern Atlantic basin

  2. Spatial impact and triggering conditions of the exceptional hydro-geomorphological event of December 1909 in Iberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, S.; Ramos, A. M.; Zêzere, J. L.; Trigo, R. M.; Vaquero, J. M.

    2016-02-01

    According to the DISASTER database the 20-28 December 1909 event was the hydro-geomorphologic event with the highest number of flood and landslide cases that occurred in Portugal in the period 1865-2010 (Zêzere et al., 2014). This event also caused important social impacts over the Spanish territory, especially in the Douro Basin, having triggered the highest floods in more than 100 years at the river's mouth in the city of Oporto. This work has a dual purpose: (i) to characterize the spatial distribution and social impacts of the December 1909 hydro-geomorphologic DISASTER event over Portugal and Spain; (ii) to analyse the meteorological conditions that triggered the event and the spatial distribution of the precipitation anomalies. Social impacts that occurred in Portugal were obtained from the Disaster database (Zêzere et al., 2014) whereas the data collection for Spain was supported by the systematic analysis of Spanish daily newspapers. In addition, the meteorological conditions that triggered the event are analysed using the 20th Century Reanalysis data set from NOAA and precipitation data from Iberian meteorological stations. The Iberian Peninsula was spatially affected during this event along the SW-NE direction spanning from Lisbon, Santarém, Oporto, and Guarda (in Portugal), to Salamanca, Valladolid, Zamora, Orense, León, and Palencia (in Spain). In Iberia, 134 DISASTER cases were recorded (130 flood cases; 4 landslides cases) having caused 89 casualties (57 due to floods and 32 due to landslides) and a further total of 3876 affected people, including fatalities, injured, missing, evacuated, and homeless people. This event was associated with outstanding precipitation registered at Guarda (Portugal) on 22 December 1909 and unusual meteorological conditions characterized by the presence of a deep low-pressure system located over the NW Iberian Peninsula with a stationary frontal system striking the western Iberian Peninsula. The presence of an upper

  3. Structural factors affecting pore space transformation during hydrocarbon generation in source rock (shales): laboratory experiments and X-ray microtomography/SEM study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giliazetdinova, Dina; Korost, Dmitry; Gerke, Kirill

    2015-04-01

    Oil and gas generation is a complex superposition of processes which take place in the interiors and are not readily observable in nature in human life time-frames. During burial of the source rocks organic matter is transformed into a mixture of high-molecular compounds - precursors of oil and gas (kerogen). Specific thermobaric conditions trigger formation of low molecular weight hydrocarbon compounds. Generation of sufficient quantities of hydrocarbons leads to the primary fluid migration. For series of our experiments we selected mainly siliceous-carbonate composition shale rocks from Domanic horizon of South-Tatar arch. Rock samples were heated in the pyrolyzer to temperatures closely corresponding to different catagenesis stages. X-ray microtomography method was used to monitor changes in the morphology of the pore space within studied shale rocks. By routine measurements we made sure that all samples (10 in total) had similar composition of organic and mineral phases. All samples in the collection were grouped according to initial structure and amount of organics and processed separately to: 1) study the influence of organic matter content on the changing morphology of the rock under thermal effects; 2) study the effect of initial structure on the primary migration processes for samples with similar organic matter content. An additional experiment was conducted to study the dynamics of changes in the structure of the pore space and prove the validity of our approach. At each stage of heating the morphology of altered rocks was characterized by formation of new pores and channels connecting primary voids. However, it was noted that the samples with a relatively low content of the organic matter had less changes in pore space morphology, in contrast to rocks with a high organic content. Second part of the study also revealed significant differences in resulting pore structures depending on initial structure of the unaltered rocks and connectivity of original

  4. Comparison of gel properties and biochemical characteristics of myofibrillar protein from bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) affected by frozen storage and a hydroxyl radical-generation oxidizing system.

    PubMed

    Lu, Han; Zhang, Longteng; Li, Qingzheng; Luo, Yongkang

    2017-05-15

    We wanted to clarify whether gel properties can be affected by in vivo or in vitro myofibrillar protein oxidation and, thus, to provide relevant information and a scientific foundation for the processing of gel products. To accomplish this, we measured the changes in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), total disulfide (SS) content, surface hydrophobicity (So-ANS), carbonyl content, and gel texture and water-holding capacity (WHC) of isolated myofibrillar protein from bighead carp fillets during frozen storage and under different H2O2 concentrations, which were used to represent in vivo and in vitro conditions, respectively. The results indicated that a certain range in content of disulfide crosslinks (0.91mol/10(5)g protein) would promote gel hardness. Mild protein oxidation caused by a certain degree of frozen storage and hydroxyl radicals can promote gel texture and WHC. Based on those results, freezing bighead carp for a certain period can be used to produce gel products.

  5. 'Does my Diet Affect my Perfume?' Identification and Quantification of Cuticular Compounds in Five Drosophila melanogaster Strains Maintained over 300 Generations on Different Diets.

    PubMed

    Pavković-Lučić, Sofija; Todosijević, Marina; Savić, Tatjana; Vajs, Vlatka; Trajković, Jelena; Anđelković, Boban; Lučić, Luka; Krstić, Gordana; Makarov, Slobodan; Tomić, Vladimir; Miličić, Dragana; Vujisić, Ljubodrag

    2016-02-01

    Cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) in Drosophila melanogaster represent the basis of chemical communication being involved in many important biological functions. The aim of this study was to characterize chemical composition and variation of cuticular profiles in five D. melanogaster strains. These strains were reared for approximately 300 generations on five diets: standard cornmeal medium and substrates prepared with apple, banana, tomato, and carrot. Differences in quantity and/or quality in CHCs were assumed as a result of activation of different metabolic pathways involved in food digestion and adaptations to the particular diet type. In total, independently of sex and strain, 66 chemical compounds were identified. In females of all strains, 60 compounds were identified, while, in males, 47 compounds were extracted. Certain new chemical compounds for D. melanogaster were found. MANOVA confirmed that CHC amounts significantly depend on sex and substrates, as well as on their interactions. Discriminant analysis revealed that flies belonging to 'apple' and 'carrot' strains exhibited the most noticeable differences in CHC repertoires. A non-hydrocarbon pheromone, cis-vaccenyl acetate (cVA) also contributed to the variation in the pheromone bouquet among the strains. Variability detected in CHCs and cVA may be used in the explanation of differences in mating behaviour previously determined in analyzed fly strains.

  6. Predictive role of gene polymorphisms affecting thrombin-generation pathway in variable efficacy of photodynamic therapy for neovascular age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Parmeggiani, Francesco; Gemmati, Donato; Costagliola, Ciro; Sebastiani, Adolfo; Incorvaia, Carlo

    2009-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) represents the leading cause of central blindness in developed countries. The majority of severe vision loss occurs in the neovascular form of AMD, generally characterized by the presence of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) beneath the fovea. Photodynamic therapy with verteporfin (PDT-V) and drugs acting against vascular endothelial growth factor are the most commonly employed treatments for AMD-related subfoveal CNV. The combined use of both these strategies is the most promising therapeutic approach towards this harmful disease. The therapeutic action of PDT-V depends to a photochemical perturbation of thrombo-coagulative processes within CNV. Predictive correlations between peculiar coagulation-balance gene polymorphisms and different levels of post-PDT-V benefit have been recently documented in Caucasian patients with neovascular AMD. Particularly, heterozygous A-allele carriers of factor V Leiden 1691 or prothrombin 20210 gene are characterized by a greater possibility to exhibit clinical benefit after PDT-V. Both mutations induce thrombophilia increasing the thrombin generation in plasma and, thus, they can consistently intensify the photothrombotic phase of the therapeutic CNV occlusion. In prospect, considering the different individual susceptibility to PDT-V, a preoperative assessment of the genotypic thrombophilic background could optimize the eligibility criteria of this intriguing treatment. This review summarizes some of the recent published patents on treatment of neovascular AMD, with a particular attention to PDT-V application in combined therapeutic modalities.

  7. Development of a fully integrated water cycle model: HydroGeoSphere-Weather Research and Forecasting (HGS-WRF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davison, J. H.; Hwang, H. T.; Sudicky, E. A.; Lin, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    Recent advances in modern process-based hydrological models have drastically outpaced the capabilities of current-generation land surface schemes (LSS) found within atmospheric and climate models. In order to improve climate simulations and, in particular, more accurately represent the hydrological cycle, we suggest implementing state-of-the-art integrated surface/subsurface hydrological models as advanced LSS. This study explores the coupling process of HydroGeoSphere (HGS), a finite-element control volume variably saturated subsurface and surface water model with energy transport processes, to Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF), a finite difference fully-compressible nonhydrostatic mesoscale climate model. Our flexible coupling method advances water cycle modeling by tightly integrating the moisture fluxes between the subsurface, surface, and atmospheric domains. We expect to increase the overall modeling skill of precipitation and moisture fluxes between domains.

  8. Trouble-shooting bearing problems in large hydroturbine generators

    SciTech Connect

    Abramovitz, S. )

    1991-10-01

    If hydro plant operators are aware of the signals that can alert them to potential harm to generator bearings and act promptly to investigate and evaluate any problems, failures should be averted. This article reviews two aspects of trouble-shooting: discovering and defining potential problems that might cause bearing failure; and pinpointing the cause of failures to prevent similar ones in the future.

  9. STATCOM-Based Wind-Solar-Hydro Electric Power System with Modified Real and Reactive Power Controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ram Prabhakar, J.; Ragavan, K.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a control of distributed generation (DG) system subjected to sudden rise in demand, faults on the distribution feeder and unbalanced load condition. The effects of line to ground faults on the system are investigated and control measures are taken to stabilize the generator speed and to improve voltage quality at the point of common coupling (PCC). The static shunt compensator (STATCOM) is connected at PCC to provide voltage support during sudden demand rise and fault on feeder. Moreover, the STATCOM control is devised such that even during unbalanced load condition the converter current and hydro-turbine-driven induction generator current is balanced. Owing to this, the double power frequency oscillations in the dc-link voltage and torque pulsations in generator can be averted. The STATCOM also supplies reactive power to the load. In addition to this, generation-demand mismatch is moderated using real and reactive power controllers. To demonstrate the performance of the DG system with the said control approach, model of system is simulated in Matlab-Simulink environment and the results are presented.

  10. Hydro-dynamic damping theory in flowing water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monette, C.; Nennemann, B.; Seeley, C.; Coutu, A.; Marmont, H.

    2014-03-01

    Fluid-structure interaction (FSI) has a major impact on the dynamic response of the structural components of hydroelectric turbines. On mid-head to high-head Francis runners, the rotor-stator interaction (RSI) phenomenon always has to be considered carefully during the design phase to avoid operational issues later on. The RSI dynamic response amplitudes are driven by three main factors: (1) pressure forcing amplitudes, (2) excitation frequencies in relation to natural frequencies and (3) damping. The prediction of the two first factors has been largely documented in the literature. However, the prediction of fluid damping has received less attention in spite of being critical when the runner is close to resonance. Experimental damping measurements in flowing water on hydrofoils were presented previously. Those results showed that the hydro-dynamic damping increased linearly with the flow. This paper presents development and validation of a mathematical model, based on momentum exchange, to predict damping due to fluid structure interaction in flowing water. The model is implemented as an analytical procedure for simple structures, such as cantilever beams, but is also implemented in more general ways using three different approaches for more complex structures such as runner blades: a finite element procedure, a CFD modal work based approach and a CFD 1DOF approach. The mathematical model and all three implementation approaches are shown to agree well with experimental results.

  11. Determining the minimum instream flow for hydro peaking projects

    SciTech Connect

    Milhous, R.T. )

    1992-10-01

    A new analytical technique is available for quantifying and predicting the effect that a proposed hydro peaking operation, or a change in an existing project's operation, will have on physical habitat for aquatic populations downstream of the project. The technique, known as the dual flow analysis, is based on elements of the US Fish and Wildlife Service's Physical Habitat Simulation System (PHABSIM). PHABSIM is used to calculate the physical habitat for aquatic organisms in a stream. The assumption behind the development of this technique is that if the effects of a proposed project on physical habitat are known, one can better understand the effects on aquatic organisms. Thus, a defensible selection of an instream flow requirement can be made. The technique was developed as a result of a joint study by the US Fish and Wildlife Service and Niagara Mohawk Power Corp. at the 26.4-MW Bennetts Bridge and the 7.8-MW Lighthouse Hill developments on the Salmon river in upstate New York.

  12. Integrated hydro-bacterial modelling for predicting bathing water quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Guoxian; Falconer, Roger A.; Lin, Binliang

    2017-03-01

    In recent years health risks associated with the non-compliance of bathing water quality have received increasing worldwide attention. However, it is particularly challenging to establish the source of any non-compliance, due to the complex nature of the source of faecal indicator organisms, and the fate and delivery processes and scarcity of field measured data in many catchments and estuaries. In the current study an integrated hydro-bacterial model, linking a catchment, 1-D model and 2-D model were integrated to simulate the adsorption-desorption processes of faecal bacteria to and from sediment particles in river, estuarine and coastal waters, respectively. The model was then validated using hydrodynamic, sediment and faecal bacteria concentration data, measured in 2012, in the Ribble river and estuary, and along the Fylde coast, UK. Particular emphasis has been placed on the mechanism of faecal bacteria transport and decay through the deposition and resuspension of suspended sediments. The results showed that by coupling the E.coli concentration with the sediment transport processes, the accuracy of the predicted E.coli levels was improved. A series of scenario runs were then carried out to investigate the impacts of different management scenarios on the E.coli concentration levels in the coastal bathing water sites around Liverpool Bay, UK. The model results show that the level of compliance with the new EU bathing water standards can be improved significantly by extending outfalls and/or reducing urban sources by typically 50%.

  13. A realistic 3+1D Viscous Hydro Algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Romatschke, Paul

    2015-05-31

    DoE funds were used as bridge funds for the faculty position for the PI at the University of Colorado. The total funds for the Years 3-5 of the JET Topical Collaboration amounted to about 50 percent of the academic year salary of the PI.The PI contributed to the JET Topical Collaboration by developing, testing and applying algorithms for a realistic simulation of the bulk medium created in relativistic ion collisions.Specifically, two approaches were studied, one based on a new Lattice-Boltzmann (LB) framework, and one on a more traditional viscous hydro-dynamics framework. Both approaches were found to be viable in principle, with the LB approach being more elegant but needing still more time to develop.The traditional approach led to the super-hybrid model of ion collisions dubbed 'superSONIC', and has been successfully used for phenomenology of relativistic heavy-ion and light-on-heavy-ion collisions.In the time-frame of the JET Topical Collaboration, the Colorado group has published 15 articles in peer-reviewed journals, three of which were published in Physical Review Letters. The group graduated one Master student during this time-frame and two more PhD students are expected to graduate in the next few years. The PI has given more than 28 talks and presentations during this period.

  14. Determining the minimum instream flow for hydro peaking projects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milhous, Robert T.

    1992-01-01

    A new analytical technique is available for quantifying and predicting the effect that a proposed hydro peaking operation, or a change in an existing project's operation, will have on physical habitat for aquatic populations downstream of the project. The technique, known as the dual flow analysis, is based on elements of the US Fish and Wildlife Service's Physical Habitat Simulation System (PHABSIM). PHABSIM is used to calculate the physical habitat for aquatic organisms in a stream. The assumption behind the development of this technique is that if the effects of a proposed project on physical habitat are known, one can better understand the effects on aquatic organisms. Thus, a defensible selection of an instream flow requirement can be made. The technique was developed as a result of a joint study by the US Fish and Wildlife Service and Niagara Mohawk Power Corp. at the 26.4-MW Bennetts Bridge and the 7.8-MW Lighthouse Hill developments on the Salmon river in upstate New York.

  15. Inhibition of glutamate receptors reduces the homocysteine-induced whole blood platelet aggregation but does not affect superoxide anion generation or platelet membrane fluidization.

    PubMed

    Karolczak, Kamil; Pieniazek, Anna; Watala, Cezary

    2017-01-01

    Homocysteine (Hcy) is an excitotoxic amino acid. It is potentially possible to prevent Hcy-induced toxicity, including haemostatic impairments, by antagonizing glutaminergic receptors. Using impedance aggregometry with arachidonate and collagen as platelet agonists, we tested whether the blockade of platelet NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate), AMPA (α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid) and kainate receptors with their inhibitors: MK-801 (dizocilpine hydrogen maleate, [5R,10S]-[+]-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclohepten-5,10-imine), CNQX (7-nitro-2,3-dioxo-1,4-dihydroquinoxaline-6-carbonitrile) and UBP-302 (2-{[3-[(2S)-2-amino-2-carboxyethyl]-2,6-dioxo-3,6-dihydropyrimidin 1(2H)-yl]methyl}benzoic acid) may hamper Hcy-dependent platelet aggregation. All the tested compounds significantly inhibited Hcy-augmented aggregation of blood platelets stimulated either with arachidonate or collagen. Hcy stimulated the generation of superoxide anion in whole blood samples in a concentration-dependent manner; however, this process appeared as independent on ionotropic glutamate receptors, as well as on NADPH oxidase and protein kinase C, and was not apparently associated with the extent of either arachidonate- or collagen-dependent platelet aggregation. Moreover, Hcy acted as a significant fluidizer of surface (more hydrophilic) and inner (more hydrophobic) regions of platelet membrane lipid bilayer, when used at the concentration range from 10 to 50 µmol/l. However, this effect was independent on the Hcy action through glutamate ionotropic receptors, since there was no effects of MK-801, CNQX or UBP-302 on Hcy-mediated membrane fluidization. In conclusion, Hcy-induced changes in whole blood platelet aggregation are mediated through the ionotopic excitotoxic receptors, although the detailed mechanisms underlying such interactions remain to be elucidated.

  16. A Comprehensive View of Global Potential for Hydro-generated Electricity

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Yuyu; Hejazi, Mohamad I.; Smith, Steven J.; Edmonds, James A.; Li, Hongyi; Clarke, Leon E.; Calvin, Katherine V.; Thomson, Allison M.

    2015-09-01

    In this study, we assess global hydropower potential using runoff and stream flow data, along with turbine technology performance, cost assumptions, and environmental considerations. The results provide the first comprehensive quantification of global hydropower potential including gross, technical, economic, and exploitable estimates. Total global potential of gross, technical, economic, and exploitable hydropower are estimated to be approximately 128, 39, 32, and 27 petawatt hours per year, respectively. The economic and exploitable potential of hydropower are calculated at less than 9 cents/kWh. We find that hydropower has the potential to supply a significant portion of the world energy needs, although this potential varies substantially by region. Globally, hydropower can potentially supply about 1.5 times the total electricity demand in 2005. Estimated hydropower resources in a number of countries are sufficient to accommodate their demand for electricity in 2005, e.g., Brazil (5.6 times), Russia (4.6 times), and Canada (3.5 times). A sensitivity analysis indicates that hydropower estimates are not highly sensitive to five key parameters: design flow (varying by -2% to +1% at less than 9 cents/kWh), cost and financing options (by -7% to +6%), turbine efficiency (by -10% to +10%), stream flow (by -10% to +10%), and fixed charge rate (by -6% to 5%). This sensitivity analysis emphasizes the reliable role of hydropower for future energy systems, when compared to other renewable energy resources with larger uncertainty in their future potentials.

  17. Global Potential for Hydro-generated Electricity and Climate Change Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Y.; Hejazi, M. I.; Leon, C.; Calvin, K. V.; Thomson, A. M.; Li, H. Y.

    2014-12-01

    Hydropower is a dominant renewable energy source at the global level, accounting for more than 15% of the world's total power supply. It is also very vulnerable to climate change. Improved understanding of climate change impact on hydropower can help develop adaptation measures to increase the resilience of energy system. In this study, we developed a comprehensive estimate of global hydropower potential using runoff and stream flow data derived from a global hydrologic model with a river routing sub-model, along with turbine technology performance, cost assumptions, and environmental consideration (Figure 1). We find that hydropower has the potential to supply a significant portion of the world energy needs, although this potential varies substantially by regions. Resources in a number of countries exceed by multiple folds the total current demand for electricity, e.g., Russia and Indonesia. A sensitivity analysis indicates that hydropower potential can be highly sensitive to a number of parameters including designed flow for capacity, cost and financing, turbine efficiency, and stream flow. The climate change impact on hydropower potential was evaluated by using runoff outputs from 4 climate models (HadCM3, PCM, CGCM2, and CSIRO2). It was found that the climate change on hydropower shows large variation not only by regions, but also climate models, and this demonstrates the importance of incorporating climate change into infrastructure-planning at the regional level though the existing uncertainties.

  18. Experience with digital power system stabilizers at steam and hydro generating stations

    SciTech Connect

    Bollinger, K.E. ); Nettleton, L. ); Greenwood-Madsen, T. ); Salyzyn, M. )

    1993-06-01

    This paper describes test results from installations of digital PSS at power plants by two Utilities in Western Canada. Reasons for selecting digital versus analog PSS are outlined, stabilizer design objectives are listed, and commissioning and test results are included. It is hoped that the paper will precipitate discussions by others involved in implementing digital PSS.

  19. Collaborative Sharing of Multidimensional Space-time Data Using HydroShare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, T.; Tarboton, D. G.; Horsburgh, J. S.; Dash, P. K.; Idaszak, R.; Yi, H.; Blanton, B.

    2015-12-01

    HydroShare is a collaborative environment being developed for sharing hydrological data and models. It includes capability to upload data in many formats as resources that can be shared. The HydroShare data model for resources uses a specific format for the representation of each type of data and specifies metadata common to all resource types as well as metadata unique to specific resource types. The Network Common Data Form (NetCDF) was chosen as the format for multidimensional space-time data in HydroShare. NetCDF is widely used in hydrological and other geoscience modeling because it contains self-describing metadata and supports the creation of array-oriented datasets that may include three spatial dimensions, a time dimension and other user defined dimensions. For example, NetCDF may be used to represent precipitation or surface air temperature fields that have two dimensions in space and one dimension in time. This presentation will illustrate how NetCDF files are used in HydroShare. When a NetCDF file is loaded into HydroShare, header information is extracted using the "ncdump" utility. Python functions developed for the Django web framework on which HydroShare is based, extract science metadata present in the NetCDF file, saving the user from having to enter it. Where the file follows Climate Forecast (CF) convention and Attribute Convention for Dataset Discovery (ACDD) standards, metadata is thus automatically populated. Users also have the ability to add metadata to the resource that may not have been present in the original NetCDF file. HydroShare's metadata editing functionality then writes this science metadata back into the NetCDF file to maintain consistency between the science metadata in HydroShare and the metadata in the NetCDF file. This further helps researchers easily add metadata information following the CF and ACDD conventions. Additional data inspection and subsetting functions were developed, taking advantage of Python and command line

  20. Application of HydroGeoSphere to model the response to anthropogenic climate change of three-dimensional hydrological processes in the geologically, geothermally, and topographically complex Valles Caldera super volcano, New Mexico: Preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wine, M.; Cadol, D. D.

    2014-12-01

    Anthropogenic climate change is expected to reduce streamflow in the southwestern USA due to reduction in precipitation and increases in evaporative demand. Understanding the effects of climate change in this region is particularly important for mountainous areas since these are primary sources of recharge in arid and semi-arid environments. Therefore we undertook to model effects of climate change on the hydrological processes in Valles Caldera (448 km2), located in the Jemez Mountains of northern New Mexico. In Valles Caldera modeling the surficial, hydrogeological, and geothermal processes that influence hydrologic fluxes each present challenges. The surficial dynamics of evaporative demand and snowmelt both serve to control recharge dynamics, but are complicated by the complex topography and spatiotemporal vegetation dynamics. Complex factors affecting evaporative demand include leaf area index, temperature, albedo, and radiation affected by topographic shading; all of these factors vary in space and time. Snowmelt processes interact with evaporative demand and geology to serve as an important control on streamflow generation, but modeling the effects of spatiotemporal snow distributions on streamflow generation remains a challenge. The complexity of Valles Caldera's geology—and its associated hydraulic properties—rivals that of its surficial hydrologic forcings. Hydrologically important geologic features that have formed in the Valles Caldera are three-dimensionally intricate and include a dense system of faults, alluvium, landslides, lake deposits, and features associated with the eruption and collapse of this super volcano. Coupling geothermally-driven convection to the hydrologic cycle in this still-active geothermal system presents yet an additional challenge in modeling Valles Caldera. Preliminary results from applying the three-dimensional distributed hydrologic finite element model HydroGeoSphere to a sub-catchment of Valles Caldera will be

  1. Microfabrication and Test of a Three-Dimensional Polymer Hydro-focusing Unit for Flow Cytometry Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Ren; Feeback, Daniel L.; Wang, Wanjun

    2004-01-01

    This paper details a novel three-dimensional (3D) hydro-focusing micro cell sorter for micro flow cytometry applications. The unit was microfabricated by means of SU-8 3D lithography. The 3D microstructure for coaxial sheathing was designed, microfabricated, and tested. Three-dimensional hydro-focusing capability was demonstrated with an experiment to sort labeled tanned sheep erythrocytes (red blood cells). This polymer hydro-focusing microstructure is easily microfabricated and integrated with other polymer microfluidic structures.

  2. Hydro-climatic Changes: Potential Non-linear Responses of Phosphorus Dynamic in Aquatic/Semi-aquatic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pant, H. K.

    2007-12-01

    Depending on resilience, threshold and lag times, hydro-climatic changes can cause nonlinear and/or irreversible changes in phosphorus (P) dynamic, and instigate P enrichment in aquatic/semi-aquatic systems. Thus, studying direct/indirect effects of expected global climate change on bioavailability of organic P in aquatic systems are in critical need, to help manage or increase the resilience of the ecosystem. The central hypothesis of this study is that P dynamic in aquatic, especially freshwater, ecosystem is likely to behave nonlinearly due to expected changes in sediment and water acidity, redox status, etc., because of potential hydro-climatic changes in the decades to come, thus, could face irreversible adverse changes. Devising possible biological and chemical treatments for the removal of P from eutrophic lakes, estuaries, etc, as well as helping in predicting the movement and fate of P under changing hydro-climatic conditions would be crucial to manage aquatic ecosystem in the near future. The critical question is not how much P is stored in any given aquatic/semi-aquatic system, but how the resilience and nonlinearity relate to the stability of stored P are affected due to the levels of environmental stressors, which are expected to fluctuate due to global change in the decades to come. Studies related to 31P Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy analysis, and multiple hydraulic retention cycles showed that, in general, frequent drying and reflooding of a semi-aquatic system such as wetland could significantly increase the bioavailability of P due to degradation of relatively less stable organic P, e.g., glycerophosphate and nucleoside monophosphate. Moreover, nutrients flux from sediments to the water column depended on the concentration gradients of the sediment-water interface and redox status. Shift in equilibrium P concentration of the water column as the water level rises, may cause release of adsorbed P from the sediments. Restoration of a

  3. A large scale flume for hydro-environmental studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, Jose Alfonso; Giráldez, Juan Vicente; Castro-Orgaz, Oscar; Casalí, Javier; Hermosín, Maria del Carmen; Mateos, Luciano

    2013-04-01

    The understanding of key hydrologic processes such as, water erosion, rill network development or agrochemical transport, requires controlled experiments at the appropriate scale. This is the reason for experimentation at flume scale in hydro-environmental research, used for many decades in this field. This communication presents a research infrastructure, recently completed in its first stage, consisting of a large flume for studying soil water erosion, sediment transport, and environmental processes such as the transport of different substances (salts, fertilizers, herbicides, carbon, …) rather dissolved or absorbed with the sediment. It is located at the Institute for Sustainable Agriculture (CSIC) in Córdoba, Spain. The flume is 0.6 m deep, 12 m long, and 6 m wide. It may be divided longitudinally into three channels (6 m long, 1 m wide). The slope of the flume can be regulated from 0 % to 20 %. The device allows studying free surface flows over movable beds with different conditions of sediment transport by supplying clear or sediment-laden water from its head system. The head system consists of three triangular weirs for accurate measurement of water flow, three stilling tanks at the entrance of the flume, and three vibratory hoppers for applying sediments at pre-set rates. The water can be re-circulated, the maximum inflow is then about 30 l s-1, or evacuated, then the inflow is limited to about 20 l s-1. The infrastructure is within a shelter with an area of 400 m2 and height 8.7 m. The area of the shelter allows in-door mechanical preparation of soil and sediments. The height of the shelter will allow the installation of the rainfall simulator and a light rail crane in a second stage, not started yet. Several experiments have been planned at IAS-CSIC already, particularly investigation of the water erosion and sediment transport processes in concentrated flows under different soil conditions, as well as hydrodynamics aspects of suspended and bed

  4. A multiscale hydro-geochemical-mechanical approach to analyze faulted CO 2 reservoirs: Original Research Article: A multiscale hydro-geochemical-mechanical approach to analyze faulted CO 2 reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Hou, Zhangshuan; Bacon, Diana H.; White, Mark D.

    2016-08-01

    This paper applies a multiscale hydro-geochemical-mechanical approach to analyze faulted CO2 reservoirs using the STOMP-CO2-R code that is coupled to the ABAQUS® finite element package. STOMP-CO2-R models the reactive transport of CO2 causing mineral volume fraction changes that are captured by an Eshelby-Mori-Tanka model implemented in ABAQUS®. A three-dimensional (3D) STOMP-CO2-R model for a reservoir containing an inclined fault was built to analyze a formation containing a reaction network with 5 minerals: albite, anorthite, calcite, kaolinite and quartz. A 3D finite element mesh that exactly maps the STOMP-CO2-R grid is developed for coupled hydro-geochemical-mechanical analyses. The model contains alternating sandstone and shale layers. The impact of reactive transport of CO2 on the geomechanical properties of reservoir rocks and seals are studied in terms of mineral composition changes that affect their geomechanical responses. Simulations assuming extensional and compressional stress regimes with and without coupled geochemistry are performed to study the stress regime effect on the risk of hydraulic fracture. The tendency for the fault to slip is examined in terms of stress regime, geomechanical and geochemical-mechanical effects as well as fault inclination. The results show that mineralogical changes due to long-term injection of CO2 reduce the permeability and elastic modulus of the reservoir, leading to increased risk of hydraulic fracture in the injection location and at the caprock seal immediately above the injection zone. Fault slip is not predicted to occur. However, fault inclination and stress regime have an important impact on the slip tendency factor.

  5. Magneto-hydro-dynamic limits in spherical tokamaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hender, T. C.; Allfrey, S. J.; Akers, R.; Appel, L. C.; Bevir, M. K.; Buttery, R. J.; Gryaznevich, M.; Jenkins, I.; Kwon, O. J.; McClements, K. G.; Martin, R.; Medvedev, S.; Nightingale, M. P. S.; Ribeiro, C.; Roach, C. M.; Robinson, D. C.; Sharapov, S. E.; Sykes, A.; Villard, L.; Walsh, M. J.

    1999-05-01

    The operational limits observed in spherical tokamaks, notably the small tight aspect ratio tokamak (START) device [A. Sykes et al., Nucl. Fusion 32, 694 (1992)], are consistent with those found in conventional aspect ratio tokamaks. In particular the highest β achieved (˜40%) is consistent with an ideal magneto-hydro-dynamic (MHD) Troyon type limit, the upper limit on density is well described by the Greenwald density (πa2n¯e/Ip˜1) and the normalized current (Ip/aBt) is limited such that q95≳2. Stability calculations indicate scope for increasing both normalized β and normalized current beyond the values so far achieved, although wall stabilization is generally needed for low-n modes. In double null configurations current terminating disruptions occur at each of the operational boundaries, though the current quench tends to be slow at the density limit and disruptions at high β may be due to the low q. In early limiter START discharges, before the divertor coils were installed, disruptions rarely occurred. Instead internal reconnection events which have all the characteristics of a disruption except the current quench occurred. These various disruptive behaviors are explained in terms of a model in which helicity is conserved during the disruption. Due to the low toroidal field beam ions in START, and α particles in a ST power plant, are super-Alfvénic. This gives the possibility for toroidal Alfvén eigenmodes (TAEs) to occur and such modes are frequently observed in START neutral beam injection (NBI) discharges, but seem to be benign. The features of these observed TAEs are shown to be in agreement with MHD calculations.

  6. Research of Hydro-Geological Precursors of Earthquakes in Armenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pashayan, R.

    2007-12-01

    The observations of hydro-geological regime of underground waters in observed boreholes began in Armenia in 1986. Now these work is concentrated in National Seismic Service. For a long time observations are carried out studying several parameters (debit, temperature, chemical and gas composition) in several deposits of carbon mineral waters of Armenia. The interpretation of materials shows that that a number of strong and medium-strength earthquakes are accompanied by anomal changes in the level of underground waters. Regarding mineral waters, in connection with earthquakes some parameters are immediately changed: debit, temperature, chemical and gas composition. The study of hydrogeodynamic characteristics of precursors specify that the quantity of registered hydrogeodynamic precursors decreases with the increase of epicentrical distance. The majority of precursors is registered at the distance of 200 km from epicenter. There is a tendency of gradual increase of time and amplitude of a precursor of an earthquake depending on the rise of magnitude and epicentral distance. The behaviour of hydrogeodynamic precursors depends on the angle between the faults, to which this or that borehole reaches; with increase of this angle the deformation in the zone of the fault during the preparation of earthquakes is stronger, than in terms of small angles. 1. S1 2. Earthquake processes, Precursors and Forecasts 3. Garni Geophysical Observatory of the National Academy of Sciences of Armenia, 375019, Yerevan, Republic of Armenia, email: hakhleon@sci.am 4. O 5. 10808801 6. Artavazd Payment Type: select 'Purchase Order' PO Number: AGU WAIVER Billing Address: Enter Your Institution City: Enter Your City Country Code: Enter Your Country Name: Enter Your Name Phone: Enter Your Telephone Number

  7. DRIHM: Distributed Research Infrastructure for HydroMeteorology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parodi, A.

    2012-04-01

    Predicting weather and climate and its impacts on the environment, including hazards such as floods and landslides, is still one of the main challenges of the 21st century with significant societal and economic implications. At the heart of this challenge lies the ability to have easy access to hydrometeorological data and models, and facilitate the collaboration between meteorologists, hydrologists, and Earth science experts for accelerated scientific advances in hydrometeorological research (HMR). to face these problems the DRIHM (Distributed Research Infrastructure for Hydro-Meteorology) project intends to develop a prototype e-Science environment to facilitate this collaboration and provide end-to-end HMR services (models, datasets and post-processing tools) at the European level, with the ability to expand to global scale. The objectives of DRIHM are to lead the definition of a common long-term strategy, to foster the development of new HMR models and observational archives for the study of severe hydrometeorological events, to promote the execution and analysis of high-end simulations, and to support the dissemination of predictive models as decision analysis tools. DRIHM combines the European expertise in HMR, in Grid and High Performance Computing (HPC). Joint research activities will improve the efficient use of the European e-Infrastructures, notably Grid and HPC, for HMR modelling and observational databases, model evaluation tool sets and access to HMR model results. Networking activities will disseminate DRIHM results at the European and global levels in order to increase the cohesion of European and possibly worldwide HMR communities and increase the awareness of ICT potential for HMR. Service activities will deploy the end-to-end DRIHM services and tools in support of HMR networks and virtual organizations on top of the existing European e-Infrastructures.

  8. Penstock failure detection system at the "Valsan" hydro power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgescu, A. M.; Coşoiu, C. I.; Alboiu, N.; Hlevca, D.; Tataroiu, R.; Popescu, O.

    2012-11-01

    "Valsan" is a small Hydro Power Plant, 5 MW, situated at about 160 km north of Bucharest, Romania, on the small "Valsan" river in a remote mountainous area. It is equipped with a single Francis turbine. The penstock is located in the access shaft of the HPP. "Hidroelectrica", the Romanian company that operates the HPP, was trying to implement a remote penstock failure detection system. Starting from a classic hydraulic problem, the authors of the paper derived a method for failure detection and localization on the pipe. The method assumes the existence of 2 flow meters and 2 pressure transducers at the inlet and outlet of the pressurized pipe. Calculations have to be based on experimental values measured in a permanent regime for different values of the flow rate. The method was at first tested on a pipe, in the Hydraulic Laboratory of the Technical University of Civil Engineering Bucharest. Pipe failure was modelled by opening of a valve on a tee branch of the analyzed pipe. Experimental results were found to be in good agreement with theoretical ones. The penstock of the "Valsan" HPP, was modelled in EPANET, in order to: i) test the method at a larger scale; ii) get the right flow and pressure transducers that are needed to implement it. At the request of "Hidroelectrica" a routine that computes the efficiency of the turbine was added to the monitoring software. After the system was implemented, another series of measurements were performed at the site in order to validate it. Failure was modelled by opening an existing valve on a branch of the penstock. Detection of the failure was correct and almost instantaneous, while failure location was accurate within 5% of the total penstock length.

  9. Using object-based geomorphometry for hydro-geomorphological analysis in a Mediterranean research catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guida, Domenico; Cuomo, Albina; Palmieri, Vincenzo

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the paper is to apply an object-based geomorphometric procedure to define the runoff contribution areas and support a hydro-geomorphological analysis of a 3 km2 Mediterranean research catchment (southern Italy). Daily and sub-hourly discharge and electrical conductivity data were collected and recorded during a 3-year monitoring activity. Hydro-chemograph analyses carried out on these data revealed a strong seasonal hydrological response in the catchment that differed from the stormflow events that occur in the wet periods and in dry periods. This analysis enabled us to define the hydro-chemograph signatures related to increasing flood magnitude, which progressively involves various runoff components (baseflow, subsurface flow and surficial flow) and an increasing contributing area to discharge. Field surveys and water table/discharge measurements carried out during a selected storm event enabled us to identify and map specific runoff source areas with homogeneous geomorphological units previously defined as hydro-geomorphotypes (spring points, diffuse seepage along the main channel, seepage along the riparian corridors, diffuse outflow from hillslope taluses and concentrate sapping from colluvial hollows). Following the procedures previously proposed and used by authors for object-based geomorphological mapping, a hydro-geomorphologically oriented segmentation and classification was performed with the eCognition (Trimble, Inc.) package. The best agreement with the expert-based geomorphological mapping was obtained with weighted plan curvature at different-sized windows. By combining the hydro-chemical analysis and object-based hydro-geomorphotype map, the variability of the contribution areas was graphically modeled for the selected event, which occurred during the wet season, by using the log values of flow accumulation that better fit the contribution areas. The results allow us to identify the runoff component on hydro-chemographs for each time step

  10. Precipitation- and soil moisture variability in Germany: Fully coupled WRF-Hydro vs. standard WRF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnault, Joel; Rummler, Thomas; Kunstmann, Harald

    2016-04-01

    Soil moisture plays a crucial role in land-atmosphere interactions. Land-atmosphere feedbacks are expected to be strongest in transition zones between wet and dry land surfaces. It is therefore questionable whether a physically-enhanced description of soil moisture variability in a numerical model would improve the realism of the simulated atmosphere. This question is investigated here for a two-year period in Germany, including a one-year spinup time, using the hydrologically enhanced version of the Weather Research and Forecasting WRF model, namely WRF-Hydro. The simulated domain covers Germany and neighboring areas. Atmospheric processes are resolved on a 4km resolution grid with explicit convection, whereas hydrological processes, namely overland flow, subsurface lateral flow and river flow, are resolved on a subgrid at 400 m resolution. This WRF-Hydro setup is run for several values of the surface infiltration parameter, in order to evaluate model result uncertainty originating from uncertainty in the description of terrestrial hydrological processes. Soil moisture variability deduced from this WRF-Hydro ensemble is compared with that deduced from a WRF-standalone ensemble. WRF and WRF-Hydro results are validated with daily gridded E-OBS datasets of precipitation and temperature from the European Climate Assessment & Dataset, and daily discharge data from the Global Runoff Data Center GRDC. The impact of the physically-enhanced description of soil moisture variability in WRF-Hydro is finally investigated with the concept of soil moisture memory.

  11. Hydro-oleophobic silica antireflective films with high laser-damage threshold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Lianghong; Lv, Haibing; Wang, Chengcheng; Yuan, Xiaodong

    2011-02-01

    A simple method of preparing hydro-oleophobic anitreflective films with high laser-damage threshold is reported in this article. By adding fluoroalkylsilanes (FAS) into reactant mixture as a co-precursor, FAS modified SiO 2 was obtained under base catalyzed hydrolysis and condensation of tetraethoxysilane. The dip-coating films were deposited on two sides of fused silica substrates. The experimental results on the effect of adding fluoroalkylsilanes (FAS) as a co-precursor on the hydro-oleophobicity and optical properties of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) based silica AR films, are reported. The hydro-oleophobicity of the films was tested by the contact angle measurements and the highest water contact angle of 136° and oil (peanut) contact angle of 93° were obtained. The surface chemical modification of the hydro-oleophobic films was confirmed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). For the films based on FAS and TEOS, additional absorption bands at 1100 cm -1 corresponding to C-F bond presented, clearly indicating the organic modification of the films. The highest optical transmittance of the hydro-oleophobic films was found to be 99.5%. By a Nd:YAG lasers the laser-damage threshold of as-deposited films was measured at 351 nm wavelength (1 ns). The laser-damage threshold was as high as 22.6 J/cm 2.

  12. [Response of meadow soil nitrogen to hydro-periods in Napahai plateau wetland].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kun; Tian, Kun; Lü, Xian-guo; Tong, Shou-zheng

    2009-08-15

    A two-year field located monitoring was carried out to study the impacts of hydro-periods on the lakeshore meadow wetland soil total nitrogen (TN) and hydrolysable nitrogen (HN) in Napahai plateau wetland in northwestern Yunnan province. The results show that meadow soil alternate drying-wetting is the significant characteristic influenced by hydro-periods. Hydro-periods of meadow wetland control the physical environment of meadow soil, and the occurrence of TN in the upper layer (0-20 cm) was influenced more significantly than in the deeper layer (20-40 cm) by wetland hydro-periods. The dynamics of TN (0.96-1.30 g/kg) show a shape of anomalous "W" in the upper layer. And in the rainy season, the dynamics of TN was the same as the trend of water level fluctuation, while the HN was in the reverse trend. The enzyme activities were influenced by hydro-periods and then controlled the mineralization process of organic nitrogen. In August when wetland water fell, the highest amount of HN was 222.19 mg/kg (0-20 cm layer) and 47.41 mg/kg (20-40 cm layer) respectively. But when the wetland water level rose, the HN was moved to wetland water by the rising water level, and the decrease amplitude was 42% and 48% respectively. Therefore the deterioration of the environment of water was aggravated.

  13. Effect of Hydro-alcoholic Extract of Persian Oak (Quercus brantii) in Experimentally Gastric Ulcer

    PubMed Central

    Azizi, Shahrzad; Ghasemi Pirbalouti, Abdollah; Amirmohammadi, Mahdi

    2014-01-01

    Persian oak (Quercus brantii Lindl.) belongs the family Fagaceae, is a medicinal plant which seed flour is used to treat inflammatory and gastric ulcers by the tribes in south western Iran. The current study was done to evaluate the effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of Q. brantii seed flour for treatment of gastric ulcers induced by ethanol in Wistar rats. The hydro-alcoholic extract of Q. brantii was tested orally at doses of 250, 500, and 1000 mg/Kg, control group and standard drug (omperazole) on experimentally gastric ulceration. At the 3, 6, 9, and 14th days, ulcer index in mm2 and histopathological findings were evaluated. Results indicated the size of ulcers significantly reduced at 9, and 14 days after of Q. brantii extract treatment. Curative effect in the hydro-alcoholic induced gastric damage was 100% at 1000 mg/Kg and omeprazole, 99.8 % at 500 mg/Kg, and 95.4% at 250 mg/Kg after 14 days. Results of histopathological investigation showed the thickness of ulcerated mucosa was similar to the normal mucosa with 1000 mg/Kg of Q. brantii hydro-alcoholic extract after 14 days but in the groups treated by 250, and 500 mg/Kg, superficial erosions were visible in the central portion of the healed ulcers. In conclusion, the hydro-alcoholic extract of Q. brantii had active components (tannin = 8.2%) that accelerates ulcer healing and thus supported its traditional use. PMID:25276198

  14. Defective bone microstructure in hydronephrotic mice: a histomorphometric study in ICR/Mlac-hydro mice.

    PubMed

    Suntornsaratoon, Panan; Wongdee, Kannikar; Tiyasatkulkovit, Wacharaporn; Ampawong, Sumate; Krishnamra, Nateetip; Kengkoom, Kanchana; Charoenphandhu, Narattaphol

    2014-02-01

    Chronic renal impairment can lead to bone deterioration and abnormal bone morphology, but whether hydronephrosis is associated with bone loss remains unclear. Herein, we aimed to use computer-assisted bone histomorphometric technique to investigate microstructural bone changes in Imprinting Control Region (ICR) mice with a spontaneous mutation that was associated with bilateral nonobstructive hydronephrosis (ICR/Mlac-hydro). The results showed that 8-week-old ICR/Mlac-hydro mice manifested decreases in trabecular bone number and thickness, and an increased trabecular separation, thereby leading to a reduction in trabecular bone volume compared with the wild-type mice. Furthermore, histomorphometric parameters related to both bone resorption and formation, that is, eroded surface, osteoclast surface, and osteoblast surface, were much lower in ICR/Mlac-hydro mice than in the wild type. A decrease in moment of inertia was found in ICR/Mlac-hydro mice, indicating a decrease in bone strength. In conclusion, ICR/Mlac-hydro mice exhibited trabecular bone loss, presumably caused by marked decreases in both osteoblast and osteoclast activities, which together reflected abnormally low bone turnover. Thus, this mouse strain appeared to be a valuable model for studying the hydronephrosis-associated bone disease.

  15. Using ecosystem services to represent the environment in hydro-economic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momblanch, Andrea; Connor, Jeffery D.; Crossman, Neville D.; Paredes-Arquiola, Javier; Andreu, Joaquín

    2016-07-01

    Demand for water is expected to grow in line with global human population growth, but opportunities to augment supply are limited in many places due to resource limits and expected impacts of climate change. Hydro-economic models are often used to evaluate water resources management options, commonly with a goal of understanding how to maximise water use value and reduce conflicts among competing uses. The environment is now an important factor in decision making, which has resulted in its inclusion in hydro-economic models. We reviewed 95 studies applying hydro-economic models, and documented how the environment is represented in them and the methods they use to value environmental costs and benefits. We also sought out key gaps and inconsistencies in the treatment of the environment in hydro-economic models. We found that representation of environmental values of water is patchy in most applications, and there should be systematic consideration of the scope of environmental values to include and how they should be valued. We argue that the ecosystem services framework offers a systematic approach to identify the full range of environmental costs and benefits. The main challenges to more holistic representation of the environment in hydro-economic models are the current limits to understanding of ecological functions which relate physical, ecological and economic values and critical environmental thresholds; and the treatment of uncertainty.

  16. Is it worth protecting groundwater from diffuse pollution with agri-environmental schemes? A hydro-economic modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Hérivaux, Cécile; Orban, Philippe; Brouyère, Serge

    2013-10-15

    In Europe, 30% of groundwater bodies are considered to be at risk of not achieving the Water Framework Directive (WFD) 'good status' objective by 2015, and 45% are in doubt of doing so. Diffuse agricultural pollution is one of the main pressures affecting groundwater bodies. To tackle this problem, the WFD requires Member States to design and implement cost-effective programs of measures to achieve the 'good status' objective by 2027 at the latest. Hitherto, action plans have mainly consisted of promoting the adoption of Agri-Environmental Schemes (AES). This raises a number of questions concerning the effectiveness of such schemes for improving groundwater status, and the economic implications of their implementation. We propose a hydro-economic model that combines a hydrogeological model to simulate groundwater quality evolution with agronomic and economic components to assess the expected costs, effectiveness, and benefits of AES implementation. This hydro-economic model can be used to identify cost-effective AES combinations at groundwater-body scale and to show the benefits to be expected from the resulting improvement in groundwater quality. The model is applied here to a rural area encompassing the Hesbaye aquifer, a large chalk aquifer which supplies about 230,000 inhabitants in the city of Liege (Belgium) and is severely contaminated by agricultural nitrates. We show that the time frame within which improvements in the Hesbaye groundwater quality can be expected may be much longer than that required by the WFD. Current WFD programs based on AES may be inappropriate for achieving the 'good status' objective in the most productive agricultural areas, in particular because these schemes are insufficiently attractive. Achieving 'good status' by 2027 would demand a substantial change in the design of AES, involving costs that may not be offset by benefits in the case of chalk aquifers with long renewal times.

  17. Restoring coastal wetlands that were ditched for mosquito control: a preliminary assessment of hydro-leveling as a restoration technique

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Thomas J.; Tiling, Ginger; Leasure, Pamela S.

    2007-01-01

    The wetlands surrounding Tampa Bay, Florida were extensively ditched for mosquito control in the 1950s. Spoil from ditch construction was placed adjacent to the wetlands ditches creating mound-like features (spoil-mounds). These mounds represent a loss of 14% of the wetland area in Tampa Bay. Spoil mounds interfere with tidal flow and are locations for non-native plants to colonize (e.g., Schinus terebinthifolius). Removal of the spoil mounds to eliminate exotic plants, restore native vegetation, and re-establish natural hydrology is a restoration priority for environmental managers. Hydro-leveling, a new technique, was tested in a mangrove forest restoration project in 2004. Hydro-leveling uses a high pressure stream of water to wash sediment from the spoil mound into the adjacent wetland and ditch. To assess the effectiveness of this technique, we conducted vegetation surveys in areas that were hydro-leveled and in non-hydro-leveled areas 3 years post-project. Adult Schinus were reduced but not eliminated from hydro-leveled mounds. Schinus seedlings however were absent from hydro-leveled sites. Colonization by native species was sparse. Mangrove seedlings were essentially absent (≈2 m−2) from the centers of hydro-leveled mounds and were in low density on their edges (17 m−2) in comparison to surrounding mangrove forests (105 m−2). Hydro-leveling resulted in mortality of mangroves adjacent to the mounds being leveled. This was probably caused by burial of pneumatophores during the hydro-leveling process. For hydro-leveling to be a useful and successful restoration technique several requirements must be met. Spoil mounds must be lowered to the level of the surrounding wetlands. Spoil must be distributed further into the adjacent wetland to prevent burial of nearby native vegetation. Finally, native species may need to be planted on hydro-leveled areas to speed up the re-vegetation process.

  18. Advancing global hydro-climatological data archives to support climate change impact assessments on water resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saile, P.

    2012-12-01

    Climate variations and changing climate will very likely alter the rate and nature of hydrological processes and consequently affect water resources in many regions. Current General Circulation Models and downscaling methods that are increasingly used to assess changes in the water cycle and water resource vulnerabilities introduce a cascade of uncertainties that cannot realistically be dealt with at the moment and are too inaccurate to support improved decision-making for water management and for future water systems design. Therefore, water managers need not only improved hydrological and climate modelling and downscaling methods but also access to adequate hydro-meteorological monitoring networks. The Global Terrestrial Network for Hydrology (GTN-H), a joint effort by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and several global observing systems, aims at integrating in-situ and remote sensing hydrological observations with hydrological model results held by its partner institutions to support a wide range of hydrological applications including research of global and regional climate change. Adhering to the different needs of all data users (scientists, policy makes and other stakeholders) and bridging the gap between the distributed datasets, currently a new information system is being developed to enable web-based discovery, access and analysis of observation data and derived products served through GTN-H. This system is built on international standards published by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) using open standardized web services, namely (1) Catalogue Services for data discovery, (2) Web Map Services for data visualization and (3) Web Feature Services, Web Coverage Services and Sensor Observation Services for data access. This presentation will give an overview about the GTN-H data archive and the design of the new information system including an outlook of its potential use for water related climate change impact assessments.

  19. Hydro-Biogeochemical Approaches to Understanding of Water Cycling in the Gwangneung Coniferous Catchment, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S.; Choi, H.; Lim, J.

    2012-12-01

    The spatial and temporal sources of headwater catchment runoff are important factors in our understanding of the dominant controls on catchment runoff. The information on flowpath, storage, residence time, and interactions of water and materials transport in a catchment is the prerequisite to the understanding and predicting of water cycling in the mountainous landscapes. In this presentation, along with some up-to-date results of hydro-biogeochemical researches, we present the principal methods that are currently used in Forest Water Resources Laboratory, Korea Forest Research Institute to obtain such information. Various catchment hydrological processes have been examined on the basis of the water table fluctuations, the end-member mixing model, the cross correlation analysis, and stable isotope. The stream discharge from the surface and shallow soil layer momentarily dominated at peak flow, and then its relative contribution decreased as precipitation intensity declined. Such a pattern (though with a greater magnitude) is consistent with those reported in many mixing-model studies of forested catchments. Overall surface discharge, on the other hand, steadily increased with subsequent storm events throughout the season. The previous study suggested that maintained precipitation expands saturation zone and increases macropore flow in the forested catchment. Such a macropore flow delivers new water in which dissolved ion concentrations are low because of short contact time with soil and bedrock. In the Gwangneung coniferous forest catchment, the contribution of surface discharge was relatively large, and the changes in the amount, intensity and patterns of precipitation affected both the flowpath and the mean residence time of water. Particularly during the summer monsoon, changes in precipitation patterns and hydrological processes in the catchment influenced the carbon cycle such that the persistent precipitation increased the discharge of dissolved organic

  20. Assessing the impacts of anthropogenic and hydro-climatic drivers on estrogen legacies and trajectories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gall, Heather E.; Basu, Nandita B.; Mashtare, Michael L.; Rao, C.; Suresh, P.; Lee, Linda S.

    2016-01-01

    Intensification of concentrated animal feeding operations combined with the use of tile drains in agricultural fields has resulted in land-applied manure being a significant source of hormones to the environment. Currently, no model exists to simulate hormone fluxes from tile drains under field conditions. Therefore, we developed the Hormone Export and Recovery Dynamics (HERD) model, which incorporates hydro-climatic, biogeochemical, and anthropogenic drivers that affect hormone fate and transport. We validated HERD using known input (rainfall; lagoon effluent irrigation) and response data (tile drain flow; 17β-estradiol and estrone fluxes) from the 2009 growing season, 18 years after land-application activities began at a tile-drained field in Indiana. We used HERD to better understand the: (1) decision-making process underlying effluent irrigation activities; (2) contribution of macropore flow to estrogen transport; (3) potential for long-term applications to result in the development of legacy estrogen sources within the soil profile; and (4) potential recovery trajectory of estrogen transport following the cessation of animal waste applications. HERD adequately predicted irrigation events based on lagoon storage limits. Simple threshold exceedance logic for macropore flow activation accounted for ∼87% of the observed estrogen loads. Application history was found to be important, as not accounting for 18 years of application led to a severe underestimation of the observed estrogen loads; however, accounting for application history led to a much closer match between modeled and observed fluxes. Simulated trajectories after cessation of applications indicated that estrogens may continue to leach for several decades, which has important implications for mitigating hormone concentrations in receiving water bodies.

  1. People's perception on impacts of hydro-power projects in Bhagirathi river valley, India.

    PubMed

    Negi, G C S; Punetha, Disha

    2017-04-01

    The people's perception on environmental and socio-economic impacts due to three hydro-electric projects (HEPs; commissioned and under construction) were studied in the north-west Indian Himalaya. Surveys among 140 project-affected people (PAPs) using a checklist of impacts indicate that among the negative impacts, decrease in flora/fauna, agriculture, flow of river, aesthetic beauty; and increase in water pollution, river bed quarrying for sand/stone, human settlement on river banks and social evils; and among the positive impacts, increase in standard of living, road connectivity, means of transport, public amenities, tourism and environmental awareness were related with HEPs. The PAPs tend to forget the negative impacts with the age of the HEPs after it becomes functional, and the positive impacts seem to outweigh the negative impacts. Study concludes that it is difficult to separate the compounding impacts due to HEP construction and other anthropogenic and natural factors, and in the absence of cause-and-effect analyses, it is hard to dispel the prevailing notion that HEPs are undesirable in the study area that led to agitations by the environmentalists and stopped construction of one of these HEPs. To overcome the situation, multi-disciplinary scientific studies involving the PAPs need to be carried out in planning and decision-making to make HEPs environment friendly and sustainable in this region. There is also a need to adopt low carbon electric power technologies and promote a decentralized energy strategy through joint ventures between public and private companies utilizing locally available renewable energy resources.

  2. A Numerical Hydro-Chemo-Mechanical Model for Fault Activation under Reactive Fluid Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pouya, A.; Tounsi, H.; Rohmer, J.

    2015-12-01

    The migration of CO2-rich fluid in fractured rock masses can cause processes such as mineral dissolution and precipitation, chemically induced weakening, which can affect the long-term mechanical and transport properties of the rock mass as well as the stability of fault systems. Some numerical approaches are already available in the literature for modelling the dissolution/precipitation phenomena in fractures (e.g. Yasuhara & Elsworth 2007) as well as subcritical crack propagation (e.g. Park et al. 2007). Generally, the dissolution is supposed to increase the rock porosity and, in this way, decrease the rock strength. Some experimental data are available for the variation of rock strength and stiffness parameters with the porosity and so as a consequence of dissolution process (Bemer et al. 2004). Also the effect of chemical processes on the mechanical stability has been studied and modelled numerically in the framework of continuum materials and the context, in particular, of weathering in underground galleries (Ghabezloo & Pouya 2006). In the context of fault systems, a complete numerical modelling of the stability evolution with the flow of a reactive fluid has not yet been done. In this paper we present a simplified, but complete, set of equations for a whole system of coupled hydro-chemo-mechanical process of reactive fluid flow inside a fault. These equations have been implemented in Porofis, a FEM numerical code specially conceived for HCM processes in porous fractured media. We show how this numerical method allows to model the coupled HCM processes in the fault and the evolution of the mechanical stability in presence of in situ stresses and reactive fluid flow.

  3. Coupling a hydro-maritime model and remotely sensed techniques to assess the shoreline positioning uncertainty: the Marsala coast study case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manno, Giorgio; Lo Re, Carlo; Ciraolo, Giuseppe; Maltese, Antonino

    2010-10-01

    The severe erosion phenomena affecting the Mediterranean coasts are strictly related to geophysical characteristics and socio-economic pressures. This suggests the need of monitoring and modelling the phenomenon in order to quantify its strength. In fact, the shoreline position, as well as its temporal evolution, provides important information for designing defence structures and for the development of a coastal management plan. The shoreline has a dynamic nature as it changes both in the short and long period. Those changes are caused by geo-morphological (e.g. bars and barrier island development etc.) and hydrodynamic (wave motion, tides and flows) processes, as well as by sudden and fast events such as sea storms, earthquakes and tsunamis. The research examines the uncertainty in positioning the shoreline coupling remotely sensed images and a hydro-maritime model. Although the assessment accuracy strongly relies on data availability and consistency, the resulting assessment of the shoreline erosion and accretion is crucial for an overall understanding of the hydro-maritime geo-morphological interaction. The study case is the Marsala coastline (western coast of Sicily, Italy), named 12th island physiographic unit. It is characterized by a low coast with sandy sediments from Holocene age. These sediments are in continuity of sedimentation on whitish debris composed by organogenic limestone from Pleistocene age. The diachronic analysis was carried out on both emerged and submerged parts of the beach and involves two distinct phases. In the first phase, geo-morphological in situ data have been compared with maps and georeferenced remote sensing images referred to the period 1994-2006. It allowed the identification of shoreline indicators [2] such as the beach cross-section and the shoreline positioning including its spatial and temporal variations. It should be noted that the comparison between EO (Earth Observation) images and cartographic maps is subjected to

  4. Improving our understanding of flood forecasting using earlier hydro-meteorological intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, Dong-Sin; Chen, Cheng-Hsin; Yeh, Gour-Tsyh

    2014-05-01

    In recent decades, Taiwan has suffered from severe bouts of torrential rain, and typhoon induced floods have become the major natural threat to Taiwan. In order to warn the public of potential risks, authorities are considering establishing an early warning system derived from an integrated hydro-meteorological estimation process. This study aims at the development and accuracy of such a warning system. So it is first necessary to understand the distinctive features of flood forecasting in integrated rainfall-runoff simulations. Additionally the adequacies of a warning system that is based on extracting useful intelligence from earlier, possibly faulty numerical simulation results are discussed. In order to precisely model flooding, hydrological simulations based upon spot measured rainfall data have been utilized in prior studies to calibrate model parameters. Here, precipitation inputs from an ensemble of almost 20 different realizations of rainfall fields have been used to derive flood forecasts. The flood warning system therefore integrates rainfall-runoff calculations, field observations and data assimilations. Simulation results indicate that the ensemble precipitation estimates generated by a Weather Research Forecasting (WRF) mesoscale model produce divergent estimates. Considerable flooding is often shown in the simulated hydrographs, but the results as to the peak time and peak stage are not always in agreement with the observations. In brief, such forecasts can be good for warning against potential damaging floods in the near future, but the meteorological inputs are not good enough to forecast the time and magnitude of the peaks. The key for such warning system is not to expect highly accurate rainfall predictions, but to improve our understanding from individual ensemble flood forecasts.

  5. Hydro-chemical specifications of thermal waters from different geographical regions in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seker, D. Z.; Aydin, S.; Sivri, N.; Bitik, E.; Cakir, Z.

    2014-12-01

    In many countries thermal springs are utilized for a variety of purposes, such as the generation of power, direct space heating, industrial processes, aquaculture and many more. The optimal use of a thermal spring is largely dependent upon its physical and chemical characteristics. The physical and chemical parameters of groundwater play a significant role in classifying and assessing water quality. Major ions constitute the most significant part of the total dissolved solids present in the groundwater and the concentration of these ions in ground water depends mainly on the hydro chemical processes that place in the aquifer system. This article focuses on the thermal and chemical features of 21 thermal springs located in the overall of the Turkey. Field data and water samples were collected for analysis of physical and chemical parameters. Thermal springs and thermal wells have temperatures ranging from 35 to 95°C. The pH values of the thermal waters change between 6.3 and 9.6. A Piper trilinear diagram and Schoeller diagram show that all the thermal waters are characterized by the dominance of anion-cation. Thermal waters display various chemical compositions and high temperature waters have Na-SO4, Na-HCO3, Na-Cl, Ca-SO4, Ca-HCO3 type. The springs are associated with faults and impermeable dykes and are assumed to be of meteoric origin. The mineral composition of the thermal waters reflects the geological formations found at the depth of origin. All thermal water springs are suitable for use in terms balneology since they contain high levels of mineral content and temperature. At the same time, some samples can be consumed by humans as soda water and mineral water. However, it is important to keep such limitations in mind when determining the ultimate use of the thermal springs.

  6. Comparing different treatment modalities for partial nephrectomies without ischemic period: laser, Hydro-Jet and RF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Boorder, Tjeerd; Boeken Kruger, Arto; Klaessens, John; Grimbergen, Matthijs; Verdaasdonk, Rudolf

    2008-02-01

    The treatment of partial nefrectomies is usually performed under a warm ischemic period. Recently, various treatment modalities have become available to perform a partial nefrectomy without clamping off the blood circulation. We have studied three devices in laboratory setting, investigating the thermal and high speed imaging techniques in tissue models and consequently, applying the instruments in the clinic during open procedures especially looking at efficacy and blood loss. The continuous wave 2.0 micron laser of 70 W (Revolix, LISA laser) is used as a fiber delivered knife cutting through circulated tissue with controlled hemostasis for vessels up to 3 mm diameter. The 2 μm wavelength effectively vaporizes tissue water and coagulates the smaller vessels. The Hydro-Jet (ERBE, Germany) uses high pressure (20-80 bar) to ejects a water jet of 40 um diameter at high velocity (10-30 m/s). The parenchyma is resected while vessels are preserved. Consequently, the exposed vessels can be coagulated in a controlled way with minimal blood loss. The water jet showed to induce cavitation bubbles that resect the soft tissue from the matrix leaving the elastic microvessels intact. Various systems are based on bipolar RF technology. We are using the Habib device (Rita 1500X RF generator) to create a coagulation zone around the tumor. Subsequently, the tumor can be resected along the coagulation zone with minimal bleeding. The treatment modalities investigated, have their own advantages and, stand-alone or in combination, can facilitate laparoscopic partial nephrectomies without an ischemic period.

  7. Research and development of the Osmo-Hydro Power heat engine. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1980-11-25

    The Osmo-Hydro Power (OHP) or Pressure-Retarded Osmosis (PRO) heat engine is a possible means for producing economical electric power from low-temperature heat sources. The engine utilizes semipermeable membranes to cause the permeation of a solvent from a dilute low-pressure solution to a concentrated high-pressure solution. The potential energy thus acquired is converted to useful energy by means of a turbogenerator. The process can be considered as one in which the free energy of mixing is converted to useful power. By appropriate application of a heat source and a heat sink, the original dilute and concentrated solutions are recovered, thus completing the heat engine cycle. The results of this initial project to study osmotic power generation from waste heat indicate what research paths must be followed to continue the development of distillation and conjugation as unmixing methods. In addition, precipitation and stratification have been shown to be desirable because of the possibility of readily matching a binary system with either a membrane presently available or one readily modified from an existing membrane. The OHP heat engine in its ultimate development would have the following general characteristics: it would be able to utilize low-grade heat sources, such as unconcentrated solar energy or waste heat below 100/sup 0/C., heat sources as low as 50/sup 0/C can be used; the engine should be able to produce electricity for 0.12 $/kWh, or less, but the thermal efficiency will be less than 25% of Carnot efficiency at the same temperature limits; and the engine would be modular; i.e., it could be scaled up or down largely by adding or subtracting discrete permeator and heat exchanger units.

  8. Bentonite alteration due to thermal-hydro-chemical processes during the early thermal period in a nuclear waste repository

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, T.; Senger, R.; Finsterle, S.

    2011-02-01

    After closure of an underground nuclear waste repository, the decay of radionuclides will raise temperature in the repository, and the bentonite buffer will resaturate by water inflow from the surrounding host rock. The perturbations from these thermal and hydrological processes are expected to dissipate within hundreds to a few thousand years. Here, we investigate coupled thermal-hydro-chemical processes and their effects on the short-term performance of a potential nuclear waste repository located in a clay formation. Using a simplified geometric configuration and abstracted hydraulic parameters of the clayey formation, we examine geochemical processes, coupled with thermo-hydrologic phenomena, and potential changes in porosity near the waste container during the early thermal period. The developed models were used for evaluating the mineral alterations and potential changes in porosity of the buffer, which can affect the repository performance. The results indicate that mineral alteration and associated changes in porosity induced by early thermal and hydrological processes are relatively small and are expected to not significantly affect flow and transport properties. Chlorite precipitation was obtained in all simulation cases. A maximum of one percent volume fraction of chlorite could be formed, whose process may reduce swelling and sorption capacity of bentonite clay, affecting the performance of the repository. llitisation process was not obtained from the present simulations.

  9. [In vitro culture of human dendritic cells by using a HydroCell™].

    PubMed

    Aruga, Atsushi; Kogen, Yumi; Sakai, Mayuko; Kotera, Yoshihito; Yamamoto, Masakazu

    2011-11-01

    Cancer Immunotherapy using dendritic cells would be a feasible and useful tool for cancer treatment. However, no immunotherapy has been approved in Japan because of a lack of any randomized clinical studies. We are now trying to develop an automatic dendritic cell culture system in order to perform a large-scale randomized clinical trial. In this study, we investigated the utility of a HydroCell™ for in vitro culture of human dendritic cells induced from peripheral blood monocytes. The dendritic cells grew one and a half times when they were cultured in a HydroCell™. All the cells were floating and harvested easily without any enzymes. The cells expressed the CD80 and CD83 molecules on their surface and still had strong phagocytosis. This results demonstrated that a HydroCell™ was a useful tool for in vitro culture of dendritic cells.

  10. Stochastic optimization of a hydro-thermal system including network constraints

    SciTech Connect

    Gorenstin, B.G.; Campdonico, N.M.; Costa, J.P.; Pereira, M.V.F. )

    1992-05-01

    This paper describes a methodology for the optimal scheduling of hydrothermal systems taking into account multiple hydro reservoir characteristics, inflow stochasticity and transmission network represented by a linearized power flow model. The solution algorithm is based on stochastic dual dynamic programming, which decomposes the multi-stage stochastic problem into several one stage subproblems. Each subproblem corresponds to a linearized optimal power flow with additional constraints represented the hydro reservoir equations and a piecewise linear approximation of the expected future cost function. Each subproblem is solved by a customized network flow/Dual Simplex algorithm which takes advantage of the network characteristics of the hydro reservoirs and of the transmission system. The application of the methodology is illustrated in a case study with a Brazilian system comprising 44 hydroplants, 11 thermal plants, 463 buses and 834 circuits.

  11. Development of HydroImage, A User Friendly Hydrogeophysical Characterization Software

    SciTech Connect

    Mok, Chin Man; Hubbard, Susan; Chen, Jinsong; Suribhatla, Raghu; Kaback, Dawn Samara

    2014-01-29

    HydroImage, user friendly software that utilizes high-resolution geophysical data for estimating hydrogeological parameters in subsurface strate, was developed under this grant. HydroImage runs on a personal computer platform to promote broad use by hydrogeologists to further understanding of subsurface processes that govern contaminant fate, transport, and remediation. The unique software provides estimates of hydrogeological properties over continuous volumes of the subsurface, whereas previous approaches only allow estimation of point locations. thus, this unique tool can be used to significantly enhance site conceptual models and improve design and operation of remediation systems. The HydroImage technical approach uses statistical models to integrate geophysical data with borehole geological data and hydrological measurements to produce hydrogeological parameter estimates as 2-D or 3-D images.

  12. Subsurface hydro-thermal regime and the atmospheric hydroclimate by a climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, K.

    2009-04-01

    experiments were run for 20 years, forced by the climatological sea surface temperature and sea ice concentrations derived from the 1981-2000 period, after 150-year spin-up for the subsurface regime. The last 9 years were taken for the analysis. Different complexity of the subsurface hydro-thermal physics simulated different near-surface thermal states and seasonality. The refined physics showed warmer summer and cooler winter. The difference was most apparent in high latitudes; surface air temperature increased about 2°C in summer (zonal average, only over land), and decreased by about 5°C in winter. The improved physics and the presence of the top organic layer kept more ground ice during the warmer seasons. The total amount of soil moisture (i.e. soil wetness), however, did not change by the change of the physics. This helped mitigating the unrealistically fast and large flux of heat within the ground and at the interface between the atmosphere and the land surface, and fed back to the change in the subsurface thermal regime (e.g., active layer depth, or length of ground freezing), and affected the seasonality. It also led to improvement of the cumulative temperature indices for the atmospheric forcing in the warm and cold season (e.g. Thaw and Freezing Index). . The difference in the near-surface thermal state in high latitudes also affected snow accumulation in winter,earlier and larger for the finer physics, although precipitation did not vary largely except in the lower latitudes, at the southern flank of the Tibetan Plateau, where large precipitation differences were found during the summer monsoonal period, leading to a contrast between wetter Tibetan Plateau and drier coastal China. Land-average total annual runoff did not vary greatly between integrations at all latitudes; however, its seasonal distribution showed large difference. During the melting season, high-latitude runoff was greater for the finer physics due to shallower active layer, whereas it was

  13. Biofuel Crops Expansion: Evaluating the Impact on the Agricultural Water Scarcity Costs and Hydropower Production with Hydro Economic Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, G.

    2015-12-01

    Biofuels such as ethanol from sugar cane remain an important element to help mitigate the impacts of fossil fuels on the atmosphere. However, meeting fuel demands with biofuels requires technological advancement for water productivity and scale of production. This may translate into increased water demands for biofuel crops and potential for conflicts with incumbent crops and other water uses including domestic, hydropower generation and environmental. It is therefore important to evaluate the effects of increased biofuel production on the verge of water scarcity costs and hydropower production. The present research applies a hydro-economic optimization model to compare different scenarios of irrigated biofuel and hydropower production, and estimates the potential tradeoffs. A case study from the Araguari watershed in Brazil is provided. These results should be useful to (i) identify improved water allocation among competing economic demands, (ii) support water management and operations decisions in watersheds where biofuels are expected to increase, and (iii) identify the impact of bio fuel production in the water availability and economic value. Under optimized conditions, adoption of sugar cane for biofuel production heavily relies on the opportunity costs of other crops and hydropower generation. Areas with a lower value crop groups seem more suitable to adopt sugar cane for biofuel when the price of ethanol is sufficiently high and the opportunity costs of hydropower productions are not conflicting. The approach also highlights the potential for insights in water management from studying regional versus larger scales bundled systems involving water use, food production and power generation.

  14. Hydro-Period Influence on Kettle Hole Biogeochemistry in NE Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kayler, Z. E.; Badrian, M.; Frackowski, A.; Nitzsche, K. N.; Rieckh, H.; Gessler, A.

    2015-12-01

    Hydro-Period Influence on Kettle Hole Biogeochemistry in NE Germany Kettle holes are glacially created ponds (<0.01 km2) that form within landscape depressions and, while small, they are numerous across young moraine landscapes in Europe and North America. Kettle holes are only seasonally connected to streams or groundwater and therefore they undergo pronounced short-term changes in the hydro-periods, i.e. water level fluctuations that include complete desiccation and rewetting. Little is known about kettle hole biogeochemistry in NE Germany, especially with regards to the hydro-period. We hypothesized that a connection exists between kettle hole hydro-period and sediment biogeochemistry. We surveyed kettle hole water in NE Germany over several years to capture the seasonal isotopic composition (δD, δ18O). Within a subset of the surveyed kettle holes we measured the δ13C and δ15N composition of sediments at two different depths from one season. Our objective was to link the abiotic influences demarked by the evaporative isotopic signal from kettle hole water, to biotic processes, such as microbial turnover and contributions of vegetation, imprinted in the δ13C and δ15N signals in sediment organic matter. Based on the upper sediment isotopic signal, we were able to classify two categories: permanently and temporarily filled kettle holes. Other kettle holes, for example those found in forests, were not as easily classified. Within the deeper sediment layers we found a distinct curve linear response between δ15N and C/N ratios, where temporarily filled kettle holes were consistently enriched, indicating a higher level of microbial transformation. We evaluated our evaporation estimates against the sediment-based classification to test evaporation as a major mechanism behind kettle hole biogeochemistry. While the temporarily filled kettle holes are the most biogeochemically dynamic, due in large part to their hydro-period, the mechanisms underlying the hydro

  15. Quantification of Uncertainties in Projections of Hydro-meteorological Extremes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meresa, Hadush; Romanowicz, Renata; Lawrence, Deborah

    2016-04-01

    The impact of climate change on hydrological extremes has been widely studied particularly after the publication of the IPCC AR4 report in 2007. The methodology applied to derive hydrological extremes under climate change adopted by most scientists consists of running a cascade of models, starting from assumed emission scenarios applied to a global circulation model (GCM) and ending at hydrological model simulations. Therefore, the projected hydro-meteorological extremes are highly uncertain due to uncertainties inherent in all the links of the modelling chain. In addition, due to the complexity of hydrologic models that use a large number of parameters to characterize hydrologic processes, many challenges arise with respect to quantification of uncertainty. This issue needs to be properly quantified to understand possible confidence ranges in extremes in the future. This paper aims to quantify the uncertainty in the hydrological projection of future extremes in streamflow and precipitation indices in mountainous and lowland catchments in Poland, using a multi-model approach based on climate projections obtained from the ENSMEBLE and EUROCORDEX projects, multiple realizations of catchment scale downscaled rainfalls, two hydrological models (HBV and GR4J) and a number of hydrological model parameters. The time-span of projections covers the 21st century. The potential sources of hydrological projection uncertainties are quantified through a Monte Carlo based simulation approach. We compare the weights based on different goodness-of-fit criteria in their ability to constrain the uncertainty of the extremes. The results of the comparison show a considerable dependence of uncertainty ranges on the type of extremes (low or high flows) and on the criterion used. The predicted distribution of future streamflows considering all sources of uncertainty (climate model, bias correction and hydrological model) is used to derive marginal distributions of uncertainty related to

  16. 78 FR 58301 - Go With the Flow Hydro Power, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-23

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Go With the Flow Hydro Power, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application..., 2013, Go with the Flow Hydro Power, LLC, filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to section 4(f) of the Federal Power Act (FPA), proposing to study the feasibility of the Go with the...

  17. 77 FR 59608 - Go Green Go Hydro LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-28

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Go Green Go Hydro LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Comments, Motions To Intervene, and Competing Applications On June 20, 2012, Go Green Go Hydro LLC (Go Green or applicant) filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant...

  18. 77 FR 23241 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXX, LLC; Notice of Intent To File License Application, Filing of Pre...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-18

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXX, LLC; Notice of Intent To File License... Friends Fund XXX, LLC. e. Name of Project: New Cumberland Locks and Dam Hydroelectric Project. f. Location... XXX, c/o Hydro Green Energy, LLC, 900 Oakmont Lane, Suite 310, Westmont, IL 60559; (877) 556-6566...

  19. 78 FR 49509 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXX, LLC; FFP Project 121, LLC; Notice Announcing Preliminary Permit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXX, LLC; FFP Project 121, LLC; Notice Announcing... Virginia and Jefferson County, Ohio. The applications were filed by Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXX, LLC...

  20. 77 FR 32624 - Lock 12 Hydro Partners; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock 12 Hydro Partners; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the.... Applicant: Lock 12 Hydro Partners, LLC. e. Name of Project: Ravenna Hydroelectric Project. f. Location:...

  1. 77 FR 32622 - Lock 14 Hydro Partners; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock 14 Hydro Partners; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the.... Applicant: Lock 14 Hydro Partners, LLC. e. Name of Project: Heidelberg Hydroelectric Project. f....

  2. 75 FR 78984 - Lock 14 Hydro Partners; Notice of Intent To File License Application, Filing of Pre-Application...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock 14 Hydro Partners; Notice of Intent To File License Application, Filing.... Potential Applicant Contact: David Brown Kinloch, Soft Energy Associates, Agent for Lock 14 Hydro...

  3. 77 FR 61585 - FPL Energy Maine Hydro LLC; Notice of Intent To File License Application, Filing of Pre...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission FPL Energy Maine Hydro LLC; Notice of Intent To File License Application... Maine Hydro LLC (FPL Energy). e. Name of Project: West Buxton Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: On...

  4. 75 FR 78985 - Lock 12 Hydro Partners; Notice of Intent To File License Application, Filing of Pre-Application...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock 12 Hydro Partners; Notice of Intent To File License Application, Filing.... Potential Applicant Contact: David Brown Kinloch, Soft Energy Associates, Agent for Lock 12 Hydro...

  5. 78 FR 32644 - Las Vegas Wash Hydro LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-31

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Las Vegas Wash Hydro LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted..., 2012, Las Vegas Wash Hydro LLC, filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to section 4(f) of the Federal Power Act (FPA), proposing to study the feasibility of the Las Vegas...

  6. 77 FR 70423 - Black Bear Hydro Partners, LLC and Black Bear Development Holdings, LLC and Black Bear SO, LLC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-26

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Black Bear Hydro Partners, LLC and Black Bear Development Holdings, LLC and Black Bear SO, LLC; Notice of Application for Partial Transfer of Licenses, and Soliciting Comments and Motions To Intervene On October 25, 2012, Black Bear Hydro Partners, LLC, sole licensee (transferor)...

  7. 77 FR 59389 - Hawks Nest Hydro, LLC; Notice of Intent To File License Application, Filing of Pre-Application...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-27

    .... 2512-069; Project No. 14439-000] Hawks Nest Hydro, LLC; Notice of Intent To File License Application...: Hawks Nest Hydro, LLC. e. Name of Project: Hawks Nest Hydroelectric Project (P-2512-069) and Glen Ferris Hydroelectric Project (P-14439-000) f. Location: Hawks Nest Hydroelectric Project is on the New River in...

  8. 76 FR 26331 - Dijji Corp., Hydro Environmental Resources, Inc. (n/k/a EXIM Internet Group, Inc.), Hydrogen...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Dijji Corp., Hydro Environmental Resources, Inc. (n/k/a EXIM Internet Group, Inc.), Hydrogen Power... concerning the securities of Hydro Environmental Resources, Inc. (n/k/a EXIM Internet Group, Inc.) because...

  9. 78 FR 36768 - Electron Hydro, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Electron Hydro, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding, of Electron Hydro, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  10. 78 FR 69402 - Lock 7 Hydro Partners, LLC; Notice of Application for Amendment of License and Soliciting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-19

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Lock 7 Hydro Partners, LLC; Notice of Application for Amendment of License.... Applicant: Lock 7 Hydro Partners, LLC. e. Name of Project: Mother Ann Lee Hydroelectric Project. ] f... Power Act, 16 U.S.C. 791a-825r. h. Applicant Contact: David Brown Kinloch, President/CEO, Lock 7...

  11. 77 FR 25163 - KC Hydro LLC of New Hampshire; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-27

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission KC Hydro LLC of New Hampshire; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application..., 2012, KC Hydro LLC of New Hampshire, filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to section 4(f) of the Federal Power Act (FPA), proposing to study the feasibility of the Milton...

  12. 76 FR 52656 - Lock+Hydro Friends Fund VII; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-23

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+Hydro Friends Fund VII; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application..., 2011, Lock+Hydro Friends Fund VII, filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to section 4(f) of the Federal Power Act (FPA), proposing to study the feasibility of hydropower at the U.S....

  13. 75 FR 25235 - Eagle Creek Hydro Power, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Eagle Creek Hydro Power, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Eagle Creek Hydro Power, LLC's application for...

  14. 77 FR 38043 - Great Lakes Hydro America, LLC; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Comments...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-26

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Great Lakes Hydro America, LLC; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing.... Applicant: Great Lakes Hydro America, LLC. e. Name of Project: Penobscot Mills. f. Location: North Twin development, West Branch Penobscot River, Maine. g. Filed Pursuant to: Federal Power Act, 16 U.S.C....

  15. 77 FR 21761 - Alice Falls Corporation, Alice Falls Hydro, LLC; Notice of Application for Transfer of License...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-11

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Alice Falls Corporation, Alice Falls Hydro, LLC; Notice of Application for Transfer of License, and Soliciting Comments and Motions To Intervene On February 23, 2012, Alice Falls Corporation (transferor) and Alice Falls Hydro, LLC (transferee) filed an ] application for transfer...

  16. 75 FR 66083 - Iron Mask Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-27

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Iron Mask Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application..., 2010. On May 6, 2010, and supplemented on July 15, 2010, Iron Mask Hydro, LLC filed an application for... the feasibility of the Iron Mask Pumped Storage Project to be located near the U.S. Bureau...

  17. 75 FR 53963 - Iron Mask Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-02

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Iron Mask Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application..., 2010. On May 6, 2010, Iron Mask Hydro, LLC filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to section 4(f) of the Federal Power Act (FPA), proposing to study the feasibility of the Iron Mask...

  18. 78 FR 77118 - KC Small Hydro, LLC; Notice of Amended Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-20

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission KC Small Hydro, LLC; Notice of Amended Preliminary Permit Application..., 2013, KC Scoby Hydro, LLC, filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to section 4(f) of the Federal Power Act (FPA), proposing to study the feasibility of hydropower at the existing...

  19. A controlled stand-alone single-phase induction generator

    SciTech Connect

    Ojo, O.; Gonoh, B.

    1995-12-31

    This paper sets forth the steady-state and dynamic performance characteristics of a novel stand-alone, single-phase induction generator scheme in which the load voltage and frequency are regulated using a full-bridge pulse-width modulation (PWM) DC/AC inverter. A battery feeding the PWM inverter supplies (receives) power to (from) the generator when load demand is greater (lesser) than the power supplied from the prime mover which could be diesel engine, wind or hydro.

  20. A Hydro-mechanical Model and Analytical Solutions for Geomechanical Modeling of Carbon Dioxide Geological Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Zhijie; Fang, Yilin; Scheibe, Timothy D.; Bonneville, Alain

    2012-05-15

    We present a hydro-mechanical model for geological sequestration of carbon dioxide. The model considers the poroelastic effects by taking into account the coupling between the geomechanical response and the fluid flow in greater detail. The simplified hydro-mechanical model includes the geomechanical part that relies on the linear elasticity, while the fluid flow is based on the Darcy’s law. Two parts were coupled using the standard linear poroelasticity. Analytical solutions for pressure field were obtained for a typical geological sequestration scenario. The model predicts the temporal and spatial variation of pressure field and effects of permeability and elastic modulus of formation on the fluid pressure distribution.

  1. Hydrogen Resource Assessment: Hydrogen Potential from Coal, Natural Gas, Nuclear, and Hydro Power

    SciTech Connect

    Milbrandt, A.; Mann, M.

    2009-02-01

    This paper estimates the quantity of hydrogen that could be produced from coal, natural gas, nuclear, and hydro power by county in the United States. The study estimates that more than 72 million tonnes of hydrogen can be produced from coal, natural gas, nuclear, and hydro power per year in the country (considering only 30% of their total annual production). The United States consumed about 396 million tonnes of gasoline in 2007; therefore, the report suggests the amount of hydrogen from these sources could displace about 80% of this consumption.

  2. Accelerating Seed Germination and seedling development of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) through hydro-priming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dembele, S., Jr.

    2015-12-01

    Mali, a West Africa Sahelian country, is characterized by a strong dependence on rain-fed agriculture and a low adaptive capacity, making it one of the most vulnerable regions to climate change worldwide. Moreover, although with high uncertainties, most climate models used for the region recognize a growing uncertainty in the onset of the rainy season, which demands urgent adaptation measures. Early-season drought limits crops germination, and hence growth, and yield during rainfed depending production as is common now in Mali, West Africa. Crops germination and establishment could be improved by using seed priming, a process that dry seeds take up water to initiate the primary stages of germination, but the amount of water added is not enough for completing germination. The effects of hydro-priming (distilled, tap, rain, river and well water) were evaluated for three priming durations (4, 8 and 12 hour) in 2014 and 2015. Monitored were seed germination and seedling development of nine sorghum genotypes. Preliminary results showed that hydro-priming significantly improved germination rate, germination speed, number of seminal root, rate of survival and seedling vigour index, compared to non-primed seed treatments. However, seedling length, root length, shoot length and seedling dry weight did not differ significantly. Four out of the nine genotypes evaluated were attributed good seed quality and good response to hydro-priming. The priming with different sources of water resulted in higher seed germination (90%) and seedling development with well and river water, compared to the others. Seed germination rate, uniformity and speed were also enhanced by hydro-priming. It is argued that hydro-priming is a simple but effective method for improving seed germination and seedling development of sorghum. In addition hydro-priming is a safe, simple and inexpensive method to enhance germination. The most promising genotypes have consequently been included in consequent pot

  3. Mechanism of emergence of intense vibrations of turbines on the Sayano-Shushensk hydro power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurzin, V. B.; Seleznev, V. S.

    2010-07-01

    It is demonstrated that the level of vibrations of turbines on the Sayano-Shushensk hydro power plant is enhanced by the capability of a compressible fluid to perform its own hydroacoustic oscillations (which can be unstable) in the turbine duct. Based on the previously obtained results of solving the problem of natural hydroacoustic oscillations in the turbine duct and some ideas about turbine interaction with an unsteady compressible fluid flow, results of full-scale studies of turbine vibrations and seismic monitoring of the dam of the Sayano-Shushensk hydro power plant before and during the accident are analyzed.

  4. How Affiliation Disclosure and Control Over User-Generated Comments Affects Consumer Health Knowledge and Behavior: A Randomized Controlled Experiment of Pharmaceutical Direct-to-Consumer Advertising on Social Media

    PubMed Central

    Vendemia, Megan Ashley

    2016-01-01

    Background More people are seeking health information online than ever before and pharmaceutical companies are increasingly marketing their drugs through social media. Objective The aim was to examine two major concerns related to online direct-to-consumer pharmaceutical advertising: (1) how disclosing an affiliation with a pharmaceutical company affects how people respond to drug information produced by both health organizations and online commenters, and (2) how knowledge that health organizations control the display of user-generated comments affects consumer health knowledge and behavior. Methods We conducted a 2×2×2 between-subjects experiment (N=674). All participants viewed an infographic posted to Facebook by a health organization about a prescription allergy drug. Across conditions, the infographic varied in the degree to which the health organization and commenters appeared to be affiliated with a drug manufacturer, and the display of user-generated comments appeared to be controlled. Results Affiliation disclosure statements on a health organization’s Facebook post increased perceptions of an organization-drug manufacturer connection, which reduced trust in the organization (point estimate –0.45, 95% CI –0.69 to –0.24) and other users who posted comments about the drug (point estimate –0.44, 95% CI –0.68 to –0.22). Furthermore, increased perceptions of an organization-manufacturer connection reduced the likelihood that people would recommend the drug to important others (point estimate –0.35, 95% CI –0.59 to –0.15), and share the drug post with others on Facebook (point estimate –0.37, 95% CI –0.64 to –0.16). An affiliation cue next to the commenters' names increased perceptions that the commenters were affiliated with the drug manufacturer, which reduced trust in the comments (point estimate –0.81, 95% CI –1.04 to –0.59), the organization that made the post (point estimate –0.68, 95% CI –0.90 to –0.49), the

  5. Generalized DSS shell for developing simulation and optimization hydro-economic models of complex water resources systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulido-Velazquez, Manuel; Lopez-Nicolas, Antonio; Harou, Julien J.; Andreu, Joaquin

    2013-04-01

    Hydrologic-economic models allow integrated analysis of water supply, demand and infrastructure management at the river basin scale. These models simultaneously analyze engineering, hydrology and economic aspects of water resources management. Two new tools have been designed to develop models within this approach: a simulation tool (SIM_GAMS), for models in which water is allocated each month based on supply priorities to competing uses and system operating rules, and an optimization tool (OPT_GAMS), in which water resources are allocated optimally following economic criteria. The characterization of the water resource network system requires a connectivity matrix representing the topology of the elements, generated using HydroPlatform. HydroPlatform, an open-source software platform for network (node-link) models, allows to store, display and export all information needed to characterize the system. Two generic non-linear models have been programmed in GAMS to use the inputs from HydroPlatform in simulation and optimization models. The simulation model allocates water resources on a monthly basis, according to different targets (demands, storage, environmental flows, hydropower production, etc.), priorities and other system operating rules (such as reservoir operating rules). The optimization model's objective function is designed so that the system meets operational targets (ranked according to priorities) each month while following system operating rules. This function is analogous to the one used in the simulation module of the DSS AQUATOOL. Each element of the system has its own contribution to the objective function through unit cost coefficients that preserve the relative priority rank and the system operating rules. The model incorporates groundwater and stream-aquifer interaction (allowing conjunctive use simulation) with a wide range of modeling options, from lumped and analytical approaches to parameter-distributed models (eigenvalue approach). Such

  6. 75 FR 6583 - Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), α-hydro-ω-hydroxy-, polymer with 1, 1′-methylene-bis-[4...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-10

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), -hydro- -hydroxy-, polymer with 1, 1'-methylene-bis...-ethanediyl), -hydro- -hydroxy-, polymer with 1, 1'-methylene-bis-[4- isocyanatocyclohexane]; when used as an... permissible level for residues of poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), - hydro- -hydroxy-, polymer with 1,...

  7. 75 FR 27332 - AER NY-Gen, LLC; Eagle Creek Hydro Power, LLC; Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC; Eagle Creek Land...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-14

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission AER NY-Gen, LLC; Eagle Creek Hydro Power, LLC; Eagle Creek Water Resources... Creek Hydro Power, LLC, Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC, and Eagle Creek Land Resources, LLC.... For the transferee: Mr. Paul Ho, Eagle Creek Hydro Power, LLC, Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC,...

  8. HydroViz: A web-based hydrologic observatory for enhancing hydrology and earth-science education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habib, E. H.; Ma, Y.; Williams, D.

    2010-12-01

    The main goal of this study is to develop a virtual hydrologic observatory (HydroViz) that integrates hydrologic field observations with numerical simulations by taking advantage of advances in hydrologic field & remote sensing data, computer modeling, scientific visualization, and web resources and internet accessibility. The HydroViz system is a web-based teaching tool that can run on any web browsers. It leverages the strength of Google Earth to provide authentic and hands-on activities to improve learning. Evaluation of the HydroViz was performed in three engineering courses (a senior level course and two Introductory courses at two different universities). Evaluation results indicate that HydroViz provides an improvement over existing engineering hydrology curriculum. HydroViz was effective in facilitating students’ learning and understanding of hydrologic concepts & increasing related skills. HydroViz was much more effective for students in engineering hydrology classes rather than at the freshmen introduction to civil engineering class. We found that HydroViz has great potential for freshmen audience. Even though HydroViz was challenging to some freshmen, most of them still learned the key concepts and the tool increased the enthusiasm for half of the freshmen. The evaluation provided suggestions to create a simplified version of HydroViz for freshmen-level courses students. It identified concepts and tasks that might be too challenging or irrelevant to the freshmen and areas where we could provide more guidance in the tool. After the first round of evaluation, the development team has made significant improvements to HydroViz, which would further improve its effectiveness for next round of class applications which is planned for the Fall of 2010 to take place in 5 classes at 4 different institutions.

  9. 78 FR 62359 - Red River Hydro LLC; Notice of Availability of Final Environmental Assessment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Red River Hydro LLC; Notice of Availability of Final Environmental Assessment In accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 and the Federal Energy...

  10. 78 FR 36767 - Red River Hydro LLC; Notice of Availability of Draft Environmental Assessment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Red River Hydro LLC; Notice of Availability of Draft Environmental Assessment In accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 and the Federal Energy...

  11. Improved cyberinfrastructure for integrated hydrometeorological predictions within the fully-coupled WRF-Hydro modeling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    gochis, David; hooper, Rick; parodi, Antonio; Jha, Shantenu; Yu, Wei; Zaslavsky, Ilya; Ganapati, Dinesh

    2014-05-01

    The community WRF-Hydro system is currently being used in a variety of flood prediction and regional hydroclimate impacts assessment applications around the world. Despite its increasingly wide use certain cyberinfrastructure bottlenecks exist in the setup, execution and post-processing of WRF-Hydro model runs. These bottlenecks result in wasted time, labor, data transfer bandwidth and computational resource use. Appropriate development and use of cyberinfrastructure to setup and manage WRF-Hydro modeling applications will streamline the entire workflow of hydrologic model predictions. This talk will present recent advances in the development and use of new open-source cyberinfrastructure tools for the WRF-Hydro architecture. These tools include new web-accessible pre-processing applications, supercomputer job management applications and automated verification and visualization applications. The tools will be described successively and then demonstrated in a set of flash flood use cases for recent destructive flood events in the U.S. and in Europe. Throughout, an emphasis on the implementation and use of community data standards for data exchange is made.

  12. 78 FR 57796 - Safety Zone; Pro Hydro-X Tour, Atlantic Ocean, Islamorada, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-20

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Pro Hydro-X Tour, Atlantic Ocean... establishing a temporary safety zone on the waters of the Atlantic Ocean, Islamorada, Florida during the Pro... jet ski races. The event will be held on the waters of the Atlantic Ocean, Islamorada,...

  13. 77 FR 22568 - Madison Paper Industries, FPL Energy Maine Hydro, LLC, Merimil Limited Partnership; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-16

    ... Partnership; Notice of Authorization for Continued Project Operation On March 29, 2007, the Madison Paper Industries, FPL Energy Maine Hydro, LLC, and Merimil Limited Partnership, licensees for the Brassua... Partnership are authorized to continue operation of the Brassua Hydroelectric Project, until such time as...

  14. 76 FR 18212 - FPL Energy Maine Hydro LLC; Madison Paper Industries; Merimil Limited Partnership; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission FPL Energy Maine Hydro LLC; Madison Paper Industries; Merimil Limited... Environmental Policy Act of 1969 and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's regulations, 18 CFR Part...

  15. 77 FR 10490 - FPL Energy Maine Hydro, LLC; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission FPL Energy Maine Hydro, LLC; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment In accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, as amended, and Federal...

  16. A Student Activity for the James Bay Hydro Project. The Geography Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green-Milberg, Patricia

    1999-01-01

    Provides activities for grades 6 to 8 that will promote student awareness and understanding of the use of hydropower in Canada, the benefits and drawbacks to hydropower, and also the drawbacks of electricity transmission lines. Explains that the activities focus on the James Bay Hydro Project in Canada. (CMK)

  17. Numerical simulation of global hydro-dynamics in a pulsatile bioreactor for cardiovascular tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yubing

    2008-01-01

    Previous numerical simulations of the hydro-dynamic response in the various bioreactor designs were mostly concentrated on the local flow field analysis using computational fluid dynamics, which cannot provide the global hydro-dynamics information to assist the bioreactor design. In this research, a mathematical model is developed to simulate the global hydro-dynamic changes in a pulsatile bioreactor design by considering the flow resistance, the elasticity of the vessel and the inertial effect of the media fluid in different parts of the system. The developed model is used to study the system dynamic response in a typical pulsatile bioreactor design for the culturing of cardiovascular tissues. Simulation results reveal the detailed pressure and flow-rate changes in the different positions of the bioreactor, which are very useful for the evaluation of hydro-dynamic performance in the bioreactor designed. Typical pressure and flow-rate changes simulated agree well with the published experimental data, thus validates the mathematical model developed. The proposed mathematical model can be used for design optimization of other pulsatile bioreactors that work under different experimental conditions and have different system configurations.

  18. 77 FR 2968 - Pomperaug Hydro Project, Andrew Peklo III; Notice Establishing Deadline for Comments and Reply...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Pomperaug Hydro Project, Andrew Peklo III; Notice Establishing Deadline for Comments and Reply Comments On December 15, 2011, the Commission issued notice that Office of Energy Projects staff will hold a site visit...

  19. 77 FR 25715 - Mississippi 8 Hydro, LLC; FFP Project 98, LLC, ; Notice Announcing Filing Priority for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-01

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Mississippi 8 Hydro, LLC; FFP Project 98, LLC, ; Notice Announcing Filing Priority for Preliminary Permit Applications On April 23, 2012, the Commission held a drawing to determine priority between competing preliminary permit applications with identical filing times. In the event...

  20. 77 FR 41978 - Black Bear Hydro Partners, LLC, Maine; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Black Bear Hydro Partners, LLC, Maine; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment In accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 and the Federal...

  1. 78 FR 65305 - Coleman Hydro, LLC; Notice of Application Ready for Environmental Analysis and Soliciting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ... inspection. a. Type of Application: Minor Original License. b. Project No.: 13629-002. c. Date filed: April 22, 2011. d. Applicant: Coleman Hydro, LLC. e. Name of Project: Coleman Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: On Little Timber Creek near the Town of Leodore in Lemhi County, Idaho. The project would...

  2. 78 FR 37210 - Parker Knoll Hydro, LLC; Notice of Environmental Site Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-20

    ... public inspection: a. Type of Application: New Major License. b. Project No.: 13239. c. Date filed: November 30, 2011. d. Applicant: Parker Knoll Hydro, LLC. e. Name of Project: Parker Knoll Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project. ] f. Location: At Parker Mountain, near the Town of Richfield, Piute County, Utah....

  3. Representing Hydrologic Models as HydroShare Resources to Facilitate Model Sharing and Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castronova, A. M.; Goodall, J. L.; Mbewe, P.

    2013-12-01

    The CUAHSI HydroShare project is a collaborative effort that aims to provide software for sharing data and models within the hydrologic science community. One of the early focuses of this work has been establishing metadata standards for describing models and model-related data as HydroShare resources. By leveraging this metadata definition, a prototype extension has been developed to create model resources that can be shared within the community using the HydroShare system. The extension uses a general model metadata definition to create resource objects, and was designed so that model-specific parsing routines can extract and populate metadata fields from model input and output files. The long term goal is to establish a library of supported models where, for each model, the system has the ability to extract key metadata fields automatically, thereby establishing standardized model metadata that will serve as the foundation for model sharing and collaboration within HydroShare. The Soil Water & Assessment Tool (SWAT) is used to demonstrate this concept through a case study application.

  4. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT: STORMWATER SOURCE AREA TREATMENT DEVICE: HYDRO INTERNATIONAL DOWNSTREAM DEFENDER®

    EPA Science Inventory

    Verification testing of the Hydro International Downstream Defender® was conducted at the Madison Water Utility in Madison, Wisconsin. The system was designed for a drainage basin estimated at 1.9 acres in size, but during intense storm events, the system received water from an a...

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT: IN-DRAIN TREATMENT DEVICE. HYDRO INTERNATIONAL UP-FLO™ FILTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Verification testing of the Hydro International Up-Flo™ Filter with one filter module and CPZ Mix™ filter media was conducted at the Penn State Harrisburg Environmental Engineering Laboratory in Middletown, Pennsylvania. The Up-Flo™ Filter is designed as a passive, modular filtr...

  6. 78 FR 66785 - Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., and Korea Electric Power Corporation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-06

    ... APR1400 Standard Plant Design submitted by Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd. (KHNP) and Korea... application for standard design certification of the APR1400 Standard Plant Design. The APR1400 stands for... advanced design features to enhance plant safety, economical efficiency, and convenience of operation...

  7. 78 FR 16849 - Fall Creek Hydro, LLC, Oregon; Notice of Availability of Draft Environmental Assessment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-19

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Fall Creek Hydro, LLC, Oregon; Notice of Availability of Draft Environmental... construct the Fall Creek Dam Hydroelectric Project and has prepared a draft environmental assessment (EA). The proposed 10-megawatt project would be located on Fall Creek in Lane County, Oregon, near the...

  8. 81 FR 44604 - Owyhee Hydro LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2016-07-08

    ...: 2016-16166] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 14786-000] Owyhee... To Intervene, and Competing Applications On June 30, 2016, Owyhee Hydro LLC filed a revised... study the feasibility of the Owyhee Pumped Storage Project (Owyhee Project or project) to be located...

  9. Policies to Promote Non-Hydro Renewable Energy in the United States and Selected Countries

    EIA Publications

    2005-01-01

    This article examines policies designed to encourage the development of non-hydro renewable energy in four countries - Germany, Denmark, the Netherlands, and Japan - and compares the policies enacted in each of these countries to policies that were used in the United States between 1970 and 2003.

  10. 78 FR 11170 - North Country Community College Foundation, Inc., Chasm Hydro, Inc.; Notice of Application for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission North Country Community College Foundation, Inc., Chasm Hydro, Inc.; Notice of Application for Transfer of License, and Soliciting Comments and Motions To Intervene On January 31, 2013, North Country Community...

  11. 78 FR 1853 - EH California Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-09

    ... (FPA), proposing to study the feasibility of the Lake Clementine Hydro Project to be located at the U.S, Corps of Engineer's North Fork dam on the North Fork of the American River, near the City of Auburn... waters owned by others without the owners' express permission. To harness the water that now flows...

  12. THE ONTARIO HYDRO METHOD FOR SPECIATED MERCURY MEASUREMENTS: ISSUES AND CONSIDERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Ontario Hydro (OH) method has been developed for the measurement of total and speciated mercury emissions from coal-fired combustion sources. The OH method was initially developed to support EPA's information collection request to characterize and inventory mercury emissions ...

  13. Anticonvulsant and neuroprotective effects of Rosa damascena hydro-alcoholic extract on rat hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Homayoun, Mansour; Seghatoleslam, Masoumeh; Pourzaki, Mojtaba; Shafieian, Reihaneh; Hosseini, Mahmoud; Ebrahimzadeh Bideskan, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Previously, analgesic, hypnotic, and anticonvulsant effects have been suggested for Rosa damascena (R. damascena). In the present study, possible anti-seizure and neuro-protective effects of hydro-alcoholic extract of R. damascena has been investigated after inducing seizures in rats by pentylenetetrazole (PTZ). Materials and Methods: The rats were divided to five groups: (1) Control: received saline, (2) PTZ: 100 mg/kg, i.p., (3) PTZ- Extract 50 mg/kg (PTZ-Ext 50), (4) PTZ- Extract 100 mg/kg (PTZ-Ext 100), and (5) PTZ- Extract 200 mg/kg (PTZ-Ext 200) groups which were treated with 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg respectively of hydro-alcoholic extract of R. damascena for one week before PTZ injection. The animals were examined for electrocorticography (ECoG) recording and finally, the brains were removed for histological study. Results: The hydro-alcoholic extract of R. damascena significantly prolonged the latency of seizure attacks and reduced the frequency and amplitude of epileptiform burst discharges induced by PTZ injection. Moreover, all three doses of the extract significantly inhibited production of dark neurons in different regions of the hippocampus in the mentioned animal model. Conclusion: The present study showed that the hydro-alcoholic extract of R. damascena has anticonvulsant and neuroprotective effects. More investigations are needed to be done in order to better understand the responsible compound(s) as well as the possible mechanism(s). PMID:26101759

  14. Hydro, wind and solar power as a base for a 100% renewable energy supply for South and Central America.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Larissa de Souza Noel Simas; Bogdanov, Dmitrii; Vainikka, Pasi; Breyer, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Power systems for South and Central America based on 100% renewable energy (RE) in the year 2030 were calculated for the first time using an hourly resolved energy model. The region was subdivided into 15 sub-regions. Four different scenarios were considered: three according to different high voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission grid development levels (region, country, area-wide) and one integrated scenario that considers water desalination and industrial gas demand supplied by synthetic natural gas via power-to-gas (PtG). RE is not only able to cover 1813 TWh of estimated electricity demand of the area in 2030 but also able to generate the electricity needed to fulfil 3.9 billion m3 of water desalination and 640 TWhLHV of synthetic natural gas demand. Existing hydro dams can be used as virtual batteries for solar and wind electricity storage, diminishing the role of storage technologies. The results for total levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) are decreased from 62 €/MWh for a highly decentralized to 56 €/MWh for a highly centralized grid scenario (currency value of the year 2015). For the integrated scenario, the levelized cost of gas (LCOG) and the levelized cost of water (LCOW) are 95 €/MWhLHV and 0.91 €/m3, respectively. A reduction of 8% in total cost and 5% in electricity generation was achieved when integrating desalination and power-to-gas into the system.

  15. Hydro, wind and solar power as a base for a 100% renewable energy supply for South and Central America

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, Larissa de Souza Noel Simas; Bogdanov, Dmitrii; Vainikka, Pasi; Breyer, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Power systems for South and Central America based on 100% renewable energy (RE) in the year 2030 were calculated for the first time using an hourly resolved energy model. The region was subdivided into 15 sub-regions. Four different scenarios were considered: three according to different high voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission grid development levels (region, country, area-wide) and one integrated scenario that considers water desalination and industrial gas demand supplied by synthetic natural gas via power-to-gas (PtG). RE is not only able to cover 1813 TWh of estimated electricity demand of the area in 2030 but also able to generate the electricity needed to fulfil 3.9 billion m3 of water desalination and 640 TWhLHV of synthetic natural gas demand. Existing hydro dams can be used as virtual batteries for solar and wind electricity storage, diminishing the role of storage technologies. The results for total levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) are decreased from 62 €/MWh for a highly decentralized to 56 €/MWh for a highly centralized grid scenario (currency value of the year 2015). For the integrated scenario, the levelized cost of gas (LCOG) and the levelized cost of water (LCOW) are 95 €/MWhLHV and 0.91 €/m3, respectively. A reduction of 8% in total cost and 5% in electricity generation was achieved when integrating desalination and power-to-gas into the system. PMID:28329023

  16. hydroPSO: A Versatile Particle Swarm Optimisation R Package for Calibration of Environmental Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zambrano-Bigiarini, M.; Rojas, R.

    2012-04-01

    Particle Swarm Optimisation (PSO) is a recent and powerful population-based stochastic optimisation technique inspired by social behaviour of bird flocking, which shares similarities with other evolutionary techniques such as Genetic Algorithms (GA). In PSO, however, each individual of the population, known as particle in PSO terminology, adjusts its flying trajectory on the multi-dimensional search-space according to its own experience (best-known personal position) and the one of its neighbours in the swarm (best-known local position). PSO has recently received a surge of attention given its flexibility, ease of programming, low memory and CPU requirements, and efficiency. Despite these advantages, PSO may still get trapped into sub-optimal solutions, suffer from swarm explosion or premature convergence. Thus, the development of enhancements to the "canonical" PSO is an active area of research. To date, several modifications to the canonical PSO have been proposed in the literature, resulting into a large and dispersed collection of codes and algorithms which might well be used for similar if not identical purposes. In this work we present hydroPSO, a platform-independent R package implementing several enhancements to the canonical PSO that we consider of utmost importance to bring this technique to the attention of a broader community of scientists and practitioners. hydroPSO is model-independent, allowing the user to interface any model code with the calibration engine without having to invest considerable effort in customizing PSO to a new calibration problem. Some of the controlling options to fine-tune hydroPSO are: four alternative topologies, several types of inertia weight, time-variant acceleration coefficients, time-variant maximum velocity, regrouping of particles when premature convergence is detected, different types of boundary conditions and many others. Additionally, hydroPSO implements recent PSO variants such as: Improved Particle Swarm

  17. Tsuwalhkalh Ti Tmicwa (The Land is Ours): Stat'imc Self-Determination in the Face of Large-Scale Hydro-electric Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moritz, Sarah Carmen

    In Canada, First Nations asserting authority over their lands are developing diverse strategies to overcome the state''s dogmatic insistence on jurisdictional sovereignty. This movement corresponds to the wider context of the challenges faced by indigenous people to use their own ways of knowing to resist or reformulate legal doctrines and political tenets based on colonial power. Interior Salish Stat'imc people identify themselves through a strong and ongoing social relationship with Sataqwa7, the Fraser River, and the "Valley of Plenty"---now known as the flooded Bridge River Valley---maintained through Stat'imc knowledge and cultural practice and demonstrated by talk of '"the Stat'imc right to fish" and Tsuwalhkalh Ti Tmicwa (The Land is Ours). Stat'imc fishers are prepared to contest and resist any regulatory system that is understood to impact this right to fish while they advocate their own ways of sustainable fishing and water management. Based on ethnographic research in collaboration with Stat'imc people, this thesis explores some of these often successful contestations especially in the context of increasing territorial governance and by example of the rapidly transforming relationship between Stat'imc, BC Hydro and the Province of BC. Interior Salish Stat'imc people are currently navigating through a significant phase of increasing jurisdiction and authority and recognition of (unsettled) territorial property relationships. This very dynamic process is marked by strategic collaborations, compensation for 'infringements' on St'a'imc Title and Rights, and conservation efforts to protect their home. An important example is the changing relationship between Stat'imc people and BC Hydro---a relationship between two groups with radically different cultures and agendas: Stat'imc people in a struggle for self-determination, social justice and cultural survival and BC Hydro, a corporate culture, with the agenda to provide hydro-electric power to BC, maintain

  18. Suggested performance specifications of standard modular controls for the automation of small hydro electric facilities. [Plant capacities from 50 kW to 15 MW

    SciTech Connect

    Beckwith, R.W.

    1980-06-01

    These specifications are made available by the Department of Energy for the voluntary use by any person, corporation or governmental body in the writing of purchase specifications for the automatic control of small hydro generating stations, i.e., hydro plants ranging in size from 50 kW to 15 MW. It is believed that the use of these specifications will permit competition among capable vendors and, at the same time, assure proper and reliable operation of both the automation hardware and software purchased. The specifications are detailed to a degree which should assure the interchangeability of hardware and software from various suppliers. This also increases the likelihood that spare parts and service will be available for many years. The specifications are written in modules, each of which can be included or excluded for ease of editing to match a particular application. Brief but detailed instructions are included for such editing. An extensive appendix gives the alternatives which were considered and reasons for the various choices specified.

  19. Textile plant spends $2. 5M for hydro

    SciTech Connect

    Grant, L.

    1982-03-15

    A new $2.5 million turbine and a rebuilt 1906 hydroelectric power house could save a South Carolina textile plant $360,000 a year in avoided electricity costs. An existing 3000-kilowatt turbine combined with the new generator will produce over 30% of the plant's electric power. Payback calculations have been lowered from the original 9.9-year estimate because electricity prices are expected to rise about 22% a year. The double-regulated Kaplan-type hydroturbine's adjustable blades and wicket gate maximize available water flow from the Saluda River. It replaces two fixed-blade turbines dating from the first of the century. The power generated will supply lighting and processing needs, with excess generation sold to Duke Power Co. when the plant is not operating. A $2 million federal loan from the US Department of Housing and Urban Development will finance the project. (DCK)

  20. Microfabrication and Test of a Three-Dimensional Polymer Hydro-focusing Unit for Flow Cytometry Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Ren; Feeback, Daniel L.; Wang, Wan-Jun

    2005-01-01

    This paper details a novel three-dimensional (3D) hydro-focusing micro cell sorter for micro flow cytometry applications. The unit was microfabricated by means of SU-8 3D lithography. The 3D microstructure for coaxial sheathing was designed, microfabricated, and tested. Three-dimensional hydrofocusing capability was demonstrated with an experiment to sort labeled tanned sheep erythrocytes (red blood cells). This polymer hydro-focusing microstructure is easily microfabricated and integrated with other polymer microfluidic structures. Keywords: SU-8, three-dimensional hydro-focusing, microfluidic, microchannel, cytometer

  1. Incomplete water securitization in coupled hydro-human production sytems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Boom, B.; Pande, S.

    2012-04-01

    Due to the dynamics, the externalities and the contingencies involved in managing local water resource for production, the water allocation at basin-level is a subtle balance between laws of nature (gravity; flux) and laws of economics (price; productivity). We study this balance by looking at inter-temporal basin-level water resource allocations in which subbasins enjoy a certain degree of autonomy. Each subbasin is represented as an economic agent i, following a gravity ordering with i=1 representing the most upstream area and i=I the downstream boundary. The water allocation is modeled as a decentralized equilibrium in a coupled conceptual hydro-human production system. Agents i=1,2,...,I in the basin produce a composite good according to a technology that requires water as a main input and that is specific to the subbasin. Agent i manages her use Xi and her storage Si, conceptualizing surface and subsurface water, of water with the purpose of maximizing the utility derived from consumption Ci of the composite good, where Ci is a scalar and Xi and Si are vectors which are composed of one element for each time period and for each contingency. A natural way to consume the good would be to absorb the own production. Yet, the agent may have two more option, namely, she might get a social transfer from other agents or she could use an income from trading water securities with her contiguous neighbors. To study these options, we compare water allocations (Ci, Xi, Si) all i=1,2,...,I for three different settings. We look at allocations without water securitization (water autarky equilibrium EA) first. Next, we describe the imaginary case of full securitization (contingent water markets equilibrium ECM) and, in between, we study limited securitization (incomplete water security equilibrium EWS). We show that allocations under contingent water markets ECM are efficient in the sense that, for the prevailing production technologies, no other allocation exists that is at

  2. The Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed: A Hydro-Geo-Climatic Observatory for the 21^{st} Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marks, D.; Seyfried, M.; Flerchinger, G.

    2006-12-01

    Long-term hydro-climatic data on a watershed scale are critical to improving our understanding of basic hydrologic and ecologic processes because they provide a context to assess inter-annual variability and allow us to document longer-term trends. In addition, a scientific infrastructure that captures the spatial variations within a watershed are required to identify recharge areas, describe the amount and timing of streamflow generation and understand the variability of vegetation. These basic data, combined with soil microclimate information, are required to describe the milieu for geochemical weathering and soil formation. Data from watersheds that include significant human activities, such as grazing, farming, irrigation, and urbanization, represent conditions typical to most watersheds and are critical for determining the signature of human induced changes on hydrologic processes and the water cycle. The Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed (RCEW), a 239 km2 drainage in the Owyhee Mountains near Boise, Idaho, was added to the USDA Agricultural Research Service watershed program in 1960. The vision for RCEW as an outdoor laboratory to support watershed research was described 1965 in the first volume of Water Resources Research [Robins et al., 1965]. The RCEW has supported a sustained data collection network for over 45 years. The first 35 years of data were presented in a series of papers in 2001 [Marks, 2001]. More recently, there has been an effort to better describe spatial variations within the watershed, and research is currently supported by 9 weirs, 32 primary and 5 secondary meteorological measurement stations, 26 precipitation stations, 8 snow course and 5 snow study sites, and 5 eddy covariance systems. In addition, soil microclimate (moisture and temperature) profile data are collected eight sites with surface data collected at an additional 19 sites. These support a wide range of experimental investigations including snow hydrology and physics

  3. Tidally driven water column hydro-geochemistry in a remediating acidic wetland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Scott G.; Keene, Annabelle F.; Bush, Richard T.; Sullivan, Leigh A.; Wong, Vanessa N. L.

    2011-10-01

    SummaryManaged tidal inundation is a newly evolved technique for remediating coastal acid sulphate soil (CASS) wetlands. However, there remains considerable uncertainty regarding the hydro-geochemical pathways and spatiotemporal dynamics of residual H + and metal(loid) mobilisation into the tidal fringe surface waters of these uniquely iron-rich landscapes. Here, we examine the hydrology and water column chemistry across the intertidal slope of a remediating CASS wetland during several tide cycles. There was extreme spatial and temporal dynamism in water column chemistry, with pH fluctuating by ˜3 units (˜3.5-6.5) during a single tide cycle. Acute acidity was spatially confined to the upper intertidal slope, reflecting surface sediment properties, and tidal overtopping is an important pathway for mobilisation of residual H + and Al 3+ to the water column. Marine derived HCO3- was depleted from surface waters migrating across the intertidal slope and a strong gradient in HCO3- was observed from the tidal fringe to the adjacent tributary channel and nearby estuary. Tidal forcing generated oscillating hydraulic gradients in the shallow fringing aquifer, favouring ebb-tide seepage and driving rapid, heterogeneous advection of groundwater on the lower intertidal slope via surface connected macropores. A combination of diffusive and advective flux across the sediment-water interface led to persistent, elevated surface water Fe 2+ (˜10-1000 μM). The geochemical processes associated with Fe 2+ mobilisation displayed distinct spatial zonation, with low pH, proton-promoted desorption occurring on the upper intertidal slope, whilst circum-neutral pH, Fe(III)-reducing processes dominated the lower intertidal slope. Arsenic was also mobilised into surface waters on the lower intertidal slope under moderate pH (˜6.0) conditions and was strongly positively correlated with Fe 2+. Saturation index values for aragonite were substantially depressed (-1 to -5) and significantly

  4. Quantitative precipitation and streamflow forecast for two recent extreme hydro-meteorological events in Southern Italy with a fully-coupled model system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendicino, Giuseppe; Senatore, Alfonso

    2016-04-01

    Two severe hydro-meteorological events affected Calabria Region (Southern Italy) in the second half of the year 2015. The first event, on August 12th, focused on a relatively small area near the northern Ionian coast, resulted in a rainfall intensity of about 230 mm in 24 hours involving flash flooding with several million Euros of damages. The second event mainly affected the southern Ionian coast, was more persistent (it lasted from October 30th to November 2nd), interested a wider area and led to recorded rainfall values up to 400 mm in 24 hours and 700 mm in 48 hours, resulting in severe flooding, landslides and a human loss. The fully two-way dynamically coupled atmosphere-hydrology modeling system WRF-Hydro is used to reproduce both the events, in order to assess its skill in forecasting both quantitative precipitation and streamflow with initial and lateral atmospheric boundary conditions given by the recently available 0.25° output resolution GFS grid dataset. Precipitation estimates provided by 2 km-resolution atmospheric model are compared with both ground-based data and observations from a National Civil Protection Department single-polarization Doppler radar. Discharge data from the rivers and creeks affected by heavy precipitation are not available, then streamflow results are compared with either official discharge estimates provided by authorities (first event) or recorded river stages (second event). Results show good performances of the fully-coupled hydrometeorological prediction system which allows an improved representation of the coupled atmospheric and terrestrial processes and provides an integrated solution for the regional water cycle modeling, from atmospheric processes to river outlets.

  5. Hydro-economic evaluation of rainwater harvesting and management technologies: Farmers’ investment options and risks in semi-arid Laikipia district of Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngigi, Stephen N.; Savenije, Hubert H. G.; Rockström, Johan; Gachene, Charles K.

    Smallholder farmers in Laikipia district of Kenya, like their counterparts in water scarce semi-arid environments, are facing the challenge of improving agricultural productivity and livelihoods. A number of viable options are available, but high hydrological risks and low economic capability are discouraging the poor and risk-averse farmers. Rainwater harvesting and management (RHM) is one of the promising options, whose impacts are unfortunately also affected by hydrological risks related to unreliable rainfall. The paper presents a hydro-economic analysis of RHM systems with the aim of analyzing some of the factors that affect their adoption by smallholder farmers. Hydro-economic analysis included hydrological reliability of RHM systems, agro-hydrological risks and economic analysis. Agro-hydrological risk focused on dry spell and drought analysis, which affect soil moisture availability and hence crop production. Hydrological reliability assessed the ability of a RHM system to harvest and store adequate runoff to meet supplemental irrigation requirement to bridge dry spells and mitigate the impacts of persistent droughts. Economic analysis addressed benefit-cost analysis and profitability of RHM in terms of increasing crop production and stabilizing yields. The study was conducted in Kalalu and Matanya, which are in two different agro-climatic zones and represent land-use changes in the recently settled areas of Laikipia district. The results provide a basis for farmers to make informed decisions on agricultural investments under hydrologic risks and uncertain production systems. RHM systems for supplemental irrigation were found to be an economically viable option for improving agricultural production and livelihoods of smallholder farmers in drought prone rural areas.

  6. Developing an effective diving program for a hydro maintenance project

    SciTech Connect

    Stasch, E.

    1997-08-01

    A trash problem at the Fort Randall hydropower project threatened to affect operations and cause potential machinery damage. When traditional approaches to clean away the trash were judged unfeasible, US Army Corps of Engineers managers developed a combined mechanical cleanup and underwater diving program. A contractor successfully removed 500 tons of debris at a cost of about $302,000. The dive plan and problems experienced during the project are detailed in the article.

  7. 77 FR 12280 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXVIII; FFP Project 59, LLC; Notice Announcing Filing Priority for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-29

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXVIII; FFP Project 59, LLC; Notice Announcing Filing Priority for Preliminary Permit Applications On February 22, 2012, the Commission held a drawing to ] determine priority among competing preliminary permit applications with identical filing...

  8. 77 FR 13318 - SV Hydro, LLC, Coffeeville, LLC, FFP Project 99, LLC; Notice Announcing Filing Priority for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-06

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission SV Hydro, LLC, Coffeeville, LLC, FFP Project 99, LLC; Notice Announcing Filing Priority for Preliminary Permit Applications On February 28, 2012, the Commission held a drawing to determine priority between three competing preliminary permit applications with identical...

  9. 77 FR 67352 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLII, LLC; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-09

    ... Friends Fund XLII, LLC, c/o Hydro Green Energy, LLC, 900 Oakmont Lane, Suite 310, Westmont, IL 60559; (877... notice. A notice of intent must specify the exact name, business address, and telephone number of...

  10. 77 FR 16023 - 5440 Hydro, Inc.: Notice of Intent To File License Application, Filing of Pre-Application...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-19

    ... approved 5440 Hydro, Inc.'s request to use the Traditional Licensing Process. k. With this notice, we are...; (b) NOAA Fisheries under section 305(b) of the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and...

  11. 76 FR 27310 - Janet A. Boyd, Boyd Hydro, LLC; Notice of Application for Transfer of License, and Soliciting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-11

    ... Transferee: Ted S. Sorenson, Manager, Boyd Hydro, LLC, 5203 South 11th East, Idaho Falls, Idaho 83404, (208... motions to intervene may be filed electronically via the Internet. See 18 CFR 385.2001(a)(1) and...

  12. 76 FR 1416 - HDI Associates V; Sprague Hydro LLC; Notice of Application for Transfer of License, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-10

    ...: Ted S. Sorenson, Sprague Hydro LLC, 5203 South 11th East, Idaho Falls, Idaho 83404, (208) 522-8069... intervene may be filed electronically via the Internet. See 18 CFR 385.2001(a)(1) and the instructions...

  13. 76 FR 48842 - Oliver Hydro LLC; Notice of Intent To File License Application, Filing of Pre-Application...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-09

    ... Hydro LLC. e. Name of Project: William Bacon Oliver Lock and Dam Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: At the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' (Corps) William Bacon Oliver Lock and Dam on the Black Warrior...

  14. 75 FR 6018 - Boyce Hydro Power, LLC; Notice of Application for Amendment of License and Soliciting Comments...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ..., and supplemented on November 4, 2009. d. Applicant: Boyce Hydro Power, LLC (BHP). e. Name of Project... will take to construct the footings and first lift of the retaining walls. BHP states that shutting...

  15. 78 FR 56263 - HydroGen Corp., QueryObject Systems Corp., Security Intelligence Technologies, Inc., Skins, Inc...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION HydroGen Corp., QueryObject Systems Corp., Security Intelligence Technologies, Inc., Skins, Inc... and accurate information concerning the securities of Security Intelligence Technologies, Inc....

  16. Zambia : long-term generation expansion study - executive summary.

    SciTech Connect

    Conzelmann, G.; Koritarov, V.; Buehring, W.; Veselka, T.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2008-02-28

    The objective of this study is to analyze possible long-term development options of the Zambian electric power system in the period up to 2015. The analysis involved the hydro operations studies of the Zambezi river basin and the systems planning studies for the least-cost generation expansion planning. Two well-known and widely accepted computer models were used in the analysis: PC-VALORAGUA model for the hydro operations and optimization studies and the WASP-III Plus model for the optimization of long-term system development. The WASP-III Plus model is a part of the Argonne National Laboratory's Energy and Power Evaluation Model (ENPEP). The analysis was conducted in close collaboration with the Zambia Electricity Supply Corporation (ZESCO). On the initiative from The World Bank, the sponsor of the study, ZESCO formed a team of experts that participated in the analysis and were trained in the use of computer models. Both models were transferred to ZESCO free of charge and installed on several computers in the ZESCO corporate offices in Lusaka. In September-October 1995, two members of the ZESCO National Team participated in a 4-week training course at Argonne National Laboratory near Chicago, U.S.A., focusing on the long-term system expansion planning using the WASP and VALORAGUA models. The hydropower operations studies were performed for the whole Zambezi river basin, including the full installation of the Kariba power station, and the Cahora Bassa hydro power station in Mozambique. The analysis also included possible future projects such as Itezhi-Tezhi, Kafue Gorge Lower, and Batoka Gorge power stations. As hydropower operations studies served to determine the operational characteristics of the existing and future hydro power plants, it was necessary to simulate the whole Zambezi river basin in order to take into account all interactions and mutual influences between the hydro power plants. In addition, it allowed for the optimization of reservoir management

  17. The energy cost of level walking before and after hydro-kinesi therapy in patients with spastic paresis.

    PubMed

    Zamparo, P; Pagliaro, P

    1998-08-01

    In this study the energy cost of level walking was measured in 23 patients with stationary spastic paresis before and after a two-week treatment (45 min daily) of hydro-kinesi therapy, the latter consisting of passive and active movements in warm (32 degrees C) sea water, free swimming and water immersion walking. Among the subjects (80.2 +/- 13.2 kg body mass; 56.0 +/- 14.6 years of age; 10.7 +/- 6.6 years of duration of spasticity), 12 were affected by hemiparesis, 4 by multiple sclerosis and 7 by spinal cord injury. The energy cost of level walking (Cw) was measured before and after therapy from the ratio of the overall steady-state oxygen consumption to the effective speed of progression. The differences in Cw due to the treatment, at matched speeds, were found to be negligible at speeds higher than 0.75 m.s-1 (less than 5%) but to increase, with decreasing speed, up to about 17% at 0.1 m.s-1. The treatment was therefore effective in improving the gait characteristics of the subjects, through a decrease of their Cw, mainly at low speeds of progression.

  18. Study of thermo-hydro-mechanical processes at a potential site of an Indian nuclear waste repository

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maheshwar, Sachin; Verma, A. K.; Singh, T. N.; Bajpai, R. K.

    2015-12-01

    A detailed scientific study is required for the disposal of high-level radioactive wastes because they generate extremely high heat during their half-life period. Although, several methods have been proposed for the disposal of nuclear wastes, deep underground repository is considered to be a suitable option. In this paper, field investigation has been done near to Bhima basin of peninsular India. Detailed fracture analysis near the borehole shows very prominent maxima of fractures striking N55∘E coinciding with the trace of master basement cover metasediment fault. Physico-mechanical properties of rocks have been determined in the laboratory. The host rock chosen is granite and engineered barrier near the canister is proposed to be clay. A thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) analysis has been done to study the effect of heat on deformations, stresses and pore-pressure variation in granite and clay barriers. For this purpose, finite difference method has been used. Suitable rheological models have been used to model elastic canister and elasto-plastic engineered barrier and host rock. It has been found that both temperature and stresses at any point in the rockmass is below the design criteria which are 100∘C for temperature and 0.2 for damage number.

  19. Study of the velocity distribution influence upon the pressure pulsations in draft tube model of hydro-turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonin, V.; Ustimenko, A.; Kuibin, P.; Litvinov, I.; Shtork, S.

    2016-11-01

    One of the mechanisms of generation of powerful pressure pulsations in the circuit of the turbine is a precessing vortex core, formed behind the runner at the operation points with partial or forced loads, when the flow has significant residual swirl. To study periodic pressure pulsations behind the runner the authors of this paper use approaches of experimental modeling and methods of computational fluid dynamics. The influence of velocity distributions at the output of the hydro turbine runner on pressure pulsations was studied based on analysis of the existing and possible velocity distributions in hydraulic turbines and selection of the distribution in the extended range. Preliminary numerical calculations have showed that the velocity distribution can be modeled without reproduction of the entire geometry of the circuit, using a combination of two blade cascades of the rotor and stator. Experimental verification of numerical results was carried out in an air bench, using the method of 3D-printing for fabrication of the blade cascades and the geometry of the draft tube of hydraulic turbine. Measurements of the velocity field at the input to a draft tube cone and registration of pressure pulsations due to precessing vortex core have allowed building correlations between the velocity distribution character and the amplitude-frequency characteristics of the pulsations.

  20. Crystal structures of three 1-oxo-1,2-di­hydro­naphthalene derivatives: dimethyl 4-(4-meth­oxy­phen­yl)-2-(4-methyl­phen­yl)-1-oxo-1,2-di­hydro­naphthalene-2,3-di­carboxyl­ate, dimethyl 1-oxo-2-(pyren-4-yl)-4-(thio­phen-2-yl)-1,2-di­hydro­naphthalene-2,3-di­carboxyl­ate and ethyl 1-oxo-2-phenyl-2,4-bis­(thio­phen-2-yl)-1,2-di­hydro­naphthalene-3-carboxyl­ate

    PubMed Central

    Gopinath, S.; Narayanan, P.; Sethusankar, K.; Karunakaran, Jeyachandran; Nandakumar, Meganathan; Mohanakrishnan, Arasambattu K.

    2017-01-01

    In the title 1-oxo-1,2-di­hydro­naphthalene derivatives, C28H24O6, (I), C34H22O5S, (II), and C27H20O3S2, (III), the cyclo­hexa-1,3-diene rings of the 1,2-di­hydro­naphthalene ring systems adopt half-chair, boat and half-chair conformations, respectively. The carbonyl O atoms attached to the di­hydro­naphthalene ring systems are each significantly deviated from the mean plane of the 1,2-di­hydro­naphthalene ring system, by 0.6162 (12) Å in (I), 0.6016 (16) Å in (II) and 0.515 (3) Å in (III). The mean planes of the 1,2-di­hydro­naphthalene ring systems make dihedral angles of 85.83 (3), 88.19 (3) and 81.67 (8)°, respectively, with the methyl­phenyl ring in (I), the pyrene ring in (II) and the phenyl ring in (III). In (I), the mol­ecular structure is stabilized by an intra­molecular C—H⋯O hydrogen bond, generating an S(6) ring motif. In the crystal of (I), mol­ecules are linked by an inter­molecular C—H⋯O hydrogen bond, which generates a C(8) zigzag chain running along [100]. Adjacent chains are further connected by C—H⋯π and offset π–π inter­actions [centroid–centroid distance = 3.6572 (9) Å], forming a double-chain structure. In the crystals of (II) and (III), mol­ecules are linked into chain structures by offset π–π inter­actions with centroid–centroid distances of 3.5349 (12) and 3.8845 (13) Å for (II) and 3.588 (2) Å for (III). In (II) and (III), the thio­phene rings are orientationally disordered over two sites, with occupancy ratios of 0.69:0.31 for (II), and 0.528 (4):0.472 (4) and 0.632 (5):0.368 (5) for (III). PMID:28217337