Science.gov

Sample records for affected hydro generation

  1. Brigham City Hydro Generation Project

    SciTech Connect

    Ammons, Tom B.

    2015-10-31

    Brigham City owns and operates its own municipal power system which currently includes several hydroelectric facilities. This project was to update the efficiency and capacity of current hydro production due to increased water flow demands that could pass through existing generation facilities. During 2006-2012, this project completed efficiency evaluation as it related to its main objective by completing a feasibility study, undergoing necessary City Council approvals and required federal environmental reviews. As a result of Phase 1 of the project, a feasibility study was conducted to determine feasibility of hydro and solar portions of the original proposal. The results indicated that the existing Hydro plant which was constructed in the 1960’s was running at approximately 77% efficiency or less. Brigham City proposes that the efficiency calculations be refined to determine the economic feasibility of improving or replacing the existing equipment with new high efficiency equipment design specifically for the site. Brigham City completed the Feasibility Assessment of this project, and determined that the Upper Hydro that supplies the main culinary water to the city was feasible to continue with. Brigham City Council provided their approval of feasibility assessment’s results. The Upper Hydro Project include removal of the existing powerhouse equipment and controls and demolition of a section of concrete encased penstock, replacement of penstock just upstream of the turbine inlet, turbine bypass, turbine shut-off and bypass valves, turbine and generator package, control equipment, assembly, start-up, commissioning, Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA), and the replacement of a section of conductors to the step-up transformer. Brigham City increased the existing 575 KW turbine and generator with an 825 KW turbine and generator. Following the results of the feasibility assessment Brigham City pursued required environmental reviews with the DOE and

  2. 77 FR 56637 - FirstLight Hydro Generating Company; Notice of Authorization for Continued Project Operation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-13

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission FirstLight Hydro Generating Company; Notice of Authorization for Continued Project Operation On August 30, 2007, the FirstLight Hydro Generating Company, licensee for the Scotland... annual license for Project No. 2662 ] is issued to the FirstLight Hydro Generating Company for a...

  3. Modeling strategic competition in hydro-thermal electricity generation markets with cascaded reservoir-hydroelectric generation plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uluca, Basak

    This dissertation aims to achieve two goals. The first is to model the strategic interactions of firms that own cascaded reservoir-hydro plants in oligopolistic and mixed oligopolistic hydrothermal electricity generation markets. Although competition in thermal generation has been extensively modeled since the beginning of deregulation, the literature on competition in hydro generation is still limited; in particular, equilibrium models of oligopoly that study the competitive behavior of firms that own reservoir-hydro plants along the same river in hydrothermal electricity generation markets are still under development. In competitive markets, when the reservoirs are located along the same river, the water released from an upstream reservoir for electricity generation becomes input to the immediate downstream reservoir, which may be owned by a competitor, for current or future use. To capture the strategic interactions among firms with cascaded reservoir-hydro plants, the Upstream-Conjecture approach is proposed. Under the Upstream-Conjecture approach, a firm with an upstream reservoir-hydro plant assumes that firms with downstream reservoir-hydro plants will respond to changes in the upstream firm's water release by adjusting their water release by the same amount. The results of the Upstream Conjecture experiments indicate that firms that own upstream reservoirs in a cascade may have incentive to withhold or limit hydro generation, forcing a reduction in the utilization of the downstream hydro generation plants that are owned by competitors. Introducing competition to hydroelectricity generation markets is challenging and ownership allocation of the previously state-owned cascaded reservoir-hydro plants through privatization can have significant impact on the competitiveness of the generation market. The second goal of the dissertation is to extract empirical guidance about best policy choices for the ownership of the state-owned generation plants, including the

  4. Preventive Maintenance Prioritization by Fuzzy Logic for Seamless Hydro Power Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, P. K.; Adhikary, P.; Mazumdar, A.

    2014-06-01

    Preventive maintenance prioritization is one of the most important criteria for the electricity generation planners to minimize the down time and production costs. Break down of equipments increases costs and plant down time results in loss of business. This work focuses on prioritizing the preventive maintenance for seamless hydro power generation considering (24 × 7) client's power demand using fuzzy logic. The main task involves prioritizing the maintenance work considering constraints of varied power demand and hydro turbine plant breakdown. Fuzzy logic is used to optimize the preventive maintenance prioritization under the main constraints. Manual fuzzy arithmetic is used to develop the model and MATLAB Fuzzy Inference System editor used to validate the same. This novel fuzzy logic approach of preventive maintenance prioritizing for hydro power generation is absent in renewable power generation and industrial engineering literatures due to its assessment complexity.

  5. 76 FR 26284 - FirstLight Hydro Generating Company, City of Norwich Dept. of Public Utilities; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission FirstLight Hydro Generating Company, City of Norwich Dept. of Public... will meet with FirstLight Hydro Generating Company and the City of Norwich Dept. of Public Utilities...

  6. 78 FR 4843 - FirstLight Hydro Generating Company, City of Norwich Dept. of Public Utilities; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-23

    ... part 380 (Order No. 486, 52 FR 47897), the Office of Energy Projects has reviewed competing... Energy Regulatory Commission FirstLight Hydro Generating Company, City of Norwich Dept. of Public..., Connecticut. The existing licensee for the project is FirstLight Hydro Generating Company (FirstLight)....

  7. 78 FR 56690 - PE Hydro Generation, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission PE Hydro Generation, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...-referenced proceeding, of PE Hydro Generation, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  8. 76 FR 8724 - First Light Hydro Generating Company; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing, Soliciting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ... 14, 2011. d. Applicant: First Light Hydro Generating Company. e. Name of Project: Northfield Mountain..., Franklin County, Massachusetts. g. Filed Pursuant to: Federal Power Act, 16 U.S.C. 791a-825r. h. Applicant Contact: Mr. John Howard, Plant Manager, Northfield Mountain Station, 99 Millers Falls Road,...

  9. Lateral vibration of hydro turbine-generator rotor with varying stiffness of guide bearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, X. D.; Liao, G. L.; Zhu, Y.; Zhang, X.; Gou, Q. Q.; Zhang, W. B.

    2012-11-01

    The rotor consisted of rotating components and origin of energy transfer is the source of all vibrations in a hydro turbine generator unit. Among all vibration modes, the lateral mode is of the greatest concern. A lateral vibration response calculation model for rotor-bearing system with the nonlinear characteristics of the guide bearing's stiffness is presented in this paper. The model for hydro-generator rotor combines finite element model with the varying guide bearing's stiffness, the gyroscopic effect, unbalanced magnetic pull, hydraulic force and mechanical forces to calculate natural frequencies and steady state response. Take Francis turbine unit with three guide bearings for an example, the unit's lateral vibration characteristics and response of rotating components had been simulated by using FEM. The lateral vibration characteristics and response amplitude at rotating parts had been analyzed by varying stiffness simultaneously or one of the three guide bearings based on the assumption of elastic supporting models, and the influence of rotating speed, phase difference between the unbalanced forces on the vibration response had also been analyzed by the simplified analysis at the designed guide bearing stiffness. It shows that accounting for bearing stiffness and support structure flexibility, and then understanding the resulting in vibration behavior is an important factor in enhancing the stability of a hydro turbine generator rotor. The simulation results show that, for a vertical-mounted hydro turbine generator unit, there exists a common characteristic in the first three vibration mode, that is, the maximum amplitude is at the exciter in the first vibration mode and at the runner in the second vibration mode respectively, and the maximum amplitude is near the exciter or rotor in the third vibration mode. These results have great significance for the optimization design of the supporting structure of a hydro turbine generator unit.

  10. Demonstration of variable speed permanent magnet generator at small, low-head hydro site

    SciTech Connect

    Brown Kinloch, David

    2015-12-18

    Small hydro developers face a limited set of bad choices when choosing a generator for a small low-head hydro site. Direct drive synchronous generators are expensive and technically complex to install. Simpler induction generators are higher speed, requiring a speed increaser, which results in inefficiencies and maintenance problems. In addition, both induction and synchronous generators turn at a fixed speed, causing the turbine to run off its peak efficiency curve whenever the available head is different than the designed optimum head.The solution to these problems is the variable speed Permanent Magnet Generators (PMG). At the Weisenberger Mill in Midway, KY, a variable speed Permanent Magnet Generator has been installed and demonstrated. This new PMG system replaced an existing induction generator that had a HTD belt drive speed increaser system. Data was taken from the old generator before it was removed and compared to data collected after the PMG system was installed. The new variable speed PMG system is calculated to produce over 96% more energy than the old induction generator system during an average year. This significant increase was primarily due to the PMG generator operating at the correct speed at the maximum head, and the ability for the PMG generator to reduce its speed to lower optimum speeds as the stream flow increased and the net head decreased.This demonstration showed the importance of being able to adjust the speed of fixed blade turbines. All fixed blade turbines with varying net heads could achieve higher efficiencies if the speed can be matched to the optimum speed as the head changes. In addition, this demonstration showed that there are many potential efficiencies that could be realized with variable speed technology at hydro sites where mismatched turbine and generator speeds result in lower power output, even at maximum head. Funding for this project came from the US Dept. of Energy, through Award Number DE-EE0005429.

  11. Operation modes of a hydro-generator as a part of the inverter micro hydropower plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukutin, B. V.; Shandarova, E. B.; Matukhin, D. L.; Makarova, A. F.; Fuks, I. L.

    2016-04-01

    The paper dwells on the selection problem of power equipment for a stand-alone inverter micro hydropower plant, in particular a hydro-generator, and evaluation of its operation modes. Numerical experiments included the modes calculation of hydroelectric units of the same type with various nominal power, supplied to the consumer according to the unchanged electric load curve. The studies developed requirements for a hydro-turbine and a synchronous generator in terms of a speed range and installed capacity, depending on the load curve. The possibility of using general industrial hydroelectric units with nominal power equal to half-maximum capacity of a typical daily load curve in rural areas was shown.

  12. A new opportunity for hydro: Using air turbines for generating electricity

    SciTech Connect

    Gorlov, A.M. )

    1992-09-01

    A concept that uses hydropower to compress air could increase the number of locations where hydro is economically and environmentally feasible. The idea is being tested in a demonstration project in the northeastern U.S. The hydroelectric industry could experience substantial growth in low-head hydro facilities if a concept now being developed proves successful. This concept aims to enable power developers to generate electricity economically at sites currently not feasible for hydropower because water heads are too low. Many areas of North America are studded with low-head dams that could provide considerable hydro capacity if low-head generation were economically feasible. The six New England states in the US, for example, contain approximately 15,000 dams that have never been used to generate electric power because they impound water with heads ranging from 3 to 13 feet. Conventional facilities are not economically practical for generating electricity at these low heads. However, a promising alternative approach is to use water at these low-head dams to compress air, and then to use the air to power an air turbine-generator that produces electricity. The concept, called hydropneumatic generation, can be visualized by imagining a container, such as a large teacup, inverted and submerged in tidal waters. As the tide rises, the water compresses the air trapped inside the container. When the tide ebbs, the pressure decreases, putting the air into a partial vacuum. If a vent pipe were installed from the container to the atmosphere, air would flow out of the container as the water depth increased, and flow back in as the water depth decreased. Hydropneumatic energy is generated by installing an air-powered turbine to harness the energy of this airflow through the vent pipe. The turbine can be installed to rotate in the same direction at all times, even though the airflow reverses direction.

  13. Effect of turbine materials on power generation efficiency from free water vortex hydro power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sritram, P.; Treedet, W.; Suntivarakorn, R.

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this research was to study the effect of turbine materials on power generation efficiency from the water free vortex hydro power plant made of steel and aluminium. These turbines consisted of five blades and were twisted with angles along the height of water. These blades were the maximum width of 45 cm. and height of 32 cm. These turbines were made and experimented for the water free vortex hydro power plant in the laboratory with the water flow rate of 0.68, 1.33, 1.61, 2.31, 2.96 and 3.63 m3/min and an electrical load of 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 W respectively. The experimental results were calculated to find out the torque, electric power, and electricity production efficiency. From the experiment, the results showed that the maximum power generation efficiency of steel and aluminium turbine were 33.56% and 34.79% respectively. From the result at the maximum water flow rate of 3.63 m3/min, it was found that the torque value and electricity production efficiency of aluminium turbine was higher than that of steel turbine at the average of 8.4% and 8.14%, respectively. This result showed that light weight of water turbine can increase the torque and power generation efficiency.

  14. 75 FR 55317 - FirstLight Hydro Generating Company; City of Norwich Department of Public Utilities; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission FirstLight Hydro Generating Company; City of Norwich Department of Public Utilities; Notice of Applications Tendered for Filing With the Commission and Establishing...

  15. 76 FR 35886 - Notice Updating Procedural Schedule for Licensing; FirstLight Hydro Generating Company, City of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Notice Updating Procedural Schedule for Licensing; FirstLight Hydro Generating Company, City of Norwich Department of Public Utilities Take notice that the Hydropower...

  16. 76 FR 18217 - FirstLight Hydro Generating Company, City of Norwich Department of Public Utilities; Notice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission FirstLight Hydro Generating Company, City of Norwich Department of Public Utilities; Notice Updating Procedural Schedule for Licensing Take notice that the Hydropower Licensing Schedule for the Scotland...

  17. 76 FR 43679 - FirstLight Hydro Generating Company; City of Norwich Department of Public Utilities; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission FirstLight Hydro Generating Company; City of Norwich Department of Public... D. Bose, Secretary, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, 888 First Street, NE., Washington,...

  18. 75 FR 9591 - FirstLight Hydro Generating Company; Notice of Application for Amendment of License and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission FirstLight Hydro Generating Company; Notice of Application for... paper-file, an original and eight copies should be mailed to: Secretary, Federal Energy...

  19. Optimal Operation Scheduling of Pumped Storage Hydro Power Plant in Power System with a Large Penetration of Photovoltaic Generations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aihara, Ryota; Yokoyama, Akihiko; Nomiyama, Fumitoshi; Kosugi, Narifumi

    In recent years, a substantial amount of photovoltaic (PV) generations have been installed in power systems. However, the power output from the PVs is random and intermittent in nature. Therefore, the PV generations pose many challenges to the power system operation. To solve these issues, we propose that pumped storage hydro power plant (PSHPP) is used effectively. In this paper, a new method for scheduling effective operating patterns for PSHPP that make it possible to improve both reliability and economy is presented.

  20. Analysis of grid connected induction generators driven by hydro/wind turbines under realistic system constraints

    SciTech Connect

    urthy, S.S.; Jha, C.S. ); Rao, P.S.N. )

    1990-03-01

    Results of an investigation dealing with the behavior of grid connected induction generators (GCIG) driven by typical prime movers such as mini-hydro/wind turbines are presented. Certain practical operational problems of such systems are identified. Analytical techniques are developed to study the behavior of such systems. The system consists of the induction generator (IG) feeding a 11 kV grid through a step up transformer and a transmission line. Terminal capacitors to compensate for the lagging VAR are included in the study. Computer simulation is carried out to predict the system performance at the given input power from the turbine. Effects of variations in grid voltage, frequency, input power and terminal capacitance on the machine and system performance are studied. Analysis of self excitation conditions on disconnection of supply has been carried out. Behavior of a 200 kW hydel system and 55/11 kW 22 kW wind driven system corresponding to actual field conditions are presented and discussed.

  1. Subsurface processes affecting cold season streamflow generation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The amount and timing of snowmelt-generated streamflow greatly affects the management of water resources in the western USA and Canada. Subsurface processes that deliver water to streams during snowmelt are somewhat different from those that occur during rainfall. In this study we document some of ...

  2. Comparison of hydro-environmental impacts for ebb-only and two-way generation for a Severn Barrage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadian, Reza; Falconer, Roger A.; Bockelmann-Evans, Bettina

    2014-10-01

    Marine renewable energy is playing an increasing significant role in many parts of the world, mainly due to a rise in the awareness of climate change, and its detrimental effects, and the increasing cost of natural resources. The Severn Estuary, located between South West England and South Wales, has a tidal range of up to 14 m which makes it the second highest tidal range in the world. There are a number of barrage proposals amongst various marine renewable energy schemes proposed to be built in the estuary. The Cardiff-Weston STPG (Severn Tidal Power Group) Barrage, which would be one of the world's largest tidal renewable energy schemes if built, is one of the most publicised schemes to-date. This barrage would generate about 17 TWh/annum of power, which is approximately 5% of the UK's electricity consumption, whilst causing significant hydro-environmental and ecological impact on the estuary. This study mainly focuses on investigating the hydro-environmental impacts of the STPG barrage for the option of two-way generation, and compares this with the commonly investigated option of ebb-only generation. The impacts of the barrage were modelled by implementing a linked 1-D/2-D hydro-environmental model, with the capability of modelling several key environmental processes. The model predictions show that the hydro-environmental impacts of the barrage on the Severn Estuary and Bristol Channel, such as changes in the maximum velocity and reduction in suspended sediment and bacteria levels, were less significant for the two-way generation scheme when compared with the corresponding impacts for ebb-only generation.

  3. Hydro-acoustic and tsunami waves generated by the 2012 Haida Gwaii earthquake: Modeling and in situ measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdolali, Ali; Cecioni, Claudia; Bellotti, Giorgio; Kirby, James T.

    2015-02-01

    Detection of low-frequency hydro-acoustic waves as precursor components of destructive tsunamis can enhance the promptness and the accuracy of Tsunami Early Warning Systems (TEWS). We reconstruct the hydro-acoustic wave field generated by the 2012 Haida Gwaii tsunamigenic earthquake using a 2-D horizontal numerical model based on the integration over the depth of the compressible fluid wave equation and considering a mild sloped rigid seabed. Spectral analysis of the wave field obtained at different water depths and distances from the source revealed the frequency range of low-frequency elastic oscillations of sea water. The resulting 2-D numerical model gave us the opportunity to study the hydro-acoustic wave propagation in a large-scale domain with available computers and to support the idea of deep-sea observatory and data interpretation. The model provides satisfactory results, compared with in situ measurements, in the reproduction of the long-gravitational waves. Differences between numerical results and field data are probably due to the lack of exact knowledge of sea bottom motion and to the rigid seabed approximation, indicating the need for further study of poro-elastic bottom effects.

  4. A new kind of advisor for hydro plant operators

    SciTech Connect

    Hosmer, C.D. ); Walsh, J.T. ); Audunson, J.M. )

    1992-06-01

    A control system that uses artificial intelligence to optimize operation of several units at a hydro plant may sound futuristic, but is quite feasible today. This system could increase efficiency and power output without affecting the environment or the plant's physical setup. The Hydro Control System promises to be able to assist hydro plant operators in developing optimum choices under the varied constraints typically encountered in hydro operation. The development of heuristic techniques that generate a comprehensive set of optimum solutions has provided the basis for accurate, fast, and effective solutions, even when a complex set of goals and constraints are given. Based on experience with this tool, efficiency improvements on the order of 1 to 5 percent can be expected. And, this improvement does not affect the physical plant or the surrounding environment. The current development underway, which incorporates real-time data collection, an expert system user interface, and the learning element, will make the Hydro Control System a valuable tool.

  5. Building a Global Network of Hydro-climatology Sites in Cloud-affected Tropical Montane Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, G. W.; Asbjornsen, H.; Bruijnzeel, S., Sr.; Berry, Z. C.; Giambelluca, T. W.; Martin, P.; Mulligan, M.

    2015-12-01

    Tropical montane forests are characteristically wet environments with low evapotranspiration and sometimes significant contributions from fog interception. They are often located at headwater catchments critical for water supplies, but ecohydroclimate data in these regions are sparse. Such evidence may be crucial for assessing climate alterations in these sensitive ecosystems. As part of a global effort led by the Tropical Montane Cloud Forest Research Coordination Network (Cloudnet - http://cloudnet.agsci.colostate.edu), we aim to extend the network of tropical montane forest sites and establish robust protocols for measuring key ecohydroclimatic parameters, including fog interception, windblown rain, throughfall, leaf wetness, and micrometeorological conditions. Specific recommendations for standardized protocols include (1) rain and fog collectors uniquely designed to separately quantify fog interception from direct rain inputs, even in windy conditions, (2) trough-style throughfall gages that collect 40 times the area of a typical tipping bucket gage with added features to reduce splash-out, (3) clusters of leaf wetness sensors to differentiate frequency and duration of wetness caused by rain and fog on windward and leeward exposures, and (4) basic micrometeorological sensors for solar radiation, temperature, humidity, and wind. At sites where resources allow for additional measurements, we developed protocols for quantifying soil moisture, soil saturation, and plant water uptake from both roots and leaves (i.e. foliar absorption), since these are also important drivers in these systems. Participating sites will be invited to contribute to a global meta-analysis that will provide new insights into the ecohydrology of cloud-affected tropical montane forests.

  6. Power generation by high head water in a building using micro hydro turbine-a greener approach.

    PubMed

    M M S R S, Bhargav; V, Ratna Kishore; S P, Anbuudayasankar; K, Balaji

    2016-05-01

    Demand for green energy production is arising all over the world. A lot of emphasis is laid in making the buildings green. Even a small amount of energy savings made contribute to saving the environment. In this study, an idea is proposed and studied to extract power from the high head water in the pipelines of a building. A building of height 15 m is considered for this study. Water flowing in the pipe has sufficient energy to run a micro hydro turbine. The feasibility of producing electrical energy from the energy of pipe water is found. The motivation is to find the feasibility of generating power using a low-cost turbine. The experimental setup consists of micro turbine of 135 mm diameter coupled to a 12-V DC generator; LEDs and resistors are employed to validate the results. The theoretical calculations were presented using the fundamental equations of fluid mechanics. The theoretical results are validated using experimental and numerical results using CFD simulation. In addition, exergy analysis has been carried out to quantify the irreversibilities during the process in the system. PMID:26354115

  7. Analysis of performance with variable stroke of a torque based renewable micro hydro power generation plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Muhammad Mahbubul; Rahman, Md. Shad; Sultan, Rasel A.; Naif, M. Ahmed

    2016-07-01

    The most important addition of modern science is renewable energy. And the most useful and the most cheaply renewable power generation source is Hydropower. Flowing water creates energy that can be captured and turned into electricity. This is called Hydroelectric power or Hydropower. Hydropower is considered a renewable energy resource because it uses the earth's water cycle to generate electricity. Water evaporates from the earth's surface, forms clouds, precipitates back to earth, and flows toward the ocean. As far as Bangladesh is concerned, only a small fraction of electricity is generated by hydropower. The government has set a target of meeting 5 per cent of the electricity demand by 2015 by utilizing renewable energy and 10 per cent by the year 2020. Currently, renewable energies contribute to less than 1 per cent of the country's total electricity generation. The aim of our analysis is to demonstrate and observe the hydropower of our country in micro-scale by our experimental setup which is completely new in concept. This paper consists results of our findings and we find larger the number of stroke higher the rpm correspondingly higher efficiency. We find maximum rpm for 2stroke when fixed fly wheel weight was 18Kg and water was 10liter. It might help in case of utilizing this renewable energy potential at high scale.

  8. 76 FR 51961 - Brown Bear Power, LLC, Topsham Hydroelectric Generating Facility Trust No. 1, Topsham Hydro...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-19

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Brown Bear Power, LLC, Topsham Hydroelectric Generating Facility Trust No. 1... Soliciting Comments and Motions To Intervene On August 3, 2011, Brown Bear Power, LLC, Topsham Hydroelectric.... Applicants seek Commission approval for a partial transfer of the license for the Pejescot Project from...

  9. A state tendency measurement for a hydro-turbine generating unit based on aggregated EEMD and SVR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Wenlong; Zhou, Jianzhong; Zhang, Yongchuan; Zhu, Wenlong; Xue, Xiaoming; Xu, Yanhe

    2015-12-01

    The reliable measurement of state tendency for a hydro-turbine generating unit (HGU) is significant in guaranteeing the security of the unit and promoting stability of the power system. For this purpose, an aggregated ensemble empirical mode decomposition (AEEMD) and optimized support vector regression (SVR)-based hybrid model is developed in this paper in order to enhance the measuring accuracy of state tendency for a HGU. First of all, the non-stationary time series of the state signal are decomposed into a collection of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) by EEMD. Subsequently, to obtain the refactored intrinsic mode functions (RIMFs), the IMFs with different scales are aggregated with the proposed reconstruction strategy in consideration of the frequency and energy conditions. Later, the phase-space matrix in accordance with each RIMF is deduced by phase-space reconstruction and all the RIMFs are predicted through establishing homologous optimal SVR forecasting models with a grid search. Finally, the ultimate measuring values of state tendency can be determined through the accumulation of all the RIMF forecasting values. Furthermore, the effectiveness of the proposed method is validated in engineering experiments and comparative analyses.

  10. The Castalia stochastic generator and its applications to multivariate disaggregation of hydro-meteorological processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venediki, Anna; Giannoulis, Savvas; Ioannou, Christos; Malatesta, Lamprini; Theodoropoulos, Georgios; Tsekouras, Georgios; Dialynas, Yiannis G.; Papalexiou, Simon Michael; Efstratiadis, Andreas; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris

    2013-04-01

    Castalia is a software system that performs multivariate stochastic simulation preserving essential marginal statistics, specifically mean value, standard deviation and skewness, as well as joint second order statistics, namely auto- and cross-correlation. Furthermore, Castalia reproduces long-term persistence. It follows a disaggregation approach, starting from the annual time scale and proceeding to finer scales such as monthly and daily. To assess the performance of the Castalia system we test it for several hydrometeorological processes such as rainfall, sunshine duration, temperature and wind speed. To this aim we retrieve time series of these processes from a large database of daily records and we estimate their statistical properties, including long-term persistence. We generate synthetic time series using the Castalia software and we examine its efficiency in reproducing the important statistical properties of the observed data. Acknowledgment: This research is conducted within the frame of the undergraduate course "Stochastic Methods in Water Resources" of the National Technical University of Athens (NTUA).

  11. HydroPulse Drilling

    SciTech Connect

    J.J. Kolle

    2004-04-01

    Tempress HydroPulse{trademark} tool increases overbalanced drilling rates by generating intense suction pulses at the drill bit. This report describes the operation of the tool; results of pressure drilling tests, wear tests and downhole drilling tests; and the business case for field applications. The HydroPulse{trademark} tool is designed to operate on weighted drilling mud at conventional flow rates and pressures. Pressure drilling tests confirm that the HydroPulse{trademark} tool provides 33% to 200% increased rate of penetration. Field tests demonstrated conventional rotary and mud motor drilling operations. The tool has been operated continuous for 50 hours on weighted mud in a wear test stand. This level of reliability is the threshold for commercial application. A seismic-while-drilling version of the tool was also developed and tested. This tool was used to demonstrate reverse vertical seismic profiling while drilling an inclined test well with a PDC bit. The primary applications for the HydroPulse{trademark} tool are deep onshore and offshore drilling where rate of penetration drives costs. The application of the seismic tool is vertical seismic profiling-while-drilling and look-ahead seismic imaging while drilling.

  12. Lifting hydro's potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lihach, N.

    1980-12-01

    The advantages of hydroelectric power, in terms of capital, operating and maintenance costs and in terms of fuel and environmental considerations, are causing an upgrading of existing installations to provide more generating capacity. Hydrocapacity supplies 1/8 of the U.S. electric energy and will probably increase from 50 to 100% by the early 2000's as the price of other forms of energy rises. Ways of increasing output are: better water control, uprating of hydrogenerators, standardization of turbines, and methods of pumped hydro, an energy storage technique. An obstacle to this aim is the cumbersome licensing process of competing federal agencies which places a particular burden on small projects.

  13. How does the North Atlantic Oscillation affect the water levels of the Great Lakes with regard to hydro-climatic indicators?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dogan, Mustafa

    2015-08-01

    In this study, the changes of long-term mean annual water levels of the Great Lakes in North America are investigated, including the potential impacts of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). The levels of Lakes Superior, Michigan-Huron, St. Clair, Erie and Ontario and the hydro-climatic data, such as precipitation, evaporation and runoff, are evaluated together in view of the influence of NAO. The changes in the lake levels and hydro-climatic indicators are analysed. The annual hydro-climatic data, annual mean lake levels and the NAO indices are nondimensionalized through the nonparametric Mann-Kendall test. Then, the sequential Mann-Kendall test and paired t test are performed to gain insight into the trends of the time series and possible turning points. As a result of this study, the trend direction changes for all of the lakes are determined in the years 1965 and 1987, based on the records of the last 95 years. A similar tendency for evaporation, precipitation and runoff is found in 1982, 1935 and 1965. Regarding the effect of North Atlantic Oscillation on the changes of the lake levels, the same directional variations are found between the lake levels and the NAO FMA (February-March-April) indices. However, the directional variations between the lake levels and NAO JJA (June-July-August) indices are reversed. The absolute values of the correlation coefficients increase from west to east (from Lake Superior to Lake Ontario).

  14. 76 FR 48843 - Cottonwood Hydro, LLC; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order and Soliciting Comments, Protests...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-09

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Cottonwood Hydro, LLC; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order and...: Cottonwood Hydro, LLC. e. Name of Project: Cottonwood Hydro Project. f. Location: The existing Cottonwood Hydro Project is located on Little Cottonwood Creek, in Salt Lake County, Utah, affecting T. 35 S., R....

  15. 78 FR 58533 - FirstEnergy Generation, LLC, Allegheny Energy Supply Company, LLC, and Green Valley Hydro, LLC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project Nos. 2280-017, 2343-084, 2459-245, 2516-057, 2517-036, 3494- 091, 3671-086, 2391-046, 2425-052, and 2509-046] FirstEnergy Generation, LLC, Allegheny Energy...

  16. Generating a Spanish Affective Dictionary with Supervised Learning Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bermudez-Gonzalez, Daniel; Miranda-Jiménez, Sabino; García-Moreno, Raúl-Ulises; Calderón-Nepamuceno, Dora

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, machine learning techniques are being used in several Natural Language Processing (NLP) tasks such as Opinion Mining (OM). OM is used to analyse and determine the affective orientation of texts. Usually, OM approaches use affective dictionaries in order to conduct sentiment analysis. These lexicons are labeled manually with affective…

  17. Literature Review: Factors Affecting the Development of Generation X and Millennials. Societal Factors Affecting Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denham, Thomas J.; adbow, Nancy

    Generation X, or "Xers," refers to those born in the United States between 1960 and 1980 and Generation Y, also known as "Millennials," refers to those born between 1980 and 2000. An examination of these two generations is important to educators as the new generation of Millennials begins to access higher education. A large and growing body of…

  18. Modular small hydro configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-09-01

    Smaller sites (those under 750 kilowatts) which previously were not attractive to develop using equipment intended for application at larger scale sites, were the focal point in the conception of a system which utilizes standard industrial components which are generally available within short procurement times. Such components were integrated into a development scheme for sites having 20 feet to 150 feet of head. The modular small hydro configuration maximizes the use of available components and minimizes modification of existing civil works. A key aspect of the development concept is the use of a vertical turbine multistage pump, used in the reverse mode as a hydraulic turbine. The configuration allows for automated operation and control of the hydroelectric facilities with sufficient flexibility for inclusion of potential hydroelectric sites into dispersed storage and generation (DSG) utility grid systems.

  19. Generating Vocabulary Appropriate to the Affective Writing Task.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fearn, Leif

    Data were collected regarding the problem of the effects of the Human Development Program procedures on the generation of linguistic tools for the written expression of feelings. Two classes of elementary students participated in the experiment, one a sixth grade of denied children and the other a fifth grade identified as gifted on an…

  20. Analysis of Alaska hydro power development

    SciTech Connect

    Sieber, O.V.

    1983-12-01

    Alaska leads the world in terms of total potential for hydropower development, yet Alaska is 91% dependent on fossil fuels. A mix of gas, diesel and coal-fired power plants generate all but 9% of its electricity. This dependence on fossil fuels stems from the abundance of cheap gas, coal and oil-nonrenewable resources that are becoming more costly. Hydro power is also costly; however, most hydro projects are justified by long term returns. Once the water hits the turbine in a hydro project, the operating and maintenance cost is practically nil. The successful completion of two complex thin-arch concrete dams and several other hydro projects are discussed in order to meet Alaska's power demand.

  1. 76 FR 24471 - Qualified Hydro 26, LLC; Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund VII; Western Minnesota Municipal Power Agency...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Qualified Hydro 26, LLC; Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund VII; Western Minnesota...- generators and associated switchgear, controls and ancillary systems; the turbine-generator units...

  2. Small hydro plant development program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-10-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of using pump turbine - induction motor (generators) packages in lieu of standardized turbogenerator units in small hydro development projects was reported. The following topics are considered: (1) listing of Hydroelectric Power Resources by State; (2) Manufacturers' Data on Standardized Hydroturbines; (3) Inventory of Available Pumping Equipment; (4) Characteristics of Representative Pumps; (5) Survey of Pump Manufacturers and Engineering Firms; (6) Model Pump Mode and Turbine Mode Characteristics; (7) Prototype Turbine Mode Characteristics; (8) Pump (Turbine) Motor (Generator) Equipment Packages; (9) Manufacturers' Data on Components of Equipment Packages; (10) Overspeed Calculations; and (11) Economic Evaluation.

  3. Hydro-Quebec is at it again

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, G.

    1993-12-31

    When New York governor Mario Cuomo pulled the plug on a purchase of 1,000 megawatts of power from Hydro-Quebec last June, the provincial utility talked tough. The cancellation, a senior Hydro-Quebec official claimed, would not jeopardize the future of its controversial Great Whale hydro project in the North. Bu Hydro-Quebec has quietly shoved Great Whale onto the back burner while an environmental review is underway. In the meantime the utility is barreling ahead with another mega-dam. The Ste. Marquerite project planned for north-eastern Quebec is modest by Hydro-Quebec standards, generating less than a third the power of Great Whale. Still, with an 880-megawatt power station and 190 square miles of reservoirs, it is one of the largest hydro projects on any drawing board in North America. Environmentalists say it is being pushed ahead without a serious study of its impacts. This article details the environmental impacts of the project, and the extended impacts, not yet accounted for.

  4. Lac Courte Oreilles Hydro Dam Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, Jason; Meyers, Amy

    2014-12-31

    The main objective of this project was to investigate upgrading the existing hydro power generating system at the Winter Dam. The tribe would like to produce more energy and receive a fair market power purchase agreement so the dam is no longer a drain on our budget but a contributor to our economy. We contracted Kiser Hydro, LLC Engineering for this project and received an engineering report that includes options for producing more energy with cost effective upgrades to the existing turbines. Included in this project was a negotiation of energy price sales negotiations.

  5. Cognitive and Affective Aspects of Creative Option Generation in Everyday Life Situations

    PubMed Central

    Schweizer, T. Sophie; Schmalenberger, Katja M.; Eisenlohr-Moul, Tory A.; Mojzisch, Andreas; Kaiser, Stefan; Funke, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Which factors influence a human being’s ability to develop new perspectives and be creative? This ability is pivotal for any context in which new cognitions are required, such as innovative endeavors in science and art, or psychotherapeutic settings. In this article, we seek to bring together two research programs investigating the generation of creative options: On the one hand, research on option generation in the decision-making literature and, on the other hand, cognitive and clinical creativity research. Previous decision-making research has largely neglected the topic of generating creative options. Experiments typically provided participants with a clear set of options to choose from, but everyday life situations are less structured and allow countless ways to react. Before choosing an option, agents have to self-generate a set of options to choose from. Such option generation processes have only recently moved to the center of attention. The present study examines the creative quality of self-generated options in daily life situations. A student sample (N = 48) generated options for action in 70 briefly described everyday life scenarios. We rated the quality of the options on three dimensions of creativity- originality, feasibility, and divergence -and linked these qualities to option generation fluency (speed and number of generated options), situational features like the familiarity and the affective valence of the situation in which the options were generated, and trait measures of cognitive performance. We found that when situations were familiar to the participant, greater negative affective valence of the situation was associated with more originality and divergence of generated options. We also found that a higher option generation fluency was associated with a greater maximal originality of options. We complete our article with a joint research agenda for researchers in the decision-making field focusing on option generation and, on the other hand

  6. Cognitive and Affective Aspects of Creative Option Generation in Everyday Life Situations.

    PubMed

    Schweizer, T Sophie; Schmalenberger, Katja M; Eisenlohr-Moul, Tory A; Mojzisch, Andreas; Kaiser, Stefan; Funke, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Which factors influence a human being's ability to develop new perspectives and be creative? This ability is pivotal for any context in which new cognitions are required, such as innovative endeavors in science and art, or psychotherapeutic settings. In this article, we seek to bring together two research programs investigating the generation of creative options: On the one hand, research on option generation in the decision-making literature and, on the other hand, cognitive and clinical creativity research. Previous decision-making research has largely neglected the topic of generating creative options. Experiments typically provided participants with a clear set of options to choose from, but everyday life situations are less structured and allow countless ways to react. Before choosing an option, agents have to self-generate a set of options to choose from. Such option generation processes have only recently moved to the center of attention. The present study examines the creative quality of self-generated options in daily life situations. A student sample (N = 48) generated options for action in 70 briefly described everyday life scenarios. We rated the quality of the options on three dimensions of creativity- originality, feasibility, and divergence -and linked these qualities to option generation fluency (speed and number of generated options), situational features like the familiarity and the affective valence of the situation in which the options were generated, and trait measures of cognitive performance. We found that when situations were familiar to the participant, greater negative affective valence of the situation was associated with more originality and divergence of generated options. We also found that a higher option generation fluency was associated with a greater maximal originality of options. We complete our article with a joint research agenda for researchers in the decision-making field focusing on option generation and, on the other hand

  7. Factors affecting respirable dust generation from longwall roof supports. Information circular/1985

    SciTech Connect

    Organiscak, J.A.; Listak, J.M.; Jankowski, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    The Bureau of Mines conducted a survey of eight shearer longwall operations to identify factors that affect respirable dust generation from longwall roof supports. The longwalls surveyed were in coal seams located in different geographic regions of the United States. Data were collected on mining (geologic) conditions, support design, operational characteristics, and amount of respirable dust generated from roof supports. Several practices are currently employed to effectively control roof support dust.

  8. Diagnostic system monitors gearboxes at hydro plant

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    This article describes how, by applying real-time, tooth-by-tooth vibration ``imaging,`` this system detects gear-tooth defects -- such as pitting and cracking. To keep Swan Falls hydroelectric generating station in service, Idaho Power Co constructed a new two-unit, open-pit-turbine powerhouse. Swan Falls, Kuna, Idaho, the oldest on the Snake River, services southern Idaho and parts of Oregon -- one of 17 hydroelectric plants maintained by the utility. The hydro units use speed increasers (gearboxes) so higher-speed generators are possible. To monitor these gearboxes, engineers at Swan Falls required a continuous on-line predictive maintenance system. The system monitors the planetary step-up gearboxes in the two main 12.5-MW pit turbine/generators. In some Idaho Power plants with a similar hydro turbine/generator design, the gearboxes have experienced major failures, leading to hundreds of thousands of dollars in collateral damage.

  9. 77 FR 11530 - Riverbank Hydro No. 2, LLC, Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXVI, Qualified Hydro 21, LLC; Notice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Riverbank Hydro No. 2, LLC, Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXVI, Qualified Hydro... by Riverbank Hydro No. 2, LLC for Project No. 14130-000, Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXVI for...

  10. Genetic liability to schizophrenia in Oceanic Palau: a search in the affected and maternal generation.

    PubMed

    Devlin, Bernie; Klei, Lambertus; Myles-Worsley, Marina; Tiobech, Josepha; Otto, Caleb; Byerley, William; Roeder, Kathryn

    2007-07-01

    While liability to schizophrenia (Scz) is due to genetic and environmental factors, specific factors are largely unknown. We postulate a two-hit model for Scz, in which initial liability is generated during fetal brain development: this "hit" is precipitated by environmental stressors biologically interacting with maternal genetic vulnerability to the stress. Additional liability to Scz is generated by individual genetic vulnerability. To evaluate these putative levels of vulnerability, we search in the genome of both affected individuals and their mothers for variation that differs, statistically, from that in the general population. For parental analyses, mothers were treated as "affected," rather than their offspring, and the fathers were treated as "controls". We used a sample from the Palauan population: 175 individuals diagnosed with Scz, broadly defined; 87 mothers and 45 fathers of affected individuals. Pedigree and diagnostic data were available on 2,953 living and deceased subjects. DNA from 553 individuals was genotyped for short tandem repeats (STR) spaced approximately every 10 cM across the genome. We tested for association between affection status and STR alleles; such an approach was reasonable, despite the widely spaced markers, because this population has far-ranging linkage disequilibrium (LD). Results for the truly affected individuals were modest, whereas results from the maternal generation were promising. For a recessive model and a test for excess allele matching across mothers, significant findings occurred for D20S481, D10S1221, D6S1021, D13S317, and D18S976. Regions in which at least two adjacent markers produced substantial association statistics include 2p12-11.2, 2q24.1-32.1, 6q12-14.1, 10q23.2-24.21, 12q23.2-24.21 and 17q23.2-23.3. PMID:17436020

  11. Small hydro plant development program. Volume 1: Text

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-10-01

    The technical and economical feasibility of using pump (turbine) induction motor (generator) packages in lieu of standardized turbogenerator units in small hydro development projects was investigated. Turbine mode performance of pumps was simulated by a computer model and selected packages covering a major part of the head flow power range were compared to equivalent standardized turbogenerator units. Topics covered include: small hydro plant sizes and existing equipment; pump types and sizes; selection of generating equipment; performance evaluations of pump turbines and generators; and an economic evaluation of pump turbine induction motor (generator) equipment.

  12. 77 FR 12280 - Riverbank Hydro No. 1, LLC, Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXVII; Qualified Hydro 20, LLC; Notice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Riverbank Hydro No. 1, LLC, Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXVII; Qualified Hydro... tiebreaker. Based on the drawing, the order of priority is as follows: 1. Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund...

  13. 77 FR 9230 - Riverbank Hydro No. 1, LLC; Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXVII; Qualified Hydro 20, LLC; Notice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Riverbank Hydro No. 1, LLC; Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXVII; Qualified Hydro... No. 1, LLC for Project No. 14131-000, Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXVII for Project No. 14138- 000,...

  14. 77 FR 13317 - Riverbank Hydro No. 2, LLC, Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXVI, Qualified Hydro 21, LLC; Notice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Riverbank Hydro No. 2, LLC, Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXVI, Qualified Hydro... tiebreaker. Based on the drawing, the order of priority is as follows: 1. Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund...

  15. Analgesic exposure in pregnant rats affects fetal germ cell development with inter-generational reproductive consequences

    PubMed Central

    Dean, Afshan; van den Driesche, Sander; Wang, Yili; McKinnell, Chris; Macpherson, Sheila; Eddie, Sharon L.; Kinnell, Hazel; Hurtado-Gonzalez, Pablo; Chambers, Tom J.; Stevenson, Kerrie; Wolfinger, Elke; Hrabalkova, Lenka; Calarrao, Ana; Bayne, Rosey AL; Hagen, Casper P.; Mitchell, Rod T.; Anderson, Richard A.; Sharpe, Richard M.

    2016-01-01

    Analgesics which affect prostaglandin (PG) pathways are used by most pregnant women. As germ cells (GC) undergo developmental and epigenetic changes in fetal life and are PG targets, we investigated if exposure of pregnant rats to analgesics (indomethacin or acetaminophen) affected GC development and reproductive function in resulting offspring (F1) or in the F2 generation. Exposure to either analgesic reduced F1 fetal GC number in both sexes and altered the tempo of fetal GC development sex-dependently, with delayed meiotic entry in oogonia but accelerated GC differentiation in males. These effects persisted in adult F1 females as reduced ovarian and litter size, whereas F1 males recovered normal GC numbers and fertility by adulthood. F2 offspring deriving from an analgesic-exposed F1 parent also exhibited sex-specific changes. F2 males exhibited normal reproductive development whereas F2 females had smaller ovaries and reduced follicle numbers during puberty/adulthood; as similar changes were found for F2 offspring of analgesic-exposed F1 fathers or mothers, we interpret this as potentially indicating an analgesic-induced change to GC in F1. Assuming our results are translatable to humans, they raise concerns that analgesic use in pregnancy could potentially affect fertility of resulting daughters and grand-daughters. PMID:26813099

  16. Hydrodynamic Impact-Load Alleviation with a Penetrating Hydro-Ski

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edge, Philip M., Jr.

    1959-01-01

    A penetrating hydro-ski was mounted below a model tested previously in the study reported in NACA Technical Note 4401, and a series of impacts were made in the Langley impact basin to determine load alleviation with this type of hydro-ski. The hydro-ski was designed to penetrate through seaway irregularities with a minimum of drag and with small impact loads. The penetrating hydro-ski was small (beam-loading coefficient of 111) and of a streamline shape with the bottom designed for flush retraction into the main model. A series of impacts at fixed trim angles of 8, 16, and 30 deg were made in smooth water and at a fixed trim angle of 8 deg in rough water. The loads and motions of the model were recorded, and photographic observations of the flow and cavities generated in the water by the penetrating hydro-ski were made. The data are presented and the maximum impact loads and maximum drafts of the model with the penetrating hydro-ski are compared with those of the model obtained without the penetrating hydro-ski. Maximum load reductions of 30 to 70 percent in smooth water and of 50 to 80 percent in rough water are indicated. Cavity and flow generation by the penetrating hydro-ski are discussed, and it is indicated that the penetrating hydro-ski moved smoothly through the water and generated deep cavities which are shown by stereophotographs.

  17. Cognitive and interpersonal predictors of stress generation in children of affectively ill parents.

    PubMed

    Shih, Josephine H; Abela, John R Z; Starrs, Claire

    2009-02-01

    Stress generation is a process in which individuals, through their depressive symptoms, personal characteristics, and/or behaviors, contribute to the occurrence of stressful life events. While this process has been well documented in adults, few studies have examined it in children. The present study examines whether cognitive and interpersonal vulnerability factors to depression contribute to stress generation in children, independent of their current depressive symptoms. Participants included 140 children (ages 6 to 14) and one of their parents. During an initial assessment, children completed self-report measures assessing cognitive and interpersonal vulnerability factors to depression. Children and their parents also completed measures assessing depressive symptoms. One year later, children and their parents participated in a semi-structured interview assessing the occurrence of stressful life events in the past year. Multi-level modeling results provided strong support for the stress generation process in children of affectively ill parents and highlight the importance of considering gender and age moderation effects. PMID:18802680

  18. Overview of Hydrometeorologic Forecasting Procedures at BC Hydro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCollor, D.

    2004-12-01

    Energy utility companies must balance production from limited sources with increasing demand from industrial, business, and residential consumers. The utility planning process requires a balanced, efficient, and effective distribution of energy from source to consumer. Therefore utility planners must consider the impact of weather on energy production and consumption. Hydro-electric companies should be particularly tuned to weather because their source of energy is water, and water supply depends on precipitation. BC Hydro operates as the largest hydro-electric company in western Canada, managing over 30 reservoirs within the province of British Columbia, and generating electricity for 1.6 million people. BC Hydro relies on weather forecasts of watershed precipitation and temperature to drive hydrologic reservoir inflow models and of urban temperatures to meet energy demand requirements. Operations and planning specialists in the company rely on current, value-added weather forecasts for extreme high-inflow events, daily reservoir operations planning, and long-term water resource management. Weather plays a dominant role for BC Hydro financial planners in terms of sensitive economic responses. For example, a two percent change in hydropower generation, due in large part to annual precipitation patterns, results in an annual net change of \\50 million in earnings. A five percent change in temperature produces a \\5 million change in yearly earnings. On a daily basis, significant precipitation events or temperature extremes involve potential profit/loss decisions in the tens of thousands of dollars worth of power generation. These factors are in addition to environmental and societal costs that must be considered equally as part of a triple bottom line reporting structure. BC Hydro water resource managers require improved meteorological information from recent advancements in numerical weather prediction. At BC Hydro, methods of providing meteorological forecast data

  19. Role of Pumped Storage Hydro Resources in Electricity Markets and System Operation: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Ela, E.; Kirby, B.; Botterud, A.; Milostan, C.; Krad, I.; Koritarov, V.

    2013-05-01

    The most common form of utility- sized energy storage system is the pumped storage hydro system. Originally, these types of storage systems were economically viable simply because they displace more expensive generating units. However, over time, as those expensive units became more efficient and costs declined, pumped hydro storage units no longer have the operational edge. As a result, in the current electricity market environment, pumped storage hydro plants are struggling. To offset this phenomenon, certain market modifications should be addressed. This paper will introduce some of the challenges faced by pumped storage hydro plants in today's markets and purpose some solutions to those problems.

  20. Perinatal exposure to 4-nonylphenol affects adipogenesis in first and second generation rats offspring.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong-Yu; Xue, Wei-Yan; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Ma, Yue; Zhu, Ying-Shuang; Huo, Wen-Qian; Xu, Bing; Xia, Wei; Xu, Shun-Qing

    2014-03-01

    Maternal exposure to 4-nonylphenol (4-NP) during pregnancy was shown to alter adipogenesis in rodents, yet whether the effects are restricted to 4-NP-exposed offspring only or can be transmitted to the next generation are not known. Pregnant Wistar rats received either vehicle or 4-NP (5, 25 and 125μg/kg/day) from gestation to postnatal day 21. F1 pups were subjected to blood biochemistry tests, or killed to obtain their gonadal fat to determine gene expression. Some F1 adult female rats were mated with F1 males from control group to obtain F2 pups, but without any exposure to 4-NP in the perinatal stage. F2 pups underwent studies similar to those performed on F1 pups. Serum total cholesterol, leptin levels were significantly elevated, the quantity and size of fat cells were increased, gene expression of key regulators of adipogenesis and lipogenic pathway of fat tissue were perturbed by 4-NP (p<0.05 or p<0.01). In addition, the expression of mRNA levels and protein of ERα were downregulated in adipose tissue in the two generation offspring. Perinatal exposure to 4-NP affects the adipogenesis in both male and female F1 offspring, and this effect can be progressed to the F2 offspring through the maternal line. PMID:24388992

  1. Alterations in welding process voltage affect the generation of ultrafine particles, fume composition, and pulmonary toxicity.

    PubMed

    Antonini, James M; Keane, Michael; Chen, Bean T; Stone, Samuel; Roberts, Jenny R; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Andrews, Ronnee N; Frazer, David G; Sriram, Krishnan

    2011-12-01

    The goal was to determine if increasing welding voltage changes the physico-chemical properties of the fume and influences lung responses. Rats inhaled 40 mg/m³ (3 h/day × 3 days) of stainless steel (SS) welding fume generated at a standard voltage setting of 25 V (regular SS) or at a higher voltage (high voltage SS) of 30 V. Particle morphology, size and composition were characterized. Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed at different times after exposures to assess lung injury. Fumes collected from either of the welding conditions appeared as chain-like agglomerates of nanometer-sized primary particles. High voltage SS welding produced a greater number of ultrafine-sized particles. Fume generated by high voltage SS welding was higher in manganese. Pulmonary toxicity was more substantial and persisted longer after exposure to the regular SS fume. In summary, a modest raise in welding voltage affected fume size and elemental composition and altered the temporal lung toxicity profile. PMID:21281223

  2. 75 FR 65312 - Vortex Hydro Energy, LLC; Notice of Competing Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Vortex Hydro Energy, LLC; Notice of Competing Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Comments and Interventions October 15, 2010. On August 9, 2010, Vortex... average annual generation of 0.788 gigawatt-hours. Applicant Contact: Gus Simiao, CEO, Vortex Hydro...

  3. Second-Generation Antipsychotics and Tardive Syndromes in Affective Illness: A Public Health Problem With Neuropsychiatric Consequences

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Food and Drug Administration–approved information and public advertisements belie neurodegenerative risks for second-generation antipsychotics in affective illness. Package inserts label tardive syndromes “potentially reversible” while uniformly omitting patient counseling for long-term neurodegenerative side effects. I found that only 2 of 78 outpatients exposed to second-generation antipsychotics reported awareness of tardive syndromes. Updated literature challenges safety advantages of atypical versus typical antipsychotics. Physician and patient information regarding tardive syndromes from second-generation antipsychotics approved for affective illness is inadequate. PMID:25521884

  4. Second-generation antipsychotics and tardive syndromes in affective illness: a public health problem with neuropsychiatric consequences.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, Frederick M

    2015-02-01

    Food and Drug Administration-approved information and public advertisements belie neurodegenerative risks for second-generation antipsychotics in affective illness. Package inserts label tardive syndromes "potentially reversible" while uniformly omitting patient counseling for long-term neurodegenerative side effects. I found that only 2 of 78 outpatients exposed to second-generation antipsychotics reported awareness of tardive syndromes. Updated literature challenges safety advantages of atypical versus typical antipsychotics. Physician and patient information regarding tardive syndromes from second-generation antipsychotics approved for affective illness is inadequate. PMID:25521884

  5. Apparent autosomal recessive inheritance in families with proximal spinal muscular atrophy affecting individuals in two generations

    SciTech Connect

    Rudnik-Schoeneborn, S.; Zerres, K.; Hahnen, E.

    1996-11-01

    With the evidence that deletions in the region responsible for childhood- and juvenile-onset proximal spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) are on chromosome 5 it is now possible to confirm autosomal recessive inheritance in most patients (denoted {open_quotes}SMA 5q{close_quotes}). Homozygous deletions in the telomeric copy of the survival motor neuron (SMN) gene can be detected in 95%-98% of patients with early-onset SMA (types I and II), whereas as many as 10%-20% of patients with the milder, juvenile-onset form (type III SMA) do not show deletions. In families with affected subjects in two generations, it is difficult to decide whether they are autosomal dominantly inherited or caused by three independent recessive mutations (pseudodominant inheritance). Given an incidence of >1/10,000 of SMA 5q, patients with autosomal recessive SMA have an {approximately}1% recurrence risk to their offspring. Although the dominant forms are not linked to chromosome 5q, pseudodominant families can now be identified by the presence of homozygous deletions in the SMN gene. 5 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  6. 76 FR 6612 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XL; FFP Missouri 4, LLC; Allegheny 4 Hydro, LLC; Three Rivers Hydro, LLC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-07

    ...; Project No. 13782-000] Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XL; FFP Missouri 4, LLC; Allegheny 4 Hydro, LLC; Three... drawing will serve as the tiebreaker. Based on the drawing, the order of priority is as follows: 1....

  7. 76 FR 4892 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXIX, FFP Missouri 3, LLC, Allegheny 3 Hydro, LLC, Three Rivers Hydro...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-27

    ..., Three Rivers Hydro, LLC; Notice Announcing Preliminary Permit Drawing January 20, 2011. On May 18, 2010... Missouri 3, LLC, for Project No. 13749-000, Allegheny 3 Hydro, LLC, for Project No. 13775-000, and...

  8. Hydro-physical Characteristics of Selected Media Used for Containerized Agriculture Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Containerized plant production represents an extremely intensive agricultural practice with large amounts of water and fertilizer application. Hydro-physical characteristics such as water infiltration, texture and structure, particle size distribution affect the quality of the media used in containe...

  9. 75 FR 17706 - FPL Energy Maine Hydro LLC, Complainant v. Great Lakes Hydro America LLC Rumford Falls Hydro LLC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-07

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission FPL Energy Maine Hydro LLC, Complainant v. Great Lakes Hydro America LLC Rumford Falls Hydro LLC, Respondents; Notice of Complaint March 29, 2010. Take notice that on March 26... Practice and Procedure, 18 CFR 385.206 (2009) and sections 10(f) and 306 of the Federal Power Act, 16...

  10. Selenium status affects selenoprotein expression, reproduction, and F₁ generation locomotor activity in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Penglase, Sam; Hamre, Kristin; Rasinger, Josef D; Ellingsen, Staale

    2014-06-14

    Se is an essential trace element, and is incorporated into selenoproteins which play important roles in human health. Mammalian selenoprotein-coding genes are often present as paralogues in teleost fish, and it is unclear whether the expression patterns or functions of these fish paralogues reflect their mammalian orthologues. Using the model species zebrafish (Danio rerio; ZF), we aimed to assess how dietary Se affects key parameters in Se metabolism and utilisation including glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity, the mRNA expression of key Se-dependent proteins (gpx1a, gpx1b, sepp1a and sepp1b), oxidative status, reproductive success and F1 generation locomotor activity. From 27 d until 254 d post-fertilisation, ZF were fed diets with graded levels of Se ranging from deficient ( < 0·10 mg/kg) to toxic (30 mg/kg). The mRNA expression of gpx1a and gpx1b and GPX activity responded in a similar manner to changes in Se status. GPX activity and mRNA levels were lowest when dietary Se levels (0·3 mg/kg) resulted in the maximum growth of ZF, and a proposed bimodal mechanism in response to Se status below and above this dietary Se level was identified. The expression of the sepp1 paralogues differed, with only sepp1a responding to Se status. High dietary Se supplementation (30 mg/kg) decreased reproductive success, while the offspring of ZF fed above 0·3 mg Se/kg diet had lower locomotor activity than the other groups. Overall, the novel finding of low selenoprotein expression and activity coinciding with maximum body growth suggests that even small Se-induced variations in redox status may influence cellular growth rates. PMID:24666596

  11. Stimulus-dependent amygdala involvement in affective theory of mind generation.

    PubMed

    Schmitgen, Mike M; Walter, Henrik; Drost, Sarah; Rückl, Sarah; Schnell, Knut

    2016-04-01

    Successful social interaction requires knowledge about another person's emotional states, represented in an affective theory of mind (ToM). This information can be acquired either directly or indirectly, i.e., by observing emotional facial expressions (EFE) or indirectly by inferring emotions through cognitive perspective taking. Therefore, it is of great interest how the function of the cortical ToM network and the limbic system in affective ToM depends on the presence of facial expressions. We addressed this question in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study. The experimental paradigm applied a well-established ToM cartoon task to test functional effects of EFE on the activation of the amygdala and the anterior ToM network during affective ToM judgments. During the task, 22 healthy participants had to judge the changes of the emotional state of the stories protagonist in the presence or absence of EFE. After quality control, 21 data sets entered the final analyses. The presence of EFE during affective ToM judgments was associated with shorter reaction times as well as increased activation of the right amygdala, most probably located in the basolateral nucleus (BLA), coincident with reduced activation of ToM-related regions of the prefrontal cortex. Psychophysiological interactions (PPI) revealed EFE-dependent modulation of connectivity between the right BLA and the contralateral ToM network regions. In combination with the functional interaction of EFE and affective ToM in the right amygdala, our data suggest a complementary but parallel organization of EFE processing and affective ToM. In this framework, the amygdala seems to act as an EFE detector when affective ToM judgments are demanded. Additionally, the facts that EFE induced exclusively right-sided amygdala activation and modulated the connectivity with the contralateral ToM network support the idea of a functional lateralization of stimulus driven components of affective ToM. PMID:26803059

  12. How muscle fiber lengths and velocities affect muscle force generation as humans walk and run at different speeds

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Edith M.; Hamner, Samuel R.; Seth, Ajay; Millard, Matthew; Delp, Scott L.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The lengths and velocities of muscle fibers have a dramatic effect on muscle force generation. It is unknown, however, whether the lengths and velocities of lower limb muscle fibers substantially affect the ability of muscles to generate force during walking and running. We examined this issue by developing simulations of muscle–tendon dynamics to calculate the lengths and velocities of muscle fibers from electromyographic recordings of 11 lower limb muscles and kinematic measurements of the hip, knee and ankle made as five subjects walked at speeds of 1.0–1.75 m s−1 and ran at speeds of 2.0–5.0 m s−1. We analyzed the simulated fiber lengths, fiber velocities and forces to evaluate the influence of force–length and force–velocity properties on force generation at different walking and running speeds. The simulations revealed that force generation ability (i.e. the force generated per unit of activation) of eight of the 11 muscles was significantly affected by walking or running speed. Soleus force generation ability decreased with increasing walking speed, but the transition from walking to running increased the force generation ability by reducing fiber velocities. Our results demonstrate the influence of soleus muscle architecture on the walk-to-run transition and the effects of muscle–tendon compliance on the plantarflexors' ability to generate ankle moment and power. The study presents data that permit lower limb muscles to be studied in unprecedented detail by relating muscle fiber dynamics and force generation to the mechanical demands of walking and running. PMID:23470656

  13. How muscle fiber lengths and velocities affect muscle force generation as humans walk and run at different speeds.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Edith M; Hamner, Samuel R; Seth, Ajay; Millard, Matthew; Delp, Scott L

    2013-06-01

    The lengths and velocities of muscle fibers have a dramatic effect on muscle force generation. It is unknown, however, whether the lengths and velocities of lower limb muscle fibers substantially affect the ability of muscles to generate force during walking and running. We examined this issue by developing simulations of muscle-tendon dynamics to calculate the lengths and velocities of muscle fibers from electromyographic recordings of 11 lower limb muscles and kinematic measurements of the hip, knee and ankle made as five subjects walked at speeds of 1.0-1.75 m s(-1) and ran at speeds of 2.0-5.0 m s(-1). We analyzed the simulated fiber lengths, fiber velocities and forces to evaluate the influence of force-length and force-velocity properties on force generation at different walking and running speeds. The simulations revealed that force generation ability (i.e. the force generated per unit of activation) of eight of the 11 muscles was significantly affected by walking or running speed. Soleus force generation ability decreased with increasing walking speed, but the transition from walking to running increased the force generation ability by reducing fiber velocities. Our results demonstrate the influence of soleus muscle architecture on the walk-to-run transition and the effects of muscle-tendon compliance on the plantarflexors' ability to generate ankle moment and power. The study presents data that permit lower limb muscles to be studied in unprecedented detail by relating muscle fiber dynamics and force generation to the mechanical demands of walking and running. PMID:23470656

  14. The Hydrosphere State (HYDROS) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spence, Michael W.; Njoku, Eni; Kim, Yunjin; Entekhabi, Dara; Doiron, Terence; Piepmeier, Jeffrey; Girard, Ralph

    2004-01-01

    The Hydrosphere State (HYDROS) Mission has been selected for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Earth System Science Pathfinder (ESSP) program. The objectives of HYDROS are to provide frequent, global measurements of surface soil moisture and surface freeze/thaw state. In order to adequately measure these geophysical parameters, a system capable of simultaneously measuring L-Band radiometer brightness temperatures at 40 km resolution and L-Band radar backscatter at 3 km resolution over a very wide swath is required. In addition, these science requirements must be satisfied under the stringent cost-cap imposed on all ESSP missions. As a solution to this challenging set of requirements, a relatively large, six meter, conically-scanning reflector antenna architecture was selected for the mission design. The HYDROS instrument will fly on a General Dynamics SA-200HP spacecraft bus. Although large deployable mesh antennas have been used in communication applications, this will mark the first time such technology is applied in a rotating configuration for high-resolution remote sensing.

  15. Cognitive and Interpersonal Predictors of Stress Generation in Children of Affectively Ill Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Josephine H.; Abela, John R. Z.; Starrs, Claire

    2009-01-01

    Stress generation is a process in which individuals, through their depressive symptoms, personal characteristics, and/or behaviors, contribute to the occurrence of stressful life events. While this process has been well documented in adults, few studies have examined it in children. The present study examines whether cognitive and interpersonal…

  16. Low power laser irradiation does not affect the generation of signals in a sensory receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Lundeberg, T.; Zhou, J.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of low power Helium-Neon (He-Ne) and Gallium-Arsenide (Ga-As) laser on the slowly adapting crustacean stretch receptor was studied. The results showed that low power laser irradiation did not affect the membrane potential of the stretch receptor. These results are discussed in relation to the use of low power laser irradiation on the skin overlaying acupuncture points in treatment of pain syndrome.

  17. Optimal short-term scheduling for a large-scale cascaded hydro system

    SciTech Connect

    Piekutowski, M.R.; Litwinowicz, T. ); Frowd, R.J. )

    1994-05-01

    This paper describes a short term hydro generation optimization program that has been developed by the Hydro Electric Commission (HEC) to determine optimal generation schedules and to investigate export and import capabilities of the Tasmanian system under a proposed DC interconnection with mainland Australia. The optimal hydro scheduling problem is formulated as a large scale linear programming algorithm and is solved using a commercially-available linear programming package. The selected objective function requires minimization of the value of energy used by turbines and spilled during the study period. Alternative formulations of the objective function are also discussed. The system model incorporates the following elements: hydro station (turbine efficiency, turbine flow limits, penstock head losses, tailrace elevation and generator losses), hydro system (reservoirs and hydro network: active volume, spillway flow, flow between reservoirs and travel time), and other models including thermal plant and DC link. A valuable by-product of the linear programming solution is system and unit incremental costs which may be used for interchange scheduling and short-term generation dispatch.

  18. Numerical simulation of turbulent flow affected by vortex generators in straight channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souckova, Natalie; Simurda, David; Uruba, Vaclav

    2012-04-01

    The presented work is the next step after several experimental examinations of the vortex generator (VG) influence on flow separation occurring on a model of the NACA 63A421 airfoil with a deflected simple flap. The other purpose of this simulation is to obtain beneficial information that can be utilized for the preparation of the experimental investigation of the same configuration using Particle image Velocimetry method (PIV) in the future. The numerical simulation was performed for one single pair and two pairs of low-profile VGs of the same size, whose heights were smaller than the boundary layer thickness. The rectangular vane type VGs in such configuration, which generates counter-rotating vortices, was examined. The behaviour of vortices produced by VG pair or pairs in several positions downstream the VGs is investigated and will be used as a background of the measurement.

  19. Factors affecting eluation characteristics of sorption generators of technetium-99m

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skuridin, V. S.; Chernov, V. I.; Sadkin, V. L.; Stasyuk, E. S.; Varlamova, N. V.; Rogov, A. S.; Nesterov, E. A.; Ilina, E. A.; Larionova, L. A.; Medvedeva, A. A.

    2016-08-01

    The influence of the adsorbed mass of molybdenum on the width of eluation profiles of generators and the patterns of molybdenum distribution in the amount of chromatographic columns by scanning them on the germanium-gallium detector using collimating device are studied. The boundary conditions under which the maximum value of 99mTc yield from generators Ye = 1 are defined. After scanning the columns, it was found out that the degree of filling the columns with molybdenum Q and the value of its maximum adsorption depend naturally on the total weight of the adsorbed mass. In order to achieve the condition Ye = 1 the value of Q should be at least 85%.

  20. Factors affecting hydrocarbon generation, migration, and accumulation in Norwegian Central Graben and northern Viking graben

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, R.C.

    1986-05-01

    The Norwegian Central graben and northern Viking graben are among the most prolific hydrocarbon provinces in Europe, with proved reserves exceeding 8 billion bbl of oil and 61 tcf of gas. Although are several successful plays are found in both grabens, this study concentrates on factors controlling accumulations in the most prolific trends - the Late Cretaceous to Danian chalk fields of the Central graben, and the Jurassic and Triassic sandstone fields of the northern Viking graben. Detailed modeling of hydrocarbon generation and migration in the two grabens demonstrates some similarities and major differences in the geochemical factors that control the accumulations.

  1. Rehabilitating and upgrading Hydro-Quebec's Manic 5 station

    SciTech Connect

    Gay, L.B. ); Mahe, B. ); Giguere, J.G. )

    1993-08-01

    Although modernizing the Manic 5 turbine-generator units would mean more capacity for Hydro-Quebec's electrical grid, the utility was concerned about extended downtime of the plant. Consequently, several innovative concepts were developed to make the rehabilitation feasible. This article describes some of those innovations, such as designing a portable machine for precision machining of the discharge ring to reduce the discharge ring tolerance, and increasing the stroke of servomotors to increase output by 20 MW.

  2. Developmental Exposure to TCDD Reduces Fertility and Negatively Affects Pregnancy Outcomes across Multiple Generations

    PubMed Central

    Bruner-Tran, Kaylon L.; Osteen, Kevin G.

    2010-01-01

    TCDD (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin) is a ubiquitous environmental contaminant and known endocrine disruptor. Since humans and animals are most sensitive to toxicant exposure during development, we previously developed a mouse model of in utero TCDD exposure in order to examine the impact of this toxicant on adult reproductive function. Our initial in utero toxicant-exposure study revealed a dose-dependent reduction in uterine sensitivity to progesterone; however, we did not previously explore establishment or maintenance of pregnancy. Thus, in the current study, we examined pregnancy outcomes in adult C57BL/6 mice with a history of developmental TCDD exposure. Herein we demonstrate reduced fertility and an increased incidence of premature birth (PTB) in F1 mice exposed in utero to TCDD as well as in three subsequent generations. Finally, our studies revealed that mice with a history of developmental TCDD exposure exhibit an increased sensitivity to inflammation which further negatively impacted gestation length in all generations examined. PMID:20955784

  3. Sustainable income-generating projects for HIV-affected households in Zimbabwe: evidence from two high-density suburbs.

    PubMed

    Mutenje, Munyaradzi J; Nyakudya, Innocent W; Katsinde, Constance; Chikuvire, Tichaedza J

    2007-04-01

    An estimated 25% of the adults in urban areas of Zimbabwe are living as HIV-positive. In HIV-affected households the need for income increases with the demand for medicines, food and funeral costs. One way to mitigate this effect of the epidemic is by expanding micro enterprises that can enhance the livelihoods of urban households affected by HIV. To identify viable income-generating projects for such households, five possible projects facilitated by two HIV/AIDS support organisations were selected for assessment. These were: selling second-hand clothing, poultry-keeping and nutritional/herbal gardens, freezit-making, mobile kitchens, and payphone set-ups. A case study of 200 households benefiting from one of these projects was done in two high-density suburbs in the town of Bindura, northern Zimbabwe. Information was collected from each household four times per year, over four years (2001-2004). Information on the income generated from the micro enterprises was collected monthly during the period. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse household demographic data; income data was analysed using cost-benefit analysis and analysis of variance. The results show that all five income-generating projects were viable for these households, although some were not feasible for the most vulnerable HIV-affected households. Making more efficient use of micro enterprises can be a valuable part of mainstreaming HIV-affected people and households in urban areas, and so allow people living with HIV to have longer and more meaningful lives. PMID:25875340

  4. Cognitive, affective, and physiological expressions of anxiety symptomatology among Mexican migrant farmworkers: predictors and generational differences.

    PubMed

    Hovey, Joseph D; Magaña, Cristina G

    2002-06-01

    Scant research has examined the mental health of migrant farmworkers in the United States. The purposes of the present study were threefold: to assess the prevalence levels of anxiety symptoms in a sample of Mexican migrant farmworkers in the Midwest United States; to examine the relationship between acculturative stress and anxiety; and to determine the variables that significantly predict anxiety. High levels were found for overall anxiety and in the cognitive, affective, and physiological expressions of anxiety. Elevated acculturative stress, low self esteem, ineffective social support, lack of control and choice in the decision to live a migrant farmworker lifestyle, low religiosity, and high education were significantly related to high anxiety levels. The overall findings suggest that Mexican migrant farmworkers who experience high acculturative stress may be at risk for developing anxiety-related disorders. The findings highlight the necessity of establishing prevention and treatment services for migrant farmworkers that increase levels of emotional support, self esteem, and coping skills. PMID:12046676

  5. How run-of-river operation affects hydropower generation and value.

    PubMed

    Jager, Henriette I; Bevelhimer, Mark S

    2007-12-01

    Regulated rivers in the United States are required to support human water uses while preserving aquatic ecosystems. However, the effectiveness of hydropower license requirements nationwide has not been demonstrated. One requirement that has become more common is "run-of-river" (ROR) operation, which restores a natural flow regime. It is widely believed that ROR requirements (1) are mandated to protect aquatic biota, (2) decrease hydropower generation per unit flow, and (3) decrease energy revenue. We tested these three assumptions by reviewing hydropower projects with license-mandated changes from peaking to ROR operation. We found that ROR operation was often prescribed in states with strong water-quality certification requirements and migratory fish species. Although benefits to aquatic resources were frequently cited, changes were often motivated by other considerations. After controlling for climate, the overall change in annual generation efficiency across projects because of the change in operation was not significant. However, significant decreases were detected at one quarter of individual hydropower projects. As expected, we observed a decrease in flow during peak demand at 7 of 10 projects. At the remaining projects, diurnal fluctuations actually increased because of operation of upstream storage projects. The economic implications of these results, including both producer costs and ecologic benefits, are discussed. We conclude that regional-scale studies of hydropower regulation, such as this one, are long overdue. Public dissemination of flow data, license provisions, and monitoring data by way of on-line access would facilitate regional policy analysis while increasing regulatory transparency and providing feedback to decision makers. PMID:17891438

  6. Generation of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells from Extraembryonic Tissues of Fetuses Affected by Monogenic Diseases.

    PubMed

    Spitalieri, Paola; Talarico, Rosa V; Botta, Annalisa; Murdocca, Michela; D'Apice, Maria Rosaria; Orlandi, Augusto; Giardina, Emiliano; Santoro, Massimo; Brancati, Francesco; Novelli, Giuseppe; Sangiuolo, Federica

    2015-08-01

    The generation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) derived from an autologous extraembryonic fetal source is an innovative personalized regenerative technology that can transform own-self cells into embryonic stem-like ones. These cells are regarded as a promising candidate for cell-based therapy, as well as an ideal target for disease modeling and drug discovery. Thus, hiPSCs enable researchers to undertake studies for treating diseases or for future applications of in utero therapy. We used a polycistronic lentiviral vector (hSTEMCCA-loxP) encoding OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, and cMYC genes and containing loxP sites, excisible by Cre recombinase, to reprogram patient-specific fetal cells derived from prenatal diagnosis for several genetic disorders, such as myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1), β-thalassemia (β-Thal), lymphedema-distichiasis syndrome (LDS), spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), cystic fibrosis (CF), as well as from wild-type (WT) fetal cells. Because cell types tested to create hiPSCs influence both the reprogramming process efficiency and the kinetics, we used chorionic villus (CV) and amniotic fluid (AF) cells, demonstrating how they represent an ideal cell resource for a more efficient generation of hiPSCs. The successful reprogramming of both CV and AF cells into hiPSCs was confirmed by specific morphological, molecular, and immunocytochemical markers and also by their teratogenic potential when inoculated in vivo. We further demonstrated the stability of reprogrammed cells over 10 and more passages and their capability to differentiate into the three embryonic germ layers, as well as into neural cells. These data suggest that hiPSCs-CV/AF can be considered a valid cellular model to accomplish pathogenesis studies and therapeutic applications. PMID:26474030

  7. How Run-of-River Operation Affects Hydropower Generation and Value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jager, Henriette I.; Bevelhimer, Mark S.

    2007-12-01

    Regulated rivers in the United States are required to support human water uses while preserving aquatic ecosystems. However, the effectiveness of hydropower license requirements nationwide has not been demonstrated. One requirement that has become more common is “run-of-river” (ROR) operation, which restores a natural flow regime. It is widely believed that ROR requirements (1) are mandated to protect aquatic biota, (2) decrease hydropower generation per unit flow, and (3) decrease energy revenue. We tested these three assumptions by reviewing hydropower projects with license-mandated changes from peaking to ROR operation. We found that ROR operation was often prescribed in states with strong water-quality certification requirements and migratory fish species. Although benefits to aquatic resources were frequently cited, changes were often motivated by other considerations. After controlling for climate, the overall change in annual generation efficiency across projects because of the change in operation was not significant. However, significant decreases were detected at one quarter of individual hydropower projects. As expected, we observed a decrease in flow during peak demand at 7 of 10 projects. At the remaining projects, diurnal fluctuations actually increased because of operation of upstream storage projects. The economic implications of these results, including both producer costs and ecologic benefits, are discussed. We conclude that regional-scale studies of hydropower regulation, such as this one, are long overdue. Public dissemination of flow data, license provisions, and monitoring data by way of on-line access would facilitate regional policy analysis while increasing regulatory transparency and providing feedback to decision makers.

  8. Factors affecting the pore space transformation during hydrocarbon generation in source rock (shales): laboratory experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giliazetdinova, D. R.; Korost, D. V.

    2014-12-01

    Oil and gas generation is a set of processes which taking place in the interior, the processes can't be observable in nature. In the process of dumping the source rock, organic matter is transformed into a complex of high-molecular compounds - precursors of oil and gas (kerogen). Entering of a source column for specific thermobaric conditions, triggers the formation of low molecular weight hydrocarbon compounds. Generation of sufficient quantities of hydrocarbons leads to the primary fluid migration within the source rock. For the experiment were selected mainly siliceous-carbonate composition rocks from Domanic horizon South-Tatar arch. The main aim of experiment was heating the rocks in the pyrolyzer to temperatures which correspond katagenes stages. For monitoring changes in the morphology of the pore space X-ray microtomography method was used. As a result, when was made a study of the composition of mineral and organic content of the rocks, as well as textural and structural features, have been identified that the majority of the rock samples within the selected collection are identical. However, characteristics such as organic content and texture of rocks are different. Thus, the experiment was divided into two parts: 1) the study of the influence of organic matter content on the morphology of the rock in the process of thermal effects; 2) study the effect of texture on the primary migration processes for the same values of organic matter. Also, an additional experiment was conducted to study the dynamics of changes in the structure of the pore space. At each stage of the experiment morphology of altered rocks characterized by the formation of new pores and channels connecting the primary voids. However, it was noted that the samples with a relatively low content of the organic matter had less changes in pore space morphology, in contrast to rocks with a high organic content. At the second stage of the research also revealed that the conversion of the pore

  9. A coordinated approach for real-time short term hydro scheduling

    SciTech Connect

    Tufegdzic, N.; Frowd, R.J.; Stadlin, W.O.

    1996-11-01

    The paper describes a coordinated approach to short-term hydro scheduling and dispatch that has been developed as a part of the Tasmanian Hydro Electric Commission`s (HEC) new Energy Management System (EMS), which is being delivered by Landis and Gyr Energy Management. Tasmania`s hydro generation system consists of 40 reservoirs in six river catchments. The daily water release for each plant is scheduled using the HEC`s mid-term operation policy. The Hydro Scheduling and Commitment (HSC) function schedules the hydro units on a half hourly basis so that the allocated water release maximizes the energy production. This maximization of energy production is achieved by maximizing the head and this ensures that operation is always as close as possible to maximum efficiency. Mixed Integer Linear Programming is used with a detailed model of the interconnected hydro system to determine the half-hourly operation schedule. The Hydro Economic Dispatch (HED) function is used to implement the schedules produced by HSC in the real-time operation. The HED also uses a detailed model of the hydro system with a Linear Programming algorithm to ensure that each unit operates as close as possible to its head-dependent theoretical maximum efficiency point while meeting the desired storage levels specified by the HSC solution. HSC and HED have been tested against a number of operational scenarios and when it is fully integrated within the new EMS it is expected to yield annual stored energy savings up to 0.5% through more efficient hydro-electric system operation. It is expected to also provide additional savings by fostering improvements to the mid-term operating plan.

  10. Overland flow generation mechanisms affected by topsoil treatment: Application to soil conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hueso-González, P.; Ruiz-Sinoga, J. D.; Martínez-Murillo, J. F.; Lavee, H.

    2015-01-01

    Hortonian overland-flow is responsible for significant amounts of soil loss in Mediterranean geomorphological systems. Restoring the native vegetation is the most effective way to control runoff and sediment yield. During the seeding and plant establishment, vegetation cover may be better sustained if soil is amended with an external source. Four amendments were applied in an experimental set of plots: straw mulching (SM); mulch with chipped branches of Aleppo Pine (Pinus halepensis L.) (PM); TerraCottem hydroabsorbent polymer (HP); and sewage sludge (RU). Plots were afforested following the same spatial pattern, and amendments were mixed with the soil at the rate 10 Mg ha- 1. This research demonstrates the role played by the treatments in overland flow generation mechanism. On one hand, the high macroporosity of SM and PM, together with the fact that soil moisture increased with depth, explains weak overland flow and thus low sediment yield due to saturation conditions. Therefore, regarding overland flow and sediment yield, RU behaves similarly to SM and PM. On the other hand, when HP was applied, overland flow developed quickly with relatively high amounts. This, together with the decrease downward in soil moisture along the soil profile, proved that mechanisms of overland flow are of the Hortonian type.

  11. Overland flow generation mechanisms affected by topsoil treatment: Application to soil conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González Paloma, Hueso; Juan Francisco, Martinez-Murillo; Damian, Ruiz-Sinoga Jose; Hanoch, Lavee

    2015-04-01

    Hortonian overland-flow is responsible for significant amounts of soil loss in Mediterranean geomorphological systems. Restoring the native vegetation is the most effective way to control runoff and sediment yield. During the seeding and plant establishment, vegetation cover may be better sustained if soil is amended with an external source. Four amendments were applied in an experimental set of plots: straw mulching (SM); mulch with chipped branches of Aleppo Pine (Pinus halepensis L.) (PM); TerraCotten hydroabsobent polymers (HP); sewage sludge (RU); and control (C). Plots were afforested following the same spatial pattern, and amendments were mixed with the soil at the rate 10 Mg ha-1. This research demonstrates the role played by the treatments in overland flow generation mechanism (runoff, overland flow and soil moisture along the soil profile). The general overland flow characteristics showed that in the C plots the average overland flow was 8.0 ± 22.0 l per event, and the HP plots produced a similar mean value (8.1 ± 20.1 l). The average overland flow per event was significantly less for soil amended with SM, PM or RU (2.7 ± 8.3 l; 1.3 ± 3.5 l and 2.2 ± 5.9 l, respectively). There was a similar trend with respect to the maximum overland flow. The mean sediment yield per event was relatively high in the C and HP plots (8.6 ± 27.8 kg and 14.8 ± 43.4 kg, respectively), while significantly lower values were registered in the SM, PM and RU plots (0.4 ± 1.0 kg; 0.2 ± 0.3 kg and 0.2 ± 0.3 kg, respectively). Very similar trends were found for the maximum sediment yield. Regarding to the soil moisture values, there was a difference in the trends between the C and HP plots and the SM, PM and RU plots. In the C and HP plots the general trend was for a decrease in soil moisture downward through the soil profile, while in the SM, PM and RU plots the soil moisture remained relatively constant or increased, except for the RU treatment in which the soil moisture

  12. Adrenergic and serotonin receptors affect retinal superoxide generation in diabetic mice: relationship to capillary degeneration and permeability

    PubMed Central

    Du, Yunpeng; Cramer, Megan; Lee, Chieh Allen; Tang, Jie; Muthusamy, Arivalagan; Antonetti, David A.; Jin, Hui; Palczewski, Krzysztof; Kern, Timothy S.

    2015-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species play an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. We studied the role of adrenergic and serotonin receptors in the generation of superoxide by retina and 661W retinal cells in high glucose and of the α1-adrenergic receptor (AR) on vascular lesions of the retinopathy in experimentally diabetic C57Bl/6J mice (and controls) after 2 and 8 months. Compared with 5 mM glucose, incubating cells or retinal explants in 30 mM glucose induced superoxide generation. This response was reduced or ablated by pharmacologic inhibition of the α1-AR (a Gq-coupled receptor) or Gs-coupled serotonin (5-HT2, 5-HT4, 5-HT6, and 5-HT7) receptors or by activation of the Gi-coupled α2-AR. In elevated glucose, the α1-AR produced superoxide via phospholipase C, inositol triphosphate-induced Ca2+ release, and NADPH oxidase, and pharmacologic inhibition of these reactions prevented the superoxide increase. Generation of retinal superoxide, expression of proinflammatory proteins, and degeneration of retinal capillaries in diabetes all were significantly inhibited with daily doxazosin or apocynin (inhibitors of α1-AR and NADPH oxidase, respectively), but increased vascular permeability was not significantly affected. Adrenergic receptors, and perhaps other GPCRs, represent novel targets for inhibiting the development of important features of diabetic retinopathy.—Du, Y., Cramer, M., Lee, C. A., Tang, J., Muthusamy, A., Antonetti, D. A., Jin, H., Palczewski, K., Kern, T. S. Adrenergic and serotonin receptors affect retinal superoxide generation in diabetic mice: relationship to capillary degeneration and permeability. PMID:25667222

  13. Engineering the Implementation of Pumped Hydro Energy Storage in the Arizona Power Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, William Jesse J.

    This thesis addresses the issue of making an economic case for bulk energy storage in the Arizona bulk power system. Pumped hydro energy storage (PHES) is used in this study. Bulk energy storage has often been suggested for large scale electric power systems in order to levelize load (store energy when it is inexpensive [energy demand is low] and discharge energy when it is expensive [energy demand is high]). It also has the potential to provide opportunities to avoid transmission and generation expansion, and provide for generation reserve margins. As the level of renewable energy resources increases, the uncertainty and variability of wind and solar resources may be improved by bulk energy storage technologies. For this study, the MATLab software platform is used, a mathematical based modeling language, optimization solvers (specifically Gurobi), and a power flow solver (PowerWorld) are used to simulate an economic dispatch problem that includes energy storage and transmission losses. A program is created which utilizes quadratic programming to analyze various cases using a 2010 summer peak load from the Arizona portion of the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) system. Actual data from industry are used in this test bed. In this thesis, the full capabilities of Gurobi are not utilized (e.g., integer variables, binary variables). However, the formulation shown here does create a platform such that future, more sophisticated modeling may readily be incorporated. The developed software is used to assess the Arizona test bed with a low level of energy storage to study how the storage power limit effects several optimization outputs such as the system wide operating costs. Large levels of energy storage are then added to see how high level energy storage affects peak shaving, load factor, and other system applications. Finally, various constraint relaxations are made to analyze why the applications tested eventually approach a constant value. This

  14. Adrenergic and serotonin receptors affect retinal superoxide generation in diabetic mice: relationship to capillary degeneration and permeability.

    PubMed

    Du, Yunpeng; Cramer, Megan; Lee, Chieh Allen; Tang, Jie; Muthusamy, Arivalagan; Antonetti, David A; Jin, Hui; Palczewski, Krzysztof; Kern, Timothy S

    2015-05-01

    Reactive oxygen species play an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. We studied the role of adrenergic and serotonin receptors in the generation of superoxide by retina and 661W retinal cells in high glucose and of the α1-adrenergic receptor (AR) on vascular lesions of the retinopathy in experimentally diabetic C57Bl/6J mice (and controls) after 2 and 8 months. Compared with 5 mM glucose, incubating cells or retinal explants in 30 mM glucose induced superoxide generation. This response was reduced or ablated by pharmacologic inhibition of the α1-AR (a Gq-coupled receptor) or Gs-coupled serotonin (5-HT2, 5-HT4, 5-HT6, and 5-HT7) receptors or by activation of the Gi-coupled α2-AR. In elevated glucose, the α1-AR produced superoxide via phospholipase C, inositol triphosphate-induced Ca(2+) release, and NADPH oxidase, and pharmacologic inhibition of these reactions prevented the superoxide increase. Generation of retinal superoxide, expression of proinflammatory proteins, and degeneration of retinal capillaries in diabetes all were significantly inhibited with daily doxazosin or apocynin (inhibitors of α1-AR and NADPH oxidase, respectively), but increased vascular permeability was not significantly affected. Adrenergic receptors, and perhaps other GPCRs, represent novel targets for inhibiting the development of important features of diabetic retinopathy. PMID:25667222

  15. 76 FR 8728 - Bear Creek Hydro Associates, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Bear Creek Hydro Associates, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application... new, 250-kilowatt (kW) generator would be installed. The estimated annual power generation for...

  16. Implications of the Bangor Hydro decision on FERC relicensings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pizzi, L.

    1997-01-01

    In the next 15 years, over 400 existing nonfederal dams will require new licenses by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) in order to continue operations. In many cases, state or federal agencies have a unique opportunity to condition the hydropower licenses to protect environmental values. In 1996, the Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit issued an opinion striking down a mandatory license condition imposed by the U.S. Department of the Interior in a FERC relicensing. The case, Bangor Hydro-Electric Company v.Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, is instructive for agencies regarding the procedures to be followed in imposing mandatory FERC licensing conditions in the future. After Bangor Hydro, agencies should: (1) support their decisions by substantial evidence in the FERC record, (2) request applicant studies to support agency decisions and allow public comment on the decisions as a means to test the facts and analysis, and (3) consider intervening in a case to defend the condition on appeal. Bangor Hydro also raises, but does not decide, the issue of whether the agency imposing the mandatory condition should engage in balancing the economics of the hydropower project with the public resources affected by the project.

  17. PTTI applications at Hydro-Quebec

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Missout, G.; Beland, J.; Bedard, G.

    1981-01-01

    As a power utility, Hydro-Quebec used the PTTI techniques. The time dissemination system in the Hydro-Quebec Network (11th PTTI) is now installed in several points. A portable clock was built using a rubidium standard and associated circuitry which are necessary for the measurements. The apparatus and the experimental results obtained are described. The use of GOES synchronized clocks for making precise voltage angle measurement on the Hydro-Quebec Network is discussed. Some modifications were made on a commercial unit. Applications and results are presented.

  18. Scheduling hydro power systems with restricted operating zones and discharge ramping constraints

    SciTech Connect

    Guan, X.; Svoboda, Al; Li, C.

    1999-02-01

    An optimization-based algorithm is presented for scheduling hydro power systems with restricted operating zones and discharge ramping constraints. Hydro watershed scheduling problems are difficult to solve because many constraints, continuous and discrete, including hydraulic coupling of cascaded reservoirs have to be considered. Restricted or forbidden operating zones as well as minimum generation limits of hydro units result in discontinuous preferred operating regions, and hinder direct applications of efficient continuous optimization methods such as network flow algorithms. Discharge ramping constraints due to navigational, environmental and recreational requirements in a hydro system add another dimension of difficulty since they couple generation or water discharge across time horizon. The key idea of this paper is to use additional sets of multipliers to relax discontinuous operating region and discharge ramping constraints on individual hydro units so that a two-level optimization structure is formed. The low level consists of a continuous discharge scheduling subproblem determining the generation levels of all units in the entire watershed, and a number of pure integer scheduling subproblems determining the hydro operating states, one for each unit. The discharge subproblem is solved by a network flow algorithm, and the integer scheduling problems are solved by dynamic programming with a small number of states and well-structured transitions. The two sets of subproblems are coordinated through multipliers updated at the high level by using a modified subgradient algorithm. After the dual problem converges, a feasible hydro schedule is obtained by using the same network flow algorithm with the operating states obtained, and operating ranges modified to guarantee satisfaction of ramping constraints.

  19. HydroShare: An online, collaborative environment for the sharing of hydrologic data and models (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarboton, D. G.; Idaszak, R.; Horsburgh, J. S.; Ames, D.; Goodall, J. L.; Band, L. E.; Merwade, V.; Couch, A.; Arrigo, J.; Hooper, R. P.; Valentine, D. W.; Maidment, D. R.

    2013-12-01

    HydroShare is an online, collaborative system being developed for sharing hydrologic data and models. The goal of HydroShare is to enable scientists to easily discover and access data and models, retrieve them to their desktop or perform analyses in a distributed computing environment that may include grid, cloud or high performance computing model instances as necessary. Scientists may also publish outcomes (data, results or models) into HydroShare, using the system as a collaboration platform for sharing data, models and analyses. HydroShare is expanding the data sharing capability of the CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System by broadening the classes of data accommodated, creating new capability to share models and model components, and taking advantage of emerging social media functionality to enhance information about and collaboration around hydrologic data and models. One of the fundamental concepts in HydroShare is that of a Resource. All content is represented using a Resource Data Model that separates system and science metadata and has elements common to all resources as well as elements specific to the types of resources HydroShare will support. These will include different data types used in the hydrology community and models and workflows that require metadata on execution functionality. HydroShare will use the integrated Rule-Oriented Data System (iRODS) to manage federated data content and perform rule-based background actions on data and model resources, including parsing to generate metadata catalog information and the execution of models and workflows. This presentation will introduce the HydroShare functionality developed to date, describe key elements of the Resource Data Model and outline the roadmap for future development.

  20. Court refuses to reconsider Hydro-Quebec case

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    A US court has denied a request that it reconsider a decision upholding Hydro-Quebec's $4 billion sale of 340 MW to 16 Vermont utilities. The Vermont Supreme Court issued the decision in October, rejecting arguments that the contract would result in construction of Hydro-Quebec's giant Grande Baleine (Great Whale) hydroelectric development, flooding Creek Indian lands and harming waterfowl. The Vermont Public Service Board endorsed the 340-MW sale - the continuation of a previous sale - to 24 utilities in 1990, but rejected sale of an additional 110 MW without more proof that the power is needed and that its generation would not cause undue environmental damage. Since 1990, one utility merged with another, and seven withdrew from the contract, leaving 16 buyers. The New England Coalition for Energy Efficiency and the Environment and the Grand Council of the Cree appealed the Public Service Board approval. The high court agreed with the Public Service Board that the 340-MW purchase - a fraction of Hydro-Quebec's total 24,000-MW output - is a continuation of an earlier purchase and that no new construction at James Bay is necessary to supply the power. That finding undercut arguments about Grande Baleine's effects on the Cree.

  1. 78 FR 56871 - SilverStreet Hydro, LLC; Ampersand Olcott Harbor Hydro, LLC; Notice of Transfer of Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission SilverStreet Hydro, LLC; Ampersand Olcott Harbor Hydro, LLC; Notice of... 15, 1986,\\1\\ has been transferred from SilverStreet Hydro, LLC to Ampersand Olcott Harbor Hydro,...

  2. 75 FR 71104 - Lock Hydro Friends Fund XXXV; FFP Missouri 7, LLC; Dashields Hydro, LLC; Notice of Competing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-22

    ... Intervene November 15, 2010. On May 18, 2010, Lock Hydro Friends Fund XXXV, FFP Missouri 7, LLC, and Dashields Hydro, LLC filed applications, pursuant to section 4(f) of the Federal Power Act, proposing to...; Project No. 13779-000] Lock Hydro Friends Fund XXXV; FFP Missouri 7, LLC; Dashields Hydro, LLC; Notice...

  3. 78 FR 21931 - Pelzer Hydro Company, Inc. Consolidated Hydro Southeast, Inc.; Notice of Intent To File License...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-12

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Pelzer Hydro Company, Inc. Consolidated Hydro Southeast, Inc.; Notice...: November 11, 2012. d. Submitted by: Pelzer Hydro Company, Inc. and Consolidated Hydro Southeast, Inc., both fully owned subsidiaries of Enel Green Power North America, Inc. e. Name of Projects: Upper...

  4. 75 FR 73064 - Lock Hydro Friends Fund XLI; Allegheny 7 Hydro, LLC; Notice of Competing Preliminary Permit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-29

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Lock Hydro Friends Fund XLI; Allegheny 7 Hydro, LLC; Notice of Competing... 19, 2010. On May 18, 2010, Lock Hydro Friends Fund XLI, and Allegheny 7 Hydro, LLC filed applications, pursuant to section 4(f) of the Federal Power Act, proposing to study the feasibility of hydropower at...

  5. 77 FR 13316 - FFP Project 91, LLC, Riverbank Hydro No. 23, LLC, Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund III; Notice Announcing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission FFP Project 91, LLC, Riverbank Hydro No. 23, LLC, Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund.... 2. Riverbank Hydro No. 23, LLC: Project No. 14279-000. 3. Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund III: Project...

  6. 76 FR 67720 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXV; Riverbank Hydro No. 4, LLC; Notice Announcing Filing Priority for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXV; Riverbank Hydro No. 4, LLC; Notice Announcing... priority is as follows: 1. Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXV--Project No. 14136-000 2. Riverbank Hydro No....

  7. 75 FR 14437 - North Eastern Wisconsin Hydro Inc. (N.E.W. Hydro); Notice of Intent To File License Application...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-25

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission North Eastern Wisconsin Hydro Inc. (N.E.W. Hydro); Notice of Intent To File.... Submitted by: North Eastern Wisconsin Hydro, Inc. (N.E.W. Hydro) e. Name of Project: Menominee/Park Mill...-4628. i. FERC Contact: Mark Ivy, (202) 502-6156 or by e-mail at mark.ivy@ferc.gov . j. N.E.W....

  8. Hydro Impact Basin Ribbon-Cutting Ceremony

    NASA Video Gallery

    August 9, 2011 -- Ribbon-cutting ceremony for the Hydro Impact Basin at NASA's Langley Research Center in Hampton, Va. The HIB expands NASA's capability to test and certify future spacecraft for wa...

  9. Making friends for hydro: Providing recreational opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Cosgrove, J.M. )

    1991-07-01

    One northeastern U.S. utility has been forming friendly ties with the public, offering recreation amenities at its hydro projects. As a result, the company has a strong base of public support as it enters relicensing.

  10. Analysis of Pre-Analytic Factors Affecting the Success of Clinical Next-Generation Sequencing of Solid Organ Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hui; Luthra, Rajyalakshmi; Goswami, Rashmi S.; Singh, Rajesh R.; Roy-Chowdhuri, Sinchita

    2015-01-01

    Application of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology to routine clinical practice has enabled characterization of personalized cancer genomes to identify patients likely to have a response to targeted therapy. The proper selection of tumor sample for downstream NGS based mutational analysis is critical to generate accurate results and to guide therapeutic intervention. However, multiple pre-analytic factors come into play in determining the success of NGS testing. In this review, we discuss pre-analytic requirements for AmpliSeq PCR-based sequencing using Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM) (Life Technologies), a NGS sequencing platform that is often used by clinical laboratories for sequencing solid tumors because of its low input DNA requirement from formalin fixed and paraffin embedded tissue. The success of NGS mutational analysis is affected not only by the input DNA quantity but also by several other factors, including the specimen type, the DNA quality, and the tumor cellularity. Here, we review tissue requirements for solid tumor NGS based mutational analysis, including procedure types, tissue types, tumor volume and fraction, decalcification, and treatment effects. PMID:26343728

  11. Enrofloxacin hydro-chloride dihydrate.

    PubMed

    Miranda-Calderón, Jorge E; Gutiérrez, Lilia; Flores-Alamo, Marcos; García-Gutiérrez, Ponciano; Sumano, Héctor

    2014-04-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C19H23FN3O3 (+)·Cl(-)·2H2O [systematic name: 4-(3-carb-oxy-1-cyclo-propyl-6-fluoro-4-oxo-1,4-di-hydro-quin-o-lin-7-yl)-1-ethyl-piperazin-1-ium chloride dihydrate], consists of two independent monocations of the protonated enrofloxacin, two chloride anions and four water mol-ecules. In the cations, the piperazinium rings adopt chair conformations and the dihedral angles between the cyclo-propyl ring and the 10-membered quinoline ring system are 56.55 (2) and 51.11 (2)°. An intra-molecular O-H⋯O hydrogen bond is observed in each cation. In the crystal, the components are connected via O-H⋯Cl, N-H⋯Cl and O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, and a π-π inter-action between the benzene rings [centroid-centroid distance = 3.6726 (13) Å], resulting in a three-dimensional array. PMID:24826167

  12. 78 FR 56224 - Hydro Nelson, Ltd.; Hydro-WM, LLC; Notice of Transfer of Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Hydro Nelson, Ltd.; Hydro-WM, LLC; Notice of Transfer of Exemption 1. By... in Nelson County, Virginia. The transfer of an exemption does not require Commission approval. \\1\\...

  13. 78 FR 2985 - Moretown Hydro Energy Company; Ampersand Moretown Hydro, LLC; Notice of Application for Transfer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Moretown Hydro Energy Company; Ampersand Moretown Hydro, LLC; Notice of Application for Transfer of License, and Soliciting Comments and Motions To Intervene On September 25,...

  14. A Hydro-Economic Model for Water Level Fluctuations: Combining Limnology with Economics for Sustainable Development of Hydropower

    PubMed Central

    Hirsch, Philipp Emanuel; Schillinger, Sebastian; Weigt, Hannes; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Water level fluctuations in lakes lead to shoreline displacement. The seasonality of flooding or beaching of the littoral area affects nutrient cycling, redox gradients in sediments, and life cycles of aquatic organisms. Despite the ecological importance of water level fluctuations, we still lack a method that assesses water levels in the context of hydropower operations. Water levels in reservoirs are influenced by the operator of a hydropower plant, who discharges water through the turbines or stores water in the reservoir, in a fashion that maximizes profit. This rationale governs the seasonal operation scheme and hence determines the water levels within the boundaries of the reservoir's water balance. For progress towards a sustainable development of hydropower, the benefits of this form of electricity generation have to be weighed against the possible detrimental effects of the anthropogenic water level fluctuations. We developed a hydro-economic model that combines an economic optimization function with hydrological estimators of the water balance of a reservoir. Applying this model allowed us to accurately predict water level fluctuations in a reservoir. The hydro-economic model also allowed for scenario calculation of how water levels change with climate change scenarios and with a change in operating scheme of the reservoir (increase in turbine capacity). Further model development will enable the consideration of a variety of additional parameters, such as water withdrawal for irrigation, drinking water supply, or altered energy policies. This advances our ability to sustainably manage water resources that must meet both economic and environmental demands. PMID:25526619

  15. A hydro-economic model for water level fluctuations: combining limnology with economics for sustainable development of hydropower.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, Philipp Emanuel; Schillinger, Sebastian; Weigt, Hannes; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Water level fluctuations in lakes lead to shoreline displacement. The seasonality of flooding or beaching of the littoral area affects nutrient cycling, redox gradients in sediments, and life cycles of aquatic organisms. Despite the ecological importance of water level fluctuations, we still lack a method that assesses water levels in the context of hydropower operations. Water levels in reservoirs are influenced by the operator of a hydropower plant, who discharges water through the turbines or stores water in the reservoir, in a fashion that maximizes profit. This rationale governs the seasonal operation scheme and hence determines the water levels within the boundaries of the reservoir's water balance. For progress towards a sustainable development of hydropower, the benefits of this form of electricity generation have to be weighed against the possible detrimental effects of the anthropogenic water level fluctuations. We developed a hydro-economic model that combines an economic optimization function with hydrological estimators of the water balance of a reservoir. Applying this model allowed us to accurately predict water level fluctuations in a reservoir. The hydro-economic model also allowed for scenario calculation of how water levels change with climate change scenarios and with a change in operating scheme of the reservoir (increase in turbine capacity). Further model development will enable the consideration of a variety of additional parameters, such as water withdrawal for irrigation, drinking water supply, or altered energy policies. This advances our ability to sustainably manage water resources that must meet both economic and environmental demands. PMID:25526619

  16. Multi-epitope Models Explain How Pre-existing Antibodies Affect the Generation of Broadly Protective Responses to Influenza

    PubMed Central

    Zarnitsyna, Veronika I.; Lavine, Jennie; Ellebedy, Ali; Ahmed, Rafi; Antia, Rustom

    2016-01-01

    The development of next-generation influenza vaccines that elicit strain-transcendent immunity against both seasonal and pandemic viruses is a key public health goal. Targeting the evolutionarily conserved epitopes on the stem of influenza’s major surface molecule, hemagglutinin, is an appealing prospect, and novel vaccine formulations show promising results in animal model systems. However, studies in humans indicate that natural infection and vaccination result in limited boosting of antibodies to the stem of HA, and the level of stem-specific antibody elicited is insufficient to provide broad strain-transcendent immunity. Here, we use mathematical models of the humoral immune response to explore how pre-existing immunity affects the ability of vaccines to boost antibodies to the head and stem of HA in humans, and, in particular, how it leads to the apparent lack of boosting of broadly cross-reactive antibodies to the stem epitopes. We consider hypotheses where binding of antibody to an epitope: (i) results in more rapid clearance of the antigen; (ii) leads to the formation of antigen-antibody complexes which inhibit B cell activation through Fcγ receptor-mediated mechanism; and (iii) masks the epitope and prevents the stimulation and proliferation of specific B cells. We find that only epitope masking but not the former two mechanisms to be key in recapitulating patterns in data. We discuss the ramifications of our findings for the development of vaccines against both seasonal and pandemic influenza. PMID:27336297

  17. Meteorological Processes Affecting the Transport of Emissions from the Navajo Generating Station to Grand Canyon National Park.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsey, Charles G.; Chen, Jun; Dye, Timothy S.; Willard Richards, L.; Blumenthal, Donald L.

    1999-08-01

    During the 1990 Navajo Generating Station (NGS) Winter Visibility Study, a network of surface and upper-air meteorological measurement systems was operated in and around Grand Canyon National Park to investigate atmospheric processes in complex terrain that affected the transport of emissions from the nearby NGS. This network included 15 surface monitoring stations, eight balloon sounding stations (equipped with a mix of rawinsonde, tethersonde, and Airsonde sounding systems), three Doppler radar wind profilers, and four Doppler sodars. Measurements were made from 10 January through 31 March 1990. Data from this network were used to prepare objectively analyzed wind fields, trajectories, and streak lines to represent transport of emissions from the NGS, and to prepare isentropic analyses of the data. The results of these meteorological analyses were merged in the form of a computer animation that depicted the streak line analyses along with measurements of perfluorocarbon tracer, SO2, and sulfate aerosol concentrations, as well as visibility measurements collected by an extensive surface monitoring network. These analyses revealed that synoptic-scale circulations associated with the passage of low pressure systems followed by the formation of high pressure ridges accompanied the majority of cases when NGS emittants appeared to be transported to the Grand Canyon. The authors' results also revealed terrain influences on transport within the topography of the study area, especially mesoscale flows inside the Lake Powell basin and along the plain above the Marble Canyon.

  18. Factors affecting the appreciation generated through applying human factors/ergonomics (HFE) principles to systems of work.

    PubMed

    So, R H Y; Lam, S T

    2014-01-01

    This retrospective study examined the levels of appreciation (applause) given by clients to Human Factors/Ergonomic (HFE) specialists after they have modified the systems of work. Thirteen non-academic projects were chosen because the HFE interventions involved changed the way workers work at their workplaces. Companies involved range from multi-national corporations and military organizations with thousands of employees to small trading companies with less than 10 employees. In 5 cases the HFE recommendations were fully adopted and well appreciated. In 4 they were largely ignored and not appreciated, with partial adoption and some appreciation in the other 4 cases. Three factors that predict appreciation were identified: (i) alignment between the benefits HFE can provide and the project's key performance indices; (ii) awareness of HFE among the client's senior management; and (iii) a team organization appropriate for applying HFE recommendations. Having an HFE specialist on the client's side can greatly increase levels of appreciation, but lack of such a specialist will not affect levels of appreciation. A clear contractual requirement for HFE intervention does not promote appreciation significantly, but its absence can greatly reduce levels of appreciation. These relationships are discussed using the Kano's model of quality. Means to generate greater appreciation of the benefits of HFE are discussed. PMID:23726141

  19. Tapping rocks for Terror Lake hydro project

    SciTech Connect

    Sieber, O.V.

    1983-12-01

    The Terror Lake hydro project in Alaska is described. Terror Lake is a small alpine lake surrounded by barren glacier-scoured, rocky mountain tops and plateaus that do not retain moisture. The method for obtaining more water for the hydro project in Kodiak is unique. The basic program was to dam up the outlet of Terror Lake and raise the water level 170 ft. from approximately 1250 ft. above sea level to 1420 ft. Although the megawatt output of the project is small, the concept of the Terror Lake Project has an epic scale to it.

  20. A Fusion Model of Seismic and Hydro-Acoustic Propagation for Treaty Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arora, Nimar; Prior, Mark

    2014-05-01

    We present an extension to NET-VISA (Network Processing Vertically Integrated Seismic Analysis), which is a probabilistic generative model of the propagation of seismic waves and their detection on a global scale, to incorporate hydro-acoustic data from the IMS (International Monitoring System) network. The new model includes the coupling of seismic waves into the ocean's SOFAR channel, as well as the propagation of hydro-acoustic waves from underwater explosions. The generative model is described in terms of multiple possible hypotheses -- seismic-to-hydro-acoustic, under-water explosion, other noise sources such as whales singing or icebergs breaking up -- that could lead to signal detections. We decompose each hypothesis into conditional probability distributions that are carefully analyzed and calibrated. These distributions include ones for detection probabilities, blockage in the SOFAR channel (including diffraction, refraction, and reflection around obstacles), energy attenuation, and other features of the resulting waveforms. We present a study of the various features that are extracted from the hydro-acoustic waveforms, and their correlations with each other as well the source of the energy. Additionally, an inference algorithm is presented that concurrently infers the seismic and under-water events, and associates all arrivals (aka triggers), both from seismic and hydro-acoustic stations, to the appropriate event, and labels the path taken by the wave. Finally, our results demonstrate that this fusion of seismic and hydro-acoustic data leads to very good performance. A majority of the under-water events that IDC (International Data Center) analysts built in 2010 are correctly located, and the arrivals that correspond to seismic-to-hydroacoustic coupling, the T phases, are mostly correctly identified. There is no loss in the accuracy of seismic events, in fact, there is a slight overall improvement.

  1. Acoustic Propagation Modeling for Marine Hydro-Kinetic Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, C. N.; Johnson, E.

    2014-12-01

    The combination of riverine, tidal, and wave energy have the potential to supply over one third of the United States' annual electricity demand. However, in order to deploy and test prototypes, and commercial installations, marine hydrokinetic (MHK) devices must meet strict regulatory guidelines that determine the maximum amount of noise that can be generated and sets particular thresholds for determining disturbance and injury caused by noise. An accurate model for predicting the propagation of a MHK source in a real-life hydro-acoustic environment has been established. This model will help promote the growth and viability of marine, water, and hydrokinetic energy by confidently assuring federal regulations are meet and harmful impacts to marine fish and wildlife are minimal. Paracousti, a finite difference solution to the acoustic equations, was originally developed for sound propagation in atmospheric environments and has been successfully validated for a number of different geophysical activities. The three-dimensional numerical implementation is advantageous over other acoustic propagation techniques for a MHK application where the domains of interest have complex 3D interactions from the seabed, banks, and other shallow water effects. A number of different cases for hydro-acoustic environments have been validated by both analytical and numerical results from canonical and benchmark problems. This includes a variety of hydrodynamic and physical environments that may be present in a potential MHK application including shallow and deep water, sloping, and canyon type bottoms, with varying sound speed and density profiles. With the model successfully validated for hydro-acoustic environments more complex and realistic MHK sources from turbines and/or arrays can be modeled.

  2. 77 FR 77070 - Black Bear Hydro Partners, LLC;

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-31

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Black Bear Hydro Partners, LLC; Notice of Intent To File License Application...-filing Process. b. Project No.: 2727-086. c. Dated Filed: October 24, 2012. d. Submitted By: Black Bear Hydro Partners, LLC (Black Bear Hydro). e. Name of Project: Ellsworth Hydroelectric Project. f....

  3. Computer forecasting: The future of hydro management

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D.E.; Stover, C.M.

    1994-06-01

    Hydro managers must consider the demands of power production, flood control, environmental mitigation, and downstream water use when making decisions about operating their facilities. Alabama Power Company uses a computer-based real-time decision support system to achieve the best balance possible among the competing uses.

  4. LANL hydro test update(u)

    SciTech Connect

    Aragon, Ezekiel D

    2011-01-06

    Briefings presenting W78 programmatic activities for FY11 and the status and plan for associated Hydro 3617, is included wherewith in support of the NNSA W78 Program Review Meeting scheduled for January 11 thru 13, 2011, at the Savannah River Plant, SC.

  5. Generations.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2005-01-01

    Groups naturally promote their strengths and prefer values and rules that give them an identity and an advantage. This shows up as generational tensions across cohorts who share common experiences, including common elders. Dramatic cultural events in America since 1925 can help create an understanding of the differing value structures of the Silents, the Boomers, Gen Xers, and the Millennials. Differences in how these generations see motivation and values, fundamental reality, relations with others, and work are presented, as are some applications of these differences to the dental profession. PMID:16623137

  6. HydroQGIS: Hydrological Geospatial Data Manipulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frazier, N.

    2015-12-01

    Many aspects of hydrology are tightly coupled with geospatial data. For this reason, geospatial information systems (GIS) are often incorporated into work flows for analyzing hydrological data. These disjoint work flows, however, often require many steps and different applications to achieve the desired results. Simplifying the workflow involved in regional flood peak scaling studies motivated the creation of the HydroQGIS plugin. Flood frequency analysis presents one of the largest hurdles in studying regional flood peak scaling. HydroQGIS aids these studies with a set of tools that reduce the time to perform flood frequency analsyis on USGS gauging stations. HydroQGIS is a framework for hydrological geospatial plugin development for Quantum GIS (QGIS). It uses the cross-platform nature of QGIS, QT, and Python to create a set of tools to help simplify the work flow of hydrological data searching, gathering, and analysis into a single application that can be used by users on any platform. HydroQGIS combines the Quantum GIS plugin framework with various web-services to couple data and analysis in a uniform environment. QGIS provides a fully functioning GIS application on top of which plugins can be developed. The HydroQGIS plugin focuses on data acquisition and analysis from the geospatial domain. The design of HydroQGIS facilitates quick development of additional tools, used independently or in conjunction with other developed utilities, to streamline data acquisition and analysis. HydroQGIS currently implements an Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Watershed Delineation tool using the EPA Waters web service, as well as a United States Geological Survey (USGS) gauging station search using the USGS Instantaneous Values web service. These tools provide a unified GIS interface that allows users to locate and map gauging stations and watersheds using any base map of their choice. These tools, while useful by themselves, also support a flood frequency analysis (FFA

  7. 77 FR 9916 - Riverbank Hydro No. 2, LLC; Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXVI; Notice Announcing Preliminary Permit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Riverbank Hydro No. 2, LLC; Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXVI; Notice... for Project No. 14130-000 and Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXVI for Project No. 14137-000. \\1\\ Under...

  8. 77 FR 10740 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund VIII, FFP Project 92, LLC, Riverbank Hydro No. 24, LLC; Notice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund VIII, FFP Project 92, LLC, Riverbank Hydro No. 24... Madison Counties, Kentucky. The applications were filed by Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund VIII for Project...

  9. 77 FR 13317 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XVIII, Upper Hydroelectric, LLC, FFP Project 95, LLC, Riverbank Hydro No...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XVIII, Upper Hydroelectric, LLC, FFP Project 95...+ Hydro Friends Fund XVIII: Project No. 14261-000. 2. Riverbank Hydro No. 25, LLC: Project No....

  10. 77 FR 10741 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XII, BOST2, LLC, Riverbank Hydro No. 21, LLC, FFP Project 96, LLC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XII, BOST2, LLC, Riverbank Hydro No. 21, LLC..., in Greene and Hale counties, Alabama. The applications were filed by Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XII...

  11. 76 FR 65720 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXV, Riverbank Hydro No. 4, LLC; Notice Announcing Preliminary Permit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXV, Riverbank Hydro No. 4, LLC; Notice Announcing..., Minnesota, and Buffalo County, Wisconsin.\\1\\ The applications were filed by Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund...

  12. 77 FR 37035 - Goose River Hydro, Inc.; Independence Hydro, LLC; Notice of Application for Transfer of License...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-20

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Goose River Hydro, Inc.; Independence Hydro, LLC; Notice of Application for Transfer of License, and Soliciting Comments and Motions to Intervene On June 6, 2012, Goose River Hydro... license for the Goose River Project (FERC No. 2804), located on the Goose River in Waldo County,...

  13. High Resolution Hydro-climatological Projections for Western Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erler, Andre Richard

    Accurate identification of the impact of global warming on water resources and hydro-climatic extremes represents a significant challenge to the understanding of climate change on the regional scale. Here an analysis of hydro-climatic changes in western Canada is presented, with specific focus on the Fraser and Athabasca River basins and on changes in hydro-climatic extremes. The analysis is based on a suite of simulations designed to characterize internal variability, as well as model uncertainty. A small ensemble of Community Earth System Model version 1 (CESM1) simulations was employed to generate global climate projections, which were downscaled to 10 km resolution using the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF V3.4.1) with several sets of physical parameterizations. Downscaling was performed for a historical validation period and a mid- and end-21st-century projection period, using the RCP8.5 greenhouse gas trajectory. Daily station observations and monthly gridded datasets were used for validation. Changes in hydro-climatic extremes are characterized using Extreme Value Analysis. A novel method of aggregating data from climatologically similar stations was employed to increase the statistical power of the analysis. Changes in mean and extreme precipitation are found to differ strongly between seasons and regions, but (relative) changes in extremes generally follow changes in the (seasonal) mean. At the end of the 21st century, precipitation and precipitation extremes are projected to increase by 30% at the coast in fall and land-inwards in winter, while the projected increase in summer precipitation is smaller and changes in extremes are often not statistically significant. Reasons for the differences between seasons, the role of precipitation recycling in atmospheric water transport, and the sensitivity to physics parameterizations are discussed. Major changes are projected for the Fraser River basin, including earlier snowmelt and a 50% reduction in

  14. Quality of random number generators significantly affects results of Monte Carlo simulations for organic and biological systems

    PubMed Central

    Click, Timothy H.; Kaminski, George A.; Liu, Aibing B.

    2010-01-01

    We have simulated pure liquid butane, methanol and hydrated alanine polypeptide with the Monte Carlo technique using three kinds of random number generators - the standard Linear Congruential Generator (LCG), a modification of the LCG with additional randomization used in the BOSS software, and the “Mersenne Twister” generator by Matsumoto and Nishimura. While using the latter two random number generators leads to reasonably similar physical features, the LCG produces a significant different results. For the pure fluids, a noticeable expansion occurs. Using the original LCG on butane yields a molecular volume of 171.4 Å3 per molecule compared to ca. 163.6–163.9 Å3 for the other two generators, a deviation of about 5%. For methanol, the LCG produces an average volume of 86.3 Å3 per molecule, which is about 24% higher than the 68.8–70.2 Å3 obtained with the random number generator in BOSS and the generator by Matsumoto and Nishimura. In case of the hydrated tridecaalanine peptide, the volume and energy tend to be noticeably greater with the LCG than with the BOSS (modified LCG) random number generator. For the simulated hydrated extended conformation of tridecaalanine, the difference in volume reached ca. 87%. The uniformity and periodicity of the generators do not seem to play the crucial role in these phenomena. We conclude that it is important to test a random number generator by modeling a system such as the pure liquid methanol with a well-established force field before routinely employing it in Monte Carlo simulations. PMID:20734313

  15. Earthquake design criteria for small hydro projects in the Philippines

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, P.P.; McCandless, D.H.; Asce, M.

    1995-12-31

    The definition of the seismic environment and seismic design criteria of more than twenty small hydro projects in the northern part of the island of Luzon in the Philippines took a special urgency on the wake of the Magnitude 7.7 earthquake that shook the island on July 17, 1990. The paper describes the approach followed to determine design shaking level criteria at each hydro site consistent with the seismic environment estimated at that same site. The approach consisted of three steps: (1) Seismicity: understanding the mechanisms and tectonic features susceptible to generate seismicity and estimating the associated seismicity levels, (2) Seismic Hazard: in the absence of an accurate historical record, using statistics to determine the expected level of ground shaking at a site during the operational 100-year design life of each Project, and (3) Criteria Selection: finally and most importantly, exercising judgment in estimating the final proposed level of shaking at each site. The resulting characteristics of estimated seismicity and seismic hazard and the proposed final earthquake design criteria are provided.

  16. Hydrogen generation from Al-NiCl2/NaBH4 mixture affected by lanthanum metal.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wen Qiang; Fan, Mei-Qiang; Fei, Yong; Pan, Hua; Wang, Liang Liang; Yao, Jun

    2012-01-01

    The effect of La on Al/NaBH(4) hydrolysis was elaborated in the present paper. Hydrogen generation amount increases but hydrogen generation rate decreases with La content increasing. There is an optimized composition that Al-15 wt% La-5 wt% NiCl(2)/NaBH(4) mixture (Al-15 wt% La-5 wt% NiCl(2)/NaBH(4) weight ratio, 1 : 3) has 126 mL g(-1 )min(-1) maximum hydrogen generation rate and 1764 mL g(-1) hydrogen generation amount within 60 min. The efficiency is 88%. Combined with NiCl(2), La has great effect on NaBH(4) hydrolysis but has little effect on Al hydrolysis. Increasing La content is helpful to decrease the particle size of Al-La-NiCl(2) in the milling process, which induces that the hydrolysis byproduct Ni(2)B is highly distributed into Al(OH)(3) and the catalytic reactivity of Ni(2)B/Al(OH)(3) is increased therefore. But hydrolysis byproduct La(OH)(3) deposits on Al surface and leads to some side effect. The Al-La-NiCl(2)/NaBH(4) mixture has good stability in low temperature and its hydrolytic performance can be improved with increasing global temperature. Therefore, the mixture has good safety and can be applied as on board hydrogen generation material. PMID:22619596

  17. Hydrogen Generation from Al-NiCl2/NaBH4 Mixture Affected by Lanthanum Metal

    PubMed Central

    Qiang Sun, Wen; Fan, Mei-Qiang; Fei, Yong; Pan, Hua; Wang, Liang Liang; Yao, Jun

    2012-01-01

    The effect of La on Al/NaBH4 hydrolysis was elaborated in the present paper. Hydrogen generation amount increases but hydrogen generation rate decreases with La content increasing. There is an optimized composition that Al-15 wt% La-5 wt% NiCl2/NaBH4 mixture (Al-15 wt% La-5 wt% NiCl2/NaBH4 weight ratio, 1 : 3) has 126 mL g−1 min−1 maximum hydrogen generation rate and 1764 mL g−1 hydrogen generation amount within 60 min. The efficiency is 88%. Combined with NiCl2, La has great effect on NaBH4 hydrolysis but has little effect on Al hydrolysis. Increasing La content is helpful to decrease the particle size of Al-La-NiCl2 in the milling process, which induces that the hydrolysis byproduct Ni2B is highly distributed into Al(OH)3 and the catalytic reactivity of Ni2B/Al(OH)3 is increased therefore. But hydrolysis byproduct La(OH)3 deposits on Al surface and leads to some side effect. The Al-La-NiCl2/NaBH4 mixture has good stability in low temperature and its hydrolytic performance can be improved with increasing global temperature. Therefore, the mixture has good safety and can be applied as on board hydrogen generation material. PMID:22619596

  18. Quantitative trait loci affecting response to crowding stress in an F2 generation of rainbow trout produced through phenotypic selection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Selective breeding programs for salmonids typically aim to improve traits associated with growth and disease resistance. It has been established that stressors common to production environments can adversely affect these and other traits which are important to producers and consumers. Previously,...

  19. Effects of Laser-Plasma Instabilities on Hydro Evolution in Direct-Drive Inertial Confinement Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.; Hu, S. X.; Ren, C.

    2015-11-01

    Laser-plasma instabilities and hydro evolution of coronal plasmas in an OMEGA EP long-scale-length experiment with planar targets are studied with particle-in-cell (PIC) and hydrodynamics simulations. Plasma and laser conditions are first obtained in a DRACO simulation with only inverse-bremsstrahlung absorption. Using these conditions, an OSIRIS simulation is performed to study laser absorption and hot-electron generation caused by laser-plasma instabilities near the quarter-critical region. The obtained PIC information has subsequently been coupled to another DRACO simulation to examine how the laser-plasma instabilities affect the overall hydrodynamics. The results show that the more-realistic laser absorption can increase the electron temperature but only slightly changes the density scale length in the corona. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944, DE-FC02-04ER54789 (Fusion Science Center), and DE-SC0012316.

  20. Assessment of the leak tightness integrity of the steam generator tubes affected by ODSCC at the tube support plates

    SciTech Connect

    Cuvelliez, Ch.; Roussel, G.

    1997-02-01

    An EPRI report gives a method for predicting a conservative value of the total primary-to-secondary leak rate which may occur during, a postulated steam generator depressurization accident such as a Main Steam Line Break (MSLB) in a steam generator with axial through-wall ODSCC at the TSP intersections. The Belgian utility defined an alternative method deviating somewhat from the EPRI method. When reviewing this proposed method, the Belgian safety authorities performed some calculations to investigate its conservatism. This led them to recommend some modifications to the EPRI method which should reduce its undue conservatism while maintaining the objective of conservatism in the offsite dose calculations.

  1. Time dissemination in the Hydro Quebec network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Missout, G.; Lefrancois, W.; Laroche, L.

    1979-01-01

    The ever increasing complexity of electrical networks combined with the increasing cost of power losses during a network failure has led public utilities to become equipped with more powerful and precise tools for pinpointing the causes of such a fault. Hydro Quebec has developed and is now using a time dissemination system which uses a modified IRIG B code transmitted on its own telecommunication network. The reasons for using such a system and the way it was carried out are discrete.

  2. Discharge Estimation Using Hydro-Geodetic Approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, C.; Tourian, M. J.; Devaraju, B.; Riegger, J. M.; Kunstmann, H.; Sneeuw, N. J.

    2014-12-01

    The publicly available global discharge database is limited in spatial and temporal coverage. Although regional exceptions exist, the population of the database has declined over the past several years. When aiming for global scale discharge at a sufficient temporal resolution and with homogeneous accuracy, the choice to use spaceborne sensors is only a logical step. In this respect, we take water storage changes from GRACE and water level measurements from satellite altimetry and present a comprehensive assessment of 5 different hydro-geodetic approaches for river discharge prediction: hydrological balance equation, hydro-meteorological balance equation, least squares prediction using the covariance matrices out of available old in situ data, satellite altimetry with quantile function based stage-discharge relationships and a runoff-storage relationship that takes time-lag into account. As a common property these approaches do not rely on hydrological modeling; they are either purely data driven or make use of atmospheric reanalyses. The discharge estimation skill of these approaches are validated against in situ data. Our validation shows that satellite altimetry, runoff-storage and least squares prediction approaches are able to capture river discharge with an error range (relative RMSE) of less than 15% for most of the rivers under study. We are thus able to avoid the complexity of hydrological modeling for discharge estimation. Our results show that the mentioned three approaches clearly outperform the global methods (hydrological and hydro-meteorological approaches). However, the global methods have the potential to provide discharge over all landmasses ---gauged and ungauged basins alike, but are still limited due to inconsistencies in the global hydrological and hydro-meteorological datasets that they use.

  3. Influences That Affect First-Generation College Students' College Choice: A Qualitative Inquiry of Student Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cresswell-Yeager, Tiffany J.

    2012-01-01

    College choice is the three-stage process of aspiring, searching and choosing to attend college. There are many models pertaining to college choice, however, this study uses the Hossler and Gallagher Model---aspiration, search and choice. This qualitative study explored first-generation college students' perceptions about the influences…

  4. Assessing the variables affecting on the rate of solid waste generation and recycling: An empirical analysis in Prespa Park.

    PubMed

    Grazhdani, Dorina

    2016-02-01

    Economic development, urbanization, and improved living standards increase the quantity and complexity of generated solid waste. Comprehensive study of the variables influencing household solid waste production and recycling rate is crucial and fundamental for exploring the generation mechanism and forecasting future dynamics of household solid waste. The present study is employed in the case study of Prespa Park. A model, based on the interrelationships of economic, demographic, housing structure and waste management policy variables influencing the rate of solid waste generation and recycling is developed and employed. The empirical analysis is based on the information derived from a field questionnaire survey conducted in Prespa Park villages for the year 2014. Another feature of this study is to test whether a household's waste generation can be decoupled from its population growth. Descriptive statistics, bivariate correlation analysis and F-tests are used to know the relationship between variables. One-way and two-way fixed effects models data analysis techniques are used to identify variables that determine the effectiveness of waste generation and recycling at household level in the study area. The results reveal that households with heterogeneous characteristics, such as education level, mean building age and income, present different challenges of waste reduction goals. Numerically, an increase of 1% in education level of population corresponds to a waste reduction of 3kg on the annual per capita basis. A village with older buildings, in the case of one year older of the median building age, corresponds to a waste generation increase of 12kg. Other economic and policy incentives such as the mean household income, pay-as-you-throw, percentage of population with access to curbside recycling, the number of drop-off recycling facilities available per 1000 persons and cumulative expenditures on recycling education per capita are also found to be effective

  5. Secured electrical supply at least cost: Coal, gas, nuclear, hydro

    SciTech Connect

    Gavor, J.; Stary, O.; Vasicek, J.

    1995-12-01

    Electric power sector in East Central European countries finds in a difficult period. In the situation of demand stagnation, enormous investments must be realized in a very short time. Today`s decisions in the development strategy will influence the long term future of the industry. The optimal structure of the sources is one of the most important problem to be solved. Paper describes the current structure of the sources in electric power sector in the Czech Republic. The importance of coal, oil and gas, nuclear and hydro in electric power generation is compared. Taking into account the different position in the load coverage, economy of individual sources is evaluated and basic results of discounted cash flow calculations are presented. Information on specific investment programs and projects are included and further trends are estimated.

  6. Role of gustatory and postingestive actions of sweeteners in the generation of positive affect as evaluated by place preference conditioning.

    PubMed

    Agmo, A; Marroquin, E

    1997-12-01

    Either an 18% sucrose or a 0.1% saccharin solution was used as reward in a conditioned place preference procedure. The respective solution was consumed immediately before the subject was confined to the non-preferred compartment of a place preference box. In this way only the affective reaction produced by the rewarding stimulus participated in place conditioning. Non-deprived rats consumed similar quantities of the two solutions, suggesting that they were equally rewarding. Yet only sucrose induced place preference. The lack of effect of saccharin may have been due to weaker positive affect or to an inability to induce an affective state that outlasted consummatory behavior. The first possibility was evaluated in the second experiment. Food-deprived rats were subjected to a discrimination learning task in a runway with plain water, sucrose or saccharin as reinforcer. Sucrose sustained running responses and produced improvement of discrimination behavior. Saccharin had a small effect at the first sessions only. It was concluded that saccharin is less rewarding than sucrose. In a final experiment, one group of rats was injected with glucose (2 g/kg) 17 min before being introduced in the non-preferred compartment of a place preference box. Another group was given the same dose of glucose just before drinking saccharin for 15 min. Immediately thereafter place conditioning was performed. Glucose alone had no effect, while a place preference was established when glucose injection was combined with saccharin drinking. These results show that the positive affect produced by sweet substances does not outlast consummatory behavior in the absence of postabsorptive actions. PMID:9468761

  7. Hydro operational restrictions forum: Agency and NGO workshop summary. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ebrahim, S.; Monahan, C.K.; Pistor, B.; West, A.

    1998-09-01

    Relicensing reviews and other regulatory activities associated with continued operation of hydro generation projects have drawn increased attention to hydro resources. This attention has typically resulted in imposition of conditions having a substantial cost impact without, necessarily, reflecting a full appreciation of the resource`s benefits and attributes. With the extensive countrywide effort in relicensing and regulation, there is an opportunity to collect and compile lessons learned. This is particularly true with respect to preferred practices, technologies, and techniques applicable to required studies and mitigation measures. Such compilation will enable the industry and related stakeholders to improve quality and effectiveness while reducing costs of relicensing and mitigation for continued hydro operations. As a technology leader for the industry, EPRI is in a unique position to identify and document these techniques and practices. The objectives were to determine and document preferred practices, technologies, and techniques for studies and mitigation measures required for hydropower facility licensing and compliance. This report comprises the proceedings of the agency and NGO workshop. Thirteen representatives from federal and state resource agencies and environmental interest groups participated in the workshop and discussed their experience with hydro relicensing process. Attendees identified areas of the process where buy-in could be achieved for preferred practices; they also noted certain other areas where it was highly unlikely this could be accomplished.

  8. Inactivation of Geminin in neural crest cells affects the generation and maintenance of enteric progenitor cells, leading to enteric aganglionosis.

    PubMed

    Stathopoulou, Athanasia; Natarajan, Dipa; Nikolopoulou, Pinelopi; Patmanidi, Alexandra L; Lygerou, Zoi; Pachnis, Vassilis; Taraviras, Stavros

    2016-01-15

    Neural crest cells comprise a multipotent, migratory cell population that generates a diverse array of cell and tissue types, during vertebrate development. Enteric Nervous System controls the function of the gastrointestinal tract and is mainly derived from the vagal and sacral neural crest cells. Deregulation on self-renewal and differentiation of the enteric neural crest cells is evident in enteric nervous system disorders, such as Hirschsprung disease, characterized by the absence of ganglia in a variable length of the distal bowel. Here we show that Geminin is essential for Enteric Nervous System generation as mice that lacked Geminin expression specifically in neural crest cells revealed decreased generation of vagal neural crest cells, and enteric neural crest cells (ENCCs). Geminin-deficient ENCCs showed increased apoptosis and decreased cell proliferation during the early stages of gut colonization. Furthermore, decreased number of committed ENCCs in vivo and the decreased self-renewal capacity of enteric progenitor cells in vitro, resulted in almost total aganglionosis resembling a severe case of Hirschsprung disease. Our results suggest that Geminin is an important regulator of self-renewal and survival of enteric nervous system progenitor cells. PMID:26658318

  9. Background shifts affect explanatory style: how a pragmatic theory of explanation accounts for background effects in the generation of explanations.

    PubMed

    Chin-Parker, Seth; Bradner, Alexandra

    2010-08-01

    Cognitive scientists are interested in explanation because it provides a window into the cognition that underlies one's understanding of the world. We argue that the study of explanation has tended to focus on what makes an explanation "bona fide" as opposed to the processes involved in how the explanation is generated. In the current study, we asked participants to respond to the request for an explanation within a novel domain after we manipulated their initial exposure to the domain, and thus the background of the request. In two experiments, we found evidence that the background shaped participants' interpretations of the prompt for the explanation and that this, in turn, influenced whether they used a causal or functional style of explanation when responding to the prompt. We also asked participants to evaluate a number of explanations and found that the manipulation of the background did not have the same effect on the evaluative tasks. Our data support a pragmatic approach (e.g. The scientific image. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1980) to the study of explanation generation, a philosophical approach which argues that the background influences the interpretation of the question, the development of a relevance relation which connects the question and explanation, and the identification of some set of candidate answers. We also suggest there is an important difference between the process of generating an explanation and evaluating an explanation, a difference that has escaped the attention of cognitive scientists thus far. PMID:19859755

  10. The hydro-geomorphological event of December 1909 in Iberia: social impacts and triggering conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Susana; Ramos, Alexandre M.; Zêzere, José L.; Trigo, Ricardo M.; Vaquero, José M.

    2015-04-01

    22nd of December mainly associated to severe floods generated in the Douro and Tagus hydrographic basins. The atmospheric circulation during the December 1909 and prior months was assessed at the monthly, daily and sub-daily scales. This was achieved with the 20th Century Reanalysis from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/Earth System Research Laboratory Physical Sciences Division (NOAA/ERSL PSD), where several fields were analysed related to both surface and different tropospheric levels. Results show that, between 20 and 22 of December, a low pressure system become stationary over the North Atlantic Ocean near Azores, moving towards the British Isles and its frontal system affected the Iberian Peninsula on the 21 and 22 of December. The intense precipitation observed on the 22nd of December was also associated to a combination of wind and specific moisture characteristics at 900hPa (concentrated in a quite narrow strip) clearly suggesting the presence of an Atmospheric River. Compo, G. P., et al. (2011) The twentieth century reanalysis project. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 137A, 1-28 Zêzere, J. L., et al. (2014) DISASTER: a GIS database on hydro-geomorphologic disasters in Portugal. Nat. Hazards, 71: 1029-1050 This research was supported by the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT). The first author is a Post-Doc fellow funded by FCT (SFRH/BPD/69002/2010).

  11. 11. AERIAL VIEW OF CROSSCUT FACILITY, LOOKING NORTH. THE HYDRO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. AERIAL VIEW OF CROSSCUT FACILITY, LOOKING NORTH. THE HYDRO PLANT CENTER SITS ON THE EDGE OF RAVINE WHICH IS ACTUALLY THE BEGINNING OF THE GRAND CANAL. THE CROSS-CUT STEAM PLANT IS THE LARGE WHITE BUILDING JUST WEST OF THE HYDRO PLANT, WITH THE TRANSMISSION SWITCHYARD IN BETWEEN. THE OTHER BUILDINGS ARE SALT RIVER PROJECT FABRICATION AND EQUIPMENT SHOPS Photographer unknown, August 22, 1958 - Cross Cut Hydro Plant, North Side of Salt River, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  12. Second harmonic generation microscopy investigation of the crystalline ultrastructure of three barley starch lines affected by hydration

    PubMed Central

    Cisek, Richard; Tokarz, Danielle; Steup, Martin; Tetlow, Ian J.; Emes, Michael J.; Hebelstrup, Kim H.; Blennow, Andreas; Barzda, Virginijus

    2015-01-01

    Second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy is employed to study changes in crystalline organization due to altered gene expression and hydration in barley starch granules. SHG intensity and susceptibility ratio values (R’SHG) are obtained using reduced Stokes-Mueller polarimetric microscopy. The maximum R’SHG values occur at moderate moisture indicating the narrowest orientation distribution of nonlinear dipoles from the cylindrical axis of glucan helices. The maximum SHG intensity occurs at the highest moisture and amylopectin content. These results support the hypothesis that SHG is caused by ordered hydrogen and hydroxyl bond networks which increase with hydration of starch granules. PMID:26504621

  13. [open quote]Endangered[close quote] salmon: More than just a Northwest hydro problem

    SciTech Connect

    Pfeiffer, D.E. )

    1992-06-01

    In the US, about 600 species of plants and animals are considered threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species Act. One of those, the Snake River sockeye salmon, has been making news in the Pacific Northwest. In November 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) declared Snake River sockeye salmon an endangered species, mandating the creation of a recovery plan that could cost more than $70 million a year. Many in the Northwest believe that the Endangered Species Act has never been applied in a case affecting so large an area or such a wide range of economic interests, including hydropower, agriculture, hatcheries, and commercial and sport fishing. Implications of this listing go far beyond regional economics, though. The way in which the federal government applied the Endangered Species Act in this instance has set a precedent that could affect hydro development throughout the US. The Endangered Species Act must be reauthorized by Congress by late October 1992. As explained in the accompanying story, [open quotes]Reauthorizing the ESA: Many Groups Calling for Change,[close quotes] the majority opinion in the US is that the act needs reform. Reviewing the act and its application in the Pacific Northwest will help members of the US hydro industry understand how hydro developments could be affected.

  14. Model Sharing and Collaboration using HydroShare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodall, J. L.; Morsy, M. M.; Castronova, A. M.; Miles, B.; Merwade, V.; Tarboton, D. G.

    2015-12-01

    HydroShare is a web-based system funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF) for sharing hydrologic data and models as resources. Resources in HydroShare can either be assigned a generic type, meaning the resource only has Dublin Core metadata properties, or one of a growing number of specific resource types with enhanced metadata profiles defined by the HydroShare development team. Examples of specific resource types in the current release of HydroShare (http://www.hydroshare.org) include time series, geographic raster, Multidimensional (NetCDF), model program, and model instance. Here we describe research and development efforts in HydroShare project for model-related resources types. This work has included efforts to define metadata profiles for common modeling resources, execute models directly through the HydroShare user interface using Docker containers, and interoperate with the 3rd party application SWATShare for model execution and visualization. These examples demonstrate the benefit of HydroShare to support model sharing and address collaborative problems involving modeling. The presentation will conclude with plans for future modeling-related development in HydroShare including supporting the publication of workflow resources, enhanced metadata for additional hydrologic models, and linking model resources with other resources in HydroShare to capture model provenance.

  15. SUMF1 mutations affecting stability and activity of formylglycine generating enzyme predict clinical outcome in multiple sulfatase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Schlotawa, Lars; Ennemann, Eva Charlotte; Radhakrishnan, Karthikeyan; Schmidt, Bernhard; Chakrapani, Anupam; Christen, Hans-Jürgen; Moser, Hugo; Steinmann, Beat; Dierks, Thomas; Gärtner, Jutta

    2011-03-01

    Multiple Sulfatase Deficiency (MSD) is caused by mutations in the sulfatase-modifying factor 1 gene encoding the formylglycine-generating enzyme (FGE). FGE post translationally activates all newly synthesized sulfatases by generating the catalytic residue formylglycine. Impaired FGE function leads to reduced sulfatase activities. Patients display combined clinical symptoms of single sulfatase deficiencies. For ten MSD patients, we determined the clinical phenotype, FGE expression, localization and stability, as well as residual FGE and sulfatase activities. A neonatal, very severe clinical phenotype resulted from a combination of two nonsense mutations leading to almost fully abrogated FGE activity, highly unstable FGE protein and nearly undetectable sulfatase activities. A late infantile mild phenotype resulted from FGE G263V leading to unstable protein but high residual FGE activity. Other missense mutations resulted in a late infantile severe phenotype because of unstable protein with low residual FGE activity. Patients with identical mutations displayed comparable clinical phenotypes. These data confirm the hypothesis that the phenotypic outcome in MSD depends on both residual FGE activity as well as protein stability. Predicting the clinical course in case of molecularly characterized mutations seems feasible, which will be helpful for genetic counseling and developing therapeutic strategies aiming at enhancement of FGE. PMID:21224894

  16. Application of a Coupled WRF-Hydro Model for Extreme Flood Events in the Mediterranean Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fredj, Erick; Givati, Amir

    2015-04-01

    More accurate simulation of precipitation and streamflow is a challenge that can be addressed by using the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) in conjunction with the hydrological model coupling extension package (WRF-Hydro).This is demonstrated for the country of Israel and surrounding regions. Simulations from the coupled WRF/WRF-Hydro system were verified against measurements from rain gauges and hydrometric stations in the domain for the 2012-2013 and 2013-2014 winters (wet seasons). These periods were characterized by many punctuated hydrometeorological and hydroclimatic events, including both severe drought and extreme floods events. The WRF model simulations were initialized with 0.5 degree NOAA/NCEP GFS model data. The model domain was set up with 3 domains, up to 3km grid spacing resolution. The model configuration used here constitutes a fully distributed, 3-dimensional, variably-saturated surface and subsurface flow model. Application of terrain routing and, subsequently, channel and reservoir routing functions, to the uni-dimensional NOAA land surface model was motivated by the need to account for increased complexity in land surface states and fluxes and to provide a more physically-realistic conceptualization of terrestrial hydrologic processes. The simulation results indicated a good agreement with actual peak discharges for extreme flood events and for full hydrographs. Specifically the coupled WRF/WRF-Hydro model as configured in this study shows improvement in simulated precipitation over one way WRF precipitation simulations. The correlation between the observed and the simulated precipitation using the fully coupled WRF/WRF-Hydro system was higher than the standalone WRF model, especially for convective precipitation events that affect arid regions in the domain. The results suggest that the coupled WRF/WRF-Hydro system has potential for flood forecasting and flood warning purposes at 0-72 hour lead times for large cool season storm

  17. Integration of hydrologic parameter ontology in CUAHSI HydroCatalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaslavsky, I.; Valentine, D. W.; Whitenack, T.; Piasecki, M.; Hooper, R. P.; Choi, Y.; Maidment, D. R.

    2010-12-01

    group time series into “data carts”, which are the basis for generating hydrologic themes; thus the main issue is recording themes’ semantic provenance and supporting reconciliation of units, time support and other characteristics that prepare a theme for visualization or modeling use. We describe the organization of semantic information in the CUAHSI HydroCatalog, introduce software tools for managing hydrologic parameter ontology, and present initial results of concept-variable tagging. In particular, we discuss the results of using a hydrologic concept hierarchy based on the USGS and EPA Substance Registry System (SRS) for tagging hydrologic parameters in the metadata catalog. Currently, over 2000 catalog variables are available for concept-based search, primarily from observations made in water or suspended sediment. Additional work is needed for tagging variables in other media, and for managing concept-variable mapping as concept hierarchy evolves.

  18. Prenatal stress programs neuroendocrine stress responses and affective behaviors in second generation rats in a sex-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Grundwald, Natalia J; Brunton, Paula J

    2015-12-01

    An adverse environment in early life is often associated with dysregulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and higher rates of mood disorders in adulthood. In rats, exposure to social stress during pregnancy results in hyperactive HPA axis responses to stress in the adult offspring and heightened anxiety behavior in the males, but not the females. Here we tested whether, without further intervention, the effects of prenatal stress (PNS) in the first filial generation (F1) are transmitted to the F2 generation via the maternal line. F1 control and PNS female rats were mated with control males and housed under non-stress conditions throughout pregnancy. HPA axis responses to acute stress, anxiety- and depressive-like behavior were assessed in the adult F2 offspring. ACTH and corticosterone responses to an acute stressor were markedly enhanced in F2 PNS females compared with controls. This was associated with greater corticotropin releasing hormone (Crh) mRNA expression in the paraventricular nucleus and reduced hippocampal glucocorticoid (Gr) and mineralocorticoid receptor (Mr) mRNA expression. Conversely, in the F2 PNS males, HPA axis responses to acute stress were attenuated and hippocampal Gr mRNA expression was greater compared with controls. F2 PNS males exhibited heightened anxiety-like behavior (light-dark box and elevated plus maze) compared with F2 control males. Anxiety-like behavior did not differ between F2 control and PNS females during metestrus/diestrus, however at proestrus/estrus, F2 control females displayed a reduction in anxiety-like behavior, but this effect was not observed in the F2 PNS females. Heightened anxiety in the F2 PNS males was associated with greater Crh mRNA expression in the central nucleus of the amygdala compared with controls. Moreover, Crh receptor-1 (Crhr1) mRNA expression was significantly increased, whereas Crhr2 mRNA was significantly decreased in discrete regions of the amygdala in F2 PNS males compared

  19. Prenatal stress programs neuroendocrine stress responses and affective behaviors in second generation rats in a sex-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Grundwald, Natalia J.; Brunton, Paula J.

    2015-01-01

    An adverse environment in early life is often associated with dysregulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and higher rates of mood disorders in adulthood. In rats, exposure to social stress during pregnancy results in hyperactive HPA axis responses to stress in the adult offspring and heightened anxiety behavior in the males, but not the females. Here we tested whether, without further intervention, the effects of prenatal stress (PNS) in the first filial generation (F1) are transmitted to the F2 generation via the maternal line. F1 control and PNS female rats were mated with control males and housed under non-stress conditions throughout pregnancy. HPA axis responses to acute stress, anxiety- and depressive-like behavior were assessed in the adult F2 offspring. ACTH and corticosterone responses to an acute stressor were markedly enhanced in F2 PNS females compared with controls. This was associated with greater corticotropin releasing hormone (Crh) mRNA expression in the paraventricular nucleus and reduced hippocampal glucocorticoid (Gr) and mineralocorticoid receptor (Mr) mRNA expression. Conversely, in the F2 PNS males, HPA axis responses to acute stress were attenuated and hippocampal Gr mRNA expression was greater compared with controls. F2 PNS males exhibited heightened anxiety-like behavior (light-dark box and elevated plus maze) compared with F2 control males. Anxiety-like behavior did not differ between F2 control and PNS females during metestrus/diestrus, however at proestrus/estrus, F2 control females displayed a reduction in anxiety-like behavior, but this effect was not observed in the F2 PNS females. Heightened anxiety in the F2 PNS males was associated with greater Crh mRNA expression in the central nucleus of the amygdala compared with controls. Moreover, Crh receptor-1 (Crhr1) mRNA expression was significantly increased, whereas Crhr2 mRNA was significantly decreased in discrete regions of the amygdala in F2 PNS males compared

  20. Quantification and classification of hydro-meteorological flood controls in northeast Switzerland as a basis for robust impact modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Luise; Rössler, Ole; Weingartner, Rolf

    2016-04-01

    Flood events are generated and shaped by different hydro-meteorological processes. Taking these drivers into account is essential for understanding flood generation and for developing robust hydrological models. We call a hydrological model robust if it is able to reproduce different flood types with different drivers at the same quality. Such models are a prerequisite for assessing climate change impact as they minimize bias associated with a potential change in frequency of projected flood types. For the same reason, identification of the key hydro-meteorological processes is crucial to enable a suitable downscaling of meteorological parameters. To gain understanding of the main hydro-meteorological processes associated with floods in a mesoscale alpine catchment (Thur River, 1700 km2), we analyse all events exceeding a 2-year flood over the past 50 years. Resulting 47 events are temporally delineated based on an adapted constant-k approach (Blume et al., 2007) using hourly runoff data. Each flood event is then characterized based on a variety of hydro-meteorological parameters and indices descriptive of catchment distributed (pre-) event conditions based on daily meteorological data. This comprehensive data set is used to classify the events based on hydro-meteorological parameters only and to derive typical flood-generating "storylines". Changes in these storylines over the past 50 years are discussed. Furthermore, the importance of each hydro-meteorological parameter is quantified which in turn might help to assess uncertainties associated with climate change impact studies. References Blume, T., Zehe, E., and Bronstert, A.: Rainfall - runoff response, event-based runoff coefficients and hydrograph separation, Hydrological Sciences Journal, 52, 843-862, doi:10.1623/hysj.52.5.843, 2007.

  1. The mvp2 mutation affects the generative transition through the modification of transcriptome pattern, salicylic acid and cytokinin metabolism in Triticum monococcum.

    PubMed

    Boldizsár, Ákos; Vanková, Radomíra; Novák, Aliz; Kalapos, Balázs; Gulyás, Zsolt; Pál, Magda; Floková, Kristyna; Janda, Tibor; Galiba, Gábor; Kocsy, Gábor

    2016-09-01

    Wild type and mvp2 (maintained vegetative phase) deletion mutant T. monococcum plants incapable of flowering were compared in order to determine the effect of the deleted region of chromosome 5A on transcript profile and hormone metabolism. This region contains the vernalization1 (VRN1) gene, a major regulator of the vegetative/generative transition. Transcript profiling in the crowns of T. monococcum during the transition and the subsequent formation of flower primordia showed that 306 genes were affected by the mutation, 198 by the developmental phase and 14 by the interaction of these parameters. In addition, 546 genes were affected by two or three factors. The genes controlled by the deleted region encode transcription factors, antioxidants and enzymes of hormone, carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism. The observed changes in the expression of the gene encoding phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) might indicate the effect of mvp2 mutation on the metabolism of salicylic acid, which was corroborated by the differences in 2-hydroxycinnamic acid and cinnamic acid contents in both of the leaves and crowns, and in the concentrations of salicylic acid and benzoic acid in crowns during the vegetative/generative transition. The amount and ratio of active cytokinins and their derivatives (ribosides, glucosides and phosphates) were affected by developmental changes as well as by mvp2 mutation, too. PMID:27450491

  2. Hydro-thermal Commitment Scheduling by Tabu Search Method with Cooling-Banking Constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayak, Nimain Charan; Rajan, C. Christober Asir

    This paper presents a new approach for developing an algorithm for solving the Unit Commitment Problem (UCP) in a Hydro-thermal power system. Unit Commitment is a nonlinear optimization problem to determine the minimum cost turn on/off schedule of the generating units in a power system by satisfying both the forecasted load demand and various operating constraints of the generating units. The effectiveness of the proposed hybrid algorithm is proved by the numerical results shown comparing the generation cost solutions and computation time obtained by using Tabu Search Algorithm with other methods like Evolutionary Programming and Dynamic Programming in reaching proper unit commitment.

  3. Crash Performance Evaluation of Hydro-formed DP-steel Tubes Considering Welding Heat Effects, Formability and Spring-back

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Kyung-Hwan; Kim, Junehyung; Lee, Wonoh; Chung, Kwansoo; Lim, Ji-Ho; Kim, Chongmin; Wenner, Michael. L.

    2007-04-07

    In order to numerically evaluate hydro-formed DP-steel tubes on crash performance considering welding heat effects, finite element simulations of crash behavior were performed for hydro-formed tubes with and without heat treatment effects. Also, finite element simulations were performed for the sequential procedures of bending and hydro-forming of tubes in order to design process parameters, particularly for the boost condition and axial feeding, considering formability and spring-back. Effects of the material property including strain-rate sensitivity on formability as well as spring-back were also considered. The mechanical properties of the metal active gas (MAG) weld zone and the heat affected zone (HAZ) were obtained utilizing the continuous indentation method in this work.

  4. 78 FR 69402 - Lock 7 Hydro Partners, LLC; Notice of Application for Amendment of License and Soliciting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-19

    .... Application Type: Amendment of License. b. Project No: 539-013. c. Date Filed: September 23, 2013. d. Applicant: Lock 7 Hydro Partners, LLC. e. Name of Project: Mother Ann Lee Hydroelectric Project. ] f... generating unit No. 2. The runner replacement would increase the installed and hydraulic capacities of...

  5. 78 FR 60271 - Mid-Atlantic Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-01

    ..., 2013, Mid-Atlantic Hydro, LLC filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to section 4(f... to the existing outlet; (2) a concrete powerhouse to be located on the right descending bank; (3) 6- megawatt (MW) and 3-MW generators for a total installed capacity of 9.0 MW; (4) a concrete tailrace...

  6. 77 FR 25163 - KC Hydro LLC of New Hampshire; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission KC Hydro LLC of New Hampshire; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application... powerhouse containing a single turbine generator unit with an installed capacity of 100 kilowatts; (5) a...

  7. 78 FR 69081 - Mid-Atlantic Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Mid-Atlantic Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted... powerhouse, containing one 7.9-megawatt (MW) turbine generator unit; (3) a new 2.8-mile-long, 25-kilovolt...

  8. MES Buffer Affects Arabidopsis Root Apex Zonation and Root Growth by Suppressing Superoxide Generation in Root Apex

    PubMed Central

    Kagenishi, Tomoko; Yokawa, Ken; Baluška, František

    2016-01-01

    In plants, growth of roots and root hairs is regulated by the fine cellular control of pH and reactive oxygen species (ROS). MES, 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid as one of the Good’s buffers has broadly been used for buffering medium, and it is thought to suit for plant growth with the concentration at 0.1% (w/v) because the buffer capacity of MES ranging pH 5.5–7.0 (for Arabidopsis, pH 5.8). However, many reports have shown that, in nature, roots require different pH values on the surface of specific root apex zones, namely meristem, transition zone, and elongation zone. Despite the fact that roots always grow on a media containing buffer molecule, little is known about impact of MES on root growth. Here, we have checked the effects of different concentrations of MES buffer using growing roots of Arabidopsis thaliana. Our results show that 1% of MES significantly inhibited root growth, the number of root hairs and length of meristem, whereas 0.1% promoted root growth and root apex area (region spanning from the root tip up to the transition zone). Furthermore, superoxide generation in root apex disappeared at 1% of MES. These results suggest that MES disturbs normal root morphogenesis by changing the ROS homeostasis in root apex. PMID:26925066

  9. Do social disadvantage and early family adversity affect the diurnal cortisol rhythm in infants? The Generation R Study.

    PubMed

    Saridjan, Nathalie S; Huizink, Anja C; Koetsier, Jitske A; Jaddoe, Vincent W; Mackenbach, Johan P; Hofman, Albert; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Verhulst, Frank C; Tiemeier, Henning

    2010-02-01

    Dysregulation of diurnal cortisol secretion patterns may explain the link between adversities early in life and later mental health problems. However, few studies have investigated the influence of social disadvantage and family adversity on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis early in life. In 366 infants aged 12-20 months from the Generation R Study, a population-based cohort from fetal life onwards, parents collected saliva samples from their infant at 5 moments over the course of 1 day. The area under the curve (AUC), the cortisol awakening response (CAR) and the diurnal cortisol slope were calculated as different composite measures of the diurnal cortisol rhythm. Information about social disadvantage and early adversity was collected using prenatal and postnatal questionnaires. We found that older infants showed lower AUC levels; moreover, infants with a positive CAR were significantly older. Both the AUC and the CAR were related to indicators of social disadvantage and early adversity. Infants of low income families, in comparison to high income families, showed higher AUC levels and a positive CAR. Infants of mothers who smoked during pregnancy were also significantly more likely to show a positive CAR. Furthermore, infants of mothers experiencing parenting stress showed higher AUC levels. The results of our study show that effects of social disadvantage and early adversity on the diurnal cortisol rhythm are already observable in infants. This may reflect the influence of early negative life events on early maturation of the HPA axis. PMID:20006614

  10. MES Buffer Affects Arabidopsis Root Apex Zonation and Root Growth by Suppressing Superoxide Generation in Root Apex.

    PubMed

    Kagenishi, Tomoko; Yokawa, Ken; Baluška, František

    2016-01-01

    In plants, growth of roots and root hairs is regulated by the fine cellular control of pH and reactive oxygen species (ROS). MES, 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid as one of the Good's buffers has broadly been used for buffering medium, and it is thought to suit for plant growth with the concentration at 0.1% (w/v) because the buffer capacity of MES ranging pH 5.5-7.0 (for Arabidopsis, pH 5.8). However, many reports have shown that, in nature, roots require different pH values on the surface of specific root apex zones, namely meristem, transition zone, and elongation zone. Despite the fact that roots always grow on a media containing buffer molecule, little is known about impact of MES on root growth. Here, we have checked the effects of different concentrations of MES buffer using growing roots of Arabidopsis thaliana. Our results show that 1% of MES significantly inhibited root growth, the number of root hairs and length of meristem, whereas 0.1% promoted root growth and root apex area (region spanning from the root tip up to the transition zone). Furthermore, superoxide generation in root apex disappeared at 1% of MES. These results suggest that MES disturbs normal root morphogenesis by changing the ROS homeostasis in root apex. PMID:26925066

  11. ‘Second-Generation' Mephedrone Analogs, 4-MEC and 4-MePPP, Differentially Affect Monoamine Transporter Function

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Kusumika; Partilla, John S; Lehner, Kurt R; Seddik, Amir; Stockner, Thomas; Holy, Marion; Sandtner, Walter; Ecker, Gerhard F; Sitte, Harald H; Baumann, Michael H

    2015-01-01

    The nonmedical use of synthetic cathinones is increasing on a global scale. 4-Methyl-N-methylcathinone (mephedrone) is a popular synthetic cathinone that is now illegal in the United States and other countries. Since the legislative ban on mephedrone, a number of ‘second-generation' analogs have appeared in the street drug marketplace, including 4-methyl-N-ethylcathinone (4-MEC) and 4′-methyl-α-pyrrolidinopropiophenone (4-MePPP). Here we characterized the interactions of 4-MEC and 4-MePPP with transporters for 5-HT (SERT) and dopamine (DAT) using molecular, cellular, and whole-animal methods. In vitro transporter assays revealed that 4-MEC displays unusual ‘hybrid' activity as a SERT substrate (ie, 5-HT releaser) and DAT blocker, whereas 4-MePPP is a blocker at both transporters but more potent at DAT. In vivo microdialysis experiments in rat brain demonstrated that 4-MEC (1–3 mg/kg, i.v.) produced large increases in extracellular 5-HT, small increases in dopamine, and minimal motor stimulation. In contrast, 4-MePPP (1–3 mg/kg, i.v.) produced selective increases in dopamine and robust motor stimulation. Consistent with its activity as a SERT substrate, 4-MEC evoked inward current in SERT-expressing Xenopus oocytes, whereas 4-MePPP was inactive in this regard. To examine drug–transporter interactions at the molecular level, we modeled the fit of 4-MEC and 4-MePPP into the binding pockets for DAT and SERT. Subtle distinctions in ligand–transporter binding were found that account for the differential effects of 4-MEC and 4-MePPP at SERT. Collectively, our results provide key information about the pharmacology of newly emerging mephedrone analogs, and give clues to structural requirements that govern drug selectivity at DAT vs SERT. PMID:25502630

  12. The HYDROS mission: requirements and baseline system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Njoku, Eni; Spencer, Michael; McDonald, Kyle; Smith, Joel; Houser, Paul; Doiron, Terence; ONeill, Peggy; Girard, Ralph; Entekhabi, Dara

    2004-01-01

    The HYDROS mission is under development by NASA as part of its Earth System Science Pathfinder program. HYDROS is designed to provide global maps of the Earth's soil moisture and freeze/thaw state every 2-3 days, for weather and climate prediction, water and carbon cycle studies, natural hazards monitoring, and national security applications.

  13. Thermo-hydro-mechanical processes in fractured rock formations during a glacial advance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvadurai, A. P. S.; Suvorov, A. P.; Selvadurai, P. A.

    2015-07-01

    The paper examines the coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) processes that develop in a fractured rock region within a fluid-saturated rock mass due to loads imposed by an advancing glacier. This scenario needs to be examined in order to assess the suitability of potential sites for the location of deep geologic repositories for the storage of high-level nuclear waste. The THM processes are examined using a computational multiphysics approach that takes into account thermo-poroelasticity of the intact geological formation and the presence of a system of sessile but hydraulically interacting fractures (fracture zones). The modelling considers coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical effects in both the intact rock and the fracture zones due to contact normal stresses and fluid pressure at the base of the advancing glacier. Computational modelling provides an assessment of the role of fractures in modifying the pore pressure generation within the entire rock mass.

  14. Thermo-hydro-mechanical processes in fractured rock formations during glacial advance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvadurai, A. P. S.; Suvorov, A. P.; Selvadurai, P. A.

    2014-11-01

    The paper examines the coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) processes that develop in a fractured rock region within a fluid-saturated rock mass due to loads imposed by an advancing glacier. This scenario needs to be examined in order to assess the suitability of potential sites for the location of deep geologic repositories for the storage of high-level nuclear waste. The THM processes are examined using a computational multiphysics approach that takes into account thermo-poroelasticity of the intact geological formation and the presence of a system of sessile but hydraulically interacting fractures (fracture zones). The modeling considers coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical effects in both the intact rock and the fracture zones due to contact normal stresses and fluid pressure at the base of the advancing glacier. Computational modelling provides an assessment of the role of fractures that can modify the pore pressure generation within the entire rock mass.

  15. A love affair with hydro in New England: Producing environmentally sound energy

    SciTech Connect

    Kamberg, M.L.

    1993-04-01

    A small, abandoned hydropower plant on the Assabet River in Acton, Massachusetts, first sparked Bob King's interest in renewable energy when he was 11 years old. King and his family discovered the plant while taking their traditional after-dinner Thanksgiving Day walk. Thirteen years later after graduating from Cornell University with a degree in mechanical engineering, King set out to find an abandoned hydro plant suitable for reconstruction. Today, King owns and operates the Nashaway Plant, a 275-kW run-of-river hydro project on the French River in Thompson, Connecticut. King sells the electricity generated at the plant-about 1 gigawatt-hour a year-to Connecticut Light Power Co. The plant requires only minor maintenance, and operating costs are low. Based on current buyback rates, King estimates the plant grosses $35,000 annually.

  16. Assimilation of Cloud- and Land-Affected TOVS/ATOVS Level 1B Radiances in DAO's Next Generation Finite-Volume Data Assimilation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joiner, J.; daSilva, A.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Physical-space/Finite-volume Data Assimilation System (fvDAS) is the next generation global atmospheric data assimilation system in development at the Data Assimilation Office (DAO) at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. It is based on a new finite-volume general circulation model jointly developed by NASA and NCAR, and on the Physical-Space Statistical Analysis System (PSAS) developed at the DAO. In this talk we will focus on the assimilation of data from the (Advanced) TIROS Operational Vertical Sounder (ATOVS), with emphasis on the impact of cloud- and land-affected level 1B radiances. Recently, it has been shown that the use of observations from satellite-borne microwave and infrared radiometers in data assimilation systems consistently increases forecast skill. Considerable effort has been expended over the past two decades, particularly with the (Advanced) TIROS Operational Vertical Sounder (ATOVS), to achieve this result. The positive impact on forecast skill has resulted from improvements in quality control algorithms, systematic error correction schemes, and more sophisticated data assimilation algorithms. Despite these advances, there are still many issues regarding the use of satellite data in data assimilation systems that remain unresolved. In particular, most operational centers still do not assimilate cloud- and land-affected TOVS data. In this study, we evaluate the impact of assimilating cloud-and land-affected TOVS/ATOVS level 1B data in DAO's next generation fvDAS, using a 1D variational scheme. We will discuss the impact of these data on both tropospheric and stratospheric forecasts, as well as on the general aspects of the earth climate system.

  17. Dissolved oxygen strategies for hydro relicensing

    SciTech Connect

    Railsback, S.F.

    1988-01-01

    This report discusses the physical factors controlling DO concentrations, what DO concentrations are low enough to cause concern, how best to monitor and measure DO, how to predict what the effects of project operation on DO concentrations will be, and what measures are available to mitigate DO problems. Each of these topics has been the subject of much study and literature, and the constraints of time and the site-specific nature of many DO problems prevent this discussion from fully addressing all DO considerations at all plants. The objective of the presentation, therefore, is to provide sufficient information for hydro developers to understand potential problems and to undertake the studies required to define and mitigate whatever problems may occur at individual projects. 9 refs., 1 fig.

  18. Quantifying the Operational Benefits of Conventional and Advanced Pumped Storage Hydro on Reliability and Efficiency: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Krad, I.; Ela, E.; Koritarov, V.

    2014-07-01

    Pumped storage hydro (PSH) plants have significant potential to provide reliability and efficiency benefits in future electric power systems with high penetrations of variable generation. New PSH technologies, such as adjustable-speed PSH, have been introduced that can also present further benefits. This paper demonstrates and quantifies some of the reliability and efficiency benefits afforded by PSH plants by utilizing the Flexible Energy Scheduling Tool for the Integration of Variable generation (FESTIV), an integrated power system operations tool that evaluates both reliability and production costs.

  19. HydroImage: A New Software for HydroGeophysical and BioGeophysical Data Integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suribhatla, R. M.; Mok, C. M.; Kaback, D.; Chen, J.; Hubbard, S. S.

    2011-12-01

    Hydrogeophysical and biogeophysical data integration have recently emerged as cost-effective and rapid techniques for improving subsurface characterization and monitoring. In a Bayesian framework for integration, borehole based data provide prior distribution and geophysical information serve as data to update the prior through likelihood functions obtained from petrophysical models between borehole and cross-well data. We present the application of a Windows-based software called HydroImage that uses this Bayesian framework for data integration and visualization. HydroImage can be used for geostatistical estimation, geophysical tomographic inversion, petrophysical model development, and Bayesian integration. We demonstrate HydroImage using three different field datasets to estimate different subsurface states or parameters. The first example combines wellbore flowmeter test data and crosshole seismic and ground penetrating radar (GPR) data to estimate hydraulic conductivity at the DOE Bacterial Transport Site in Oyster, Virginia. The second example focuses on using time-lapse radar data to estimate moisture content dynamics associated with a desiccation test performed to remediate the deep vadose zone in Hanford, Washington. The third example demonstrates the use of spectral induced polarization data to estimate the spatial and temporal distribution of geochemical parameters that are indicative of the redox state of a contaminated aquifer.

  20. Integrating Water, Actors, and Structure to Study Socio-Hydro-Ecological Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hale, R. L.; Armstrong, A.; Baker, M. A.; Bedingfield, S.; Betts, D.; Buahin, C. A.; Buchert, M.; Crowl, T.; Dupont, R.; Endter-Wada, J.; Flint, C.; Grant, J.; Hinners, S.; Horns, D.; Horsburgh, J. S.; Jackson-Smith, D.; Jones, A. S.; Licon, C.; Null, S. E.; Odame, A.; Pataki, D. E.; Rosenberg, D. E.; Runburg, M.; Stoker, P.; Strong, C.

    2014-12-01

    Urbanization, climate uncertainty, and ecosystem change represent major challenges for managing water resources. Water systems and the forces acting upon them are complex, and there is a need to understand and generically represent the most important system components and linkages. We developed a framework to facilitate understanding of water systems including potential vulnerabilities and opportunities for sustainability. Our goal was to produce an interdisciplinary framework for water resources research to address water issues across scales (e.g., city to region) and domains (e.g., water supply and quality, urban and transitioning landscapes). An interdisciplinary project (iUTAH - innovative Urban Transitions and Aridregion Hydro-sustainability) with a large (N=~100), diverse team having expertise spanning the hydrologic, biological, ecological, engineering, social, planning, and policy sciences motivated the development of this framework. The framework was developed through review of the literature, meetings with individual researchers, and workshops with participants. The Structure-Water-Actor Framework (SWAF) includes three main components: water (quality and quantity), structure (natural, built, and social), and actors (individual and organizational). Key linkages include: 1) ecological and hydrological processes, 2) ecosystem and geomorphic change, 3) planning, design, and policy, 4) perceptions, information, and experience, 5) resource access, and 6) operational water use and management. Our expansive view of structure includes natural, built, and social components, allowing us to examine a broad set of tools and levers for water managers and decision-makers to affect system sustainability and understand system outcomes. We validate the SWAF and illustrate its flexibility to generate insights for three research and management problems: green stormwater infrastructure in an arid environment, regional water supply and demand, and urban river restoration

  1. HydroCalc Proteome: a tool to identify distinct characteristics of effector proteins.

    PubMed

    da Silva, G J; da Silva, R G T M; Silva, V A; C Caritá, E; Fachin, A L; Marins, M

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial pathogenicity is associated with secretion of effector proteins into intra- and extracellular spaces. These proteins interfere with cellular processes such as inhibition of phagosome-lysosome fusion, induction of apoptosis and autophagy, activation and suppression of kinases, regulation of receptor activity, and modulation of transcription factors. Knowledge regarding the characteristics of these proteins would assist in pathogenicity studies, and help to identify possible and novel targets for antibacterial drugs. Amino acid hydropathy is a property that can affect behavior patterns in effector proteins. The HydroCalc Proteome tool analyzes total hydropathy, average hydropathy, C-terminal hydropathy, C-terminal load, and basic polar amino acids at the C-terminus. These five properties could contribute to the identification of proteins with an effector potential. HydroCalc Proteome is a web tool that provides a simple interface for the analysis of hydropathy properties in proteins. This tool permits the analysis of a single protein or even the complete proteome, which cannot be achieved by using other hydropathy tools. The tool displays the result of five properties related to effector proteins in a single table. The HydroCalc Proteome (www.gmb.bio.br/hydrocalc) is a powerful tool for protein analysis, and can contribute to the study of effector proteins. PMID:27525880

  2. Dyadic design interface between energy and agriculture: the case of Pinthali micro hydro system in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Regmi, A

    2003-01-01

    Technology, like society, is heterogeneous. It mirrors the context in which it operates. Micro hydro development in Nepal is a rural energy strategy, which relies on technology and innovation and takes place in a specific social context. In designing this energy strategy, both technology and its social context, therefore, need to be considered seriously. In technical design processes, the interplay between the content (technology) and the context (society) needs to be considered, as the outcome will affect the people. For example, the content--micro hydro system--in the domain of the context--agriculture--provides an arena for an integrated water control system. Thus, it is possible to control water for two purposes: to produce power and to provide irrigation. The end product will be "energy" as a "consumptive" output and improved food security as a "productive" output of water. Therefore, within a sociotechnical framework, energy and irrigation become constitutive outputs of the sacrosanct "water". Thus, the metaphor of power--the "sociotechnical code" of "content" and "context"--can be used with the term "agro-anergy" in the design process of micro hydro systems. Evidence suggests that this interaction can lead to a transformed water use system for both productive and consumptive output for the benefit of rural communities. PMID:12731792

  3. Non-equilibrium steady state in the hydro regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourhasan, Razieh

    2016-02-01

    We study the existence and properties of the non-equilibrium steady state which arises by putting two copies of systems at different temperatures into a thermal contact. We solve the problem for the relativistic systems that are described by the energy-momentum of a perfect hydro with general equation of state (EOS). In particular, we examine several simple examples: a hydro with a linear EOS, a holographic CFT perturbed by a relevant operator and a barotropic fluid, i.e., P=P({E}) . Our studies suggest that the formation of steady state is a universal result of the hydro regime regardless of the kind of fluid.

  4. Analysis of a pico tubular-type hydro turbine performance by runner blade shape using CFD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J. H.; Lee, N. J.; Wata, J. V.; Hwang, Y. C.; Kim, Y. T.; Lee, Y. H.

    2012-11-01

    There has been a considerable interest recently in the topic of renewable energy. This is primarily due to concerns about environmental impacts of fossil fuels. Moreover, fluctuating and rising oil prices, increase in demand, supply uncertainties and other factors have led to increased calls for alternative energy sources. Small hydropower, among other renewable energy sources, has been evaluated to have adequate development value because it is a clean, renewable and abundant energy resource. In addition, small hydropower has the advantage of low cost development by using rivers, agricultural reservoirs, sewage treatment plants, waterworks and water resources. The main concept of the tubular-type hydro turbine is based on the difference in water pressure levels in pipe lines, where the energy which was initially wasted by using a reducing valve at the pipeline of waterworks, is collected by turbine in the hydro power generator. In this study, in order to acquire the performance data of a pico tubular-type hydro turbine, the output power, head and efficiency characteristics by different runner blade shapes are examined. The pressure and velocity distributions with the variation of guide vane and runner vane angle on turbine performance are investigated by using a commercial CFD code.

  5. Numerical investigation of the hydro-mechanical contribution to seismic attenuation in damaged rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollmann, Nele; Jänicke, Ralf; Renner, Jörg; Steeb, Holger

    2016-04-01

    The investigation of hydro-mechanical processes, in particular the modeling of seismic waves in fractured porous media, is essential for the physical interpretation of data obtained from seismic exploration. Here, we specifically investigate attenuation processes in fluid-saturated porous rock containing fracture networks to identify effective hydro-mechanical properties by numerical simulation. The main purpose of this work is the characterization of the overall hydro-mechanical properties by computational homogenization. We determine an effective Skempton coefficient by investigating the fluid pressure and the solid displacement of the skeleton saturated by compressible fluids. Fracture networks are stochastically generated to mimic geological in-situ situations. The fractures are approximated as ellipses with aspect ratios up to 1/100, i.e. they constitute thin and long hydraulic conduits with high permeabilities. Simulations are designed on the material scale with and without conservation of fluid mass in the control volume. Using computational homogenization approaches, we define an effective Skempton coefficient. A range of fracture networks with different characteristic properties is studied for different varieties of fractures. On the material scale we find strongly heterogeneous pressure propagation in the fracture network and the surrounding rock, respectively. The pressure diffusion is much faster in the fracture network than in the matrix, rendering the macroscopic hydro-mechanical behavior strongly time dependent. The effective Skempton coefficient converges to an ensemble-specific instantaneous value and to 1 for long-time studies. The ultimate objective of our study is to evaluate whether constraints on the structure of fracture networks can be deduced from observations of attenuation and its frequency dependence.

  6. Effects of Scandinavian hydro power on storage needs in a fully renewable European power system for various transmission capacity scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kies, Alexander; Nag, Kabitri; von Bremen, Lueder; Lorenz, Elke; Heinemann, Detlev

    2015-04-01

    The penetration of renewable energies in the European power system has increased in the last decades (23.5% share of renewables in the gross electricity consumption of the EU-28 in 2012) and is expected to increase further up to very high shares close to 100%. Planning and organizing this European energy transition towards sustainable power sources will be one of the major challenges of the 21st century. It is very likely that in a fully renewable European power system wind and photovoltaics (pv) will contribute the largest shares to the generation mix followed by hydro power. However, feed-in from wind and pv is due to the weather dependant nature of their resources fluctuating and non-controllable. To match generation and consumption several solutions and their combinations were proposed like very high backup-capacities of conventional power generation (e.g. fossile or nuclear), storages or the extension of the transmission grid. Apart from those options hydro power can be used to counterbalance fluctuating wind and pv generation to some extent. In this work we investigate the effects of hydro power from Norway and Sweden on residual storage needs in Europe depending on the overlaying grid scenario. High temporally and spatially resolved weather data with a spatial resolution of 7 x 7 km and a temporal resolution of 1 hour was used to model the feed-in from wind and pv for 34 investigated European countries for the years 2003-2012. Inflow into hydro storages and generation by run-of-river power plants were computed from ERA-Interim reanalysis runoff data at a spatial resolution of 0.75° x 0.75° and a daily temporal resolution. Power flows in a simplified transmission grid connecting the 34 European countries were modelled minimizing dissipation using a DC-flow approximation. Previous work has shown that hydro power, namely in Norway and Sweden, can reduce storage needs in a renewable European power system by a large extent. A 15% share of hydro power in Europe

  7. Analysis of system drought for Manitoba Hydro using stochastic methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akintug, Bertug

    Stochastic time series models are commonly used in the analysis of large-scale water resources systems. In the stochastic approach, synthetic flow scenarios are generated and used for the analysis of complex events such as multi-year droughts. Conclusions drawn from such analyses are only plausible to the extent that the underlying time series model realistically represents the natural variability of flows. Traditionally, hydrologists have favoured autoregressive moving average (ARMA) models to describe annual flows. In this research project, a class of model called Markov-Switching (MS) model (also referred to as a Hidden Markov model) is presented as an alternative to conventional ARMA models. The basic assumption underlying this model is that a limited number of flow regimes exists and that each flow year can be classified as belonging to one of these regimes. The persistence of and switching between regimes is described by a Markov chain. Within each regime, it is assumed that annual flows follow a normal distribution with mean and variance that depend on the regime. The simplicity of this model makes it possible to derive a number of model characteristics analytically such as moments, autocorrelation, and crosscorrelation. Model estimation is possible with the maximum likelihood method implemented using the Expectation Maximization (EM) algorithm. The uncertainty in the model parameters can be assessed through Bayesian inference using Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods. A Markov-Switching disaggregation (MSD) model is also proposed in this research project to disaggregate higher-level flows generated using the MS model into lower-level flows. The MSD model preserves the additivity property because for a given year both the higher-level and lower-level variables are generated from normal distributions. The 2-state MS and MSD models are applied to Manitoba Hydro's system along with more conventional first order autoregressive and disaggregation models and

  8. Evaluation of hydro-mechanical pulsation for rocket injector research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Matthew B.

    The Propulsion Research Center at the University of Alabama in Huntsville has designed and built a hydro-mechanical pulsator to simulate the pressure fluctuations created by high frequency combustion instability. The pressure response characteristics were evaluated in an atmospheric test rig using filtered de-ionized water as the working fluid. The outlet of the pulsator was connected to a swirl injector post to provide downstream flow resistance. Previous low pressure and mass flow experimental data revealed a complex relationship between the control parameters and the pulsation response. For each test, the average mass flow rates of the waste water, water lost through the seals, and injector mass flow rates are measured. A dynamic pressure transducer at the pulsator exit measures and records the pressure waveform. Pulsation magnitude, reliability, repeatability, pulsation effects, and detailed variable control are examined. The data shows the pulsator is capable of generating 30% pulsation at 1575 Hz input. The repeatability of the pulsator is questionable because the standard deviations exceeded 40% of the average. The detailed data obtained during this research provides is sufficient to develop a pulsator tuning procedure for future applications.

  9. Generation of a Genome Scale Lentiviral Vector Library for EF1α Promoter-Driven Expression of Human ORFs and Identification of Human Genes Affecting Viral Titer

    PubMed Central

    Škalamera, Dubravka; Dahmer, Mareike; Purdon, Amy S.; Wilson, Benjamin M.; Ranall, Max V.; Blumenthal, Antje; Gabrielli, Brian; Gonda, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    The bottleneck in elucidating gene function through high-throughput gain-of-function genome screening is the limited availability of comprehensive libraries for gene overexpression. Lentiviral vectors are the most versatile and widely used vehicles for gene expression in mammalian cells. Lentiviral supernatant libraries for genome screening are commonly generated in the HEK293T cell line, yet very little is known about the effect of introduced sequences on the produced viral titer, which we have shown to be gene dependent. We have generated an arrayed lentiviral vector library for the expression of 17,030 human proteins by using the GATEWAY® cloning system to transfer ORFs from the Mammalian Gene Collection into an EF1alpha promoter-dependent lentiviral expression vector. This promoter was chosen instead of the more potent and widely used CMV promoter, because it is less prone to silencing and provides more stable long term expression. The arrayed lentiviral clones were used to generate viral supernatant by packaging in the HEK293T cell line. The efficiency of transfection and virus production was estimated by measuring the fluorescence of IRES driven GFP, co-expressed with the ORFs. More than 90% of cloned ORFs produced sufficient virus for downstream screening applications. We identified genes which consistently produced very high or very low viral titer. Supernatants from select clones that were either high or low virus producers were tested on a range of cell lines. Some of the low virus producers, including two previously uncharacterized proteins were cytotoxic to HEK293T cells. The library we have constructed presents a powerful resource for high-throughput gain-of-function screening of the human genome and drug-target discovery. Identification of human genes that affect lentivirus production may lead to improved technology for gene expression using lentiviral vectors. PMID:23251614

  10. Water withdrawal and consumption reduction analysis for electrical energy generation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nouri, Narjes

    There is an increasing concern over shrinking water resources. Water use in the energy sector primarily occurs in electricity generation. Anticipating scarcer supplies, the value of water is undoubtedly on the rise and design, implementation, and utilization of water saving mechanisms in energy generation systems are becoming inevitable. Most power plants generate power by boiling water to produce steam to spin electricity-generating turbines. Large quantities of water are often used to cool the steam in these plants. As a consequence, most fossil-based power plants in addition to consuming water, impact the water resources by raising the temperature of water withdrawn for cooling. A comprehensive study is conducted in this thesis to analyze and quantify water withdrawals and consumption of various electricity generation sources such as coal, natural gas, renewable sources, etc. Electricity generation for the state of California is studied and presented as California is facing a serious drought problem affecting more than 30 million people. Integrated planning for the interleaved energy and water sectors is essential for both water and energy savings. A linear model is developed to minimize the water consumption while considering several limitations and restrictions. California has planned to shut down some of its hydro and nuclear plants due to environmental concerns. Studies have been performed for various electricity generation and water saving scenarios including no-hydro and no-nuclear plant and the results are presented. Modifications to proposed different scenarios have been applied and discussed to meet the practical and reliability constraints.

  11. Predictability and Diagnostics of Western Himalayan Hydro-climatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, I.; Lall, U.; Robertson, A. W.; Cane, M. A.

    2011-12-01

    Snowmelt dominated streamflow of the Western Himalayan rivers is an important water resource during the dry pre-monsoon months to meet the irrigation and hydropower needs in northern India. On the other hand, winter precipitation as the form of snow over Himalayas helps in maintaining the glaciers, which serve as a storehouse of freshwater throughout the year. With the help of the hydro-climatological data provided by the Bhakra Beas Management Board in India, we present the outcome of our research on the prediction and diagnostics of Satluj river basin hydro-climatology at the Indian side up to the upstream of Bhakra dam, which is a major source of water for irrigation and electricity generation (1325MW) for north India. Spring seasonal inflow anomalies to Bhakra dam are strongly correlated with large-scale precipitation and temperature in the preceding winter over the Western Himalayas and adjoining north and central Indian plains, suggesting a potentially usable predictability for reservoir managers. Winter precipitation in the Western Himalayas is mainly brought about by the mid-latitude jet stream leading to the formation of low-pressure synoptic systems known as Western Disturbances (WD). WDs originate over the North Atlantic Ocean or Mediterranean Sea, with secondaries developing over the Persian Gulf and Caspian Sea either directly or as a result of the arrival of low-pressure systems from southwest Arabia, and travel eastward over Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and northwest India. Winter WDs (and therefore the average volume of winter precipitation over Western Himalayas) are also modulated by the large-scale interaction between ocean and atmosphere led by the variation of the SSTs of the Indian Ocean and Pacific. As a result, average spring inflow volume, which is a function of the average volume of precipitation in winter, was also found to be positively correlated with the SSTs over the western and equatorial Indian Ocean, and with below-normal sea

  12. Orion MPCV Water Landing Test at Hydro Impact Basin

    NASA Video Gallery

    This is the third Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) water landing test conducted at the Hydro Impact Basin at NASA Langley Research Center. This test represented the worst-case scenario for l...

  13. Final Report - Wind and Hydro Energy Feasibility Study - June 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Jim Zoellick; Richard Engel; Rubin Garcia; Colin Sheppard

    2011-06-17

    This feasibility examined two of the Yurok Tribe's most promising renewable energy resources, wind and hydro, to provide the Tribe detailed, site specific information that will result in a comprehensive business plan sufficient to implement a favorable renewable energy project.

  14. 57. ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT PLOT PLAN, SANTA ANA NO. 1 HYDRO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    57. ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT PLOT PLAN, SANTA ANA NO. 1 HYDRO PLANT, OCTOBER 10, 1958. SCE drawing no. 428615-0. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-1 Powerhouse, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  15. Applying hydraulic transient analysis: The Grizzly Hydro Project

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, T.H.; Stutsman, R.D. )

    1992-04-01

    No matter the size of the hydro plant, if it has a long waterway and will operate in peaking mode, the project designer needs to address the issue of hydraulic transients-known as water hammer-early in the design. This article describes the application of transient analysis to the design of a 20-MW hydro plant in California. In this case, a Howell Bunger valve was used as a pressure regulating valve to control transient pressures and speed rise.

  16. B.C. Hydro-IPC review: Interim report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    This report is a review of the activities surrounding the creation of IPC (International Power Corporation) and its joint venture with the British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority (BC Hydro) for the development of international power projects, including the Raiwind project in Pakistan. The scope of the review included determination of: The process followed in establishing IPC and the structure of corporations associated with the Raiwind project; the process of conducting the IPC share offering; whether the conduct of participants was in accordance with sound public policy and good business practice; what guidelines and checks existed to protect the public interest; and whether there were any system or governance failures either inside or outside BC Hydro. Sections of the review examine the offshore economic development strategies of BC Hydro; the nature and scope of the Raiwind project; the principal participants involved in that project; the choice of a Cayman Islands planning structure; the investment of BC Hydro funds in the project; the private sector component of Raiwind project funding; accounting for funds invested; standards of conduct of government and BC Hydro-related personnel, including conflicts of interest; and governance issues.

  17. Development of a Spatial Decision Support System for Analyzing Changes in Hydro-meteorological Risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Westen, Cees

    2013-04-01

    In the framework of the EU FP7 Marie Curie ITN Network "CHANGES: Changing Hydro-meteorological Risks, as Analyzed by a New Generation of European Scientists (http://www.changes-itn.eu)", a spatial decision support system is under development with the aim to analyze the effect of risk reduction planning alternatives on reducing the risk now and in the future, and support decision makers in selecting the best alternatives. The SDSS is one of the main outputs of the CHANGES network, which will develop an advanced understanding of how global changes, related to environmental and climate change as well as socio-economical change, may affect the temporal and spatial patterns of hydro-meteorological hazards and associated risks in Europe; how these changes can be assessed, modeled, and incorporated in sustainable risk management strategies, focusing on spatial planning, emergency preparedness and risk communication. The CHANGES network consists of 11 full partners and 6 associate partners of which 5 private companies, representing 10 European countries. The CHANGES network has hired 12 Early Stage Researchers (ESRs) and is currently hiring 3-6 researchers more for the implementation of the SDSS. The Spatial Decision Support System will be composed of a number of integrated components. The Risk Assessment component allows to carry out spatial risk analysis, with different degrees of complexity, ranging from simple exposure (overlay of hazard and assets maps) to quantitative analysis (using different hazard types, temporal scenarios and vulnerability curves) resulting into risk curves. The platform does not include a component to calculate hazard maps, and existing hazard maps are used as input data for the risk component. The second component of the SDSS is a risk reduction planning component, which forms the core of the platform. This component includes the definition of risk reduction alternatives (related to disaster response planning, risk reduction measures and

  18. An Overview of Manganese Recovery by Hydro and Pyro-Metallurgical Routes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwivedi, Deepak; Randhawa, Navneet Singh; Saroj, Sanjay; Jana, Ranjeet Kumar

    2016-06-01

    This review comprises of information about the recovery of manganese through leaching and carbothermic reduction routes. In industrial processes, various critical parameters such as ore size, temperature, pressure, gas atmosphere and ore composition etc. affect the reduction or recovery of Mn from ores. Authors have tried to bring those critical parameters in this review which is currently being considered as important industrial parameters for Mn ore processing. This paper deals with both pyro-metallurgical and hydro-metallurgical routes for Mn ore reduction and gives brief summary about the critical parameters.

  19. Hydro-Balanced Stuffing Box field test

    SciTech Connect

    Giangiacomo, L.A.

    1999-05-28

    The Hydro-Balanced Stuffing Box is a seal assembly for polished rod pumping installations commonly used in oil and gas pumping well installations to contain produced well fluids. The improved stuffing box was developed and patented by Harold H. Palmour of The Palmour Group of Livingston, TX. The stuffing box is designed to reduce the incidence of seal leakage and to utilize an environmentally safe fluid, so that if there is any leakage, environmental damage is reduced or eliminated. The unit was tested on two wells at the Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center. During the test period, the performance of the stuffing box was measured by monitoring the pressure on the tubing and the inner chamber with a Barton Two-pen recorder. The amount of safe fluid consumed, fluid leakage at the top of the stuffing box, pressure supplied from the nitrogen bottle, ambient temperature, and polish rod temperature was recorded. The stuffing box is capable of providing a better seal between well fluids an d the environment than conventional stuffing boxes. It allows the polished rod to operate cooler and with lubrication, extending the life of the packing elements, and reducing the amount of attention required to prevent leakage.

  20. Enrofloxacin hydro­chloride dihydrate

    PubMed Central

    Miranda-Calderón, Jorge E.; Gutiérrez, Lilia; Flores-Alamo, Marcos; García-Gutiérrez, Ponciano; Sumano, Héctor

    2014-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C19H23FN3O3 +·Cl−·2H2O [systematic name: 4-(3-carb­oxy-1-cyclo­propyl-6-fluoro-4-oxo-1,4-di­hydro­quin­o­lin-7-yl)-1-ethyl­piperazin-1-ium chloride dihydrate], consists of two independent monocations of the protonated enrofloxacin, two chloride anions and four water mol­ecules. In the cations, the piperazinium rings adopt chair conformations and the dihedral angles between the cyclo­propyl ring and the 10-membered quinoline ring system are 56.55 (2) and 51.11 (2)°. An intra­molecular O—H⋯O hydrogen bond is observed in each cation. In the crystal, the components are connected via O—H⋯Cl, N—H⋯Cl and O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, and a π–π inter­action between the benzene rings [centroid–centroid distance = 3.6726 (13) Å], resulting in a three-dimensional array. PMID:24826167

  1. The imprint of hydro-mechanics of fractures in periodic pumping tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinci, C.; Steeb, H.; Renner, J.

    2015-09-01

    Modelling of pressure transients recorded in wells allows for characterization of reservoirs surrounding the well. Simulation of pressure transients furthermore permits sensitivity studies for individual model parameters. We numerically simulated pumping tests in a vertical well intersecting a single horizontal fracture to evaluate the diagnostic potential of periodic pumping procedures for subsurface characterization. The pressure responses in the pumping and monitoring wells were analysed with respect to their sensitivity to geometrical and hydraulic properties of the fracture and of the surrounding rock material. We focused on interference analysis that for periodic pumping tests reduces to a consideration of amplitude ratio and phase shift between pressure transients recorded at an injection well and monitoring points. Fluid flow in the deformable fracture was modelled employing (1) a hybrid-dimensional hydro-mechanically coupled approach and (2) an uncoupled-diffusion equation. Results of both approaches were compared to quantify the effects of hydro-mechanical coupling. While in the uncoupled-diffusion approach a bulk storage capacity value is prescribed for the fracture, storage capacity is implicitly accounted for by the coupling in the hybrid-dimensional approach. Results reveal that hydro-mechanical coupling strongly affects the pressure transient at the pumping well and the monitoring points. Asymmetry of the pressure profiles between injection and production phases at the injection point is a peculiar characteristic of the hydro-mechanical results and is related to changes in fracture permeability with fluid pressure caused by fracture deformation. Further hydro-mechanical effects, such as reverse-pressure response, occur at monitoring points along the fracture domain, in particular at positions in the conduit where the contribution of diffusive pressure propagation remains small, that is, at monitoring distances large compared to classic scaling for

  2. Hydro-Meteorological Hazards Assessment Based Upon Climate Change Considerations in Isfara Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramesh, Azadeh; Conrad, Christopher; Mannig, Birgit; Schrader, Frank

    2013-04-01

    Central Asia is highly exposed and vulnerable to hydro-meteorological hazards and presents a constant threat to the population, in particular with flood and mudflow as frequent events in this region. Annual floods and mudflows cause enormous economic and social affects e.g. damages on houses and infrastructure in the floodplains, agricultural production particularly for water control (channels, bridges, etc.). An important challenge for the assessment of hydro-meteorological hazards is climate change, which is altering exposure. In the framework of the Trans-boundary Water Management in Central Asia/WMBOCA project, supported by TWM-CA and CAWa projects of German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ) and German Aerospace Center (DLR), we developed an approach how to address flood and mudflow using the official sources have been performed for selected areas in Central Asia based upon climate change considerations. This research has been carried out for the Isfara River basin which is located in northern Tajikistan and south-western Kyrgyzstan. The Isfara River basin belongs to Sugdh Oblast in Tajikistan and to Batken Oblast in Kyrgyzstan. The study begins with a description of the employed sources and methodology. The ensuing section offers analysis of exposure to hydro-meteorological hazards. Then, the study covers an overview of work related to the analysis of changes in mudflow and flood hazards in the past 20 years. Additionally, exposure to hydro-meteorological hazards in the case study has been assessed against a backdrop of rising climate change and variability for year 2050. This study presents initial findings from these analyses which are including (a) mapping of previous floods and mudflows in the basin, using conventional and traditional sources, supported remote sensing tools, (b) forecast of floods and mudflows in the basin, based upon climate change scenarios, and finally (c) supporting the local authorities and administrations in consideration of

  3. 75 FR 75999 - Lock + Hydro Friends Fund XlVI; FFP Missouri 17, LLC; Solia 3 Hydroelectric, LLC; Three Rivers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ...; Project No. 13783-000; Project No. 13790-000] Lock + Hydro Friends Fund XlVI; FFP Missouri 17, LLC; Solia 3 Hydroelectric, LLC; Three Rivers Hydro, LLC; Hildebrand Hydro, LLC; Notice of Competing... 30, 2010. On May 18, 2010, Lock + Hydro Friends Fund XLVI, FFP Missouri 17, LLC, Solia 3 Hydro,...

  4. The different modes of hydro-economic analysis (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harou, J. J.; Binions, O.; Erfani, T.

    2013-12-01

    In the face of growing water demands, climate change and spatial and temporal water access variability, accurately assessing the economic impacts of proposed water resource management changes is useful. The objective of this project funded by UK Water Industry Research was to present and demonstrate a framework for identifying and using the ';value of water' to enable water utilities and their regulators to make better decisions. A hydro-economic model can help evaluate water management options in terms of their hydrological and economic impact at different locations throughout a catchment over time. In this talk we discuss three modes in which hydro-economic models can be implemented: evaluative, behavioral and prescriptive. In evaluation mode economic water demand and benefit functions are used to post-process water resource management model results to assess the economic impacts (over space and time) of a policy under consideration. In behavioral hydro-economic models users are represented as agents and the economics is used to help predict their actions. In prescriptive mode optimization is used to find the most economically efficient management actions such as allocation patterns or source selection. These three types of hydro-economic analysis are demonstrated on a UK watershed (Great River Ouse) that includes 97 different water abstractors from amongst the public water supply, agriculture, industry and energy plant cooling sectors. The following issues under dry and normal historical conditions were investigated: Supply/demand investment planning, societal cost of environmental flows, water market prices, and scarcity-sensitive charges for water rights. The talk discusses which hydro-economic modeling mode is used to study each of these issues and why; example results are shown and discussed. The topic of how hydro-economic models can be built and deployed effectively is covered along with how existing water utility operational and planning tools can be

  5. Mortality Patterns of Hydro-Geomorphologic Disasters.

    PubMed

    Pereira, S; Zêzere, J L; Quaresma, I; Santos, P P; Santos, M

    2016-06-01

    Social impacts caused by floods and landslides in Portugal in the period of 1865-2010 are gathered in the DISASTER database. This database contains 1,902 hydro-geomorphologic cases that caused 1,248 fatalities (81% and 19% associated with floods and landslides, respectively). The use of the DISASTER database allowed for: (i) the analysis of the frequency and the temporal evolution of fatal floods and landslides; (ii) the analysis of the spatio-temporal distribution of fatalities; (iii) the identification of the most deadly flood and landside types; (iv) the verification of gender tendencies in mortalities; and (v) the evaluation of individual and societal risk. The highest number of flood and landslide cases and related mortalities occurred in the period of 1935-1969. After this period, the number of flood and landslide mortalities decreased, although landslide fatalities remained higher than those registered in the period of 1865-1934. The occurrence of flood fatalities was widespread in the country, with an important cluster in the Lisbon region and in the Tagus valley, while fatalities caused by landslides mainly occurred in the north of the Tagus valley. Flash floods caused the majority of fatalities associated with floods, while falls and flows were responsible for the highest number of fatalities associated with landslides. Males were found to have the highest frequency of fatalities. In the case of floods, the majority of fatalities were found both outdoors and inside of buildings in rural areas while fatalities inside buildings were dominant in landslide cases, mostly in rural areas. PMID:26616470

  6. Assessing Hydro-Ecological Vulnerability from Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stampoulis, D.; Andreadis, K.; Granger, S. L.; Fisher, J. B.; Turk, F. J.; Behrangi, A.; Das, N. N.; Ines, A.

    2015-12-01

    The main driver of economic growth in East Africa is agriculture. However, climate change and the resulting intensification of the hydrologic cycle will increase water limitation in this already drought-burdened region, and the challenge of ensuring food security is bound to become critical. Efforts must, therefore, be made to develop appropriate adaptation strategies for agriculture in such regions. Assessing and predicting ecosystem responses to global environmental change can advance management and decision support systems that would improve food security and economic development. The current study uses a plethora of multi-year remote sensing earth observations to study the hydro-ecological vulnerability of the various ecosystems in the water-stressed East African region to droughts. More specifically, we assess the hydrologic sensitivity and resilience of soil moisture and vegetation water content (derived from NRL's WindSat radiometer), during dry spells, for different dry-period durations, and for various vegetation categories. Spatiotemporal patterns and characteristics of the response of the two aforementioned variables to sustained precipitation deficits (derived from TRMM 3B42 V7), as well as their persistence in maintaining their stability are identified. We also assess changes, in space and time, in the normalized radar surface-backscattering cross-sections from NASA's QuikSCAT Scatterometer, to obtain information on the vegetation regimes, as well as changes in vegetation phenometrics using the enhanced vegetation index (EVI) derived from MODIS. Quantifying the response and characterizing the resilience of the two aforementioned major hydrological attributes using various remote sensing techniques that complement each other, can provide critical insight into the region's vulnerability and adaptive capacity with respect to rainfall variability.

  7. 76 FR 67167 - Riverbank Hydro No. 1 LLC; Qualified Hydro 20 LLC; Lock Hydro Friends Fund XXXVII; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-31

    ... generation of 142.0 gigawatt-hours (GWh) and operate run-of-river utilizing surplus water from the Aberdeen... an average annual generation of 32.0 GWh and operate run-of-river utilizing surplus water from the... No. 14131-000 would consist of: (1) A forebay; (2) an intake structure; (3) a powerhouse...

  8. 77 FR 62535 - Hydro Aluminum North America, Inc., Midwest Region, Including On-Site Leased Workers From...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-15

    ... Employment and Training Administration Hydro Aluminum North America, Inc., Midwest Region, Including On- Site Leased Workers From Employment Group, Aerotek, and Manpower, Kalamazoo, Michigan; Hydro Aluminum North... and former workers of Hydro Aluminum North America, Inc., Kalamazoo, Michigan. The subject...

  9. Dynamic hydro-climatic networks in pristine and regulated rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botter, G.; Basso, S.; Lazzaro, G.; Doulatyari, B.; Biswal, B.; Schirmer, M.; Rinaldo, A.

    2014-12-01

    Flow patterns observed at-a-station are the dynamical byproduct of a cascade of processes involving different compartments of the hydro-climatic network (e.g., climate, rainfall, soil, vegetation) that regulates the transformation of rainfall into streamflows. In complex branching rivers, flow regimes result from the heterogeneous arrangement around the stream network of multiple hydrologic cascades that simultaneously occur within distinct contributing areas. As such, flow regimes are seen as the integrated output of a complex "network of networks", which can be properly characterized by its degree of temporal variability and spatial heterogeneity. Hydrologic networks that generate river flow regimes are dynamic in nature. In pristine rivers, the time-variance naturally emerges at multiple timescales from climate variability (namely, seasonality and inter-annual fluctuations), implying that the magnitude (and the features) of the water flow between two nodes may be highly variable across different seasons and years. Conversely, the spatial distribution of river flow regimes within pristine rivers involves scale-dependent transport features, as well as regional climatic and soil use gradients, which in small and meso-scale catchments (A < 103 km2) are usually mild enough to guarantee quite uniform flow regimes and high spatial correlations. Human-impacted rivers, instead, constitute hybrid networks where observed spatio-temporal patterns are dominated by anthropogenic shifts, such as landscape alterations and river regulation. In regulated rivers, the magnitude and the features of water flows from node to node may change significantly through time due to damming and withdrawals. However, regulation may impact river regimes in a spatially heterogeneous manner (e.g. in localized river reaches), with a significant decrease of spatial correlations and network connectivity. Provided that the spatial and temporal dynamics of flow regimes in complex rivers may strongly

  10. Next-Generation Pyrosequencing Analysis of Microbial Biofilm Communities on Granular Activated Carbon in Treatment of Oil Sands Process-Affected Water

    PubMed Central

    Islam, M. Shahinoor; Zhang, Yanyan; McPhedran, Kerry N.

    2015-01-01

    The development of biodegradation treatment processes for oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) has been progressing in recent years with the promising potential of biofilm reactors. Previously, the granular activated carbon (GAC) biofilm process was successfully employed for treatment of a large variety of recalcitrant organic compounds in domestic and industrial wastewaters. In this study, GAC biofilm microbial development and degradation efficiency were investigated for OSPW treatment by monitoring the biofilm growth on the GAC surface in raw and ozonated OSPW in batch bioreactors. The GAC biofilm community was characterized using a next-generation 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing technique that revealed that the phylum Proteobacteria was dominant in both OSPW and biofilms, with further in-depth analysis showing higher abundances of Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria sequences. Interestingly, many known polyaromatic hydrocarbon degraders, namely, Burkholderiales, Pseudomonadales, Bdellovibrionales, and Sphingomonadales, were observed in the GAC biofilm. Ozonation decreased the microbial diversity in planktonic OSPW but increased the microbial diversity in the GAC biofilms. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed similar bacterial gene copy numbers (>109 gene copies/g of GAC) for both raw and ozonated OSPW GAC biofilms. The observed rates of removal of naphthenic acids (NAs) over the 2-day experiments for the GAC biofilm treatments of raw and ozonated OSPW were 31% and 66%, respectively. Overall, a relatively low ozone dose (30 mg of O3/liter utilized) combined with GAC biofilm treatment significantly increased NA removal rates. The treatment of OSPW in bioreactors using GAC biofilms is a promising technology for the reduction of recalcitrant OSPW organic compounds. PMID:25841014

  11. Next-generation pyrosequencing analysis of microbial biofilm communities on granular activated carbon in treatment of oil sands process-affected water.

    PubMed

    Islam, M Shahinoor; Zhang, Yanyan; McPhedran, Kerry N; Liu, Yang; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed

    2015-06-15

    The development of biodegradation treatment processes for oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) has been progressing in recent years with the promising potential of biofilm reactors. Previously, the granular activated carbon (GAC) biofilm process was successfully employed for treatment of a large variety of recalcitrant organic compounds in domestic and industrial wastewaters. In this study, GAC biofilm microbial development and degradation efficiency were investigated for OSPW treatment by monitoring the biofilm growth on the GAC surface in raw and ozonated OSPW in batch bioreactors. The GAC biofilm community was characterized using a next-generation 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing technique that revealed that the phylum Proteobacteria was dominant in both OSPW and biofilms, with further in-depth analysis showing higher abundances of Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria sequences. Interestingly, many known polyaromatic hydrocarbon degraders, namely, Burkholderiales, Pseudomonadales, Bdellovibrionales, and Sphingomonadales, were observed in the GAC biofilm. Ozonation decreased the microbial diversity in planktonic OSPW but increased the microbial diversity in the GAC biofilms. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed similar bacterial gene copy numbers (>10(9) gene copies/g of GAC) for both raw and ozonated OSPW GAC biofilms. The observed rates of removal of naphthenic acids (NAs) over the 2-day experiments for the GAC biofilm treatments of raw and ozonated OSPW were 31% and 66%, respectively. Overall, a relatively low ozone dose (30 mg of O3/liter utilized) combined with GAC biofilm treatment significantly increased NA removal rates. The treatment of OSPW in bioreactors using GAC biofilms is a promising technology for the reduction of recalcitrant OSPW organic compounds. PMID:25841014

  12. Power Management Based Current Control Technique for Photovoltaic-Battery Assisted Wind-Hydro Hybrid System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ram Prabhakar, J.; Ragavan, K.

    2013-07-01

    This article proposes new power management based current control strategy for integrated wind-solar-hydro system equipped with battery storage mechanism. In this control technique, an indirect estimation of load current is done, through energy balance model, DC-link voltage control and droop control. This system features simpler energy management strategy and necessitates few power electronic converters, thereby minimizing the cost of the system. The generation-demand (G-D) management diagram is formulated based on the stochastic weather conditions and demand, which would likely moderate the gap between both. The features of management strategy deploying energy balance model include (1) regulating DC-link voltage within specified tolerances, (2) isolated operation without relying on external electric power transmission network, (3) indirect current control of hydro turbine driven induction generator and (4) seamless transition between grid-connected and off-grid operation modes. Furthermore, structuring of the hybrid system with appropriate selection of control variables enables power sharing among each energy conversion systems and battery storage mechanism. By addressing these intricacies, it is viable to regulate the frequency and voltage of the remote network at load end. The performance of the proposed composite scheme is demonstrated through time-domain simulation in MATLAB/Simulink environment.

  13. A Multi-Hydro simulation for evaluation of the impacts of flood management at Heywood, RU.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giangola-Murzyn, Agathe; Richard, Julien; Hennermann, Karl; Gires, Auguste; Tchiguirinskaia, Ioulia; Schertzer, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    The flooding problems in urban and peri-urban areas have more and more important impacts on city life. Indeed, with the expansion of the latter, the floodplains are more intensively used and floods will generate significant damage very expensive. In the aim to reduce these costs and facilitate a return to normal faster after the flood, the FP7 SMARTeST project aims to provide users of these areas a guide to help them choose the most appropriate protection measures. It is in this context that the Multi-Hydro model has been developed and improved in the Ecole des Ponts ParisTech. This model consists into a coupling between four modules (relying on existing open source and widely validated physically based model): one for the rainfall scenario generation, one for the surface processes, one for the subsurface processes and one for the load of the sewer system. This structure of coupling allows to represent all the parts of the water's path from the surface to the sewer system's pipes and to the soil of the considered catchment and it allows to disconnect one element of the coupling system if it's necessary. Moreover, this model uses some GIS data as the elevation, the land use, the soil description and the sewer system description which can be managed by a dedicated open source SIG allowing to use directly the data in the model. The Multi-Hydro model has been used on a street of Heywood, Rochdale, Greater Manchester urban area. This residential street has known some important events during this last 10 years. Thus, Multi-Hydro has been used to evaluate the effects of the implementation of protection measures supposed to reduce the damages of the flood: a storage basin, located between Wilton Grove and the Egerton street and two barriers across the streets. For a given event, NIMROD radar data have been used to reproduce the flood. Then, the protective measures were put in place virtually. Analysis of water height maps obtained with Multi-Hydro allowed better understand

  14. The HydroServer Platform for Sharing Hydrologic Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarboton, D. G.; Horsburgh, J. S.; Schreuders, K.; Maidment, D. R.; Zaslavsky, I.; Valentine, D. W.

    2010-12-01

    The CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System (HIS) is an internet based system that supports sharing of hydrologic data. HIS consists of databases connected using the Internet through Web services, as well as software for data discovery, access, and publication. The HIS system architecture is comprised of servers for publishing and sharing data, a centralized catalog to support cross server data discovery and a desktop client to access and analyze data. This paper focuses on HydroServer, the component developed for sharing and publishing space-time hydrologic datasets. A HydroServer is a computer server that contains a collection of databases, web services, tools, and software applications that allow data producers to store, publish, and manage the data from an experimental watershed or project site. HydroServer is designed to permit publication of data as part of a distributed national/international system, while still locally managing access to the data. We describe the HydroServer architecture and software stack, including tools for managing and publishing time series data for fixed point monitoring sites as well as spatially distributed, GIS datasets that describe a particular study area, watershed, or region. HydroServer adopts a standards based approach to data publication, relying on accepted and emerging standards for data storage and transfer. CUAHSI developed HydroServer code is free with community code development managed through the codeplex open source code repository and development system. There is some reliance on widely used commercial software for general purpose and standard data publication capability. The sharing of data in a common format is one way to stimulate interdisciplinary research and collaboration. It is anticipated that the growing, distributed network of HydroServers will facilitate cross-site comparisons and large scale studies that synthesize information from diverse settings, making the network as a whole greater than the sum of its

  15. Hydro-Quebec powertrain for electric vehicles looks promising

    SciTech Connect

    Hobart, S.

    1995-05-01

    This article is a review of Hydro-Quebec`s electric vehicle design efforts. This design incorporates electric motors into each wheel, which is expected to result in high torque at all speeds and improved handling and traction. The design is thought to be highly efficient because: (1) it is better at transforming stored energy into usable mechanical energy, and (2) regenerative braking and better aerodynamics require less energy at the wheels to propel the vehicle. System designers expect to have the system installed in a full-size vehicle (a Chrysler Intrepid) by early 1996, and eventually, Hydro-Quebec expects to sell the technology to automakers.

  16. 78 FR 34090 - New Hampshire Water Resources Board, Hydro Dynamics Corporation; Notice of Transfer of Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission New Hampshire Water Resources Board, Hydro Dynamics Corporation; Notice of... and the New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services, as successor agency, and Hydro...

  17. 6. INTERIOR VIEW OF CROSSCUT HYDRO PLANT, SHOWING 25 CYCLE60 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. INTERIOR VIEW OF CROSSCUT HYDRO PLANT, SHOWING 25 CYCLE-60 CYCLE FREQUENCY CHANGER Photographer unknown, December 14, 1940 - Cross Cut Hydro Plant, North Side of Salt River, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  18. 76 FR 44323 - National Grid Transmission Services Corporation; Bangor Hydro Electric Company; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-25

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission National Grid Transmission Services Corporation; Bangor Hydro Electric... Services Corporation and Bangor Hydro Electric Company (collectively, NEL Parties) filed a petition for... current transmission line, the Northeast Energy Link, in order that First Wind may deliver energy...

  19. 77 FR 13317 - Notice Announcing Filing Priority for Preliminary Permit Applications: Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-06

    ...] Notice Announcing Filing Priority for Preliminary Permit Applications: Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund VIII; FFP.... 24, LLC: Project No. 14280-000. 3. Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund VIII: Project No. 14262-000....

  20. 78 FR 929 - TransCanada Hydro Northeast Inc.; FirstLight Hydro Generating Company; Notice of Intent To File...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-07

    ...), Vernon Project (P-1904-073), Turners Falls Project (P-1889-081), Northfield Mountain Pumped Storage..., NH. The Turners Falls Project and Northfield Mountain Pumped Storage ] Project are located on the Connecticut River in Franklin County, Massachusetts (MA), Windham County, VT and Cheshire County, NH....

  1. Coupling X-band dual-polarized mini-radars and hydro-meteorological forecast models: the HYDRORAD project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picciotti, E.; Marzano, F. S.; Anagnostou, E. N.; Kalogiros, J.; Fessas, Y.; Volpi, A.; Cazac, V.; Pace, R.; Cinque, G.; Bernardini, L.; De Sanctis, K.; Di Fabio, S.; Montopoli, M.; Anagnostou, M. N.; Telleschi, A.; Dimitriou, E.; Stella, J.

    2013-05-01

    Hydro-meteorological hazards like convective outbreaks leading to torrential rain and floods are among the most critical environmental issues world-wide. In that context weather radar observations have proven to be very useful in providing information on the spatial distribution of rainfall that can support early warning of floods. However, quantitative precipitation estimation by radar is subjected to many limitations and uncertainties. The use of dual-polarization at high frequency (i.e. X-band) has proven particularly useful for mitigating some of the limitation of operational systems, by exploiting the benefit of easiness to transport and deploy and the high spatial and temporal resolution achievable at small antenna sizes. New developments on X-band dual-polarization technology in recent years have received the interest of scientific and operational communities in these systems. New enterprises are focusing on the advancement of cost-efficient mini-radar network technology, based on high-frequency (mainly X-band) and low-power weather radar systems for weather monitoring and hydro-meteorological forecasting. Within the above context, the main objective of the HYDRORAD project was the development of an innovative integrated decision support tool for weather monitoring and hydro-meteorological applications. The integrated system tool is based on a polarimetric X-band mini-radar network which is the core of the decision support tool, a novel radar products generator and a hydro-meteorological forecast modelling system that ingests mini-radar rainfall products to forecast precipitation and floods. The radar products generator includes algorithms for attenuation correction, hydrometeor classification, a vertical profile reflectivity correction, a new polarimetric rainfall estimators developed for mini-radar observations, and short-term nowcasting of convective cells. The hydro-meteorological modelling system includes the Mesoscale Model 5 (MM5) and the Army Corps

  2. Modeling the hydro-mechanical responses of strip and circular punch loadings on water-saturated collapsible geomaterials

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sun, WaiChing; Chen, Qiushi; Ostien, Jakob T.

    2013-11-22

    A stabilized enhanced strain finite element procedure for poromechanics is fully integrated with an elasto-plastic cap model to simulate the hydro-mechanical interactions of fluid-infiltrating porous rocks with associative and non-associative plastic flow. We present a quantitative analysis on how macroscopic plastic volumetric response caused by pore collapse and grain rearrangement affects the seepage of pore fluid, and vice versa. Results of finite element simulations imply that the dissipation of excess pore pressure may significantly affect the stress path and thus alter the volumetric plastic responses.

  3. 78 FR 57796 - Safety Zone; Pro Hydro-X Tour, Atlantic Ocean, Islamorada, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-20

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Pro Hydro-X Tour, Atlantic Ocean... Hydro- X Tour. The Pro Hydro-X Tour is a series of Jet Ski races. The race course is in an...

  4. 75 FR 73066 - Qualified Hydro 35, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-29

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Qualified Hydro 35, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted.... On October 15, 2010, Qualified Hydro 35, LLC filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant... Project would be 22,000 megawatt-hours. Applicant Contact: Ramya Swaminathan, Qualified Hydro 35, LLC,...

  5. 75 FR 71106 - Deer Creek Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-22

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Deer Creek Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for... October 14, 2010, Deer Creek Hydro, LLC (Deer Creek Hydro) filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to section 4(f) of the Federal Power Act (FPA), proposing to study the feasibility of the...

  6. 76 FR 35873 - Blue Heron Hydro LLC; Notice of Application Ready for Environmental Analysis and Soliciting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Project No. 13226-003] Blue Heron Hydro LLC; Notice of Application Ready for.... Date filed: November 1, 2010. d. Applicant: Blue Heron Hydro LLC. e. Name of Project: Ball Mountain Dam...)-825(r). h. Applicant Contact: Lori Barg, Blue Heron Hydro LLC, 113 Bartlett Road, Plainfield,...

  7. 76 FR 35875 - Blue Heron Hydro LLC; Notice of Application Ready for Environmental Analysis and Soliciting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Blue Heron Hydro LLC; Notice of Application Ready for Environmental Analysis...: November 1, 2010. d. Applicant: Blue Heron Hydro LLC. e. Name of Project: Townshend Dam Hydroelectric.... Applicant Contact: Lori Barg, Blue Heron Hydro LLC, 113 Bartlett Road, Plainfield, Vermont 05667. (802)...

  8. 76 FR 36533 - Bangor Hydro Electric Company; Notice of Request for Waiver

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Bangor Hydro Electric Company; Notice of Request for Waiver Take notice that...), Bangor Hydro Electric Company (Bangor Hydro) requests a limited waiver of Part 358 of the Commission's...) 208-3676 (toll free). For TTY, call (202) 502-8659. Comment Date: 5 p.m. Eastern Time on June 23,...

  9. 78 FR 71601 - KC Small Hydro LLC; Advanced Hydropower, Inc.; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission KC Small Hydro LLC; Advanced Hydropower, Inc.; Notice of Preliminary Permit... the applicant to KC Small Hydro LLC. (KCS Hydro). On November 5, 2013, Advanced Hydropower,...

  10. 78 FR 8512 - West Street Hydro, Inc.; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-06

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission West Street Hydro, Inc.; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted..., 2012, West Street Hydro, Inc., filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to section 4(f... megawatt-hours. Applicant Contact: Mr. Kenneth A. Stewart, West Street Hydro, Inc., 20 Central...

  11. 76 FR 7840 - American Hydro Power Company; Notice of Termination of Exemption by Implied Surrender and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-11

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission American Hydro Power Company; Notice of Termination of Exemption by Implied...: American Hydro Power Company. e. Name and Location of Project: The Gilpin Falls Project is located on... Information: Mr. Richard J. Halloran, American Hydro Power Company, 771 E. Lancaster Ave., Suite...

  12. 78 FR 28838 - Hamilton Street Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Hamilton Street Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application..., 2013, Hamilton Street Hydro, LLC, filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to section 4... Boumansour, Hamilton Street Hydro, LLC, 1401 Walnut Street, Suite 301, Boulder, CO 80302; phone: (303)...

  13. 77 FR 26796 - HydroGenetics, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-07

    ... COMMISSION HydroGenetics, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading May 2, 2012. It appears to the Securities and... HydroGenetics, Inc. (``HydroGenetics'') because it has not filed a periodic report since its Form 10... interest and the protection of investors require a suspension of trading in the securities of...

  14. Imparting super hydro/oleophobic properties to cotton fabric by means of molecular and nanoparticles vapor deposition methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aminayi, Payam; Abidi, Noureddine

    2013-12-01

    Super hydro/oleophobic cotton fabrics were prepared using nanoparticle vapor deposition and molecular vapor deposition techniques. The surface was roughened by trimethylaluminum/water nanoparticles followed by functionalization with (tridecafluoro-1,1,2,2-tetrahydrooctyl)trichlorosilane. This process imparted unique hydro/oleophobic properties (contact angle >160°). In contrast to wet chemistry processes, the chemicals used and the thickness of the coatings produced by this method could be controlled precisely, which allowed for the minimization of waste generation while preserving the original properties of the fabric. Dynamic contact angles were measured and the fabrics that were coated using this technique showed low-contact-angle hysteresis properties. Scanning electron microscopy and universal attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed the formation of a nanostructure-roughened surface. Drop dynamics such as the force of droplet movement, work of adhesion, and surface free energy were also calculated.

  15. Hydro-Geomorphic Variability as an Ecological Template for Aquatic and Riparian Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, D. R.

    2002-12-01

    Hydro-geomorphic processes act as ecological disturbances that shape ecosystem characteristics and dynamics and play key roles in creating, modifying, and destroying aquatic habitat. Within the broad regional context set by general patterns of climate, geology, topography, and vegetation, the combined influences of the hydrologic, geomorphic, and vegetation regimes dominate the variability of river systems. Of particular relevance to aquatic and riparian ecosystems are the main processes that transport and store water, sediment, and wood, and how differences in current and potential conditions are related to both local conditions and basin-wide tends. The concept of process domains, distinct areas of a landscape that correspond to different disturbance regimes, provides a framework for integrating the inherent interplay of spatial and temporal variability in channel processes. The intensity of the impact, the size of the area affected, and the frequency of occurrence together define the disturbance regime associated with particular hydro-geomorphic processes. The disturbance regime sets the physical habitat template that influences potentially successful behavioral and life-history strategies of stream dwelling organisms. The distribution of some organisms is strongly associated with different process domains, whereas that of habitat generalists are not. Three general principles apply to the use of hydro-geomorphic variability as an ecological template for aquatic and riparian ecosystems. (1) What constitutes a disturbance is species specific and will vary according to the system or community under consideration and focusing on needs of a single target species and life stage can unintentionally degrade the system for other species or life stages. For example, river restoration efforts focused on spawning reaches and water levels for chinook salmon may ignore or exacerbate the loss of off-channel habitat such as side channels, groundwater-fed floodplain channels

  16. 75 FR 45607 - Application To Export Electric Energy; Manitoba Hydro

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-03

    ... Application To Export Electric Energy; Manitoba Hydro AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy... authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to Canada pursuant to section 202(e) of the... Order No. EA-281, which authorized Manitoba to transmit electric energy from the United States to...

  17. Long-term views on hydro O M

    SciTech Connect

    Hocker, C. )

    1991-06-01

    Like the proverbial iceberg, at least 90 percent of the effort, costs, and headaches of owning a hydroelectric plant is usually hidden from view in the unglamorous, but essential, category of operations and maintenance (O M). While the processing of planning, designing, and constructing a plant may command more attention and excitement, and the economic benefits of ownership may be more satisfying, the day-in, day-out work of O M is a key component in the long-term success of a hydro plant. With project lives of between 50 and 100 years, running a hydro plant can be an extremely long-lived venture requiring an equally long-term approach to O M. Hydro O M experts in the US and Canada generally agree that successful O M requires a long-term view. Representatives of government agencies, investor-owned utilities, and private non-utility hydro owners contacted for this article all share similar perspectives, experiences, and methods for dealing with O M problems.

  18. 78 FR 938 - Burton Creek Hydro Inc., Sollos Energy, LLC'

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Burton Creek Hydro Inc., Sollos Energy, LLC' Notice of Transfer of Exemption..., 1985,\\1\\ has been transferred to Sollos Energy, LLC. The project is located on Burton Creek in...

  19. HYDRO BRAKE REGULATED STORAGE SYSTEM FOR STORMWATER MANAGEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research project was initiated with the overall objective of determining the ability of the Hydro Brake flow control device, in conjunction with off-line underground storage, to limit the rate of stormwater flow into combined sewers. The intended result of this control was t...

  20. HydroPPT: a Hydrolight pre- and post-data processing toolkit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, KePing; Lee, ZhongPing; Mobley, Curtis D.

    2006-12-01

    The HYDROLIGHT ocean radiative transfer code is a well established standard for simulating the water leaving radiance from the visible to the near infrared. However, its efficient use is a task not easily accomplished for running thousands of different cases and processing the generated results. HydroPPT is a tool integrated with HYDROLIGHT to generate input data and Fortran files and process the digital output files in batch mode. This paper describes workflows and examples for simulating a dataset. This paper also provides some tips to port HYDROLIGHT to some other compilers (e.g., Intel visual Fortran compiler) and platforms (e.g., SGI IRIX, HP TRU64, SUN Solaris, etc) to improve the computing efficiency and effectively use the computing resources. Based on our tests, Intel visual Fortran compiler provides improved performance for HYDROLIGHT code than that by the LAHEY Fortran compiler on the Intel processor based platforms.

  1. Hydro-climatic fluctuations driven by natural and anthropogenic forcing in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, S.; Yang, D.

    2014-12-01

    Hydrological change is one of the most profound parts of global change which is associated with freshwater resources, food security and balance of ecosystem. Its driving factors in the past need to be understood and quantified for projection of future changes and management of water available. Here by applying the Budyko water-energy balance framework, we analyse the hydro-climatic fluctuations at annual scale and their natural and anthropogenic drivers during past fifty years in six major Chinese drainage basins, from south to north, and from natural basins to human-modified basins. Natural forcing here means the fluctuations in precipitation and temperature, and the shift of precipitation from snow towards rain. And we focus on the impact of change in vegetational coverage, agricultural irrigation and water division as anthropogenic effect. By cross-regional comparison and within-region comparison, we explore the spatial variability of the hydro-climatic change and the type and contribution of different driven factors, especially various human modifications, throughout China. This study shows how the complex coupled system of climate, human and eco-hydrology can be described and explored by an effective and simple model and how the water balance constraints of hydrological basins affect water available throughout China and their spatial variability in the past half century.

  2. Satellite Based Probabilistic Snow Cover Extent Mapping (SCE) at Hydro-Québec

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teasdale, Mylène; De Sève, Danielle; Angers, Jean-François; Perreault, Luc

    2016-04-01

    Over 40% of Canada's water resources are in Quebec and Hydro-Quebec has developed potential to become one of the largest producers of hydroelectricity in the world, with a total installed capacity of 36,643 MW. The Hydro-Québec fleet park includes 27 large reservoirs with a combined storage capacity of 176 TWh, and 668 dams and 98 controls. Thus, over 98% of all electricity used to supply the domestic market comes from water resources and the excess output is sold on the wholesale markets. In this perspective the efficient management of water resources is needed and it is based primarily on a good river flow estimation including appropriate hydrological data. Snow on ground is one of the significant variables representing 30% to 40% of its annual energy reserve. More specifically, information on snow cover extent (SCE) and snow water equivalent (SWE) is crucial for hydrological forecasting, particularly in northern regions since the snowmelt provides the water that fills the reservoirs and is subsequently used for hydropower generation. For several years Hydro Quebec's research institute ( IREQ) developed several algorithms to map SCE and SWE. So far all the methods were deterministic. However, given the need to maximize the efficient use of all resources while ensuring reliability, the electrical systems must now be managed taking into account all risks. Since snow cover estimation is based on limited spatial information, it is important to quantify and handle its uncertainty in the hydrological forecasting system. This paper presents the first results of a probabilistic algorithm for mapping SCE by combining Bayesian mixture of probability distributions and multiple logistic regression models applied to passive microwave data. This approach allows assigning for each grid point, probabilities to the set of the mutually exclusive discrete outcomes: "snow" and "no snow". Its performance was evaluated using the Brier score since it is particularly appropriate to

  3. Simulations of Blade Angle Effects on EGAT-Micro Hydro Turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuantong, Weerapon; Taechajedcadarungsri, Sirivit

    2010-06-01

    Following the feasibility study of design phase of EGAT (Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand) in-house micro hydro bulb turbine at Huai Kum Dam drainage pipeline from the reservoir for irrigation, the simulation of blade angle effects had been performed. In this case study, the turbine was designed at the average head of 21 m and water flow rate of 0.424 m3/s. The simulation was conducted in order to study of the effects of blade angle on the fluid flow for this specific case. The LES turbulence model under the practical condition of unsteady flow and incompressible fluid at Huai Kum Dam was investigated. The rotating blades effect the change in pressure and momentum which depend on head and flow rate of fluid. The research studied pressure and velocity of fluid flow on blades solving the pre-design for the improvement of hydro turbine efficiency. The computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) was used to simulate the pressure and velocity distributions on blades of hydro bulb turbine which consists of five-blade runner and rotates at 980 rpm by using Fluent Software. The model was set at the blade twist angle of 25o and blade camber angle of 32o and then adjusted the guide vane angle to 60o, 65o and 70o respectively for comparing the maximum and minimum pressure on both sides of the blades as well as the corresponding efficiency. The results have shown that by setting guide vane angle to 60o, 65o and 70o, the maximum pressure, located at the leading edge of pressure side, are 213 kPa, 217 kPa and 207 kPa and the minimum pressure, located at the leading edge of suction side are -473 kPa, -465 kPa, and -581 kPa respectively. The flow profiles of pressure, velocity and stream line showed the guidelines of better blade angle comparisons. The maximum efficiency of hydro bulb turbine found in this study was 67.8% at blade angle of 32o and guide vane of 60o. This case study will be further investigated on the blade design for the improvement of the turbine efficiency

  4. Neuro-Fuzzy Computational Technique to Control Load Frequency in Hydro-Thermal Interconnected Power System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, S.; Sinha, S. K.

    2015-09-01

    In this research work, two areas hydro-thermal power system connected through tie-lines is considered. The perturbation of frequencies at the areas and resulting tie line power flows arise due to unpredictable load variations that cause mismatch between the generated and demanded powers. Due to rising and falling power demand, the real and reactive power balance is harmed; hence frequency and voltage get deviated from nominal value. This necessitates designing of an accurate and fast controller to maintain the system parameters at nominal value. The main purpose of system generation control is to balance the system generation against the load and losses so that the desired frequency and power interchange between neighboring systems are maintained. The intelligent controllers like fuzzy logic, artificial neural network (ANN) and hybrid fuzzy neural network approaches are used for automatic generation control for the two area interconnected power systems. Area 1 consists of thermal reheat power plant whereas area 2 consists of hydro power plant with electric governor. Performance evaluation is carried out by using intelligent (ANFIS, ANN and fuzzy) control and conventional PI and PID control approaches. To enhance the performance of controller sliding surface i.e. variable structure control is included. The model of interconnected power system has been developed with all five types of said controllers and simulated using MATLAB/SIMULINK package. The performance of the intelligent controllers has been compared with the conventional PI and PID controllers for the interconnected power system. A comparison of ANFIS, ANN, Fuzzy and PI, PID based approaches shows the superiority of proposed ANFIS over ANN, fuzzy and PI, PID. Thus the hybrid fuzzy neural network controller has better dynamic response i.e., quick in operation, reduced error magnitude and minimized frequency transients.

  5. 77 FR 10740 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XVIII, Upper Hydroelectric, LLC, FFP Project 95, LLC, Riverbank Hydro No...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XVIII, Upper Hydroelectric, LLC, FFP Project 95... Friends Fund XVIII for Project No. 14261-000, Upper Hydroelectric, LLC for Project No. 14268-000,...

  6. A 3D coupled hydro-mechanical granular model for the prediction of hot tearing formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sistaninia, M.; Phillion, A. B.; Drezet, J.-M.; Rappaz, M.

    2012-07-01

    A new 3D coupled hydro-mechanical granular model that simulates hot tearing formation in metallic alloys is presented. The hydro-mechanical model consists of four separate 3D modules. (I) The Solidification Module (SM) is used for generating the initial solid-liquid geometry. Based on a Voronoi tessellation of randomly distributed nucleation centers, this module computes solidification within each polyhedron using a finite element based solute diffusion calculation for each element within the tessellation. (II) The Fluid Flow Module (FFM) calculates the solidification shrinkage and deformation-induced pressure drop within the intergranular liquid. (III) The Semi-solid Deformation Module (SDM) is used to simulate deformation of the granular structure via a combined finite element / discrete element method. In this module, deformation of the solid grains is modeled using an elasto-viscoplastic constitutive law. (IV) The Failure Module (FM) is used to simulate crack initiation and propagation with the fracture criterion estimated from the overpressure required to overcome the capillary forces at the liquid-gas interface. The FFM, SDM, and FM are coupled processes since solid deformation, intergranular flow, and crack initiation are deeply linked together. The granular model predictions have been validated against bulk data measured experimentally and calculated with averaging techniques.

  7. Development of a hydro kinetic river turbine with simulation and operational measurement results in comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruopp, A.; Ruprecht, A.; Riedelbauch, S.; Arnaud, G.; Hamad, I.

    2014-03-01

    The development of a hydro-kinetic prototype was shown including the compound structure, guide vanes, runner blades and a draft tube section with a steeply sloping, short spoiler. The design process of the hydrodynamic layout was split into three major steps. First the compound and the draft tube section was designed and the best operating point was identified using porous media as replacement for the guide vane and runner section (step one). The best operating point and the volume flux as well as the pressure drop was identified and used for the design of the guide vane section and the runner section. Both were designed and simulated independently (step two). In step three, all parts were merged in stationary simulation runs detecting peak power and operational bandwidth. In addition, the full scale demonstrator was installed in August 2010 and measured in the St. Lawrence River in Quebec supporting the average inflow velocity using ADCP (Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler) and the generator power output over the variable rotational speed. Simulation data and measurements are in good agreement. Thus, the presented approach is a suitable way in designing a hydro kinetic turbine.

  8. HydroMet: Real-time Forecasting System for Hydrologic Hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Band, L. E.; Shin, D.; Hwang, T.; Goodall, J.; Reed, M.; Rynge, M.; Stillwell, L.; Galluppi, K.

    2007-12-01

    Recent devastating floods and severe droughts in North Carolina called attention to the need of a reliable nowcasting and forecasting system for these hydrologic hazards. In response to the demand, HydroMet project was launched by RENCI (Renaissance Computing Institute). On a supercomputer in the institute, we integrated (1) WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting) for the mesoscale numerical weather prediction, (2) RHESSys (Regional Hydro-Ecologic Simulation System) for the distributed modeling of runoff generation and soil moisture, and (3) LDAS (Land Data Assimilation Systems) for upgrading the prediction accuracy of soil moisture and energy. By exploiting the powerful parallel computing architecture, the forecasting system was designed to assimilate and produce massive spatio-temporal data in real-time while recalibrating itself automatically. We applied the system for western and central North Carolina as test sites, and forecasted the propagation of flood waves, and the long-term trends of low channel flow and soil moisture at a fine spatial resolution. As we extend the application of the system over the entire North Carolina, it is expected to provide timely and accurate information about floods and droughts in the area, which is prerequisite for more effective prevention and recovery from the hazards.

  9. Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical-Chemical Coupled Modeling of Geothermal Doublet Systems in Limestones -revised

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rühaak, Wolfram; Heldmann, Claus-Dieter; Pei, Liang; Bartels, Jörn; Weinert, Sebastian; Sass, Ingo

    2016-04-01

    Limestone aquifers in Southern Germany have been used within the last decade very successfully for geothermal heating and - to a lesser extent - for power generation. As an example the region around Munich has been extensively explored. While the extent of usage of this reservoir is increasing there is also an increased interest in better understanding of the reservoir properties and its change in the course of operation. For instance, the observed production and injection pressures are partly hard to explain. They may be related to mechanical or chemical processes, or both. Based on extensive data of outcrop studies and drillings, a data-base for the relevant physical properties of the respective limestones has been complied. The data include thermal conductivity, density, specific heat capacity, permeability, as well as mechanical properties like thermal expansion coefficient and elasticity modules. By using the hydro-thermo-chemical simulator FEFLOW together with an extension for thermo- and hydro-mechanical coupling the relevant processes are studied and compared with observed data. At the EGU Meeting in 2015 results of an initial study have been presented. This time results based on a completely new model setup and also using newly developed code will be presented. As a conclusion main challenges while modeling THMC fracture flow by using a multi-continua approach will be discussed.

  10. Downscaling of seasonal forecasts and possible application to hydro-power production forecasts in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubus, L.; Berthelot, M.; Qu, Z.; Gailhard, J.

    2009-09-01

    Managing the power generation system at the scale of a country is a very complex problem which involves in particular climatic variables at different space and time scales. Air temperature and precipitation are among the most important ones, as they explain respectively an important part of the demand variability and the hydro power production capacity. If direct GCMs forecasts of local variables are not very skilful, specially over mid-latitudes, large scale fields such as geopotential height or mean sea level pressure show some positive skill over the North Atlantic / european region, that can be used to make local predictions of surface variables, using downscaling technics. In this study, we evaluated the 2m temperature and precipitation hindcasts of the DEMETER and ENSEMBLES systems on a number of hydrological basins in France. We used the University of Cantabria web portal for statistical downscaling, developed in the ENSEMBLES project, to downscale the most predictable large scale fields, and compared direct raw hindcasts with indirect downscaled hindcasts. Both direct and indirect hindcasts are then used in an hydrolocial model to evaluate their respective interest for hydro-power production forecasts.

  11. Formation of Hydro-acoustic Waves in Dissipative Coupled Weakly Compressible Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdolali, A.; Kirby, J. T., Jr.; Bellotti, G.

    2014-12-01

    Recent advances in deep sea measurement technology provide an increasing opportunity to detect and interpret hydro-acoustic waves as a component in improved Tsunami Early Warning Systems (TEWS). For the idealized case of a homogeneous water column above a moving but otherwise rigid bottom (in terms of assessing acoustic wave interaction), the description of the infinite family of acoustic modes is characterized by local water depth at source area; i.e. the period of the first acoustic mode is given by four times the required time for sound to travel from the seabed to the surface. Spreading off from earthquake zone, the dominant spectrum is filtered and enriched by seamounts and barriers. This study focuses on the characteristics of hydro-acoustic waves generated by sudden sea bottom motion in a weakly compressible fluid coupled with an underlying sedimentary layer, where the added complexity of the sediment layer rheology leads to both the lowering of dominant spectral peaks and wave attenuation across the full spectrum. To overcome the computational difficulties of three-dimensional models, we derive a depth integrated equation valid for varying water depth and sediment thickness. Damping behavior of the two layered system is initially taken into account by introducing the viscosity of fluid-like sedimentary layer. We show that low frequency pressure waves which are precursor components of tsunamis contain information of seafloor motion.

  12. Linking Hydro-Meteorological Hazards, Climate and Food Security: an Initiative of International Scientific Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail-Zadeh, A.; Beer, T.

    2013-05-01

    Humans face climatic and hydro-meteorological hazards on different scales in time and space. In particular natural hazards can have disastrous impact in the short term (flood) and in the long term (drought) as they affect human life and health as well as impacting dramatically on the sustainable development of society. They represent a pending danger for vulnerable lifelines, infrastructure and the agricultural systems that depend on the water supply, reservoirs, pipelines, and power plants. Developed countries are affected, but the impact is disproportionate within the developing world. Extreme natural events such as extreme floods or prolonged drought can change the life and economic development of developing nations and stifle their development for decades. The beginning of the XX1st century has been marked by a significant number of natural disasters, such as floods, severe storms, wildfires, hurricanes, and tsunamis. Extreme natural events cause devastation resulting in loss of human life, large environmental damage, and partial or total loss of infrastructure that, in the longer time, will affect the potential for agricultural recovery. Recent catastrophic events of the early 21st century (e.g. floods in Pakistan and Thailand, the 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami) remind us once again that there is a strong coupling between complex solid Earth, oceanic, and atmospheric processes and that even developed countries such as Japan are subject to agricultural declines as a result of disastrous hydro-meteorological events. Scientific community recognizes that communication between the groups of experts of various international organizations dealing with natural hazards and their activity in disaster risk reduction and food security needs to be strengthened. Several international scientific unions and intergovernmental institutions set up a consortium of experts to promote studies of weather, climate and their interaction with agriculture, food and their socio

  13. 3D-radiation hydro simulations of disk-planet interactions. I. Numerical algorithm and test cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klahr, H.; Kley, W.

    2006-01-01

    We study the evolution of an embedded protoplanet in a circumstellar disk using the 3D-Radiation Hydro code TRAMP, and treat the thermodynamics of the gas properly in three dimensions. The primary interest of this work lies in the demonstration and testing of the numerical method. We show how far numerical parameters can influence the simulations of gap opening. We study a standard reference model under various numerical approximations. Then we compare the commonly used locally isothermal approximation to the radiation hydro simulation using an equation for the internal energy. Models with different treatments of the mass accretion process are compared. Often mass accumulates in the Roche lobe of the planet creating a hydrostatic atmosphere around the planet. The gravitational torques induced by the spiral pattern of the disk onto the planet are not strongly affected in the average magnitude, but the short time scale fluctuations are stronger in the radiation hydro models. An interesting result of this work lies in the analysis of the temperature structure around the planet. The most striking effect of treating the thermodynamics properly is the formation of a hot pressure-supported bubble around the planet with a pressure scale height of H/R ≈ 0.5 rather than a thin Keplerian circumplanetary accretion disk.

  14. 75 FR 61463 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLIX; FFP Missouri 15, LLC; Notice of Competing Preliminary Permit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLIX; FFP Missouri 15, LLC; Notice of Competing... Competing Applications September 28, 2010. On July 12, 2010, Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLVIII (Hydro Friends... lands or waters owned by others without the owners' express permission. Hydro Friends' proposed Lock...

  15. 77 FR 68765 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLII, LLC; Notice of Scoping Meetings and Environmental Site Review and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-16

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLII, LLC; Notice of Scoping Meetings and...+ Hydro Friends Fund XLII, LLC. e. Name of Project: Braddock Locks and Dam Hydroelectric Project. f...\\ Hydro Friends Fund XLII, LLC, c/o Hydro Green Energy, LLC, 900 Oakmont Lane, Suite 310, Westmont,...

  16. 75 FR 49925 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLIX; FFP Missouri 14, LLC; Notice of Competing Preliminary Permit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-16

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLIX; FFP Missouri 14, LLC; Notice of Competing... Competing Applications August 9, 2010. Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLIX (Hydro Friends) and FFP Missouri 14... switchyard to an existing sub-station located south-west of the dam. Hydro Friends is also...

  17. 77 FR 64971 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLII, LLC; Notice of Waiver, in Part, of Prefiling Consultation Required...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-24

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLII, LLC; Notice of Waiver, in Part, of Prefiling.... Applicant: Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLII, LLC. e. Name of Project: Braddock Locks and Dam Hydroelectric...\\ Hydro Friends Fund XLII, c/o Hydro Green Energy, LLC, 900 Oakmont Lane, Suite 310, Westmont, IL...

  18. 78 FR 12304 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLII, LLC; Notice of Application Ready for Environmental Analysis and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-22

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLII, LLC; Notice of Application Ready for.... Date filed: September 17, 2012. d. Applicant: Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLII, LLC. e. Name of Project...). h. Applicant Contact: Mr. Mark R. Stover, Lock+\\TM\\ Hydro Friends Fund XLII, LLC, c/o Hydro...

  19. 76 FR 66713 - Hydro Green Energy, LLC; Notice of Intent To File License Applications and Approving Use of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-27

    ...-001, 13651-001] Hydro Green Energy, LLC; Notice of Intent To File License Applications and Approving.... Submitted By: Hydro Green Energy, LLC (Hydro Green). e. Name of Projects: Lock and Dam 5a, Project 13391-001..., Designated Representative, Vice President of Corporate Affairs, Hydro Green Energy, LLC., 900 Oakmont...

  20. Improving the Hydro-stratigraphic Model of the Oxnard Forebay, Ventura County, California, using Transient Electromagnetic Surveying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quady, Maura Colleen

    2013-01-01

    To characterize the hydro-stratigraphy of an area, drilling and well logs provide high resolution electrical resistivity data, albeit for limited areas (points). The expense of drilling indirectly leads to sparse data and it is necessary to assume lateral homogeneity between wells when creating stratigraphic maps. Unfortunately, this assumption may not apply to areas in complex depositional and tectonically active settings. The goal of this study is to fill in data gaps between wells in a groundwater basin in order to better characterize the hydro-stratigraphy under existing and potential sites for managed aquifer recharge. Basins in the southern California study area have been used for decades to recharge surface water to an upper aquifer system; this work also addresses whether the local hydro-stratigraphy favors surface infiltration as a means to recharge water to the lower aquifer system. Here, soundings of transient electromagnetism (TEM), a surface geophysical method, are correlated with nearby down-hole resistivity and lithology well logs for grain size interpretations of the subsurface in unsaturated conditions. Grain size is used as a proxy for permeability (hydraulic conductivity), with resistivity contrasts highlighting variations in the media, which would affect groundwater flow in both vertical and horizontal directions. Results suggest a nearly horizontal, extensive, low permeability layer exists in the area and only a few noted locations are favorable for surface -to-lower aquifer system recharge. Furthermore, zones of higher permeability deeper than the upper aquifer system are discontinuous and isolated among lower permeability zones. However, the TEM profiles show areas where lower permeability zones are thin, and where alternatives to surface percolation methods could be explored. In addition, the survey adds information about the transition between the upper and lower aquifer systems, and adds detail to the topography of the base of freshwater

  1. Manitoba Hydro annual report, 1997--1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    The Vision of the Board is to be recognized as the best utility in North America with respect to rates, reliability, and customer satisfaction, and to be considerate of all people with whom they have contact. Presents financial and operating highlights for the year, with more detailed financial statistics and information on hydroelectric and thermal electric power production, electricity generating stations and capabilities, and power sources and high voltage.

  2. Entropy generation during fluid flow in a channel under the effect of transverse magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damseh, R. A.; Al-Odat, M. Q.; Al-Nimr, M. A.

    2008-06-01

    Entropy generation due to fluid flow and heat transfer inside a horizontal channel made of two parallel plates under the effect of transverse magnetic field is numerically investigated. The flow is assumed to be steady, laminar, hydro-dynamically and thermally fully developed of electrically conducting fluid. Both horizontal walls are maintained at constant temperatures higher than that of the fluid. The governing equations in Cartesian coordinate are solved by an implicit finite difference technique. After the flow field and the temperature distributions are obtained, the entropy generation profiles are computed and presented graphically. The factors, which were found to affect the problem under consideration are the magnetic parameter, Eckert number, Prandtl number, and the temperature parameter (θ∞). It was found that, entropy generation increased as all parameters involved in the present problem increased.

  3. Growth and characterization of a new NLO material: L-Glutamic acid hydro bromide [L-GluHBr

    SciTech Connect

    Sathyalakshmi, R.; Bhagavannarayana, G.; Ramasamy, P.

    2009-05-06

    L-(+)-Glutamic acid hydro bromide, an isomorphic salt of L-glutamic acid hydrochloride, was synthesized and the synthesis was confirmed using Fourier transform infrared analysis. Solubility of the material in water was determined. L-Glutamic acid hydro bromide crystals were grown by low temperature solution growth using the solvent evaporation technique. Single crystal X-ray diffraction studies were carried out and the cell parameters, atomic co-ordinates, bond lengths and bond angles were reported. High-resolution X-ray diffraction studies were carried out and good crystallinity for the grown crystal was observed from the diffraction curve. The grown crystals were subjected to dielectric studies. Ultraviolet-visible-near infrared spectral analysis shows good optical transmission in the visible and infrared region of the grown crystals. The second harmonic generation efficiency of L-glutamic acid hydro bromide crystal was determined using the Kurtz powder test and it was found that it had efficiency comparable with that of the potassium di-hydrogen phosphate crystal.

  4. Laboratory Investigations of the Hydro-Mechanical-Chemical Coupling Behaviour of Sandstone in CO2 Storage in Aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Hui; Hu, Dawei; Zhang, Fan; Shao, Jianfu; Feng, Xiating

    2016-02-01

    This paper is devoted to experimental investigations of the hydro-mechanical-chemical coupling behaviour of sandstone in the context of CO2 storage in aquifers. We focused on the evolution of creep strain, the transport properties and the elastic modulus of sandstone under the effect of CO2-brine or CO2 alone. A summary of previous laboratory results is first presented, including mechanical, poromechanical and hydro-mechanical-chemical coupling properties. Tests were then performed to investigate the evolution of the creep strain and permeability during the injection of CO2-brine or CO2 alone. After the injection of CO2-brine or CO2 alone, an instantaneous volumetric dilatancy was observed due to the decrease in the effective confining stress. However, CO2 alone had a significant influence on the creep strain and permeability compared to the small influence of CO2-brine. This phenomenon can be attributed to the acceleration of the CO2-brine-rock reaction by the generation of carbonic acid induced by the dissolution of CO2 into the brine. The original indentation tests on samples after the CO2-brine-rock reaction were also performed and indicated that the elastic modulus decreased with an increasing reaction time. The present laboratory results can advance our knowledge of the hydro-mechanical-chemical coupling behaviour of sandstone in CO2 storage in aquifers.

  5. Antioxidant capacities and total polyphenol contents of hydro-ethanolic extract of phytococktail from trans-Himalaya.

    PubMed

    Dhar, P; Tayade, A B; Bajpai, P K; Sharma, V K; Das, S K; Chaurasia, O P; Srivastava, R B; Singh, S B

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant potential of hydro-ethanolic extract of a novel phytococktail comprising of sea buckthorn, apricot, and Rhodiola (SAR) from trans-Himalaya. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) activity of the extract increased in a dose-dependent manner (upto 0.1 mg/mL), and was found to be about 38% of that of ascorbic acid at 0.1 mg/mL. The hydro-ethanolic extract of SAR also scavenged the ABTS(.+) radical generated by ABTS/potassium persulfate (PPS) system and was found to be about 62% of that of ascorbic acid at 0.1 mg/ mL. The total antioxidant power of the extract was determined by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. Total phenolic content was found to be 1.28016 × 10(-3) mol gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g extract. Total flavonoid and flavonol contents were estimated to be 2.5970 × 10(-4) mol and 4.87 × 10(-4) mol quercetin equivalent/g extract, respectively. The hydro-ethanolic extract of this phytococktail indicated presence of essential phytoconstituents of polyphenols, flavonoids, flavonols, and ascorbic acid, which contributed significantly to its antioxidant capacity. The combination of the 3 plants may well support their use in traditional medicine to combat oxidative stress and high-altitude sickness. PMID:22225422

  6. [Temporal-spatial Variation and Source Identification of Hydro-chemical Characteristics in Shima River Catchment, Dongguan City].

    PubMed

    Gao, Lei; Chen, Jian-yao; Wang, Jiang; Ke, Zhi-ting; Zhu, Ai-ping; Xu, Kai

    2015-05-01

    Shima River catchment is of strategic importance to urban water supply in Dongjiang portable water source area. To investigate the hydro-chemical characteristics of Shima River, 39 river water samples were collected in February, June and November, 2012 to analyze the major ions (K+, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl-, SO4(2-) , HCO3-) and nutritive salts (PO4(3-), NO3- and NH4+) and to discuss the temporal-spatial variation and controlling factors of hydro-chemical composition, relative sources identification of varied ions was performed as well. The results showed that the hydro-chemical composition exhibited significant differences in different periods. The average concentration of total dissolved solid ( TDS) and nutritive salts in different investigated periods followed the decreasing order of November > February > June. The dominant anion of Shima River was HCO3-, and Na+ + K+ were the major cations in February and November which were changed to Ca2+ in June, the hydro-chemical types were determined as HCO(3-)-Na+ and HCO(3-)- Ca2+ in dry (February and November) and rainy (June) seasons, respectively. Spatial variations of concentration of nutritive salts were mainly affected by the discharges of N- and P-containing waste water resulted from human activities. The ratio between N and P of water sample (R7) was 18.4:1 which boosted the "crazy growth" of phytoplankton and led to severe eutrophication. According to Gibbs distribution of water samples, dissolution of hydatogenic rocks was the primary factor to control the major cations of river water in dry season, however, the hydro-chemical composition was significantly affected by the combination of hydatogenic and carbonate rocks in rainy season. The deposition of sea-salts contributed less to chemical substances in river. Correlation analysis revealed that K+, Na+, Mg2+, Cl- and SO4(2-) were partly derived from the application of fertilizer and the discharge of industrial effluent; Waste water of poultry feeding and

  7. Hydro- and solvothermolysis of kraft lignin for maximizing production of monomeric aromatic chemicals.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hong-shik; Jae, Jungho; Ha, Jeong-Myeong; Suh, Dong Jin

    2016-03-01

    The hydro-/solvothermolysis of kraft lignin using water and ethanol as a solvent were investigated in this study. The effect of the water-to-ethanol ratio on the yields of monomeric aromatic chemicals (MACs) and the kinetic behavior of MACs was studied in a series of batch experiments. The yields of MACs other than catechol increased as the ratio of ethanol increased, and the content of the total MACs in bio-crude oil (BCO) reached 35% when the ratio of ethanol was 100% at a reaction temperature of 300 °C. The formation of phenol, guaiacol, and alkylguaiacols was enhanced in ethanol, while the formation of catechol was dominant in water. The formation of more substituted MACs such as vanillin, acetoguaiacone, and homovanillic acid was not affected by the solvent. The role of reaction parameters on the yields of MACs was elucidated, and the main reaction pathways in water and in ethanol were proposed. PMID:26722814

  8. Optimal design of axial hydro turbine for micro hydropower plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derakhshan, S.; Kasaeian, N.

    2012-11-01

    In our country we have enormous low head potation flows in agricultures and aquacultures with almost fix flow rates that can be used as micro hydro power plants for producing energy. But the main problem is the high capital price per kW. Therefore there is needed to design a simple machine with a good runner for covering the various potential flows. In this paper an axial hydro turbine has designed for some low heads micro potential flow with flow rates ranged from 50 lit/sec to 150 lit/sec and heads ranged from 1 m to 5 m. The initial runner designed using classical methods and then the runner geometry has been optimized by evolutionary optimization algorithms. The final design has been simulated by a commercial flow solver in a various blade positions. The results showed a wide range characteristic curve with a wide range high efficiency.

  9. Effect of Spray Particle Velocity on Cavitation Erosion Resistance Characteristics of HVOF and HVAF Processed 86WC-10Co4Cr Hydro Turbine Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, R. K.; Kamaraj, M.; Seetharamu, S.; Pramod, T.; Sampathkumaran, P.

    2016-06-01

    The hydro plants utilizing silt-laden water for power generation suffer from severe metal wastage due to particle-induced erosion and cavitation. High-velocity oxy-fuel process (HVOF)-based coatings is widely applied to improve the erosion life. The process parameters such as particle velocity, size, powder feed rate, temperature, affect their mechanical properties. The high-velocity air fuel (HVAF) technology, with higher particle velocities and lower spray temperatures, gives dense and substantially nonoxidized coating. In the present study, the cavitation resistance of 86WC-10Co4Cr-type HVOF coating processed at 680 m/s spray particle velocity was compared with HVAF coatings made at 895, 960, and 1010 m/s. The properties such as porosity, hardness, indentation toughness, and cavitation resistance were investigated. The surface damage morphology has been analyzed in SEM. The cohesion between different layers has been examined qualitatively through scratch depth measurements across the cross section. The HVAF coatings have shown a lower porosity, higher hardness, and superior cavitation resistance. Delamination, extensive cracking of the matrix interface, and detachment of the WC grains were observed in HVOF coating. The rate of metal loss is low in HVAF coatings implying that process parameters play a vital role in achieving improved cavitation resistance.

  10. Effect of Spray Particle Velocity on Cavitation Erosion Resistance Characteristics of HVOF and HVAF Processed 86WC-10Co4Cr Hydro Turbine Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, R. K.; Kamaraj, M.; Seetharamu, S.; Pramod, T.; Sampathkumaran, P.

    2016-08-01

    The hydro plants utilizing silt-laden water for power generation suffer from severe metal wastage due to particle-induced erosion and cavitation. High-velocity oxy-fuel process (HVOF)-based coatings is widely applied to improve the erosion life. The process parameters such as particle velocity, size, powder feed rate, temperature, affect their mechanical properties. The high-velocity air fuel (HVAF) technology, with higher particle velocities and lower spray temperatures, gives dense and substantially nonoxidized coating. In the present study, the cavitation resistance of 86WC-10Co4Cr-type HVOF coating processed at 680 m/s spray particle velocity was compared with HVAF coatings made at 895, 960, and 1010 m/s. The properties such as porosity, hardness, indentation toughness, and cavitation resistance were investigated. The surface damage morphology has been analyzed in SEM. The cohesion between different layers has been examined qualitatively through scratch depth measurements across the cross section. The HVAF coatings have shown a lower porosity, higher hardness, and superior cavitation resistance. Delamination, extensive cracking of the matrix interface, and detachment of the WC grains were observed in HVOF coating. The rate of metal loss is low in HVAF coatings implying that process parameters play a vital role in achieving improved cavitation resistance.

  11. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION: JOINT (NSF-EPA) VERIFICATION STATEMENT AND REPORT HYDRO COMPLIANCE MANAGEMENT, INC. HYDRO-KLEEN FILTRATION SYSTEM, 03/07/WQPC-SWP, SEPTEMBER 2003

    EPA Science Inventory

    Verification testing of the Hydro-Kleen(TM) Filtration System, a catch-basin filter designed to reduce hydrocarbon, sediment, and metals contamination from surface water flows, was conducted at NSF International in Ann Arbor, Michigan. A Hydro-Kleen(TM) system was fitted into a ...

  12. Maintenance procedures catalogue: BC Hydro International Ltd. , October 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    New catalogue lists over 1,000 written procedures developed over the past 25 years by BC Hydro personnel, both in the field and in the company's research and development division that are available for purchase from the Canadian utility. Developed at a cost of an estimated $5 million, the procedure documents cover Apparatus, Protection and Control, Safety, Distribution Standards, Engineering Contracts and Live Line Training. Procedures listed in the catalogue are available in both hard copy and electronic formats.

  13. Streamflow estimation using WRF-Hydro with dynamically downscaled climate variables over southern tropical Indian region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, S.; Sudheer, K. P.; Gunthe, S. S.

    2015-12-01

    Indian summer monsoon rainfall (ISMR; June to September), which constitutes around 80% of India's annual rainfall, has shown an increasing trend in intensity and frequency of extreme events (Goswami et al., 2006). It is a widely recognized fact that the increasing temperature in association with anthropogenic activities can affect the hydrological cycle, which leads to extreme events. In addition a shift in extremes of the spatial pattern of ISMR has recently been observed (Ghosh et al., 2011). Such changes in rainfall on temporal and spatial scale can further affect the stream flow over a given region subsequently making water resource management a difficult task (Mondal and Mujumdar, 2015). The hydrological models used for the stream flow estimation are dependent on various climate variables as input data. These climate variables could be obtained through either observational networks or climate model outputs. Due to the scarcity of the observational data over the Indian region and the coarse resolution of global climate model output, which is used as input to hydrologic models, large uncertainties are introduced in stream flow output (Overgaard et al., 2007). In the present study we have used the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model (Skamarock et al. 2008) to downscale the essential climate variables (surface temperature, precipitation, relative humidity, etc.) as an input for its coupled hydrological extension, WRF Hydro (NCAR user's guide). We will present the results obtained from the WRF-hydro simulation to estimate the stream flow over the Thamirabarani river basin in Southern Tropical Indian region. Preliminary simulations using WRF to estimate the precipitation showed the reasonable quantitative agreement with observed values. An attempt will be made to demonstrate how these results can further be used for developing flood-forecasting techniques and for local regional water resource management.

  14. Role of model structure on the response of soil biogeochemistry to hydro-climatic fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzoni, S.; Porporato, A.

    2005-05-01

    Soil carbon and nutrient cycles are strongly affected by hydro-climatic variability, which interacts with the internal ecosystem structure. Here we test the implications of biogeochemical model structure on such dynamics by extending an existing model by the authors and coworkers. When forced by hydro-climatic fluctuations, the different model structures induce specific preferential nutrient paths among the soil pools, which in turn affect nutrient distribution and availability to microbes and plants. In particular, if it is assumed that microbes can directly assimilate organic nitrogen, plants tend to be inferior competitors for nutrients even in well-watered conditions, while if a certain amount of organic nitrogen is assumed to be mineralized without being first incorporated into microbial cells, vegetation can be advantaged over a wide range of soil moisture values. We also investigate the intensification of competition for nutrients (e.g., nitrogen) between plant and soil microbial communities under extreme hydrologic conditions, such as droughts and intense storms. Frequent rainfall events may determine ideal soil moisture conditions for plant uptake, enhancing nitrogen leaching while lowering oxygen concentration and inhibiting microbial activity. During droughts, the soil water potential often drops to the point of hampering the plant nutrient uptake while still remaining high enough for microbial decomposition and nitrogen immobilization. The interplay of microbe and vegetation water stress is investigated in depth as it controls the ability of one community (e.g., plants or soil microbes) to establish competitive advantage on the other. The long-term effects of these dynamics of competition and nutrient allocation are explored under steady-state and stochastic soil moisture conditions to analyze the feedbacks between soil organic matter and vegetation dynamics.

  15. Extreme floods and storms in Switzerland since 1868: Case studies and hydro-meteorological patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stucki, Peter; Brönnimann, Stefan; Martius, Olivia; Dierer, Silke

    2013-04-01

    Numerical studies on the generation of extreme floods or windstorms in the Central Alps have been practicable for events which occurred since around 1950. Analyses of earlier events are restricted to increasingly sparse instrumental and documentary data, e.g., ground observations, surface synoptic charts, annals and damage reports. Despite such restrictions, it is desirable to have an extended catalog of extreme heavy precipitation or storm events in order to understand the underlying hydro-meteorological dynamics and to anticipate potential damage to forested areas, cultivated land, buildings or infrastructure. We use a range of available sources to elect a set of historical extreme events. Among these are damage statistics by insurance companies, the EuroClimHist data base on weather and climate history, forestry reports as well as meteorological annals. Moreover, recently digitized and partly homogenized (sub-) daily measurements of precipitation and wind observations (DigiHom project by MeteoSwiss) and the Twentieth Century Reanalysis (20CR) reach back to 1868 or beyond. In addition, we integrate information from a regional version of 20CR which is downscaled by use of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model. These datasets cover extreme events on the north and south side of the Alps and hence enable comprehensive, quantitative analyses of Swiss extreme events. For a selection of events prior to 1950, descriptions are given of the spatial extent and intensities, antecedent hydro-climatological settings such as snowmelt as well as of the direct socio-economic impact and costs. Likewise, we assess the meteorological conditions leading to and during the extreme events, including parameters like uplift and moisture transport or propagation of the three-dimensional wind field. We propose five subjective classes of specific flood-generating weather conditions for Switzerland from 24 investigated cases since 1868. Furthermore, we address the applicability of

  16. Evaluation of blade-strike models for estimating the biological performance of large Kaplan hydro turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Z.; Carlson, T. J.; Ploskey, G. R.; Richmond, M. C.

    2005-11-01

    Bio-indexing of hydro turbines has been identified as an important means to optimize passage conditions for fish by identifying operations for existing and new design turbines that minimize the probability of injury. Cost-effective implementation of bio-indexing requires the use of tools such as numerical and physical turbine models to generate hypotheses for turbine operations that can be tested at prototype scales using live fish. Blade strike has been proposed as an index variable for the biological performance of turbines. Report reviews an evaluation of the use of numerical blade-strike models as a means with which to predict the probability of blade strike and injury of juvenile salmon smolt passing through large Kaplan turbines on the mainstem Columbia River.

  17. Rostral spinal cord segments are sufficient to generate a rhythm for both locomotion and scratching but affect their hip extensor phases differently.

    PubMed

    Hao, Zhao-Zhe; Meier, Megan L; Berkowitz, Ari

    2014-07-01

    Rostral segments of the spinal cord hindlimb enlargement are more important than caudal segments for generating locomotion and scratching rhythms in limbed vertebrates, but the adequacy of rostral segments has not been directly compared between locomotion and scratching. We separated caudal segments from immobilized low-spinal turtles by sequential spinal cord transections. After separation of the caudal four segments of the five-segment hindlimb enlargement, the remaining enlargement segment and five preenlargement segments still produced rhythms for forward swimming and both rostral and pocket scratching. The swimming rhythm frequency was usually maintained. Some animals continued to generate swimming and scratching rhythms even with no enlargement segments remaining, using only preenlargement segments. The preenlargement segments and rostral-most enlargement segment were also sufficient to maintain hip flexor (HF) motoneuron quiescence between HF bursts [which normally occurs during each hip extensor (HE) phase] during swimming. In contrast, the HF-quiescent phase was increasingly absent (i.e., HE-phase deletions) during rostral and pocket scratching. Moreover, respiratory motoneurons that normally burst during HE bursts continued to burst during the HF quiescence of swimming even with the caudal segments separated. Thus the same segments are sufficient to generate the basic rhythms for both locomotion and scratching. These segments are also sufficient to produce a reliable HE phase during locomotion but not during rostral or pocket scratching. We hypothesize that the rostral HE-phase interneurons that rhythmically inhibit HF motoneurons and interneurons are sufficient to generate HF quiescence during HE-biased swimming but not during the more HF-biased rostral and pocket scratching. PMID:24717347

  18. Dynamics and stability of wind turbine generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinrichsen, E. N.; Nolan, P. J.

    1981-01-01

    Synchronous and induction generators are considered. A comparison is made between wind turbines, steam, and hydro units. The unusual phenomena associated with wind turbines are emphasized. The general control requirements are discussed, as well as various schemes for torsional damping such as speed sensitive stabilizer and blade pitch control. Integration between adjacent wind turbines in a wind farm is also considered.

  19. Old Harbor Scammon Bay Hydro Feasibility

    SciTech Connect

    Brent Petrie

    2007-06-27

    The grantee, Alaska Village Electric Cooperative (AVEC), is a non-profit member owned rural electric generation and distribution cooperative. The proposed Project is located near the community of Old Harbor, Alaska. Old Harbor is on the southeastern coast of Kodiak Island, approximately 70 miles southwest of the City of Kodiak and 320 miles southwest of Anchorage. In 1998 sufficient information had been developed to apply for a license to construct the project and the cost was estimated to be $2,445,000 for a 500 KW project on Lagoon Creek. Major features of the project included an eight-foot high diversion dam on Mountain Creek, a desander box, a 9,800-foot long penstock to the powerhouse on Lagoon Creek, and a 5,500-foot long access road. It was also anticipated that the project could provide an additional source of water to Old Harbor. The report details the history and lessons learned in designing and permiting the proposed hydroelectric facility.

  20. Modeling hydro power plants in deregulated electricity markets : integration and application of EMCAS and VALORAGUA.

    SciTech Connect

    Thimmapuram, P.; Veselka, T.; Koritarov, V.; Vilela, S.; Pereira, R.; Silva, R.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present details of integrating an agent-based model, Electricity Market Complex Adaptive System (EMCAS) with a hydro-thermal coordination model, VALORAGUA. EMCAS provides a framework for simulating deregulated markets with flexible regulatory structure along with bidding strategies for supply offers and demand bids. VALORAGUA provides longer-term operation plans by optimizing hydro and thermal power plant operation for the entire year. In addition, EMCAS uses the price forecasts and weekly hydro schedules from VALORAGUA to provide intra-week hydro plant optimization for hourly supply offers. The integrated model is then applied to the Iberian electricity market which includes about 111 thermal plants and 38 hydro power plants. We then analyze the impact of hydro plant supply offers on the market prices and ways to minimize the Gencospsila exposure to price risk.

  1. Airborne particulate matter PM2.5 from Mexico City affects the generation of reactive oxygen species by blood neutrophils from asthmatics: an in vitro approach

    PubMed Central

    Sierra-Vargas, Martha Patricia; Guzman-Grenfell, Alberto Martin; Blanco-Jimenez, Salvador; Sepulveda-Sanchez, Jose David; Bernabe-Cabanillas, Rosa Maria; Cardenas-Gonzalez, Beatriz; Ceballos, Guillermo; Hicks, Juan Jose

    2009-01-01

    Background The Mexico City Metropolitan Area is densely populated, and toxic air pollutants are generated and concentrated at a higher rate because of its geographic characteristics. It is well known that exposure to particulate matter, especially to fine and ultra-fine particles, enhances the risk of cardio-respiratory diseases, especially in populations susceptible to oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of fine particles on the respiratory burst of circulating neutrophils from asthmatic patients living in Mexico City. Methods In total, 6 subjects diagnosed with mild asthma and 11 healthy volunteers were asked to participate. Neutrophils were isolated from peripheral venous blood and incubated with fine particles, and the generation of reactive oxygen species was recorded by chemiluminescence. We also measured plasma lipoperoxidation susceptibility and plasma myeloperoxidase and paraoxonase activities by spectrophotometry. Results Asthmatic patients showed significantly lower plasma paraoxonase activity, higher susceptibility to plasma lipoperoxidation and an increase in myeloperoxidase activity that differed significantly from the control group. In the presence of fine particles, neutrophils from asthmatic patients showed an increased tendency to generate reactive oxygen species after stimulation with fine particles (PM2.5). Conclusion These findings suggest that asthmatic patients have higher oxidation of plasmatic lipids due to reduced antioxidant defense. Furthermore, fine particles tended to increase the respiratory burst of blood human neutrophils from the asthmatic group. On the whole, increased myeloperoxidase activity and susceptibility to lipoperoxidation with a concomitant decrease in paraoxonase activity in asthmatic patients could favor lung infection and hence disrupt the control of asthmatic crises. PMID:19563660

  2. HYDRO: a computer program for the prediction of hydrodynamic properties of macromolecules.

    PubMed Central

    Garcia de la Torre, J; Navarro, S; Lopez Martinez, M C; Diaz, F G; Lopez Cascales, J J

    1994-01-01

    HYDRO is a program for the calculation of sedimentation and diffusion coefficients, rotational relaxation times, and intrinsic viscosities of rigid macromolecules of arbitrary shape that are represented by bead models. Actually, HYDRO contains various FORTRAN callable subroutines that can be linked to the user's own programs to account for variability of shape or flexibility. Some hints are given for the use of HYDRO in various situations. PMID:7948671

  3. Trans-generational exposure to low levels of rhodamine B does not adversely affect litter size or liver function in murine mucopolysaccharidosis type IIIA.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Ainslie L K; Fletcher, Janice M; Moore, Lynette; Byers, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    MPS IIIA is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by mutations in the sulphamidase gene, resulting in the accumulation of heparan sulphate glycosaminoglycans (HS GAGs). Symptoms predominantly manifest in the CNS and there is no current therapy that effectively addresses neuropathology in MPS IIIA patients. Recent studies in MPS IIIA mice have shown that rhodamine B substrate deprivation therapy (SDT) (also termed substrate reduction therapy/SRT) inhibits GAG biosynthesis and, improves both somatic and CNS disease pathology. Acute overexposure to high doses of rhodamine B results in liver toxicity and is detrimental to reproductive ability. However, the long-term effects of decreasing GAG synthesis, at the low dose sufficient to alter neurological function are unknown. A trans-generational study was therefore initiated to evaluate the continuous exposure of rhodamine B treatment in MPS IIIA mice over 4 generations, including treatment during pregnancy. No alterations in litter size, liver histology or liver function were observed. Overall, there are no long-term issues with the administration of rhodamine B at the low dose tested and no adverse effects were noted during pregnancy in mice. PMID:20650670

  4. DNA Storage under High Temperature Conditions Does Not Affect Performance in Human Leukocyte Antigen Genotyping via Next-Generation Sequencing (DNA Integrity Maintained in Extreme Conditions)

    PubMed Central

    McDevitt, Shana L; Hogan, Michael E; Pappas, Derek J; Wong, Lily Y

    2014-01-01

    Background: Stable dry-state storage of DNA is desirable to minimize required storage space and to reduce electrical and shipping costs. DNA purified from various commercially available dry-state stabilization matrices has been used successfully in downstream molecular applications (e.g., quantitative polymerase chain reaction [qPCR], microarray, and sequence-based genotyping). However, standard DNA storage conditions still include freezing of DNA eluted in aqueous buffers or nuclease-free water. Broad implementation of dry-state, long-term DNA storage requires enhancement of such dry-state DNA stabilization products to control for temperature fluctuations at specimen collection, transit, and storage. This study tested the integrity of genomic DNA subjected to long-term storage on GenTegra™ DNA stabilization matrices (GenTegra LLC, Pleasanton, CA) at extreme conditions, as defined by a 4-year storage period at ambient temperature with an initial incubation for 7 months at 37°C, 56°C, or ambient temperature. Subsequently, purified DNA performance and integrity were measured by qPCR and next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based human leokocyte antigen (HLA) genotyping. Results: High molecular weight genomic DNA samples were recovered from the GenTegra product matrix and exhibited integrity comparable to a highly characterized commercial standard under assessment by qPCR. Samples were genotyped for classical HLA loci using next generation sequencing-based methodolgy on the Roche 454 GS Junior instrument. Amplification efficiency, sequence coverage, and sequence quality were all comparable with those produced from a cell line DNA sequenced as a control. No significant differences were observed in the mean, median, or mode quality scores between samples and controls (p≥0.4). Conclusions: Next generation HLA genotyping was chosen to test the integrity of GenTegra-treated genomic DNA due to the requirment for long sequence reads to genotype the highly polymorphic

  5. Experimental optimization of a free vortex propeller runner for micro hydro application

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Punit; Nestmann, Franz

    2009-09-15

    The turbine technology for low head application in the micro hydro range has been vastly neglected despite niche available in scattered regions of valley flows as well as in wastewater canals and other energy recovery schemes, where the available head does not exceed 2 meters. The goal of this study is to develop hydraulically optimized propeller turbines for the micro hydro range with a particular focus on ease of manufacture. This paper presents a wide range of geometrical optimization steps carried out on a propeller runner, whose blades have been designed using the free vortex theory, and operating with a gross head from 1.5 to 2 m and discharge of approximately 75 l/s. It further illustrates 3 stages of geometrical modifications carried out on the runner with an objective of optimizing the runner performance. These modifications comprised of changes to the tip angles (both at the runner inlet and exit) as well as the hub angles (at the runner inlet) of the runner blades. The paper also presents an interesting theoretical methodology to analyze the effects of each optimization stage. This method looks at the relative changes to shaft power and discharge at constant head and speed and gives wonderful insight as to how the internal parameters like Euler shaft work and runner hydraulic losses are behaving with respect to each optimization stage. It was found that the performance of the runner was very sensitive to changes to exit tip angle. At two levels of modification, the discharge increased in the range of 15-30%, while shaft power increased in the range of 12-45%, thus influencing the efficiency characteristics. The results of the runner inlet tip modification were very interesting in that a very significant rise of turbine efficiency was recorded from 55% to 74% at the best efficiency point, which was caused by a reduced discharge consumption as well as a higher power generation. It was also found that the optimization study on a propeller runner has

  6. Long Pathways for Outgassing Generated by a Rapid and Large Shear Strain of Bubbly Fluids Reducing Effective Viscosity and Affecting Eruption Styles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namiki, A.; Tanaka, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The styles of basaltic explosive eruptions have a wide variety, which is usually attributed to the separation of volcanic gas from the surrounding silicate melt. As a mechanism of gas separation, shear deformation has been suggested. However, the bubble shape evolution under large strain at high strain rate and its effects on viscosity have not yet understood well. We thus performed shear deformation experiments of bubbly liquid under high shear rate and large strain with in situ observation of bubble deformation and viscosity measurements. We used syrup solution as a magma analogue whose viscosity of 3, 50, 500 Pa s, similar to that of basaltic magma. We rotated disc-shaped bubbly syrup at shear rates of 0.03-10 s-1 with strains of 3-1000. Experiments show that deformed bubbles coalesce into larger bubbles and finally generate concentric air rings, resulting that the striped shape of air and liquid parts appears. The widths of air rings greatly exceed the bubble sizes and can be long outgassing pathways if those exist in a volcanic conduit. During the evolution of air rings the measured effective viscosity decreases, while after reaching to a steady state, viscous resistance increases again. At this stage, bubble volume and size in the liquid parts become considerably small. Time evolution of bubble size distribution suggests that most of bubbles are assimilated into the air rings and the remnants in the liquid parts break up into small bubbles. Similar shear deformation of bubbly magma could occur in volcanic conduits, which generates large bubbles at a depth where the lower effective viscosity enhances the ascending velocity. The large bubbles may originate Strombolian eruption or suppresses the explosive eruption by making the long outgassing pathways reaching to the Earth's surface. In both cases, bubble free dense melt accumulates at a shallow conduit. Our experiments suggest that, for larger melt viscosity and narrower conduit, the gas separation occurs

  7. Integrated Numerical Simulation of Thermo-Hydro-Chemical Phenomena Associated with Geologic Disposal of High-Level Radioactive Waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sang-Uk; Kim, Jun-Mo; Kihm, Jung-Hwi

    2014-05-01

    A series of numerical simulations was performed using a multiphase thermo-hydro-chemical numerical model to predict integratedly and evaluate quantitatively thermo-hydro-chemical phenomena due to heat generation associated with geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The average mineralogical composition of the fifteen unweathered igneous rock bodies, which were classified as granite, in Republic of Korea was adopted as an initial (primary) mineralogical composition of the host rock of the repository of high-level radioactive waste in the numerical simulations. The numerical simulation results show that temperature rises and thus convective groundwater flow occurs near the repository due to heat generation associated with geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Under these circumstances, a series of water-rock interactions take place. As a result, among the primary minerals, quartz, plagioclase (albite), biotite (annite), and muscovite are dissolved. However, orthoclase is initially precipitated and is then dissolved, whereas microcline is initially dissolved and is then precipitated. On the other hand, the secondary minerals such as kaolinite, Na-smectite, chlorite, and hematite are precipitated and are then partly dissolved. In addition, such dissolution and precipitation of the primary and secondary minerals change groundwater chemistry (quality) and induce reactive chemical transport. As a result, in groundwater, Na+, Fe2+, and HCO3- concentrations initially decrease, whereas K+, AlO2-, and aqueous SiO2 concentrations initially increase. On the other hand, H+ concentration initially increases and thus pH initially decreases due to dissociation of groundwater in order to provide OH-, which is essential in precipitation of Na-smectite and chlorite. Thus, the above-mentioned numerical simulation results suggest that thermo-hydro-chemical numerical simulation can provide a better understanding of heat transport, groundwater flow, and reactive

  8. Hydro-geomorphologic disasters in Portugal: mortality trends in the past 150 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Susana; Zêzere, José L.; Quaresma, Ivânia; Santos, Pedro P.; Santos, Mónica

    2015-04-01

    For the first time in Portugal, an extensive analysis of the mortality caused by hydro-geomorphological hazards was made, for a long period (1865-2010) using the DISASTER database (Zêzere et al., 2014). This database was built under the assumption that social consequences (including fatalities) of floods and landslides are relevant enough to be reported by newspapers, which were the source for data collection. This database counts 1902 hydro-geomorphologic cases that caused 1248 fatalities, 14 191 evacuated persons and 41 844 homeless persons. Floods correspond to the majority of cases (85.2%) that caused 1012 fatalities. Landslides correspond to 14.8 % of the total hydro-geomorphologic cases and caused 236 fatalities. The exploitation of the DISASTER database allowed: (i) to analyze the frequency and the temporal evolution of fatal floods and landslides; (ii) to analyze the spatio-temporal distribution of fatalities; (iii) to identify the most deadly flood and landslide types; and (iv) to evaluate the individual and societal risk. The obtained results demonstrate the absence of any exponential growth with time of hydro-geomorphologic cases and associated fatalities in Portugal. The highest flood and landslide cases as well as the associated mortality were registered in the period 1935-1969. After this period, flood and landslide mortality decreased, although landslide fatalities remained higher than the registered in the period 1865-1934. These features do not account the exceptional flash flood event occurred in the Lisbon region in November 1967. This outlier event was responsible for 522 fatalities, which corresponds to more than half of the total mortality generated by floods in Portugal in the complete time series (1865 - 2010). Moreover, the 1967 flash flood event was the deadliest natural disaster registered in Portugal after the Lisbon earthquake occurred in 1755, not accounting heat waves. Flood fatalities occurred widespread in the country, with an

  9. Generation of 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone from rhamnose as affected by reaction parameters: experimental design approach.

    PubMed

    Illmann, Silke; Davidek, Tomas; Gouézec, Elisabeth; Rytz, Andreas; Schuchmann, Heike P; Blank, Imre

    2009-04-01

    The formation of 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (HDMF) was studied in aqueous model systems containing L-rhamnose and L-lysine. The approach consisted in systematically varying four reaction parameters (rhamnose concentration, rhamnose to lysine ratio, pH, and phosphate concentration) at 3 levels. A fractional factorial design was used to reduce the number of trials. The degradation of rhamnose was followed by high performance anion exchange chromatography and the formation of HDMF by solid phase extraction in combination with GC/MS. The study permitted the identification of critical reaction parameters that affect the formation of HDMF from rhamnose in aqueous systems. Although all studied parameters have some impact on the HDMF formation and rhamnose degradation kinetics, the effect of phosphate is by far the most important, followed by concentration of precursors and pH. The experimental design approach permitted us, with a limited number of experiments, to accurately model the effects of the four investigated reaction parameters on the kinetics of rhamnose degradation and HDMF formation (R(2)>0.93). Overall, the results indicate that rhamnose can be an excellent precursor of HDMF (yield >40 mol%), if the reaction conditions are well mastered. PMID:19256512

  10. Structural factors affecting pore space transformation during hydrocarbon generation in source rock (shales): laboratory experiments and X-ray microtomography/SEM study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giliazetdinova, Dina; Korost, Dmitry; Gerke, Kirill

    2015-04-01

    Oil and gas generation is a complex superposition of processes which take place in the interiors and are not readily observable in nature in human life time-frames. During burial of the source rocks organic matter is transformed into a mixture of high-molecular compounds - precursors of oil and gas (kerogen). Specific thermobaric conditions trigger formation of low molecular weight hydrocarbon compounds. Generation of sufficient quantities of hydrocarbons leads to the primary fluid migration. For series of our experiments we selected mainly siliceous-carbonate composition shale rocks from Domanic horizon of South-Tatar arch. Rock samples were heated in the pyrolyzer to temperatures closely corresponding to different catagenesis stages. X-ray microtomography method was used to monitor changes in the morphology of the pore space within studied shale rocks. By routine measurements we made sure that all samples (10 in total) had similar composition of organic and mineral phases. All samples in the collection were grouped according to initial structure and amount of organics and processed separately to: 1) study the influence of organic matter content on the changing morphology of the rock under thermal effects; 2) study the effect of initial structure on the primary migration processes for samples with similar organic matter content. An additional experiment was conducted to study the dynamics of changes in the structure of the pore space and prove the validity of our approach. At each stage of heating the morphology of altered rocks was characterized by formation of new pores and channels connecting primary voids. However, it was noted that the samples with a relatively low content of the organic matter had less changes in pore space morphology, in contrast to rocks with a high organic content. Second part of the study also revealed significant differences in resulting pore structures depending on initial structure of the unaltered rocks and connectivity of original

  11. Building a Bright Future. The Hydro Research Foundation's Fellowship Program

    SciTech Connect

    Vaughn, Brenna; Linke, Deborah M.

    2015-12-29

    The Hydro Fellowship Program (program) began as an experiment to discover whether the hydropower industry could find mechanisms to attract new entrants through conducting relevant research to benefit the industry. This nationwide, new-to-the-world program was started through funding from the Wind and Water Power Technologies Office of the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Office of the Department of Energy (DOE). Between 2010-2015, the Hydro Research Foundation (HRF) designed and implemented a program to conduct valuable research and attract new entrants to the hydro workforce. This historic grant has empowered and engaged industry members from 25 organizations by working with 91 students and advisors at 24 universities in 19 states. The work funded answered pressing research needs in the fields of civil, mechanical, environmental, and electrical engineering, as well as law, energy engineering and materials innovation. In terms of number of individuals touched through funding, 148 individuals were supported by this work through direct research, mentorship, oversight of the work, partnerships and the day-to-day program administration. Based on the program results, it is clear that the funding achieved the hoped-for outcomes and has the capacity to draw universities into the orbit of hydropower and continue the conversation about industry research and development needs. The Foundation has fostered unique partnerships at the host universities and has continued to thrive with the support of the universities, advisors, industry and the DOE. The Foundation has demonstrated industry support through mentorships, partnerships, underwriting the costs and articulating the universities’ support through in-kind cost sharing. The Foundation recommends that future work be continued to nurture these graduate level programs using the initial work and improvements in the successor program, the Research Awards Program, while stimulating engagement of academia at the

  12. Output improvement of Sg. Piah run-off river hydro-electric station with a new computed river flow-based control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jidin, Razali; Othman, Bahari

    2013-06-01

    The lower Sg. Piah hydro-electric station is a river run-off hydro scheme with generators capable of generating 55MW of electricity. It is located 30km away from Sg. Siput, a small town in the state of Perak, Malaysia. The station has two turbines (Pelton) to harness energy from water that flow through a 7km tunnel from a small intake dam. The trait of a run-off river hydro station is small-reservoir that cannot store water for a long duration; therefore potential energy carried by the spillage will be wasted if the dam level is not appropriately regulated. To improve the station annual energy output, a new controller based on the computed river flow has been installed. The controller regulates the dam level with an algorithm based on the river flow derived indirectly from the intake-dam water level and other plant parameters. The controller has been able to maintain the dam at optimum water level and regulate the turbines to maximize the total generation output.

  13. 'Does my Diet Affect my Perfume?' Identification and Quantification of Cuticular Compounds in Five Drosophila melanogaster Strains Maintained over 300 Generations on Different Diets.

    PubMed

    Pavković-Lučić, Sofija; Todosijević, Marina; Savić, Tatjana; Vajs, Vlatka; Trajković, Jelena; Anđelković, Boban; Lučić, Luka; Krstić, Gordana; Makarov, Slobodan; Tomić, Vladimir; Miličić, Dragana; Vujisić, Ljubodrag

    2016-02-01

    Cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) in Drosophila melanogaster represent the basis of chemical communication being involved in many important biological functions. The aim of this study was to characterize chemical composition and variation of cuticular profiles in five D. melanogaster strains. These strains were reared for approximately 300 generations on five diets: standard cornmeal medium and substrates prepared with apple, banana, tomato, and carrot. Differences in quantity and/or quality in CHCs were assumed as a result of activation of different metabolic pathways involved in food digestion and adaptations to the particular diet type. In total, independently of sex and strain, 66 chemical compounds were identified. In females of all strains, 60 compounds were identified, while, in males, 47 compounds were extracted. Certain new chemical compounds for D. melanogaster were found. MANOVA confirmed that CHC amounts significantly depend on sex and substrates, as well as on their interactions. Discriminant analysis revealed that flies belonging to 'apple' and 'carrot' strains exhibited the most noticeable differences in CHC repertoires. A non-hydrocarbon pheromone, cis-vaccenyl acetate (cVA) also contributed to the variation in the pheromone bouquet among the strains. Variability detected in CHCs and cVA may be used in the explanation of differences in mating behaviour previously determined in analyzed fly strains. PMID:26880435

  14. Microencapsulation of drugs by electro-hydro-dynamic atomization.

    PubMed

    Ciach, Tomasz

    2006-10-31

    This paper presents practical aspects of production of polymeric particles loaded with a drug by electro-hydro-dynamic atomization (EHDA). Particles were produced from paracetamol (4-acetamidophenol), budesonide and polylactic acid containing Taxol (paclitaxel). Influence of solvent type and evaporation rate, as well as other polymers additives on particle morphology and drug release rate is demonstrated. It is shown that quickly evaporating solvents have a tendency to form hollow particles. Drug release rate from hollow particles is substantially higher than from solid ones. Addition of water-soluble polymer, polyethylene glycol, also increases drug release rate. PMID:16893619

  15. Optical ground wire for Hydro-Quebec`s telecommunication network

    SciTech Connect

    Ghannoum, E.; Chouteau, J.P.; Miron, M.; Yaacoub, S.; Yoshida, K.

    1995-10-01

    An extensive telecommunication network of 6,000 km of Optical Ground Wire (OPGW) is currently planned by Hydro-Quebec for progressive installation from 1992 to 2004. By 1994, about 1,600 km of OPGW have already been purchased and installed mostly on new 735 kV lines. This document provides information relative to the OPGW selection, characteristics, design, fabrication, and testing. Other sections are devoted to the installation experience, description of current and future R and D OPGW projects, and Authors` biography.

  16. Minimum flow unit installation at the South Edwards Hydro Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Bernhardt, P.; Bates, D.

    1995-12-31

    Niagara Mohawk Power Corp. owns and operates the 3.3 MW South Edwards Hydro Plant in Northern New York. The FERC license for this plant requires a minimum flow release in the bypass region of the river. NMPC submitted a license amendment to the FERC to permit the addition of a minimum flow unit to take advantage of this flow. The amendment was accepted, permitting the installation of the 236 kw, 60 cfs unit to proceed. The unit was installed and commissioned in 1994.

  17. Fundamental economic issues in the development of small scale hydro

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-01

    Some basic economic issues involved in the development of small-scale hydroelectric power are addressed. The discussion represents an economist's view of the investment process in this resource. Very little investment has been made in small-scale hydro development and an attempt is made to show that the reason for this may not be that the expected present worth of the returns of the project do not exceed the construction cost by a sufficient amount. Rather, a set of factors in combination impose costs on the project not normally incurred in small businesses. The discussion covers costs, supply, demand, and profitability.

  18. Freudenau hydro: Engineering for power and the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Byers, W.

    1997-03-01

    Design and construction of the Freudenau Hydro Power Plant is discussed in the article. The plant is in Vienna, Austria, one of Europe`s oldest cities; therefore, environmental, social, and economic considerations were given a high priority. The planning process is the focus of the article; it centered on an open exchange of ideas between the project development group and an international array of technical experts and interested parties. The approach included supervision of the project by a panel of international technical and environmental experts, and a tender process that sought contractors and creative ideas.

  19. Pattern of injuries in a hydro-electric project.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, P; Dhar, S; Dogra, S; Kaul, S; Raina, R K

    1995-05-01

    A study of work-related injuries at a hydro-electric project site (May 1991-April 1992) was undertaken to determine the incidence and pattern of the injuries out of a total number of 119 injuries in the year. A significant proportion of these were orthopaedic in nature and the commonest site of injury was limbs (both upper and lower limbs) like auto-amputations and head injuries. A large proportion of these accidents (24.37%) resulted in permanent disability likely to interfere in the normal activities or locomotion of those injured. PMID:8834138

  20. 18 CFR 801.12 - Electric power generation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Electric power... COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES § 801.12 Electric power generation. (a) Significant uses are presently being made of the waters of the basin for the generation of electric power at hydro, pumped storage,...

  1. 18 CFR 801.12 - Electric power generation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Electric power... COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES § 801.12 Electric power generation. (a) Significant uses are presently being made of the waters of the basin for the generation of electric power at hydro, pumped storage,...

  2. 18 CFR 801.12 - Electric power generation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Electric power... COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES § 801.12 Electric power generation. (a) Significant uses are presently being made of the waters of the basin for the generation of electric power at hydro, pumped storage,...

  3. Raising the dead without a Red Sea-Dead Sea canal? Hydro-economics and governance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenberg, D. E.

    2010-12-01

    Seven decades of extractions have dramatically reduced Jordan River flows, lowered the Dead Sea level, opened sink holes, and caused other environmental problems. The fix Jordan, Israel, and the Palestinians propose would build an expensive multipurpose canal from the Red Sea to the Dead Sea that would also generate hydropower and desalinated water. This paper compares the Red-Dead project to alternatives that may also raise the Dead Sea level. Hydro-economic model results for the Jordan-Israel-Palestinian inter-tied water systems show two restoration alternatives are more economically viable than the proposed Red-Dead project. Many decentralized new supply, wastewater reuse, conveyance, conservation, and leak reduction projects and programs in each country can together increase economic benefits and reliably deliver up to 900 MCM/year to the Dead Sea. Similarly, a smaller Red-Dead project that only generates hydropower can deliver large flows to the Dead Sea when the sale price of generated electricity is sufficiently high. However, for all restoration options, net benefits fall and water scarcity rises as flows to the Dead Sea increase. This finding suggests (i) each country has no individual incentive to return water to the Dead Sea, and (ii) outside institutions that seek to raise the Dead must also offer countries direct incentives to deliver water to the Sea besides building the countries new infrastructure.

  4. Hydro-Responsive Curling of the Resurrection Plant Selaginella lepidophylla

    PubMed Central

    Rafsanjani, Ahmad; Brulé, Véronique; Western, Tamara L.; Pasini, Damiano

    2015-01-01

    The spirally arranged stems of the spikemoss Selaginella lepidophylla, an ancient resurrection plant, compactly curl into a nest-ball shape upon dehydration. Due to its spiral phyllotaxy, older outer stems on the plant interlace and envelope the younger inner stems forming the plant centre. Stem curling is a morphological mechanism that limits photoinhibitory and thermal damages the plant might experience in arid environments. Here, we investigate the distinct conformational changes of outer and inner stems of S. lepidophylla triggered by dehydration. Outer stems bend into circular rings in a relatively short period of desiccation, whereas inner stems curl slowly into spirals due to hydro-actuated strain gradient along their length. This arrangement eases both the tight packing of the plant during desiccation and its fast opening upon rehydration. The insights gained from this work shed light on the hydro-responsive movements in plants and might contribute to the development of deployable structures with remarkable shape transformations in response to environmental stimuli. PMID:25623361

  5. Hydro-Responsive Curling of the Resurrection Plant Selaginella lepidophylla

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafsanjani, Ahmad; Brulé, Véronique; Western, Tamara L.; Pasini, Damiano

    2015-01-01

    The spirally arranged stems of the spikemoss Selaginella lepidophylla, an ancient resurrection plant, compactly curl into a nest-ball shape upon dehydration. Due to its spiral phyllotaxy, older outer stems on the plant interlace and envelope the younger inner stems forming the plant centre. Stem curling is a morphological mechanism that limits photoinhibitory and thermal damages the plant might experience in arid environments. Here, we investigate the distinct conformational changes of outer and inner stems of S. lepidophylla triggered by dehydration. Outer stems bend into circular rings in a relatively short period of desiccation, whereas inner stems curl slowly into spirals due to hydro-actuated strain gradient along their length. This arrangement eases both the tight packing of the plant during desiccation and its fast opening upon rehydration. The insights gained from this work shed light on the hydro-responsive movements in plants and might contribute to the development of deployable structures with remarkable shape transformations in response to environmental stimuli.

  6. Hydro-responsive curling of the resurrection plant Selaginella lepidophylla.

    PubMed

    Rafsanjani, Ahmad; Brulé, Véronique; Western, Tamara L; Pasini, Damiano

    2015-01-01

    The spirally arranged stems of the spikemoss Selaginella lepidophylla, an ancient resurrection plant, compactly curl into a nest-ball shape upon dehydration. Due to its spiral phyllotaxy, older outer stems on the plant interlace and envelope the younger inner stems forming the plant centre. Stem curling is a morphological mechanism that limits photoinhibitory and thermal damages the plant might experience in arid environments. Here, we investigate the distinct conformational changes of outer and inner stems of S. lepidophylla triggered by dehydration. Outer stems bend into circular rings in a relatively short period of desiccation, whereas inner stems curl slowly into spirals due to hydro-actuated strain gradient along their length. This arrangement eases both the tight packing of the plant during desiccation and its fast opening upon rehydration. The insights gained from this work shed light on the hydro-responsive movements in plants and might contribute to the development of deployable structures with remarkable shape transformations in response to environmental stimuli. PMID:25623361

  7. Black Creek Hydro Project high-line cable penstock installation

    SciTech Connect

    Fonnesbeck, K.C.; Ellicock, R.

    1995-12-31

    The Black Creek Hydro Project is a remote, high head, run-of-river, small hydro project located near Seattle, Washington. The comparatively small size of this project was not indicative of the difficulties and challenges presented to the design engineers and construction contractors involved in it`s completion. The most difficult of these challenges was the design and installation of a buried penstock on very steep and heavily forested terrain. This paper will concentrate on construction of the Black Creek penstock, and specifically, that portion of the penstock which required innovative application of a suspended {open_quotes}high-line{close_quotes} cable operation as used is commonly for logging of steep slopes. For this project, the cable installation and yarder equipment were utilized for a variety of purposes including, clearing and logging of the slope, to secure heavy equipment and machinery required to excavate the penstock trench, transport and placement of the individual pipe joints and finally to encase the pipe with lean concrete. The successful application of this approach contributed greatly to the timely completion of the project. This paper will offer background information on the selection and design of the cable Installation as well as highlights of the solutions that were developed to overcome the design and construction problems encountered. Finally, cost data will be offered to those who may be faced with similar undertakings caused by the steep and difficult sites attracting more attention in present days.

  8. 75 FR 27769 - Mississippi 16 Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-18

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Mississippi 16 Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted... April 5, 2010 Mississippi 16 Hydro, LLC filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to section 4(f) of the Federal Power Act, proposing to study the feasibility of the Mississippi River...

  9. 78 FR 45523 - Davis Hydro, LLC Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Davis Hydro, LLC Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Comments, Motions To Intervene, and Competing Applications On June 4, 2013, the Davis Hydro, LLC, filed an application for...

  10. 77 FR 26542 - Black Mountain Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-04

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Black Mountain Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted..., Black Mountain Hydro, LLC, filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to section 4(f) of the Federal Power Act (FPA), proposing to study the feasibility of the Black Mountain Pumped...

  11. 78 FR 78353 - Hydro Green Energy, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Hydro Green Energy, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Comments, Motions To Intervene, and Competing Applications On August 15, 2013, Hydro Green Energy, LLC, filed...

  12. 78 FR 36767 - Red River Hydro LLC; Notice of Availability of Draft Environmental Assessment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-19

    ..., 52 FR 47897), the Office of Energy Projects has reviewed Red River Hydro LLC's application for an... Energy Regulatory Commission Red River Hydro LLC; Notice of Availability of Draft Environmental... prepared a draft environmental assessment (draft EA). The project would be located on the Red River...

  13. 78 FR 62359 - Red River Hydro LLC; Notice of Availability of Final Environmental Assessment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-21

    ..., 52 FR 47897), the Office of Energy Projects has reviewed Red River Hydro LLC's application for an... Energy Regulatory Commission Red River Hydro LLC; Notice of Availability of Final Environmental... prepared a final environmental assessment (EA). The project would be located on the Red River in...

  14. 33 CFR 100.1305 - Richland, Washington, west coast outboard championship hydro races.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Richland, Washington, west coast outboard championship hydro races. 100.1305 Section 100.1305 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Richland, Washington, west coast outboard championship hydro races. (a) Regulated area. By this...

  15. 33 CFR 100.1305 - Richland, Washington, west coast outboard championship hydro races.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Richland, Washington, west coast outboard championship hydro races. 100.1305 Section 100.1305 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Richland, Washington, west coast outboard championship hydro races. (a) Regulated area. By this...

  16. 76 FR 43998 - Amnor Hydro West Inc.; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-22

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Amnor Hydro West Inc.; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for... supplemented on April 25, 2011, May 3, 2011, and July 6, 2011, Amnor Hydro West Inc. filed an application for a... feasibility of the Horn Rapids Dam Hydropower Project (Horn Rapids Project or project). The proposed...

  17. 78 FR 22873 - Hamilton Street Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Hamilton Street Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Comments, Motions To Intervene, and Competing Applications On February 19, 2013, Hamilton Street Hydro, LLC,...

  18. 78 FR 22872 - Hamilton Street Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Hamilton Street Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Comments, Motions To Intervene, and Competing Applications On February 19, 2013, Hamilton Street Hydro, LLC,...

  19. 75 FR 65311 - Renew Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Renew Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Comments, Motions To Intervene, and Competing Applications October 15, 2010. On July 13, 2010, Renew Hydro, LLC filed...

  20. 77 FR 59394 - Wills Creek Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Wills Creek Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Comments, Motions To Intervene, and Competing Applications On July 17, 2012, Wills Creek Hydro, LLC filed an...

  1. 75 FR 49929 - Music Mountain Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-16

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Music Mountain Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted.... On May 18, 2010, Music Mountain Hydro, LLC filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to section 4(f) of the Federal Power Act, proposing to study the feasibility of the Music ] Mountain...

  2. 77 FR 63311 - Lake Clementine Hydro, LLC; Notice of Successive Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-16

    ....2001(a)(1)(iii) and the instructions on the Commission's Web site http://www.ferc.gov/docs-filing... October 2, 2012, Lake Clementine Hydro, LLC (Lake Clementine Hydro) filed an application for a successive... study the feasibility of the Lake Clementine Small Hydroelectric Project to be located at the U.S....

  3. 77 FR 21765 - Nevada Hydro Company, Inc.; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-11

    ....2001(a)(1)(iii) and the instructions on the Commission's Web site http://www.ferc.gov/docs-filing..., including a copy of the application, can be viewed or printed on the ``eLibrary'' link of Commission's Web..., 2011, the Nevada Hydro Company (Nevada Hydro) filed an application for a preliminary permit,...

  4. 76 FR 76155 - Nevada Hydro Company, Inc.; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-06

    ... Internet. See 18 CFR 385.2001(a)(1)(iii) and the instructions on the Commission's Web site http://www.ferc..., 2011, the Nevada Hydro Company (Nevada Hydro) filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant... County, California. The sole purpose of a preliminary permit, if issued, is to grant the permit...

  5. 77 FR 36531 - Yegua Mesa Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-19

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Yegua Mesa Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for... Mesa Hydro, LLC, filed an application for a successive preliminary permit, pursuant to section 4(f) of the Federal Power Act (FPA), proposing to continue studying the feasibility of the Yegua Mesa...

  6. 40 CFR 721.1880 - Borate(1-), tris(acetato-.kappa.O)hydro-, sodium, (T-4)-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1880 Borate(1-), tris(acetato-.kappa.O)hydro-, sodium... substance identified as borate(1-), tris(acetato-.kappa.O)hydro-, sodium, (T-4)- (PMN P-00-0922; CAS No... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Borate(1-),...

  7. 40 CFR 721.1880 - Borate(1-), tris(acetato-.kappa.O)hydro-, sodium, (T-4)-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1880 Borate(1-), tris(acetato-.kappa.O)hydro-, sodium... substance identified as borate(1-), tris(acetato-.kappa.O)hydro-, sodium, (T-4)- (PMN P-00-0922; CAS No... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Borate(1-),...

  8. 40 CFR 721.1880 - Borate(1-), tris(acetato-.kappa.O)hydro-, sodium, (T-4)-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1880 Borate(1-), tris(acetato-.kappa.O)hydro-, sodium... substance identified as borate(1-), tris(acetato-.kappa.O)hydro-, sodium, (T-4)- (PMN P-00-0922; CAS No... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Borate(1-),...

  9. 40 CFR 721.1880 - Borate(1-), tris(acetato-.kappa.O)hydro-, sodium, (T-4)-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1880 Borate(1-), tris(acetato-.kappa.O)hydro-, sodium... substance identified as borate(1-), tris(acetato-.kappa.O)hydro-, sodium, (T-4)- (PMN P-00-0922; CAS No... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Borate(1-),...

  10. 40 CFR 721.1880 - Borate(1-), tris(acetato-.kappa.O)hydro-, sodium, (T-4)-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1880 Borate(1-), tris(acetato-.kappa.O)hydro-, sodium... substance identified as borate(1-), tris(acetato-.kappa.O)hydro-, sodium, (T-4)- (PMN P-00-0922; CAS No... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Borate(1-),...

  11. 75 FR 11527 - KC Hydro LLC; Notice of Competing Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-11

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission KC Hydro LLC; Notice of Competing Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Comments March 4, 2010. On November 6, 2009, KC Hydro LLC filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to section 4(f) of the Federal Power Act, proposing to...

  12. 78 FR 77115 - Lock 14 Hydro Partners; Notice of Application Ready for Environmental Analysis and Soliciting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-20

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Lock 14 Hydro Partners; Notice of Application Ready for Environmental..., 2012. d. Applicant: Lock 14 Hydro Partners, LLC. e. Name of Project: Heidelberg Dam Hydroelectric... within the project boundary. g. Filed Pursuant to: Federal Power Act, 16 U.S.C. 791(a)-825(r)....

  13. 78 FR 64494 - FFP Qualified Hydro 14, LLC, Western Minnesota Municipal Power Agency; Notice Announcing Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-29

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission FFP Qualified Hydro 14, LLC, Western Minnesota Municipal Power Agency... drawing, the order of priority is as follows: 1. FFP Qualified Hydro 14, LLC--Project No. 13579-002 2. Western Minnesota Municipal Power Agency--Project No. 14491-000 Dated: October 23, 2013. Nathaniel...

  14. 77 FR 42715 - North American Hydro Holdings, LLC; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing, Soliciting Motions...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-20

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission North American Hydro Holdings, LLC; Notice of Application Accepted for... 29, 2012. d. Applicant: North American Hydro Holdings, LLC. e. Name of Project: Manawa Dam Project. f.... g. Filed Pursuant to: Federal Power Act, 16 U.S.C. 791(a)-825(r). h. Applicant Contact:...

  15. 78 FR 77116 - Lock 12 Hydro Partners; Notice of Application Ready for Environmental Analysis and Soliciting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-20

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Lock 12 Hydro Partners; Notice of Application Ready for Environmental..., 2012. d. Applicant: Lock 12 Hydro Partners, LLC. e. Name of Project: Ravenna Dam Hydroelectric Project... the project boundary. g. Filed Pursuant to: Federal Power Act, 16 U.S.C. 791(a)-825(r). h....

  16. 78 FR 62350 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund III, LLC; Western Minnesota Municipal Power Agency; Notice Announcing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-18

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund III, LLC; Western Minnesota Municipal Power Agency... applications were filed by Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund III, LLC for Project No. 14539-000 and Western Minnesota Municipal Power Agency for Project No. 14540-000. \\1\\ Under the Commission's Rules of Practice and...

  17. 78 FR 70549 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund III, LLC, Western Minnesota Municipal Power Agency; Notice Announcing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-26

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund III, LLC, Western Minnesota Municipal Power Agency... applications were filed by Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund III, LLC for Project No. 14539-000 and Western Minnesota Municipal Power Agency for Project No. 14540-000. \\1\\ Under the Commission's Rules of Practice and...

  18. 78 FR 62350 - FFP Qualified Hydro 14, LLC; Western Minnesota Municipal Power Agency; Notice Announcing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-18

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission FFP Qualified Hydro 14, LLC; Western Minnesota Municipal Power Agency... Polk County, Iowa. The applications were filed by FFP Qualified Hydro 14, LLC for Project No. 13579-002 and Western Minnesota Municipal Power Agency for Project No. 14491-000. \\1\\ Under the...

  19. 77 FR 22568 - Madison Paper Industries, FPL Energy Maine Hydro, LLC, Merimil Limited Partnership; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-16

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Madison Paper Industries, FPL Energy Maine Hydro, LLC, Merimil Limited... Industries, FPL Energy Maine Hydro, LLC, and Merimil Limited Partnership, licensees for the Brassua Hydroelectric Project, filed an Application for a New License pursuant to the Federal Power Act (FPA) and...

  20. 78 FR 1853 - EH California Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-09

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission EH California Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Comments and Motions To Intervene On October 11, 2012, EH California Hydro, LLC filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to section 4(f) of the Federal Power...

  1. 78 FR 72879 - Western Minnesota Municipal Power Agency; Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund III, LLC; Notice Announcing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-04

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Western Minnesota Municipal Power Agency; Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund III, LLC.... Based on the drawing, the order of priority is as follows: 1. Western Minnesota Municipal Power Agency Project No. 14540-000 2. Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund III, LLC Project No. 14539-000 Dated: November 26,...

  2. 75 FR 80487 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLVIII; FFP Missouri 15, LLC;

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLVIII; FFP Missouri 15, LLC; Notice Announcing.... 14, near Hampton, Illinois.\\1\\ The applications ] were filed by Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLVIII,...

  3. Advances in remote sensing and modeling of terrestrial hydro-meteorological processes and extremes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Remote sensing is an indispensable tool for monitoring and detecting the evolution of the Earth’s hydro-meteorological processes. Fast-growing remote sensing observations and technologies have been a primary impetus to advancing our knowledge of hydro-meteorological processes and their extremes ove...

  4. 33 CFR 100.1305 - Richland, Washington, west coast outboard championship hydro races.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Richland, Washington, west coast outboard championship hydro races. 100.1305 Section 100.1305 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Richland, Washington, west coast outboard championship hydro races. (a) Regulated area. By this...

  5. 33 CFR 100.1305 - Richland, Washington, west coast outboard championship hydro races.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Richland, Washington, west coast outboard championship hydro races. 100.1305 Section 100.1305 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Richland, Washington, west coast outboard championship hydro races. (a) Regulated area. By this...

  6. 78 FR 66785 - Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., and Korea Electric Power Corporation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-06

    ... COMMISSION Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., and Korea Electric Power Corporation AGENCY: Nuclear... APR1400 Standard Plant Design submitted by Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd. (KHNP) and Korea... documents at the NRC's PDR, Room O1-F21, One White Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville,...

  7. 76 FR 24014 - Renew Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-29

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Renew Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for..., Renew Hydro, LLC filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to section 4(f) of the Federal... be 15,768,000 kilowatt-hours. Applicant Contact: John E. Marciszewski, General Manager, Renew...

  8. 76 FR 74781 - FFP Project 104 LLC, Nolin Lake Hydro LLC; Notice of Competing Preliminary Permit Applications...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-01

    ... LLC (NL Hydro) filed preliminary permit applications, pursuant to section 4(f) of the Federal Power... Flow Power Corp., 239 Causeway Street, Suite 300, Boston, MA 02114. (978) 283-2822. NL Hydro's...

  9. HydroViz: evaluation of a web-based tool for improving hydrology education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habib, E.; Ma, Y.; Williams, D.; Sharif, H.; Hossain, F.

    2012-02-01

    HydroViz is a web-based, student-centered, highly visual educational tool designed to support active learning in the field of Engineering Hydrology. The development of HydroViz is informed by recent advances in hydrologic data, numerical simulations, visualization and web-based technologies. An evaluation study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of HydroViz, to examine the buy-in of the program, and to identify project components that need to be improved. A total of 182 students from seven freshmen and junior-/senior-level undergraduate classes in three universities participated in the study over the course of two semesters (spring 2010 and fall 2010). Data sources included homework assignments, online surveys, and informal interviews with students. Descriptive statistics were calculated for homework and the survey. Qualitative analysis of students' comments and informal interview notes were also conducted to identify ideas and patterns. HydroViz was effective in facilitating students' learning and understanding of hydrologic concepts and increasing related skills. Students had positive perceptions of various features of HydroViz and they believe that HydroViz fits well in the curriculum. The experience with HydroViz was somewhat effective in raising freshmen civil engineering students' interest in hydrology. In general, HydroViz tend to be more effective with students in junior- or senior-level classes than students in freshmen classes. There does not seem to be obvious differences between different universities. Students identified some issues that can be addressed to improve HydroViz. Future adaptation and expansion studies are under planning to scale-up the application and utility of HydroViz into various hydrology and water-resource engineering curriculum settings.

  10. 76 FR 52656 - Lock+Hydro Friends Fund VII; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-23

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+Hydro Friends Fund VII; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application..., 2011, Lock+Hydro Friends Fund VII, filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to section 4.... Applicant Contact: Mr. Wayne Krouse, Lock + Hydro Friends Fund VII, 5090 Richmond Avenue 390, Houston,...

  11. 76 FR 4891 - Blue Heron Hydro LLC; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Motions To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-27

    ... Heron Hydro LLC, 113 Bartlett Road, Plainfield, Vermont 05667. (802) 454-1874. i. FERC Contact: Dr... Energy Regulatory Commission Blue Heron Hydro LLC; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and... Heron Hydro LLC. e. Name of Project: Townshend Dam Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: U.S. Army...

  12. 76 FR 5147 - Blue Heron Hydro LLC; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Motions To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-28

    ..., Blue Heron Hydro LLC, 113 Bartlett Road, Plainfield, Vermont 05667. (802) 454 1874. i. FERC Contact: Dr... Energy Regulatory Commission Blue Heron Hydro LLC; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and... Heron Hydro LLC. e. Name of Project: Ball Mountain Dam Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: U.S....

  13. 78 FR 34092 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXX, LLC; FFP Project 121, LLC; Notice of Competing Preliminary Permit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXX, LLC; FFP Project 121, LLC; Notice of Competing... Competing Applications Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXX, LLC and FFP Project 121, LLC filed preliminary permit... 8:30 a.m. on the next regular business day. See id. at 385.2001(a)(2). Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund...

  14. 75 FR 11150 - Free Flow Power Qualified Hydro 23, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-10

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Free Flow Power Qualified Hydro 23, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit... March 3, 2010. On November 5, 2009, Free Flow Power Qualified Hydro 23, LLC (FFP Qualified Hydro 23...-free 1-866-208-3372. Kimberly D. Bose, Secretary. BILLING CODE 6717-01-P...

  15. 75 FR 11153 - Free Flow Power Qualified Hydro 22, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-10

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Free Flow Power Qualified Hydro 22, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit... March 1, 2010. On November 05, 2009, Free Flow Power Qualified Hydro 22, LLC (FFP Qualified Hydro 22...-free 1-866-208-3372. Kimberly D. Bose, Secretary. BILLING CODE 6717-01-P...

  16. 77 FR 55212 - North Star Hydro Services CA, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-07

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission North Star Hydro Services CA, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application..., 2012, North Star Hydro Services CA, LLC, Oklahoma, filed an application for a preliminary permit...: David Holland, North Star Hydro Services CA, LLC, 1110 West 131st Street South, Jenks, Oklahoma...

  17. 77 FR 55212 - North Star Hydro Services CA, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-07

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission North Star Hydro Services CA, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application..., 2012, North Star Hydro Services CA, LLC, Oklahoma, filed an application for a preliminary permit... Holland, North Star Hydro Services CA, LLC, 1110 West 131st Street South, Jenks, Oklahoma 74037;...

  18. 77 FR 29630 - Qualified Hydro 24, LLC; Notice of Scoping Meetings and Environmental Site Review and Soliciting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-18

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Qualified Hydro 24, LLC; Notice of Scoping Meetings and Environmental Site...: Qualified Hydro 24, LLC. ] e. Name of Project: Cle Elum Project. f. Location: On the Cle Elum River, in... Applicant Contact: Ramya Swaminathan, Qualified Hydro 24, LLC, 239 Causeway Street, Suite 300, Boston,...

  19. 77 FR 67352 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLII, LLC; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-09

    ... to: Federal Power Act 16 USC 791(a)-825(r). h. Applicant Contact: Mr. Mark R. Stover, Lock+\\TM\\ Hydro... Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLII, LLC; Notice of Application Accepted for...: Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLII, LLC e. Name of Project: Braddock Locks and Dam Hydroelectric Project...

  20. 77 FR 16216 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLVI, LLC; Notice of Intent To File License Application, Filing of Pre...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-20

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLVI, LLC; Notice of Intent To File License... Friends Fund XLVI, LLC. e. Name of Project: Hildebrand Lock and Dam Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: At... R. Stover, Lock+\\TM\\ Hydro Friends Fund XLVI, c/o Hydro Green Energy, LLC, 900 Oakmont Lane,...

  1. 77 FR 9222 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLII, LLC; Notice of Intent To File License Application, Filing of Pre...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-16

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLII, LLC; Notice of Intent To File License... Friends Fund XLII, LLC. e. Name of Project: Braddock Locks and Dam Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: At..., Lock+\\TM\\ Hydro Friends Fund XLII, c/o Hydro Green Energy, LLC, 900 Oakmont Lane, Suite 310,...

  2. 78 FR 54889 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XIX, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-06

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XIX, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application..., 2013, Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XIX, LLC filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to.... Wayne Krouse, Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund, LLC, 4900 Woodway, Suite 745 Houston, TX 77056; Phone: (877)...

  3. 77 FR 13317 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XII, BOST2, LLC, et al.; Notice Announcing Filing Priority for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-06

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XII, BOST2, LLC, et al.; Notice Announcing Filing Priority for Preliminary Permit Applications Project No. Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XII 14260-000 BOST2, LLC.... 2. BOST2, LLC: Project No. 14264-000. 3. Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XII: Project No. 14260-000....

  4. 78 FR 59926 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XIX, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-30

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XIX, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application..., 2013, Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XIX, LLC filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to.... Wayne Krouse, Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund, LLC, 4900 Woodway, Suite 745 Houston, TX 77056; Phone: (877)...

  5. 77 FR 16217 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXIX, LLC; Notice of Intent To File License Application, Filing of Pre...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-20

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXIX, LLC; Notice of Intent To File License... Friends Fund XXXIX, LLC. e. Name of Project: C.W. Bill Young Lock and Dam Hydroelectric Project. f... R. Stover, Lock+\\TM\\ Hydro Friends Fund XXXIX, c/o Hydro Green Energy, LLC, 900 Oakmont Lane,...

  6. 76 FR 2893 - Bell Mountain Hydro LLC; Notice of Application for Amendment of Exemption and Soliciting Comments...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-18

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Bell Mountain Hydro LLC; Notice of Application for Amendment of Exemption..., 2010. d. Applicant: Bell Mountain Hydro, LLC. e. Name of Project: Pancheri Hydroelectric Project. f...: Federal Power Act, 16 U.S.C. 791a-825r. h. Applicant Contact: Mr. Ted Sorenson, Bell Mountain Hydro...

  7. (E)-2-Cyano-N′-(1,2,3,4-tetra­hydro­naphthalen-1-yl­idene)acetohydrazide

    PubMed Central

    Al-Omar, Mohamed A.; Khalifa, Nagy M.; Ghabbour, Hazem A.; Chia, Tze Shyang; Fun, Hoong-Kun

    2012-01-01

    In the title compound, C13H13N3O, the tetra­hydro­benzene ring adopts a half-boat (envelope) conformation. The mean plane of the tetra­hydro­naphthalene ring system forms a dihedral angle of 9.56 (6)° with the mean plane of the cyano­acetohydrazide group. In the crystal, inversion dimers linked by pairs of N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds generate R 2 2(8) loops. The dimers are connected by C—H⋯N hydrogen bonds into a chain propagating along [101]. The crystal packing also features C—H⋯π inter­actions. PMID:22719525

  8. A hydro-meteorological ensemble prediction system for real-time flood forecasting purposes in the Milano area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravazzani, Giovanni; Amengual, Arnau; Ceppi, Alessandro; Romero, Romualdo; Homar, Victor; Mancini, Marco

    2015-04-01

    Analysis of forecasting strategies that can provide a tangible basis for flood early warning procedures and mitigation measures over the Western Mediterranean region is one of the fundamental motivations of the European HyMeX programme. Here, we examine a set of hydro-meteorological episodes that affected the Milano urban area for which the complex flood protection system of the city did not completely succeed before the occurred flash-floods. Indeed, flood damages have exponentially increased in the area during the last 60 years, due to industrial and urban developments. Thus, the improvement of the Milano flood control system needs a synergism between structural and non-structural approaches. The flood forecasting system tested in this work comprises the Flash-flood Event-based Spatially distributed rainfall-runoff Transformation, including Water Balance (FEST-WB) and the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) models, in order to provide a hydrological ensemble prediction system (HEPS). Deterministic and probabilistic quantitative precipitation forecasts (QPFs) have been provided by WRF model in a set of 48-hours experiments. HEPS has been generated by combining different physical parameterizations (i.e. cloud microphysics, moist convection and boundary-layer schemes) of the WRF model in order to better encompass the atmospheric processes leading to high precipitation amounts. We have been able to test the value of a probabilistic versus a deterministic framework when driving Quantitative Discharge Forecasts (QDFs). Results highlight (i) the benefits of using a high-resolution HEPS in conveying uncertainties for this complex orographic area and (ii) a better simulation of the most of extreme precipitation events, potentially enabling valuable probabilistic QDFs. Hence, the HEPS copes with the significant deficiencies found in the deterministic QPFs. These shortcomings would prevent to correctly forecast the location and timing of high precipitation rates and

  9. Geovisualization in the HydroProg web map service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spallek, Waldemar; Wieczorek, Malgorzata; Szymanowski, Mariusz; Niedzielski, Tomasz; Swierczynska, Malgorzata

    2016-04-01

    The HydroProg system, built at the University of Wroclaw (Poland) in frame of the research project no. 2011/01/D/ST10/04171 financed by the National Science Centre of Poland, has been designed for computing predictions of river stages in real time on a basis of multimodelling. This experimental system works on the upper Nysa Klodzka basin (SW Poland) above the gauge in the town of Bardo, with the catchment area of 1744 square kilometres. The system operates in association with the Local System for Flood Monitoring of Klodzko County (LSOP), and produces hydrograph prognoses as well as inundation predictions. For presenting the up-to-date predictions and their statistics in the online mode, the dedicated real-time web map service has been designed. Geovisualisation in the HydroProg map service concerns: interactive maps of study area, interactive spaghetti hydrograms of water level forecasts along with observed river stages, animated images of inundation. The LSOP network offers a high spatial and temporal resolution of observations, as the length of the sampling interval is equal to 15 minutes. The main environmental elements related to hydrological modelling are shown on the main map. This includes elevation data (hillshading and hypsometric tints), rivers and reservoirs as well as catchment boundaries. Furthermore, we added main towns, roads as well as political and administrative boundaries for better map understanding. The web map was designed as a multi-scale representation, with levels of detail and zooming according to scales: 1:100 000, 1:250 000 and 1:500 000. Observations of water level in LSOP are shown on interactive hydrographs for each gauge. Additionally, predictions and some of their statistical characteristics (like prediction errors and Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency) are shown for selected gauges. Finally, predictions of inundation are presented on animated maps which have been added for four experimental sites. The HydroProg system is a strictly

  10. DRIHM: Distributed Research Infrastructure for Hydro-Meteorology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parodi, A.; Rebora, N.; Kranzlmueller, D.; Schiffers, M.; Clematis, A.; Tafferner, A.; Garrote, L. M.; Llasat Botija, M.; Caumont, O.; Richard, E.; Cros, P.; Dimitrijevic, V.; Jagers, B.; Harpham, Q.; Hooper, R. P.

    2012-12-01

    Hydro-Meteorology Research (HMR) is an area of critical scientific importance and of high societal relevance. It plays a key role in guiding predictions relevant to the safety and prosperity of humans and ecosystems from highly urbanized areas, to coastal zones, and to agricultural landscapes. Of special interest and urgency within HMR is the problem of understanding and predicting the impacts of severe hydro-meteorological events, such as flash-floods and landslides in complex orography areas, on humans and the environment, under the incoming climate change effects. At the heart of this challenge lies the ability to have easy access to hydrometeorological data and models, and facilitate the collaboration between meteorologists, hydrologists, and Earth science experts for accelerated scientific advances in this field. To face these problems the DRIHM (Distributed Research Infrastructure for Hydro-Meteorology) project is developing a prototype e-Science environment to facilitate this collaboration and provide end-to-end HMR services (models, datasets and post-processing tools) at the European level, with the ability to expand to global scale (e.g. cooperation with Earth Cube related initiatives). The objectives of DRIHM are to lead the definition of a common long-term strategy, to foster the development of new HMR models and observational archives for the study of severe hydrometeorological events, to promote the execution and analysis of high-end simulations, and to support the dissemination of predictive models as decision analysis tools. DRIHM combines the European expertise in HMR, in Grid and High Performance Computing (HPC). Joint research activities will improve the efficient use of the European e-Infrastructures, notably Grid and HPC, for HMR modelling and observational databases, model evaluation tool sets and access to HMR model results. Networking activities will disseminate DRIHM results at the European and global levels in order to increase the cohesion

  11. Soil stability characteristics of mulberry lands at hydro-fluctuation belt in the Three Gorges Reservoir area, China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ping; Shi, Dongmei; Hu, Xueqin; Huang, Xianzhi; Li, Yexin; Guo, Tianlei

    2015-10-01

    The hydro-fluctuation belt in the Three Gorges Reservoir area is a typical seasonal and artificial wetland system and ecologically fragile zone. Using the widely existing mulberry forest lands in the hydro-fluctuation belt as an example and the 180-m water-level forest land as a control, this paper analyzes the soil stability of mulberry forestlands at different water levels in the hydro-fluctuation belt by analyzing and comparing the changes between soil physical and mechanical properties. The results indicated that (1) water-level changes, such as rising, flooding, draining, and exposure, affect the soil structure in mulberry forestlands. The soil agglomeration statuses for the soil layers decreased from 180 > 175 > 170 > 165 m, and the soil agglomeration statuses at a depth of 0∼20 cm decreased by 43.79, 44.95, and 57.45% compared with the control. (2) The soil water stability index decreased as follows: 180 > 170 > 175 > 165 m, which only accounted for 50.00, 47.73, and 40.91% of the control. In addition, the soil water stability indexes for the topsoils at various water levels were 1.87 (180 m), 1.67 (175 m), 2.92 (170 m), and 1.86 (165 m) times greater than those of the subsoils; thus, the resistance to hydraulic dispersion and disintegration were greater in the topsoil than in the subsoil. (3) The soil aggregate stability index decreased from 180 > 165 > 170 > 175 m and by 22.75, 23.53, and 35.29% compared with the control. (4) The soil shear strengths (composed of the cohesive force C and the internal friction angle φ) of the topsoils at water levels of 175, 170, and 165 m were significantly lower than in the control, and the internal friction angles decreased by 10.52, 19.08, and 43.25% and the cohesive force decreased by 9.88, 16.36, and 27.51%, respectively. The stability of the soil structure was greatly influenced by the soil clay content, soil organic matter content, and waterlogging duration. The study results

  12. Hydro-chemical evolution of groundwater and mixing between aquifers: a statistical approach based on major ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Linhua; Gui, Herong

    2015-03-01

    Geochemical analysis is a useful tool in hydrogeological assessment, particularly in constructing a conceptual model of a hydrogeological system. In this study, major ion concentrations of 53 groundwater samples from the coal-bearing aquifer in the Qidong coal mine, northern Anhui Province of China have been processed by statistical analysis for understanding either hydro-chemical characteristics or hydrological evolution, which will be useful for the safety of coal mining. The results suggest that most of the samples are Na-SO4 and Na-HCO3 types, and their hydro-chemical compositions are mainly controlled by dissolution of more soluble minerals (e.g. calcite) and weathering of silicate minerals (e.g. plagioclase). Two groups of samples have been subdivided by quantile and scatter plots of factor scores, one is related to different degrees of water-rock interactions and another is related to groundwater mixing. Moreover, four end members have been identified and the mixing calculation suggests that the groundwater samples affected by mixing have 20-100 % contribution from the loose layer aquifer (LA), and therefore, groundwater from the LA in the coal mine should be taken seriously during coal mining. The study demonstrated that statistical analysis is useful for connecting the hydrochemistry of groundwater with hydrological evolution of the aquifer.

  13. Fishin' for balance: Selecting minimum flow at hydro projects

    SciTech Connect

    Franc, G.M. )

    1993-02-01

    Finding an optimal minimum flow for a hydroelectric project can be compared to a fishing outing at an untested pond - you often have to fish around to locate the best spot. Selecting the amount of flow to release downstream of a hydro plant that will provide the maximum habitat protection at the minimum cost can indeed be a guessing game. At Niagara Mohawk, we've developed a computer program called FISHN that gives the user information and insight needed for making reasonable, logical minimum flow decisions. The program gives consideration to both hydrological and biological data when recommending a flow, and does not require the user to intuitively judge the value of habitat.

  14. Factors Affecting Creativity in Generation of Advertising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Leonard N.

    1978-01-01

    Presents additional data on the author's previously formulated associative model of advertising creativity, looking at the impact of confidence, involvement, satisfaction, attitude, and associative ability on an individual's creative ability. (Author)

  15. Introduction of organic/hydro-organic matrices in inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry and mass spectrometry: a tutorial review. Part I. Theoretical considerations.

    PubMed

    Leclercq, Amélie; Nonell, Anthony; Todolí Torró, José Luis; Bresson, Carole; Vio, Laurent; Vercouter, Thomas; Chartier, Frédéric

    2015-07-23

    Due to their outstanding analytical performances, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) are widely used for multi-elemental measurements and also for isotopic characterization in the case of ICP-MS. While most studies are carried out in aqueous matrices, applications involving organic/hydro-organic matrices become increasingly widespread. This kind of matrices is introduced in ICP based instruments when classical "matrix removal" approaches such as acid digestion or extraction procedures cannot be implemented. Due to the physico-chemical properties of organic/hydro-organic matrices and their associated effects on instrumentation and analytical performances, their introduction into ICP sources is particularly challenging and has become a full topic. In this framework, numerous theoretical and phenomenological studies of these effects have been performed in the past, mainly by ICP-OES, while recent literature is more focused on applications and associated instrumental developments. This tutorial review, divided in two parts, explores the rich literature related to the introduction of organic/hydro-organic matrices in ICP-OES and ICP-MS. The present Part I, provides theoretical considerations in connection with the physico-chemical properties of organic/hydro-organic matrices, in order to better understand the induced phenomena. This focal point is divided in four chapters highlighting: (i) the impact of organic/hydro-organic matrices from aerosol generation to atomization/excitation/ionization processes; (ii) the production of carbon molecular constituents and their spatial distribution in the plasma with respect to analytes repartition; (iii) the subsequent modifications of plasma fundamental properties; and (iv) the resulting spectroscopic and non spectroscopic interferences. This first part of this tutorial review is addressed either to beginners or to more experienced scientists who are interested in the

  16. Integrated hydrometeorological predictions with the fully-coupled WRF-Hydro modeling system in western North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gochis, D. J.; Yu, W.

    2013-12-01

    Prediction of heavy rainfall and associated streamflow responses remain as critical hydrometeorological challenges and require improved understanding of the linkages between atmospheric and land surface processes. Streamflow prediction skill is intrinsically liked to quantitative precipitation forecast skill, which emphasizes the need to produce mesoscale predictions of rainfall of high fidelity. However, in many cases land surface parameters can also exert significant control on the runoff response to heavy rainfall and on the formation or localization of heavy rainfall as well. A new generation of integrated atmospheric-hydrologic modeling systems is emerging from different groups around the world to meet the challenge of integrated water cycle predictions. In this talk the community WRF-Hydro modeling system will be presented. After a brief reviewing the architectural features of the WRF-Hydro system short-term forecasting and regional hydroclimate prediction applications of the model from western North America will be presented. In these applications, analyses will present results from observation-validated prediction experiments where atmospheric and terrestrial hydrologic model components are run in both a fully coupled mode and separately without two-way interactions. Emphasis is placed on illustrating an assessment framework using an initial state perturbation methodology to quantify the role of land-atmosphere energy and moisture flux partitioning in controlling precipitation and runoff forecast skill. Issues related to experimental design of fully-coupled model prediction experiments will also be discussed as will issues related to computational performance.

  17. Modeling the effect of urban infrastructure on hydrologic processes within i-Tree Hydro, a statistically and spatially distributed model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taggart, T. P.; Endreny, T. A.; Nowak, D.

    2014-12-01

    Gray and green infrastructure in urban environments alters many natural hydrologic processes, creating an urban water balance unique to the developed environment. A common way to assess the consequences of impervious cover and grey infrastructure is by measuring runoff hydrographs. This focus on the watershed outlet masks the spatial variation of hydrologic process alterations across the urban environment in response to localized landscape characteristics. We attempt to represent this spatial variation in the urban environment using the statistically and spatially distributed i-Tree Hydro model, a scoping level urban forest effects water balance model. i-Tree Hydro has undergone expansion and modification to include the effect of green infrastructure processes, road network attributes, and urban pipe system leakages. These additions to the model are intended to increase the understanding of the altered urban hydrologic cycle by examining the effects of the location of these structures on the water balance. Specifically, the effect of these additional structures and functions on the spatially varying properties of interception, soil moisture and runoff generation. Differences in predicted properties and optimized parameter sets between the two models are examined and related to the recent landscape modifications. Datasets used in this study consist of watersheds and sewersheds within the Syracuse, NY metropolitan area, an urban area that has integrated green and gray infrastructure practices to alleviate stormwater problems.

  18. Hydro-climatic trends and water resource management implications based on multi-scale data for the Lake Victoria region, Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koutsouris, A. J.; Destouni, G.; Jarsjö, J.; Lyon, S. W.

    2010-07-01

    Unreliable rainfall may be a main cause of poverty in rural areas, such as the Kisumu district by Lake Victoria in Kenya. Climate change may further increase the negative effects of rainfall uncertainty. These effects could be mitigated to some extent through improved and adaptive water resource management and planning, which relies on our interpretations and projections of the coupled hydro-climatic system behaviour and its development trends. In order to identify and quantify the main differences and consistencies among such hydro-climatic assessments, this study investigates trends and exemplifies their use for important water management decisions for the Lake Victoria drainage basin (LVDB), based on local scale data for the Orongo village in the Kisumu district, and regional scale data for the whole LVDB. Results show low correlation between locally and regionally observed hydro-climatic trends, and large differences, which in turn affects assessments of important water resource management parameters. However, both data scales converge in indicating that observed local and regional hydrological discharge trends are primarily driven by local and regional water use and land use changes.

  19. How Affiliation Disclosure and Control Over User-Generated Comments Affects Consumer Health Knowledge and Behavior: A Randomized Controlled Experiment of Pharmaceutical Direct-to-Consumer Advertising on Social Media

    PubMed Central

    Vendemia, Megan Ashley

    2016-01-01

    Background More people are seeking health information online than ever before and pharmaceutical companies are increasingly marketing their drugs through social media. Objective The aim was to examine two major concerns related to online direct-to-consumer pharmaceutical advertising: (1) how disclosing an affiliation with a pharmaceutical company affects how people respond to drug information produced by both health organizations and online commenters, and (2) how knowledge that health organizations control the display of user-generated comments affects consumer health knowledge and behavior. Methods We conducted a 2×2×2 between-subjects experiment (N=674). All participants viewed an infographic posted to Facebook by a health organization about a prescription allergy drug. Across conditions, the infographic varied in the degree to which the health organization and commenters appeared to be affiliated with a drug manufacturer, and the display of user-generated comments appeared to be controlled. Results Affiliation disclosure statements on a health organization’s Facebook post increased perceptions of an organization-drug manufacturer connection, which reduced trust in the organization (point estimate –0.45, 95% CI –0.69 to –0.24) and other users who posted comments about the drug (point estimate –0.44, 95% CI –0.68 to –0.22). Furthermore, increased perceptions of an organization-manufacturer connection reduced the likelihood that people would recommend the drug to important others (point estimate –0.35, 95% CI –0.59 to –0.15), and share the drug post with others on Facebook (point estimate –0.37, 95% CI –0.64 to –0.16). An affiliation cue next to the commenters' names increased perceptions that the commenters were affiliated with the drug manufacturer, which reduced trust in the comments (point estimate –0.81, 95% CI –1.04 to –0.59), the organization that made the post (point estimate –0.68, 95% CI –0.90 to –0.49), the

  20. Rock Cavern Stability Analysis Under Different Hydro-Geological Conditions Using the Coupled Hydro-Mechanical Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, H. M.; Zhao, Z. Y.; Choo, L. Q.; Sun, J. P.

    2016-02-01

    Rock cavern stability has a close relationship with the uncertain geological parameters, such as the in situ stress, the joint configurations, and the joint mechanical properties. Therefore, the stability of the rock cavern should be studied with variable geological conditions. In this paper, the coupled hydro-mechanical model, which is under the framework of the discontinuous deformation analysis, is developed to study the underground cavern stability when considering the hydraulic pressure after excavation. Variable geological conditions are taken into account to study their impacts on the seepage rate and the cavern stability, including the in situ stress ratio, joint spacing, and joint dip angle. In addition, the two cases with static hydraulic pressure and without hydraulic pressure are also considered for the comparison. The numerical simulations demonstrate that the coupled approach can capture the cavern behavior better than the other two approaches without the coupling effects.

  1. Is It Better to Burn or Bury Waste for Clean Electricity Generation?

    EPA Science Inventory

    The generation of electricity through renewables has increased 5% since 2002. Although considerably less prominent than solar and wind, the use of municipal solid waste (MSW) to generate electricity represents roughly 14 percent of U.S. non-hydro renewable electricity generation....

  2. Interstitial 10p deletion derived from a maternal ins(16;10)(q22;p13p15.2): Report of the first familial case of 10p monosomy affecting to two familial members of different generations.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Raquel M; Sánchez, Javier; García-Díaz, Lutgardo; Peláez-Nora, Yolanda; González-Meneses, Antonio; Antiñolo, Guillermo; Borrego, Salud

    2016-05-01

    Monosomy 10p is a rare chromosomal disorder with a prevalence <1/1,000,000, in which a terminal or interstitial distal region of chromosome 10 is deleted resulting in a variable phenotype depending on the size of the deletion. Two main phenotypes have been defined depending on the location of the deletion: HDR syndrome (Hypoparathyroidism, sensorineural Deafness, and Renal disease), and DGS2 (DiGeorge syndrome type 2). The vast majority of cases reported so far have resulted from de novo events. Here, we present the first familial presentation of this contiguous gene deletion syndrome, affecting two family members in different generations: a child and his maternal uncle. In both cases, the deletion was due to a malsegregation of a maternal balanced rearrangement, ins(16;10)(q22;p13p15.2). The identification and characterization of this rearrangement was possible using a combination of different genetic analyses such as karyotype, MLPA, FISH, and array CGH. We underline the importance of the present results in terms of genetic and reproductive counseling for the carriers of the balanced rearrangement within the family, and demonstrate again the utility of expanding the genetic studies to the relatives of the affected patients. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26762557

  3. Eco-Hydro-Connectivity: Tracking the Diurnal Signal of Plant Water Uptake through the Hydrologic System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blume, T.; Hassler, S. K.; Heidbuechel, I.; Simard, S.; Guntner, A.; Weiler, M.

    2014-12-01

    Plant water uptake during summer is characterized by strong diurnal fluctuations. As a result a diurnal sink term is imposed on catchment storage, affecting the unsaturated zone, sometimes the saturated zone and even streamflow. Detecting this signal and understanding its propagation through the hydrological system may help to better quantify eco-hydrological connectivity. The extent and strength of the propagation of this signal from plant to soil to ground- and streamwater was investigated with a unique setup of 46 field sites in Luxemburg and 15 field sites in Germany. These sites cover a range of geologies, soils, topographies and types of vegetation. Vegetation types include grassland, pine forest (young and old) and different deciduous forest stands. Available data at all sites includes information at high temporal resolution from 3-5 soil moisture profiles, matrix potential, piezometers and sapflow sensors (as proxy for plant water uptake) as well as standard climate data. At sites with access to a stream, discharge or water level is also recorded. Signal strength (amplitude of diurnal fluctuations) can thus be traced through the system and gives an indication of the physical sphere of influence of plant water uptake i.e. the "eco-hydro-connectivity". The analysis of time lags (or phase shifts) between daily fluctuations in temperature, radiation, sapflow, soil water, groundwater and streamflow gives further insights into the processes driving and propagating these signals and inter-site comparison allows for the investigation of local controls.

  4. The impact of Damaging Hydro Geological events on people in a Mediterranean region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrucci, O.; Pasqua, A. A.

    2012-04-01

    Bad weather periods are a source of multiple hazards, because they can trigger several types of damaging phenomena which may cause different types of impacts on several natural and manmade elements in a wide range of circumstances. The whole of all the phenomena triggered by bad weather periods have been defined as Damaging Hydro Geological Events (DHE). Phenomena which occur during DHEs can be roughly sorted in some main groups: landslides, floods, erosion processes and sea storms. Each type of phenomenon is characterized by a proper dynamic and, according to the social and economic framework in which it develops, can cause different impacts. Despite during bad weather periods all these phenomena occur at the same time (or in a short while), often strongly amplifying damage and hinting emergency management actions, the studies available in literature tend to analyse each type of phenomenon (and its impact) separately, thus supplying a fragmentary framework of the effects. In the present work, basing on a dataset concerning effects of DHEs in Calabria (southern Italy), a classification of the effects on people affected by the different types of triggered phenomena is attempted. The results is a classification of main circumstances during which the different types of phenomenon triggered can hit people. This kind of result can be useful in education programs for people living in risk prone areas, in order promote more conscious behaviours during DHEs and to avoid unnecessary risk-taking behaviour.

  5. Hydro-acoustic instabilities in compressible turbulent channel flow with porous walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scalo, Carlo; Rahbari, Iman

    2015-11-01

    C. Scalo, J. Bodart, and S. K. Lele, Phys. Fluids (2015) manipulated wall-bounded compressible turbulence by applying impedance boundary conditions (IBC) acoustically tuned to the characteristic time scale of the large-scale eddies. Near-wall turbulence was overhauled by hydro-acoustic instabilities - comprised of coherent spanwise Kelvin-Helmholtz rollers driven by Helmholtz-like acoustic resonance - while outer-layer turbulence was left structurally unaltered. We discuss linear modeling results of the observed flow response, supported by new high-fidelity simulations up to transonic bulk Mach numbers. For IBCs with zero reactance, corresponding to a Darcy-like formulation for porous walls, two dominant modes are identified whose Reynolds stress distributions overlap with the impermeable-wall turbulent buffer layer, directly affecting the near-wall turbulence cycle. For the range of wavenumbers investigated, the transition from subcritical to supercritical permeability does not significantly alter the structure of the unstable modes, showing that wall-permeability accentuates pre-existing, otherwise stable, modes. Implications on flow control strategies for compressible boundary layers over porous walls are discussed. School of Mechanical Engineering.

  6. Affective Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Charles T.

    This paper addresses itself to the question, "What does feeling have to do with knowing?" Two movements in affective education are discussed which have come into focus in recent years and which attempt to define the relationship between knowing and feeling. The first, a conscious application of the role of arousal in learning, emphasizes arousal…

  7. System Modeling to Improve the Hydro-Ecological Performance of Diked Wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alminagorta, O.; Rosenberg, D. E.; Kettenring, K.

    2012-12-01

    Managing scarce water resources and invasive vegetation are common problems in wetlands. A systems model was developed to recommend water allocations and vegetation control actions among diked wetland units that will improve wetland habitat for bird species. Model recommendations are subject to constraints such as water availability, spatial connectivity of wetland units, hydraulic infrastructure capacities, vegetation growth and responses to management activities, plus financial and time resources available to manage water and invasive vegetation. Wetland habitat performance is quantified using two performance metrics. The first metric is a habitat suitability index (H) that represents the capacity of a given habitat attribute (such as water depth or vegetation cover) to support selected bird species. Suitability ranges from 0 (poor) to 1 (excellent) habitat quality. We combine the habitat suitability of water depth and vegetation coverage, weight by species and the wetted surface area to create the second metric defined as the weighted usable area for wetlands (WU). The WU represents the available surface area that provides suitable hydrological and ecological conditions for priority bird species. We apply the model at the Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge (the Refuge), which is the largest wetland complex on the Great Salt Lake, Utah. The Refuge provides important habitat for large populations of migratory birds that follow the North American Pacific and Central Flyways. Wetland managers and stakeholders participated throughout this study from identifying the problem, defining performance metrics, collecting data, through interpreting results. We ran the model for a base case representing hydrologic conditions in 2008 and eight scenarios that independently considered changes in water availability, financial budget, vegetation responses, and gate operation. Results of these analysis show that performance of wetland habitat are more affected by changes in

  8. Hydro-economic Risk Assessment in the Eastern Nile River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arjoon, D.; Tilmant, A.; Mohamed, Y.

    2013-12-01

    In 2011, the Ethiopian government announced plans for the construction of the Grand Renaissance Dam (GRD) on the Blue Nile, just east of its border with Sudan, at a cost of almost 5 billion dollars. The project is expected to generate over 15 TWh of energy and will include a reservoir of more than 60 km3 capacity, which roughly corresponds to the average annual flow of the Blue Nile. This project is part of a larger scheme, by the government, to expand its hydroelectric power capacity, however, the scheme faces strong opposition from downstream Egypt and Sudan. Egypt and Sudan are highly dependent on flows that originate in Ethiopia (it has been estimated that 86% of Nile flow originates in the Ethiopian highlands). The Ethiopian government argues that the dam would supply electricity for Ethiopians as well as generate surplus energy for export to neighboring countries. The Ethiopians also argue that the huge reservoir would generate positive externalities downstream by reducing floods and providing more constant and predictable lows. This study attempts to provide an independent analysis of the hydrologic and economic risks faced by downstream countries when GRD will be online. To achieve this, an integrated, stochastic hydro-economic model of the entire Eastern Nile basin is used to analyze various development and management scenarios. The results indicate that if countries agree to co- operative management of the Eastern Nile River basin, GRD would indeed significantly increase basin-wide benefits, especially in Ethiopia and in Sudan. An alternative management scenario, whereby GRD would be operated by Sudan and Egypt, does not yield significant economic gains in these countries. However, massive unilateral irrigation developments in Ethiopia will be detrimental for all countries, including Ethiopia itself, due to the huge opportunity costs involved.

  9. When clusters collide - A numerical Hydro/N-body simulation of merging galaxy clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roettiger, Kurt; Burns, Jack; Loken, Chris

    1993-01-01

    A 3D numerical simulation of two merging clusters of galaxies, using a hybrid Hydro/N-body code, is presented. The hydrodynamics of the code is solved by an Eulerian finite difference method. Initial results disclose that the X-ray emission of the dominant cluster becomes elongated and broadened; heating occurs at the core of the dominant cluster as a result of multiple shocks, and high velocity gas motions within the intracluster medium. It is predicted that clusters which have undergone recent mergers and do not have cooling flows will have high peculiar gas velocities and that the shocks and turbulence generated during the merger may power cluster-wide radio halos. Prolonged high-velocity gas motions through the dominant cluster core possibly play a major role in the formation and shaping of wide-angle tailed radio sources associated with central dominant galaxies. The N-body component of the simulation reveals the subcluster to be dispersed as it passes through the dominant cluster.

  10. DRIHM Portal - A Scientific Gateway for Complex Hydro-Meteorological Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danovaro, Emanuele; Clematis, Andrea; D'Agostino, Daniele; Galizia, Antonella; Quarati, Alfonso; Schiffers, Michael; Straube, Christian; gentschen Felde, Nils; Delogu, Fabio; Fiori, Elisabetta

    2014-05-01

    Hydro-meteorological simulations rely on complex, computationally intensive, simulation models. The accuracy of the simulation is strongly dependent on an extensive set of configuration parameters. Moreover, a full simulation (from rainfall to impact on urban areas) requires the execution of several models organized trough a workflow. This can lead to compatibility issues among different models. DRIHM Portal is the scientific gateway developed by DRIHM project. It is able to support HM researcher in the design on new experiment. It expose a simple, web-based, UI that let the user to compose the desired workflow, then the user is driven trough parameter selection and job execution. The portal takes care of generating all the configuration files and handles the execution of simulation steps on a heterogeneous computing infrastructure composed by PRACE and EGI resources and on dedicated clusters. A large effort in model standardization give the possibility to easily swap among analogous model within a workflow, and evaluate the benefit of different models or configuration parameters, thus speeding-up the HM research. The portal is further evolving with a new set of user-driven requests: in-place analysis of simulation results and ability to share experiment with the HMR community as well as with citizen scientists.

  11. Negotiating river ecosystems: Impact assessment and conflict mediation in the cases of hydro-power construction

    SciTech Connect

    Karjalainen, Timo P.; Jaervikoski, Timo

    2010-09-15

    In this paper we discuss how the legitimacy of the impact assessment process is a key issue in conflict mediation in environmental impact assessment. We contrast two EIA cases in hydro-power generation plans made for the Ii River, Finland in different decades, and evaluate how impact assessment in these cases has contributed to the creation, mediation and resolution of conflicts. We focus on the elements of distributional and procedural justice that made the former EIA process more legitimate and consensual and the latter more conflictual. The results indicate that it is crucial for conflict mediation to include all the values and interests of the parties in the goal-setting process and in the definition and assessment of alternatives. The analysis also indicates that procedural justice is the most important to help the people and groups involved to accept the legitimacy of the impact assessment process: how different parties and their values and interests are recognized, and how participation and distribution of power are organized in an impact assessment process. It is confirmed in this article that SIA may act as a mediator or a forum providing a process through which competing knowledge claims, various values and interests can be discussed and linked to the proposed alternatives and interventions.

  12. Commercial Impact and Optimum Capacity Determination of Pumped Storage Hydro Plant for a Practical Power System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latha, P. G.; Anand, S. R.; Imthias, Ahamed T. P.; Sreejith, P. S., Dr.

    2013-06-01

    This paper attempts to study the commercial impact of pumped storage hydro plant on the operation of a stressed power system. The paper further attempts to compute the optimum capacity of the pumped storage scheme that can be provided on commercial basis for a practical power system. Unlike the analysis of commercial aspects of pumped storage scheme attempted in several papers, this paper is presented from the point of view of power system management of a practical system considering the impact of the scheme on the economic operation of the system. A realistic case study is presented as the many factors that influence the pumped storage operation vary widely from one system to another. The suitability of pumped storage for the particular generation mix of a system is well explored in the paper. To substantiate the economic impact of pumped storage on the system, the problem is formulated as a short-term hydrothermal scheduling problem involving power purchase which optimizes the quantum of power to be scheduled and the duration of operation. The optimization model is formulated using an algebraic modeling language, AMPL, which is then solved using the advanced MILP solver CPLEX.

  13. Density-velocity equations with bulk modulus for computational hydro-acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Po-Hsien; Chen, Yung-Yu; John Yu, S.-T.

    2014-02-01

    This paper reports a new set of model equations for Computational Hydro Acoustics (CHA). The governing equations include the continuity and the momentum equations. The definition of bulk modulus is used to relate density with pressure. For 3D flow fields, there are four equations with density and velocity components as the unknowns. The inviscid equations are proved to be hyperbolic because an arbitrary linear combination of the three Jacobian matrices is diagonalizable and has a real spectrum. The left and right eigenvector matrices are explicitly derived. Moreover, an analytical form of the Riemann invariants are derived. The model equations are indeed suitable for modeling wave propagation in low-speed, nearly incompressible air and water flows. To demonstrate the capability of the new formulation, we use the CESE method to solve the 2D equations for aeolian tones generated by air flows passing a circular cylinder at Re = 89,000, 46,000, and 22,000. Numerical results compare well with previously published data. By simply changing the value of the bulk modulus, the same code is then used to calculate three cases of water flows passing a cylinder at Re = 89,000, 67,000, and 44,000.

  14. Hydro-economic modeling of the role of forests on water resources production in Andalusia, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beguería, Santiago; Serrano-Notivoli, Roberto; Álvarez-Palomino, Alejandro; Campos, Pablo

    2014-05-01

    The development of more refined information tools is a pre-requisite for supporting decision making in the context of integrated water resources management. Among these tools, hydro-economic models are favoured because they allow integrating the ecological, hydrological, infrastructure and economic aspects into a coherent, scientifically-informed framework. We present a case study that assesses physically the water resources of forest lands of the Andalusia region in Spain and conducts an economic environmental income and asset valuation of the forest surface water yield. We show how, based on available hydrologic and economic data, we can develop a comprehensive water account for all the forest lands at the regional scale. This forest water environmental valuation is part of the larger RECAMAN project, which aims at providing a robust and easily replicable accounting tool to evaluate yearly the total income an capital generated by the forest land, encompassing all measurable sources of private and public incomes (timber and cork production, auto-consumption, recreational activities, biodiversity conservation, carbon sequestration, water production, etc.). Only a comprehensive integrated tool such as the one built within the RECAMAN project may serve as a basis for the development of integrated policies such as those internationally agreed and recommended for the management of water resources.

  15. The Trans-African Hydro-Meteorological Observatory: Recent progress and planned activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Giesen, N.; Hut, R.; Pieron, M.; Andreini, M.; Selker, J.

    2012-04-01

    The Trans-African Hydro-Meteorological Observatory (www.tahmo.org) is an initiative to develop, deploy, and operate 20,000 measurement stations in sub-Saharan Africa. Until recently, the activities have been limited but the project is now moving ahead and has developed activities in Zambia and Ghana. Design, Education, and Operation are the three main lines along which the initiative has been developing. Design follows a set of rules that serve easy deployment and operation, such as absence of moving parts and cavities, self- and cross calibration of sensors, and low cost (€ 200-300 per station). Education is central to the success of the project. The idea is that stations will be deployed at high schools and that educational material will be developed for the science curriculum. This approach will ensure good social embedding and acceptance as well as help create a generation of scientists and technicians with hands-on environmental monitoring experience. Operation focuses on the long-term financial sustainability of the network. Raw data will be made available for scientific use but value added products will be produced to financed maintenance and operation. The main purposes of the presentation are to provide details on recent developments, broaden the number of institutes involved and, especially, open discussion on further development of the initiative.

  16. Impacts of extreme hydro-meteorological conditions on ecosystem functioning and productivity patterns across Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huete, Alfredo; Ma, Xuanlong; Xie, Zunyi; Restrepo-Coupe, Natalia; Ponce-Campos, Guillermo

    2016-04-01

    significant drought-induced mortality. Semi-arid rangelands were most sensitive to drought and wet pulses, generating large land carbon sinks with subsequent rapid carbon dissipation rates. We also found an intensification of drought and wet cycles from the 1980's, inducing similar impacts on the carbon cycle. More efforts are needed to understand and generalize vegetation responses to extreme hydro-meteorological conditions in order to better inform land managers and other stakeholders of potential environmental and economic impacts.

  17. 77 FR 59607 - Black Canyon Hydro, LLC; Notice of Environmental Site Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Black Canyon Hydro, LLC; Notice of Environmental Site Review On Wednesday... proposed Black Canyon Hydroelectric Project. All interested participants should meet at 44937...

  18. 76 FR 73619 - Francis Walter Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    ..., 2011, Francis Walter Hydro, LLC, filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to section 4(f... outlet; (2) a concrete powerhouse 50 feet long by 75 feet wide; (3) two 4.5-megawatt (MW) ]...

  19. 76 FR 13178 - Qualified Hydro 36, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-10

    ..., 2011, Qualified Hydro 36, LLC filed an application, pursuant to Section 4(f) of the Federal Power Act... by 150-foot-wide by 60 foot-high reinforced concrete powerhouse; (2) a new 100-foot-long by...

  20. Using GA-Ridge regression to select hydro-geological parameters influencing groundwater pollution vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Jae Joon; Kim, Young Min; Yoo, Keunje; Park, Joonhong; Oh, Kyong Joo

    2012-11-01

    For groundwater conservation and management, it is important to accurately assess groundwater pollution vulnerability. This study proposed an integrated model using ridge regression and a genetic algorithm (GA) to effectively select the major hydro-geological parameters influencing groundwater pollution vulnerability in an aquifer. The GA-Ridge regression method determined that depth to water, net recharge, topography, and the impact of vadose zone media were the hydro-geological parameters that influenced trichloroethene pollution vulnerability in a Korean aquifer. When using these selected hydro-geological parameters, the accuracy was improved for various statistical nonlinear and artificial intelligence (AI) techniques, such as multinomial logistic regression, decision trees, artificial neural networks, and case-based reasoning. These results provide a proof of concept that the GA-Ridge regression is effective at determining influential hydro-geological parameters for the pollution vulnerability of an aquifer, and in turn, improves the AI performance in assessing groundwater pollution vulnerability. PMID:22124584

  1. 76 FR 75543 - Missisquoi River Technologies; Missisquoi River Hydro LLC; Notice of Transfer of Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Missisquoi River Technologies; Missisquoi River Hydro LLC; Notice of Transfer of Exemption 1. By letter filed November 16, 2011, Missisquoi River Technologies informed...

  2. Designs and applications for floating-hydro power systems in small streams

    SciTech Connect

    Rehder, J.B.

    1983-01-01

    The project focuses on an appropriate technology for small-scale hydro power: floating waterwheels and turbines. For background, relic and existing systems such as early floating mills, traditional Amish waterwheels, and micro-hydro systems are examined. In the design phase of the project, new designs for Floating Hydro Power Systems include: an analysis of floatation materials and systems; a floating undershot waterwheel design; a floating cylinder (fiberglass storage tank) design; a submerged tube design; and a design for a floating platform with submerged propellers. Finally, in the applications phase, stream flow data from East Tennessee streams are used in a discussion of the potential applications of floating hydro power systems in small streams.

  3. 78 FR 37210 - Parker Knoll Hydro, LLC; Notice of Environmental Site Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-20

    ..., Parker Knoll Hydro, LLC., 975 South State Highway, Logan, UT 84321; (435) 752-2580. i. FERC Contact: Matt Buhyoff, matt.buhyoff@ferc.gov , (202) 502- 6824. j. This application is not ready for...

  4. 77 FR 25999 - Wickiup Hydro Group, LLC; Oregon; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-02

    ..., 52 FR 47897), the Office of Energy Projects has reviewed Wickiup Hydro Group, LLC's application for..., contact Matt Cutlip by telephone at 503- 552-2762 or by email at matt.cutlip@ferc.gov . Dated: April...

  5. 77 FR 67359 - Wickiup Hydro Group, LLC, Oregon; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-09

    ..., 52 FR 47897), the Office of Energy Projects has reviewed Wickiup Hydro Group, LLC's application for..., contact Matt Cutlip by telephone at 503- 552-2762 or by email at matt.cutlip@ferc.gov . Dated: November...

  6. HydroViz: design and evaluation of a Web-based tool for improving hydrology education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habib, E.; Ma, Y.; Williams, D.; Sharif, H. O.; Hossain, F.

    2012-10-01

    HydroViz is a Web-based, student-centered, educational tool designed to support active learning in the field of Engineering Hydrology. The design of HydroViz is guided by a learning model that is based on learning with data and simulations, using real-world natural hydrologic systems to convey theoretical concepts, and using Web-based technologies for dissemination of the hydrologic education developments. This model, while being used in a hydrologic education context, can be adapted in other engineering educational settings. HydroViz leverages the free Google Earth resources to enable presentation of geospatial data layers and embed them in web pages that have the same look and feel of Google Earth. These design features significantly facilitate the dissemination and adoption of HydroViz by any interested educational institutions regardless of their access to data or computer models. To facilitate classroom usage, HydroViz is populated with a set of course modules that can be used incrementally within different stages of an engineering hydrology curriculum. A pilot evaluation study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of the HydroViz tool in delivering its educational content, to examine the buy-in of the program by faculty and students, and to identify specific project components that need to be further pursued and improved. A total of 182 students from seven freshmen and senior-level undergraduate classes in three universities participated in the study. HydroViz was effective in facilitating students' learning and understanding of hydrologic concepts and increasing related skills. Students had positive perceptions of various features of HydroViz and they believe that HydroViz fits well in the curriculum. In general, HydroViz tend to be more effective with students in senior-level classes than students in freshmen classes. Lessons gained from this pilot study provide guidance for future adaptation and expansion studies to scale-up the application and

  7. Global Potential for Hydro-generated Electricity and Climate Change Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Y.; Hejazi, M. I.; Leon, C.; Calvin, K. V.; Thomson, A. M.; Li, H. Y.

    2014-12-01

    Hydropower is a dominant renewable energy source at the global level, accounting for more than 15% of the world's total power supply. It is also very vulnerable to climate change. Improved understanding of climate change impact on hydropower can help develop adaptation measures to increase the resilience of energy system. In this study, we developed a comprehensive estimate of global hydropower potential using runoff and stream flow data derived from a global hydrologic model with a river routing sub-model, along with turbine technology performance, cost assumptions, and environmental consideration (Figure 1). We find that hydropower has the potential to supply a significant portion of the world energy needs, although this potential varies substantially by regions. Resources in a number of countries exceed by multiple folds the total current demand for electricity, e.g., Russia and Indonesia. A sensitivity analysis indicates that hydropower potential can be highly sensitive to a number of parameters including designed flow for capacity, cost and financing, turbine efficiency, and stream flow. The climate change impact on hydropower potential was evaluated by using runoff outputs from 4 climate models (HadCM3, PCM, CGCM2, and CSIRO2). It was found that the climate change on hydropower shows large variation not only by regions, but also climate models, and this demonstrates the importance of incorporating climate change into infrastructure-planning at the regional level though the existing uncertainties.

  8. A Comprehensive View of Global Potential for Hydro-generated Electricity

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Yuyu; Hejazi, Mohamad I.; Smith, Steven J.; Edmonds, James A.; Li, Hongyi; Clarke, Leon E.; Calvin, Katherine V.; Thomson, Allison M.

    2015-09-01

    In this study, we assess global hydropower potential using runoff and stream flow data, along with turbine technology performance, cost assumptions, and environmental considerations. The results provide the first comprehensive quantification of global hydropower potential including gross, technical, economic, and exploitable estimates. Total global potential of gross, technical, economic, and exploitable hydropower are estimated to be approximately 128, 39, 32, and 27 petawatt hours per year, respectively. The economic and exploitable potential of hydropower are calculated at less than 9 cents/kWh. We find that hydropower has the potential to supply a significant portion of the world energy needs, although this potential varies substantially by region. Globally, hydropower can potentially supply about 1.5 times the total electricity demand in 2005. Estimated hydropower resources in a number of countries are sufficient to accommodate their demand for electricity in 2005, e.g., Brazil (5.6 times), Russia (4.6 times), and Canada (3.5 times). A sensitivity analysis indicates that hydropower estimates are not highly sensitive to five key parameters: design flow (varying by -2% to +1% at less than 9 cents/kWh), cost and financing options (by -7% to +6%), turbine efficiency (by -10% to +10%), stream flow (by -10% to +10%), and fixed charge rate (by -6% to 5%). This sensitivity analysis emphasizes the reliable role of hydropower for future energy systems, when compared to other renewable energy resources with larger uncertainty in their future potentials.

  9. Spatial impact and triggering conditions of the exceptional hydro-geomorphological event of December 1909 in Iberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, S.; Ramos, A. M.; Zêzere, J. L.; Trigo, R. M.; Vaquero, J. M.

    2016-02-01

    According to the DISASTER database the 20-28 December 1909 event was the hydro-geomorphologic event with the highest number of flood and landslide cases that occurred in Portugal in the period 1865-2010 (Zêzere et al., 2014). This event also caused important social impacts over the Spanish territory, especially in the Douro Basin, having triggered the highest floods in more than 100 years at the river's mouth in the city of Oporto. This work has a dual purpose: (i) to characterize the spatial distribution and social impacts of the December 1909 hydro-geomorphologic DISASTER event over Portugal and Spain; (ii) to analyse the meteorological conditions that triggered the event and the spatial distribution of the precipitation anomalies. Social impacts that occurred in Portugal were obtained from the Disaster database (Zêzere et al., 2014) whereas the data collection for Spain was supported by the systematic analysis of Spanish daily newspapers. In addition, the meteorological conditions that triggered the event are analysed using the 20th Century Reanalysis data set from NOAA and precipitation data from Iberian meteorological stations. The Iberian Peninsula was spatially affected during this event along the SW-NE direction spanning from Lisbon, Santarém, Oporto, and Guarda (in Portugal), to Salamanca, Valladolid, Zamora, Orense, León, and Palencia (in Spain). In Iberia, 134 DISASTER cases were recorded (130 flood cases; 4 landslides cases) having caused 89 casualties (57 due to floods and 32 due to landslides) and a further total of 3876 affected people, including fatalities, injured, missing, evacuated, and homeless people. This event was associated with outstanding precipitation registered at Guarda (Portugal) on 22 December 1909 and unusual meteorological conditions characterized by the presence of a deep low-pressure system located over the NW Iberian Peninsula with a stationary frontal system striking the western Iberian Peninsula. The presence of an upper

  10. Spatial impact and triggering conditions of the exceptional hydro-geomorphological event of December 1909 in Iberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, S.; Ramos, A. M.; Zêzere, J. L.; Trigo, R. M.; Vaquero, J. M.

    2015-09-01

    According to the DISASTER database the 20-28 December 1909 was the hydro-geomorphologic event with the highest number of flood and landslide cases occurred in Portugal in the period 1865-2010 (Zêzere et al., 2014). This event also caused important social impacts over the Spanish territory, especially in the Douro basin, having triggered the highest floods in more than 100 years at the river's mouth in the city of Oporto. This work aims to characterize the spatial distribution and social impacts of the December 1909 hydro-geomorphologic event over Iberia. In addition, the meteorological conditions that triggered the event are analysed using the 20 Century Reanalysis dataset from NOAA and precipitation data from Iberian meteorological stations. The Iberian Peninsula was spatially affected during this event along the SW-NE direction spanning from Lisbon, Santarém, Oporto and Guarda (in Portugal), until Salamanca, Valladolid, Zamora, Orense, León and Palencia (in Spain). In Iberia, 134 DISASTER cases were recorded (130 flood cases; 4 landslides cases) having caused a total of 89 casualties (57 in floods and 32 in landslides) and a total of 3876 people were affected, including fatalities, injured, missing, evacuated and homeless people. This event was associated with some outstanding precipitation values at Guarda station (Portugal) in 22 December 1909 and unusual meteorological conditions characterized by the presence of a deep low pressure system located over NW Iberian Peninsula with a stationary frontal system striking the Western Iberian Peninsula. The presence of an upper-level jet (250 hPa) and low-level jet (900 hPa) located on SW-NE oriented towards the Iberia along with upper-level divergence and lower-level convergence favoured large-scale precipitation. Finally, associated with these features it is possible to state that this extreme event was clearly associated to the presence of an elongated Atmospheric River, crossing the entire northern Atlantic basin

  11. Application of HydroGeoSphere to model the response to anthropogenic climate change of three-dimensional hydrological processes in the geologically, geothermally, and topographically complex Valles Caldera super volcano, New Mexico: Preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wine, M.; Cadol, D. D.

    2014-12-01

    Anthropogenic climate change is expected to reduce streamflow in the southwestern USA due to reduction in precipitation and increases in evaporative demand. Understanding the effects of climate change in this region is particularly important for mountainous areas since these are primary sources of recharge in arid and semi-arid environments. Therefore we undertook to model effects of climate change on the hydrological processes in Valles Caldera (448 km2), located in the Jemez Mountains of northern New Mexico. In Valles Caldera modeling the surficial, hydrogeological, and geothermal processes that influence hydrologic fluxes each present challenges. The surficial dynamics of evaporative demand and snowmelt both serve to control recharge dynamics, but are complicated by the complex topography and spatiotemporal vegetation dynamics. Complex factors affecting evaporative demand include leaf area index, temperature, albedo, and radiation affected by topographic shading; all of these factors vary in space and time. Snowmelt processes interact with evaporative demand and geology to serve as an important control on streamflow generation, but modeling the effects of spatiotemporal snow distributions on streamflow generation remains a challenge. The complexity of Valles Caldera's geology—and its associated hydraulic properties—rivals that of its surficial hydrologic forcings. Hydrologically important geologic features that have formed in the Valles Caldera are three-dimensionally intricate and include a dense system of faults, alluvium, landslides, lake deposits, and features associated with the eruption and collapse of this super volcano. Coupling geothermally-driven convection to the hydrologic cycle in this still-active geothermal system presents yet an additional challenge in modeling Valles Caldera. Preliminary results from applying the three-dimensional distributed hydrologic finite element model HydroGeoSphere to a sub-catchment of Valles Caldera will be

  12. Hydro-thermal experiments and simulations within a granitic fracture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuville, Amélie; Flekkøy, Eirik; Jørgen Måløy, Knut; Toussaint, Renaud; Galland, Olivier

    2013-04-01

    The porous medium that we consider is a fracture with impermeable walls that have a complex topography. Our study aims at addressing the heat and mass transport which occurs during the injection of cold water into a fracture, initially filled with warm water and embedded in a warm rock. The characterization of such transfers is relevant to, for instance, hydrothermal circulations occurring at depth, or use of temperature measurements as a tracer of flow pathways. The fluid-rock interface separates exclusively-diffusive from advecto-diffusive processes where the water flows, and the heat diffusion is different in the water and rock. We look at the shape of the isotherm lines (in two dimensions) or surfaces (in three dimensions -- 3D) through time, until steady state is reached. We have both numerical and experimental approaches. The numerical simulations are done with a coupled lattice Boltzmann method that solves both the complete Navier-Stokes and advection-diffusion equations in 3D. The experimental setup has been developed in order to adjust the scaling of our simulations and further investigate the complexity of the hydro-thermal exchange. In this setup, an infrared camera and thermistors are used to monitor the temperature in space and time. Water is injected through a partly natural rough fracture: the bottom part is a granitic bloc with a rough wall, and the top part is a flat layer which is transparent in the infrared range. The surface of the granitic bloc has been digitized using a photogrammetry software (MicMac, developed by the French Institut Géographique National). This digitized surface is then transformed into a 3D mask showing void spaces and rock (digitized porous medium), and is used for the 3D hydro-thermal simulations. We will first present a numerical simulation where the geometry of the fracture consists of flat parallel walls perturbed by a single cavity. Then we will present experimental observations of the temperature done using a

  13. Does pH influence soil hydro-mechanical properties?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaplain, V.; Défossez, P.; Delarue, G.; Dexter, A. R.; Richard, G.; Tessier, D.

    2009-04-01

    Does pH influence soil hydro-mechanical properties ? V. Chaplain1, P. Défossez2, G. Delarue1, A.R. Dexter3, G. Richard3 and D. Tessier1. 1 UR INRA PESSAC RD 10, F-78026 Versailles cedex 2 UMR INRA/URCA FARE, 2 Esplanade Roland Garros, BP 224 F-51686 Reims cedex 2 3 UR INRA Sols 2163 Avenue de la Pomme de Pin - CS 40001 ARDON F-45075 Orléans Cedex 2 Corresponding author : chaplain@versailles.inra.fr Structure of soils and its dynamic, physico-chemistry of the interface are of a great importance in the fate of organic pollutants because it governs the accessibility of pollutants to micro-organisms. The soil structure of soils is related to physical parameters (texture, density, water content) but the physico-chemical properties of the interface is not considered. In this study we performed hydro-mechanical measurements on soil samples taken from the 42-plot long-term experiment in Versailles. Indeed six plots were selected to cover a large range of pH values from acid (3.5) to alkaline (8.2) due to the repeated application of fertilizers. Soils were taken in the 0-20 cm and in the 30-35 cm layer out of the ploughed zone. All soils had similar texture and composition with low organic carbon. Therefore pH changes the surface charges and hydrophobicity that are implied in aggregation process. The two layers had the same pH values. The precompression stress Pc and the compression index Cc were derived from confined compression tests performed on remoulded soil samples (density 1.45 g/cm3) at saturation. Results shows that the precompression stress increased at pH lower than 4. In acid case, precompression stress was higher in subsoil. This increase of Pc was attributed to the hydrophobicity due in part to the condensation of charges probably sensitive to the humectation/dessication processes.

  14. Trouble-shooting bearing problems in large hydroturbine generators

    SciTech Connect

    Abramovitz, S. )

    1991-10-01

    If hydro plant operators are aware of the signals that can alert them to potential harm to generator bearings and act promptly to investigate and evaluate any problems, failures should be averted. This article reviews two aspects of trouble-shooting: discovering and defining potential problems that might cause bearing failure; and pinpointing the cause of failures to prevent similar ones in the future.

  15. HydroDesktop as a Community Designed and Developed Resource for Hydrologic Data Discovery and Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ames, D. P.

    2013-12-01

    As has been seen in other informatics fields, well-documented and appropriately licensed open source software tools have the potential to significantly increase both opportunities and motivation for inter-institutional science and technology collaboration. The CUAHSI HIS (and related HydroShare) projects have aimed to foster such activities in hydrology resulting in the development of many useful community software components including the HydroDesktop software application. HydroDesktop is an open source, GIS-based, scriptable software application for discovering data on the CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System and related resources. It includes a well-defined plugin architecture and interface to allow 3rd party developers to create extensions and add new functionality without requiring recompiling of the full source code. HydroDesktop is built in the C# programming language and uses the open source DotSpatial GIS engine for spatial data management. Capabilities include data search, discovery, download, visualization, and export. An extension that integrates the R programming language with HydroDesktop provides scripting and data automation capabilities and an OpenMI plugin provides the ability to link models. Current revision and updates to HydroDesktop include migration of core business logic to cross platform, scriptable Python code modules that can be executed in any operating system or linked into other software front-end applications.

  16. STATCOM-Based Wind-Solar-Hydro Electric Power System with Modified Real and Reactive Power Controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ram Prabhakar, J.; Ragavan, K.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a control of distributed generation (DG) system subjected to sudden rise in demand, faults on the distribution feeder and unbalanced load condition. The effects of line to ground faults on the system are investigated and control measures are taken to stabilize the generator speed and to improve voltage quality at the point of common coupling (PCC). The static shunt compensator (STATCOM) is connected at PCC to provide voltage support during sudden demand rise and fault on feeder. Moreover, the STATCOM control is devised such that even during unbalanced load condition the converter current and hydro-turbine-driven induction generator current is balanced. Owing to this, the double power frequency oscillations in the dc-link voltage and torque pulsations in generator can be averted. The STATCOM also supplies reactive power to the load. In addition to this, generation-demand mismatch is moderated using real and reactive power controllers. To demonstrate the performance of the DG system with the said control approach, model of system is simulated in Matlab-Simulink environment and the results are presented.

  17. A realistic 3+1D Viscous Hydro Algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Romatschke, Paul

    2015-05-31

    DoE funds were used as bridge funds for the faculty position for the PI at the University of Colorado. The total funds for the Years 3-5 of the JET Topical Collaboration amounted to about 50 percent of the academic year salary of the PI.The PI contributed to the JET Topical Collaboration by developing, testing and applying algorithms for a realistic simulation of the bulk medium created in relativistic ion collisions.Specifically, two approaches were studied, one based on a new Lattice-Boltzmann (LB) framework, and one on a more traditional viscous hydro-dynamics framework. Both approaches were found to be viable in principle, with the LB approach being more elegant but needing still more time to develop.The traditional approach led to the super-hybrid model of ion collisions dubbed 'superSONIC', and has been successfully used for phenomenology of relativistic heavy-ion and light-on-heavy-ion collisions.In the time-frame of the JET Topical Collaboration, the Colorado group has published 15 articles in peer-reviewed journals, three of which were published in Physical Review Letters. The group graduated one Master student during this time-frame and two more PhD students are expected to graduate in the next few years. The PI has given more than 28 talks and presentations during this period.

  18. BASEMENT - a freeware simulation tool for hydro- and morphodynamic modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetsch, David; Rousselot, Patric; Volz, Christian; Vonwiller, Lukas; Siviglia, Annunziato; Peter, Samuel; Ehrbar, Daniel; Facchini, Matteo; Boes, Robert

    2014-05-01

    The application of numerical modelling tools to river engineering problems is a well established methodology. In the present contribution, a numerical software for simulation of hydro- and morphodynamics is presented that is available free of charge - also for commercial use. The main motivation for development of the software is to provide an powerful user-friendly tool that facilitates basic applications for practitioners as well as advanced model configuration for research. The underlying one- and two-dimensional models are based on the Saint-Venant equations for hydrodynamics, the Exner-Hirano equations for bed load and an advection-diffusion approach with source terms for suspended sediment transport. Mentionable special features of the software are arbitrary combination of 1-D and 2-D model domains, a PID controller for various monitoring values and use of an unstructured dual-mesh to improve topographic accuracy. Besides the presentation of some appealing examples of use, the possibility of embedding the software into an open-source pre- and post-processing environment is highlighted.

  19. Determining the minimum instream flow for hydro peaking projects

    SciTech Connect

    Milhous, R.T. )

    1992-10-01

    A new analytical technique is available for quantifying and predicting the effect that a proposed hydro peaking operation, or a change in an existing project's operation, will have on physical habitat for aquatic populations downstream of the project. The technique, known as the dual flow analysis, is based on elements of the US Fish and Wildlife Service's Physical Habitat Simulation System (PHABSIM). PHABSIM is used to calculate the physical habitat for aquatic organisms in a stream. The assumption behind the development of this technique is that if the effects of a proposed project on physical habitat are known, one can better understand the effects on aquatic organisms. Thus, a defensible selection of an instream flow requirement can be made. The technique was developed as a result of a joint study by the US Fish and Wildlife Service and Niagara Mohawk Power Corp. at the 26.4-MW Bennetts Bridge and the 7.8-MW Lighthouse Hill developments on the Salmon river in upstate New York.

  20. Hydro-dynamic damping theory in flowing water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monette, C.; Nennemann, B.; Seeley, C.; Coutu, A.; Marmont, H.

    2014-03-01

    Fluid-structure interaction (FSI) has a major impact on the dynamic response of the structural components of hydroelectric turbines. On mid-head to high-head Francis runners, the rotor-stator interaction (RSI) phenomenon always has to be considered carefully during the design phase to avoid operational issues later on. The RSI dynamic response amplitudes are driven by three main factors: (1) pressure forcing amplitudes, (2) excitation frequencies in relation to natural frequencies and (3) damping. The prediction of the two first factors has been largely documented in the literature. However, the prediction of fluid damping has received less attention in spite of being critical when the runner is close to resonance. Experimental damping measurements in flowing water on hydrofoils were presented previously. Those results showed that the hydro-dynamic damping increased linearly with the flow. This paper presents development and validation of a mathematical model, based on momentum exchange, to predict damping due to fluid structure interaction in flowing water. The model is implemented as an analytical procedure for simple structures, such as cantilever beams, but is also implemented in more general ways using three different approaches for more complex structures such as runner blades: a finite element procedure, a CFD modal work based approach and a CFD 1DOF approach. The mathematical model and all three implementation approaches are shown to agree well with experimental results.

  1. Improving the efficiency of a four-unit generating station

    SciTech Connect

    Kornegay, D.L.

    1995-12-31

    Increasing the efficiency of hydro generating stations is gaining importance as more and more power stations become automated. The increase in annual revenues due to efficiency improvements is one factor in evaluating the cost justification of an automation project. Several previous works have stated that the efficiency of a generating can be improved by using certain generation dispatching methods. The purpose of this study is to quantify the gain in annual revenues for a four-unit hydro generating station, using actual data from an existing station. The method used in this study does not require a rigorous analytical study. It should, however, provide a reasonably accurate estimate of the potential revenue gain achievable by using an automated generation dispatching control. This method is adaptable to stations with any number of units.

  2. Collaborative Sharing of Multidimensional Space-time Data Using HydroShare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, T.; Tarboton, D. G.; Horsburgh, J. S.; Dash, P. K.; Idaszak, R.; Yi, H.; Blanton, B.

    2015-12-01

    HydroShare is a collaborative environment being developed for sharing hydrological data and models. It includes capability to upload data in many formats as resources that can be shared. The HydroShare data model for resources uses a specific format for the representation of each type of data and specifies metadata common to all resource types as well as metadata unique to specific resource types. The Network Common Data Form (NetCDF) was chosen as the format for multidimensional space-time data in HydroShare. NetCDF is widely used in hydrological and other geoscience modeling because it contains self-describing metadata and supports the creation of array-oriented datasets that may include three spatial dimensions, a time dimension and other user defined dimensions. For example, NetCDF may be used to represent precipitation or surface air temperature fields that have two dimensions in space and one dimension in time. This presentation will illustrate how NetCDF files are used in HydroShare. When a NetCDF file is loaded into HydroShare, header information is extracted using the "ncdump" utility. Python functions developed for the Django web framework on which HydroShare is based, extract science metadata present in the NetCDF file, saving the user from having to enter it. Where the file follows Climate Forecast (CF) convention and Attribute Convention for Dataset Discovery (ACDD) standards, metadata is thus automatically populated. Users also have the ability to add metadata to the resource that may not have been present in the original NetCDF file. HydroShare's metadata editing functionality then writes this science metadata back into the NetCDF file to maintain consistency between the science metadata in HydroShare and the metadata in the NetCDF file. This further helps researchers easily add metadata information following the CF and ACDD conventions. Additional data inspection and subsetting functions were developed, taking advantage of Python and command line

  3. 3-Benzyl-8-meth­oxy-2-sulfanyl­idene-1,2,3,4-tetra­hydro­quinazolin-4-one

    PubMed Central

    Al-Salahi, Rashad; Al-Omar, Mohamed; Marzouk, Mohamed; Ng, Seik Weng

    2012-01-01

    The tetra­hydro­quinazole fused-ring system of the title compound, C16H14N2O2S, is roughly planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.039 Å); the phenyl ring of the benzyl substituent is aligned at 78.1 (1)° with respect to the mean plane of the fused-ring system. In the crystal, two mol­ecules are linked by a pair of N—H⋯S hydrogen bonds about a center of inversion, generating a dimer. PMID:22719579

  4. Numerical investigation of the vortex core precession in a model hydro turbine with the aid of hybrid methods for computation of turbulent flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sentyabov, A. V.; Gavrilov, A. A.; Dekterev, A. A.; Minakov, A. V.

    2014-12-01

    Numerical modeling of the unsteady flow in the draft tube of the test bench hydro turbine is conducted. The hybrid RANS-LES methods for modeling turbulent flows are compared. The intensity and frequency of pressure fluctuations, which are induced by the vortex core precession under the runner, and the integral characteristics are considered. An analysis of the synchronous and asynchronous parts of pressure fluctuations is done; the generating and influence of the synchronous component of fluctuations are considered. The vortex core interaction with the draft tube elbow is considered.

  5. [Affective dependency].

    PubMed

    Scantamburlo, G; Pitchot, W; Ansseau, M

    2013-01-01

    Affective dependency is characterized by emotional distress (insecure attachment) and dependency to another person with a low self-esteem and reassurance need. The paper proposes a reflection on the definition of emotional dependency and the confusion caused by various denominations. Overprotective and authoritarian parenting, cultural and socio-environmental factors may contribute to the development of dependent personality. Psychological epigenetic factors, such as early socio-emotional trauma could on neuronal circuits in prefronto-limbic regions that are essential for emotional behaviour.We also focus on the interrelations between dependent personality, domestic violence and addictions. The objective for the clinician is to propose a restoration of self-esteem and therapeutic strategies focused on autonomy. PMID:23888587

  6. Microfabrication and Test of a Three-Dimensional Polymer Hydro-focusing Unit for Flow Cytometry Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Ren; Feeback, Daniel L.; Wang, Wanjun

    2004-01-01

    This paper details a novel three-dimensional (3D) hydro-focusing micro cell sorter for micro flow cytometry applications. The unit was microfabricated by means of SU-8 3D lithography. The 3D microstructure for coaxial sheathing was designed, microfabricated, and tested. Three-dimensional hydro-focusing capability was demonstrated with an experiment to sort labeled tanned sheep erythrocytes (red blood cells). This polymer hydro-focusing microstructure is easily microfabricated and integrated with other polymer microfluidic structures.

  7. Hydro-climatic Changes: Potential Non-linear Responses of Phosphorus Dynamic in Aquatic/Semi-aquatic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pant, H. K.

    2007-12-01

    Depending on resilience, threshold and lag times, hydro-climatic changes can cause nonlinear and/or irreversible changes in phosphorus (P) dynamic, and instigate P enrichment in aquatic/semi-aquatic systems. Thus, studying direct/indirect effects of expected global climate change on bioavailability of organic P in aquatic systems are in critical need, to help manage or increase the resilience of the ecosystem. The central hypothesis of this study is that P dynamic in aquatic, especially freshwater, ecosystem is likely to behave nonlinearly due to expected changes in sediment and water acidity, redox status, etc., because of potential hydro-climatic changes in the decades to come, thus, could face irreversible adverse changes. Devising possible biological and chemical treatments for the removal of P from eutrophic lakes, estuaries, etc, as well as helping in predicting the movement and fate of P under changing hydro-climatic conditions would be crucial to manage aquatic ecosystem in the near future. The critical question is not how much P is stored in any given aquatic/semi-aquatic system, but how the resilience and nonlinearity relate to the stability of stored P are affected due to the levels of environmental stressors, which are expected to fluctuate due to global change in the decades to come. Studies related to 31P Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy analysis, and multiple hydraulic retention cycles showed that, in general, frequent drying and reflooding of a semi-aquatic system such as wetland could significantly increase the bioavailability of P due to degradation of relatively less stable organic P, e.g., glycerophosphate and nucleoside monophosphate. Moreover, nutrients flux from sediments to the water column depended on the concentration gradients of the sediment-water interface and redox status. Shift in equilibrium P concentration of the water column as the water level rises, may cause release of adsorbed P from the sediments. Restoration of a

  8. A large scale flume for hydro-environmental studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, Jose Alfonso; Giráldez, Juan Vicente; Castro-Orgaz, Oscar; Casalí, Javier; Hermosín, Maria del Carmen; Mateos, Luciano

    2013-04-01

    The understanding of key hydrologic processes such as, water erosion, rill network development or agrochemical transport, requires controlled experiments at the appropriate scale. This is the reason for experimentation at flume scale in hydro-environmental research, used for many decades in this field. This communication presents a research infrastructure, recently completed in its first stage, consisting of a large flume for studying soil water erosion, sediment transport, and environmental processes such as the transport of different substances (salts, fertilizers, herbicides, carbon, …) rather dissolved or absorbed with the sediment. It is located at the Institute for Sustainable Agriculture (CSIC) in Córdoba, Spain. The flume is 0.6 m deep, 12 m long, and 6 m wide. It may be divided longitudinally into three channels (6 m long, 1 m wide). The slope of the flume can be regulated from 0 % to 20 %. The device allows studying free surface flows over movable beds with different conditions of sediment transport by supplying clear or sediment-laden water from its head system. The head system consists of three triangular weirs for accurate measurement of water flow, three stilling tanks at the entrance of the flume, and three vibratory hoppers for applying sediments at pre-set rates. The water can be re-circulated, the maximum inflow is then about 30 l s-1, or evacuated, then the inflow is limited to about 20 l s-1. The infrastructure is within a shelter with an area of 400 m2 and height 8.7 m. The area of the shelter allows in-door mechanical preparation of soil and sediments. The height of the shelter will allow the installation of the rainfall simulator and a light rail crane in a second stage, not started yet. Several experiments have been planned at IAS-CSIC already, particularly investigation of the water erosion and sediment transport processes in concentrated flows under different soil conditions, as well as hydrodynamics aspects of suspended and bed

  9. Penstock failure detection system at the "Valsan" hydro power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgescu, A. M.; Coşoiu, C. I.; Alboiu, N.; Hlevca, D.; Tataroiu, R.; Popescu, O.

    2012-11-01

    "Valsan" is a small Hydro Power Plant, 5 MW, situated at about 160 km north of Bucharest, Romania, on the small "Valsan" river in a remote mountainous area. It is equipped with a single Francis turbine. The penstock is located in the access shaft of the HPP. "Hidroelectrica", the Romanian company that operates the HPP, was trying to implement a remote penstock failure detection system. Starting from a classic hydraulic problem, the authors of the paper derived a method for failure detection and localization on the pipe. The method assumes the existence of 2 flow meters and 2 pressure transducers at the inlet and outlet of the pressurized pipe. Calculations have to be based on experimental values measured in a permanent regime for different values of the flow rate. The method was at first tested on a pipe, in the Hydraulic Laboratory of the Technical University of Civil Engineering Bucharest. Pipe failure was modelled by opening of a valve on a tee branch of the analyzed pipe. Experimental results were found to be in good agreement with theoretical ones. The penstock of the "Valsan" HPP, was modelled in EPANET, in order to: i) test the method at a larger scale; ii) get the right flow and pressure transducers that are needed to implement it. At the request of "Hidroelectrica" a routine that computes the efficiency of the turbine was added to the monitoring software. After the system was implemented, another series of measurements were performed at the site in order to validate it. Failure was modelled by opening an existing valve on a branch of the penstock. Detection of the failure was correct and almost instantaneous, while failure location was accurate within 5% of the total penstock length.

  10. Research of Hydro-Geological Precursors of Earthquakes in Armenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pashayan, R.

    2007-12-01

    The observations of hydro-geological regime of underground waters in observed boreholes began in Armenia in 1986. Now these work is concentrated in National Seismic Service. For a long time observations are carried out studying several parameters (debit, temperature, chemical and gas composition) in several deposits of carbon mineral waters of Armenia. The interpretation of materials shows that that a number of strong and medium-strength earthquakes are accompanied by anomal changes in the level of underground waters. Regarding mineral waters, in connection with earthquakes some parameters are immediately changed: debit, temperature, chemical and gas composition. The study of hydrogeodynamic characteristics of precursors specify that the quantity of registered hydrogeodynamic precursors decreases with the increase of epicentrical distance. The majority of precursors is registered at the distance of 200 km from epicenter. There is a tendency of gradual increase of time and amplitude of a precursor of an earthquake depending on the rise of magnitude and epicentral distance. The behaviour of hydrogeodynamic precursors depends on the angle between the faults, to which this or that borehole reaches; with increase of this angle the deformation in the zone of the fault during the preparation of earthquakes is stronger, than in terms of small angles. 1. S1 2. Earthquake processes, Precursors and Forecasts 3. Garni Geophysical Observatory of the National Academy of Sciences of Armenia, 375019, Yerevan, Republic of Armenia, email: hakhleon@sci.am 4. O 5. 10808801 6. Artavazd Payment Type: select 'Purchase Order' PO Number: AGU WAIVER Billing Address: Enter Your Institution City: Enter Your City Country Code: Enter Your Country Name: Enter Your Name Phone: Enter Your Telephone Number

  11. Aqueous and hydro-alcoholic media effects on polyols.

    PubMed

    Asare-Addo, Kofi; Conway, Barbara R; Hajamohaideen, Mohamed J; Kaialy, Waseem; Nokhodchi, Ali; Larhrib, Hassan

    2013-11-01

    The ingestion of drug products with alcohol can have an adverse effect on drug levels in a patient's blood. The Food and Drug Agency (FDA) issued an alert in 2005 after hydromorphone was withdrawn from the market after clinical trials showed ingestion with alcohol to potentially result in lethal drug peak plasma concentrations. The potential impact of alcohol on extended release (ER) tablet matrices and the need to develop ER matrices robust to alcohol effects has then been of interest. This study investigated the compaction properties of polyols and their effect on drug release. Polyols (erythritol, xylitol, mannitol and maltitol) with increasing hydroxyl groups were used as diluents for HPMC matrices containing theophylline. Release profiles were determined in pH 1.2 and 6.8 dissolution media with hydro-alcoholic concentrations of 5-40%. Increases in the polyols' hydroxyl groups brought about an increase in tablet strength and a decrease in the drug release rates. This is likely due to stronger bond formation with increasing hydroxyls. The impact of alcohol on drug release was studied further for maltitol formulations. Maltitol was resilient to the presence of ethanol (5-40% v/v) at pH 1.2 (f2=57-74) but not at pH 6.8 (f2=36-48). Drug release was not different above 5% alcohol concentration at pH 6.8. The results of this in vitro study suggest that ethanol concentrations as high as 40% do not substantially alter the drug release properties of theophylline from maltitol matrix tablets. However, care and consideration should be given to the choice of polyol or mixture of polyols in obtaining a desired drug release profile. PMID:23777788

  12. Hydro- abrasive jet machining modeling for computer control and optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groppetti, R.; Jovane, F.

    1993-06-01

    Use of hydro-abrasive jet machining (HAJM) for machining a wide variety of materials—metals, poly-mers, ceramics, fiber-reinforced composites, metal-matrix composites, and bonded or hybridized mate-rials—primarily for two- and three-dimensional cutting and also for drilling, turning, milling, and deburring, has been reported. However, the potential of this innovative process has not been explored fully. This article discusses process control, integration, and optimization of HAJM to establish a plat-form for the implementation of real-time adaptive control constraint (ACC), adaptive control optimiza-tion (ACO), and CAD/CAM integration. It presents the approach followed and the main results obtained during the development, implementation, automation, and integration of a HAJM cell and its computer-ized controller. After a critical analysis of the process variables and models reported in the literature to identify process variables and to define a process model suitable for HAJM real-time control and optimi-zation, to correlate process variables and parameters with machining results, and to avoid expensive and time-consuming experiments for determination of the optimal machining conditions, a process predic-tion and optimization model was identified and implemented. Then, the configuration of the HAJM cell, architecture, and multiprogramming operation of the controller in terms of monitoring, control, process result prediction, and process condition optimization were analyzed. This prediction and optimization model for selection of optimal machining conditions using multi-objective programming was analyzed. Based on the definition of an economy function and a productivity function, with suitable constraints relevant to required machining quality, required kerfing depth, and available resources, the model was applied to test cases based on experimental results.

  13. DRIHM: Distributed Research Infrastructure for HydroMeteorology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parodi, A.

    2012-04-01

    Predicting weather and climate and its impacts on the environment, including hazards such as floods and landslides, is still one of the main challenges of the 21st century with significant societal and economic implications. At the heart of this challenge lies the ability to have easy access to hydrometeorological data and models, and facilitate the collaboration between meteorologists, hydrologists, and Earth science experts for accelerated scientific advances in hydrometeorological research (HMR). to face these problems the DRIHM (Distributed Research Infrastructure for Hydro-Meteorology) project intends to develop a prototype e-Science environment to facilitate this collaboration and provide end-to-end HMR services (models, datasets and post-processing tools) at the European level, with the ability to expand to global scale. The objectives of DRIHM are to lead the definition of a common long-term strategy, to foster the development of new HMR models and observational archives for the study of severe hydrometeorological events, to promote the execution and analysis of high-end simulations, and to support the dissemination of predictive models as decision analysis tools. DRIHM combines the European expertise in HMR, in Grid and High Performance Computing (HPC). Joint research activities will improve the efficient use of the European e-Infrastructures, notably Grid and HPC, for HMR modelling and observational databases, model evaluation tool sets and access to HMR model results. Networking activities will disseminate DRIHM results at the European and global levels in order to increase the cohesion of European and possibly worldwide HMR communities and increase the awareness of ICT potential for HMR. Service activities will deploy the end-to-end DRIHM services and tools in support of HMR networks and virtual organizations on top of the existing European e-Infrastructures.

  14. Bentonite alteration due to thermal-hydro-chemical processes during the early thermal period in a nuclear waste repository

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, T.; Senger, R.; Finsterle, S.

    2011-02-01

    After closure of an underground nuclear waste repository, the decay of radionuclides will raise temperature in the repository, and the bentonite buffer will resaturate by water inflow from the surrounding host rock. The perturbations from these thermal and hydrological processes are expected to dissipate within hundreds to a few thousand years. Here, we investigate coupled thermal-hydro-chemical processes and their effects on the short-term performance of a potential nuclear waste repository located in a clay formation. Using a simplified geometric configuration and abstracted hydraulic parameters of the clayey formation, we examine geochemical processes, coupled with thermo-hydrologic phenomena, and potential changes in porosity near the waste container during the early thermal period. The developed models were used for evaluating the mineral alterations and potential changes in porosity of the buffer, which can affect the repository performance. The results indicate that mineral alteration and associated changes in porosity induced by early thermal and hydrological processes are relatively small and are expected to not significantly affect flow and transport properties. Chlorite precipitation was obtained in all simulation cases. A maximum of one percent volume fraction of chlorite could be formed, whose process may reduce swelling and sorption capacity of bentonite clay, affecting the performance of the repository. llitisation process was not obtained from the present simulations.

  15. Is it worth protecting groundwater from diffuse pollution with agri-environmental schemes? A hydro-economic modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Hérivaux, Cécile; Orban, Philippe; Brouyère, Serge

    2013-10-15

    In Europe, 30% of groundwater bodies are considered to be at risk of not achieving the Water Framework Directive (WFD) 'good status' objective by 2015, and 45% are in doubt of doing so. Diffuse agricultural pollution is one of the main pressures affecting groundwater bodies. To tackle this problem, the WFD requires Member States to design and implement cost-effective programs of measures to achieve the 'good status' objective by 2027 at the latest. Hitherto, action plans have mainly consisted of promoting the adoption of Agri-Environmental Schemes (AES). This raises a number of questions concerning the effectiveness of such schemes for improving groundwater status, and the economic implications of their implementation. We propose a hydro-economic model that combines a hydrogeological model to simulate groundwater quality evolution with agronomic and economic components to assess the expected costs, effectiveness, and benefits of AES implementation. This hydro-economic model can be used to identify cost-effective AES combinations at groundwater-body scale and to show the benefits to be expected from the resulting improvement in groundwater quality. The model is applied here to a rural area encompassing the Hesbaye aquifer, a large chalk aquifer which supplies about 230,000 inhabitants in the city of Liege (Belgium) and is severely contaminated by agricultural nitrates. We show that the time frame within which improvements in the Hesbaye groundwater quality can be expected may be much longer than that required by the WFD. Current WFD programs based on AES may be inappropriate for achieving the 'good status' objective in the most productive agricultural areas, in particular because these schemes are insufficiently attractive. Achieving 'good status' by 2027 would demand a substantial change in the design of AES, involving costs that may not be offset by benefits in the case of chalk aquifers with long renewal times. PMID:23722175

  16. Effect of Hydro-alcoholic Extract of Persian Oak (Quercus brantii) in Experimentally Gastric Ulcer

    PubMed Central

    Azizi, Shahrzad; Ghasemi Pirbalouti, Abdollah; Amirmohammadi, Mahdi

    2014-01-01

    Persian oak (Quercus brantii Lindl.) belongs the family Fagaceae, is a medicinal plant which seed flour is used to treat inflammatory and gastric ulcers by the tribes in south western Iran. The current study was done to evaluate the effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of Q. brantii seed flour for treatment of gastric ulcers induced by ethanol in Wistar rats. The hydro-alcoholic extract of Q. brantii was tested orally at doses of 250, 500, and 1000 mg/Kg, control group and standard drug (omperazole) on experimentally gastric ulceration. At the 3, 6, 9, and 14th days, ulcer index in mm2 and histopathological findings were evaluated. Results indicated the size of ulcers significantly reduced at 9, and 14 days after of Q. brantii extract treatment. Curative effect in the hydro-alcoholic induced gastric damage was 100% at 1000 mg/Kg and omeprazole, 99.8 % at 500 mg/Kg, and 95.4% at 250 mg/Kg after 14 days. Results of histopathological investigation showed the thickness of ulcerated mucosa was similar to the normal mucosa with 1000 mg/Kg of Q. brantii hydro-alcoholic extract after 14 days but in the groups treated by 250, and 500 mg/Kg, superficial erosions were visible in the central portion of the healed ulcers. In conclusion, the hydro-alcoholic extract of Q. brantii had active components (tannin = 8.2%) that accelerates ulcer healing and thus supported its traditional use. PMID:25276198

  17. Hydro-oleophobic silica antireflective films with high laser-damage threshold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Lianghong; Lv, Haibing; Wang, Chengcheng; Yuan, Xiaodong

    2011-02-01

    A simple method of preparing hydro-oleophobic anitreflective films with high laser-damage threshold is reported in this article. By adding fluoroalkylsilanes (FAS) into reactant mixture as a co-precursor, FAS modified SiO 2 was obtained under base catalyzed hydrolysis and condensation of tetraethoxysilane. The dip-coating films were deposited on two sides of fused silica substrates. The experimental results on the effect of adding fluoroalkylsilanes (FAS) as a co-precursor on the hydro-oleophobicity and optical properties of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) based silica AR films, are reported. The hydro-oleophobicity of the films was tested by the contact angle measurements and the highest water contact angle of 136° and oil (peanut) contact angle of 93° were obtained. The surface chemical modification of the hydro-oleophobic films was confirmed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). For the films based on FAS and TEOS, additional absorption bands at 1100 cm -1 corresponding to C-F bond presented, clearly indicating the organic modification of the films. The highest optical transmittance of the hydro-oleophobic films was found to be 99.5%. By a Nd:YAG lasers the laser-damage threshold of as-deposited films was measured at 351 nm wavelength (1 ns). The laser-damage threshold was as high as 22.6 J/cm 2.

  18. Investigation of free discharge through the hydro units of high head Francis turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, I.; Zakharov, A.; Orekhov, G.; Minakov, A.; Dekterev, A.; Platonov, D.

    2012-11-01

    Free discharge through the units is applied in the course of construction of hydro power plant or in case of excessive water inflow during floods or emergency situation. Free discharges throw the hydro units at 80 m head and more are unknown. Possibility of high velocity swirling flow discharged through the whole hydro unit consisting of penstock, turbine (with Francis runner and distributor or without them) and draft tube is being analyzed in the present paper. Investigation method is based on mathematical simulation of unsteady flow through the hydro unit under the following conditions: with the free running or locked runner and with removed runner. Physical researches of the swirling flow behavior in the model bent penstocks and model turbine water passages have been performed. Based on the results of calculations and model tests the following extensive data have been obtained: pressure fluctuation in the whole hydro unit, fluctuation of hydrodynamic forces acting on guide vanes, torque fluctuation on the runner and discharge fluctuation. Thus, based on this data preferable designs of free discharge are proposed.

  19. Using ecosystem services to represent the environment in hydro-economic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momblanch, Andrea; Connor, Jeffery D.; Crossman, Neville D.; Paredes-Arquiola, Javier; Andreu, Joaquín

    2016-07-01

    Demand for water is expected to grow in line with global human population growth, but opportunities to augment supply are limited in many places due to resource limits and expected impacts of climate change. Hydro-economic models are often used to evaluate water resources management options, commonly with a goal of understanding how to maximise water use value and reduce conflicts among competing uses. The environment is now an important factor in decision making, which has resulted in its inclusion in hydro-economic models. We reviewed 95 studies applying hydro-economic models, and documented how the environment is represented in them and the methods they use to value environmental costs and benefits. We also sought out key gaps and inconsistencies in the treatment of the environment in hydro-economic models. We found that representation of environmental values of water is patchy in most applications, and there should be systematic consideration of the scope of environmental values to include and how they should be valued. We argue that the ecosystem services framework offers a systematic approach to identify the full range of environmental costs and benefits. The main challenges to more holistic representation of the environment in hydro-economic models are the current limits to understanding of ecological functions which relate physical, ecological and economic values and critical environmental thresholds; and the treatment of uncertainty.

  20. Hydro-mechanical modelling of slow slip phenomena in subduction channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrini, Claudio; Gerya, Taras; Madonna, Claudio; van Dinther, Ylona

    2016-04-01

    Subduction zone seismicity is widely variable in origin and also includes more recently discovered families of "slow earthquakes", such as low- and very-low-frequency earthquakes, slow slip events and tremor. Several lines of evidence suggest that both regular and slow slip phenomena in subduction zones are intrinsically related to and controlled by fluid-related processes. It is therefore important to investigate and better understand the role that fluids play for the different events and processes in subduction zones. A finite difference fully coupled visco-elasto-plastic hydro-mechanical numerical code with marker-in-cell technique was developed to investigate how the presence of fluids in the pore space of a (de)compacting rock matrix affects shear band formation in subduction channels. Good correlations between shear band and fluid related parameters, such as porosity, permeability and fluid pressure factor have been observed. Tensile shear bands are present when no gravity is taken into account in the model, showing higher porosity and permeability than outside the shear zones. Gravity, however, plays an important role in stabilizing the model; confined shearbands (lower porosity and permeability than outside the shearbands) are observed in the presence of gravity. The model also spontaneously produces periodic slow slip events along plastic shear zones, which could be comparable to slow earthquakes observed in subduction zones. Slow-slip-like events develop in response to the process of propagation of individual fault zones through the subduction channel medium. This process is associated with lowering of total pressure along these zones at nearly constant fluid pressure, which notably reduces brittle/plastic strength of deforming fault rocks. Providing in this way a dynamic feedback for the accumulated elastic stress release in the channel.

  1. Assessing the impacts of anthropogenic and hydro-climatic drivers on estrogen legacies and trajectories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gall, Heather E.; Basu, Nandita B.; Mashtare, Michael L.; Rao, C.; Suresh, P.; Lee, Linda S.

    2016-01-01

    Intensification of concentrated animal feeding operations combined with the use of tile drains in agricultural fields has resulted in land-applied manure being a significant source of hormones to the environment. Currently, no model exists to simulate hormone fluxes from tile drains under field conditions. Therefore, we developed the Hormone Export and Recovery Dynamics (HERD) model, which incorporates hydro-climatic, biogeochemical, and anthropogenic drivers that affect hormone fate and transport. We validated HERD using known input (rainfall; lagoon effluent irrigation) and response data (tile drain flow; 17β-estradiol and estrone fluxes) from the 2009 growing season, 18 years after land-application activities began at a tile-drained field in Indiana. We used HERD to better understand the: (1) decision-making process underlying effluent irrigation activities; (2) contribution of macropore flow to estrogen transport; (3) potential for long-term applications to result in the development of legacy estrogen sources within the soil profile; and (4) potential recovery trajectory of estrogen transport following the cessation of animal waste applications. HERD adequately predicted irrigation events based on lagoon storage limits. Simple threshold exceedance logic for macropore flow activation accounted for ∼87% of the observed estrogen loads. Application history was found to be important, as not accounting for 18 years of application led to a severe underestimation of the observed estrogen loads; however, accounting for application history led to a much closer match between modeled and observed fluxes. Simulated trajectories after cessation of applications indicated that estrogens may continue to leach for several decades, which has important implications for mitigating hormone concentrations in receiving water bodies.

  2. The effects of physical and geochemical heterogeneities on hydro-geochemical transport and effective reaction rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atchley, Adam L.; Navarre-Sitchler, Alexis K.; Maxwell, Reed M.

    2014-09-01

    The role of coupled physical and geochemical heterogeneities in hydro-geochemical transport is investigated by simulating three-dimensional transport in a heterogeneous system with kinetic mineral reactions. Ensembles of 100 physically heterogeneous realizations were simulated for three geochemical conditions: 1) spatially homogeneous reactive mineral surface area, 2) reactive surface area positively correlated to hydraulic heterogeneity, and 3) reactive surface area negatively correlated to hydraulic heterogeneity. Groundwater chemistry and the corresponding effective reaction rates were calculated at three transverse planes to quantify differences in plume evolution due to heterogeneity in mineral reaction rates and solute residence time (τ). The model is based on a hypothetical CO2 intrusion into groundwater from a carbon capture utilization and storage (CCUS) operation where CO2 dissolution and formation of carbonic acid created geochemical dis-equilibrium between fluids and the mineral galena that resulted in increased aqueous lead (Pb2 +) concentrations. Calcite dissolution buffered the pH change and created conditions of galena oversaturation, which then reduced lead concentrations along the flow path. Near the leak kinetic geochemical reactions control the release of solutes into the fluid, but further along the flow path mineral solubility controls solute concentrations. Simulation results demonstrate the impact of heterogeneous distribution of geochemical reactive surface area in coordination with physical heterogeneity on the effective reaction rate (Krxn,eff) and Pb2 + concentrations within the plume. Dissimilarities between ensemble Pb2 + concentration and Krxn,eff are attributed to how geochemical heterogeneity affects the time (τeq) and therefore advection distance (Leq) required for the system to re-establish geochemical equilibrium. Only after geochemical equilibrium is re-established, Krxn,eff and Pb2 + concentrations are the same for all three

  3. The effects of physical and geochemical heterogeneities on hydro-geochemical transport and effective reaction rates.

    PubMed

    Atchley, Adam L; Navarre-Sitchler, Alexis K; Maxwell, Reed M

    2014-09-01

    The role of coupled physical and geochemical heterogeneities in hydro-geochemical transport is investigated by simulating three-dimensional transport in a heterogeneous system with kinetic mineral reactions. Ensembles of 100 physically heterogeneous realizations were simulated for three geochemical conditions: 1) spatially homogeneous reactive mineral surface area, 2) reactive surface area positively correlated to hydraulic heterogeneity, and 3) reactive surface area negatively correlated to hydraulic heterogeneity. Groundwater chemistry and the corresponding effective reaction rates were calculated at three transverse planes to quantify differences in plume evolution due to heterogeneity in mineral reaction rates and solute residence time (τ). The model is based on a hypothetical CO2 intrusion into groundwater from a carbon capture utilization and storage (CCUS) operation where CO2 dissolution and formation of carbonic acid created geochemical dis-equilibrium between fluids and the mineral galena that resulted in increased aqueous lead (Pb(2+)) concentrations. Calcite dissolution buffered the pH change and created conditions of galena oversaturation, which then reduced lead concentrations along the flow path. Near the leak kinetic geochemical reactions control the release of solutes into the fluid, but further along the flow path mineral solubility controls solute concentrations. Simulation results demonstrate the impact of heterogeneous distribution of geochemical reactive surface area in coordination with physical heterogeneity on the effective reaction rate (Krxn,eff) and Pb(2+) concentrations within the plume. Dissimilarities between ensemble Pb(2+) concentration and Krxn,eff are attributed to how geochemical heterogeneity affects the time (τeq) and therefore advection distance (Leq) required for the system to re-establish geochemical equilibrium. Only after geochemical equilibrium is re-established, Krxn,eff and Pb(2+) concentrations are the same for all

  4. A fuzzy stochastic framework for managing hydro-environmental and socio-economic interactions under uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subagadis, Yohannes Hagos; Schütze, Niels; Grundmann, Jens

    2014-05-01

    An amplified interconnectedness between a hydro-environmental and socio-economic system brings about profound challenges of water management decision making. In this contribution, we present a fuzzy stochastic approach to solve a set of decision making problems, which involve hydrologically, environmentally, and socio-economically motivated criteria subjected to uncertainty and ambiguity. The proposed methodological framework combines objective and subjective criteria in a decision making procedure for obtaining an acceptable ranking in water resources management alternatives under different type of uncertainty (subjective/objective) and heterogeneous information (quantitative/qualitative) simultaneously. The first step of the proposed approach involves evaluating the performance of alternatives with respect to different types of criteria. The ratings of alternatives with respect to objective and subjective criteria are evaluated by simulation-based optimization and fuzzy linguistic quantifiers, respectively. Subjective and objective uncertainties related to the input information are handled through linking fuzziness and randomness together. Fuzzy decision making helps entail the linguistic uncertainty and a Monte Carlo simulation process is used to map stochastic uncertainty. With this framework, the overall performance of each alternative is calculated using an Order Weighted Averaging (OWA) aggregation operator accounting for decision makers' experience and opinions. Finally, ranking is achieved by conducting pair-wise comparison of management alternatives. This has been done on the basis of the risk defined by the probability of obtaining an acceptable ranking and mean difference in total performance for the pair of management alternatives. The proposed methodology is tested in a real-world hydrosystem, to find effective and robust intervention strategies for the management of a coastal aquifer system affected by saltwater intrusion due to excessive groundwater

  5. Advancing global hydro-climatological data archives to support climate change impact assessments on water resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saile, P.

    2012-12-01

    Climate variations and changing climate will very likely alter the rate and nature of hydrological processes and consequently affect water resources in many regions. Current General Circulation Models and downscaling methods that are increasingly used to assess changes in the water cycle and water resource vulnerabilities introduce a cascade of uncertainties that cannot realistically be dealt with at the moment and are too inaccurate to support improved decision-making for water management and for future water systems design. Therefore, water managers need not only improved hydrological and climate modelling and downscaling methods but also access to adequate hydro-meteorological monitoring networks. The Global Terrestrial Network for Hydrology (GTN-H), a joint effort by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and several global observing systems, aims at integrating in-situ and remote sensing hydrological observations with hydrological model results held by its partner institutions to support a wide range of hydrological applications including research of global and regional climate change. Adhering to the different needs of all data users (scientists, policy makes and other stakeholders) and bridging the gap between the distributed datasets, currently a new information system is being developed to enable web-based discovery, access and analysis of observation data and derived products served through GTN-H. This system is built on international standards published by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) using open standardized web services, namely (1) Catalogue Services for data discovery, (2) Web Map Services for data visualization and (3) Web Feature Services, Web Coverage Services and Sensor Observation Services for data access. This presentation will give an overview about the GTN-H data archive and the design of the new information system including an outlook of its potential use for water related climate change impact assessments.

  6. Coupling a hydro-maritime model and remotely sensed techniques to assess the shoreline positioning uncertainty: the Marsala coast study case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manno, Giorgio; Lo Re, Carlo; Ciraolo, Giuseppe; Maltese, Antonino

    2010-10-01

    The severe erosion phenomena affecting the Mediterranean coasts are strictly related to geophysical characteristics and socio-economic pressures. This suggests the need of monitoring and modelling the phenomenon in order to quantify its strength. In fact, the shoreline position, as well as its temporal evolution, provides important information for designing defence structures and for the development of a coastal management plan. The shoreline has a dynamic nature as it changes both in the short and long period. Those changes are caused by geo-morphological (e.g. bars and barrier island development etc.) and hydrodynamic (wave motion, tides and flows) processes, as well as by sudden and fast events such as sea storms, earthquakes and tsunamis. The research examines the uncertainty in positioning the shoreline coupling remotely sensed images and a hydro-maritime model. Although the assessment accuracy strongly relies on data availability and consistency, the resulting assessment of the shoreline erosion and accretion is crucial for an overall understanding of the hydro-maritime geo-morphological interaction. The study case is the Marsala coastline (western coast of Sicily, Italy), named 12th island physiographic unit. It is characterized by a low coast with sandy sediments from Holocene age. These sediments are in continuity of sedimentation on whitish debris composed by organogenic limestone from Pleistocene age. The diachronic analysis was carried out on both emerged and submerged parts of the beach and involves two distinct phases. In the first phase, geo-morphological in situ data have been compared with maps and georeferenced remote sensing images referred to the period 1994-2006. It allowed the identification of shoreline indicators [2] such as the beach cross-section and the shoreline positioning including its spatial and temporal variations. It should be noted that the comparison between EO (Earth Observation) images and cartographic maps is subjected to

  7. Collaborative development of land use change scenarios for analysing hydro-meteorological risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malek, Žiga; Glade, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Simulating future land use changes remains a difficult task, due to uncontrollable and uncertain driving forces of change. Scenario development emerged as a tool to address these limitations. Scenarios offer the exploration of possible futures and environmental consequences, and enable the analysis of possible decisions. Therefore, there is increasing interest of both decision makers and researchers to apply scenarios when studying future land use changes and their consequences. The uncertainties related to generating land use change scenarios are among others defined by the accuracy of data, identification and quantification of driving forces, and the relation between expected future changes and the corresponding spatial pattern. To address the issue of data and intangible driving forces, several studies have applied collaborative, participatory techniques when developing future scenarios. The involvement of stakeholders can lead to incorporating a broader spectrum of professional values and experience. Moreover, stakeholders can help to provide missing data, improve detail, uncover mistakes, and offer alternatives. Thus, collaborative scenarios can be considered as more reliable and relevant. Collaborative scenario development has been applied to study a variety of issues in environmental sciences on different spatial and temporal scales. Still, these participatory approaches are rarely spatially explicit, making them difficult to apply when analysing changes to hydro-meteorological risk on a local scale. Spatial explicitness is needed to identify potentially critical areas of land use change, leading to locations where the risk might increase. In order to allocate collaboratively developed scenarios of land change, we combined participatory modeling with geosimulation in a multi-step scenario generation framework. We propose a framework able to develop scenarios that are plausible, can overcome data inaccessibility, address intangible and external driving forces

  8. A controlled stand-alone single-phase induction generator

    SciTech Connect

    Ojo, O.; Gonoh, B.

    1995-12-31

    This paper sets forth the steady-state and dynamic performance characteristics of a novel stand-alone, single-phase induction generator scheme in which the load voltage and frequency are regulated using a full-bridge pulse-width modulation (PWM) DC/AC inverter. A battery feeding the PWM inverter supplies (receives) power to (from) the generator when load demand is greater (lesser) than the power supplied from the prime mover which could be diesel engine, wind or hydro.

  9. Restoring coastal wetlands that were ditched for mosquito control: a preliminary assessment of hydro-leveling as a restoration technique

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Thomas J., III; Tiling, Ginger; Leasure, Pamela S.

    2007-01-01

    The wetlands surrounding Tampa Bay, Florida were extensively ditched for mosquito control in the 1950s. Spoil from ditch construction was placed adjacent to the wetlands ditches creating mound-like features (spoil-mounds). These mounds represent a loss of 14% of the wetland area in Tampa Bay. Spoil mounds interfere with tidal flow and are locations for non-native plants to colonize (e.g., Schinus terebinthifolius). Removal of the spoil mounds to eliminate exotic plants, restore native vegetation, and re-establish natural hydrology is a restoration priority for environmental managers. Hydro-leveling, a new technique, was tested in a mangrove forest restoration project in 2004. Hydro-leveling uses a high pressure stream of water to wash sediment from the spoil mound into the adjacent wetland and ditch. To assess the effectiveness of this technique, we conducted vegetation surveys in areas that were hydro-leveled and in non-hydro-leveled areas 3 years post-project. Adult Schinus were reduced but not eliminated from hydro-leveled mounds. Schinus seedlings however were absent from hydro-leveled sites. Colonization by native species was sparse. Mangrove seedlings were essentially absent (≈2 m−2) from the centers of hydro-leveled mounds and were in low density on their edges (17 m−2) in comparison to surrounding mangrove forests (105 m−2). Hydro-leveling resulted in mortality of mangroves adjacent to the mounds being leveled. This was probably caused by burial of pneumatophores during the hydro-leveling process. For hydro-leveling to be a useful and successful restoration technique several requirements must be met. Spoil mounds must be lowered to the level of the surrounding wetlands. Spoil must be distributed further into the adjacent wetland to prevent burial of nearby native vegetation. Finally, native species may need to be planted on hydro-leveled areas to speed up the re-vegetation process.

  10. Research and development of the Osmo-Hydro Power heat engine. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1980-11-25

    The Osmo-Hydro Power (OHP) or Pressure-Retarded Osmosis (PRO) heat engine is a possible means for producing economical electric power from low-temperature heat sources. The engine utilizes semipermeable membranes to cause the permeation of a solvent from a dilute low-pressure solution to a concentrated high-pressure solution. The potential energy thus acquired is converted to useful energy by means of a turbogenerator. The process can be considered as one in which the free energy of mixing is converted to useful power. By appropriate application of a heat source and a heat sink, the original dilute and concentrated solutions are recovered, thus completing the heat engine cycle. The results of this initial project to study osmotic power generation from waste heat indicate what research paths must be followed to continue the development of distillation and conjugation as unmixing methods. In addition, precipitation and stratification have been shown to be desirable because of the possibility of readily matching a binary system with either a membrane presently available or one readily modified from an existing membrane. The OHP heat engine in its ultimate development would have the following general characteristics: it would be able to utilize low-grade heat sources, such as unconcentrated solar energy or waste heat below 100/sup 0/C., heat sources as low as 50/sup 0/C can be used; the engine should be able to produce electricity for 0.12 $/kWh, or less, but the thermal efficiency will be less than 25% of Carnot efficiency at the same temperature limits; and the engine would be modular; i.e., it could be scaled up or down largely by adding or subtracting discrete permeator and heat exchanger units.

  11. Improving our understanding of flood forecasting using earlier hydro-meteorological intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, Dong-Sin; Chen, Cheng-Hsin; Yeh, Gour-Tsyh

    2014-05-01

    In recent decades, Taiwan has suffered from severe bouts of torrential rain, and typhoon induced floods have become the major natural threat to Taiwan. In order to warn the public of potential risks, authorities are considering establishing an early warning system derived from an integrated hydro-meteorological estimation process. This study aims at the development and accuracy of such a warning system. So it is first necessary to understand the distinctive features of flood forecasting in integrated rainfall-runoff simulations. Additionally the adequacies of a warning system that is based on extracting useful intelligence from earlier, possibly faulty numerical simulation results are discussed. In order to precisely model flooding, hydrological simulations based upon spot measured rainfall data have been utilized in prior studies to calibrate model parameters. Here, precipitation inputs from an ensemble of almost 20 different realizations of rainfall fields have been used to derive flood forecasts. The flood warning system therefore integrates rainfall-runoff calculations, field observations and data assimilations. Simulation results indicate that the ensemble precipitation estimates generated by a Weather Research Forecasting (WRF) mesoscale model produce divergent estimates. Considerable flooding is often shown in the simulated hydrographs, but the results as to the peak time and peak stage are not always in agreement with the observations. In brief, such forecasts can be good for warning against potential damaging floods in the near future, but the meteorological inputs are not good enough to forecast the time and magnitude of the peaks. The key for such warning system is not to expect highly accurate rainfall predictions, but to improve our understanding from individual ensemble flood forecasts.

  12. Hydro-chemical specifications of thermal waters from different geographical regions in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seker, D. Z.; Aydin, S.; Sivri, N.; Bitik, E.; Cakir, Z.

    2014-12-01

    In many countries thermal springs are utilized for a variety of purposes, such as the generation of power, direct space heating, industrial processes, aquaculture and many more. The optimal use of a thermal spring is largely dependent upon its physical and chemical characteristics. The physical and chemical parameters of groundwater play a significant role in classifying and assessing water quality. Major ions constitute the most significant part of the total dissolved solids present in the groundwater and the concentration of these ions in ground water depends mainly on the hydro chemical processes that place in the aquifer system. This article focuses on the thermal and chemical features of 21 thermal springs located in the overall of the Turkey. Field data and water samples were collected for analysis of physical and chemical parameters. Thermal springs and thermal wells have temperatures ranging from 35 to 95°C. The pH values of the thermal waters change between 6.3 and 9.6. A Piper trilinear diagram and Schoeller diagram show that all the thermal waters are characterized by the dominance of anion-cation. Thermal waters display various chemical compositions and high temperature waters have Na-SO4, Na-HCO3, Na-Cl, Ca-SO4, Ca-HCO3 type. The springs are associated with faults and impermeable dykes and are assumed to be of meteoric origin. The mineral composition of the thermal waters reflects the geological formations found at the depth of origin. All thermal water springs are suitable for use in terms balneology since they contain high levels of mineral content and temperature. At the same time, some samples can be consumed by humans as soda water and mineral water. However, it is important to keep such limitations in mind when determining the ultimate use of the thermal springs.

  13. Propagation of hydro-meteorological uncertainty in a model cascade framework to inundation prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Rincón, J. P.; Pedrozo-Acuña, A.; Breña-Naranjo, J. A.

    2015-07-01

    This investigation aims to study the propagation of meteorological uncertainty within a cascade modelling approach to flood prediction. The methodology was comprised of a numerical weather prediction (NWP) model, a distributed rainfall-runoff model and a 2-D hydrodynamic model. The uncertainty evaluation was carried out at the meteorological and hydrological levels of the model chain, which enabled the investigation of how errors that originated in the rainfall prediction interact at a catchment level and propagate to an estimated inundation area and depth. For this, a hindcast scenario is utilised removing non-behavioural ensemble members at each stage, based on the fit with observed data. At the hydrodynamic level, an uncertainty assessment was not incorporated; instead, the model was setup following guidelines for the best possible representation of the case study. The selected extreme event corresponds to a flood that took place in the southeast of Mexico during November 2009, for which field data (e.g. rain gauges; discharge) and satellite imagery were available. Uncertainty in the meteorological model was estimated by means of a multi-physics ensemble technique, which is designed to represent errors from our limited knowledge of the processes generating precipitation. In the hydrological model, a multi-response validation was implemented through the definition of six sets of plausible parameters from past flood events. Precipitation fields from the meteorological model were employed as input in a distributed hydrological model, and resulting flood hydrographs were used as forcing conditions in the 2-D hydrodynamic model. The evolution of skill within the model cascade shows a complex aggregation of errors between models, suggesting that in valley-filling events hydro-meteorological uncertainty has a larger effect on inundation depths than that observed in estimated flood inundation extents.

  14. Comparing different treatment modalities for partial nephrectomies without ischemic period: laser, Hydro-Jet and RF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Boorder, Tjeerd; Boeken Kruger, Arto; Klaessens, John; Grimbergen, Matthijs; Verdaasdonk, Rudolf

    2008-02-01

    The treatment of partial nefrectomies is usually performed under a warm ischemic period. Recently, various treatment modalities have become available to perform a partial nefrectomy without clamping off the blood circulation. We have studied three devices in laboratory setting, investigating the thermal and high speed imaging techniques in tissue models and consequently, applying the instruments in the clinic during open procedures especially looking at efficacy and blood loss. The continuous wave 2.0 micron laser of 70 W (Revolix, LISA laser) is used as a fiber delivered knife cutting through circulated tissue with controlled hemostasis for vessels up to 3 mm diameter. The 2 μm wavelength effectively vaporizes tissue water and coagulates the smaller vessels. The Hydro-Jet (ERBE, Germany) uses high pressure (20-80 bar) to ejects a water jet of 40 um diameter at high velocity (10-30 m/s). The parenchyma is resected while vessels are preserved. Consequently, the exposed vessels can be coagulated in a controlled way with minimal blood loss. The water jet showed to induce cavitation bubbles that resect the soft tissue from the matrix leaving the elastic microvessels intact. Various systems are based on bipolar RF technology. We are using the Habib device (Rita 1500X RF generator) to create a coagulation zone around the tumor. Subsequently, the tumor can be resected along the coagulation zone with minimal bleeding. The treatment modalities investigated, have their own advantages and, stand-alone or in combination, can facilitate laparoscopic partial nephrectomies without an ischemic period.

  15. Biofuel Crops Expansion: Evaluating the Impact on the Agricultural Water Scarcity Costs and Hydropower Production with Hydro Economic Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, G.

    2015-12-01

    Biofuels such as ethanol from sugar cane remain an important element to help mitigate the impacts of fossil fuels on the atmosphere. However, meeting fuel demands with biofuels requires technological advancement for water productivity and scale of production. This may translate into increased water demands for biofuel crops and potential for conflicts with incumbent crops and other water uses including domestic, hydropower generation and environmental. It is therefore important to evaluate the effects of increased biofuel production on the verge of water scarcity costs and hydropower production. The present research applies a hydro-economic optimization model to compare different scenarios of irrigated biofuel and hydropower production, and estimates the potential tradeoffs. A case study from the Araguari watershed in Brazil is provided. These results should be useful to (i) identify improved water allocation among competing economic demands, (ii) support water management and operations decisions in watersheds where biofuels are expected to increase, and (iii) identify the impact of bio fuel production in the water availability and economic value. Under optimized conditions, adoption of sugar cane for biofuel production heavily relies on the opportunity costs of other crops and hydropower generation. Areas with a lower value crop groups seem more suitable to adopt sugar cane for biofuel when the price of ethanol is sufficiently high and the opportunity costs of hydropower productions are not conflicting. The approach also highlights the potential for insights in water management from studying regional versus larger scales bundled systems involving water use, food production and power generation.

  16. Development of HydroImage, A User Friendly Hydrogeophysical Characterization Software

    SciTech Connect

    Mok, Chin Man; Hubbard, Susan; Chen, Jinsong; Suribhatla, Raghu; Kaback, Dawn Samara

    2014-01-29

    HydroImage, user friendly software that utilizes high-resolution geophysical data for estimating hydrogeological parameters in subsurface strate, was developed under this grant. HydroImage runs on a personal computer platform to promote broad use by hydrogeologists to further understanding of subsurface processes that govern contaminant fate, transport, and remediation. The unique software provides estimates of hydrogeological properties over continuous volumes of the subsurface, whereas previous approaches only allow estimation of point locations. thus, this unique tool can be used to significantly enhance site conceptual models and improve design and operation of remediation systems. The HydroImage technical approach uses statistical models to integrate geophysical data with borehole geological data and hydrological measurements to produce hydrogeological parameter estimates as 2-D or 3-D images.

  17. A network flow model for short-term hydro-dominated hydrothermal scheduling problems

    SciTech Connect

    Franco, P.E.C. ); Carvalho, M.F. ); Soares, S. )

    1994-05-01

    This paper is concerned with the Short-Term Hydrothermal Scheduling (STHS) of hydro-dominated power systems. The problem's formulation includes the representation of operational constraints such as the hydraulic coupling between hydro plants in cascade and the transmission limits in the electric network. In order to allow the problem's decomposition into hydraulic and electric subproblems, a linear-quadratic penalty approach is applied to enforce the coupling between hydro and electric variables. As a result, the problem's natural network flow structure is fully exploited through special-purposed network flow algorithms. The technique has been implemented in FORTRAN in a SUN SPARCstation IPX and tested in a 440 KV subsystem of the main interconnected Brazilian power system.

  18. Developing of operational hydro-meteorological simulating and displaying system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Shih, D.; Chen, C.

    2010-12-01

    Hydrological hazards, which often occur in conjunction with extreme precipitation events, are the most frequent type of natural disaster in Taiwan. Hence, the researchers at the Taiwan Typhoon and Flood Research Institute (TTFRI) are devoted to analyzing and gaining a better understanding of the causes and effects of natural disasters, and in particular, typhoons and floods. The long-term goal of the TTFRI is to develop a unified weather-hydrological-oceanic model suitable for simulations with local parameterizations in Taiwan. The development of a fully coupled weather-hydrology interaction model is not yet completed but some operational hydro-meteorological simulations are presented as a step in the direction of completing a full model. The predicted rainfall data from Weather Research Forecasting (WRF) are used as our meteorological forcing on watershed modeling. The hydrology and hydraulic modeling are conducted by WASH123D numerical model. And the WRF/WASH123D coupled system is applied to simulate floods during the typhoon landfall periods. The daily operational runs start at 04UTC, 10UTC, 16UTC and 22UTC, about 4 hours after data downloaded from NCEP GFS. This system will execute 72-hr weather forecasts. The simulation of WASH123D will sequentially trigger after receiving WRF rainfall data. This study presents the preliminary framework of establishing this system, and our goal is to build this earlier warning system to alert the public form dangerous. The simulation results are further display by a 3D GIS web service system. This system is established following the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standardization process for GIS web service, such as Web Map Service (WMS) and Web Feature Service (WFS). The traditional 2D GIS data, such as high resolution aerial photomaps and satellite images are integrated into 3D landscape model. The simulated flooding and inundation area can be dynamically mapped on Wed 3D world. The final goal of this system is to real

  19. Spatial variabilities in Sky Island subalpine hydro/micrometeorology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown-Mitic, C. M.; Harlow, C.; Shuttleworth, J.; Bales, R.

    2003-04-01

    In the semi-arid southwestern United States, most of the annual runoff generally comes from precipitation in the higher elevations, primarily as seasonal snow. Observation and modeling of the hydrological inputs and outputs of the alpine and upland portions of the basins are essential for understanding and predicting the water balance as it is only in this environment, as a long term average that precipitation exceeds evapotranspiration. It is therefore important to understanding the space-time interrelationships across the semiarid subalpine zone in order to interpret fluxes, energy budget, soil moisture, snow melt and ultimately the water balance in this portion of basin. Observations from four hydro-micrometeorologial stations which forms a supporting network for our eddy covariance tower, located on a Sky Island in the Southwestern USA, show that net radiation and surface/soil temperature varies among the sites while air temperature and relative humidity is fairly constant. During the summer there is a high correlation between air temperature and surface temperature at all four sites, and a moderate to high correlation between net radiation and surface temperature. During the winter, surface temperature is highly coupled to the air temperature at two sites while highly decoupled at the other two sites. This is a reflection of the differences in site characteristics such as canopy/exposure and aspect. The difference in sites at opposite ends of the range of exposure is clearly reflected in the characteristics of the soil temperature profiles. The most exposed site correlates fairly well with a modeled sine wave function while the least exposed site, while demonstrating the dampening with depth, would not be predicted with a simple sine wave function, an important observation when relating soil water content, a difficult component to measure in this terrain, to soil temperature. During the summer, similarity in air temperature and relative humidity and

  20. Quantification of Uncertainties in Projections of Hydro-meteorological Extremes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meresa, Hadush; Romanowicz, Renata; Lawrence, Deborah

    2016-04-01

    The impact of climate change on hydrological extremes has been widely studied particularly after the publication of the IPCC AR4 report in 2007. The methodology applied to derive hydrological extremes under climate change adopted by most scientists consists of running a cascade of models, starting from assumed emission scenarios applied to a global circulation model (GCM) and ending at hydrological model simulations. Therefore, the projected hydro-meteorological extremes are highly uncertain due to uncertainties inherent in all the links of the modelling chain. In addition, due to the complexity of hydrologic models that use a large number of parameters to characterize hydrologic processes, many challenges arise with respect to quantification of uncertainty. This issue needs to be properly quantified to understand possible confidence ranges in extremes in the future. This paper aims to quantify the uncertainty in the hydrological projection of future extremes in streamflow and precipitation indices in mountainous and lowland catchments in Poland, using a multi-model approach based on climate projections obtained from the ENSMEBLE and EUROCORDEX projects, multiple realizations of catchment scale downscaled rainfalls, two hydrological models (HBV and GR4J) and a number of hydrological model parameters. The time-span of projections covers the 21st century. The potential sources of hydrological projection uncertainties are quantified through a Monte Carlo based simulation approach. We compare the weights based on different goodness-of-fit criteria in their ability to constrain the uncertainty of the extremes. The results of the comparison show a considerable dependence of uncertainty ranges on the type of extremes (low or high flows) and on the criterion used. The predicted distribution of future streamflows considering all sources of uncertainty (climate model, bias correction and hydrological model) is used to derive marginal distributions of uncertainty related to

  1. Hydro-chemical anomalies in clay-rich landslides: evidences from case studies in the northern Apennines (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cervi, Federico; Ronchetti, Francesco; Bogaard, Thom

    2010-05-01

    The presence of deep faults can affect the groundwater circulation. They can control the rising of deep fluids to the ground surface. Normally, deep fluids have a chemical composition completely different from the shallow groundwater; depending on the travel depth, temperature and pressure conditions, mineral composition of the rocks crossed and time of interaction. This can affect the hydro-chemical characteristics of near-surface groundwater. Eventually, it can change the fingerprint of groundwater circulating in landslides and it can influence long-term pore-pressure fluctuations, playing a role on slope stability. In the northern Apennines of Italy, several large-scale earth slides - earth flows affecting faulted clayey formations are believed to be somehow influenced by deep fluids. The study was aimed at detecting hydro-chemical anomalies in groundwater circulating in 3 landslides that have resumed activity several times in the last decades, and that are occurring in areas of potential deep-fluid influence (Silla, Ca' Lita, Vedriano). More than 30 water-samples were collected at different depth in the landslide body and in the underlying bedrock, owing to the presence of several piezometers. Physical and chemical analyses comprised determination of temperature, conductibility, pH, main cations and anions (K+, Na+, Cl-, Ca2+, Mg2+, SO42 - and HCO-). Isotopic analyses (oxygen and deuterium) are still ongoing. Results allowed discriminating between a Ca-Carbonate hydrotype (400-600 μS/cm), that is interpreted as being directly connected with rainfall infiltration, and a Na-sulfate-rich hydrotype, that is interpreted as the evidence of deep fluids upflow. This would actually be the result of the mixing between two extreme hydrotypes: Na-bicarbonate water and Ca-sulfate waters, both characterized by high salinity, over 4000 μS/cm. The first is typical of geothermal water in the Apennines and is linked to the infiltration at great depth of rain water and the

  2. A Hydro-mechanical Model and Analytical Solutions for Geomechanical Modeling of Carbon Dioxide Geological Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Zhijie; Fang, Yilin; Scheibe, Timothy D.; Bonneville, Alain

    2012-05-15

    We present a hydro-mechanical model for geological sequestration of carbon dioxide. The model considers the poroelastic effects by taking into account the coupling between the geomechanical response and the fluid flow in greater detail. The simplified hydro-mechanical model includes the geomechanical part that relies on the linear elasticity, while the fluid flow is based on the Darcy’s law. Two parts were coupled using the standard linear poroelasticity. Analytical solutions for pressure field were obtained for a typical geological sequestration scenario. The model predicts the temporal and spatial variation of pressure field and effects of permeability and elastic modulus of formation on the fluid pressure distribution.

  3. Controls on low-stress hydro-fracture dilatancy in thrust, wrench and normal fault terrains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibson, Richard H.

    1981-02-01

    Arrays of parallel extension fractures and veins are sometimes associated with exhumed faults and seem to be the product of repeated hydro-fracturing under a shared stress regime. Here theoretical considerations are used to suggest that this type of hydro-fracture dilatancy is essentially a low differential stress phenomenon. It may develop under hydrostatic fluid pressures around normal faults at shallow depths, but can only occur in association with thrusts when fluid pressures exceed the litho-static load. This contrasts with most existing models for dilatancy, where the effects only become pronounced at high stress levels and are best developed around thrust faults.

  4. Accelerating Seed Germination and seedling development of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) through hydro-priming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dembele, S., Jr.

    2015-12-01

    Mali, a West Africa Sahelian country, is characterized by a strong dependence on rain-fed agriculture and a low adaptive capacity, making it one of the most vulnerable regions to climate change worldwide. Moreover, although with high uncertainties, most climate models used for the region recognize a growing uncertainty in the onset of the rainy season, which demands urgent adaptation measures. Early-season drought limits crops germination, and hence growth, and yield during rainfed depending production as is common now in Mali, West Africa. Crops germination and establishment could be improved by using seed priming, a process that dry seeds take up water to initiate the primary stages of germination, but the amount of water added is not enough for completing germination. The effects of hydro-priming (distilled, tap, rain, river and well water) were evaluated for three priming durations (4, 8 and 12 hour) in 2014 and 2015. Monitored were seed germination and seedling development of nine sorghum genotypes. Preliminary results showed that hydro-priming significantly improved germination rate, germination speed, number of seminal root, rate of survival and seedling vigour index, compared to non-primed seed treatments. However, seedling length, root length, shoot length and seedling dry weight did not differ significantly. Four out of the nine genotypes evaluated were attributed good seed quality and good response to hydro-priming. The priming with different sources of water resulted in higher seed germination (90%) and seedling development with well and river water, compared to the others. Seed germination rate, uniformity and speed were also enhanced by hydro-priming. It is argued that hydro-priming is a simple but effective method for improving seed germination and seedling development of sorghum. In addition hydro-priming is a safe, simple and inexpensive method to enhance germination. The most promising genotypes have consequently been included in consequent pot

  5. Hydrogen Resource Assessment: Hydrogen Potential from Coal, Natural Gas, Nuclear, and Hydro Power

    SciTech Connect

    Milbrandt, A.; Mann, M.

    2009-02-01

    This paper estimates the quantity of hydrogen that could be produced from coal, natural gas, nuclear, and hydro power by county in the United States. The study estimates that more than 72 million tonnes of hydrogen can be produced from coal, natural gas, nuclear, and hydro power per year in the country (considering only 30% of their total annual production). The United States consumed about 396 million tonnes of gasoline in 2007; therefore, the report suggests the amount of hydrogen from these sources could displace about 80% of this consumption.

  6. 77 FR 70423 - Black Bear Hydro Partners, LLC and Black Bear Development Holdings, LLC and Black Bear SO, LLC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-26

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Black Bear Hydro Partners, LLC and Black Bear Development Holdings, LLC and Black Bear SO, LLC; Notice of Application for Partial Transfer of Licenses, and Soliciting Comments and Motions To Intervene On October 25, 2012, Black Bear Hydro Partners, LLC, sole licensee (transferor)...

  7. 78 FR 32644 - Las Vegas Wash Hydro LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-31

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Las Vegas Wash Hydro LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted..., 2012, Las Vegas Wash Hydro LLC, filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to section 4(f) of the Federal Power Act (FPA), proposing to study the feasibility of the Las Vegas...

  8. 75 FR 352 - FFP Qualified Hydro 18 LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-05

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission FFP Qualified Hydro 18 LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application..., 2009. On September 8, 2009, FFP Qualified Hydro 18 LLC filed an application for a preliminary permit... competing applications may be filed electronically via the Internet. See 18 CFR 385.2001(a)(1)(iii) and...

  9. 75 FR 27769 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund VII; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund VII; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application.... On April 13, 2010 Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund VII filed an application for a preliminary...

  10. 77 FR 14516 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund VII; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund VII; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application... 22, 2011, Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund VII filed an application for a preliminary permit under section...

  11. Analysis of effluent filtrate in the hydro-entanglement process for producing cotton nonwovens: a progress report

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A number of hydro-entangled cotton nonwoven fabrics were produced on commercial equipment, using UltraCleanTM Cotton (T.J. Beall Company). Polypropylene “sock” filters were used in the production trials to clean the effluent water for recycling it in the hydro-entanglement process. After each trial ...

  12. 77 FR 34371 - Red River Hydro LLC; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-11

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Red River Hydro LLC; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the.... c. Date Filed: May 24, 2012. d. Applicant: Red River Hydro LLC (Red River), a wholly-owned...: The project would be located on the Red River in Rapides Parish, Louisiana at an existing lock and...

  13. 77 FR 59389 - Hawks Nest Hydro, LLC; Notice of Intent To File License Application, Filing of Pre-Application...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-27

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Hawks Nest Hydro, LLC; Notice of Intent To File License Application, Filing...: Hawks Nest Hydro, LLC. e. Name of Project: Hawks Nest Hydroelectric Project (P-2512-069) and Glen Ferris Hydroelectric Project (P-14439-000) f. Location: Hawks Nest Hydroelectric Project is on the New River in...

  14. 77 FR 31843 - Swan Lake North Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted For Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Swan Lake North Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted For Filing and Soliciting Comments, Motions to Intervene, and Competing Applications On April 3, 2012, Swan Lake North Hydro, LLC, filed...

  15. 77 FR 23241 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXX, LLC; Notice of Intent To File License Application, Filing of Pre...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-18

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXX, LLC; Notice of Intent To File License... Friends Fund XXX, LLC. e. Name of Project: New Cumberland Locks and Dam Hydroelectric Project. f. Location... XXX, c/o Hydro Green Energy, LLC, 900 Oakmont Lane, Suite 310, Westmont, IL 60559; (877) 556-6566...

  16. 78 FR 49509 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXX, LLC; FFP Project 121, LLC; Notice Announcing Preliminary Permit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXX, LLC; FFP Project 121, LLC; Notice Announcing... Virginia and Jefferson County, Ohio. The applications were filed by Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXX, LLC...

  17. 75 FR 16090 - Symbiotics, LLC; AG Hydro, LLC; Notice of Application for Transfer of License, and Soliciting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Symbiotics, LLC; AG Hydro, LLC; Notice of Application for Transfer of..., LLC (transferor) and AG Hydro, LLC (transferee) filed an application for transfer of license of...

  18. 77 FR 32629 - Black Canyon Hydro, LLC; Notice of Intent To File License Application, Filing of Pre-Application...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-01

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Black Canyon Hydro, LLC; Notice of Intent To File License Application...-filing Process. b. Project No.: 14110-001. c. Date Filed: March 27, 2012. d. Submitted By: Black Canyon Hydro, LLC (Black Canyon). e. Name of Project: Black Canyon Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: On...

  19. 75 FR 353 - FFP Qualified Hydro 20 LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission FFP Qualified Hydro 20 LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application..., 2009. On September 4, 2009, FFP Qualified Hydro 20 LLC filed an application for a preliminary...

  20. 78 FR 77118 - KC Small Hydro, LLC; Notice of Amended Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission KC Small Hydro, LLC; Notice of Amended Preliminary Permit Application... application to change its name to KC Small Hydro, LLC. Pursuant to 18 CFR 4.35, the August 28, 2013, Notice...

  1. Nanofiber based triple layer hydro-philic/-phobic membrane - a solution for pore wetting in membrane distillation

    PubMed Central

    Prince, J. A.; Rana, D.; Matsuura, T.; Ayyanar, N.; Shanmugasundaram, T. S.; Singh, G.

    2014-01-01

    The innovative design and synthesis of nanofiber based hydro-philic/phobic membranes with a thin hydro-phobic nanofiber layer on the top and a thin hydrophilic nanofiber layer on the bottom of the conventional casted micro-porous layer which opens up a solution for membrane pore wetting and improves the pure water flux in membrane distillation. PMID:25377488

  2. 76 FR 27310 - Janet A. Boyd, Boyd Hydro, LLC; Notice of Application for Transfer of License, and Soliciting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Janet A. Boyd, Boyd Hydro, LLC; Notice of Application for Transfer of...) and Boyd Hydro, LLC (transferee) filed an application for transfer of license for the Jim...

  3. Tech notes: Ongoing or planned hydro research, results of recent studies, and reviews of new books, publications, and software

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Ongoing or planned hydro research, results of recent studies, and reviews of new books, publications, and software. Items covered this month include: (1) a recommendation that dam designers give more consideration to earthquake resistance, (2) the development of a new wave rotor design, (3) the development of a small hydro database in China, and (4) an ICOLD bulletin on the optimization of constuction costs.

  4. 77 FR 12279 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLIV FFP Project 51, LLC; Notice Announcing Filing Priority for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLIV FFP Project 51, LLC; Notice Announcing Filing... priority is as follows: 1. Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLIV, Project No. 14179-000. 2. FFP Project 51,...

  5. 77 FR 40354 - Mesa de Los Carros Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-09

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Mesa de Los Carros Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application..., 2012, Mesa De Los Carros Hydro, LLC filed an application, pursuant to section 4(f) of the Federal Power Act (FPA), proposing to study the feasibility of the Mesa De Los Carros Pumped Storage Project to...

  6. 77 FR 60971 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLII, LLC; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-05

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLII, LLC; Notice of Application Tendered for.... Applicant: Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLII, LLC. e. Name of Project: Braddock Locks and Dam Hydroelectric... Pursuant to: Federal Power Act 16 U.S.C. 791 (a)-825(r). h. Applicant Contact: Mr. Mark R. Stover, Lock+...

  7. 75 FR 25235 - Eagle Creek Hydro Power, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Eagle Creek Hydro Power, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Eagle Creek Hydro Power, LLC's application for...

  8. 78 FR 17389 - Clark Canyon Hydro, LLC; Notice of Application for Amendment of License and Soliciting Comments...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-21

    ... Power Services on behalf of Clark Canyon Hydro, LLC. e. Name of Project: Clark Canyon Dam Hydroelectric... Energy Regulatory Commission Clark Canyon Hydro, LLC; Notice of Application for Amendment of License and... Power Act, 16 U.S.C. 791a-825r. h. Applicant Contact: Brent Smith, President, Northwest Power...

  9. 77 FR 32624 - Lock 12 Hydro Partners; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-01

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Lock 12 Hydro Partners; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the.... Applicant: Lock 12 Hydro Partners, LLC. e. Name of Project: Ravenna Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: On... government are located within the project boundary. g. Filed Pursuant to: Federal Power Act 16 U.S.C....

  10. 75 FR 9592 - FPL Energy Maine Hydro, LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Document and Soliciting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-03

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission FPL Energy Maine Hydro, LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental.... Licensee: FPL Energy Maine Hydro, LLC. e. Name of Project: Upper and Middle Dam Storage Project. f... Counties, Maine. g. Filed Pursuant to: Federal Power Act, 16 U.S.C. 791a-825r. h. Licensee Contact:...

  11. 78 FR 43187 - PacifiCorp, St. Anthony Hydro LLC; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing, Soliciting Comments...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-19

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission PacifiCorp, St. Anthony Hydro LLC; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing..., 2013. d. Applicants: PacifiCorp (transferor) and St. Anthony Hydro LLC (transferee). e. Name of Project.... g. Filed Pursuant to: Federal Power Act, 16 U.S.C. 791a-825r. h. Applicants Contact: Mr. John...

  12. 77 FR 9232 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXVIII; FFP Project 1, LLC; Notice Announcing Preliminary Permit Drawing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXVIII; FFP Project 1, LLC; Notice Announcing... County, Arkansas. The applications were filed by Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXVIII for Project No....

  13. 77 FR 9232 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXV; FFP Project 57, LLC; Notice Announcing Preliminary Permit Drawing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXV; FFP Project 57, LLC; Notice Announcing... County, Kentucky. The applications were filed by Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXV for Project No....

  14. 76 FR 1427 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLVIII; FFP Missouri 15, LLC Notice Announcing Filing Priority for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLVIII; FFP Missouri 15, LLC Notice Announcing.... Based on the drawing, the order of priority is as follows: 1. Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund...

  15. 77 FR 12279 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXVIII; FFP Project 1, LLC; Notice Announcing Filing Priority for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXVIII; FFP Project 1, LLC; Notice Announcing... order of priority is as follows: 1. Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXVIII, Project No. 14184-000. 2....

  16. 77 FR 12280 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XL; FFP Project 56, LLC; Notice Announcing Filing Priority for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XL; FFP Project 56, LLC; Notice Announcing Filing... priority is as follows: 1. Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XL, Project No. 14189-000. 2. FFP Project 56,...

  17. 76 FR 3626 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLIX; FFP Missouri 14, LLC; Notice Announcing Preliminary Permit Drawing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLIX; FFP Missouri 14, LLC; Notice Announcing... the Savannah River, near Augusta, Georgia.\\1\\ The applications were filed by Lock+ Hydro Friends...

  18. 77 FR 14775 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLV, FFP Project 2, LLC; Notice Announcing Filing Priority for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLV, FFP Project 2, LLC; Notice Announcing Filing... priority is as follows: 1. Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLV Project No. 14180-000. 2. FFP Project 2,...

  19. 77 FR 12281 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLIII; FFP Project 53, LLC; Notice Announcing Filing Priority for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLIII; FFP Project 53, LLC; Notice Announcing... order of priority is as follows: 1. Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLIII, Project No. 14181-000. 2....

  20. 75 FR 27770 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund VIII; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund VIII; Notice of Preliminary Permit... 11, 2010. On April 13, 2010 Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund VIII filed an application for a...