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Sample records for affected individuals displayed

  1. Individual Differences in Affect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haviland, Jeannette

    This paper argues that infants' affect patterns are innate and are meaningful indicators of individual differences in internal state. Videotapes of seven infants' faces were coded using an ethogram; the movement of the eyebrow, eye direction, eye openness, mouth shape, mouth position, lip position, and tongue protrusion were assessed…

  2. Factors affecting dwell times on digital displaying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, A. J.; Harris, R. L., Sr.

    1985-01-01

    A series of exploratory tests were conducted to investigate the effects of advanced display formats and display media on pilot scanning behavior using Langley's oculometer, a desktop flight simulator, a conventional electro-mechanical meter, and various digital displays. The primary task was for the test subject to maintain level flight, on a specific course heading, during moderate turbulence. A secondary task of manually controlling the readout of a display was used to examine the effects of the display format on a subject's scan behavior. Secondary task scan parameters that were evaluated were average dwell time, dwell time histograms, and number of dwells per meter change. The round dial meter demonstrated shorter dwell times and fewer dwells per meter change than the digital displays. The following factors affected digital display scanning behavior: (1) the number of digits; (2) the update rate of the digits; (3) the display media; and (4) the character font. The size of the digits used in these tests (0.28 to 0.50 inches) did not affect scan behavior measures.

  3. Ethical evaluation of displays that adapt to affect.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Carson; Picard, Rosalind

    2004-12-01

    We are developing new kinds of sensors and algorithms that can sense and begin to interpret information related to affect. Starting from the standpoint of value-sensitive design, which considers values such as calmness, autonomy, and informed consent, displays that adapt to affect can be ethically evaluated. The question of how adaptive technologies act on these values is of critical importance to the affective computing group. We are seeking to better understand ethical implications for designers through empirical experiments.

  4. Undifferentiated Facial Electromyography Responses to Dynamic, Audio-Visual Emotion Displays in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rozga, Agata; King, Tricia Z.; Vuduc, Richard W.; Robins, Diana L.

    2013-01-01

    We examined facial electromyography (fEMG) activity to dynamic, audio-visual emotional displays in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and typically developing (TD) individuals. Participants viewed clips of happy, angry, and fearful displays that contained both facial expression and affective prosody while surface electrodes measured…

  5. How variation between individuals affects species coexistence.

    PubMed

    Hart, Simon P; Schreiber, Sebastian J; Levine, Jonathan M

    2016-08-01

    Although the effects of variation between individuals within species are traditionally ignored in studies of species coexistence, the magnitude of intraspecific variation in nature is forcing ecologists to reconsider. Compelling intuitive arguments suggest that individual variation may provide a previously unrecognised route to diversity maintenance by blurring species-level competitive differences or substituting for species-level niche differences. These arguments, which are motivating a large body of empirical work, have rarely been evaluated with quantitative theory. Here we incorporate intraspecific variation into a common model of competition and identify three pathways by which this variation affects coexistence: (1) changes in competitive dynamics because of nonlinear averaging, (2) changes in species' mean interaction strengths because of variation in underlying traits (also via nonlinear averaging) and (3) effects on stochastic demography. As a consequence of the first two mechanisms, we find that intraspecific variation in competitive ability increases the dominance of superior competitors, and intraspecific niche variation reduces species-level niche differentiation, both of which make coexistence more difficult. In addition, individual variation can exacerbate the effects of demographic stochasticity, and this further destabilises coexistence. Our work provides a theoretical foundation for emerging empirical interests in the effects of intraspecific variation on species diversity.

  6. Acquired resistance affects male sexual display and female choice in guppies

    PubMed Central

    pez, S. L

    1998-01-01

    Is resistance to parasites related to the expression of male secondary sex characters? Handicap models predict a positive relationship, proposing that males displaying extravagant sex characters may be honestly signalling their resistance to females. However, no current evidence addresses whether individual changes in immunity (acquired resistance) are reflected in sexual traits. In this experiment I use guppies to compare male orange colour, sigmoid display and female preferences for individual males, before and after a primary challenge infection of males. Challenge infections were terminated chemically and fish were given ten days' recovery time before proceeding with the second measurements. The degree of acquired resistance was quantified a posteriori, by exposing males to a secondary infection. Sigmoid display rates and female preference for males differed for males of different resistance groups after challenge infection only. This difference was due to resistant males displaying more than non-resistant ones. No differences were detected in male orange colour, but this may be because colour needs a longer time than ten days to be recovered and adjusted. The results show that the level of acquired resistance affects sexual display and attractiveness in guppies. They suggest that once an effective immunity is built up by a male, he can afford to incur higher costs for sexual characteristics, whereas a male that lacks the ability to build up effective resistance cannot. These costs probably consist of higher energy expenditure and/or higher circulating levels of testosterone, which may be needed to increase display. Priming and effective establishment of an individual's resistance to parasitic infection could eventually result in a higher availability of resources for sexual functions.

  7. Factors affecting the psychophysical image quality evaluation of mobile phone displays: the case of transmissive liquid-crystal displays.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youn Jin; Luo, M Ronnier; Choe, Wonhee; Kim, Hong Suk; Park, Seung Ok; Baek, Yeseul; Rhodes, Peter; Lee, Seongdeok; Kim, Chang Yeong

    2008-09-01

    Display manufacturers require new data and computational models that consider the effect of ambient illumination in order to develop higher-quality displays. In this study, typical variations of small-sized mobile LCDs that exist in the real world were first simulated using a device characterization technique. In addition, psychophysical attributes (e.g., naturalness, clearness, sharpness, contrast, colorfulness, and preference) affecting the image quality evaluation process were analyzed. Consequently, naturalness and clearness were found to be the most statistically significant psychophysical attributes for modeling image quality. As the ambient-illumination level was increased, the image quality was exponentially impaired and the contribution of clearness increased.

  8. Multimedia Learning: Cognitive Individual Differences and Display Design Techniques Predict Transfer Learning with Multimedia Learning Modules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Katherine A.

    2009-01-01

    In the wake of the information explosion and rapidly progressing technology [Mayer, R. E. (2001). "Multimedia learning". Cambridge: University Press] formulated a theory that focused on human cognition, rather than technology capacity and features. By measuring the effect of cognitive individual differences and display design manipulations on…

  9. Positive affect increases secondary control among causally uncertain individuals.

    PubMed

    Tobin, Stephanie J; George, Melanie P

    2015-01-01

    Secondary control (acceptance of and adjustment to negative events) is thought to promote positive affect. We examined the opposite path: could positive affect increase secondary control, particularly among individuals high in causal uncertainty, who stand to benefit from it the most? In two studies, participants completed a causal uncertainty scale, thought about a problem while listening to affect-inducing music or no music, and then completed items that assessed secondary control. In Study 1, the music induced positive or negative affect. In Study 2, the music induced affect that was high or low in activation and positive or negative in valence. In both studies, we found that positive affect-inducing music increased secondary control among high causal uncertainty participants. Furthermore, trait affect did not account for the effects of causal uncertainty, and music did not influence primary control. These findings show that secondary control can fluctuate as a function of state affect.

  10. Alexithymic characteristics and patient-therapist interaction: a video analysis of facial affect display.

    PubMed

    Rasting, Marcus; Brosig, Burkhard; Beutel, Manfred E

    2005-01-01

    Alexithymia as a disorder of affect regulation entails a patient's reduced ability to process emotional information. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of alexithymia [as measured by the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS)-26, German version] on affective correlates in a dyadic therapeutic interaction (as recorded by the Emotional Facial Action Coding System). Interviews with 12 in-patients with various psychosomatic disorders (anxiety, depression, somatisation) were videotaped and evaluated for facial affect display. The corresponding emotional reactions of the therapists (split screen) were recorded separately. Patients with high alexithymia scores (TAS-26 total score) tended to display less aggressive affects than those with low scores. The therapists' predominant emotional reaction to alexithymic patients was contempt. Our findings underscore the deep-rooted nature of alexithymia as a disorder of affect regulation. Since facial affects play a major role in the regulation of emotional interaction, this disorder may evoke negative reactions of potential caregivers.

  11. Explaining affective linkages in teams: individual differences in susceptibility to contagion and individualism-collectivism.

    PubMed

    Ilies, Remus; Wagner, David T; Morgeson, Frederick P

    2007-07-01

    To expand on the understanding of how affective states are linked within teams, the authors describe a longitudinal study examining the linkages between team members' affective states over time. In a naturalistic team performance setting, they found evidence that the average affective state of the other team members was related to an individual team member's affect over time, even after controlling for team performance. In addition, they found that these affective linkages were moderated by individual differences in susceptibility to emotional contagion and collectivistic tendencies such that the strength of the linkage was stronger for those high in susceptibility and those with collectivistic tendencies. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  12. Training experience in gestures affects the display of social gaze in baboons' communication with a human.

    PubMed

    Bourjade, Marie; Canteloup, Charlotte; Meguerditchian, Adrien; Vauclair, Jacques; Gaunet, Florence

    2015-01-01

    Gaze behaviour, notably the alternation of gaze between distal objects and social partners that accompanies primates' gestural communication is considered a standard indicator of intentionality. However, the developmental precursors of gaze behaviour in primates' communication are not well understood. Here, we capitalized on the training in gestures dispensed to olive baboons (Papio anubis) as a way of manipulating individual communicative experience with humans. We aimed to delineate the effects of such a training experience on gaze behaviour displayed by the monkeys in relation with gestural requests. Using a food-requesting paradigm, we compared subjects trained in requesting gestures (i.e. trained subjects) to naïve subjects (i.e. control subjects) for their occurrences of (1) gaze behaviour, (2) requesting gestures and (3) temporal combination of gaze alternation with gestures. We found that training did not affect the frequencies of looking at the human's face, looking at food or alternating gaze. Hence, social gaze behaviour occurs independently from the amount of communicative experience with humans. However, trained baboons-gesturing more than control subjects-exhibited most gaze alternation combined with gestures, whereas control baboons did not. By reinforcing the display of gaze alternation along with gestures, we suggest that training may have served to enhance the communicative function of hand gestures. Finally, this study brings the first quantitative report of monkeys producing requesting gestures without explicit training by humans (controls). These results may open a window on the developmental mechanisms (i.e. incidental learning vs. training) underpinning gestural intentional communication in primates.

  13. Elevated Preattentive Affective Processing in Individuals with Borderline Personality Disorder: A Preliminary fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Baskin-Sommers, Arielle R.; Hooley, Jill M.; Dahlgren, Mary K.; Gönenc, Atilla; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah A.; Gruber, Staci A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Emotion dysregulation is central to the clinical conceptualization of borderline personality disorder (BPD), with individuals often displaying instability in mood and intense feelings of negative affect. Although existing data suggest important neural and behavioral differences in the emotion processing of individuals with BPD, studies thus far have only explored reactions to overt emotional information. Therefore, it is unclear if BPD-related emotional hypersensitivity extends to stimuli presented below the level of conscious awareness (preattentively). Methods: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to measure neural responses to happy, angry, fearful, and neutral faces presented preattentively, using a backward masked affect paradigm. Given their tendency toward emotional hyperreactivity and altered amygdala and frontal activation, we hypothesized that individuals with BPD would demonstrate a distinct pattern of fMRI responses relative to those without BPD during the viewing of masked affective versus neutral faces in specific regions of interests (ROIs). Results: Results indicated that individuals with BPD demonstrated increases in frontal, cingulate, and amygdalar activation represented by number of voxels activated and demonstrated a different pattern of activity within the ROIs relative to those without BPD while viewing masked affective versus neutral faces. Conclusion: These findings suggest that in addition to the previously documented heightened responses to overt displays of emotion, individuals with BPD also demonstrate differential responses to positive and negative emotions, early in the processing stream, even before conscious awareness. PMID:26696932

  14. Dot Display Affects Approximate Number System Acuity and Relationships with Mathematical Achievement and Inhibitory Control

    PubMed Central

    Norris, Jade Eloise; Castronovo, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Much research has investigated the relationship between the Approximate Number System (ANS) and mathematical achievement, with continued debate surrounding the existence of such a link. The use of different stimulus displays may account for discrepancies in the findings. Indeed, closer scrutiny of the literature suggests that studies supporting a link between ANS acuity and mathematical achievement in adults have mostly measured the ANS using spatially intermixed displays (e.g. of blue and yellow dots), whereas those failing to replicate a link have primarily used spatially separated dot displays. The current study directly compared ANS acuity when using intermixed or separate dots, investigating how such methodological variation mediated the relationship between ANS acuity and mathematical achievement. ANS acuity was poorer and less reliable when measured with intermixed displays, with performance during both conditions related to inhibitory control. Crucially, mathematical achievement was significantly related to ANS accuracy difference (accuracy on congruent trials minus accuracy on incongruent trials) when measured with intermixed displays, but not with separate displays. The findings indicate that methodological variation affects ANS acuity outcomes, as well as the apparent relationship between the ANS and mathematical achievement. Moreover, the current study highlights the problem of low reliabilities of ANS measures. Further research is required to construct ANS measures with improved reliability, and to understand which processes may be responsible for the increased likelihood of finding a correlation between the ANS and mathematical achievement when using intermixed displays. PMID:27195749

  15. Dynamically Tracking Anxious Individuals' Affective Response to Valenced Information.

    PubMed

    Fua, Karl C; Teachman, Bethany A

    2017-03-30

    Past research has shown that an individual's feelings at any given moment reflect currently experienced stimuli as well as internal representations of similar past experiences. However, anxious individuals' affective reactions to streams of interrelated valenced information (vs. reactions to static stimuli that are arguably less ecologically valid) are rarely tracked. The present study provided a first examination of the newly developed Tracking Affect Ratings Over Time (TAROT) task to continuously assess anxious individuals' affective reactions to streams of information that systematically change valence. Undergraduate participants (N = 141) completed the TAROT task in which they listened to narratives containing positive, negative, and neutral physically- or socially-relevant events, and indicated how positive or negative they felt about the information they heard as each narrative unfolded. The present study provided preliminary evidence for the validity and reliability of the task. Within scenarios, participants higher (vs. lower) in anxiety showed many expected negative biases, reporting more negative mean ratings and overall summary ratings, changing their pattern of responding more quickly to negative events, and responding more negatively to neutral events. Furthermore, individuals higher (vs. lower) in anxiety tended to report more negative minimums during and after positive events, and less positive maximums after negative events. Together, findings indicate that positive events were less impactful for anxious individuals, whereas negative experiences had a particularly lasting impact on future affective responses. The TAROT task is able to efficiently capture a number of different cognitive biases, and may help clarify the mechanisms that underlie anxious individuals' biased negative processing. (PsycINFO Database Record

  16. The pain persists: how social exclusion affects individuals with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Perry, Yael; Henry, Julie D; Sethi, Nisha; Grisham, Jessica R

    2011-11-01

    OBJECTIVES. Evidence suggests that ostracism exerts an immediate and painful threat to an individual's primary needs for belonging, meaningful existence, control, and self-esteem. Individuals with schizophrenia are particularly likely to experience the effects of ostracism, being amongst the most stigmatized of all the mental illnesses. The aims of the present study were therefore to assess the immediate and delayed effects of ostracism in these individuals, and to explore associations between any observed effects and indices of negative affect and clinical symptoms. METHODS. Individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, and non-clinical controls engaged in a virtual ball-toss game with two fictitious others. All participants played the game on two separate occasions, participating in both an inclusion and an ostracism condition. Measures of primary needs were obtained after each game. RESULTS. Findings suggest that the negative impact of social exclusion lasts longer in individuals with schizophrenia, compared with non-clinical controls. Further, clinical participants who reported lower primary needs after a delay were more likely to exhibit higher levels of depression, anxiety, and stress. CONCLUSIONS. Future studies should examine the use of regulatory strategies and personal responses to stigma as potential mediators in the maintenance of the negative effects of social exclusion. These lines of research may offer insight into interventions that may assist individuals to better cope with this experience.

  17. Implicit Processing of Visual Emotions Is Affected by Sound-Induced Affective States and Individual Affective Traits

    PubMed Central

    Quarto, Tiziana; Blasi, Giuseppe; Pallesen, Karen Johanne; Bertolino, Alessandro; Brattico, Elvira

    2014-01-01

    The ability to recognize emotions contained in facial expressions are affected by both affective traits and states and varies widely between individuals. While affective traits are stable in time, affective states can be regulated more rapidly by environmental stimuli, such as music, that indirectly modulate the brain state. Here, we tested whether a relaxing or irritating sound environment affects implicit processing of facial expressions. Moreover, we investigated whether and how individual traits of anxiety and emotional control interact with this process. 32 healthy subjects performed an implicit emotion processing task (presented to subjects as a gender discrimination task) while the sound environment was defined either by a) a therapeutic music sequence (MusiCure), b) a noise sequence or c) silence. Individual changes in mood were sampled before and after the task by a computerized questionnaire. Additionally, emotional control and trait anxiety were assessed in a separate session by paper and pencil questionnaires. Results showed a better mood after the MusiCure condition compared with the other experimental conditions and faster responses to happy faces during MusiCure compared with angry faces during Noise. Moreover, individuals with higher trait anxiety were faster in performing the implicit emotion processing task during MusiCure compared with Silence. These findings suggest that sound-induced affective states are associated with differential responses to angry and happy emotional faces at an implicit stage of processing, and that a relaxing sound environment facilitates the implicit emotional processing in anxious individuals. PMID:25072162

  18. Implicit processing of visual emotions is affected by sound-induced affective states and individual affective traits.

    PubMed

    Quarto, Tiziana; Blasi, Giuseppe; Pallesen, Karen Johanne; Bertolino, Alessandro; Brattico, Elvira

    2014-01-01

    The ability to recognize emotions contained in facial expressions are affected by both affective traits and states and varies widely between individuals. While affective traits are stable in time, affective states can be regulated more rapidly by environmental stimuli, such as music, that indirectly modulate the brain state. Here, we tested whether a relaxing or irritating sound environment affects implicit processing of facial expressions. Moreover, we investigated whether and how individual traits of anxiety and emotional control interact with this process. 32 healthy subjects performed an implicit emotion processing task (presented to subjects as a gender discrimination task) while the sound environment was defined either by a) a therapeutic music sequence (MusiCure), b) a noise sequence or c) silence. Individual changes in mood were sampled before and after the task by a computerized questionnaire. Additionally, emotional control and trait anxiety were assessed in a separate session by paper and pencil questionnaires. Results showed a better mood after the MusiCure condition compared with the other experimental conditions and faster responses to happy faces during MusiCure compared with angry faces during Noise. Moreover, individuals with higher trait anxiety were faster in performing the implicit emotion processing task during MusiCure compared with Silence. These findings suggest that sound-induced affective states are associated with differential responses to angry and happy emotional faces at an implicit stage of processing, and that a relaxing sound environment facilitates the implicit emotional processing in anxious individuals.

  19. Depth-of-Focus Affects 3D Perception in Stereoscopic Displays.

    PubMed

    Vienne, Cyril; Blondé, Laurent; Mamassian, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Stereoscopic systems present binocular images on planar surface at a fixed distance. They induce cues to flatness, indicating that images are presented on a unique surface and specifying the relative depth of that surface. The center of interest of this study is on a second problem, arising when a 3D object distance differs from the display distance. As binocular disparity must be scaled using an estimate of viewing distance, object depth can thus be affected through disparity scaling. Two previous experiments revealed that stereoscopic displays can affect depth perception due to conflicting accommodation and vergence cues at near distances. In this study, depth perception is evaluated for farther accommodation and vergence distances using a commercially available 3D TV. In Experiment I, we evaluated depth perception of 3D stimuli at different vergence distances for a large pool of participants. We observed a strong effect of vergence distance that was bigger for younger than for older participants, suggesting that the effect of accommodation was reduced in participants with emerging presbyopia. In Experiment 2, we extended 3D estimations by varying both the accommodation and vergence distances. We also tested the hypothesis that setting accommodation open loop by constricting pupil size could decrease the contribution of focus cues to perceived distance. We found that the depth constancy was affected by accommodation and vergence distances and that the accommodation distance effect was reduced with a larger depth-of-focus. We discuss these results with regard to the effectiveness of focus cues as a distance signal. Overall, these results highlight the importance of appropriate focus cues in stereoscopic displays at intermediate viewing distances.

  20. Identification of neuronal loci involved with displays of affective aggression in NC900 mice.

    PubMed

    Nehrenberg, Derrick L; Sheikh, Atif; Ghashghaei, H Troy

    2013-07-01

    Aggression is a complex behavior that is essential for survival. Of the various forms of aggression, impulsive violent displays without prior planning or deliberation are referred to as affective aggression. Affective aggression is thought to be caused by aberrant perceptions of, and consequent responses to, threat. Understanding the neuronal networks that regulate affective aggression is pivotal to development of novel approaches to treat chronic affective aggression. Here, we provide a detailed anatomical map of neuronal activity in the forebrain of two inbred lines of mice that were selected for low (NC100) and high (NC900) affective aggression. Attack behavior was induced in male NC900 mice by exposure to an unfamiliar male in a novel environment. Forebrain maps of c-Fos+ nuclei, which are surrogates for neuronal activity during behavior, were then generated and analyzed. NC100 males rarely exhibited affective aggression in response to the same stimulus, thus their forebrain c-Fos maps were utilized to identify unique patterns of neuronal activity in NC900s. Quantitative results indicated robust differences in the distribution patterns and densities of c-Fos+ nuclei in distinct thalamic, subthalamic, and amygdaloid nuclei, together with unique patterns of neuronal activity in the nucleus accumbens and the frontal cortices. Our findings implicate these areas as foci regulating differential behavioral responses to an unfamiliar male in NC900 mice when expressing affective aggression. Based on the highly conserved patterns of connections and organization of neuronal limbic structures from mice to humans, we speculate that neuronal activities in analogous networks may be disrupted in humans prone to maladaptive affective aggression.

  1. Individual differences in the acquisition of affectively valenced associations.

    PubMed

    Zinbarg, R E; Mohlman, J

    1998-04-01

    Two studies were conducted to test the predictions derived from the behavioral activation system and behavioral inhibition system theory of personality that trait anxiety is positively related to the speed of acquisition of punishment expectancies and impulsivity is positively related to the speed of acquisition of reward expectancies. Both studies used a standard approach-avoidance discrimination task with self-report measures of expectancies. Both studies found support for the hypothesized relation between trait and acquisition of punishment expectancies but not for the hypothesized relation between impulsivity and acquisition of reward expectancies. Study 2 suggested that the relation between trait anxiety and punishment expectancy is affected by the type of incentive and the type of trait anxiety measure used. The results suggest that highly trait anxious individuals are more susceptible to developing new sources of anxiety than others.

  2. Factors Affecting Contrast Sensitivity in Healthy Individuals: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Karatepe, Arzu Seyhan; Köse, Süheyla; Eğrilmez, Sait

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the demographic and ocular features affecting contrast sensitivity levels in healthy individuals. Materials and Methods: Seventy-four eyes of 37 subjects (7-65 years old) with refractive errors less than 1.0 diopter, no history of ocular surgery, and 20/20 visual acuity were included in the study. The participants were divided by age into three groups: group 1, 7-19 years, n=11; group 2, 20-49 years, n=15; and group 3, 50-65 years, n=11. All subjects underwent anterior and posterior segment evaluation, intraocular pressure measurements, refraction measurements, and clinical evaluation for strabismus. Contrast static test was performed using Metrovision MonPack 3 vision monitor system after measuring pupil diameter. Photopic and mesopic measurements were taken sequentially from right eyes, left eyes, and both eyes together. Results: Contrast sensitivity at intermediate and high spatial frequencies was lower with increasing age. Binocular measurements were better than monocular, and mesopic measurements were better than photopic measurements at all spatial frequencies. Contrast sensitivity at higher spatial frequency was lower with hyperopic refraction values. Conclusion: Increasing age, small pupil diameter, hyperopia, and photopic conditions were associated with lower contrast sensitivity in healthy individuals. Binocular contrast sensitivity measurements were better than monocular contrast sensitivity measurements in all conditions and spatial frequencies.

  3. The Relationship between Second-Order False Belief and Display Rules Reasoning: The Integration of Cognitive and Affective Social Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naito, Mika; Seki, Yoshimi

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the relation between cognitive and affective social understanding, Japanese 4- to 8-year-olds received tasks of first- and second-order false beliefs and prosocial and self-presentational display rules. From 6 to 8 years, children comprehended display rules, as well as second-order false belief, using social pressures justifications…

  4. Affective three-dimensional brain-computer interface created using a prism array-based display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mun, Sungchul; Park, Min-Chul

    2014-12-01

    To avoid the vergence-accommodation mismatch and provide a strong sense of presence to users, we applied a prism array-based display when presenting three-dimensional (3-D) objects. Emotional pictures were used as visual stimuli to increase the signal-to-noise ratios of steady-state visually evoked potentials (SSVEPs) because involuntarily motivated selective attention by affective mechanisms can enhance SSVEP amplitudes, thus producing increased interaction efficiency. Ten male and nine female participants voluntarily participated in our experiments. Participants were asked to control objects under three viewing conditions: two-dimension (2-D), stereoscopic 3-D, and prism. The participants performed each condition in a counter-balanced order. One-way repeated measures analysis of variance showed significant increases in the positive predictive values in the prism condition compared to the 2-D and 3-D conditions. Participants' subjective ratings of realness and engagement were also significantly greater in the prism condition than in the 2-D and 3-D conditions, while the ratings for visual fatigue were significantly reduced in the prism condition than in the 3-D condition. The proposed methods are expected to enhance the sense of reality in 3-D space without causing critical visual fatigue. In addition, people who are especially susceptible to stereoscopic 3-D may be able to use the affective brain-computer interface.

  5. Age and Individual Differences in Controlled Force Exertion Measured by a Computer-Generated Sinusoidal and Quasi-Random Display

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagasawa, Yoshinori; Demura, Shinichi

    2010-01-01

    This study examined age group and individual differences in controlled force exertion by emulating sinusoidal and quasi-random waveforms in 222 right-handed female adults aged 20 to 86 years. The subjects matched their submaximal grip strength by the dominant hand to changing demand values displayed as either a sinusoidal or a quasi-random…

  6. An Analysis of Functional Communication Training as an Empirically Supported Treatment for Problem Behavior Displayed by Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurtz, Patricia F.; Boelter, Eric W.; Jarmolowicz, David P.; Chin, Michelle D.; Hagopian, Louis P.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the literature on the use of functional communication training (FCT) as a treatment for problem behavior displayed by individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID). Criteria for empirically supported treatments developed by Divisions 12 and 16 of the American Psychological Association (Kratochwill & Stoiber, 2002; Task Force,…

  7. Individual Differences: Factors Affecting Employee Utilization of Flexible Work Arrangements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Alysa D.; Marler, Janet H.; Gueutal, Hal G.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated individual and organizational factors that predict an individual's choice to use flexible work arrangements (FWAs). Survey data was collected from 144 employees in two different organizations. The results revealed several significant predictors of FWAs: tenure, hours worked per week, supervisory responsibilities,…

  8. Physical Activity Affects Brain Integrity in HIV + Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Ortega, Mario; Baker, Laurie M.; Vaida, Florin; Paul, Robert; Basco, Brian; Ances, Beau M.

    2015-01-01

    Prior research has suggested benefits of aerobic physical activity (PA) on cognition and brain volumes in HIV uninfected (HIV−) individuals, however, few studies have explored the relationships between PA and brain integrity (cognition and structural brain volumes) in HIV-infected (HIV +) individuals. Seventy HIV + individuals underwent neuropsychological testing, structural neuroimaging, laboratory tests, and completed a PA questionnaire, recalling participation in walking, running, and jogging activities over the last year. A PA engagement score of weekly metabolic equivalent (MET) hr of activity was calculated using a compendium of PAs. HIV + individuals were classified as physically active (any energy expended above resting expenditure, n = 22) or sedentary (n = 48). Comparisons of neuropsychological performance, grouped by executive and motor domains, and brain volumes were completed between groups. Physically active and sedentary HIV + individuals had similar demographic and laboratory values, but the active group had higher education (14.0 vs. 12.6 years, p = .034). Physically active HIV + individuals performed better on executive (p = .040, unadjusted; p = .043, adjusted) but not motor function (p = .17). In addition, among the physically active group the amount of physical activity (METs) positively correlated with executive (Pearson’s r = 0.45, p = 0.035) but not motor (r = 0.21; p = .35) performance. In adjusted analyses the physically active HIV + individuals had larger putamen volumes (p = .019). A positive relationship exists between PA and brain integrity in HIV + individuals. Results from the present study emphasize the importance to conduct longitudinal interventional investigation to determine if PA improves brain integrity in HIV + individuals. PMID:26581799

  9. He throws like a girl (but only when he's sad): emotion affects sex-decoding of biological motion displays.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Kerri L; McKay, Lawrie S; Pollick, Frank E

    2011-05-01

    Gender stereotypes have been implicated in sex-typed perceptions of facial emotion. Such interpretations were recently called into question because facial cues of emotion are confounded with sexually dimorphic facial cues. Here we examine the role of visual cues and gender stereotypes in perceptions of biological motion displays, thus overcoming the morphological confounding inherent in facial displays. In four studies, participants' judgments revealed gender stereotyping. Observers accurately perceived emotion from biological motion displays (Study 1), and this affected sex categorizations. Angry displays were overwhelmingly judged to be men; sad displays were judged to be women (Studies 2-4). Moreover, this pattern remained strong when stimuli were equated for velocity (Study 3). We argue that these results were obtained because perceivers applied gender stereotypes of emotion to infer sex category (Study 4). Implications for both vision sciences and social psychology are discussed.

  10. Stimulus characteristics affect humor processing in individuals with Asperger syndrome.

    PubMed

    Samson, Andrea C; Hegenloh, Michael

    2010-04-01

    The present paper aims to investigate whether individuals with Asperger syndrome (AS) show global humor processing deficits or whether humor comprehension and appreciation depends on stimulus characteristics. Non-verbal visual puns, semantic and Theory of Mind cartoons were rated on comprehension, funniness and the punchlines were explained. AS individuals did not differ to the control group in humor appreciation of visual puns. However, they had difficulty understanding and appreciating Theory of Mind cartoons and provided mentalistic explanations less frequently than controls suggesting that humor processing is strongly related to the cognitive requirements that the stimuli pose on the perceiver. Furthermore, AS individuals referred in all conditions more frequently to non-joke relevant details. Therefore, humor processing is also influenced by their detail-oriented processing style.

  11. Thinking about the Weather: How Display Salience and Knowledge Affect Performance in a Graphic Inference Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hegarty, Mary; Canham, Matt S.; Fabrikant, Sara I.

    2010-01-01

    Three experiments examined how bottom-up and top-down processes interact when people view and make inferences from complex visual displays (weather maps). Bottom-up effects of display design were investigated by manipulating the relative visual salience of task-relevant and task-irrelevant information across different maps. Top-down effects of…

  12. Viral Metagenomic Analysis Displays the Co-Infection Situation in Healthy and PMWS Affected Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Fossum, Caroline; Wallgren, Per; Berg, Mikael

    2016-01-01

    The development of high-throughput sequencing technologies have allowed the possibility to investigate and characterise the entire microbiome of individuals, providing better insight to the complex interaction between different microorganisms. This will help to understand how the microbiome influence the susceptibility of secondary agents and development of disease. We have applied viral metagenomics to investigate the virome of lymph nodes from Swedish pigs suffering from the multifactorial disease postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) as well as from healthy pigs. The aim is to increase knowledge of potential viruses, apart from porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), involved in PMWS development as well as to increase knowledge on the virome of healthy individuals. In healthy individuals, a diverse viral flora was seen with several different viruses present simultaneously. The majority of the identified viruses were small linear and circular DNA viruses, such as different circoviruses, anelloviruses and bocaviruses. In the pigs suffering from PMWS, PCV2 sequences were, as expected, detected to a high extent but other viruses were also identified in the background of PCV2. Apart from DNA viruses also RNA viruses were identified, among them were a porcine pestivirus showing high similarity to a recently (in 2015) discovered atypical porcine pestivirus in the US. Majority of the viruses identified in the background of PCV2 in PMWS pigs could also be identified in the healthy pigs. PCV2 sequences were also identified in the healthy pigs but to a much lower extent than in PMWS affected pigs. Although the method used here is not quantitative the very clear difference in amount of PCV2 sequences in PMWS affected pigs and healthy pigs most likely reflect the very strong replication of PCV2 known to be a hallmark of PMWS. Taken together, these findings illustrate that pigs appear to have a considerable viral flora consisting to a large extent of small single

  13. Population coding of affect across stimuli, modalities and individuals

    PubMed Central

    Chikazoe, Junichi; Lee, Daniel H.; Kriegeskorte, Nikolaus; Anderson, Adam K.

    2014-01-01

    It remains unclear how the brain represents external objective sensory events alongside our internal subjective impressions of them—affect. Representational mapping of population level activity evoked by complex scenes and basic tastes uncovered a neural code supporting a continuous axis of pleasant-to-unpleasant valence. This valence code was distinct from low-level physical and high-level object properties. While ventral temporal and anterior insular cortices supported valence codes specific to vision and taste, both the medial and lateral orbitofrontal cortices (OFC), maintained a valence code independent of sensory origin. Further only the OFC code could classify experienced affect across participants. The entire valence spectrum is represented as a collective pattern in regional neural activity as sensory-specific and abstract codes, whereby the subjective quality of affect can be objectively quantified across stimuli, modalities, and people. PMID:24952643

  14. Cybersickness provoked by head-mounted display affects cutaneous vascular tone, heart rate and reaction time.

    PubMed

    Nalivaiko, Eugene; Davis, Simon L; Blackmore, Karen L; Vakulin, Andrew; Nesbitt, Keith V

    2015-11-01

    Evidence from studies of provocative motion indicates that motion sickness is tightly linked to the disturbances of thermoregulation. The major aim of the current study was to determine whether provocative visual stimuli (immersion into the virtual reality simulating rides on a rollercoaster) affect skin temperature that reflects thermoregulatory cutaneous responses, and to test whether such stimuli alter cognitive functions. In 26 healthy young volunteers wearing head-mounted display (Oculus Rift), simulated rides consistently provoked vection and nausea, with a significant difference between the two versions of simulation software (Parrot Coaster and Helix). Basal finger temperature had bimodal distribution, with low-temperature group (n=8) having values of 23-29 °C, and high-temperature group (n=18) having values of 32-36 °C. Effects of cybersickness on finger temperature depended on the basal level of this variable: in subjects from former group it raised by 3-4 °C, while in most subjects from the latter group it either did not change or transiently reduced by 1.5-2 °C. There was no correlation between the magnitude of changes in the finger temperature and nausea score at the end of simulated ride. Provocative visual stimulation caused prolongation of simple reaction time by 20-50 ms; this increase closely correlated with the subjective rating of nausea. Lastly, in subjects who experienced pronounced nausea, heart rate was elevated. We conclude that cybersickness is associated with changes in cutaneous thermoregulatory vascular tone; this further supports the idea of a tight link between motion sickness and thermoregulation. Cybersickness-induced prolongation of reaction time raises obvious concerns regarding the safety of this technology.

  15. Stimulus Characteristics Affect Humor Processing in Individuals with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samson, Andrea C.; Hegenloh, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The present paper aims to investigate whether individuals with Asperger syndrome (AS) show global humor processing deficits or whether humor comprehension and appreciation depends on stimulus characteristics. Non-verbal visual puns, semantic and Theory of Mind cartoons were rated on comprehension, funniness and the punchlines were explained. AS…

  16. Thinking about the weather: How display salience and knowledge affect performance in a graphic inference task.

    PubMed

    Hegarty, Mary; Canham, Matt S; Fabrikant, Sara I

    2010-01-01

    Three experiments examined how bottom-up and top-down processes interact when people view and make inferences from complex visual displays (weather maps). Bottom-up effects of display design were investigated by manipulating the relative visual salience of task-relevant and task-irrelevant information across different maps. Top-down effects of domain knowledge were investigated by examining performance and eye fixations before and after participants learned relevant meteorological principles. Map design and knowledge interacted such that salience had no effect on performance before participants learned the meteorological principles; however, after learning, participants were more accurate if they viewed maps that made task-relevant information more visually salient. Effects of display design on task performance were somewhat dissociated from effects of display design on eye fixations. The results support a model in which eye fixations are directed primarily by top-down factors (task and domain knowledge). They suggest that good display design facilitates performance not just by guiding where viewers look in a complex display but also by facilitating processing of the visual features that represent task-relevant information at a given display location. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Factors affecting the identification of individual mountain bongo antelope

    PubMed Central

    Bindemann, Markus; Roberts, David L.

    2015-01-01

    The recognition of individuals forms the basis of many endangered species monitoring protocols. This process typically relies on manual recognition techniques. This study aimed to calculate a measure of the error rates inherent within the manual technique and also sought to identify visual traits that aid identification, using the critically endangered mountain bongo, Tragelaphus eurycerus isaaci, as a model system. Identification accuracy was assessed with a matching task that required same/different decisions to side-by-side pairings of individual bongos. Error rates were lowest when only the flanks of bongos were shown, suggesting that the inclusion of other visual traits confounded accuracy. Accuracy was also higher for photographs of captive animals than camera-trap images, and in observers experienced in working with mountain bongos, than those unfamiliar with the sub-species. These results suggest that the removal of non-essential morphological traits from photographs of bongos, the use of high-quality images, and relevant expertise all help increase identification accuracy. Finally, given the rise in automated identification and the use of citizen science, something our results would suggest is applicable within the context of the mountain bongo, this study provides a framework for assessing their accuracy in individual as well as species identification. PMID:26587336

  18. Predicting individual affect of health interventions to reduce HPV prevalence.

    PubMed

    Corley, Courtney D; Mihalcea, Rada; Mikler, Armin R; Sanfilippo, Antonio P

    2011-01-01

    Recently, human papilloma virus (HPV) has been implicated to cause several throat and oral cancers and HPV is established to cause most cervical cancers. A human papilloma virus vaccine has been proven successful to reduce infection incidence in FDA clinical trials, and it is currently available in the USA. Current intervention policy targets adolescent females for vaccination; however, the expansion of suggested guidelines may extend to other age groups and males as well. This research takes a first step toward automatically predicting personal beliefs, regarding health intervention, on the spread of disease. Using linguistic or statistical approaches, sentiment analysis determines a text's affective content. Self-reported HPV vaccination beliefs published in web and social media are analyzed for affect polarity and leveraged as knowledge inputs to epidemic models. With this in mind, we have developed a discrete-time model to facilitate predicting impact on the reduction of HPV prevalence due to arbitrary age- and gender-targeted vaccination schemes.

  19. Predicting Individual Affect of Health Interventions to Reduce HPV Prevalence

    SciTech Connect

    Corley, Courtney D.; Mihalcea, Rada; Mikler, Armin R.; Sanfilippo, Antonio P.

    2011-04-01

    Recently, human papilloma virus has been implicated to cause several throat and oral cancers and hpv is established to cause most cervical cancers. A human papilloma virus vaccine has been proven successful to reduce infection incidence in FDA clinical trials and it is currently available in the United States. Current intervention policy targets adolescent females for vaccination; however, the expansion of suggested guidelines may extend to other age groups and males as well. This research takes a first step towards automatically predicting personal beliefs, regarding health intervention, on the spread of disease. Using linguistic or statistical approaches, sentiment analysis determines a texts affective content. Self-reported HPV vaccination beliefs published in web and social media are analyzed for affect polarity and leveraged as knowledge inputs to epidemic models. With this in mind, we have developed a discrete-time model to facilitate predicting impact on the reduction of HPV prevalence due to arbitrary age and gender targeted vaccination schemes.

  20. Autoantibody‐Positive Healthy Individuals Display Unique Immune Profiles That May Regulate Autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Slight‐Webb, Samantha; Lu, Rufei; Ritterhouse, Lauren L.; Munroe, Melissa E.; Maecker, Holden T.; Fathman, Charles G.; Utz, Paul J.; Merrill, Joan T.; Guthridge, Joel M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Antinuclear antibodies (ANAs) are detected in ∼18% of females, yet autoimmune disease develops in only 5–8%. Immunologic differences between ANA‐positive healthy individuals and patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) may elucidate the regulatory mechanisms by which ANA‐positive individuals avoid transition to clinical autoimmune disease. Methods Healthy individuals (n = 790) were screened for autoantibodies specific for 11 antigens associated with lupus, systemic sclerosis, and Sjögren's syndrome. From this screening, 31 European American ANA‐positive healthy individuals were selected and demographically matched to ANA‐negative controls and SLE patients. Serum cytokine profiles, leukocyte subset frequency, and reactivity were analyzed by multiplex assays, immunophenotyping, and phosphospecific flow cytometry. Results Of 790 individuals screened, 57 (7%) were ANA‐positive. The majority of proinflammatory cytokines, including interferon‐γ (IFNγ), tumor necrosis factor, interleukin‐17 (IL‐17), and granulocyte colony‐stimulating factor, exhibited a stepwise increase in serum levels from ANA‐negative controls to ANA‐positive healthy individuals to SLE patients (P < 0.0001). IFNα, IFNβ, IL‐12p40, and stem cell factor/c‐Kit ligand were increased in SLE patients only (P < 0.05). B lymphocyte stimulator (BlyS) was elevated in SLE patients but decreased in ANA‐positive individuals (P < 0.001). Further, IL‐1 receptor antagonist (IL‐1Ra) was down‐regulated in SLE patients only (P < 0.0001). ANA‐positive individuals had increased frequencies of monocytes, memory B cells, and plasmablasts and increased levels of pSTAT‐1 and pSTAT‐3 following IFNα stimulation compared with ANA‐negative controls (P < 0.05). Conclusion ANA‐positive healthy individuals exhibit dysregulation in multiple immune pathways yet differ from SLE patients by the absence of elevated IFNs, BLyS, IL‐12p40, and stem cell factor

  1. Teachers' Affective Presentation of Children's Books and Young Children's Display of Affective Engagement during Classroom Book Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moschovaki, Eleni; Meadows, Sara; Pellegrini, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    This study examines how teachers' use of affective strategies (voice intonation, dramatization, personal involvement comments) during the reading and discussion of books influence young children's affective reactions (dramatization, personal engagement, language play comments). Twenty kindergarten teachers read four books, two fiction and two…

  2. Affective imaging: psychological and physiological reactions to individually chosen images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorovskaya, Elena A.; Miller, Paige; Prabhu, Girish; Horwitz, Cecelia; Matraszek, Tomasz; Parks, Peter; Blazey, Richard; Endrikhovski, Serguei

    2001-06-01

    In a series of experiments, observers' cognitive and psychophysiological responses to pictorial stimuli were evaluated. In the first experiment, subjects were viewing a set of randomly presented images. After each image presentation, they rates every image on a number of cognitive scales. In the second experiment, images producing certain physiological effects - deactivating, neutral, or activating - were individually selected based on the results of the first experiment and shown to the subjects again. Psychophysiological measurements included electrocardiogram, hand temperature, muscle tension, eye movements, blood oxygen, respiration, and galvanic skin response. Our result indicate that images produced significant emotional changes based on verbal and physiological assessment. The changes were in agreement with the predictions derived from the metric that we developed in a number of cases that exceeded the change level. The direction of changes corresponded to previous findings reported elsewhere.

  3. Factors affecting individual injury experience among petroleum drilling workers.

    PubMed

    Mueller, B A; Mohr, D L; Rice, J C; Clemmer, D I

    1987-02-01

    To identify factors affecting the number of injuries experienced by petroleum drilling workers, we carried out a 44-month incidence density study on a cohort employed in January 1979 on mobile drilling units in the Gulf of Mexico. To control for job-related hazards, we computed a standardized ratio of observed to expected injuries for each worker based on his job history. The effect of personal and work history factors was then examined using analysis of variance. Age, rate of job changes, and rate of rig transfers had independent effects on injury rates. Length of service had little effect when age was controlled. The findings suggest that younger workers under stress such as job change may be more susceptible to injury than older workers, regardless of job. If so, targeted changes in procedures and environment which protect workers of all ages are important alternatives to reliance on supervision and experience in injury reduction.

  4. Individual Flagellar Waveform Affects Collective Behavior of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Kage, Azusa; Mogami, Yoshihiro

    2015-08-01

    Bioconvection is a form of collective motion that occurs spontaneously in the suspension of swimming microorganisms. In a previous study, we quantitatively described the "pattern transition," a phase transition phenomenon that so far has exclusively been observed in bioconvection of the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas. We suggested that the transition could be induced by changes in the balance between the gravitational and shear-induced torques, both of which act to determine the orientation of the organism in the shear flow. As both of the torques should be affected by the geometry of the Chlamydomonas cell, alteration in the flagellar waveform might change the extent of torque generation by altering overall geometry of the cell. Based on this working hypothesis, we examined bioconvection behavior of two flagellar mutants of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, ida1 and oda2, making reference to the wild type. Flagella of ida1 beat with an abnormal waveform, while flagella of oda2 show a normal waveform but lower beat frequency. As a result, both mutants had swimming speed of less than 50% of the wild type. ida1 formed bioconvection patterns with smaller spacing than those of wild type and oda2. Two-axis view revealed the periodic movement of the settling blobs of ida1, while oda2 showed qualitatively similar behavior to that of wild type. Unexpectedly, ida1 showed stronger negative gravitaxis than did wild type, while oda2 showed relatively weak gravitaxis. These findings suggest that flagellar waveform, not swimming speed or beat frequency, strongly affect bioconvection behavior in C. reinhardtii.

  5. Head-up displays and their automotive application: an overview of human factors issues affecting safety.

    PubMed

    Ward, N J; Parkes, A

    1994-12-01

    In response to the recent innovations to use head-up displays (HUDs) in vehicles, this paper discusses the relevant human factors issues arising from this display format and the potential safety implications. A review is made of the relevant HUD literature, primarily from the aviation field. The primary issues for automotive HUDs relevant to system performance and safety in the driving task involve interference from background scene complexity, system novelty, user perceptual style, cognitive disruption, and perceptual tunnelling. Basic research is necessary to investigate the extent of these issues as well as to resolve fundamental design specifications (e.g. HUD size, shape, placement, information content). It is suggested that the introduction of HUDs into vehicles be carefully considered. This will necessitate not only the reconsideration what constitutes an in-vehicle display, but also what constitutes the information to be conveyed.

  6. Affective determinants of anxiety and depression development in children and adolescents: an individual growth curve analysis.

    PubMed

    De Bolle, Marleen; De Clercq, Barbara; Decuyper, Mieke; De Fruyt, Filip

    2011-12-01

    The tripartite model (in Clark and Watson, J Abnorm Psychol 100:316-336, 1991) comprises Negative Affect (NA), Positive Affect (PA), and Physiological Hyperarousal (PH), three temperamental-based dimensions. The current study examined the tripartite model's assumptions that (a) NA interacts with PA to predict subsequent depressive (but not anxiety) symptom developments and (b) NA interacts with PH to predict subsequent anxiety (but not depressive) symptom developments in a sample of 243 community and referred children and adolescents (42.8% boys; M age = 10.87 years, SD = 1.83). Results confirmed that individuals with a combined high NA/low PA profile display the least favorable course of depressive -but not anxiety- symptoms. In contrast with the model, the combination of NA and PH influenced the development of depression, but not anxiety. Relations were not moderated by sex or sample. Results revealed that the assessment of the tripartite components is warranted as it can help to identify children at risk for an unfavorable depressive symptom course.

  7. Vibrotactile Discrimination Training Affects Brain Connectivity in Profoundly Deaf Individuals.

    PubMed

    González-Garrido, Andrés A; Ruiz-Stovel, Vanessa D; Gómez-Velázquez, Fabiola R; Vélez-Pérez, Hugo; Romo-Vázquez, Rebeca; Salido-Ruiz, Ricardo A; Espinoza-Valdez, Aurora; Campos, Luis R

    2017-01-01

    Early auditory deprivation has serious neurodevelopmental and cognitive repercussions largely derived from impoverished and delayed language acquisition. These conditions may be associated with early changes in brain connectivity. Vibrotactile stimulation is a sensory substitution method that allows perception and discrimination of sound, and even speech. To clarify the efficacy of this approach, a vibrotactile oddball task with 700 and 900 Hz pure-tones as stimuli [counterbalanced as target (T: 20% of the total) and non-target (NT: 80%)] with simultaneous EEG recording was performed by 14 profoundly deaf and 14 normal-hearing (NH) subjects, before and after a short training period (five 1-h sessions; in 2.5-3 weeks). A small device worn on the right index finger delivered sound-wave stimuli. The training included discrimination of pure tone frequency and duration, and more complex natural sounds. A significant P300 amplitude increase and behavioral improvement was observed in both deaf and normal subjects, with no between group differences. However, a P3 with larger scalp distribution over parietal cortical areas and lateralized to the right was observed in the profoundly deaf. A graph theory analysis showed that brief training significantly increased fronto-central brain connectivity in deaf subjects, but not in NH subjects. Together, ERP tools and graph methods depicted the different functional brain dynamic in deaf and NH individuals, underlying the temporary engagement of the cognitive resources demanded by the task. Our findings showed that the index-fingertip somatosensory mechanoreceptors can discriminate sounds. Further studies are necessary to clarify brain connectivity dynamics associated with the performance of vibrotactile language-related discrimination tasks and the effect of lengthier training programs.

  8. Vibrotactile Discrimination Training Affects Brain Connectivity in Profoundly Deaf Individuals

    PubMed Central

    González-Garrido, Andrés A.; Ruiz-Stovel, Vanessa D.; Gómez-Velázquez, Fabiola R.; Vélez-Pérez, Hugo; Romo-Vázquez, Rebeca; Salido-Ruiz, Ricardo A.; Espinoza-Valdez, Aurora; Campos, Luis R.

    2017-01-01

    Early auditory deprivation has serious neurodevelopmental and cognitive repercussions largely derived from impoverished and delayed language acquisition. These conditions may be associated with early changes in brain connectivity. Vibrotactile stimulation is a sensory substitution method that allows perception and discrimination of sound, and even speech. To clarify the efficacy of this approach, a vibrotactile oddball task with 700 and 900 Hz pure-tones as stimuli [counterbalanced as target (T: 20% of the total) and non-target (NT: 80%)] with simultaneous EEG recording was performed by 14 profoundly deaf and 14 normal-hearing (NH) subjects, before and after a short training period (five 1-h sessions; in 2.5–3 weeks). A small device worn on the right index finger delivered sound-wave stimuli. The training included discrimination of pure tone frequency and duration, and more complex natural sounds. A significant P300 amplitude increase and behavioral improvement was observed in both deaf and normal subjects, with no between group differences. However, a P3 with larger scalp distribution over parietal cortical areas and lateralized to the right was observed in the profoundly deaf. A graph theory analysis showed that brief training significantly increased fronto-central brain connectivity in deaf subjects, but not in NH subjects. Together, ERP tools and graph methods depicted the different functional brain dynamic in deaf and NH individuals, underlying the temporary engagement of the cognitive resources demanded by the task. Our findings showed that the index-fingertip somatosensory mechanoreceptors can discriminate sounds. Further studies are necessary to clarify brain connectivity dynamics associated with the performance of vibrotactile language-related discrimination tasks and the effect of lengthier training programs. PMID:28220063

  9. Individually programmable cell stretching microwell arrays actuated by a Braille display.

    PubMed

    Kamotani, Yoko; Bersano-Begey, Tommaso; Kato, Nobuhiro; Tung, Yi-Chung; Huh, Dongeun; Song, Jonathan W; Takayama, Shuichi

    2008-06-01

    Cell culture systems are often static and are therefore nonphysiological. In vivo, many cells are exposed to dynamic surroundings that stimulate cellular responses in a process known as mechanotransduction. To recreate this environment, stretchable cell culture substrate systems have been developed, however, these systems are limited by being macroscopic and low throughput. We have developed a device consisting of 24 miniature cell stretching chambers with flexible bottom membranes that are deformed using the computer-controlled, piezoelectrically actuated pins of a Braille display. We have also developed efficient image capture and analysis protocols to quantify morphological responses of the cells to applied strain. Human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDMECs) were found to show increasing degrees of alignment and elongation perpendicular to the radial strain in response to cyclic stretch at increasing frequencies of 0.2, 1, and 5 Hz, after 2, 4, and 12h. Mouse myogenic C2C12 cells were also found to align in response to the stretch, while A549 human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cells did not respond to stretch.

  10. Contextualizing Mathematics Related Affect: Significance of Students' Individual and Social Level Affect in Finland and Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuohilampi, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Mathematics related affect turn from positive to negative during comprehensive school years worldwide. There is a clear need to find solutions to the problem. However, some gaps and problems appear in the methodologies and the common approaches used in the field. This article discusses five studies addressing affective development, challenges some…

  11. Flowering synchrony and floral display size affect pollination success in a deceit-pollinated tropical orchid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parra-Tabla, Victor; Vargas, Carlos F.

    2007-07-01

    ue to frequency-dependent negative selection, a strong relationship between reproductive phenology traits and pollination success is expected in deceit-pollinated species. This paper assesses the effects of floral display size on both female (fruit production) and male (pollen removal) pollination success in a population of the deceit-pollinated tropical orchid Myrmecophila christinae during two consecutive years (1998-1999). Low pollen removal (˜9% of total flowers) and fruit production values (˜3% of total flowers) were recorded during both years. As expected, binary logistic regressions showed a significant negative effect of floral synchrony, and a positive effect of floral display size on both male and female success, although these effects varied across years. Pollination rates in the field and in hand pollinations suggest a doubling in pollinator abundance between years. Results suggest that floral display size and flowering synchrony are of adaptive value for M. christinae. However, between-year fluctuations might indicate that reproductive phenology traits in deceit-pollinated species undergo fluctuating selection regimes among years and are probably linked to short-term changes in environmental (abiotic and biotic) conditions.

  12. Individuals with the dominant hand affected following stroke demonstrate less impairment than those with the non-dominant hand affected

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Jocelyn E; Eng, Janice J

    2012-01-01

    Objective The purpose was to determine if upper extremity impairment and function in individuals with chronic stroke is dependent upon whether the dominant or non-dominant hand is affected. Methods Ninety-three community-dwelling individuals with stroke. The Modified Ashworth Scale (tone), hand held dynamometry (isometric strength), monofilaments (sensation), Brief Pain Inventory (pain), Chedoke Arm and Hand Activity Inventory and Motor Activity Log (paretic arm use), and Reintegration to Normal Living Index (participation) were used to form impairment and function models. Results MANOVA models (DOMINANCE x SEVERITY) were created for impairment and function variables. There was a significant interaction and main effect of DOMINANCE for the impairment model (p=0.01) but not the function model (p=0.75). The dependent variables of tone, grip strength and pain were all significantly affected by DOMINANCE, indicating less impairment if the dominant hand was affected. All dependent variables except pain were affected by SEVERITY. Conclusion This study looked at the effect of the dominant hand being affected versus the non-dominant in individuals with chronic stroke. Individuals with the dominant hand affected demonstrated less impairment than those with the non-dominant hand affected. However, there was no effect of dominance on paretic arm use or performance in activities of daily living. Prospective studies to further explore the issue of hand dominance and post stroke function are suggested. PMID:16885424

  13. The CD27+ memory B cells display changes in the gene expression pattern in elderly individuals

    PubMed Central

    Báez, Alicia; Álvarez-Laderas, Isabel; Piruat, José I; Caballero-Velázquez, Teresa; Barbado, María Victoria; Millán-Uclés, África; Medrano, Mayte; García-Guerrero, Estefanía; Sánchez-Abarca, Luis Ignacio; Pérez-Simón, José Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Memory B cells (MBCs) have a long lifespan compared with naive B cells (NBCs), remaining viable for years. This could predispose them to suffer misbalances in the gene expression pattern in the long term, which might be involved in the development of age-related B-cell disorders. In order to identify genes whose expression might change during life, we analysed the gene expression patterns of CD27− NBCs versus CD27+ MBCs in young and old subjects. Using microarray assays we observed that the expression pattern of CD27− NBCs versus CD27+ MBCs is significantly different. Furthermore, to evaluate the age effect, we compared the gene expression pattern of young versus aged subjects in both cell populations. Interestingly, we did not find significant differences in the CD27− NBC population between young and aged individuals, whereas we found 925 genes differentially expressed in CD27+ MBCs. Among these genes, 193 were also differentially expressed in CD27+ MBCs compared with CD27− NBCs, most of them involved in cell survival, cell growth and proliferation, cellular development and gene expression. We conclude that gene expression profiles of CD27− NBCs and CD27+ MBCs are different. Moreover, whereas the gene expression pattern of CD27+ MBCs varies with age, the same does not happen in CD27− NBCs. This suggests that MBCs undergo time-dependent changes, which could underlie a higher susceptibility to dysfunction with age. PMID:25196729

  14. Factors Affecting "Ghosting" In Time-Multiplexed Piano-Stereoscopic Crt Display Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipton, Lenny

    1987-06-01

    Two factors contributing to "ghosting" (image doubling) in plano-stereoscopic CRT displays are phosphor decay and dynamic range of the shutters. A ghosting threshold must be crossed before comfortable fusion can take place. The ghosting threshold changes as image brightness increases and with higher-contrast subjects and those with larger parallax values. Because of the defects of existing liquid crystal shutters, we developed a liquid-crystal shutter with high dynamic range, good transmission, and high speed. With these shutters, residual ghosting is a result of phosphor persistence.

  15. Androgen receptor expression and morphology of forebrain and neuromuscular systems in male green anoles displaying individual differences in sexual behavior

    PubMed Central

    Neal, Jennifer K.; Wade, Juli

    2010-01-01

    Investigating individual differences in sexual performance in unmanipulated males is important for understanding natural relationships between behavior and morphology, and the mechanisms regulating them. Among male green anole lizards, some court and copulate frequently (studs) and others do not (duds). To evaluate potential factors underlying differences in the level of these behaviors, morphology and androgen receptor expression in neuromuscular courtship and copulatory structures, as well as in the preoptic area and amygdala, were compared in males displaying varying degrees of sexual function. This study revealed that individual differences in behavior among unmanipulated males, in particular the extension of a throat fan (dewlap) used during courtship, were positively correlated with the size of fibers in the associated muscle and with soma size in the amygdala. The physiological response to testosterone, as indicated by the height of cells in an androgen-sensitive portion of the kidney, was also correlated with male sexual behavior, and predicted it better than plasma androgen levels. Androgen receptor expression was not related to the display of courtship or copulation in any of the tissues examined. The present data indicate that higher levels of male courtship behavior result in (or are the result of) enhanced courtship muscle and amygdala morphology, and that androgen-sensitive tissue in studs may be more responsive to testosterone than duds. However, some mechanism(s) other than androgen receptor expression likely confer this difference in responsiveness. PMID:17531996

  16. Visual display of reservoir parameters affecting enhanced oil recovery. Third quarterly report, [April 1995--June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, J.R.

    1995-07-01

    This project will provide a detailed example, based on a field trial, of how to evaluate a field for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) operations utilizing data typically available in a filed that has undergone primary development. The approach will utilize readily available, affordable computer software and analytical services. The GeoGraphix Exploration System (GES) software package was acquired this quarter and installed. Well logging, formation tops and other data are being loaded into the program. We also acquired and installed GeoGraphix`s well-log evaluation package, QLA2. Miocene tops for the entire Pioneer Anticline were loaded into the GES system and contour maps and 3D surface visualizations were constructed. Fault data have been digitized and will soon be loaded into the GeoGraphix mapping module and combined with formation-top data to produce structure maps which will display all fault traces. The versatile program MatLab can be used to perform time series analysis and to produce spatial displays of data. MatLab now has a 3D volume visualization package. In the coming quarter we will test MatLab using Pioneer data set.

  17. Social context affects tail displays by Phrynocephalus vlangalii lizards from China.

    PubMed

    Peters, Richard A; Ramos, Jose A; Hernandez, Juan; Wu, Yayong; Qi, Yin

    2016-08-16

    Competition between animals for limited resources often involves signaling to establish ownership or dominance. In some species, the defended resource relates to suitable thermal conditions and refuge from predators. This is particularly true of burrow-dwelling lizards such as the Qinghai toad-headed agama (Phrynocephalus vlangalii), which are found on the Tibetan plateau of western China. Male and female lizards occupy separate burrows, which are vital for anti-predator behaviour during warmer months when lizards are active and, crucially, provide shelter from harsh winter conditions. These lizards are readily observed signaling by means of tail displays on the sand dunes they inhabit. Given the selective pressure to hold such a resource, both males and females should exhibit territorial behaviour and we considered this study system to examine in detail how social context influences motion based territorial signaling. We confirmed that territorial signaling was used by both sexes, and by adopting a novel strategy that permitted 3D reconstruction of tail displays, we identified significant variation due to social context. However, signal structure was not related to lizard morphology. Clearly, the burrow is a highly valued resource and we suggest that additional variation in signaling behaviour might be mediated by resource quality.

  18. Social context affects tail displays by Phrynocephalus vlangalii lizards from China

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Richard A.; Ramos, Jose A.; Hernandez, Juan; Wu, Yayong; Qi, Yin

    2016-01-01

    Competition between animals for limited resources often involves signaling to establish ownership or dominance. In some species, the defended resource relates to suitable thermal conditions and refuge from predators. This is particularly true of burrow-dwelling lizards such as the Qinghai toad-headed agama (Phrynocephalus vlangalii), which are found on the Tibetan plateau of western China. Male and female lizards occupy separate burrows, which are vital for anti-predator behaviour during warmer months when lizards are active and, crucially, provide shelter from harsh winter conditions. These lizards are readily observed signaling by means of tail displays on the sand dunes they inhabit. Given the selective pressure to hold such a resource, both males and females should exhibit territorial behaviour and we considered this study system to examine in detail how social context influences motion based territorial signaling. We confirmed that territorial signaling was used by both sexes, and by adopting a novel strategy that permitted 3D reconstruction of tail displays, we identified significant variation due to social context. However, signal structure was not related to lizard morphology. Clearly, the burrow is a highly valued resource and we suggest that additional variation in signaling behaviour might be mediated by resource quality. PMID:27526625

  19. Psychopathic and externalizing offenders display dissociable dysfunctions when responding to facial affect

    PubMed Central

    Baskin-Sommers, Arielle R.; Newman, Joseph P.

    2015-01-01

    Despite similarity in their disinhibited behaviors, the cognitive-affective mechanisms that characterize psychopathy and externalizing are relatively distinct. One theoretical perspective suggests that, psychopathy is associated with an early attention bottleneck that precludes the processing of contextual information, leading to a rigid goal-directed focus. Alternatively, externalizing may be associated with an over-allocation of processing resources to motivationally-salient information, which disrupts the use of cognitive control. In this study, male prisoners assessed on psychopathic and externalizing traits performed a new gaze detection task involving affective faces. As predicted, psychopathy but not externalizing was associated with superior performance on the gaze-detection task when the necessity of using contextual affect to regulate goal-directed behavior was minimized. Conversely, externalizing but not psychopathy was associated with increased errors on trials that required participants to use affective expressions, specifically fear, as a cue to inhibit dominant responses. These results have theoretical and applied significance for both psychopathic and externalizing forms of disinhibition. Recognition and utilization of facial affect are important for socialization and interpersonal interactions, therefore, any cognitive-affective processes that interrupt the fluency with which this information is processed may be important for understanding the underpinnings of disinhibition. PMID:24932762

  20. They know the words, but not the music: affective and semantic priming in individuals with psychopathy.

    PubMed

    Blair, K S; Richell, R A; Mitchell, D G V; Leonard, A; Morton, J; Blair, R J R

    2006-08-01

    Previous work has indicated dysfunctional affect-language interactions in individuals with psychopathy through use of the lexical decision task. However, it has been uncertain as to whether these deficits actually reflect impaired affect-language interactions or a more fundamental deficit in general semantic processing. In this study, we examined affective priming and semantic priming (dependent measures were reaction times and error rates) in individuals with psychopathy and comparison individuals, classified according to the psychopathy checklist revised (PCL-R) [Hare, R.D., 1991. The Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised. Multi-Health Systems, Toronto, Ont] Individuals with psychopathy showed significantly less affective priming relative to comparison individuals. In contrast, the two groups showed comparable levels of semantic priming. The results are discussed with reference to current models of psychopathy.

  1. Work related and individual predictors for incident neck pain among office employees working with video display units

    PubMed Central

    Korhonen, T; Ketola, R; Toivonen, R; Luukkonen, R; Hakkanen, M; Viikari-Juntura, E

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To investigate work related and individual factors as predictors for incident neck pain among office employees working with video display units (VDUs). Methods: Employees in three administrative units of a medium sized city in Finland (n = 515) received mailed questionnaires in the baseline survey in 1998 and in the follow up survey in 1999. Response rate for the baseline was 81% (n = 416); respondents who reported neck pain for less than eight days during the preceding 12 months were included into the study cohort as healthy subjects (n = 232). The follow up questionnaire 12 months later was completed by 78% (n = 180). Incident neck cases were those reporting neck pain for at least eight days during the preceding 12 months. Results: The annual incidence of neck pain was 34.4% (95% CI 25.5 to 41.3). Poor physical work environment and poor placement of the keyboard increased the risk of neck pain. Among the individual factors, female sex was a strong predictor. Smoking showed a tendency for an increased risk of neck pain. There was an interaction between mental stress and physical exercise, those with higher mental stress and less physical exercise having especially high risk. Conclusion: In the prevention of neck disorders in office work with a high frequency of VDU tasks, attention should be given to the work environment in general and to the more specific aspects of VDU workstation layout. Physical exercise may prevent neck disorders among sedentary employees. PMID:12819280

  2. Floral display size, conspecific density and florivory affect fruit set in natural populations of Phlox hirsuta, an endangered species

    PubMed Central

    Ruane, Lauren G.; Rotzin, Andrew T.; Congleton, Philip H.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Natural variation in fruit and seed set may be explained by factors that affect the composition of pollen grains on stigmas. Self-incompatible species require compatible outcross pollen grains to produce seeds. The siring success of outcross pollen grains, however, can be hindered if self (or other incompatible) pollen grains co-occur on stigmas. This study identifies factors that determine fruit set in Phlox hirsuta, a self-sterile endangered species that is prone to self-pollination, and its associated fitness costs. Methods Multiple linear regressions were used to identify factors that explain variation in percentage fruit set within three of the five known populations of this endangered species. Florivorous beetle density, petal colour, floral display size, local conspecific density and pre-dispersal seed predation were quantified and their effects on the ability of flowers to produce fruits were assessed. Key Results In all three populations, percentage fruit set decreased as florivorous beetle density increased and as floral display size increased. The effect of floral display size on fruit set, however, often depended on the density of nearby conspecific plants. High local conspecific densities offset – even reversed – the negative effects of floral display size on percentage fruit set. Seed predation by mammals decreased fruit set in one population. Conclusions The results indicate that seed production in P. hirsuta can be maximized by selectively augmenting populations in areas containing isolated large plants, by reducing the population sizes of florivorous beetles and by excluding mammals that consume unripe fruits. PMID:24557879

  3. How the social ecology and social situation shape individuals' affect valence and arousal.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Nina; Ram, Nilam; Conroy, David E; Pincus, Aaron L; Gerstorf, Denis

    2017-04-01

    Many theories highlight the role social contexts play in shaping affective experience. However, little is known about how individuals' social environments influence core affect on short time-scales (e.g., hours). Using experience sampling data from the iSAHIB, wherein 150 adults aged 18 to 89 years reported on 64,213 social interactions (average 6.92 per day, SD = 2.85) across 9 weeks of daily life, we examined how 4 features of individuals' social ecology (between-person differences) and immediate social situations (within-person changes) were associated with core affect-valence and arousal-and how those associations differ with age. Results from multilevel models revealed that familiarity, importance, type of social partner, and gender composition of the social context were associated with affect valence and/or affect arousal. Higher familiarity, higher importance, and same-gender composition were associated with more positive affect valence and higher arousal. Interactions with family and friends were linked to more positive valence whereas nonfamily social partners were linked to higher arousal. Age moderated the associations between importance and affect arousal, and between type of social partner and both dimensions of core affect. Findings align with theoretical propositions, contributing to but also suggesting need for further precision regarding how development shapes the interplay between social context and moment-to-moment affective experience. (PsycINFO Database Record

  4. Transient emotional events and individual affective traits affect emotion recognition in a perceptual decision-making task

    PubMed Central

    Garcia Quesada, Maria; Antico, Lia; Bavelier, Daphne; Vuilleumier, Patrik; Pichon, Swann

    2017-01-01

    Both affective states and personality traits shape how we perceive the social world and interpret emotions. The literature on affective priming has mostly focused on brief influences of emotional stimuli and emotional states on perceptual and cognitive processes. Yet this approach does not fully capture more dynamic processes at the root of emotional states, with such states lingering beyond the duration of the inducing external stimuli. Our goal was to put in perspective three different types of affective states (induced affective states, more sustained mood states and affective traits such as depression and anxiety) and investigate how they may interact and influence emotion perception. Here, we hypothesized that absorption into positive and negative emotional episodes generate sustained affective states that outlast the episode period and bias the interpretation of facial expressions in a perceptual decision-making task. We also investigated how such effects are influenced by more sustained mood states and by individual affect traits (depression and anxiety) and whether they interact. Transient emotional states were induced using movie-clips, after which participants performed a forced-choice emotion classification task with morphed facial expressions ranging from fear to happiness. Using a psychometric approach, we show that negative (vs. neutral) clips increased participants’ propensity to classify ambiguous faces as fearful during several minutes. In contrast, positive movies biased classification toward happiness only for those clips perceived as most absorbing. Negative mood, anxiety and depression had a stronger effect than transient states and increased the propensity to classify ambiguous faces as fearful. These results provide the first evidence that absorption and different temporal dimensions of emotions have a significant effect on how we perceive facial expressions. PMID:28151976

  5. Hard exercise, affect lability, and personality among individuals with bulimia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Brownstone, Lisa M; Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Joiner, Thomas E; Le Grange, Daniel; Mitchell, James E; Crow, Scott J; Peterson, Carol B; Crosby, Ross D; Klein, Marjorie H; Bardone-Cone, Anna M

    2013-12-01

    The current study explores the personality traits of compulsivity (e.g., sense of orderliness and duty to perform tasks completely) and restricted expression (e.g., emotion expression difficulties) as potential moderators of the relation between affect lability and frequency of hard exercise episodes in a sample of individuals with bulimic pathology. Participants were 204 adult females recruited in five Midwestern cities who met criteria for threshold or subthreshold bulimia nervosa (BN). Compulsivity was found to significantly moderate the relation between affect lability and number of hard exercise episodes over the past 28 days, such that among those with high compulsivity, level of affect lability was associated with the number of hard exercise episodes; whereas, among those with low compulsivity, affect lability was not associated with the number of hard exercise episodes. The same pattern of findings emerged for restricted expression; however, this finding approached, but did not reach statistical significance. As such, it appears that affect lability is differentially related to hard exercise among individuals with BN depending upon the level of compulsivity and, to a more limited extent, restricted expression. These results suggest that, for individuals with BN with either compulsivity or restricted expression, focusing treatment on increasing flexibility and/or verbal expression of emotions may help in the context of intense, fluctuating affect.

  6. How Creativity Was Affected by Environmental Factors and Individual Characteristics: A Cross-Cultural Comparison Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deng, Lifang; Wang, Lijuan; Zhao, Yanyun

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore how environmental factors (family environment and school education) and individual characteristics (personality, creative attitudes, and divergent thinking) collectively affect creative achievement of American and Chinese college students. Data were collected from 378 college students in the United States…

  7. Factors Affecting Individual Education Demand at the Entrance to University: Adnan Menderes University Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarpkaya, Ruhi

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this research is to determine the factors affecting individual education demands at the entrance to university. The research is in survey model. The universe of the study consists of 1630 freshmen at the faculties and vocational schools of Adnan Menderes University, Aydin. 574 students from 7 schools were included in the sample. The…

  8. Individual and Technological Factors Affecting Undergraduates' Use of Mobile Technology in University of Ilorin, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olufunmilola Ogulande, Oyeronke; Oladimeji Olafare, Festus; Ayuba Sakaba, Dabo

    2016-01-01

    The proliferation and utilization of handheld mobile technology among undergraduates for mobile learning cannot be underestimated. This study was geared towards investigating individual and technological factors affecting the perceived usefulness of mobile technology by undergraduates in university of Ilorin, Nigeria. The study was a descriptive…

  9. Emotional intelligence: a theoretical framework for individual differences in affective forecasting.

    PubMed

    Hoerger, Michael; Chapman, Benjamin P; Epstein, Ronald M; Duberstein, Paul R

    2012-08-01

    Only recently have researchers begun to examine individual differences in affective forecasting. The present investigation was designed to make a theoretical contribution to this emerging literature by examining the role of emotional intelligence in affective forecasting. Emotional intelligence was hypothesized to be associated with affective forecasting accuracy, memory for emotional reactions, and subsequent improvement on an affective forecasting task involving emotionally evocative pictures. Results from two studies (N = 511) supported our hypotheses. Emotional intelligence was associated with accuracy in predicting, encoding, and consolidating emotional reactions. Furthermore, emotional intelligence was associated with greater improvement on a second affective forecasting task, with the relationship explained by basic memory processes. Implications for future research on basic and applied decision making are discussed.

  10. Emotional Intelligence: A Theoretical Framework for Individual Differences in Affective Forecasting

    PubMed Central

    Hoerger, Michael; Chapman, Benjamin P.; Epstein, Ronald M.; Duberstein, Paul R.

    2011-01-01

    Only recently have researchers begun to examine individual differences in affective forecasting. The present investigation was designed to make a theoretical contribution to this emerging literature by examining the role of emotional intelligence in affective forecasting. Emotional intelligence was hypothesized to be associated with affective forecasting accuracy, memory for emotional reactions, and subsequent improvement on an affective forecasting task involving emotionally-evocative pictures. Results from two studies (N = 511) supported our hypotheses. Emotional intelligence was associated with accuracy in predicting, encoding, and consolidating emotional reactions. Furthermore, emotional intelligence was associated with greater improvement on a second affective forecasting task, with the relationship explained by basic memory processes. Implications for future research on basic and applied decision making are discussed. PMID:22251053

  11. The phenotypic spectrum of Schaaf-Yang syndrome – 18 new affected individuals from 14 families

    PubMed Central

    Fountain, Michael D.; Aten, Emmelien; Cho, Megan T.; Juusola, Jane; Walkiewicz, Magdalena A.; Ray, Joseph W.; Xia, Fan; Yang, Yaping; Graham, Brett H.; Bacino, Carlos A.; Potocki, Lorraine; van Haeringen, Arie; Ruivenkamp, Claudia A.L.; Mancias, Pedro; Northrup, Hope; Kukolich, Mary K.; Weiss, Marjan M.; van Ravenswaaij-Arts, Conny M.A.; Mathijssen, Inge B.; Levesque, Sebastien; Meeks, Naomi; Rosenfeld, Jill A.; Lemke, Danielle; Hamosh, Ada; Lewis, Suzanne K.; Race, Simone; Stewart, Laura L.; Hay, Beverly; Lewis, Andrea M.; Guerreiro, Rita L.; Bras, Jose T.; Martins, Marcia P.; Derksen-Lubsen, Gerarda; Peeters, Els; Stumpel, Connie; Stegmann, Sander; Bok, Levinus A.; Santen, Gijs W.E.; Schaaf, Christian P.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Truncating mutations in the maternally imprinted, paternally expressed gene MAGEL2, which is located in the Prader-Willi critical region 15q11-13, have recently been reported to cause Schaaf-Yang syndrome, a Prader-Willi-like disease, manifesting developmental delay/intellectual disability, hypotonia, feeding difficulties, and autism spectrum disorder. The causality of the reported variants in the context of the patients’ phenotypes was questioned, as MAGEL2 whole gene deletions appear to cause little to no clinical phenotype. Methods Here we report a total of 18 new individuals with Schaaf-Yang syndrome from 14 families, including one family with three individuals found to be affected with a truncating variant of MAGEL2, 11 individuals clinically affected, but not tested molecularly, and a presymptomatic fetal sibling with carrying the pathogenic MAGEL2 variant. Results All cases harbor truncating mutations of MAGEL2, and nucleotides c.1990-1996 arise as a mutational hotspot, with 10 individuals and one fetus harboring a c.1996dupC (p.Q666fs) mutation and two fetuses harboring a c.1996delC (p.Q666fs). The phenotypic spectrum of Schaaf-Yang syndrome ranges from fetal akinesia to individuals with neurobehavioral disease and contractures of the small finger joints. Conclusion This study provides strong evidence for the pathogenicity of truncating mutations of the paternal allele of MAGEL2, refines the associated clinical phenotypes, and highlights implications for genetic counseling of affected families. PMID:27195816

  12. Affective SSVEP BCI to effectively control 3D objects by using a prism array-based display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mun, Sungchul; Park, Min-Chul

    2014-06-01

    3D objects with depth information can provide many benefits to users in education, surgery, and interactions. In particular, many studies have been done to enhance sense of reality in 3D interaction. Viewing and controlling stereoscopic 3D objects with crossed or uncrossed disparities, however, can cause visual fatigue due to the vergenceaccommodation conflict generally accepted in 3D research fields. In order to avoid the vergence-accommodation mismatch and provide a strong sense of presence to users, we apply a prism array-based display to presenting 3D objects. Emotional pictures were used as visual stimuli in control panels to increase information transfer rate and reduce false positives in controlling 3D objects. Involuntarily motivated selective attention by affective mechanism can enhance steady-state visually evoked potential (SSVEP) amplitude and lead to increased interaction efficiency. More attentional resources are allocated to affective pictures with high valence and arousal levels than to normal visual stimuli such as white-and-black oscillating squares and checkerboards. Among representative BCI control components (i.e., eventrelated potentials (ERP), event-related (de)synchronization (ERD/ERS), and SSVEP), SSVEP-based BCI was chosen in the following reasons. It shows high information transfer rates and takes a few minutes for users to control BCI system while few electrodes are required for obtaining reliable brainwave signals enough to capture users' intention. The proposed BCI methods are expected to enhance sense of reality in 3D space without causing critical visual fatigue to occur. In addition, people who are very susceptible to (auto) stereoscopic 3D may be able to use the affective BCI.

  13. On emotionally intelligent time travel: individual differences in affective forecasting ability.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Elizabeth W; Brackett, Marc A; Ashton-James, Claire; Schneiderman, Elyse; Salovey, Peter

    2007-01-01

    In two studies, the authors examined whether people who are high in emotional intelligence (EI) make more accurate forecasts about their own affective responses to future events. All participants completed a performance measure of EI (the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test) as well as a self-report measure of EI. Affective forecasting ability was assessed using a longitudinal design in which participants were asked to predict how they would feel and report their actual feelings following three events in three different domains: politics and academics (Study 1) and sports (Study 2). Across these events, individual differences in forecasting ability were predicted by participants' scores on the performance measure, but not the self-report measure, of EI; high-EI individuals exhibited greater affective forecasting accuracy. Emotion Management, a subcomponent of EI, emerged as the strongest predictor of forecasting ability.

  14. Individual variation affects departure rate from the natal pond in an ephemeral pond-breeding anuran

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chelgren, N.D.; Rosenberg, D.K.; Heppell, S.S.; Gitelman, A.I.

    2008-01-01

    Frogs exhibit extreme plasticity and individual variation in growth and behavior during metamorphosis, driven by interactions of intrinsic state factors and extrinsic environmental factors. In northern red-legged frogs (Rana aurora Baird and Girard, 1852), we studied the timing of departure from the natal pond as it relates to date and size of individuals at metamorphosis in the context of environmental uncertainty. To affect body size at metamorphosis, we manipulated food availability during the larval stage for a sample (317) of 1045 uniquely marked individuals and released them at their natal ponds as newly metamorphosed frogs. We recaptured 34% of marked frogs in pitfall traps as they departed and related the timing of their initial terrestrial movements to individual properties using a time-to-event model. Median age at first capture was 4 and 9 days postmetamorphosis at two sites. The rate of departure was positively related to body size and to date of metamorphosis. Departure rate was strongly negatively related to time elapsed since rainfall, and this effect was diminished for smaller and later metamorphosing frogs. Individual variation in metamorphic traits thus affects individuals' responses to environmental variability, supporting a behavioral link with variation in survival associated with these same metamorphic traits. ?? 2008 NRC.

  15. Do I Know You? How Individual Recognition Affects Group Formation and Structure

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Groups in nature can be formed by interactions between individuals, or by external pressures like predation. It is reasonable to assume that groups formed by internal and external conditions have different dynamics and structures. We propose a computational model to investigate the effects of individual recognition on the formation and structure of animal groups. Our model is composed of agents that can recognize each other and remember previous interactions, without any external pressures, in order to isolate the effects of individual recognition. We show that individual recognition affects the number and size of groups, and the modularity of the social networks. This model can be used as a null model to investigate the effects of external factors on group formation and persistence. PMID:28125708

  16. Phenotypic and evolutionary consequences of social behaviours: interactions among individuals affect direct genetic effects.

    PubMed

    Trubenová, Barbora; Hager, Reinmar

    2012-01-01

    Traditional quantitative genetics assumes that an individual's phenotype is determined by both genetic and environmental factors. For many animals, part of the environment is social and provided by parents and other interacting partners. When expression of genes in social partners affects trait expression in a focal individual, indirect genetic effects occur. In this study, we explore the effects of indirect genetic effects on the magnitude and range of phenotypic values in a focal individual in a multi-member model analyzing three possible classes of interactions between individuals. We show that social interactions may not only cause indirect genetic effects but can also modify direct genetic effects. Furthermore, we demonstrate that both direct and indirect genetic effects substantially alter the range of phenotypic values, particularly when a focal trait can influence its own expression via interactions with traits in other individuals. We derive a function predicting the relative importance of direct versus indirect genetic effects. Our model reveals that both direct and indirect genetic effects can depend to a large extent on both group size and interaction strength, altering group mean phenotype and variance. This may lead to scenarios where between group variation is much higher than within group variation despite similar underlying genetic properties, potentially affecting the level of selection. Our analysis highlights key properties of indirect genetic effects with important consequences for trait evolution, the level of selection and potentially speciation.

  17. The workings of homonormativity: lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer discourses on discrimination and public displays of affections in Portugal.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, João Manuel; Costa, Carlos Gonçalves; Nogueira, Conceição

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes how heteronormative discourse may be (re)produced by the very same people it serves to oppress, binding heteronormativity to a specific form of homonormativity. Furthermore, this article also links Portuguese history and society by discussing the context and the recent legal changes that led to legislation providing for same-sex marriage. Using thematic analysis of 14 interviews, this article demonstrates how heteronorms are upheld in the discourses of the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer (LGBQ) participants. Themes linked to public displays of affection and discrimination emerged from the interviews. Participant discourses are analyzed in terms of their incorporation of heteronorms. Homonormativity is present in both the themes subject to analysis. Analysis of the interviews shows how transgressing the heteronorm implies costs and is ultimately perceived as a personal risk. This article concludes that the lack of discursive resistance denies the possibility of re-signification and subversion even in LGBQ discourses. This clearly indicates the pervasiveness of discourses reiterating heteronorms, even those issued by those most oppressed by such norms.

  18. Positive Affect Is Inversely Associated with Mortality in Individuals without Depression

    PubMed Central

    Martín-María, Natalia; Caballero, Francisco Félix; Olaya, Beatriz; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando; Haro, Josep Maria; Miret, Marta; Ayuso-Mateos, José Luis

    2016-01-01

    Background: Some studies have analyzed the relation between well-being and mortality but none of them have attempted to disentangle the differential influence that positive affect, negative affect, and evaluative well-being might have on mortality using a longitudinal design in the general population and measuring independently and accurately each component of well-being. The aim of the present study is to assess the association of these well-being components with mortality after adjusting for health and other lifestyle factors and to analyze whether this association is different in people with and without depression. Methods: A nationally representative sample of 4753 people from Spain was followed up after 3 years. Analyses were performed with Cox regression models among the total sample and separately in people with and without depression. Results: In the analyses adjusted for age, sex, and years of education, all three well-being variables showed separately a statistically significant association with mortality. However, after adjustment for health status and other confounders including the other well-being components, only positive affect remained as marginally associated with a decreased risk of mortality in the overall sample [HR = 0.87; 95% CI = 0.73–1.03], in particular among individuals without depression [HR = 0.82; 95% CI = 0.68–0.99]. Conclusion: Positive affect is inversely associated with mortality in individuals without depression. Future research should focus on assessing interventions associated with a higher level of positive affect. PMID:27462289

  19. Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Factors That Can Affect Sensitivity to Neurotoxic Sequelae in Elderly Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Ginsberg, Gary; Hattis, Dale; Russ, Abel; Sonawane, Babasaheb

    2005-01-01

    Early-life exposure to agents that modulate neurologic function can have long-lasting effects well into the geriatric period. Many other factors can affect neurologic function and susceptibility to neurotoxicants in elderly individuals. In this review we highlight pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic factors that may increase geriatric susceptibility to these agents. There is a decreasing trend in hepatic metabolizing capacity with advancing years that can affect the ability to clear therapeutic drugs and environmental chemicals. This factor combined with decreased renal clearance causes prolonged retention of numerous drugs in elderly individuals. A geriatric pharmacokinetic database was developed to analyze changes in drug clearance with advancing age. This analysis shows that the half-life of drugs processed by hepatic cytochrome P450 enzymes or via renal elimination is typically 50–75% longer in those older than 65 than in young adults. Liver and kidney diseases are more common in elderly individuals and can further decrease the clearance function of these organs. Polypharmacy, the administration of numerous drugs to a single patient, is very common in elderly individuals and increases the risks for drug interaction and side effects. With advancing age the nervous system undergoes a variety of changes, including neuronal loss, altered neurotransmitter and receptor levels, and decreased adaptability to changes induced by xenobiotics. These changes in the central nervous system can make elderly individuals more susceptible to neurologic dysfunction when confronted with single pharmacologic agents, polypharmacy, or environmental toxicants. The many factors that affect elderly responses to neuroactive agents make environmental risk assessment for this age group a special concern and present a unique challenge. PMID:16140636

  20. ENIGMA and the individual: Predicting factors that affect the brain in 35 countries worldwide.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Paul M; Andreassen, Ole A; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Bearden, Carrie E; Boedhoe, Premika S; Brouwer, Rachel M; Buckner, Randy L; Buitelaar, Jan K; Bulayeva, Kazima B; Cannon, Dara M; Cohen, Ronald A; Conrod, Patricia J; Dale, Anders M; Deary, Ian J; Dennis, Emily L; de Reus, Marcel A; Desrivieres, Sylvane; Dima, Danai; Donohoe, Gary; Fisher, Simon E; Fouche, Jean-Paul; Francks, Clyde; Frangou, Sophia; Franke, Barbara; Ganjgahi, Habib; Garavan, Hugh; Glahn, David C; Grabe, Hans J; Guadalupe, Tulio; Gutman, Boris A; Hashimoto, Ryota; Hibar, Derrek P; Holland, Dominic; Hoogman, Martine; Pol, Hilleke E Hulshoff; Hosten, Norbert; Jahanshad, Neda; Kelly, Sinead; Kochunov, Peter; Kremen, William S; Lee, Phil H; Mackey, Scott; Martin, Nicholas G; Mazoyer, Bernard; McDonald, Colm; Medland, Sarah E; Morey, Rajendra A; Nichols, Thomas E; Paus, Tomas; Pausova, Zdenka; Schmaal, Lianne; Schumann, Gunter; Shen, Li; Sisodiya, Sanjay M; Smit, Dirk J A; Smoller, Jordan W; Stein, Dan J; Stein, Jason L; Toro, Roberto; Turner, Jessica A; van den Heuvel, Martijn P; van den Heuvel, Odile L; van Erp, Theo G M; van Rooij, Daan; Veltman, Dick J; Walter, Henrik; Wang, Yalin; Wardlaw, Joanna M; Whelan, Christopher D; Wright, Margaret J; Ye, Jieping

    2017-01-15

    In this review, we discuss recent work by the ENIGMA Consortium (http://enigma.ini.usc.edu) - a global alliance of over 500 scientists spread across 200 institutions in 35 countries collectively analyzing brain imaging, clinical, and genetic data. Initially formed to detect genetic influences on brain measures, ENIGMA has grown to over 30 working groups studying 12 major brain diseases by pooling and comparing brain data. In some of the largest neuroimaging studies to date - of schizophrenia and major depression - ENIGMA has found replicable disease effects on the brain that are consistent worldwide, as well as factors that modulate disease effects. In partnership with other consortia including ADNI, CHARGE, IMAGEN and others(1), ENIGMA's genomic screens - now numbering over 30,000 MRI scans - have revealed at least 8 genetic loci that affect brain volumes. Downstream of gene findings, ENIGMA has revealed how these individual variants - and genetic variants in general - may affect both the brain and risk for a range of diseases. The ENIGMA consortium is discovering factors that consistently affect brain structure and function that will serve as future predictors linking individual brain scans and genomic data. It is generating vast pools of normative data on brain measures - from tens of thousands of people - that may help detect deviations from normal development or aging in specific groups of subjects. We discuss challenges and opportunities in applying these predictors to individual subjects and new cohorts, as well as lessons we have learned in ENIGMA's efforts so far.

  1. Retrospective study of factors affecting employability of individuals with cerebral palsy in Japan.

    PubMed

    Tobimatsu, Y; Nakamura, R

    2000-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the characteristics of individuals with cerebral palsy that affected their ability to find a job in Japan. A retrospective nonrandomized descriptive study was performed. Subjects were 99 individuals with cerebral palsy who were eligible to have a vocational training at the National Rehabilitation Center for the Disabled after graduation from high school. All of them were able to perform ADL unassistedly. The mean age of the subjects was 19.9 years (range, 18 to 33) and the mean intelligence quotient measured by WAIS-R was 78.5 (range, 46 to 110). Walking ability, being female and experience of learning in a regular middle high school were significant explanatory variables in the multiple regression equation. The ability of individuals with cerebral palsy to get a job in Japan in the 1990's was largely determined by being able to walk and having an education in a regular school.

  2. You can't drink a word: lexical and individual emotionality affect subjective familiarity judgments.

    PubMed

    Westbury, Chris

    2014-10-01

    For almost 30 years, subjective familiarity has been used in psycholinguistics as an explanatory variable, allegedly able to explain many phenomena that have no other obvious explanation (Gernsbacher in J Exp Psychol General 113:256-281, 1984). In this paper, the hypothesis tested is that the subjective familiarity of words is reflecting personal familiarity with or importance of the referents of words. Using an empirically-grounded model of affective force derived from Wundt (Grundriss der Psychologie [Outlines of Psychology]. Engelmann, Leibzig, 1896) and based in a co-occurrence model of semantics (which involves no human judgment), it is shown that affective force can account for the same variance in a large set of human subjective familiarity judgments as other human subjective familiarity judgments, can predict whether people will rate new words of the same objective frequency as more or less familiar, can predict lexical access as well as human subjective familiarity judgments do, and has a predicted relationship to age of acquisition norms. Individuals who have highly affective reactivity [as measured by Carver and White's (J Pers Soc Psychol 67(2):319-333, 1994) Behavioral Inhibition Scale and Behavioral Activation Scales] rate words as significantly more familiar than individuals who have low affective reactivity.

  3. Identifying Core Affect in Individuals from fMRI Responses to Dynamic Naturalistic Audiovisual Stimuli.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jongwan; Wang, Jing; Wedell, Douglas H; Shinkareva, Svetlana V

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that affective states elicited by viewing pictures varying in valence and arousal are identifiable from whole brain activation patterns observed with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Identification of affective states from more naturalistic stimuli has clinical relevance, but the feasibility of identifying these states on an individual trial basis from fMRI data elicited by dynamic multimodal stimuli is unclear. The goal of this study was to determine whether affective states can be similarly identified when participants view dynamic naturalistic audiovisual stimuli. Eleven participants viewed 5s audiovisual clips in a passive viewing task in the scanner. Valence and arousal for individual trials were identified both within and across participants based on distributed patterns of activity in areas selectively responsive to audiovisual naturalistic stimuli while controlling for lower level features of the stimuli. In addition, the brain regions identified by searchlight analyses to represent valence and arousal were consistent with previously identified regions associated with emotion processing. These findings extend previous results on the distributed representation of affect to multimodal dynamic stimuli.

  4. Identifying Core Affect in Individuals from fMRI Responses to Dynamic Naturalistic Audiovisual Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jongwan; Wang, Jing; Wedell, Douglas H.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that affective states elicited by viewing pictures varying in valence and arousal are identifiable from whole brain activation patterns observed with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Identification of affective states from more naturalistic stimuli has clinical relevance, but the feasibility of identifying these states on an individual trial basis from fMRI data elicited by dynamic multimodal stimuli is unclear. The goal of this study was to determine whether affective states can be similarly identified when participants view dynamic naturalistic audiovisual stimuli. Eleven participants viewed 5s audiovisual clips in a passive viewing task in the scanner. Valence and arousal for individual trials were identified both within and across participants based on distributed patterns of activity in areas selectively responsive to audiovisual naturalistic stimuli while controlling for lower level features of the stimuli. In addition, the brain regions identified by searchlight analyses to represent valence and arousal were consistent with previously identified regions associated with emotion processing. These findings extend previous results on the distributed representation of affect to multimodal dynamic stimuli. PMID:27598534

  5. Do the Spatial Features of an Adjunct Display that Readers Complete while Reading Affect Their Understanding of a Complex System?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrudden, Matthew T.; McCormick, Montana K.; McTigue, Erin T.

    2011-01-01

    We varied the spatial features of adjunct displays that depicted a complex scientific system (i.e. human circulatory system). University students (n = 47), who were assigned randomly to a display condition before reading, selected relevant information from the text and wrote it (a) next to a list of definitions (list condition), (b) inside boxes…

  6. Decreasing Signs of Negative Affect and Correlated Self-Injury in an Individual with Mental Retardation and Mood Disturbances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindauer, Steven E.; DeLeon, Iser G.; Fisher, Wayne W.

    1999-01-01

    This study evaluated effects of an enriched environment, based on a paired-choice preference assessment, on rates of self-injurious behavior (SIB) and frequency of negative affect displayed by a woman with mental retardation and a mood disorder. Results suggested that SIB and negative affect were highly correlated and that the enriched environment…

  7. A detailed phenotypic assessment of individuals affected by MFRP-related oculopathy

    PubMed Central

    Sergouniotis, Panagiotis I.; Mackay, Donna S.; Day, Alexander C.; Wright, Genevieve; Devery, Sophie; Leroy, Bart P.; Robson, Anthony G.; Holder, Graham E.; Li, Zheng; Webster, Andrew R.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To determine the spectrum of mutations and phenotypic variability within patients with mutations in membrane-type frizzled related protein gene (MFRP). Methods Individuals were initially ascertained based on a phenotype similar to that previously published in association with MFRP mutations. Affected patients underwent a full ophthalmic examination (best-corrected visual acuity, slit-lamp examination, applanation tonometry, and fundoscopy), color fundus photography, optical coherence tomography, autofluorescence imaging, and electrophysiology. MFRP was identified by a genome-wide scan in the fourth-largest autozygous region in one consanguineous family. Sanger sequencing of all the exons and intron-exon boundaries of MFRP was undertaken in the affected individuals. Results Seven affected individuals from four families were identified as having mutations in MFRP. Patients from two families were homozygous for mutations already previously described (c.1143_1144 insC and c.492 delC), while those from the other two were compound heterozygous for mutations (c.201G>A and c.491_492 insT, and c.492 delC, and c.1622_1625 delTCTG), three of which were novel. There was considerable phenotypic variability within and among families. Autofluorescence imaging revealed the central macula to be relatively well preserved. Foveal cysts and optic nerve head drusen were present in two of the four families. Electrophysiology results showed rod-cone dystrophy with mild to moderate reduction in macular function in all affected members. Conclusions We report three novel MFRP mutations and expand the phenotypic data available on patients with MFRP mutations. PMID:20361016

  8. Individual differences in behavioral activation and cardiac vagal control influence affective startle modification.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiao; Friedman, Bruce H

    2017-04-01

    The startle response (SR) has a close relationship with stress responses. Startle modification (SRM) has been widely used to study stress disorders (e.g., posttraumatic stress disorder). The framework of the behavioral inhibition and activation systems (BIS/BAS) has been thought to correspond with withdrawal and approach motivational processes underlying affective SRM and can influence stress reactivity. Vagally-mediated cardiac activity as indexed by heart rate variability (HRV) has been associated with SRM and regulatory processes during stress. In the present study, the influence of individual differences in the BIS/BAS and resting HRV on affective SRM were examined. Eighty-six subjects viewed affective pictures while acoustic SR stimuli were delivered. Individual differences in motivation were measured by the BIS/BAS scales. The magnitude of SR was assessed as electromyographic activity of the SR eyeblink during pictures of different valences. Resting HRV was derived from electrocardiography. In contrast to previous studies, the present results showed that startle inhibition and potentiation were related to BAS and HRV, but not to BIS. There was also an interaction of BAS and HRV, indicating that the relationship between HRV and SRM strengthened as BAS scores decreased. The present findings suggest that BAS may relate to both withdrawal and approach, and trait stress reactivity is influenced by BAS and cardiac vagal activity. In addition, BAS moderates the relationship between cardiac vagal activity and SRM. These findings have both theoretical and practical implications for the study of SRM, stress disorders, and health.

  9. A FISTful of Emotion: Individual Differences in Trait Anxiety and Cognitive-Affective Flexibility During Preadolescence.

    PubMed

    Mărcuş, Oana; Stanciu, Oana; MacLeod, Colin; Liebregts, Heather; Visu-Petra, Laura

    2016-10-01

    Cognitive-affective flexibility represents the ability to switch between alternative ways of processing emotional stimuli according to situational demands and individual goals. Although reduced flexibility has been implicated as a mechanism for the development of anxiety, there is very limited data on this relationship in children and adolescents. The aim of the current study was to investigate cognitive-affective flexibility in preadolescents (N = 112, 50 girls, 11-12 and 13-14 years old) and to examine if this ability is related to individual differences in trait anxiety. Their interplay was assessed using the modified version of the Flexible Item Selection Task (FIST; Jacques and Zelazo 2001) with non-emotional stimuli (geometrical shapes) and the Emotional FIST (EM-FIST) with emotional stimuli (emotional facial expressions). Performance on the EM-FIST indicated that across the whole age range, trials requiring greater cognitive flexibility were more demanding than nonflexible ones, as revealed by both response time and accuracy performance. Moreover, flexibility demands were higher for younger children than for older ones but only in terms of response speed. Individual differences in trait anxiety moderated the impact of flexibility only on the EM-FIST. Being flexible on the EM-FIST was more demanding for high trait anxious children than for their low trait anxious peers. Lastly, overall girls responded faster than boys, but only in the EM-FIST. These findings extend the presently limited literature concerning variability in cognitive-affective flexibility during this sensitive developmental window.

  10. Does social support affect development of cognitive dysfunction in individuals with diabetes mellitus?

    PubMed Central

    Yilmaz, Feride T.; Sabancıogullari, Selma; Aldemir, Kadriye; Kumsar, Azime K.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To determine cognitive functions and perceived social support (SS) among individuals with diabetes mellitus (DM), and the effects of SS on the development of cognitive dysfunction (CD). Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 121 patients with DM presenting at the Endocrinology Clinic of Cumhuriyet University Health Services Application and Research Hospital, Sivas, Turkey between April and June 2014. Data were collected utilizing the “Patient Assessment Form”, “Standardized Mini Mental State Examination (SMMSE)”, and “Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS)”. Results: The mean score obtained for DM patients from the SMMSE was 21.55±5.7, with 65.3% found to have cognitive impairment. The total mean score of the participants for MSPSS was considered moderate (66.61±14.42). There was a significant positive correlation between cognitive function and SS (r=0.273, p=0.002). It was determined that individuals with CD had low levels of perceived SS, and that insufficient support from families and significant others contributed to the development of CD (p=0.008). Conclusion: In this study, it was determined that the cognitive function of individuals with DM was impaired and would improve as the perception of SS increased, and that perceived SS would affect the development of CD. Therefore, health professionals can contribute to the improvement of cognitive function of individuals with DM by facilitating the use of SS sources. PMID:26620984

  11. Individual dispersal decisions affect fitness via maternal rank effects in male rhesus macaques

    PubMed Central

    Weiß, Brigitte M.; Kulik, Lars; Ruiz-Lambides, Angelina V.; Widdig, Anja

    2016-01-01

    Natal dispersal may have considerable social, ecological and evolutionary consequences. While species-specific dispersal strategies have received much attention, individual variation in dispersal decisions and its fitness consequences remain poorly understood. We investigated causes and consequences of natal dispersal age in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), a species with male dispersal. Using long-term demographic and genetic data from a semi-free ranging population on Cayo Santiago, Puerto Rico, we analysed how the social environment such as maternal family, group and population characteristics affected the age at which males leave their natal group. While natal dispersal age was unrelated to most measures of group or population structure, our study confirmed earlier findings that sons of high-ranking mothers dispersed later than sons of low-ranking ones. Natal dispersal age did not affect males’ subsequent survival, but males dispersing later were more likely to reproduce. Late dispersers were likely to start reproducing while still residing in their natal group, frequently produced extra-group offspring before natal dispersal and subsequently dispersed to the group in which they had fathered offspring more likely than expected. Hence, the timing of natal dispersal was affected by maternal rank and influenced male reproduction, which, in turn affected which group males dispersed to. PMID:27576465

  12. Biases for affective versus sexual content in multidimensional scaling analysis: an individual difference perspective.

    PubMed

    Prause, Nicole; Moholy, Maxwell; Staley, Cameron

    2014-04-01

    Visual sexual stimuli can motivate sexual behaviors that can risk or enhance health. How one allocates attention to a sexually motivating stimulus may be important for predicting its effect on sexual feelings, sexual risk behaviors, and sexual problems. A large sample (N = 157) of men and women rated the similarity of all possible pairs of photographs of women, which had been pretested to vary in their sexual and affective content. Multidimensional scaling was used to extract two dimensions of sex and affect, including the extent to which each person relied on each dimension in making their similarity judgments. These individual weights were then used to predict sexual variables of interest. Participants who relied more on the affect information judging photograph similarity were more likely to be female, viewed erotica less frequently, reported fewer sexual partners, reported less sexual desire, and more sexual problems. Those who relied more on the erotic content in making their similarity judgments were more likely to be male, viewed more erotica weekly, experienced higher sexual desire, and were more likely to have taken an HIV test. The "double edge sword" of attention weight to affect in sexual cues is discussed for its potential to both enhance and harm sexual health.

  13. The Use of Gestural Modes to Enhance Expressive Conducting at All Levels of Entering Behavior through the Use of Illustrators, Affect Displays and Regulators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathers, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    In this article, I discuss the use of illustrators, affect displays and regulators, which I consider to be non-verbal communication categories through which conductors can employ a more varied approach to body use, gesture and non-verbal communication. These categories employ the use of a conductor's hands and arms, face, eyes and body in a way…

  14. The Additive Impact of Group and Individual Publicly Displayed Feedback: Examining Individual Response Patterns and Response Generalization in a Safe-Driving Occupational Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludwig, Timothy D.; Geller, E. Scott; Clarke, Steven W.

    2010-01-01

    Additive effects of publicly posting individual feedback following group goal-setting and feedback were evaluated. The turn-signal use of pizza deliverers was studied in a multiple baseline design across two pizza stores. After baseline observations, pizza deliverers voted on a group turn-signal goal and then received 4 weeks of group feedback on…

  15. Performance level affects the dietary supplement intake of both individual and team sports athletes.

    PubMed

    Giannopoulou, Ifigenia; Noutsos, Kostantinos; Apostolidis, Nikolaos; Bayios, Ioannis; Nassis, George P

    2013-01-01

    Dietary supplement (DS) intake is high in elite level athletes, however few studies have investigated the impact that the performance level of the athletes has on supplementation intake in individual and team sports. The purpose of the study was to determine and compare the DS intake among individual and team sport athletes of various performance levels. A total of 2845 participants (athletes: 2783, controls: 62) between the ages of 11 and 44 years old participated in the study. A 3-page questionnaire was developed to assess the intake of DS. Athletes were categorized based on participation in individual (n = 775) and team sports (n = 2008). To assess the effect of performance level in supplementation intake, athletes were categorized based on training volume, participation in the national team, and winning at least one medal in provincial, national, international or Olympic games. Overall, 37% of all athletes of various performance levels reported taking at least one DS in the last month. A higher prevalence of DS intake was reported in individual (44%) compared to team sport athletes (35%) (p < 0.001). Athletes of high performance level reported greater DS intake compared to lower performance athletes. Males reported a significantly greater prevalence of DS intake compared to females. The most popular supplement reported was amino acid preparation with the main reason of supplementation being endurance improvements. In conclusion, performance level and type of sport appear to impact the DS practices of male and female athletes. These findings should be validated in other populations. Key points37% of Mediterranean athletes of various sports and levels have reported taking dietary supplements.The performance level of the athletes affects the dietary supplementation intake.Athletes in individual sports appear to have a higher DS intake compared to team sport athletes.Male athletes appear to take more dietary supplements compared to female athletes.

  16. Performance Level Affects the Dietary Supplement Intake of Both Individual and Team Sports Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Giannopoulou, Ifigenia; Noutsos, Kostantinos; Apostolidis, Nikolaos; Bayios, Ioannis; Nassis, George P.

    2013-01-01

    Dietary supplement (DS) intake is high in elite level athletes, however few studies have investigated the impact that the performance level of the athletes has on supplementation intake in individual and team sports. The purpose of the study was to determine and compare the DS intake among individual and team sport athletes of various performance levels. A total of 2845 participants (athletes: 2783, controls: 62) between the ages of 11 and 44 years old participated in the study. A 3-page questionnaire was developed to assess the intake of DS. Athletes were categorized based on participation in individual (n = 775) and team sports (n = 2008). To assess the effect of performance level in supplementation intake, athletes were categorized based on training volume, participation in the national team, and winning at least one medal in provincial, national, international or Olympic games. Overall, 37% of all athletes of various performance levels reported taking at least one DS in the last month. A higher prevalence of DS intake was reported in individual (44%) compared to team sport athletes (35%) (p < 0.001). Athletes of high performance level reported greater DS intake compared to lower performance athletes. Males reported a significantly greater prevalence of DS intake compared to females. The most popular supplement reported was amino acid preparation with the main reason of supplementation being endurance improvements. In conclusion, performance level and type of sport appear to impact the DS practices of male and female athletes. These findings should be validated in other populations. Key points 37% of Mediterranean athletes of various sports and levels have reported taking dietary supplements. The performance level of the athletes affects the dietary supplementation intake. Athletes in individual sports appear to have a higher DS intake compared to team sport athletes. Male athletes appear to take more dietary supplements compared to female athletes. PMID

  17. Come rain or come shine: individual differences in how weather affects mood.

    PubMed

    Klimstra, Theo A; Frijns, Tom; Keijsers, Loes; Denissen, Jaap J A; Raaijmakers, Quinten A W; van Aken, Marcel A G; Koot, Hans M; van Lier, Pol A C; Meeus, Wim H J

    2011-12-01

    There is a widespread belief that weather affects mood. However, few studies have investigated this link, and even less is known about individual differences in people's responses to the weather. In the current study, we sought to identify weather reactivity types by linking self-reported daily mood across 30 days with objective weather data. We identified four distinct types among 497 adolescents and replicated these types among their mothers. The types were labeled Summer Lovers (better mood with warmer and sunnier weather), Unaffected (weak associations between weather and mood), Summer Haters (worse mood with warmer and sunnier weather), and Rain Haters (particularly bad mood on rainy days). In addition, intergenerational concordance effects were found for two of these types, suggesting that weather reactivity may run in the family. Overall, the large individual differences in how people's moods were affected by weather reconciles the discrepancy between the generally held beliefs that weather has a substantive effect on mood and findings from previous research indicating that effects of weather on mood are limited or absent.

  18. Environmental and individual factors affecting menu labeling utilization: a qualitative research study.

    PubMed

    Schindler, Jennifer; Kiszko, Kamila; Abrams, Courtney; Islam, Nadia; Elbel, Brian

    2013-05-01

    Obesity is a prominent public health concern that disproportionally affects low-income and minority populations. Recent policies mandating the posting of calories on menus in fast-food chain restaurants have not proven to uniformly influence food choice. This qualitative research study used focus groups to study individual and environmental factors affecting the use of these menu labels among low-income minority populations. Ten focus groups targeting low-income residents (n=105) were held at various community organizations throughout New York City over a 9-month period in 2011. The focus groups were conducted in Spanish, English, or a combination of both languages. In late 2011 and early 2012, transcripts were coded through the process of thematic analysis using Atlas.ti for naturally emerging themes, influences, and determinants of food choice. Few participants used menu labels, despite awareness. The most frequently cited as barriers to menu label use included: price and time constraints, confusion and lack of understanding about caloric values, as well as the priority of preference, hunger, and habitual ordering habits. Based on the individual and external influences on food choice that often take priority over calorie consideration, a modified approach may be necessary to make menu labels more effective and user-friendly.

  19. Do individual differences in reinforcement smoking moderate the relationship between affect and urge to smoke?

    PubMed

    Leventhal, Adam M

    2010-01-01

    The elucidation of individual differences in tobacco use motivation is of considerable interest. Accordingly, the present study tested the hypothesis that between-person variation in reinforcement smoking (RS)--a tendency to smoke to regulate affect--moderates the relationship between poor mood and urge to smoke. In this cross-sectional, correlational study, smokers (N = 212; > or =5 cig/day) completed measures of RS, positive affect (PA), negative affect (NA), and smoking urge. RS significantly moderated the relation between PA and urge (betas > .11, ps < .04), such that the inverse correlation between PA and urge was stronger among smokers higher in RS. NA was positively correlated with urge in the overall sample (rs = .34, ps < .0001), but RS did not moderate this relationship. The overall results were consistent across 2 measures of mood and adjusted models that controlled for demographics and smoking characteristics. Continued investigation of these moderational pathways could identify which smokers may benefit most from treatments that target mood during smoking cessation.

  20. Considerations on assisted resilience and individualized therapy in bipolar affective disorder, with a clinical case exemplification

    PubMed Central

    BOLOS, ALEXANDRA

    2015-01-01

    Morbidity, mortality and economic consequences of bipolar affective disorder are very important to be evaluated because many of the costs entailed by this psychiatric disorder come from indirect costs due to inadequate diagnosis and treatment and from the characteristics of the affective symptoms itself. Psychotherapy focuses on diagnosis and the newest pharmacotherapy determines a decreasing of the morbidity of the disorder and also of its social and economic burden. However, more studies are necessary, with more heterogeneous patients, to find more predictors regarding the psychosocial consequences and to find more information about the prognosis of the bipolar disorder. In this context, in this paper we discuss the role of assisted resilience and the individualization of the therapy of bipolar affective disorder, especially that the resilience must be seen as a continuum and can be used anytime and in any situation, according to the theory of Geanellos. This idea is reflected in a case presentation of a patient with the diagnosis of bipolar disorder. PMID:26733744

  1. Image quality affected by diffraction of aperture structure arrangement in transparent active-matrix organic light-emitting diode displays.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Yu-Hsiang; Huang, Mao-Hsiu; Jeng, Wei-de; Huang, Ting-Wei; Lo, Kuo-Lung; Ou-Yang, Mang

    2015-10-01

    Transparent display is one of the main technologies in next-generation displays, especially for augmented reality applications. An aperture structure is attached on each display pixel to partition them into transparent and black regions. However, diffraction blurs caused by the aperture structure typically degrade the transparent image when the light from a background object passes through finite aperture window. In this paper, the diffraction effect of an active-matrix organic light-emitting diode display (AMOLED) is studied. Several aperture structures have been proposed and implemented. Based on theoretical analysis and simulation, the appropriate aperture structure will effectively reduce the blur. The analysis data are also consistent with the experimental results. Compared with the various transparent aperture structure on AMOLED, diffraction width (zero energy position of diffraction pattern) of the optimize aperture structure can be reduced 63% and 31% in the x and y directions in CASE 3. Associated with a lenticular lens on the aperture structure, the improvement could reach to 77% and 54% of diffraction width in the x and y directions. Modulation transfer function and practical images are provided to evaluate the improvement of image blurs.

  2. He Throws like a Girl (but Only when He's Sad): Emotion Affects Sex-Decoding of Biological Motion Displays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Kerri L.; McKay, Lawrie S.; Pollick, Frank E.

    2011-01-01

    Gender stereotypes have been implicated in sex-typed perceptions of facial emotion. Such interpretations were recently called into question because facial cues of emotion are confounded with sexually dimorphic facial cues. Here we examine the role of visual cues and gender stereotypes in perceptions of biological motion displays, thus overcoming…

  3. Individual differences in beat perception affect gait responses to low- and high-groove music.

    PubMed

    Leow, Li-Ann; Parrott, Taylor; Grahn, Jessica A

    2014-01-01

    Slowed gait in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) can be improved when patients synchronize footsteps to isochronous metronome cues, but limited retention of such improvements suggest that permanent cueing regimes are needed for long-term improvements. If so, music might make permanent cueing regimes more pleasant, improving adherence; however, music cueing requires patients to synchronize movements to the "beat," which might be difficult for patients with PD who tend to show weak beat perception. One solution may be to use high-groove music, which has high beat salience that may facilitate synchronization, and affective properties, which may improve motivation to move. As a first step to understanding how beat perception affects gait in complex neurological disorders, we examined how beat perception ability affected gait in neurotypical adults. Synchronization performance and gait parameters were assessed as healthy young adults with strong or weak beat perception synchronized to low-groove music, high-groove music, and metronome cues. High-groove music was predicted to elicit better synchronization than low-groove music, due to its higher beat salience. Two musical tempi, or rates, were used: (1) preferred tempo: beat rate matched to preferred step rate and (2) faster tempo: beat rate adjusted to 22.5% faster than preferred step rate. For both strong and weak beat-perceivers, synchronization performance was best with metronome cues, followed by high-groove music, and worst with low-groove music. In addition, high-groove music elicited longer and faster steps than low-groove music, both at preferred tempo and at faster tempo. Low-groove music was particularly detrimental to gait in weak beat-perceivers, who showed slower and shorter steps compared to uncued walking. The findings show that individual differences in beat perception affect gait when synchronizing footsteps to music, and have implications for using music in gait rehabilitation.

  4. Individual Differences in Learning the Affective Value of Others Under Minimal Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Bliss-Moreau, Eliza; Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Wright, Christopher I.

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides the first demonstration that people can learn about the positive and negative value of other people (e.g., neutral faces) under minimal learning conditions, with stable individual differences in this learning. In four studies, participants viewed neutral faces paired with sentences describing positive, negative or neutral behaviors on either two (Study 1) or four (Studies 2, 3, and 4) occasions. Participants were later asked to judge the valence of the faces alone. Studies 1 and 2 demonstrated that learning does occur under minimal conditions. Study 3 and 4 further demonstrated that the degree of learning was moderated by Extraversion. Finally, Study 4 demonstrated that initial learning persisted over a period of 2 days. Implications for affective processing and person perception are discussed. PMID:18729580

  5. Biases in affective forecasting and recall in individuals with depression and anxiety symptoms.

    PubMed

    Wenze, Susan J; Gunthert, Kathleen C; German, Ramaris E

    2012-07-01

    The authors used experience sampling to investigate biases in affective forecasting and recall in individuals with varying levels of depression and anxiety symptoms. Participants who were higher in depression symptoms demonstrated stronger (more pessimistic) negative mood prediction biases, marginally stronger negative mood recall biases, and weaker (less optimistic) positive mood prediction and recall biases. Participants who were higher in anxiety symptoms demonstrated stronger negative mood prediction biases, but positive mood prediction biases that were on par with those who were lower in anxiety. Anxiety symptoms were not associated with mood recall biases. Neither depression symptoms nor anxiety symptoms were associated with bias in event prediction. Their findings fit well with the tripartite model of depression and anxiety. Results are also consistent with the conceptualization of anxiety as a "forward-looking" disorder, and with theories that emphasize the importance of pessimism and general negative information processing in depressive functioning.

  6. Longitudinal study of factors affecting taste sense decline in old-old individuals.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, T; Uota, M; Ikebe, K; Arai, Y; Kamide, K; Gondo, Y; Masui, Y; Ishizaki, T; Inomata, C; Takeshita, H; Mihara, Y; Hatta, K; Maeda, Y

    2017-01-01

    The sense of taste plays a pivotal role for personal assessment of the nutritional value, safety and quality of foods. Although it is commonly recognised that taste sensitivity decreases with age, alterations in that sensitivity over time in an old-old population have not been previously reported. Furthermore, no known studies utilised comprehensive variables regarding taste changes and related factors for assessments. Here, we report novel findings from a 3-year longitudinal study model aimed to elucidate taste sensitivity decline and its related factors in old-old individuals. We utilised 621 subjects aged 79-81 years who participated in the Septuagenarians, Octogenarians, Nonagenarians Investigation with Centenarians Study for baseline assessments performed in 2011 and 2012, and then conducted follow-up assessments 3 years later in 328 of those. Assessment of general health, an oral examination and determination of taste sensitivity were performed for each. We also evaluated cognitive function using Montreal Cognitive Assessment findings, then excluded from analysis those with a score lower than 20 in order to secure the validity and reliability of the subjects' answers. Contributing variables were selected using univariate analysis, then analysed with multivariate logistic regression analysis. We found that males showed significantly greater declines in taste sensitivity for sweet and sour tastes than females. Additionally, subjects with lower cognitive scores showed a significantly greater taste decrease for salty in multivariate analysis. In conclusion, our longitudinal study revealed that gender and cognitive status are major factors affecting taste sensitivity in geriatric individuals.

  7. Interacting with Nature Improves Cognition and Affect for Individuals with Depression

    PubMed Central

    Berman, Marc G.; Kross, Ethan; Krpan, Katherine M.; Askren, Mary K.; Burson, Aleah; Deldin, Patricia J.; Kaplan, Stephen; Sherdell, Lindsey; Gotlib, Ian H.; Jonides, John

    2012-01-01

    Background This study aimed to explore whether walking in nature may be beneficial for individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD). Healthy adults demonstrate significant cognitive gains after nature walks, but it was unclear whether those same benefits would be achieved in a depressed sample as walking alone in nature might induce rumination, thereby worsening memory and mood. Methods Twenty individuals diagnosed with MDD participated in this study. At baseline, mood and short term memory span were assessed using the PANAS and the backwards digit span (BDS) task, respectively. Participants were then asked to think about an unresolved negative autobiographical event to prime rumination, prior to taking a 50 minute walk in either a natural or urban setting. After the walk, mood and short-term memory span were reassessed. The following week, participants returned to the lab and repeated the entire procedure, but walked in the location not visited in the first session (i.e., a counterbalanced within-subjects design). Results Participants exhibited significant increases in memory span after the nature walk relative to the urban walk, p < .001, ηp2= .53 (a large effect-size). Participants also showed increases in mood, but the mood effects did not correlate with the memory effects, suggesting separable mechanisms and replicating previous work. Limitations Sample size and participants’ motivation. Conclusions These findings extend earlier work demonstrating the cognitive and affective benefits of interacting with nature to individuals with MDD. Therefore, interacting with nature may be useful clinically as a supplement to existing treatments for MDD. PMID:22464936

  8. Individual astringency responsiveness affects the acceptance of phenol-rich foods.

    PubMed

    Dinnella, Caterina; Recchia, Annamaria; Tuorila, Hely; Monteleone, Erminio

    2011-06-01

    Sensory responses greatly vary between individuals, and individual sensory experiences influence eating behaviour. Three groups responding differently to phenolic astringent stimuli (Low Responding, LR, n=20, Medium Responding, MR, n=37 and High Responding, HR, n=20) were identified from a population of 77 subjects, based on the maintenance vs fluctuation of salivary characteristics after repeated stimulation of the masticatory and taste/somatosensory systems. The effect of LR, MR and HR status on perceived astringency and liking for phenol-containing apple, grape and carrot juices spiked with increasing tannic acid (TA) concentrations was examined. TA induced a greater increase of perceived astringency in HR, compared to MR and LR subjects. A decrease in liking for spiked juices was found in HR and to a lesser extent in MR and LR subjects. No significant differences were found comparing MR and LR groups for both astringency intensity and liking data. Liking for and familiarity with 37 food items, as well as preference for 14 phenol-rich foods and beverages, each paired with a less astringent counter-product, were also examined. An internal preference map was computed on liking scores and product subgroups were identified. An effect of LR/HR status was found for two food subgroups consisting of coffee without sugar, tea without sugar, raw chicory and milk chocolate, tea with sugar, coffee with sugar. LR subjects rated the products with the most astringency higher and those with the least astringency lower than did HR subjects. LR subjects also rated their familiarity with highly astringent products higher than did HR subjects. Thus, individual differences related to the physiological salivatory response to oral stimulations affect responses to astringent stimuli and can influence the overall acceptability of phenol-rich food items.

  9. Factors Affecting Parent's Perception on Air Quality-From the Individual to the Community Level.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yulin; Liu, Fengfeng; Lu, Yuanan; Mao, Zongfu; Lu, Hanson; Wu, Yanyan; Chu, Yuanyuan; Yu, Lichen; Liu, Yisi; Ren, Meng; Li, Na; Chen, Xi; Xiang, Hao

    2016-05-12

    The perception of air quality significantly affects the acceptance of the public of the government's environmental policies. The aim of this research is to explore the relationship between the perception of the air quality of parents and scientific monitoring data and to analyze the factors that affect parents' perceptions. Scientific data of air quality were obtained from Wuhan's environmental condition reports. One thousand parents were investigated for their knowledge and perception of air quality. Scientific data show that the air quality of Wuhan follows an improving trend in general, while most participants believed that the air quality of Wuhan has deteriorated, which indicates a significant difference between public perception and reality. On the individual level, respondents with an age of 40 or above (40 or above: OR = 3.252; 95% CI: 1.170-9.040), a higher educational level (college and above: OR = 7.598; 95% CI: 2.244-25.732) or children with poor healthy conditions (poor: OR = 6.864; 95% CI: 2.212-21.302) have much more negative perception of air quality. On the community level, industrial facilities, vehicles and city construction have major effects on parents' perception of air quality. Our investigation provides baseline information for environmental policy researchers and makers regarding the public's perception and expectation of air quality and the benefits to the environmental policy completing and enforcing.

  10. A genomic sequencing protocol that yields a positive display of 5-methylcytosine residues in individual DNA strands.

    PubMed Central

    Frommer, M; McDonald, L E; Millar, D S; Collis, C M; Watt, F; Grigg, G W; Molloy, P L; Paul, C L

    1992-01-01

    The modulation of DNA-protein interactions by methylation of protein-binding sites in DNA and the occurrence in genomic imprinting, X chromosome inactivation, and fragile X syndrome of different methylation patterns in DNA of different chromosomal origin have underlined the need to establish methylation patterns in individual strands of particular genomic sequences. We report a genomic sequencing method that provides positive identification of 5-methylcytosine residues and yields strand-specific sequences of individual molecules in genomic DNA. The method utilizes bisulfite-induced modification of genomic DNA, under conditions whereby cytosine is converted to uracil, but 5-methylcytosine remains nonreactive. The sequence under investigation is then amplified by PCR with two sets of strand-specific primers to yield a pair of fragments, one from each strand, in which all uracil and thymine residues have been amplified as thymine and only 5-methylcytosine residues have been amplified as cytosine. The PCR products can be sequenced directly to provide a strand-specific average sequence for the population of molecules or can be cloned and sequenced to provide methylation maps of single DNA molecules. We tested the method by defining the methylation status within single DNA strands of two closely spaced CpG dinucleotides in the promoter of the human kininogen gene. During the analysis, we encountered in sperm DNA an unusual methylation pattern, which suggests that the high methylation level of single-copy sequences in sperm may be locally modulated by binding of protein factors in germ-line cells. Images PMID:1542678

  11. Effects of the therapist's nonverbal behavior on participation and affect of individuals with Alzheimer's disease during group music therapy sessions.

    PubMed

    Cevasco, Andrea M

    2010-01-01

    In healthcare settings, medical professionals' nonverbal behavior impacts patients' satisfaction and long-term physical, cognitive, and emotional well-being. The purpose of this research was to determine the effects of a music therapist's nonverbal behavior, affect and proximity, on participation and affect of 38 individuals with Alzheimer's disease and other related dementia (ADRD) during movement-to-music, singing, and instrument playing. Data indicated 62% of the individuals evinced positive affect when the therapist utilized affect and proximity combined, followed by the affect only condition (53%), proximity only condition (30%), and no affect or proximity condition (28%). A Friedman analysis indicated a significant difference in individuals' affect according to treatment conditions, chi(r)2 (3, 4) = 34.05, p = .001. Nonverbal behavior also impacted individuals' accuracy of participation, with participation at 79% for both affect and proximity combined, 75% for affect only, 71% for no affect or proximity, and 70% for proximity only. A significant difference occurred for participation by treatment conditions, F (3, 111) = 4.05, p = .009, eta2 = .10. Clinical implications are discussed.

  12. Cerebral White Matter Lesions and Affective Episodes Correlate in Male Individuals with Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Birner, Armin; Seiler, Stephan; Lackner, Nina; Bengesser, Susanne A.; Queissner, Robert; Fellendorf, Frederike T.; Platzer, Martina; Ropele, Stefan; Enzinger, Christian; Schwingenschuh, Petra; Mangge, Harald; Pirpamer, Lukas; Deutschmann, Hannes; McIntyre, Roger S.; Kapfhammer, Hans-Peter; Reininghaus, Bernd; Reininghaus, Eva Z.

    2015-01-01

    Background Cerebral white matter lesions (WML) have been found in normal aging, vascular disease and several neuropsychiatric conditions. Correlations of WML with clinical parameters in BD have been described, but not with the number of affective episodes, illness duration, age of onset and Body Mass Index in a well characterized group of euthymic bipolar adults. Herein, we aimed to evaluate the associations between bipolar course of illness parameters and WML measured with volumetric analysis. Methods In a cross-sectional study 100 euthymic individuals with BD as well as 54 healthy controls (HC) were enrolled to undergo brain magnetic resonance imaging using 3T including a FLAIR sequence for volumetric assessment of WML-load using FSL-software. Additionally, clinical characteristics and psychometric measures including Structured Clinical Interview according to DSM-IV, Hamilton-Depression, Young Mania Rating Scale and Beck’s Depression Inventory were evaluated. Results Individuals with BD had significantly more (F = 3.968, p < .05) WML (Mdn = 3710mm3; IQR = 2961mm3) than HC (Mdn = 2185mm3; IQR = 1665mm3). BD men (Mdn = 4095mm3; IQR = 3295mm3) and BD women (Mdn = 3032mm3; IQR = 2816mm3) did not significantly differ as to the WML-load or the number and type of risk factors for WML. However, in men only, the number of manic/hypomanic episodes (r = 0.72; p < .001) as well as depressive episodes (r = 0.51; p < .001) correlated positively with WML-load. Conclusions WML-load strongly correlated with the number of manic episodes in male BD patients, suggesting that men might be more vulnerable to mania in the context of cerebral white matter changes. PMID:26252714

  13. Motivations for Self-Injury, Affect, and Impulsivity: A Comparison of Individuals with Current Self-Injury to Individuals with a History of Self-Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Julia; Peterson, Claire M.; Fischer, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Individuals who report nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) are characterized by the tendency to act rashly while experiencing distress (negative urgency), the tendency to act without thinking, and endorsement of both social and affect regulation motives for the behavior. However, very little research has identified characteristics that distinguish…

  14. Does degree of handedness in a group of right-handed individuals affect language comprehension?

    PubMed

    Newman, Sharlene; Malaia, Evie; Seo, Roy

    2014-04-01

    The impact of handedness on language processing has been studied extensively and the results indicate that there is a relationship between the two variables; however, the nature of the relationship is not at all clear. In the current study we explored degree of handedness (DH) opposed to direction in a group of right-handed individuals. fMRI was used to explore the impact of DH on the sentence comprehension network. The results revealed that during sentence comprehension activation in regions linked to semantic memory (e.g., anterior temporal cortex) were modulated by DH. Also, unexpectedly the precuneus/posterior cingulate gyrus which has been linked to episodic memory was also affected by DH. These results extend those reported previously by showing that the neural architecture that supports sentence comprehension is modulated by DH. More specifically, together the results presented here support the hypothesis proposed by Townsend, Carrithers, and Bever (2001) that DH interacts with the language system and impacts the strategy used during sentence comprehension.

  15. Does degree of handedness in a group of right-handed individuals affect language comprehension?

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Sharlene; Malaia, Evie; Seo, Roy

    2014-01-01

    The impact of handedness on language processing has been studied extensively and the results indicate that there is a relationship between the two variables; however, the nature of the relationship is not at all clear. In the current study we explored degree of handedness (DH) opposed to direction in a group of right-handed individuals. fMRI was used to explore the impact of DH on the sentence comprehension network. The results revealed that during sentence comprehension activation in regions linked to semantic memory (e.g., anterior temporal cortex) were modulated by DH. Also, unexpectedly the precuneus/posterior cingulate gyrus which has been linked to episodic memory was also affected by DH. These results extend those reported previously by showing that the neural architecture that supports sentence comprehension is modulated by DH. More specifically, together the results presented here support the hypothesis proposed by Townsend et al. (2001) that DH interacts with the language system and impacts the strategy used during sentence comprehension. PMID:24607732

  16. Longitudinal study on work related and individual risk factors affecting radiating neck pain

    PubMed Central

    Viikari-Juntura, E; Martikainen, R; Luukkonen, R; Mutanen, P; Takala, E; Riihimaki, H

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To study the effects of work related and individual factors affecting radiating neck pain.
METHODS—A longitudinal study was carried out with repeated measurements. A total of 5180 Finnish forest industry workers replied to a questionnaire survey in 1992 (response rate 75%). Response rates to follow up questionnaires in 1993, 1994, and 1995 were 83%, 77%, and 90%, respectively. The outcome variable was the number of days with radiating neck pain during the preceding 12 months with three levels (<8, 8-30, >30 days). The generalised estimating equations method was used to fit a marginal model and a transition model was used in a predictive analysis.
RESULTS—Items showing associations with radiating neck pain in both analyses were sex, age, body mass index, smoking, duration of work with a hand above shoulder level, mental stress, and other musculoskeletal pains. In the transition model, radiating neck pain in a previous questionnaire was included in the model. Although it was a strong predictor, the variables already mentioned retained their significance.
CONCLUSION—Programmes targeted to reduce physical load at work, mental stress, being overweight, and smoking could potentially prevent radiating neck pain.


Keywords: neck disorder; mental stress; physical work load PMID:11303085

  17. Chronic diclofenac exposure affects gill integrity and pituitary gene expression and displays estrogenic activity in nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    PubMed

    Gröner, Frederike; Höhne, Christin; Kleiner, Wibke; Kloas, Werner

    2017-01-01

    Oreochromis niloticus has been exposed to diclofenac (DCF), a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug prevalent in the aquatic environment, for 80 days post-hatch (dph). Concentrations ranged from environmentally relevant (0.1 μg L(-1) and 1 μg L(-1) DCF) up to 100-fold thereof. Population relevant endpoints (hatching, survival, growth) as well as gill histopathology were analyzed. On this level of examination only gills exhibited mild to moderate alterations. On the contrary, biomarkers associated with reproduction were affected due to DCF exposure, indicating the potential to affect sexual differentiation and gametogenesis by acting as an estrogenic endocrine disrupting compound (EDC) in tilapia. Vitellogenin (VTG) gene expression was significantly induced at 1 μg L(-1) DCF. In order to find an explanation, gene expression patterns of key enzymes of the biotransformation phases I, II, and III have been analyzed. It seems very likely that the detoxification metabolism is induced in a dose dependent manner at higher concentrations of DCF leading to the expression pattern of VTG mRNA. Our results suggest that DCF at environmentally relevant concentrations adversely affects O. niloticus gill histopathology and pituitary gene expression, and has the potential to act as an estrogenic EDC. The sensitivity of various endpoints, however, differs and therefore these endpoints should be linked.

  18. Memory Load Affects Object Individuation in 18-Month-Old Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zosh, Jennifer M.; Feigenson, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Accurate representation of a changing environment requires individuation--the ability to determine how many numerically distinct objects are present in a scene. Much research has characterized early individuation abilities by identifying which object features infants can use to individuate throughout development. However, despite the fact that…

  19. Therapeutic electric stimulation does not affect immune status in healthy individuals – a preliminary report

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Neuromuscular electric stimulation is widely used for muscle strengthening in clinical practice and for preventative purposes. However, there are few reports on the effects of electric stimulation on the immune response of the organism, and even those mainly describe the changes observed immediately after the electrotherapeutic procedures. The objective of our study was to examine the possible immunological consequences of moderate low-frequency transcutaneous neuromuscular electric stimulation for quadriceps muscle strengthening in healthy individuals. Methods The study included 10 healthy volunteers (5 males, 5 females, mean age 37.5 years). At the beginning and after a two-week electric stimulation program, muscle strength was measured and peripheral blood was collected to analyse white blood cells by flow cytometry for the expression of cell surface antigens (CD3, CD19, CD4, CD8, CD4/8, DR/3, NK, Th reg, CD25 + CD3+, CD25 + CD4+, CD25 + CD8+, CD69 + CD3+, CD69 + CD4+, CD69 + CD8+) and phagocytosis/oxidative killing function. Results Muscle strength slightly increased after the program on the dominant and the nondominant side. No statistically or clinically significant difference was found in any of the measured blood and immune cells parameters as well as phagocytosis and oxidative burst function of neutrophil granulocytes and monocytes one day after the program. Conclusions The program of transcutaneous low-frequency electric stimulation slightly strengthened the quadriceps femoris muscle while producing no changes in measured immunological parameters. Hence, therapeutic low-frequency electric stimulation appears not to be affecting the immune response of healthy persons. PMID:22839574

  20. Preliminary study of gaze toward humans in photographs by individuals with autism, Down syndrome, or other intellectual disabilities: implications for design of visual scene displays.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Krista M; Light, Janice

    2014-06-01

    Visual scene displays (VSDs) are a form of augmentative and alternative communication display in which language concepts are embedded into an image of a naturalistic event. VSDs are based on the theory that language learning occurs through interactions with other people, and recommendations for VSD design have emphasized using images of these events that include humans. However, many VSDs also include other items that could potentially be distracting. We examined gaze fixation in 18 school-aged participants with and without severe intellectual/developmental disabilities (i.e., individuals with typical development, autism, Down syndrome and other intellectual disabilities) while they viewed photographs with human figures of various sizes and locations in the image, appearing alongside other interesting, and potentially distracting items. In all groups, the human figures attracted attention rapidly (within 1.5 seconds). The proportions of each participant's own fixation time spent on the human figures were similar across all groups, as were the proportions of total fixations made to the human figures. Although the findings are preliminary, this initial evidence supports the inclusion of humans in VSD images.

  1. Insular Activity during Passive Viewing of Aversive Stimuli Reflects Individual Differences in State Negative Affect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meriau, Katja; Wartenburger, Isabell; Kazzer, Philipp; Prehn, Kristin; Villringer, Arno; van der Meer, Elke; Heekeren, Hauke R.

    2009-01-01

    People differ with regard to how they perceive, experience, and express negative affect. While trait negative affect reflects a stable, sustained personality trait, state negative affect represents a stimulus limited and temporally acute emotion. So far, little is known about the neural systems mediating the relationship between negative affect…

  2. Using Emotion as Information in Future-Oriented Cognition: Individual Differences in the Context of State Negative Affect.

    PubMed

    Marroquín, Brett; Boyle, Chloe C; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan; Stanton, Annette L

    2016-06-01

    Predictions about the future are susceptible to mood-congruent influences of emotional state. However, recent work suggests individuals also differ in the degree to which they incorporate emotion into cognition. This study examined the role of such individual differences in the context of state negative emotion. We examined whether trait tendencies to use negative or positive emotion as information affect individuals' predictions of what will happen in the future (likelihood estimation) and how events will feel (affective forecasting), and whether trait influences depend on emotional state. Participants (N=119) reported on tendencies to use emotion as information ("following feelings"), underwent an emotion induction (negative versus neutral), and made likelihood estimates and affective forecasts for future events. Views of the future were predicted by both emotional state and individual differences in following feelings. Whereas following negative feelings affected most future-oriented cognition across emotional states, following positive feelings specifically buffered individuals' views of the future in the negative emotion condition, and specifically for positive future events, a category of future-event prediction especially important in psychological health. Individual differences may confer predisposition toward optimistic or pessimistic expectations of the future in the context of acute negative emotion, with implications for adaptive and maladaptive functioning.

  3. Lipophosphoglycans from Leishmania amazonensis Strains Display Immunomodulatory Properties via TLR4 and Do Not Affect Sand Fly Infection

    PubMed Central

    Nogueira, Paula M.; Assis, Rafael R.; Torrecilhas, Ana C.; Saraiva, Elvira M.; Pessoa, Natália L.; Campos, Marco A.; Marialva, Eric F.; Ríos-Velasquez, Cláudia M.; Pessoa, Felipe A.; Secundino, Nágila F.; Rugani, Jerônimo N.; Nieves, Elsa; Turco, Salvatore J.; Melo, Maria N.

    2016-01-01

    The immunomodulatory properties of lipophosphoglycans (LPG) from New World species of Leishmania have been assessed in Leishmania infantum and Leishmania braziliensis, the causative agents of visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis, respectively. This glycoconjugate is highly polymorphic among species with variation in sugars that branch off the conserved Gal(β1,4)Man(α1)-PO4 backbone of repeat units. Here, the immunomodulatory activity of LPGs from Leishmania amazonensis, the causative agent of diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis, was evaluated in two strains from Brazil. One strain (PH8) was originally isolated from the sand fly and the other (Josefa) was isolated from a human case. The ability of purified LPGs from both strains was investigated during in vitro interaction with peritoneal murine macrophages and CHO cells and in vivo infection with Lutzomyia migonei. In peritoneal murine macrophages, the LPGs from both strains activated TLR4. Both LPGs equally activate MAPKs and the NF-κB inhibitor p-IκBα, but were not able to translocate NF-κB. In vivo experiments with sand flies showed that both stains were able to sustain infection in L. migonei. A preliminary biochemical analysis indicates intraspecies variation in the LPG sugar moieties. However, they did not result in different activation profiles of the innate immune system. Also those polymorphisms did not affect infectivity to the sand fly. PMID:27508930

  4. Testing cognition in the wild: factors affecting performance and individual consistency in two measures of avian cognition.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Rachael C

    2017-01-01

    Developing cognitive tasks to reliably quantify individual differences in cognitive ability is critical to advance our understanding of the fitness consequences of cognition in the wild. Several factors may influence individual performance in a cognitive task, with some being unrelated to the cognitive ability that is the target of the test. It is therefore essential to assess how extraneous factors may affect task performance, particularly for those tasks that are frequently used to quantify individual differences in cognitive ability. The current study therefore measured the performance of wild North Island robins in two tasks commonly used to measure individual differences in avian cognition: a novel motor task and a detour reaching task. The robins' performance in the motor task was affected by prior experience; individuals that had previously participated in a similar task that required a different motor action pattern outperformed naïve subjects. By contrast, detour reaching performance was influenced by an individual's body condition, suggesting that energetic state may affect inhibitory control in robins. Designing tasks that limit the influence of past experience and developing means of standardising motivation across animals tested in the wild remain key challenges to improving current measurements of cognitive ability in birds.

  5. Affective Determinants of Anxiety and Depression Development in Children and Adolescents: An Individual Growth Curve Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Bolle, Marleen; De Clercq, Barbara; Decuyper, Mieke; De Fruyt, Filip

    2011-01-01

    The tripartite model (in Clark and Watson, "J Abnorm Psychol" 100:316-336, 1991) comprises Negative Affect (NA), Positive Affect (PA), and Physiological Hyperarousal (PH), three temperamental-based dimensions. The current study examined the tripartite model's assumptions that (a) NA interacts with PA to predict subsequent depressive (but not…

  6. Relationship between Individual External Doses, Ambient Dose Rates and Individuals' Activity-Patterns in Affected Areas in Fukushima following the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident.

    PubMed

    Naito, Wataru; Uesaka, Motoki; Yamada, Chie; Kurosawa, Tadahiro; Yasutaka, Tetsuo; Ishii, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    The accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant on March 11, 2011, released radioactive material into the atmosphere and contaminated the land in Fukushima and several neighboring prefectures. Five years after the nuclear disaster, the radiation levels have greatly decreased due to physical decay, weathering, and decontamination operations in Fukushima. The populations of 12 communities were forced to evacuate after the accident; as of March 2016, the evacuation order has been lifted in only a limited area, and permanent habitation is still prohibited in most of the areas. In order for the government to lift the evacuation order and for individuals to return to their original residential areas, it is important to assess current and future realistic individual external doses. Here, we used personal dosimeters along with the Global Positioning System and Geographic Information System to understand realistic individual external doses and to relate individual external doses, ambient doses, and activity-patterns of individuals in the affected areas in Fukushima. The results showed that the additional individual external doses were well correlated to the additional ambient doses based on the airborne monitoring survey. The results of linear regression analysis suggested that the additional individual external doses were on average about one-fifth that of the additional ambient doses. The reduction factors, which are defined as the ratios of the additional individual external doses to the additional ambient doses, were calculated to be on average 0.14 and 0.32 for time spent at home and outdoors, respectively. Analysis of the contribution of various activity patterns to the total individual external dose demonstrated good agreement with the average fraction of time spent daily in each activity, but the contribution due to being outdoors varied widely. These results are a valuable contribution to understanding realistic individual external doses and the corresponding

  7. Study of individual and group affective processes in the crew of a simulated mission to Mars: Positive affectivity as a valuable indicator of changes in the crew affectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poláčková Šolcová, Iva; Lačev, Alek; Šolcová, Iva

    2014-07-01

    The success of a long-duration space mission depends on various technical demands as well as on the psychological (cognitive, affective, and motivational) adaptation of crewmembers and the quality of interactions within the crew. We examined the ways crewmembers of a 520-day simulated spaceflight to Mars (held in the Institute for Biomedical Problems, in Moscow) experienced and regulated their moods and emotions. Results show that crewmembers experienced predominantly positive emotions throughout their 520-day isolation and the changes in mood of the crewmembers were asynchronous and balanced. The study suggests that during the simulation, crewmembers experienced and regulated their emotions differently than they usually do in their everyday life. In isolation, crewmembers preferred to suppress and neutralize their negative emotions and express overtly only emotions with positive valence. Although the affective processes were almost invariable throughout the simulation, two periods of time when the level of positive emotions declined were identified. Regarding the findings, the paper suggests that changes in positive affectivity could be a more valuable indicator of human experience in demanding but professional environments than changes in negative affectivity. Finally, the paper discusses the phenomenology of emotions during a real space mission.

  8. Individual species affect plant traits structure in their surroundings: evidence of functional mechanisms of assembly.

    PubMed

    Chacón-Labella, Julia; de la Cruz, Marcelino; Pescador, David S; Escudero, Adrián

    2016-04-01

    Evaluating community assembly through the use of functional traits is a promising tool for testing predictions arising from Niche and Coexistence theories. Although interactions among neighboring species and their inter-specific differences are known drivers of coexistence with a strong spatial signal, assessing the role of individual species on the functional structure of the community at different spatial scales remains a challenge. Here, we ask whether individual species exert a measurable effect on the spatial organization of different functional traits in local assemblages. We first propose and compute two functions that describe different aspects of functional trait organization around individual species at multiple scales: individual weighted mean area relationship and individual functional diversity area relationship. Secondly, we develop a conceptual model on the relationship and simultaneous variation of these two metrics, providing five alternative scenarios in response to the ability of some target species to modify its neighbor environment and the possible assembly mechanisms involved. Our results show that some species influence the spatial structure of specific functional traits, but their effects were always restricted to the finest spatial scales. In the basis of our conceptual model, the observed patterns point to two main mechanisms driving the functional structure of the community at the fine scale, "biotic" filtering meditated by individual species and resource partitioning driven by indirect facilitation rather than by competitive mechanisms.

  9. Individual Differences in Social Anxiety Affect the Salience of Errors in Social Contexts

    PubMed Central

    Barker, Tyson V.; Troller-Renfree, Sonya; Pine, Daniel S.; Fox, Nathan A.

    2015-01-01

    The error-related negativity (ERN) is an event-related potential that occurs approximately 50 ms after an erroneous response. The magnitude of the ERN is influenced by contextual factors, such as when errors are made during social evaluation. The ERN is also influenced by individual differences in anxiety, and it is elevated amongst anxious individuals. However, little research has examined how individual differences in anxiety interact with contextual factors to impact the ERN. Social anxiety involves fear and apprehension of social evaluation. The current study explored how individual differences in social anxiety interact with social contexts to modulate the ERN. The ERN was measured in 43 young adults characterized as either high or low in social anxiety while they completed a flanker task in two contexts: alone and during social evaluation. Results revealed a significant interaction between social anxiety and context, such that the ERN was enhanced in a social relative to a non-social context only among high socially anxious individuals. Furthermore, the degree of such enhancement significantly correlated with individual differences in social anxiety. These findings demonstrate that social anxiety is characterized by enhanced neural activity to errors in social evaluative contexts. PMID:25967929

  10. Give Me a Hand: Adult Involvement During Object Exploration Affects Object Individuation in Infancy.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Kristin M; Woods, Rebecca J

    2016-01-01

    The development of object individuation, a fundamental ability that supports identification and discrimination of objects across discrete encounters, has been examined extensively by researchers. There are significant advancements in infants' ability to individuate objects during the first year-and-a-half. Experimental work has established a timeline of object individuation abilities and revealed some mechanisms underlying this ability, however, the influence of adult assistance during object exploration has not yet been explored. The current study investigates the effect of adult involvement during object exploration on infants' object individuation abilities. In Experiment 1a and 1b, we examined 9.5-month-old infants' colour-based object individuation following adult-assisted multisensory object exploration. Two components of adult interaction were of particular interest: facilitation of object manipulation (grasping, rotating, and attention-getting behaviours) and social engagement (smiling, pointing, attention-getting verbalizations, and object-directed gaze). Experiment 2a and 2b assessed these components with 4.5-month-olds to examine their impact across development. The results showed that after adult-guided object exploration, both 9.5- and 4.5-month-old infants successfully individuated previously undifferentiated objects. Results of Experiments 1b and 2b provide implications for the mechanisms underlying the scaffolding influence of adult interaction during infant behaviours.

  11. Individual differences in social anxiety affect the salience of errors in social contexts.

    PubMed

    Barker, Tyson V; Troller-Renfree, Sonya; Pine, Daniel S; Fox, Nathan A

    2015-12-01

    The error-related negativity (ERN) is an event-related potential that occurs approximately 50 ms after an erroneous response. The magnitude of the ERN is influenced by contextual factors, such as when errors are made during social evaluation. The ERN is also influenced by individual differences in anxiety, and it is elevated among anxious individuals. However, little research has examined how individual differences in anxiety interact with contextual factors to impact the ERN. Social anxiety involves fear and apprehension of social evaluation. In the present study, we explored how individual differences in social anxiety interact with social contexts to modulate the ERN. The ERN was measured in 43 young adults characterized as being either high or low in social anxiety, while they completed a flanker task in two contexts: alone and during social evaluation. The results revealed a significant interaction between social anxiety and context, such that the ERN was enhanced in a social relative to a nonsocial context only among highly socially anxious individuals. Furthermore, the degree of such enhancement significantly correlated with individual differences in social anxiety. These findings demonstrate that social anxiety is characterized by enhanced neural activity to errors in social-evaluative contexts.

  12. One (rating) from many (observations): Factors affecting the individual assessment of voice behavior in groups.

    PubMed

    Podsakoff, Nathan P; Maynes, Timothy D; Whiting, Steven W; Podsakoff, Philip M

    2015-07-01

    This article reports an investigation into how individuals form perceptions of overall voice behavior in group contexts. More specifically, the authors examine the effect of the proportion of group members exhibiting voice behavior in the group, the frequency of voice events in the group, and the measurement item referent (group vs. individual) on an individual's ratings of group voice behavior. In addition, the authors examine the effect that measurement item referent has on the magnitude of the relationship observed between an individual's ratings of group voice behavior and perceptions of group performance. Consistent with hypotheses, the results from 1 field study (N = 220) and 1 laboratory experiment (N = 366) indicate that: (a) When group referents were used, raters relied on the frequency of voice events (and not the proportion of group members exhibiting voice) to inform their ratings of voice behavior, whereas the opposite was true when individual-referent items were used, and (b) the magnitude of the relationship between observers' ratings of group voice behavior and their perceptions of group performance was higher when raters used group-referent, as opposed to an individual-referent, items. The authors discuss the implications of their findings for scholars interested in studying behavioral phenomena occurring in teams, groups, and work units in organizational behavior research.

  13. Exploring Individual and Item Factors that Affect Assessment Validity for Diverse Learners: Results from a Large-Scale Cognitive Lab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winter, Phoebe C.; Kopriva, Rebecca J.; Chen, Chen-Su; Emick, Jessica E.

    2006-01-01

    A cognitive lab technique (n=156) was used to investigate interactions between individual factors and item factors presumed to affect assessment validity for diverse students, including English language learners. Findings support the concept of "access"--an interaction between specific construct-irrelevant item features and individual…

  14. Cognition and affective style: Individual differences in brain electrical activity during spatial and verbal tasks.

    PubMed

    Bell, Martha Ann; Fox, Nathan A

    2003-12-01

    Relations between brain electrical activity and performance on two cognitive tasks were examined in a normal population selected to be high on self-reported measures of Positive or Negative Affectivity. Twenty-five right-handed women, from an original pool of 308 college undergraduates, were the participants. EEG was recorded during baseline and during psychometrically matched spatial and verbal tasks. As predicted, participants who were high in Positive Affectivity performed equally well on the verbal and spatial tasks, while participants who were high in Negative Affectivity had spatial scores that were lower than their verbal scores. There were no group differences in baseline EEG. Both groups exhibited left central activation (i.e., alpha suppression) during the verbal and spatial tasks. When EEG data were analyzed separately for the group high in Positive Affectivity, there was evidence of parietal activation for the spatial task relative to the verbal task. The EEG data for the group high in Negative Affectivity had comparable EEG power values during verbal and spatial tasks at parietal scalp locations. These data suggest that, within a selected normal population, differences in affective style may interact with cognitive performance and with the brain electrical activity associated with that performance.

  15. How the government's punishment and individual's sensitivity affect the rumor spreading in online social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dandan; Ma, Jing

    2017-03-01

    We explore the impact of punishment of governments and sensitivity of individuals on the rumor spreading in this paper. Considering the facts that some rumors that relate to the hot events could be disseminated repeatedly, however, some other rumors will never be disseminated after they have been popular for some time. Therefore, we investigate two types (SIS and SIR) of rumor spreading models in which the punishment of government and sensitivity of individuals are considered. Based on the mean-field method, we have calculated the spreading threshold of SIS and SIR model, respectively. Furthermore, we perform the rumor spreading process in the Facebook and POK social networks, and achieve that there is an excellent agreement between the theoretical and numerical results of spreading threshold. The results indicate that improving the punishment of government and increasing the sensitivity of individuals could control the spreading of rumor effectively.

  16. Using a Structural Equation Model to Examine Factors Affecting Married Individuals' Sexual Embarrassment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celik, Eyup; Arici, Neslihan

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to predict the effects of levels of sexual awareness, sexual courage, and sexual self-disclosure on sexual embarrassment. Data was collected from 336 married individuals, who have students in the Sultangazi District of Istanbul. According to the structural equation model (SEM), sexual self-disclosure, directly, and sexual courage…

  17. More than Numbers: Individual and Contextual Factors in How Gender Diversity Affects Women's Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miner-Rubino, Kathi; Settles, Isis H.; Stewart, Abigail J.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined factors related to workplace gender diversity in a sample of 87 college-educated White women. Specifically, we investigated the moderating effects of one individual difference variable (sensitivity to sexism) and one contextual variable (perceptions of the workplace climate) in the relationship between the gender composition at…

  18. Doing It Your Way: How Individual Movement Styles Affect Action Prediction

    PubMed Central

    Koul, Atesh; Ansuini, Caterina; Becchio, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Individuals show significant variations in performing a motor act. Previous studies in the action observation literature have largely ignored this ubiquitous, if often unwanted, characteristic of motor performance, assuming movement patterns to be highly similar across repetitions and individuals. In the present study, we examined the possibility that individual variations in motor style directly influence the ability to understand and predict others’ actions. To this end, we first recorded grasping movements performed with different intents and used a two-step cluster analysis to identify quantitatively ‘clusters’ of movements performed with similar movement styles (Experiment 1). Next, using videos of the same movements, we proceeded to examine the influence of these styles on the ability to judge intention from action observation (Experiments 2 and 3). We found that motor styles directly influenced observers’ ability to ‘read’ others’ intention, with some styles always being less ‘readable’ than others. These results provide experimental support for the significance of motor variability for action prediction, suggesting that the ability to predict what another person is likely to do next directly depends on her individual movement style. PMID:27780259

  19. Perspectives on Individual Differences Affecting Therapeutic Change in Communication Disorders. New Directions in Communication Disorders Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Amy L., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This volume examines the ramifications of individual differences in therapy outcomes for a wide variety of communication disorders. In an era where evidence-based practice is the clinical profession's watchword, each chapter attacks this highly relevant issue from a somewhat different perspective. In some areas of communication disorders,…

  20. Factors Affecting Individuals' Decisions to Enter Music Teacher Education Doctoral Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teachout, David J.

    2004-01-01

    The present study is one of the first investigations into the music teacher educator shortage. The purpose was to identify factors that affect music teachers' decisions about entering music education doctoral programs. Practicing music educators, identified as being outstanding candidates for doctoral studies (PME) (n = 22), and recent doctoral…

  1. The Pedagogy of the Body: Affect and Collective Individuation in the Classroom and on the Dancefloor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    Much recent work in the study of popular culture has emphasized the extent to which it is not only a site of signifying practices, myths, meanings and identifications, but also an arena of intensities, of affective flows and corporeal state-changes. From this perspective, many areas of popular culture (from calisthenics to social dance to video…

  2. Is Long-Term Structural Priming Affected by Patterns of Experience with Individual Verbs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaschak, Michael P.; Borreggine, Kristin L.

    2008-01-01

    Several recent papers have reported long-term structural priming effects in experiments where previous patterns of experience with the double object and prepositional object constructions are shown to affect later patterns of language production for those constructions. The experiments reported in this paper address the extent to which these…

  3. Exploring Factors Affecting Students' Continued Wiki Use for Individual and Collaborative Learning: An Extended UTAUT Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yueh, Hsiu-Ping; Huang, Jo-Yi; Chang, Chueh

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate what factors affect students' adaptation and continued use of a Wiki system for collaborative writing tasks through an extension of the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT). This study was conducted in a general education course in a university in northern Taiwan. Data were…

  4. How Do Airlines Perceive That Strategic Alliances Affect Their Individual Branding?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalligiannis, Konstantinos; Iatrou, Kostas; Mason, Keith

    2006-01-01

    Much research has been carried out to evaluate the impact of strategic alliance membership on the performance of airlines. However it would be of interest to identify how airlines perceive this impact in terms of branding by each of the three global alliance groupings. It is the purpose of this paper to gather the opinion of airlines, belonging to the three strategic alliance groups, on the impact that the strategic alliance brands have had on their individual brands and how do they perceive that this impact will change in the future. To achieve this, a comprehensive survey of the alliance management and marketing departments of airlines participating in the three global strategic alliances was required. The results from this survey give an indication whether the strategic airline alliances, which are often referred to as marketing agreements, enhance, damage or have no impact on the individual airline brands.

  5. Cue self-relevance affects autobiographical memory specificity in individuals with a history of major depression

    PubMed Central

    Crane, Catherine; Barnhofer, Thorsten; Williams, J. Mark G.

    2007-01-01

    Previously depressed and never-depressed individuals identified personal characteristics (self-guides) defining their ideal, ought, and feared selves. One week later they completed the autobiographical memory test (AMT). For each participant the number of AMT cues that reflected self-guide content was determined to produce an index of AMT cue self-relevance. Individuals who had never been depressed showed no significant relationship between cue self-relevance and specificity. In contrast, in previously depressed participants there was a highly significant negative correlation between cue self-relevance and specificity—the greater the number of AMT cues that reflected self-guide content, the fewer specific memories participants recalled. It is suggested that in individuals with a history of depression, cues reflecting self-guide content are more likely to prompt a shift to processing of information within the long-term self (Conway, Singer, & Tagini, 2004), increasing the likelihood that self-related semantic information will be provided in response to cues on the autobiographical memory test. PMID:17454667

  6. Cognitive and affective mechanisms linking trait mindfulness to craving among individuals in addiction recovery.

    PubMed

    Garland, Eric L; Roberts-Lewis, Amelia; Kelley, Karen; Tronnier, Christine; Hanley, Adam

    2014-04-01

    The present study aimed to identify affective, cognitive, and conative mediators of the relation between trait mindfulness and craving in data culled from an urban sample of 165 persons (in abstinence verified by urinalysis) entering into residential treatment for substance use disorders between 2010 and 2012. Multivariate path analysis adjusting for age, gender, education level, employment status, and substance use frequency indicated that the association between the total trait mindfulness score on the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire and alcohol/drug craving was statistically mediated by negative affect (measured by the PANAS, beta = -.13) and cognitive reappraisal (measured by the CERQ, beta = -.08), but not by readiness to change (measured by the URICA, beta = -.001). Implications for mindfulness-oriented treatment of persons with substance use disorders are discussed. The study's limitations are noted.

  7. Novel loci affecting iron homeostasis and their effects in individuals at risk for hemochromatosis

    PubMed Central

    Benyamin, Beben; Esko, Tonu; Ried, Janina S; Radhakrishnan, Aparna; Vermeulen, Sita H; Traglia, Michela; Gögele, Martin; Anderson, Denise; Broer, Linda; Podmore, Clara; Luan, Jian’an; Kutalik, Zoltan; Sanna, Serena; van der Meer, Peter; Tanaka, Toshiko; Wang, Fudi; Westra, Harm-Jan; Franke, Lude; Mihailov, Evelin; Milani, Lili; Häldin, Jonas; Winkelmann, Juliane; Meitinger, Thomas; Thiery, Joachim; Peters, Annette; Waldenberger, Melanie; Rendon, Augusto; Jolley, Jennifer; Sambrook, Jennifer; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Sweep, Fred C; Sala, Cinzia F; Schwienbacher, Christine; Pichler, Irene; Hui, Jennie; Demirkan, Ayse; Isaacs, Aaron; Amin, Najaf; Steri, Maristella; Waeber, Gérard; Verweij, Niek; Powell, Joseph E; Nyholt, Dale R; Heath, Andrew C; Madden, Pamela AF; Visscher, Peter M; Wright, Margaret J; Montgomery, Grant W; Martin, Nicholas G; Hernandez, Dena; Bandinelli, Stefania; van der Harst, Pim; Uda, Manuela; Vollenweider, Peter; Scott, Robert A; Langenberg, Claudia; Wareham, Nicholas J; van Duijn, Cornelia; Beilby, John; Pramstaller, Peter P; Hicks, Andrew A; Ouwehand, Willem H; Oexle, Konrad; Gieger, Christian; Metspalu, Andres; Camaschella, Clara; Toniolo, Daniela; Swinkels, Dorine W; Whitfield, John B

    2014-01-01

    Variation in body iron is associated with or causes diseases, including anaemia and iron overload. Here we analyse genetic association data on biochemical markers of iron status from eleven European-population studies, with replication in eight additional cohorts (total up to 48,972 subjects). We find eleven genome-wide-significant (p < 5 × 10−8) loci, some including known iron-related genes (HFE, SLC40A1, TF, TFR2, TFRC, TMPRSS6) and others novel (ABO, ARNTL, FADS2, NAT2, TEX14). SNPs at ARNTL, TF, and TFR2 affect iron markers in HFE C282Y homozygotes at risk for hemochromatosis. There is substantial overlap between our iron loci and loci affecting erythrocyte and lipid phenotypes. These results will facilitate investigation of the roles of iron in disease. PMID:25352340

  8. Contextualizing individual differences in error monitoring: Links with impulsivity, negative affect, and conscientiousness.

    PubMed

    Hill, Kaylin E; Samuel, Douglas B; Foti, Dan

    2016-08-01

    The error-related negativity (ERN) is a neural measure of error processing that has been implicated as a neurobehavioral trait and has transdiagnostic links with psychopathology. Few studies, however, have contextualized this traitlike component with regard to dimensions of personality that, as intermediate constructs, may aid in contextualizing links with psychopathology. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to examine the interrelationships between error monitoring and dimensions of personality within a large adult sample (N = 208). Building on previous research, we found that the ERN relates to a combination of negative affect, impulsivity, and conscientiousness. At low levels of conscientiousness, negative urgency (i.e., impulsivity in the context of negative affect) predicted an increased ERN; at high levels of conscientiousness, the effect of negative urgency was not significant. This relationship was driven specifically by the conscientiousness facets of competence, order, and deliberation. Links between personality measures and error positivity amplitude were weaker and nonsignificant. Post-error slowing was also related to conscientiousness, as well as a different facet of impulsivity: lack of perseverance. These findings suggest that, in the general population, error processing is modulated by the joint combination of negative affect, impulsivity, and conscientiousness (i.e., the profile across traits), perhaps more so than any one dimension alone. This work may inform future research concerning aberrant error processing in clinical populations.

  9. Combined pesticide exposure severely affects individual- and colony-level traits in bees.

    PubMed

    Gill, Richard J; Ramos-Rodriguez, Oscar; Raine, Nigel E

    2012-11-01

    Reported widespread declines of wild and managed insect pollinators have serious consequences for global ecosystem services and agricultural production. Bees contribute approximately 80% of insect pollination, so it is important to understand and mitigate the causes of current declines in bee populations . Recent studies have implicated the role of pesticides in these declines, as exposure to these chemicals has been associated with changes in bee behaviour and reductions in colony queen production. However, the key link between changes in individual behaviour and the consequent impact at the colony level has not been shown. Social bee colonies depend on the collective performance of many individual workers. Thus, although field-level pesticide concentrations can have subtle or sublethal effects at the individual level, it is not known whether bee societies can buffer such effects or whether it results in a severe cumulative effect at the colony level. Furthermore, widespread agricultural intensification means that bees are exposed to numerous pesticides when foraging, yet the possible combinatorial effects of pesticide exposure have rarely been investigated. Here we show that chronic exposure of bumblebees to two pesticides (neonicotinoid and pyrethroid) at concentrations that could approximate field-level exposure impairs natural foraging behaviour and increases worker mortality leading to significant reductions in brood development and colony success. We found that worker foraging performance, particularly pollen collecting efficiency, was significantly reduced with observed knock-on effects for forager recruitment, worker losses and overall worker productivity. Moreover, we provide evidence that combinatorial exposure to pesticides increases the propensity of colonies to fail.

  10. Combined pesticide exposure severely affects individual- and colony-level traits in bees

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Richard J.; Ramos-Rodriguez, Oscar; Raine, Nigel E.

    2012-01-01

    Reported widespread declines of wild and managed insect pollinators have serious consequences for global ecosystem services and agricultural production1-3. Bees contribute around 80% of insect pollination, so it is imperative we understand and mitigate the causes of current declines4-6. Recent studies have implicated the role of pesticides as exposure to these chemicals has been associated with changes in bee behaviour7-11 and reductions in colony queen production12. However the key link between changes in individual behaviour and consequent impact at the colony level has not been shown. Social bee colonies depend on the collective performance of numerous individual workers. So whilst field-level pesticide concentrations can have a subtle/sublethal effect at the individual level8, it is not known whether bee societies can buffer such effects or if it results in a severe cumulative effect at the colony level. Furthermore, widespread agricultural intensification means bees are exposed to numerous pesticides when foraging13-15, yet the possible combinatorial effects of pesticide exposure have rarely been investigated16,17. Here we show that chronic exposure of bumblebees to two pesticides (neonicotinoid and pyrethroid) at concentrations that could approximate field-level exposure impairs natural foraging behaviour and increases worker mortality leading to significant reductions in brood development and colony success. We found worker foraging performance, particularly pollen collecting efficiency, was significantly reduced with observed knock-on effects for forager recruitment, worker losses and overall worker productivity. Moreover, we provide evidence that combinatorial exposure to pesticides increases the propensity of colonies to fail. PMID:23086150

  11. Population expansion and individual age affect endoparasite richness and diversity in a recolonising large carnivore population

    PubMed Central

    Lesniak, Ines; Heckmann, Ilja; Heitlinger, Emanuel; Szentiks, Claudia A.; Nowak, Carsten; Harms, Verena; Jarausch, Anne; Reinhardt, Ilka; Kluth, Gesa; Hofer, Heribert; Krone, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    The recent recolonisation of the Central European lowland (CEL) by the grey wolf (Canis lupus) provides an excellent opportunity to study the effect of founder events on endoparasite diversity. Which role do prey and predator populations play in the re-establishment of endoparasite life cycles? Which intrinsic and extrinsic factors control individual endoparasite diversity in an expanding host population? In 53 individually known CEL wolves sampled in Germany, we revealed a community of four cestode, eight nematode, one trematode and 12 potential Sarcocystis species through molecular genetic techniques. Infections with zoonotic Echinococcus multilocularis, Trichinella britovi and T. spiralis occurred as single cases. Per capita endoparasite species richness and diversity significantly increased with population size and changed with age, whereas sex, microsatellite heterozygosity, and geographic origin had no effect. Tapeworm abundance (Taenia spp.) was significantly higher in immigrants than natives. Metacestode prevalence was slightly higher in ungulates from wolf territories than from control areas elsewhere. Even though alternative canid definitive hosts might also play a role within the investigated parasite life cycles, our findings indicate that (1) immigrated wolves increase parasite diversity in German packs, and (2) prevalence of wolf-associated parasites had declined during wolf absence and has now risen during recolonisation. PMID:28128348

  12. Population expansion and individual age affect endoparasite richness and diversity in a recolonising large carnivore population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesniak, Ines; Heckmann, Ilja; Heitlinger, Emanuel; Szentiks, Claudia A.; Nowak, Carsten; Harms, Verena; Jarausch, Anne; Reinhardt, Ilka; Kluth, Gesa; Hofer, Heribert; Krone, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    The recent recolonisation of the Central European lowland (CEL) by the grey wolf (Canis lupus) provides an excellent opportunity to study the effect of founder events on endoparasite diversity. Which role do prey and predator populations play in the re-establishment of endoparasite life cycles? Which intrinsic and extrinsic factors control individual endoparasite diversity in an expanding host population? In 53 individually known CEL wolves sampled in Germany, we revealed a community of four cestode, eight nematode, one trematode and 12 potential Sarcocystis species through molecular genetic techniques. Infections with zoonotic Echinococcus multilocularis, Trichinella britovi and T. spiralis occurred as single cases. Per capita endoparasite species richness and diversity significantly increased with population size and changed with age, whereas sex, microsatellite heterozygosity, and geographic origin had no effect. Tapeworm abundance (Taenia spp.) was significantly higher in immigrants than natives. Metacestode prevalence was slightly higher in ungulates from wolf territories than from control areas elsewhere. Even though alternative canid definitive hosts might also play a role within the investigated parasite life cycles, our findings indicate that (1) immigrated wolves increase parasite diversity in German packs, and (2) prevalence of wolf-associated parasites had declined during wolf absence and has now risen during recolonisation.

  13. Population expansion and individual age affect endoparasite richness and diversity in a recolonising large carnivore population.

    PubMed

    Lesniak, Ines; Heckmann, Ilja; Heitlinger, Emanuel; Szentiks, Claudia A; Nowak, Carsten; Harms, Verena; Jarausch, Anne; Reinhardt, Ilka; Kluth, Gesa; Hofer, Heribert; Krone, Oliver

    2017-01-27

    The recent recolonisation of the Central European lowland (CEL) by the grey wolf (Canis lupus) provides an excellent opportunity to study the effect of founder events on endoparasite diversity. Which role do prey and predator populations play in the re-establishment of endoparasite life cycles? Which intrinsic and extrinsic factors control individual endoparasite diversity in an expanding host population? In 53 individually known CEL wolves sampled in Germany, we revealed a community of four cestode, eight nematode, one trematode and 12 potential Sarcocystis species through molecular genetic techniques. Infections with zoonotic Echinococcus multilocularis, Trichinella britovi and T. spiralis occurred as single cases. Per capita endoparasite species richness and diversity significantly increased with population size and changed with age, whereas sex, microsatellite heterozygosity, and geographic origin had no effect. Tapeworm abundance (Taenia spp.) was significantly higher in immigrants than natives. Metacestode prevalence was slightly higher in ungulates from wolf territories than from control areas elsewhere. Even though alternative canid definitive hosts might also play a role within the investigated parasite life cycles, our findings indicate that (1) immigrated wolves increase parasite diversity in German packs, and (2) prevalence of wolf-associated parasites had declined during wolf absence and has now risen during recolonisation.

  14. Facial Affect Recognition Training Through Telepractice: Two Case Studies of Individuals with Chronic Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Williamson, John; Isaki, Emi

    2015-01-01

    The use of a modified Facial Affect Recognition (FAR) training to identify emotions was investigated with two case studies of adults with moderate to severe chronic (> five years) traumatic brain injury (TBI). The modified FAR training was administered via telepractice to target social communication skills. Therapy consisted of identifying emotions through static facial expressions, personally reflecting on those emotions, and identifying sarcasm and emotions within social stories and role-play. Pre- and post-therapy measures included static facial photos to identify emotion and the Prutting and Kirchner Pragmatic Protocol for social communication. Both participants with chronic TBI showed gains on identifying facial emotions on the static photos.

  15. Facial Affect Recognition Training Through Telepractice: Two Case Studies of Individuals with Chronic Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    WILLIAMSON, JOHN; ISAKI, EMI

    2015-01-01

    The use of a modified Facial Affect Recognition (FAR) training to identify emotions was investigated with two case studies of adults with moderate to severe chronic (> five years) traumatic brain injury (TBI). The modified FAR training was administered via telepractice to target social communication skills. Therapy consisted of identifying emotions through static facial expressions, personally reflecting on those emotions, and identifying sarcasm and emotions within social stories and role-play. Pre- and post-therapy measures included static facial photos to identify emotion and the Prutting and Kirchner Pragmatic Protocol for social communication. Both participants with chronic TBI showed gains on identifying facial emotions on the static photos. PMID:27563379

  16. Cognitive-affective stress response: effects of individual stress propensity on physiological and psychological indicators of strain.

    PubMed

    Wofford, J C

    2001-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to define further the role of individual stress propensity in physiological arousal and subsequent subjective stress and strain by measuring stress-induced reactivity in a laboratory setting. Individual predisposition to stress is conceptualized as a latent construct, cognitive-affective stress propensity, that is manifested as multiple trait indicators, e.g., negative affectivity, anger-irritability, and negative self-esteem. For 80 undergraduates experimental treatments were two stressors, time pressure and performance feedback. Physiological arousal indices included skin temperature, blood volume, and electromyographic activity. Results provide some support for the hypotheses that this propensity moderates the relationships between stressor and physiological arousal and between physiological arousal and subjective stress and strain.

  17. Body size affects individual winter foraging strategies of thick-billed murres in the Bering Sea.

    PubMed

    Orben, Rachael A; Paredes, Rosana; Roby, Daniel D; Irons, David B; Shaffer, Scott A

    2015-11-01

    Foraging and migration often require different energetic and movement strategies. Though not readily apparent, constraints during one phase might influence the foraging strategies observed in another. For marine birds that fly and dive, body size constraints likely present a trade-off between foraging ability and migration as smaller bodies reduce flight costs, whereas larger bodies are advantageous for diving deeper. This study examines individual wintering strategies of deep diving thick-billed murres (Uria lomvia) breeding at three colonies in the south-eastern Bering Sea: St Paul, St George and Bogoslof. These colonies, arranged north to south, are located such that breeding birds forage in a gradient from shelf to deep-water habitats. We used geolocation time-depth recorders and stable isotopes from feathers to determine differences in foraging behaviour and diet of murres during three non-breeding periods, 2008-2011. Body size was quantified by a principal component analysis (wing, culmen, head+bill and tarsus length). A hierarchical cluster analysis identified winter foraging strategies based on individual movement, diving behaviour and diet (inferred from stable isotopes). Structural body size differed by breeding island. Larger birds from St Paul had higher wing loading than smaller birds from St George. Larger birds, mainly from St Paul, dove to deeper depths, spent more time in the Bering Sea, and likely consumed higher trophic-level prey in late winter. Three winter foraging strategies were identified. The main strategy, employed by small birds from all three breeding colonies in the first 2 years, was characterized by high residency areas in the North Pacific south of the Aleutians and nocturnal diving. In contrast, 31% of birds from St Paul remained in the Bering Sea and foraged mainly during the day, apparently feeding on higher trophic-level prey. Throat feather stable isotopes indicated that individuals exhibited flexibility in the use of this

  18. The Catalonian Expert Patient Programme for Chagas Disease: An Approach to Comprehensive Care Involving Affected Individuals.

    PubMed

    Claveria Guiu, Isabel; Caro Mendivelso, Johanna; Ouaarab Essadek, Hakima; González Mestre, Maria Asunción; Albajar-Viñas, Pedro; Gómez I Prat, Jordi

    2017-02-01

    The Catalonian Expert Patient Programme on Chagas disease is a initiative, which is part of the Chronic Disease Programme. It aims to boost responsibility of patients for their own health and to promote self-care. The programme is based on nine sessions conducted by an expert patient. Evaluation was focusing in: habits and lifestyle/self-care, knowledge of disease, perception of health, self-esteem, participant satisfaction, and compliance with medical follow-up visits. Eighteen participants initiated the programme and 15 completed it. The participants were Bolivians. The 66.7 % of them had been diagnosed with chagas disease in Spain. The 100 % mentioned that they would participate in this activity again and would recommend it to family and friends. The knowledge about disease improve after sessions. The method used in the programme could serve as a key strategy in the field of comprehensive care for individuals with this disease.

  19. Relations between pure dietary and dietary-negative affect subtypes and impulsivity and reinforcement sensitivity in binge eating individuals.

    PubMed

    Carrard, Isabelle; Crépin, Christelle; Ceschi, Grazia; Golay, Alain; Van der Linden, Martial

    2012-01-01

    To investigate potential predictors of the severity of binge eating disorder (BED), two subtypes of patients with the disorder, a pure dietary subtype and a dietary-negative affect subtype, were identified. This study investigated the relationships between the two subtypes and impulsivity and reinforcement sensitivity. Ninety-two women meeting threshold and subthreshold criteria for BED diagnosis filled out questionnaires to determine eating disorder severity, impulsivity and reinforcement sensitivity before and after participating in an online guided self-help program for BED. Cluster analyses revealed a pure dietary subtype (N=66, 71.7%) and a dietary-negative affect subtype (N=26, 28.3%). Compared to the pure dietary subtype, the dietary-negative affect subtype reported a higher frequency of objective binge episodes, more severe eating disorders, higher urgency scores (defined as a tendency to act rashly in the context of negative affect), a greater sensitivity to punishment, and a higher dropout rate during treatment. These findings suggest that BED patients in the dietary-negative affect subtype exhibit heightened anxiety and are highly impulsive, especially in contexts of negative affect. For these individuals, psychological interventions for BED should focus on inhibiting automatic responses to negative emotions.

  20. Cross-modal influences of affect across social and non-social domains in individuals with Williams syndrome.

    PubMed

    Järvinen-Pasley, Anna; Vines, Bradley W; Hill, Kiley J; Yam, Anna; Grichanik, Mark; Mills, Debra; Reiss, Allan L; Korenberg, Julie R; Bellugi, Ursula

    2010-01-01

    The Williams syndrome (WS) cognitive profile is characterized by relative strengths in face processing, an attentional bias towards social stimuli, and an increased affinity and emotional reactivity to music. An audio-visual integration study examined the effects of auditory emotion on visual (social/non-social) affect identification in individuals with WS and typically developing (TD) and developmentally delayed (DD) controls. The social bias in WS was hypothesized to manifest as an increased ability to process social than non-social affect, and a reduced auditory influence in social contexts. The control groups were hypothesized to perform similarly across conditions. The results showed that while participants with WS exhibited indistinguishable performance to TD controls in identifying facial affect, DD controls performed significantly more poorly. The TD group outperformed the WS and DD groups in identifying non-social affect. The results suggest that emotionally evocative music facilitated the ability of participants with WS to process emotional facial expressions. These surprisingly strong facial-processing skills in individuals with WS may have been due to the effects of combining social and music stimuli and to a reduction in anxiety due to the music in particular. Several directions for future research are suggested.

  1. Did the 2009 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act affect dietary intake of low-income individuals?

    PubMed

    Waehrer, Geetha; Deb, Partha; Decker, Sandra L

    2015-12-01

    This paper examines the relationship between increased Supplemental Nutritional Assistance Program (SNAP) benefits following the 2009 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) and the diet quality of individuals from SNAP-eligible compared to ineligible (those with somewhat higher income) households using data from the 2007-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The ARRA increased SNAP monthly benefits by 13.6% of the maximum allotment for a given household size, equivalent to an increase of $24 to $144 for one-to-eight person households respectively. In the full sample, we find that these increases in SNAP benefits are not associated with changes in nutrient intake and diet quality. However, among those with no more than a high school education, higher SNAP benefits are associated with a 46% increase in the mean caloric share from sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and a decrease in overall diet quality especially for those at the lower end of the diet quality distribution, amounting to a 9% decline at the 25th percentile.

  2. Chronic hand eczema: perception and knowledge in non-affected individuals from general and dermatological practice.

    PubMed

    Letulé, Valerie; Herzinger, Thomas; Schirner, Astrid; Hertrich, Frank; Lange, Dirk; Ruzicka, Thomas; Molin, Sonja

    2014-11-01

    Misunderstanding and stigmatisation are common problems encountered by patients with hand eczema. Various misconceptions about the disease circulate in the general population. Although hand eczema has gained more attention in dermatology during the past years, information on public perception of the disease is still lacking. The aim of our study was to investigate perception of and level of knowledge on the subject hand eczema. There were 624 patients included from 2 general medicine practices and 2 dermatological practices. A self-administered questionnaire was filled out by the participants, covering issues on history of hand eczema, level of knowledge and attitude towards a clinical photograph of hand eczema. We found that a larger proportion of individuals from dermatological practice were more familiar with hand eczema as a disease than those from general medical practice. Women knew significantly more about and had a more positive perception of the disease than men. Our results imply that the level of knowledge on hand eczema in the general public is rather low and influenced by prejudice.

  3. Individual Differences in Moral Development: Does Intelligence Really Affect Children's Moral Reasoning and Moral Emotions?

    PubMed

    Beißert, Hanna M; Hasselhorn, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between intelligence and individual differences in children's moral development across a range of different moral transgressions. Taking up prior research that showed morality and intelligence to be related in adolescents and adults, the current study wants to test if these findings can be extended to younger children. The study was designed to address some of the shortcomings in prior research by examining young children aged between 6 years; 4 months and 8 years; 10 months, using a broad concept of moral development including emotional aspects and applying an approach that is closely connected to children's daily lives. Participants (N = 129) completed a standardized intelligence test and were presented four moral transgression stories to assess moral development. Results demonstrated that findings from prior research with adolescents or adults cannot simply be extended to younger participants. No significant correlations of moral development and intelligence were found for any of the presented stories. This provides first evidence that - at least in middle childhood - moral developmental status seems to be independent from children's general intelligence assessed by figural inductive reasoning tests.

  4. Individual factors affecting preferences for feedback message tactics in the contexts of physical activity.

    PubMed

    Hirvonen, Noora; Enwald, Heidi; Bath, Peter A; Pyky, Riitta; Korpelainen, Raija; Huotari, Maija-Leena

    2015-01-01

    Tailored feedback on personal physical activity behavior has been used to inform individuals and promote physical activity among different populations. This study aimed to increase the understanding of factors associated with young men's preferences for feedback message tactics in the context of physical activity and exercise. How preferences vary was analyzed in terms of the self-reported physical activity, stage of exercise behavior change, exercise self-efficacy, objectively measured physical health status, and sociodemographic characteristics of young Finnish men. Population-based survey data, including physiological measurements (n = 525), were collected at the Finnish Defence Forces' call-ups in the city of Oulu, Finland, in September 2011. The results indicate that the stage of exercise behavior change, exercise self-efficacy, physical health status, and educational level are associated with a preference for normative and ipsative comparison. Multivariate logistic regression models show that an advanced stage of exercise behavior change and education in the academic track of an upper secondary school are independent predictors of preferring ipsative and normative physical activity feedback among young men. The study provides new insights into how the stage of behavior change influences health information behavior and is in line with studies emphasizing social factors--including education--as being important in shaping health-related behavior. These factors could form the basis for tailoring information when designing health promotion.

  5. Apparent autosomal recessive inheritance in families with proximal spinal muscular atrophy affecting individuals in two generations

    SciTech Connect

    Rudnik-Schoeneborn, S.; Zerres, K.; Hahnen, E.

    1996-11-01

    With the evidence that deletions in the region responsible for childhood- and juvenile-onset proximal spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) are on chromosome 5 it is now possible to confirm autosomal recessive inheritance in most patients (denoted {open_quotes}SMA 5q{close_quotes}). Homozygous deletions in the telomeric copy of the survival motor neuron (SMN) gene can be detected in 95%-98% of patients with early-onset SMA (types I and II), whereas as many as 10%-20% of patients with the milder, juvenile-onset form (type III SMA) do not show deletions. In families with affected subjects in two generations, it is difficult to decide whether they are autosomal dominantly inherited or caused by three independent recessive mutations (pseudodominant inheritance). Given an incidence of >1/10,000 of SMA 5q, patients with autosomal recessive SMA have an {approximately}1% recurrence risk to their offspring. Although the dominant forms are not linked to chromosome 5q, pseudodominant families can now be identified by the presence of homozygous deletions in the SMN gene. 5 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  6. Tropical Forest Fragmentation Affects Floral Visitors but Not the Structure of Individual-Based Palm-Pollinator Networks

    PubMed Central

    Dáttilo, Wesley; Aguirre, Armando; Quesada, Mauricio; Dirzo, Rodolfo

    2015-01-01

    Despite increasing knowledge about the effects of habitat loss on pollinators in natural landscapes, information is very limited regarding the underlying mechanisms of forest fragmentation affecting plant-pollinator interactions in such landscapes. Here, we used a network approach to describe the effects of forest fragmentation on the patterns of interactions involving the understory dominant palm Astrocaryum mexicanum (Arecaceae) and its floral visitors (including both effective and non-effective pollinators) at the individual level in a Mexican tropical rainforest landscape. Specifically, we asked: (i) Does fragment size affect the structure of individual-based plant-pollinator networks? (ii) Does the core of highly interacting visitor species change along the fragmentation size gradient? (iii) Does forest fragment size influence the abundance of effective pollinators of A. mexicanum? We found that fragment size did not affect the topological structure of the individual-based palm-pollinator network. Furthermore, while the composition of peripheral non-effective pollinators changed depending on fragment size, effective core generalist species of pollinators remained stable. We also observed that both abundance and variance of effective pollinators of male and female flowers of A. mexicanum increased with forest fragment size. These findings indicate that the presence of effective pollinators in the core of all forest fragments could keep the network structure stable along the gradient of forest fragmentation. In addition, pollination of A. mexicanum could be more effective in larger fragments, since the greater abundance of pollinators in these fragments may increase the amount of pollen and diversity of pollen donors between flowers of individual plants. Given the prevalence of fragmentation in tropical ecosystems, our results indicate that the current patterns of land use will have consequences on the underlying mechanisms of pollination in remnant forests

  7. Tropical forest fragmentation affects floral visitors but not the structure of individual-based palm-pollinator networks.

    PubMed

    Dáttilo, Wesley; Aguirre, Armando; Quesada, Mauricio; Dirzo, Rodolfo

    2015-01-01

    Despite increasing knowledge about the effects of habitat loss on pollinators in natural landscapes, information is very limited regarding the underlying mechanisms of forest fragmentation affecting plant-pollinator interactions in such landscapes. Here, we used a network approach to describe the effects of forest fragmentation on the patterns of interactions involving the understory dominant palm Astrocaryum mexicanum (Arecaceae) and its floral visitors (including both effective and non-effective pollinators) at the individual level in a Mexican tropical rainforest landscape. Specifically, we asked: (i) Does fragment size affect the structure of individual-based plant-pollinator networks? (ii) Does the core of highly interacting visitor species change along the fragmentation size gradient? (iii) Does forest fragment size influence the abundance of effective pollinators of A. mexicanum? We found that fragment size did not affect the topological structure of the individual-based palm-pollinator network. Furthermore, while the composition of peripheral non-effective pollinators changed depending on fragment size, effective core generalist species of pollinators remained stable. We also observed that both abundance and variance of effective pollinators of male and female flowers of A. mexicanum increased with forest fragment size. These findings indicate that the presence of effective pollinators in the core of all forest fragments could keep the network structure stable along the gradient of forest fragmentation. In addition, pollination of A. mexicanum could be more effective in larger fragments, since the greater abundance of pollinators in these fragments may increase the amount of pollen and diversity of pollen donors between flowers of individual plants. Given the prevalence of fragmentation in tropical ecosystems, our results indicate that the current patterns of land use will have consequences on the underlying mechanisms of pollination in remnant forests.

  8. Individual and Center-Level Factors Affecting Mortality Among Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants

    PubMed Central

    Alleman, Brandon W.; Li, Lei; Dagle, John M.; Smith, P. Brian; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam; Laughon, Matthew M.; Stoll, Barbara J.; Goldberg, Ronald N.; Carlo, Waldemar A.; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Cotten, C. Michael; Shankaran, Seetha; Walsh, Michele C.; Laptook, Abbot R.; Ellsbury, Dan L.; Hale, Ellen C.; Newman, Nancy S.; Wallace, Dennis D.; Das, Abhik; Higgins, Rosemary D.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine factors affecting center differences in mortality for extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants. METHODS: We analyzed data for 5418 ELBW infants born at 16 Neonatal Research Network centers during 2006–2009. The primary outcomes of early mortality (≤12 hours after birth) and in-hospital mortality were assessed by using multilevel hierarchical models. Models were developed to investigate associations of center rates of selected interventions with mortality while adjusting for patient-level risk factors. These analyses were performed for all gestational ages (GAs) and separately for GAs <25 weeks and ≥25 weeks. RESULTS: Early and in-hospital mortality rates among centers were 5% to 36% and 11% to 53% for all GAs, 13% to 73% and 28% to 90% for GAs <25 weeks, and 1% to 11% and 7% to 26% for GAs ≥25 weeks, respectively. Center intervention rates significantly predicted both early and in-hospital mortality for infants <25 weeks. For infants ≥25 weeks, intervention rates did not predict mortality. The variance in mortality among centers was significant for all GAs and outcomes. Center use of interventions and patient risk factors explained some but not all of the center variation in mortality rates. CONCLUSIONS: Center intervention rates explain a portion of the center variation in mortality, especially for infants born at <25 weeks’ GA. This finding suggests that deaths may be prevented by standardizing care for very early GA infants. However, differences in patient characteristics and center intervention rates do not account for all of the observed variability in mortality; and for infants with GA ≥25 weeks these differences account for only a small part of the variation in mortality. PMID:23753096

  9. How Stock of Origin Affects Performance of Individuals across a Meta-Ecosystem: An Example from Sockeye Salmon

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, Jennifer R.; Schindler, Daniel E.; Seeb, Lisa W.

    2013-01-01

    Connectivity among diverse habitats can buffer populations from adverse environmental conditions, influence the functioning of meta-ecosystems, and ultimately affect the reliability of ecosystem services. This stabilizing effect on populations is proposed to derive from complementarity in growth and survival conditions experienced by individuals in the different habitats that comprise meta-ecosystems. Here we use the fine scale differentiation of salmon populations between diverse lake habitats to assess how rearing habitat and stock of origin affect the body condition of juvenile sockeye salmon. We use genetic markers (single nucleotide polymorphisms) to assign individuals of unknown origin to stock group and in turn characterize ecologically relevant attributes across habitats and stocks. Our analyses show that the body condition of juvenile salmon is related to the productivity of alternative habitats across the watershed, irrespective of their stock of origin. Emigrants and residents with genetic origins in the high productivity lake were also differentiated by their body condition, poor and high respectively. These emigrants represented a substantial proportion of juvenile sockeye salmon rearing in the lower productivity lake habitat. Despite emigrants originating from the more productive lake, they did not differ in body condition from the individuals spawned in the lower productivity, recipient habitat. Genetic tools allowed us to assess the performance of different stocks groups across the diverse habitats comprising their meta-ecosystem. The ability to characterize the ecological consequences of meta-ecosystem connectivity can help develop strategies to protect and restore ecosystems and the services they provide to humans. PMID:23505539

  10. Adolescents after Pemberton's osteotomy for developmental dysplasia of the hip displayed greater joint loading than healthy controls in affected and unaffected limbs during gait.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chu-Fen; Wang, Ting-Ming; Wang, Jyh-Horng; Huang, Shier-Chieg; Lu, Tung-Wu

    2011-07-01

    Patients after reduced developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) are at higher than normal risk of developing avascular necrosis (AVN) of the femoral head and degenerative hip osteoarthritis (OA) that are closely related to abnormal loadings. We aimed to determine the lower limb loadings in adolescents after Pemberton's osteotomy for unilateral DDH. Eleven females (age: 10.6 ± 1.0 years), who had received Pemberton's osteotomy for unilateral DDH at 1.6 ± 0.5 years of age, and 12 age-matched healthy controls were studied using gait analysis. Compared to the normal controls, the patients were displayed greater peak axial forces at the hip, knee, and ankle in both limbs, with greater loading rates in the ground reaction force (GRF) and at the hips (p < 0.05 for all comparisons). The increased rates of repetitive loading around heel strike in both hips suggest that patients treated for unilateral DDH using Pemberton's osteotomy may be at higher risk of premature hip OA. The increased axial forces at the affected hip may be a contributing factor to the development of AVN of the femoral head in these patients, especially when incomplete coverage, insufficient congruency, and/or damaged articular surfaces remain after the osteotomy. Therefore, monitoring the loading condition at the hip is necessary for a more accurate assessment of the risk of developing joint pathology in patients after reduced DDH.

  11. Activity and social factors affect cohesion among individuals in female Japanese macaques: A simultaneous focal-follow study.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, Mari; Suzuki, Mariko; Sprague, David S

    2014-07-01

    Understanding cohesion among individuals within a group is necessary to reveal the social system of group-living primates. Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) are female-philopatric primates that reside in social groups. We investigated whether individual activity and social factors can affect spatio-temporal cohesion in wild female Japanese macaques. We conducted behavioral observation on a group, which contained 38 individuals and ranged over ca. 60 ha during the study period. Two observers carried out simultaneous focal-animal sampling of adult female pairs during full-day follows using global positioning system which enabled us to quantify interindividual distances (IIDs), group members within visual range (i.e., visual unit), and separation duration beyond visual range as indicators of cohesion among individuals. We found considerable variation in spatio-temporal group cohesion. The overall mean IID was 99.9 m (range = 0-618.2 m). The percentage of IIDs within visual range was 23.1%, within auditory range was 59.8%, and beyond auditory range was 17.1%. IIDs varied with activity; they were shorter during grooming and resting, and longer during foraging and traveling. Low-ranking females showed less cohesion than high-ranking ones. Kin females stayed nearly always within audible range. The macaques were weakly cohesive with small mean visual unit size (3.15 counting only adults, 5.99 counting all individuals). Both-sex units were the most frequently observed visual unit type when they were grooming/resting. Conversely, female units were the most frequently observed visual unit type when they were foraging. The overall mean visual separation duration was 25.7 min (range = 3-513 min). Separation duration was associated with dominance rank. These results suggest that Japanese macaques regulate cohesion among individuals depending on their activity and on social relationships; they were separated to adapt food distribution and aggregated to maintain social

  12. Effective Monitor Display Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrell, William

    1999-01-01

    Describes some of the factors that affect computer monitor display design and provides suggestions and insights into how screen displays can be designed more effectively. Topics include color, font choices, organizational structure of text, space outline, and general principles. (Author/LRW)

  13. Individual and Community Level Risk-Factors for Alcohol Use Disorder among Conflict-Affected Persons in Georgia

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Bayard; Murphy, Adrianna; Chikovani, Ivdity; Makhashvili, Nino; Patel, Vikram; McKee, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Background The evidence on alcohol use disorder among conflict-affected civilian populations remains extremely weak, despite a number of potential risk-factors. The aim of this study is to examine patterns of alcohol use disorder among conflict-affected persons in the Republic of Georgia. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 3600 randomly selected internally displaced persons (IDPs) and former IDPs. Two alcohol use disorder outcomes were measured: (i) having at least hazardous alcohol use (AUDIT score ≥8); (ii) episodic heavy drinking (consuming >60 grams of pure alcohol per drinking session at least once a week). Individual level demographic and socio-economic characteristics were also recorded, including mental disorders. Community level alcohol environment characteristics relating to alcohol availability, marketing and pricing were recorded in the respondents' communities and a factor analysis conducted to produce a summary alcohol environment factor score. Logistic regression analyses examined associations between individual and community level factors with the alcohol use disorder outcomes (among men only). Results Of the total sample, 71% of men and 16% of women were current drinkers. Of the current drinkers (N = 1386), 28% of men and 1% of women were classified as having at least hazardous alcohol use; and 12% of men and 2% of women as episodic heavy drinkers. Individual characteristics significantly associated with both outcomes were age and experiencing a serious injury, while cumulative trauma events and depression were also associated with having at least hazardous alcohol use. For the community level analysis, a one unit increase in the alcohol environment factor was associated with a 1.27 fold increase in episodic heavy drinking among men (no significant association with hazardous alcohol use). Conclusion The findings suggest potential synergies for treatment responses for alcohol use disorder and depression among conflict-affected populations in

  14. Increasing social support for depressed individuals: a cross-cultural assessment of an affect-expectancy approach.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Jason T; Alvaro, Eusebio M; Crano, William D; Lienemann, Brianna A; Hohman, Zachary P; O'Brien, Erin

    2012-01-01

    Depression is a mental illness affecting 121 million people. The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration recently launched a national, bilingual (English and Spanish) campaign to motivate young adults to support friends with mental illness. This article highlights and assesses the usefulness of two theoretically derived variables for increasing the social support received by all depressed individuals: (a) affect and (b) social support outcome expectations. In accord with the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's bilingual campaign, the authors conducted two studies using intercepts at 2 swap meets in the U.S. Southwest. One study sample consisted of Spanish-dominant Hispanics, the other non-Hispanics. For both samples, results indicate that affect, social support outcome expectations, and their interaction accounted for more than 50% of the variance of social support intentions (67% in the Hispanic sample when familism was considered). Affect is commonplace in the helping behavior literature; results indicate social support outcome expectations deserve equal consideration. Moreover, an unexpected finding emerged: Perceiving a lack of willpower, need for attention, and lack of moral character to be the cause of depression resulted in increased sympathy among the Hispanic sample but increased anger among non-Hispanics.

  15. Individual Characteristics Influencing Physicians’ Perceptions of Job Demands and Control: The Role of Affectivity, Work Engagement and Workaholism

    PubMed Central

    Mazzetti, Greta; Biolcati, Roberta; Guglielmi, Dina; Vallesi, Caryn; Schaufeli, Wilmar B.

    2016-01-01

    The first purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of individual characteristics, i.e., positive and negative affectivity, in explaining the different perception of job control and job demands in a particularly demanding environment such as the healthcare setting. In addition, we aimed to explore the mediational role of work engagement and workaholism using the Job Demands-Resources Model as a theoretical framework. Data were collected using a sample of 269 Italian head physicians working in nine general hospitals. To test our hypotheses, the collected data were analyzed with structural equation modeling. Moreover, Sobel Test and bootstrapping were employed to assess the mediating hypotheses. Our results indicated that positive affectivity is related to work engagement, which, in its turn, showed a positive association with job control. In addition, workaholism mediated the relationship between negative affectivity and job demands. All in all, this study represents a first attempt to explore the role of trait affectivity as a dispositional characteristic able to foster the level of work engagement and workaholism exhibited by employees and, in turn, to increase the perceived levels of job control and job demands. PMID:27275828

  16. Individual Characteristics Influencing Physicians' Perceptions of Job Demands and Control: The Role of Affectivity, Work Engagement and Workaholism.

    PubMed

    Mazzetti, Greta; Biolcati, Roberta; Guglielmi, Dina; Vallesi, Caryn; Schaufeli, Wilmar B

    2016-06-06

    The first purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of individual characteristics, i.e., positive and negative affectivity, in explaining the different perception of job control and job demands in a particularly demanding environment such as the healthcare setting. In addition, we aimed to explore the mediational role of work engagement and workaholism using the Job Demands-Resources Model as a theoretical framework. Data were collected using a sample of 269 Italian head physicians working in nine general hospitals. To test our hypotheses, the collected data were analyzed with structural equation modeling. Moreover, Sobel Test and bootstrapping were employed to assess the mediating hypotheses. Our results indicated that positive affectivity is related to work engagement, which, in its turn, showed a positive association with job control. In addition, workaholism mediated the relationship between negative affectivity and job demands. All in all, this study represents a first attempt to explore the role of trait affectivity as a dispositional characteristic able to foster the level of work engagement and workaholism exhibited by employees and, in turn, to increase the perceived levels of job control and job demands.

  17. Displaying Data As Movies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Judith G.

    1992-01-01

    NMSB Movie computer program displays large sets of data (more than million individual values). Presentation dynamic, rapidly displaying sequential image "frames" in main "movie" window. Any sequence of two-dimensional sets of data scaled between 0 and 255 (1-byte resolution) displayed as movie. Time- or slice-wise progression of data illustrated. Originally written to present data from three-dimensional ultrasonic scans of damaged aerospace composite materials, illustrates data acquired by thermal-analysis systems measuring rates of heating and cooling of various materials. Developed on Macintosh IIx computer with 8-bit color display adapter and 8 megabytes of memory using Symantec Corporation's Think C, version 4.0.

  18. Assessment of first and second degree relatives of individuals with bipolar disorder shows increased genetic risk scores in both affected relatives and young At-Risk Individuals.

    PubMed

    Fullerton, Janice M; Koller, Daniel L; Edenberg, Howard J; Foroud, Tatiana; Liu, Hai; Glowinski, Anne L; McInnis, Melvin G; Wilcox, Holly C; Frankland, Andrew; Roberts, Gloria; Schofield, Peter R; Mitchell, Philip B; Nurnberger, John I

    2015-10-01

    Recent studies have revealed the polygenic nature of bipolar disorder (BP), and identified common risk variants associated with illness. However, the role of common polygenic risk in multiplex families has not previously been examined. The present study examined 249 European-ancestry families from the NIMH Genetics Initiative sample, comparing subjects with narrowly defined BP (excluding bipolar II and recurrent unipolar depression; n = 601) and their adult relatives without BP (n = 695). Unrelated adult controls (n = 266) were from the NIMH TGEN control dataset. We also examined a prospective cohort of young (12-30 years) offspring and siblings of individuals with BPI and BPII disorder (at risk; n = 367) and psychiatrically screened controls (n = 229), ascertained from five sites in the US and Australia and assessed with standardized clinical protocols. Thirty-two disease-associated SNPs from the PGC-BP Working Group report (2011) were genotyped and additive polygenic risk scores (PRS) derived. We show increased PRS in adult cases compared to unrelated controls (P = 3.4 × 10(-5) , AUC = 0.60). In families with a high-polygenic load (PRS score ≥32 in two or more subjects), PRS distinguished cases with BPI/SAB from other relatives (P = 0.014, RR = 1.32). Secondly, a higher PRS was observed in at-risk youth, regardless of affected status, compared to unrelated controls (GEE-χ(2) = 5.15, P = 0.012). This report is the first to explore common polygenic risk in multiplex families, albeit using only a small number of robustly associated risk variants. We show that individuals with BP have a higher load of common disease-associated variants than unrelated controls and first-degree relatives, and illustrate the potential utility of PRS assessment in a family context.

  19. Intranasal Oxytocin Affects Amygdala Functional Connectivity after Trauma Script-Driven Imagery in Distressed Recently Trauma-Exposed Individuals.

    PubMed

    Frijling, Jessie L; van Zuiden, Mirjam; Koch, Saskia B J; Nawijn, Laura; Veltman, Dick J; Olff, Miranda

    2016-04-01

    Approximately 10% of trauma-exposed individuals go on to develop post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Neural emotion regulation may be etiologically involved in PTSD development. Oxytocin administration early post-trauma may be a promising avenue for PTSD prevention, as intranasal oxytocin has previously been found to affect emotion regulation networks in healthy individuals and psychiatric patients. In a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled between-subjects functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) study, we assessed the effects of a single intranasal oxytocin administration (40 IU) on seed-based amygdala resting-state FC with emotion regulation areas (ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC)), and salience processing areas (insula, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC)) in 37 individuals within 11 days post trauma. Two resting-state scans were acquired; one after neutral- and one after trauma-script-driven imagery. We found that oxytocin administration reduced amygdala-left vlPFC FC after trauma script-driven imagery, compared with neutral script-driven imagery, whereas in PL-treated participants enhanced amygdala-left vlPFC FC was observed following trauma script-driven imagery. Irrespective of script condition, oxytocin increased amygdala-insula FC and decreased amygdala-vmPFC FC. These neural effects were accompanied by lower levels of sleepiness and higher flashback intensity in the oxytocin group after the trauma script. Together, our findings show that oxytocin administration may impede emotion regulation network functioning in response to trauma reminders in recently trauma-exposed individuals. Therefore, caution may be warranted in administering oxytocin to prevent PTSD in distressed, recently trauma-exposed individuals.

  20. Combination Training in Aging Individuals Modifies Functional Connectivity and Cognition, and Is Potentially Affected by Dopamine-Related Genes

    PubMed Central

    Pieramico, Valentina; Esposito, Roberto; Sensi, Francesca; Cilli, Franco; Mantini, Dante; Mattei, Peter A.; Frazzini, Valerio; Ciavardelli, Domenico; Gatta, Valentina; Ferretti, Antonio; Romani, Gian Luca; Sensi, Stefano L.

    2012-01-01

    Background Aging is a major co-risk factor in many neurodegenerative diseases. Cognitive enrichment positively affects the structural plasticity of the aging brain. In this study, we evaluated effects of a set of structured multimodal activities (Combination Training; CT) on cognitive performances, functional connectivity, and cortical thickness of a group of healthy elderly individuals. CT lasted six months. Methodology Neuropsychological and occupational performances were evaluated before and at the end of the training period. fMRI was used to assess effects of training on resting state network (RSN) functional connectivity using Independent Component Analysis (ICA). Effects on cortical thickness were also studied. Finally, we evaluated whether specific dopamine-related genes can affect the response to training. Principal Findings Results of the study indicate that CT improves cognitive/occupational performances and reorganizes functional connectivity. Intriguingly, individuals responding to CT showed specific dopamine-related genotypes. Indeed, analysis of dopamine-related genes revealed that carriers of DRD3 ser9gly and COMT Val158Met polymorphisms had the greatest benefits from exposure to CT. Conclusions and Significance Overall, our findings support the idea that exposure to a set of structured multimodal activities can be an effective strategy to counteract aging-related cognitive decline and also indicate that significant capability of functional and structural changes are maintained in the elderly. PMID:22937122

  1. Individual differences in cardiorespiratory measures of mental workload: An investigation of negative affectivity and cognitive avoidant coping in pilot candidates.

    PubMed

    Grassmann, Mariel; Vlemincx, Elke; von Leupoldt, Andreas; Van den Bergh, Omer

    2017-03-01

    Cardiorespiratory measures provide useful information in addition to well-established self-report measures when monitoring operator capacity. The purpose of our study was to refine the assessment of operator load by considering individual differences in personality and their associations with cardiorespiratory activation. Physiological and self-report measures were analyzed in 115 pilot candidates at rest and while performing a multiple task covering perceptual speed, spatial orientation, and working memory. In the total sample and particularly in individuals with a general tendency to worry a lot, a cognitive avoidant coping style was associated with a smaller task-related increase in heart rate. Negative affectivity was found to moderate the association between cardiac and self-reported arousal. Given that physiological and self-report measures of mental workload are usually combined when evaluating operator load (e.g., in pilot selection and training), our findings suggest that integrating individual differences may reduce unexplained variance and increase the validity of workload assessments.

  2. Display Tactics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tetlow, Linda

    2009-01-01

    Display took a wide variety of forms ranging from students presenting their initial planning and thought processes, to displays of their finished work, and their suggestions for extending the task should they, or others, have time to return to it in the future. A variety of different media were used from traditional posters in many shapes and…

  3. Taking the long view: Implications of individual differences in temporal distancing for affect, stress reactivity, and well-being.

    PubMed

    Bruehlman-Senecal, Emma; Ayduk, Özlem; John, Oliver P

    2016-10-01

    Recent experimental work demonstrates that temporal distancing from negative experiences reduces distress. Yet two central questions remain: (a) do people differ in the habitual tendency to temporally distance from negative experiences, and if so (b) what implications does this tendency have for well-being? Seven studies explored these questions. Study 1 describes the construction and reliability of the Temporal Distancing Questionnaire, a new measure of individual differences in the tendency to place negative experiences into a broader future time perspective. Study 2 establishes a nomological network around this construct, examining the relationship of temporal distancing to other theoretically related constructs. Study 3 tests whether people high in temporal distancing (i.e., "high temporal distancers") experience greater concurrent well-being, including greater positive affect and life satisfaction and lesser negative affect, worry, and depressive symptoms. Study 4 examines whether temporal distancing predicts well-being measured at the daily level, and across time. Finally, Studies 5a-5c explore a key way in which temporal distancing may support psychological well-being-by facilitating more adaptive responses to negative experiences. Our results demonstrate that the tendency to temporally distance from negative experiences predicts a more positive profile of affective experiences and stress-reactivity that may support immediate and longer-term well-being. Moreover, many of these findings remained significant when controlling for general reappraisal tendencies. (PsycINFO Database Record

  4. Assessment of first and second degree relatives of individuals with bipolar disorder shows increased genetic risk scores in both affected relatives and young At‐Risk Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Koller, Daniel L.; Edenberg, Howard J.; Foroud, Tatiana; Liu, Hai; Glowinski, Anne L.; McInnis, Melvin G.; Wilcox, Holly C.; Frankland, Andrew; Roberts, Gloria; Schofield, Peter R.; Mitchell, Philip B.; Nurnberger, John I.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed the polygenic nature of bipolar disorder (BP), and identified common risk variants associated with illness. However, the role of common polygenic risk in multiplex families has not previously been examined. The present study examined 249 European‐ancestry families from the NIMH Genetics Initiative sample, comparing subjects with narrowly defined BP (excluding bipolar II and recurrent unipolar depression; n = 601) and their adult relatives without BP (n = 695). Unrelated adult controls (n = 266) were from the NIMH TGEN control dataset. We also examined a prospective cohort of young (12–30 years) offspring and siblings of individuals with BPI and BPII disorder (at risk; n = 367) and psychiatrically screened controls (n = 229), ascertained from five sites in the US and Australia and assessed with standardized clinical protocols. Thirty‐two disease‐associated SNPs from the PGC‐BP Working Group report (2011) were genotyped and additive polygenic risk scores (PRS) derived. We show increased PRS in adult cases compared to unrelated controls (P = 3.4 × 10−5, AUC = 0.60). In families with a high‐polygenic load (PRS score ≥32 in two or more subjects), PRS distinguished cases with BPI/SAB from other relatives (P = 0.014, RR = 1.32). Secondly, a higher PRS was observed in at‐risk youth, regardless of affected status, compared to unrelated controls (GEE‐χ2 = 5.15, P = 0.012). This report is the first to explore common polygenic risk in multiplex families, albeit using only a small number of robustly associated risk variants. We show that individuals with BP have a higher load of common disease‐associated variants than unrelated controls and first‐degree relatives, and illustrate the potential utility of PRS assessment in a family context. © 2015 The Authors. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID

  5. Inter-individual differences in trait negative affect moderate cortisol's effects on memory formation: preliminary findings from two studies.

    PubMed

    Abercrombie, Heather C; Wirth, Michelle M; Hoks, Roxanne M

    2012-05-01

    Acute emotional arousal moderates the effects of cortisol on memory. However, it is currently unknown how stable inter-individual differences (i.e., traits) moderate cortisol's effects on memory. In two studies using within-subjects designs - 31 healthy males in Study 1 and 42 healthy subjects (22 female) in Study 2 - we measured trait negative affect (NA) and presented emotional and neutral pictures. In Study 1, we manipulated endogenous cortisol levels using a speech stressor following encoding. In Study 2, using a randomized placebo-controlled design, we pharmacologically manipulated cortisol levels prior to encoding (0.1mg/kg hydrocortisone vs. saline infused over 30min). Free recall for pictures was subsequently assessed. Trait NA repeatedly moderated the relationship between cortisol and memory formation. Findings suggested the speculative conclusion that the direction of effects may vary by sex. In males, cortisol was related to memory facilitation in subjects with lower Trait NA. Conversely, females with higher Trait NA showed greater cortisol-related increases in memory. Trait NA may be a stable inter-individual difference predicting neurocognitive effects of cortisol during stressors.

  6. Factors Affecting Parent’s Perception on Air Quality—From the Individual to the Community Level

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yulin; Liu, Fengfeng; Lu, Yuanan; Mao, Zongfu; Lu, Hanson; Wu, Yanyan; Chu, Yuanyuan; Yu, Lichen; Liu, Yisi; Ren, Meng; Li, Na; Chen, Xi; Xiang, Hao

    2016-01-01

    The perception of air quality significantly affects the acceptance of the public of the government’s environmental policies. The aim of this research is to explore the relationship between the perception of the air quality of parents and scientific monitoring data and to analyze the factors that affect parents’ perceptions. Scientific data of air quality were obtained from Wuhan’s environmental condition reports. One thousand parents were investigated for their knowledge and perception of air quality. Scientific data show that the air quality of Wuhan follows an improving trend in general, while most participants believed that the air quality of Wuhan has deteriorated, which indicates a significant difference between public perception and reality. On the individual level, respondents with an age of 40 or above (40 or above: OR = 3.252; 95% CI: 1.170–9.040), a higher educational level (college and above: OR = 7.598; 95% CI: 2.244–25.732) or children with poor healthy conditions (poor: OR = 6.864; 95% CI: 2.212–21.302) have much more negative perception of air quality. On the community level, industrial facilities, vehicles and city construction have major effects on parents’ perception of air quality. Our investigation provides baseline information for environmental policy researchers and makers regarding the public’s perception and expectation of air quality and the benefits to the environmental policy completing and enforcing. PMID:27187432

  7. Chromothripsis in healthy individuals affects multiple protein-coding genes and can result in severe congenital abnormalities in offspring.

    PubMed

    de Pagter, Mirjam S; van Roosmalen, Markus J; Baas, Annette F; Renkens, Ivo; Duran, Karen J; van Binsbergen, Ellen; Tavakoli-Yaraki, Masoumeh; Hochstenbach, Ron; van der Veken, Lars T; Cuppen, Edwin; Kloosterman, Wigard P

    2015-04-02

    Chromothripsis represents an extreme class of complex chromosome rearrangements (CCRs) with major effects on chromosomal architecture. Although recent studies have associated chromothripsis with congenital abnormalities, the incidence and pathogenic effects of this phenomenon require further investigation. Here, we analyzed the genomes of three families in which chromothripsis rearrangements were transmitted from a mother to her child. The chromothripsis in the mothers resulted in completely balanced rearrangements involving 8-23 breakpoint junctions across three to five chromosomes. Two mothers did not show any phenotypic abnormalities, although 3-13 protein-coding genes were affected by breakpoints. Unbalanced but stable transmission of a subset of the derivative chromosomes caused apparently de novo complex copy-number changes in two children. This resulted in gene-dosage changes, which are probably responsible for the severe congenital phenotypes of these two children. In contrast, the third child, who has a severe congenital disease, harbored all three chromothripsis chromosomes from his healthy mother, but one of the chromosomes acquired de novo rearrangements leading to copy-number changes. These results show that the human genome can tolerate extreme reshuffling of chromosomal architecture, including breakage of multiple protein-coding genes, without noticeable phenotypic effects. The presence of chromothripsis in healthy individuals affects reproduction and is expected to substantially increase the risk of miscarriages, abortions, and severe congenital disease.

  8. Plasma displays

    SciTech Connect

    Sobel, A.

    1991-12-01

    Plasma displays make use of lightly ionized glow discharges to produce light, perform switching and selection functions, or both. Both the negative glow and the positive column are used. Color can be attained by using UV from the discharge to stimulate phosphors. The adroit use of priming can reduce the number of drive circuits required - an advantage unique in the display art to plasma devices. Short voltage pulses can improve the efficacy of positive-column devices. Short voltage pulses can improve the efficacy of positive-column devices. The gas discharge can be used as a source of electrons, which can then excite cathodoluminescent phosphors in a variety of colors. It can also be used as a selection means for liquid-crystal displays. In this paper a wide variety of device configurations, using both unidirectional and bidirectional pulse excitations, is described.

  9. Crop size, plant aggregation, and microhabitat type affect fruit removal by birds from individual melastome plants in the Upper Amazon.

    PubMed

    Blendinger, Pedro G; Loiselle, Bette A; Blake, John G

    2008-11-01

    We studied the efficiency (proportion of the crop removed) and quantitative effectiveness (number of fruits removed) of dispersal of Miconia fosteri and M. serrulata (Melastomataceae) seeds by birds in lowland tropical wet forest of Ecuador. Specifically, we examined variation in fruit removal in order to reveal the spatial scale at which crop size influences seed dispersal outcome of individual plants, and to evaluate how the effect of crop size on plant dispersal success may be affected by conspecific fruit abundance and by the spatial distribution of frugivore abundance. We established two 9-ha plots in undisturbed terra-firme understory, where six manakin species (Pipridae) disperse most seeds of these two plant species. Mean levels of fruit removal were low for both species, with high variability among plants. In general, plants with larger crop sizes experienced greater efficiency and effectiveness of fruit removal than plants with smaller crops. Fruit removal, however, was also influenced by microhabitat, such as local topography and local neighborhood. Fruit-rich and disperser-rich patches overlapped spatially for M. fosteri but not M. serrulata, nonetheless fruit removal of M. serrulata was still much greater in fruit-rich patches. Fruit removal from individual plants did not decrease in patches with many fruiting conspecifics and, in fact, removal effectiveness was enhanced for M. fosteri with small crop sizes when such plants were in patches with more conspecifics. These results suggest that benefits of attracting dispersers to a patch balanced or outweighed the costs of competition for dispersers. Spatial pattern of fruit removal, a measure of plant fitness, depended on a complex interaction among plant traits, spatial patterns of plant distribution, and disperser behavior.

  10. Highly Significant Linkage to the SLI1 Locus in an Expanded Sample of Individuals Affected by Specific Language Impairment

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Specific language impairment (SLI) is defined as an unexplained failure to acquire normal language skills despite adequate intelligence and opportunity. We have reported elsewhere a full-genome scan in 98 nuclear families affected by this disorder, with the use of three quantitative traits of language ability (the expressive and receptive tests of the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals and a test of nonsense word repetition). This screen implicated two quantitative trait loci, one on chromosome 16q (SLI1) and a second on chromosome 19q (SLI2). However, a second independent genome screen performed by another group, with the use of parametric linkage analyses in extended pedigrees, found little evidence for the involvement of either of these regions in SLI. To investigate these loci further, we have collected a second sample, consisting of 86 families (367 individuals, 174 independent sib pairs), all with probands whose language skills are ⩾1.5 SD below the mean for their age. Haseman-Elston linkage analysis resulted in a maximum LOD score (MLS) of 2.84 on chromosome 16 and an MLS of 2.31 on chromosome 19, both of which represent significant linkage at the 2% level. Amalgamation of the wave 2 sample with the cohort used for the genome screen generated a total of 184 families (840 individuals, 393 independent sib pairs). Analysis of linkage within this pooled group strengthened the evidence for linkage at SLI1 and yielded a highly significant LOD score (MLS = 7.46, interval empirical P<.0004). Furthermore, linkage at the same locus was also demonstrated to three reading-related measures (basic reading [MLS = 1.49], spelling [MLS = 2.67], and reading comprehension [MLS = 1.99] subtests of the Wechsler Objectives Reading Dimensions). PMID:15133743

  11. Factors affecting individual foraging specialization and temporal diet stability across the range of a large “generalist” apex predator

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenblatt, Adam E.; Nifong, James C.; Heithaus, Michael R.; Mazzotti, Frank J.; Cherkiss, Michael S.; Jeffery, Brian M.; Elsey, Ruth M.; Decker, Rachel A.; Silliman, Brian R.; Guillette, Louis J.; Lowers, Russell H.; Larson, Justin C.

    2015-01-01

    Individual niche specialization (INS) is increasingly recognized as an important component of ecological and evolutionary dynamics. However, most studies that have investigated INS have focused on the effects of niche width and inter- and intraspecific competition on INS in small-bodied species for short time periods, with less attention paid to INS in large-bodied reptilian predators and the effects of available prey types on INS. We investigated the prevalence, causes, and consequences of INS in foraging behaviors across different populations of American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis), the dominant aquatic apex predator across the southeast US, using stomach contents and stable isotopes. Gut contents revealed that, over the short term, although alligator populations occupied wide ranges of the INS spectrum, general patterns were apparent. Alligator populations inhabiting lakes exhibited lower INS than coastal populations, likely driven by variation in habitat type and available prey types. Stable isotopes revealed that over longer time spans alligators exhibited remarkably consistent use of variable mixtures of carbon pools (e.g., marine and freshwater food webs). We conclude that INS in large-bodied reptilian predator populations is likely affected by variation in available prey types and habitat heterogeneity, and that INS should be incorporated into management strategies to efficiently meet intended goals. Also, ecological models, which typically do not consider behavioral variability, should include INS to increase model realism and applicability.

  12. Early Childhood IQ Trajectories in Individuals Later Developing Schizophrenia and Affective Psychoses in the New England Family Studies.

    PubMed

    Agnew-Blais, Jessica C; Buka, Stephen L; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M; Smoller, Jordan W; Goldstein, Jill M; Seidman, Larry J

    2015-07-01

    Individuals who develop schizophrenia in adulthood exhibit, on average, deficits in childhood cognition relative to healthy controls. However, it remains unclear when in childhood such deficits emerge and whether they are stable across childhood or change (increase or decrease) across development. Importantly, whether the trajectory of childhood cognition differs among youth who later develop affective psychoses (AP) vs schizophrenia as adults remains unresolved. Subjects in the Collaborative Perinatal Project were administered the Stanford-Binet IQ test at age 4 and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children at age 7. A total of 9809 (54.7%) participants in the New England Study sites were tested at both ages, including 37 who later developed schizophrenia spectrum psychoses (SSP) and 39 who later developed AP. Logistic regression models examined the association of level of and change in childhood IQ and later SSP or AP. Lower overall childhood IQ was associated with higher risk of SSP. Additionally, there was a small mean increase in IQ in the SSP group relative to a mean decrease in the control group from age 4 to 7 such that positive change in IQ was significantly associated with a higher risk of SSP. Neither overall level nor change in IQ was associated with risk of AP. The results are consistent with neurocognitive impairment throughout early childhood specifically for children who later develop schizophrenia, affirming the theory of atypical neurodevelopment in premorbid schizophrenia.

  13. Psychophysiological reactivity of currently dental phobic-, remitted dental phobic- and never-dental phobic individuals during exposure to dental-related and other affect-inducing materials.

    PubMed

    Wannemueller, André; Adolph, Dirk; Joehren, Hans-Peter; Blackwell, Simon E; Margraf, Jürgen

    2017-03-01

    Psychophysiological responses indicating the preparation of defensive behaviour, such as heart rate (HR)-increase and startle-response (SR) potentiation, have often been reported amongst individuals suffering from phobic disorders when exposed to phobia-related information. Although exposure is widely considered the 'gold standard' for treatment of Specific Phobia, it is unclear to what extent psychophysiological defensive response patterns change following treatment, and whether any changes are maintained. We assessed the acoustic SR- and HR-response to neutral, positive, negative and phobia-related pictures and sounds in 41 individuals currently suffering from dental phobia, 22 formerly dental phobic individuals who had remitted following an exposure-based treatment eight months prior to assessment, and 29 control individuals with no history of dental phobia. We observed SR-potentiation to dental-related stimuli in controls combined with HR-deceleration. In contrast, amongst phobic individuals SR-potentiation was accompanied by HR-acceleration to dental pictures. Successfully treated individuals showed inhibited startle reactivity in combination with HR-deceleration to dental related materials of both modalities. Our findings suggest inappropriate fight-flight preparation amongst individuals with dental phobia, reflecting overactivation of the defensive system. However, successful treatment results in inhibited physiological defence preparation, with remitted individuals displaying a response pattern that differed from that of phobic individuals and controls.

  14. Using Multigroup-Multiphase Latent State-Trait Models to Study Treatment-Induced Changes in Intra-Individual State Variability: An Application to Smokers' Affect.

    PubMed

    Geiser, Christian; Griffin, Daniel; Shiffman, Saul

    2016-01-01

    Sometimes, researchers are interested in whether an intervention, experimental manipulation, or other treatment causes changes in intra-individual state variability. The authors show how multigroup-multiphase latent state-trait (MG-MP-LST) models can be used to examine treatment effects with regard to both mean differences and differences in state variability. The approach is illustrated based on a randomized controlled trial in which N = 338 smokers were randomly assigned to nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) vs. placebo prior to quitting smoking. We found that post quitting, smokers in both the NRT and placebo group had significantly reduced intra-individual affect state variability with respect to the affect items calm and content relative to the pre-quitting phase. This reduction in state variability did not differ between the NRT and placebo groups, indicating that quitting smoking may lead to a stabilization of individuals' affect states regardless of whether or not individuals receive NRT.

  15. Colorimetry for CRT displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golz, Jürgen; MacLeod, Donald I. A.

    2003-05-01

    We analyze the sources of error in specifying color in CRT displays. These include errors inherent in the use of the color matching functions of the CIE 1931 standard observer when only colorimetric, not radiometric, calibrations are available. We provide transformation coefficients that prove to correct the deficiencies of this observer very well. We consider four different candidate sets of cone sensitivities. Some of these differ substantially; variation among candidate cone sensitivities exceeds the variation among phosphors. Finally, the effects of the recognized forms of observer variation on the visual responses (cone excitations or cone contrasts) generated by CRT stimuli are investigated and quantitatively specified. Cone pigment polymorphism gives rise to variation of a few per cent in relative excitation by the different phosphors-a variation larger than the errors ensuing from the adoption of the CIE standard observer, though smaller than the differences between some candidate cone sensitivities. Macular pigmentation has a larger influence, affecting mainly responses to the blue phosphor. The estimated combined effect of all sources of observer variation is comparable in magnitude with the largest differences between competing cone sensitivity estimates but is not enough to disrupt very seriously the relation between the L and M cone weights and the isoluminance settings of individual observers. It is also comparable with typical instrumental colorimetric errors, but we discuss these only briefly.

  16. Individuals with Smith-Magenis syndrome display profound neurodevelopmental behavioral deficiencies and exhibit food-related behaviors equivalent to Prader-Willi syndrome.

    PubMed

    Alaimo, Joseph T; Barton, Laura V; Mullegama, Sureni V; Wills, Rachel D; Foster, Rebecca H; Elsea, Sarah H

    2015-12-01

    Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with intellectual disability, sleep disturbances, early onset obesity and vast behavioral deficits. We used the Behavior Problems Inventory-01 to categorize the frequency and severity of behavioral abnormalities in a SMS cohort relative to individuals with intellectual disability of heterogeneous etiology. Self-injurious, stereotyped, and aggressive/destructive behavioral scores indicated that both frequency and severity were significantly higher among individuals with SMS relative to those with intellectual disability. Next, we categorized food behaviors in our SMS cohort across age using the Food Related Problems Questionnaire (FRPQ) and found that problems began to occur in SMS children as early as 5-11 years old, but children 12-18 years old and adults manifested the most severe problems. Furthermore, we evaluated the similarities of SMS adult food-related behaviors to those with intellectual disability and found that SMS adults had more severe behavioral problems. Many neurodevelopmental disorders exhibit syndromic obesity including SMS. Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is the most frequent neurodevelopmental disorder with syndromic obesity and has a well-established management and treatment plan. Using the FRPQ we found that SMS adults had similar scores relative to PWS adults. Both syndromes manifest weight gain early in development, and the FRPQ scores highlight specific areas in which behavioral similarities exist, including preoccupation with food, impaired satiety, and negative behavioral responses. SMS food-related behavior treatment paradigms are not as refined as PWS, suggesting that current PWS treatments for prevention of obesity may be beneficial for individuals with SMS.

  17. The Importance of Vocal Affect to Bimodal Processing of Emotion: Implications for Individuals with Traumatic Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zupan, Barbra; Neumann, Dawn; Babbage, Duncan R.; Willer, Barry

    2009-01-01

    Persons with traumatic brain injury (TBI) often have difficulty recognizing emotion in others. This is likely due to difficulties in interpreting non-verbal cues of affect. Although deficits in interpreting facial cues of affect are being widely explored, interpretation of vocal cues of affect has received much less attention. Accurate…

  18. A new type of multiview display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurk, Silvio; Kuhlmey, Mathias; de la Barré, René

    2015-03-01

    The common architecture of multi-view autostereoscopic displays assigns a nominal viewing distance. The design affects the convergence of the visible rays at a nominal viewing distance where diamond shaped viewing zones are created. In contrast to this approach, the authors present a new design strategy departing from the geometric relations of common 3D display designs. They show that a beam emitted from a sub-pixel should be rendered with an individual camera direction determined by an algorithm. This algorithm also uses, besides the parameters of the display design, the desired viewing distance and the allowed increments of the camera angle. This enables very flexible designs of autostereoscopic displays. The main difference from the common multiview display is that its design approach enables a continued viewing zone without the usually diamond shaped sweet spots. The algorithm for controlling the rendering and the multiplexing is generic, as well as for integral and multiview design approaches using an image splitter raster. The paper introduces it for autostereoscopic displays with horizontal parallax.

  19. Cognitive and Affective Outcomes in Children as a Function of Participation in SCIL, an Individualized Version of the SCIS Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appel, Marilyn; And Others

    An overview and rationale for the Science Curriculum for Individualized Learning (SCIL) are provided. SCIL is the result of the individualization of the SCIS program. The SCIL management system is based on the exploration, invention, and discovery concepts of Piagetian theory. An evaluation study of two SCIl units, Interactions and Systems and…

  20. Predicting Short-Term Positive Affect in Individuals with Social Anxiety Disorder: The Role of Selected Personality Traits and Emotion Regulation Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Weisman, Jaclyn S.; Rodebaugh, Thomas L.; Lim, Michelle H.; Fernandez, Katya C.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, research has provided support for a moderate, inverse relationship between social anxiety and dispositional positive affect. However, the dynamics of this relationship remain poorly understood. The present study evaluates whether certain personality traits and emotion regulation variables predict short-term positive affect for individuals with social anxiety disorder and healthy controls. Positive affect as measured by two self-report instruments was assessed before and after two tasks in which the participant conversed with either a friend or a romantic partner. Tests of models examining the hypothesized prospective predictors revealed that the paths did not differ significantly across diagnostic group and both groups showed the hypothesized patterns of endorsement for the emotion regulation variables. Further, a variable reflecting difficulty redirecting oneself when distressed prospectively predicted one measure of positive affect. Additional research is needed to explore further the role of emotion regulation strategies on positive emotions for individuals higher in social anxiety. PMID:26119140

  1. Predicting short-term positive affect in individuals with social anxiety disorder: The role of selected personality traits and emotion regulation strategies.

    PubMed

    Weisman, Jaclyn S; Rodebaugh, Thomas L; Lim, Michelle H; Fernandez, Katya C

    2015-08-01

    Recently, research has provided support for a moderate, inverse relationship between social anxiety and dispositional positive affect. However, the dynamics of this relationship remain poorly understood. The present study evaluates whether certain personality traits and emotion regulation variables predict short-term positive affect for individuals with social anxiety disorder and healthy controls. Positive affect as measured by two self-report instruments was assessed before and after two tasks in which the participant conversed with either a friend or a romantic partner. Tests of models examining the hypothesized prospective predictors revealed that the paths did not differ significantly across diagnostic group and both groups showed the hypothesized patterns of endorsement for the emotion regulation variables. Further, a variable reflecting difficulty redirecting oneself when distressed prospectively predicted one measure of positive affect. Additional research is needed to explore further the role of emotion regulation strategies on positive emotions for individuals higher in social anxiety.

  2. How do Individuals with Complete Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome, Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser Syndrome or Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Experience Contact to Other Affected Persons?

    PubMed Central

    Krupp, K.; Fliegner, M.; Brunner, F.; Brucker, S.; Rall, K.; Richter-Appelt, H.

    2012-01-01

    Persons with different sex characteristics may suffer from a feeling of being “different” or “not normal”. In this study, persons with one of 3 diagnoses (complete androgen insensitivity syndrome [CAIS]; Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome [MRKHS], polycystic ovary syndrome [PCOS]) were asked whether they had contact to other affected persons and how they assessed this contact. The correlation between contact and psychological distress was evaluated. Material and Methods: Information on contacts to other affected individuals was obtained using a written questionnaire. Psychological distress was measured using the German version of the BSI (Brief Symptom Inventory). Results: Data from 11 individuals with CAIS, 49 women with MRKHS and 55 women with PCOS was analysed. The frequency of contacts to other affected individuals differed between the different diagnostic groups (with the highest frequency reported for the group with CAIS, and the lowest for the group with PCOS). Overall, the majority of individuals considered such contacts beneficial (CAIS 81.8 %; MRKHS 90 %; PCOS 83.3 %). The frequency of contacts and their assessment were not found to be correlated with psychological distress. The three diagnostic groups differed in the proportion of people who indicated a wish for contact with other affected persons. The desire to have contact with other affected persons was most commonly expressed by women with PCOS and high levels of psychological distress (60.9 %). Conclusion: Persons with different sex characteristics can benefit from contact to other affected individuals. Particularly women with PCOS and increased levels of psychological distress may benefit if the issue of support groups is addressed during treatment. PMID:25258457

  3. How do Individuals with Complete Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome, Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser Syndrome or Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Experience Contact to Other Affected Persons?

    PubMed

    Krupp, K; Fliegner, M; Brunner, F; Brucker, S; Rall, K; Richter-Appelt, H

    2012-11-01

    Persons with different sex characteristics may suffer from a feeling of being "different" or "not normal". In this study, persons with one of 3 diagnoses (complete androgen insensitivity syndrome [CAIS]; Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome [MRKHS], polycystic ovary syndrome [PCOS]) were asked whether they had contact to other affected persons and how they assessed this contact. The correlation between contact and psychological distress was evaluated. Material and Methods: Information on contacts to other affected individuals was obtained using a written questionnaire. Psychological distress was measured using the German version of the BSI (Brief Symptom Inventory). Results: Data from 11 individuals with CAIS, 49 women with MRKHS and 55 women with PCOS was analysed. The frequency of contacts to other affected individuals differed between the different diagnostic groups (with the highest frequency reported for the group with CAIS, and the lowest for the group with PCOS). Overall, the majority of individuals considered such contacts beneficial (CAIS 81.8 %; MRKHS 90 %; PCOS 83.3 %). The frequency of contacts and their assessment were not found to be correlated with psychological distress. The three diagnostic groups differed in the proportion of people who indicated a wish for contact with other affected persons. The desire to have contact with other affected persons was most commonly expressed by women with PCOS and high levels of psychological distress (60.9 %). Conclusion: Persons with different sex characteristics can benefit from contact to other affected individuals. Particularly women with PCOS and increased levels of psychological distress may benefit if the issue of support groups is addressed during treatment.

  4. Resource availability affects individual niche variation and its consequences in group-living European badgers Meles meles.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Andrew; McDonald, Robbie A; Delahay, Richard J; Kelly, Simon D; Bearhop, Stuart

    2015-05-01

    Although intra-population variation in niches is a widespread phenomenon with important implications for ecology, evolution and management of a range of animal species, the causes and consequences of this variation remain poorly understood. We used stable isotope analysis to characterise foraging niches and to investigate the causes and consequences of individual niche variation in the European badger, a mustelid mammal that lives in territorial social groups, but forages alone. We found that the degree of individual niche variation within social groups was negatively related to the availability of farmland habitats, which represent an important foraging habitat for badgers; and was positively related to territory size, supporting the idea that resource limitation and ecological opportunity lead to increased individual specialisation. We also found that the degree of individual specialisation related to an individual's body condition and that this effect varied with ecological context; such that specialisation had a stronger positive relationship with body condition in social groups with reduced availability of key farmland habitats. Body condition was also related to the utilisation of specific resources (woodland invertebrates), but again this relationship varied with the availability of farmland foraging habitats. This study supports the idea that resource availability plays an important role in determining patterns of individual niche variation, and identifies the potential adaptive consequences of specialised foraging strategies.

  5. A Comparative Study of Finland and Chile: The Culture-Dependent Significance of the Individual and Interindividual Levels of the Mathematics-Related Affect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuohilampi, Laura; Laine, Anu; Hannula, Markku S.; Varas, Leonor

    2016-01-01

    Mathematics-related affect is established regarding both individual and interindividual levels. However, the interaction between the levels has not been elaborated. Furthermore, it is known that people may draw either from intrinsic or extrinsic experiences to construct their identities depending on their cultural environment. Thus, affective…

  6. Individual and Social-Contextual Factors Affecting the Learning and Use of ESL: A Case Study of a Visiting Korean Physician

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Su-Ja

    2006-01-01

    This case study examined factors that affected a Korean physician's learning and use of ESL in an English-speaking country, using data from interviews, observations, notebook memos and e-mails. The findings indicated that individual factors-personality (perfectionism and extroversion), occupation, beliefs, and motivation--and social-contextual…

  7. Aortic coarctation and carotid artery aneurysm in a patient with Hardikar syndrome: Cardiovascular implications for affected individuals.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Kaitlin M; Ellis, Alexander R; Raafat, Reem; Bhoj, Elizabeth J; Hakonarson, Hakon; Li, Dong; Schrier Vergano, Samantha

    2016-02-01

    Hardikar syndrome is a multiple congenital anomaly syndrome first characterized in 1992 by Hardikar et al. to describe two individuals with cholestasis, cleft lip/palate, retinal pigmentation, intestinal abnormalities, and genitourinary anomalies. Between 1992 and 2002, four individuals with Hardikar syndrome were reported in the literature. The fourth individual [Maluf et al. (2002), Transplantation 74:1058-1061; Poley and Proud (2008) Am J Med Genet Part A 146A:2473-2479], who had progressive cholestatic liver disease ultimately requiring liver transplantation, has continued to be followed at our institution. Recently, at the age of 14 years, during an evaluation for refractory hypertension, she was found to have developed coarctation of the aorta that was treated with aortic angioplasty and stenting, dramatically improving her hypertension. Further vascular investigation also revealed a small aneurysm of her carotid artery requiring neurosurgical evaluation and anticoagulant therapy. To our knowledge, these vascular anomalies have not been reported in Hardikar syndrome and the high association of congenital heart disease in the individuals with Hardikar syndrome has not been further addressed. Herein, we discuss this additional clinical information, speculate briefly on possible molecular etiologies, and discuss potential cardiac surveillance recommendations. We hope that broadening the known phenotype of this very rare disorder will further aid clinicians in their management and surveillance for these individuals.

  8. Display Factors and Subjective Evaluation of Dynamic Text Display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    So, Joey C. Y.; Chan, Alan H. S.

    2009-01-01

    Communications technology has exploded in past decades, leading to the question of which display method is the best to deliver electronic text messages. Many of these systems employ cathode ray tubes, liquid crystal displays, gas plasma displays, or light-emitting diodes as the output device. In order to overcome the limitations of screen size of the display units, numerous means of presenting dynamic display on screens have been invented. There are many factors that affect the readability of electronic text. This paper reviews some related empirical studies concerning the various display methods of dynamic text presentation, such as text display type, character type, text display direction, and text/background color combination, highlighting method and validity of highlighting. The subjective evaluation questionnaire is also discussed. According to the readability and preference ratings of the subjects given under different conditions, the best display method and color for comprehending the delivered messages were investigated. General recommendations of displaying dynamic information are made for the large display units which have been widely used for delivering important messages.

  9. Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy for Individuals Whose Lives Have Been Affected by Cancer: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Elizabeth; Baillie, Andrew; Huxter, Malcolm; Price, Melanie; Sinclair, Emma

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluated the effectiveness of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) for individuals with a diagnosis of cancer. Method: Participants (N = 115) diagnosed with cancer, across site and stage, were randomly allocated to either the treatment or the wait-list condition. Treatment was conducted at 1 site, by a single…

  10. Individual heterogeneity and offspring sex affect the growth-reproduction trade-off in a mammal with indeterminate growth.

    PubMed

    Gélin, Uriel; Wilson, Michelle E; Cripps, Jemma; Coulson, Graeme; Festa-Bianchet, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Reproduction can lead to a trade-off with growth, particularly when individuals reproduce before completing body growth. Kangaroos have indeterminate growth and may always face this trade-off. We combined an experimental manipulation of reproductive effort and multi-year monitoring of a large sample size of marked individuals in two populations of eastern grey kangaroos to test the predictions (1) that reproduction decreases skeletal growth and mass gain and (2) that mass loss leads to reproductive failure. We also tested if sex-allocation strategies influenced these trade-offs. Experimental reproductive suppression revealed negative effects of reproduction on mass gain and leg growth from 1 year to the next. Unmanipulated females, however, showed a positive correlation between number of days lactating and leg growth over periods of 2 years and longer, suggesting that over the long term, reproductive costs were masked by individual heterogeneity in resource acquisition. Mass gain was necessary for reproductive success the subsequent year. Although mothers of daughters generally lost more mass than females nursing sons, mothers in poor condition experienced greater mass gain and arm growth if they had daughters than if they had sons. The strong links between individual mass changes and reproduction suggest that reproductive tactics are strongly resource-dependent.

  11. Physical and Cognitive-Affective Factors Associated with Fatigue in Individuals with Fibromyalgia: A Multiple Regression Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Veronica; Brooks, Jessica; Tu, Wei-Mo; Moser, Erin; Lo, Chu-Ling; Chan, Fong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The main objective of this study was to determine the extent to which physical and cognitive-affective factors are associated with fibromyalgia (FM) fatigue. Method: A quantitative descriptive design using correlation techniques and multiple regression analysis. The participants consisted of 302 members of the National Fibromyalgia &…

  12. Individual experience and evolutionary history of predation affect expression of heritable variation in fish personality and morphology.

    PubMed

    Dingemanse, Niels J; Van der Plas, Fons; Wright, Jonathan; Réale, Denis; Schrama, Maarten; Roff, Derek A; Van der Zee, Els; Barber, Iain

    2009-04-07

    Predation plays a central role in evolutionary processes, but little is known about how predators affect the expression of heritable variation, restricting our ability to predict evolutionary effects of predation. We reared families of three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus from two populations-one with a history of fish predation (predator sympatric) and one without (predator naive)-and experimentally manipulated experience of predators during ontogeny. For a suite of ecologically relevant behavioural ('personality') and morphological traits, we then estimated two key variance components, additive genetic variance (VA) and residual variance (VR), that jointly shape narrow-sense heritability (h2=VA/(VA+VR)). Both population and treatment differentially affected VA versus VR, hence h2, but only for certain traits. The predator-naive population generally had lower VA and h2 values than the predator-sympatric population for personality behaviours, but not morphological traits. Values of VR and h2 were increased for some, but decreased for other personality traits in the predator-exposed treatment. For some personality traits, VA and h2 values were affected by treatment in the predator-naive population, but not in the predator-sympatric population, implying that the latter harboured less genetic variation for behavioural plasticity. Replication and experimental manipulation of predation regime are now needed to confirm that these population differences were related to variation in predator-induced selection. Cross-environment genetic correlations (rA) were tight for most traits, suggesting that predator-induced selection can affect the evolution of the same trait expressed in the absence of predators. The treatment effects on variance components imply that predators can affect evolution, not only by acting directly as selective agents, but also by influencing the expression of heritable variation.

  13. Violent and nonviolent video games differentially affect physical aggression for individuals high vs. low in dispositional anger.

    PubMed

    Engelhardt, Christopher R; Bartholow, Bruce D; Saults, J Scott

    2011-01-01

    Although numerous experiments have shown that exposure to violent video games (VVG) causes increases in aggression, relatively few studies have investigated the extent to which this effect differs as a function of theoretically relevant individual difference factors. This study investigated whether video game content differentially influences aggression as a function of individual differences in trait anger. Participants were randomly assigned to play a violent or nonviolent video game before completing a task in which they could behave aggressively. Results showed that participants high in trait anger were the most aggressive, but only if they first played a VVG. This relationship held while statistically controlling for dimensions other than violent content on which game conditions differed (e.g. frustration, arousal). Implications of these findings for models explaining the effects of video games on behavior are discussed.

  14. Virtual acoustic displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wenzel, Elizabeth M.

    1991-01-01

    A 3D auditory display can potentially enhance information transfer by combining directional and iconic information in a quite naturalistic representation of dynamic objects in the interface. Another aspect of auditory spatial clues is that, in conjunction with other modalities, it can act as a potentiator of information in the display. For example, visual and auditory cues together can reinforce the information content of the display and provide a greater sense of presence or realism in a manner not readily achievable by either modality alone. This phenomenon will be particularly useful in telepresence applications, such as advanced teleconferencing environments, shared electronic workspaces, and monitoring telerobotic activities in remote or hazardous situations. Thus, the combination of direct spatial cues with good principles of iconic design could provide an extremely powerful and information-rich display which is also quite easy to use. An alternative approach, recently developed at ARC, generates externalized, 3D sound cues over headphones in realtime using digital signal processing. Here, the synthesis technique involves the digital generation of stimuli using Head-Related Transfer Functions (HRTF's) measured in the two ear-canals of individual subjects. Other similar approaches include an analog system developed by Loomis, et. al., (1990) and digital systems which make use of transforms derived from normative mannikins and simulations of room acoustics. Such an interface also requires the careful psychophysical evaluation of listener's ability to accurately localize the virtual or synthetic sound sources. From an applied standpoint, measurement of each potential listener's HRTF's may not be possible in practice. For experienced listeners, localization performance was only slightly degraded compared to a subject's inherent ability. Alternatively, even inexperienced listeners may be able to adapt to a particular set of HRTF's as long as they provide adequate

  15. Effects of daily pain intensity, positive affect, and individual differences in pain acceptance on work goal interference and progress.

    PubMed

    Mun, Chung Jung; Karoly, Paul; Okun, Morris A

    2015-11-01

    Multilevel modeling was used to examine the effects of morning pain intensity and morning positive and negative affect on pain's interference with afternoon work goal pursuit and with evening work goal progress in a community sample of 132 adults who completed a 21-day diary. The moderating effects of pain acceptance and pain catastrophizing on the associations between morning pain intensity and afternoon work goal interference were also tested. Results revealed that the positive relationship between morning pain intensity and pain's interference with work goal pursuit was significantly moderated by pain acceptance, but not by pain catastrophizing. Both morning pain intensity and positive affect exerted significant indirect effects on evening work goal progress through the perception of pain's interference with work goal pursuit in the afternoon. Furthermore, the mediated effect of morning pain on evening work goal progress was significant when pain acceptance was at the grand mean and 1 SD below the grand mean, but not when pain acceptance was 1 SD above the grand mean. Thus, it appears that high pain acceptance significantly attenuates pain's capacity to disrupt work goal pursuit. Moreover, morning positive affect appears to operate as a protective factor. Additional interpretations and potential explanations for some inconsistent outcomes are discussed along with limitations, clinical implications, and suggestions for future studies.

  16. Dichroic Liquid Crystal Displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahadur, Birendra

    The following sections are included: * INTRODUCTION * DICHROIC DYES * Chemical Structure * Chemical and Photochemical Stability * THEORETICAL MODELLING * DEFECTS CAUSED BY PROLONGED LIGHT IRRADIATION * CHEMICAL STRUCTURE AND PHOTOSTABILITY * OTHER PARAMETERS AFFECTING PHOTOSTABILITY * CELL PREPARATION * DICHROIC PARAMETERS AND THEIR MEASUREMENTS * Order Parameter and Dichroic Ratio Of Dyes * Absorbance, Order Parameter and Dichroic Ratio Measurements * IMPACT OF DYE STRUCTURE AND LIQUID CRYSTAL HOST ON PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF A DICHROIC MIXTURE * Order Parameter and Dichroic Ratio * EFFECT OF LENGTH OF DICHROIC DYES ON THE ORDER PARAMETER * EFFECT OF THE BREADTH OF DYE ON THE ORDER PARAMETER * EFFECT OF THE HOST ON THE ORDER PARAMETER * TEMPERATURE VARIATION OF THE ORDER PARAMETER OF DYES IN A LIQUID CRYSTAL HOST * IMPACT OF DYE CONCENTRATION ON THE ORDER PARAMETER * Temperature Range * Viscosity * Dielectric Constant and Anisotropy * Refractive Indices and Birefringence * solubility43,153-156 * Absorption Wavelength and Auxochromic Groups * Molecular Engineering of Dichroic Dyes * OPTICAL, ELECTRO-OPTICAL AND LIFE PARAMETERS * Colour And CIE Colour space120,160-166 * CIE 1931 COLOUR SPACE * CIE 1976 CHROMATICITY DIAGRAM * CIE UNIFORM COLOUR SPACES & COLOUR DIFFERENCE FORMULAE120,160-166 * Electro-Optical Parameters120 * LUMINANCE * CONTRAST AND CONTRAST RATIO * SWITCHING SPEED * Life Parameters and Failure Modes * DICHROIC MIXTURE FORMULATION * Monochrome Mixture * Black Mixture * ACHROMATIC BLACK MIXTURE FOR HEILMEIER DISPLAYS * Effect of Illuminant on Display Colour * Colour of the Field-On State * Effect of Dye Linewidth * Optimum Centroid Wavelengths * Effect of Dye Concentration * Mixture Formulation Using More Than Three Dyes * ACHROMATIC MIXTURE FOR WHITE-TAYLOR TYPE DISPLAYS * HEILMEIER DISPLAYS * Theoretical Modelling * Threshold Characteristic * Effects of Dye Concentration on Electro-optical Parameters * Effect of Cholesteric Doping * Effect of Alignment

  17. How will predicted land-use change affect waterfowl spring stopover ecology? Inferences from an individual-based model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beatty, William; Kesler, Dylan C.; Webb, Elisabeth B.; Naylor, Luke W.; Raedeke, Andrew H.; Humburg, Dale D.; Coluccy, John M.; Soulliere, Gregory J.

    2016-01-01

    Habitat loss, habitat fragmentation, overexploitation and climate change pose familiar and new challenges to conserving natural populations throughout the world. One approach conservation planners may use to evaluate the effects of these challenges on wildlife populations is scenario planning.We developed an individual-based model to evaluate the effects of future land use and land cover changes on spring-migrating dabbling ducks in North America. We assessed the effects of three Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change emission scenarios (A1B, A2 and B1) on dabbling duck stopover duration, movement distances and mortality. We specifically focused on migration stopover duration because previous research has demonstrated that individuals arriving earlier on the nesting grounds exhibit increased reproductive fitness.Compared to present conditions, all three scenarios increased stopover duration and movement distances of agent ducks.Although all three scenarios presented migrating ducks with increased amounts of wetland habitat, scenarios also contained substantially less cropland, which decreased overall carrying capacity of the study area.Synthesis and applications. Land-use change may increase waterfowl spring migration stopover duration in the midcontinent region of North America due to reduced landscape energetic carrying capacity. Climate change will alter spatial patterns of crop distributions with corn and rice production areas shifting to different regions. Thus, conservation planners will have to address population-level energetic implications of shifting agricultural food resources and increased uncertainty in yearly precipitation patterns within the next 50 years.

  18. Factors Associated with Migration in Individuals Affected by Leprosy, Maranhão, Brazil: An Exploratory Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Murto, C.; Kaplan, C.; Ariza, L.; Schwarz, K.; Alencar, C. H.; da Costa, L. M. M.; Heukelbach, J.

    2013-01-01

    In Brazil, leprosy is endemic and concentrated in high-risk clusters. Internal migration is common in the country and may influence leprosy transmission and hamper control efforts. We performed a cross-sectional study with two separate analyses evaluating factors associated with migration in Brazil's Northeast: one among individuals newly diagnosed with leprosy and the other among a clinically unapparent population with no symptoms of leprosy for comparison. We included 394 individuals newly diagnosed with leprosy and 391 from the clinically unapparent population. Of those with leprosy, 258 (65.5%) were birth migrants, 105 (26.6%) were past five-year migrants, and 43 (10.9%) were circular migrants. In multivariate logistic regression, three independent factors were found to be significantly associated with migration among those with leprosy: (1) alcohol consumption, (2) separation from family/friends, and (3) difficulty reaching the healthcare facility. Separation from family/friends was also associated with migration in the clinically unapparent population. The health sector may consider adapting services to meet the needs of migrating populations. Future research is needed to explore risks associated with leprosy susceptibility from life stressors, such as separation from family and friends, access to healthcare facilities, and alcohol consumption to establish causal relationships. PMID:24194769

  19. Individual differences affecting caffeine intake. Analysis of consumption behaviours for different times of day and caffeine sources.

    PubMed

    Penolazzi, Barbara; Natale, Vincenzo; Leone, Luigi; Russo, Paolo Maria

    2012-06-01

    The main purpose of the present study was to investigate the individual variables contributing to determine the high variability in the consumption behaviours of caffeine, a psychoactive substance which is still poorly investigated in comparison with other drugs. The effects of a large set of specific personality traits (i.e., Impulsivity, Sensation Seeking, Anxiety, Reward Sensitivity and Circadian Preference) were compared along with some relevant socio-demographic variables (i.e., gender and age) and cigarette smoking behaviour. Analyses revealed that daily caffeine intake was significantly higher for males, older people, participants smoking more cigarettes and showing higher scores on Impulsivity, Sensation Seeking and a facet of Reward Sensitivity. However, more detailed analyses showed that different patterns of individual variables predicted caffeine consumption when the times of day and the caffeine sources were considered. The present results suggest that such detailed analyses are required to detect the critical predictive variables that could be obscured when only total caffeine intake during the entire day is considered.

  20. Does catch and release affect the mating system and individual reproductive success of wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.)?

    PubMed

    Richard, Antoine; Dionne, Mélanie; Wang, Jinliang; Bernatchez, Louis

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we documented the breeding system of a wild population of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) by genetically sampling every returning adult and assessed the determinants of individual fitness. We then quantified the impacts of catch and release (C&R) on mating and reproductive success. Both sexes showed high variance in individual reproductive success, and the estimated standardized variance was higher for males (2.86) than for females (0.73). We found a weak positive relationship between body size and fitness and observed that fitness was positively correlated with the number of mates, especially in males. Mature male parr sired 44% of the analysed offspring. The impact of C&R on the number of offspring was size dependent, as the reproductive success of larger fish was more impaired than smaller ones. Also, there was an interactive negative effect of water temperature and air exposure time on reproductive success of C&R salmon. This study improves our understanding of the complex reproductive biology of the Atlantic salmon and is the first to investigate the impact of C&R on reproductive success. Our study expands the management toolbox of appropriate C&R practices that promote conservation of salmon populations and limit negative impacts on mating and reproductive success.

  1. The impact of perceptions of health control and coping modes on negative affect among individuals with spinal cord injuries.

    PubMed

    Livneh, Hanoch; Martz, Erin

    2011-09-01

    A wide range of demographic, medical, and personality and coping variables have been implicated as predictors of psychosocial outcomes following the onset of spinal cord injuries (SCI). The primary purpose of this study was to examine the role that perceptions of health control (internality, chance-determined, and other persons-determined) and coping strategies play in predicting respondents' negative affect, namely, reactions of depression and anxiety [i.e., posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)], as outcomes of psychosocial adaptation to disability. A second purpose was to investigate the potential role that time since injury (TSI) plays in moderating the influence of coping on psychosocial outcomes related to SCI. Ninety five survivors of SCI participated in the study by completing a battery of self-report measures. Two sets of multiple regression analyses were employed to address the study's goals. Findings indicated that after controlling the influence of gender, age, time since injury, and number of prior life traumas: (a) the use of disengagement coping successfully predicted both respondents' levels of depression and PTSD; (b) none of the perceptions of control of one's health significantly influenced psychosocial reactions to SCI, as indicated by depression and PTSD, although perceptions of chance control showed a moderate positive trend; and (c) time since injury did not moderate the relationships between coping and negative affect related to the onset of SCI. The implications of these findings to rehabilitation professionals are discussed.

  2. Stereotyping based on voice in the presence of individuating information: vocal femininity affects perceived competence but not warmth.

    PubMed

    Sei Jin Ko; Judd, Charles M; Stapel, Diederik A

    2009-02-01

    In two experiments the authors examined the effect of vocal cues on warmth and competence judgments when other competing information was concurrently available. In Experiment 1, using male and female speakers posing as job applicants, the authors investigated how applicants' vocal cues and résumé information impacted judgments of competence and warmth. Results showed competence was solely affected by vocal femininity-applicants with masculine voices were rated as more competent than applicants with feminine voices, regardless of applicant gender or résumé information. Warmth was predominantly affected by résumés-applicants with feminine résumés were rated as warmer than applicants with masculine résumés. In Experiment 2, the potent effect of vocal femininity on competence was replicated even under conditions where the competing background information was directly diagnostic of warmth and competence. Furthermore, the authors found that the impact of vocal femininity on competence was largely due to the overlap between perceptions of vocal femininity and babyishness.

  3. Population rules can apply to individual plants and affect their architecture: an evaluation on the cushion plant Mulinum spinosum (Apiaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Puntieri, Javier G.; Damascos, María A.; Llancaqueo, Yanina; Svriz, Maya

    2010-01-01

    Background and aims Plants are regarded as populations of modules such as axes and growth units (GUs, i.e. seasonally produced axis segments). Due to their dense arrays of GUs, cushion plants may resemble crowded plant populations in the way the number of components (GUs in plants, individuals in populations) relates to their individual sizes. Methodology The morphological differentiation of GUs and its relationship with biomass accumulation and plant size were studied for the cushion subshrub Mulinum spinosum (Apiaceae), a widespread species in dry areas of Patagonia. In 2009, GUs were sampled from one-quarter of each of 24 adult plants. Within- and between-plant variations in GU length, diameter, number of nodes and biomass were analysed and related to whole-plant size. Principal results Each year, an M. spinosum cushion develops flowering GUs and vegetative GUs. Flowering GUs are larger, twice as numerous and contain two to four times more dry mass (excluding reproductive structures) than vegetative GUs. The hemispherical area of the cushions was positively correlated with the biomass of last-year GUs. The biomass of flowering GUs was negatively correlated with the density of GUs. Mulinum spinosum plants exhibited a notable differentiation between flowering and vegetative GUs, but their axes, i.e. the sequences of GUs, were not differentiated throughout the plants. Flowering GUs comprised a major proportion of each plant's photosynthetic tissues. Conclusions A decrease in the size of flowering GUs and in their number relative to the total number of GUs per plant, parallel to an increase in GU density, is predicted as M. spinosum plants age over years. The assimilative role of vegetative GUs is expected to increase in summer because of their less exposed position in the cushion. These GUs would therefore gain more from warm and dry conditions than flowering GUs. PMID:22476077

  4. Race, Ethnicity, and Sex Affect Risk for Polyps Greater than 9 mm in Average-risk Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Lieberman, David A.; Williams, J. Lucas; Holub, Jennifer L.; Morris, Cynthia D.; Logan, Judith R.; Eisen, Glenn M.; Carney, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims Colorectal cancer risk differs based on patient demographics. We aimed to measure the prevalence of significant colorectal polyps in average-risk individuals and to determine differences based on age, sex, race, or ethnicity. Methods In a prospective study, colonoscopy data were collected, using an endoscopic report generator, from 327,785 average-risk adults who underwent colorectal cancer screening at 84 gastrointestinal practice sites from 2000 to 2011. Demographic characteristics included age, sex, race, and ethnicity. The primary outcome was the presence of suspected malignancy or large polyp(s) >9 mm. The benchmark risk for age to initiate screening was based on white men, 50–54 years old. Results Risk of large polyps and tumors increased progressively in men and women with age. Women had lower risks than men in every age group, regardless of race. Blacks had higher risk than whites from ages 50 through 65 years and Hispanics had lower risk than whites from ages 50 through 80 years. The prevalence of large polyps was 6.2% in white men 50–54 years old. The risk was similar among the groups of white women 65–69 years old, Black women 55–59 years old, Black men 50–54 years old, Hispanic women 70–74 years old, and Hispanic men 55–59 years old. The risk of proximal large polyps increased with age, female sex, and Black race. Conclusions There are differences in the prevalence and location of large polyp and tumors in average-risk individuals based on age, sex, race, and ethnicity. These findings could be used to select ages at which specific groups should begin colorectal cancer screening. PMID:24786894

  5. Differential impact of a complex environment on positive affect in an animal model of individual differences in emotionality.

    PubMed

    Perez-Sepulveda, J A; Flagel, S B; Garcia-Fuster, M J; Slusky, R J; Aldridge, J W; Watson, S; Akil, H

    2013-09-17

    Anhedonia, or the inability to experience positive feelings is a hallmark of depression. However, few animal models have relied on decreased positive affect as an index of susceptibility to depression. Rats emit frequency-modulated ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs), designated as "positive" calls in the 50-kHz range. USVs have been associated with pharmacological activation of motivational reward circuits. Here we utilized selectively-bred rats differing in "emotionality" to ask whether there are associated differences in USVs. Rats bred based on locomotor response to novelty and classified as bred High Responders (bHRs) or bred Low Responders (bLRs) exhibit inborn differences in response to environmental cues, stress responsiveness, and depression-like behavior. These animals also exhibit differences in anxiety-like behavior, which are reversed by exposure to environmental complexity (EC). Finally, these animals exhibit unique profiles of responsiveness to rewarding stimuli accompanied with distinct patterns of dopamine regulation. We investigated whether acute and chronic environmental manipulations impacted USVs in bHRs and bLRs. We found that, relative to bLRs, bHRs emitted significantly more 50-kHz USVs. However, if a bLR is accompanied by another bLR, there is a significant increase in 50-kHZ USVs emitted by this phenotype. bHRs emitted increases in 50-kHZ UVSs upon first exposure to EC, whereas bLRs showed a similar increase only after repeated exposure. bLRs' increase in positive affect after chronic EC was coupled with significant positive correlations between corticosterone levels and c-fos mRNA in the accumbens. Conversely, a decline in the rate of positive calls in bHRs after chronic EC was associated with a negative correlation between corticosterone and accumbens c-fos mRNA. These studies demonstrate that inborn differences in emotionality interact with the environment to influence positive affect and underscore the potential interaction between

  6. Unemotional on all counts: Evidence of reduced affective responses in individuals with high callous-unemotional traits across emotion systems and valences.

    PubMed

    Fanti, Kostas A; Panayiotou, Georgia; Lombardo, Michael V; Kyranides, Melina Nicole

    2016-01-01

    The current study aimed to identify atypical neurophysiological activity associated with deficient affective processing in individuals with high callous-unemotional traits (CU). Fifty-six participants (M age = 20.52; 46% male) divided in two groups, differentiated on levels of CU traits, were invited to participate in the experimental phase of the study. Medial prefrontal cortex activity, measured with functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy, and facial electro-myography activity were recorded during videos depicting violent, comedy and neutral scenes. Individuals high on CU traits showed similar medial prefrontal cortex oxygenated hemoglobin (HbO(2)) activity to positive and negative films, while the pre-frontal cortical responses of low CU individuals were more pronounced to positive than negative materials. High CU participants also showed reduced facial electromyography at the corrugator muscle in response to violent films, which was not differentiated from their responses to comedy films. These findings suggest that individuals high on CU traits show reduced but not absent (i.e., flat) affect to emotional material. Deficits in processing positive and negative valent material, measured with different neuro-physiological modalities, might be essential to understand CU traits.

  7. Characterization of the profession/occupation of individuals affected by leprosy and the relationship with limitations in professional activities.

    PubMed

    Nardi, S M T; Ikehara, E; Pedro, H S P; Paschoal, V D A

    2012-01-01

    People who had leprosy stay away from work and have difficulty of employability and to perform their functions or retire early. This study aimed at determining whether there is a relationship between profession/occupation and limitations in activities. This was a cross-sectional study that used the SALSA scale (Screening of Activity Limitation and Safety Awareness) to assess limitations and to classify professions/occupations as low, medium or high risk. Of the 277 people surveyed, 50.2% were men, the mean age was 53.8 years (SD = 16.3), 62.7% had multibacillary, 59.7% had family incomes of 3 minimum wages or less, 58.5% had up to 6 years schooling and 57% did not have paid jobs. As for occupations, 45.8% were considered low, 39.7% medium and 12.3% high risk. Of thetotal, 49.1% had mild/moderate, 8.7% severe/very severe and 42.2% did not have any limitations. The relationship between limitations in activities and occupational risk indicated that people with severe limitations tend to have low risk occupations (p value < 0.05). The limitations associated with employability showed that most active individuals have no limitations (p value < 0.05). Hence, most people who had leprosy have low risk professions/occupations; the limitations favor a shift from high-risk activities and interfere with employability.

  8. Novel clinical manifestations in Pallister-Killian syndrome: comprehensive evaluation of 59 affected individuals and review of previously reported cases.

    PubMed

    Wilkens, Alisha; Liu, Hongbin; Park, Kristen; Campbell, Lindsey B; Jackson, Marie; Kostanecka, Anna; Pipan, Mary; Izumi, Kosuke; Pallister, Phillip; Krantz, Ian D

    2012-12-01

    Pallister-Killian syndrome is a rare, multi-system developmental diagnosis typically caused by tetrasomy of chromosome 12p that exhibits tissue-limited mosaicism. The spectrum of clinical manifestations in Pallister-Killian syndrome is wide and includes craniofacial anomalies, clefts, ophthalmologic, audiologic, cardiac, musculoskeletal, diaphragmatic, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, and cutaneous anomalies in association with intellectual disability and seizures. Growth parameters are often normal to elevated at birth with deceleration of growth postnatally. No formal estimate of the prevalence of Pallister-Killian syndrome has been made. Here, we report the clinical findings in 59 individuals with Pallister-Killian syndrome who were ascertained at Pallister-Killian syndrome Foundation family meetings held in the summers of 2006, 2008, 2009, and 2010. In addition, the clinical findings of 152 cases reported in the medical literature were reviewed and compared to the cohort examined here. Several novel clinical characteristics were identified through detailed dysmorphology examinations of this cohort and reassertion of a mild developmental variant is described. This report expands the clinical manifestations of Pallister-Killian syndrome and highlights the variable expressivity of this diagnosis with important implications for diagnosis and counseling.

  9. Disclosure bias for group versus individual reporting of violence amongst conflict-affected adolescent girls in DRC and Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Stark, Lindsay; Sommer, Marni; Davis, Kathryn; Asghar, Khudejha; Assazenew Baysa, Asham; Abdela, Gizman; Tanner, Sophie; Falb, Kathryn

    2017-01-01

    Methodologies to measure gender-based violence (GBV) have received inadequate attention, especially in humanitarian contexts where vulnerabilities to violence are exacerbated. This paper compares the results from individual audio computer-assisted self-administered (ACASI) survey interviews with results from participatory social mapping activities, employed with the same sample in two different post-conflict contexts. Eighty-seven internally displaced adolescent girls from the Democratic Republic of the Congo and 78 Sudanese girls living in Ethiopian refugee camps were interviewed using the two methodologies. Results revealed that the group-based qualitative method elicited narratives of violence focusing on events perpetrated by strangers or members of the community more distantly connected to girls. In contrast, ACASI interviews revealed violence predominantly perpetrated by family members and intimate partners. These findings suggest that group-based methods of information gathering frequently used in the field may be more susceptible to socially accepted narratives. Specifically, our findings suggest group-based methods may produce results showing that sexual violence perpetrated by strangers (e.g., from armed groups in the conflict) is more prevalent than violence perpetrated by family and intimate partners. To the extent this finding is true, it may lead to a skewed perception that adolescent GBV involving strangers is a more pressing issue than intimate partner and family-based sexual violence, when in fact, both are of great concern.

  10. Individual Differences in Moral Development: Does Intelligence Really Affect Children’s Moral Reasoning and Moral Emotions?

    PubMed Central

    Beißert, Hanna M.; Hasselhorn, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between intelligence and individual differences in children’s moral development across a range of different moral transgressions. Taking up prior research that showed morality and intelligence to be related in adolescents and adults, the current study wants to test if these findings can be extended to younger children. The study was designed to address some of the shortcomings in prior research by examining young children aged between 6 years; 4 months and 8 years; 10 months, using a broad concept of moral development including emotional aspects and applying an approach that is closely connected to children’s daily lives. Participants (N = 129) completed a standardized intelligence test and were presented four moral transgression stories to assess moral development. Results demonstrated that findings from prior research with adolescents or adults cannot simply be extended to younger participants. No significant correlations of moral development and intelligence were found for any of the presented stories. This provides first evidence that – at least in middle childhood – moral developmental status seems to be independent from children’s general intelligence assessed by figural inductive reasoning tests. PMID:28066287

  11. Augmenting digital displays with computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jing

    As we inevitably step deeper and deeper into a world connected via the Internet, more and more information will be exchanged digitally. Displays are the interface between digital information and each individual. Naturally, one fundamental goal of displays is to reproduce information as realistically as possible since humans still care a lot about what happens in the real world. Human eyes are the receiving end of such information exchange; therefore it is impossible to study displays without studying the human visual system. In fact, the design of displays is rather closely coupled with what human eyes are capable of perceiving. For example, we are less interested in building displays that emit light in the invisible spectrum. This dissertation explores how we can augment displays with computation, which takes both display hardware and the human visual system into consideration. Four novel projects on display technologies are included in this dissertation: First, we propose a software-based approach to driving multiview autostereoscopic displays. Our display algorithm can dynamically assign views to hardware display zones based on multiple observers' current head positions, substantially reducing crosstalk and stereo inversion. Second, we present a dense projector array that creates a seamless 3D viewing experience for multiple viewers. We smoothly interpolate the set of viewer heights and distances on a per-vertex basis across the arrays field of view, reducing image distortion, crosstalk, and artifacts from tracking errors. Third, we propose a method for high dynamic range display calibration that takes into account the variation of the chrominance error over luminance. We propose a data structure for enabling efficient representation and querying of the calibration function, which also allows user-guided balancing between memory consumption and the amount of computation. Fourth, we present user studies that demonstrate that the ˜ 60 Hz critical flicker fusion

  12. Relationship between Individual External Doses, Ambient Dose Rates and Individuals’ Activity-Patterns in Affected Areas in Fukushima following the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    PubMed Central

    Kurosawa, Tadahiro; Yasutaka, Tetsuo; Ishii, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    The accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant on March 11, 2011, released radioactive material into the atmosphere and contaminated the land in Fukushima and several neighboring prefectures. Five years after the nuclear disaster, the radiation levels have greatly decreased due to physical decay, weathering, and decontamination operations in Fukushima. The populations of 12 communities were forced to evacuate after the accident; as of March 2016, the evacuation order has been lifted in only a limited area, and permanent habitation is still prohibited in most of the areas. In order for the government to lift the evacuation order and for individuals to return to their original residential areas, it is important to assess current and future realistic individual external doses. Here, we used personal dosimeters along with the Global Positioning System and Geographic Information System to understand realistic individual external doses and to relate individual external doses, ambient doses, and activity-patterns of individuals in the affected areas in Fukushima. The results showed that the additional individual external doses were well correlated to the additional ambient doses based on the airborne monitoring survey. The results of linear regression analysis suggested that the additional individual external doses were on average about one-fifth that of the additional ambient doses. The reduction factors, which are defined as the ratios of the additional individual external doses to the additional ambient doses, were calculated to be on average 0.14 and 0.32 for time spent at home and outdoors, respectively. Analysis of the contribution of various activity patterns to the total individual external dose demonstrated good agreement with the average fraction of time spent daily in each activity, but the contribution due to being outdoors varied widely. These results are a valuable contribution to understanding realistic individual external doses and the corresponding

  13. An fMRI study of affective perspective taking in individuals with psychopathy: imagining another in pain does not evoke empathy

    PubMed Central

    Decety, Jean; Chen, Chenyi; Harenski, Carla; Kiehl, Kent A.

    2013-01-01

    While it is well established that individuals with psychopathy have a marked deficit in affective arousal, emotional empathy, and caring for the well-being of others, the extent to which perspective taking can elicit an emotional response has not yet been studied despite its potential application in rehabilitation. In healthy individuals, affective perspective taking has proven to be an effective means to elicit empathy and concern for others. To examine neural responses in individuals who vary in psychopathy during affective perspective taking, 121 incarcerated males, classified as high (n = 37; Hare psychopathy checklist-revised, PCL-R ≥ 30), intermediate (n = 44; PCL-R between 21 and 29), and low (n = 40; PCL-R ≤ 20) psychopaths, were scanned while viewing stimuli depicting bodily injuries and adopting an imagine-self and an imagine-other perspective. During the imagine-self perspective, participants with high psychopathy showed a typical response within the network involved in empathy for pain, including the anterior insula (aINS), anterior midcingulate cortex (aMCC), supplementary motor area (SMA), inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), somatosensory cortex, and right amygdala. Conversely, during the imagine-other perspective, psychopaths exhibited an atypical pattern of brain activation and effective connectivity seeded in the anterior insula and amygdala with the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). The response in the amygdala and insula was inversely correlated with PCL-R Factor 1 (interpersonal/affective) during the imagine-other perspective. In high psychopaths, scores on PCL-R Factor 1 predicted the neural response in ventral striatum when imagining others in pain. These patterns of brain activation and effective connectivity associated with differential perspective-taking provide a better understanding of empathy dysfunction in psychopathy, and have the potential to inform intervention programs for this complex clinical

  14. An fMRI study of affective perspective taking in individuals with psychopathy: imagining another in pain does not evoke empathy.

    PubMed

    Decety, Jean; Chen, Chenyi; Harenski, Carla; Kiehl, Kent A

    2013-01-01

    While it is well established that individuals with psychopathy have a marked deficit in affective arousal, emotional empathy, and caring for the well-being of others, the extent to which perspective taking can elicit an emotional response has not yet been studied despite its potential application in rehabilitation. In healthy individuals, affective perspective taking has proven to be an effective means to elicit empathy and concern for others. To examine neural responses in individuals who vary in psychopathy during affective perspective taking, 121 incarcerated males, classified as high (n = 37; Hare psychopathy checklist-revised, PCL-R ≥ 30), intermediate (n = 44; PCL-R between 21 and 29), and low (n = 40; PCL-R ≤ 20) psychopaths, were scanned while viewing stimuli depicting bodily injuries and adopting an imagine-self and an imagine-other perspective. During the imagine-self perspective, participants with high psychopathy showed a typical response within the network involved in empathy for pain, including the anterior insula (aINS), anterior midcingulate cortex (aMCC), supplementary motor area (SMA), inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), somatosensory cortex, and right amygdala. Conversely, during the imagine-other perspective, psychopaths exhibited an atypical pattern of brain activation and effective connectivity seeded in the anterior insula and amygdala with the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). The response in the amygdala and insula was inversely correlated with PCL-R Factor 1 (interpersonal/affective) during the imagine-other perspective. In high psychopaths, scores on PCL-R Factor 1 predicted the neural response in ventral striatum when imagining others in pain. These patterns of brain activation and effective connectivity associated with differential perspective-taking provide a better understanding of empathy dysfunction in psychopathy, and have the potential to inform intervention programs for this complex clinical

  15. Hazardous or not - Are adult and juvenile individuals of Potamopyrgus antipodarum affected by non-buoyant microplastic particles?

    PubMed

    Imhof, Hannes K; Laforsch, Christian

    2016-11-01

    Microplastic has been ubiquitously detected in freshwater ecosystems. A variety of freshwater organisms were shown to ingest microplastic particles, while a high potential for adverse effects are expected. However, studies addressing the effect of microplastic in freshwater species are still scarce compared to studies on marine organisms. In order to gain further insights into possible adverse effects of microplastic particles on freshwater invertebrates and to set the base for further experiments we exposed the mud snail (Potampoyrgus antipodarum) to a large range of common and environmentally relevant non-buoyant polymers (polyamide, polyethylene terephthalate, polycarbonate, polystyrene, polyvinylchloride). The impact of these polymers was tested by performing two exposure experiments with irregular shaped microplastic particles with a broad size distribution in a low (30%) and a high microplastic dose (70%) in the food. First, possible effects on adult P. antipodarum were assessed by morphological and life-history parameters. Second, the effect of the same mixture on the development of juvenile P. antipodarum until maturity was analyzed. Adult P. antipodarum showed no morphological changes after the exposure to the microplastic particles, even if supplied in a high dose. Moreover, although P. antipodarum is an established model organism and reacts especially sensitive to endocrine active substances no effects on embryogenesis were detected. Similarly, the juvenile development until maturity was not affected. Considering, that most studies showing effects on marine and freshwater invertebrates mostly exposed their experimental organisms to very small (≤20 μm) polystyrene microbeads, we anticipate that these effects may be highly dependent on the chemical composition of the polymer itself and the size and shape of the particles. Therefore, more studies are necessary to enable the identification of harmful synthetic polymers as some of them may be

  16. Extrinsic visual feedback and additional cognitive/physical demands affect single-limb balance control in individuals with ankle instability

    PubMed Central

    Hung, You-jou; Miller, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the impact of extrinsic visual feedback and additional cognitive/physical demands on single-limb balance in individuals with ankle instability. METHODS Sixteen subjects with ankle instability participated in the study. Ankle instability was identified using the Cumberland Ankle Instability Tool (CAIT). The subject’s unstable ankle was examined using the Athletic Single Leg Stability Test of the Biodex Balance System with 4 different protocols: (1) default setting with extrinsic visual feedback from the monitor; (2) no extrinsic visual feedback; (3) no extrinsic visual feedback with cognitive demands; and (4) no extrinsic visual feedback with physical demands. For the protocol with added cognitive demands, subjects were asked to continue subtracting 7 from a given number while performing the same test without extrinsic visual feedback. For the protocol with added physical demands, subjects were asked to pass and catch a basketball to and from the examiner while performing the same modified test. RESULTS The subject’s single-limb postural control varied significantly among different testing protocols (F = 103; P = 0.000). Subjects’ postural control was the worst with added physical demands and the best with the default condition with extrinsic visual feedback. Pairwise comparison shows subjects performed significantly worse in all modified protocols (P < 0.01 in all comparisons) compared to the default protocol. Results from all 4 protocols are significantly different from each other (P < 0.01) except for the comparison between the “no extrinsic visual feedback” and “no extrinsic visual feedback with cognitive demands” protocols. Comparing conditions without extrinsic visual feedback, adding a cognitive demand did not significantly compromise single-limb balance control but adding a physical demand did. Scores from the default protocol are significantly correlated with the results from all 3 modified protocols: No extrinsic visual

  17. Loss of the SKI proto-oncogene in individuals affected with 1p36 deletion syndrome is predicted by strain-dependent defects in Ski-/- mice.

    PubMed

    Colmenares, Clemencia; Heilstedt, Heidi A; Shaffer, Lisa G; Schwartz, Stuart; Berk, Michael; Murray, Jeffrey C; Stavnezer, Ed

    2002-01-01

    Experiments involving overexpression of Ski have suggested that this gene is involved in neural tube development and muscle differentiation. In agreement with these findings, Ski-/- mice display a cranial neural tube defect that results in exencephaly and a marked reduction in skeletal muscle mass. Here we show that the penetrance and expressivity of the phenotype changes when the null mutation is backcrossed into the C57BL6/J background, with the principal change involving a switch from a neural tube defect to midline facial clefting. Other defects, including depressed nasal bridge, eye abnormalities, skeletal muscle defects and digit abnormalities, show increased penetrance in the C57BL6/J background. These phenotypes are interesting because they resemble some of the features observed in individuals diagnosed with 1p36 deletion syndrome, a disorder caused by monosomy of the short arm of human chromosome 1p (refs. 6-9). These similarities prompted us to re-examine the chromosomal location of human SKI and to determine whether SKI is included in the deletions of 1p36. We found that human SKI is located at distal 1p36.3 and is deleted in all of the individuals tested so far who have this syndrome. Thus, SKI may contribute to some of the phenotypes common in 1p36 deletion syndrome, and particularly to facial clefting.

  18. Assignment of the disease locus for lethal congenital contracture syndrome to a restricted region of chromosome 9q34, by genome scan using five affected individuals.

    PubMed

    Mäkelä-Bengs, P; Järvinen, N; Vuopala, K; Suomalainen, A; Ignatius, J; Sipilä, M; Herva, R; Palotie, A; Peltonen, L

    1998-08-01

    Lethal congenital contracture syndrome (LCCS) is an autosomal recessive disease leading to death before the 32d gestational week. It is characterized by the fetal akinesia phenotype, with highly focused degeneration of motoneurons in the spinal cord as the main neuropathological finding. We report here the assignment of the LCCS locus to a defined region of chromosome 9q34, between markers D9S1825 and D9S1830. The initial genome scan was performed with the DNA samples of only five affected individuals from two unrelated LCCS families. The conventional linkage analysis performed with 20 affected individuals and their families was focused on those chromosomal regions in which the affected siblings were identical by descent in the initial scan. One core haplotype of 3 cM was observed in LCCS alleles, supporting the assumption of one major mutation underlying LCCS, and linkage disequilibrium analysis restricted the critical chromosomal region to <100 kb in the vicinity of marker D9S61. Two genes, NGAL (neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and NOTCH 1, were excluded as causative genes for LCCS

  19. Genotypic Characterization of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Derived from Antiretroviral Drug-Treated Individuals Residing in Earthquake-Affected Areas in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Negi, Bharat Singh; Kotaki, Tomohiro; Joshi, Sunil Kumar; Bastola, Anup; Nakazawa, Minato; Kameoka, Masanori

    2017-04-10

    Molecular epidemiological data on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) are limited in Nepal and have not been available in areas affected by the April 2015 earthquake. Therefore, we conducted a genotypic study on HIV-1 genes derived from individuals on antiretroviral therapy residing in 14 districts in Nepal highly affected by the earthquake. HIV-1 genomic fragments were amplified from 40 blood samples of HIV treatment-failure individuals, and a sequencing analysis was performed on these genes. In the 40 samples, 29 protease, 32 reverse transcriptase, 25 gag, and 21 env genes were sequenced. HIV-1 subtyping revealed that subtype C (84.2%, 32/38) was the major subtype prevalent in the region, while CRF01_AE (7.9%, 3/38) and other recombinant forms (7.9%, 3/38) were also detected. In addition, major drug resistance mutations were identified in 21.9% (7/32) of samples, indicating the possible emergence of HIV-1 drug resistance in earthquake-affected areas in Nepal.

  20. Engine monitoring display study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hornsby, Mary E.

    1992-01-01

    The current study is part of a larger NASA effort to develop displays for an engine-monitoring system to enable the crew to monitor engine parameter trends more effectively. The objective was to evaluate the operational utility of adding three types of information to the basic Boeing Engine Indicating and Crew Alerting System (EICAS) display formats: alphanumeric alerting messages for engine parameters whose values exceed caution or warning limits; alphanumeric messages to monitor engine parameters that deviate from expected values; and a graphic depiction of the range of expected values for current conditions. Ten training and line pilots each flew 15 simulated flight scenarios with five variants of the basic EICAS format; these variants included different combinations of the added information. The pilots detected engine problems more quickly when engine alerting messages were included in the display; adding a graphic depiction of the range of expected values did not affect detection speed. The pilots rated both types of alphanumeric messages (alert and monitor parameter) as more useful and easier to interpret than the graphic depiction. Integrating engine parameter messages into the EICAS alerting system appears to be both useful and preferred.

  1. Caffeine affects CD8+ lymphocyte apoptosis and migration differently in naïve and familiar individuals following moderate intensity exercise.

    PubMed

    Navalta, James W; Fedor, Elizabeth A; Schafer, Mark A; Lyons, T Scott; Tibana, Ramires A; Pereira, Guilherme B; Prestes, Jonato

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the lymphocyte subset response to 30 min of moderate treadmill exercise during caffeine supplemented (6.0 mg.kg(-1)) and placebo conditions in caffeine-naïve and -familiar individuals. Seventeen individuals participated (caffeine-familiar = 8, caffeine-naïve = 9) completing two exercise bouts (caffeine supplemented and placebo control) 48 h apart in a counterbalanced and double-blinded fashion. Individuals were classified as follows: caffeine-naive <50 mg.d(-1) and caffeine-familiar >200 mg.d(-1) Whole blood samples were obtained at rest, 30 min after caffeine or placebo ingestion, immediately following exercise, and 1 h post exercise. Blood was used to analyze apoptosis (annexin V) and cellular migration (CX3CR1) responses in lymphocyte subsets (CD4+, CD8+, CD19+). Absolute changes from rest values were calculated and differences between conditions were determined through Chi-squared analysis with significance accepted at P <0.05. With regard to CD4+ and CD19+ lymphocytes, the interaction of caffeine and exercise did not affect naïve individuals to a greater extent immediately post exercise when compared to familiar, as similar apoptotic and migratory responses were observed (P >0.05). However, CD8+ lymphocyte cell death and migration responses were observed to be significantly greater at each sampling point in caffeine-familiar individuals (P <0.05). It is possible that chronic caffeine supplementation may prime CD8+ cell receptors for responsiveness to apoptosis and migration and the consequence of this form of immunosuppression in the post-exercise period should be determined.

  2. A Systematic Review of Individual and Contextual Factors Affecting ART Initiation, Adherence, and Retention for HIV-Infected Pregnant and Postpartum Women

    PubMed Central

    Hodgson, Ian; Plummer, Mary L.; Konopka, Sarah N.; Colvin, Christopher J.; Jonas, Edna; Albertini, Jennifer; Amzel, Anouk; Fogg, Karen P.

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite progress reducing maternal mortality, HIV-related maternal deaths remain high, accounting, for example, for up to 24 percent of all pregnancy-related deaths in sub-Saharan Africa. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is effective in improving outcomes among HIV-infected pregnant and postpartum women, yet rates of initiation, adherence, and retention remain low. This systematic literature review synthesized evidence about individual and contextual factors affecting ART use among HIV-infected pregnant and postpartum women. Methods Searches were conducted for studies addressing the population (HIV-infected pregnant and postpartum women), intervention (ART), and outcomes of interest (initiation, adherence, and retention). Quantitative and qualitative studies published in English since January 2008 were included. Individual and contextual enablers and barriers to ART use were extracted and organized thematically within a framework of individual, interpersonal, community, and structural categories. Results Thirty-four studies were included in the review. Individual-level factors included both those within and outside a woman’s awareness and control (e.g., commitment to child’s health or age). Individual-level barriers included poor understanding of HIV, ART, and prevention of mother-to-child transmission, and difficulty managing practical demands of ART. At an interpersonal level, disclosure to a spouse and spousal involvement in treatment were associated with improved initiation, adherence, and retention. Fear of negative consequences was a barrier to disclosure. At a community level, stigma was a major barrier. Key structural barriers and enablers were related to health system use and engagement, including access to services and health worker attitudes. Conclusions To be successful, programs seeking to expand access to and continued use of ART by integrating maternal health and HIV services must identify and address the relevant barriers and enablers in

  3. A new twist to a traditional approach to environmental monitoring: differentiation of oil sands process-affected waters and natural systems by comparison of individual organic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarlett, A.; Lengger, S.; West, C.; Rowland, S.

    2013-12-01

    Review panels of both the Canadian Federal and Alberta Provincial governments have recommended a complete overhaul of existing monitoring programs of the Athabasca oil sands industry and have called for a greater understanding of the potential impacts of mining activities to allow for future sustainable development. Due to the no release policy, it is critical that leakages of oil sands process-affected waters (OSPW) from tailings ponds can be differentiated from natural waters flowing through the McMurray formation into the Athabasca river system. Environmental monitoring of oil contamination usually entails profiling of known compounds, e.g. the US EPA list of priority Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, but until now a similar approach has not been possible for OSPW due to its extreme complexity. It has been estimated that the number of carboxylic acids, historically referred to as ';naphthenic acids' (NA) in OSPW, to be in excess of 10000 compounds. Until recently, individual structures of these NA were unknown but analyses by tandem gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCxGC-MS) have now begun to reveal the individual structures of alicyclic, aromatic and sulphur-containing acids within OSPWs stored in tailings ponds. Now that some individual structures present in OSPW are known and standards are available, a methodological approach similar to traditional oil monitoring can be developed using individual diamondoid NA and recently discovered diacids and applied to tailings pond OSPW and environmental waters. One obstacle to understanding whether the NA present in environmental groundwater samples are associated with particular tailings ponds is the lack of knowledge of the variability of OSPW within and between ponds. In the current study, GCxGC-MS analyses have been applied to statistically compare OSPWs of two industries, both temporally and spatially, using specific, known compounds as well as associated isomers. Although variation within individual ponds was

  4. Display formats manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Runnels, R. L.

    1973-01-01

    The standards and procedures for the generation of operational display formats to be used in the Mission Control Center (MCC) display control system are presented. The required effort, forms, and fundamentals for the design, specifications, and production of display formats are identified. The principles of display design and system constraints controlling the creation of optimum operational displays for mission control are explained. The basic two types of MCC display systems for presenting information are described.

  5. Lizard threat display handicaps endurance.

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, Y

    2003-01-01

    Honest-signalling theory asserts that threat displays reliably advertise attributes that influence fighting success. Endurance, as measured by treadmill performance, predicts the outcome of agonistic interactions among lizards. If threat displays in lizards function to advertise endurance capacity then variation in threat displays should correlate with endurance. I tested this prediction for the duration of threat posturing in male side-blotched lizards (Uta stansburiana) and examined whether threat displays act as quality handicaps, reliable signals that expend the attribute that is advertised. Individual variation in the duration of threat posturing correlated with endurance, while an experimental reduction of endurance diminished the duration of threat posturing. As expected of a quality handicap, endurance fell below baseline after display production. A restriction of aerobic metabolism can account for this effect. In threat posturing, lateral compression of the thorax may interfere with respiration or with circulation, limiting aerobic metabolism and causing a compensatory increase in anaerobic metabolism, thereby generating lactate and diminishing locomotor capacity. Concentrations of lactate measured after display production were higher than baseline, consistent with the proposed mechanism. By restricting aerobic metabolism, the threat posture can act as a quality handicap, simultaneously advertising and expending the endurance capacity of displaying lizards. PMID:12803896

  6. Stereoscopic Flat Panel Display

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-01

    the display of stereo imagery have been demonstrated. Stereoscopic displays typically require the user to wear special headgear. Autostereoscopic ...components and the resulting changes in the encoding algorithm. Keywords: Stereoscopic display, LCD, 3D , polarization encoding, flat panel 1...panel display when viewing non-stereoscopic imagery or data. Remotely operated vehicles do not represent the only potential application for 3D

  7. Electrochromic display device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholson, M. M.

    1984-07-01

    This invention relates to electrochromic devices. In one aspect it relates to electrically controllable display devices. In another aspect it relates to electrically tunable optical or light filters. In yet another aspect it relates to a chemical sensor device which employs a color changing film. There are many uses for electrically controllable display devices. A number of such devices have been in commercial use for some time. These display devices include liquid crystal displays, light emitting diode displays, plasma displays, and the like. Light emitting diode displays and plasma display panels both suffer from the fact that they are active. Light emissive devices which require substantial power for their operation, In addition, it is difficult to fabricate light emitting diode displays in a manner which renders them easily distinguishable under bright ambient illumination. Liquid crystal displays suffer from the disadvantage that they are operative only over a limited temperature range and have substantially no memory within the liquid crystal material.

  8. System status display information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, L. G.; Erickson, J. B.

    1984-01-01

    The system Status Display is an electronic display system which provides the flight crew with enhanced capabilities for monitoring and managing aircraft systems. Guidelines for the design of the electronic system displays were established. The technical approach involved the application of a system engineering approach to the design of candidate displays and the evaluation of a Hernative concepts by part-task simulation. The system engineering and selection of candidate displays are covered.

  9. Exploring the effects of individual customer incivility encounters on employee incivility: the moderating roles of entity (in)civility and negative affectivity.

    PubMed

    Walker, David D; van Jaarsveld, Danielle D; Skarlicki, Daniel P

    2014-01-01

    Incivility between customers and employees is common in many service organizations. These encounters can have negative outcomes for employees, customers, and the organization. To date, researchers have tended to study incivility as an aggregated and accumulated phenomenon (entity perspective). In the present study, we examined incivility as it occurs during a specific service encounter (event perspective) alongside the entity perspective. Using a mixed-method multilevel field study of customer service interactions, we show that individual customer incivility encounters (i.e., events) trigger employee incivility as a function of the employee's overall accumulated impression of the (in)civility in his or her customer interactions, such that the effects are more pronounced among employees who generally perceive their customer interactions to be more versus less civil. We also find that these interactive effects occur only among employees who are lower (vs. higher) in negative affectivity. Our results show that, in order to expand the understanding of customer incivility, it is important to study the incivility encounter, the social context in which negative customer interactions occur, and individual differences.

  10. Physiological and affective reactivity to a 35% CO₂ inhalation challenge in individuals differing in the 5-HTTLPR genotype and trait neuroticism.

    PubMed

    Verschoor, Ellen; Markus, C Rob

    2012-08-01

    The inhalation of 35% carbon dioxide (CO₂) results in an acute stress response in healthy individuals and may accordingly provide a good paradigm to examine potential vulnerability factors for stress reactivity and stress-related psychopathology. It has been proposed that CO₂ reactivity is moderated by genetic (5-HTTLPR) and personality (neuroticism) factors, yet no experimental study has investigated their effects on CO₂ reactivity simultaneously. The current study examined the singular and interactive effects of the 5-HTTLPR genotype and neuroticism in predicting the affective and physiological response to a 35% CO₂ challenge in a healthy sample of male and female students. From a large group of 771 students, 48 carriers of the low/low expressing allele (S/S, S/Lg, Lg/Lg) and 48 carriers of the high/high expressing allele (La/La) with the lowest and the highest neuroticism scores (77 females, 19 males; mean age ± SD: 20.6 ± 2 years) were selected and underwent a 35% CO₂ inhalation. Visual analogue scales for anxiety and discomfort and the Panic Symptom List were used to assess affective symptomatology, while salivary samples and heart rate were assessed to establish the physiological response. A typical pattern of responses to CO₂ was observed, characterised by increases in anxiogenic symptoms and physical panic symptomatology and a reduction in heart rate; however, no effect on salivary cortisol concentration was observed. Additionally, the CO₂ reactivity did not differ between groups divided by the 5-HTTLPR genotype or neuroticism. Findings of the current study do not support a role for singular or interactive effects of the 5-HTTLPR genotype and trait neuroticism on affective and physiological reactivity to a 35% CO₂ inhalation procedure.

  11. Variation in essential oil composition within individual leaves of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) is more affected by leaf position than by leaf age.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Ravit; Nitzan, Nadav; Chaimovitsh, David; Rubin, Baruch; Dudai, Nativ

    2011-05-11

    The aroma in sweet basil is a factor affecting the commercial value of the crop. In previous studies leaf age was considered to be a factor that influences the composition of essential oil (EO). In this study it was hypothesized that a single observation of the EO content in leaves from different positions on the main stem (young vs old) could predict the developmental changes in the plant during its life cycle. Plants harvested at week 16 demonstrated an exponential increase (R(2) = 0.92) in EO concentration in leaves on the main stem and lateral shoots, indicating higher EO concentrations in younger than in older leaves. Eugenol and methyleugenol predominated (28-77%) in the extract. Eugenol levels were higher in younger leaves (∼53%), and methyl-eugenol levels predominated in older leaves (∼68%). Linalool was lower in mature leaves than in younger leaves. This suggested that eugenol converted into methyleugenol and linalool decreased as leaf mature. However, in weekly monitored plants, the levels of these compounds in the EO had limited variation in the maturing leaf regardless of its position on the stem. This proposed that the EO composition in an individual leaf is mostly affected by the leaf position on the stem and not by its maturation process. Because leaf position is related to plant development, it is probable that the plant's physiological age at the time of leaf formation from the primordial tissue is the factor affecting the EO composition. It was concluded that interpretation of scientific observations should be carried out with caution and that hypotheses should be tested utilizing multifaceted approaches.

  12. Thin optical display panel

    DOEpatents

    Veligdan, James Thomas

    1997-01-01

    An optical display includes a plurality of optical waveguides each including a cladding bound core for guiding internal display light between first and second opposite ends by total internal reflection. The waveguides are stacked together to define a collective display thickness. Each of the cores includes a heterogeneous portion defining a light scattering site disposed longitudinally between the first and second ends. Adjacent ones of the sites are longitudinally offset from each other for forming a longitudinal internal image display over the display thickness upon scattering of internal display light thereagainst for generating a display image. In a preferred embodiment, the waveguides and scattering sites are transparent for transmitting therethrough an external image in superposition with the display image formed by scattering the internal light off the scattering sites for defining a heads up display.

  13. Seamless tiled display system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubin, Matthew B. (Inventor); Larson, Brent D. (Inventor); Kolosowsky, Aleksandra (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A modular and scalable seamless tiled display apparatus includes multiple display devices, a screen, and multiple lens assemblies. Each display device is subdivided into multiple sections, and each section is configured to display a sectional image. One of the lens assemblies is optically coupled to each of the sections of each of the display devices to project the sectional image displayed on that section onto the screen. The multiple lens assemblies are configured to merge the projected sectional images to form a single tiled image. The projected sectional images may be merged on the screen by magnifying and shifting the images in an appropriate manner. The magnification and shifting of these images eliminates any visual effect on the tiled display that may result from dead-band regions defined between each pair of adjacent sections on each display device, and due to gaps between multiple display devices.

  14. Scalability of Robotic Displays: Display Size Investigation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-01

    active matrix touch screen display (see figure 1). The screen is a super video graphics array 12.1 inches diagonal with 800x600-pixel resolution...ounces) super- video graphics display, high resolution (800x600) pictures with a 1.425-inch diagonal picture. The device used in this study was a...from a portable operator control unit that provides continuous data and video feedback for precise vehicle positioning. It was developed for the

  15. Perspectives of healthcare providers and HIV-affected individuals and couples during the development of a Safer Conception Counseling Toolkit in Kenya: stigma, fears, and recommendations for the delivery of services.

    PubMed

    Mmeje, Okeoma; Njoroge, Betty; Akama, Eliud; Leddy, Anna; Breitnauer, Brooke; Darbes, Lynae; Brown, Joelle

    2016-01-01

    Reproduction is important to many HIV-affected individuals and couples and healthcare providers (HCPs) are responsible for providing resources to help them safely conceive while minimizing the risk of sexual and perinatal HIV transmission. In order to fulfill their reproductive goals, HIV-affected individuals and their partners need access to information regarding safer methods of conception. The objective of this qualitative study was to develop a Safer Conception Counseling Toolkit that can be used to train HCPs and counsel HIV-affected individuals and couples in HIV care and treatment clinics in Kenya. We conducted a two-phased qualitative study among HCPs and HIV-affected individuals and couples from eight HIV care and treatment sites in Kisumu, Kenya. We conducted in-depth interviews (IDIs) and focus group discussions (FGDs) to assess the perspectives of HCPs and HIV-affected individuals and couples in order to develop and refine the content of the Toolkit. Subsequently, IDIs were conducted among HCPs who were trained using the Toolkit and FGDs among HIV-affected individuals and couples who were counseled with the Toolkit. HIV-related stigma, fears, and recommendations for delivery of safer conception counseling were assessed during the discussions. One hundred and six individuals participated in FGDs and IDIs; 29 HCPs, 49 HIV-affected women and men, and 14 HIV-serodiscordant couples. Participants indicated that a safer conception counseling and training program for HCPs is needed and that routine provision of safer conception counseling may promote maternal and child health by enhancing reproductive autonomy among HIV-affected couples. They also reported that the Toolkit may help dispel the stigma and fears associated with reproduction in HIV-affected couples, while supporting them in achieving their reproductive goals. Additional research is needed to evaluate the Safer Conception Toolkit in order to support its implementation and use in HIV care and

  16. EMU helmet mounted display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marmolejo, Jose (Inventor); Smith, Stephen (Inventor); Plough, Alan (Inventor); Clarke, Robert (Inventor); Mclean, William (Inventor); Fournier, Joseph (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A helmet mounted display device is disclosed for projecting a display on a flat combiner surface located above the line of sight where the display is produced by two independent optical channels with independent LCD image generators. The display has a fully overlapped field of view on the combiner surface and the focus can be adjusted from a near field of four feet to infinity.

  17. Digital video display system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zygielbaum, A. I.; Martin, W. L.; Engle, A.

    1973-01-01

    System displays image data in real time on 120,000-element raster scan with 2, 4, or 8 shades of grey. Designed for displaying planetary range Doppler data, system can be used for X-Y plotting, displaying alphanumerics, and providing image animation.

  18. XVD Image Display Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deen, Robert G.; Andres, Paul M.; Mortensen, Helen B.; Parizher, Vadim; McAuley, Myche; Bartholomew, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The XVD [X-Windows VICAR (video image communication and retrieval) Display] computer program offers an interactive display of VICAR and PDS (planetary data systems) images. It is designed to efficiently display multiple-GB images and runs on Solaris, Linux, or Mac OS X systems using X-Windows.

  19. Screens and Displays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edstrom, Malin

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the characteristics of different computer screen technologies including the possible harmful effects on health of cathode ray tube (CRT) terminals. CRT's are compared to other technologies including liquid crystal displays, plasma displays, electroluminiscence displays, and light emitting diodes. A chart comparing the different…

  20. Early-Life Stress Affects Stress-Related Prefrontal Dopamine Activity in Healthy Adults, but Not in Individuals with Psychotic Disorder.

    PubMed

    Kasanova, Zuzana; Hernaus, Dennis; Vaessen, Thomas; van Amelsvoort, Thérèse; Winz, Oliver; Heinzel, Alexander; Pruessner, Jens; Mottaghy, Felix M; Collip, Dina; Myin-Germeys, Inez

    2016-01-01

    Early life stress may have a lasting impact on the developmental programming of the dopamine (DA) system implicated in psychosis. Early adversity could promote resilience by calibrating the prefrontal stress-regulatory dopaminergic neurotransmission to improve the individual's fit with the predicted stressful environment. Aberrant reactivity to such match between proximal and distal environments may, however, enhance psychosis disease risk. We explored the combined effects of childhood adversity and adult stress by exposing 12 unmedicated individuals with a diagnosis of non-affective psychotic disorder (NAPD) and 12 healthy controls (HC) to psychosocial stress during an [18F]fallypride positron emission tomography. Childhood trauma divided into early (ages 0-11 years) and late (12-18 years) was assessed retrospectively using a questionnaire. A significant group x childhood trauma interaction on the spatial extent of stress-related [18F]fallypride displacement was observed in the mPFC for early (b = -8.45, t(1,23) = -3.35, p = .004) and late childhood trauma (b = -7.86, t(1,23) = -2.48, p = .023). In healthy individuals, the spatial extent of mPFC DA activity under acute psychosocial stress was positively associated with the severity of early (b = 7.23, t(11) = 3.06, p = .016) as well as late childhood trauma (b = -7.86, t(1,23) = -2.48, p = .023). Additionally, a trend-level main effect of early childhood trauma on subjective stress response emerged within this group (b = -.7, t(11) = -2, p = .07), where higher early trauma correlated with lower subjective stress response to the task. In the NAPD group, childhood trauma was not associated with the spatial extent of the tracer displacement in mPFC (b = -1.22, t(11) = -0.67), nor was there a main effect of trauma on the subjective perception of stress within this group (b = .004, t(11) = .01, p = .99). These findings reveal a potential mechanism of neuroadaptation of prefrontal DA transmission to early life stress

  1. Display format and highlight validity effects on search performance using complex visual displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donner, Kimberly A.; Mckay, Tim; O'Brien, Kevin M.; Rudisill, Marianne

    1991-01-01

    Display format and highlight validity were shown to affect visual display search performance; however, these studies were conducted on small, artificial displays of alphanumeric stimuli. A study manipulating these variables was conducted using realistic, complex Space Shuttle information displays. A 2x2x3 within-subjects analysis of variance found that search times were faster for items in reformatted displays than for current displays. The significant format by highlight validity interaction showed that there was little difference in response time to both current and reformatted displays when the highlight validity was applied; however, under the non or invalid highlight conditions, search times were faster with reformatted displays. Benefits of highlighting and reformatting displays to enhance search and the necessity to consider highlight validity and format characteristics in tandem for predicting search performance are discussed.

  2. ADSA Foundation Scholar Award. Critical issues affecting the future of dairy industry: individual contributions in the scope of a global approach.

    PubMed

    Malcata, F X

    1999-08-01

    Several constraints that have been affecting the dairy industry are identified in a critical fashion, and directions are given with an emphasis on food processing implemented at the postproduction level. The rationale for modifications aimed at enhancing the appeal of condensed dairy products should be consubstantiated in strengthening of organoleptic characteristics, improvement of nutraceutical impact, and reduction of polluting power. This enumeration follows an order of increasing time scale required for consumer perception and increasing size scale associated with expected impact. Pursuance of such streamlines should lead to manufacture of dairy products that resemble nature more closely in terms of milk coagulation, milk fat modification, milk fermentation, whey fermentation, and starter culture addition. Directions for research and development anticipated as useful and effective in this endeavor, and which have been previously and consistently adopted in the development of an individual research program, are characterization and development of alternative rennets from plant sources, development of starter and nonstarter cultures from adventitious microflora, utilization of probiotic strains as starter cultures, upgrading of whey via physical or fermentation routes, and modification of milk fat via lipase-mediated interesterification reactions.

  3. A sequencing-based survey of functional APAF1 alleles in a large sample of individuals with affective illness and population controls.

    PubMed

    Amin, Zenab; Kanarek, Katarzyna; Krupitsky, Evgeny; Walderhaug, Espen; Ilomäki, Risto; Blumberg, Hilary; Price, Lawrence H; Bhagwagar, Zubin; Carpenter, Linda L; Tyrka, Audrey R; Magnusson, Andres; Landrø, Nils Inge; Zvartau, Edwin; Gelernter, Joel; Epperson, C Neill; Räsänen, Pirkko; Siironen, Jari; Lappalainen, Jaakko

    2010-01-05

    Rare apoptosis-promoting functional variants in the apoptosis protease activating factor 1 (APAF1) gene were recently reported to co-segregate with major depression in male members of families from Utah. In order to estimate the impact of these variants on risk for major depressive disorder (MDD) in the general population, we surveyed the frequency of the APAF1 putative MDD risk alleles using re-sequencing in a large sample of northern European and European-American subjects, including a large number of males with MDD. The E777K and N782T APAF1 variants previously described by Harlan et al. [Harlan et al. (2006) Mol Psychiatry 11(1):76-85] were found at low frequencies in affected individuals and population controls. The C450W and Q465R variants were not detected in any of the 632 subjects sequenced. These results show that the APAF1 variants associated with risk for MDD in the Utah pedigrees are very rare in Northern European and European-American populations. In addition, the E777K and N782T variants were found at low frequencies both in patients and population controls, suggesting that these variants have limited impact on risk for MDD.

  4. Garuda: a scalable tiled display wall using commodity PCs.

    PubMed

    Nirnimesh; Harish, Pawan; Narayanan, P J

    2007-01-01

    Cluster-based tiled display walls can provide cost-effective and scalable displays with high resolution and a large display area. The software to drive them needs to scale too if arbitrarily large displays are to be built. Chromium is a popular software API used to construct such displays. Chromium transparently renders any OpenGL application to a tiled display by partitioning and sending individual OpenGL primitives to each client per frame. Visualization applications often deal with massive geometric data with millions of primitives. Transmitting them every frame results in huge network requirements that adversely affect the scalability of the system. In this paper, we present Garuda, a client-server-based display wall framework that uses off-the-shelf hardware and a standard network. Garuda is scalable to large tile configurations and massive environments. It can transparently render any application built using the Open Scene Graph (OSG) API to a tiled display without any modification by the user. The Garuda server uses an object-based scene structure represented using a scene graph. The server determines the objects visible to each display tile using a novel adaptive algorithm that culls the scene graph to a hierarchy of frustums. Required parts of the scene graph are transmitted to the clients, which cache them to exploit the interframe redundancy. A multicast-based protocol is used to transmit the geometry to exploit the spatial redundancy present in tiled display systems. A geometry push philosophy from the server helps keep the clients in sync with one another. Neither the server nor a client needs to render the entire scene, making the system suitable for interactive rendering of massive models. Transparent rendering is achieved by intercepting the cull, draw, and swap functions of OSG and replacing them with our own. We demonstrate the performance and scalability of the Garuda system for different configurations of display wall. We also show that the

  5. Cytoplasmic bacteriophage display system

    DOEpatents

    Studier, F.W.; Rosenberg, A.H.

    1998-06-16

    Disclosed are display vectors comprising DNA encoding a portion of a structural protein from a cytoplasmic bacteriophage, joined covalently to a protein or peptide of interest. Exemplified are display vectors wherein the structural protein is the T7 bacteriophage capsid protein. More specifically, in the exemplified display vectors the C-terminal amino acid residue of the portion of the capsid protein is joined to the N-terminal residue of the protein or peptide of interest. The portion of the T7 capsid protein exemplified comprises an N-terminal portion corresponding to form 10B of the T7 capsid protein. The display vectors are useful for high copy number display or lower copy number display (with larger fusion). Compositions of the type described herein are useful in connection with methods for producing a virus displaying a protein or peptide of interest. 1 fig.

  6. Cytoplasmic bacteriophage display system

    DOEpatents

    Studier, F. William; Rosenberg, Alan H.

    1998-06-16

    Disclosed are display vectors comprising DNA encoding a portion of a structural protein from a cytoplasmic bacteriophage, joined covalently to a protein or peptide of interest. Exemplified are display vectors wherein the structural protein is the T7 bacteriophage capsid protein. More specifically, in the exemplified display vectors the C-terminal amino acid residue of the portion of the capsid protein is joined to the N-terminal residue of the protein or peptide of interest. The portion of the T7 capsid protein exemplified comprises an N-terminal portion corresponding to form 10B of the T7 capsid protein. The display vectors are useful for high copy number display or lower copy number display (with larger fusion). Compositions of the type described herein are useful in connection with methods for producing a virus displaying a protein or peptide of interest.

  7. Factors affecting variation of different measures of cheese yield and milk nutrient recovery from an individual model cheese-manufacturing process.

    PubMed

    Cipolat-Gotet, C; Cecchinato, A; De Marchi, M; Bittante, G

    2013-01-01

    procedure was used to process individual milk samples obtained from 1,167 Brown Swiss cows reared in 85 herds of the province of Trento (Italy). The assessed traits exhibited almost normal distributions, with the exception of REC(FAT). The average values (± SD) were as follows: %CY(CURD)=14.97±1.86, %CY(SOLIDS)=7.18±0.92, %CY(WATER)=7.77±1.27, dCY(CURD)=3.63±1.17, dCY(SOLIDS)=1.74±0.57, dCY(WATER)=1.88±0.63, REC(FAT)=89.79±3.55, REC(PROTEIN)=78.08±2.43, REC(SOLIDS)=51.88±3.52, and REC(ENERGY)=67.19±3.29. All traits were highly influenced by herd-test-date and days in milk of the cow, moderately influenced by parity, and weakly influenced by the utilized vat. Both %CY(CURD) and dCY(CURD) depended not only on the fat and protein (casein) contents of the milk, but also on their proportions retained in the curd; the water trapped in curd presented an higher variability than that of %CY(SOLIDS). All REC traits were variable and affected by days in milk and parity of the cows. The described model cheese-making procedure and the results obtained provided new insight into the phenotypic variation of cheese yield and recovery traits at the individual level.

  8. Adaptive plasticity of floral display size in animal-pollinated plants

    PubMed Central

    Harder, Lawrence D; Johnson, Steven D

    2005-01-01

    Plants need not participate passively in their own mating, despite their immobility and reliance on pollen vectors. Instead, plants may respond to their recent pollination experience by adjusting the number of flowers that they display simultaneously. Such responsiveness could arise from the dependence of floral display size on the longevity of individual flowers, which varies with pollination rate in many plant species. By hand-pollinating some inflorescences, but not others, we demonstrate plasticity in display size of the orchid Satyrium longicauda. Pollination induced flower wilting, but did not affect the opening of new flowers, so that within a few days pollinated inflorescences displayed fewer flowers than unpollinated inflorescences. During subsequent exposure to intensive natural pollination, pollen removal and receipt increased proportionally with increasing display size, whereas pollen-removal failure and self-pollination accelerated. Such benefit–cost relations allow plants that adjust display size in response to the prevailing pollination rate to increase their attractiveness when pollinators are rare (large displays), or to limit mating costs when pollinators are abundant (small displays). Seen from this perspective, pollination-induced flower wilting serves the entire plant by allowing it to display the number of flowers that is appropriate for the current pollination environment. PMID:16321788

  9. Virtual acoustics displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wenzel, Elizabeth M.; Fisher, Scott S.; Stone, Philip K.; Foster, Scott H.

    1991-01-01

    The real time acoustic display capabilities are described which were developed for the Virtual Environment Workstation (VIEW) Project at NASA-Ames. The acoustic display is capable of generating localized acoustic cues in real time over headphones. An auditory symbology, a related collection of representational auditory 'objects' or 'icons', can be designed using ACE (Auditory Cue Editor), which links both discrete and continuously varying acoustic parameters with information or events in the display. During a given display scenario, the symbology can be dynamically coordinated in real time with 3-D visual objects, speech, and gestural displays. The types of displays feasible with the system range from simple warnings and alarms to the acoustic representation of multidimensional data or events.

  10. Polyplanar optic display

    SciTech Connect

    Veligdan, J.; Biscardi, C.; Brewster, C.; DeSanto, L.; Beiser, L.

    1997-07-01

    The Polyplanar Optical Display (POD) is a unique display screen which can be used with any projection source. This display screen is 2 inches thick and has a matte black face which allows for high contrast images. The prototype being developed is a form, fit and functional replacement display for the B-52 aircraft which uses a monochrome ten-inch display. The new display uses a 100 milliwatt green solid state laser (532 nm) as its optical source. In order to produce real-time video, the laser light is being modulated by a Digital Light Processing (DLP{trademark}) chip manufactured by Texas Instruments, Inc. A variable astigmatic focusing system is used to produce a stigmatic image on the viewing face of the POD. In addition to the optical design, the authors discuss the electronic interfacing to the DLP{trademark} chip, the opto-mechanical design and viewing angle characteristics.

  11. Virtual acoustics displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenzel, Elizabeth M.; Fisher, Scott S.; Stone, Philip K.; Foster, Scott H.

    1991-03-01

    The real time acoustic display capabilities are described which were developed for the Virtual Environment Workstation (VIEW) Project at NASA-Ames. The acoustic display is capable of generating localized acoustic cues in real time over headphones. An auditory symbology, a related collection of representational auditory 'objects' or 'icons', can be designed using ACE (Auditory Cue Editor), which links both discrete and continuously varying acoustic parameters with information or events in the display. During a given display scenario, the symbology can be dynamically coordinated in real time with 3-D visual objects, speech, and gestural displays. The types of displays feasible with the system range from simple warnings and alarms to the acoustic representation of multidimensional data or events.

  12. Multimission helicopter cockpit displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terry, William S.; Terry, Jody K.; Lovelace, Nancy D.

    1996-05-01

    A new operator display subsystem is being incorporated as part of the next generation United States Navy (USN) helicopter avionics system to be integrated into the multi-mission helicopter (MMH) that replaces both the SH-60B and the SH-60F in 2001. This subsystem exploits state-of-the-art technology for the display hardware, the display driver hardware, information presentation methodologies, and software architecture. Both of the existing SH-60 helicopter display systems are based on monochrome CRT technology; a key feature of the MMH cockpit is the integration of color AMLCD multifunction displays. The MMH program is one of the first military programs to use modified commercial AMLCD elements in a tactical aircraft. This paper presents the general configuration of the MMH cockpit and multifunction display subsystem and discusses the approach taken for presenting helicopter flight information to the pilots as well as presentation of mission sensor data for use by the copilot.

  13. Paperlike thermochromic display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Liyu; Peng, Suili; Wen, Weijia; Sheng, Ping

    2007-05-01

    The authors report the design and implementation of a paperlike, thermally activated display fabricated from thermochromic composite and embedded conductive wiring patterns, shaped from mixture of metallic nanoparticles in polydimethylsioxane using soft lithography. The display exhibits good image quality and ease of control. Use of electric heating pulses is shown to reduce energy consumption while improving image quality control. The display has excellent mechanical bending flexibility.

  14. Display innovations through glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, Lori L.

    2016-03-01

    Prevailing trends in thin, lightweight, high-resolution, and added functionality, such as touch sensing, continue to drive innovation in the display market. While display volumes grow, so do consumers’ need for portability, enhanced optical performance, and mechanical reliability. Technical advancements in glass design and process have enabled display innovations in these areas while supporting industry growth. Opportunities for further innovation remain open for glass manufacturers to drive new applications, enhanced functionality, and increased demand.

  15. Affective Functioning among Early Adolescents at High and Low Familial Risk for Depression and Their Mothers: A Focus on Individual and Transactional Processes across Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMakin, Dana L.; Burkhouse, Katie L.; Olino, Thomas M.; Siegle, Greg J.; Dahl, Ronald E.; Silk, Jennifer S.

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to characterize affective functioning in families of youth at high familial risk for depression, with particular attention to features of affective functioning that appear to be critical to adaptive functioning but have been underrepresented in prior research including: positive "and" negative affect across multiple contexts,…

  16. JAVA Stereo Display Toolkit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edmonds, Karina

    2008-01-01

    This toolkit provides a common interface for displaying graphical user interface (GUI) components in stereo using either specialized stereo display hardware (e.g., liquid crystal shutter or polarized glasses) or anaglyph display (red/blue glasses) on standard workstation displays. An application using this toolkit will work without modification in either environment, allowing stereo software to reach a wider audience without sacrificing high-quality display on dedicated hardware. The toolkit is written in Java for use with the Swing GUI Toolkit and has cross-platform compatibility. It hooks into the graphics system, allowing any standard Swing component to be displayed in stereo. It uses the OpenGL graphics library to control the stereo hardware and to perform the rendering. It also supports anaglyph and special stereo hardware using the same API (application-program interface), and has the ability to simulate color stereo in anaglyph mode by combining the red band of the left image with the green/blue bands of the right image. This is a low-level toolkit that accomplishes simply the display of components (including the JadeDisplay image display component). It does not include higher-level functions such as disparity adjustment, 3D cursor, or overlays all of which can be built using this toolkit.

  17. PROGRAMMABLE DISPLAY PUSHBUTTON LEGEND EDITOR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Busquets, A. M.

    1994-01-01

    The Programmable Display Pushbutton (PDP) is a pushbutton device available from Micro Switch which has a programmable 16 x 35 matrix of LEDs on the pushbutton surface. Any desired legends can be displayed on the PDPs, producing user-friendly applications which greatly reduce the need for dedicated manual controls. Because the PDP can interact with the operator, it can call for the correct response before transmitting its next message. It is both a simple manual control and a sophisticated programmable link between the operator and the host system. The Programmable Display Pushbutton Legend Editor, PDPE, is used to create the LED displays for the pushbuttons. PDPE encodes PDP control commands and legend data into message byte strings sent to a Logic Refresh and Control Unit (LRCU). The LRCU serves as the driver for a set of four PDPs. The legend editor (PDPE) transmits to the LRCU user specified commands that control what is displayed on the LED face of the individual pushbuttons. Upon receiving a command, the LRCU transmits an acknowledgement that the message was received and executed successfully. The user then observes the effect of the command on the PDP displays and decides whether or not to send the byte code of the message to a data file so that it may be called by an applications program. The PDPE program is written in FORTRAN for interactive execution. It was developed on a DEC VAX 11/780 under VMS. It has a central memory requirement of approximately 12800 bytes. It requires four Micro Switch PDPs and two RS-232 VAX 11/780 terminal ports. The PDPE program was developed in 1985.

  18. A Comparative Study of Control and Display Design Principles Which Affect Efficient Use of Communication Aids by the Severely Physically Disabled. Final Report, September 15, 1981-October 15, 1982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeBlanc, Maurice A.; Barker, Margaret R.

    A research study was conducted to investigate a control and display system for use with communication aids by physically disabled persons. A modification of a row/column scanning system was investigated to increase speed and accuracy of access to the communication system by six children with athetoid cerebral palsy. Four systems were compared:…

  19. Display depth analyses with the wave aberration for the auto-stereoscopic 3D display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xin; Sang, Xinzhu; Yu, Xunbo; Chen, Duo; Chen, Zhidong; Zhang, Wanlu; Yan, Binbin; Yuan, Jinhui; Wang, Kuiru; Yu, Chongxiu; Dou, Wenhua; Xiao, Liquan

    2016-07-01

    Because the aberration severely affects the display performances of the auto-stereoscopic 3D display, the diffraction theory is used to analyze the diffraction field distribution and the display depth through aberration analysis. Based on the proposed method, the display depth of central and marginal reconstructed images is discussed. The experimental results agree with the theoretical analyses. Increasing the viewing distance or decreasing the lens aperture can improve the display depth. Different viewing distances and the LCD with two lens-arrays are used to verify the conclusion.

  20. Vibratory tactile display for textures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ikei, Yasushi; Ikeno, Akihisa; Fukuda, Shuichi

    1994-01-01

    We have developed a tactile display that produces vibratory stimulus to a fingertip in contact with a vibrating tactor matrix. The display depicts tactile surface textures while the user is exploring a virtual object surface. A piezoelectric actuator drives the individual tactor in accordance with both the finger movement and the surface texture being traced. Spatiotemporal display control schemes were examined for presenting the fundamental surface texture elements. The temporal duration of vibratory stimulus was experimentally optimized to simulate the adaptation process of cutaneous sensation. The selected duration time for presenting a single line edge agreed with the time threshold of tactile sensation. Then spatial stimulus disposition schemes were discussed for representation of other edge shapes. As an alternative means not relying on amplitude control, a method of augmented duration at the edge was investigated. Spatial resolution of the display was measured for the lines presented both in perpendicular and parallel to a finger axis. Discrimination of texture density was also measured on random dot textures.

  1. Split image optical display

    DOEpatents

    Veligdan, James T.

    2005-05-31

    A video image is displayed from an optical panel by splitting the image into a plurality of image components, and then projecting the image components through corresponding portions of the panel to collectively form the image. Depth of the display is correspondingly reduced.

  2. Split image optical display

    DOEpatents

    Veligdan, James T.

    2007-05-29

    A video image is displayed from an optical panel by splitting the image into a plurality of image components, and then projecting the image components through corresponding portions of the panel to collectively form the image. Depth of the display is correspondingly reduced.

  3. Displays in space.

    PubMed

    Colford, Nicholas

    2002-04-01

    This chapter describes the human and environmental factors that dictate the way that displays must be designed for, and used in space. A brief history of the evolution of such display systems covers developments from the Mercury rockets to the International Space Station.

  4. Display and Presentation Boards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Midgley, Thomas Keith

    The use of display and presentation boards as tools to help teachers/trainers convey messages more clearly is briefly discussed, and 24 different types of display and presentation boards are described and illustrated; i.e., chalk, paste-up, hook-n-loop, electric, flannel, scroll, communication planning, acetate pocket, slot, pin-tack, preview,…

  5. Polyplanar optical display electronics

    SciTech Connect

    DeSanto, L.; Biscardi, C.

    1997-07-01

    The Polyplanar Optical Display (POD) is a unique display screen which can be used with any projection source. The prototype ten inch display is two inches thick and has a matte black face which allows for high contrast images. The prototype being developed is a form, fit and functional replacement display for the B-52 aircraft which uses a monochrome ten-inch display. In order to achieve a long lifetime, the new display uses a 100 milliwatt green solid-state laser (10,000 hr. life) at 532 nm as its light source. To produce real-time video, the laser light is being modulated by a Digital Light Processing (DLP{trademark}) chip manufactured by Texas Instruments. In order to use the solid-state laser as the light source and also fit within the constraints of the B-52 display, the Digital Micromirror Device (DMD{trademark}) circuit board is removed from the Texas Instruments DLP light engine assembly. Due to the compact architecture of the projection system within the display chassis, the DMD{trademark} chip is operated remotely from the Texas Instruments circuit board. The authors discuss the operation of the DMD{trademark} divorced from the light engine and the interfacing of the DMD{trademark} board with various video formats (CVBS, Y/C or S-video and RGB) including the format specific to the B-52 aircraft. A brief discussion of the electronics required to drive the laser is also presented.

  6. Spatial pattern formation of microbes at the soil microscale affect soil C and N turnover in an individual-based microbial community model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, Christina; Evans, Sarah; Dieckmann, Ulf; Widder, Stefanie

    2016-04-01

    At the μm-scale, soil is a highly structured and complex environment, both in physical as well as in biological terms, characterized by non-linear interactions between microbes, substrates and minerals. As known from mathematics and theoretical ecology, spatial structure significantly affects the system's behaviour by enabling synergistic dynamics, facilitating diversity, and leading to emergent phenomena such as self-organisation and self-regulation. Such phenomena, however, are rarely considered when investigating mechanisms of microbial soil organic matter turnover. Soil organic matter is the largest terrestrial reservoir for organic carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) and plays a pivotal role in global biogeochemical cycles. Still, the underlying mechanisms of microbial soil organic matter buildup and turnover remain elusive. We explored mechanisms of microbial soil organic matter turnover using an individual-based, stoichiometrically and spatially explicit computer model, which simulates the microbial de-composer system at the soil microscale (i.e. on a grid of 100 x 100 soil microsites). Soil organic matter dynamics in our model emerge as the result of interactions among individual microbes with certain functional traits (f.e. enzyme production rates, growth rates, cell stoichiometry) at the microscale. By degrading complex substrates, and releasing labile substances microbes in our model continusly shape their environment, which in turn feeds back to spatiotemporal dynamics of the microbial community. In order to test the effect of microbial functional traits and organic matter input rate on soil organic matter turnover and C and N storage, we ran the model into steady state using continuous inputs of fresh organic material. Surprisingly, certain parameter settings that induce resource limitation of microbes lead to regular spatial pattern formation (f.e. moving spiral waves) of microbes and substrate at the μm-scale at steady-state. The occurrence of these

  7. Displays of the honeyeater Manorina melanocephala.

    PubMed

    Dow, D D

    1975-08-01

    Investigated displays of Noisy Miners, Manorina melanocephala, in Australia. This unusual bird lives in colonies and many male male care for the offspring of each female. 3 flight displays, 11 non-flight displays, and several components of facial displays (including a variable eye patch) are discribed. The eye patch provides a large yellow and black augmented eye, important in intimidation. No stereotyped sequence of courtship behaviour precedes copulation. Displays are used to advertise nest locations. A greeting display, the corroboree, is extremely common. The possibility of the evolution of submissive display from threat is discussed. Special vocalisations of male male and female female are used in a duet. The maintenance of bonds among many individuals in a colony may be more important than strong pair bonds. Group cohesion is probably maintained by flight display, nest display, mobbing, and other communal activities. High interspecific aggression results in few resident species in colonies. This level of interspecific aggression might be maintained by incorporating much intraspecific mimetic display and ritualised submissive behaviour.

  8. System status display evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, Leland G.

    1988-01-01

    The System Status Display is an electronic display system which provides the crew with an enhanced capability for monitoring and managing the aircraft systems. A flight simulation in a fixed base cockpit simulator was used to evaluate alternative design concepts for this display system. The alternative concepts included pictorial versus alphanumeric text formats, multifunction versus dedicated controls, and integration of the procedures with the system status information versus paper checklists. Twelve pilots manually flew approach patterns with the different concepts. System malfunctions occurred which required the pilots to respond to the alert by reconfiguring the system. The pictorial display, the multifunction control interfaces collocated with the system display, and the procedures integrated with the status information all had shorter event processing times and lower subjective workloads.

  9. Defense display market assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desjardins, Daniel D.; Hopper, Darrel G.

    1998-09-01

    This paper addresses the number, function and size of principal military displays and establishes a basis to determine the opportunities for technology insertion in the immediate future and into the next millennium. Principal military displays are defined as those occupying appreciable crewstation real-estate and/or those without which the platform could not carry out its intended mission. DoD 'office' applications are excluded from this study. The military displays market is specified by such parameters as active area and footprint size, and other characteristics such as luminance, gray scale, resolution, angle, color, video capability, and night vision imaging system (NVIS) compatibility. Funded, future acquisitions, planned and predicted crewstation modification kits, and form-fit upgrades are taken into account. This paper provides an overview of the DoD niche market, allowing both government and industry a necessary reference by which to meet DoD requirements for military displays in a timely and cost-effective manner. The aggregate DoD market for direct-view and large-area military displays is presently estimated to be in excess of 242,000. Miniature displays are those which must be magnified to be viewed, involve a significantly different manufacturing paradigm and are used in helmet mounted displays and thermal weapon sight applications. Some 114,000 miniature displays are presently included within Service weapon system acquisition plans. For vendor production planning purposes it is noted that foreign military sales could substantially increase these quantities. The vanishing vendor syndrome (VVS) for older display technologies continues to be a growing, pervasive problem throughout DoD, which consequently must leverage the more modern display technologies being developed for civil- commercial markets.

  10. Gene variation in IL-7 receptor (IL-7R)α affects IL-7R response in CD4+ T cells in HIV-infected individuals.

    PubMed

    Hartling, Hans Jakob; Ryder, Lars P; Ullum, Henrik; Ødum, Niels; Nielsen, Susanne Dam

    2017-02-09

    Optimal CD4+ T cell recovery after initiating combination antiretroviral treatment (cART) in HIV infection reduces risk of morbidity and mortality. T-allele homozygosity ('TT') in the single nucleotide polymorphism, rs6897932(C/T), in the IL-7 receptor α (IL-7RA) is associated with faster CD4+ T cell recovery after cART initiation compared to C-allele homozygosity in rs6897932 ('CC'). However, underlying mechanisms are unknown. We aimed to examine potential mechanisms explaining the association between rs6897932 and CD4+ T cell recovery. Ten 'TT' and 10 'CC' HIV-infected individuals matched on gender, age, and nadir and current CD4+ T cell counts were included in a cross-sectional study. 'TT' individuals had higher proportion of CD4+ T cells expressing pSTAT5 compared to 'CC' individuals after stimulating with IL-7, especially when co-stimulated with soluble IL7-RA (sIL-7RA). Furthermore, 'TT' individuals had a higher proportion of proliferating CD4+ T cells after 7 days of culture with IL-7 + sIL-7RA compared to 'CC' individuals. No differences between 'TT' and 'CC' in binding of biotinylated IL-7 were found. In conclusion, increased signal transduction and proliferation in response to IL-7 was found in 'TT' compared to 'CC' HIV-infected individuals providing a mechanistic explanation of the effect of rs6897932 T-allele on CD4+ T cell recovery in HIV infection.

  11. Map display design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aretz, Anthony J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents a cognitive model of a pilot's navigation task and describes an experiment comparing a visual momentum map display to the traditional track-up and north-up approaches. The data show the advantage to a track-up map is its congruence with the ego-centered forward view; however, the development of survey knowledge is hindered by the inconsistency of the rotating display. The stable alignment of a north-up map aids the acquisition of survey knowledge, but there is a cost associated with the mental rotation of the display to a track-up alignment for ego-centered tasks. The results also show that visual momentum can be used to reduce the mental rotation costs of a north-up display.

  12. Gardens on Display.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinheimer, Margaret

    1998-01-01

    Discusses display gardens and their development by students. Presents guidelines for construction and size consideration and describes details of an outdoor garden, volcanic garden, and shoe box dioramas. (DDR)

  13. Military display performance parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desjardins, Daniel D.; Meyer, Frederick

    2012-06-01

    The military display market is analyzed in terms of four of its segments: avionics, vetronics, dismounted soldier, and command and control. Requirements are summarized for a number of technology-driving parameters, to include luminance, night vision imaging system compatibility, gray levels, resolution, dimming range, viewing angle, video capability, altitude, temperature, shock and vibration, etc., for direct-view and virtual-view displays in cockpits and crew stations. Technical specifications are discussed for selected programs.

  14. Liquid Crystal Airborne Display

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-08-01

    81/2X 11- 10 -9 .8 display using a large advertising alphanimeric ( TCI ) has been added to the front of the optical box used in the F-4 aircraft for HUD...properties over a wide range of tempera - tures, including normal room temperature. What are Liquid Crystals? Liquid crystals have been classified in three...natic fanctions and to present data needed for the semi- automatic and manual control of system functions. Existing aircraft using CRT display

  15. Gene variation in IL-7 receptor (IL-7R)α affects IL-7R response in CD4+ T cells in HIV-infected individuals

    PubMed Central

    Hartling, Hans Jakob; Ryder, Lars P.; Ullum, Henrik; Ødum, Niels; Nielsen, Susanne Dam

    2017-01-01

    Optimal CD4+ T cell recovery after initiating combination antiretroviral treatment (cART) in HIV infection reduces risk of morbidity and mortality. T-allele homozygosity (‘TT’) in the single nucleotide polymorphism, rs6897932(C/T), in the IL-7 receptor α (IL-7RA) is associated with faster CD4+ T cell recovery after cART initiation compared to C-allele homozygosity in rs6897932 (‘CC’). However, underlying mechanisms are unknown. We aimed to examine potential mechanisms explaining the association between rs6897932 and CD4+ T cell recovery. Ten ‘TT’ and 10 ‘CC’ HIV-infected individuals matched on gender, age, and nadir and current CD4+ T cell counts were included in a cross-sectional study. ‘TT’ individuals had higher proportion of CD4+ T cells expressing pSTAT5 compared to ‘CC’ individuals after stimulating with IL-7, especially when co-stimulated with soluble IL7-RA (sIL-7RA). Furthermore, ‘TT’ individuals had a higher proportion of proliferating CD4+ T cells after 7 days of culture with IL-7 + sIL-7RA compared to ‘CC’ individuals. No differences between ‘TT’ and ‘CC’ in binding of biotinylated IL-7 were found. In conclusion, increased signal transduction and proliferation in response to IL-7 was found in ‘TT’ compared to ‘CC’ HIV-infected individuals providing a mechanistic explanation of the effect of rs6897932 T-allele on CD4+ T cell recovery in HIV infection. PMID:28181541

  16. Impact of attention biases to threat and effortful control on individual variations in negative affect and social withdrawal in very young children.

    PubMed

    Cole, Claire E; Zapp, Daniel J; Fettig, Nicole B; Pérez-Edgar, Koraly

    2016-01-01

    Early temperamental sensitivity may form the basis for the later development of socioemotional maladjustment. In particular, temperamental negative affect places children at risk for the development of anxiety. However, not all children who show negative affect go on to develop anxiety or extreme social withdrawal. Recent research indicates that reactive control, in the form of attention to threat, may serve as a bridge between early temperament and the development of later social difficulties. In addition, variation in effortful control may also modulate this trajectory. Children (mean age=5.57 years) were assessed for attention bias to threatening and pleasant faces using a dot-probe paradigm. Attention bias to threatening (but not happy) faces moderated the direct positive relation between negative affect and social withdrawal. Children with threat biases showed a significant link between negative affect and social withdrawal, whereas children who avoided threat did not. In contrast, effortful control did not moderate the relation between negative affect and social withdrawal. Rather, there was a direct negative relation between effortful control and social withdrawal. The findings from this short report indicate that the relations among temperament, attention bias, and social withdrawal appears early in life and point to early emerging specificity in reactive and regulatory functioning.

  17. Color Breakup In Sequentially-Scanned LC Displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arend, L.; Lubin, J.; Gille, J.; Larimer, J.; Statler, Irving C. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    In sequentially-scanned liquid-crystal displays the chromatic components of color pixels are distributed in time. For such displays eye, head, display, and image-object movements can cause the individual color elements to be visible. We analyze conditions (scan designs, types of eye movement) likely to produce color breakup.

  18. Modeling of Individual and Organizational Factors Affecting Traumatic Occupational Injuries Based on the Structural Equation Modeling: A Case Study in Large Construction Industries

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadfam, Iraj; Soltanzadeh, Ahmad; Moghimbeigi, Abbas; Akbarzadeh, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Background Individual and organizational factors are the factors influencing traumatic occupational injuries. Objectives The aim of the present study was the short path analysis of the severity of occupational injuries based on individual and organizational factors. Materials and Methods The present cross-sectional analytical study was implemented on traumatic occupational injuries within a ten-year timeframe in 13 large Iranian construction industries. Modeling and data analysis were done using the structural equation modeling (SEM) approach and the IBM SPSS AMOS statistical software version 22.0, respectively. Results The mean age and working experience of the injured workers were 28.03 ± 5.33 and 4.53 ± 3.82 years, respectively. The portions of construction and installation activities of traumatic occupational injuries were 64.4% and 18.1%, respectively. The SEM findings showed that the individual, organizational and accident type factors significantly were considered as effective factors on occupational injuries’ severity (P < 0.05). Conclusions Path analysis of occupational injuries based on the SEM reveals that individual and organizational factors and their indicator variables are very influential on the severity of traumatic occupational injuries. So, these should be considered to reduce occupational accidents’ severity in large construction industries. PMID:27800465

  19. Dynamic plasmonic colour display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Xiaoyang; Kamin, Simon; Liu, Na

    2017-02-01

    Plasmonic colour printing based on engineered metasurfaces has revolutionized colour display science due to its unprecedented subwavelength resolution and high-density optical data storage. However, advanced plasmonic displays with novel functionalities including dynamic multicolour printing, animations, and highly secure encryption have remained in their infancy. Here we demonstrate a dynamic plasmonic colour display technique that enables all the aforementioned functionalities using catalytic magnesium metasurfaces. Controlled hydrogenation and dehydrogenation of the constituent magnesium nanoparticles, which serve as dynamic pixels, allow for plasmonic colour printing, tuning, erasing and restoration of colour. Different dynamic pixels feature distinct colour transformation kinetics, enabling plasmonic animations. Through smart material processing, information encoded on selected pixels, which are indiscernible to both optical and scanning electron microscopies, can only be read out using hydrogen as a decoding key, suggesting a new generation of information encryption and anti-counterfeiting applications.

  20. Dynamic plasmonic colour display

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Xiaoyang; Kamin, Simon; Liu, Na

    2017-01-01

    Plasmonic colour printing based on engineered metasurfaces has revolutionized colour display science due to its unprecedented subwavelength resolution and high-density optical data storage. However, advanced plasmonic displays with novel functionalities including dynamic multicolour printing, animations, and highly secure encryption have remained in their infancy. Here we demonstrate a dynamic plasmonic colour display technique that enables all the aforementioned functionalities using catalytic magnesium metasurfaces. Controlled hydrogenation and dehydrogenation of the constituent magnesium nanoparticles, which serve as dynamic pixels, allow for plasmonic colour printing, tuning, erasing and restoration of colour. Different dynamic pixels feature distinct colour transformation kinetics, enabling plasmonic animations. Through smart material processing, information encoded on selected pixels, which are indiscernible to both optical and scanning electron microscopies, can only be read out using hydrogen as a decoding key, suggesting a new generation of information encryption and anti-counterfeiting applications. PMID:28232722

  1. Stereo Painting Display Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafer, David

    1982-06-01

    The Spanish Surrealist artist Salvador Dali has recently perfected the art of producing two paintings which are stereo pairs. Each painting is separately quite remarkable, presenting a subject with the vivid realism and clarity for which Dali is famous. Due to the surrealistic themes of Dali's art, however, the subjects preser.ted with such naturalism only exist in his imagination. Despite this considerable obstacle to producing stereo art, Dali has managed to paint stereo pairs that display subtle differences of coloring and lighting, in addition to the essential perspective differences. These stereo paintings require a display method that will allow the viewer to experience stereo fusion, but which will not degrade the high quality of the art work. This paper gives a review of several display methods that seem promising in terms of economy, size, adjustability, and image quality.

  2. Viewing angle changeable display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leng, Jinbi; Huang, Ziqiang; Yang, Wenjun; Chen, Xiaoxi

    2010-10-01

    Viewing angle changeable display can change the display viewing angle as needed: In the public place the display could have a narrow viewing angle for privacy, while in the private place the displays could have a wide viewing angle for the convenience of the operation and better viewing experience. This article propose a novel adjustable optical transmission device to realize the viewing angle changes for LCD by using the principle of guest- host effect of liquid crystal. The major technology is to insert a special equipment between the backlight and the LCD, through which the backlight will display either parallel or scattered features to get an either narrow or wide viewing angle. The equipment is an adjustable transmission cell (ATC) which is actually a black G-H LC cell. This ATC is the main focus of our invention. The ATC consists of a polarizer sheet and a special guest-host liquid crystal device filled with the two-phase dye (called as GH-LC in this report), to achieve the viewing angle change in the LCD. When an electrical field charges to the ATC, only the so-called near-axis lights can pass through the ATC within a relatively small angle, while the other scattered lights are absorbed sequentially by GH-LC and the polarizer sheet. On the other hand, when there is no electrical charge to the ATC, the cell behaves like a normal polarizer; and the scattered light can pass through the cell and polarizer in a normal way. This paper describes the principle and structure of the device, applies the electric field on the sample to observe the electro-optical properties, combine the theoretical and experimental research, getting the viewing angle effects of the display.

  3. Military display market: fourth comprehensive edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desjardins, Daniel D.; Hopper, Darrel G.; Marasco, Peter L.; Byrd, James C.; Neubauer, Jon

    2006-05-01

    The military display market is analyzed in terms of all fully electronic and many electro-mechanical displays used on combat platforms across all DoD Services. The military market for displays is defined by parameters such as active area, bezel-to-bezel measurement and technology. Other characteristics such as luminance, contrast ratio, gray levels, resolution, viewing angle, color, video capability, and night vision imaging system compatibility are noted. This study takes into account all displays that are either installed or funded for installation. In some few cases, it also includes planned displays. Display sizes having aggregate defense applications of 5,000 units or greater and having DoD applications across 10 or more platform fleets, are tabulated. The issue of size commonality is addressed where distribution of active area across platform fleets, individually, in groups of two through nine, and ten or more, is illustrated. Military displays are also analyzed by technology, where total quantities of such displays are broken out into CRT, LCD, AMLCD, EM, LED, Incandescent, Plasma and TFEL percentages. Custom, versus Ruggedized Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (RCOTS), versus Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) designs are contrasted. High and low information content designs are identified. Displays for several high-profile military programs are discussed, to include both technical specifications and program history. Our defense-wide study as of February 2006 has documented 1,195 direct-view and 15 virtualview display sizes across 628 weapon system platforms for a total of 1,161,977 displays.

  4. Human Factors In The Design Of Video Displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, Mary K.; Proffitt, Dennis R.

    1990-01-01

    Good designs take account of perceptual tendencies and conceptual biases in observers. Report presents overview of evolving knowledge of interactions between video displays and human observers. Discusses relative advantages and disadvantages of static and dynamic displays, with attention to human factors combining with characteristics of video-display medium to affect observer's percepts.

  5. Thin display optical projector

    DOEpatents

    Veligdan, James T.

    1999-01-01

    An optical system (20) projects light into a planar optical display (10). The display includes laminated optical waveguides (12) defining an inlet face (14) at one end and an outlet screen (16) at an opposite end. A first mirror (26) collimates light from a light source (18) along a first axis, and distributes the light along a second axis. A second mirror (28) collimates the light from the first mirror along the second axis to illuminate the inlet face and produce an image on the screen.

  6. Integrated display scanner

    DOEpatents

    Veligdan, James T.

    2004-12-21

    A display scanner includes an optical panel having a plurality of stacked optical waveguides. The waveguides define an inlet face at one end and a screen at an opposite end, with each waveguide having a core laminated between cladding. A projector projects a scan beam of light into the panel inlet face for transmission from the screen as a scan line to scan a barcode. A light sensor at the inlet face detects a return beam reflected from the barcode into the screen. A decoder decodes the return beam detected by the sensor for reading the barcode. In an exemplary embodiment, the optical panel also displays a visual image thereon.

  7. Universal electronic stereoscopic display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipton, Lenny; Halnon, Jeff

    1996-04-01

    SimulEYES VRTM, a new product for mass consumer electro-stereoscopic displays, is described. The system uses a unique indexing approach to allow content providers latitude in choosing the display mode. Board and PC manufacturers may also take advantage of the elegance of the solution by building in the SimulEYES VR capability. Hardware components consist, in part, of two custom chips which may be integrated at the board level, or employed in a VGA port dongle and control box. The liquid crystal shuttering eyewear is of a unique ergonomic design which is comfortable for people of all ages and most facial types, even when wearing eyeglasses.

  8. Pollination biology and the impact of floral display, pollen donors, and distyly on seed production in Arcytophyllum lavarum (Rubiaceae).

    PubMed

    García-Robledo, C; Mora, F

    2007-07-01

    In animal-pollinated plants, two factors affecting pollen flow and seed production are changes in floral display and the availability of compatible mates. Changes in floral display may affect the number of pollinator visits and the availability of compatible mates will affect the probability of legitimate pollination and seed production. Distyly is a floral polymorphism where long-styled (pin) and short-styled (thrum) floral morphs occur among different individuals. Distylous plants frequently exhibit self and intra-morph incompatibility. Therefore changes in morph abundance directly affect the arrival of compatible pollen to the stigmas. Floral morph by itself may also affect female reproductive success because floral morphs may display differences in seed production. We explored the effects of floral display, availability of neighboring compatible mates, and floral morph on seed production in the distylous herb ARCYTOPHYLLUM LAVARUM. We found that floral display does not affect the mean number of seeds produced per flower. There is also no effect of the proportion of neighboring legitimate pollen donors on seed production in pin or thrum flowers. However, floral morphs differed in their female reproductive success and the thrum morph produced more seeds. Hand pollination experiments suggest that differences in seed production between morphs are the result of pollen limitation. Future research will elucidate if the higher seed production in thrum flowers is a consequence of higher availability of pollen donors in the population, or higher efficiency of the pin morph as pollen donor.

  9. Examination of Variables That May Affect the Relationship Between Cognition and Functional Status in Individuals with Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Mcalister, Courtney; Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen; Lamb, Richard

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this meta-analysis was to improve understanding of the heterogeneity in the relationship between cognition and functional status in individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Demographic, clinical, and methodological moderators were examined. Cognition explained an average of 23% of the variance in functional outcomes. Executive function measures explained the largest amount of variance (37%), whereas global cognitive status and processing speed measures explained the least (20%). Short- and long-delayed memory measures accounted for more variance (35% and 31%) than immediate memory measures (18%), and the relationship between cognition and functional outcomes was stronger when assessed with informant-report (28%) compared with self-report (21%). Demographics, sample characteristics, and type of everyday functioning measures (i.e., questionnaire, performance-based) explained relatively little variance compared with cognition. Executive functioning, particularly measured by Trails B, was a strong predictor of everyday functioning in individuals with MCI. A large proportion of variance remained unexplained by cognition.

  10. Virtual Auditory Displays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-01

    timbre , intensity, distance, room modeling, radio communication Virtual Environments Handbook Chapter 4 Virtual Auditory Displays Russell D... musical note “A” as a pure sinusoid, there will be 440 condensations and rarefactions per second. The distance between two adjacent condensations or...and complexity are pitch, loudness, and timbre respectively. This distinction between physical and perceptual measures of sound properties is an

  11. Refreshing Refreshable Braille Displays.

    PubMed

    Russomanno, Alexander; O'Modhrain, Sile; Gillespie, R Brent; Rodger, Matthew W M

    2015-01-01

    The increased access to books afforded to blind people via e-publishing has given them long-sought independence for both recreational and educational reading. In most cases, blind readers access materials using speech output. For some content such as highly technical texts, music, and graphics, speech is not an appropriate access modality as it does not promote deep understanding. Therefore blind braille readers often prefer electronic braille displays. But, these are prohibitively expensive. The search is on, therefore, for a low-cost refreshable display that would go beyond current technologies and deliver graphical content as well as text. And many solutions have been proposed, some of which reduce costs by restricting the number of characters that can be displayed, even down to a single braille cell. In this paper, we demonstrate that restricting tactile cues during braille reading leads to poorer performance in a letter recognition task. In particular, we show that lack of sliding contact between the fingertip and the braille reading surface results in more errors and that the number of errors increases as a function of presentation speed. These findings suggest that single cell displays which do not incorporate sliding contact are likely to be less effective for braille reading.

  12. Ferroelectric liquid crystal display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    York, Paul K. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A ferroelectric liquid crystal display device employs capacitance spoiling layers to minimize unneeded capacitances created by crossovers of X and Y address lines and to accurately define desired capacitances. The spoiler layers comprise low dielectric constant layers which space electrodes from the ferroelectric at crossover points where capacitance is not needed for device operation.

  13. A Plasma Display Terminal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stifle, Jack

    A graphics terminal designed for use as a remote computer input/output terminal is described. Although the terminal is intended for use in teaching applications, it has several features which make it useful in many other computer terminal applications. These features include: a 10-inch square plasma display panel, permanent storage of information…

  14. Color Display Design Guide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-10-01

    22 . 20 - MEAN/ALL COLORS/*. .. %.’ 18 -.-. YELLOW u- 16 . . RED /- ........ WHITE ൖ /- MAGENTA -,f 12 - / / CYAN ’"’- 10 /GREEN BLUE C= Ś S• l I I...Hawaii Laboratory P.O. Box 997 Kailua, Hawaii 96734 Attn: Dr. Ross L. Pepper Department of Psychology Panel Displays Incorporated Vanderbilt University

  15. Digital Holography Display (2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Cheok Peng; Asundi, A.; Yu, Yang; Xiao, Zhen Zhong

    This paper describes the extension work from the last Digital Holography Projector System. From the developed works shows that, some unforeseen factors have created the difficulties for the system alignment. Such factors are the DMD frame rate, light source and diffractive zero order. It is really the challenging development works to achieve the virtual 3D model display on the high speed rotation screen. The three most key factors are emphasizing: 1) The display device's frame rate; 2) The light source orientation angle; and 3) The zero order filtering optic. 1) This device's is the digital micro mirror, in short is DMD. It is the high speed switching device has developed by the most recent technology. The switching frame rate can go up as high as 291fps. At first, the 8 bits depth file must be digitalized and stored for DMD onboard Ram. The digitalized data are transmitting from the PC USB to DMD onboard Ram. Instead of the data are downloading directly from the PC to DVI or VGA during display, this downloading method cause slower down the display speed, which is the common frame rate of 30 Hz. Next, the onboard Ram data then transfer to the DMD mirror's for display, at the 8 bits 291 fps speed. At this frame rate, the display 2D image can almost cover for 10 of out of the 360 0 in 1 revolution. 2) This laser light source must be installed such that free for orientated in any arbitrary angle from 220 to 450. Which is normalized to the DMD mirrors and the brief sketch show on figure (a). The purpose of orientated the light source is ensure that multi diffractive order would be reflected straight from the mirrors. (This multi diffractive order is the phenomenon of the digital micro mirror's characteristic). This mean, the reconstruct images would be followed the DMD normalized direction reflected up to fibre conduit. Moreover, this orientated method install of the laser light source is making space for other optical lenses or device driver/controller. Because, all

  16. Significance of Theileria orientalis types in individual affected beef herds in New South Wales based on clinical, smear and PCR findings.

    PubMed

    Eamens, Graeme J; Bailey, Graham; Jenkins, Cheryl; Gonsalves, Jocelyn R

    2013-09-01

    Cattle within seven NSW herds with a history or risk of clinical Theileria orientalis disease associated with introductions of cattle were examined clinically and by haematological and PCR testing at sequential bleeds or at single sampling of different risk subgroups. The T. orientalis Ikeda type was detected in all herds and Chitose type was detected in six. Pale and jaundiced mucosal surfaces were associated with clinically affected groups of cattle, and herds containing cattle with ≥ 1% theilerias in erythrocytes were associated with high prevalence of Ikeda type, with or without Chitose type. In clinically normal cattle within these Ikeda-affected herds, over half of the smear negative animals were detected as infected with Ikeda type, while 90% of smear positive cases were positive for Ikeda type. Infection with Ikeda and Chitose organisms was detected in calves as young as 1-2 weeks, rapidly increased in prevalence within one month and was maintained until 4.5 months of age. In these calves Ikeda prevalence increased at a faster rate than the other MPSP types, particularly Buffeli which is generally considered to be avirulent, and suggests either an increased growth rate or rate of transmission of the Ikeda type or failure of the host immune system to clear this type. Particularly high T. orientalis prevalence rates were detected (in blood samples from a single time point) in adults that had been in direct contact with weaner cattle introduced from coastal areas; however, the lack of direct contact with affected cattle did not prevent infection with Ikeda type in some cases. Spread within previously naïve herds was variable, and results also depended on the sampling time point. In contrast, groups in which infection was already established gave repeatedly similar results at multiple samplings taken at one month intervals. Our results confirm that a large reservoir of infected but clinically normal animals exists within T. orientalis-affected cattle herds

  17. Examination of Variables That May Affect the Relationship Between Cognition and Functional Status in Individuals with Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mcalister, Courtney; Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen; Lamb, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this meta-analysis was to improve understanding of the heterogeneity in the relationship between cognition and functional status in individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Demographic, clinical, and methodological moderators were examined. Cognition explained an average of 23% of the variance in functional outcomes. Executive function measures explained the largest amount of variance (37%), whereas global cognitive status and processing speed measures explained the least (20%). Short- and long-delayed memory measures accounted for more variance (35% and 31%) than immediate memory measures (18%), and the relationship between cognition and functional outcomes was stronger when assessed with informant-report (28%) compared with self-report (21%). Demographics, sample characteristics, and type of everyday functioning measures (i.e., questionnaire, performance-based) explained relatively little variance compared with cognition. Executive functioning, particularly measured by Trails B, was a strong predictor of everyday functioning in individuals with MCI. A large proportion of variance remained unexplained by cognition. PMID:26743326

  18. Factors affecting competitive dominance of rainbow trout over brook trout in southern Appalachian streams: Implications of an individual-based model

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, M.E.; Rose, K.A.

    1997-01-01

    We used an individual-based model to examine possible explanations for the dominance of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss over brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis in southern Appalachian streams. Model simulations were used to quantify the effects on interspecific competition of (1) competitive advantage for feeding sites by rainbow trout, (2) latitudinal differences in stream temperatures, flows, and daylight, (3) year-class failures, (4) lower fecundity of brook trout, and (5) reductions in spawning habitat. The model tracks the daily spawning, growth, and survival of individuals of both species throughout their lifetime in a series of connected stream habitat units (pools, runs, or riffles). Average densities of each species based on 100-year simulations were compared for several levels of each of the five factors and for sympatric and allopatric conditions. Based on model results and empirical information, we conclude that more frequent year-class failures and the lower fecundity of brook trout are both possible and likely explanations for rainbow trout dominance, that warmer temperatures due to latitude and limited spawning habitat are possible but unlikely explanations, and that competitive advantage for feeding sites by rainbow trout is an unlikely explanation. Additional field work should focus on comparative studies of the reproductive success and the early life stage mortalities of brook and rainbow trout among Appalachian streams with varying rainbow trout dominance. 53 refs., 11 figs.

  19. Multifunctional aerial display through use of polarization-processing display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchida, Keitaro; Ito, Shusei; Yamamoto, Hirotsugu

    2017-02-01

    We have realized a multifunctional aerial display. An aerial image of a polarization-processing display is formed through aerial imaging by retro-reflection. By changing the polarization modulation patterns, we can switch between a three-layered display and a secure display.

  20. Being deluded after being excluded? How emotion regulation deficits in paranoia-prone individuals affect state paranoia during experimentally induced social stress.

    PubMed

    Westermann, Stefan; Kesting, Marie-Luise; Lincoln, Tania M

    2012-06-01

    Emotion regulation (ER) has become a relevant construct to understanding paranoia. While the ER strategy called expressive suppression (e.g., poker face) may foster state paranoia by increasing arousal, another strategy called reappraisal (e.g., changing the perspective on situations) may reduce negative emotions and state paranoia when adaptively used. However, if reappraisal fails, this could increase paranoia. The aim of this study was to test the proposed effects of the ER strategies on state paranoia in the socially stressful situation of being excluded in paranoia-prone individuals. We conducted an experimental online study with N=116 participants who were randomized to a social inclusion or an exclusion condition using a virtual Cyberball ball-tossing game. They completed questionnaires on paranoia proneness and habitual ER strategies. Before and after the Cyberball task, participants rated their level of state paranoia. The impact of habitual ER strategies, paranoia proneness, and social stress on changes in state paranoia was investigated using linear regression analysis. The three-way interaction of social stress, paranoia proneness, and habitual reappraisal use significantly predicted state paranoia, t(114)=2.62, p=0.010. The decomposition of the interaction term revealed that in the social stress condition, the impact of reappraisal on state paranoia was moderated by the level paranoia proneness. Specifically, in high paranoia-prone individuals the use of reappraisal predicted higher state paranoia. The findings regarding habitual use of suppression were not significant. Although reappraisal is generally considered a functional strategy, its use in distressing social situations seems to be impaired in persons with higher paranoia proneness. A working model of emotion dysregulation in delusions is presented and possible implications for cognitive therapy of psychosis are discussed.

  1. Image Descriptors for Displays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-02-01

    information. In Section V of the report, however, we have extended our descriptor for the total channel capacity of a display to include both chromi - nance and...frequency and for constant chromi - nance. The quantities nl(w) represent the number of perceivable colors for a given spatial frequancy and luminance value...the chromi - nance contribution to the total channel capacity, we shall utilize a linear model for thot distribution of perceived chrominance levels. We

  2. Text File Display Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vavrus, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    LOOK program permits user to examine text file in pseudorandom access manner. Program provides user with way of rapidly examining contents of ASCII text file. LOOK opens text file for input only and accesses it in blockwise fashion. Handles text formatting and displays text lines on screen. User moves forward or backward in file by any number of lines or blocks. Provides ability to "scroll" text at various speeds in forward or backward directions.

  3. Image Descriptors for Displays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-03-01

    gain an insight into the detailed mechanisms of aliasing, but it does not predict how important aliasing is. Our statistical approach predicts the...undersampled limit has a maximum edge discrimination ability equivalent to an analog display with a flat pass- band and limiting resolution given by... discrimination ability of the observer is proportional to the statistical average of a quantity that is representative of the perceived information content

  4. Real-Time Data Display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pedings, Marc

    2007-01-01

    RT-Display is a MATLAB-based data acquisition environment designed to use a variety of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) hardware to digitize analog signals to a standard data format usable by other post-acquisition data analysis tools. This software presents the acquired data in real time using a variety of signal-processing algorithms. The acquired data is stored in a standard Operator Interactive Signal Processing Software (OISPS) data-formatted file. RT-Display is primarily configured to use the Agilent VXI (or equivalent) data acquisition boards used in such systems as MIDDAS (Multi-channel Integrated Dynamic Data Acquisition System). The software is generalized and deployable in almost any testing environment, without limitations or proprietary configuration for a specific test program or project. With the Agilent hardware configured and in place, users can start the program and, in one step, immediately begin digitizing multiple channels of data. Once the acquisition is completed, data is converted into a common binary format that also can be translated to specific formats used by external analysis software, such as OISPS and PC-Signal (product of AI Signal Research Inc.). RT-Display at the time of this reporting was certified on Agilent hardware capable of acquisition up to 196,608 samples per second. Data signals are presented to the user on-screen simultaneously for 16 channels. Each channel can be viewed individually, with a maximum capability of 160 signal channels (depending on hardware configuration). Current signal presentations include: time data, fast Fourier transforms (FFT), and power spectral density plots (PSD). Additional processing algorithms can be easily incorporated into this environment.

  5. Attention-Seeking Displays

    PubMed Central

    Számadó, Szabolcs

    2015-01-01

    Animal communication abounds with extravagant displays. These signals are usually interpreted as costly signals of quality. However, there is another important function for these signals: to call the attention of the receiver to the signaller. While there is abundant empirical evidence to show the importance of this stage, it is not yet incorporated into standard signalling theory. Here I investigate a general model of signalling - based on a basic action-response game - that incorporates this searching stage. I show that giving attention-seeking displays and searching for them can be an ESS. This is a very general result and holds regardless whether only the high quality signallers or both high and low types give them. These signals need not be costly at the equilibrium and they need not be honest signals of any quality, as their function is not to signal quality but simply to call the attention of the potential receivers. These kind of displays are probably more common than their current weight in the literature would suggest. PMID:26287489

  6. Microgap flat panel display

    DOEpatents

    Wuest, Craig R.

    1998-01-01

    A microgap flat panel display which includes a thin gas-filled display tube that utilizes switched X-Y "pixel" strips to trigger electron avalanches and activate a phosphor at a given location on a display screen. The panel utilizes the principal of electron multiplication in a gas subjected to a high electric field to provide sufficient electron current to activate standard luminescent phosphors located on an anode. The X-Y conductive strips of a few micron widths may for example, be deposited on opposite sides of a thin insulating substrate, or on one side of the adjacent substrates and function as a cathode. The X-Y strips are separated from the anode by a gap filled with a suitable gas. Electrical bias is selectively switched onto X and Y strips to activate a "pixel" in the region where these strips overlap. A small amount of a long-lived radioisotope is used to initiate an electron avalanche in the overlap region when bias is applied. The avalanche travels through the gas filled gap and activates a luminescent phosphor of a selected color. The bias is adjusted to give a proportional electron multiplication to control brightness for given pixel.

  7. Microgap flat panel display

    DOEpatents

    Wuest, C.R.

    1998-12-08

    A microgap flat panel display is disclosed which includes a thin gas-filled display tube that utilizes switched X-Y ``pixel`` strips to trigger electron avalanches and activate a phosphor at a given location on a display screen. The panel utilizes the principal of electron multiplication in a gas subjected to a high electric field to provide sufficient electron current to activate standard luminescent phosphors located on an anode. The X-Y conductive strips of a few micron widths may for example, be deposited on opposite sides of a thin insulating substrate, or on one side of the adjacent substrates and function as a cathode. The X-Y strips are separated from the anode by a gap filled with a suitable gas. Electrical bias is selectively switched onto X and Y strips to activate a ``pixel`` in the region where these strips overlap. A small amount of a long-lived radioisotope is used to initiate an electron avalanche in the overlap region when bias is applied. The avalanche travels through the gas filled gap and activates a luminescent phosphor of a selected color. The bias is adjusted to give a proportional electron multiplication to control brightness for given pixel. 6 figs.

  8. Does a short-term increase in testosterone affect the intensity or persistence of territorial aggression? - An approach using an individual's hormonal reactive scope to study hormonal effects on behavior.

    PubMed

    Goymann, Wolfgang; Villavicencio, Camila P; Apfelbeck, Beate

    2015-10-01

    In this study, we describe an approach based on an individual's hormonal reactive scope to study short-term effects of hormones on behavior. The control of territorial aggression has been traditionally linked to testosterone. Males of some vertebrate species show an increase in testosterone during territorial interactions and implantation studies suggest that such an increase in testosterone enhances the intensity and persistence of aggression. Here, we tested whether a short-term maximum release of testosterone - based on an individual's hormonal reactive scope - affects the intensity or persistence of territorial aggression in male black redstarts, a bird species in which testosterone does not increase during territorial encounters. An injection with gonadotropin-releasing-hormone (GnRH) induced a physiological peak in plasma testosterone that was specific for each individual (=individual reactive scope). However, such short-term surges in an individual's testosterone concentration did not affect the intensity or persistence of aggression. In conclusion, this study demonstrated (1) that a species that naturally does not increase testosterone during male-male encounters would not benefit from such an increase in terms of being more aggressive, (2) that behavioral studies using GnRH-injections represent a promising approach to study species differences in androgen responsiveness, and (3) that injections of releasing or tropic hormones in general may be a suitable approach to study short-term influences of hormones on behavior. These injections effectively mimic the potential short-term changes in hormones that can occur in the real life of individuals and enable us to study the effects of hormonal changes on behavior or other traits within an ecological and evolutionary framework.

  9. Illusion in reality: visual perception in displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufman, Lloyd; Kaufman, James H.

    2001-06-01

    Research into visual perception ultimately affects display design. Advance in display technology affects, in turn, our study of perception. Although this statement is too general to provide controversy, this paper present a real-life example that may prompt display engineers to make greater use of basic knowledge of visual perception, and encourage those who study perception to track more closely leading edge display technology. Our real-life example deals with an ancient problem, the moon illusion: why does the horizon moon appear so large while the elevated moon look so small. This was a puzzle for many centuries. Physical explanations, such as refraction by the atmosphere, are incorrect. The difference in apparent size may be classified as a misperception, so the answer must lie in the general principles of visual perception. The factors underlying the moon illusion must be the same factors as those that enable us to perceive the sizes of ordinary objects in visual space. Progress toward solving the problem has been irregular, since methods for actually measuring the illusion under a wide range of conditions were lacking. An advance in display technology made possible a serious and methodologically controlled study of the illusion. This technology was the first heads-up display. In this paper we will describe how the heads-up display concept made it possible to test several competing theories of the moon illusion, and how it led to an explanation that stood for nearly 40 years. We also consider the criticisms of that explanation and how the optics of the heads-up display also played a role in providing data for the critics. Finally, we will describe our own advance on the original methodology. This advance was motivated by previously unrelated principles of space perception. We used a stereoscopic heads up display to test alternative hypothesis about the illusion and to discrimate between two classes of mutually contradictory theories. At its core, the

  10. Stage Cylindrical Immersive Display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abramyan, Lucy; Norris, Jeffrey S.; Powell, Mark W.; Mittman, David S.; Shams, Khawaja S.

    2011-01-01

    Panoramic images with a wide field of view intend to provide a better understanding of an environment by placing objects of the environment on one seamless image. However, understanding the sizes and relative positions of the objects in a panorama is not intuitive and prone to errors because the field of view is unnatural to human perception. Scientists are often faced with the difficult task of interpreting the sizes and relative positions of objects in an environment when viewing an image of the environment on computer monitors or prints. A panorama can display an object that appears to be to the right of the viewer when it is, in fact, behind the viewer. This misinterpretation can be very costly, especially when the environment is remote and/or only accessible by unmanned vehicles. A 270 cylindrical display has been developed that surrounds the viewer with carefully calibrated panoramic imagery that correctly engages their natural kinesthetic senses and provides a more accurate awareness of the environment. The cylindrical immersive display offers a more natural window to the environment than a standard cubic CAVE (Cave Automatic Virtual Environment), and the geometry allows multiple collocated users to simultaneously view data and share important decision-making tasks. A CAVE is an immersive virtual reality environment that allows one or more users to absorb themselves in a virtual environment. A common CAVE setup is a room-sized cube where the cube sides act as projection planes. By nature, all cubic CAVEs face a problem with edge matching at edges and corners of the display. Modern immersive displays have found ways to minimize seams by creating very tight edges, and rely on the user to ignore the seam. One significant deficiency of flat-walled CAVEs is that the sense of orientation and perspective within the scene is broken across adjacent walls. On any single wall, parallel lines properly converge at their vanishing point as they should, and the sense of

  11. Defense Display Strategy and Roadmaps

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-08-06

    ultra-resolution, true 3D , and intelligent displays (integration of computers and communication functions into screens). The new strategy is Service...led. Keywords: defense, electronic displays, high definition, micro-display, 25-megapixel, true 3D , novel and intelligent displays 1...megapixel and true 3D devices. The approved roadmap is illustrated in Figure 1. * Paper

  12. Individual-based model of young-of-the-year striped bass population dynamics. II. Factors affecting recruitment in the Potomac River, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Cowan, J.H. ); Rose, K.A. ); Rutherford, E.S.; Houde, E.D. )

    1993-05-01

    An individual-based model of the population dynamics of young-of-the-year striped bass Morone saxatilis in the Potomac River, Maryland, was used to test the hypothesis that historically high recruitment variability can be explained by changes in environmental and biological factors that result in relatively small changes in growth and mortality rates of striped bass larvae. The four factors examined were (1) size distribution of female parents, (2) zooplankton prey density during the development of striped bass larvae, (3) density of completing larval white perch M. americana, and (4) temperature during larval development. Simulation results suggest that variations in female size and in prey for larvae alone could cause 10-fold variability in recruitment. But no single factor alone caused changes in vital rates of age-0 fish that could account for the 145-fold variability in the Potomac River index of juvenile recruitment. However, combined positive or negative effects of two or more factors resulted in more than a 150-fold simulated recruitment variability, suggesting that combinations of factors can account for the high observed annual variability in striped bass recruitment success. Higher cumulative mortality of feeding larvae and younger life stages than of juveniles was common to all simulations. supporting the contention that striped bass year-class strength is determined prior to metamorphosis. 76 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Refinement of the Seathre-Chotzen syndrome locus between D7S664 and D7S507 which flank a translocation breakpoint in an affected individual

    SciTech Connect

    Lewanda, A.F. |; Taylor, E.W.; Jabs, E.W.

    1994-09-01

    Saethre-Chotzen syndrome (SCS) is a common autosomal dominant craniosynostosis disorder that has been mapped to distal chromosome 7p. In addition to craniosynostosis, patients with SCS have facial asymmetry, low frontal hairline, ptosis, deviated nasal septum, brachydactyly, and partial cutaneous syndactyly. We evaluated 66 individuals in 10 SCS families. Linkage analysis was performed with 11 dinucleotide repeat markers between D7S513 and D7S516, spanning a genetic distance of 27 cM. The tightest linkage was to marker D7S664 (Z = 7.16, {theta} = 0.00), with a confidence interval of 8 cM. Haplotype analysis of those families with informative recombination events showed the disease locus to lie within the 12 cM region between markers D7S513 and D7S507. We used FISH to physically map the gene using chromosome spreads from the SCS patient with t(2;7)(p23;p22) reported by Reid et al. and YAC clones from a contig spanning the critical interval. These studies confirmed that the breakpoint lies within this region, and in fact identified a microdeletion. Further studies will be targeted towards identification of candidate genes for Saethre-Chotzen syndrome.

  14. The variability of times to detect growth from individual Clostridium botulinum type E endospores is differentially affected by high pressure treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenz, Christian A.; Schnabel, Juliane; Vogel, Rudi F.

    2014-10-01

    High pressure thermal (HPT) processing is a candidate technology for the production of safe and stable food. However, little is known about the effect of HPT or high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatments at ambient temperature on the variability of times to detect growth from individual spores. We investigated this effect by treating Clostridium botulinum type E spores with HHP (200-600 MPa, 20°C) and HPT (600 MPa, 80°C and 800 MPa, 60°C). Our results indicate that the mean detection times increase and the frequency distribution shifts toward longer times when HHP treatment intensity is increased. HPT treatments result in a highly scattered distribution. In contrast, pressure levels ≤300 MPa decrease detection times and heterogeneity of their distribution, which could lead to an increase in the potential risk originating from C. botulinum type E spores. Data provided here could help to refine risk assessment regarding this important food intoxicator.

  15. Genetic and environmental causes of individual differences in daily life positive affect and reward experience and its overlap with stress-sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Menne-Lothmann, Claudia; Jacobs, Nele; Derom, Catherine; Thiery, Evert; van Os, Jim; Wichers, Marieke

    2012-09-01

    Momentary positive affect (PA) and reward experience may underlie subjective wellbeing, and index mental health resilience. This study examines their underlying sources of variation and the covariation with stress-sensitivity. The experience sampling method was used to collect multiple appraisals of mood and daily life events in 520 female twins. Structural equation model fitting was employed to determine sources of variation of PA, reward experience, and the association between reward experience and stress-sensitivity. PA was best explained by shared and non-shared environmental factors, and reward experience by non-shared environmental factors only, although the evidence was also suggestive of a small genetic contribution. Reward experience and stress-sensitivity showed no association. PA was not heritable. Most-if not all-variance of reward experience was explained by environmental influences. Stress-sensitivity, indexing depression vulnerability, and reward experience were non-overlapping, suggesting that resilience traits are independent from stress-sensitivity levels in a general population sample.

  16. Differential expression profiles of microRNA in the little brown bat (Myotis lucifugus) associated with white nose syndrome affected and unaffected individuals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Iwanowicz, D.D.; Iwanowicz, L.R.; Hitt, N.P.; King, T.L.

    2013-01-01

    First documented in New York State in 2006, white nose syndrome (WNS) quickly became the leading cause of mortality in hibernating bat species in the United States. WNS is caused by a psychrophilic fungus, Geomyces destructans. Clinical signs of this pathogen are expressed as a dusty white fungus predominately around the nose and on the wings of affected bats. Relatively new biomarkers, such as microRNAs (miRNAs) are being targeted as markers to predict the syndrome prior to the clinical manifestation. The primary objective of this study was to identify miRNAs that could serve as biomarkers and proxies of little brown bat health. Bats were collected from hibernacula that had tested positive and negative for WNS. Genetic sequencing was completed using the Ion Torrent platform. A number of miRNAs were identified from the liver as putative biomarkers of WNS. However, given the small sample size for each treatment, this data set has only coarsely identified miRNAs indicative of WNS, and further validation is required.

  17. Binocular Fixation Disparity in Single Word Displays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paterson, Kevin B.; Jordan, Timothy R.; Kurtev, Stoyan

    2009-01-01

    It has been claimed that the recognition of words displayed in isolation is affected by the precise location at which they are fixated. However, this putative role for fixation location has yet to be reconciled with the finding from reading research that binocular fixations are often misaligned and, therefore, more than 1 location in a word is…

  18. Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and Affecting Factors among Individuals Aged 30 and over in Balçova District of İzmir

    PubMed Central

    Soysal, Ahmet; Şimşek, Hatice; Doğanay, Sinem; Günay, Türkan

    2016-01-01

    Background: The studies have shown that metabolic syndrome (MetS) leads to an increase twice as much in cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and four times as much in diabetes mellitus (DM) prevalence since the second half of the 20th century. Aims: This study aims to determine and discuss the prevalence of the MetS and co- factors among individuals at the age of 30 and over in Balcova district of İzmir province according to the American National Cholesterol Education Program - Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III) and InternationalDiabetes Federation (IDF) criteria. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: Data obtained from the Balcova Heart Project in İzmir were used in the study. The dependent variable of the study is MetS existence. The independent variables were socio-demographic characteristics (age, gender, education level, and marital status), self-perceived economic status, physical activity, smoking status, healthy nutrition and body mass index (BMI). Results: The prevalence of MetS was 36.9% according to the diagnostic criteria of IDF, while it was 27.4% according to ATP III criteria. According to the both criteria, increasing age, low education, poor economic status perception, physical inactivity, and obesity increase the risk of MetS. Apart from the IDF criteria, being female and a current smoker increase the risk of the MetS in the NCEP-ATP III. Conclusion: Compared to educational studies of MetS as of today, which are community and health-oriented studies, it is challenging that the prevalence of MetS was found to be high for both criteria in our study. Therefore, in particular, primary health care doctors must be prompted to protect the public against DM and CVD in particular. PMID:27308078

  19. NF1 mutation rather than individual genetic variability is the main determinant of the NF1-transcriptional profile of mutations affecting splicing.

    PubMed

    Pros, Eva; Larriba, Sara; López, Eva; Ravella, Anna; Gili, M Lluïsa; Kruyer, Helena; Valls, Joan; Serra, Eduard; Lázaro, Conxi

    2006-11-01

    A significant number of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) mutations result in exon skipping. The majority of these mutations do not occur in the canonical splice sites and can produce different aberrant transcripts whose proportions have not been well studied. It has been hypothesized that differences in the mutation-determined NF1-transcriptional profile could partially explain disease variability among patients bearing the same NF1 splice defect. In order to gain insight into these aspects, we analyzed the proportion of the different transcripts generated by nine NF1-splicing mutations in 30 patients. We assessed the influence of the mutation in the NF1-related transcriptional profiles and investigated the existence of individual differences in a global manner. We analyzed potential differences in tissue-specific transcriptional profiles and evaluated the influence of sample processing and mRNA nonsense-mediated decay (NMD). Small transcriptional differences were found in neurofibromas and neurofibroma-derived Schwann cells (SC) compared to blood. We also detected a higher cell culture-dependent NMD. We observed that mutation per se explains 93.5% of the profile variability among mutations studied. However, despite the importance of mutation in determining the proportion of NF1 transcripts generated, we found certain variability among patients with the same mutation. From our results, it seems that genetic factors influencing RNA processing play a minor role in determining the NF1-transcriptional profile. Nevertheless neurofibromin studies would clarify whether these small differences translate into significant functional changes that could explain the great clinical expressivity observed in the disease or any of the disease-related traits.

  20. At Risk for Schizophrenic or Affective Psychoses? A Meta-Analysis of DSM/ICD Diagnostic Outcomes in Individuals at High Clinical Risk

    PubMed Central

    Fusar-Poli, Paolo; Bechdolf, Andreas; Taylor, Matthew John; Bonoldi, Ilaria; Carpenter, William T.; Yung, Alison Ruth; McGuire, Philip

    2013-01-01

    Background The clinical high-risk state for psychosis (HRP) is associated with an enhanced probability of developing a psychotic episode over a relatively short period of time. However, the extent to which different diagnostic types of illness develop remains unclear. Methods A systematic review was performed to identify studies of HRP participants reporting International Classfication of Diseases/Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders diagnostic outcomes at follow-up. Demographic, clinical, and methodological variables were extracted from each publication or obtained directly from its authors. A meta-analysis was performed of transition to schizophrenic (SP) or affective psychoses (AP) and to specific diagnostic categories. Statistical heterogeneity and small study bias were assessed, and meta-regressions were performed. Results Twenty-three studies were retrieved, including a total of 2182 HRP participants, 560 (26%) of them developed a frank psychotic disorder over the follow-up time (mean = 2.35 y). Among HRP participants who developed psychosis, 73% were diagnosed with SP and only 11% with AP (Risk Ratio, RR = 5.43, 95% CI from 3.35 to 8.83). The specific transition risk to ICD/DSM schizophrenia was of 15.7% (over 2.35y). Heterogeneity was statistically significant and moderate in magnitude. Use of basic symptoms criteria in the baseline clinical assessment was associated with a further increase in the proportion progressing to SP vs AP (RR = 17.1). There was no evidence of publication bias and the sensitivity analysis confirmed robustness of the above results. Conclusions The HRP state is heterogeneous in term of longitudinal diagnoses; however, the current HRP diagnostic criteria appear strongly biased toward an identification of early phases of SP rather than AP. PMID:22589370

  1. Landing Hazard Avoidance Display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abernathy, Michael Franklin (Inventor); Hirsh, Robert L. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Landing hazard avoidance displays can provide rapidly understood visual indications of where it is safe to land a vehicle and where it is unsafe to land a vehicle. Color coded maps can indicate zones in two dimensions relative to the vehicles position where it is safe to land. The map can be simply green (safe) and red (unsafe) areas with an indication of scale or can be a color coding of another map such as a surface map. The color coding can be determined in real time based on topological measurements and safety criteria to thereby adapt to dynamic, unknown, or partially known environments.

  2. Pictorial Format Display Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-05-01

    the pathway moved out of the theoretical field of view of the HUDM It did not disappear from the HUD, however, instead it was pegged to the side of...the HUD in the direction of its current position. When the pathway was pegged to the side, a transitional flight director symbol (an inverted "T...of view,. the flashing tractor beam remained, and the "jewel light" was pegged to the side of the display at the end of the ’flashing tractor beam

  3. [Peptide phage display in biotechnology and biomedicine].

    PubMed

    Kuzmicheva, G A; Belyavskaya, V A

    2016-07-01

    To date peptide phage display is one of the most common combinatorial methods used for identifying specific peptide ligands. Phage display peptide libraries containing billions different clones successfully used for selection of ligands with high affinity and selectivity toward wide range of targets including individual proteins, bacteria, viruses, spores, different kind of cancer cells and variety of nonorganic targets (metals, alloys, semiconductors etc.) Success of using filamentous phage in phage display technologies relays on the robustness of phage particles and a possibility to genetically modify its DNA to construct new phage variants with novel properties. In this review we are discussing characteristics of the most known non-commercial peptide phage display libraries of different formats (landscape libraries in particular) and their successful applications in several fields of biotechnology and biomedicine: discovery of peptides with diagnostic values against different pathogens, discovery and using of peptides recognizing cancer cells, trends in using of phage display technologies in human interactome studies, application of phage display technologies in construction of novel nano materials.

  4. Large-scale autostereoscopic outdoor display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reitterer, Jörg; Fidler, Franz; Saint Julien-Wallsee, Ferdinand; Schmid, Gerhard; Gartner, Wolfgang; Leeb, Walter; Schmid, Ulrich

    2013-03-01

    State-of-the-art autostereoscopic displays are often limited in size, effective brightness, number of 3D viewing zones, and maximum 3D viewing distances, all of which are mandatory requirements for large-scale outdoor displays. Conventional autostereoscopic indoor concepts like lenticular lenses or parallax barriers cannot simply be adapted for these screens due to the inherent loss of effective resolution and brightness, which would reduce both image quality and sunlight readability. We have developed a modular autostereoscopic multi-view laser display concept with sunlight readable effective brightness, theoretically up to several thousand 3D viewing zones, and maximum 3D viewing distances of up to 60 meters. For proof-of-concept purposes a prototype display with two pixels was realized. Due to various manufacturing tolerances each individual pixel has slightly different optical properties, and hence the 3D image quality of the display has to be calculated stochastically. In this paper we present the corresponding stochastic model, we evaluate the simulation and measurement results of the prototype display, and we calculate the achievable autostereoscopic image quality to be expected for our concept.

  5. Black optic display

    DOEpatents

    Veligdan, James T.

    1997-01-01

    An optical display includes a plurality of stacked optical waveguides having first and second opposite ends collectively defining an image input face and an image screen, respectively, with the screen being oblique to the input face. Each of the waveguides includes a transparent core bound by a cladding layer having a lower index of refraction for effecting internal reflection of image light transmitted into the input face to project an image on the screen, with each of the cladding layers including a cladding cap integrally joined thereto at the waveguide second ends. Each of the cores is beveled at the waveguide second end so that the cladding cap is viewable through the transparent core. Each of the cladding caps is black for absorbing external ambient light incident upon the screen for improving contrast of the image projected internally on the screen.

  6. Three dimensional interactive display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3-D) interactive display and method of forming the same, includes a transparent capaciflector (TC) camera formed on a transparent shield layer on the screen surface. A first dielectric layer is formed on the shield layer. A first wire layer is formed on the first dielectric layer. A second dielectric layer is formed on the first wire layer. A second wire layer is formed on the second dielectric layer. Wires on the first wire layer and second wire layer are grouped into groups of parallel wires with a turnaround at one end of each group and a sensor pad at the opposite end. An operational amplifier is connected to each of the sensor pads and the shield pad biases the pads and receives a signal from connected sensor pads in response to intrusion of a probe. The signal is proportional to probe location with respect to the monitor screen.

  7. Peptide Amyloid Surface Display

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Homomeric self-assembly of peptides into amyloid fibers is a feature of many diseases. A central role has been suggested for the lateral fiber surface affecting gains of toxic function. To investigate this, a protein scaffold that presents a discrete, parallel β-sheet surface for amyloid subdomains up to eight residues in length has been designed. Scaffolds that present the fiber surface of islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) were prepared. The designs show sequence-specific surface effects apparent in that they gain the capacity to attenuate rates of IAPP self-assembly in solution and affect IAPP-induced toxicity in insulin-secreting cells. PMID:25541905

  8. Adjustable Work Station for Video Displays and Keyboards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roe, F.; Shields, Nicholas, Jr.; Fagg, M. F.; Henderson, D.

    1986-01-01

    Work station for video displays and keyboards adaptable to operational and anthropometric requirements of individual operators. Visual displays placed beyond keyboard and in line with inclination of keyboard to minimize operator's head movement. In addition, station arranged so operator's eyes and hands focus onto three primary control and display areas. Quickens operating response and decreases chance of error, since input devices and feedback to operator are collocated.

  9. Steerable patterned OLED backlight for autostereoscopic display application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, Uwe; Fehse, Karsten; Wartenberg, Philipp; Knobbe, Jens; Scholles, Michael; Richter, Bernd; Hild, Olaf

    2015-09-01

    OLED can be applied as highly efficient and high-resolution patternable illumination source for controllable and steerable backlights, e.g., for use in autostereoscopic displays. To evaluate technology and approach a 3.5" 3D QVGA display prototype has been developed and combines several achievements: large-area OLED backlight, highly-efficient and fast-response OLED top-emitter, striped patterned backlight, individual electronic driving for adaptive backlight control and 3D mobile display application.

  10. Developing Intepretive Soil Education Displays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansmeyer, T. L.; Cooper, T. H.

    1993-01-01

    Describes several soil educational displays developed for park and nature center trails. Displays include full-scale soil monoliths displayed along the trails with explanations on why and how the soils are different, and micro-monoliths exhibiting the different soil types. (MDH)

  11. The neurobiology of individuality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Bivort, Benjamin

    2015-03-01

    Individuals often display conspicuously different patterns of behavior, even when they are very closely related genetically. These differences give rise to our sense of individuality, but what is their molecular and neurobiological basis? Individuals that are nominally genetically identical differ at various molecular and neurobiological levels: cell-to-cell variation in somatic genomes, cell-to-cell variation in expression patterns, individual-to-individual variation in neuronal morphology and physiology, and individual-to-individual variation in patterns of brain activity. It is unknown which of these levels is fundamentally causal of behavioral differences. To investigate this problem, we use the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, whose genetic toolkit allows the manipulation of each of these mechanistic levels, and whose rapid lifecycle and small size allows for high-throughput automation of behavioral assays. This latter point is crucial; identifying inter-individual behavioral differences requires high sample sizes both within and across individual animals. Automated behavioral characterization is at the heart of our research strategy. In every behavior examined, individual flies have individual behavioral preferences, and we have begun to identify both neural genes and circuits that control the degree of behavioral variability between individuals.

  12. Research into display sharing techniques for distributed computing environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hugg, Steven B.; Fitzgerald, Paul F., Jr.; Rosson, Nina Y.; Johns, Stephen R.

    1990-01-01

    The X-based Display Sharing solution for distributed computing environments is described. The Display Sharing prototype includes the base functionality for telecast and display copy requirements. Since the prototype implementation is modular and the system design provided flexibility for the Mission Control Center Upgrade (MCCU) operational consideration, the prototype implementation can be the baseline for a production Display Sharing implementation. To facilitate the process the following discussions are presented: Theory of operation; System of architecture; Using the prototype; Software description; Research tools; Prototype evaluation; and Outstanding issues. The prototype is based on the concept of a dedicated central host performing the majority of the Display Sharing processing, allowing minimal impact on each individual workstation. Each workstation participating in Display Sharing hosts programs to facilitate the user's access to Display Sharing as host machine.

  13. Pilot Preferences on Displayed Aircraft Control Variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trujillo, Anna C.; Gregory, Irene M.

    2013-01-01

    The experiments described here explored how pilots want available maneuver authority information transmitted and how this information affects pilots before and after an aircraft failure. The aircraft dynamic variables relative to flight performance were narrowed to energy management variables. A survey was conducted to determine what these variables should be. Survey results indicated that bank angle, vertical velocity, and airspeed were the preferred variables. Based on this, two displays were designed to inform the pilot of available maneuver envelope expressed as bank angle, vertical velocity, and airspeed. These displays were used in an experiment involving control surface failures. Results indicate the displayed limitations in bank angle, vertical velocity, and airspeed were helpful to the pilots during aircraft surface failures. However, the additional information did lead to a slight increase in workload, a small decrease in perceived aircraft flying qualities, and no effect on aircraft situation awareness.

  14. Types of Seizures Affecting Individuals with TSC

    MedlinePlus

    ... Custom Post Type Home En Español International Request Information DONATE About TSC New treatments today. A cure tomorrow. What is TSC? How is TSC Diagnosed? Signs and Symptoms of TSC Learn Engage Donate Newly ... support you want. The information you need. Treatment Guidelines TSC Clinics Parents/Caregivers ...

  15. Signal Processing, Analysis, & Display

    SciTech Connect

    Lager, Darrell; Azevado, Stephen

    1986-06-01

    SIG is a general-purpose signal processing, analysis, and display program. Its main purpose is to perform manipulations on time- and frequency-domain signals. However, it has been designed to ultimately accommodate other representations for data such as multiplexed signals and complex matrices. Two user interfaces are provided in SIG - a menu mode for the unfamiliar user and a command mode for more experienced users. In both modes errors are detected as early as possible and are indicated by friendly, meaningful messages. An on-line HELP package is also included. A variety of operations can be performed on time- and frequency-domain signals including operations on the samples of a signal, operations on the entire signal, and operations on two or more signals. Signal processing operations that can be performed are digital filtering (median, Bessel, Butterworth, and Chebychev), ensemble average, resample, auto and cross spectral density, transfer function and impulse response, trend removal, convolution, Fourier transform and inverse window functions (Hamming, Kaiser-Bessel), simulation (ramp, sine, pulsetrain, random), and read/write signals. User definable signal processing algorithms are also featured. SIG has many options including multiple commands per line, command files with arguments,commenting lines, defining commands, and automatic execution for each item in a repeat sequence. Graphical operations on signals and spectra include: x-y plots of time signals; real, imaginary, magnitude, and phase plots of spectra; scaling of spectra for continuous or discrete domain; cursor zoom; families of curves; and multiple viewports.

  16. Bringing Text Display Digital Radio to Consumers with Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheffield, Ellyn G.; Starling, Michael; Schwab, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Radio is migrating to digital transmission, expanding its offerings to include captioning for individuals with hearing loss. Text display radio requires a large amount of word throughput with minimal screen display area, making good user interface design crucial to its success. In two experiments, we presented hearing, hard-of-hearing, and deaf…

  17. Unique interactive projection display screen

    SciTech Connect

    Veligdan, J.T.

    1997-11-01

    Projection systems continue to be the best method to produce large (1 meter and larger) displays. However, in order to produce a large display, considerable volume is typically required. The Polyplanar Optic Display (POD) is a novel type of projection display screen, which for the first time, makes it possible to produce a large projection system that is self-contained and only inches thick. In addition, this display screen is matte black in appearance allowing it to be used in high ambient light conditions. This screen is also interactive and can be remotely controlled via an infrared optical pointer resulting in mouse-like control of the display. Furthermore, this display need not be flat since it can be made curved to wrap around a viewer as well as being flexible.

  18. LED instrument approach instruction display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meredith, B. D.; Kelly, W. L., IV; Crouch, R. K.

    1979-01-01

    A display employing light emitting diodes (LED's) was developed to demonstrate the feasibility of such displays for presenting landing and navigation information to reduce the workload of general aviation pilots during IFR flight. The display consists of a paper tape reader, digital memory, control electronics, digital latches, and LED alphanumeric displays. A presentable digital countdown clock-timer is included as part of the system to provide a convenient means of monitoring time intervals for precise flight navigation. The system is a limited capability prototype assembled to test pilot reaction to such a device under simulated IFR operation. Pilot opinion indicates that the display is helpful in reducing the IFR pilots workload when used with a runway approach plate. However, the development of a compact, low power second generation display was recommended which could present several instructions simultaneously and provide information update capability. A microprocessor-based display could fulfill these requirements.

  19. Sourcebook of Temporal Factors Affecting Information Transfer from Visual Displays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    stationary patterns need to be roughly proxi- mate with respect to the visual field, they do not have to be alike. Grindley and Wilkinson ( 1953 ) asked...some long and constant dura- tion. Riopelle and Bevan ( 1953 , cited in Haines, 1975) examined abso- lute sensitivity at many points throughout the visual...the frequency at which the flicker appears to fuse. Ginsburg (1970) compiled a bibliography on CFF covering the period 1953 to 1968 and numbering 1293

  20. Distant background information strongly affects lightness perception in dynamic displays.

    PubMed

    Pereverzeva, Maria; Murray, Scott O

    2009-02-25

    Lightness perception is strongly dependent on context, including the relative luminance of the adjacent surfaces, spatial configuration, and luminance contrast. The latter, local luminance contrast, is thought to be processed in relatively early stages of visual processing and has been shown to play a crucial role in lightness perception. However, more global processing, such as perceptual grouping of surfaces, can also have an effect on lightness perception. An unresolved question, which we will address in this paper, is how global and local processes interact. We used a static gray disk embedded in a temporally modulated in luminance ring, which gives rise to a lightness effect dependent on local luminance contrast. We manipulated global image information by presenting the stimulus on backgrounds of different luminances. Surprisingly, the induction effect was greatly attenuated at a background luminance equal to that of the disk. We show that this finding cannot be explained by common lightness induction models. However, it is consistent with an effect of grouping on lightness perception and demonstrates how processes that are dependent on local edge information can be overridden by global image information.

  1. Visual display of reservoir parameters affecting enhanced oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, J.R.

    1996-04-30

    This project consists of two parts. In Part 1, well logs, other well data, drilling, and production data for the Pioneer Field in the southern San Joaquin Valley of California were obtained, assembled, and input to a commercial relational database manager. These data are being used in PC-based geologic mapping, evaluation, and visualization software programs to produce 2-D and 3-D representations of the reservoir geometry, facies and subfacies, stratigraphy, porosity, oil saturation, and other measured and model parameters. Petrographic and petrophysical measurements made on samples from Pioneer Field, including core, cuttings and liquids, are being used to calibrate the log suite. In Part 2, these data sets are being used to develop algorithms to correlate log response to geologic and engineering measurements. Rock alteration due to interactions with hot fluids are being quantitatively modeled and used to predict the reservoir response if the rock were subjected to thermally enhanced oil recovery (TEOR).

  2. Visual display of reservoir parameters affecting enhanced oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, J.R.

    1996-01-27

    This project will provide a detailed example, based on a field trial, of how to evaluate a field for EOR operations utilizing data typically available in an older field which has under gone primary development. The approach will utilize readily available, affordable PC-based computer software and analytical services. This study will illustrate the steps involved in: (1) setting up a relational database to store geologic, well-log, engineering, and production data, (2) integration of data typically available for oil and gas fields with predictive models for reservoir alteration, and (3) linking these data and models with modern computer software to provide 2-D and 3-D visualizations of the reservoir and its attributes. The techniques are being demonstrated through a field trial on a reservoir, Pioneer Field, a field that produces from the Monterey Formation, which is a candidate for thermal EOR. Technical progress is summarized for the following tasks: (1) project administration and management; (2) data collection; (3) data analysis and measurement; (4) modeling; and (5) technology transfer.

  3. Cultural evolution and individual development of openness and conservatism

    PubMed Central

    Acerbi, Alberto; Enquist, Magnus; Ghirlanda, Stefano

    2009-01-01

    We present a model of cultural evolution in which an individual's propensity to engage in social learning is affected by social learning itself. We assume that individuals observe cultural traits displayed by others and decide whether to copy them based on their overall preference for the displayed traits. Preferences, too, can be transmitted between individuals. Our results show that such cultural dynamics tends to produce conservative individuals, i.e., individuals who are reluctant to copy new traits. Openness to new information, however, can be maintained when individuals need significant time to acquire the cultural traits that make them effective cultural models. We show that a gradual enculturation of young individuals by many models and a larger cultural repertoire to be acquired are favorable circumstances for the long-term maintenance of openness in individuals and groups. Our results agree with data about lifetime personality change, showing that openness to new information decreases with age. Our results show that cultural remodeling of cultural transmission is a powerful force in cultural evolution, i.e., that cultural evolution can change its own dynamics. PMID:19858478

  4. PACS displays: how to select the right display technology.

    PubMed

    Hirschorn, David S; Krupinski, Elizabeth A; Flynn, Michael J

    2014-12-01

    The medical imaging display is a precision instrument with many features not found in commercial-grade displays. The more one understands what these features are and their corresponding clinical value, the better one can make a purchase decision. None of these displays maintain themselves for 5 years or more without some degree of automatic or manual performance testing. Routine calibration conformance checks are beginning to be mandated by the departments of health of many states. Most manufacturers provide mechanisms to perform these checks and keep track of their results, some more easily than others. A consistent display brightness of about 400 cd/m(2) and close conformance to the DICOM curve are the key components of a successful check. Displays are typically characterized by the number of pixels they contain, usually 2, 3, or 5 megapixels, but this is the least useful determinant of image quality. What matters most is the size of the pixels and the size of the whole display, which should be selected on the basis of the typical viewing distance. The farther one's eyes are from the display, the larger the pixels and the overall display size can be while still feeding the eye as much information as it can see. Care should be taken to use the appropriate display in a given setting for the clinical purpose at hand.

  5. 6000 x 2000 display prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuishi, Tetsuya; Small, David; MacNeil, Ronald L.

    1992-07-01

    While electronic technology has evolved enormously, there are no displays which are both very large and of high resolution. This paper describes our 6 K X 2 K, 60 inch by 20 inch, display prototype which consists of three 2 K X 2 K CRT displays connected seamlessly. Using a custom frame and a half-silvered mirror, the three images are joined by reflecting the center display image from above and transmitting the two side display images directly. Two problems must be solved to achieve a truly seamless effect. First, viewers can still see seams between regular screen images even if the displays are strictly aligned. Second, each physical display has a different geometrical space, and the center display image must be drawn in reverse because it will be reflected by the mirror. We developed a seamless window system to solve these problems. The window system displays overlapping images with translucent borders to enable better blending of the three display screens. Custom application software treats the system as a single 6 K X 2 K area. A concept named ''virtual framebuffer architecture'' enables us to implement the two kinds of seamlessness easily. To evaluate the visual effects, we developed some application systems which include video in a window, stereo sound and a high speed channel to the Connection Machine II for image processing.

  6. Display Parameters and Requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahadur, Birendra

    The following sections are included: * INTRODUCTION * HUMAN FACTORS * Anthropometry * Sensory * Cognitive * Discussions * THE HUMAN VISUAL SYSTEM - CAPABILITIES AND LIMITATIONS * Cornea * Pupil and Iris * Lens * Vitreous Humor * Retina * RODS - NIGHT VISION * CONES - DAY VISION * RODS AND CONES - TWILIGHT VISION * VISUAL PIGMENTS * MACULA * BLOOD * CHOROID COAT * Visual Signal Processing * Pathways to the Brain * Spatial Vision * Temporal Vision * Colour Vision * Colour Blindness * DICHROMATISM * Protanopia * Deuteranopia * Tritanopia * ANOMALOUS TRICHROMATISM * Protanomaly * Deuteranomaly * Tritanomaly * CONE MONOCHROMATISM * ROD MONOCHROMATISM * Using Colour Effectively * COLOUR MIXTURES AND THE CHROMATICITY DIAGRAM * Colour Matching Functions and Chromaticity Co-ordinates * CIE 1931 Colour Space * CIE PRIMARIES * CIE COLOUR MATCHING FUNCTIONS AND CHROMATICITY CO-ORDINATES * METHODS FOR DETERMINING TRISTIMULUS VALUES AND COLOUR CO-ORDINATES * Spectral Power Distribution Method * Filter Method * CIE 1931 CHROMATICITY DIAGRAM * ADDITIVE COLOUR MIXTURE * CIE 1976 Chromaticity Diagram * CIE Uniform Colour Spaces and Colour Difference Formulae * CIELUV OR L*u*v* * CIELAB OR L*a*b* * CIE COLOUR DIFFERENCE FORMULAE * Colour Temperature and CIE Standard Illuminants and source * RADIOMETRIC AND PHOTOMETRIC QUANTITIES * Photopic (Vλ and Scotopic (Vλ') Luminous Efficiency Function * Photometric and Radiometric Flux * Luminous and Radiant Intensities * Incidence: Illuminance and Irradiance * Exitance or Emittance (M) * Luminance and Radiance * ERGONOMIC REQUIREMENTS OF DISPLAYS * ELECTRO-OPTICAL PARAMETERS AND REQUIREMENTS * Contrast and Contrast Ratio * Luminance and Brightness * Colour Contrast and Chromaticity * Glare * Other Aspects of Legibility * SHAPE AND SIZE OF CHARACTERS * DEFECTS AND BLEMISHES * FLICKER AND DISTORTION * ANGLE OF VIEW * Switching Speed * Threshold and Threshold Characteristic * Measurement Techniques For Electro-optical Parameters * RADIOMETRIC

  7. Military display market: update to fourth comprehensive edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desjardins, Daniel D.; Byrd, James C.; Hopper, Darrel G.

    2009-05-01

    The military display market is analyzed in terms of all fully electronic and many electro-mechanical displays used on combat platforms across all DOD Services. The military market for displays is defined by parameters such as active area, bezel-to-bezel measurement and technology. Other characteristics such as luminance, contrast ratio, gray levels, resolution, viewing angle, color, video capability, and night vision imaging system compatibility are noted. This study takes into account all displays that are either installed or funded for installation. In some cases, planned displays are also included. Display sizes having aggregate defense applications of 5,000 units or greater and having DOD applications across 10 or more platform fleets, are tabulated. The issue of size commonality is addressed where distribution of active area across platform fleets, individually, in groups of two through nine, and ten or more, is illustrated. Military displays are also analyzed by technology, where total quantities of such displays are broken out into CRT, LCD, AMLCD, EM, LED, Incandescent, Plasma and TFEL percentages. Custom, versus rugged commercial, versus commercial off-the-shelf designs are contrasted. High and low information content designs are identified. Displays for several high-profile military programs are discussed, to include both technical specifications and program history. This defense-wide study, an up-date to our paper delivered April 2006, documents 642 weapons system platforms comprising 1,194,199 displays in 1,217 sizes, of which 1,197 are direct-view and 20 are virtual-view. Defense display sizes range from 0.082 in..2 to 10,625 in.2 in 18 technologies, mostly flat panel display (FPD) technologies based on thin-film transistor active matrix liquid crystal displays (TFT AM LCD), with cathode ray tube (CRT) second and dropping rapidly. This paper provides an overview of the DOD display market, allowing government, academia and industry highlights of

  8. Laser illuminated flat panel display

    SciTech Connect

    Veligdan, J.T.

    1995-12-31

    A 10 inch laser illuminated flat panel Planar Optic Display (POD) screen has been constructed and tested. This POD screen technology is an entirely new concept in display technology. Although the initial display is flat and made of glass, this technology lends itself to applications where a plastic display might be wrapped around the viewer. The display screen is comprised of hundreds of planar optical waveguides where each glass waveguide represents a vertical line of resolution. A black cladding layer, having a lower index of refraction, is placed between each waveguide layer. Since the cladding makes the screen surface black, the contrast is high. The prototype display is 9 inches wide by 5 inches high and approximately I inch thick. A 3 milliwatt HeNe laser is used as the illumination source and a vector scanning technique is employed.

  9. Flat panel planar optic display

    SciTech Connect

    Veligdan, J.T.

    1994-11-01

    A prototype 10 inch flat panel Planar Optic Display, (POD), screen has been constructed and tested. This display screen is comprised of hundreds of planar optic class sheets bonded together with a cladding layer between each sheet where each glass sheet represents a vertical line of resolution. The display is 9 inches wide by 5 inches high and approximately 1 inch thick. A 3 milliwatt HeNe laser is used as the illumination source and a vector scanning technique is employed.

  10. Prototyping user displays using CLIPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosta, Charles P.; Miller, Ross; Krolak, Patrick; Vesty, Matt

    1990-01-01

    CLIPS is being used as an integral module of a rapid prototyping system. The prototyping system consists of a display manager for object browsing, a graph program for displaying line and bar charts, and a communications server for routing messages between modules. A CLIPS simulation of a physical model provides dynamic control of the user's display. Currently, a project is well underway to prototype the Advanced Automation System (AAS) for the Federal Aviation Administration.

  11. Program For A Pushbutton Display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Busquets, Anthony M.; Luck, William S., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Programmable Display Pushbutton (PDP) is pushbutton device available from Micro Switch having programmable 16X35 matrix of light-emitting diodes on pushbutton surface. Any desired legends display on PDP's, producing user-friendly applications reducing need for dedicated manual controls. Interacts with operator, calls for correct response before transmitting next message. Both simple manual control and sophisticated programmable link between operator and host system. Programmable Display Pushbutton Legend Editor (PDPE) computer program used to create light-emitting-diode (LED) displays for pushbuttons. Written in FORTRAN.

  12. Liquid crystal Fresnel lens display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiao-Qian; Abhishek Kumar, Srivastava; Alwin Tam, Ming-Wai; Zheng, Zhi-Gang; Shen, Dong; Vladimir, Chigrinov G.; Kwok, Hoi-Sing

    2016-09-01

    A novel see-through display with a liquid crystal lens array was proposed. A liquid crystal Fresnel lens display (LCFLD) with a holographic screen was demonstrated. The proposed display system has high efficiency, simple fabrication, and low manufacturing cost due to the absence of a polarizer and color filter. Project supported by Partner State Key Laboratory on Advanced Displays and Optoelectronics Technologies HKUST, China, the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61435008 and 61575063), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (Grant No. WM1514036).

  13. The display of tactile information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrick, Carl E.

    1991-01-01

    There are a number of examples of natural tactile displays that can five us some insights about the solid geometry of touch, and recent experimental work on the subject has extended our thinking considerably. The concern of here is, however, more with synthetic or artificial displays for the production of a virtual environment. Features of synthetic displays that have enjoyed some success in one of the following two enterprises are discussed: the study of the spatio-temporal dimensions of stimuli that afford accurate and rapid processing of environmental information, or the use of displays in the design of sensory aids for disabled persons.

  14. Miniature information displays: primary applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvelda, Phillip; Lewis, Nancy D.

    1998-04-01

    Positioned to replace current liquid crystal display technology in many applications, miniature information displays have evolved to provide several truly portable platforms for the world's growing personal computing and communication needs. The technology and functionality of handheld computer and communicator systems has finally surpassed many of the standards that were originally established for desktop systems. In these new consumer electronics, performance, display size, packaging, power consumption, and cost have always been limiting factors for fabricating genuinely portable devices. The rapidly growing miniature information display manufacturing industry is making it possible to bring a wide range of highly anticipated new products to new markets.

  15. Maintenance Procedure Display: Head Mounted Display (HMD) Evaluations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Milrian; Litaker, Harry L., Jr.; Solem, Jody A.; Holden, Kritina L.; Hoffman, Ronald R.

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation describing maintenance procedures for head mounted displays is shown. The topics include: 1) Study Goals; 2) Near Eye Displays (HMDs); 3) Design; 4) Phase I-Evaluation Methods; 5) Phase 1 Results; 6) Improved HMD Mounting; 7) Phase 2 -Evaluation Methods; 8) Phase 2 Preliminary Results; and 9) Next Steps.

  16. The effect of configural displays on pilot situation awareness in helmet-mounted displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Joseph Christopher

    The current research utilized configural displays within the domain of aviation to assess what design features of configural displays contribute to the formation of operator situation awareness (SA). Configural displays map system information relevant to operator goals onto geometric shapes called emergent features. An emergent feature is formed from the combination of individual line segments to produce a global feature more perceptually salient and recognized sooner than the individual parts themselves. Configural displays have been shown in previous research to provide better operator performance for integration tasks where multiple pieces of information must be considered at once, yet the design aspects of configural displays that impact the formation of operator SA have yet to be determined. The current research compared the design features of three aviation configural displays over four experiments to quantify what aspects of configural displays would impact operator SA. The research sought to determine whether the simple act of representing system information in configural displays using emergent features is sufficient for facilitating operator SA or do other design factors need to be considered? Operator SA was assessed using explicit and implicit measures of SA from operator task performance in addition to a subjective SA rating scale. The recognition of aircraft attitude (climb/dive flight angles) when briefly presented to pilots in Experiment 1 revealed significant performance differences for the Arc Segment Attitude Reference (ASAR) configural display which mapped aircraft attitude information onto a circular shape versus the traditional aircraft head-up display (HUD) ladder found in the Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) HUD and Dual-Articulated (DA) HUD. The current research in Experiment 1 provides evidence that configural displays such as the ASAR that utilize emergent features well mapped to fully relate the information needed for a task will facilitate

  17. Recombinant baculovirus displayed vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Prabakaran, Mookkan; Kwang, Jimmy

    2014-01-01

    The rapid evolution of new sublineages of H5N1 influenza in Asia poses the greatest challenge in vaccine development for pre-pandemic preparedness. To overcome the antigenic diversity of H5N1 strains, multiple vaccine strains can be designed based on the distribution of neutralizing epitopes in the globular head of H5 hemagglutinin (HA). Recently, we selected two different HAs of H5N1 strains based on the neutralizing epitopes and reactivity with different neutralizing antibodies. The HAs of selected vaccine strains were individually expressed on the baculovirus envelope (bivalent-BacHA) with its native antigenic configuration. Further, oral delivery of live bivalent-BacHA elicited broadly reactive humoral, mucosal and cell-mediated immune responses and showed complete protection against antigenically distinct H5N1 strains in mice. The strategy for the vaccine strain selection, vaccine design and route of administration will provide an idea for development of a widely protective vaccine against highly pathogenic H5N1 for pre-pandemic preparedness. PMID:23941989

  18. Colorful displays signal male quality in a tropical anole lizard.

    PubMed

    Cook, Ellee G; Murphy, Troy G; Johnson, Michele A

    2013-10-01

    Parasites influence colorful ornaments and their behavioral display in many animal hosts. Because coloration and display behavior are often critical components of communication, variation in these traits may have important implications for individual fitness, yet it remains unclear whether such traits are signals of quality in many taxa. We investigated the association between ectoparasitic mite load and the color and behavioral use of the throat fan (dewlap) by male Anolis brevirostris lizards. We found that heavily parasitized lizards exhibited lower body condition, duller dewlaps, and less frequent dewlap displays than less parasitized individuals. Our results thus suggest that highly parasitized individuals invest less in both ornamental color and behavioral display of that color. Because the two components of the signal simultaneously provide information on male quality, this study provides novel support for the long-standing hypothesis that colorful traits may function as social or sexual signals in reptiles.

  19. Colorful displays signal male quality in a tropical anole lizard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Ellee G.; Murphy, Troy G.; Johnson, Michele A.

    2013-10-01

    Parasites influence colorful ornaments and their behavioral display in many animal hosts. Because coloration and display behavior are often critical components of communication, variation in these traits may have important implications for individual fitness, yet it remains unclear whether such traits are signals of quality in many taxa. We investigated the association between ectoparasitic mite load and the color and behavioral use of the throat fan (dewlap) by male Anolis brevirostris lizards. We found that heavily parasitized lizards exhibited lower body condition, duller dewlaps, and less frequent dewlap displays than less parasitized individuals. Our results thus suggest that highly parasitized individuals invest less in both ornamental color and behavioral display of that color. Because the two components of the signal simultaneously provide information on male quality, this study provides novel support for the long-standing hypothesis that colorful traits may function as social or sexual signals in reptiles.

  20. Positive affective tone and team performance: The moderating role of collective emotional skills.

    PubMed

    Collins, Amy L; Jordan, Peter J; Lawrence, Sandra A; Troth, Ashlea C

    2016-01-01

    Research on affect as a group-level phenomenon has shown that over time, individual members within a group become highly similar in their affect (i.e., members experience and display similar emotions and moods), and often become similar enough that the aggregation of individuals' affect can meaningfully represent the "affective tone" of the group. It is generally assumed that a more positive affective tone will lead to better team performance. We challenge the conclusion that positive affective tone is always good for team performance, suggesting that the relationship between positive affective tone and team performance is subject to moderating influences. Across two studies, we demonstrate that the self-reported collective emotional skills of team members play a crucial role in determining whether positive affective tone is beneficial or detrimental to team performance. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

  1. Updated defense display market assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desjardins, Daniel D.; Hopper, Darrel G.

    1999-08-01

    This paper addresses the number, function and size of principal military displays and establishes a basis to determine the opportunities for technology insertion in the immediate future and into the next millennium. Principal military displays are defined as those occupying appreciable crewstation real-estate and/or those without which the platform could not carry out its intended mission. DoD 'office' applications are excluded from this study. The military displays market is specified by such parameters as active area and footprint size, and other characteristics such as luminance, gray scale, resolution, angle, color, video capability, and night vision imaging system compatibility. Funded, future acquisitions, planned and predicted crewstation modification kits, and form-fit upgrades are taken into account. This paper provides an overview of the DoD niche market, allowing both government and industry a necessary reference by which to meet DoD requirements for military displays in a timely and cost-effective manner. The aggregate DoD installed base for direct-view and large-area military displays is presently estimated to be in excess of 313,000. Miniature displays are those which must be magnified to be viewed, involve a significantly different manufacturing paradigm and are used in helmet mounted displays and thermal weapon sight applications. Some 114,000 miniature displays are presently included within future weapon system acquisition plans. For vendor production planning purposes it is noted that foreign military sales could substantially increase these quantities. The vanishing vendor syndrome (VVS) for older display technologies continues to be a growing, pervasive problem throughout DoD, which consequently must leverage the more modern, especially flat panel, display technologies being developed to replace older, especially cathode ray tube, technology for civil-commercial markets. Total DoD display needs (FPD, HMD) are some 427,000.

  2. Importance of individual analysis of environmental and climatic factors affecting the density of Leishmania vectors living in the same geographical area: the example of Phlebotomus ariasi and P. perniciosus in northeast Spain.

    PubMed

    Ballart, Cristina; Guerrero, Irene; Castells, Xavier; Barón, Sergio; Castillejo, Soledad; Alcover, M Magdalena; Portús, Montserrat; Gállego, Montserrat

    2014-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the role of specific environmental and climatic factors affecting the distribution and density of Phlebotomus ariasi and P. perniciosus , the proven vectors for Leishmania infantum in Spain. An entomological study was carried out in July 2006 in the province of Lleida with sticky traps set in their diurnal resting places at altitudes ranging from 86 to 1,755 m above the mean sea level (339 sites were sampled). Bivariate analysis revealed that factors such as altitude, bioclimatic zone, temperature, precipitation, sampling site (site relative to settlement, site situation, site category), wall vegetation, particular environment (in this case a natural park), general environment, adjacent natural vegetation and land cover were significantly associated with sand fly densities. The multivariate model for P. perniciosus revealed that its density was affected by site and land cover. Specifically, paved driveways correlated negatively with vector density (Incidence Risk Ratio (IRR): 0.41) and arable land cover correlated positively (IRR: 4.59). In the case of P. ariasi, a significant correlation was observed with the altitude and bioclimatic zone, with density increasing at >800 m above the mean sea level (IRR: 3.40) and decreasing in the meso-Mediterranean bioclimatic zone (IRR: 0.08). Both species were mostly found in agricultural and forest areas far from domestic environments. However, the two species correlated differently with altitude, bio-climate, vegetation, temperature and precipitation, which emphasises the importance of their individual analysis in studies regarding risk of leishmaniasis transmission.

  3. You Be the Judge: Display.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koeninger, Jimmy G.

    The instructional package was developed to provide the distributive education teacher-coordinator with visual materials that can be used to supplement existing textbook offerings in the area of display (visual merchandising). Designed for use with 35mm slides of retail store displays, the package allows the student to view the slides of displays…

  4. Flexible Bistable Cholesteric Reflective Displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Deng-Ke

    2006-03-01

    Cholesteric liquid crystals (ChLCs) exhibit two stable states at zero field condition-the reflecting planar state and the nonreflecting focal conic state. ChLCs are an excellent candidate for inexpensive and rugged electronic books and papers. This paper will review the display cell structure,materials and drive schemes for flexible bistable cholesteric (Ch) reflective displays.

  5. Displays: Entering a New Dimension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starkman, Neal

    2007-01-01

    As display technologies prepare to welcome 3-D, the 21st-century classroom will soon bear little resemblance to anything students and teachers have ever seen. In this article, the author presents the latest innovations in the world of digital display technology. These include: (1) Touchlight, an interactive touch screen program that takes a normal…

  6. Drugs derived from phage display

    PubMed Central

    Nixon, Andrew E; Sexton, Daniel J; Ladner, Robert C

    2014-01-01

    Phage display, one of today’s fundamental drug discovery technologies, allows identification of a broad range of biological drugs, including peptides, antibodies and other proteins, with the ability to tailor critical characteristics such as potency, specificity and cross-species binding. Further, unlike in vivo technologies, generating phage display-derived antibodies is not restricted by immunological tolerance. Although more than 20 phage display-derived antibody and peptides are currently in late-stage clinical trials or approved, there is little literature addressing the specific challenges and successes in the clinical development of phage-derived drugs. This review uses case studies, from candidate identification through clinical development, to illustrate the utility of phage display as a drug discovery tool, and offers a perspective for future developments of phage display technology. PMID:24262785

  7. Three-dimensional display technologies.

    PubMed

    Geng, Jason

    2013-01-01

    The physical world around us is three-dimensional (3D), yet traditional display devices can show only two-dimensional (2D) flat images that lack depth (i.e., the third dimension) information. This fundamental restriction greatly limits our ability to perceive and to understand the complexity of real-world objects. Nearly 50% of the capability of the human brain is devoted to processing visual information [Human Anatomy & Physiology (Pearson, 2012)]. Flat images and 2D displays do not harness the brain's power effectively. With rapid advances in the electronics, optics, laser, and photonics fields, true 3D display technologies are making their way into the marketplace. 3D movies, 3D TV, 3D mobile devices, and 3D games have increasingly demanded true 3D display with no eyeglasses (autostereoscopic). Therefore, it would be very beneficial to readers of this journal to have a systematic review of state-of-the-art 3D display technologies.

  8. INFORMATION DISPLAY: CONSIDERATIONS FOR DESIGNING COMPUTER-BASED DISPLAY SYSTEMS.

    SciTech Connect

    O'HARA,J.M.; PIRUS,D.; BELTRATCCHI,L.

    2004-09-19

    This paper discussed the presentation of information in computer-based control rooms. Issues associated with the typical displays currently in use are discussed. It is concluded that these displays should be augmented with new displays designed to better meet the information needs of plant personnel and to minimize the need for interface management tasks (the activities personnel have to do to access and organize the information they need). Several approaches to information design are discussed, specifically addressing: (1) monitoring, detection, and situation assessment; (2) routine task performance; and (3) teamwork, crew coordination, collaborative work.

  9. Flat panel display Impurity doping technology for flat panel displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Toshiharu

    2005-08-01

    Features of the flat panel displays (FPDs) such as liquid crystal display (LCD) and organic light emitting diode (OLED) display, etc. using low temperature poly-Si (LTPS) thin film transistors (TFTs) are briefly reviewed comparing with other FPDs. The requirements for fabricating TFTs used for high performance FPDs and system on glass (SoG) are addressed. This paper focuses on the impurity doping technology, which is one of the key technologies together with crystallization by laser annealing, formation of high quality gate insulator and gate-insulator/poly-Si interface. The issues to be solved in impurity doping technology for state of the art and future TFTs are clarified.

  10. Visual displays and Neuro-Linguistic Programming

    SciTech Connect

    Brown-VanHoozer, S.A.; VanHoozer, W.R.

    1994-10-01

    Advancement of computer technology is forthcoming at such a rapid pace that the research concerning the interplay of humans and computer technology is lagging far behind. One area of particular concern is the design of visual displays that are pragmatic, ``user friendly,`` and ``user assisting.`` When engineers design visual displays, they generally do so methodically and logically, but only from within their own individual perspective or ``model of the world.`` They select the human aspects which make sense to them and not necessarily to non-engineers, operators, and others. The model design is what the engineer chooses to relate, based on his or her perspective of reality. These choices limit the model design thereby excluding the users` perspective. A set of techniques which can be used to assist the designers in expanding their choices and include the users` model is Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP).

  11. Pheromonal control of aggressive display in siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens).

    PubMed

    Colyer, S W; Jenkins, C

    1976-02-01

    Male Siamese fighting fish displayed and respirated from the surface more frequently in water containing secretions collected from non-displaying male conspecifics than they did in clean water. Secretions collected from males given the opportunity to display to a mirror for 16, 30, or 45 min. did not affect display activity. However, secretions collected from males allowed to display to a mirror for 16 min. produced an increase in respiration rates. Secretions collected from males which had been stressed by electric shock resulted in decrements in aggressive display. Taken together, results of these experiments suggest that male Siamese fighting fish secrete substances which affect mirror-induced aggression and respiration rates.

  12. The hubris hypothesis: The downside of comparative optimism displays.

    PubMed

    Hoorens, Vera; Van Damme, Carolien; Helweg-Larsen, Marie; Sedikides, Constantine

    2017-04-01

    According to the hubris hypothesis, observers respond more unfavorably to individuals who express their positive self-views comparatively than to those who express their positive self-views non-comparatively, because observers infer that the former hold a more disparaging view of others and particularly of observers. Two experiments extended the hubris hypothesis in the domain of optimism. Observers attributed less warmth (but not less competence) to, and showed less interest in affiliating with, an individual displaying comparative optimism (the belief that one's future will be better than others' future) than with an individual displaying absolute optimism (the belief that one's future will be good). Observers responded differently to individuals displaying comparative versus absolute optimism, because they inferred that the former held a gloomier view of the observers' future. Consistent with previous research, observers still attributed more positive traits to a comparative or absolute optimist than to a comparative or absolute pessimist.

  13. Tone compatibility between HDR displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bist, Cambodge; Cozot, Rémi; Madec, Gérard; Ducloux, Xavier

    2016-09-01

    High Dynamic Range (HDR) is the latest trend in television technology and we expect an in ux of HDR capable consumer TVs in the market. Initial HDR consumer displays will operate on a peak brightness of about 500-1000 nits while in the coming years display peak brightness is expected to go beyond 1000 nits. However, professionally graded HDR content can range from 1000 to 4000 nits. As with Standard Dynamic Range (SDR) content, we can expect HDR content to be available in variety of lighting styles such as low key, medium key and high key video. This raises concerns over tone-compatibility between HDR displays especially when adapting to various lighting styles. It is expected that dynamic range adaptation between HDR displays uses similar techniques as found with tone mapping and tone expansion operators. In this paper, we survey simple tone mapping methods of 4000 nits color-graded HDR content for 1000 nits HDR displays. We also investigate tone expansion strategies when HDR content graded in 1000 nits is displayed on 4000 nits HDR monitors. We conclude that the best tone reproduction technique between HDR displays strongly depends on the lighting style of the content.

  14. Virtual displays for 360-degree video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbert, Stephen; Boonsuk, Wutthigrai; Kelly, Jonathan W.

    2012-03-01

    In this paper we describe a novel approach for comparing users' spatial cognition when using different depictions of 360- degree video on a traditional 2D display. By using virtual cameras within a game engine and texture mapping of these camera feeds to an arbitrary shape, we were able to offer users a 360-degree interface composed of four 90-degree views, two 180-degree views, or one 360-degree view of the same interactive environment. An example experiment is described using these interfaces. This technique for creating alternative displays of wide-angle video facilitates the exploration of how compressed or fish-eye distortions affect spatial perception of the environment and can benefit the creation of interfaces for surveillance and remote system teleoperation.

  15. Texture-Based Correspondence Display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerald-Yamasaki, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Texture-based correspondence display is a methodology to display corresponding data elements in visual representations of complex multidimensional, multivariate data. Texture is utilized as a persistent medium to contain a visual representation model and as a means to create multiple renditions of data where color is used to identify correspondence. Corresponding data elements are displayed over a variety of visual metaphors in a normal rendering process without adding extraneous linking metadata creation and maintenance. The effectiveness of visual representation for understanding data is extended to the expression of the visual representation model in texture.

  16. Circular displays: control/display arrangements and stereotype strength with eight different display locations.

    PubMed

    Chan, Alan H S; Hoffmann, Errol R

    2015-01-01

    Two experiments are reported that were designed to investigate control/display arrangements having high stereotype strengths when using circular displays. Eight display locations relative to the operator and control were tested with rotational and translational controls situated on different planes according to the Frame of Reference Transformation Tool (FORT) model of Wickens et al. (2010). (Left. No, Right! Development of the Frame of Reference Transformation Tool (FORT), Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 54th Annual Meeting, 54: 1022-1026). In many cases, there was little effect of display locations, indicating the importance of the Worringham and Beringer (1998. Directional stimulus-response compatibility: a test of three alternative principles. Ergonomics, 41(6), 864-880) Visual Field principle and an extension of this principle for rotary controls (Hoffmann and Chan (2013). The Worringham and Beringer 'visual field' principle for rotary controls. Ergonomics, 56(10), 1620-1624). The initial indicator position (12, 3, 6 and 9 o'clock) had a major effect on control/display stereotype strength for many of the six controls tested. Best display/control arrangements are listed for each of the different control types (rotational and translational) and for the planes on which they are mounted. Data have application where a circular display is used due to limited display panel space and applies to space-craft, robotics operators, hospital equipment and home appliances. Practitioner Summary: Circular displays are often used when there is limited space available on a control panel. Display/control arrangements having high stereotype strength are listed for four initial indicator positions. These arrangements are best for design purposes.

  17. Digital display of astronomical data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grandi, S. A.

    1982-08-01

    A brief summary is given of techniques to enhance for photographic display digital astronomical images. The phenomenon of photographic deresolution is discussed and a proposed algorithm, the highpass squared filter, is presented to correct for this effect.

  18. Color speckle in laser displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuroda, Kazuo

    2015-07-01

    At the beginning of this century, lighting technology has been shifted from discharge lamps, fluorescent lamps and electric bulbs to solid-state lighting. Current solid-state lighting is based on the light emitting diodes (LED) technology, but the laser lighting technology is developing rapidly, such as, laser cinema projectors, laser TVs, laser head-up displays, laser head mounted displays, and laser headlamps for motor vehicles. One of the main issues of laser displays is the reduction of speckle noise1). For the monochromatic laser light, speckle is random interference pattern on the image plane (retina for human observer). For laser displays, RGB (red-green-blue) lasers form speckle patterns independently, which results in random distribution of chromaticity, called color speckle2).

  19. Fluidic-thermochromic display device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grafstein, D.; Hilborn, E. H.

    1968-01-01

    Fluidic decoder and display device has low-power requirements for temperature control of thermochromic materials. An electro-to-fluid converter translates incoming electrical signals into pneumatics signal of sufficient power to operate the fluidic logic elements.

  20. Animated Displays IV: Linear Polarization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chagnon, Paul

    1993-01-01

    Describes several demonstrations that can be easily reproduced to help students understand optical polarization. Displays and supplement text include polarization by reflection; polarization by scattering; liquid crystals; optical activity; calcite; birefringent plastics; retardation plates; photoelasticity; and the "Optical Barber…

  1. Multiplane binocular visual display system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chase, W. D.

    1976-01-01

    Electro-optic system is interfaced with digital computer in flight simulator to generate simultaneous multiple-image planes in real time. System may have applications with other display and remote-control systems.

  2. Ten inch Planar Optic Display

    SciTech Connect

    Beiser, L.; Veligdan, J.

    1996-04-01

    A Planar Optic Display (POD) is being built and tested for suitability as a high brightness replacement for the cathode ray tube, (CRT). The POD display technology utilizes a laminated optical waveguide structure which allows a projection type of display to be constructed in a thin (I to 2 inch) housing. Inherent in the optical waveguide is a black cladding matrix which gives the display a black appearance leading to very high contrast. A Digital Micromirror Device, (DMD) from Texas Instruments is used to create video images in conjunction with a 100 milliwatt green solid state laser. An anamorphic optical system is used to inject light into the POD to form a stigmatic image. In addition to the design of the POD screen, we discuss: image formation, image projection, and optical design constraints.

  3. A Well Tempered Mammographic Display

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-09-01

    ambient light levels. A calibration procedure was developed that derived a display function for the mammogram display based upon equalizing the just...noticeable difference in contrast over the intensity range of the monitor at ambient illumination. The maximum and minimum pixel intensity determined... medio -lateral oblique views was developed. The time to detection and the detection accuracy using ROC analysis was compared for two radiologists reading

  4. Large Screen Display Technology Survey.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-07-01

    source, which are made incident upon this combination, are blocked at the f focal plane. By inserting an optical scattering device (a small prism or...Systems Products, Inc. One Tico Road Titusville, Florida 32780 Contact: Debra Day, Area Manager Richard Smith, Technical Staff Telephone: (305) 269-6680...lamp. Optics coupled with an oil-immersion prism project color-filtered light on the display screen. A display resolution of 1024 X 1024 elements is

  5. Alternative display and interaction devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolas, M. T.; McDowall, I. E.; Mead, R. X.; Lorimer, E. R.; Hackbush, J. E.; Greuel, C.

    1995-01-01

    While virtual environment systems are typically thought to consist of a head mounted display and a flex-sensing glove, alternative peripheral devices are beginning to be developed in response to application requirements. Three such alternatives are discussed: fingertip sensing gloves, fixed stereoscopic viewers, and counterbalanced head mounted displays. A subset of commercial examples that highlight each alternative is presented as well as a brief discussion of interesting engineering and implementation issues.

  6. Effective color design for displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, Lindsay W.

    2002-06-01

    Visual communication is a key aspect of human-computer interaction, which contributes to the satisfaction of user and application needs. For effective design of presentations on computer displays, color should be used in conjunction with the other visual variables. The general needs of graphic user interfaces are discussed, followed by five specific tasks with differing criteria for display color specification - advertising, text, information, visualization and imaging.

  7. Prevention: lessons from video display installations

    SciTech Connect

    Margach, C.B.

    1983-04-01

    Workers interacting with video display units for periods in excess of two hours per day report significantly increased visual discomfort, fatigue and inefficiencies, as compared with workers performing similar tasks, but without the video viewing component. Difficulties in focusing and the appearance of myopia are among the problems being described. With a view to preventing or minimizing such problems, principles and procedures are presented providing for (a) modification of physical features of the video workstation and (b) improvement in the visual performances of the individual video unit operator.

  8. Controlling Motion Sickness and Spatial Disorientation and Enhancing Vestibular Rehabilitation with a User-Worn See-Through Display

    PubMed Central

    Krueger, Wesley W.O.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives/Hypotheses An eyewear mounted visual display (“User-worn see-through display”) projecting an artificial horizon aligned with the user's head and body position in space can prevent or lessen motion sickness in susceptible individuals when in a motion provocative environment as well as aid patients undergoing vestibular rehabilitation. In this project, a wearable display device, including software technology and hardware, was developed and a phase I feasibility study and phase II clinical trial for safety and efficacy were performed. Study Design Both phase I and phase II were prospective studies funded by the NIH. The phase II study used repeated measures for motion intolerant subjects and a randomized control group (display device/no display device) pre-post test design for patients in vestibular rehabilitation. Methods Following technology and display device development, 75 patients were evaluated by test and rating scales in the phase II study; 25 subjects with motion intolerance used the technology in the display device in provocative environments and completed subjective rating scales while 50 patients were evaluated before and after vestibular rehabilitation (25 using the display device and 25 in a control group) using established test measures. Results All patients with motion intolerance rated the technology as helpful for nine symptoms assessed, and 96% rated the display device as simple and easy to use. Duration of symptoms significantly decreased with use of the technology displayed. In patients undergoing vestibular rehabilitation, there were no significant differences in amount of change from pre- to post-therapy on objective balance tests between display device users and controls. However, those using the technology required significantly fewer rehabilitation sessions to achieve those outcomes than the control group. Conclusions A user-worn see-through display, utilizing a visual fixation target coupled with a stable artificial horizon

  9. Individual Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corsini, Raymond

    1981-01-01

    Paper presented at the 66th Convention of the International Association of Pupil Personnel Workers, October 20, 1980, Baltimore, Maryland, describes individual education based on the principles of Alfred Adler. Defines six advantages of individual education, emphasizing student responsibility, mutual respect, and allowing students to progress at…

  10. Advanced Three-Dimensional Display System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geng, Jason

    2005-01-01

    A desktop-scale, computer-controlled display system, initially developed for NASA and now known as the VolumeViewer(TradeMark), generates three-dimensional (3D) images of 3D objects in a display volume. This system differs fundamentally from stereoscopic and holographic display systems: The images generated by this system are truly 3D in that they can be viewed from almost any angle, without the aid of special eyeglasses. It is possible to walk around the system while gazing at its display volume to see a displayed object from a changing perspective, and multiple observers standing at different positions around the display can view the object simultaneously from their individual perspectives, as though the displayed object were a real 3D object. At the time of writing this article, only partial information on the design and principle of operation of the system was available. It is known that the system includes a high-speed, silicon-backplane, ferroelectric-liquid-crystal spatial light modulator (SLM), multiple high-power lasers for projecting images in multiple colors, a rotating helix that serves as a moving screen for displaying voxels [volume cells or volume elements, in analogy to pixels (picture cells or picture elements) in two-dimensional (2D) images], and a host computer. The rotating helix and its motor drive are the only moving parts. Under control by the host computer, a stream of 2D image patterns is generated on the SLM and projected through optics onto the surface of the rotating helix. The system utilizes a parallel pixel/voxel-addressing scheme: All the pixels of the 2D pattern on the SLM are addressed simultaneously by laser beams. This parallel addressing scheme overcomes the difficulty of achieving both high resolution and a high frame rate in a raster scanning or serial addressing scheme. It has been reported that the structure of the system is simple and easy to build, that the optical design and alignment are not difficult, and that the

  11. Phosphors for flat panel emissive displays

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, M.T.; Walko, R.J.; Phillips, M.L.F.

    1995-07-01

    An overview of emissive display technologies is presented. Display types briefly described include: cathode ray tubes (CRTs), field emission displays (FEDs), electroluminescent displays (ELDs), and plasma display panels (PDPs). The critical role of phosphors in further development of the latter three flat panel emissive display technologies is outlined. The need for stable, efficient red, green, and blue phosphors for RGB fall color displays is emphasized.

  12. How the user views visual displays

    SciTech Connect

    Brown-VanHoozer, S.A.

    1995-12-31

    Most designers are not schooled in the area of human-interaction psychology and therefore tend to rely on the traditional ergonomic aspects of human factors when designing complex human-interactive workstations. Unfortunately, by ignoring the importance of the integration of the user interface at the psychophysiological level, the result can be ineffective use of a system leading to an inherently error- and failure-prone system. Therefore, to minimize failures in a human-interactive system, it is essential that designers understand how each user`s processing characteristics affect how the user gathers and processes information. By understanding the significant processing characteristics of the user, designers can implement practical and effective visual displays (or any other type of system) that are more desirable to all users. The material presented in this paper is based on a general study that involved users` perspective views of how visual displays should be designed for effective use. The methodology used was Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP), because of its applicability in expanding design choices from the users` ``model of the world.`` The findings of the study have provided a beginning in the development of user comfort parameters and visual displays.

  13. Mask lithography for display manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandstrom, T.; Ekberg, P.

    2010-05-01

    The last ten years have seen flat displays conquer our briefcases, desktops, and living rooms. There has been an enormous development in production technology, not least in lithography and photomasks. Current masks for large displays are more than 2 m2 and make 4-6 1X prints on glass substrates that are 9 m2. One of the most challenging aspects of photomasks for displays is the so called mura, stripes or blemishes which cause visible defects in the finished display. For the future new and even tighter maskwriter specifications are driven by faster transistors and more complex pixel layouts made necessary by the market's wish for still better image quality, multi-touch panels, 3D TVs, and the next wave of e-book readers. Large OLED screens will pose new challenges. Many new types of displays will be lowcost and use simple lithography, but anything which can show video and high quality photographic images needs a transistor backplane and sophisticated masks for its production.

  14. Three-dimensional display technologies

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Jason

    2014-01-01

    The physical world around us is three-dimensional (3D), yet traditional display devices can show only two-dimensional (2D) flat images that lack depth (i.e., the third dimension) information. This fundamental restriction greatly limits our ability to perceive and to understand the complexity of real-world objects. Nearly 50% of the capability of the human brain is devoted to processing visual information [Human Anatomy & Physiology (Pearson, 2012)]. Flat images and 2D displays do not harness the brain’s power effectively. With rapid advances in the electronics, optics, laser, and photonics fields, true 3D display technologies are making their way into the marketplace. 3D movies, 3D TV, 3D mobile devices, and 3D games have increasingly demanded true 3D display with no eyeglasses (autostereoscopic). Therefore, it would be very beneficial to readers of this journal to have a systematic review of state-of-the-art 3D display technologies. PMID:25530827

  15. IMDISP - INTERACTIVE IMAGE DISPLAY PROGRAM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, M. D.

    1994-01-01

    The Interactive Image Display Program (IMDISP) is an interactive image display utility for the IBM Personal Computer (PC, XT and AT) and compatibles. Until recently, efforts to utilize small computer systems for display and analysis of scientific data have been hampered by the lack of sufficient data storage capacity to accomodate large image arrays. Most planetary images, for example, require nearly a megabyte of storage. The recent development of the "CDROM" (Compact Disk Read-Only Memory) storage technology makes possible the storage of up to 680 megabytes of data on a single 4.72-inch disk. IMDISP was developed for use with the CDROM storage system which is currently being evaluated by the Planetary Data System. The latest disks to be produced by the Planetary Data System are a set of three disks containing all of the images of Uranus acquired by the Voyager spacecraft. The images are in both compressed and uncompressed format. IMDISP can read the uncompressed images directly, but special software is provided to decompress the compressed images, which can not be processed directly. IMDISP can also display images stored on floppy or hard disks. A digital image is a picture converted to numerical form so that it can be stored and used in a computer. The image is divided into a matrix of small regions called picture elements, or pixels. The rows and columns of pixels are called "lines" and "samples", respectively. Each pixel has a numerical value, or DN (data number) value, quantifying the darkness or brightness of the image at that spot. In total, each pixel has an address (line number, sample number) and a DN value, which is all that the computer needs for processing. DISPLAY commands allow the IMDISP user to display all or part of an image at various positions on the display screen. The user may also zoom in and out from a point on the image defined by the cursor, and may pan around the image. To enable more or all of the original image to be displayed on the

  16. Developing tiled projection display systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hereld, M.; Judson, I. R.; Paris, J.; Stevens, R. L.

    2000-06-08

    Tiled displays are an emerging technology for constructing high-resolution semi-immersive visualization environments capable of presenting high-resolution images from scientific simulation [EVL, PowerWall]. In this way, they complement other technologies such as the CAVE [Cruz-Niera92] or ImmersaDesk, [Czernuszenko97], which by design give up pure resolution in favor of width of view and stereo. However, the largest impact may well be in using large-format tiled displays as one of possibly multiple displays in building ''information'' or ''active'' spaces that surround the user with diverse ways of interacting with data and multimedia information flows [IPSI, Childers00, Raskar98, ROME, Stanford, UNC]. These environments may prove to be the ultimate successor of the desktop metaphor for information technology work.

  17. Spatial displays as a means to increase pilot situational awareness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fadden, Delmar M.; Braune, Rolf; Wiedemann, John

    1989-01-01

    Experiences raise a number of concerns for future spatial-display developers. While the promise of spatial displays is great, the cost of their development will be correspondingly large. The knowledge and skills which must be coordinated to ensure successful results is unprecedent. From the viewpoint of the designer, basic knowledge of how human beings perceive and process complex displays appears fragmented and largely unquantified. Methodologies for display development require prototyping and testing with subject pilots for even small changes. Useful characterizations of the range of differences between individual users is nonexistent or at best poorly understood. The nature, significance, and frequency of interpretation errors associated with complex integrated displays is unexplored and undocumented territory. Graphic displays have intuitive appeal and can achieve face validity much more readily than earlier symbolic displays. The risk of misleading the pilot is correspondingly greater. Thus while some in the research community are developing the tools and techniques necessary for effective spatial-display development, potential users must be educated about the issues so that informed choices can be made. The scope of the task facing all is great. The task is challenging and the potential for meaningful contributions at all levels is high indeed.

  18. Optimization of color LC displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosmowski, Bogdan B.

    1995-08-01

    The advancement of the liquid crystal display (LCD) technology, and improvements of the optical and electro-optical properties, have enabled the broad expansion of LCDs application field. The rapid development of the multimedia techniques, new applications in automotive, office, medical domain, forced the demand for the color displays--for the information presentation with the color code. The necessity to fulfil many contradictory and extreme conditions caused the development of the optimization procedures of the color LC displays to be a big problem. Most of the LCDs used nowadays are the twisted nematic, super twisted nematic, and active matrix thin film transistor LCD. The characterization of the achromatic black/white LCDs is made by means of photometric measuring methods, and quantitative measures are used: luminance, reflectance, contrast, contrast ration; as a function of a driving voltage, viewing angle, temperature, etc. The characterization of the color LCD is based on the spectral distributions of the transmittance or reflectance. Quantitative measures are chromatic coordinates and luminance factors are defined according to the colorimetric systems--CIE 1931, CIE 1976, CIELUV, CIELAB. The color difference (Delta) E in the CIELUV system is applied as a optimization parameter for the color display module. The spectral properties of all optical elements of the display module are analyzed and their influence on the set of the optical factors of LCD is evaluated. The correlation between technological parameters and optical characteristics of the LCD has been investigated. The choice of the optimization criterion is discussed and the optimization algorithm is proposed. Results of the color displays evaluation for some examples with different preconditions are presented.

  19. Vetronics Technology Demonstrator Display Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Private Computing Devices CanadaA GENERAL DYNAMICS COMPANY Display Architecture Video Module •General Purpose Video I/F • LVDS •RGB Analog •Separate...Hsync & Vsync •Composite TTL Sync •Sync on Green (RS-170) •NTSC/PAL/SECAM •Frame rate/Scan converter/Scaler •Standard LVDS output Power Supply Module...Mil-Std-1275 compliant input •Heater Power @ 150W LCD Display Head •Backlight •Microcontroller •Video I/F ( LVDS ) •Adapted for each specific LCD •8.4

  20. Modern Display Technologies and Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    3.3.4.1 Matrix addressing 72 3.3.4.2 Improvements in drive methods 74 3.3.4.3 Exploitation of alternative liquid crystal effects 75 3.3.4.4...addressing method on e.g. LCD displays, the maximum ratio for rms ON voltage over rms OFF voltage for addressed and non-selected pixels (2.11) is shown...analogue pointer displays. The method makes use of the correlation properties of pseudorandom binary sequence (prbs) waveforms. Each line electrode of

  1. Visual Attention to Radar Displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moray, N.; Richards, M.; Brophy, C.

    1984-01-01

    A model is described which predicts the allocation of attention to the features of a radar display. It uses the growth of uncertainty and the probability of near collision to call the eye to a feature of the display. The main source of uncertainty is forgetting following a fixation, which is modelled as a two dimensional diffusion process. The model was used to predict information overload in intercept controllers, and preliminary validation obtained by recording eye movements of intercept controllers in simulated and live (practice) interception.

  2. Drag and drop display & builder

    SciTech Connect

    Bolshakov, Timofei B.; Petrov, Andrey D.; /Fermilab

    2007-12-01

    The Drag and Drop (DnD) Display & Builder is a component-oriented system that allows users to create visual representations of data received from data acquisition systems. It is an upgrade of a Synoptic Display mechanism used at Fermilab since 2002. Components can be graphically arranged and logically interconnected in the web-startable Project Builder. Projects can be either lightweight AJAX- and SVG-based web pages, or they can be started as Java applications. The new version was initiated as a response to discussions between the LHC Controls Group and Fermilab.

  3. 40 CFR 91.1007 - Display exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Display exemption. 91.1007 Section 91....1007 Display exemption. An uncertified marine SI engine is a display engine when it is to be used solely for display purposes, will only be operated incident and necessary to the display purpose,...

  4. 40 CFR 91.1007 - Display exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Display exemption. 91.1007 Section 91....1007 Display exemption. An uncertified marine SI engine is a display engine when it is to be used solely for display purposes, will only be operated incident and necessary to the display purpose,...

  5. 40 CFR 91.1007 - Display exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Display exemption. 91.1007 Section 91....1007 Display exemption. An uncertified marine SI engine is a display engine when it is to be used solely for display purposes, will only be operated incident and necessary to the display purpose,...

  6. 40 CFR 89.907 - Display exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Display exemption. 89.907 Section 89....907 Display exemption. Where an uncertified nonroad engine is a display engine to be used solely for display purposes, will only be operated incident and necessary to the display purpose, and will not...

  7. 40 CFR 89.907 - Display exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Display exemption. 89.907 Section 89....907 Display exemption. Where an uncertified nonroad engine is a display engine to be used solely for display purposes, will only be operated incident and necessary to the display purpose, and will not...

  8. 40 CFR 89.907 - Display exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Display exemption. 89.907 Section 89....907 Display exemption. Where an uncertified nonroad engine is a display engine to be used solely for display purposes, will only be operated incident and necessary to the display purpose, and will not...

  9. 40 CFR 89.907 - Display exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Display exemption. 89.907 Section 89....907 Display exemption. Where an uncertified nonroad engine is a display engine to be used solely for display purposes, will only be operated incident and necessary to the display purpose, and will not...

  10. 40 CFR 89.907 - Display exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Display exemption. 89.907 Section 89....907 Display exemption. Where an uncertified nonroad engine is a display engine to be used solely for display purposes, will only be operated incident and necessary to the display purpose, and will not...

  11. 40 CFR 91.1007 - Display exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Display exemption. 91.1007 Section 91....1007 Display exemption. An uncertified marine SI engine is a display engine when it is to be used solely for display purposes, will only be operated incident and necessary to the display purpose,...

  12. 40 CFR 91.1007 - Display exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Display exemption. 91.1007 Section 91....1007 Display exemption. An uncertified marine SI engine is a display engine when it is to be used solely for display purposes, will only be operated incident and necessary to the display purpose,...

  13. Individualizing Medicare.

    PubMed

    Chollet, D J

    1999-05-01

    Despite the enactment of significant changes to the Medicare program in 1997, Medicare's Hospital Insurance trust fund is projected to be exhausted just as the baby boom enters retirement. To address Medicare's financial difficulties, a number of reform proposals have been offered, including several to individualize Medicare financing and benefits. These proposals would attempt to increase Medicare revenues and reduce Medicare expenditures by having individuals bear risk--investment market risk before retirement and insurance market risk after retirement. Many fundamental aspects of these proposals have yet to be worked out, including how to guarantee a baseline level of saving for health insurance after retirement, how retirees might finance unanticipated health insurance price increases after retirement, the potential implications for Medicaid of inadequate individual saving, and whether the administrative cost of making the system fair and adequate ultimately would eliminate any rate-of-return advantages from allowing workers to invest their Medicare contributions in corporate stocks and bonds.

  14. Book Display as Adult Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Matthew S.

    1997-01-01

    Defines book display as an adult service as choosing and positioning adult books from the library collection to increase their circulation. The author contrasts bookstore arrangement for sales versus library arrangement for access, including contrasting missions, genre grouping, weeding, problems, and dimensions. (Author/LRW)

  15. Real Image Visual Display System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-01

    DTI-100M autostereoscopic display ......................... 15 8. Lenticular screen ........ ............................. 16 9. Lenticular screen...the left eye receives the other. The brain then combines the two images into a three-dimensional volume. Autostereoscopic imaging provides separate...a computer screen. Next, several techniques for creating three-dimensional images are presented. 5 These methods focus primarily on autostereoscopic

  16. Graphics Display of Foreign Scripts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abercrombie, John R.

    1987-01-01

    Describes Graphics Project for Foreign Language Learning at the University of Pennsylvania, which has developed ways of displaying foreign scripts on microcomputers. Character design on computer screens is explained; software for graphics, printing, and language instruction is discussed; and a text editor is described that corrects optically…

  17. Synthetic vision display evaluation studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Regal, David M.; Whittington, David H.

    1994-01-01

    The goal of this research was to help us understand the display requirements for a synthetic vision system for the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT). Four experiments were conducted to examine the effects of different levels of perceptual cue complexity in displays used by pilots in a flare and landing task. Increased levels of texture mapping of terrain and runway produced mixed results, including harder but shorter landings and a lower flare initiation altitude. Under higher workload conditions, increased texture resulted in an improvement in performance. An increase in familiar size cues did not result in improved performance. Only a small difference was found between displays using two patterns of high resolution texture mapping. The effects of increased perceptual cue complexity on performance was not as strong as would be predicted from the pilot's subjective reports or from related literature. A description of the role of a synthetic vision system in the High Speed Civil Transport is provide along with a literature review covering applied research related to perceptual cue usage in aircraft displays.

  18. Autostereoscopic display with eye tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomono, Takao; Hoon, Kyung; Ha, Yong Soo; Kim, Sung-Sik; Son, Jung-Young

    2002-05-01

    Auto-stereoscopic 21-inch display with eye tracking having wide viewing zone and bright image was fabricated. The image of display is projected to retinal through several optical components. We calculated optical system for wider viewing zone by using Inverse-Ray Trace Method. The viewing zone of first model is 155mm (theoretical value: 161mm). We could widen viewing zone by controlling paraxial radius of curvature of spherical mirror, the distance between lenses and so on. The viewing zone of second model is 208mm. We used two spherical mirrors to obtain twice brightness. We applied eye-tracking system to the display system. Eye recognition is based on neural network card based on ZICS technology. We fabricated Auto-stereoscopic 21-inch display with eye tracking. We measured viewing zone based on illumination area. The viewing zone was 206mm, which was close to theoretical value. We could get twice brightness also. We could see 3D image according to position without headgear.

  19. Video Display Terminals: Radiation Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, William E.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses information gathered in past few years related to health effects of video display terminals (VDTs) with particular emphasis given to issues raised by VDT users. Topics covered include radiation emissions, health concerns, radiation surveys, occupational radiation exposure standards, and long-term risks. (17 references) (EJS)

  20. Real Time Sonic Boom Display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haering, Ed

    2014-01-01

    This presentation will provide general information about sonic boom mitigation technology to the public in order to supply information to potential partners and licensees. The technology is a combination of flight data, atmospheric data and terrain information implemented into a control room real time display for flight planning. This research is currently being performed and as such, any results and conclusions are ongoing.

  1. Interference Phenomenon with Mobile Displays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trantham, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    A simple experiment is presented in which the spacing and geometric pattern of pixels in mobile displays is measured. The technique is based on optical constructive interference. While the experiment is another opportunity to demonstrate wave interference from a grating-like structure, this can also be used to demonstrate concepts of solid state…

  2. Lethally Innocuous Visual Display Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cawkell, A. E.

    1991-01-01

    Examines conflicting studies which report on the effects of Visual Display Units (VDU) on health. Five aspects of alleged VDU effects are discussed: (1) radiation or emission effects; (2) visual effects; (3) postural effects; (4) effects on the arms and fingers; and (5) ultrasonic noise from scanning components. (36 references) (MAB)

  3. Crystal ball single event display

    SciTech Connect

    Grosnick, D.; Gibson, A.; Allgower, C.; Alyea, J. |

    1997-10-15

    The Single Event Display (SED) is a routine that is designed to provide information graphically about a triggered event within the Crystal Ball. The SED is written entirely in FORTRAN and uses the CERN-based HICZ graphing package. The primary display shows the amount of energy deposited in each of the NaI crystals on a Mercator-like projection of the crystals. Ten different shades and colors correspond to varying amounts of energy deposited within a crystal. Information about energy clusters is displayed on the crystal map by outlining in red the thirteen (or twelve) crystals contained within a cluster and assigning each cluster a number. Additional information about energy clusters is provided in a series of boxes containing useful data about the energy distribution among the crystals within the cluster. Other information shown on the event display include the event trigger type and data about {pi}{sup o}`s and {eta}`s formed from pairs of clusters as found by the analyzer. A description of the major features is given, along with some information on how to install the SED into the analyzer.

  4. Digital Display Integration Project Project Online 2.0

    SciTech Connect

    Bardsley, J. N.

    1999-11-01

    transfer; and optimizing techniques to reduce communications bandwidth. Additional topics that will be addressed include: obtaining greater color control; minimization of seam widths in tiled displays; and the human factors that impact the efficient use of high resolution displays. The scope of the project will include both direct-view displays, for use by individuals and small groups, and projection systems for conference rooms and auditoriums.

  5. Solar active region display system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golightly, M.; Raben, V.; Weyland, M.

    2003-04-01

    The Solar Active Region Display System (SARDS) is a client-server application that automatically collects a wide range of solar data and displays it in a format easy for users to assimilate and interpret. Users can rapidly identify active regions of interest or concern from color-coded indicators that visually summarize each region's size, magnetic configuration, recent growth history, and recent flare and CME production. The active region information can be overlaid onto solar maps, multiple solar images, and solar difference images in orthographic, Mercator or cylindrical equidistant projections. Near real-time graphs display the GOES soft and hard x-ray flux, flare events, and daily F10.7 value as a function of time; color-coded indicators show current trends in soft x-ray flux, flare temperature, daily F10.7 flux, and x-ray flare occurrence. Through a separate window up to 4 real-time or static graphs can simultaneously display values of KP, AP, daily F10.7 flux, GOES soft and hard x-ray flux, GOES >10 and >100 MeV proton flux, and Thule neutron monitor count rate. Climatologic displays use color-valued cells to show F10.7 and AP values as a function of Carrington/Bartel's rotation sequences - this format allows users to detect recurrent patterns in solar and geomagnetic activity as well as variations in activity levels over multiple solar cycles. Users can customize many of the display and graph features; all displays can be printed or copied to the system's clipboard for "pasting" into other applications. The system obtains and stores space weather data and images from sources such as the NOAA Space Environment Center, NOAA National Geophysical Data Center, the joint ESA/NASA SOHO spacecraft, and the Kitt Peak National Solar Observatory, and can be extended to include other data series and image sources. Data and images retrieved from the system's database are converted to XML and transported from a central server using HTTP and SOAP protocols, allowing

  6. High definition wide format COTS displays for next-generation vetronic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnidge, T. J.; Hufnagel, Bruce D.; Tchon, Joseph L.

    2009-05-01

    The paper describes how military display users can benefit from emerging commercial market trends toward wideformat and high-resolution displays. This emerging display format offers several human factors benefits and more information along with high-definition sensor compatibility. The current commercial market trend highlights the growth of wide formats, which may affect the future availability of standard format COTS displays. The vetronics display that is being developed for the FCS family of combat vehicles is an example of a COTS wide-format, high-resolution display that is ruggedized for the next generation of soldiers.

  7. Combining volumetric edge display and multiview display for expression of natural 3D images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasui, Ryota; Matsuda, Isamu; Kakeya, Hideki

    2006-02-01

    In the present paper the authors present a novel stereoscopic display method combining volumetric edge display technology and multiview display technology to realize presentation of natural 3D images where the viewers do not suffer from contradiction between binocular convergence and focal accommodation of the eyes, which causes eyestrain and sickness. We adopt volumetric display method only for edge drawing, while we adopt stereoscopic approach for flat areas of the image. Since focal accommodation of our eyes is affected only by the edge part of the image, natural focal accommodation can be induced if the edges of the 3D image are drawn on the proper depth. The conventional stereo-matching technique can give us robust depth values of the pixels which constitute noticeable edges. Also occlusion and gloss of the objects can be roughly expressed with the proposed method since we use stereoscopic approach for the flat area. We can attain a system where many users can view natural 3D objects at the consistent position and posture at the same time in this system. A simple optometric experiment using a refractometer suggests that the proposed method can give us 3-D images without contradiction between binocular convergence and focal accommodation.

  8. JTEC panel on display technologies in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tannas, Lawrence E., Jr.; Glenn, William E.; Credelle, Thomas; Doane, J. William; Firester, Arthur H.; Thompson, Malcolm

    1992-01-01

    This report is one in a series of reports that describes research and development efforts in Japan in the area of display technologies. The following are included in this report: flat panel displays (technical findings, liquid crystal display development and production, large flat panel displays (FPD's), electroluminescent displays and plasma panels, infrastructure in Japan's FPD industry, market and projected sales, and new a-Si active matrix liquid crystal display (AMLCD) factory); materials for flat panel displays (liquid crystal materials, and light-emissive display materials); manufacturing and infrastructure of active matrix liquid crystal displays (manufacturing logistics and equipment); passive matrix liquid crystal displays (LCD basics, twisted nematics LCD's, supertwisted nematic LCD's, ferroelectric LCD's, and a comparison of passive matrix LCD technology); active matrix technology (basic active matrix technology, investment environment, amorphous silicon, polysilicon, and commercial products and prototypes); and projection displays (comparison of Japanese and U.S. display research, and technical evaluation of work).

  9. Display Sharing: An Alternative Paradigm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    The current Johnson Space Center (JSC) Mission Control Center (MCC) Video Transport System (VTS) provides flight controllers and management the ability to meld raw video from various sources with telemetry to improve situational awareness. However, maintaining a separate infrastructure for video delivery and integration of video content with data adds significant complexity and cost to the system. When considering alternative architectures for a VTS, the current system's ability to share specific computer displays in their entirety to other locations, such as large projector systems, flight control rooms, and back supporting rooms throughout the facilities and centers must be incorporated into any new architecture. Internet Protocol (IP)-based systems also support video delivery and integration. IP-based systems generally have an advantage in terms of cost and maintainability. Although IP-based systems are versatile, the task of sharing a computer display from one workstation to another can be time consuming for an end-user and inconvenient to administer at a system level. The objective of this paper is to present a prototype display sharing enterprise solution. Display sharing is a system which delivers image sharing across the LAN while simultaneously managing bandwidth, supporting encryption, enabling recovery and resynchronization following a loss of signal, and, minimizing latency. Additional critical elements will include image scaling support, multi -sharing, ease of initial integration and configuration, integration with desktop window managers, collaboration tools, host and recipient controls. This goal of this paper is to summarize the various elements of an IP-based display sharing system that can be used in today's control center environment.

  10. Structure and function of visual displays produced by male jacky dragons, Amphibolurus muricatud, during social interactions.

    PubMed

    Watt, Michael J; Joss, Jean M P

    2003-01-01

    Many lizards produce visual displays to mediate social behavior. However, most studies have focused upon displays used by iguanid lizards. We investigated and quantified the displays used by jacky dragons, an agamid lizard from southeastern Australia. By establishing male jacky dragons within individual territories and conducting experimental presentations of male and female intruders, we were able to demonstrate that territorial male Amphibolurus muricatus utilize a fixed action pattern display comprising discrete motor components to indicate territoriality and aggression. Displays directed to intruders contain an extra introductory component and modifying postural elements, whereas non-directed displays given in the absence of intruders lack these features and appear to be used to advertise territory ownership. Although the sequence of display components remained the same across non-directed, male-directed and female-directed displays, resident males differed in pushup duration and the number of pushups per display in relation to individual body size. This display variance might function to provide an honest signal revealing the body size or the physical condition of each individual, permitting opponents to assess each other effectively through their displays. Visual signals produced by intruding lizards were qualitatively distinct from the displays given by residents, and appear to indicate submission. However, male and female intruders differed in the frequency with which each type of submissive gesture was performed, implying that this might convey intruder sex.

  11. Displaying Colors of Specified Chrominance on a Color Graphics Display.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    coordinates (such as Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage CIEXYZ coordinates). This report contains the description of a procedure for displaying...colors of known chrominance as specified by CIEXYZ coordinates. The procedure makes use of models of a color graphics system intensity (bits) to lumi...coordinates (e.g., CIELUV -1976 CT contrast equations as described in Robertson, 1977). Thus, the results of most efforts to specify a set of colors to

  12. [Individualizing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horrigan, William J.

    The individually guided education (IGE) program developed by the Kettering Foundation was implemented in September of 1973 at the John F. Kennedy Memorial Junior High School in Woburn, Massachusetts. The components of the program described in this speech include pupil and teacher scheduling, physical layout, pupil selection and adjustment,…

  13. Affective Patterns in Triadic Family Interactions: Associations with Adolescent Depression

    PubMed Central

    Hollenstein, Tom; Allen, Nicholas; Sheeber, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Affective family processes are associated with the development of depression during adolescence. However, empirical description of these processes is generally based on examining affect at the individual or dyadic level. The purpose of this study was to examine triadic patterns of affect during parent-adolescent interactions in families with or without a depressed adolescent. We used state space grid analysis to characterize the state of all three actors simultaneously. Compared to healthy controls, triads with depressed adolescents displayed a wider range of affect, demonstrated less predictability of triadic affective sequences, spent more time and returned more quickly to discrepant affective states, and spent less time and returned more slowly to matched affective states, particularly while engaged in a problem-solving interaction. Furthermore, we identified seven unique triadic states in which triads with depressed adolescents spent significantly more time than triads with healthy controls. The present study enhances understanding of family affective processes related to depression by taking a more systemic approach and revealing triadic patterns that go beyond individual and dyadic analyses. PMID:25797844

  14. Smart displays in intelligent environments: a vision for Europe 2007+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maiser, Eric

    2005-07-01

    Future electronic systems will create "ambient intelligence": environments that recognise us, applications which can be used intuitively. Displays will always be a key part of such systems, because visual information provides a densely packed fast link to our brain. European researchers and suppliers are global drivers in display innovation - on the other hand Europe is a major influence on the market for display applications. However, today displays are produced in Asia, European research and development is scattered, and lacks both collaboration and a strong production base. That is why adria, a European network for the displays community, has been formed: Its goal is to substantially enhance the standing of the displays industry in Europe by creating a common knowledge base, by generating a common vision for a display future in Europe and by establishing appreciated services for a future association that will serve as a "one-stop-shop" for the community. To effectively start the discussion, a vision paper1 has been compiled including inputs from 95 individuals from 17 European countries. It describes the state displays research and industry are in today and estimates future developments displays will take towards intelligent systems in the next decade and beyond. Recommendations are made to reinforce the displays industry in a sustainable way building on existing strengths in research, as well as in the materials and equipment sectors. The adria network, its roadmapping approach as well as key projections and findings of the vision paper are described here, going beyond the topic of Organic Light Emitting Diodes alone.

  15. Cell surface display of functional human MHC class II proteins: yeast display versus insect cell display

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Fei; Sethi, Dhruv K.; Wucherpfennig, Kai W.; Zhao, Huimin

    2011-01-01

    Reliable and robust systems for engineering functional major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII) proteins have proved elusive. Availability of such systems would enable the engineering of peptide-MHCII (pMHCII) complexes for therapeutic and diagnostic applications. In this paper, we have developed a system based on insect cell surface display that allows functional expression of heterodimeric DR2 molecules with or without a covalently bound human myelin basic protein (MBP) peptide, which is amenable to directed evolution of DR2–MBP variants with improved T cell receptor (TCR)-binding affinity. This study represents the first example of functional display of human pMHCII complexes on insect cell surface. In the process of developing this pMHCII engineering system, we have also explored the potential of using yeast surface display for the same application. Our data suggest that yeast display is a useful system for analysis and engineering of peptide binding of MHCII proteins, but not suitable for directed evolution of pMHC complexes that bind with low affinity to self-reactive TCRs. PMID:21752831

  16. Affect in electoral politics.

    PubMed

    Glaser, J; Salovey, P

    1998-01-01

    Recent U.S. history provides vivid illustrations of the importance of politicians' emotional displays in subsequent judgments of them. Yet, a review of empirical research on the role of affect (emotion, mood, and evaluation) in electoral politics reveals little work that has focused on the impact of candidates' emotional expression on voters' preferences for them. A theoretical framework is proposed to identify psychological mechanisms by which a target's displays of emotion influence judgments of that target. Findings from the emerging literature on emotions and politics challenge the traditional assumption of political science that voters make decisions based solely on the cold consideration of nonaffectively charged information. The affect and politics literature, although somewhat unfocused and broad, represents an interdisciplinary domain of study that contributes to the understanding of both electoral politics and social interaction more generally.

  17. Characterization of the rotating display.

    PubMed

    Keyes, J W; Fahey, F H; Harkness, B A; Eggli, D F; Balseiro, J; Ziessman, H A

    1988-09-01

    The rotating display is a useful method for reviewing single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) data. This study evaluated the requirements for a subjectively pleasing and useful implementation of this technique. Twelve SPECT data sets were modified and viewed by several observers who recorded the minimum framing rates for apparent smooth rotation, 3D effect, effects of image size, and other parameters. The results showed that a minimum of 16 frames was needed for a useful display. Smaller image sizes and more frames were preferred. The recommended minimal framing rate for a 64-frame study is 16-17 frames per second and for a 32-frame study, 12-13 frames per second. Other enhancements also were useful.

  18. Game engines and immersive displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Benjamin; Destefano, Marc

    2014-02-01

    While virtual reality and digital games share many core technologies, the programming environments, toolkits, and workflows for developing games and VR environments are often distinct. VR toolkits designed for applications in visualization and simulation often have a different feature set or design philosophy than game engines, while popular game engines often lack support for VR hardware. Extending a game engine to support systems such as the CAVE gives developers a unified development environment and the ability to easily port projects, but involves challenges beyond just adding stereo 3D visuals. In this paper we outline the issues involved in adapting a game engine for use with an immersive display system including stereoscopy, tracking, and clustering, and present example implementation details using Unity3D. We discuss application development and workflow approaches including camera management, rendering synchronization, GUI design, and issues specific to Unity3D, and present examples of projects created for a multi-wall, clustered, stereoscopic display.

  19. Displays for future intermediate UAV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desjardins, Daniel; Metzler, James; Blakesley, David; Rister, Courtney; Nuhu, Abdul-Razak

    2008-04-01

    The Dedicated Autonomous Extended Duration Airborne Long-range Utility System (DAEDALUS) is a prototype Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) that won the 2007 AFRL Commander's Challenge. The purpose of the Commander's Challenge was to find an innovative solution to urgent warfighter needs by designing a UAV with increased persistence for tactical employment of sensors and communication systems. DAEDALUS was chosen as a winning prototype by AFRL, AFMC and SECAF. Follow-on units are intended to fill an intermediate role between currently fielded Tier I and Tier II UAV's. The UAV design discussed in this paper, including sensors and displays, will enter Phase II for Rapid Prototype Development with the intent of developing the design for eventual production. This paper will discuss the DAEDALUS UAV prototype system, with particular focus on its communications, to include the infrared sensor and electro-optical camera, but also displays, specifically man-portable.

  20. Segmented cold cathode display panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Payne, Leslie (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is a video display device that utilizes the novel concept of generating an electronically controlled pattern of electron emission at the output of a segmented photocathode. This pattern of electron emission is amplified via a channel plate. The result is that an intense electronic image can be accelerated toward a phosphor thus creating a bright video image. This novel arrangement allows for one to provide a full color flat video display capable of implementation in large formats. In an alternate arrangement, the present invention is provided without the channel plate and a porous conducting surface is provided instead. In this alternate arrangement, the brightness of the image is reduced but the cost of the overall device is significantly lowered because fabrication complexity is significantly decreased.

  1. Simplified night sky display system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castellano, Timothy P. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A portable structure, simply constructed with inexpensive and generally lightweight materials, for displaying a selected portion of the night sky and selected planets, satellites, comets and other astronomically observable objects that are visually perceptible within that portion of the night sky. The structure includes a computer having stored signals representing the observable objects, an image projector that converts and projects the stored signals as visually perceptible images, a first curvilinear light-reflecting surface to receive and reflect the visually perceptible images, and a second curvilinear surface to receive and display the visually perceptible images reflected from the first surface. The images may be motionless or may move with passage of time. In one embodiment, the structure includes an inflatable screen surface that receives gas in an enclosed volume, supports itself without further mechanical support, and optionally self-regulates pressure of the received gas within the enclosed volume.

  2. Near-infrared display materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holloway, Paul H.; Davidson, Mark R.; Shepherd, Nigel D.; Kale, Ajay; Glass, William; Harrison, Benjamin S.; Foley, Timothy J.; Reynolds, John R.; Schanze, Kirk S.; Boncella, James M.; Sinnott, Susan; Norton, David P.

    2003-09-01

    With the increasing use of night vision goggles and night missions, new methods to display information in the infrared region is of interest. We have developed both inorganic and organic electroluminescent thin films which emit at wavelengths between 700 nm and 1.8 μm. These thin films have been incorporated into simple devices and the feasibility of a NIR flat panel display has been demonstrated. Both inorganic zinc sulfide and organic polymers doped with rare earth lanthanide ions have been demonstrated. The wavelength of emission can be varied by choosing the appropriate lanthanide ion, such as dysprosium, erbium, thulium or neodymium. Power densities of ~30 μW/cm2 have been achieved with these devices.

  3. Interactive displays in medical art

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcconathy, Deirdre Alla; Doyle, Michael

    1989-01-01

    Medical illustration is a field of visual communication with a long history. Traditional medical illustrations are static, 2-D, printed images; highly realistic depictions of the gross morphology of anatomical structures. Today medicine requires the visualization of structures and processes that have never before been seen. Complex 3-D spatial relationships require interpretation from 2-D diagnostic imagery. Pictures that move in real time have become clinical and research tools for physicians. Medical illustrators are involved with the development of interactive visual displays for three different, but not discrete, functions: as educational materials, as clinical and research tools, and as data bases of standard imagery used to produce visuals. The production of interactive displays in the medical arts is examined.

  4. Reconfigurable Auditory-Visual Display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begault, Durand R. (Inventor); Anderson, Mark R. (Inventor); McClain, Bryan (Inventor); Miller, Joel D. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    System and method for visual and audible communication between a central operator and N mobile communicators (N greater than or equal to 2), including an operator transceiver and interface, configured to receive and display, for the operator, visually perceptible and audibly perceptible signals from each of the mobile communicators. The interface (1) presents an audible signal from each communicator as if the audible signal is received from a different location relative to the operator and (2) allows the operator to select, to assign priority to, and to display, the visual signals and the audible signals received from a specified communicator. Each communicator has an associated signal transmitter that is configured to transmit at least one of the visual signals and the audio signal associated with the communicator, where at least one of the signal transmitters includes at least one sensor that senses and transmits a sensor value representing a selected environmental or physiological parameter associated with the communicator.

  5. Symbolic enhancement of perspective displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, Stephen R.; Hacisalihzade, Selim S.

    1990-01-01

    Two exocentric azimuth judgment experiments with a perspective display were conducted with 16 subjects. Previous work has shown these judgments to exhibit a bias possibly due to misinterpretation of the viewing parameters used to generate the display. Though geometric compensations may be used to correct for the bias, an alternate technique selected in the following 2 experiments was the introduction of symbolic enhancements in the form of compass roses. It is suggested that a compass rose with 30 deg divisions results in overall optimal azimuth estimation accuracy when accuracy and decision time are both considered. The data also suggest that the added radial lines on the compass roses may interact with normalization processes that influence the judgment errors.

  6. Individualized Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    IntelliWeb and IntelliPrint, products from MicroMass Communications, utilize C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS), a development and delivery expert systems tool developed at Johnson Space Center. IntelliWeb delivers personalized messages by dynamically creating single web pages or entire web sites based on information provided by each website visitor. IntelliPrint is a product designed to create tailored, individualized messages via printed media. The software uses proprietary technology to generate printed messages that are personally relevant and tailored to meet each individual's needs. Intelliprint is in use in many operations including Brystol-Myers Squibb's personalized newsletter, "Living at Your Best," geared to each recipient based on a health and lifestyle survey taken earlier; and SmithKline Beecham's "Nicorette Committed Quitters Program," in which customized motivational materials support participants in their attempt to quit smoking.

  7. Orbit Display's Use of the Physics Application Framework

    SciTech Connect

    Zelazny, Michael; Chevtsov, Sergei; Chu, Chungming Paul; Fairley, Diane; Krejcik, Patrick; Natampalli, Partha; Rogind, Deborah; White, Greg; /SLAC

    2009-12-09

    At the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (SLAC) the Controls Department (CD) is developing a physics application framework based on the Java(tm) programming language developed by Sun Microsystems. This paper will discuss the first application developed using this approach: a new Orbit Display. The software is being developed by several individuals in reusable Java packages. It relies on the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) toolkit for data collection and XAL - A Java based Hierarchy for Application Programming for model parameters. The Orbit Display tracks and displays electron paths through the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) in both a graphical, beam line plot, and tabular format. It contains many features that may be unique to SLAC and is meant to be used both in the control room and by individuals in their offices or at home. Unique features include BSA Beam Synchronous Acquisition (BSA), Orbit Fitting, and Buffered Acquisition.

  8. The virtual environment display system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgreevy, Michael W.

    1991-01-01

    Virtual environment technology is a display and control technology that can surround a person in an interactive computer generated or computer mediated virtual environment. It has evolved at NASA-Ames since 1984 to serve NASA's missions and goals. The exciting potential of this technology, sometimes called Virtual Reality, Artificial Reality, or Cyberspace, has been recognized recently by the popular media, industry, academia, and government organizations. Much research and development will be necessary to bring it to fruition.

  9. Spatial Displays and Spatial Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, Stephen R. (Editor); Kaiser, Mary K. (Editor); Grunwald, Arthur J. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    The conference proceedings topics are divided into two main areas: (1) issues of spatial and picture perception raised by graphical electronic displays of spatial information; and (2) design questions raised by the practical experience of designers actually defining new spatial instruments for use in new aircraft and spacecraft. Each topic is considered from both a theoretical and an applied direction. Emphasis is placed on discussion of phenomena and determination of design principles.

  10. Multiview synthesis for autostereoscopic displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dane, Gökçe.; Bhaskaran, Vasudev

    2013-09-01

    Autostereoscopic (AS) displays spatially multiplex multiple views, providing a more immersive experience by enabling users to view the content from different angles without the need of 3D glasses. Multiple views could be captured from multiple cameras at different orientations, however this could be expensive, time consuming and not applicable to some applications. The goal of multiview synthesis in this paper is to generate multiple views from a stereo image pair and disparity map by using various video processing techniques including depth/disparity map processing, initial view interpolation, inpainting and post-processing. We specifically emphasize the need for disparity processing when there is no depth information is available that is associated with the 2D data and we propose a segmentation based disparity processing algorithm to improve disparity map. Furthermore we extend the texture based 2D inpainting algorithm to 3D and further improve the hole-filling performance of view synthesis. The benefit of each step of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated with comparison to state of the art algorithms in terms of visual quality and PSNR metric. Our system is evaluated in an end-to-end multi view synthesis framework where only stereo image pair is provided as input to the system and 8 views are outputted and displayed in 8-view Alioscopy AS display.

  11. Display holography in the United Kingdom, 1994-1997

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benyon, Margaret

    1998-02-01

    This paper reports on developments in display holography in the UK since 1994, covering the activities of individual holographers and artists, small companies and larger commercial concerns. It also includes comments on reactions to the withdrawal of Agfa-Geveart Ltd from the production of silver-halide materials for holography.

  12. Dynamic tactile diagram simplification on refreshable displays.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, Ravi; Pawluk, Dianne T V

    2013-01-01

    The increasing use of visual diagrams in educational and work environments, and even our daily lives, has created obstacles for individuals who are blind or visually impaired to independently access the information they represent. Although physical tactile pictures can be created to convey the visual information, it is typically a slow, cumbersome, and costly process. Refreshable haptic displays, which interact with computers, promise to make this access quicker, easier, and cheaper. One important aspect in converting visual to tactile diagrams is to simplify the diagram as otherwise it can be too difficult to interpret with touch. Enabling this to be under user control in an interactive environment, such as with refreshable displays, could allow users to avoid being overwhelmed by the diagrams at any instant in time while still retaining access to all information in "storage". Through this article the authors investigate whether two types of diagram simplification--boundary simplification and contextual simplification--showed potential utility in an interactive environment. Boundary simplification was found to be significantly helpful in answering general questions about borders on a geographic map, and contextual simplification was helpful in answering relational questions, as compared to using the original map unchanged.

  13. [Three Dimensional Display in Nuclear Medicine].

    PubMed

    Teraoka, Satomi; Souma, Tsutomu

    2015-01-01

    Imaging techniques to obtain a tomographic image in nuclear medicine such as PET and SPECT are widely used. It is necessary to interpreting all of the tomographic images obtained in order to accurately evaluate the individual lesion, whereas three dimensional display is often useful in order to overview and evaluate the feature of the entire lesion or disease such as the position, size and abnormal pattern. In Japan, the use of three dimensional image analysis workstation with an application of the co-registration and image fusion between the functional images such as PET or SPECT and anatomical images such as CT or MRI has been generalized. In addition, multimodality imaging system such as a PET/CT and SPECT/CT has been widespread. Therefore, it is expected to improve the diagnostic accuracy using three dimensionally image fusion to functional images with poor anatomical information. In this commentary, as an example of a three dimensional display that are commonly used in nuclear medicine examination in Japan, brain regions, cardiac region and bone and tumor region will be introduced separately.

  14. The effects of alcohol on the emotional displays of Whites in interracial groups.

    PubMed

    Fairbairn, Catharine E; Sayette, Michael A; Levine, John M; Cohn, Jeffrey F; Creswell, Kasey G

    2013-06-01

    Discomfort during interracial interactions is common among Whites in the U.S. and is linked to avoidance of interracial encounters. While the negative consequences of interracial discomfort are well-documented, understanding of its causes is still incomplete. Alcohol consumption has been shown to decrease negative emotions caused by self-presentational concern but increase negative emotions associated with racial prejudice. Using novel behavioral-expressive measures of emotion, we examined the impact of alcohol on displays of discomfort among 92 White individuals interacting in all-White or interracial groups. We used the Facial Action Coding System and comprehensive content-free speech analyses to examine affective and behavioral dynamics during these 36-min exchanges (7.9 million frames of video data). Among Whites consuming nonalcoholic beverages, those assigned to interracial groups evidenced more facial and speech displays of discomfort than those in all-White groups. In contrast, among intoxicated Whites there were no differences in displays of discomfort between interracial and all-White groups. Results highlight the central role of self-presentational concerns in interracial discomfort and offer new directions for applying theory and methods from emotion science to the examination of intergroup relations.

  15. The Effects of Alcohol on the Emotional Displays of Whites in Interracial Groups

    PubMed Central

    Fairbairn, Catharine E.; Sayette, Michael A.; Levine, John M.; Cohn, Jeffrey F.; Creswell, Kasey G.

    2017-01-01

    Discomfort during interracial interactions is common among Whites in the U.S. and is linked to avoidance of interracial encounters. While the negative consequences of interracial discomfort are well-documented, understanding of its causes is still incomplete. Alcohol consumption has been shown to decrease negative emotions caused by self-presentational concern but increase negative emotions associated with racial prejudice. Using novel behavioral-expressive measures of emotion, we examined the impact of alcohol on displays of discomfort among 92 White individuals interacting in all-White or interracial groups. We used the Facial Action Coding System and comprehensive content-free speech analyses to examine affective and behavioral dynamics during these 36-minute exchanges (7.9 million frames of video data). Among Whites consuming nonalcoholic beverages, those assigned to interracial groups evidenced more facial and speech displays of discomfort than those in all-White groups. In contrast, among intoxicated Whites there were no differences in displays of discomfort between interracial and all-White groups. Results highlight the central role of self-presentational concerns in interracial discomfort and offer new directions for applying theory and methods from emotion science to the examination of intergroup relations. PMID:23356562

  16. 40 CFR 85.1707 - Display exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Display exemption. 85.1707 Section 85... Engines § 85.1707 Display exemption. Where an uncertified vehicle or engine is a display vehicle or engine to be used solely for display purposes, will not be operated on the public streets or highways...

  17. 40 CFR 90.907 - Display exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Display exemption. 90.907 Section 90... of Nonroad Engines from Regulations § 90.907 Display exemption. Where an uncertified nonroad engine is a display engine to be used solely for display purposes, will only be operated incident...

  18. 40 CFR 90.907 - Display exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Display exemption. 90.907 Section 90... of Nonroad Engines from Regulations § 90.907 Display exemption. Where an uncertified nonroad engine is a display engine to be used solely for display purposes, will only be operated incident...

  19. 40 CFR 85.1707 - Display exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Display exemption. 85.1707 Section 85... Engines § 85.1707 Display exemption. Where an uncertified vehicle or engine is a display vehicle or engine to be used solely for display purposes, will not be operated on the public streets or highways...

  20. 40 CFR 90.907 - Display exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Display exemption. 90.907 Section 90... of Nonroad Engines from Regulations § 90.907 Display exemption. Where an uncertified nonroad engine is a display engine to be used solely for display purposes, will only be operated incident...

  1. 40 CFR 85.1707 - Display exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Display exemption. 85.1707 Section 85... Engines § 85.1707 Display exemption. Where an uncertified vehicle or engine is a display vehicle or engine to be used solely for display purposes, will not be operated on the public streets or highways...

  2. 40 CFR 90.907 - Display exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Display exemption. 90.907 Section 90... of Nonroad Engines from Regulations § 90.907 Display exemption. Where an uncertified nonroad engine is a display engine to be used solely for display purposes, will only be operated incident...

  3. 40 CFR 90.907 - Display exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Display exemption. 90.907 Section 90... of Nonroad Engines from Regulations § 90.907 Display exemption. Where an uncertified nonroad engine is a display engine to be used solely for display purposes, will only be operated incident...

  4. Australian Children's Understanding of Display Rules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choy, Grace

    2009-01-01

    Cultural display rules govern the manifestation of emotional expressions. In compliance with display rules, the facial expressions displayed (i.e. apparent emotion) may be incongruent with the emotion experienced (i.e. real emotion). This study investigates Australian Caucasian children's understanding of display rules. A sample of 80 four year…

  5. 40 CFR 85.1707 - Display exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Display exemption. 85.1707 Section 85... Engines § 85.1707 Display exemption. Where an uncertified vehicle or engine is a display vehicle or engine to be used solely for display purposes, will not be operated on the public streets or highways...

  6. 40 CFR 85.1707 - Display exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Display exemption. 85.1707 Section 85... Engines § 85.1707 Display exemption. Where an uncertified vehicle or engine is a display vehicle or engine to be used solely for display purposes, will not be operated on the public streets or highways...

  7. Reflective color display using thermochromic pigments.

    PubMed

    Heo, Kyong Chan; Sohn, Youngku; Yi, Jonghoon; Kwon, Jin Hyuk; Son, Phil Kook; Gwag, Jin Seog

    2012-06-20

    A reflective thermochromic display fabricated by a very simple method using three kinds of thermochromic pigments is produced and its thermo-optical characteristics are investigated. The display exhibits maximum red, green, and blue reflectances of 38%, 30%, and 35%, respectively. The reflective display cell shows continuous gray color with changing temperature, which is crucial for multicolor displays. It also shows an excellent viewing angle above 80° without any of the additional optical components that are required in liquid crystal displays. We expect that this display technology will be used for outdoor billboard information display applications.

  8. Development of Land Analysis System display modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Douglas; Hollaren, Douglas; Huewe, Laurie

    1986-01-01

    The Land Analysis System (LAS) display modules were developed to allow a user to interactively display, manipulate, and store image and image related data. To help accomplish this task, these modules utilize the Transportable Applications Executive and the Display Management System software to interact with the user and the display device. The basic characteristics of a display are outlined and some of the major modifications and additions made to the display management software are discussed. Finally, all available LAS display modules are listed along with a short description of each.

  9. Color and Grey Scale in Sonar Displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraiss, K. F.; Kuettelwesch, K. H.

    1984-01-01

    In spite of numerous publications 1 it is still rather unclear, whether color is of any help in sonar displays. The work presented here deals with a particular type of sonar data, i.e., LOFAR-grams (low frequency analysing and recording) where acoustic sensor data are continuously written as a time-frequency plot. The question to be answered quantitatively is, whether color coding does improve target detection when compared with a grey scale code. The data show significant differences in receiver-operating characteristics performance for the selected codes. In addition it turned out, that the background noise level affects the performance dramatically for some color codes, while others remain stable or even improve. Generally valid rules are presented on how to generate useful color scales for this particular application.

  10. Decluttering Methods for Computer-Generated Graphic Displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, E. Eugene, Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Symbol simplification and contrasting enhance viewer's ability to detect particular symbol. Report describes experiments designed to indicate how various decluttering methods affect viewer's abilities to distinguish essential from nonessential features on computer-generated graphic displays. Results indicate partial removal of nonessential graphic features through symbol simplification effective in decluttering as total removal of nonessential graphic features.

  11. Review of Defense Display Research Programs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-01-01

    Programs Flat Panel Autostereoscopic N-perspective 3D High Definition DMD Digital Projector Light Piping & Quantum Cavity Displays Solid State Laser...Megapixel Displays • Size Commonality • 67 % Weight Reduction • > 200 sq. in. per Display 20-20 Vision Simulators True 3D , sparse symbols Foldable Display...megapixel 2D and True 3D Display Technology 25M & T3D FY02-FY06 New service thrusts

  12. Recent Trend in Development of Olfactory Displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanagida, Yasuyuki

    An olfactory display is a device that generates scented air with desired concentration of aroma, and delivers it to the user's olfactory organ. In this article, the nature of olfaction is briefly described from the view point of how to configure olfactory displays. Next, component technologies to compose olfactory displays, i.e., making scents and delivering scents, are categorized. Several existing olfactory display systems are introduced to show the current status of research and development of olfactory displays.

  13. Recognizing Words and Reading Sentences with Microsecond Flash Displays

    PubMed Central

    Greene, Ernest

    2016-01-01

    Strings of dots can be used to construct easily identifiable letters, and these in turn can be used to write words and sentences. Prior work found that respondents could identify individual letters when all the dots were simultaneously flashed for an ultra-brief duration. Four of the experiments reported here constructed five-letter words with these dot-letters and a fifth experiment used them to write complete sentences. Respondents were able to recognize individual words that were displayed with a single, simultaneous ultra-brief flash of all the letters. Further, sentences could be efficiently read with a sequence of simultaneous flashes at a frequency that produced perceptual fusion. One experiment determined the frequency range that would produce flicker-fusion. Two experiments established the relation of intensity to probability of recognition with single flashes and with fused-flicker frequencies. Another established the intensities at which flicker-fused and steady displays were judged to be equal in brightness. The final experiment used those flicker-fused and steady intensities to display sentences. The two display conditions were read with equal efficiency, even though the flicker-fused displays provided light stimulation only 0.003% of the time. PMID:26800027

  14. Recognizing Words and Reading Sentences with Microsecond Flash Displays.

    PubMed

    Greene, Ernest

    2016-01-01

    Strings of dots can be used to construct easily identifiable letters, and these in turn can be used to write words and sentences. Prior work found that respondents could identify individual letters when all the dots were simultaneously flashed for an ultra-brief duration. Four of the experiments reported here constructed five-letter words with these dot-letters and a fifth experiment used them to write complete sentences. Respondents were able to recognize individual words that were displayed with a single, simultaneous ultra-brief flash of all the letters. Further, sentences could be efficiently read with a sequence of simultaneous flashes at a frequency that produced perceptual fusion. One experiment determined the frequency range that would produce flicker-fusion. Two experiments established the relation of intensity to probability of recognition with single flashes and with fused-flicker frequencies. Another established the intensities at which flicker-fused and steady displays were judged to be equal in brightness. The final experiment used those flicker-fused and steady intensities to display sentences. The two display conditions were read with equal efficiency, even though the flicker-fused displays provided light stimulation only 0.003% of the time.

  15. Optical display for radar sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szu, Harold; Hsu, Charles; Willey, Jefferson; Landa, Joseph; Hsieh, Minder; Larsen, Louis V.; Krzywicki, Alan T.; Tran, Binh Q.; Hoekstra, Philip; Dillard, John T.; Krapels, Keith A.; Wardlaw, Michael; Chu, Kai-Dee

    2015-05-01

    Boltzmann headstone S = kB Log W turns out to be the Rosette stone for Greek physics translation optical display of the microwave sensing hieroglyphics. The LHS is the molecular entropy S measuring the degree of uniformity scattering off the sensing cross sections. The RHS is the inverse relationship (equation) predicting the Planck radiation spectral distribution parameterized by the Kelvin temperature T. Use is made of the conservation energy law of the heat capacity of Reservoir (RV) change T Δ S = -ΔE equals to the internal energy change of black box (bb) subsystem. Moreover, an irreversible thermodynamics Δ S > 0 for collision mixing toward totally larger uniformity of heat death, asserted by Boltzmann, that derived the so-called Maxwell-Boltzmann canonical probability. Given the zero boundary condition black box, Planck solved a discrete standing wave eigenstates (equation). Together with the canonical partition function (equation) an average ensemble average of all possible internal energy yielded the celebrated Planck radiation spectral (equation) where the density of states (equation). In summary, given the multispectral sensing data (equation), we applied Lagrange Constraint Neural Network (LCNN) to solve the Blind Sources Separation (BSS) for a set of equivalent bb target temperatures. From the measurements of specific value, slopes and shapes we can fit a set of Kelvin temperatures T's for each bb targets. As a result, we could apply the analytical continuation for each entropy sources along the temperature-unique Planck spectral curves always toward the RGB color temperature display for any sensing probing frequency.

  16. Integrated helmet mounted display concepts for air combat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Joseph W.

    1995-01-01

    A piloted simulation study was conducted in a dome simulator to evaluate several Helmet Mounted Display (HMD) formats developed as part of the NASA High Alpha Technology Program (HATP). The display formats conveyed energy management, spatial orientation, and weapons management information. The HMD format was compared to a generic Heads Up Display (HUD) typical of current operational fighter aircraft. Pilots were tasked to spend as much time in a weapon solution as possible, to have the correct weapon selected for the envelope they were in, and to avoid the adversary's weapon envelope as much as possible. Several different displays were tested individually and simultaneously to see how separate display concepts coexisted. Objective results showed that the ability for the pilot to select the correct weapon for the envelope he was in increased by 50% in a moderate workload condition and 90% in a high workload condition with the HMD format. In the post-test comments pilots generally favored the helmet display formats over the HUD formats with a few instances where pilots preferred a simple numeric readout of the parameter. Short term exposure effects of the HMD on visual acuity were also measured and showed no advers results.

  17. Cockpit Displays to Support Hazard Awareness in Free Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wickens, Christopher D.; Carbonari, Ron; Merwin, Dave; Morphew, Ephimia; OBrien, Janelle V.

    1997-01-01

    Three experiments are described which each examine different aspects of the formatting and integration of cockpit displays of traffic information to support pilots in traffic avoidance planning. The first two experiments compared two-dimensional (coplanar) with three-dimensional (perspective) versions of a cockpit display of traffic information. In Experiment 1, 30 certified flight instructors flew a series of traffic conflict detection and avoidance maneuvers around an intruder aircraft, sometimes in the presence of a second intruder. The results revealed an advantage for the coplanar display, particularly when there was vertical intruder behavior. In Experiment 2, 17 instructors flew with the coplanar and perspective formats when weather information was either overlaid or displayed separately. Again performance was best with the coplanar display, particularly when the weather data were overlaid. The results of both experiments are also discussed in ten-ns of the traffic maneuver stereotypes exhibited by the pilots. Experiment 3 examined the benefits of the two different predictor elements used in the coplanar displays of Experiments 1 and 2. The study was carried out in a multitask context. These elements were both found to improve safety (reduce actual and predicted conflicts) and to reduce workload, although the different elements affected workload in different ways. Neither predictor element imposed a cost to concurrent task performance.

  18. User Expectations for Media Sharing Practices in Open Display Networks.

    PubMed

    Jose, Rui; Cardoso, Jorge C S; Hong, Jason

    2015-07-06

    Open Display Networks have the potential to allow many content creators to publish their media to an open-ended set of screen displays. However, this raises the issue of how to match that content to the right displays. In this study, we aim to understand how the perceived utility of particular media sharing scenarios is affected by three independent variables, more specifically: (a) the locativeness of the content being shared; (b) how personal that content is and (c) the scope in which it is being shared. To assess these effects, we composed a set of 24 media sharing scenarios embedded with different treatments of our three independent variables. We then asked 100 participants to express their perception of the relevance of those scenarios. The results suggest a clear preference for scenarios where content is both local and directly related to the person that is publishing it. This is in stark contrast to the types of content that are commonly found in public displays, and confirms the opportunity that open displays networks may represent a new media for self-expression. This novel understanding may inform the design of new publication paradigms that will enable people to share media across the display networks.

  19. User Expectations for Media Sharing Practices in Open Display Networks

    PubMed Central

    Jose, Rui; Cardoso, Jorge C. S.; Hong, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Open Display Networks have the potential to allow many content creators to publish their media to an open-ended set of screen displays. However, this raises the issue of how to match that content to the right displays. In this study, we aim to understand how the perceived utility of particular media sharing scenarios is affected by three independent variables, more specifically: (a) the locativeness of the content being shared; (b) how personal that content is and (c) the scope in which it is being shared. To assess these effects, we composed a set of 24 media sharing scenarios embedded with different treatments of our three independent variables. We then asked 100 participants to express their perception of the relevance of those scenarios. The results suggest a clear preference for scenarios where content is both local and directly related to the person that is publishing it. This is in stark contrast to the types of content that are commonly found in public displays, and confirms the opportunity that open displays networks may represent a new media for self-expression. This novel understanding may inform the design of new publication paradigms that will enable people to share media across the display networks. PMID:26153770

  20. User benefits of visualization with 3-D stereoscopic displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wichansky, Anna M.

    1991-08-01

    The power of today''s supercomputers promises tremendous benefits to users in terms of productivity, creativity, and excitement in computing. A study of a stereoscopic display system for computer workstations was conducted with 20 users and third-party software developers, to determine whether 3-D stereo displays were perceived as better than flat, 2- 1/2D displays. Users perceived more benefits of 3-D stereo in applications such as molecular modeling and cell biology, which involved viewing of complex, abstract, amorphous objects. Users typically mentioned clearer visualization and better understanding of data, easier recognition of form and pattern, and more fun and excitement at work as the chief benefits of stereo displays. Human factors issues affecting the usefulness of stereo included use of 3-D glasses over regular eyeglasses, difficulties in group viewing, lack of portability, and need for better input devices. The future marketability of 3-D stereo displays would be improved by eliminating the need for users to wear equipment, reducing cost, and identifying markets where the abstract display value can be maximized.