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Sample records for affected individuals exhibit

  1. Individual Difference Variables, Affective Differentiation, and the Structures of Affect

    PubMed Central

    Terracciano, Antonio; McCrae, Robert R.; Hagemann, Dirk; Costa, Paul T.

    2008-01-01

    Methodological arguments are usually invoked to explain variations in the structure of affect. Using self-rated affect from Italian samples (N = 600), we show that individual difference variables related to affective differentiation can moderate the observed structure. Indices of circumplexity (Browne, 1992) and congruence coefficients to the hypothesized target were used to quantify the observed structures. Results did not support the circumplex model as a universal structure. A circular structure with axes of activation and valence was approximated only among more affectively differentiated groups: students and respondents with high scores on Openness to Feelings and measures of negative emotionality. A different structure, with unipolar Positive Affect and Negative Affect factors, was observed among adults and respondents with low Openness to Feelings and negative emotionality. The observed structure of affect will depend in part on the nature of the sample studied. PMID:12932207

  2. Positive and negative affective processing exhibit dissociable functional hubs during the viewing of affective pictures.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenhai; Li, Hong; Pan, Xiaohong

    2015-02-01

    Recent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies using graph theory metrics have revealed that the functional network of the human brain possesses small-world characteristics and comprises several functional hub regions. However, it is unclear how the affective functional network is organized in the brain during the processing of affective information. In this study, the fMRI data were collected from 25 healthy college students as they viewed a total of 81 positive, neutral, and negative pictures. The results indicated that affective functional networks exhibit weaker small-worldness properties with higher local efficiency, implying that local connections increase during viewing affective pictures. Moreover, positive and negative emotional processing exhibit dissociable functional hubs, emerging mainly in task-positive regions. These functional hubs, which are the centers of information processing, have nodal betweenness centrality values that are at least 1.5 times larger than the average betweenness centrality of the network. Positive affect scores correlated with the betweenness values of the right orbital frontal cortex (OFC) and the right putamen in the positive emotional network; negative affect scores correlated with the betweenness values of the left OFC and the left amygdala in the negative emotional network. The local efficiencies in the left superior and inferior parietal lobe correlated with subsequent arousal ratings of positive and negative pictures, respectively. These observations provide important evidence for the organizational principles of the human brain functional connectome during the processing of affective information.

  3. How variation between individuals affects species coexistence.

    PubMed

    Hart, Simon P; Schreiber, Sebastian J; Levine, Jonathan M

    2016-08-01

    Although the effects of variation between individuals within species are traditionally ignored in studies of species coexistence, the magnitude of intraspecific variation in nature is forcing ecologists to reconsider. Compelling intuitive arguments suggest that individual variation may provide a previously unrecognised route to diversity maintenance by blurring species-level competitive differences or substituting for species-level niche differences. These arguments, which are motivating a large body of empirical work, have rarely been evaluated with quantitative theory. Here we incorporate intraspecific variation into a common model of competition and identify three pathways by which this variation affects coexistence: (1) changes in competitive dynamics because of nonlinear averaging, (2) changes in species' mean interaction strengths because of variation in underlying traits (also via nonlinear averaging) and (3) effects on stochastic demography. As a consequence of the first two mechanisms, we find that intraspecific variation in competitive ability increases the dominance of superior competitors, and intraspecific niche variation reduces species-level niche differentiation, both of which make coexistence more difficult. In addition, individual variation can exacerbate the effects of demographic stochasticity, and this further destabilises coexistence. Our work provides a theoretical foundation for emerging empirical interests in the effects of intraspecific variation on species diversity.

  4. MS patients with depressive symptoms exhibit affective memory biases when verbal encoding strategies are suppressed.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Jared M; Arnett, Peter A

    2005-09-01

    As many as 50% of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients experience clinical or subclinical depression. A voluminous literature has documented affective memory biases (AMB) among depressed individuals. Despite this, little is known regarding how depressive symptoms may affect MS patients' ability to recall positive and negative material. The present study employed an affective list-learning task that increased cognitive load and inhibited the use of higher order encoding strategies. The purpose of the study was twofold: to determine whether MS patients exhibit AMB and to examine whether subvocal repetition and other higher order encoding strategies are essential to the formation of AMB among people experiencing depression. Results indicated a strong relationship between depression and AMB in MS. The results are discussed in relation to existing biological research that indicates limbic and/or other subcortical systems may play a role in the formation of AMB.

  5. Asthmatics Exhibit Altered Oxylipin Profiles Compared to Healthy Individuals after Subway Air Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Nording, Malin; Klepczynska-Nyström, Anna; Sköld, Magnus; Haeggström, Jesper Z.; Grunewald, Johan; Svartengren, Magnus; Hammock, Bruce D.; Larsson, Britt-Marie; Eklund, Anders; Wheelock, Åsa M.; Wheelock, Craig E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Asthma is a chronic inflammatory lung disease that causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Air pollutants such as particulate matter (PM) and oxidants are important factors in causing exacerbations in asthmatics, and the source and composition of pollutants greatly affects pathological implications. Objectives This randomized crossover study investigated responses of the respiratory system to Stockholm subway air in asthmatics and healthy individuals. Eicosanoids and other oxylipins were quantified in the distal lung to provide a measure of shifts in lipid mediators in association with exposure to subway air relative to ambient air. Methods Sixty-four oxylipins representing the cyclooxygenase (COX), lipoxygenase (LOX) and cytochrome P450 (CYP) metabolic pathways were screened using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL)-fluid. Validations through immunocytochemistry staining of BAL-cells were performed for 15-LOX-1, COX-1, COX-2 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ). Multivariate statistics were employed to interrogate acquired oxylipin and immunocytochemistry data in combination with patient clinical information. Results Asthmatics and healthy individuals exhibited divergent oxylipin profiles following exposure to ambient and subway air. Significant changes were observed in 8 metabolites of linoleic- and α-linolenic acid synthesized via the 15-LOX pathway, and of the COX product prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Oxylipin levels were increased in healthy individuals following exposure to subway air, whereas asthmatics evidenced decreases or no change. Conclusions Several of the altered oxylipins have known or suspected bronchoprotective or anti-inflammatory effects, suggesting a possible reduced anti-inflammatory response in asthmatics following exposure to subway air. These observations may have ramifications for sensitive subpopulations in urban areas. PMID:21897859

  6. Does Acquiescence Affect Individual Items Consistently?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kam, Chester Chun Seng; Zhou, Mingming

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has found the effects of acquiescence to be generally consistent across item "aggregates" within a single survey (i.e., essential tau-equivalence), but it is unknown whether this phenomenon is consistent at the" individual item" level. This article evaluated the often assumed but inadequately tested…

  7. Predictors of Self-Injurious Behaviour Exhibited by Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richman, D. M.; Barnard-Brak, L.; Bosch, A.; Thompson, S.; Grubb, L.; Abby, L.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Presence of an autism spectrum disorder is a risk factor for development of self-injurious behaviour (SIB) exhibited by individuals with developmental disorders. The most salient SIB risk factors historically studied within developmental disorders are level of intellectual disability, communication deficits and presence of specific…

  8. Individual GaN nanowires exhibit strong piezoelectricity in 3D.

    PubMed

    Minary-Jolandan, Majid; Bernal, Rodrigo A; Kuljanishvili, Irma; Parpoil, Victor; Espinosa, Horacio D

    2012-02-01

    Semiconductor GaN NWs are promising components in next generation nano- and optoelectronic systems. In addition to their direct band gap, they exhibit piezoelectricity, which renders them particularly attractive in energy harvesting applications for self-powered devices. Nanowires are often considered as one-dimensional nanostructures; however, the electromechanical coupling leads to a third rank tensor that for wurtzite crystals (GaN NWs) possesses three independent coefficients, d(33), d(13), and d(15). Therefore, the full piezoelectric characterization of individual GaN NWs requires application of electric fields in different directions and measurements of associated displacements on the order of several picometers. In this Letter, we present an experimental approach based on scanning probe microscopy to directly quantify the three-dimensional piezoelectric response of individual GaN NWs. Experimental results reveal that GaN NWs exhibit strong piezoelectricity in three dimensions, with up to six times the effect in bulk. Based on finite element modeling, this finding has major implication on the design of energy harvesting systems exhibiting unprecedented levels of power density production. The presented method is applicable to other piezoelectric NW materials as well as wires manufactured along different crystallographic orientations.

  9. Community services, issues, and service gaps for individuals with developmental disabilities who exhibit inappropriate sexual behaviors.

    PubMed

    Ward, K M; Trigler, J S; Pfeiffer, K T

    2001-02-01

    Inappropriate sexual behaviors represent the most challenging behaviors for community service providers. A national survey of 243 community agencies was conducted to describe services provided for individuals with developmental disabilities who exhibit high-risk sexual behaviors and to identify issues and service gaps. The most common types of offenses were sexual behavior (a) in public situations, (b) that inappropriately involved others, and (c) involved minors. Community agencies used multifaceted approaches to serve these individuals. The major issues and problems were systemic, specifically staff issues and service gaps, followed by funding. Implications of this study are that increased knowledge and skills related to sexuality and inappropriate sexual behavior and mental health resources are needed to build community capacity to serve this population. PMID:11270210

  10. Positive affect increases secondary control among causally uncertain individuals.

    PubMed

    Tobin, Stephanie J; George, Melanie P

    2015-01-01

    Secondary control (acceptance of and adjustment to negative events) is thought to promote positive affect. We examined the opposite path: could positive affect increase secondary control, particularly among individuals high in causal uncertainty, who stand to benefit from it the most? In two studies, participants completed a causal uncertainty scale, thought about a problem while listening to affect-inducing music or no music, and then completed items that assessed secondary control. In Study 1, the music induced positive or negative affect. In Study 2, the music induced affect that was high or low in activation and positive or negative in valence. In both studies, we found that positive affect-inducing music increased secondary control among high causal uncertainty participants. Furthermore, trait affect did not account for the effects of causal uncertainty, and music did not influence primary control. These findings show that secondary control can fluctuate as a function of state affect.

  11. Individuals with patellofemoral pain exhibit greater patellofemoral joint stress: a finite element analysis study

    PubMed Central

    Farrokhi, S.; Keyak, J.H.; Powers, C.M.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Objective To test the hypothesis that individuals with patellofemoral pain (PFP) exhibit greater patellofemoral joint stress profiles compared to persons who are pain-free. Methods Ten females with PFP and ten gender, age, and activity-matched pain-free controls participated. Patella and femur stress profiles were quantified utilizing subject-specific finite element (FE) models of the patellofemoral joint at 15° and 45° of knee flexion. Input parameters for the FE model included: (1) joint geometry, (2) quadriceps muscle forces, and (3) weight-bearing patellofemoral joint kinematics. Using a nonlinear FE solver, quasi-static loading simulations were performed to quantify each subject’s patellofemoral joint stress profile during a static squatting maneuver. The patella and femur peak and mean hydrostatic pressure as well as the peak and mean octahedral shear stress for the elements representing the chondro-osseous interface were quantified. Results Compared to the pain-free controls, individuals with PFP consistently exhibited greater peak and mean hydrostatic pressure as well as peak and mean octahedral shear stress for the elements representing the patella and femur chondro-osseous interface across the two knee flexion angles tested (15° and 45°). Conclusions The combined finding of elevated hydrostatic pressure and octahedral shear stress across the two kneeflexion angles supports the premise that PFPmay be associated with elevated joint stress. Therefore, treatments aimed at decreasing patellofemoral joint stress may be indicated in this patient population. PMID:21172445

  12. Explaining affective linkages in teams: individual differences in susceptibility to contagion and individualism-collectivism.

    PubMed

    Ilies, Remus; Wagner, David T; Morgeson, Frederick P

    2007-07-01

    To expand on the understanding of how affective states are linked within teams, the authors describe a longitudinal study examining the linkages between team members' affective states over time. In a naturalistic team performance setting, they found evidence that the average affective state of the other team members was related to an individual team member's affect over time, even after controlling for team performance. In addition, they found that these affective linkages were moderated by individual differences in susceptibility to emotional contagion and collectivistic tendencies such that the strength of the linkage was stronger for those high in susceptibility and those with collectivistic tendencies. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  13. Representations of nurses and individuals in psychological distress in the photographic exhibit USAnatomy, by Steven Klein.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Evanilda Souza de Santana; Araújo, Edna Maria de; Santos, Silvone Santa Bárbara da Silva; Santos, Alexandro Gesner Gomes Dos

    2016-06-01

    Objectives To analyze the representations of the nurse and individual in mental suffering portrayed in the photographic work by Steven Klein, in the USAnatomy exhibit held at the Museum of Sculpture (Museu da escultura) in São Paulo, in 2011. Methods Qualitative study carried out in 2012. Three photographs were submitted to iconographic analysis. The interpretation of the findings was based on theoretical frameworks of Foucault and Bourdieu on power relations. Results The nurse is represented as a sensual, insensitive person, with the power to control and torture while the person in psychological distress is represented as dirty, imprisoned and subjected to an asymmetrical relationship of power with the nurse. Final considerations Relationships of submission and symbolic dominance, in which the person in psychological distress has their body molded by discipline imposed by the nurse. Stereotypes of the image of the nurse oppose the ideology of the profession, which is to ensure the integrity of those being cared for. PMID:27253591

  14. Recent social conditions affect boldness repeatability in individual sticklebacks

    PubMed Central

    Jolles, Jolle Wolter; Aaron Taylor, Benjamin; Manica, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Animal personalities are ubiquitous across the animal kingdom and have been shown both to influence individual behaviour in the social context and to be affected by it. However, little attention has been paid to possible carryover effects of social conditions on personality expression, especially when individuals are alone. Here we investigated how the recent social context affected the boldness and repeatability of three-spined sticklebacks, Gasterosteus aculeatus, during individual assays. We housed fish either solitarily, solitarily part of the time or socially in groups of four, and subjected them twice to a risk-taking task. The social conditions had a large effect on boldness repeatability, with fish housed solitarily before the trials showing much higher behavioural repeatability than fish housed socially, for which repeatability was not significant. Social conditions also had a temporal effect on the boldness of the fish, with only fish housed solitarily taking more risks during the first than the second trial. These results show that recent social conditions can thus affect the short-term repeatability of behaviour and obfuscate the expression of personality even in later contexts when individuals are alone. This finding highlights the need to consider social housing conditions when designing personality studies and emphasizes the important link between animal personality and the social context by showing the potential role of social carryover effects. PMID:26949265

  15. Implicit Processing of Visual Emotions Is Affected by Sound-Induced Affective States and Individual Affective Traits

    PubMed Central

    Quarto, Tiziana; Blasi, Giuseppe; Pallesen, Karen Johanne; Bertolino, Alessandro; Brattico, Elvira

    2014-01-01

    The ability to recognize emotions contained in facial expressions are affected by both affective traits and states and varies widely between individuals. While affective traits are stable in time, affective states can be regulated more rapidly by environmental stimuli, such as music, that indirectly modulate the brain state. Here, we tested whether a relaxing or irritating sound environment affects implicit processing of facial expressions. Moreover, we investigated whether and how individual traits of anxiety and emotional control interact with this process. 32 healthy subjects performed an implicit emotion processing task (presented to subjects as a gender discrimination task) while the sound environment was defined either by a) a therapeutic music sequence (MusiCure), b) a noise sequence or c) silence. Individual changes in mood were sampled before and after the task by a computerized questionnaire. Additionally, emotional control and trait anxiety were assessed in a separate session by paper and pencil questionnaires. Results showed a better mood after the MusiCure condition compared with the other experimental conditions and faster responses to happy faces during MusiCure compared with angry faces during Noise. Moreover, individuals with higher trait anxiety were faster in performing the implicit emotion processing task during MusiCure compared with Silence. These findings suggest that sound-induced affective states are associated with differential responses to angry and happy emotional faces at an implicit stage of processing, and that a relaxing sound environment facilitates the implicit emotional processing in anxious individuals. PMID:25072162

  16. Individuals with Asperger's disorder exhibit difficulty in switching attention from a local level to a global level.

    PubMed

    Katagiri, Masatoshi; Kasai, Tetsuko; Kamio, Yoko; Murohashi, Harumitsu

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether individuals with Asperger's disorder exhibit difficulty in switching attention from a local level to a global level. Eleven participants with Asperger's disorder and 11 age- and gender-matched healthy controls performed a level-repetition switching task using Navon-type hierarchical stimuli. In both groups, level-repetition was beneficial at both levels. Furthermore, individuals with Asperger's disorder exhibited difficulty in switching attention from a local level to a global level compared to control individuals. These findings suggested that there is a problem with the inhibitory mechanism that influences the output of enhanced local visual processing in Asperger's disorder.

  17. Individual experience affects host choice in malaria vector mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite epidemiological importance, few studies have explored whether individual experience and learning could affect the vertebrate host choice of mosquito disease vectors. Here, we investigated whether a first successful blood meal can modulate mosquito preference during a second blood meal. Methods In no-choice situations, females of the mosquito Anopheles coluzzii, one of the primary African malaria vectors, were first allowed to feed on either human, rabbit or guinea pig. Four days later in dual-choice situations, the same mosquitoes were allowed to choose between the two uncommon hosts, rabbit and guinea pig, as a source of blood. ELISA assays were then used to determine which host mosquitoes fed on. Results Our results indicate that, overall, mosquitoes preferred to feed on rabbit over guinea pig and that the nature of the first blood meal had a significant impact on the mosquito host choice during the second blood meal. Compared to mosquitoes that previously fed on guinea pigs or humans, mosquitoes that fed on rabbits were less likely to choose this host species during a second exposition. The decreased preference for rabbit was observed four days after mosquitoes were first exposed to this host, suggesting that the effect lasts at least the duration of a gonotrophic cycle. Furthermore, this effect was observed after only one successful blood meal. Fitness measurements on mosquitoes fed on the three different vertebrate hosts showed that the origin of the blood meal affected mosquito longevity but not fecundity. In particular, human-fed mosquitoes lived longer than guinea pig-fed or rabbit-fed mosquitoes. Conclusions Our study demonstrates that individual experience affects host choice in this mosquito species and might have strong repercussions on biting patterns in natural conditions and hence on malaria transmission. PMID:24885668

  18. Individual differences in the acquisition of affectively valenced associations.

    PubMed

    Zinbarg, R E; Mohlman, J

    1998-04-01

    Two studies were conducted to test the predictions derived from the behavioral activation system and behavioral inhibition system theory of personality that trait anxiety is positively related to the speed of acquisition of punishment expectancies and impulsivity is positively related to the speed of acquisition of reward expectancies. Both studies used a standard approach-avoidance discrimination task with self-report measures of expectancies. Both studies found support for the hypothesized relation between trait and acquisition of punishment expectancies but not for the hypothesized relation between impulsivity and acquisition of reward expectancies. Study 2 suggested that the relation between trait anxiety and punishment expectancy is affected by the type of incentive and the type of trait anxiety measure used. The results suggest that highly trait anxious individuals are more susceptible to developing new sources of anxiety than others.

  19. Noncontingent Reinforcement Is an Empirically Supported Treatment for Problem Behavior Exhibited by Individuals with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, James E.; Severtson, Jamie M.; Lepper, Tracy L.

    2009-01-01

    Noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) is a function-based treatment for problem behavior that has produced robust effects across a variety of response topographies and reinforcement functions among individuals with developmental disabilities. Several narrative reviews have adequately described this literature. The purpose of the present article was to…

  20. Individuals with Asperger's Disorder Exhibit Difficulty in Switching Attention from a Local Level to a Global Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katagiri, Masatoshi; Kasai, Tetsuko; Kamio, Yoko; Murohashi, Harumitsu

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether individuals with Asperger's disorder exhibit difficulty in switching attention from a local level to a global level. Eleven participants with Asperger's disorder and 11 age- and gender-matched healthy controls performed a level-repetition switching task using Navon-type hierarchical…

  1. Affective Response to a Loved One's Pain: Insula Activity as a Function of Individual Differences

    PubMed Central

    Mazzola, Viridiana; Latorre, Valeria; Petito, Annamaria; Gentili, Nicoletta; Fazio, Leonardo; Popolizio, Teresa; Blasi, Giuseppe; Arciero, Giampiero; Bondolfi, Guido

    2010-01-01

    Individual variability in emotion processing may be associated with genetic variation as well as with psychological predispositions such as dispositional affect styles. Our previous fMRI study demonstrated that amygdala reactivity was independently predicted by affective-cognitive styles (phobic prone or eating disorders prone) and genotype of the serotonin transporter in a discrimination task of fearful facial expressions. Since the insula is associated with the subjective evaluation of bodily states and is involved in human feelings, we explored whether its activity could also vary in function of individual differences. In the present fMRI study, the association between dispositional affects and insula reactivity has been examined in two groups of healthy participants categorized according to affective-cognitive styles (phobic prone or eating disorders prone). Images of the faces of partners and strangers, in both painful and neutral situations, were used as visual stimuli. Interaction analyses indicate significantly different activations in the two groups in reaction to a loved one's pain: the phobic prone group exhibited greater activation in the left posterior insula. These results demonstrate that affective-cognitive style is associated with insula activity in pain empathy processing, suggesting a greater involvement of the insula in feelings for a certain cohort of people. In the mapping of individual differences, these results shed new light on variability in neural networks of emotion. PMID:21179564

  2. Individual variation affects departure rate from the natal pond in an ephemeral pond-breeding anuran

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chelgren, N.D.; Rosenberg, D.K.; Heppell, S.S.; Gitelman, A.I.

    2008-01-01

    Frogs exhibit extreme plasticity and individual variation in growth and behavior during metamorphosis, driven by interactions of intrinsic state factors and extrinsic environmental factors. In northern red-legged frogs (Rana aurora Baird and Girard, 1852), we studied the timing of departure from the natal pond as it relates to date and size of individuals at metamorphosis in the context of environmental uncertainty. To affect body size at metamorphosis, we manipulated food availability during the larval stage for a sample (317) of 1045 uniquely marked individuals and released them at their natal ponds as newly metamorphosed frogs. We recaptured 34% of marked frogs in pitfall traps as they departed and related the timing of their initial terrestrial movements to individual properties using a time-to-event model. Median age at first capture was 4 and 9 days postmetamorphosis at two sites. The rate of departure was positively related to body size and to date of metamorphosis. Departure rate was strongly negatively related to time elapsed since rainfall, and this effect was diminished for smaller and later metamorphosing frogs. Individual variation in metamorphic traits thus affects individuals' responses to environmental variability, supporting a behavioral link with variation in survival associated with these same metamorphic traits. ?? 2008 NRC.

  3. Individual Neuronal Subtypes Exhibit Diversity in CNS Myelination Mediated by Synaptic Vesicle Release.

    PubMed

    Koudelka, Sigrid; Voas, Matthew G; Almeida, Rafael G; Baraban, Marion; Soetaert, Jan; Meyer, Martin P; Talbot, William S; Lyons, David A

    2016-06-01

    Regulation of myelination by oligodendrocytes in the CNS has important consequences for higher-order nervous system function (e.g., [1-4]), and there is growing consensus that neuronal activity regulates CNS myelination (e.g., [5-9]) through local axon-oligodendrocyte synaptic-vesicle-release-mediated signaling [10-12]. Recent analyses have indicated that myelination along axons of distinct neuronal subtypes can differ [13, 14], but it is not known whether regulation of myelination by activity is common to all neuronal subtypes or only some. This limits insight into how specific neurons regulate their own conduction. Here, we use a novel fluorescent fusion protein reporter to study myelination along the axons of distinct neuronal subtypes over time in zebrafish. We find that the axons of reticulospinal and commissural primary ascending (CoPA) neurons are among the first myelinated in the zebrafish CNS. To investigate how activity regulates myelination by different neuronal subtypes, we express tetanus toxin (TeNT) in individual reticulospinal or CoPA neurons to prevent synaptic vesicle release. We find that the axons of individual tetanus toxin expressing reticulospinal neurons have fewer myelin sheaths than controls and that their myelin sheaths are 50% shorter than controls. In stark contrast, myelination along tetanus-toxin-expressing CoPA neuron axons is entirely normal. These results indicate that while some neuronal subtypes modulate myelination by synaptic vesicle release to a striking degree in vivo, others do not. These data have implications for our understanding of how different neurons regulate myelination and thus their own function within specific neuronal circuits.

  4. Arctigenin exhibits relaxation effect on bronchus by affecting transmembrane flow of calcium.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhenying; Yin, Yongqiang; Wang, Zengyong; Fang, Runping; Wu, Hong; Jiang, Min; Bai, Gang; Luo, Guo'an

    2013-12-01

    Arctigenin, a lignan extract from Arctium lappa (L.), exhibits anti-inflammation, antioxidation, vasodilator effects, etc. However, the effects of arctigenin on bronchus relaxation are not well investigated. This study aimed to investigate how arctigenin regulates bronchus tone and calcium ion (Ca(2+)) flow. Trachea strips of guinea pigs were prepared for testing the relaxation effect of arctigenin to acetylcholine, histamine, KCl, and CaCl2, respectively. Furthermore, L-type calcium channel currents were detected by patch-clamp, and intracellular Ca(2+) concentration was detected by confocal microscopy. The results showed that arctigenin exhibited relaxation effect on tracheae to different constrictors, and this was related to decreasing cytoplasmic Ca(2+) concentration by inhibiting Ca(2+) influx partly through L-type calcium channel as well as promoting Ca(2+) efflux. In summary, this study provides new insight into the mechanisms by which arctigenin exhibits relaxation effect on bronchus and suggests its potential use for airway disease therapy.

  5. Arctigenin exhibits relaxation effect on bronchus by affecting transmembrane flow of calcium.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhenying; Yin, Yongqiang; Wang, Zengyong; Fang, Runping; Wu, Hong; Jiang, Min; Bai, Gang; Luo, Guo'an

    2013-12-01

    Arctigenin, a lignan extract from Arctium lappa (L.), exhibits anti-inflammation, antioxidation, vasodilator effects, etc. However, the effects of arctigenin on bronchus relaxation are not well investigated. This study aimed to investigate how arctigenin regulates bronchus tone and calcium ion (Ca(2+)) flow. Trachea strips of guinea pigs were prepared for testing the relaxation effect of arctigenin to acetylcholine, histamine, KCl, and CaCl2, respectively. Furthermore, L-type calcium channel currents were detected by patch-clamp, and intracellular Ca(2+) concentration was detected by confocal microscopy. The results showed that arctigenin exhibited relaxation effect on tracheae to different constrictors, and this was related to decreasing cytoplasmic Ca(2+) concentration by inhibiting Ca(2+) influx partly through L-type calcium channel as well as promoting Ca(2+) efflux. In summary, this study provides new insight into the mechanisms by which arctigenin exhibits relaxation effect on bronchus and suggests its potential use for airway disease therapy. PMID:24114345

  6. Dynamic Response of Large Wind Power Plant Affected by Diverse Conditions at Individual Turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Lu, Shuai; Lin, Guang; Wang, Shaobu

    2014-07-31

    Diverse operating conditions at individual wind turbine generators (WTG) within wind power plants (WPPs) can affect the WPP dynamic response to system faults. For example, individual WTGs can experience diverse terminal voltage and power output caused by different wind direction and speed, affecting the response of protection and control limiters. In this paper, we present a study to investigate the dynamic response of a detailed WPP model under diverse power outputs of its individual WTGs. Wake effect is considered as the reason for diverse power outputs. The diverse WTG power output is evaluated in a test system where a large 168-machine test WPP is connected to the IEEE-39-bus system. The power output from each WTG is derived from a wake effect model that uses realistic statistical data for incoming wind speed and direction. The results show that diverse WTG output due to wake effect can affect the WPP dynamic response activating specialized control in some turbines. In addition, transient stability is affected by exhibiting uncertainty in critical clearing time calculation.

  7. Augmenting simplified habit reversal in the treatment of oral-digital habits exhibited by individuals with mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Long, E S; Miltenberger, R G; Ellingson, S A; Ott, S M

    1999-01-01

    We investigated whether a simplified habit reversal treatment eliminates fingernail biting and related oral-digital habits exhibited by individuals with mild to moderate mental retardation. Although simplified habit reversal did little to decrease the target behaviors for 3 of 4 participants, simplified habit reversal plus additional treatment procedures decreased the behavior to near-zero levels for all participants. These procedures included remote prompting, remote contingencies involving differential reinforcement plus response cost, and differential reinforcement of nail growth. Limitations of habit reversal for individuals with mental retardation along with directions for future research involving therapist-mediated treatment procedures, particularly those involving remote prompting and remote contingencies, are discussed.

  8. Physical Activity Affects Brain Integrity in HIV + Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Ortega, Mario; Baker, Laurie M.; Vaida, Florin; Paul, Robert; Basco, Brian; Ances, Beau M.

    2015-01-01

    Prior research has suggested benefits of aerobic physical activity (PA) on cognition and brain volumes in HIV uninfected (HIV−) individuals, however, few studies have explored the relationships between PA and brain integrity (cognition and structural brain volumes) in HIV-infected (HIV +) individuals. Seventy HIV + individuals underwent neuropsychological testing, structural neuroimaging, laboratory tests, and completed a PA questionnaire, recalling participation in walking, running, and jogging activities over the last year. A PA engagement score of weekly metabolic equivalent (MET) hr of activity was calculated using a compendium of PAs. HIV + individuals were classified as physically active (any energy expended above resting expenditure, n = 22) or sedentary (n = 48). Comparisons of neuropsychological performance, grouped by executive and motor domains, and brain volumes were completed between groups. Physically active and sedentary HIV + individuals had similar demographic and laboratory values, but the active group had higher education (14.0 vs. 12.6 years, p = .034). Physically active HIV + individuals performed better on executive (p = .040, unadjusted; p = .043, adjusted) but not motor function (p = .17). In addition, among the physically active group the amount of physical activity (METs) positively correlated with executive (Pearson’s r = 0.45, p = 0.035) but not motor (r = 0.21; p = .35) performance. In adjusted analyses the physically active HIV + individuals had larger putamen volumes (p = .019). A positive relationship exists between PA and brain integrity in HIV + individuals. Results from the present study emphasize the importance to conduct longitudinal interventional investigation to determine if PA improves brain integrity in HIV + individuals. PMID:26581799

  9. Population coding of affect across stimuli, modalities and individuals

    PubMed Central

    Chikazoe, Junichi; Lee, Daniel H.; Kriegeskorte, Nikolaus; Anderson, Adam K.

    2014-01-01

    It remains unclear how the brain represents external objective sensory events alongside our internal subjective impressions of them—affect. Representational mapping of population level activity evoked by complex scenes and basic tastes uncovered a neural code supporting a continuous axis of pleasant-to-unpleasant valence. This valence code was distinct from low-level physical and high-level object properties. While ventral temporal and anterior insular cortices supported valence codes specific to vision and taste, both the medial and lateral orbitofrontal cortices (OFC), maintained a valence code independent of sensory origin. Further only the OFC code could classify experienced affect across participants. The entire valence spectrum is represented as a collective pattern in regional neural activity as sensory-specific and abstract codes, whereby the subjective quality of affect can be objectively quantified across stimuli, modalities, and people. PMID:24952643

  10. Stimulus Characteristics Affect Humor Processing in Individuals with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samson, Andrea C.; Hegenloh, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The present paper aims to investigate whether individuals with Asperger syndrome (AS) show global humor processing deficits or whether humor comprehension and appreciation depends on stimulus characteristics. Non-verbal visual puns, semantic and Theory of Mind cartoons were rated on comprehension, funniness and the punchlines were explained. AS…

  11. Factors affecting the identification of individual mountain bongo antelope.

    PubMed

    Gibbon, Gwili E M; Bindemann, Markus; Roberts, David L

    2015-01-01

    The recognition of individuals forms the basis of many endangered species monitoring protocols. This process typically relies on manual recognition techniques. This study aimed to calculate a measure of the error rates inherent within the manual technique and also sought to identify visual traits that aid identification, using the critically endangered mountain bongo, Tragelaphus eurycerus isaaci, as a model system. Identification accuracy was assessed with a matching task that required same/different decisions to side-by-side pairings of individual bongos. Error rates were lowest when only the flanks of bongos were shown, suggesting that the inclusion of other visual traits confounded accuracy. Accuracy was also higher for photographs of captive animals than camera-trap images, and in observers experienced in working with mountain bongos, than those unfamiliar with the sub-species. These results suggest that the removal of non-essential morphological traits from photographs of bongos, the use of high-quality images, and relevant expertise all help increase identification accuracy. Finally, given the rise in automated identification and the use of citizen science, something our results would suggest is applicable within the context of the mountain bongo, this study provides a framework for assessing their accuracy in individual as well as species identification. PMID:26587336

  12. Factors affecting the identification of individual mountain bongo antelope

    PubMed Central

    Bindemann, Markus; Roberts, David L.

    2015-01-01

    The recognition of individuals forms the basis of many endangered species monitoring protocols. This process typically relies on manual recognition techniques. This study aimed to calculate a measure of the error rates inherent within the manual technique and also sought to identify visual traits that aid identification, using the critically endangered mountain bongo, Tragelaphus eurycerus isaaci, as a model system. Identification accuracy was assessed with a matching task that required same/different decisions to side-by-side pairings of individual bongos. Error rates were lowest when only the flanks of bongos were shown, suggesting that the inclusion of other visual traits confounded accuracy. Accuracy was also higher for photographs of captive animals than camera-trap images, and in observers experienced in working with mountain bongos, than those unfamiliar with the sub-species. These results suggest that the removal of non-essential morphological traits from photographs of bongos, the use of high-quality images, and relevant expertise all help increase identification accuracy. Finally, given the rise in automated identification and the use of citizen science, something our results would suggest is applicable within the context of the mountain bongo, this study provides a framework for assessing their accuracy in individual as well as species identification. PMID:26587336

  13. Individual differences affect honest signalling in a songbird.

    PubMed

    Akçay, Caglar; Campbell, S Elizabeth; Beecher, Michael D

    2014-01-22

    Research in the past decade has established the existence of consistent individual differences or 'personality' in animals and their important role in many aspects of animal behaviour. At the same time, research on honest signalling of aggression has revealed that while some of the putative aggression signals are reliable, they are only imperfectly so. This study asks whether a significant portion of the variance in the aggression-signal regression may be explained by individual differences in signalling strategies. Using the well-studied aggressive signalling system of song sparrows (Melospiza melodia), we carried out repeated assays to measure both aggressive behaviours and aggressive signalling of territorial males. Through these assays, we found that aggressive behaviours and aggressive signalling were both highly repeatable, and moreover that aggressive behaviours in 2009-2010 predicted whether the birds would attack a taxidermic mount over a year later. Most significantly, we found that residual variation in signalling behaviours, after controlling for aggressive behaviour, was individually consistent, suggesting there may be a second personality trait determining the level of aggressive signalling. We term this potential personality trait 'communicativeness' and discuss these results in the context of honest signalling theories and recent findings reporting prevalence of 'under-signalling'.

  14. Predicting Individual Affect of Health Interventions to Reduce HPV Prevalence

    SciTech Connect

    Corley, Courtney D.; Mihalcea, Rada; Mikler, Armin R.; Sanfilippo, Antonio P.

    2011-04-01

    Recently, human papilloma virus has been implicated to cause several throat and oral cancers and hpv is established to cause most cervical cancers. A human papilloma virus vaccine has been proven successful to reduce infection incidence in FDA clinical trials and it is currently available in the United States. Current intervention policy targets adolescent females for vaccination; however, the expansion of suggested guidelines may extend to other age groups and males as well. This research takes a first step towards automatically predicting personal beliefs, regarding health intervention, on the spread of disease. Using linguistic or statistical approaches, sentiment analysis determines a texts affective content. Self-reported HPV vaccination beliefs published in web and social media are analyzed for affect polarity and leveraged as knowledge inputs to epidemic models. With this in mind, we have developed a discrete-time model to facilitate predicting impact on the reduction of HPV prevalence due to arbitrary age and gender targeted vaccination schemes.

  15. Predicting individual affect of health interventions to reduce HPV prevalence.

    PubMed

    Corley, Courtney D; Mihalcea, Rada; Mikler, Armin R; Sanfilippo, Antonio P

    2011-01-01

    Recently, human papilloma virus (HPV) has been implicated to cause several throat and oral cancers and HPV is established to cause most cervical cancers. A human papilloma virus vaccine has been proven successful to reduce infection incidence in FDA clinical trials, and it is currently available in the USA. Current intervention policy targets adolescent females for vaccination; however, the expansion of suggested guidelines may extend to other age groups and males as well. This research takes a first step toward automatically predicting personal beliefs, regarding health intervention, on the spread of disease. Using linguistic or statistical approaches, sentiment analysis determines a text's affective content. Self-reported HPV vaccination beliefs published in web and social media are analyzed for affect polarity and leveraged as knowledge inputs to epidemic models. With this in mind, we have developed a discrete-time model to facilitate predicting impact on the reduction of HPV prevalence due to arbitrary age- and gender-targeted vaccination schemes.

  16. Red Blood Cells from Individuals with Abdominal Obesity or Metabolic Abnormalities Exhibit Less Deformability upon Entering a Constriction

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Nancy F.; Mancuso, Jordan E.; Zivkovic, Angela M.; Smilowitz, Jennifer T.; Ristenpart, William D.

    2016-01-01

    Abdominal obesity and metabolic syndrome (MS) are multifactorial conditions associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and type II diabetes mellitus. Previous work has demonstrated that the hemorheological profile is altered in patients with abdominal obesity and MS, as evidenced for example by increased whole blood viscosity. To date, however, no studies have examined red blood cell (RBC) deformability of blood from individuals with obesity or metabolic abnormalities under typical physiological flow conditions. In this study, we pumped RBCs through a constriction in a microfluidic device and used high speed video to visualize and track the mechanical behavior of ~8,000 RBCs obtained from either healthy individuals (n = 5) or obese participants with metabolic abnormalities (OMA) (n = 4). We demonstrate that the OMA+ cells stretched on average about 25% less than the healthy controls. Furthermore, we examined the effects of ingesting a high-fat meal on RBC mechanical dynamics, and found that the postprandial period has only a weak effect on the stretching dynamics exhibited by OMA+ cells. The results suggest that chronic rigidification of RBCs plays a key role in the increased blood pressure and increased whole blood viscosity observed in OMA individuals and was independent of an acute response triggered by consumption of a high-fat meal. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01803633 PMID:27258098

  17. Affective imaging: psychological and physiological reactions to individually chosen images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorovskaya, Elena A.; Miller, Paige; Prabhu, Girish; Horwitz, Cecelia; Matraszek, Tomasz; Parks, Peter; Blazey, Richard; Endrikhovski, Serguei

    2001-06-01

    In a series of experiments, observers' cognitive and psychophysiological responses to pictorial stimuli were evaluated. In the first experiment, subjects were viewing a set of randomly presented images. After each image presentation, they rates every image on a number of cognitive scales. In the second experiment, images producing certain physiological effects - deactivating, neutral, or activating - were individually selected based on the results of the first experiment and shown to the subjects again. Psychophysiological measurements included electrocardiogram, hand temperature, muscle tension, eye movements, blood oxygen, respiration, and galvanic skin response. Our result indicate that images produced significant emotional changes based on verbal and physiological assessment. The changes were in agreement with the predictions derived from the metric that we developed in a number of cases that exceeded the change level. The direction of changes corresponded to previous findings reported elsewhere.

  18. Individual Flagellar Waveform Affects Collective Behavior of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Kage, Azusa; Mogami, Yoshihiro

    2015-08-01

    Bioconvection is a form of collective motion that occurs spontaneously in the suspension of swimming microorganisms. In a previous study, we quantitatively described the "pattern transition," a phase transition phenomenon that so far has exclusively been observed in bioconvection of the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas. We suggested that the transition could be induced by changes in the balance between the gravitational and shear-induced torques, both of which act to determine the orientation of the organism in the shear flow. As both of the torques should be affected by the geometry of the Chlamydomonas cell, alteration in the flagellar waveform might change the extent of torque generation by altering overall geometry of the cell. Based on this working hypothesis, we examined bioconvection behavior of two flagellar mutants of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, ida1 and oda2, making reference to the wild type. Flagella of ida1 beat with an abnormal waveform, while flagella of oda2 show a normal waveform but lower beat frequency. As a result, both mutants had swimming speed of less than 50% of the wild type. ida1 formed bioconvection patterns with smaller spacing than those of wild type and oda2. Two-axis view revealed the periodic movement of the settling blobs of ida1, while oda2 showed qualitatively similar behavior to that of wild type. Unexpectedly, ida1 showed stronger negative gravitaxis than did wild type, while oda2 showed relatively weak gravitaxis. These findings suggest that flagellar waveform, not swimming speed or beat frequency, strongly affect bioconvection behavior in C. reinhardtii.

  19. Individual Flagellar Waveform Affects Collective Behavior of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Kage, Azusa; Mogami, Yoshihiro

    2015-08-01

    Bioconvection is a form of collective motion that occurs spontaneously in the suspension of swimming microorganisms. In a previous study, we quantitatively described the "pattern transition," a phase transition phenomenon that so far has exclusively been observed in bioconvection of the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas. We suggested that the transition could be induced by changes in the balance between the gravitational and shear-induced torques, both of which act to determine the orientation of the organism in the shear flow. As both of the torques should be affected by the geometry of the Chlamydomonas cell, alteration in the flagellar waveform might change the extent of torque generation by altering overall geometry of the cell. Based on this working hypothesis, we examined bioconvection behavior of two flagellar mutants of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, ida1 and oda2, making reference to the wild type. Flagella of ida1 beat with an abnormal waveform, while flagella of oda2 show a normal waveform but lower beat frequency. As a result, both mutants had swimming speed of less than 50% of the wild type. ida1 formed bioconvection patterns with smaller spacing than those of wild type and oda2. Two-axis view revealed the periodic movement of the settling blobs of ida1, while oda2 showed qualitatively similar behavior to that of wild type. Unexpectedly, ida1 showed stronger negative gravitaxis than did wild type, while oda2 showed relatively weak gravitaxis. These findings suggest that flagellar waveform, not swimming speed or beat frequency, strongly affect bioconvection behavior in C. reinhardtii. PMID:26245228

  20. Inter-annual and inter-individual variations in survival exhibit strong seasonality in a hibernating rodent.

    PubMed

    Le Cœur, Christie; Chantepie, Stéphane; Pisanu, Benoît; Chapuis, Jean-Louis; Robert, Alexandre

    2016-07-01

    Most research on the demography of wild animal populations has focused on characterizing the variation in the mortality of organisms as a function of intrinsic and environmental characteristics. However, such variation in mortality is difficult to relate to functional life history components (e.g. reproduction, dispersal, hibernation) due to the difficulty in monitoring biological processes at a sufficiently fine timescale. In this study, we used a 10-year individual-based data set with an infra-annual timescale to investigate both intra- and inter-annual survival patterns according to intrinsic and environmental covariates in an introduced population of a small hibernating rodent, the Siberian chipmunk. We compared three distinct periods related to particular life history events: spring reproduction, summer reproduction and hibernation. Our results revealed strong interactions between intrinsic and temporal effects. First, survival of male chipmunks strongly decreases during the reproduction periods, while survival is high and equal between sexes during hibernation. Second, the season of birth affects the survival of juveniles during their first hibernation, which does not have long-lasting consequences at the adult stage. Third, at an inter-annual scale, we found that high food resource availability before hibernation and low chipmunk densities specifically favour subsequent winter survival. Overall, our results confirm that the well-known patterns of yearly and inter-individual variation of mortality observed in animals are themselves strongly variable within a given year, suggesting that they are associated with various functional components of the animals' life history.

  1. Inter-annual and inter-individual variations in survival exhibit strong seasonality in a hibernating rodent.

    PubMed

    Le Cœur, Christie; Chantepie, Stéphane; Pisanu, Benoît; Chapuis, Jean-Louis; Robert, Alexandre

    2016-07-01

    Most research on the demography of wild animal populations has focused on characterizing the variation in the mortality of organisms as a function of intrinsic and environmental characteristics. However, such variation in mortality is difficult to relate to functional life history components (e.g. reproduction, dispersal, hibernation) due to the difficulty in monitoring biological processes at a sufficiently fine timescale. In this study, we used a 10-year individual-based data set with an infra-annual timescale to investigate both intra- and inter-annual survival patterns according to intrinsic and environmental covariates in an introduced population of a small hibernating rodent, the Siberian chipmunk. We compared three distinct periods related to particular life history events: spring reproduction, summer reproduction and hibernation. Our results revealed strong interactions between intrinsic and temporal effects. First, survival of male chipmunks strongly decreases during the reproduction periods, while survival is high and equal between sexes during hibernation. Second, the season of birth affects the survival of juveniles during their first hibernation, which does not have long-lasting consequences at the adult stage. Third, at an inter-annual scale, we found that high food resource availability before hibernation and low chipmunk densities specifically favour subsequent winter survival. Overall, our results confirm that the well-known patterns of yearly and inter-individual variation of mortality observed in animals are themselves strongly variable within a given year, suggesting that they are associated with various functional components of the animals' life history. PMID:26969470

  2. They know the words, but not the music: affective and semantic priming in individuals with psychopathy.

    PubMed

    Blair, K S; Richell, R A; Mitchell, D G V; Leonard, A; Morton, J; Blair, R J R

    2006-08-01

    Previous work has indicated dysfunctional affect-language interactions in individuals with psychopathy through use of the lexical decision task. However, it has been uncertain as to whether these deficits actually reflect impaired affect-language interactions or a more fundamental deficit in general semantic processing. In this study, we examined affective priming and semantic priming (dependent measures were reaction times and error rates) in individuals with psychopathy and comparison individuals, classified according to the psychopathy checklist revised (PCL-R) [Hare, R.D., 1991. The Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised. Multi-Health Systems, Toronto, Ont] Individuals with psychopathy showed significantly less affective priming relative to comparison individuals. In contrast, the two groups showed comparable levels of semantic priming. The results are discussed with reference to current models of psychopathy.

  3. Interacting with Nature Improves Cognition and Affect for Individuals with Depression

    PubMed Central

    Berman, Marc G.; Kross, Ethan; Krpan, Katherine M.; Askren, Mary K.; Burson, Aleah; Deldin, Patricia J.; Kaplan, Stephen; Sherdell, Lindsey; Gotlib, Ian H.; Jonides, John

    2012-01-01

    Background This study aimed to explore whether walking in nature may be beneficial for individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD). Healthy adults demonstrate significant cognitive gains after nature walks, but it was unclear whether those same benefits would be achieved in a depressed sample as walking alone in nature might induce rumination, thereby worsening memory and mood. Methods Twenty individuals diagnosed with MDD participated in this study. At baseline, mood and short term memory span were assessed using the PANAS and the backwards digit span (BDS) task, respectively. Participants were then asked to think about an unresolved negative autobiographical event to prime rumination, prior to taking a 50 minute walk in either a natural or urban setting. After the walk, mood and short-term memory span were reassessed. The following week, participants returned to the lab and repeated the entire procedure, but walked in the location not visited in the first session (i.e., a counterbalanced within-subjects design). Results Participants exhibited significant increases in memory span after the nature walk relative to the urban walk, p < .001, ηp2= .53 (a large effect-size). Participants also showed increases in mood, but the mood effects did not correlate with the memory effects, suggesting separable mechanisms and replicating previous work. Limitations Sample size and participants’ motivation. Conclusions These findings extend earlier work demonstrating the cognitive and affective benefits of interacting with nature to individuals with MDD. Therefore, interacting with nature may be useful clinically as a supplement to existing treatments for MDD. PMID:22464936

  4. Individual vulnerability to substance abuse and affective disorders: role of early environmental influences.

    PubMed

    Koehl, Muriel; Lemaire, Valérie; Mayo, Willy; Abrous, Djoher Nora; Maccari, Sefania; Piazza, Pier Vincenzo; Le Moal, Michel; Vallée, Monique

    2002-06-01

    One of the most important questions raised by modern psychiatry and experimental psychopathology is the origin of mental diseases. More concisely, clinical and experimental neurosciences are increasingly concerned with the factors that render one individual more vulnerable than another to a given pathological outcome. Animal models are now available to understand the sources of individual differences for specific phenotypes prone to behavioral disadaptations. Over the last 10 years we have explored the consequences of environmental perinatal manipulations in the rat. We have shown that prenatal stress is at the origin of a wide range of physiological and behavioral aberrances such as alterations in the activity of the hormonal stress axis, increased vulnerability to drug of abuse, emotional liability, cognitive impairments and predisposition to pathological aging. Taken together, these abnormalities define a bio-behavioral syndrome. Furthermore, the cognitive disabilities observed in prenatally-stressed rats were recently related to an alteration of neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus, thus confirming the impact of early life events on brain morphology. A second model (handling model) has also been developed in which pups are briefly separated from their mothers during early postnatal life. In contrast with prenatally-stressed animals, handled rats exhibited a reduced emotion response when confronted with novel situations and were protected against age-induced impairments of both the hormonal stress axis and cognitive functions. Taken together, the results of these investigations show that the bio-behavioral phenotype that characterizes each individual is strongly linked to the nature and timing of perinatal experience. Furthermore, data collected in prenatally-stressed animals indicate that this model could be used profitably to understand the etiology and pathophysiology of affective disorders. PMID:12829419

  5. The Role of Affective and Cognitive Individual Differences in Social Perception.

    PubMed

    Aquino, Antonio; Haddock, Geoffrey; Maio, Gregory R; Wolf, Lukas J; Alparone, Francesca R

    2016-06-01

    Three studies explored the connection between social perception processes and individual differences in the use of affective and cognitive information in relation to attitudes. Study 1 revealed that individuals high in need for affect (NFA) accentuated differences in evaluations of warm and cold traits, whereas individuals high in need for cognition (NFC) accentuated differences in evaluations of competent and incompetent traits. Study 2 revealed that individual differences in NFA predicted liking of warm or cold targets, whereas individual differences in NFC predicted perceptions of competent or incompetent targets. Furthermore, the effects of NFA and NFC were independent of structural bases and meta-bases of attitudes. Study 3 revealed that differences in the evaluation of warm and cold traits mediated the effects of NFA and NFC on liking of targets. The implications for social perception processes and for individual differences in affect-cognition are discussed. PMID:27460272

  6. Modeling System Operators Affecting the Information Organizer of an Individual. Research Bulletin 77.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laasonen, Raimo

    This report details a study performed as an interplay between modeling and reality which was designed to find operators that affect the information organizer of an individual in a social system. The operator is defined as a system element that affects other elements. The information organizer is defined as a coordinating interface between the…

  7. Prawn Shell Chitosan Exhibits Anti-Obesogenic Potential through Alterations to Appetite, Affecting Feeding Behaviour and Satiety Signals In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Egan, Áine M; O'Doherty, John V; Vigors, Stafford; Sweeney, Torres

    2016-01-01

    The crustacean shells-derived polysaccharide chitosan has received much attention for its anti-obesity potential. Dietary supplementation of chitosan has been linked with reductions in feed intake, suggesting a potential link between chitosan and appetite control. Hence the objective of this experiment was to investigate the appetite suppressing potential of prawn shell derived chitosan in a pig model. Pigs (70 ± 0.90 kg, 125 days of age, SD 2.0) were fed either T1) basal diet or T2) basal diet plus 1000 ppm chitosan (n = 20 gilts per group) for 63 days. The parameter categories which were assessed included performance, feeding behaviour, serum leptin concentrations and expression of genes influencing feeding behaviour in the small intestine, hypothalamus and adipose tissue. Pigs offered chitosan visited the feeder less times per day (P<0.001), had lower intake per visit (P<0.001), spent less time eating per day (P<0.001), had a lower eating rate (P<0.01) and had reduced feed intake and final body weight (P< 0.001) compared to animals offered the basal diet. There was a treatment (P<0.05) and time effect (P<0.05) on serum leptin concentrations in animals offered the chitosan diet compared to animals offered the basal diet. Pigs receiving dietary chitosan had an up-regulation in gene expression of growth hormone receptor (P<0.05), Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (P<0.01), neuromedin B (P<0.05), neuropeptide Y receptor 5 (P<0.05) in hypothalamic nuclei and neuropeptide Y (P<0.05) in the jejunum. Animals consuming chitosan had increased leptin expression in adipose tissue compared to pigs offered the basal diet (P<0.05). In conclusion, these data support the hypothesis that dietary prawn shell chitosan exhibits anti-obesogenic potential through alterations to appetite, and feeding behaviour affecting satiety signals in vivo.

  8. Prawn Shell Chitosan Exhibits Anti-Obesogenic Potential through Alterations to Appetite, Affecting Feeding Behaviour and Satiety Signals In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Egan, Áine M.; O’Doherty, John V.; Vigors, Stafford; Sweeney, Torres

    2016-01-01

    The crustacean shells-derived polysaccharide chitosan has received much attention for its anti-obesity potential. Dietary supplementation of chitosan has been linked with reductions in feed intake, suggesting a potential link between chitosan and appetite control. Hence the objective of this experiment was to investigate the appetite suppressing potential of prawn shell derived chitosan in a pig model. Pigs (70 ± 0.90 kg, 125 days of age, SD 2.0) were fed either T1) basal diet or T2) basal diet plus 1000 ppm chitosan (n = 20 gilts per group) for 63 days. The parameter categories which were assessed included performance, feeding behaviour, serum leptin concentrations and expression of genes influencing feeding behaviour in the small intestine, hypothalamus and adipose tissue. Pigs offered chitosan visited the feeder less times per day (P<0.001), had lower intake per visit (P<0.001), spent less time eating per day (P<0.001), had a lower eating rate (P<0.01) and had reduced feed intake and final body weight (P< 0.001) compared to animals offered the basal diet. There was a treatment (P<0.05) and time effect (P<0.05) on serum leptin concentrations in animals offered the chitosan diet compared to animals offered the basal diet. Pigs receiving dietary chitosan had an up-regulation in gene expression of growth hormone receptor (P<0.05), Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (P<0.01), neuromedin B (P<0.05), neuropeptide Y receptor 5 (P<0.05) in hypothalamic nuclei and neuropeptide Y (P<0.05) in the jejunum. Animals consuming chitosan had increased leptin expression in adipose tissue compared to pigs offered the basal diet (P<0.05). In conclusion, these data support the hypothesis that dietary prawn shell chitosan exhibits anti-obesogenic potential through alterations to appetite, and feeding behaviour affecting satiety signals in vivo. PMID:26901760

  9. Parental instrumental feeding, negative affect, and binge eating among overweight individuals.

    PubMed

    Mason, Tyler B

    2015-04-01

    Parental instrumental feeding (i.e., rewarding children with food for perceived correct behaviors and punishing by taking away food for perceived incorrect behaviors) and negative affect are independently associated with binge eating in adulthood. However, less is known about interactions between these variables and binge eating. This study examined the relationship of retrospective reports of parental feeding practices and negative affect to binge eating. Participants were 165 overweight and obese undergraduate students at a large Mid-Atlantic University. High parental instrumental feeding strengthened the relationship between negative affect and binge eating. Also, individuals who reported low parental feeding practices reported similar binge eating regardless of negative affect. These findings suggest that overweight and obese individuals whose parents used more instrumental feeding practices are most likely to engage in binge eating in response to negative affect.

  10. Avoidance prone individuals self reporting behavioral inhibition exhibit facilitated acquisition and altered extinction of conditioned eyeblinks with partial reinforcement schedules.

    PubMed

    Allen, Michael Todd; Myers, Catherine E; Servatius, Richard J

    2014-01-01

    Avoidance in the face of novel situations or uncertainty is a prime feature of behavioral inhibition which has been put forth as a risk factor for the development of anxiety disorders. Recent work has found that behaviorally inhibited (BI) individuals acquire conditioned eyeblinks faster than non-inhibited (NI) individuals in omission and yoked paradigms in which the predictive relationship between the conditioned stimulus (CS) and unconditional stimulus (US) is less than optimal as compared to standard training with CS-US paired trials (Holloway et al., 2014). In the current study, we tested explicitly partial schedules in which half the trials were CS alone or US alone trials in addition to the standard CS-US paired trials. One hundred and forty nine college-aged undergraduates participated in the study. All participants completed the Adult Measure of Behavioral Inhibition (i.e., AMBI) which was used to group participants as BI and NI. Eyeblink conditioning consisted of three US alone trials, 60 acquisition trials, and 20 CS-alone extinction trials presented in one session. Conditioning stimuli were a 500 ms tone CS and a 50-ms air puff US. Behaviorally inhibited individuals receiving 50% partial reinforcement with CS alone or US alone trials produced facilitated acquisition as compared to NI individuals. A partial reinforcement extinction effect (PREE) was evident with CS alone trials in BI but not NI individuals. These current findings indicate that avoidance prone individuals self-reporting behavioral inhibition over-learn an association and are slow to extinguish conditioned responses (CRs) when there is some level of uncertainty between paired trials and CS or US alone presentations.

  11. Avoidance prone individuals self reporting behavioral inhibition exhibit facilitated acquisition and altered extinction of conditioned eyeblinks with partial reinforcement schedules

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Michael Todd; Myers, Catherine E.; Servatius, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Avoidance in the face of novel situations or uncertainty is a prime feature of behavioral inhibition which has been put forth as a risk factor for the development of anxiety disorders. Recent work has found that behaviorally inhibited (BI) individuals acquire conditioned eyeblinks faster than non-inhibited (NI) individuals in omission and yoked paradigms in which the predictive relationship between the conditioned stimulus (CS) and unconditional stimulus (US) is less than optimal as compared to standard training with CS-US paired trials (Holloway et al., 2014). In the current study, we tested explicitly partial schedules in which half the trials were CS alone or US alone trials in addition to the standard CS-US paired trials. One hundred and forty nine college-aged undergraduates participated in the study. All participants completed the Adult Measure of Behavioral Inhibition (i.e., AMBI) which was used to group participants as BI and NI. Eyeblink conditioning consisted of three US alone trials, 60 acquisition trials, and 20 CS-alone extinction trials presented in one session. Conditioning stimuli were a 500 ms tone CS and a 50-ms air puff US. Behaviorally inhibited individuals receiving 50% partial reinforcement with CS alone or US alone trials produced facilitated acquisition as compared to NI individuals. A partial reinforcement extinction effect (PREE) was evident with CS alone trials in BI but not NI individuals. These current findings indicate that avoidance prone individuals self-reporting behavioral inhibition over-learn an association and are slow to extinguish conditioned responses (CRs) when there is some level of uncertainty between paired trials and CS or US alone presentations. PMID:25339877

  12. Relations between pure dietary and dietary-negative affect subtypes and impulsivity and reinforcement sensitivity in binge eating individuals.

    PubMed

    Carrard, Isabelle; Crépin, Christelle; Ceschi, Grazia; Golay, Alain; Van der Linden, Martial

    2012-01-01

    To investigate potential predictors of the severity of binge eating disorder (BED), two subtypes of patients with the disorder, a pure dietary subtype and a dietary-negative affect subtype, were identified. This study investigated the relationships between the two subtypes and impulsivity and reinforcement sensitivity. Ninety-two women meeting threshold and subthreshold criteria for BED diagnosis filled out questionnaires to determine eating disorder severity, impulsivity and reinforcement sensitivity before and after participating in an online guided self-help program for BED. Cluster analyses revealed a pure dietary subtype (N=66, 71.7%) and a dietary-negative affect subtype (N=26, 28.3%). Compared to the pure dietary subtype, the dietary-negative affect subtype reported a higher frequency of objective binge episodes, more severe eating disorders, higher urgency scores (defined as a tendency to act rashly in the context of negative affect), a greater sensitivity to punishment, and a higher dropout rate during treatment. These findings suggest that BED patients in the dietary-negative affect subtype exhibit heightened anxiety and are highly impulsive, especially in contexts of negative affect. For these individuals, psychological interventions for BED should focus on inhibiting automatic responses to negative emotions.

  13. Individual differences in cognition, affect, and performance: Behavioral, neuroimaging, and molecular genetic approaches

    PubMed Central

    Parasuraman, Raja; Jiang, Yang

    2012-01-01

    We describe the use of behavioral, neuroimaging, and genetic methods to examine individual differences in cognition and affect, guided by three criteria: (1) relevance to human performance in work and everyday settings; (2) interactions between working memory, decision-making, and affective processing; and (3) examination of individual differences. The results of behavioral, functional MRI (fMRI), event-related potential (ERP), and molecular genetic studies show that analyses at the group level often mask important findings associated with sub-groups of individuals. Dopaminergic/noradrenergic genes influencing prefrontal cortex activity contribute to inter-individual variation in working memory and decision behavior, including performance in complex simulations of military decision-making. The interactive influences of individual differences in anxiety, sensation seeking, and boredom susceptibility on evaluative decision-making can be systematically described using ERP and fMRI methods. We conclude that a multi-modal neuroergonomic approach to examining brain function (using both neuroimaging and molecular genetics) can be usefully applied to understanding individual differences in cognition and affect and has implications for human performance at work. PMID:21569853

  14. Individual differences in cognition, affect, and performance: behavioral, neuroimaging, and molecular genetic approaches.

    PubMed

    Parasuraman, Raja; Jiang, Yang

    2012-01-01

    We describe the use of behavioral, neuroimaging, and genetic methods to examine individual differences in cognition and affect, guided by three criteria: (1) relevance to human performance in work and everyday settings; (2) interactions between working memory, decision-making, and affective processing; and (3) examination of individual differences. The results of behavioral, functional MRI (fMRI), event-related potential (ERP), and molecular genetic studies show that analyses at the group level often mask important findings associated with sub-groups of individuals. Dopaminergic/noradrenergic genes influencing prefrontal cortex activity contribute to inter-individual variation in working memory and decision behavior, including performance in complex simulations of military decision-making. The interactive influences of individual differences in anxiety, sensation seeking, and boredom susceptibility on evaluative decision-making can be systematically described using ERP and fMRI methods. We conclude that a multi-modal neuroergonomic approach to examining brain function (using both neuroimaging and molecular genetics) can be usefully applied to understanding individual differences in cognition and affect and has implications for human performance at work. PMID:21569853

  15. Cross-modal influences of affect across social and non-social domains in individuals with Williams syndrome.

    PubMed

    Järvinen-Pasley, Anna; Vines, Bradley W; Hill, Kiley J; Yam, Anna; Grichanik, Mark; Mills, Debra; Reiss, Allan L; Korenberg, Julie R; Bellugi, Ursula

    2010-01-01

    The Williams syndrome (WS) cognitive profile is characterized by relative strengths in face processing, an attentional bias towards social stimuli, and an increased affinity and emotional reactivity to music. An audio-visual integration study examined the effects of auditory emotion on visual (social/non-social) affect identification in individuals with WS and typically developing (TD) and developmentally delayed (DD) controls. The social bias in WS was hypothesized to manifest as an increased ability to process social than non-social affect, and a reduced auditory influence in social contexts. The control groups were hypothesized to perform similarly across conditions. The results showed that while participants with WS exhibited indistinguishable performance to TD controls in identifying facial affect, DD controls performed significantly more poorly. The TD group outperformed the WS and DD groups in identifying non-social affect. The results suggest that emotionally evocative music facilitated the ability of participants with WS to process emotional facial expressions. These surprisingly strong facial-processing skills in individuals with WS may have been due to the effects of combining social and music stimuli and to a reduction in anxiety due to the music in particular. Several directions for future research are suggested.

  16. Extreme sensory processing patterns and their relation with clinical conditions among individuals with major affective disorders.

    PubMed

    Engel-Yeger, Batya; Muzio, Caterina; Rinosi, Giorgio; Solano, Paola; Geoffroy, Pierre Alexis; Pompili, Maurizio; Amore, Mario; Serafini, Gianluca

    2016-02-28

    Previous studies highlighted the involvement of sensory perception in emotional processes. However, the role of extreme sensory processing patterns expressed in hyper- or hyposensitivity was not thoroughly considered. The present study, in real life conditions, examined the unique sensory processing patterns of individuals with major affective disorders and their relationship with psychiatric symptomatology. The sample consisted of 105 participants with major affective conditions ranging in age from 20 to 84 years (mean=56.7±14.6). All participants completed the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego (TEMPS-A), the second version of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II), and Adolescent/Adult Sensory Profile (AASP). Sensory sensitivity/avoiding hypersensitivity patterns and low registration (a hyposensitivity pattern) were prevalent among our sample as compared to normative data. About seventy percent of the sample showed lower seeking tendency. Stepwise regression analyses revealed that depression and anxious/cyclothymic affective temperaments were predicted by sensory sensory/avoiding. Anxious and irritable affective temperaments were predicted by low registration. Hyperthymic affective temperament and lower severity of depression were predicted by sensation seeking. Hyposensitivity or hypersensitivity may be "trait" markers of individuals with major affective disorders. Interventions should refer to the individual unique sensory profiles and their behavioral and functional impact in the context of real life.

  17. Hard Exercise, Affect Lability, and Personality Among Individuals with Bulimia Nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Brownstone, Lisa M.; Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E.; Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Joiner, Thomas E.; Le Grange, Daniel; Mitchell, James E.; Crow, Scott J.; Peterson, Carol B.; Crosby, Ross D.; Klein, Marjorie H.; Bardone-Cone, Anna M.

    2013-01-01

    The current study explores the personality traits of compulsivity (e.g., sense of orderliness and duty to perform tasks completely) and restricted expression (e.g., emotion expression difficulties) as potential moderators of the relation between affect lability and frequency of hard exercise episodes in a sample of individuals with bulimic pathology. Participants were 204 adult females recruited in five Midwestern cities who met criteria for threshold or subthreshold bulimia nervosa (BN). Compulsivity was found to significantly moderate the relation between affect lability and number of hard exercise episodes over the past 28 days, such that among those with high compulsivity, level of affect lability was associated with the number of hard exercise episodes; whereas, among those with low compulsivity, affect lability was not associated with the number of hard exercise episodes. The same pattern of findings emerged for restricted expression; however, this finding approached, but did not reach statistical significance. As such, it appears that affect lability is differentially related to hard exercise among individuals with BN depending upon the level of compulsivity and, to a more limited extent, restricted expression. These results suggest that, for individuals with BN with either compulsivity or restricted expression, focusing treatment on increasing flexibility and/or verbal expression of emotions may help them in the context of intense, fluctuating affect. PMID:24183126

  18. How does searching for health information on the Internet affect individuals' demand for health care services?

    PubMed

    Suziedelyte, Agne

    2012-11-01

    The emergence of the Internet made health information, which previously was almost exclusively available to health professionals, accessible to the general public. Access to health information on the Internet is likely to affect individuals' health care related decisions. The aim of this analysis is to determine how health information that people obtain from the Internet affects their demand for health care. I use a novel data set, the U.S. Health Information National Trends Survey (2003-07), to answer this question. The causal variable of interest is a binary variable that indicates whether or not an individual has recently searched for health information on the Internet. Health care utilization is measured by an individual's number of visits to a health professional in the past 12 months. An individual's decision to use the Internet to search for health information is likely to be correlated to other variables that can also affect his/her demand for health care. To separate the effect of Internet health information from other confounding variables, I control for a number of individual characteristics and use the instrumental variable estimation method. As an instrument for Internet health information, I use U.S. state telecommunication regulations that are shown to affect the supply of Internet services. I find that searching for health information on the Internet has a positive, relatively large, and statistically significant effect on an individual's demand for health care. This effect is larger for the individuals who search for health information online more frequently and people who have health care coverage. Among cancer patients, the effect of Internet health information seeking on health professional visits varies by how long ago they were diagnosed with cancer. Thus, the Internet is found to be a complement to formal health care rather than a substitute for health professional services.

  19. VASCULAR OCCLUSION AFFECTS GAIT VARIABILITY PATTERNS OF HEALTHY YOUNGER AND OLDER INDIVIDUALS

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Sara A.; Johanning, Jason M.; Pipinos, Iraklis I.; Schmid, Kendra K.; Stergiou, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    Insufficient blood flow is one possible mechanism contributing to altered gait patterns in lower extremity peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Previously, our laboratory found that induced occlusion alters gait variability patterns in healthy young individuals. However the effect of age was not explored. The purpose of this study was to account for age by investigating gait variability following induced vascular occlusion in healthy older individuals and to identify amount of change from baseline to post vascular occlusion between younger and older individuals. Thirty healthy younger individuals and 30 healthy older individuals walked on a treadmill during baseline and post vascular occlusion conditions while lower extremity joint kinematics were captured. Vascular occlusion was induced by thigh cuffs inflated bilaterally on the upper thighs. Amount and temporal structure of gait variability was assessed. Older individuals exhibited significantly increased values of temporal structure of variability post vascular occlusion. Post vascular occlusion values were similar between younger and older individuals after adjusting for baseline measurements. Results show blood flow contributes to altered gait variability. However alterations were less severe than previously documented in symptomatic PAD patients, suggesting that neuromuscular problems in the lower extremities of PAD patients also contribute to gait alterations in these patients. PMID:23053301

  20. Emotional intelligence: a theoretical framework for individual differences in affective forecasting.

    PubMed

    Hoerger, Michael; Chapman, Benjamin P; Epstein, Ronald M; Duberstein, Paul R

    2012-08-01

    Only recently have researchers begun to examine individual differences in affective forecasting. The present investigation was designed to make a theoretical contribution to this emerging literature by examining the role of emotional intelligence in affective forecasting. Emotional intelligence was hypothesized to be associated with affective forecasting accuracy, memory for emotional reactions, and subsequent improvement on an affective forecasting task involving emotionally evocative pictures. Results from two studies (N = 511) supported our hypotheses. Emotional intelligence was associated with accuracy in predicting, encoding, and consolidating emotional reactions. Furthermore, emotional intelligence was associated with greater improvement on a second affective forecasting task, with the relationship explained by basic memory processes. Implications for future research on basic and applied decision making are discussed.

  1. How Creativity Was Affected by Environmental Factors and Individual Characteristics: A Cross-Cultural Comparison Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deng, Lifang; Wang, Lijuan; Zhao, Yanyun

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore how environmental factors (family environment and school education) and individual characteristics (personality, creative attitudes, and divergent thinking) collectively affect creative achievement of American and Chinese college students. Data were collected from 378 college students in the United States…

  2. Factors Affecting Individual Education Demand at the Entrance to University: Adnan Menderes University Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarpkaya, Ruhi

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this research is to determine the factors affecting individual education demands at the entrance to university. The research is in survey model. The universe of the study consists of 1630 freshmen at the faculties and vocational schools of Adnan Menderes University, Aydin. 574 students from 7 schools were included in the sample. The…

  3. Individual and Technological Factors Affecting Undergraduates' Use of Mobile Technology in University of Ilorin, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olufunmilola Ogulande, Oyeronke; Oladimeji Olafare, Festus; Ayuba Sakaba, Dabo

    2016-01-01

    The proliferation and utilization of handheld mobile technology among undergraduates for mobile learning cannot be underestimated. This study was geared towards investigating individual and technological factors affecting the perceived usefulness of mobile technology by undergraduates in university of Ilorin, Nigeria. The study was a descriptive…

  4. Emotion, working memory task demands and individual differences predict behavior, cognitive effort and negative affect.

    PubMed

    Storbeck, Justin; Davidson, Nicole A; Dahl, Chelsea F; Blass, Sara; Yung, Edwin

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether positive and negative affect motivates verbal and spatial working memory processes, respectively, which have implications for the expenditure of mental effort. We argue that when emotion promotes cognitive tendencies that are goal incompatible with task demands, greater cognitive effort is required to perform well. We sought to investigate whether this increase in cognitive effort impairs behavioural control over a broad domain of self-control tasks. Moreover, we predicted that individuals with higher behavioural inhibition system (BIS) sensitivities would report more negative affect within the goal incompatible conditions because such individuals report higher negative affect during cognitive challenge. Positive or negative affective states were induced followed by completing a verbal or spatial 2-back working memory task. All participants then completed one of three self-control tasks. Overall, we observed that conditions of emotion and working memory incompatibility (positive/spatial and negative/verbal) performed worse on the self-control tasks, and within the incompatible conditions individuals with higher BIS sensitivities reported more negative affect at the end of the study. The combination of findings suggests that emotion and working memory compatibility reduces cognitive effort and impairs behavioural control.

  5. The protection of individuals affected with Specific Learning Disorders in the Italian Legislation.

    PubMed

    Feola, A; Marino, V; Masullo, A; Trabucco Aurilio, M; Marsella, L T

    2015-01-01

    Specific Learning Disorders (SLDs) affect specific abilities in individuals with an otherwise normal academic development. Among Italian School population, their reported prevalence is between 2.5% and 3.5%. Dysfunctions at the base of these disorders interfere with the normal acquisition process of reading, writing and/or mathematical abilities, leading to various degrees of adjustment difficulties in the affected individuals. The aim of this study was to assess the support that Italian Government offers to its citizens affected with SLDs, with a particular focus on assistance during the school-age years, particularly through the introduction of the Law 170/2010 and successive guidelines, supplementing the existing regulations to offer more efficient means and legal instruments aimed at achieving earlier diagnoses. PMID:26152629

  6. [Knowledge of family members on the rights of individuals affected by mental illness].

    PubMed

    Moreno, Vania; Barbosa, Guilherme Correa

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this investigation was to understand what family members know about the rights of individuals affected by mental illness. To this end, a qualitative exploratory study was conducted. A semi-structured interview was used for data collection. Eighteen family members were interviewed at a psychosocial care center (CAPS) and a civil society organization (CSO) located in a municipality in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, between March and September 2013. Data were analyzed using thematic content analysis and the following categories were constructed: mental health services and the rights of individuals affected by mental illness. We were able to infer that in addition to drug-based therapy, mental health services must provide therapeutic activities. Family members of those affected by mental illness were unaware of the Brazilian Psychiatric Reform Law and mentioned the following rights: welfare benefits, free public transport, basic food basket and medications. PMID:26098801

  7. Positive Affect Is Inversely Associated with Mortality in Individuals without Depression

    PubMed Central

    Martín-María, Natalia; Caballero, Francisco Félix; Olaya, Beatriz; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando; Haro, Josep Maria; Miret, Marta; Ayuso-Mateos, José Luis

    2016-01-01

    Background: Some studies have analyzed the relation between well-being and mortality but none of them have attempted to disentangle the differential influence that positive affect, negative affect, and evaluative well-being might have on mortality using a longitudinal design in the general population and measuring independently and accurately each component of well-being. The aim of the present study is to assess the association of these well-being components with mortality after adjusting for health and other lifestyle factors and to analyze whether this association is different in people with and without depression. Methods: A nationally representative sample of 4753 people from Spain was followed up after 3 years. Analyses were performed with Cox regression models among the total sample and separately in people with and without depression. Results: In the analyses adjusted for age, sex, and years of education, all three well-being variables showed separately a statistically significant association with mortality. However, after adjustment for health status and other confounders including the other well-being components, only positive affect remained as marginally associated with a decreased risk of mortality in the overall sample [HR = 0.87; 95% CI = 0.73–1.03], in particular among individuals without depression [HR = 0.82; 95% CI = 0.68–0.99]. Conclusion: Positive affect is inversely associated with mortality in individuals without depression. Future research should focus on assessing interventions associated with a higher level of positive affect. PMID:27462289

  8. Influence of negative affect on choice behavior in individuals with binge eating pathology.

    PubMed

    Danner, Unna N; Evers, Catharine; Sternheim, Lot; van Meer, Floor; van Elburg, Annemarie A; Geerets, Tiny A M; Breteler, Leonie M T; de Ridder, Denise T D

    2013-05-15

    Research suggests that individuals with binge eating pathology (e.g., bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorders (BED)) have decision making impairments and particularly act impulsively in response to negative affect. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of negative affect on choice behavior in women with BN and BED. Ninety women (59 with BN or BED and 31 healthy controls) watched a sad or control film fragment and were subsequently asked to complete a choice behavior task (as measured by a variation of the Bechara Gambling Task (BGT)). Results showed that negative affect influenced choice behavior differently in healthy controls and in women with BN and BED after punishment (but not after reward). In the context of increased negative affect, punishment was associated with more disadvantageous choice behavior in both BN and BED women but not in healthy controls, while the effect was the exact opposite in both groups after a decrease in negative affect. Levels of sadness were not found to influence choice behavior after reward in either groups. These findings suggest that emotional states may have a direct impact on choice behavior of individuals with binge eating pathology and are not only related to pathological behavior itself.

  9. AFFECT AND THE FRAMING EFFECT WITHIN INDIVIDUALS OVER TIME: RISK TAKING IN A DYNAMIC INVESTMENT SIMULATION

    PubMed Central

    SEO, MYEONG-GU; GOLDFARB, BRENT; BARRETT, LISA FELDMAN

    2011-01-01

    We examined the role of affect (pleasant or unpleasant feelings) and decision frames (gains or losses) in risk taking in a 20-day stock investment simulation in which 101 participants rated their current feelings while making investment decisions. As predicted, affect attenuated the relationships between decision frames and risk taking. After experiencing losses, individuals made more risky choices, in keeping with the framing effect. However, this tendency decreased and/or disappeared when loss was simultaneously experienced with either pleasant or unpleasant feelings. Similarly, individuals’ tendency to avoid risk after experiencing gains disappeared or even reversed when they simultaneously experienced pleasant feelings. PMID:26412860

  10. Individual Characteristics Influencing Physicians' Perceptions of Job Demands and Control: The Role of Affectivity, Work Engagement and Workaholism.

    PubMed

    Mazzetti, Greta; Biolcati, Roberta; Guglielmi, Dina; Vallesi, Caryn; Schaufeli, Wilmar B

    2016-06-06

    The first purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of individual characteristics, i.e., positive and negative affectivity, in explaining the different perception of job control and job demands in a particularly demanding environment such as the healthcare setting. In addition, we aimed to explore the mediational role of work engagement and workaholism using the Job Demands-Resources Model as a theoretical framework. Data were collected using a sample of 269 Italian head physicians working in nine general hospitals. To test our hypotheses, the collected data were analyzed with structural equation modeling. Moreover, Sobel Test and bootstrapping were employed to assess the mediating hypotheses. Our results indicated that positive affectivity is related to work engagement, which, in its turn, showed a positive association with job control. In addition, workaholism mediated the relationship between negative affectivity and job demands. All in all, this study represents a first attempt to explore the role of trait affectivity as a dispositional characteristic able to foster the level of work engagement and workaholism exhibited by employees and, in turn, to increase the perceived levels of job control and job demands.

  11. Individual Characteristics Influencing Physicians’ Perceptions of Job Demands and Control: The Role of Affectivity, Work Engagement and Workaholism

    PubMed Central

    Mazzetti, Greta; Biolcati, Roberta; Guglielmi, Dina; Vallesi, Caryn; Schaufeli, Wilmar B.

    2016-01-01

    The first purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of individual characteristics, i.e., positive and negative affectivity, in explaining the different perception of job control and job demands in a particularly demanding environment such as the healthcare setting. In addition, we aimed to explore the mediational role of work engagement and workaholism using the Job Demands-Resources Model as a theoretical framework. Data were collected using a sample of 269 Italian head physicians working in nine general hospitals. To test our hypotheses, the collected data were analyzed with structural equation modeling. Moreover, Sobel Test and bootstrapping were employed to assess the mediating hypotheses. Our results indicated that positive affectivity is related to work engagement, which, in its turn, showed a positive association with job control. In addition, workaholism mediated the relationship between negative affectivity and job demands. All in all, this study represents a first attempt to explore the role of trait affectivity as a dispositional characteristic able to foster the level of work engagement and workaholism exhibited by employees and, in turn, to increase the perceived levels of job control and job demands. PMID:27275828

  12. CACNA1C risk variant affects facial emotion recognition in healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Nieratschker, Vanessa; Brückmann, Christof; Plewnia, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Recognition and correct interpretation of facial emotion is essential for social interaction and communication. Previous studies have shown that impairments in this cognitive domain are common features of several psychiatric disorders. Recent association studies identified CACNA1C as one of the most promising genetic risk factors for psychiatric disorders and previous evidence suggests that the most replicated risk variant in CACNA1C (rs1006737) is affecting emotion recognition and processing. However, studies investigating the influence of rs1006737 on this intermediate phenotype in healthy subjects at the behavioral level are largely missing to date. Here, we applied the "Reading the Mind in the Eyes" test, a facial emotion recognition paradigm in a cohort of 92 healthy individuals to address this question. Whereas accuracy was not affected by genotype, CACNA1C rs1006737 risk-allele carries (AA/AG) showed significantly slower mean response times compared to individuals homozygous for the G-allele, indicating that healthy risk-allele carriers require more information to correctly identify a facial emotion. Our study is the first to provide evidence for an impairing behavioral effect of the CACNA1C risk variant rs1006737 on facial emotion recognition in healthy individuals and adds to the growing number of studies pointing towards CACNA1C as affecting intermediate phenotypes of psychiatric disorders. PMID:26611642

  13. Identifying Core Affect in Individuals from fMRI Responses to Dynamic Naturalistic Audiovisual Stimuli.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jongwan; Wang, Jing; Wedell, Douglas H; Shinkareva, Svetlana V

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that affective states elicited by viewing pictures varying in valence and arousal are identifiable from whole brain activation patterns observed with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Identification of affective states from more naturalistic stimuli has clinical relevance, but the feasibility of identifying these states on an individual trial basis from fMRI data elicited by dynamic multimodal stimuli is unclear. The goal of this study was to determine whether affective states can be similarly identified when participants view dynamic naturalistic audiovisual stimuli. Eleven participants viewed 5s audiovisual clips in a passive viewing task in the scanner. Valence and arousal for individual trials were identified both within and across participants based on distributed patterns of activity in areas selectively responsive to audiovisual naturalistic stimuli while controlling for lower level features of the stimuli. In addition, the brain regions identified by searchlight analyses to represent valence and arousal were consistent with previously identified regions associated with emotion processing. These findings extend previous results on the distributed representation of affect to multimodal dynamic stimuli. PMID:27598534

  14. Identifying Core Affect in Individuals from fMRI Responses to Dynamic Naturalistic Audiovisual Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jongwan; Wang, Jing; Wedell, Douglas H.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that affective states elicited by viewing pictures varying in valence and arousal are identifiable from whole brain activation patterns observed with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Identification of affective states from more naturalistic stimuli has clinical relevance, but the feasibility of identifying these states on an individual trial basis from fMRI data elicited by dynamic multimodal stimuli is unclear. The goal of this study was to determine whether affective states can be similarly identified when participants view dynamic naturalistic audiovisual stimuli. Eleven participants viewed 5s audiovisual clips in a passive viewing task in the scanner. Valence and arousal for individual trials were identified both within and across participants based on distributed patterns of activity in areas selectively responsive to audiovisual naturalistic stimuli while controlling for lower level features of the stimuli. In addition, the brain regions identified by searchlight analyses to represent valence and arousal were consistent with previously identified regions associated with emotion processing. These findings extend previous results on the distributed representation of affect to multimodal dynamic stimuli. PMID:27598534

  15. Attitudes toward prenatal genetic testing for Treacher Collins syndrome among affected individuals and families.

    PubMed

    Wu, Rebecca L; Lawson, Cathleen S; Jabs, Ethylin Wang; Sanderson, Saskia C

    2012-07-01

    Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS) is a craniofacial syndrome that is both phenotypically variable and heterogeneous, caused by mutations in the TCOF1, POLR1C, and POLR1D genes. We examined attitudes towards TCS prenatal genetic testing among affected families using a telephone questionnaire. Participants were 31 affected adults and relatives recruited primarily through families cared for in the mid-Atlantic region. Nineteen participants (65%) reported that they would take a TCS prenatal genetic test which could not predict degree of disease severity. Interest in TCS genetic testing was associated with higher income, higher concern about having a child with TCS, lower religiosity, lower concern about genetic testing procedures, and having a sporadic rather than familial mutation. Over half reported that their decision to have TCS genetic testing would be influenced a great deal by their desire to relieve anxiety and attitudes toward abortion. Ten participants (32%) reported that they would be likely to end the pregnancy upon receiving a positive test result; this was lower amongst TCS affected individuals and higher amongst participants with children with TCS. Genetics healthcare providers need to be aware of affected individuals' and families' attitudes and interest in prenatal genetic testing for TCS, and the possible implications for other craniofacial disorders, so that patients' information needs can be met.

  16. Does pain in individuals with multiple sclerosis affect employment? A systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Shahrbanian, Shahnaz; Auais, Mohammad; Duquette, Pierre; Anderson, Katie; Mayo, Nancy E

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) experience some of the highest unemployment rates among all groups of chronic illnesses. Pain has been found to be a common reason for sick leave or early retirement in healthy populations or other groups with chronic illness; however, there is little awareness regarding the effect of pain on the work status of individuals with MS. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the extent to which individuals with pain differ in employment status compared with those without pain among MS patients. METHODS: An extensive systematic review of the scientific literature was performed within the framework of the Cochrane Collaboration to identify studies focusing on the effect of pain on employment in individuals with MS. The following databases were searched: PubMed, EMBASE, PsychInfo, Web of Science, MD Consult and Elsevier, and Science Direct. The methodological quality of studies was assessed using the McMaster Critical Review Form. RESULTS: Ten articles met the inclusion criteria and were included in the systematic review. Of these studies, five that exhibited clinical, methodological and statistical homogeneity were included in the meta-analysis. The between-groups (pain + versus pain −) pooled random OR of being employed was 0.7 (strong), and was significantly different from unity (95% CI 0.5 to 0.9; P=0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The results of the present study indicated that individuals with MS who experience pain were significantly more likely to report a decreased employment rate than individuals with MS who were pain free. PMID:24093124

  17. Brain imaging of cognitively normal individuals with 2 parents affected by late-onset AD

    PubMed Central

    Murray, John; Tsui, Wai H.; Spector, Nicole; Goldowsky, Alexander; Williams, Schantel; Osorio, Ricardo; McHugh, Pauline; Glodzik, Lidia; Vallabhajosula, Shankar; de Leon, Mony J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This brain imaging study examines whether cognitively normal (NL) individuals with 2 parents affected by late-onset Alzheimer disease (LOAD) show evidence of more extensive Alzheimer disease pathology compared with those who have a single parent affected by LOAD. Methods: Fifty-two NL individuals received MRI, 11C-Pittsburgh compound B (PiB)-PET, and 18F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG)-PET. These included 4 demographically balanced groups (n = 13/group, aged 32–72 years, 60% female, 30% APOE ε4 carriers) of NL individuals with maternal (FHm), paternal (FHp), and maternal and paternal (FHmp) family history of LOAD, and with negative family history (FH−). Statistical parametric mapping, voxel-based morphometry, and z-score mapping were used to compare MRI gray matter volumes (GMVs), partial volume–corrected PiB retention, and FDG metabolism across FH groups and vs FH−. Results: NL FHmp showed more severe abnormalities in all 3 biomarkers vs the other groups regarding the number of regions affected and magnitude of impairment. PiB retention and hypometabolism were most pronounced in FHmp, intermediate in FHm, and lowest in FHp and FH−. GMV reductions were highest in FHmp and intermediate in FHm and FHp vs FH−. In all FH+ groups, amyloid-β deposition exceeded GMV loss and hypometabolism exceeded GMV loss (p < 0.001), while amyloid-β deposition exceeded hypometabolism in FHmp and FHp but not in FHm. Conclusions: These biomarker findings show a “LOAD parent-dose effect” in NL individuals several years, if not decades, before possible clinical symptoms. PMID:24523481

  18. A FISTful of Emotion: Individual Differences in Trait Anxiety and Cognitive-Affective Flexibility During Preadolescence.

    PubMed

    Mărcuş, Oana; Stanciu, Oana; MacLeod, Colin; Liebregts, Heather; Visu-Petra, Laura

    2016-10-01

    Cognitive-affective flexibility represents the ability to switch between alternative ways of processing emotional stimuli according to situational demands and individual goals. Although reduced flexibility has been implicated as a mechanism for the development of anxiety, there is very limited data on this relationship in children and adolescents. The aim of the current study was to investigate cognitive-affective flexibility in preadolescents (N = 112, 50 girls, 11-12 and 13-14 years old) and to examine if this ability is related to individual differences in trait anxiety. Their interplay was assessed using the modified version of the Flexible Item Selection Task (FIST; Jacques and Zelazo 2001) with non-emotional stimuli (geometrical shapes) and the Emotional FIST (EM-FIST) with emotional stimuli (emotional facial expressions). Performance on the EM-FIST indicated that across the whole age range, trials requiring greater cognitive flexibility were more demanding than nonflexible ones, as revealed by both response time and accuracy performance. Moreover, flexibility demands were higher for younger children than for older ones but only in terms of response speed. Individual differences in trait anxiety moderated the impact of flexibility only on the EM-FIST. Being flexible on the EM-FIST was more demanding for high trait anxious children than for their low trait anxious peers. Lastly, overall girls responded faster than boys, but only in the EM-FIST. These findings extend the presently limited literature concerning variability in cognitive-affective flexibility during this sensitive developmental window.

  19. Individual differences in local gray matter density are associated with differences in affective and cognitive empathy.

    PubMed

    Eres, Robert; Decety, Jean; Louis, Winnifred R; Molenberghs, Pascal

    2015-08-15

    The understanding of empathy from a neuroscientific perspective has recently developed quickly, with numerous functional MRI studies associating different brain regions with different components of empathy. A recent meta-analysis across 40 fMRI studies revealed that affective empathy is most often associated with increased activity in the insula, whereas cognitive empathy is most often associated with activity in the midcingulate cortex and adjacent dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (MCC/dmPFC). To date, however, it remains unclear whether individual differences in brain morphometry in these regions underlie different dispositions in affective and cognitive empathy. In order to test this hypothesis, voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was used to examine the extent to which gray matter density predicts scores from an established empathy measure (Questionnaire of Cognitive and Affective Empathy; QCAE). One hundred and seventy-six participants completed the QCAE and underwent MRI in order to acquire a high-resolution, three-dimensional T1-weighted structural scans. A factor analysis of the questionnaire scores revealed two distinct factors of empathy, affective and cognitive, which confirmed the validity of the QCAE. VBM results revealed gray matter density differences associated with the distinct components of empathy. Higher scores on affective empathy were associated with greater gray matter density in the insula cortex and higher scores of cognitive empathy were associated with greater gray matter density in the MCC/dmPFC. Taken together, these results provide validation for empathy being a multi-component construct, suggesting that affective and cognitive empathy are differentially represented in brain morphometry as well as providing convergent evidence for empathy being represented by different neural and structural correlates. PMID:26008886

  20. Individual differences in local gray matter density are associated with differences in affective and cognitive empathy.

    PubMed

    Eres, Robert; Decety, Jean; Louis, Winnifred R; Molenberghs, Pascal

    2015-08-15

    The understanding of empathy from a neuroscientific perspective has recently developed quickly, with numerous functional MRI studies associating different brain regions with different components of empathy. A recent meta-analysis across 40 fMRI studies revealed that affective empathy is most often associated with increased activity in the insula, whereas cognitive empathy is most often associated with activity in the midcingulate cortex and adjacent dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (MCC/dmPFC). To date, however, it remains unclear whether individual differences in brain morphometry in these regions underlie different dispositions in affective and cognitive empathy. In order to test this hypothesis, voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was used to examine the extent to which gray matter density predicts scores from an established empathy measure (Questionnaire of Cognitive and Affective Empathy; QCAE). One hundred and seventy-six participants completed the QCAE and underwent MRI in order to acquire a high-resolution, three-dimensional T1-weighted structural scans. A factor analysis of the questionnaire scores revealed two distinct factors of empathy, affective and cognitive, which confirmed the validity of the QCAE. VBM results revealed gray matter density differences associated with the distinct components of empathy. Higher scores on affective empathy were associated with greater gray matter density in the insula cortex and higher scores of cognitive empathy were associated with greater gray matter density in the MCC/dmPFC. Taken together, these results provide validation for empathy being a multi-component construct, suggesting that affective and cognitive empathy are differentially represented in brain morphometry as well as providing convergent evidence for empathy being represented by different neural and structural correlates.

  1. Individual dispersal decisions affect fitness via maternal rank effects in male rhesus macaques

    PubMed Central

    Weiß, Brigitte M.; Kulik, Lars; Ruiz-Lambides, Angelina V.; Widdig, Anja

    2016-01-01

    Natal dispersal may have considerable social, ecological and evolutionary consequences. While species-specific dispersal strategies have received much attention, individual variation in dispersal decisions and its fitness consequences remain poorly understood. We investigated causes and consequences of natal dispersal age in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), a species with male dispersal. Using long-term demographic and genetic data from a semi-free ranging population on Cayo Santiago, Puerto Rico, we analysed how the social environment such as maternal family, group and population characteristics affected the age at which males leave their natal group. While natal dispersal age was unrelated to most measures of group or population structure, our study confirmed earlier findings that sons of high-ranking mothers dispersed later than sons of low-ranking ones. Natal dispersal age did not affect males’ subsequent survival, but males dispersing later were more likely to reproduce. Late dispersers were likely to start reproducing while still residing in their natal group, frequently produced extra-group offspring before natal dispersal and subsequently dispersed to the group in which they had fathered offspring more likely than expected. Hence, the timing of natal dispersal was affected by maternal rank and influenced male reproduction, which, in turn affected which group males dispersed to. PMID:27576465

  2. Individual dispersal decisions affect fitness via maternal rank effects in male rhesus macaques.

    PubMed

    Weiß, Brigitte M; Kulik, Lars; Ruiz-Lambides, Angelina V; Widdig, Anja

    2016-01-01

    Natal dispersal may have considerable social, ecological and evolutionary consequences. While species-specific dispersal strategies have received much attention, individual variation in dispersal decisions and its fitness consequences remain poorly understood. We investigated causes and consequences of natal dispersal age in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), a species with male dispersal. Using long-term demographic and genetic data from a semi-free ranging population on Cayo Santiago, Puerto Rico, we analysed how the social environment such as maternal family, group and population characteristics affected the age at which males leave their natal group. While natal dispersal age was unrelated to most measures of group or population structure, our study confirmed earlier findings that sons of high-ranking mothers dispersed later than sons of low-ranking ones. Natal dispersal age did not affect males' subsequent survival, but males dispersing later were more likely to reproduce. Late dispersers were likely to start reproducing while still residing in their natal group, frequently produced extra-group offspring before natal dispersal and subsequently dispersed to the group in which they had fathered offspring more likely than expected. Hence, the timing of natal dispersal was affected by maternal rank and influenced male reproduction, which, in turn affected which group males dispersed to. PMID:27576465

  3. Factors affecting individual foraging specialization and temporal diet stability across the range of a large “generalist” apex predator

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenblatt, Adam E.; Nifong, James C.; Heithaus, Michael R.; Mazzotti, Frank J.; Cherkiss, Michael S.; Jeffery, Brian M.; Elsey, Ruth M.; Decker, Rachel A.; Silliman, Brian R.; Guillette, Louis J.; Lowers, Russell H.; Larson, Justin C.

    2015-01-01

    Individual niche specialization (INS) is increasingly recognized as an important component of ecological and evolutionary dynamics. However, most studies that have investigated INS have focused on the effects of niche width and inter- and intraspecific competition on INS in small-bodied species for short time periods, with less attention paid to INS in large-bodied reptilian predators and the effects of available prey types on INS. We investigated the prevalence, causes, and consequences of INS in foraging behaviors across different populations of American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis), the dominant aquatic apex predator across the southeast US, using stomach contents and stable isotopes. Gut contents revealed that, over the short term, although alligator populations occupied wide ranges of the INS spectrum, general patterns were apparent. Alligator populations inhabiting lakes exhibited lower INS than coastal populations, likely driven by variation in habitat type and available prey types. Stable isotopes revealed that over longer time spans alligators exhibited remarkably consistent use of variable mixtures of carbon pools (e.g., marine and freshwater food webs). We conclude that INS in large-bodied reptilian predator populations is likely affected by variation in available prey types and habitat heterogeneity, and that INS should be incorporated into management strategies to efficiently meet intended goals. Also, ecological models, which typically do not consider behavioral variability, should include INS to increase model realism and applicability.

  4. Environmental and Individual Factors Affecting Menu Labeling Utilization: A Qualitative Research Study

    PubMed Central

    Schindler, Jennifer; Kiszko, Kamila; Abrams, Courtney; Islam, Nadia; Elbel, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a significant public health concern that disproportionally affects low-income and minority populations. Recent policies mandating the posting of calories on menus in fast food chain restaurants have not proven to uniformly influence food choice. This qualitative research study uses focus groups to study individual and environmental factors affecting the usage of these menu labels among low-income, minority populations. Ten focus groups targeting low-income residents (n=105) were conducted at various community organizations throughout NYC in Spanish, English, or a combination of both languages, over a nine-month period in 2011. In late 2011 and early 2012, transcripts were coded through the process of thematic analysis using Atlas.ti for naturally emerging themes, influences, and determinants of food choice. Few used menu labels, despite awareness. Among the themes pertaining to menu label usage, price and time constraints, confusion and lack of understanding of caloric values, as well as the priority of preference, hunger, and habitual ordering habits were most frequently cited as barriers to menu label usage. Based on the individual and external influences on food choice that often take priority over calorie consideration, a modified approach may be necessary to make menu labels more effective and user-friendly. PMID:23402695

  5. Come rain or come shine: individual differences in how weather affects mood.

    PubMed

    Klimstra, Theo A; Frijns, Tom; Keijsers, Loes; Denissen, Jaap J A; Raaijmakers, Quinten A W; van Aken, Marcel A G; Koot, Hans M; van Lier, Pol A C; Meeus, Wim H J

    2011-12-01

    There is a widespread belief that weather affects mood. However, few studies have investigated this link, and even less is known about individual differences in people's responses to the weather. In the current study, we sought to identify weather reactivity types by linking self-reported daily mood across 30 days with objective weather data. We identified four distinct types among 497 adolescents and replicated these types among their mothers. The types were labeled Summer Lovers (better mood with warmer and sunnier weather), Unaffected (weak associations between weather and mood), Summer Haters (worse mood with warmer and sunnier weather), and Rain Haters (particularly bad mood on rainy days). In addition, intergenerational concordance effects were found for two of these types, suggesting that weather reactivity may run in the family. Overall, the large individual differences in how people's moods were affected by weather reconciles the discrepancy between the generally held beliefs that weather has a substantive effect on mood and findings from previous research indicating that effects of weather on mood are limited or absent.

  6. Genomic architecture of inflammatory bowel disease in five families with multiple affected individuals

    PubMed Central

    Stittrich, Anna B; Ashworth, Justin; Shi, Mude; Robinson, Max; Mauldin, Denise; Brunkow, Mary E; Biswas, Shameek; Kim, Jin-Man; Kwon, Ki-Sun; Jung, Jae U; Galas, David; Serikawa, Kyle; Duerr, Richard H; Guthery, Stephen L; Peschon, Jacques; Hood, Leroy; Roach, Jared C; Glusman, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    Currently, the best clinical predictor for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is family history. Over 163 sequence variants have been associated with IBD in genome-wide association studies, but they have weak effects and explain only a fraction of the observed heritability. It is expected that additional variants contribute to the genomic architecture of IBD, possibly including rare variants with effect sizes larger than the identified common variants. Here we applied a family study design and sequenced 38 individuals from five families, under the hypothesis that families with multiple IBD-affected individuals harbor one or more risk variants that (i) are shared among affected family members, (ii) are rare and (iii) have substantial effect on disease development. Our analysis revealed not only novel candidate risk variants but also high polygenic risk scores for common known risk variants in four out of the five families. Functional analysis of our top novel variant in the remaining family, a rare missense mutation in the ubiquitin ligase TRIM11, suggests that it leads to increased nuclear factor of kappa light chain enhancer in B-cells (NF-κB) signaling. We conclude that an accumulation of common weak-effect variants accounts for the high incidence of IBD in most, but not all families we analyzed and that a family study design can identify novel rare variants conferring risk for IBD with potentially large effect size, such as the TRIM11 p.H414Y mutation. PMID:27081563

  7. Environmental and individual factors affecting menu labeling utilization: a qualitative research study.

    PubMed

    Schindler, Jennifer; Kiszko, Kamila; Abrams, Courtney; Islam, Nadia; Elbel, Brian

    2013-05-01

    Obesity is a prominent public health concern that disproportionally affects low-income and minority populations. Recent policies mandating the posting of calories on menus in fast-food chain restaurants have not proven to uniformly influence food choice. This qualitative research study used focus groups to study individual and environmental factors affecting the use of these menu labels among low-income minority populations. Ten focus groups targeting low-income residents (n=105) were held at various community organizations throughout New York City over a 9-month period in 2011. The focus groups were conducted in Spanish, English, or a combination of both languages. In late 2011 and early 2012, transcripts were coded through the process of thematic analysis using Atlas.ti for naturally emerging themes, influences, and determinants of food choice. Few participants used menu labels, despite awareness. The most frequently cited as barriers to menu label use included: price and time constraints, confusion and lack of understanding about caloric values, as well as the priority of preference, hunger, and habitual ordering habits. Based on the individual and external influences on food choice that often take priority over calorie consideration, a modified approach may be necessary to make menu labels more effective and user-friendly. PMID:23402695

  8. Considerations on assisted resilience and individualized therapy in bipolar affective disorder, with a clinical case exemplification

    PubMed Central

    BOLOS, ALEXANDRA

    2015-01-01

    Morbidity, mortality and economic consequences of bipolar affective disorder are very important to be evaluated because many of the costs entailed by this psychiatric disorder come from indirect costs due to inadequate diagnosis and treatment and from the characteristics of the affective symptoms itself. Psychotherapy focuses on diagnosis and the newest pharmacotherapy determines a decreasing of the morbidity of the disorder and also of its social and economic burden. However, more studies are necessary, with more heterogeneous patients, to find more predictors regarding the psychosocial consequences and to find more information about the prognosis of the bipolar disorder. In this context, in this paper we discuss the role of assisted resilience and the individualization of the therapy of bipolar affective disorder, especially that the resilience must be seen as a continuum and can be used anytime and in any situation, according to the theory of Geanellos. This idea is reflected in a case presentation of a patient with the diagnosis of bipolar disorder. PMID:26733744

  9. Phenological mismatch strongly affects individual fitness but not population demography in a woodland passerine.

    PubMed

    Reed, Thomas E; Jenouvrier, Stephanie; Visser, Marcel E

    2013-01-01

    Populations are shifting their phenology in response to climate change, but these shifts are often asynchronous among interacting species. Resulting phenological mismatches can drive simultaneous changes in natural selection and population demography, but the links between these interacting processes are poorly understood. Here we analyse 37 years of data from an individual-based study of great tits (Parus major) in the Netherlands and use mixed-effects models to separate the within- and across-year effects of phenological mismatch between great tits and caterpillars (a key food source for developing nestlings) on components of fitness at the individual and population levels. Several components of individual fitness were affected by individual mismatch (i.e. late breeding relative to the caterpillar food peak date), including the probability of double-brooding, fledgling success, offspring recruitment probability and the number of recruits. Together these effects contributed to an overall negative relationship between relative fitness and laying dates, that is, selection for earlier laying on average. Directional selection for earlier laying was stronger in years where birds bred on average later than the food peak, but was weak or absent in years where the phenology of birds and caterpillars matched (i.e. no population mismatch). The mean number of fledglings per female was lower in years when population mismatch was high, in part because fewer second broods were produced. Population mismatch had a weak effect on the mean number of recruits per female, and no effect on mean adult survival, after controlling for the effects of breeding density and the quality of the autumnal beech (Fagus sylvatica) crop. These findings illustrate how climate change-induced mismatch can have strong effects on the relative fitness of phenotypes within years, but weak effects on mean demographic rates across years. We discuss various general mechanisms that influence the extent of

  10. Individual Differences in Beat Perception Affect Gait Responses to Low- and High-Groove Music

    PubMed Central

    Leow, Li-Ann; Parrott, Taylor; Grahn, Jessica A.

    2014-01-01

    Slowed gait in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) can be improved when patients synchronize footsteps to isochronous metronome cues, but limited retention of such improvements suggest that permanent cueing regimes are needed for long-term improvements. If so, music might make permanent cueing regimes more pleasant, improving adherence; however, music cueing requires patients to synchronize movements to the “beat,” which might be difficult for patients with PD who tend to show weak beat perception. One solution may be to use high-groove music, which has high beat salience that may facilitate synchronization, and affective properties, which may improve motivation to move. As a first step to understanding how beat perception affects gait in complex neurological disorders, we examined how beat perception ability affected gait in neurotypical adults. Synchronization performance and gait parameters were assessed as healthy young adults with strong or weak beat perception synchronized to low-groove music, high-groove music, and metronome cues. High-groove music was predicted to elicit better synchronization than low-groove music, due to its higher beat salience. Two musical tempi, or rates, were used: (1) preferred tempo: beat rate matched to preferred step rate and (2) faster tempo: beat rate adjusted to 22.5% faster than preferred step rate. For both strong and weak beat-perceivers, synchronization performance was best with metronome cues, followed by high-groove music, and worst with low-groove music. In addition, high-groove music elicited longer and faster steps than low-groove music, both at preferred tempo and at faster tempo. Low-groove music was particularly detrimental to gait in weak beat-perceivers, who showed slower and shorter steps compared to uncued walking. The findings show that individual differences in beat perception affect gait when synchronizing footsteps to music, and have implications for using music in gait rehabilitation. PMID:25374521

  11. Individual Differences in Learning the Affective Value of Others Under Minimal Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Bliss-Moreau, Eliza; Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Wright, Christopher I.

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides the first demonstration that people can learn about the positive and negative value of other people (e.g., neutral faces) under minimal learning conditions, with stable individual differences in this learning. In four studies, participants viewed neutral faces paired with sentences describing positive, negative or neutral behaviors on either two (Study 1) or four (Studies 2, 3, and 4) occasions. Participants were later asked to judge the valence of the faces alone. Studies 1 and 2 demonstrated that learning does occur under minimal conditions. Study 3 and 4 further demonstrated that the degree of learning was moderated by Extraversion. Finally, Study 4 demonstrated that initial learning persisted over a period of 2 days. Implications for affective processing and person perception are discussed. PMID:18729580

  12. Exome Sequencing of 75 Individuals from Multiply Affected Coeliac Families and Large Scale Resequencing Follow Up

    PubMed Central

    Mistry, Vanisha; Bockett, Nicholas A.; Levine, Adam P.; Mirza, Muddassar M.; Hunt, Karen A.; Ciclitira, Paul J.; Hummerich, Holger; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Simpson, Michael A.; Plagnol, Vincent; van Heel, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Coeliac disease (CeD) is a highly heritable common autoimmune disease involving chronic small intestinal inflammation in response to dietary wheat. The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region, and 40 newer regions identified by genome wide association studies (GWAS) and dense fine mapping, account for ∼40% of the disease heritability. We hypothesized that in pedigrees with multiple individuals with CeD rare [minor allele frequency (MAF) <0.5%] mutations of larger effect size (odds ratios of ∼ 2–5) might exist. We sequenced the exomes of 75 coeliac individuals of European ancestry from 55 multiply affected families. We selected interesting variants and genes for further follow up using a combination of: an assessment of shared variants between related subjects, a model-free linkage test, and gene burden tests for multiple, potentially causal, variants. We next performed highly multiplexed amplicon resequencing of all RefSeq exons from 24 candidate genes selected on the basis of the exome sequencing data in 2,248 unrelated coeliac cases and 2,230 controls. 1,335 variants with a 99.9% genotyping call rate were observed in 4,478 samples, of which 939 were present in coding regions of 24 genes (Ti/Tv 2.99). 91.7% of coding variants were rare (MAF <0.5%) and 60% were novel. Gene burden tests performed on rare functional variants identified no significant associations (p<1×10−3) in the resequenced candidate genes. Our strategy of sequencing multiply affected families with deep follow up of candidate genes has not identified any new CeD risk mutations. PMID:25635822

  13. Revealing a latent variable: Individual differences in affective response to repeated injections

    PubMed Central

    Aydin, Cigdem; Frohmader, Karla; Akil, Huda

    2015-01-01

    Latent variables may exist in experimental designs and may interfere with reproducibility of findings. The present study reveals one such variable, the individual differences in affective response to chronic injection stress, by using the novelty-seeking phenotype as a model of differential emotional reactivity. The phenotype is identified by exposing a population of experimentally-naïve outbred rats to the mild stress of a novel environment and classifying them as high responders (HR; upper 1/3rd) and low responders (LR; lower 1/3rd) based on their locomotor reactivity. Research has shown that HR/LR animals differ in their basal levels of anxiety- and depressive-like behavior, as well as in their response to environmental and pharmacological challenges; suggesting validity of this model in studying individual differences in stress reactivity. The present data showed that 14 daily, intraperitoneal saline injections did not alter the phenotypic differences in social behavior observed basally in HR/LR rats. However, injections significantly increased time spent immobile in the forced swim test in LRs, while the identical regimen significantly decreased the same measure in HRs, compared to handled-controls. These data indicate that individual differences in stress reactivity can have a significant impact on the depressive-like responses to repeated intraperitoneal injections in rats. Given that such underlying emotional variability exists within standard, outbred rat populations, this study highlights the importance of accounting for such variability in any study investigating the effects of repeated drug administration on depressive-like behavior for reliability and replicability of findings. Thus, we recommend including an uninjected control group in all studies. PMID:26191946

  14. Factors Affecting Parent's Perception on Air Quality-From the Individual to the Community Level.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yulin; Liu, Fengfeng; Lu, Yuanan; Mao, Zongfu; Lu, Hanson; Wu, Yanyan; Chu, Yuanyuan; Yu, Lichen; Liu, Yisi; Ren, Meng; Li, Na; Chen, Xi; Xiang, Hao

    2016-01-01

    The perception of air quality significantly affects the acceptance of the public of the government's environmental policies. The aim of this research is to explore the relationship between the perception of the air quality of parents and scientific monitoring data and to analyze the factors that affect parents' perceptions. Scientific data of air quality were obtained from Wuhan's environmental condition reports. One thousand parents were investigated for their knowledge and perception of air quality. Scientific data show that the air quality of Wuhan follows an improving trend in general, while most participants believed that the air quality of Wuhan has deteriorated, which indicates a significant difference between public perception and reality. On the individual level, respondents with an age of 40 or above (40 or above: OR = 3.252; 95% CI: 1.170-9.040), a higher educational level (college and above: OR = 7.598; 95% CI: 2.244-25.732) or children with poor healthy conditions (poor: OR = 6.864; 95% CI: 2.212-21.302) have much more negative perception of air quality. On the community level, industrial facilities, vehicles and city construction have major effects on parents' perception of air quality. Our investigation provides baseline information for environmental policy researchers and makers regarding the public's perception and expectation of air quality and the benefits to the environmental policy completing and enforcing.

  15. Factors Affecting Parent's Perception on Air Quality-From the Individual to the Community Level.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yulin; Liu, Fengfeng; Lu, Yuanan; Mao, Zongfu; Lu, Hanson; Wu, Yanyan; Chu, Yuanyuan; Yu, Lichen; Liu, Yisi; Ren, Meng; Li, Na; Chen, Xi; Xiang, Hao

    2016-01-01

    The perception of air quality significantly affects the acceptance of the public of the government's environmental policies. The aim of this research is to explore the relationship between the perception of the air quality of parents and scientific monitoring data and to analyze the factors that affect parents' perceptions. Scientific data of air quality were obtained from Wuhan's environmental condition reports. One thousand parents were investigated for their knowledge and perception of air quality. Scientific data show that the air quality of Wuhan follows an improving trend in general, while most participants believed that the air quality of Wuhan has deteriorated, which indicates a significant difference between public perception and reality. On the individual level, respondents with an age of 40 or above (40 or above: OR = 3.252; 95% CI: 1.170-9.040), a higher educational level (college and above: OR = 7.598; 95% CI: 2.244-25.732) or children with poor healthy conditions (poor: OR = 6.864; 95% CI: 2.212-21.302) have much more negative perception of air quality. On the community level, industrial facilities, vehicles and city construction have major effects on parents' perception of air quality. Our investigation provides baseline information for environmental policy researchers and makers regarding the public's perception and expectation of air quality and the benefits to the environmental policy completing and enforcing. PMID:27187432

  16. Individuals with Smith-Magenis syndrome display profound neurodevelopmental behavioral deficiencies and exhibit food-related behaviors equivalent to Prader-Willi syndrome.

    PubMed

    Alaimo, Joseph T; Barton, Laura V; Mullegama, Sureni V; Wills, Rachel D; Foster, Rebecca H; Elsea, Sarah H

    2015-12-01

    Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with intellectual disability, sleep disturbances, early onset obesity and vast behavioral deficits. We used the Behavior Problems Inventory-01 to categorize the frequency and severity of behavioral abnormalities in a SMS cohort relative to individuals with intellectual disability of heterogeneous etiology. Self-injurious, stereotyped, and aggressive/destructive behavioral scores indicated that both frequency and severity were significantly higher among individuals with SMS relative to those with intellectual disability. Next, we categorized food behaviors in our SMS cohort across age using the Food Related Problems Questionnaire (FRPQ) and found that problems began to occur in SMS children as early as 5-11 years old, but children 12-18 years old and adults manifested the most severe problems. Furthermore, we evaluated the similarities of SMS adult food-related behaviors to those with intellectual disability and found that SMS adults had more severe behavioral problems. Many neurodevelopmental disorders exhibit syndromic obesity including SMS. Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is the most frequent neurodevelopmental disorder with syndromic obesity and has a well-established management and treatment plan. Using the FRPQ we found that SMS adults had similar scores relative to PWS adults. Both syndromes manifest weight gain early in development, and the FRPQ scores highlight specific areas in which behavioral similarities exist, including preoccupation with food, impaired satiety, and negative behavioral responses. SMS food-related behavior treatment paradigms are not as refined as PWS, suggesting that current PWS treatments for prevention of obesity may be beneficial for individuals with SMS.

  17. Individuals with Smith-Magenis syndrome display profound neurodevelopmental behavioral deficiencies and exhibit food-related behaviors equivalent to Prader-Willi syndrome.

    PubMed

    Alaimo, Joseph T; Barton, Laura V; Mullegama, Sureni V; Wills, Rachel D; Foster, Rebecca H; Elsea, Sarah H

    2015-12-01

    Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with intellectual disability, sleep disturbances, early onset obesity and vast behavioral deficits. We used the Behavior Problems Inventory-01 to categorize the frequency and severity of behavioral abnormalities in a SMS cohort relative to individuals with intellectual disability of heterogeneous etiology. Self-injurious, stereotyped, and aggressive/destructive behavioral scores indicated that both frequency and severity were significantly higher among individuals with SMS relative to those with intellectual disability. Next, we categorized food behaviors in our SMS cohort across age using the Food Related Problems Questionnaire (FRPQ) and found that problems began to occur in SMS children as early as 5-11 years old, but children 12-18 years old and adults manifested the most severe problems. Furthermore, we evaluated the similarities of SMS adult food-related behaviors to those with intellectual disability and found that SMS adults had more severe behavioral problems. Many neurodevelopmental disorders exhibit syndromic obesity including SMS. Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is the most frequent neurodevelopmental disorder with syndromic obesity and has a well-established management and treatment plan. Using the FRPQ we found that SMS adults had similar scores relative to PWS adults. Both syndromes manifest weight gain early in development, and the FRPQ scores highlight specific areas in which behavioral similarities exist, including preoccupation with food, impaired satiety, and negative behavioral responses. SMS food-related behavior treatment paradigms are not as refined as PWS, suggesting that current PWS treatments for prevention of obesity may be beneficial for individuals with SMS. PMID:26323055

  18. Effects of the therapist's nonverbal behavior on participation and affect of individuals with Alzheimer's disease during group music therapy sessions.

    PubMed

    Cevasco, Andrea M

    2010-01-01

    In healthcare settings, medical professionals' nonverbal behavior impacts patients' satisfaction and long-term physical, cognitive, and emotional well-being. The purpose of this research was to determine the effects of a music therapist's nonverbal behavior, affect and proximity, on participation and affect of 38 individuals with Alzheimer's disease and other related dementia (ADRD) during movement-to-music, singing, and instrument playing. Data indicated 62% of the individuals evinced positive affect when the therapist utilized affect and proximity combined, followed by the affect only condition (53%), proximity only condition (30%), and no affect or proximity condition (28%). A Friedman analysis indicated a significant difference in individuals' affect according to treatment conditions, chi(r)2 (3, 4) = 34.05, p = .001. Nonverbal behavior also impacted individuals' accuracy of participation, with participation at 79% for both affect and proximity combined, 75% for affect only, 71% for no affect or proximity, and 70% for proximity only. A significant difference occurred for participation by treatment conditions, F (3, 111) = 4.05, p = .009, eta2 = .10. Clinical implications are discussed.

  19. Body size affects individual winter foraging strategies of thick-billed murres in the Bering Sea.

    PubMed

    Orben, Rachael A; Paredes, Rosana; Roby, Daniel D; Irons, David B; Shaffer, Scott A

    2015-11-01

    Foraging and migration often require different energetic and movement strategies. Though not readily apparent, constraints during one phase might influence the foraging strategies observed in another. For marine birds that fly and dive, body size constraints likely present a trade-off between foraging ability and migration as smaller bodies reduce flight costs, whereas larger bodies are advantageous for diving deeper. This study examines individual wintering strategies of deep diving thick-billed murres (Uria lomvia) breeding at three colonies in the south-eastern Bering Sea: St Paul, St George and Bogoslof. These colonies, arranged north to south, are located such that breeding birds forage in a gradient from shelf to deep-water habitats. We used geolocation time-depth recorders and stable isotopes from feathers to determine differences in foraging behaviour and diet of murres during three non-breeding periods, 2008-2011. Body size was quantified by a principal component analysis (wing, culmen, head+bill and tarsus length). A hierarchical cluster analysis identified winter foraging strategies based on individual movement, diving behaviour and diet (inferred from stable isotopes). Structural body size differed by breeding island. Larger birds from St Paul had higher wing loading than smaller birds from St George. Larger birds, mainly from St Paul, dove to deeper depths, spent more time in the Bering Sea, and likely consumed higher trophic-level prey in late winter. Three winter foraging strategies were identified. The main strategy, employed by small birds from all three breeding colonies in the first 2 years, was characterized by high residency areas in the North Pacific south of the Aleutians and nocturnal diving. In contrast, 31% of birds from St Paul remained in the Bering Sea and foraged mainly during the day, apparently feeding on higher trophic-level prey. Throat feather stable isotopes indicated that individuals exhibited flexibility in the use of this

  20. Cerebral White Matter Lesions and Affective Episodes Correlate in Male Individuals with Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Birner, Armin; Seiler, Stephan; Lackner, Nina; Bengesser, Susanne A.; Queissner, Robert; Fellendorf, Frederike T.; Platzer, Martina; Ropele, Stefan; Enzinger, Christian; Schwingenschuh, Petra; Mangge, Harald; Pirpamer, Lukas; Deutschmann, Hannes; McIntyre, Roger S.; Kapfhammer, Hans-Peter; Reininghaus, Bernd; Reininghaus, Eva Z.

    2015-01-01

    Background Cerebral white matter lesions (WML) have been found in normal aging, vascular disease and several neuropsychiatric conditions. Correlations of WML with clinical parameters in BD have been described, but not with the number of affective episodes, illness duration, age of onset and Body Mass Index in a well characterized group of euthymic bipolar adults. Herein, we aimed to evaluate the associations between bipolar course of illness parameters and WML measured with volumetric analysis. Methods In a cross-sectional study 100 euthymic individuals with BD as well as 54 healthy controls (HC) were enrolled to undergo brain magnetic resonance imaging using 3T including a FLAIR sequence for volumetric assessment of WML-load using FSL-software. Additionally, clinical characteristics and psychometric measures including Structured Clinical Interview according to DSM-IV, Hamilton-Depression, Young Mania Rating Scale and Beck’s Depression Inventory were evaluated. Results Individuals with BD had significantly more (F = 3.968, p < .05) WML (Mdn = 3710mm3; IQR = 2961mm3) than HC (Mdn = 2185mm3; IQR = 1665mm3). BD men (Mdn = 4095mm3; IQR = 3295mm3) and BD women (Mdn = 3032mm3; IQR = 2816mm3) did not significantly differ as to the WML-load or the number and type of risk factors for WML. However, in men only, the number of manic/hypomanic episodes (r = 0.72; p < .001) as well as depressive episodes (r = 0.51; p < .001) correlated positively with WML-load. Conclusions WML-load strongly correlated with the number of manic episodes in male BD patients, suggesting that men might be more vulnerable to mania in the context of cerebral white matter changes. PMID:26252714

  1. Early Childhood IQ Trajectories in Individuals Later Developing Schizophrenia and Affective Psychoses in the New England Family Studies.

    PubMed

    Agnew-Blais, Jessica C; Buka, Stephen L; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M; Smoller, Jordan W; Goldstein, Jill M; Seidman, Larry J

    2015-07-01

    Individuals who develop schizophrenia in adulthood exhibit, on average, deficits in childhood cognition relative to healthy controls. However, it remains unclear when in childhood such deficits emerge and whether they are stable across childhood or change (increase or decrease) across development. Importantly, whether the trajectory of childhood cognition differs among youth who later develop affective psychoses (AP) vs schizophrenia as adults remains unresolved. Subjects in the Collaborative Perinatal Project were administered the Stanford-Binet IQ test at age 4 and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children at age 7. A total of 9809 (54.7%) participants in the New England Study sites were tested at both ages, including 37 who later developed schizophrenia spectrum psychoses (SSP) and 39 who later developed AP. Logistic regression models examined the association of level of and change in childhood IQ and later SSP or AP. Lower overall childhood IQ was associated with higher risk of SSP. Additionally, there was a small mean increase in IQ in the SSP group relative to a mean decrease in the control group from age 4 to 7 such that positive change in IQ was significantly associated with a higher risk of SSP. Neither overall level nor change in IQ was associated with risk of AP. The results are consistent with neurocognitive impairment throughout early childhood specifically for children who later develop schizophrenia, affirming the theory of atypical neurodevelopment in premorbid schizophrenia. PMID:25904723

  2. Early Childhood IQ Trajectories in Individuals Later Developing Schizophrenia and Affective Psychoses in the New England Family Studies

    PubMed Central

    Agnew-Blais, Jessica C.; Buka, Stephen L.; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M.; Smoller, Jordan W.; Goldstein, Jill M.; Seidman, Larry J.

    2015-01-01

    Individuals who develop schizophrenia in adulthood exhibit, on average, deficits in childhood cognition relative to healthy controls. However, it remains unclear when in childhood such deficits emerge and whether they are stable across childhood or change (increase or decrease) across development. Importantly, whether the trajectory of childhood cognition differs among youth who later develop affective psychoses (AP) vs schizophrenia as adults remains unresolved. Subjects in the Collaborative Perinatal Project were administered the Stanford-Binet IQ test at age 4 and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children at age 7. A total of 9809 (54.7%) participants in the New England Study sites were tested at both ages, including 37 who later developed schizophrenia spectrum psychoses (SSP) and 39 who later developed AP. Logistic regression models examined the association of level of and change in childhood IQ and later SSP or AP. Lower overall childhood IQ was associated with higher risk of SSP. Additionally, there was a small mean increase in IQ in the SSP group relative to a mean decrease in the control group from age 4 to 7 such that positive change in IQ was significantly associated with a higher risk of SSP. Neither overall level nor change in IQ was associated with risk of AP. The results are consistent with neurocognitive impairment throughout early childhood specifically for children who later develop schizophrenia, affirming the theory of atypical neurodevelopment in premorbid schizophrenia. PMID:25904723

  3. Revealing a latent variable: individual differences in affective response to repeated injections.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Cigdem; Frohmader, Karla; Akil, Huda

    2015-10-01

    [Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 129(5) of Behavioral Neuroscience (see record 2015-43762-001). In the article, there was an error in the abstract. The sentence "However, injections significantly increased time spent immobile in the forced swim test in LRs, while the identical regimen significantly decreased the same measure in HRs, compared with handled-controls." should be "However, injections significantly increased time spent immobile in the forced swim test in HRs, while the identical regimen significantly decreased the same measure in LRs, compared with handled-controls."] Latent variables may exist in experimental designs and may interfere with reproducibility of findings. The present study reveals 1 such variable, the individual differences in affective response to chronic injection stress, by using the novelty-seeking phenotype as a model of differential emotional reactivity. The phenotype is identified by exposing a population of experimentally naïve outbred rats to the mild stress of a novel environment and classifying them as high responders (HR; upper 1/3) and low responders (LR; lower 1/3) based on their locomotor reactivity. Research has shown that HR/LR animals differ in their basal levels of anxiety- and depressive-like behavior, as well as in their response to environmental and pharmacological challenges; suggesting validity of this model in studying individual differences in stress reactivity. The present data showed that 14 daily, intraperitoneal saline injections did not alter the phenotypic differences in social behavior observed basally in HR/LR rats. However, injections significantly increased time spent immobile in the forced swim test in HRs, [corrected] while the identical regimen significantly decreased the same measure in LRs, [corrected] compared with handled-controls. These data indicate that individual differences in stress reactivity can have a significant impact on the depressive-like responses

  4. Differences in cortical activity between methamphetamine-dependent and healthy individuals performing a facial affect matching task.

    PubMed

    Payer, Doris E; Lieberman, Matthew D; Monterosso, John R; Xu, Jiansong; Fong, Timothy W; London, Edythe D

    2008-01-11

    As individuals who abuse methamphetamine (MA) often exhibit socially maladaptive behaviors such as violence and aggression, it is possible that they respond abnormally to social cues. To investigate this issue, we exposed 12 MA-dependent participants (abstinent 5-16 days) and 12 healthy comparison participants to fearful and angry faces while they performed an affect matching task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Although the groups did not differ in task performance, the healthy participants showed more task-related activity than the MA-dependent participants in a set of cortical regions consisting of the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC), temporoparietal junction (TPJ), anterior and posterior temporal cortex, and fusiform gyrus in the right hemisphere, and the cuneus in the left hemisphere. In contrast, the MA-dependent participants showed more task-related activity than the healthy participants in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC). As expected, the task elicited activation of the amygdala in both groups; however, contrary to expectation, we found no difference between groups in this activation. Dorsal ACC hyperactivity, along with high self-ratings of hostility and interpersonal sensitivity in the MA-dependent group, suggest a hyper-sensitivity to socially threatening cues in the MA-dependent participants, while lower VLPFC activation could point to a deficit in integrating socio-emotional information and/or regulating this limbic hyperactivity. Additional activation differences in neural circuitry related to social cognition (TPJ, anterior, and posterior temporal cortex) suggest further socio-emotional deficits. Together, the results point to cortical abnormalities that could underlie the socially inappropriate behaviors often shown by individuals who abuse MA. PMID:17964741

  5. Does degree of handedness in a group of right-handed individuals affect language comprehension?

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Sharlene; Malaia, Evie; Seo, Roy

    2014-01-01

    The impact of handedness on language processing has been studied extensively and the results indicate that there is a relationship between the two variables; however, the nature of the relationship is not at all clear. In the current study we explored degree of handedness (DH) opposed to direction in a group of right-handed individuals. fMRI was used to explore the impact of DH on the sentence comprehension network. The results revealed that during sentence comprehension activation in regions linked to semantic memory (e.g., anterior temporal cortex) were modulated by DH. Also, unexpectedly the precuneus/posterior cingulate gyrus which has been linked to episodic memory was also affected by DH. These results extend those reported previously by showing that the neural architecture that supports sentence comprehension is modulated by DH. More specifically, together the results presented here support the hypothesis proposed by Townsend et al. (2001) that DH interacts with the language system and impacts the strategy used during sentence comprehension. PMID:24607732

  6. Does degree of handedness in a group of right-handed individuals affect language comprehension?

    PubMed

    Newman, Sharlene; Malaia, Evie; Seo, Roy

    2014-04-01

    The impact of handedness on language processing has been studied extensively and the results indicate that there is a relationship between the two variables; however, the nature of the relationship is not at all clear. In the current study we explored degree of handedness (DH) opposed to direction in a group of right-handed individuals. fMRI was used to explore the impact of DH on the sentence comprehension network. The results revealed that during sentence comprehension activation in regions linked to semantic memory (e.g., anterior temporal cortex) were modulated by DH. Also, unexpectedly the precuneus/posterior cingulate gyrus which has been linked to episodic memory was also affected by DH. These results extend those reported previously by showing that the neural architecture that supports sentence comprehension is modulated by DH. More specifically, together the results presented here support the hypothesis proposed by Townsend, Carrithers, and Bever (2001) that DH interacts with the language system and impacts the strategy used during sentence comprehension. PMID:24607732

  7. Memory Load Affects Object Individuation in 18-Month-Old Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zosh, Jennifer M.; Feigenson, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Accurate representation of a changing environment requires individuation--the ability to determine how many numerically distinct objects are present in a scene. Much research has characterized early individuation abilities by identifying which object features infants can use to individuate throughout development. However, despite the fact that…

  8. Insular Activity during Passive Viewing of Aversive Stimuli Reflects Individual Differences in State Negative Affect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meriau, Katja; Wartenburger, Isabell; Kazzer, Philipp; Prehn, Kristin; Villringer, Arno; van der Meer, Elke; Heekeren, Hauke R.

    2009-01-01

    People differ with regard to how they perceive, experience, and express negative affect. While trait negative affect reflects a stable, sustained personality trait, state negative affect represents a stimulus limited and temporally acute emotion. So far, little is known about the neural systems mediating the relationship between negative affect…

  9. Leiodermatolide, a novel marine natural product, has potent cytotoxic and antimitotic activity against cancer cells, appears to affect microtubule dynamics, and exhibits antitumor activity.

    PubMed

    Guzmán, Esther A; Xu, Qunli; Pitts, Tara P; Mitsuhashi, Kaoru Ogawa; Baker, Cheryl; Linley, Patricia A; Oestreicher, Judy; Tendyke, Karen; Winder, Priscilla L; Suh, Edward M; Wright, Amy E

    2016-11-01

    Pancreatic cancer, the fourth leading cause of cancer death in the United States, has a negative prognosis because metastasis occurs before symptoms manifest. Leiodermatolide, a polyketide macrolide with antimitotic activity isolated from a deep water sponge of the genus Leiodermatium, exhibits potent and selective cytotoxicity toward the pancreatic cancer cell lines AsPC-1, PANC-1, BxPC-3, and MIA PaCa-2, and potent cytotoxicity against skin, breast and colon cancer cell lines. Induction of apoptosis by leiodermatolide was confirmed in the AsPC-1, BxPC-3 and MIA PaCa-2 cells. Leiodermatolide induces cell cycle arrest but has no effects on in vitro polymerization or depolymerization of tubulin alone, while it enhances polymerization of tubulin containing microtubule associated proteins (MAPs). Observations through confocal microscopy show that leiodermatolide, at low concentrations, causes minimal effects on polymerization or depolymerization of the microtubule network in interphase cells, but disruption of spindle formation in mitotic cells. At higher concentrations, depolymerization of the microtubule network is observed. Visualization of the growing microtubule in HeLa cells expressing GFP-tagged plus end binding protein EB-1 showed that leiodermatolide stopped the polymerization of tubulin. These results suggest that leiodermatolide may affect tubulin dynamics without directly interacting with tubulin and hint at a unique mechanism of action. In a mouse model of metastatic pancreatic cancer, leiodermatolide exhibited significant tumor reduction when compared to gemcitabine and controls. The antitumor activities of leiodermatolide, as well as the proven utility of antimitotic compounds against cancer, make leiodermatolide an interesting compound with potential chemotherapeutic effects that may merit further research. PMID:27376928

  10. Leiodermatolide, a novel marine natural product, has potent cytotoxic and antimitotic activity against cancer cells, appears to affect microtubule dynamics, and exhibits antitumor activity.

    PubMed

    Guzmán, Esther A; Xu, Qunli; Pitts, Tara P; Mitsuhashi, Kaoru Ogawa; Baker, Cheryl; Linley, Patricia A; Oestreicher, Judy; Tendyke, Karen; Winder, Priscilla L; Suh, Edward M; Wright, Amy E

    2016-11-01

    Pancreatic cancer, the fourth leading cause of cancer death in the United States, has a negative prognosis because metastasis occurs before symptoms manifest. Leiodermatolide, a polyketide macrolide with antimitotic activity isolated from a deep water sponge of the genus Leiodermatium, exhibits potent and selective cytotoxicity toward the pancreatic cancer cell lines AsPC-1, PANC-1, BxPC-3, and MIA PaCa-2, and potent cytotoxicity against skin, breast and colon cancer cell lines. Induction of apoptosis by leiodermatolide was confirmed in the AsPC-1, BxPC-3 and MIA PaCa-2 cells. Leiodermatolide induces cell cycle arrest but has no effects on in vitro polymerization or depolymerization of tubulin alone, while it enhances polymerization of tubulin containing microtubule associated proteins (MAPs). Observations through confocal microscopy show that leiodermatolide, at low concentrations, causes minimal effects on polymerization or depolymerization of the microtubule network in interphase cells, but disruption of spindle formation in mitotic cells. At higher concentrations, depolymerization of the microtubule network is observed. Visualization of the growing microtubule in HeLa cells expressing GFP-tagged plus end binding protein EB-1 showed that leiodermatolide stopped the polymerization of tubulin. These results suggest that leiodermatolide may affect tubulin dynamics without directly interacting with tubulin and hint at a unique mechanism of action. In a mouse model of metastatic pancreatic cancer, leiodermatolide exhibited significant tumor reduction when compared to gemcitabine and controls. The antitumor activities of leiodermatolide, as well as the proven utility of antimitotic compounds against cancer, make leiodermatolide an interesting compound with potential chemotherapeutic effects that may merit further research.

  11. Affective Determinants of Anxiety and Depression Development in Children and Adolescents: An Individual Growth Curve Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Bolle, Marleen; De Clercq, Barbara; Decuyper, Mieke; De Fruyt, Filip

    2011-01-01

    The tripartite model (in Clark and Watson, "J Abnorm Psychol" 100:316-336, 1991) comprises Negative Affect (NA), Positive Affect (PA), and Physiological Hyperarousal (PH), three temperamental-based dimensions. The current study examined the tripartite model's assumptions that (a) NA interacts with PA to predict subsequent depressive (but not…

  12. Enrichment and individual differences affect welfare indicators in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus).

    PubMed

    Izzo, Genevieve N; Bashaw, Meredith J; Campbell, John B

    2011-08-01

    Enrichment aims to improve captive animals' welfare by enhancing their environments. Two of the struggles associated with measuring welfare are identifying when animals' needs are being met or surpassed and identifying how individual differences play a role in these outcomes. Using a group of related Guyanese squirrel monkeys, we studied changes in five welfare indicators under different environmental conditions. Manipulating food presentation, walkways, and toys, we created five enrichment levels ranging from just above USDA standards to considerably more complex than the animals' normal housing. At the end of each level, a novelty test was performed in which an unfamiliar woman entered the enclosure and offered food. Changes in behavior as a function of enrichment condition were analyzed using a repeated-measures MANOVA. Compared to baseline, less enrichment consistently increased negative welfare indicators (abnormal behavior, aggression, and negative responses to the novelty test), while more enrichment sometimes decreased these indicators. Positive welfare indicators were less consistently related to enrichment, but positive response to the novelty test did increase somewhat in the most enriched condition. Across conditions, rank correlations revealed that individuals had highly consistent individual differences in positive responses to novelty and somewhat consistent individual differences in rates of aggression. The goal of the enrichment and the species, sex, and individual animals to be enriched should be considered when selecting a welfare indicator, and facilities measuring animal welfare should study changes in the behavior of specific individuals to control for individual differences.

  13. Relationship between Individual External Doses, Ambient Dose Rates and Individuals' Activity-Patterns in Affected Areas in Fukushima following the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident.

    PubMed

    Naito, Wataru; Uesaka, Motoki; Yamada, Chie; Kurosawa, Tadahiro; Yasutaka, Tetsuo; Ishii, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    The accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant on March 11, 2011, released radioactive material into the atmosphere and contaminated the land in Fukushima and several neighboring prefectures. Five years after the nuclear disaster, the radiation levels have greatly decreased due to physical decay, weathering, and decontamination operations in Fukushima. The populations of 12 communities were forced to evacuate after the accident; as of March 2016, the evacuation order has been lifted in only a limited area, and permanent habitation is still prohibited in most of the areas. In order for the government to lift the evacuation order and for individuals to return to their original residential areas, it is important to assess current and future realistic individual external doses. Here, we used personal dosimeters along with the Global Positioning System and Geographic Information System to understand realistic individual external doses and to relate individual external doses, ambient doses, and activity-patterns of individuals in the affected areas in Fukushima. The results showed that the additional individual external doses were well correlated to the additional ambient doses based on the airborne monitoring survey. The results of linear regression analysis suggested that the additional individual external doses were on average about one-fifth that of the additional ambient doses. The reduction factors, which are defined as the ratios of the additional individual external doses to the additional ambient doses, were calculated to be on average 0.14 and 0.32 for time spent at home and outdoors, respectively. Analysis of the contribution of various activity patterns to the total individual external dose demonstrated good agreement with the average fraction of time spent daily in each activity, but the contribution due to being outdoors varied widely. These results are a valuable contribution to understanding realistic individual external doses and the corresponding

  14. Relationship between Individual External Doses, Ambient Dose Rates and Individuals' Activity-Patterns in Affected Areas in Fukushima following the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident.

    PubMed

    Naito, Wataru; Uesaka, Motoki; Yamada, Chie; Kurosawa, Tadahiro; Yasutaka, Tetsuo; Ishii, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    The accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant on March 11, 2011, released radioactive material into the atmosphere and contaminated the land in Fukushima and several neighboring prefectures. Five years after the nuclear disaster, the radiation levels have greatly decreased due to physical decay, weathering, and decontamination operations in Fukushima. The populations of 12 communities were forced to evacuate after the accident; as of March 2016, the evacuation order has been lifted in only a limited area, and permanent habitation is still prohibited in most of the areas. In order for the government to lift the evacuation order and for individuals to return to their original residential areas, it is important to assess current and future realistic individual external doses. Here, we used personal dosimeters along with the Global Positioning System and Geographic Information System to understand realistic individual external doses and to relate individual external doses, ambient doses, and activity-patterns of individuals in the affected areas in Fukushima. The results showed that the additional individual external doses were well correlated to the additional ambient doses based on the airborne monitoring survey. The results of linear regression analysis suggested that the additional individual external doses were on average about one-fifth that of the additional ambient doses. The reduction factors, which are defined as the ratios of the additional individual external doses to the additional ambient doses, were calculated to be on average 0.14 and 0.32 for time spent at home and outdoors, respectively. Analysis of the contribution of various activity patterns to the total individual external dose demonstrated good agreement with the average fraction of time spent daily in each activity, but the contribution due to being outdoors varied widely. These results are a valuable contribution to understanding realistic individual external doses and the corresponding

  15. Study of individual and group affective processes in the crew of a simulated mission to Mars: Positive affectivity as a valuable indicator of changes in the crew affectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poláčková Šolcová, Iva; Lačev, Alek; Šolcová, Iva

    2014-07-01

    The success of a long-duration space mission depends on various technical demands as well as on the psychological (cognitive, affective, and motivational) adaptation of crewmembers and the quality of interactions within the crew. We examined the ways crewmembers of a 520-day simulated spaceflight to Mars (held in the Institute for Biomedical Problems, in Moscow) experienced and regulated their moods and emotions. Results show that crewmembers experienced predominantly positive emotions throughout their 520-day isolation and the changes in mood of the crewmembers were asynchronous and balanced. The study suggests that during the simulation, crewmembers experienced and regulated their emotions differently than they usually do in their everyday life. In isolation, crewmembers preferred to suppress and neutralize their negative emotions and express overtly only emotions with positive valence. Although the affective processes were almost invariable throughout the simulation, two periods of time when the level of positive emotions declined were identified. Regarding the findings, the paper suggests that changes in positive affectivity could be a more valuable indicator of human experience in demanding but professional environments than changes in negative affectivity. Finally, the paper discusses the phenomenology of emotions during a real space mission.

  16. Individual differences in social anxiety affect the salience of errors in social contexts.

    PubMed

    Barker, Tyson V; Troller-Renfree, Sonya; Pine, Daniel S; Fox, Nathan A

    2015-12-01

    The error-related negativity (ERN) is an event-related potential that occurs approximately 50 ms after an erroneous response. The magnitude of the ERN is influenced by contextual factors, such as when errors are made during social evaluation. The ERN is also influenced by individual differences in anxiety, and it is elevated among anxious individuals. However, little research has examined how individual differences in anxiety interact with contextual factors to impact the ERN. Social anxiety involves fear and apprehension of social evaluation. In the present study, we explored how individual differences in social anxiety interact with social contexts to modulate the ERN. The ERN was measured in 43 young adults characterized as being either high or low in social anxiety, while they completed a flanker task in two contexts: alone and during social evaluation. The results revealed a significant interaction between social anxiety and context, such that the ERN was enhanced in a social relative to a nonsocial context only among highly socially anxious individuals. Furthermore, the degree of such enhancement significantly correlated with individual differences in social anxiety. These findings demonstrate that social anxiety is characterized by enhanced neural activity to errors in social-evaluative contexts.

  17. Individual species affect plant traits structure in their surroundings: evidence of functional mechanisms of assembly.

    PubMed

    Chacón-Labella, Julia; de la Cruz, Marcelino; Pescador, David S; Escudero, Adrián

    2016-04-01

    Evaluating community assembly through the use of functional traits is a promising tool for testing predictions arising from Niche and Coexistence theories. Although interactions among neighboring species and their inter-specific differences are known drivers of coexistence with a strong spatial signal, assessing the role of individual species on the functional structure of the community at different spatial scales remains a challenge. Here, we ask whether individual species exert a measurable effect on the spatial organization of different functional traits in local assemblages. We first propose and compute two functions that describe different aspects of functional trait organization around individual species at multiple scales: individual weighted mean area relationship and individual functional diversity area relationship. Secondly, we develop a conceptual model on the relationship and simultaneous variation of these two metrics, providing five alternative scenarios in response to the ability of some target species to modify its neighbor environment and the possible assembly mechanisms involved. Our results show that some species influence the spatial structure of specific functional traits, but their effects were always restricted to the finest spatial scales. In the basis of our conceptual model, the observed patterns point to two main mechanisms driving the functional structure of the community at the fine scale, "biotic" filtering meditated by individual species and resource partitioning driven by indirect facilitation rather than by competitive mechanisms.

  18. How the spatial position of individuals affects their influence on swarms: a numerical comparison of two popular swarm dynamics models.

    PubMed

    Kolpas, Allison; Busch, Michael; Li, Hong; Couzin, Iain D; Petzold, Linda; Moehlis, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Schools of fish and flocks of birds are examples of self-organized animal groups that arise through social interactions among individuals. We numerically study two individual-based models, which recent empirical studies have suggested to explain self-organized group animal behavior: (i) a zone-based model where the group communication topology is determined by finite interacting zones of repulsion, attraction, and orientation among individuals; and (ii) a model where the communication topology is described by Delaunay triangulation, which is defined by each individual's Voronoi neighbors. The models include a tunable parameter that controls an individual's relative weighting of attraction and alignment. We perform computational experiments to investigate how effectively simulated groups transfer information in the form of velocity when an individual is perturbed. A cross-correlation function is used to measure the sensitivity of groups to sudden perturbations in the heading of individual members. The results show how relative weighting of attraction and alignment, location of the perturbed individual, population size, and the communication topology affect group structure and response to perturbation. We find that in the Delaunay-based model an individual who is perturbed is capable of triggering a cascade of responses, ultimately leading to the group changing direction. This phenomenon has been seen in self-organized animal groups in both experiments and nature. PMID:23555585

  19. Exploring Individual and Item Factors that Affect Assessment Validity for Diverse Learners: Results from a Large-Scale Cognitive Lab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winter, Phoebe C.; Kopriva, Rebecca J.; Chen, Chen-Su; Emick, Jessica E.

    2006-01-01

    A cognitive lab technique (n=156) was used to investigate interactions between individual factors and item factors presumed to affect assessment validity for diverse students, including English language learners. Findings support the concept of "access"--an interaction between specific construct-irrelevant item features and individual…

  20. How individual movement response to habitat edges affects population persistence and spatial spread.

    PubMed

    Maciel, Gabriel Andreguetto; Lutscher, Frithjof

    2013-07-01

    How individual-level movement decisions in response to habitat edges influence population-level patterns of persistence and spread of a species is a major challenge in spatial ecology and conservation biology. Here, we integrate novel insights into edge behavior, based on habitat preference and movement rates, into spatially explicit growth-dispersal models. We demonstrate how crucial ecological quantities (e.g., minimal patch size, spread rate) depend critically on these individual-level decisions. In particular, we find that including edge behavior properly in these models gives qualitatively different and intuitively more reasonable results than those of some previous studies that did not consider this level of detail. Our results highlight the importance of new empirical work on individual movement response to habitat edges.

  1. Doing It Your Way: How Individual Movement Styles Affect Action Prediction

    PubMed Central

    Koul, Atesh; Ansuini, Caterina; Becchio, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Individuals show significant variations in performing a motor act. Previous studies in the action observation literature have largely ignored this ubiquitous, if often unwanted, characteristic of motor performance, assuming movement patterns to be highly similar across repetitions and individuals. In the present study, we examined the possibility that individual variations in motor style directly influence the ability to understand and predict others’ actions. To this end, we first recorded grasping movements performed with different intents and used a two-step cluster analysis to identify quantitatively ‘clusters’ of movements performed with similar movement styles (Experiment 1). Next, using videos of the same movements, we proceeded to examine the influence of these styles on the ability to judge intention from action observation (Experiments 2 and 3). We found that motor styles directly influenced observers’ ability to ‘read’ others’ intention, with some styles always being less ‘readable’ than others. These results provide experimental support for the significance of motor variability for action prediction, suggesting that the ability to predict what another person is likely to do next directly depends on her individual movement style. PMID:27780259

  2. More than Numbers: Individual and Contextual Factors in How Gender Diversity Affects Women's Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miner-Rubino, Kathi; Settles, Isis H.; Stewart, Abigail J.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined factors related to workplace gender diversity in a sample of 87 college-educated White women. Specifically, we investigated the moderating effects of one individual difference variable (sensitivity to sexism) and one contextual variable (perceptions of the workplace climate) in the relationship between the gender composition at…

  3. Perspectives on Individual Differences Affecting Therapeutic Change in Communication Disorders. New Directions in Communication Disorders Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Amy L., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This volume examines the ramifications of individual differences in therapy outcomes for a wide variety of communication disorders. In an era where evidence-based practice is the clinical profession's watchword, each chapter attacks this highly relevant issue from a somewhat different perspective. In some areas of communication disorders,…

  4. Using a Structural Equation Model to Examine Factors Affecting Married Individuals' Sexual Embarrassment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celik, Eyup; Arici, Neslihan

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to predict the effects of levels of sexual awareness, sexual courage, and sexual self-disclosure on sexual embarrassment. Data was collected from 336 married individuals, who have students in the Sultangazi District of Istanbul. According to the structural equation model (SEM), sexual self-disclosure, directly, and sexual courage…

  5. Exploring Factors Affecting Students' Continued Wiki Use for Individual and Collaborative Learning: An Extended UTAUT Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yueh, Hsiu-Ping; Huang, Jo-Yi; Chang, Chueh

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate what factors affect students' adaptation and continued use of a Wiki system for collaborative writing tasks through an extension of the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT). This study was conducted in a general education course in a university in northern Taiwan. Data were…

  6. The Pedagogy of the Body: Affect and Collective Individuation in the Classroom and on the Dancefloor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    Much recent work in the study of popular culture has emphasized the extent to which it is not only a site of signifying practices, myths, meanings and identifications, but also an arena of intensities, of affective flows and corporeal state-changes. From this perspective, many areas of popular culture (from calisthenics to social dance to video…

  7. Is Long-Term Structural Priming Affected by Patterns of Experience with Individual Verbs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaschak, Michael P.; Borreggine, Kristin L.

    2008-01-01

    Several recent papers have reported long-term structural priming effects in experiments where previous patterns of experience with the double object and prepositional object constructions are shown to affect later patterns of language production for those constructions. The experiments reported in this paper address the extent to which these…

  8. Individual and School Factors Affecting Students' Participation and Success in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shulruf, Boaz; Hattie, John; Tumen, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify school factors that affect students' achievements at the secondary and tertiary levels of education. The analysis included data of 9,894 students who studied in Auckland regional secondary schools in 2004. The results indicate that, although student demographic characteristics are associated with students'…

  9. An fMRI study of affective perspective taking in individuals with psychopathy: imagining another in pain does not evoke empathy

    PubMed Central

    Decety, Jean; Chen, Chenyi; Harenski, Carla; Kiehl, Kent A.

    2013-01-01

    While it is well established that individuals with psychopathy have a marked deficit in affective arousal, emotional empathy, and caring for the well-being of others, the extent to which perspective taking can elicit an emotional response has not yet been studied despite its potential application in rehabilitation. In healthy individuals, affective perspective taking has proven to be an effective means to elicit empathy and concern for others. To examine neural responses in individuals who vary in psychopathy during affective perspective taking, 121 incarcerated males, classified as high (n = 37; Hare psychopathy checklist-revised, PCL-R ≥ 30), intermediate (n = 44; PCL-R between 21 and 29), and low (n = 40; PCL-R ≤ 20) psychopaths, were scanned while viewing stimuli depicting bodily injuries and adopting an imagine-self and an imagine-other perspective. During the imagine-self perspective, participants with high psychopathy showed a typical response within the network involved in empathy for pain, including the anterior insula (aINS), anterior midcingulate cortex (aMCC), supplementary motor area (SMA), inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), somatosensory cortex, and right amygdala. Conversely, during the imagine-other perspective, psychopaths exhibited an atypical pattern of brain activation and effective connectivity seeded in the anterior insula and amygdala with the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). The response in the amygdala and insula was inversely correlated with PCL-R Factor 1 (interpersonal/affective) during the imagine-other perspective. In high psychopaths, scores on PCL-R Factor 1 predicted the neural response in ventral striatum when imagining others in pain. These patterns of brain activation and effective connectivity associated with differential perspective-taking provide a better understanding of empathy dysfunction in psychopathy, and have the potential to inform intervention programs for this complex clinical

  10. How Do Airlines Perceive That Strategic Alliances Affect Their Individual Branding?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalligiannis, Konstantinos; Iatrou, Kostas; Mason, Keith

    2006-01-01

    Much research has been carried out to evaluate the impact of strategic alliance membership on the performance of airlines. However it would be of interest to identify how airlines perceive this impact in terms of branding by each of the three global alliance groupings. It is the purpose of this paper to gather the opinion of airlines, belonging to the three strategic alliance groups, on the impact that the strategic alliance brands have had on their individual brands and how do they perceive that this impact will change in the future. To achieve this, a comprehensive survey of the alliance management and marketing departments of airlines participating in the three global strategic alliances was required. The results from this survey give an indication whether the strategic airline alliances, which are often referred to as marketing agreements, enhance, damage or have no impact on the individual airline brands.

  11. Individual fluctuations in toxin levels affect breeding site fidelity in a chemically defended amphibian.

    PubMed

    Bucciarelli, Gary M; Green, David B; Shaffer, H Bradley; Kats, Lee B

    2016-05-25

    Behaviours that influence habitat selection strongly determine species movement patterns. One component of animal behaviour that largely influences movement patterns and habitat choice is site fidelity. California newts (family Salamandridae) demonstrate remarkable site fidelity, typically homing to the same pool of a stream each breeding season. Individuals often occupy a specific pool throughout the breeding season, but some males shift among breeding pools, altering their set of potential mates, competitors, and predators. In this study, we measured dermal concentrations of the chemical defence compound tetrodotoxin (TTX) in recaptured male California newts (Taricha torosa) over five breeding seasons to evaluate whether relative TTX concentrations are associated with breeding site fidelity in the field. Our five years of field sampling indicates that TTX concentrations of individuals and group means fluctuate tremendously, implying that TTX is not a stable phenotypic trait. Despite such fluctuations, we found that an individual's relative TTX concentration explains fidelity to a breeding pool and suggests that newts may be able to assess both their own concentrations of TTX and that of conspecifics to make decisions about remaining in or abandoning a breeding pool. These results provide us a novel dimension to chemical defence phenotypes in nature and their ecological consequences, potentially requiring a re-evaluation of the coevolutionary dynamics of predation pressure on toxin-laden organisms. PMID:27194704

  12. Individual differences in decision making: Drive and reward responsiveness affect strategic bargaining in economic games

    PubMed Central

    Scheres, Anouk; Sanfey, Alan G

    2006-01-01

    Background In the growing body of literature on economic decision making, the main focus has typically been on explaining aggregate behavior, with little interest in individual differences despite considerable between-subject variability in decision responses. In this study, we were interested in asking to what degree individual differences in fundamental psychological processes can mediate economic decision-making behavior. Methods Specifically, we studied a personality dimension that may influence economic decision-making, the Behavioral Activation System, (BAS) which is composed of three components: Reward Responsiveness, Drive, and Fun Seeking. In order to assess economic decision making, we utilized two commonly-used tasks, the Ultimatum Game and Dictator Game. Individual differences in BAS were measured by completion of the BIS/BAS Scales, and correlations between the BAS scales and monetary offers made in the two tasks were computed. Results We found that higher scores on BAS Drive and on BAS Reward Responsiveness were associated with a pattern of higher offers on the Ultimatum Game, lower offers on the Dictator Game, and a correspondingly larger discrepancy between Ultimatum Game and Dictator Game offers. Conclusion These findings are consistent with an interpretation that high scores on Drive and Reward Responsiveness are associated with a strategy that first seeks to maximize the likelihood of reward, and then to maximize the amount of reward. More generally, these results suggest that there are additional factors other than empathy, fairness and selfishness that contribute to strategic decision-making. PMID:17049091

  13. Novel loci affecting iron homeostasis and their effects in individuals at risk for hemochromatosis.

    PubMed

    Benyamin, Beben; Esko, Tonu; Ried, Janina S; Radhakrishnan, Aparna; Vermeulen, Sita H; Traglia, Michela; Gögele, Martin; Anderson, Denise; Broer, Linda; Podmore, Clara; Luan, Jian'an; Kutalik, Zoltan; Sanna, Serena; van der Meer, Peter; Tanaka, Toshiko; Wang, Fudi; Westra, Harm-Jan; Franke, Lude; Mihailov, Evelin; Milani, Lili; Hälldin, Jonas; Häldin, Jonas; Winkelmann, Juliane; Meitinger, Thomas; Thiery, Joachim; Peters, Annette; Waldenberger, Melanie; Rendon, Augusto; Jolley, Jennifer; Sambrook, Jennifer; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Sweep, Fred C; Sala, Cinzia F; Schwienbacher, Christine; Pichler, Irene; Hui, Jennie; Demirkan, Ayse; Isaacs, Aaron; Amin, Najaf; Steri, Maristella; Waeber, Gérard; Verweij, Niek; Powell, Joseph E; Nyholt, Dale R; Heath, Andrew C; Madden, Pamela A F; Visscher, Peter M; Wright, Margaret J; Montgomery, Grant W; Martin, Nicholas G; Hernandez, Dena; Bandinelli, Stefania; van der Harst, Pim; Uda, Manuela; Vollenweider, Peter; Scott, Robert A; Langenberg, Claudia; Wareham, Nicholas J; van Duijn, Cornelia; Beilby, John; Pramstaller, Peter P; Hicks, Andrew A; Ouwehand, Willem H; Oexle, Konrad; Gieger, Christian; Metspalu, Andres; Camaschella, Clara; Toniolo, Daniela; Swinkels, Dorine W; Whitfield, John B

    2014-01-01

    Variation in body iron is associated with or causes diseases, including anaemia and iron overload. Here, we analyse genetic association data on biochemical markers of iron status from 11 European-population studies, with replication in eight additional cohorts (total up to 48,972 subjects). We find 11 genome-wide-significant (P<5 × 10(-8)) loci, some including known iron-related genes (HFE, SLC40A1, TF, TFR2, TFRC, TMPRSS6) and others novel (ABO, ARNTL, FADS2, NAT2, TEX14). SNPs at ARNTL, TF, and TFR2 affect iron markers in HFE C282Y homozygotes at risk for hemochromatosis. There is substantial overlap between our iron loci and loci affecting erythrocyte and lipid phenotypes. These results will facilitate investigation of the roles of iron in disease. PMID:25352340

  14. Cognitive and affective mechanisms linking trait mindfulness to craving among individuals in addiction recovery.

    PubMed

    Garland, Eric L; Roberts-Lewis, Amelia; Kelley, Karen; Tronnier, Christine; Hanley, Adam

    2014-04-01

    The present study aimed to identify affective, cognitive, and conative mediators of the relation between trait mindfulness and craving in data culled from an urban sample of 165 persons (in abstinence verified by urinalysis) entering into residential treatment for substance use disorders between 2010 and 2012. Multivariate path analysis adjusting for age, gender, education level, employment status, and substance use frequency indicated that the association between the total trait mindfulness score on the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire and alcohol/drug craving was statistically mediated by negative affect (measured by the PANAS, beta = -.13) and cognitive reappraisal (measured by the CERQ, beta = -.08), but not by readiness to change (measured by the URICA, beta = -.001). Implications for mindfulness-oriented treatment of persons with substance use disorders are discussed. The study's limitations are noted.

  15. Novel loci affecting iron homeostasis and their effects in individuals at risk for hemochromatosis.

    PubMed

    Benyamin, Beben; Esko, Tonu; Ried, Janina S; Radhakrishnan, Aparna; Vermeulen, Sita H; Traglia, Michela; Gögele, Martin; Anderson, Denise; Broer, Linda; Podmore, Clara; Luan, Jian'an; Kutalik, Zoltan; Sanna, Serena; van der Meer, Peter; Tanaka, Toshiko; Wang, Fudi; Westra, Harm-Jan; Franke, Lude; Mihailov, Evelin; Milani, Lili; Hälldin, Jonas; Häldin, Jonas; Winkelmann, Juliane; Meitinger, Thomas; Thiery, Joachim; Peters, Annette; Waldenberger, Melanie; Rendon, Augusto; Jolley, Jennifer; Sambrook, Jennifer; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Sweep, Fred C; Sala, Cinzia F; Schwienbacher, Christine; Pichler, Irene; Hui, Jennie; Demirkan, Ayse; Isaacs, Aaron; Amin, Najaf; Steri, Maristella; Waeber, Gérard; Verweij, Niek; Powell, Joseph E; Nyholt, Dale R; Heath, Andrew C; Madden, Pamela A F; Visscher, Peter M; Wright, Margaret J; Montgomery, Grant W; Martin, Nicholas G; Hernandez, Dena; Bandinelli, Stefania; van der Harst, Pim; Uda, Manuela; Vollenweider, Peter; Scott, Robert A; Langenberg, Claudia; Wareham, Nicholas J; van Duijn, Cornelia; Beilby, John; Pramstaller, Peter P; Hicks, Andrew A; Ouwehand, Willem H; Oexle, Konrad; Gieger, Christian; Metspalu, Andres; Camaschella, Clara; Toniolo, Daniela; Swinkels, Dorine W; Whitfield, John B

    2014-10-29

    Variation in body iron is associated with or causes diseases, including anaemia and iron overload. Here, we analyse genetic association data on biochemical markers of iron status from 11 European-population studies, with replication in eight additional cohorts (total up to 48,972 subjects). We find 11 genome-wide-significant (P<5 × 10(-8)) loci, some including known iron-related genes (HFE, SLC40A1, TF, TFR2, TFRC, TMPRSS6) and others novel (ABO, ARNTL, FADS2, NAT2, TEX14). SNPs at ARNTL, TF, and TFR2 affect iron markers in HFE C282Y homozygotes at risk for hemochromatosis. There is substantial overlap between our iron loci and loci affecting erythrocyte and lipid phenotypes. These results will facilitate investigation of the roles of iron in disease.

  16. Contextualizing individual differences in error monitoring: Links with impulsivity, negative affect, and conscientiousness.

    PubMed

    Hill, Kaylin E; Samuel, Douglas B; Foti, Dan

    2016-08-01

    The error-related negativity (ERN) is a neural measure of error processing that has been implicated as a neurobehavioral trait and has transdiagnostic links with psychopathology. Few studies, however, have contextualized this traitlike component with regard to dimensions of personality that, as intermediate constructs, may aid in contextualizing links with psychopathology. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to examine the interrelationships between error monitoring and dimensions of personality within a large adult sample (N = 208). Building on previous research, we found that the ERN relates to a combination of negative affect, impulsivity, and conscientiousness. At low levels of conscientiousness, negative urgency (i.e., impulsivity in the context of negative affect) predicted an increased ERN; at high levels of conscientiousness, the effect of negative urgency was not significant. This relationship was driven specifically by the conscientiousness facets of competence, order, and deliberation. Links between personality measures and error positivity amplitude were weaker and nonsignificant. Post-error slowing was also related to conscientiousness, as well as a different facet of impulsivity: lack of perseverance. These findings suggest that, in the general population, error processing is modulated by the joint combination of negative affect, impulsivity, and conscientiousness (i.e., the profile across traits), perhaps more so than any one dimension alone. This work may inform future research concerning aberrant error processing in clinical populations.

  17. New brittle bone disorder: report of a family with six affected individuals.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, G; Haga, N; Aoki, K; Hamazaki, M; Taniguchi, K; Iwaya, T

    1999-06-01

    We report on a family in which four females and two males in three generations had a previously undescribed brittle bone disorder that was dominantly transmitted through a maternal line. The cardinal manifestations of the disorder comprised dolichocephaly with frontal bossing, hypoplasia of the midface, postpubertal prognathism, micromelic short stature, coarse trabeculae of the entire skeleton, and bone fragility of variable degrees. Mild spondylar modification and iliac hypoplasia were other hallmarks that were recognized in childhood. The proband, a 19-year-old male, was most severely affected with multiple wormian bones in the calvaria, repetitive fractures, intractable bowing of the legs and forearms, and pseudofractures of the long bones with metaphyseal narrowing. His male cousin was next severely affected with angular deformity restricted to the forearm. The four females were much less affected without angular deformity. The mode of inheritance was thus consistent with either an autosomal dominant trait with sex-influence or an X-linked semidominant trait. Histological bone examination in the proband showed atrophy and fibrous degeneration of the lamellar trabeculae and disorganized chondro-osseous junction, which implied that the disorder involved both intramembranous and enchondral ossifications. PMID:10340645

  18. Contextualizing individual differences in error monitoring: Links with impulsivity, negative affect, and conscientiousness.

    PubMed

    Hill, Kaylin E; Samuel, Douglas B; Foti, Dan

    2016-08-01

    The error-related negativity (ERN) is a neural measure of error processing that has been implicated as a neurobehavioral trait and has transdiagnostic links with psychopathology. Few studies, however, have contextualized this traitlike component with regard to dimensions of personality that, as intermediate constructs, may aid in contextualizing links with psychopathology. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to examine the interrelationships between error monitoring and dimensions of personality within a large adult sample (N = 208). Building on previous research, we found that the ERN relates to a combination of negative affect, impulsivity, and conscientiousness. At low levels of conscientiousness, negative urgency (i.e., impulsivity in the context of negative affect) predicted an increased ERN; at high levels of conscientiousness, the effect of negative urgency was not significant. This relationship was driven specifically by the conscientiousness facets of competence, order, and deliberation. Links between personality measures and error positivity amplitude were weaker and nonsignificant. Post-error slowing was also related to conscientiousness, as well as a different facet of impulsivity: lack of perseverance. These findings suggest that, in the general population, error processing is modulated by the joint combination of negative affect, impulsivity, and conscientiousness (i.e., the profile across traits), perhaps more so than any one dimension alone. This work may inform future research concerning aberrant error processing in clinical populations. PMID:27192958

  19. Outdoor Exhibits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) at the John C. Stennis Space Center has exhibits located in front of the Visitors Center. These boat-shaped buoys are moored in areas of the ocean that experience hostile environmental conditions. The instruments installed gather information and relay it to the National Weather Service by satellite. Nomad buoys are 20 feet long and weigh 13,900 pounds. They provide information on wind speed and direction, humidity levels, air and sea surface temperature and air pressure. U.S. Coast Guard ships transport buoys to their mooring sites.

  20. Combined pesticide exposure severely affects individual- and colony-level traits in bees

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Richard J.; Ramos-Rodriguez, Oscar; Raine, Nigel E.

    2012-01-01

    Reported widespread declines of wild and managed insect pollinators have serious consequences for global ecosystem services and agricultural production1-3. Bees contribute around 80% of insect pollination, so it is imperative we understand and mitigate the causes of current declines4-6. Recent studies have implicated the role of pesticides as exposure to these chemicals has been associated with changes in bee behaviour7-11 and reductions in colony queen production12. However the key link between changes in individual behaviour and consequent impact at the colony level has not been shown. Social bee colonies depend on the collective performance of numerous individual workers. So whilst field-level pesticide concentrations can have a subtle/sublethal effect at the individual level8, it is not known whether bee societies can buffer such effects or if it results in a severe cumulative effect at the colony level. Furthermore, widespread agricultural intensification means bees are exposed to numerous pesticides when foraging13-15, yet the possible combinatorial effects of pesticide exposure have rarely been investigated16,17. Here we show that chronic exposure of bumblebees to two pesticides (neonicotinoid and pyrethroid) at concentrations that could approximate field-level exposure impairs natural foraging behaviour and increases worker mortality leading to significant reductions in brood development and colony success. We found worker foraging performance, particularly pollen collecting efficiency, was significantly reduced with observed knock-on effects for forager recruitment, worker losses and overall worker productivity. Moreover, we provide evidence that combinatorial exposure to pesticides increases the propensity of colonies to fail. PMID:23086150

  1. Combined pesticide exposure severely affects individual- and colony-level traits in bees.

    PubMed

    Gill, Richard J; Ramos-Rodriguez, Oscar; Raine, Nigel E

    2012-11-01

    Reported widespread declines of wild and managed insect pollinators have serious consequences for global ecosystem services and agricultural production. Bees contribute approximately 80% of insect pollination, so it is important to understand and mitigate the causes of current declines in bee populations . Recent studies have implicated the role of pesticides in these declines, as exposure to these chemicals has been associated with changes in bee behaviour and reductions in colony queen production. However, the key link between changes in individual behaviour and the consequent impact at the colony level has not been shown. Social bee colonies depend on the collective performance of many individual workers. Thus, although field-level pesticide concentrations can have subtle or sublethal effects at the individual level, it is not known whether bee societies can buffer such effects or whether it results in a severe cumulative effect at the colony level. Furthermore, widespread agricultural intensification means that bees are exposed to numerous pesticides when foraging, yet the possible combinatorial effects of pesticide exposure have rarely been investigated. Here we show that chronic exposure of bumblebees to two pesticides (neonicotinoid and pyrethroid) at concentrations that could approximate field-level exposure impairs natural foraging behaviour and increases worker mortality leading to significant reductions in brood development and colony success. We found that worker foraging performance, particularly pollen collecting efficiency, was significantly reduced with observed knock-on effects for forager recruitment, worker losses and overall worker productivity. Moreover, we provide evidence that combinatorial exposure to pesticides increases the propensity of colonies to fail.

  2. Radiation-induced late effects in two affected individuals of the Lilo radiation accident.

    PubMed

    Scherthan, Harry; Abend, Michael; Müller, Kerstin; Beinke, Christina; Braselmann, Herbert; Zitzelsberger, Horst; Köhn, Frank M; Pillekamp, Hans; Schiener, Ralf; Das, Oliver; Peter, Ralf U; Herzog, Gerhard; Tzschach, Andreas; Dörr, Harald D; Fliedner, Theodor M; Meineke, Viktor

    2007-05-01

    Radiation exposure leads to a risk for long-term deterministic and stochastic late effects. Two individuals exposed to protracted photon radiation in the radiological accident at the Lilo Military site in Georgia in 1997 received follow-up treatment and resection of several chronic radiation ulcers in the Bundeswehr Hospital Ulm, Germany, in 2003. Multi-parameter analysis revealed that spermatogenetic arrest and serum hormone levels in both patients had recovered compared to the status in 1997. However, we observed a persistence of altered T-cell ratios, increased ICAM1 and beta1-integrin expression, and aberrant bone marrow cells and lymphocytes with significantly increased translocations 6 years after the accident. This investigation thus identified altered end points still detectable years after the accident that suggest persistent genomic damage as well as epigenetic effects in these individuals, which may be associated with an elevated risk for the development of further late effects. Our observations further suggest the development of a chronic radiation syndrome and indicate follow-up parameters in radiation victims.

  3. Misperceiving facial affect: effects of laterality and individual differences in susceptibility to visual hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Coy, Abbie L; Hutton, Samuel B

    2012-04-30

    It has been suggested that certain types of auditory hallucinations may be the by-product of a perceptual system that has evolved to be oversensitive to threat-related stimuli. People with schizophrenia and high schizotypes experience visual as well as auditory hallucinations, and have deficits in processing facial emotions. We sought to determine the relationship between visual hallucination proneness and the tendency to misattribute threat and non-threat related emotions to neutral faces. Participants completed a questionnaire assessing visual hallucination proneness (the Revised Visual Hallucination Scale - RVHS). High scoring individuals (N=64) were compared to low scoring individuals (N=72) on a novel emotion detection task. The high RVHS group made more false positive errors (ascribing emotions to neutral faces) than the low RVHS group, particularly when detecting threat-related emotions. All participants made more false positives when neutral faces were presented to the right visual field than to the left visual field. Our results support continuum models of visual hallucinatory experience in which tolerance for false positives is highest for potentially threatening emotional stimuli and suggest that lateral asymmetries in face processing extend to the misperception of facial emotion.

  4. Coconut-derived D-xylose affects postprandial glucose and insulin responses in healthy individuals

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Yun Jung; Bak, Youn-Kyung; Kim, Bumsik; Kim, Min-Sun; Lee, Jin-Hee

    2011-01-01

    Metabolic alterations including postprandial hyperglycemia have been implicated in the development of obesity-related diseases. Xylose is a sucrase inhibitor suggested to suppress the postprandial glucose surge. The objectives of this study were to assess the inhibitory effects of two different concentrations of xylose on postprandial glucose and insulin responses and to evaluate its efficacy in the presence of other macronutrients. Randomized double-blind cross-over studies were conducted to examine the effect of D-xylose on postprandial glucose and insulin response following the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). In study 1, the overnight-fasted study subjects (n = 49) consumed a test sucrose solution (50 g sucrose in 130 ml water) containing 0, 5, or 7.5 g D-xylose powder. In study 2, the overnight-fasted study subjects (n = 50) consumed a test meal (50 g sucrose in a 60 g muffin and 200 ml sucrose-containing solution). The control meal provided 64.5 g of carbohydrates, 4.5 g of fat, and 10 g of protein. The xylose meal was identical to the control meal except 5 g of xylose was added to the muffin mix. In study 1, the 5 g xylose-containing solutions exhibited significantly lower area under the glucose curve (AUCg) and area under the insulin curve (AUCi) values for 0-15 min (P < 0.0001, P < 0.0001), 0-30 min (P < 0.0001, P < 0.0001), 0-45 min (P < 0.0001, P < 0.0001), 0-60 min (P < 0.0001, P < 0.0001), 0-90 min (P < 0.0001, P < 0.0001) and 0-120 min (P = 0.0071, P = 0.0016). In study 2, the test meal exhibited significantly lower AUCg and AUCi values for 0-15 min (P < 0.0001, P < 0.0001), 0-30 min (P < 0.0001, P < 0.0001), 0-45 min (P < 0.0001, P = 0.0005), 0-60 min (P = 0.0002, P = 0.0025), and 0-90 min (P = 0.0396, P = 0.0246). In conclusion, xylose showed an acute suppressive effect on the postprandial glucose and insulin surges. PMID:22259678

  5. Factors affecting grief reactions in close family members to individuals who have died of cancer.

    PubMed

    Ringdal, G I; Jordhøy, M S; Ringdal, K; Kaasa, S

    2001-12-01

    This longitudinal study examined factors related to grief reactions in a systematic and standardized way in 183 close family members to individuals who died of cancer. Grief reactions were measured using the Texas Revised Inventory of Grief (TRIG). A repeated measures MANOVA was used to test and compare the grief reactions of the bereaved for one year after the loss. The female respondents showed stronger grief reactions than the male respondents. The grief reactions increased with age, and those who had lost a younger family member experienced stronger grief reactions than those who had lost an older family member. The relationship to the deceased, the duration of the disease, place of death, aspects of social support such as children living at home, and employment were not related to the grief reactions in the bereaved respondents when controlling for the former factors. PMID:11738164

  6. Understandings of health. How individual perceptions of health affect health promotion needs in organizations.

    PubMed

    Ness, P

    1997-07-01

    The purpose of the study was to discover what the concept of health means to the participants and to determine how an organization can assist its members in developing and maintaining their notion of health. The participants for this study were drawn from the employees at a post secondary educational institution. Tape recorded interviews were transcribed by the researcher, and the transcripts were analyzed for common topics and predominant themes. Imbedded in the data were four themes that provided an over arching conceptual framework from which to view health and health promoting activities: well being as a broad definition of health; the concept of balance as a prime contributor to health; the notion of self efficacy in determining one's health, and the value of caring as a significant determinant of health. Findings of the study have significance for individual health, organizations and health, health promoters, and further research. PMID:9250025

  7. Factors affecting treatment efficacy in social phobia: the use of video feedback and individual vs. group formats.

    PubMed

    Aderka, Idan M

    2009-01-01

    This meta-analysis assessed two potential moderators of treatment efficacy in social phobia: video feedback, and treatment format (i.e., individual vs. group). Eighteen recent (2000-2006) trials including a total of 511 participants were sampled. Effect sizes (Cohen's d's) were calculated for each trial while correcting for measurement error. The Q statistic was used to test (a) heterogeneity across trials and (b) potential moderators. Results indicated that use of video feedback was not a moderator of treatment efficacy and did not significantly affect effect sizes. In contrast, treatment format was a moderator of treatment efficacy such that individual treatments reported larger effect sizes and lower attrition rates compared with group treatments. The results suggest that individual treatments in social phobia may be superior to group treatments irrespective of treatment type. PMID:18599263

  8. The impact of affective contexts on working memory capacity in healthy populations and in individuals with PTSD.

    PubMed

    Schweizer, Susanne; Dalgleish, Tim

    2016-02-01

    Individual differences in working memory capacity (WMC) strongly predict variations in real-world cognitive functioning. However, little is known about how WMC is influenced by the ubiquitously present affective information in our everyday environments. Here, we present a series of 3 experiments investigating a novel WMC paradigm performed in affective (vs. neutral) contexts. The paradigm requires simultaneous performance of a visuospatial search and a verbal storage task. These tasks are performed in the presence of either neutral or negative emotional distractor images. Experiments 1 and 2 confirmed our prediction that WMC would be reduced in the context of emotional compared with neutral distractors in student and community samples. Experiment 3 extended these findings to a clinical sample. WMC in motor vehicle accident survivors with a history of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was selectively reduced in the presence of trauma-related emotional distraction compared with survivors without a history of PTSD. Implications of these findings for affective cognitive science are discussed.

  9. Chronic hand eczema: perception and knowledge in non-affected individuals from general and dermatological practice.

    PubMed

    Letulé, Valerie; Herzinger, Thomas; Schirner, Astrid; Hertrich, Frank; Lange, Dirk; Ruzicka, Thomas; Molin, Sonja

    2014-11-01

    Misunderstanding and stigmatisation are common problems encountered by patients with hand eczema. Various misconceptions about the disease circulate in the general population. Although hand eczema has gained more attention in dermatology during the past years, information on public perception of the disease is still lacking. The aim of our study was to investigate perception of and level of knowledge on the subject hand eczema. There were 624 patients included from 2 general medicine practices and 2 dermatological practices. A self-administered questionnaire was filled out by the participants, covering issues on history of hand eczema, level of knowledge and attitude towards a clinical photograph of hand eczema. We found that a larger proportion of individuals from dermatological practice were more familiar with hand eczema as a disease than those from general medical practice. Women knew significantly more about and had a more positive perception of the disease than men. Our results imply that the level of knowledge on hand eczema in the general public is rather low and influenced by prejudice.

  10. Individual factors affecting preferences for feedback message tactics in the contexts of physical activity.

    PubMed

    Hirvonen, Noora; Enwald, Heidi; Bath, Peter A; Pyky, Riitta; Korpelainen, Raija; Huotari, Maija-Leena

    2015-01-01

    Tailored feedback on personal physical activity behavior has been used to inform individuals and promote physical activity among different populations. This study aimed to increase the understanding of factors associated with young men's preferences for feedback message tactics in the context of physical activity and exercise. How preferences vary was analyzed in terms of the self-reported physical activity, stage of exercise behavior change, exercise self-efficacy, objectively measured physical health status, and sociodemographic characteristics of young Finnish men. Population-based survey data, including physiological measurements (n = 525), were collected at the Finnish Defence Forces' call-ups in the city of Oulu, Finland, in September 2011. The results indicate that the stage of exercise behavior change, exercise self-efficacy, physical health status, and educational level are associated with a preference for normative and ipsative comparison. Multivariate logistic regression models show that an advanced stage of exercise behavior change and education in the academic track of an upper secondary school are independent predictors of preferring ipsative and normative physical activity feedback among young men. The study provides new insights into how the stage of behavior change influences health information behavior and is in line with studies emphasizing social factors--including education--as being important in shaping health-related behavior. These factors could form the basis for tailoring information when designing health promotion. PMID:25491473

  11. Emotional state affects gait initiation in individuals with Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Hass, Chris J.; Bowers, Dawn; Janelle, Christopher M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the impact of manipulating emotional state on gait initiation in persons with Parkinson’s disease (PD) and healthy older adults. Following the presentation of pictures that are known to elicit specific emotional responses, participants initiated gait and continued to walk for several steps at their normal pace. Reaction time, the displacement and velocity of the center of pressure (COP) trajectory during the preparatory postural adjustments, and length and velocity of the first two steps were measured. Analysis of the gait initiation measures revealed that exposure to (1) threatening pictures, relative to all other pictures, speeded the initiation of gait for PD patients and healthy older adults; (2) approach-oriented emotional pictures (erotic and happy people), relative to withdrawal-oriented pictures, facilitated the anticipatory postural adjustments of gait initiation for PD patients and healthy older adults, as evidenced by greater displacement and velocity of the COP movement; and (3) emotional pictures modulated gait initiation parameters in PD patients to the same degree as in healthy older adults. Collectively, these findings hold significant implications for understanding the circuitry underlying the manner by which emotions modulate movement and for the development of emotion-based interventions designed to maximize improvements in gait initiation for individuals with PD. PMID:22194236

  12. Age and individual sleep characteristics affect cognitive performance in anesthesiology residents after a 24-hour shift.

    PubMed

    Tadinac, Meri; Sekulić, Ante; Hromatko, Ivana; Mazul-Sunko, Branka; Ivancić, Romina

    2014-03-01

    Previous research has shown that both shift work and sleep deprivation have an adverse influence on various aspects of human cognitive performance. The aim of this study was to explore changes in cognitive functioning and subjective sleepiness of anesthesiology residents after a 24-hour shift. Twenty-six anesthesiology residents completed a set of psychological instruments at the beginning and at the end of the shift, as well as a questionnaire regarding information about the shift, Stanford Sleepiness Scale, and Circadian Type Questionnaire. There was a significant decline in cognitive performance measured by the Auditory Verbal Learning Test after the shift. The effect was stronger in older participants and in those with high scores on rigidity of sleep scale and low scores on the ability to overcome sleepiness scale. There were no differences in the digits forward test (a measure of concentration), while digits backward test (a measure of working memory) even showed an improved performance after the shift. Although participants reported being significantly sleepier after the shift, the subjective sleepiness did not correlate with any of the objective measures of cognitive performance. In conclusion, the performance in short tasks involving concentration and working memory was not impaired, while performance in long-term and monotone tasks declined after sleep deprivation, and the magnitude of this decline depended on the specific individual characteristics of sleep and on age Surprisingly, age seemed to have an important impact on cognitive functions after shift work even in the relatively age-homogeneous population of young anesthesiology residents.

  13. Training approach-avoidance of smiling faces affects emotional vulnerability in socially anxious individuals

    PubMed Central

    Rinck, Mike; Telli, Sibel; Kampmann, Isabel L.; Woud, Marcella L.; Kerstholt, Merel; te Velthuis, Sarai; Wittkowski, Matthias; Becker, Eni S.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research revealed an automatic behavioral bias in high socially anxious individuals (HSAs): although their explicit evaluations of smiling faces are positive, they show automatic avoidance of these faces. This is reflected by faster pushing than pulling of smiling faces in an Approach-Avoidance Task (AAT; Heuer et al., 2007). The current study addressed the causal role of this avoidance bias for social anxiety. To this end, we used the AAT to train HSAs, either to approach smiling faces or to avoid them. We examined whether such an AAT training could change HSAs' automatic avoidance tendencies, and if yes, whether AAT effects would generalize to a new approach task with new facial stimuli, and to mood and anxiety in a social threat situation (a video-recorded self-presentation). We found that HSAs trained to approach smiling faces did indeed approach female faces faster after the training than HSAs trained to avoid smiling faces. Moreover, approach-faces training reduced emotional vulnerability: it led to more positive mood and lower anxiety after the self-presentation than avoid-faces training. These results suggest that automatic approach-avoidance tendencies have a causal role in social anxiety, and that they can be modified by a simple computerized training. This may open new avenues in the therapy of social phobia. PMID:23970862

  14. Individual factors affecting preferences for feedback message tactics in the contexts of physical activity.

    PubMed

    Hirvonen, Noora; Enwald, Heidi; Bath, Peter A; Pyky, Riitta; Korpelainen, Raija; Huotari, Maija-Leena

    2015-01-01

    Tailored feedback on personal physical activity behavior has been used to inform individuals and promote physical activity among different populations. This study aimed to increase the understanding of factors associated with young men's preferences for feedback message tactics in the context of physical activity and exercise. How preferences vary was analyzed in terms of the self-reported physical activity, stage of exercise behavior change, exercise self-efficacy, objectively measured physical health status, and sociodemographic characteristics of young Finnish men. Population-based survey data, including physiological measurements (n = 525), were collected at the Finnish Defence Forces' call-ups in the city of Oulu, Finland, in September 2011. The results indicate that the stage of exercise behavior change, exercise self-efficacy, physical health status, and educational level are associated with a preference for normative and ipsative comparison. Multivariate logistic regression models show that an advanced stage of exercise behavior change and education in the academic track of an upper secondary school are independent predictors of preferring ipsative and normative physical activity feedback among young men. The study provides new insights into how the stage of behavior change influences health information behavior and is in line with studies emphasizing social factors--including education--as being important in shaping health-related behavior. These factors could form the basis for tailoring information when designing health promotion.

  15. CYP2C9 Mutation Affecting the Individual Variability of Warfarin Dose Requirement.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Bum; Ko, Moon Ju; Lee, Dae Gu; Do, Jong Gul; Hwang, Ji Hye

    2012-12-01

    Warfarin is a frequently prescribed anticoagulant in rehabilitation patients. Adverse drug reactions of warfarin were reported as bleeding and cutaneous microvascular thrombosis. Major bleeding, such as intracranial hemorrhage and psoas hematoma, in patients receiving anticoagulation therapy is a rare condition, but sometimes very serious complication that can even be fatal. Patient-specific factors (eg, age, body size, race, concurrent diseases, and medications) explain some of the individual variability in warfarin dose, but genetic factors, which influence warfarin response, explain a significantly higher proportion of the variability in the dose. There are two identified genes that are responsible for the main proportion of the genetic effect: CYP2C9, which codes for the enzyme cytochrome P450 2C9 that metabolizes S-warfarin, and VKORC1, which codes for warfarin's target, vitamin K epoxide reductase. We report a case of intolerance to warfarin dosing, due to impaired drug metabolism in a patient with CYP2C9(*)1/(*)3 and VKORC 1173TT. Fortunately, there are no severe complications.

  16. Did the 2009 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act affect dietary intake of low-income individuals?

    PubMed

    Waehrer, Geetha; Deb, Partha; Decker, Sandra L

    2015-12-01

    This paper examines the relationship between increased Supplemental Nutritional Assistance Program (SNAP) benefits following the 2009 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) and the diet quality of individuals from SNAP-eligible compared to ineligible (those with somewhat higher income) households using data from the 2007-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The ARRA increased SNAP monthly benefits by 13.6% of the maximum allotment for a given household size, equivalent to an increase of $24 to $144 for one-to-eight person households respectively. In the full sample, we find that these increases in SNAP benefits are not associated with changes in nutrient intake and diet quality. However, among those with no more than a high school education, higher SNAP benefits are associated with a 46% increase in the mean caloric share from sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and a decrease in overall diet quality especially for those at the lower end of the diet quality distribution, amounting to a 9% decline at the 25th percentile. PMID:26414481

  17. Apparent autosomal recessive inheritance in families with proximal spinal muscular atrophy affecting individuals in two generations

    SciTech Connect

    Rudnik-Schoeneborn, S.; Zerres, K.; Hahnen, E.

    1996-11-01

    With the evidence that deletions in the region responsible for childhood- and juvenile-onset proximal spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) are on chromosome 5 it is now possible to confirm autosomal recessive inheritance in most patients (denoted {open_quotes}SMA 5q{close_quotes}). Homozygous deletions in the telomeric copy of the survival motor neuron (SMN) gene can be detected in 95%-98% of patients with early-onset SMA (types I and II), whereas as many as 10%-20% of patients with the milder, juvenile-onset form (type III SMA) do not show deletions. In families with affected subjects in two generations, it is difficult to decide whether they are autosomal dominantly inherited or caused by three independent recessive mutations (pseudodominant inheritance). Given an incidence of >1/10,000 of SMA 5q, patients with autosomal recessive SMA have an {approximately}1% recurrence risk to their offspring. Although the dominant forms are not linked to chromosome 5q, pseudodominant families can now be identified by the presence of homozygous deletions in the SMN gene. 5 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  18. Tropical forest fragmentation affects floral visitors but not the structure of individual-based palm-pollinator networks.

    PubMed

    Dáttilo, Wesley; Aguirre, Armando; Quesada, Mauricio; Dirzo, Rodolfo

    2015-01-01

    Despite increasing knowledge about the effects of habitat loss on pollinators in natural landscapes, information is very limited regarding the underlying mechanisms of forest fragmentation affecting plant-pollinator interactions in such landscapes. Here, we used a network approach to describe the effects of forest fragmentation on the patterns of interactions involving the understory dominant palm Astrocaryum mexicanum (Arecaceae) and its floral visitors (including both effective and non-effective pollinators) at the individual level in a Mexican tropical rainforest landscape. Specifically, we asked: (i) Does fragment size affect the structure of individual-based plant-pollinator networks? (ii) Does the core of highly interacting visitor species change along the fragmentation size gradient? (iii) Does forest fragment size influence the abundance of effective pollinators of A. mexicanum? We found that fragment size did not affect the topological structure of the individual-based palm-pollinator network. Furthermore, while the composition of peripheral non-effective pollinators changed depending on fragment size, effective core generalist species of pollinators remained stable. We also observed that both abundance and variance of effective pollinators of male and female flowers of A. mexicanum increased with forest fragment size. These findings indicate that the presence of effective pollinators in the core of all forest fragments could keep the network structure stable along the gradient of forest fragmentation. In addition, pollination of A. mexicanum could be more effective in larger fragments, since the greater abundance of pollinators in these fragments may increase the amount of pollen and diversity of pollen donors between flowers of individual plants. Given the prevalence of fragmentation in tropical ecosystems, our results indicate that the current patterns of land use will have consequences on the underlying mechanisms of pollination in remnant forests

  19. Tropical forest fragmentation affects floral visitors but not the structure of individual-based palm-pollinator networks.

    PubMed

    Dáttilo, Wesley; Aguirre, Armando; Quesada, Mauricio; Dirzo, Rodolfo

    2015-01-01

    Despite increasing knowledge about the effects of habitat loss on pollinators in natural landscapes, information is very limited regarding the underlying mechanisms of forest fragmentation affecting plant-pollinator interactions in such landscapes. Here, we used a network approach to describe the effects of forest fragmentation on the patterns of interactions involving the understory dominant palm Astrocaryum mexicanum (Arecaceae) and its floral visitors (including both effective and non-effective pollinators) at the individual level in a Mexican tropical rainforest landscape. Specifically, we asked: (i) Does fragment size affect the structure of individual-based plant-pollinator networks? (ii) Does the core of highly interacting visitor species change along the fragmentation size gradient? (iii) Does forest fragment size influence the abundance of effective pollinators of A. mexicanum? We found that fragment size did not affect the topological structure of the individual-based palm-pollinator network. Furthermore, while the composition of peripheral non-effective pollinators changed depending on fragment size, effective core generalist species of pollinators remained stable. We also observed that both abundance and variance of effective pollinators of male and female flowers of A. mexicanum increased with forest fragment size. These findings indicate that the presence of effective pollinators in the core of all forest fragments could keep the network structure stable along the gradient of forest fragmentation. In addition, pollination of A. mexicanum could be more effective in larger fragments, since the greater abundance of pollinators in these fragments may increase the amount of pollen and diversity of pollen donors between flowers of individual plants. Given the prevalence of fragmentation in tropical ecosystems, our results indicate that the current patterns of land use will have consequences on the underlying mechanisms of pollination in remnant forests.

  20. Tropical Forest Fragmentation Affects Floral Visitors but Not the Structure of Individual-Based Palm-Pollinator Networks

    PubMed Central

    Dáttilo, Wesley; Aguirre, Armando; Quesada, Mauricio; Dirzo, Rodolfo

    2015-01-01

    Despite increasing knowledge about the effects of habitat loss on pollinators in natural landscapes, information is very limited regarding the underlying mechanisms of forest fragmentation affecting plant-pollinator interactions in such landscapes. Here, we used a network approach to describe the effects of forest fragmentation on the patterns of interactions involving the understory dominant palm Astrocaryum mexicanum (Arecaceae) and its floral visitors (including both effective and non-effective pollinators) at the individual level in a Mexican tropical rainforest landscape. Specifically, we asked: (i) Does fragment size affect the structure of individual-based plant-pollinator networks? (ii) Does the core of highly interacting visitor species change along the fragmentation size gradient? (iii) Does forest fragment size influence the abundance of effective pollinators of A. mexicanum? We found that fragment size did not affect the topological structure of the individual-based palm-pollinator network. Furthermore, while the composition of peripheral non-effective pollinators changed depending on fragment size, effective core generalist species of pollinators remained stable. We also observed that both abundance and variance of effective pollinators of male and female flowers of A. mexicanum increased with forest fragment size. These findings indicate that the presence of effective pollinators in the core of all forest fragments could keep the network structure stable along the gradient of forest fragmentation. In addition, pollination of A. mexicanum could be more effective in larger fragments, since the greater abundance of pollinators in these fragments may increase the amount of pollen and diversity of pollen donors between flowers of individual plants. Given the prevalence of fragmentation in tropical ecosystems, our results indicate that the current patterns of land use will have consequences on the underlying mechanisms of pollination in remnant forests

  1. The relation between social behavior and negative affect in psychosis-prone individuals: an experience sampling investigation.

    PubMed

    Husky, Mathilde M; Grondin, Olivier S; Swendsen, Joel D

    2004-02-01

    Daily social behavior and negative affect were examined in a sample of individuals with a wide spectrum of psychosis-proneness scores. Using the experience sampling method, participants were signaled five times per day for a 1-week period to provide naturalistic reports of location, activity, and social behavior. Little evidence was found for a direct association between psychosis-proneness and specific behavioral profiles, but individuals with higher scores of psychosis-proneness reported spending more time doing nothing or waiting. However, the levels of anxious and depressed moods experienced in certain social and environmental contexts were also predicted by psychosis-proneness scores. The present results indicate that psychosis-proneness was associated with an increase in anxiety when individuals were with friends and an increase in depressed mood in daily task situations such as working or studying. By contrast, psychosis-proneness predicted a decrease in depressed and anxious moods in other situations when the individual was not likely to be confronted by social contact with less known individuals, and lower anxious and depressed moods when in secure environments (in one's own home, home of family or friends). The implications of these findings are discussed in terms of understanding the expression of psychosis vulnerability and the potential reinforcement of maladaptive social behavior through operant conditioning mechanisms.

  2. Individual and Center-Level Factors Affecting Mortality Among Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants

    PubMed Central

    Alleman, Brandon W.; Li, Lei; Dagle, John M.; Smith, P. Brian; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam; Laughon, Matthew M.; Stoll, Barbara J.; Goldberg, Ronald N.; Carlo, Waldemar A.; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Cotten, C. Michael; Shankaran, Seetha; Walsh, Michele C.; Laptook, Abbot R.; Ellsbury, Dan L.; Hale, Ellen C.; Newman, Nancy S.; Wallace, Dennis D.; Das, Abhik; Higgins, Rosemary D.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine factors affecting center differences in mortality for extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants. METHODS: We analyzed data for 5418 ELBW infants born at 16 Neonatal Research Network centers during 2006–2009. The primary outcomes of early mortality (≤12 hours after birth) and in-hospital mortality were assessed by using multilevel hierarchical models. Models were developed to investigate associations of center rates of selected interventions with mortality while adjusting for patient-level risk factors. These analyses were performed for all gestational ages (GAs) and separately for GAs <25 weeks and ≥25 weeks. RESULTS: Early and in-hospital mortality rates among centers were 5% to 36% and 11% to 53% for all GAs, 13% to 73% and 28% to 90% for GAs <25 weeks, and 1% to 11% and 7% to 26% for GAs ≥25 weeks, respectively. Center intervention rates significantly predicted both early and in-hospital mortality for infants <25 weeks. For infants ≥25 weeks, intervention rates did not predict mortality. The variance in mortality among centers was significant for all GAs and outcomes. Center use of interventions and patient risk factors explained some but not all of the center variation in mortality rates. CONCLUSIONS: Center intervention rates explain a portion of the center variation in mortality, especially for infants born at <25 weeks’ GA. This finding suggests that deaths may be prevented by standardizing care for very early GA infants. However, differences in patient characteristics and center intervention rates do not account for all of the observed variability in mortality; and for infants with GA ≥25 weeks these differences account for only a small part of the variation in mortality. PMID:23753096

  3. How stock of origin affects performance of individuals across a meta-ecosystem: an example from sockeye salmon.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Jennifer R; Schindler, Daniel E; Seeb, Lisa W

    2013-01-01

    Connectivity among diverse habitats can buffer populations from adverse environmental conditions, influence the functioning of meta-ecosystems, and ultimately affect the reliability of ecosystem services. This stabilizing effect on populations is proposed to derive from complementarity in growth and survival conditions experienced by individuals in the different habitats that comprise meta-ecosystems. Here we use the fine scale differentiation of salmon populations between diverse lake habitats to assess how rearing habitat and stock of origin affect the body condition of juvenile sockeye salmon. We use genetic markers (single nucleotide polymorphisms) to assign individuals of unknown origin to stock group and in turn characterize ecologically relevant attributes across habitats and stocks. Our analyses show that the body condition of juvenile salmon is related to the productivity of alternative habitats across the watershed, irrespective of their stock of origin. Emigrants and residents with genetic origins in the high productivity lake were also differentiated by their body condition, poor and high respectively. These emigrants represented a substantial proportion of juvenile sockeye salmon rearing in the lower productivity lake habitat. Despite emigrants originating from the more productive lake, they did not differ in body condition from the individuals spawned in the lower productivity, recipient habitat. Genetic tools allowed us to assess the performance of different stocks groups across the diverse habitats comprising their meta-ecosystem. The ability to characterize the ecological consequences of meta-ecosystem connectivity can help develop strategies to protect and restore ecosystems and the services they provide to humans. PMID:23505539

  4. How Stock of Origin Affects Performance of Individuals across a Meta-Ecosystem: An Example from Sockeye Salmon

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, Jennifer R.; Schindler, Daniel E.; Seeb, Lisa W.

    2013-01-01

    Connectivity among diverse habitats can buffer populations from adverse environmental conditions, influence the functioning of meta-ecosystems, and ultimately affect the reliability of ecosystem services. This stabilizing effect on populations is proposed to derive from complementarity in growth and survival conditions experienced by individuals in the different habitats that comprise meta-ecosystems. Here we use the fine scale differentiation of salmon populations between diverse lake habitats to assess how rearing habitat and stock of origin affect the body condition of juvenile sockeye salmon. We use genetic markers (single nucleotide polymorphisms) to assign individuals of unknown origin to stock group and in turn characterize ecologically relevant attributes across habitats and stocks. Our analyses show that the body condition of juvenile salmon is related to the productivity of alternative habitats across the watershed, irrespective of their stock of origin. Emigrants and residents with genetic origins in the high productivity lake were also differentiated by their body condition, poor and high respectively. These emigrants represented a substantial proportion of juvenile sockeye salmon rearing in the lower productivity lake habitat. Despite emigrants originating from the more productive lake, they did not differ in body condition from the individuals spawned in the lower productivity, recipient habitat. Genetic tools allowed us to assess the performance of different stocks groups across the diverse habitats comprising their meta-ecosystem. The ability to characterize the ecological consequences of meta-ecosystem connectivity can help develop strategies to protect and restore ecosystems and the services they provide to humans. PMID:23505539

  5. Activity and social factors affect cohesion among individuals in female Japanese macaques: A simultaneous focal-follow study.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, Mari; Suzuki, Mariko; Sprague, David S

    2014-07-01

    Understanding cohesion among individuals within a group is necessary to reveal the social system of group-living primates. Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) are female-philopatric primates that reside in social groups. We investigated whether individual activity and social factors can affect spatio-temporal cohesion in wild female Japanese macaques. We conducted behavioral observation on a group, which contained 38 individuals and ranged over ca. 60 ha during the study period. Two observers carried out simultaneous focal-animal sampling of adult female pairs during full-day follows using global positioning system which enabled us to quantify interindividual distances (IIDs), group members within visual range (i.e., visual unit), and separation duration beyond visual range as indicators of cohesion among individuals. We found considerable variation in spatio-temporal group cohesion. The overall mean IID was 99.9 m (range = 0-618.2 m). The percentage of IIDs within visual range was 23.1%, within auditory range was 59.8%, and beyond auditory range was 17.1%. IIDs varied with activity; they were shorter during grooming and resting, and longer during foraging and traveling. Low-ranking females showed less cohesion than high-ranking ones. Kin females stayed nearly always within audible range. The macaques were weakly cohesive with small mean visual unit size (3.15 counting only adults, 5.99 counting all individuals). Both-sex units were the most frequently observed visual unit type when they were grooming/resting. Conversely, female units were the most frequently observed visual unit type when they were foraging. The overall mean visual separation duration was 25.7 min (range = 3-513 min). Separation duration was associated with dominance rank. These results suggest that Japanese macaques regulate cohesion among individuals depending on their activity and on social relationships; they were separated to adapt food distribution and aggregated to maintain social

  6. Individual and Community Level Risk-Factors for Alcohol Use Disorder among Conflict-Affected Persons in Georgia

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Bayard; Murphy, Adrianna; Chikovani, Ivdity; Makhashvili, Nino; Patel, Vikram; McKee, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Background The evidence on alcohol use disorder among conflict-affected civilian populations remains extremely weak, despite a number of potential risk-factors. The aim of this study is to examine patterns of alcohol use disorder among conflict-affected persons in the Republic of Georgia. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 3600 randomly selected internally displaced persons (IDPs) and former IDPs. Two alcohol use disorder outcomes were measured: (i) having at least hazardous alcohol use (AUDIT score ≥8); (ii) episodic heavy drinking (consuming >60 grams of pure alcohol per drinking session at least once a week). Individual level demographic and socio-economic characteristics were also recorded, including mental disorders. Community level alcohol environment characteristics relating to alcohol availability, marketing and pricing were recorded in the respondents' communities and a factor analysis conducted to produce a summary alcohol environment factor score. Logistic regression analyses examined associations between individual and community level factors with the alcohol use disorder outcomes (among men only). Results Of the total sample, 71% of men and 16% of women were current drinkers. Of the current drinkers (N = 1386), 28% of men and 1% of women were classified as having at least hazardous alcohol use; and 12% of men and 2% of women as episodic heavy drinkers. Individual characteristics significantly associated with both outcomes were age and experiencing a serious injury, while cumulative trauma events and depression were also associated with having at least hazardous alcohol use. For the community level analysis, a one unit increase in the alcohol environment factor was associated with a 1.27 fold increase in episodic heavy drinking among men (no significant association with hazardous alcohol use). Conclusion The findings suggest potential synergies for treatment responses for alcohol use disorder and depression among conflict-affected populations in

  7. Differential impact of a complex environment on positive affect in an animal model of individual differences in emotionality.

    PubMed

    Perez-Sepulveda, J A; Flagel, S B; Garcia-Fuster, M J; Slusky, R J; Aldridge, J W; Watson, S; Akil, H

    2013-09-17

    Anhedonia, or the inability to experience positive feelings is a hallmark of depression. However, few animal models have relied on decreased positive affect as an index of susceptibility to depression. Rats emit frequency-modulated ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs), designated as "positive" calls in the 50-kHz range. USVs have been associated with pharmacological activation of motivational reward circuits. Here we utilized selectively-bred rats differing in "emotionality" to ask whether there are associated differences in USVs. Rats bred based on locomotor response to novelty and classified as bred High Responders (bHRs) or bred Low Responders (bLRs) exhibit inborn differences in response to environmental cues, stress responsiveness, and depression-like behavior. These animals also exhibit differences in anxiety-like behavior, which are reversed by exposure to environmental complexity (EC). Finally, these animals exhibit unique profiles of responsiveness to rewarding stimuli accompanied with distinct patterns of dopamine regulation. We investigated whether acute and chronic environmental manipulations impacted USVs in bHRs and bLRs. We found that, relative to bLRs, bHRs emitted significantly more 50-kHz USVs. However, if a bLR is accompanied by another bLR, there is a significant increase in 50-kHZ USVs emitted by this phenotype. bHRs emitted increases in 50-kHZ UVSs upon first exposure to EC, whereas bLRs showed a similar increase only after repeated exposure. bLRs' increase in positive affect after chronic EC was coupled with significant positive correlations between corticosterone levels and c-fos mRNA in the accumbens. Conversely, a decline in the rate of positive calls in bHRs after chronic EC was associated with a negative correlation between corticosterone and accumbens c-fos mRNA. These studies demonstrate that inborn differences in emotionality interact with the environment to influence positive affect and underscore the potential interaction between

  8. Mother-infant dyadic reparation and individual differences in vagal tone affect 4-month-old infants' social stress regulation.

    PubMed

    Provenzi, Livio; Casini, Erica; de Simone, Paola; Reni, Gianluigi; Borgatti, Renato; Montirosso, Rosario

    2015-12-01

    Infants' social stress regulation (i.e., reactivity and recovery) might be affected by mother-infant dyadic functioning and infants' vagal tone (i.e., respiratory sinus arrhythmia, RSA). This study investigated the role of a specific dyadic functioning feature (i.e., dyadic reparation) and individual differences in vagal tone regulation (i.e., RSA suppression vs. non-suppression) in relation to social stress regulation in 4-month-old infants. A total of 65 mother-infant dyads participated in the face-to-face still-face paradigm. Social stress reactivity and recovery were measured as negative emotionality during Still-Face and Reunion episodes, respectively. RSA was measured during Play, Still-Face, and Reunion episodes. Suppressors had higher dyadic reparation during Play and higher recovery from social stress compared with non-suppressors. Higher reparation during Play was associated with lower reactivity and higher recovery only for suppressors. Findings suggest a joint role of infants' RSA individual differences and dyadic reparation in affecting infants' social stress regulation at 4 months of age. PMID:26247809

  9. How will predicted land-use change affect waterfowl spring stopover ecology? Inferences from an individual-based model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beatty, William; Kesler, Dylan C.; Webb, Elisabeth B.; Naylor, Luke W.; Raedeke, Andrew H.; Humburg, Dale D.; Coluccy, John M.; Soulliere, Gregory J.

    2016-01-01

    Habitat loss, habitat fragmentation, overexploitation and climate change pose familiar and new challenges to conserving natural populations throughout the world. One approach conservation planners may use to evaluate the effects of these challenges on wildlife populations is scenario planning.We developed an individual-based model to evaluate the effects of future land use and land cover changes on spring-migrating dabbling ducks in North America. We assessed the effects of three Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change emission scenarios (A1B, A2 and B1) on dabbling duck stopover duration, movement distances and mortality. We specifically focused on migration stopover duration because previous research has demonstrated that individuals arriving earlier on the nesting grounds exhibit increased reproductive fitness.Compared to present conditions, all three scenarios increased stopover duration and movement distances of agent ducks.Although all three scenarios presented migrating ducks with increased amounts of wetland habitat, scenarios also contained substantially less cropland, which decreased overall carrying capacity of the study area.Synthesis and applications. Land-use change may increase waterfowl spring migration stopover duration in the midcontinent region of North America due to reduced landscape energetic carrying capacity. Climate change will alter spatial patterns of crop distributions with corn and rice production areas shifting to different regions. Thus, conservation planners will have to address population-level energetic implications of shifting agricultural food resources and increased uncertainty in yearly precipitation patterns within the next 50 years.

  10. Taking the long view: Implications of individual differences in temporal distancing for affect, stress reactivity, and well-being.

    PubMed

    Bruehlman-Senecal, Emma; Ayduk, Özlem; John, Oliver P

    2016-10-01

    Recent experimental work demonstrates that temporal distancing from negative experiences reduces distress. Yet two central questions remain: (a) do people differ in the habitual tendency to temporally distance from negative experiences, and if so (b) what implications does this tendency have for well-being? Seven studies explored these questions. Study 1 describes the construction and reliability of the Temporal Distancing Questionnaire, a new measure of individual differences in the tendency to place negative experiences into a broader future time perspective. Study 2 establishes a nomological network around this construct, examining the relationship of temporal distancing to other theoretically related constructs. Study 3 tests whether people high in temporal distancing (i.e., "high temporal distancers") experience greater concurrent well-being, including greater positive affect and life satisfaction and lesser negative affect, worry, and depressive symptoms. Study 4 examines whether temporal distancing predicts well-being measured at the daily level, and across time. Finally, Studies 5a-5c explore a key way in which temporal distancing may support psychological well-being-by facilitating more adaptive responses to negative experiences. Our results demonstrate that the tendency to temporally distance from negative experiences predicts a more positive profile of affective experiences and stress-reactivity that may support immediate and longer-term well-being. Moreover, many of these findings remained significant when controlling for general reappraisal tendencies. (PsycINFO Database Record

  11. Assessment of first and second degree relatives of individuals with bipolar disorder shows increased genetic risk scores in both affected relatives and young At‐Risk Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Koller, Daniel L.; Edenberg, Howard J.; Foroud, Tatiana; Liu, Hai; Glowinski, Anne L.; McInnis, Melvin G.; Wilcox, Holly C.; Frankland, Andrew; Roberts, Gloria; Schofield, Peter R.; Mitchell, Philip B.; Nurnberger, John I.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed the polygenic nature of bipolar disorder (BP), and identified common risk variants associated with illness. However, the role of common polygenic risk in multiplex families has not previously been examined. The present study examined 249 European‐ancestry families from the NIMH Genetics Initiative sample, comparing subjects with narrowly defined BP (excluding bipolar II and recurrent unipolar depression; n = 601) and their adult relatives without BP (n = 695). Unrelated adult controls (n = 266) were from the NIMH TGEN control dataset. We also examined a prospective cohort of young (12–30 years) offspring and siblings of individuals with BPI and BPII disorder (at risk; n = 367) and psychiatrically screened controls (n = 229), ascertained from five sites in the US and Australia and assessed with standardized clinical protocols. Thirty‐two disease‐associated SNPs from the PGC‐BP Working Group report (2011) were genotyped and additive polygenic risk scores (PRS) derived. We show increased PRS in adult cases compared to unrelated controls (P = 3.4 × 10−5, AUC = 0.60). In families with a high‐polygenic load (PRS score ≥32 in two or more subjects), PRS distinguished cases with BPI/SAB from other relatives (P = 0.014, RR = 1.32). Secondly, a higher PRS was observed in at‐risk youth, regardless of affected status, compared to unrelated controls (GEE‐χ2 = 5.15, P = 0.012). This report is the first to explore common polygenic risk in multiplex families, albeit using only a small number of robustly associated risk variants. We show that individuals with BP have a higher load of common disease‐associated variants than unrelated controls and first‐degree relatives, and illustrate the potential utility of PRS assessment in a family context. © 2015 The Authors. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID

  12. Second generation peanut genotypes resistant to thrips-transmitted tomato spotted wilt virus exhibit tolerance rather than true resistance and differentially affect thrips fitness.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Anita; Srinivasan, Rajagopalbabu; Sundaraj, Sivamani; Culbreath, Albert K; Riley, David G

    2013-04-01

    Spotted wilt disease caused by Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) (family Bunyaviridae; genus Tospovirus) is a major constraint to peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) production in the southeastern United States. Reducing yield losses to TSWV has heavily relied on planting genotypes that reduce the incidence of spotted wilt disease. However, mechanisms conferring resistance to TSWV have not been identified in these genotypes. Furthermore, no information is available on how these genotypes influence thrips fitness. In this study, we investigated the effects of newly released peanut genotypes (Georganic, GA-06G, Tifguard, and NC94022) with field resistance to TSWV and a susceptible genotype (Georgia Green) on tobacco thrips, Frankliniella fusca (Hinds), fitness, and TSWV incidence. Thrips-mediated transmission resulted in TSWV infection in both TSWV-resistant and susceptible genotypes and they exhibited typical TSWV symptoms. However, some resistant genotypes had reduced viral loads (fewer TSWV N-gene copies) than the susceptible genotype. F. fusca larvae acquired TSWV from resistant and susceptible genotypes indicating that resistant genotypes also can serve as inoculum sources. Unlike resistant genotypes in other crops that produce local lesions (hypersensitive reaction) upon TSWV infection, widespread symptom development was noticed in peanut genotypes. Results indicated that the observed field resistance in peanut genotypes could be because of tolerance. Further, fitness studies revealed some, but not substantial, differences in thrips adult emergence rates and developmental time between resistant and susceptible genotypes. Thrips head capsule length and width were not different when reared on different genotypes.

  13. Does Insight Affect the Efficacy of Antipsychotics in Acute Mania?: An Individual Patient Data Regression Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Welten, Carlijn C M; Koeter, Maarten W J; Wohlfarth, Tamar D; Storosum, Jitschak G; van den Brink, Wim; Gispen-de Wied, Christine C; Leufkens, Hubert G M; Denys, Damiaan A J P

    2016-02-01

    Patients having an acute manic episode of bipolar disorder often lack insight into their condition. Because little is known about the possible effect of insight on treatment efficacy, we examined whether insight at the start of treatment affects the efficacy of antipsychotic treatment in patients with acute mania. We used individual patient data from 7 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled registration studies of 4 antipsychotics in patients with acute mania (N = 1904). Insight was measured with item 11 of the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) at baseline and study endpoint 3 weeks later. Treatment outcome was defined by (a) mean change score, (b) response defined as 50% or more improvement on YMRS, and (c) remission defined as YMRS score less than 8 at study endpoint. We used multilevel mixed effect linear (or logistic) regression analyses of individual patient data to assess the interaction between baseline insight and treatment outcomes. At treatment initiation, 1207 (63.5%) patients had impaired or no insight into their condition. Level of insight significantly modified the efficacy of treatment by mean change score (P = 0.039), response rate (P = 0.033), and remission rate (P = 0.043), with greater improvement in patients with more impaired insight. We therefore recommend that patients experiencing acute mania should be treated immediately and not be delayed until patients regain insight.

  14. Inter-individual differences in trait negative affect moderate cortisol's effects on memory formation: preliminary findings from two studies.

    PubMed

    Abercrombie, Heather C; Wirth, Michelle M; Hoks, Roxanne M

    2012-05-01

    Acute emotional arousal moderates the effects of cortisol on memory. However, it is currently unknown how stable inter-individual differences (i.e., traits) moderate cortisol's effects on memory. In two studies using within-subjects designs - 31 healthy males in Study 1 and 42 healthy subjects (22 female) in Study 2 - we measured trait negative affect (NA) and presented emotional and neutral pictures. In Study 1, we manipulated endogenous cortisol levels using a speech stressor following encoding. In Study 2, using a randomized placebo-controlled design, we pharmacologically manipulated cortisol levels prior to encoding (0.1mg/kg hydrocortisone vs. saline infused over 30min). Free recall for pictures was subsequently assessed. Trait NA repeatedly moderated the relationship between cortisol and memory formation. Findings suggested the speculative conclusion that the direction of effects may vary by sex. In males, cortisol was related to memory facilitation in subjects with lower Trait NA. Conversely, females with higher Trait NA showed greater cortisol-related increases in memory. Trait NA may be a stable inter-individual difference predicting neurocognitive effects of cortisol during stressors.

  15. Association between obstructive sleep apnea and health-related quality of life in individuals affected with Treacher Collins syndrome.

    PubMed

    Østertun Geirdal, Amy; Øverland, Britt; Heimdal, Ketil; Storhaug, Kari; Asten, Pamela; Akre, Harriet

    2013-11-01

    Although the relationship between Quality of Life (QoL) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been reported in several studies, little is known about this relationship among individuals affected with Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS). The aim of this study was to examine the associations between obstructive sleep and QoL in TCS patients. Thirty-six individuals with TCS (8-75 years) were invited to participate in expanded medical examinations, including a sleep study, polysomnography, as well as to respond to questionnaires about health related Health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Twenty-three (64 %) responded to the invitation, but four were later excluded due to additional diagnoses or unconfirmed TCS, and four were below 12 years and excluded due to different scoring rules for sleep and respiratory disturbances in young children and adults. The remaining group comprised 15 adults and adolescents with TCS, 5 male (33 %) and 10 female (66 %). The participants were between 12 and 75 years of age (mean 38.6, SD 18.5). Obstructive sleep was found in 87 % of the patients and several sleep apnea parameters, among these wake time after sleep, subjective snoring and mean saturation, were associated with poorer HRQoL. OSA appears to account for reduced HRQoL in adolescents and adults with TCS.

  16. Factors Affecting Parent’s Perception on Air Quality—From the Individual to the Community Level

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yulin; Liu, Fengfeng; Lu, Yuanan; Mao, Zongfu; Lu, Hanson; Wu, Yanyan; Chu, Yuanyuan; Yu, Lichen; Liu, Yisi; Ren, Meng; Li, Na; Chen, Xi; Xiang, Hao

    2016-01-01

    The perception of air quality significantly affects the acceptance of the public of the government’s environmental policies. The aim of this research is to explore the relationship between the perception of the air quality of parents and scientific monitoring data and to analyze the factors that affect parents’ perceptions. Scientific data of air quality were obtained from Wuhan’s environmental condition reports. One thousand parents were investigated for their knowledge and perception of air quality. Scientific data show that the air quality of Wuhan follows an improving trend in general, while most participants believed that the air quality of Wuhan has deteriorated, which indicates a significant difference between public perception and reality. On the individual level, respondents with an age of 40 or above (40 or above: OR = 3.252; 95% CI: 1.170–9.040), a higher educational level (college and above: OR = 7.598; 95% CI: 2.244–25.732) or children with poor healthy conditions (poor: OR = 6.864; 95% CI: 2.212–21.302) have much more negative perception of air quality. On the community level, industrial facilities, vehicles and city construction have major effects on parents’ perception of air quality. Our investigation provides baseline information for environmental policy researchers and makers regarding the public’s perception and expectation of air quality and the benefits to the environmental policy completing and enforcing. PMID:27187432

  17. Stress management training as a prevention program for heavy social drinkers: cognitions, affect, drinking, and individual differences.

    PubMed

    Rohsenow, D J; Smith, R E; Johnson, S

    1985-01-01

    The effectiveness of cognitive-affective stress management training (SMT) as a drinking reduction program for heavy social drinking college students was investigated. The SMT package included muscle relaxation and meditation training, cognitive restructuring, and coping skill rehearsal during induced affect. Treated and control subjects rated the frequency and intensity of their anxiety, anger and depression and recorded their alcohol consumption on a daily basis over a 6-month period. SMT significantly reduced posttreatment daily anxiety ratings and was associated with changes in four of ten irrational beliefs and a shift toward more internal locus of control in treated subjects. Reduction in anxiety was no longer evident at the 2 1/2- and 5 1/2-month follow-ups. The men in the SMT group showed a significant decrease in daily drinking rates at posttreatment and at the 2 1/2-month follow-up, but drinking returned to baseline levels by 5 1/2 months for the group as a whole. However, significant improvement variance in daily moods and in drinking rates over all posttreatment periods was accounted for by individual difference variables in the trained subjects but not in the control group, suggesting that these cognitive, personality, and social support variables are associated with response to stress management training. Implications of these results for future prevention research are discussed.

  18. Chromothripsis in healthy individuals affects multiple protein-coding genes and can result in severe congenital abnormalities in offspring.

    PubMed

    de Pagter, Mirjam S; van Roosmalen, Markus J; Baas, Annette F; Renkens, Ivo; Duran, Karen J; van Binsbergen, Ellen; Tavakoli-Yaraki, Masoumeh; Hochstenbach, Ron; van der Veken, Lars T; Cuppen, Edwin; Kloosterman, Wigard P

    2015-04-01

    Chromothripsis represents an extreme class of complex chromosome rearrangements (CCRs) with major effects on chromosomal architecture. Although recent studies have associated chromothripsis with congenital abnormalities, the incidence and pathogenic effects of this phenomenon require further investigation. Here, we analyzed the genomes of three families in which chromothripsis rearrangements were transmitted from a mother to her child. The chromothripsis in the mothers resulted in completely balanced rearrangements involving 8-23 breakpoint junctions across three to five chromosomes. Two mothers did not show any phenotypic abnormalities, although 3-13 protein-coding genes were affected by breakpoints. Unbalanced but stable transmission of a subset of the derivative chromosomes caused apparently de novo complex copy-number changes in two children. This resulted in gene-dosage changes, which are probably responsible for the severe congenital phenotypes of these two children. In contrast, the third child, who has a severe congenital disease, harbored all three chromothripsis chromosomes from his healthy mother, but one of the chromosomes acquired de novo rearrangements leading to copy-number changes. These results show that the human genome can tolerate extreme reshuffling of chromosomal architecture, including breakage of multiple protein-coding genes, without noticeable phenotypic effects. The presence of chromothripsis in healthy individuals affects reproduction and is expected to substantially increase the risk of miscarriages, abortions, and severe congenital disease.

  19. Primate cerebellar granule cells exhibit a tonic GABAAR conductance that is not affected by alcohol: a possible cellular substrate of the low level of response phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Mohr, Claudia; Kolotushkina, Olena; Kaplan, Joshua S.; Welsh, John; Daunais, James B.; Grant, Kathleen A.; Rossi, David J.

    2013-01-01

    In many rodent brain regions, alcohol increases vesicular release of GABA, resulting in an increase in the frequency of spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs) and the magnitude of tonic GABAA receptor (GABAAR) currents. A neglected issue in translating the rodent literature to humans is the possibility that phylogenetic differences alter the actions of alcohol. To address this issue we made voltage-clamp recordings from granule cells (GCs) in cerebellar slices from the non-human primate (NHP), Macaca fascicularis. We found that similar to Sprague Dawley rats (SDRs), NHP GCs exhibit a tonic conductance generated by α6δ subunit containing GABAARs, as evidenced by its blockade by the broad spectrum GABAAR antagonist, GABAzine (10 μM), inhibition by α6 selective antagonist, furosemide (100 μM), and enhancement by THDOC (10–20 nM) and THIP (500 nM). In contrast to SDR GCs, in most NHP GCs (~60%), application of EtOH (25–105 mM) did not increase sIPSC frequency or the tonic GABAAR current. In a minority of cells (~40%), EtOH did increase sIPSC frequency and the tonic current. The relative lack of response to EtOH was associated with reduced expression of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), which we recently reported mediates EtOH-induced enhancement of vesicular GABA release in rats. The EtOH-induced increase in tonic GABAAR current was significantly smaller in NHPs than in SDRs, presumably due to less GABA release, because there were no obvious differences in the density of GABAARs or GABA transporters between SDR and NHP GCs. Thus, EtOH does not directly modulate α6δ subunit GABAARs in NHPs. Instead, EtOH enhanced GABAergic transmission is mediated by enhanced GABA release. Further, SDR GC responses to alcohol are only representative of a subpopulation of NHP GCs. This suggests that the impact of EtOH on NHP cerebellar physiology will be reduced compared to SDRs, and will likely have different computational and behavioral consequences. PMID

  20. Smithsonian climate change exhibits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Mohi

    2006-05-01

    Two new museum exhibits, ``Arctic: A Friend Acting Strangely'' and ``Atmosphere: Change is in the Air'' opened 15 April at the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of Natural History in Washington, D.C., in partnership with the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, NASA, and the U.S. National Science Foundation. In ``Arctic: A Friend Acting Strangely,'' anecdotes from indigenous polar people reveal how climate changes have affected life within the last 50 years. For example, as permafrost melts and sea ice shrinks, plant distributions and animal migration patterns are changing, severely affecting culture.

  1. Crop size, plant aggregation, and microhabitat type affect fruit removal by birds from individual melastome plants in the Upper Amazon.

    PubMed

    Blendinger, Pedro G; Loiselle, Bette A; Blake, John G

    2008-11-01

    We studied the efficiency (proportion of the crop removed) and quantitative effectiveness (number of fruits removed) of dispersal of Miconia fosteri and M. serrulata (Melastomataceae) seeds by birds in lowland tropical wet forest of Ecuador. Specifically, we examined variation in fruit removal in order to reveal the spatial scale at which crop size influences seed dispersal outcome of individual plants, and to evaluate how the effect of crop size on plant dispersal success may be affected by conspecific fruit abundance and by the spatial distribution of frugivore abundance. We established two 9-ha plots in undisturbed terra-firme understory, where six manakin species (Pipridae) disperse most seeds of these two plant species. Mean levels of fruit removal were low for both species, with high variability among plants. In general, plants with larger crop sizes experienced greater efficiency and effectiveness of fruit removal than plants with smaller crops. Fruit removal, however, was also influenced by microhabitat, such as local topography and local neighborhood. Fruit-rich and disperser-rich patches overlapped spatially for M. fosteri but not M. serrulata, nonetheless fruit removal of M. serrulata was still much greater in fruit-rich patches. Fruit removal from individual plants did not decrease in patches with many fruiting conspecifics and, in fact, removal effectiveness was enhanced for M. fosteri with small crop sizes when such plants were in patches with more conspecifics. These results suggest that benefits of attracting dispersers to a patch balanced or outweighed the costs of competition for dispersers. Spatial pattern of fruit removal, a measure of plant fitness, depended on a complex interaction among plant traits, spatial patterns of plant distribution, and disperser behavior. PMID:18810498

  2. Highly Significant Linkage to the SLI1 Locus in an Expanded Sample of Individuals Affected by Specific Language Impairment

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Specific language impairment (SLI) is defined as an unexplained failure to acquire normal language skills despite adequate intelligence and opportunity. We have reported elsewhere a full-genome scan in 98 nuclear families affected by this disorder, with the use of three quantitative traits of language ability (the expressive and receptive tests of the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals and a test of nonsense word repetition). This screen implicated two quantitative trait loci, one on chromosome 16q (SLI1) and a second on chromosome 19q (SLI2). However, a second independent genome screen performed by another group, with the use of parametric linkage analyses in extended pedigrees, found little evidence for the involvement of either of these regions in SLI. To investigate these loci further, we have collected a second sample, consisting of 86 families (367 individuals, 174 independent sib pairs), all with probands whose language skills are ⩾1.5 SD below the mean for their age. Haseman-Elston linkage analysis resulted in a maximum LOD score (MLS) of 2.84 on chromosome 16 and an MLS of 2.31 on chromosome 19, both of which represent significant linkage at the 2% level. Amalgamation of the wave 2 sample with the cohort used for the genome screen generated a total of 184 families (840 individuals, 393 independent sib pairs). Analysis of linkage within this pooled group strengthened the evidence for linkage at SLI1 and yielded a highly significant LOD score (MLS = 7.46, interval empirical P<.0004). Furthermore, linkage at the same locus was also demonstrated to three reading-related measures (basic reading [MLS = 1.49], spelling [MLS = 2.67], and reading comprehension [MLS = 1.99] subtests of the Wechsler Objectives Reading Dimensions). PMID:15133743

  3. Does transcranial direct current stimulation to prefrontal cortex affect mood and emotional memory retrieval in healthy individuals?

    PubMed

    Morgan, Helen M; Davis, Nick J; Bracewell, R Martyn

    2014-01-01

    Studies using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of prefrontal cortex to improve symptoms of depression have had mixed results. We examined whether using tDCS to change the balance of activity between left and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) can alter mood and memory retrieval of emotional material in healthy volunteers. Participants memorised emotional images, then tDCS was applied bilaterally to DLPFC while they performed a stimulus-response compatibility task. Participants were then presented with a set of images for memory retrieval. Questionnaires to examine mood and motivational state were administered at the beginning and end of each session. Exploratory data analyses showed that the polarity of tDCS to DLPFC influenced performance on a stimulus-response compatibility task and this effect was dependent on participants' prior motivational state. However, tDCS polarity had no effect on the speed or accuracy of memory retrieval of emotional images and did not influence positive or negative affect. These findings suggest that the balance of activity between left and right DLPFC does not play a critical role in the mood state of healthy individuals. We suggest that the efficacy of prefrontal tDCS depends on the initial activation state of neurons and future work should take this into account.

  4. Random search for shared chromosomal regions in four affected individuals: the assignment of a new hereditary ataxia locus

    SciTech Connect

    Nikali, K.; Suomalainen, A.; Koskinen, T.; Peltonen, L.; Terwilliger, J.; Weissenbach, J.

    1995-05-01

    Infantile-onset spinocerebellar ataxia (IOSCA) is an autosomal recessively inherited progressive neurological disorder of unknown etiology. This ataxia, identified so far only in the genetically isolated Finnish population, does not share gene locus with any of the previously identified hereditary ataxias, and a random mapping approach was adopted to assign the IOSCA locus. Based on the assumption of one founder mutation, a primary screening of the genome was performed using samples from just four affected individuals in two consanguineous pedigrees. The identification of a shared chromosomal region in these four patients provided the first evidence that the IOSCA gene locus is on chromosome 10q23.3-q24.1, which was confirmed by conventional linkage analysis in the complete family material. Strong linkage disequilibrium observed between IOSCA and the linked markers was utilized to define accurately the critical chromosomal region. The results showed the power of linkage disequilibrium in the locus assignment of diseases with very limited family materials. 30 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Density-dependent processes in leaf beetles feeding on purple loosestrife: aggregative behaviour affecting individual growth rates.

    PubMed

    Hambäck, P A

    2010-10-01

    Aggregative responses are commonly observed in insects, including chrysomelids, affecting both individual and population growth rates. In two closely related chrysomelid beetles (Galerucella calmariensis and G. pusilla) feeding on purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria), recent studies suggest that male-produced pheromones may cause both inter- and intraspecific attraction. This paper further examines the causes and consequences of feeding aggregations in these species. Olfactometer studies confirm previous findings, showing cross-species attraction to damaged plants, but suggest that also damaged induced plant volatiles may be involved. In addition, the studies suggest that the cross-species attraction observed in previous studies have asymmetric effects on the two beetles. Galerucella pusilla was more attracted to damage by G. calmariensis than to damage by conspecifics. Laboratory and field data suggest that feeding aggregations in these species increase pupal mass, at least at low to intermediate larval densities. This positive feedback may have important consequences for the spatiotemporal dynamics and as a consequence on the role of the two chrysomelid beetles on biological control of purple loosestrife.

  6. Using Multigroup-Multiphase Latent State-Trait Models to Study Treatment-Induced Changes in Intra-Individual State Variability: An Application to Smokers' Affect

    PubMed Central

    Geiser, Christian; Griffin, Daniel; Shiffman, Saul

    2016-01-01

    Sometimes, researchers are interested in whether an intervention, experimental manipulation, or other treatment causes changes in intra-individual state variability. The authors show how multigroup-multiphase latent state-trait (MG-MP-LST) models can be used to examine treatment effects with regard to both mean differences and differences in state variability. The approach is illustrated based on a randomized controlled trial in which N = 338 smokers were randomly assigned to nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) vs. placebo prior to quitting smoking. We found that post quitting, smokers in both the NRT and placebo group had significantly reduced intra-individual affect state variability with respect to the affect items calm and content relative to the pre-quitting phase. This reduction in state variability did not differ between the NRT and placebo groups, indicating that quitting smoking may lead to a stabilization of individuals' affect states regardless of whether or not individuals receive NRT. PMID:27499744

  7. MicroRNA expression profiling in the prefrontal cortex of individuals affected with schizophrenia and bipolar disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Albert H.; Reimers, Mark; Maher, Brion; Williamson, Vernell; McMichael, Omari; McClay, Joseph L.; van den Oord, Edwin J.C.G.; Riley, Brien P.; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Vladimirov, Vladimir I.

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a large family of small non-coding RNAs which negatively control gene expression at both the mRNA and protein levels. The number of miRNAs identified is growing rapidly and approximately one-third is expressed in the brain where they have been shown to affect neuronal differentiation, synaptosomal complex localization and synapse plasticity, all functions thought to be disrupted in schizophrenia. Here we investigated the expression of 667 miRNAs (miRBase v.13) in the prefrontal cortex of individuals with schizophrenia (SZ, N=35) and bipolar disorder (BP, N=35) using a real-time PCR-based Taqman Low Density Array (TLDA). After extensive QC steps, 441 miRNAs were included in the final analyses. At a FDR of 10%, 22 miRNAs were identified as being differentially expressed between cases and controls, 7 dysregulated in SZ and 15 in BP. Using in silico target gene prediction programs, the 22miRNAs were found to target brain specific genes contained within networks overrepresented for neurodevelopment, behavior, and SZ and BP disease development. In an initial attempt to corroborate some of these predictions, we investigated the extent of correlation between the expressions of hsa-mir-34a, -132 and -212 and their predicted gene targets. mRNA expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (PGD) and metabotropic glutamate receptor 3 (GRM3) was measured in the SMRI sample. Hsa-miR-132 and -212 were negatively correlated with TH (p=0.0001 and 0.0017) and with PGD (p=0.0054 and 0.017, respectively). PMID:20675101

  8. Yolk testosterone affects growth and promotes individual-level consistency in behavioral lateralization of yellow-legged gull chicks.

    PubMed

    Possenti, Cristina Daniela; Romano, Andrea; Caprioli, Manuela; Rubolini, Diego; Spiezio, Caterina; Saino, Nicola; Parolini, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Behavioral lateralization is common in animals and may be expressed at the individual- and at the population-level. The ontogenetic processes that control lateralization, however, are largely unknown. Well-established sex-dependence in androgen physiology and sex-dependent variation in lateralization have led to the hypothesis that testosterone (T) has organizational effects on lateralization. The effects of T exposure in early life on lateralization can be efficiently investigated by manipulating T levels in the cleidoic eggs of birds, because the embryo is isolated from maternal and sibling physiological interference, but this approach has been adopted very rarely. In the yellow-legged gull (Larus michahellis) we increased yolk T concentration within the physiological limits and tested the effects on the direction of lateralization in two functionally fundamental behaviors (begging for parental care and escape to cover) of molecularly sexed hatchlings. We also speculated that T may intervene in regulating consistency, rather than direction of lateralization, and therefore tested if T affected the 'repeatability' of lateral preference in consecutive behavioral trials. T treatment had no effect on the direction of lateralization, but enhanced the consistency of lateral preference in escape responses. Sex did not predict lateralization. Neither behavior was lateralized at the population-level. We therefore showed for the first time in any species an effect of egg T on consistency in lateralization. The implications of the effect of T for the evolution of trade-offs in maternal allocation of egg hormones, and the evolutionary interpretations of findings from our studies on lateralization among unmanipulated birds are discussed. PMID:26836770

  9. The Importance of Vocal Affect to Bimodal Processing of Emotion: Implications for Individuals with Traumatic Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zupan, Barbra; Neumann, Dawn; Babbage, Duncan R.; Willer, Barry

    2009-01-01

    Persons with traumatic brain injury (TBI) often have difficulty recognizing emotion in others. This is likely due to difficulties in interpreting non-verbal cues of affect. Although deficits in interpreting facial cues of affect are being widely explored, interpretation of vocal cues of affect has received much less attention. Accurate…

  10. Social, contextual, and individual factors affecting the occurrence and acoustic structure of drumming bouts in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Babiszewska, Magdalena; Schel, Anne Marijke; Wilke, Claudia; Slocombe, Katie E

    2015-01-01

    The production of structured and repetitive sounds by striking objects is a behavior found not only in humans, but also in a variety of animal species, including chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). In this study we examined individual and social factors that may influence the frequency with which individuals engage in drumming behavior when producing long distance pant hoot vocalizations, and analyzed the temporal structure of those drumming bouts. Male chimpanzees from Budongo Forest, Uganda, drummed significantly more frequently during travel than feeding or resting and older individuals were significantly more likely to produce drumming bouts than younger ones. In contrast, we found no evidence that the presence of estrus females, high ranking males and preferred social partners in the caller's vicinty had an effect on the frequency with which an individual accompanied their pant hoot vocalization with drumming. Through acoustic analyses, we demonstrated that drumming sequences produced with pant hoots may have contained information on individual identity and that qualitatively, there was individual variation in the complexity of the temporal patterns produced. We conclude that drumming patterns may act as individually distinctive long-distance signals that, together with pant hoot vocalizations, function to coordinate the movement and spacing of dispersed individuals within a community, rather than as signals to group members in the immediate audience.

  11. Predicting Short-Term Positive Affect in Individuals with Social Anxiety Disorder: The Role of Selected Personality Traits and Emotion Regulation Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Weisman, Jaclyn S.; Rodebaugh, Thomas L.; Lim, Michelle H.; Fernandez, Katya C.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, research has provided support for a moderate, inverse relationship between social anxiety and dispositional positive affect. However, the dynamics of this relationship remain poorly understood. The present study evaluates whether certain personality traits and emotion regulation variables predict short-term positive affect for individuals with social anxiety disorder and healthy controls. Positive affect as measured by two self-report instruments was assessed before and after two tasks in which the participant conversed with either a friend or a romantic partner. Tests of models examining the hypothesized prospective predictors revealed that the paths did not differ significantly across diagnostic group and both groups showed the hypothesized patterns of endorsement for the emotion regulation variables. Further, a variable reflecting difficulty redirecting oneself when distressed prospectively predicted one measure of positive affect. Additional research is needed to explore further the role of emotion regulation strategies on positive emotions for individuals higher in social anxiety. PMID:26119140

  12. How do Individuals with Complete Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome, Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser Syndrome or Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Experience Contact to Other Affected Persons?

    PubMed Central

    Krupp, K.; Fliegner, M.; Brunner, F.; Brucker, S.; Rall, K.; Richter-Appelt, H.

    2012-01-01

    Persons with different sex characteristics may suffer from a feeling of being “different” or “not normal”. In this study, persons with one of 3 diagnoses (complete androgen insensitivity syndrome [CAIS]; Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome [MRKHS], polycystic ovary syndrome [PCOS]) were asked whether they had contact to other affected persons and how they assessed this contact. The correlation between contact and psychological distress was evaluated. Material and Methods: Information on contacts to other affected individuals was obtained using a written questionnaire. Psychological distress was measured using the German version of the BSI (Brief Symptom Inventory). Results: Data from 11 individuals with CAIS, 49 women with MRKHS and 55 women with PCOS was analysed. The frequency of contacts to other affected individuals differed between the different diagnostic groups (with the highest frequency reported for the group with CAIS, and the lowest for the group with PCOS). Overall, the majority of individuals considered such contacts beneficial (CAIS 81.8 %; MRKHS 90 %; PCOS 83.3 %). The frequency of contacts and their assessment were not found to be correlated with psychological distress. The three diagnostic groups differed in the proportion of people who indicated a wish for contact with other affected persons. The desire to have contact with other affected persons was most commonly expressed by women with PCOS and high levels of psychological distress (60.9 %). Conclusion: Persons with different sex characteristics can benefit from contact to other affected individuals. Particularly women with PCOS and increased levels of psychological distress may benefit if the issue of support groups is addressed during treatment. PMID:25258457

  13. Resource availability affects individual niche variation and its consequences in group-living European badgers Meles meles.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Andrew; McDonald, Robbie A; Delahay, Richard J; Kelly, Simon D; Bearhop, Stuart

    2015-05-01

    Although intra-population variation in niches is a widespread phenomenon with important implications for ecology, evolution and management of a range of animal species, the causes and consequences of this variation remain poorly understood. We used stable isotope analysis to characterise foraging niches and to investigate the causes and consequences of individual niche variation in the European badger, a mustelid mammal that lives in territorial social groups, but forages alone. We found that the degree of individual niche variation within social groups was negatively related to the availability of farmland habitats, which represent an important foraging habitat for badgers; and was positively related to territory size, supporting the idea that resource limitation and ecological opportunity lead to increased individual specialisation. We also found that the degree of individual specialisation related to an individual's body condition and that this effect varied with ecological context; such that specialisation had a stronger positive relationship with body condition in social groups with reduced availability of key farmland habitats. Body condition was also related to the utilisation of specific resources (woodland invertebrates), but again this relationship varied with the availability of farmland foraging habitats. This study supports the idea that resource availability plays an important role in determining patterns of individual niche variation, and identifies the potential adaptive consequences of specialised foraging strategies.

  14. Modeling Individual Differences in Within-Person Variation of Negative and Positive Affect in a Mixed Effects Location Scale Model Using BUGS/JAGS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rast, Philippe; Hofer, Scott M.; Sparks, Catharine

    2012-01-01

    A mixed effects location scale model was used to model and explain individual differences in within-person variability of negative and positive affect across 7 days (N=178) within a measurement burst design. The data come from undergraduate university students and are pooled from a study that was repeated at two consecutive years. Individual…

  15. Cognitive-affective processing system analysis of intra-individual dynamics in collaborative therapeutic assessment: translating basic theory and research into clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Shoda, Yuichi; Wilson, Nicole L; Chen, Jessica; Gilmore, Amanda K; Smith, Ronald E

    2013-12-01

    According to the cognitive-affective processing system (CAPS) model, behavior is a function of how the distinctive cognitive-affective system of the individual responds to one's subjective experience of the situation encountered. Thus an individual's maladaptive coping processes may be understood by identifying the nature of the situations that a client experiences as highly stressful and the psychological reactions they trigger. An initial study established the feasibility and utility of an Internet-based CAPS daily diary program; it was then used to facilitate a clinical stress-management intervention. The daily diary enabled researchers and clinicians to gather Highly-Repeated Within-Persons (HRWP) data on the situational features, cognitions, affect, and coping behaviors associated with daily life stress, which were then analyzed separately for each participant to identify each individual's unique and distinctive pattern of intra-individual dynamics. Results suggested that individuals differed reliably in the features of psychological situations that triggered stress and maladaptive coping behaviors. HRWP analysis of daily diary data enhanced the efficacy of clinical intervention, and clients' self-regulatory capabilities and life satisfaction were shown to increase over the course of the intervention. We discuss how our program of research fits into the larger goals of translational science and current NIMH clinical research priorities. PMID:23072471

  16. Aortic coarctation and carotid artery aneurysm in a patient with Hardikar syndrome: Cardiovascular implications for affected individuals.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Kaitlin M; Ellis, Alexander R; Raafat, Reem; Bhoj, Elizabeth J; Hakonarson, Hakon; Li, Dong; Schrier Vergano, Samantha

    2016-02-01

    Hardikar syndrome is a multiple congenital anomaly syndrome first characterized in 1992 by Hardikar et al. to describe two individuals with cholestasis, cleft lip/palate, retinal pigmentation, intestinal abnormalities, and genitourinary anomalies. Between 1992 and 2002, four individuals with Hardikar syndrome were reported in the literature. The fourth individual [Maluf et al. (2002), Transplantation 74:1058-1061; Poley and Proud (2008) Am J Med Genet Part A 146A:2473-2479], who had progressive cholestatic liver disease ultimately requiring liver transplantation, has continued to be followed at our institution. Recently, at the age of 14 years, during an evaluation for refractory hypertension, she was found to have developed coarctation of the aorta that was treated with aortic angioplasty and stenting, dramatically improving her hypertension. Further vascular investigation also revealed a small aneurysm of her carotid artery requiring neurosurgical evaluation and anticoagulant therapy. To our knowledge, these vascular anomalies have not been reported in Hardikar syndrome and the high association of congenital heart disease in the individuals with Hardikar syndrome has not been further addressed. Herein, we discuss this additional clinical information, speculate briefly on possible molecular etiologies, and discuss potential cardiac surveillance recommendations. We hope that broadening the known phenotype of this very rare disorder will further aid clinicians in their management and surveillance for these individuals.

  17. One day at a time: The impact of daily satisfaction with spouse responses on pain, negative affect and catastrophizing among individuals with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Holtzman, Susan; Delongis, Anita

    2007-09-01

    The majority of research on pain catastrophizing has focused on its negative consequences for adjustment to chronic pain, with few investigations of factors that influence catastrophizing or its detrimental effects. Using a daily process methodology, the current study examined, first, the extent to which a supportive social environment plays a role in reduced catastrophizing, and second, the extent to which support might protect against the detrimental effects of catastrophizing on well-being. Sixty-nine married individuals with rheumatoid arthritis took part in an initial background interview, followed by twice daily telephone interviews (regarding pain intensity, negative affect, catastrophizing and satisfaction with spouse responses) for 1 week. Multi-level modeling indicated several pathways through which satisfaction with spouse responses disrupts the vicious cycle of pain, negative affect and catastrophizing. Consistent with past research, catastrophizing was associated with increases in pain and negative affect. However, when individuals reported increases in satisfaction with spouse responses they were less likely to experience increases in negative affect due to catastrophizing. Satisfaction with spouse responses also reduced the likelihood of feeling overwhelmed and helpless in dealing with daily pain. The relationship between pain and catastrophizing was attenuated in the context of increases in satisfaction with spouse responses. Negative affect was associated with increases in catastrophizing, but only when individuals reported decreases in satisfaction with spouse responses. Overall, findings were consistent with a model in which satisfaction with spouse responses serves as a coping resource, and suggests the importance of involving close others in treatments to reduce pain and catastrophizing.

  18. Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy for Individuals Whose Lives Have Been Affected by Cancer: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Elizabeth; Baillie, Andrew; Huxter, Malcolm; Price, Melanie; Sinclair, Emma

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluated the effectiveness of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) for individuals with a diagnosis of cancer. Method: Participants (N = 115) diagnosed with cancer, across site and stage, were randomly allocated to either the treatment or the wait-list condition. Treatment was conducted at 1 site, by a single…

  19. Individual heterogeneity and offspring sex affect the growth-reproduction trade-off in a mammal with indeterminate growth.

    PubMed

    Gélin, Uriel; Wilson, Michelle E; Cripps, Jemma; Coulson, Graeme; Festa-Bianchet, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Reproduction can lead to a trade-off with growth, particularly when individuals reproduce before completing body growth. Kangaroos have indeterminate growth and may always face this trade-off. We combined an experimental manipulation of reproductive effort and multi-year monitoring of a large sample size of marked individuals in two populations of eastern grey kangaroos to test the predictions (1) that reproduction decreases skeletal growth and mass gain and (2) that mass loss leads to reproductive failure. We also tested if sex-allocation strategies influenced these trade-offs. Experimental reproductive suppression revealed negative effects of reproduction on mass gain and leg growth from 1 year to the next. Unmanipulated females, however, showed a positive correlation between number of days lactating and leg growth over periods of 2 years and longer, suggesting that over the long term, reproductive costs were masked by individual heterogeneity in resource acquisition. Mass gain was necessary for reproductive success the subsequent year. Although mothers of daughters generally lost more mass than females nursing sons, mothers in poor condition experienced greater mass gain and arm growth if they had daughters than if they had sons. The strong links between individual mass changes and reproduction suggest that reproductive tactics are strongly resource-dependent.

  20. Social Individualism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornille, Thomas A.; Harrigan, John

    Relationships between individuals and society have often been presented from the perspective of the social institution. Social psychology has addressed the variables that affect the individual in relationships with larger groups. Social individualism is a conceptual framework that explores the relationship of the individual and society from the…

  1. Physical and Cognitive-Affective Factors Associated with Fatigue in Individuals with Fibromyalgia: A Multiple Regression Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Veronica; Brooks, Jessica; Tu, Wei-Mo; Moser, Erin; Lo, Chu-Ling; Chan, Fong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The main objective of this study was to determine the extent to which physical and cognitive-affective factors are associated with fibromyalgia (FM) fatigue. Method: A quantitative descriptive design using correlation techniques and multiple regression analysis. The participants consisted of 302 members of the National Fibromyalgia &…

  2. Violent and nonviolent video games differentially affect physical aggression for individuals high vs. low in dispositional anger.

    PubMed

    Engelhardt, Christopher R; Bartholow, Bruce D; Saults, J Scott

    2011-01-01

    Although numerous experiments have shown that exposure to violent video games (VVG) causes increases in aggression, relatively few studies have investigated the extent to which this effect differs as a function of theoretically relevant individual difference factors. This study investigated whether video game content differentially influences aggression as a function of individual differences in trait anger. Participants were randomly assigned to play a violent or nonviolent video game before completing a task in which they could behave aggressively. Results showed that participants high in trait anger were the most aggressive, but only if they first played a VVG. This relationship held while statistically controlling for dimensions other than violent content on which game conditions differed (e.g. frustration, arousal). Implications of these findings for models explaining the effects of video games on behavior are discussed.

  3. Violent and nonviolent video games differentially affect physical aggression for individuals high vs. low in dispositional anger.

    PubMed

    Engelhardt, Christopher R; Bartholow, Bruce D; Saults, J Scott

    2011-01-01

    Although numerous experiments have shown that exposure to violent video games (VVG) causes increases in aggression, relatively few studies have investigated the extent to which this effect differs as a function of theoretically relevant individual difference factors. This study investigated whether video game content differentially influences aggression as a function of individual differences in trait anger. Participants were randomly assigned to play a violent or nonviolent video game before completing a task in which they could behave aggressively. Results showed that participants high in trait anger were the most aggressive, but only if they first played a VVG. This relationship held while statistically controlling for dimensions other than violent content on which game conditions differed (e.g. frustration, arousal). Implications of these findings for models explaining the effects of video games on behavior are discussed. PMID:21905039

  4. Foot Placement and Arm Position Affect the Five Times Sit-to-Stand Test Time of Individuals with Chronic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Kwong, Patrick W. H.; Ng, Shamay S. M.; Chung, Raymond C. K.; Ng, Gabriel Y. F.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate the effect of two foot placements (normal or posterior placement) and three arm positions (hands on the thighs, arms crossed over chest, and augmented arm position with elbow extended) on the five times sit-to-stand (FTSTS) test times of individuals with chronic stroke. Design. Cross-sectional study. Setting. University-based rehabilitation clinic. Participants. A convenience sample of community-dwelling individuals with chronic stroke (N = 45). Methods. The times in completing the FTSTS with two foot placements and the three arm positions were recorded by stopwatch. Results. Posterior foot placement led to significantly shorter FTSTS times when compared with normal foot placement in all the 3 arm positions (P ≤ 0.001). In addition, hands on thigh position led to significantly longer FTSTS times than the augmented arm position (P = 0.014). Conclusion. Our results showed that foot placement and arm position could influence the FTSTS times of individuals with chronic stroke. Standardizing the foot placement and arm position in the test procedure is essential, if FTSTS test is intended to be used repeatedly on the same subject. PMID:25032220

  5. The Risk Factors for Criminal Behaviour in High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders (HFASDs): A Comparison of Childhood Adversities between Individuals with HFASDs Who Exhibit Criminal Behaviour and Those with HFASD and No Criminal Histories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kawakami, Chihiro; Ohnishi, Masafumi; Sugiyama, Toshiro; Someki, Fumio; Nakamura, Kazuhiko; Tsujii, Masatsugu

    2012-01-01

    Most reports of the criminal behaviour of individuals with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (HFASD) have been case studies, and few have empirically examined the risk factors of criminal behaviour among these individuals. This study examined 175 individuals with HFASD, including 36 individuals who had a prior history of criminal…

  6. Effects of daily pain intensity, positive affect, and individual differences in pain acceptance on work goal interference and progress.

    PubMed

    Mun, Chung Jung; Karoly, Paul; Okun, Morris A

    2015-11-01

    Multilevel modeling was used to examine the effects of morning pain intensity and morning positive and negative affect on pain's interference with afternoon work goal pursuit and with evening work goal progress in a community sample of 132 adults who completed a 21-day diary. The moderating effects of pain acceptance and pain catastrophizing on the associations between morning pain intensity and afternoon work goal interference were also tested. Results revealed that the positive relationship between morning pain intensity and pain's interference with work goal pursuit was significantly moderated by pain acceptance, but not by pain catastrophizing. Both morning pain intensity and positive affect exerted significant indirect effects on evening work goal progress through the perception of pain's interference with work goal pursuit in the afternoon. Furthermore, the mediated effect of morning pain on evening work goal progress was significant when pain acceptance was at the grand mean and 1 SD below the grand mean, but not when pain acceptance was 1 SD above the grand mean. Thus, it appears that high pain acceptance significantly attenuates pain's capacity to disrupt work goal pursuit. Moreover, morning positive affect appears to operate as a protective factor. Additional interpretations and potential explanations for some inconsistent outcomes are discussed along with limitations, clinical implications, and suggestions for future studies.

  7. Can the type of organisational structure affect individual well-being in health and social welfare occupations?

    PubMed

    Zotti, A M; Omarini, G; Ragazzoni, P

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the perceived stress and individual resources of people involved in health and social welfare occupations, and evaluate whether belonging to different organisational structures leads to different reactions. To this end, we used the Maslach Burnout Inventory, the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations, and the Team Climate Inventory. The sample consisted of 327 subjects (67% females) with a mean age of 35.9 +/- 8.8 years; most had a middle or high school diploma (63%), and they had been employed in the same place for about four years (47.5 +/- 7.3 months): 103 worked for health and social welfare cooperatives, and 224 for a local health authority. The results showed average burnout values and coping strategies prevalently aimed at directly solving the stressing situation in both working contexts. In comparison with the variables expressing the perceived organisational climate, sociodemographic characteristics did not seem to have a determining influence on the perception of individual stress. Comparison of the subjects employed in the two settings showed that organisational vision and a sense of belonging significantly determined subjective well-being, with the healthcare workers showed greater individual ill-being and a worse vision (i.e. an unclear perception of hospital choices and objectives). Our findings confirm that subjective well-being in high-touch occupations may be determined by the organisational culture: a mutual aid culture such as that of a cooperative has a protective effect despite the fact that the employment situation of the workers is more precarious and flexible than that of workers employed in highly structured environments such as that of a hospital.

  8. Does catch and release affect the mating system and individual reproductive success of wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.)?

    PubMed

    Richard, Antoine; Dionne, Mélanie; Wang, Jinliang; Bernatchez, Louis

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we documented the breeding system of a wild population of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) by genetically sampling every returning adult and assessed the determinants of individual fitness. We then quantified the impacts of catch and release (C&R) on mating and reproductive success. Both sexes showed high variance in individual reproductive success, and the estimated standardized variance was higher for males (2.86) than for females (0.73). We found a weak positive relationship between body size and fitness and observed that fitness was positively correlated with the number of mates, especially in males. Mature male parr sired 44% of the analysed offspring. The impact of C&R on the number of offspring was size dependent, as the reproductive success of larger fish was more impaired than smaller ones. Also, there was an interactive negative effect of water temperature and air exposure time on reproductive success of C&R salmon. This study improves our understanding of the complex reproductive biology of the Atlantic salmon and is the first to investigate the impact of C&R on reproductive success. Our study expands the management toolbox of appropriate C&R practices that promote conservation of salmon populations and limit negative impacts on mating and reproductive success.

  9. Factors Associated with Migration in Individuals Affected by Leprosy, Maranhão, Brazil: An Exploratory Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Murto, C.; Kaplan, C.; Ariza, L.; Schwarz, K.; Alencar, C. H.; da Costa, L. M. M.; Heukelbach, J.

    2013-01-01

    In Brazil, leprosy is endemic and concentrated in high-risk clusters. Internal migration is common in the country and may influence leprosy transmission and hamper control efforts. We performed a cross-sectional study with two separate analyses evaluating factors associated with migration in Brazil's Northeast: one among individuals newly diagnosed with leprosy and the other among a clinically unapparent population with no symptoms of leprosy for comparison. We included 394 individuals newly diagnosed with leprosy and 391 from the clinically unapparent population. Of those with leprosy, 258 (65.5%) were birth migrants, 105 (26.6%) were past five-year migrants, and 43 (10.9%) were circular migrants. In multivariate logistic regression, three independent factors were found to be significantly associated with migration among those with leprosy: (1) alcohol consumption, (2) separation from family/friends, and (3) difficulty reaching the healthcare facility. Separation from family/friends was also associated with migration in the clinically unapparent population. The health sector may consider adapting services to meet the needs of migrating populations. Future research is needed to explore risks associated with leprosy susceptibility from life stressors, such as separation from family and friends, access to healthcare facilities, and alcohol consumption to establish causal relationships. PMID:24194769

  10. Stereotyping based on voice in the presence of individuating information: vocal femininity affects perceived competence but not warmth.

    PubMed

    Sei Jin Ko; Judd, Charles M; Stapel, Diederik A

    2009-02-01

    In two experiments the authors examined the effect of vocal cues on warmth and competence judgments when other competing information was concurrently available. In Experiment 1, using male and female speakers posing as job applicants, the authors investigated how applicants' vocal cues and résumé information impacted judgments of competence and warmth. Results showed competence was solely affected by vocal femininity-applicants with masculine voices were rated as more competent than applicants with feminine voices, regardless of applicant gender or résumé information. Warmth was predominantly affected by résumés-applicants with feminine résumés were rated as warmer than applicants with masculine résumés. In Experiment 2, the potent effect of vocal femininity on competence was replicated even under conditions where the competing background information was directly diagnostic of warmth and competence. Furthermore, the authors found that the impact of vocal femininity on competence was largely due to the overlap between perceptions of vocal femininity and babyishness.

  11. Spatial pattern formation of microbes at the soil microscale affect soil C and N turnover in an individual-based microbial community model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, Christina; Evans, Sarah; Dieckmann, Ulf; Widder, Stefanie

    2016-04-01

    At the μm-scale, soil is a highly structured and complex environment, both in physical as well as in biological terms, characterized by non-linear interactions between microbes, substrates and minerals. As known from mathematics and theoretical ecology, spatial structure significantly affects the system's behaviour by enabling synergistic dynamics, facilitating diversity, and leading to emergent phenomena such as self-organisation and self-regulation. Such phenomena, however, are rarely considered when investigating mechanisms of microbial soil organic matter turnover. Soil organic matter is the largest terrestrial reservoir for organic carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) and plays a pivotal role in global biogeochemical cycles. Still, the underlying mechanisms of microbial soil organic matter buildup and turnover remain elusive. We explored mechanisms of microbial soil organic matter turnover using an individual-based, stoichiometrically and spatially explicit computer model, which simulates the microbial de-composer system at the soil microscale (i.e. on a grid of 100 x 100 soil microsites). Soil organic matter dynamics in our model emerge as the result of interactions among individual microbes with certain functional traits (f.e. enzyme production rates, growth rates, cell stoichiometry) at the microscale. By degrading complex substrates, and releasing labile substances microbes in our model continusly shape their environment, which in turn feeds back to spatiotemporal dynamics of the microbial community. In order to test the effect of microbial functional traits and organic matter input rate on soil organic matter turnover and C and N storage, we ran the model into steady state using continuous inputs of fresh organic material. Surprisingly, certain parameter settings that induce resource limitation of microbes lead to regular spatial pattern formation (f.e. moving spiral waves) of microbes and substrate at the μm-scale at steady-state. The occurrence of these

  12. Unemotional on all counts: Evidence of reduced affective responses in individuals with high callous-unemotional traits across emotion systems and valences.

    PubMed

    Fanti, Kostas A; Panayiotou, Georgia; Lombardo, Michael V; Kyranides, Melina Nicole

    2016-01-01

    The current study aimed to identify atypical neurophysiological activity associated with deficient affective processing in individuals with high callous-unemotional traits (CU). Fifty-six participants (M age = 20.52; 46% male) divided in two groups, differentiated on levels of CU traits, were invited to participate in the experimental phase of the study. Medial prefrontal cortex activity, measured with functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy, and facial electro-myography activity were recorded during videos depicting violent, comedy and neutral scenes. Individuals high on CU traits showed similar medial prefrontal cortex oxygenated hemoglobin (HbO(2)) activity to positive and negative films, while the pre-frontal cortical responses of low CU individuals were more pronounced to positive than negative materials. High CU participants also showed reduced facial electromyography at the corrugator muscle in response to violent films, which was not differentiated from their responses to comedy films. These findings suggest that individuals high on CU traits show reduced but not absent (i.e., flat) affect to emotional material. Deficits in processing positive and negative valent material, measured with different neuro-physiological modalities, might be essential to understand CU traits.

  13. How have nuclear weapons affected the relationship between the United States and the Soviet Union. Individual study report

    SciTech Connect

    Gaddie, R.D.

    1991-04-05

    As mankind enters the final decade of the 20th century, it faces a world of unprecedented political and military change. Events in Central Europe and in the Soviet Union over the past two years have been truly remarkable and have forced the United States to reevaluate its nation's security strategy. Some feel the potential for a war with the Soviets has diminished. Others feel that the Soviets' capability is the same now as it has been in the past. How can the United States take advantage of the new relationship with the Soviet Union. If the US strategy needs to be changed, the historical perspective of the US-USSR relationship becomes extremely important. Nuclear weapons have been a significant part of the super power relationship since 1945. In fact many feel the Soviets are in a super power status now only as a result of their military and its huge nuclear arsenal. The following analysis describes how nuclear weapons became a part of the United States' national security strategy and how that policy affected the US-USSR relationship. The analysis starts with the end of World War II. It traces important events and confrontations between the two nations, pointing out the significant implications made by nuclear weapons. The conclusion presents this questions, Has the Soviet military threat changed and if so, how should the United States change its strategic forces to take advantage of the new relationship developing between the two super powers, both politically and economically.

  14. Relationship between Individual External Doses, Ambient Dose Rates and Individuals’ Activity-Patterns in Affected Areas in Fukushima following the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    PubMed Central

    Kurosawa, Tadahiro; Yasutaka, Tetsuo; Ishii, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    The accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant on March 11, 2011, released radioactive material into the atmosphere and contaminated the land in Fukushima and several neighboring prefectures. Five years after the nuclear disaster, the radiation levels have greatly decreased due to physical decay, weathering, and decontamination operations in Fukushima. The populations of 12 communities were forced to evacuate after the accident; as of March 2016, the evacuation order has been lifted in only a limited area, and permanent habitation is still prohibited in most of the areas. In order for the government to lift the evacuation order and for individuals to return to their original residential areas, it is important to assess current and future realistic individual external doses. Here, we used personal dosimeters along with the Global Positioning System and Geographic Information System to understand realistic individual external doses and to relate individual external doses, ambient doses, and activity-patterns of individuals in the affected areas in Fukushima. The results showed that the additional individual external doses were well correlated to the additional ambient doses based on the airborne monitoring survey. The results of linear regression analysis suggested that the additional individual external doses were on average about one-fifth that of the additional ambient doses. The reduction factors, which are defined as the ratios of the additional individual external doses to the additional ambient doses, were calculated to be on average 0.14 and 0.32 for time spent at home and outdoors, respectively. Analysis of the contribution of various activity patterns to the total individual external dose demonstrated good agreement with the average fraction of time spent daily in each activity, but the contribution due to being outdoors varied widely. These results are a valuable contribution to understanding realistic individual external doses and the corresponding

  15. Ethics on Exhibit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vick, Randy M.

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses ethical questions raised by an exhibition of work by an artist with a history of mental illness and the exhibition's relevance to art therapy and “outsider art” discourse on the subject. Considerations for how such an exhibit could be handled had the circumstances included an art therapist and art therapy client are…

  16. Consuming functional foods enriched with plant sterol or stanol esters for 85 weeks does not affect neurocognitive functioning or mood in statin-treated hypercholesterolemic individuals.

    PubMed

    Schiepers, Olga J G; de Groot, Renate H M; van Boxtel, Martin P J; Jolles, Jelle; de Jong, Ariënne; Lütjohann, Dieter; Plat, Jogchum; Mensink, Ronald P

    2009-07-01

    Recent animal and human studies have shown that plant sterols and stanols, which are used as functional food ingredients to lower increased LDL cholesterol concentrations, pass the blood-brain barrier. Whether this affects neurocognitive functioning and mental well-being in humans has, to our knowledge, never been investigated. The aim of the present study was therefore to examine the effects of long-term plant sterol or stanol consumption on neurocognitive functioning and mood in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled dietary intervention trial. To this end, hypercholesterolemic individuals, aged 43-69 y, receiving stable statin treatment were randomly assigned to an 85-wk supplementation with margarines enriched with plant sterol esters (2.5 g/d), plant stanol esters (2.5 g/d), or placebo. At baseline and at the end of the intervention period, all participants underwent a cognitive assessment. In addition, subjective cognitive functioning and mood were assessed by means of questionnaires (Cognitive Failure Questionnaire and depression subscale of the Symptom Checklist 90, respectively). Long-term supplementation with plant sterol or stanol esters did not affect cognitive performance (memory, simple information processing speed, complex information processing speed, Letter-Digit Substitution test performance), subjective cognitive functioning, or mood. In conclusion, the present results indicate that long-term use of plant sterols or stanols at recommended intakes of 2.5 g/d does not affect neurocognitive functioning or mood in hypercholesterolemic individuals receiving statin treatment.

  17. A Systematic Review of Individual and Contextual Factors Affecting ART Initiation, Adherence, and Retention for HIV-Infected Pregnant and Postpartum Women

    PubMed Central

    Hodgson, Ian; Plummer, Mary L.; Konopka, Sarah N.; Colvin, Christopher J.; Jonas, Edna; Albertini, Jennifer; Amzel, Anouk; Fogg, Karen P.

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite progress reducing maternal mortality, HIV-related maternal deaths remain high, accounting, for example, for up to 24 percent of all pregnancy-related deaths in sub-Saharan Africa. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is effective in improving outcomes among HIV-infected pregnant and postpartum women, yet rates of initiation, adherence, and retention remain low. This systematic literature review synthesized evidence about individual and contextual factors affecting ART use among HIV-infected pregnant and postpartum women. Methods Searches were conducted for studies addressing the population (HIV-infected pregnant and postpartum women), intervention (ART), and outcomes of interest (initiation, adherence, and retention). Quantitative and qualitative studies published in English since January 2008 were included. Individual and contextual enablers and barriers to ART use were extracted and organized thematically within a framework of individual, interpersonal, community, and structural categories. Results Thirty-four studies were included in the review. Individual-level factors included both those within and outside a woman’s awareness and control (e.g., commitment to child’s health or age). Individual-level barriers included poor understanding of HIV, ART, and prevention of mother-to-child transmission, and difficulty managing practical demands of ART. At an interpersonal level, disclosure to a spouse and spousal involvement in treatment were associated with improved initiation, adherence, and retention. Fear of negative consequences was a barrier to disclosure. At a community level, stigma was a major barrier. Key structural barriers and enablers were related to health system use and engagement, including access to services and health worker attitudes. Conclusions To be successful, programs seeking to expand access to and continued use of ART by integrating maternal health and HIV services must identify and address the relevant barriers and enablers in

  18. A Teaching Aids Exhibition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahanja, Salah

    1985-01-01

    Describes an exhibition for the benefit of teachers of English in Arab Primary Schools, which was prepared by third-year students at the Teachers College for Arab Teachers. The exhibition included games, songs, audiovisual aids, crossword puzzles, vocabulary, spelling booklets, preposition aids, and worksheet and lesson planning aids. (SED)

  19. A new twist to a traditional approach to environmental monitoring: differentiation of oil sands process-affected waters and natural systems by comparison of individual organic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarlett, A.; Lengger, S.; West, C.; Rowland, S.

    2013-12-01

    Review panels of both the Canadian Federal and Alberta Provincial governments have recommended a complete overhaul of existing monitoring programs of the Athabasca oil sands industry and have called for a greater understanding of the potential impacts of mining activities to allow for future sustainable development. Due to the no release policy, it is critical that leakages of oil sands process-affected waters (OSPW) from tailings ponds can be differentiated from natural waters flowing through the McMurray formation into the Athabasca river system. Environmental monitoring of oil contamination usually entails profiling of known compounds, e.g. the US EPA list of priority Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, but until now a similar approach has not been possible for OSPW due to its extreme complexity. It has been estimated that the number of carboxylic acids, historically referred to as ';naphthenic acids' (NA) in OSPW, to be in excess of 10000 compounds. Until recently, individual structures of these NA were unknown but analyses by tandem gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCxGC-MS) have now begun to reveal the individual structures of alicyclic, aromatic and sulphur-containing acids within OSPWs stored in tailings ponds. Now that some individual structures present in OSPW are known and standards are available, a methodological approach similar to traditional oil monitoring can be developed using individual diamondoid NA and recently discovered diacids and applied to tailings pond OSPW and environmental waters. One obstacle to understanding whether the NA present in environmental groundwater samples are associated with particular tailings ponds is the lack of knowledge of the variability of OSPW within and between ponds. In the current study, GCxGC-MS analyses have been applied to statistically compare OSPWs of two industries, both temporally and spatially, using specific, known compounds as well as associated isomers. Although variation within individual ponds was

  20. Communicating Science through Exhibitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dusenbery, P.; Harold, J.; Morrow, C.

    It is critically important for the public to better understand the scientific process. Museum exhibitions are an important part of informal science education that can effectively reach public audiences as well as school groups. They provide an important gateway for the public to learn about compelling scientific endeavors. There are many ways for scientists to help develop science exhibitions. The Space Science Institute (SSI) is a national leader in producing traveling science exhibitions and their associated educational programming (i.e. interactive websites, educator workshops, public talks, instructional materials). Two of its exhibitions, Space Weather Center and MarsQuest, are currently on tour. Another exhibition, Alien Earths, is in development. The Space Weather Center was developed in partnership with various research missions at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. MarsQuest is a 5000 square-foot traveling exhibition. The exhibit's second 3-year tour began this January at the Detroit Science Center. It is enabling millions of Americans to share in the excitement of the scientific exploration of Mars and to learn more about their own planet in the process. The 3,000 square-foot traveling exhibition, called Alien Earths, will bring origins-related research and discoveries to students and the American public. Alien Earths has four interrelated exhibit areas: Our Place in Space, Star Birth, PlanetQuest, and Search for Life. Exhibit visitors will explore the awesome events surrounding the birth of stars and planets; they will join scientists in the hunt for planets outside our solar system including those that may be in ``habitable zones'' around other stars; and finally they will be able to learn about how scientists are looking for signs of life beyond Earth. Besides the exhibits, SSI is also developing interactive web sites based on exhibit themes. New technologies are transforming the Web from a static medium to an interactive environment with tremendous

  1. New Hurricane Exhibit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    A new exhibit in StenniSphere depicting NASA's role in hurricane prediction and research and SSC's role in helping the region recover from Hurricane Katrina. The cyclone-shaped exhibit focuses on the effects of the Aug. 29, 2005 storm and outlines how NASA is working to improve weather forecasting. Through photos, 3-D models and digital animations, the exhibit tells the story of what happened inside the storm and how NASA's scientific research can increase the accuracy of hurricane tracking and modeling.

  2. Test Control Center exhibit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Have you ever wondered how the engineers at John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., test fire a Space Shuttle Main Engine? The Test Control Center exhibit at StenniSphere can answer your questions by simulating the test firing of a Space Shuttle Main Engine. A recreation of one of NASA's test control centers, the exhibit explains and portrays the 'shake, rattle and roar' that happens during a real test firing.

  3. Communicating Science through Exhibitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dusenbery, Paul

    2005-04-01

    It is critically important for the public to better understand the scientific process. Museum exhibitions are an important part of informal science education that can effectively reach public audiences as well as school groups. They provide an important gateway for the public to learn about compelling scientific endeavors. Science exhibitions also provide a marvelous opportunity for scientists to become engaged in the exhibit development process. The Space Science Institute (SSI) is a national leader in producing traveling science exhibitions and their associated educational programming (i.e. interactive websites, educator workshops, public talks, instructional materials). The focus of this presentation will be on two of its exhibit projects: MarsQuest (on tour for four years) and Alien Earths (its tour began early in 2005). MarsQuest is enabling millions of Americans to share in the excitement of the scientific exploration of Mars and to learn more about their own planet in the process. Alien Earths will bring origins-related research and discoveries to students and the American public. It has four interrelated exhibit areas: Our Place in Space, Star Birth, Planet Quest, and Search for Life. Exhibit visitors will explore the awesome events surrounding the birth of stars and planets; they will join scientists in the hunt for planets outside our solar system including those that may be in ``habitable zones'' around other stars; and finally they will be able to learn about how scientists are looking for signs of life beyond Earth. SSI is also developing interactive web sites based on exhibit themes. New technologies are transforming the Web from a static medium to an interactive environment with tremendous potential for informal education and inquiry-based investigations. This talk will focus on the role informal science projects play in effectively communicating science to a broad, public audience.

  4. A comparison of African American and white college students' affective and attitudinal reactions to lesbian, gay, and bisexual individuals: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Negy, Charles; Eisenman, Russell

    2005-11-01

    African American (n = 70) university students were compared with White students (n = 140) on their affective (homophobia) and attitudinal (homonegativity) reactions to lesbian, gay, and bisexual individuals. The results initially suggested that African Americans had modestly higher homophobia and homonegativity scores than Whites. However, those ethnic differences vanished after controlling for frequency of church attendance, religious commitment, and socioeconomic status. For both ethnic groups, gender and religiosity variables significantly predicted homophobia and homonegativity. Men in both ethnic groups had significantly higher homophobia and homonegativity scores than their female counterparts. Lastly, additional regression analyses revealed that one aspect of African American culture--family practices--significantly predicted homophobia, but not homonegativity, above the predictive ability of religiosity. Implications of the results are discussed.

  5. Exploring the effects of individual customer incivility encounters on employee incivility: the moderating roles of entity (in)civility and negative affectivity.

    PubMed

    Walker, David D; van Jaarsveld, Danielle D; Skarlicki, Daniel P

    2014-01-01

    Incivility between customers and employees is common in many service organizations. These encounters can have negative outcomes for employees, customers, and the organization. To date, researchers have tended to study incivility as an aggregated and accumulated phenomenon (entity perspective). In the present study, we examined incivility as it occurs during a specific service encounter (event perspective) alongside the entity perspective. Using a mixed-method multilevel field study of customer service interactions, we show that individual customer incivility encounters (i.e., events) trigger employee incivility as a function of the employee's overall accumulated impression of the (in)civility in his or her customer interactions, such that the effects are more pronounced among employees who generally perceive their customer interactions to be more versus less civil. We also find that these interactive effects occur only among employees who are lower (vs. higher) in negative affectivity. Our results show that, in order to expand the understanding of customer incivility, it is important to study the incivility encounter, the social context in which negative customer interactions occur, and individual differences.

  6. Variation in essential oil composition within individual leaves of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) is more affected by leaf position than by leaf age.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Ravit; Nitzan, Nadav; Chaimovitsh, David; Rubin, Baruch; Dudai, Nativ

    2011-05-11

    The aroma in sweet basil is a factor affecting the commercial value of the crop. In previous studies leaf age was considered to be a factor that influences the composition of essential oil (EO). In this study it was hypothesized that a single observation of the EO content in leaves from different positions on the main stem (young vs old) could predict the developmental changes in the plant during its life cycle. Plants harvested at week 16 demonstrated an exponential increase (R(2) = 0.92) in EO concentration in leaves on the main stem and lateral shoots, indicating higher EO concentrations in younger than in older leaves. Eugenol and methyleugenol predominated (28-77%) in the extract. Eugenol levels were higher in younger leaves (∼53%), and methyl-eugenol levels predominated in older leaves (∼68%). Linalool was lower in mature leaves than in younger leaves. This suggested that eugenol converted into methyleugenol and linalool decreased as leaf mature. However, in weekly monitored plants, the levels of these compounds in the EO had limited variation in the maturing leaf regardless of its position on the stem. This proposed that the EO composition in an individual leaf is mostly affected by the leaf position on the stem and not by its maturation process. Because leaf position is related to plant development, it is probable that the plant's physiological age at the time of leaf formation from the primordial tissue is the factor affecting the EO composition. It was concluded that interpretation of scientific observations should be carried out with caution and that hypotheses should be tested utilizing multifaceted approaches.

  7. Swamp to Space exhibit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The menacing-looking alligator is really harmless. It is one of the realistic props to help convince visitors that the feel of the swamp is real in StenniSphere's Swamp to Space exhibit at John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss. The historical section of the Swamp to Space exhibit tells the story of why and how Stennis Space Center came to be. It also pays tribute to the families who moved their homes to make way for the space age in Mississippi.

  8. Generalized results of individualized exposure doses reconstruction for the subjects of Ukrainian State Register of persons, affected due to Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Likhtarov, I A; Kovgan, L M; Masiuk, S V; Ivanova, O M; Chepurny, M I; Boyko, Z N; Gerasymenko, V B; Tereshchenko, S A; Kravchenko, I G; Kortushin, G I; Marcenjyk, O D; Gubina, I G

    2015-12-01

    Since 2007, the department of dosimetry of NRCRM has been working for to supply the Ukrainian State Register (SRU) of persons affected due to Chernobyl accident by exposure doses estimations. As of now, the individualization of doses has been performed for nine raions located in Kyiv, Zhytomyr, Rivne and Chernihiv oblasts. The structure of raion-specific models used for the reconstruction of individualized doses was described in detail in the previous 19-th issue of this journal (2014). The choice conditions for persons from the SRU using which for each raion there was formed a contingent of persons for whom the dose could be reconstructed. During the period of 2007-2015, the individualized dose was reconstructed for 244226 persons in 9 raions, representing ~ 58% of all registered in the SRU inhabitants of the raions. The calculation results were transferred to the SRU in formats adapted to the common database structure of the SRU. For each person who satisfied the conditions of selection there were estimated: (1) possible absorbed internal exposure dose of the thyroid by radioiodine in 1986 (assuming that the person in 1986 lived in the same village and was enlisted in the SRU); (2) annual doses of external, internal and total exposure of the whole body for a period of observation in the SRU; (3) total exposure dose of whole body accumulated during the period of observation in the SRU; (4) the total cumulative dose of feasible exposure during the period since 1986 till the decision to be registered in the SRU. There are presented the generalized results of the SRU subjects distribution for different raions in dependence on intervals of doses accumulated at different periods after the accident. The raion matrix tables show the dynamics of accumulation of doses by the SRU subjects both for their stay on the account and for the period of their possible residence registration in the settlement since 1986. The directions for further research to be implemented for

  9. Exhibition in Sight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasserman, Burton

    1978-01-01

    Ludwig Mies van der Rohe is known primarily as an architect. However, he also designed chairs and tables. Discusses an exhibit held in New York City a few months ago which showed how well the famous architect achieved his goals in the area of furniture design. (Author/RK)

  10. Exhibition in Sight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasserman, Burton

    1978-01-01

    One of the most offbeat exhibitions presented in the last several years was the widely celebrated Warhol-Wyeth duo show, "Portraits of Each Other", held at the Brandywine River Museum in Chadds Ford, Pennsylvania. Discusses their paintings and their diametrically different personalities. (Author/RK)

  11. Perspectives of healthcare providers and HIV-affected individuals and couples during the development of a Safer Conception Counseling Toolkit in Kenya: stigma, fears, and recommendations for the delivery of services.

    PubMed

    Mmeje, Okeoma; Njoroge, Betty; Akama, Eliud; Leddy, Anna; Breitnauer, Brooke; Darbes, Lynae; Brown, Joelle

    2016-01-01

    Reproduction is important to many HIV-affected individuals and couples and healthcare providers (HCPs) are responsible for providing resources to help them safely conceive while minimizing the risk of sexual and perinatal HIV transmission. In order to fulfill their reproductive goals, HIV-affected individuals and their partners need access to information regarding safer methods of conception. The objective of this qualitative study was to develop a Safer Conception Counseling Toolkit that can be used to train HCPs and counsel HIV-affected individuals and couples in HIV care and treatment clinics in Kenya. We conducted a two-phased qualitative study among HCPs and HIV-affected individuals and couples from eight HIV care and treatment sites in Kisumu, Kenya. We conducted in-depth interviews (IDIs) and focus group discussions (FGDs) to assess the perspectives of HCPs and HIV-affected individuals and couples in order to develop and refine the content of the Toolkit. Subsequently, IDIs were conducted among HCPs who were trained using the Toolkit and FGDs among HIV-affected individuals and couples who were counseled with the Toolkit. HIV-related stigma, fears, and recommendations for delivery of safer conception counseling were assessed during the discussions. One hundred and six individuals participated in FGDs and IDIs; 29 HCPs, 49 HIV-affected women and men, and 14 HIV-serodiscordant couples. Participants indicated that a safer conception counseling and training program for HCPs is needed and that routine provision of safer conception counseling may promote maternal and child health by enhancing reproductive autonomy among HIV-affected couples. They also reported that the Toolkit may help dispel the stigma and fears associated with reproduction in HIV-affected couples, while supporting them in achieving their reproductive goals. Additional research is needed to evaluate the Safer Conception Toolkit in order to support its implementation and use in HIV care and

  12. Perspectives of healthcare providers and HIV-affected individuals and couples during the development of a Safer Conception Counseling Toolkit in Kenya: stigma, fears, and recommendations for the delivery of services

    PubMed Central

    Mmeje, Okeoma; Njoroge, Betty; Akama, Eliud; Leddy, Anna; Breitnauer, Brooke; Darbes, Lynae; Brown, Joelle

    2016-01-01

    Reproduction is important to many HIV-affected individuals and couples and healthcare providers (HCPs) are responsible for providing resources to help them safely conceive while minimizing the risk of sexual and perinatal HIV transmission. In order to fulfill their reproductive goals, HIV-affected individuals and their partners need access to information regarding safer methods of conception. The objective of this qualitative study was to develop a Safer Conception Counseling Toolkit that can be used to train HCPs and counsel HIV-affected individuals and couples in HIV care and treatment clinics in Kenya. We conducted a two-phased qualitative study among HCPs and HIV-affected individuals and couples from eight HIV care and treatment sites in Kisumu, Kenya. We conducted in-depth interviews (IDIs) and focus group discussions (FGDs) to assess the perspectives of HCPs and HIV-affected individuals and couples in order to develop and refine the content of the Toolkit. Subsequently, IDIs were conducted among HCPs who were trained using the Toolkit and FGDs among HIV-affected individuals and couples who were counseled with the Toolkit. HIV-related stigma, fears, and recommendations for delivery of safer conception counseling were assessed during the discussions. One hundred and six individuals participated in FGDs and IDIs; 29 HCPs, 49 HIV-affected women and men, and 14 HIV–serodiscordant couples. Participants indicated that a safer conception counseling and training program for HCPs is needed and that routine provision of safer conception counseling may promote maternal and child health by enhancing reproductive autonomy among HIV-affected couples. They also reported that the Toolkit may help dispel the stigma and fears associated with reproduction in HIV-affected couples, while supporting them in achieving their reproductive goals. Additional research is needed to evaluate the Safer Conception Toolkit in order to support its implementation and use in HIV care and

  13. A mouse model for ulcerative colitis based on NOD-scid IL2R γnull mice reconstituted with peripheral blood mononuclear cells from affected individuals.

    PubMed

    Palamides, Pia; Jodeleit, Henrika; Föhlinger, Michael; Beigel, Florian; Herbach, Nadja; Mueller, Thomas; Wolf, Eckhard; Siebeck, Matthias; Gropp, Roswitha

    2016-09-01

    Animal models reflective of ulcerative colitis (UC) remain a major challenge, and yet are crucial to understand mechanisms underlying the onset of disease and inflammatory characteristics of relapses and remission. Mouse models in which colitis-like symptoms are induced through challenge with toxins such as oxazolone, dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) or 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) have been instrumental in understanding the inflammatory processes of UC. However, these neither reflect the heterogeneous symptoms observed in the UC-affected population nor can they be used to test the efficacy of inhibitors developed against human targets where high sequence and structural similarity of the respective ligands is lacking. In an attempt to overcome these problems, we have developed a mouse model that relies on NOD-scid IL2R γ(null) mice reconstituted with peripheral blood mononuclear cells derived from UC-affected individuals. Upon challenge with ethanol, mice developed colitis-like symptoms and changes in the colon architecture, characterized by influx of inflammatory cells, edema, crypt loss, crypt abscesses and epithelial hyperplasia, as previously observed in immune-competent mice. TARC, TGFβ1 and HGF expression increased in distal parts of the colon. Analysis of human leucocytes isolated from mouse spleen revealed an increase in frequencies of CD1a+, CD64+, CD163+ and TSLPR+ CD14+ monocytes, and antigen-experienced CD44+ CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells in response to ethanol. Analysis of human leucocytes from the colon of challenged mice identified CD14+ monocytes and CD11b+ monocytes as the predominant populations. Quantitative real-time PCR (RT-PCR) analysis from distal parts of the colon indicated that IFNγ might be one of the cytokines driving inflammation. Treatment with infliximab ameliorated symptoms and pathological manifestations, whereas pitrakinra had no therapeutic benefit. Thus, this model is partially reflective of the human disease and might help

  14. A mouse model for ulcerative colitis based on NOD-scid IL2R γnull mice reconstituted with peripheral blood mononuclear cells from affected individuals

    PubMed Central

    Palamides, Pia; Jodeleit, Henrika; Föhlinger, Michael; Beigel, Florian; Herbach, Nadja; Mueller, Thomas; Wolf, Eckhard; Siebeck, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Animal models reflective of ulcerative colitis (UC) remain a major challenge, and yet are crucial to understand mechanisms underlying the onset of disease and inflammatory characteristics of relapses and remission. Mouse models in which colitis-like symptoms are induced through challenge with toxins such as oxazolone, dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) or 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) have been instrumental in understanding the inflammatory processes of UC. However, these neither reflect the heterogeneous symptoms observed in the UC-affected population nor can they be used to test the efficacy of inhibitors developed against human targets where high sequence and structural similarity of the respective ligands is lacking. In an attempt to overcome these problems, we have developed a mouse model that relies on NOD-scid IL2R γnull mice reconstituted with peripheral blood mononuclear cells derived from UC-affected individuals. Upon challenge with ethanol, mice developed colitis-like symptoms and changes in the colon architecture, characterized by influx of inflammatory cells, edema, crypt loss, crypt abscesses and epithelial hyperplasia, as previously observed in immune-competent mice. TARC, TGFβ1 and HGF expression increased in distal parts of the colon. Analysis of human leucocytes isolated from mouse spleen revealed an increase in frequencies of CD1a+, CD64+, CD163+ and TSLPR+ CD14+ monocytes, and antigen-experienced CD44+ CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells in response to ethanol. Analysis of human leucocytes from the colon of challenged mice identified CD14+ monocytes and CD11b+ monocytes as the predominant populations. Quantitative real-time PCR (RT-PCR) analysis from distal parts of the colon indicated that IFNγ might be one of the cytokines driving inflammation. Treatment with infliximab ameliorated symptoms and pathological manifestations, whereas pitrakinra had no therapeutic benefit. Thus, this model is partially reflective of the human disease and might

  15. Starship 2040 Exhibit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This photograph shows onlookers viewing displays within the Starship 2040 exhibit on display at Joe Davis Stadium in Huntsville, Alabama. Developed by the Space Transportation Directorate at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), the Starship 2040 exhibit is housed in a 48-ft (14.6-m) tractor and trailer rig, permitting it to travel around the Nation, demonstrating NASA's vision of what commercial spaceflight might be like 40 years from now. All the irnovations suggested aboard the exhibit (automated vehicle health monitoring systems, high-energy propulsion drive, navigational aids, and emergency and safety systems) are based on concepts and technologies now being studied at NASA Centers and partner institutions around the Nation. NASA is the Nation's premier agency for development of the space transportation system, including future-generation reusable launch vehicles. Such systems, the keys to a 'real' Starship 2040, require revolutionary advances in critical aerospace technologies, from thermal, magnetic, chemical, and propellantless propulsion systems to new energy sources such as space solar power or antimatter propulsion. These and other advances are now being studied, developed, and tested at NASA field centers and partner institutions all over the Nation.

  16. Starship 2040 Exhibit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This photograph shows Justin Varnadore, son of a Marshall TV employee, at the controls of one of the many displays within the Starship 2040 exhibit on display at Joe Davis Stadium in Huntsville, Alabama. Developed by the Space Transportation Directorate at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), the Starship 2040 exhibit is housed in a 48-ft (14.6-m) tractor and trailer rig, permitting it to travel around the Nation, demonstrating NASA's vision of what commercial spaceflight might be like 40 years from now. All the irnovations suggested aboard the exhibit (automated vehicle health monitoring systems, high-energy propulsion drive, navigational aids, and emergency and safety systems) are based on concepts and technologies now being studied at NASA Centers and partner institutions around the Nation. NASA is the Nation's premier agency for development of the space transportation system, including future-generation reusable launch vehicles. Such systems, the keys to a 'real' Starship 2040, require revolutionary advances in critical aerospace technologies, from thermal, magnetic, chemical, and propellantless propulsion systems to new energy sources such as space solar power or antimatter propulsion. These and other advances are now being studied, developed, and tested at NASA field centers and partner institutions all over the Nation.

  17. Starship 2040 Exhibit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This photograph shows the Starship 2040 leaving the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) for the exhibit site. Developed by the Space Transportation Directorate at MSFC, the Starship 2040 exhibit is housed in a 48-ft (14.6-m) tractor and trailer rig, permitting it to travel around the Nation, demonstrating NASA's vision of what commercial spaceflight might be like 40 years from now. All the irnovations suggested aboard the exhibit, automated vehicle health monitoring systems, high-energy propulsion drive, navigational aids and emergency and safety systems, are based on concepts and technologies now being studied at NASA Centers and partner institutions around the Nation. NASA is the nation's premier agency for development of the space transportation system, including future-generation reusable launch vehicles. Such systems, the keys to a 'real' Starship 2040, require revolutionary advances in critical aerospace technologies, from thermal, magnetic, chemical, and propellantless propulsion systems to new energy sources such as space solar power or antimatter propulsion. These and other advances are now being studied, developed, and tested at NASA field centers and partner institutions all over the Nation.

  18. Early-Life Stress Affects Stress-Related Prefrontal Dopamine Activity in Healthy Adults, but Not in Individuals with Psychotic Disorder.

    PubMed

    Kasanova, Zuzana; Hernaus, Dennis; Vaessen, Thomas; van Amelsvoort, Thérèse; Winz, Oliver; Heinzel, Alexander; Pruessner, Jens; Mottaghy, Felix M; Collip, Dina; Myin-Germeys, Inez

    2016-01-01

    Early life stress may have a lasting impact on the developmental programming of the dopamine (DA) system implicated in psychosis. Early adversity could promote resilience by calibrating the prefrontal stress-regulatory dopaminergic neurotransmission to improve the individual's fit with the predicted stressful environment. Aberrant reactivity to such match between proximal and distal environments may, however, enhance psychosis disease risk. We explored the combined effects of childhood adversity and adult stress by exposing 12 unmedicated individuals with a diagnosis of non-affective psychotic disorder (NAPD) and 12 healthy controls (HC) to psychosocial stress during an [18F]fallypride positron emission tomography. Childhood trauma divided into early (ages 0-11 years) and late (12-18 years) was assessed retrospectively using a questionnaire. A significant group x childhood trauma interaction on the spatial extent of stress-related [18F]fallypride displacement was observed in the mPFC for early (b = -8.45, t(1,23) = -3.35, p = .004) and late childhood trauma (b = -7.86, t(1,23) = -2.48, p = .023). In healthy individuals, the spatial extent of mPFC DA activity under acute psychosocial stress was positively associated with the severity of early (b = 7.23, t(11) = 3.06, p = .016) as well as late childhood trauma (b = -7.86, t(1,23) = -2.48, p = .023). Additionally, a trend-level main effect of early childhood trauma on subjective stress response emerged within this group (b = -.7, t(11) = -2, p = .07), where higher early trauma correlated with lower subjective stress response to the task. In the NAPD group, childhood trauma was not associated with the spatial extent of the tracer displacement in mPFC (b = -1.22, t(11) = -0.67), nor was there a main effect of trauma on the subjective perception of stress within this group (b = .004, t(11) = .01, p = .99). These findings reveal a potential mechanism of neuroadaptation of prefrontal DA transmission to early life stress

  19. Early-Life Stress Affects Stress-Related Prefrontal Dopamine Activity in Healthy Adults, but Not in Individuals with Psychotic Disorder.

    PubMed

    Kasanova, Zuzana; Hernaus, Dennis; Vaessen, Thomas; van Amelsvoort, Thérèse; Winz, Oliver; Heinzel, Alexander; Pruessner, Jens; Mottaghy, Felix M; Collip, Dina; Myin-Germeys, Inez

    2016-01-01

    Early life stress may have a lasting impact on the developmental programming of the dopamine (DA) system implicated in psychosis. Early adversity could promote resilience by calibrating the prefrontal stress-regulatory dopaminergic neurotransmission to improve the individual's fit with the predicted stressful environment. Aberrant reactivity to such match between proximal and distal environments may, however, enhance psychosis disease risk. We explored the combined effects of childhood adversity and adult stress by exposing 12 unmedicated individuals with a diagnosis of non-affective psychotic disorder (NAPD) and 12 healthy controls (HC) to psychosocial stress during an [18F]fallypride positron emission tomography. Childhood trauma divided into early (ages 0-11 years) and late (12-18 years) was assessed retrospectively using a questionnaire. A significant group x childhood trauma interaction on the spatial extent of stress-related [18F]fallypride displacement was observed in the mPFC for early (b = -8.45, t(1,23) = -3.35, p = .004) and late childhood trauma (b = -7.86, t(1,23) = -2.48, p = .023). In healthy individuals, the spatial extent of mPFC DA activity under acute psychosocial stress was positively associated with the severity of early (b = 7.23, t(11) = 3.06, p = .016) as well as late childhood trauma (b = -7.86, t(1,23) = -2.48, p = .023). Additionally, a trend-level main effect of early childhood trauma on subjective stress response emerged within this group (b = -.7, t(11) = -2, p = .07), where higher early trauma correlated with lower subjective stress response to the task. In the NAPD group, childhood trauma was not associated with the spatial extent of the tracer displacement in mPFC (b = -1.22, t(11) = -0.67), nor was there a main effect of trauma on the subjective perception of stress within this group (b = .004, t(11) = .01, p = .99). These findings reveal a potential mechanism of neuroadaptation of prefrontal DA transmission to early life stress

  20. Cryptococcus neoformans isolates from Yaoundé human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients exhibited intra-individual genetic diversity and variation in antifungal susceptibility profiles between isolates from the same patient.

    PubMed

    Kammalac Ngouana, Thierry; Drakulovski, Pascal; Krasteva, Donika; Kouanfack, Charles; Reynes, Jacques; Delaporte, Eric; Boyom, Fabrice Fekam; Mallié, Michèle; Bertout, Sebastien

    2016-07-01

    Cryptococcal meningitis is a dreadful opportunistic fungal infection amongst human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. One complication in the management of the disease is the possible infection of a patient by two or more different strains of Cryptococcus neoformans. This study investigated the intra-individual genetic diversity and antifungal susceptibility of C. neoformans isolates from Yaoundé (Cameroon) HIV-infected patients with cryptococcal meningitis. Twenty-five clinical isolates were obtained during a prospective study. Five colonies were randomly collected from each initial sample. The 150 isolates obtained (125 colonies and 25 initial samples) were submitted to serotyping by multiplex PCR. Genotyping analyses were achieved using RFLP, and minisatellite- and microsatellite-length polymorphism. The antifungal susceptibility testing was carried out using a Sensititre YeastOne kit. Seven antifungals were tested: itraconazole, fluconazole, amphotericin B, ketoconazole, 5-fluorocytosine, posaconazole and voriconazole. The 150 isolates were identified as C. neoformans serotype A and genotype VNI. The microsatellite and minisatellite sequence analyses generated 15 genotypes. Six out of 25 (24 %) patients were found to be infected by two different genotypes. Antifungal susceptibility showed several profiles: posaconazole (0.015-0.25 µg ml-1), amphotericin B (0.06-1 µg ml-1), fluconazole (0.5-16 µg ml-1), itraconazole (0.008-0.12 µg ml-1), ketoconazole (0.008-0.12 µg ml-1), 5-fluorocytosine (0.25-16 µg ml-1) and voriconazole (0.008-0.12 µg ml-1). It was noted that isolates from the same patient might present different susceptibility profiles to an antifungal drug with differences of more than four dilutions. The results achieved highlighted the possible presence of isolates with different genotypes in a patient with dissimilar antifungal susceptibility profiles during a single episode of cryptococcal meningitis. PMID:27100672

  1. Online Exhibits & Concept Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douma, M.

    2009-12-01

    Presenting the complexity of geosciences to the public via the Internet poses a number of challenges. For example, utilizing various - and sometimes redundant - Web 2.0 tools can quickly devour limited time. Do you tweet? Do you write press releases? Do you create an exhibit or concept map? The presentation will provide participants with a context for utilizing Web 2.0 tools by briefly highlighting methods of online scientific communication across several dimensions. It will address issues of: * breadth and depth (e.g. from narrow topics to well-rounded views), * presentation methods (e.g. from text to multimedia, from momentary to enduring), * sources and audiences (e.g. for experts or for the public, content developed by producers to that developed by users), * content display (e.g. from linear to non-linear, from instructive to entertaining), * barriers to entry (e.g. from an incumbent advantage to neophyte accessible, from amateur to professional), * cost and reach (e.g. from cheap to expensive), and * impact (e.g. the amount learned, from anonymity to brand awareness). Against this backdrop, the presentation will provide an overview of two methods of online information dissemination, exhibits and concept maps, using the WebExhibits online museum (www.webexhibits.org) and SpicyNodes information visualization tool (www.spicynodes.org) as examples, with tips on how geoscientists can use either to communicate their science. Richly interactive online exhibits can serve to engage a large audience, appeal to visitors with multiple learning styles, prompt exploration and discovery, and present a topic’s breadth and depth. WebExhibits, which was among the first online museums, delivers interactive information, virtual experiments, and hands-on activities to the public. While large, multidisciplinary exhibits on topics like “Color Vision and Art” or “Calendars Through the Ages” require teams of scholars, user interface experts, professional writers and editors

  2. Space Shuttle Cockpit exhibit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Want to sit in the cockpit of the Space Shuttle and watch astronauts work in outer space? At StenniSphere, you can do that and much more. StenniSphere, the visitor center at John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., presents 14,000-square-feet of interactive exhibits that depict America's race for space as well as a glimpse of the future. StenniSphere is open free of charge from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. daily.

  3. Starship 2040 Exhibit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This photograph shows the Starship 2040 on display at Joe Davis Stadium in Huntsville, Alabama. Developed by the Space Transportation Directorate at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), the Starship 2040 exhibit is housed in a 48-ft (14.6-m) tractor and trailer rig, permitting it to travel around the Nation, demonstrating NASA's vision of what commercial spaceflight might be like 40 years from now. All the irnovations suggested aboard the exhibit (automated vehicle health monitoring systems, high-energy propulsion drive, navigational aids, and emergency and safety systems) are based on concepts and technologies now being studied at NASA Centers and partner institutions around the Nation. NASA is the Nation's premier agency for development of the space transportation system, including future-generation reusable launch vehicles. Such systems, the keys to a 'real' Starship 2040, require revolutionary advances in critical aerospace technologies, from thermal, magnetic, chemical, and propellantless propulsion systems to new energy sources such as space solar power or antimatter propulsion. These and other advances are now being studied, developed, and tested at NASA field centers and partner institutions all over the Nation.

  4. Pre-Service and Beginning Teachers Rate the Utility of Virtual Museum Exhibits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iding, Marie; Nordbotten, Joan

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated criteria that 91 pre-service teachers used to evaluate award-winning virtual museum exhibits for future use in teaching. Individual differences affected ratings, including teaching experience, age and gender. A categorization of participants' reasons for selection included audience level, site design and information…

  5. Early-Life Stress Affects Stress-Related Prefrontal Dopamine Activity in Healthy Adults, but Not in Individuals with Psychotic Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kasanova, Zuzana; Hernaus, Dennis; Vaessen, Thomas; van Amelsvoort, Thérèse; Winz, Oliver; Heinzel, Alexander; Pruessner, Jens; Mottaghy, Felix M.

    2016-01-01

    Early life stress may have a lasting impact on the developmental programming of the dopamine (DA) system implicated in psychosis. Early adversity could promote resilience by calibrating the prefrontal stress-regulatory dopaminergic neurotransmission to improve the individual’s fit with the predicted stressful environment. Aberrant reactivity to such match between proximal and distal environments may, however, enhance psychosis disease risk. We explored the combined effects of childhood adversity and adult stress by exposing 12 unmedicated individuals with a diagnosis of non-affective psychotic disorder (NAPD) and 12 healthy controls (HC) to psychosocial stress during an [18F]fallypride positron emission tomography. Childhood trauma divided into early (ages 0–11 years) and late (12–18 years) was assessed retrospectively using a questionnaire. A significant group x childhood trauma interaction on the spatial extent of stress-related [18F]fallypride displacement was observed in the mPFC for early (b = -8.45, t(1,23) = -3.35, p = .004) and late childhood trauma (b = -7.86, t(1,23) = -2.48, p = .023). In healthy individuals, the spatial extent of mPFC DA activity under acute psychosocial stress was positively associated with the severity of early (b = 7.23, t(11) = 3.06, p = .016) as well as late childhood trauma (b = -7.86, t(1,23) = -2.48, p = .023). Additionally, a trend-level main effect of early childhood trauma on subjective stress response emerged within this group (b = -.7, t(11) = -2, p = .07), where higher early trauma correlated with lower subjective stress response to the task. In the NAPD group, childhood trauma was not associated with the spatial extent of the tracer displacement in mPFC (b = -1.22, t(11) = -0.67), nor was there a main effect of trauma on the subjective perception of stress within this group (b = .004, t(11) = .01, p = .99). These findings reveal a potential mechanism of neuroadaptation of prefrontal DA transmission to early life

  6. Mindfulness in the Treatment of Suicidal Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luoma, Jason B.; Villatte, Jennifer L.

    2012-01-01

    Suicidal behavior is exhibited by a diverse population of individuals and spans many diagnostic categories. In order to develop effective prevention and treatment programs, it is important to identify transdiagnostic processes that impact the many pathways to suicidality, are amenable to intervention, and affect clinical outcomes when modified. A…

  7. Collaborative virtual environments art exhibition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolinsky, Margaret; Anstey, Josephine; Pape, Dave E.; Aguilera, Julieta C.; Kostis, Helen-Nicole; Tsoupikova, Daria

    2005-03-01

    This panel presentation will exhibit artwork developed in CAVEs and discuss how art methodologies enhance the science of VR through collaboration, interaction and aesthetics. Artists and scientists work alongside one another to expand scientific research and artistic expression and are motivated by exhibiting collaborative virtual environments. Looking towards the arts, such as painting and sculpture, computer graphics captures a visual tradition. Virtual reality expands this tradition to not only what we face, but to what surrounds us and even what responds to our body and its gestures. Art making that once was isolated to the static frame and an optimal point of view is now out and about, in fully immersive mode within CAVEs. Art knowledge is a guide to how the aesthetics of 2D and 3D worlds affect, transform, and influence the social, intellectual and physical condition of the human body through attention to psychology, spiritual thinking, education, and cognition. The psychological interacts with the physical in the virtual in such a way that each facilitates, enhances and extends the other, culminating in a "go together" world. Attention to sharing art experience across high-speed networks introduces a dimension of liveliness and aliveness when we "become virtual" in real time with others.

  8. When Do Children Exhibit a "Yes" Bias?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okanda, Mako; Itakura, Shoji

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated whether one hundred and thirty-five 3- to 6-year-old children exhibit a yes bias to various yes-no questions and whether their knowledge status affects the production of a yes bias. Three-year-olds exhibited a yes bias to all yes-no questions such as "preference-object" and "knowledge-object" questions pertaining to…

  9. Chimpanzees and bonobos exhibit emotional responses to decision outcomes.

    PubMed

    Rosati, Alexandra G; Hare, Brian

    2013-01-01

    The interface between cognition, emotion, and motivation is thought to be of central importance in understanding complex cognitive functions such as decision-making and executive control in humans. Although nonhuman apes have complex repertoires of emotional expression, little is known about the role of affective processes in ape decision-making. To illuminate the evolutionary origins of human-like patterns of choice, we investigated decision-making in humans' closest phylogenetic relatives, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and bonobos (Pan paniscus). In two studies, we examined these species' temporal and risk preferences, and assessed whether apes show emotional and motivational responses in decision-making contexts. We find that (1) chimpanzees are more patient and more risk-prone than are bonobos, (2) both species exhibit affective and motivational responses following the outcomes of their decisions, and (3) some emotional and motivational responses map onto species-level and individual-differences in decision-making. These results indicate that apes do exhibit emotional responses to decision-making, like humans. We explore the hypothesis that affective and motivational biases may underlie the psychological mechanisms supporting value-based preferences in these species.

  10. Modeling of Individual and Organizational Factors Affecting Traumatic Occupational Injuries Based on the Structural Equation Modeling: A Case Study in Large Construction Industries

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadfam, Iraj; Soltanzadeh, Ahmad; Moghimbeigi, Abbas; Akbarzadeh, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Background Individual and organizational factors are the factors influencing traumatic occupational injuries. Objectives The aim of the present study was the short path analysis of the severity of occupational injuries based on individual and organizational factors. Materials and Methods The present cross-sectional analytical study was implemented on traumatic occupational injuries within a ten-year timeframe in 13 large Iranian construction industries. Modeling and data analysis were done using the structural equation modeling (SEM) approach and the IBM SPSS AMOS statistical software version 22.0, respectively. Results The mean age and working experience of the injured workers were 28.03 ± 5.33 and 4.53 ± 3.82 years, respectively. The portions of construction and installation activities of traumatic occupational injuries were 64.4% and 18.1%, respectively. The SEM findings showed that the individual, organizational and accident type factors significantly were considered as effective factors on occupational injuries’ severity (P < 0.05). Conclusions Path analysis of occupational injuries based on the SEM reveals that individual and organizational factors and their indicator variables are very influential on the severity of traumatic occupational injuries. So, these should be considered to reduce occupational accidents’ severity in large construction industries. PMID:27800465

  11. Classroom Discussion and Individual Problem-Solving in the Teaching of History: Do Different Instructional Approaches Affect Interest in Different Ways?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Del Favero, Laura; Boscolo, Pietro; Vidotto, Giulio; Vicentini, Marco

    2007-01-01

    In this study, 100 Italian eighth graders were divided into two groups to compare the effects of two instructional interventions--the first based on problem-solving through discussion, the second on individual problem-solving--on students' learning of two historical topics (World War I and the economic boom), interest and self-perception of…

  12. A Comparison of the Orthogonal and the Oblique Factor Structures of Correlation Matrixes of Individual Items and of Composites of Items (Subtests) Derived from a Standardized Affective Measure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michael, William B.; Bachelor, Patricia

    1988-01-01

    Analysis of data from standard affective measures showed both an orthogonally rotated and an obliquely rotated factor solution yielded psychological dimensions that correspond to instrument's scales. Study Attitudes and Methods Survey was studied, using data on a total of 483 eleventh graders. Both solutions afforded comparable inferences about…

  13. Factors affecting competitive dominance of rainbow trout over brook trout in southern Appalachian streams: Implications of an individual-based model

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, M.E.; Rose, K.A.

    1997-01-01

    We used an individual-based model to examine possible explanations for the dominance of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss over brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis in southern Appalachian streams. Model simulations were used to quantify the effects on interspecific competition of (1) competitive advantage for feeding sites by rainbow trout, (2) latitudinal differences in stream temperatures, flows, and daylight, (3) year-class failures, (4) lower fecundity of brook trout, and (5) reductions in spawning habitat. The model tracks the daily spawning, growth, and survival of individuals of both species throughout their lifetime in a series of connected stream habitat units (pools, runs, or riffles). Average densities of each species based on 100-year simulations were compared for several levels of each of the five factors and for sympatric and allopatric conditions. Based on model results and empirical information, we conclude that more frequent year-class failures and the lower fecundity of brook trout are both possible and likely explanations for rainbow trout dominance, that warmer temperatures due to latitude and limited spawning habitat are possible but unlikely explanations, and that competitive advantage for feeding sites by rainbow trout is an unlikely explanation. Additional field work should focus on comparative studies of the reproductive success and the early life stage mortalities of brook and rainbow trout among Appalachian streams with varying rainbow trout dominance. 53 refs., 11 figs.

  14. Being deluded after being excluded? How emotion regulation deficits in paranoia-prone individuals affect state paranoia during experimentally induced social stress.

    PubMed

    Westermann, Stefan; Kesting, Marie-Luise; Lincoln, Tania M

    2012-06-01

    Emotion regulation (ER) has become a relevant construct to understanding paranoia. While the ER strategy called expressive suppression (e.g., poker face) may foster state paranoia by increasing arousal, another strategy called reappraisal (e.g., changing the perspective on situations) may reduce negative emotions and state paranoia when adaptively used. However, if reappraisal fails, this could increase paranoia. The aim of this study was to test the proposed effects of the ER strategies on state paranoia in the socially stressful situation of being excluded in paranoia-prone individuals. We conducted an experimental online study with N=116 participants who were randomized to a social inclusion or an exclusion condition using a virtual Cyberball ball-tossing game. They completed questionnaires on paranoia proneness and habitual ER strategies. Before and after the Cyberball task, participants rated their level of state paranoia. The impact of habitual ER strategies, paranoia proneness, and social stress on changes in state paranoia was investigated using linear regression analysis. The three-way interaction of social stress, paranoia proneness, and habitual reappraisal use significantly predicted state paranoia, t(114)=2.62, p=0.010. The decomposition of the interaction term revealed that in the social stress condition, the impact of reappraisal on state paranoia was moderated by the level paranoia proneness. Specifically, in high paranoia-prone individuals the use of reappraisal predicted higher state paranoia. The findings regarding habitual use of suppression were not significant. Although reappraisal is generally considered a functional strategy, its use in distressing social situations seems to be impaired in persons with higher paranoia proneness. A working model of emotion dysregulation in delusions is presented and possible implications for cognitive therapy of psychosis are discussed.

  15. Human Polyomavirus JC monitoring and noncoding control region analysis in dynamic cohorts of individuals affected by immune-mediated diseases under treatment with biologics: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) onset, caused by Polyomavirus JC (JCPyV) in patients affected by immune-mediated diseases during biological treatment, raised concerns about the safety profile of these agents. Therefore, the aims of this study were the JCPyV reactivation monitoring and the noncoding control region (NCCR) and viral protein 1 (VP1) analysis in patients affected by different immune-mediated diseases and treated with biologics. Methods We performed JCPyV-specific quantitative PCR of biological samples collected at moment of recruitment (t0) and every 4 months (t1, t2, t3, t4). Subsequently, rearrangements’ analysis of NCCR and VP1 was carried out. Data were analyzed using χ2 test. Results Results showed that at t0 patients with chronic inflammatory rheumatic diseases presented a JCPyV load in the urine significantly higher (p≤0.05) than in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and Crohn’s disease (CD). It can also be observed a significant association between JC viruria and JCPyV antibodies after 1 year of natalizumab (p=0.04) in MS patients. Finally, NCCR analysis showed the presence of an archetype-like sequence in all urine samples, whereas a rearranged NCCR Type IR was found in colon-rectal biopsies collected from 2 CD patients after 16 months of infliximab. Furthermore, sequences isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of 2 MS patients with JCPyV antibody at t0 and t3, showed a NCCR Type IIR with a duplication of a 98 bp unit and a 66 bp insert, resulting in a boxB deletion and 37 T to G transversion into the Spi-B binding site. In all patients, a prevalence of genotypes 1A and 1B, the predominant JCPyV genotypes in Europe, was observed. Conclusions It has been important to understand whether the specific inflammatory scenario in different immune-mediated diseases could affect JCPyV reactivation from latency, in particular from kidneys. Moreover, for a more accurate PML risk stratification

  16. Sex differences in science museum exhibit attraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arámbula Greenfield, Teresa

    This study examines the relative attraction of hands-on, interactive science museum exhibits for females and males. Studies have demonstrated that such exhibits can be effective learning experiences for children, with both academic and affective benefits. Other studies have shown that girls and boys do not always experience the same science-related educational opportunities and that, even when they do, they do not necessarily receive the same benefits from them. These early differences can lead to more serious educational and professional disparities later in life. As interactive museum exhibits represent a science experience that is-readily available to both girls and boys, the question arose as to whether they were being used similarly by the two groups as well as by adult women and men. It was found that both girls and boys used all types of exhibits, but that girls were more likely than boys to use puzzles and exhibits focusing on the human body; boys were more likely than girls to use computers and exhibits illustrating physical science principles. However, this was less true of children accompanied by adults (parents) than it was of unaccompanied children on school field trips who roamed the museum more freely.Received: 16 February 1994; Revised: 3 February 1995;

  17. Does a short-term increase in testosterone affect the intensity or persistence of territorial aggression? - An approach using an individual's hormonal reactive scope to study hormonal effects on behavior.

    PubMed

    Goymann, Wolfgang; Villavicencio, Camila P; Apfelbeck, Beate

    2015-10-01

    In this study, we describe an approach based on an individual's hormonal reactive scope to study short-term effects of hormones on behavior. The control of territorial aggression has been traditionally linked to testosterone. Males of some vertebrate species show an increase in testosterone during territorial interactions and implantation studies suggest that such an increase in testosterone enhances the intensity and persistence of aggression. Here, we tested whether a short-term maximum release of testosterone - based on an individual's hormonal reactive scope - affects the intensity or persistence of territorial aggression in male black redstarts, a bird species in which testosterone does not increase during territorial encounters. An injection with gonadotropin-releasing-hormone (GnRH) induced a physiological peak in plasma testosterone that was specific for each individual (=individual reactive scope). However, such short-term surges in an individual's testosterone concentration did not affect the intensity or persistence of aggression. In conclusion, this study demonstrated (1) that a species that naturally does not increase testosterone during male-male encounters would not benefit from such an increase in terms of being more aggressive, (2) that behavioral studies using GnRH-injections represent a promising approach to study species differences in androgen responsiveness, and (3) that injections of releasing or tropic hormones in general may be a suitable approach to study short-term influences of hormones on behavior. These injections effectively mimic the potential short-term changes in hormones that can occur in the real life of individuals and enable us to study the effects of hormonal changes on behavior or other traits within an ecological and evolutionary framework.

  18. Exhibitions: Facing Outward, Pointing Inward

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Joseph P.

    2007-01-01

    The Coalition of Essential Schools (CES) Exhibitions Project of the early 1990s produced a range of work that continues to inform the practice of using exhibitions as a "360 degree" method of transforming teaching and learning, community connections, school design, and assessment. Among that work was this paper coupling the origins of exhibitions…

  19. The medial prefrontal cortex exhibits money illusion

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Bernd; Rangel, Antonio; Wibral, Matthias; Falk, Armin

    2009-01-01

    Behavioral economists have proposed that money illusion, which is a deviation from rationality in which individuals engage in nominal evaluation, can explain a wide range of important economic and social phenomena. This proposition stands in sharp contrast to the standard economic assumption of rationality that requires individuals to judge the value of money only on the basis of the bundle of goods that it can buy—its real value—and not on the basis of the actual amount of currency—its nominal value. We used fMRI to investigate whether the brain's reward circuitry exhibits money illusion. Subjects received prizes in 2 different experimental conditions that were identical in real economic terms, but differed in nominal terms. Thus, in the absence of money illusion there should be no differences in activation in reward-related brain areas. In contrast, we found that areas of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), which have been previously associated with the processing of anticipatory and experienced rewards, and the valuation of goods, exhibited money illusion. We also found that the amount of money illusion exhibited by the vmPFC was correlated with the amount of money illusion exhibited in the evaluation of economic transactions. PMID:19307555

  20. The medial prefrontal cortex exhibits money illusion.

    PubMed

    Weber, Bernd; Rangel, Antonio; Wibral, Matthias; Falk, Armin

    2009-03-31

    Behavioral economists have proposed that money illusion, which is a deviation from rationality in which individuals engage in nominal evaluation, can explain a wide range of important economic and social phenomena. This proposition stands in sharp contrast to the standard economic assumption of rationality that requires individuals to judge the value of money only on the basis of the bundle of goods that it can buy-its real value-and not on the basis of the actual amount of currency-its nominal value. We used fMRI to investigate whether the brain's reward circuitry exhibits money illusion. Subjects received prizes in 2 different experimental conditions that were identical in real economic terms, but differed in nominal terms. Thus, in the absence of money illusion there should be no differences in activation in reward-related brain areas. In contrast, we found that areas of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), which have been previously associated with the processing of anticipatory and experienced rewards, and the valuation of goods, exhibited money illusion. We also found that the amount of money illusion exhibited by the vmPFC was correlated with the amount of money illusion exhibited in the evaluation of economic transactions.

  1. The variability of times to detect growth from individual Clostridium botulinum type E endospores is differentially affected by high pressure treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenz, Christian A.; Schnabel, Juliane; Vogel, Rudi F.

    2014-10-01

    High pressure thermal (HPT) processing is a candidate technology for the production of safe and stable food. However, little is known about the effect of HPT or high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatments at ambient temperature on the variability of times to detect growth from individual spores. We investigated this effect by treating Clostridium botulinum type E spores with HHP (200-600 MPa, 20°C) and HPT (600 MPa, 80°C and 800 MPa, 60°C). Our results indicate that the mean detection times increase and the frequency distribution shifts toward longer times when HHP treatment intensity is increased. HPT treatments result in a highly scattered distribution. In contrast, pressure levels ≤300 MPa decrease detection times and heterogeneity of their distribution, which could lead to an increase in the potential risk originating from C. botulinum type E spores. Data provided here could help to refine risk assessment regarding this important food intoxicator.

  2. Individual-based model of young-of-the-year striped bass population dynamics. II. Factors affecting recruitment in the Potomac River, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Cowan, J.H. ); Rose, K.A. ); Rutherford, E.S.; Houde, E.D. )

    1993-05-01

    An individual-based model of the population dynamics of young-of-the-year striped bass Morone saxatilis in the Potomac River, Maryland, was used to test the hypothesis that historically high recruitment variability can be explained by changes in environmental and biological factors that result in relatively small changes in growth and mortality rates of striped bass larvae. The four factors examined were (1) size distribution of female parents, (2) zooplankton prey density during the development of striped bass larvae, (3) density of completing larval white perch M. americana, and (4) temperature during larval development. Simulation results suggest that variations in female size and in prey for larvae alone could cause 10-fold variability in recruitment. But no single factor alone caused changes in vital rates of age-0 fish that could account for the 145-fold variability in the Potomac River index of juvenile recruitment. However, combined positive or negative effects of two or more factors resulted in more than a 150-fold simulated recruitment variability, suggesting that combinations of factors can account for the high observed annual variability in striped bass recruitment success. Higher cumulative mortality of feeding larvae and younger life stages than of juveniles was common to all simulations. supporting the contention that striped bass year-class strength is determined prior to metamorphosis. 76 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Differential expression profiles of microRNA in the little brown bat (Myotis lucifugus) associated with white nose syndrome affected and unaffected individuals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Iwanowicz, D.D.; Iwanowicz, L.R.; Hitt, N.P.; King, T.L.

    2013-01-01

    First documented in New York State in 2006, white nose syndrome (WNS) quickly became the leading cause of mortality in hibernating bat species in the United States. WNS is caused by a psychrophilic fungus, Geomyces destructans. Clinical signs of this pathogen are expressed as a dusty white fungus predominately around the nose and on the wings of affected bats. Relatively new biomarkers, such as microRNAs (miRNAs) are being targeted as markers to predict the syndrome prior to the clinical manifestation. The primary objective of this study was to identify miRNAs that could serve as biomarkers and proxies of little brown bat health. Bats were collected from hibernacula that had tested positive and negative for WNS. Genetic sequencing was completed using the Ion Torrent platform. A number of miRNAs were identified from the liver as putative biomarkers of WNS. However, given the small sample size for each treatment, this data set has only coarsely identified miRNAs indicative of WNS, and further validation is required.

  4. T1R2 and T1R3 subunits are individually unnecessary for normal affective licking responses to Polycose: implications for saccharide taste receptors in mice.

    PubMed

    Treesukosol, Yada; Blonde, Ginger D; Spector, Alan C

    2009-04-01

    The T1R2 and T1R3 proteins are expressed in taste receptor cells and form a heterodimer binding with compounds described as sweet by humans. We examined whether Polycose taste might be mediated through this heterodimer by testing T1R2 knockout (KO) and T1R3 KO mice and their wild-type (WT) littermate controls in a series of brief-access taste tests (25-min sessions with 5-s trials). Sucrose, Na-saccharin, and Polycose were each tested for three consecutive sessions with order of presentation varied among subgroups in a Latin-Square manner. Both KO groups displayed blunted licking responses and initiated significantly fewer trials of sucrose and Na-saccharin across a range of concentrations. KO mice tested after Polycose exposure demonstrated some degree of concentration-dependent licking of sucrose, likely attributable to learning related to prior postingestive experience. These results are consistent with prior findings in the literature, implicating the T1R2+3 heterodimer as the principal taste receptor for sweet-tasting ligands, and also provide support for the potential of postingestive experience to influence responding in the KO mice. In contrast, T1R2 KO and T1R3 KO mice displayed concentration-dependent licking responses to Polycose that tracked those of their WT controls and in some cases licked midrange concentrations more; the number of Polycose trials initiated overall did not differ between KO and WT mice. Thus, the T1R2 and T1R3 proteins are individually unnecessary for normal concentration-dependent licking of Polycose to be expressed in a brief-access test. Whether at least one of these T1R protein subunits is necessary for normal Polycose responsiveness remains untested. Alternatively, there may be a novel taste receptor(s) that mediates polysaccharide taste. PMID:19158407

  5. Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and Affecting Factors among Individuals Aged 30 and over in Balçova District of İzmir

    PubMed Central

    Soysal, Ahmet; Şimşek, Hatice; Doğanay, Sinem; Günay, Türkan

    2016-01-01

    Background: The studies have shown that metabolic syndrome (MetS) leads to an increase twice as much in cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and four times as much in diabetes mellitus (DM) prevalence since the second half of the 20th century. Aims: This study aims to determine and discuss the prevalence of the MetS and co- factors among individuals at the age of 30 and over in Balcova district of İzmir province according to the American National Cholesterol Education Program - Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III) and InternationalDiabetes Federation (IDF) criteria. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: Data obtained from the Balcova Heart Project in İzmir were used in the study. The dependent variable of the study is MetS existence. The independent variables were socio-demographic characteristics (age, gender, education level, and marital status), self-perceived economic status, physical activity, smoking status, healthy nutrition and body mass index (BMI). Results: The prevalence of MetS was 36.9% according to the diagnostic criteria of IDF, while it was 27.4% according to ATP III criteria. According to the both criteria, increasing age, low education, poor economic status perception, physical inactivity, and obesity increase the risk of MetS. Apart from the IDF criteria, being female and a current smoker increase the risk of the MetS in the NCEP-ATP III. Conclusion: Compared to educational studies of MetS as of today, which are community and health-oriented studies, it is challenging that the prevalence of MetS was found to be high for both criteria in our study. Therefore, in particular, primary health care doctors must be prompted to protect the public against DM and CVD in particular. PMID:27308078

  6. No Consistent Difference in Gray Matter Volume between Individuals with Fibromyalgia and Age-Matched Healthy Subjects when Controlling for Affective Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Michael C.; Harris, Richard E.; Sundgren, Pia C.; Welsh, Robert C.; Fernandes, Carlo R.; Clauw, Daniel J.; Williams, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is thought to involve abnormalities in central pain processing. Recent studies involving small samples have suggested alterations in gray matter volume (GMV) in brains of FM patients. Our objective was to verify these findings in a somewhat larger sample using voxel-based morphometry (VBM), while controlling for presence of affective disorders (AD). T1-weighted magnetic resonance image (MRI) brain scans were obtained on 29 FM patients with AD, 29 FM patients without AD, and 29 age-matched healthy controls (HC) using a 3T scanner. Segmentation, spatial normalization, and volumetric modulation were performed using an automated protocol within SPM5. Smoothed gray matter segments were entered into a voxel-wise one-way ANOVA, and a search for significant clusters was performed using thresholding methods published in previous studies (whole-brain threshold of p<.05 correcting for multiple comparisons; region-of-interest (ROI) threshold of p≤.001 uncorrected, or p<.05 small-volume corrected). The whole-brain analysis did not reveal any significant clusters. ROI-based analysis revealed a significant difference in left anterior insula GMV among the three groups (xyz={−28, 21, 9}; p=.026, corrected). However, on post-hoc testing, FM patients without AD did not differ significantly from HC with respect to mean GMV extracted from this cluster. A significant negative correlation was found between mean cluster GMV and scores of trait anxiety (State-Trait Personality Inventory, Trait Anxiety scale; rho=−.470, p<.001). No other significant clusters were found on ROI-based analysis. Our results emphasize the importance of correcting for AD when carrying out VBM studies in chronic pain. PMID:19375224

  7. Against the Odds Exhibition Opens

    MedlinePlus

    ... LA and Vox Populi organizations. Photo courtesy of Bill Branson At the exhibition, HIV and AIDS were topics addressed by Dr. Victoria Cargill (right), Director of Clinical Studies and Director of Minority ...

  8. Greenhouse Earth: A Traveling Exhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Booth, W.H.; Caesar, S.

    1992-09-01

    The Franklin Institute Science Museum provided an exhibit entitled the Greenhouse Earth: A Traveling Exhibition. This 3500 square-foot exhibit on global climate change was developed in collaboration with the Association of Science-Technology Centers. The exhibit opened at The Franklin Institute on February 14, 1992, welcoming 291,000 visitors over its three-month stay. During its three-year tour, Greenhouse Earth will travel to ten US cities, reaching two million visitors. Greenhouse Earth aims to deepen public understanding of the scientific issues of global warming and the conservation measures that can be taken to slow its effects. The exhibit features hands-on exhibitry, interactive computer programs and videos, a theater production, a demonstration cart,'' guided tours, and lectures. supplemental educational programs at the Institute included a teachers preview, a symposium on climate change, and a satellite field trip.'' The development of Greenhouse Earth included front-end and formative evaluation procedures. Evaluation includes interviews with visitors, prototypes, and summative surveys for participating museums. During its stay in Philadelphia, Greenhouse Earth was covered by the local and national press, with reviews in print and broadcast media. Greenhouse Earth is the first large-scale museum exhibit to address global climate change.

  9. Agriculture increases individual fitness.

    PubMed

    Kovaka, Karen; Santana, Carlos; Patel, Raj; Akçay, Erol; Weisberg, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We question the need to explain the onset of agriculture by appealing to the second type of multilevel selection (MLS2). Unlike eusocial insect colonies, human societies do not exhibit key features of evolutionary individuals. If we avoid the mistake of equating Darwinian fitness with health and quality of life, the adoption of agriculture is almost certainly explicable in terms of individual-level selection and individual rationality. PMID:27561384

  10. Individual intake of free-choice mineral mix by grazing beef cows may be less than typical formulation assumptions and form of selenium in mineral mix affects blood Se concentrations of cows and their suckling calves.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Jennifer D; Burris, Walter R; Boling, James A; Matthews, James C

    2013-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine (1) the individual ad libitum intake of mineral mix by beef cows managed under a year-long, fall-calving, forage-based production regimen and (2) if Se form in the mineral mix affected the blood Se concentrations of cows and suckling calves. Twenty-four late-gestation (6 to 8 months) Angus-cross cows (2.7 ± 0.8 years; body weight [BW] = 585 ± 58 kg) were blocked by BW and randomly assigned (n = 8) to a mineral supplement treatment (TRT) containing 35 ppm Se as either inorganic (ISe; sodium selenite), organic (OSe; Sel-Plex®), or a 1:1 combination of ISe/OSe (MIX). Cows commonly grazed a 10.1-ha predominately tall fescue pasture and had individual ad libitum access to TRT using in-pasture Calan gates. Cows calved from August to November and calves had common ad libitum access to creep feed and a mineral supplement that lacked Se. Cow jugular blood was taken at 28-day intervals (13 periods) and calf blood was taken with cows from birth through weaning. Individual cow mineral mix (mean = 54.0 ± 7.0 g/day, range = 97.3 to 27.9 ± 7.4 g/day) and Se (mean = 1.82 ± 0.25 mg/day, range = 3.31 to 0.95 ± 0.25 mg/day) intakes were affected by period (P < 0.0001), but not by cow Se TRT (P > 0.30). Cow blood Se (0.109 to 0.229 ± 0.01 μg/mL) was affected (P < 0.002) by period, Se form, and their interaction, with ISe < MIX for periods 8 and 11, ISe < OSe for all periods except period 1, and MIX < OSe for periods 2 to 4, 7, 8, 10, and 12. Calf blood Se (in micrograms Se per milliliter) was correlated with cow blood Se and affected (P < 0.0001) by cow Se TRT, with ISe (0.07 to 0.11) < MIX (0.10 to 0.15) = OSe (0.16 to 0.19). These data reveal that (1) mean supplemental ad libitum cow mineral intake was 36% less than the typical formulation intake expectations (85 g/day) and, correspondingly, mean supplemental Se intake was 33% less than that allowed by the FDA and (2) cow Se TRT differentially affected both cow and calf blood

  11. Considering High-Tech Exhibits?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Routman, Emily

    1994-01-01

    Discusses a variety of high-tech exhibit media used in The Living World, an educational facility operated by The Saint Louis Zoo. Considers the strengths and weaknesses of holograms, video, animatronics, video-equipped microscopes, and computer interactives. Computer interactives are treated with special attention. (LZ)

  12. Types of Seizures Affecting Individuals with TSC

    MedlinePlus

    ... who later transitioned into this syndrome. References & Resources Epilepsy Information http://www.epilepsy.com Thiele EA, Weiner HL (2010) Epilepsy in TSC, In, Tuberous Sclerosis Complex: Genes, Clinical ...

  13. The palaeontological exhibition: a venue for dialogue.

    PubMed

    Murriello, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the dialogue between museums and their visitors enables museums to subsist, undergo transformations and become consolidated as socially valued cultural venues. The Museo de La Plata (Argentina) was created in the late nineteenth century as a natural history museum, and this study shows that currently the museum is valued socially as a venue for family leisure and education, at which people make sense to the objects exhibited through characteristics conferred upon them by both the institution and the visitor. Nevertheless, such dialogue is somehow affected by the museographic proposal and the public interpretation of the institutional narrative, which could be analysed within the frame of contextual learning. As a consequence, the evolutionary idea that the museum aims to communicate is distorted by the public. This article highlights the importance of considering the visitors' interpretations when planning museum exhibitions, a perspective that has been rather absent in the Argentinian museums.

  14. Balamuthia mandrillaris exhibits metalloprotease activities.

    PubMed

    Matin, Abdul; Stins, Monique; Kim, Kwang Sik; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

    2006-06-01

    Balamuthia mandrillaris is a recently identified protozoan pathogen that can cause fatal granulomatous encephalitis. However, the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of B. mandrillaris encephalitis remain unclear. Because proteases may play a role in the central nervous system (CNS) pathology, we used spectrophotometric, cytopathic and zymographic assays to assess protease activities of B. mandrillaris. Using two clinical isolates of B. mandrillaris (from human and baboon), we observed that B. mandrillaris exhibits protease activities. Zymographic assays revealed major protease bands of approximate molecular weights in the region of 40-50 kDa on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels using gelatin as substrate. The protease bands were inhibited with 1,10-phenanthroline, suggesting metallo-type proteases. The proteolytic activities were observed over a pH range of 5-11 with maximum activity at neutral pH and at 42 degrees C. Balamuthia mandrillaris proteases exhibit properties to degrade extracellular matrix (ECM), which provide structural and functional support to the brain tissue. This is shown by degradation of collagen I and III (major components of collagenous ECM), elastin (elastic fibrils of ECM), plasminogen (involved in proteolytic degradation of ECM), as well as other substrates such as casein and gelatin but not haemoglobin. However, these proteases exhibited a minimal role in B. mandrillaris-mediated host cell death in vitro using human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs). This was shown using broad-spectrum matrix metalloprotease inhibitors, GM 6001 and GM 1489, which had no effect on B. mandrillaris-mediated HBMEC cytotoxicity. This is the first demonstration that B. mandrillaris exhibits metalloproteases, which may play important role(s) in the ECM degradation and thus in CNS pathology. PMID:16706791

  15. 14 CFR 77.59 - Subpoenas of witnesses and exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Subpoenas of witnesses and exhibits. 77.59 Section 77.59 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRSPACE OBJECTS AFFECTING NAVIGABLE AIRSPACE Rules of Practice for Hearings Under Subpart D § 77.59 Subpoenas of witnesses and exhibits....

  16. Human omental and subcutaneous adipose tissue exhibit specific lipidomic signatures.

    PubMed

    Jové, Mariona; Moreno-Navarrete, José María; Pamplona, Reinald; Ricart, Wifredo; Portero-Otín, Manuel; Fernández-Real, José Manuel

    2014-03-01

    Despite their differential effects on human metabolic pathophysiology, the differences in omental and subcutaneous lipidomes are largely unknown. To explore this field, liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry was used for lipidome analyses of adipose tissue samples (visceral and subcutaneous) selected from a group of obese subjects (n=38). Transcriptomics and in vitro studies in adipocytes were used to confirm the pathways affected by location. The analyses revealed the existence of obesity-related specific lipidome signatures in each of these locations, attributed to selective enrichment of specific triglycerides, glycerophospholipids, and sphingolipids, because these were not observed in adipose tissues from nonobese individuals. The changes were compatible with subcutaneous enrichment in pathways involved in adipogenesis, triacylglyceride synthesis, and lipid droplet formation, as well as increased α-oxidation. Marked differences between omental and subcutaneous depots in obese individuals were seen in the association of lipid species with metabolic traits (body mass index and insulin sensitivity). Targeted studies also revealed increased cholesterol (Δ56%) and cholesterol epoxide (Δ34%) concentrations in omental adipose tissue. In view of the effects of cholesterol epoxide, which induced enhanced expression of adipocyte differentiation and α-oxidation genes in human omental adipocytes, a novel role for cholesterol epoxide as a signaling molecule for differentiation is proposed. In summary, in obesity, adipose tissue exhibits a location-specific differential lipid profile that may contribute to explaining part of its distinct pathogenic role.

  17. Whose health is affected by income inequality? A multilevel interaction analysis of contemporaneous and lagged effects of state income inequality on individual self-rated health in the United States.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, S V; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2006-06-01

    The empirical relationship between income inequality and health has been much debated and discussed. Recent reviews suggest that the current evidence is mixed, with the relationship between state income inequality and health in the United States (US) being perhaps the most robust. In this paper, we examine the multilevel interactions between state income inequality, individual poor self-rated health, and a range of individual demographic and socioeconomic markers in the US. We use the pooled data from the 1995 and 1997 Current Population Surveys, and the data on state income inequality (represented using Gini coefficient) from the 1990, 1980, and 1970 US Censuses. Utilizing a cross-sectional multilevel design of 201,221 adults nested within 50 US states we calibrated two-level binomial hierarchical mixed models (with states specified as a random effect). Our analyses suggest that for a 0.05 change in the state income inequality, the odds ratio (OR) of reporting poor health was 1.30 (95% CI: 1.17-1.45) in a conditional model that included individual age, sex, race, marital status, education, income, and health insurance coverage as well as state median income. With few exceptions, we did not find strong statistical support for differential effects of state income inequality across different population groups. For instance, the relationship between state income inequality and poor health was steeper for whites compared to blacks (OR=1.34; 95% CI: 1.20-1.48) and for individuals with incomes greater than $75,000 compared to less affluent individuals (OR=1.65; 95% CI: 1.26-2.15). Our findings, however, primarily suggests an overall (as opposed to differential) contextual effect of state income inequality on individual self-rated poor health. To the extent that contemporaneous state income inequality differentially affects population sub-groups, our analyses suggest that the adverse impact of inequality is somewhat stronger for the relatively advantaged socioeconomic

  18. When do children exhibit a "yes" bias?

    PubMed

    Okanda, Mako; Itakura, Shoji

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated whether one hundred and thirty-five 3- to 6-year-old children exhibit a yes bias to various yes-no questions and whether their knowledge status affects the production of a yes bias. Three-year-olds exhibited a yes bias to all yes-no questions such as preference-object and knowledge-object questions pertaining to objects, and knowledge-face questions pertaining to facial expressions. Four-year-olds tended to say "yes" only to knowledge-object questions. Five-year-olds did not show any strong response tendency. Six-year-olds exhibited a nay-saying bias to knowledge-face questions. Also, 3-year-olds could indicate the correct option when asked questions with 2 response options. It suggested that 3-year-olds tended to inappropriately say "yes" to yes-no questions, although they knew the answers to the questions. The mechanism of a yes bias was discussed.

  19. Weight lifting can facilitate appreciative comprehension for museum exhibits

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Yuki; Harada, Shinya; Choi, Wonje; Fujino, Rika; Tokunaga, Akinobu; Gao, YueYun; Miura, Kayo

    2014-01-01

    Appreciation of exhibits in a museum can be equated to a virtual experience of lives in the contexts originally surrounding the exhibits. Here we focus on the importance of weight information, and hence tested whether experiencing a weight during museum exhibit appreciation affects the beholders' satisfaction and recognition memory for the exhibits. An experiment was performed at a museum exhibiting skeletal preparations of animals. We used nine preparations and prepared four weight stimuli as weight cues in accordance with the actual weight of four of the preparations: Remaining five preparations was displayed without weight stimuli. In the cued condition, participants were asked to lift up the weight stimuli during their observation of the four exhibits. In the uncued condition, participants observed the exhibits without touching the weight stimuli. After observation of the exhibits, the participants responded to a questionnaire that measured their impressions of the exhibits and the museum, and performed a recognition test on the exhibits. Results showed that memory performance was better and viewing duration was longer with weight lifting instruction than without instruction. A factor analysis on the questionnaires revealed four factors (likeability, contentment, value, and quality). A path analysis showed indirect effects of viewing duration on memory performance and willingness-to-pay (WTP) for the museum appreciation through the impression factors. Our findings provide insight into a new interactive exhibition that enables long appreciation producing positive effects on visitors' impression, memory, and value estimation for exhibits. PMID:24782807

  20. Weight lifting can facilitate appreciative comprehension for museum exhibits.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Yuki; Harada, Shinya; Choi, Wonje; Fujino, Rika; Tokunaga, Akinobu; Gao, Yueyun; Miura, Kayo

    2014-01-01

    Appreciation of exhibits in a museum can be equated to a virtual experience of lives in the contexts originally surrounding the exhibits. Here we focus on the importance of weight information, and hence tested whether experiencing a weight during museum exhibit appreciation affects the beholders' satisfaction and recognition memory for the exhibits. An experiment was performed at a museum exhibiting skeletal preparations of animals. We used nine preparations and prepared four weight stimuli as weight cues in accordance with the actual weight of four of the preparations: Remaining five preparations was displayed without weight stimuli. In the cued condition, participants were asked to lift up the weight stimuli during their observation of the four exhibits. In the uncued condition, participants observed the exhibits without touching the weight stimuli. After observation of the exhibits, the participants responded to a questionnaire that measured their impressions of the exhibits and the museum, and performed a recognition test on the exhibits. Results showed that memory performance was better and viewing duration was longer with weight lifting instruction than without instruction. A factor analysis on the questionnaires revealed four factors (likeability, contentment, value, and quality). A path analysis showed indirect effects of viewing duration on memory performance and willingness-to-pay (WTP) for the museum appreciation through the impression factors. Our findings provide insight into a new interactive exhibition that enables long appreciation producing positive effects on visitors' impression, memory, and value estimation for exhibits.

  1. Crows spontaneously exhibit analogical reasoning.

    PubMed

    Smirnova, Anna; Zorina, Zoya; Obozova, Tanya; Wasserman, Edward

    2015-01-19

    Analogical reasoning is vital to advanced cognition and behavioral adaptation. Many theorists deem analogical thinking to be uniquely human and to be foundational to categorization, creative problem solving, and scientific discovery. Comparative psychologists have long been interested in the species generality of analogical reasoning, but they initially found it difficult to obtain empirical support for such thinking in nonhuman animals (for pioneering efforts, see [2, 3]). Researchers have since mustered considerable evidence and argument that relational matching-to-sample (RMTS) effectively captures the essence of analogy, in which the relevant logical arguments are presented visually. In RMTS, choice of test pair BB would be correct if the sample pair were AA, whereas choice of test pair EF would be correct if the sample pair were CD. Critically, no items in the correct test pair physically match items in the sample pair, thus demanding that only relational sameness or differentness is available to support accurate choice responding. Initial evidence suggested that only humans and apes can successfully learn RMTS with pairs of sample and test items; however, monkeys have subsequently done so. Here, we report that crows too exhibit relational matching behavior. Even more importantly, crows spontaneously display relational responding without ever having been trained on RMTS; they had only been trained on identity matching-to-sample (IMTS). Such robust and uninstructed relational matching behavior represents the most convincing evidence yet of analogical reasoning in a nonprimate species, as apes alone have spontaneously exhibited RMTS behavior after only IMTS training.

  2. Crows spontaneously exhibit analogical reasoning.

    PubMed

    Smirnova, Anna; Zorina, Zoya; Obozova, Tanya; Wasserman, Edward

    2015-01-19

    Analogical reasoning is vital to advanced cognition and behavioral adaptation. Many theorists deem analogical thinking to be uniquely human and to be foundational to categorization, creative problem solving, and scientific discovery. Comparative psychologists have long been interested in the species generality of analogical reasoning, but they initially found it difficult to obtain empirical support for such thinking in nonhuman animals (for pioneering efforts, see [2, 3]). Researchers have since mustered considerable evidence and argument that relational matching-to-sample (RMTS) effectively captures the essence of analogy, in which the relevant logical arguments are presented visually. In RMTS, choice of test pair BB would be correct if the sample pair were AA, whereas choice of test pair EF would be correct if the sample pair were CD. Critically, no items in the correct test pair physically match items in the sample pair, thus demanding that only relational sameness or differentness is available to support accurate choice responding. Initial evidence suggested that only humans and apes can successfully learn RMTS with pairs of sample and test items; however, monkeys have subsequently done so. Here, we report that crows too exhibit relational matching behavior. Even more importantly, crows spontaneously display relational responding without ever having been trained on RMTS; they had only been trained on identity matching-to-sample (IMTS). Such robust and uninstructed relational matching behavior represents the most convincing evidence yet of analogical reasoning in a nonprimate species, as apes alone have spontaneously exhibited RMTS behavior after only IMTS training. PMID:25532894

  3. Multimodal audio guide for museums and exhibitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebbensleben, Sandra; Dittmann, Jana; Vielhauer, Claus

    2006-02-01

    In our paper we introduce a new Audio Guide concept for exploring buildings, realms and exhibitions. Actual proposed solutions work in most cases with pre-defined devices, which users have to buy or borrow. These systems often go along with complex technical installations and require a great degree of user training for device handling. Furthermore, the activation of audio commentary related to the exhibition objects is typically based on additional components like infrared, radio frequency or GPS technology. Beside the necessity of installation of specific devices for user location, these approaches often only support automatic activation with no or limited user interaction. Therefore, elaboration of alternative concepts appears worthwhile. Motivated by these aspects, we introduce a new concept based on usage of the visitor's own mobile smart phone. The advantages in our approach are twofold: firstly the Audio Guide can be used in various places without any purchase and extensive installation of additional components in or around the exhibition object. Secondly, the visitors can experience the exhibition on individual tours only by uploading the Audio Guide at a single point of entry, the Audio Guide Service Counter, and keeping it on her or his personal device. Furthermore, since the user usually is quite familiar with the interface of her or his phone and can thus interact with the application device easily. Our technical concept makes use of two general ideas for location detection and activation. Firstly, we suggest an enhanced interactive number based activation by exploiting the visual capabilities of modern smart phones and secondly we outline an active digital audio watermarking approach, where information about objects are transmitted via an analog audio channel.

  4. Importance of individual analysis of environmental and climatic factors affecting the density of Leishmania vectors living in the same geographical area: the example of Phlebotomus ariasi and P. perniciosus in northeast Spain.

    PubMed

    Ballart, Cristina; Guerrero, Irene; Castells, Xavier; Barón, Sergio; Castillejo, Soledad; Alcover, M Magdalena; Portús, Montserrat; Gállego, Montserrat

    2014-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the role of specific environmental and climatic factors affecting the distribution and density of Phlebotomus ariasi and P. perniciosus , the proven vectors for Leishmania infantum in Spain. An entomological study was carried out in July 2006 in the province of Lleida with sticky traps set in their diurnal resting places at altitudes ranging from 86 to 1,755 m above the mean sea level (339 sites were sampled). Bivariate analysis revealed that factors such as altitude, bioclimatic zone, temperature, precipitation, sampling site (site relative to settlement, site situation, site category), wall vegetation, particular environment (in this case a natural park), general environment, adjacent natural vegetation and land cover were significantly associated with sand fly densities. The multivariate model for P. perniciosus revealed that its density was affected by site and land cover. Specifically, paved driveways correlated negatively with vector density (Incidence Risk Ratio (IRR): 0.41) and arable land cover correlated positively (IRR: 4.59). In the case of P. ariasi, a significant correlation was observed with the altitude and bioclimatic zone, with density increasing at >800 m above the mean sea level (IRR: 3.40) and decreasing in the meso-Mediterranean bioclimatic zone (IRR: 0.08). Both species were mostly found in agricultural and forest areas far from domestic environments. However, the two species correlated differently with altitude, bio-climate, vegetation, temperature and precipitation, which emphasises the importance of their individual analysis in studies regarding risk of leishmaniasis transmission.

  5. Code IN Exhibits - Supercomputing 2000

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yarrow, Maurice; McCann, Karen M.; Biswas, Rupak; VanderWijngaart, Rob F.; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The creation of parameter study suites has recently become a more challenging problem as the parameter studies have become multi-tiered and the computational environment has become a supercomputer grid. The parameter spaces are vast, the individual problem sizes are getting larger, and researchers are seeking to combine several successive stages of parameterization and computation. Simultaneously, grid-based computing offers immense resource opportunities but at the expense of great difficulty of use. We present ILab, an advanced graphical user interface approach to this problem. Our novel strategy stresses intuitive visual design tools for parameter study creation and complex process specification, and also offers programming-free access to grid-based supercomputer resources and process automation.

  6. 17 CFR 232.102 - Exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Regulation S-T (17 CFR 232.311(b)). (b) Amendments to all exhibits shall be filed in electronic format... designation “CE” (confirming electronic) should be placed next to the listed exhibit in the exhibit index....

  7. Individual Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corsini, Raymond

    1981-01-01

    Paper presented at the 66th Convention of the International Association of Pupil Personnel Workers, October 20, 1980, Baltimore, Maryland, describes individual education based on the principles of Alfred Adler. Defines six advantages of individual education, emphasizing student responsibility, mutual respect, and allowing students to progress at…

  8. Exhibits Enhanced by Stand-Alone Computers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Rennes, Eve C.

    Both the development and evaluation of one of a set of computer programs designed for use by visitors as adjuncts to museum exhibits are described. Museum displays used were (1) a static, behind-glass exhibit on evolution; (2) a hands-on primitive stone age tools exhibit; and (3) a Foucault pendulum. A computer placed next to each exhibit served…

  9. A Traveling Exhibit of Cassini Image Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, Joseph A.; Hedman, M. M.; Tiscareno, M. S.; Ebel, D.; Mac Low, M.; Lovett, L. E.; Burns, J. K.; Schaff, N.; Bilson, E. M.

    2007-10-01

    An exhibit of Cassini's images will open at NYC's American Museum of Natural History in March 2008 and then visit the Johnson Art Museum (Cornell) throughout fall 2008, including during next year's DPS. It is under consideration by several other venues in the States and overseas. The exhibit will feature 40-50 images, ranging from letter size to large posters, taken by remote-sensing instruments aboard Cassini and Huygens. Photos will be organized into a half-dozen thematic clusters (e.g., organized by celestial target or by physical process); a panel will introduce each grouping with individual images identified briefly. The Saturn system is a perfect vehicle to educate citizens about planetary science and origins. The images’ beauty should capture the public's attention, allowing us to then engage their curiosity about the relevant science. Among the Saturn system's broad suite of objects are Enceladus and Titan, two satellites of astrobiological interest; moreover, the rings display many processes active in other astrophysical disks. Several auxiliary ideas will be implemented. In Ithaca, we will project images at night against the museum's sand-colored exterior walls. A 10-12 minute musical composition has been commissioned from Roberto Sierra to open the show. We will encourage school children to participate in a human orrery circling the museum and will seek volunteers to participate in several Saturnalia. At Cornell we will involve the university and local communities, by taping their reactions to the images’ exquisite beauty as well as to their scientific content. Cassini will be the E/PO focus of next year's DPS meeting; those materials will be employed throughout the fall at New York schools and be available to travel with the show. We intend to work with NYC partners to offer teacher credits for associated weekend courses. We will produce classroom materials, including a DVD, for teacher use.

  10. Sound-Color Associations in Psychosis-Prone Individuals.

    PubMed

    Berman, Brady; Serper, Mark

    2016-08-01

    Synesthetic-pseudosynesthetic characteristics have been hypothesized to be a schizophrenia endophenotype, a developmental feature, and/or a symptom of psychosis. Few studies to date, however, have examined whether individuals at risk for psychosis have synesthetic symptoms. We examined the relationship between hue and pitch in high psychosis prone (HP; n = 30) and low psychosis prone individuals (LP; n = 31). Synesthesia was evaluated using self-report and two performance-based tasks. Results revealed that HP subjects experienced more synesthetic experiences than the LP only on the self-report measure. These results suggest that high psychotic prone patients report unusual experiences but are no more likely to exhibit synesthesia than LP individuals. HP individuals, however, were more likely to choose shorter wavelength colors than LP individuals on performance tasks. These results are consistent with the notion that psychosis vulnerability is associated with a preference to light wavelengths associated with increasing emotional valence and negative affect. PMID:27218222

  11. Take To the Streets: Guide To Planning Outdoor, Public Exhibits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutting, Jennifer McGregor; And Others

    Placing exhibits in public places provides a unique opportunity to reach a broad non-museum-going audience. It offers marketing and publicity opportunities as well as the potential to develop relationships with agencies and individuals who are stakeholders in the public site. The purpose of this guidebook is to describe the steps in creating an…

  12. Conversational Competency Profiles of Adult Males Who Exhibit Fluency Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorpe, Carol D.

    The study explored the verbal and nonverbal conversational competency of five adult males who exhibited fluency disorders. Five subject/interactant videotaped conversational interactions were analyzed utilizing an INter-REActive Learning (INREAL) Model analysis format. Descriptive individual and composite profiles resulting from trained raters'…

  13. Individualizing Medicare.

    PubMed

    Chollet, D J

    1999-05-01

    Despite the enactment of significant changes to the Medicare program in 1997, Medicare's Hospital Insurance trust fund is projected to be exhausted just as the baby boom enters retirement. To address Medicare's financial difficulties, a number of reform proposals have been offered, including several to individualize Medicare financing and benefits. These proposals would attempt to increase Medicare revenues and reduce Medicare expenditures by having individuals bear risk--investment market risk before retirement and insurance market risk after retirement. Many fundamental aspects of these proposals have yet to be worked out, including how to guarantee a baseline level of saving for health insurance after retirement, how retirees might finance unanticipated health insurance price increases after retirement, the potential implications for Medicaid of inadequate individual saving, and whether the administrative cost of making the system fair and adequate ultimately would eliminate any rate-of-return advantages from allowing workers to invest their Medicare contributions in corporate stocks and bonds.

  14. Individualizing Medicare.

    PubMed

    Chollet, D J

    1999-05-01

    Despite the enactment of significant changes to the Medicare program in 1997, Medicare's Hospital Insurance trust fund is projected to be exhausted just as the baby boom enters retirement. To address Medicare's financial difficulties, a number of reform proposals have been offered, including several to individualize Medicare financing and benefits. These proposals would attempt to increase Medicare revenues and reduce Medicare expenditures by having individuals bear risk--investment market risk before retirement and insurance market risk after retirement. Many fundamental aspects of these proposals have yet to be worked out, including how to guarantee a baseline level of saving for health insurance after retirement, how retirees might finance unanticipated health insurance price increases after retirement, the potential implications for Medicaid of inadequate individual saving, and whether the administrative cost of making the system fair and adequate ultimately would eliminate any rate-of-return advantages from allowing workers to invest their Medicare contributions in corporate stocks and bonds. PMID:10915458

  15. Arctic Forecasts Available from Polar Bear Exhibit as an Example of Formal/Informal Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landis, C. E.; Cervenec, J.

    2012-12-01

    A subset of the general population enjoys and frequents informal education venues, offering an opportunity for lifelong learning that also enhances and supports formal education efforts. The Byrd Polar Research Center (BPRC) at The Ohio State University collaborated with the Columbus Zoo & Aquarium (CZA) in the development of their Polar Frontier exhibit, from its initial planning to the Grand Opening of the exhibit, through the present. Of course, the addition to the Zoo of polar bears and Arctic fox in the Polar Frontier has been very popular, with almost a 7% increase in visitors in 2010 when the exhibit opened. The CZA and BPRC are now investigating ways to increase the climate literacy impact of the exhibit, and to increase engagement with the topics through follow-on activities. For example, individuals or classes anywhere in the world can check forecasts from the Polar Weather and Research Forecasting model and compare them to observed conditions-- allowing deep investigation into changes in the Arctic. In addition, opportunities exist to adapt the Zoo School experience (affecting several Central Ohio school districts) and/or to enable regular participation through social media such as Facebook, Twitter, and other forms of digital communication. BPRC's sustained engagement with the CZA is an example of a trusted and meaningful partnership where open dialogue exists about providing the best learning experience for visitors. This presentation will share some of the lessons learned from this unique partnership, and strategies that are adopted to move it forward.

  16. [Individualizing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horrigan, William J.

    The individually guided education (IGE) program developed by the Kettering Foundation was implemented in September of 1973 at the John F. Kennedy Memorial Junior High School in Woburn, Massachusetts. The components of the program described in this speech include pupil and teacher scheduling, physical layout, pupil selection and adjustment,…

  17. Science Education Through a Museum Exhibit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaparian, Azad; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Describes the polywater exhibit at the Worcester Science Center in Massachusetts. Curiosity and interest are stimulated in young people by allowing them to handle the materials in the exhibit and by providing them with instructions for making polywater. (JR)

  18. Learning by Doing, Creating a Museum Exhibit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Main, Sarah; Kallquist, Dierdre

    2000-01-01

    Describes an exhibit called Kid's Kitchen, built within a major exhibit called Biodiversity: Life Supporting Life, in order to discuss environmental prompts hidden within the kitchen designed to surprise students and get them thinking. (ASK)

  19. 32 CFR 705.24 - Exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... shopping centers, malls, etc.) provided it is clearly established that such areas are places the general... exhibits may be forwarded to the Navy Recruiting Exhibit Center via the local Navy recruiter with an information copy to the Chief of Information. The primary mission of the Navy Recruiting Exhibit Center is...

  20. 32 CFR 705.24 - Exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... shopping centers, malls, etc.) provided it is clearly established that such areas are places the general... exhibits may be forwarded to the Navy Recruiting Exhibit Center via the local Navy recruiter with an information copy to the Chief of Information. The primary mission of the Navy Recruiting Exhibit Center is...

  1. 32 CFR 705.24 - Exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... shopping centers, malls, etc.) provided it is clearly established that such areas are places the general... exhibits may be forwarded to the Navy Recruiting Exhibit Center via the local Navy recruiter with an information copy to the Chief of Information. The primary mission of the Navy Recruiting Exhibit Center is...

  2. 32 CFR 705.24 - Exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... shopping centers, malls, etc.) provided it is clearly established that such areas are places the general... exhibits may be forwarded to the Navy Recruiting Exhibit Center via the local Navy recruiter with an information copy to the Chief of Information. The primary mission of the Navy Recruiting Exhibit Center is...

  3. 29 CFR 2200.70 - Exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH REVIEW COMMISSION RULES OF PROCEDURE Hearings... separate file designated for rejected exhibits. (e) Return of physical exhibits. A party may on motion request the return of a physical exhibit within 30 days after expiration of the time for filing a...

  4. 29 CFR 2200.70 - Exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH REVIEW COMMISSION RULES OF PROCEDURE Hearings... separate file designated for rejected exhibits. (e) Return of physical exhibits. A party may on motion request the return of a physical exhibit within 30 days after expiration of the time for filing a...

  5. 29 CFR 2200.70 - Exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH REVIEW COMMISSION RULES OF PROCEDURE Hearings... separate file designated for rejected exhibits. (e) Return of physical exhibits. A party may on motion request the return of a physical exhibit within 30 days after expiration of the time for filing a...

  6. Individualized Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    IntelliWeb and IntelliPrint, products from MicroMass Communications, utilize C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS), a development and delivery expert systems tool developed at Johnson Space Center. IntelliWeb delivers personalized messages by dynamically creating single web pages or entire web sites based on information provided by each website visitor. IntelliPrint is a product designed to create tailored, individualized messages via printed media. The software uses proprietary technology to generate printed messages that are personally relevant and tailored to meet each individual's needs. Intelliprint is in use in many operations including Brystol-Myers Squibb's personalized newsletter, "Living at Your Best," geared to each recipient based on a health and lifestyle survey taken earlier; and SmithKline Beecham's "Nicorette Committed Quitters Program," in which customized motivational materials support participants in their attempt to quit smoking.

  7. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts exhibit extensive developmental and phenotypic diversity.

    PubMed

    Singhal, Prabhat K; Sassi, Slim; Lan, Lan; Au, Patrick; Halvorsen, Stefan C; Fukumura, Dai; Jain, Rakesh K; Seed, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of embryonic fibroblasts from GFP reporter mice indicates that the fibroblast cell type harbors a large collection of developmentally and phenotypically heterogeneous subtypes. Some of these cells exhibit multipotency, whereas others do not. Multiparameter flow cytometry analysis shows that a large number of distinct populations of fibroblast-like cells can be found in cultures initiated from different embryonic organs, and cells sorted according to their surface phenotype typically retain their characteristics on continued propagation in culture. Similarly, surface phenotypes of individual cloned fibroblast-like cells exhibit significant variation. The fibroblast cell class appears to contain a very large number of denumerable subtypes. PMID:26699463

  8. Naturally segregating loci exhibit epistasis for fitness

    PubMed Central

    Monnahan, Patrick J.; Kelly, John K.

    2015-01-01

    The extent to which gene interaction or epistasis contributes to fitness variation within populations remains poorly understood, despite its importance to a myriad of evolutionary questions. Here, we report a multi-year field study estimating fitness of Mimulus guttatus genetic lines in which pairs of naturally segregating loci exist in an otherwise uniform background. An allele at QTL x5b—a locus originally mapped for its effect on flower size—positively affects survival if combined with one genotype at quantitative trait locus x10a (aa) but has negative effects when combined with the other genotypes (Aa and AA). The viability differences between genotypes parallel phenotypic differences for the time and node at which a plant flowers. Viability is negatively correlated with fecundity across genotypes, indicating antagonistic pleiotropy for fitness components. This trade-off reduces the genetic variance for total fitness relative to the individual fitness components and thus may serve to maintain variation. Additionally, we find that the effects of each locus and their interaction often vary with the environment. PMID:26246336

  9. Superconductive microstrip exhibiting negative differential resistivity

    DOEpatents

    Huebener, R.P.; Gallus, D.E.

    1975-10-28

    A device capable of exhibiting negative differential electrical resistivity over a range of values of current and voltage is formed by vapor- depositing a thin layer of a material capable of exhibiting superconductivity on an insulating substrate, establishing electrical connections at opposite ends of the deposited strip, and cooling the alloy into its superconducting range. The device will exhibit negative differential resistivity when biased in the current- induced resistive state.

  10. Evaluating Education and Science in the KSC Visitor Complex Exhibits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, Lance K.

    2000-01-01

    The continuing development of exhibits at the Kennedy Space Center's Visitor Complex is an excellent opportunity for NASA personnel to promote science and provide insight into NASA programs and projects for the approximately 3 million visitors that come to KSC annually. Stated goals for the Visitor Complex, in fact, emphasize science awareness and recommend broadening the appeal of the displays and exhibits for all age groups. To this end, this summer project seeks to evaluate the science content of planned exhibits/displays in relation to these developing opportunities and identify specific areas for enhancement of existing or planned exhibits and displays. To help expand the educational and science content within the developing exhibits at the Visitor Complex, this project was structured to implement the goals of the Visitor Center Director. To accomplish this, the exhibits and displays planned for completion within the year underwent review and evaluation for science content and educational direction. Planning emphasis for the individual displays was directed at combining the elements of effective education with fundamental scientific integrity, within an appealing format.

  11. Encountering Nanotechnology in an Interactive Exhibition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murriello, Sandra E.; Knobel, Marcelo

    2008-01-01

    This article offers findings from a learning sciences-informed evaluation of a nanoscience and nanotechnology exhibition called Nano-Aventura (NanoAdventure), based on four interactive-collaborative games and two narrated videos. This traveling exhibition was developed in Brazil by the Museu Exploratorio de Ciencias for children and teenagers…

  12. Strategies for Determining Exhibit Effectiveness. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shettel, Harris H.; And Others

    This project was designed to develop research strategies and hypotheses for evaluating the effectiveness of exhibits. An exhibit on the role of the Federal Government in science and technology was used as the subject matter. Two basic groups of viewers were used, casual viewers and paid experimental viewers. Both were tested on knowledge gained…

  13. Memory and Mourning: An Exhibit History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eberle, Scott G.

    2005-01-01

    Mounted by the Strong Museum in Rochester, New York, in 1993, and traveling nationally thereafter, the exhibit Memory and Mourning provided historical and contemporary perspectives to help museum guests explore their own reactions to loss and grief. In the process the exhibit's development team encountered a range of philosophical, historical,…

  14. Science Fiction Exhibits as STEM Gateways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robie, Samantha

    Women continue to hold less than a quarter of all STEM jobs in the United States, prompting many museums to develop programs and exhibits with the express goal of interesting young girls in scientific fields. At the same time, a number of recent museum exhibits have harnessed the popularity of pop culture and science fiction in order to interest general audiences in STEM subject matter, as well as using the exhibits as springboards to expand or shift mission goals and focus. Because science fiction appears to be successful at raising interest in STEM fields, it may be an effective way to garner the interest of young girls in STEM in particular. This research seeks to describe the ways in which museums are currently using science fiction exhibits to interest young girls in STEM fields and careers. Research focused on four institutions across the country hosting three separate exhibits, and included staff interviews and content analysis of exhibit descriptions, promotional materials, a summative evaluation and supplementary exhibit productions. In some ways, science fiction exhibits do serve young girls, primarily through the inclusion of female role models, staff awareness, and prototype testing to ensure interactives are attractive to girls as well as to boys. However, STEM appears to be underutilized, which may be partly due to a concern within the field that the outcome of targeting a specific gender could be construed as "stereotyping".

  15. Learning4Life on the Exhibit Floor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    The exhibit floor is a wealth of knowledge. One can read, view, and listen to information presented in many formats. Somewhere on the exhibit floor there are experts on every topic, ready and waiting for one's questions. But like any research topic, frequently a structured search is required to find the best answers. This article discusses how to…

  16. Exhibit of School Architecture, 1997. Special Section.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Architect, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Presents selected winners of the Texas 1997 Exhibit of School Architecture Design Competition. The Caudill and honor award winning projects are listed along with facility photos, brief descriptions, project credits, and the names of the construction companies used. (GR)

  17. Exhibit of School Architecture, 1996. Special Section.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Architect, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Presents selected winners of the Texas 1996 Exhibit of School Architecture Design Competition. The Caudill and honor award-winning projects are listed along with facility photos, brief descriptions, project credits, and the names of the construction companies used. (GR)

  18. The Making of a Museum Exhibition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleecker, Samuel E.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the preparation of the Reptile and Amphibian exhibition at the American Museum of Natural History. Various steps involved in developing the ten showcases in a six-year period are presented. (SA)

  19. 18 CFR 32.2 - Required exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... of operating such facilities. Exhibit B. A general or key map on a scale not greater than 20 miles to... facilities used for the generation and transmission of electric energy, indicating on said map the...

  20. 18 CFR 32.2 - Required exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... of operating such facilities. Exhibit B. A general or key map on a scale not greater than 20 miles to... facilities used for the generation and transmission of electric energy, indicating on said map the...

  1. 18 CFR 32.2 - Required exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... of operating such facilities. Exhibit B. A general or key map on a scale not greater than 20 miles to... facilities used for the generation and transmission of electric energy, indicating on said map the...

  2. 28 CFR 5.201 - Exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the existing or proposed activities engaged in or to be engaged in, including political activities, by... be filed as exhibit C: (1) A copy of the registrant's charter, articles of incorporation...

  3. 28 CFR 5.201 - Exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the existing or proposed activities engaged in or to be engaged in, including political activities, by... be filed as exhibit C: (1) A copy of the registrant's charter, articles of incorporation...

  4. 32 CFR 705.24 - Exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... public of the Navy's mission and operations. (2) To disseminate technical and scientific information. (3... naval equipment, models, devices and information and orientation material placed on public display for information purposes before audiences at conventions, conferences, seminars, demonstrations, exhibits,...

  5. Communicating Complex Sciences by Means of Exhibitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, S.

    2011-12-01

    Earth Sciences will have to take over the leading role in global sustainable policy and in discussions about climate change. Efforts to raise attention within the politically responsible communities as well as in the public are getting more and more support by executive and advisory boards all over the world. But how can you successfully communicate complex sciences? For example, to start communication about climate change, the first step is to encourage people to be concerned about climate change. After that, one has to start thinking about how to present data and how to include the presented data into an unprejudiced context. Therefore, the communication toolbox offers various methods to reach diverse audiences. The R&D programme GEOTECHNOLOGIEN conducts roving exhibitions as one of its most successful communication tools. With roving exhibitions GEOTECHNOLOGIEN is able to get in touch with different audiences at once. The main purpose and theme of these exhibitions is to convey the everyday means of climate change to the visitors. It is within the responsibility of science to communicate the effects of a phenomenon like climate change as well as the impact of research results to the everyday life of people. Currently, a GEOTECHNOLOGIEN roving exhibition on remote sensing with satellites deals with various issues of environmental research, including a chapter on climate change. By following the 3M-concept (Meaning - Memorable - Moving), exhibitions allow to connect the visitors daily environment and personal experiences with the presented issues and objects. Therefore, hands-on exhibits, exciting multimedia effects and high-tech artefacts have to be combined with interpretive text elements to highlight the daily significance of the scientific topics and the exhibition theme respectively. To create such an exhibition, strong conceptual planning has to be conducted. This includes the specification of stern financial as well as time wise milestones. In addition

  6. An Astrobiology Microbes Exhibit and Education Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindstrom, Marilyn M.; Allen, Jaclyn S.; Stocco, Karen; Tobola, Kay; Olendzenski, Lorraine

    2001-01-01

    Telling the story of NASA-sponsored scientific research to the public in exhibits is best done by partnerships of scientists and museum professionals. Likewise, preparing classroom activities and training teachers to use them should be done by teams of teachers and scientists. Here we describe how we used such partnerships to develop a new astrobiology augmentation to the Microbes! traveling exhibit and a companion education module. "Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract."

  7. Reaching the Public through Traveling Exhibitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dusenbery, P. B.; Harold, J. B.; Morrow, C. A.

    2004-11-01

    The Space Science Institute (SSI) of Boulder, Colorado has recently developed two museum exhibits called Alien Earths and MarsQuest. It has just started to develop another exhibit called Giant Planets. These exhibitions provide research scientists the opportunity to engage in a number of activities that are vital to the success of these major outreach programs. Alien Earths was developed in partnership with various research missions. The focus of the presentation will be on MarsQuest and Giant Planets. MarsQuest is a 5000 square-foot, \\$3M, traveling exhibition that is now touring the country. The exhibit's second 3-year tour will enable millions of Americans to share in the excitement of the scientific exploration of Mars and learn more about their own planet in the process. The associated planetarium show and education program will also be described, with particular emphasis on workshops to orient museum staff (e.g. museum educators and docents) and workshops for master educators near host museums and science centers. The workshops make innovative connections between the exhibition's interactive experiences and lesson plans aligned with the National Science Education Standards. These exhibit programs are good models for actively involving scientists and their discoveries to help improve informal science education in the museum community and for forging a stronger connection between formal and informal education. The presentation will also discuss how Giant Planets, a proposed 3500 square-foot traveling exhibition on the mysteries and discoveries of the outer planets, will be able to take advantage of the connections and resources that have been developed by the MarsQuest project.

  8. [All-Russian hygienic exhibitions and museums].

    PubMed

    Kuzybaeva, M P

    2011-01-01

    The material about the popularization of hygiene and health education in Russia in the second half of the 19th century to early 20th century through exhibition and museum activities has been collected for the first time and analyzed in the paper. The role of scientists and scientific medical societies in this process is noted. The significance of museum and exhibition activities in this area for the development of medical science is defined.

  9. Using Comparative Planetology in Exhibit Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dusenbery, P. B.; Harold, J. B.; Morrow, C. A.

    2004-12-01

    It is critically important for the public to better understand the scientific process. Museum exhibitions are an important part of informal science education that can effectively reach public audiences as well as school groups. They provide an important gateway for the public to learn about compelling scientific endeavors. The Space Science Institute (SSI) is a national leader in producing traveling science exhibitions and their associated educational programming (i.e. interactive websites, educator workshops, public talks, instructional materials). The focus of this presentation will be on three of its exhibit projects: MarsQuest (currently on tour), Alien Earths (in fabrication), and Giant Planets (in development). MarsQuest is enabling millions of Americans to share in the excitement of the scientific exploration of Mars and to learn more about their own planet in the process. Alien Earths will bring origins-related research and discoveries to students and the American public. It has four interrelated exhibit areas: Our Place in Space, Star Birth, PlanetQuest, and Search for Life. Exhibit visitors will explore the awesome events surrounding the birth of stars and planets; they will join scientists in the hunt for planets outside our solar system including those that may be in "habitable zones" around other stars; and finally they will be able to learn about how scientists are looking for signs of life beyond Earth. Giant Planets: Exploring the Outer Solar System will take advantage of the excitement generated by the Cassini mission and bring planetary and origins research and discoveries to students and the public. It will be organized around four thematic areas: Our Solar System; Colossal Worlds; Moons, Rings, and Fields; and Make Space for Kids. Giant Planets will open in 2007. This talk will focus on the importance of making Earth comparisons in the conceptual design of each exhibit and will show several examples of how these comparisons were manifested in

  10. The effects of the interaction between cognitive style and instructional strategy on the educational outcomes for a science exhibit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knappenberger, Naomi

    This dissertation examines factors which may affect the educational effectiveness of science exhibits. Exhibit effectiveness is the result of a complex interaction among exhibit features, cognitive characteristics of the museum visitor, and educational outcomes. The purpose of this study was to determine the relative proportions of field-dependent and field-independent visitors in the museum audience, and to ascertain if the cognitive style of visitors interacted with instructional strategies to affect the educational outcomes for a computer-based science exhibit. Cognitive style refers to the self-consistent modes of selecting and processing information that an individual employs throughout his or her perceptual and intellectual activities. It has a broad influence on many aspects of personality and behavior, including perception, memory, problem solving, interest, and even social behaviors and self-concept. As such, it constitutes essential dimensions of individual differences among museum visitors and has important implications for instructional design in the museum. The study was conducted in the spring of 1998 at the Adler Planetarium and Astronomy Museum in Chicago. Two experimental treatments of a computer-based exhibit were tested in the study. The first experimental treatment utilized strategies designed for field-dependent visitors that limited the text and provided more structure and cueing than the baseline treatment of the computer program. The other experimental treatment utilized strategies designed for field-independent visitors that provided hypothesis-testing and more contextual information. Approximately two-thirds of the visitors were field-independent. The results of a multiple regression analysis indicated that there was a significant interaction between cognitive style and instructional strategy that affected visitors' posttest scores on a multiple-choice test of the content. Field-independent visitors out- performed the field

  11. If you feel bad, it's unfair: a quantitative synthesis of affect and organizational justice perceptions.

    PubMed

    Barsky, Adam; Kaplan, Seth A

    2007-01-01

    Whereas research interest in both individual affect/temperament and organizational justice has grown substantially in recent years, affect's role in the perception of organizational justice has received scant attention. Here, the authors integrate these literatures and test bivariate relationships between state affect (e.g., moods), trait affect (e.g., affectivity), and organizational justice variables using meta-analytically aggregated effect sizes. Results indicated that state and trait positive and negative affect exhibit statistically significant relationships with perceptions of distributive, procedural, and interactional justice in the predicted directions, with mean population-level correlations ranging in absolute magnitude from M(rho) = .09 to M(rho) = .43. Correlations involving state affect generally were larger but not significantly different from those involving trait affect. Finally, the authors propose ideas for investigations at the primary-study level.

  12. 48 CFR 501.403 - Individual deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individual deviations. 501... Individual deviations. (a) An individual deviation affects only one contract action. (1) The Head of the Contracting Activity (HCA) must approve an individual deviation to the FAR. The authority to grant...

  13. Jack London: The Paradox of Individualism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deane, Paul

    1968-01-01

    Because of their interest in naturalism and socialism, critics often overlook the major intellectual conflict in Jack London's work: the paradox of individualism. London regards society as affecting the individual in two ways: it either promotes individuality or it demands a conformity that undermines individualism. When society fails Buck in "The…

  14. The Influence of Load and Speed on Individuals' Movement Behavior.

    PubMed

    Frost, David M; Beach, Tyson A C; Callaghan, Jack P; McGill, Stuart M

    2015-09-01

    Because individuals' movement patterns have been linked to their risk of future injury, movement evaluations have become a topic of interest. However, if individuals adapt their movement behavior in response to the demands of a task, the utility of evaluations comprising only low-demand activities could have limited application with regard to the prediction of future injury. This investigation examined the impact of load and speed on individuals' movement behavior. Fifty-two firefighters performed 5 low-demand (i.e., light load, low movement speed) whole-body tasks (i.e., lift, squat, lunge, push, and pull). Each task was then modified by increasing the speed, external load, or speed and load. Select measures of motion were used to characterize the performance of each task, and comparisons were made between conditions. The participants adapted their movement behavior in response to the external demands of a task (64 and 70% of all the variables were influenced [p ≤ 0.05] by changing the load and speed, respectively), but in a manner unique to the task and type of demand. The participants exhibited greater spine and frontal plane knee motion in response to an increase in speed when compared with increasing loads. However, there were a large number of movement strategies exhibited by individual firefighters that differed from the group's response. The data obtained here imply that individuals may not be physically prepared to perform safely or effectively when a task's demands are elevated simply because they exhibit the ability to perform a low-demand activity with competence. Therefore, movement screens comprising only low-demand activities may not adequately reflect an individual's capacity, or their risk of injury, and could adversely affect any recommendations that are made for training or job performance.

  15. 18 CFR 157.14 - Exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Act (42 U.S.C. 7101-7352); E.O. 12009, 3 CFR 142) Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 157.14, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the... gas liquefaction, hydrocarbon extraction, or other similar plant or facility directly attached to...

  16. 18 CFR 157.14 - Exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Act (42 U.S.C. 7101-7352); E.O. 12009, 3 CFR 142) Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 157.14, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the... gas liquefaction, hydrocarbon extraction, or other similar plant or facility directly attached to...

  17. 18 CFR 157.14 - Exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Act (42 U.S.C. 7101-7352); E.O. 12009, 3 CFR 142) Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 157.14, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the... gas liquefaction, hydrocarbon extraction, or other similar plant or facility directly attached to...

  18. 18 CFR 157.14 - Exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Act (42 U.S.C. 7101-7352); E.O. 12009, 3 CFR 142) Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 157.14, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the... gas liquefaction, hydrocarbon extraction, or other similar plant or facility directly attached to...

  19. 18 CFR 157.14 - Exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Act (42 U.S.C. 7101-7352); E.O. 12009, 3 CFR 142) Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 157.14, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the... gas liquefaction, hydrocarbon extraction, or other similar plant or facility directly attached to...

  20. Performance-Based Assessment, Science Festival Exhibit Presentations, and Elementary Science Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Verilette A.; Gerber, Brian L.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the effective use of performance-based assessment for evaluating fifth- and sixth-grade student achievement as demonstrated by student exhibit presentations at a science festival. Individual evaluation scores and group negotiated evaluations were consistent. (Author/MM)

  1. After Terror Charges, Artist Exhibits Academic Freedom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Robin

    2008-01-01

    Steven Kurtz, a professor of visual studies at the State University of New York, has been working with various bacteria as part of his counterculture exhibit artworks for nearly 20 years. Four years ago, federal agents raided his home in a bioterrorism investigation. The federal agents had been called to the house by local police officers…

  2. 18 CFR 153.8 - Required exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... LNG, evidence that an appropriate and qualified concern will properly and safely receive or deliver such LNG, including a report containing detailed engineering and design information. The Commission... Office of Energy Projects, 888 First Street, NE., Washington, DC 20426; (6) Exhibit E-1. If the...

  3. 28 CFR 68.43 - Exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exhibits. 68.43 Section 68.43 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE FOR ADMINISTRATIVE HEARINGS BEFORE ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES IN CASES INVOLVING ALLEGATIONS OF UNLAWFUL EMPLOYMENT OF ALIENS,...

  4. Creating Cross-Cultural Exhibits in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakamura, Kazuyo; Erickson, Virginia; Ford, Viktoria

    Theory and practice of the Cross-Cultural Arts Exhibit project initiated by the Krannert Art Museum at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (Illinois) is described in this paper. The project was developed based on the concept of post-museum. Instead of transmitting values and knowledge, communication in the post-museum stresses the…

  5. 18 CFR 50.7 - Applications: exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... required supporting equipment, such as insulation medium pressurizing or forced cooling; (iii) Cathodic protection scheme; and (iv) Type of dielectric fluid and safeguards used to limit potential spills in...) Exhibit H—System analysis data. An analysis evaluating the impact the proposed facilities will have on...

  6. 17 CFR 232.102 - Exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... pursuant to the schedule's general instructions. See Rule 311(b) of Regulation S-T (17 CFR 232.311(b)). (b... registered investment company or a business development company). (d) Each electronic filing requiring... AND REGULATIONS FOR ELECTRONIC FILINGS Electronic Filing Requirements § 232.102 Exhibits. (a)...

  7. 18 CFR 50.7 - Applications: exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Applications: exhibits. 50.7 Section 50.7 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT APPLICATIONS FOR PERMITS TO SITE...

  8. 18 CFR 50.7 - Applications: exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... relation to the project and other principal interconnected system elements, as well as power flow and loss... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Applications: exhibits. 50.7 Section 50.7 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY...

  9. 18 CFR 50.7 - Applications: exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Applications: exhibits. 50.7 Section 50.7 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... destination of the project; (ii) Design voltage rating (kV); (iii) Operating voltage rating (kV); (iv)...

  10. Energized by love: thinking about romantic relationships increases positive affect and blood glucose levels.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Sarah C E; Campbell, Lorne; Loving, Timothy J

    2014-10-01

    We assessed the impact of thinking of a current romantic partner on acute blood glucose responses and positive affect over a short period of time. Participants in romantic relationships were randomly assigned to reflect on their partner, an opposite-sex friend, or their morning routine. Blood glucose levels were assessed prior to reflection, as well as at 10 and 25 min postreflection. Results revealed that individuals in the routine and friend conditions exhibited a decline in glucose over time, whereas individuals in the partner condition did not exhibit this decline (rather, a slight increase) in glucose over time. Reported positive affect following reflection was positively associated with increases in glucose, but only for individuals who reflected on their partner, suggesting this physiological response reflects eustress. These findings add to the literature on eustress in relationships and have implications for relationship processes.

  11. MarsQuest: A National Traveling Exhibition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S. W.; Dusenbery, P. B.

    1998-09-01

    With the successful landing of Mars Pathfinder and the arrival of Mars Global Surveyor, a new decade of Mars exploration has commenced. MarsQuest, a 5000 square foot traveling exhibition, is being developed to further bring the excitement and discoveries of this "Decade of Mars Exploration" to the public. MarsQuest is partially funded by the Informal Science Education Program of the National Science Foundation and NASA's Office of Space Science. The Space Science Institute (SSI) in Boulder, CO, is leading the project. Scientific and educational advisors from many different universities and government laboratories, most of whom are directly involved in the active and planned Mars missions, will ensure the scientific accuracy, timeliness, and relevance of the key concepts presented in the exhibition and accompanying programs. The traveling exhibit is the primary element of the MarsQuest project. The exhibition experience, carefully keyed to current events in Mars exploration, will transport visitors to the surface of the Red Planet via large murals, dioramas, and numerous interactive displays. There they will have the opportunity to share in the spirit and thrill of exploration, and come to appreciate the similarities and differences between Earth and Mars. A planetarium show, geared to the goals of the MarsQuest project, will be an important sensory addition to the traveling exhibit. The planetarium/star-theater venue presents a unique environment where audience members can literally be surrounded by Mars images. Education and outreach programs comprise the remainder of the MarsQuest project. The goal of these is to make scientific concepts and scientific and engineering processes understandable to students via Mars-inspired curricula. MarsQuest will open in late-1999, traveling to about nine sites throughout the United States and reaching an estimated two to three million children and adults during its planned three-year tour. Mars - coming soon to a museum near

  12. Predicting Individual Fuel Economy

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Zhenhong; Greene, David L

    2011-01-01

    To make informed decisions about travel and vehicle purchase, consumers need unbiased and accurate information of the fuel economy they will actually obtain. In the past, the EPA fuel economy estimates based on its 1984 rules have been widely criticized for overestimating on-road fuel economy. In 2008, EPA adopted a new estimation rule. This study compares the usefulness of the EPA's 1984 and 2008 estimates based on their prediction bias and accuracy and attempts to improve the prediction of on-road fuel economies based on consumer and vehicle attributes. We examine the usefulness of the EPA fuel economy estimates using a large sample of self-reported on-road fuel economy data and develop an Individualized Model for more accurately predicting an individual driver's on-road fuel economy based on easily determined vehicle and driver attributes. Accuracy rather than bias appears to have limited the usefulness of the EPA 1984 estimates in predicting on-road MPG. The EPA 2008 estimates appear to be equally inaccurate and substantially more biased relative to the self-reported data. Furthermore, the 2008 estimates exhibit an underestimation bias that increases with increasing fuel economy, suggesting that the new numbers will tend to underestimate the real-world benefits of fuel economy and emissions standards. By including several simple driver and vehicle attributes, the Individualized Model reduces the unexplained variance by over 55% and the standard error by 33% based on an independent test sample. The additional explanatory variables can be easily provided by the individuals.

  13. Subtyping Women with Bulimia Nervosa along Dietary and Negative Affect Dimensions: Further Evidence of Reliability and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stice, Eric; Bohon, Cara; Marti, C. Nathan; Fischer, Kathryn

    2008-01-01

    Studies have found that individuals with bulimia nervosa can be classified into dietary and dietary-negative affect subtypes and that the latter exhibit greater eating pathology, psychiatric comorbidity, and functional impairment; a more protracted clinical course; and a worse treatment response. In this report, the authors describe 2 prospective…

  14. Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command exhibit entrance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    StenniSphere at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., invites visitors to discover why America comes to Stennis Space Center before going into space. Designed to entertain while educating, StenniSphere includes informative displays and exhibits from NASA and other agencies located at Stennis, such as this one from the Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command. Visitors can 'travel' three-dimensionally under the sea and check on the weather back home in the Weather Center.

  15. Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command exhibit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Designed to entertain while educating, StenniSphere at the John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., includes informative displays and exhibits from NASA and other agencies located at Stennis, such as this one from the Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command. Visitors can 'travel' three-dimensionally under the sea and check on the weather back home in the Weather Center. StenniSphere is open free of charge from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. daily.

  16. Art exhibit focuses on African astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-07-01

    Connections between Africans and astronomy are the focus of a new exhibition in the National Museum of African Art in Washington, D. C. "African Cosmos: Stellar Arts," which includes artwork, cultural items, and scientific displays from ancient to contemporary times, is the first major exhibit "that brings together arts and science focused on Africa's contribution to keen observations of the heavens over time," curator Christine Mullen Kreamer said at a 20 June news briefing. Among the exhibit's nearly 100 objects are an ancient Egyptian mummy board that includes a representation of the sky goddess Nut, sculptures by the Dogon people of Mali depicting figures in relation to the cosmos, a video that uses data from two square degrees of the Hubble Space Telescope Cosmic Evolution Survey, and a nearly floor-to-ceiling "Rainbow Serpent" constructed of plastic containers by Benin artist Hazoume. An untitled acrylic painting (Figure 1) by South African Gavin Jantjes evokes a myth of the Khoi San people of southern Africa, as it portrays a girl throwing evening fire embers into the night sky, where they remained as the Milky Way.

  17. Bumblebees exhibit the memory spacing effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toda, Nicholas R. T.; Song, Jeremy; Nieh, James C.

    2009-10-01

    Associative learning is key to how bees recognize and return to rewarding floral resources. It thus plays a major role in pollinator floral constancy and plant gene flow. Honeybees are the primary model for pollinator associative learning, but bumblebees play an important ecological role in a wider range of habitats, and their associative learning abilities are less well understood. We assayed learning with the proboscis extension reflex (PER), using a novel method for restraining bees (capsules) designed to improve bumblebee learning. We present the first results demonstrating that bumblebees exhibit the memory spacing effect. They improve their associative learning of odor and nectar reward by exhibiting increased memory acquisition, a component of long-term memory formation, when the time interval between rewarding trials is increased. Bombus impatiens forager memory acquisition (average discrimination index values) improved by 129% and 65% at inter-trial intervals (ITI) of 5 and 3 min, respectively, as compared to an ITI of 1 min. Memory acquisition rate also increased with increasing ITI. Encapsulation significantly increases olfactory memory acquisition. Ten times more foragers exhibited at least one PER response during training in capsules as compared to traditional PER harnesses. Thus, a novel conditioning assay, encapsulation, enabled us to improve bumblebee-learning acquisition and demonstrate that spaced learning results in better memory consolidation. Such spaced learning likely plays a role in forming long-term memories of rewarding floral resources.

  18. The E = mc{sup 2} exhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, D.; Peshkin, M.

    1995-08-01

    The goal of this DOE-supported exhibition is to demystify Einstein`s formula E = mc{sup 2} by illustrating the interchangeability of matter (m) and energy (E), c{sup 2} being the exchange rate. The exhibition has two major parts, {open_quotes}matter into energy{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}energy into matter{close_quotes}, plus a video to connect them. {open_quotes}Matter into energy{close_quotes} has now been completed and has been placed on the museum floor. Positrons from a {sup 22}Na source are annihilated to produce gamma rays that are caught in NaI detectors. The viewer can alter the alignment of the detectors and observe the consequences for the rates of single and coincident counts. The viewer can also observe the effects of placing absorbers in front of the counters. Prototype explanatory graphics were placed around the exhibit and those will probably be changed after we have some experience with their effectiveness. The connecting video is in the process of being produced in collaboration with Fermilab. A cloud chamber for {open_quotes}energy into matter{close_quotes}, where gamma rays from a small Th source will produce observable pairs, was purchased and work to make the pairs visible has commenced.

  19. Affective Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Charles T.

    This paper addresses itself to the question, "What does feeling have to do with knowing?" Two movements in affective education are discussed which have come into focus in recent years and which attempt to define the relationship between knowing and feeling. The first, a conscious application of the role of arousal in learning, emphasizes arousal…

  20. 7 CFR Exhibit G to Subpart E of... - Exhibit G to Subpart E of Part 1980

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Business and Industrial Loan... 7 Agriculture 14 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Exhibit G to Subpart E of Part 1980 G Exhibit G to Subpart E of Part 1980 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL...

  1. 7 CFR Exhibit G to Subpart E of... - Exhibit G to Subpart E of Part 1980

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Business and Industrial Loan... 7 Agriculture 14 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Exhibit G to Subpart E of Part 1980 G Exhibit G to Subpart E of Part 1980 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL...

  2. 7 CFR Exhibit G to Subpart E of... - Exhibit G to Subpart E of Part 1980

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Business and Industrial Loan... 7 Agriculture 14 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Exhibit G to Subpart E of Part 1980 G Exhibit G to Subpart E of Part 1980 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL...

  3. 7 CFR Exhibit G to Subpart E of... - Exhibit G to Subpart E of Part 1980

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Business and Industrial Loan... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Exhibit G to Subpart E of Part 1980 G Exhibit G to Subpart E of Part 1980 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL...

  4. 7 CFR Exhibit G to Subpart E of... - Exhibit G to Subpart E of Part 1980

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Business and Industrial Loan... 7 Agriculture 14 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Exhibit G to Subpart E of Part 1980 G Exhibit G to Subpart E of Part 1980 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL...

  5. Exhibit 5: Policy Statements and Position Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Dental Education, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Policy statements and position papers adopted by the American Association of Dental Schools are presented. Policy statements cover education, research, delivery of care, and health concerns. Position papers concern peer review, freedoms and responsibilities of individuals and institutions, national health programs, interdisciplinary education,…

  6. Ant workers exhibit specialization and memory during raft formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avril, Amaury; Purcell, Jessica; Chapuisat, Michel

    2016-06-01

    By working together, social insects achieve tasks that are beyond the reach of single individuals. A striking example of collective behaviour is self-assembly, a process in which individuals link their bodies together to form structures such as chains, ladders, walls or rafts. To get insight into how individual behavioural variation affects the formation of self-assemblages, we investigated the presence of task specialization and the role of past experience in the construction of ant rafts. We subjected groups of Formica selysi workers to two consecutive floods and monitored the position of individuals in rafts. Workers showed specialization in their positions when rafting, with the same individuals consistently occupying the top, middle, base or side position in the raft. The presence of brood modified workers' position and raft shape. Surprisingly, workers' experience in the first rafting trial with brood influenced their behaviour and raft shape in the subsequent trial without brood. Overall, this study sheds light on the importance of workers' specialization and memory in the formation of self-assemblages.

  7. Ant workers exhibit specialization and memory during raft formation.

    PubMed

    Avril, Amaury; Purcell, Jessica; Chapuisat, Michel

    2016-06-01

    By working together, social insects achieve tasks that are beyond the reach of single individuals. A striking example of collective behaviour is self-assembly, a process in which individuals link their bodies together to form structures such as chains, ladders, walls or rafts. To get insight into how individual behavioural variation affects the formation of self-assemblages, we investigated the presence of task specialization and the role of past experience in the construction of ant rafts. We subjected groups of Formica selysi workers to two consecutive floods and monitored the position of individuals in rafts. Workers showed specialization in their positions when rafting, with the same individuals consistently occupying the top, middle, base or side position in the raft. The presence of brood modified workers' position and raft shape. Surprisingly, workers' experience in the first rafting trial with brood influenced their behaviour and raft shape in the subsequent trial without brood. Overall, this study sheds light on the importance of workers' specialization and memory in the formation of self-assemblages. PMID:27056046

  8. 36 CFR 1284.20 - Does NARA exhibit privately-owned material?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... individuals or organizations except as part of a NARA-produced exhibit. (b) NARA may accept for temporary... Archives and Records Administration or its predecessor organizations, the National Archives Establishment... offering private individual or organization of NARA's decision in writing within 60 days....

  9. 36 CFR 1284.20 - Does NARA exhibit privately-owned material?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... individuals or organizations except as part of a NARA-produced exhibit. (b) NARA may accept for temporary... Archives and Records Administration or its predecessor organizations, the National Archives Establishment... offering private individual or organization of NARA's decision in writing within 60 days....

  10. [Affect and mimetic behavior].

    PubMed

    Zepf, S; Ullrich, B; Hartmann, S

    1998-05-01

    The relationship between facial expression and experienced affect presents many problems. The two diametrically opposed positions proposing solutions to this problem are exemplified using the conceptions of Mandler u. Izard. The underlying premises of both conceptions still prevail in various forms. The authors reject the concepts according to which facial expression is merely correlated to the affects (see Mandler 1975) as well as the view that facial expression controls the affects (see Izard 1977). The relationship between affect and facial expression is reexamined, subjecting it to a semiotic, essentially semantic analysis similar to the Ogden and Richards' language and meaning approach. This analysis involves a critical discussion of Scherer's attempt of a purely communicational interpretation using Bühler's organon model. In the author's approach, facial expression is seen not simply as a system of signals, but as a system of representative signs which signify the affects and refer to the emotive meaning of things for the subject. The authors develop the thesis that human beings are not born simply with the ability to speak, but also with the abstract possibility of performing facial expressions. This ability develops by way of coordinating patterns of expressions, which are presumably phylogenetically determined, with affects that take on a socially determined individual form, similar to language acquisition during socialisation. The authors discuss the methodological implications arising for studies investigating the affective meaning of facial expressions. PMID:9632951

  11. Mars in their eyes - a cartoon exhibition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pillinger, Pi.

    Recently a collection of 120 cartoons which tell the story of Mars exploration and scientific discovery, past, present and future, was held in London. We discuss the aims of the exhibition, to what extent we believe the original aims were met and report on additional outreach opportunities resulting from the project. The overriding aim was to capitalise on the popular appeal of accessible art - most people admit to enjoying cartoons. This was strengthened by hanging the originals of cartoons which had, mostly, been published in newspapers and magazines in a wide selection of countries. The provenances served to indicate the attraction of Mars to a wide public. We were fortunate to work with the Cartoon Art Trust of the UK who was in the process of relocating to new premises and opening as The Cartoon Museum, in the tourist area of Bloomsbury, central London, very close to the British Museum. "Mars in their Eyes" ran for 10 weeks during April to July 2006; immediately following which a selection of the cartoons was displayed at the week-long Royal Society Summer Exhibition. We explore the differences between the two exhibitions and comment on the various audience responses. We use this comparison to discuss whether a project which is primarily art can be extended to explain science. Does the coupling merely result in dumbing-down of both cultures or is there a true synergy? The experience has led us to coin the phrase "extreme outreach". Projects which are as ambitious as "Mars in their Eyes", without the security of a safe, captive audience, for example at a Science Centre, must be judged by different criteria. Indeed if the project does not meet comparable targets like large visitor numbers, then the honest evaluation of such details can only inform future activities and must not be reflected in the future funding of only "safe" outreach activities.

  12. Noisy neural nets exhibiting epileptic features.

    PubMed

    Kokkinidis, M; Anninos, P

    1985-04-01

    On the basis of our previous studies of noisy neural nets we propose a model for the explanation of epileptic phenomena. Our neural net model is capable of exhibiting epileptic features if the number of spontaneously firing neurons is periodically increased beyond a certain threshold. Some alternative epileptogenic mechanisms are also discussed. The epileptic behavior of the neural net is determined by a combination of certain parameters of its phase diagram. The general features of the model are consistent with several experimental observations and explain some poorly understood clinical phenomena. The differences between normal and epileptic neural nets are explained in terms of the structural properties of the model.

  13. Library exhibits and programs boost science education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dusenbery, Paul B.; Curtis, Lisa

    2012-05-01

    Science museums let visitors explore and discover, but for many families there are barriers—such as cost or distance—that prevent them from visiting museums and experiencing hands-on science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) learning. Now educators are reaching underserved audiences by developing STEM exhibits and programs for public libraries. With more than 16,000 outlets in the United States, public libraries serve almost every community in the country. Nationwide, they receive about 1.5 billion visits per year, and they offer their services for free.

  14. Associations between mindfulness and implicit cognition and self-reported affect.

    PubMed

    Waters, Andrew J; Reitzel, Lorraine R; Cinciripini, Paul; Li, Yisheng; Marcus, Marianne T; Vidrine, Jennifer Irvin; Wetter, David W

    2009-01-01

    Theory suggests that mindful individuals exhibit enhanced attentional processing (e.g., attentional control) and that they maintain a detached perspective to problematic stimuli. For smokers, smoking and affective stimuli are problematic stimuli when they try to quit. In this cross-sectional study, smokers (n = 158) completed 3 modified Stroop tasks (to assess attentional control), 3 Implicit Association Tests (IATs; to assess detached perspective), and a battery of self-report assessments. Degree of mindfulness was negatively associated (P < .05) with self-reported negative affect, perceived stress, and depressive symptom severity, and positively associated (P < .05) with positive affect. Degree of mindfulness was not associated with the ability to disengage attention from smoking or affective stimuli. On the depression IAT, more mindful participants exhibited a more negative IAT effect, suggesting that they may have developed a detached perspective to depression-related stimuli. Theoretical and clinical implications of the data are discussed.

  15. Associations Between Mindfulness and Implicit Cognition and Self-Reported Affect

    PubMed Central

    Waters, Andrew J.; Reitzel, Lorraine R.; Cinciripini, Paul; Li, Yisheng; Marcus, Marianne T.; Vidrine, Jennifer Irvin; Wetter, David W.

    2016-01-01

    Theory suggests that mindful individuals exhibit enhanced attentional processing (e.g., attentional control) and that they maintain a detached perspective to problematic stimuli. For smokers, smoking and affective stimuli are problematic stimuli when they try to quit. In this cross-sectional study, smokers (n = 158) completed 3 modified Stroop tasks (to assess attentional control), 3 Implicit Association Tests (IATs; to assess detached perspective), and a battery of self-report assessments. Degree of mindfulness was negatively associated (P < .05) with self-reported negative affect, perceived stress, and depressive symptom severity, and positively associated (P < .05) with positive affect. Degree of mindfulness was not associated with the ability to disengage attention from smoking or affective stimuli. On the depression IAT, more mindful participants exhibited a more negative IAT effect, suggesting that they may have developed a detached perspective to depression-related stimuli. Theoretical and clinical implications of the data are discussed. PMID:19904668

  16. Nematic liquid crystals exhibiting high birefringence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thingujam, Kiranmala; Bhattacharjee, Ayon; Choudhury, Basana; Dabrowski, Roman

    2016-06-01

    Two fluorinated isothiocyanato nematic liquid crystalline compounds, 4'-butylcyclohexyl-3, 5-difluoro-4-isothiocyanatobiphenyl and 4'-pentylcyclohexyl-3, 5-difluoro-4-isothiocynatobiphenyl are studied in detail to obtain their different physical parameters. Optical polarizing microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, density and dielectric studies have been carried out for the two samples. Both the samples were found to have high clearing temperature (>100 °C) and exhibit small enthalpy of transition. The two samples exhibit high optical birefringence (Δ n > 0.2). The values of order parameters for the two samples were obtained using different approaches, namely, Vuks', Neugebauer's, modified Vuks' and direct extrapolation method from birefringence data. Experimentally obtained values of order parameters have also been compared with theoretical Maier-Saupe values. The parallel and perpendicular components of dielectric permittivity values of the two compounds were also calculated and their anisotropy values were found to be small. The effect of temperature on the molecular dipole moment μ and the angle of inclination β of the dipole axis with the director have also been investigated in this work.

  17. The ecology of individuals: incidence and implications of individual specialization.

    PubMed

    Bolnick, Daniel I; Svanbäck, Richard; Fordyce, James A; Yang, Louie H; Davis, Jeremy M; Hulsey, C Darrin; Forister, Matthew L

    2003-01-01

    Most empirical and theoretical studies of resource use and population dynamics treat conspecific individuals as ecologically equivalent. This simplification is only justified if interindividual niche variation is rare, weak, or has a trivial effect on ecological processes. This article reviews the incidence, degree, causes, and implications of individual-level niche variation to challenge these simplifications. Evidence for individual specialization is available for 93 species distributed across a broad range of taxonomic groups. Although few studies have quantified the degree to which individuals are specialized relative to their population, between-individual variation can sometimes comprise the majority of the population's niche width. The degree of individual specialization varies widely among species and among populations, reflecting a diverse array of physiological, behavioral, and ecological mechanisms that can generate intrapopulation variation. Finally, individual specialization has potentially important ecological, evolutionary, and conservation implications. Theory suggests that niche variation facilitates frequency-dependent interactions that can profoundly affect the population's stability, the amount of intraspecific competition, fitness-function shapes, and the population's capacity to diversify and speciate rapidly. Our collection of case studies suggests that individual specialization is a widespread but underappreciated phenomenon that poses many important but unanswered questions.

  18. Supercomputing meets seismology in earthquake exhibit

    SciTech Connect

    Blackwell, Matt; Rodger, Arthur; Kennedy, Tom

    2013-10-03

    When the California Academy of Sciences created the "Earthquake: Evidence of a Restless Planet" exhibit, they called on Lawrence Livermore to help combine seismic research with the latest data-driven visualization techniques. The outcome is a series of striking visualizations of earthquakes, tsunamis and tectonic plate evolution. Seismic-wave research is a core competency at Livermore. While most often associated with earthquakes, the research has many other applications of national interest, such as nuclear explosion monitoring, explosion forensics, energy exploration, and seismic acoustics. For the Academy effort, Livermore researchers simulated the San Andreas and Hayward fault events at high resolutions. Such calculations require significant computational resources. To simulate the 1906 earthquake, for instance, visualizing 125 seconds of ground motion required over 1 billion grid points, 10,000 time steps, and 7.5 hours of processor time on 2,048 cores of Livermore's Sierra machine.

  19. New Monolayered Materials Exhibiting Unusual Electronic Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-Bezanilla, Alejandro; Martin, Ivar; Littlewood, Peter B.

    Computationally based approaches are allowing to progress in the discovery and design of nano-scaled materials. Here we propose a series of new mono-layered compounds with exotic properties. By means of density functional theory calculations we demonstrate that the pentagonal arrangement of SiC2 yields an inverted distribution of the p-bands which leads to an unusual electronic behaviour of the material under strain [J. Phys. Chem. C, 2015, 119 (33), pp 19469]. A different pentagonal arrangement of C atoms enables the formation of Dirac cones which, unlike graphene, exhibit a strain-mediated tunable band gap. This work is supported by DOE-BES under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  20. Supercomputing meets seismology in earthquake exhibit

    ScienceCinema

    Blackwell, Matt; Rodger, Arthur; Kennedy, Tom

    2016-07-12

    When the California Academy of Sciences created the "Earthquake: Evidence of a Restless Planet" exhibit, they called on Lawrence Livermore to help combine seismic research with the latest data-driven visualization techniques. The outcome is a series of striking visualizations of earthquakes, tsunamis and tectonic plate evolution. Seismic-wave research is a core competency at Livermore. While most often associated with earthquakes, the research has many other applications of national interest, such as nuclear explosion monitoring, explosion forensics, energy exploration, and seismic acoustics. For the Academy effort, Livermore researchers simulated the San Andreas and Hayward fault events at high resolutions. Such calculations require significant computational resources. To simulate the 1906 earthquake, for instance, visualizing 125 seconds of ground motion required over 1 billion grid points, 10,000 time steps, and 7.5 hours of processor time on 2,048 cores of Livermore's Sierra machine.

  1. Application of an imaging system to a museum exhibition for developing interactive exhibitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyata, Kimiyoshi; Inoue, Yuka; Takiguchi, Takahiro; Tsumura, Norimichi; Nakaguchi, Toshiya; Miyake, Yoichi

    2009-10-01

    In the National Museum of Japanese History, 215,759 artifacts are stored and used for research and exhibitions. In museums, due to the limitation of space in the galleries, a guidance system is required to satisfy visitors' needs and to enhance their understanding of the artifacts. We introduce one exhibition using imaging technology to improve visitors' understanding of a kimono (traditional Japanese clothing) exhibition. In the imaging technology introduced, one data projector, one display with touch panel interface, and magnifiers were used as exhibition tools together with a real kimono. The validity of this exhibition method was confirmed by results from a visitors' interview survey. Second, to further develop the interactive guidance system, an augmented reality system that consisted of cooperation between the projector and a digital video camera was also examined. A white paper board in the observer's hand was used as a projection screen and also as an interface to control the images projected on the board. The basic performance of the proposed system was confirmed; however continuous development was necessary for applying the system to actual exhibitions.

  2. Quiescent Fibroblasts Exhibit High Metabolic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Lemons, Johanna M. S.; Feng, Xiao-Jiang; Bennett, Bryson D.; Legesse-Miller, Aster; Johnson, Elizabeth L.; Raitman, Irene; Pollina, Elizabeth A.; Rabitz, Herschel A.; Rabinowitz, Joshua D.; Coller, Hilary A.

    2010-01-01

    Many cells in mammals exist in the state of quiescence, which is characterized by reversible exit from the cell cycle. Quiescent cells are widely reported to exhibit reduced size, nucleotide synthesis, and metabolic activity. Much lower glycolytic rates have been reported in quiescent compared with proliferating lymphocytes. In contrast, we show here that primary human fibroblasts continue to exhibit high metabolic rates when induced into quiescence via contact inhibition. By monitoring isotope labeling through metabolic pathways and quantitatively identifying fluxes from the data, we show that contact-inhibited fibroblasts utilize glucose in all branches of central carbon metabolism at rates similar to those of proliferating cells, with greater overflow flux from the pentose phosphate pathway back to glycolysis. Inhibition of the pentose phosphate pathway resulted in apoptosis preferentially in quiescent fibroblasts. By feeding the cells labeled glutamine, we also detected a “backwards” flux in the tricarboxylic acid cycle from α-ketoglutarate to citrate that was enhanced in contact-inhibited fibroblasts; this flux likely contributes to shuttling of NADPH from the mitochondrion to cytosol for redox defense or fatty acid synthesis. The high metabolic activity of the fibroblasts was directed in part toward breakdown and resynthesis of protein and lipid, and in part toward excretion of extracellular matrix proteins. Thus, reduced metabolic activity is not a hallmark of the quiescent state. Quiescent fibroblasts, relieved of the biosynthetic requirements associated with generating progeny, direct their metabolic activity to preservation of self integrity and alternative functions beneficial to the organism as a whole. PMID:21049082

  3. [Affective dependency].

    PubMed

    Scantamburlo, G; Pitchot, W; Ansseau, M

    2013-01-01

    Affective dependency is characterized by emotional distress (insecure attachment) and dependency to another person with a low self-esteem and reassurance need. The paper proposes a reflection on the definition of emotional dependency and the confusion caused by various denominations. Overprotective and authoritarian parenting, cultural and socio-environmental factors may contribute to the development of dependent personality. Psychological epigenetic factors, such as early socio-emotional trauma could on neuronal circuits in prefronto-limbic regions that are essential for emotional behaviour.We also focus on the interrelations between dependent personality, domestic violence and addictions. The objective for the clinician is to propose a restoration of self-esteem and therapeutic strategies focused on autonomy.

  4. [Affective dependency].

    PubMed

    Scantamburlo, G; Pitchot, W; Ansseau, M

    2013-01-01

    Affective dependency is characterized by emotional distress (insecure attachment) and dependency to another person with a low self-esteem and reassurance need. The paper proposes a reflection on the definition of emotional dependency and the confusion caused by various denominations. Overprotective and authoritarian parenting, cultural and socio-environmental factors may contribute to the development of dependent personality. Psychological epigenetic factors, such as early socio-emotional trauma could on neuronal circuits in prefronto-limbic regions that are essential for emotional behaviour.We also focus on the interrelations between dependent personality, domestic violence and addictions. The objective for the clinician is to propose a restoration of self-esteem and therapeutic strategies focused on autonomy. PMID:23888587

  5. Exhibition of Stochastic Resonance in Vestibular Perception

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galvan-Garza, R. C.; Clark, T. K.; Merfeld, D. M.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Oman, C. M.; Mulavara, A. P.

    2016-01-01

    Astronauts experience sensorimotor changes during spaceflight, particularly during G-transitions. Post flight sensorimotor changes include spatial disorientation, along with postural and gait instability that may degrade operational capabilities of the astronauts and endanger the crew. A sensorimotor countermeasure that mitigates these effects would improve crewmember safety and decrease risk. The goal of this research is to investigate the potential use of stochastic vestibular stimulation (SVS) as a technology to improve sensorimotor function. We hypothesize that low levels of SVS will improve sensorimotor perception through the phenomenon of stochastic resonance (SR), when the response of a nonlinear system to a weak input signal is enhanced by the application of a particular nonzero level of noise. This study aims to advance the development of SVS as a potential countermeasure by 1) demonstrating the exhibition of stochastic resonance in vestibular perception, a vital component of sensorimotor function, 2) investigating the repeatability of SR exhibition, and 3) determining the relative contribution of the semicircular canals (SCC) and otolith (OTO) organs to vestibular perceptual SR. A constant current stimulator was used to deliver bilateral bipolar SVS via electrodes placed on each of the mastoid processes, as previously done. Vestibular perceptual motion recognition thresholds were measured using a 6-degree of freedom MOOG platform and a 150 trial 3-down/1-up staircase procedure. In the first test session, we measured vestibular perceptual thresholds in upright roll-tilt at 0.2 Hz (SCC+OTO) with SVS ranging from 0-700 µA. In a second test session a week later, we re-measured roll-tilt thresholds with 0, optimal (from test session 1), and 1500 µA SVS levels. A subset of these subjects, plus naive subjects, participated in two additional test sessions in which we measured thresholds in supine roll-rotation at 0.2 Hz (SCC) and upright y-translation at 1 Hz

  6. Flexibility in metabolic rate and activity level determines individual variation in overwinter performance.

    PubMed

    Auer, Sonya K; Salin, Karine; Anderson, Graeme J; Metcalfe, Neil B

    2016-11-01

    Energy stores are essential for the overwinter survival of many temperate and polar animals, but individuals within a species often differ in how quickly they deplete their reserves. These disparities in overwinter performance may be explained by differences in their physiological and behavioral flexibility in response to food scarcity. However, little is known about whether individuals exhibit correlated or independent changes in these traits, and how these phenotypic changes collectively affect their winter energy use. We examined individual flexibility in both standard metabolic rate and activity level in response to food scarcity and their combined consequences for depletion of lipid stores among overwintering brown trout (Salmo trutta). Metabolism and activity tended to decrease, yet individuals exhibited striking differences in their physiological and behavioral flexibility. The rate of lipid depletion was negatively related to decreases in both metabolic and activity rates, with the smallest lipid loss over the simulated winter period occurring in individuals that had the greatest reductions in metabolism and/or activity. However, changes in metabolism and activity were negatively correlated; those individuals that decreased their SMR to a greater extent tended to increase their activity rates, and vice versa, suggesting among-individual variation in strategies for coping with food scarcity.

  7. Factors affecting iodine concentration of milk of individual cows.

    PubMed

    Franke, A A; Bruhn, J C; Osland, R B

    1983-05-01

    Variations were measured of iodine concentrations of milk during complete lactations of 36 Holstein cows from the University of California herd in Davis and 24 Holstein and 12 Guernsey cows from the California State University herd in Fresno. At Davis no iodine was added to the concentrate, whereas at Fresno iodine as ethylene diamine dihydriodide was added to the concentrate at 4 ppm. At Davis, the mean milk iodine concentration was 166 micrograms/kg; at Fresno, the mean milk iodine concentration was 745 micrograms/kg. Holstein milk had higher iodine concentrations than Guernsey milk, 839 versus 554 micrograms/kg. Iodine concentrations of milk increased during lactation for all cows. At Davis, samples taken in the 1st mo of lactation had 105 micrograms/kg compared with 218 micrograms/kg in the 9th mo. At Fresno, samples taken in the 2nd wk of lactation had 183 micrograms/kg, compared with 1017 micrograms/kg in the 40th wk. Addition of as little as 4 ppm ethylene diamine dihydriodide to the concentrate throughout lactation will lead to greatly increased iodine concentrations in the milk, particularly in late lactation.

  8. Agitated Honeybees Exhibit Pessimistic Cognitive Biases

    PubMed Central

    Bateson, Melissa; Desire, Suzanne; Gartside, Sarah E.; Wright, Geraldine A.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Whether animals experience human-like emotions is controversial and of immense societal concern [1–3]. Because animals cannot provide subjective reports of how they feel, emotional state can only be inferred using physiological, cognitive, and behavioral measures [4–8]. In humans, negative feelings are reliably correlated with pessimistic cognitive biases, defined as the increased expectation of bad outcomes [9–11]. Recently, mammals [12–16] and birds [17–20] with poor welfare have also been found to display pessimistic-like decision making, but cognitive biases have not thus far been explored in invertebrates. Here, we ask whether honeybees display a pessimistic cognitive bias when they are subjected to an anxiety-like state induced by vigorous shaking designed to simulate a predatory attack. We show for the first time that agitated bees are more likely to classify ambiguous stimuli as predicting punishment. Shaken bees also have lower levels of hemolymph dopamine, octopamine, and serotonin. In demonstrating state-dependent modulation of categorization in bees, and thereby a cognitive component of emotion, we show that the bees' response to a negatively valenced event has more in common with that of vertebrates than previously thought. This finding reinforces the use of cognitive bias as a measure of negative emotional states across species and suggests that honeybees could be regarded as exhibiting emotions. Video Abstract PMID:21636277

  9. Ferromagnetism exhibited by nanoparticles of noble metals.

    PubMed

    Maitra, Urmimala; Das, Barun; Kumar, Nitesh; Sundaresan, Athinarayanan; Rao, C N R

    2011-08-22

    Gold nanoparticles with average diameters in the range 2.5-15 nm, prepared at the organic/aqueous interface by using tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)phosphonium chloride (THPC) as reducing agent, exhibit ferromagnetism whereby the saturation magnetization M(S) increases with decreasing diameter and varies linearly with the fraction of surface atoms. The value of M(S) is higher when the particles are present as a film instead of as a sol. Capping with strongly interacting ligands such as alkane thiols results in a higher M(S) value, which varies with the strength of the metal-sulfur bond. Ferromagnetism is also found in Pt and Ag nanoparticles prepared as sols, and the M(S) values vary as Pt>Au>Ag. A careful study of the temperature variation of the magnetization of Au nanoparticles, along with certain other observations, suggests that small bare nanoparticles of noble metals could indeed possess ferromagnetism, albeit weak, which is accentuated in the presence of capping agents, specially alkane thiols which form strong metal-sulfur bonds.

  10. Polymer nanocomposites exhibiting magnetically tunable microwave properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stojak, K.; Pal, S.; Srikanth, H.; Morales, C.; Dewdney, J.; Weller, T.; Wang, J.

    2011-04-01

    Polymer nanocomposites (PNCs) have been synthesized using Rogers polymer and CoFe2O4 nanoparticles (CFO NPs). X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirms the inverse spinel crystal structure of CFO NPs and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images show the uniform dispersion of nanoparticles (10 nm ± 1) into the polymer matrix. Magnetic measurements indicate superparamagnetic response near room temperature for all PNCs. A blocking temperature TB ~ 298 K was observed and does not vary for different loading fractions of CFO NPs for the PNCs. The saturation magnetization (Ms) was found to be 11 emu g - 1 for 30 wt% CFO, increasing to 32 emu g - 1 for the 80 wt% CFO loaded PNC. A large value of coercivity (Hc = 19 kOe) is also observed at 10 K and is not affected by varying CFO loading. Microwave measurements show significant absorption in the 80 wt% CFO loading PNC and the quality factor shows a strong enhancement with applied magnetic field.

  11. Are there meaningful individual differences in temporal inconsistency in self-reported personality?

    PubMed Central

    Soubelet, Andrea; Salthouse, Timothy A.; Oishi, Shigehiro

    2014-01-01

    The current project had three goals. The first was to examine whether it is meaningful to refer to across-time variability in self-reported personality as an individual differences characteristic. The second was to investigate whether negative affect was associated with variability in self-reported personality, while controlling for mean levels, and correcting for measurement errors. The third goal was to examine whether variability in self-reported personality would be larger among young adults than among older adults, and whether the relation of variability with negative affect would be stronger at older ages than at younger ages. Two moderately large samples of participants completed the International Item Pool Personality questionnaire assessing the Big Five personality dimensions either twice or thrice, in addition to several measures of negative affect. Results were consistent with the hypothesis that within-person variability in self-reported personality is a meaningful individual difference characteristic. Some people exhibited greater across-time variability than others after removing measurement error, and people who showed temporal instability in one trait also exhibited temporal instability across the other four traits. However, temporal variability was not related to negative affect, and there was no evidence that either temporal variability or its association with negative affect varied with age. PMID:25132698

  12. Marine bacteria exhibit a bipolar distribution.

    PubMed

    Sul, Woo Jun; Oliver, Thomas A; Ducklow, Hugh W; Amaral-Zettler, Linda A; Sogin, Mitchell L

    2013-02-01

    The microbial cosmopolitan dispersion hypothesis often invoked to explain distribution patterns driven by high connectivity of oceanographic water masses and widespread dispersal ability has never been rigorously tested. By using a global marine bacterial dataset and iterative matrix randomization simulation, we show that marine bacteria exhibit a significantly greater dispersal limitation than predicted by our null model using the "everything is everywhere" tenet with no dispersal limitation scenario. Specifically, marine bacteria displayed bipolar distributions (i.e., species occurring exclusively at both poles and nowhere else) significantly less often than in the null model. Furthermore, we observed fewer taxa present in both hemispheres but more taxa present only in a single hemisphere than expected under the null model. Each of these trends diverged further from the null expectation as the compared habitats became more geographically distant but more environmentally similar. Our meta-analysis supported a latitudinal gradient in bacterial diversity with higher richness at lower latitudes, but decreased richness toward the poles. Bacteria in the tropics also demonstrated narrower latitudinal ranges at lower latitudes and relatively larger ranges in higher latitudes, conforming to the controversial macroecological pattern of the "Rapoport rule." Collectively, our findings suggest that bacteria follow biogeographic patterns more typical of macroscopic organisms, and that dispersal limitation, not just environmental selection, likely plays an important role. Distributions of microbes that deliver critical ecosystem services, particularly those in polar regions, may be vulnerable to the same impacts that environmental stressors, climate warming, and degradation in habitat quality are having on biodiversity in animal and plant species.

  13. Waves in geomaterials exhibiting negative stiffness behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esin, Maxim; Dyskin, Arcady; Pasternak, Elena

    2016-04-01

    Negative stiffness denotes the type of material behaviour when the force applied to the body decreases the body's deformation increases. Some geomaterials, for instance, rocks, demonstrate behaviour of this type at certain loads: during the compression tests the loading curves exhibit descending branch (post-peak softening). One of the possible mechanisms of the negative stiffness appearance in geomaterials is rotation of non-spherical grains. It is important to emphasize that in this case the descending branch may be reversible given that the testing machine is stiff enough (in general case it means an importance of boundary conditions). Existence of geomaterials with a negative modulus associated with rotations may have significant importance. In particular, important is understanding of the wave propagation in such materials. We study the stability of geomaterials with negative stiffness inclusions and wave propagation in it using two approaches: Cosserat continuum and discrete mass-spring models. In both cases we consider the rotational degrees of freedom in addition to the conventional translational ones. We show that despite non positiveness of the energy the materials with negative stiffness elements can be stable if certain conditions are met. In the case of Cosserat continuum the Cosserat shear modulus (the modulus relating the non-symmetrical part of shear stress and internal rotations) is allowed to assume negative values as long as its value does not exceed the value of the standard (positive) shear modulus. In the case of discrete mass-spring systems (with translational and rotational springs) the concentration of negative stiffness springs and the absolute values of negative spring stiffness are limited. The critical concentration when the system loses stability and the amplitude of the oscillations tends to infinity is equal to 1/2 and 3/5 for two- and three-dimensional cases respectively.

  14. Rats exhibit reference-dependent choice behavior.

    PubMed

    Bhatti, Mehwish; Jang, Hyeran; Kralik, Jerald D; Jeong, Jaeseung

    2014-07-01

    Human preferences depend on whether a chosen outcome appears to be a loss or a gain compared with what had been expected, i.e., in comparison to a reference point. Because reference dependence has such a strong influence on human decision-making, it is important to uncover its origins, which will in turn help delineate the underlying mechanisms. It remains unknown whether rats use reference points in decision-making, and yet, the study of rats could help address the question of whether reference dependence is evolutionarily conserved among mammals and could provide a nonhuman animal model to investigate the neural mechanisms underlying this important cognitive process. The aim of the current study was to determine whether rats show reference-dependent choice behavior. We developed a novel paradigm by modifying the "T" maze by installing "pockets" to the left and right of the "T" stem that held reward pellets so rats would potentially develop reference values for each option prior to choice. We found that the rats were indeed sensitive to the way alternatives were presented. That is, they exhibited reference-dependent choice behavior by avoiding the choice option framed as a loss (e.g., having four reward pellets in the pocket, but receiving only one), at least under conditions with certain outcomes and clear differences between the reference and outcome quantities. Despite the small number of rats in this study, this species-level capacity suggests that reference dependence in general and loss aversion in particular may be conserved traits that evolved at or before the emergence of mammals.

  15. Liposomal nanoparticles encapsulating iloprost exhibit enhanced vasodilation in pulmonary arteries

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Pritesh P; Leber, Regina; Nagaraj, Chandran; Leitinger, Gerd; Lehofer, Bernhard; Olschewski, Horst; Olschewski, Andrea; Prassl, Ruth; Marsh, Leigh M

    2014-01-01

    Prostacyclin analogues are standard therapeutic options for vasoconstrictive diseases, including pulmonary hypertension and Raynaud’s phenomenon. Although effective, these treatment strategies are expensive and have several side effects. To improve drug efficiency, we tested liposomal nanoparticles as carrier systems. In this study, we synthesized liposomal nanoparticles tailored for the prostacyclin analogue iloprost and evaluated their pharmacologic efficacy on mouse intrapulmonary arteries, using a wire myograph. The use of cationic lipids, stearylamine, or 1,2-di-(9Z-octadecenoyl)-3-trimethylammonium-propane (DOTAP) in liposomes promoted iloprost encapsulation to at least 50%. The addition of cholesterol modestly reduced iloprost encapsulation. The liposomal nanoparticle formulations were tested for toxicity and pharmacologic efficacy in vivo and ex vivo, respectively. The liposomes did not affect the viability of human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells. Compared with an equivalent concentration of free iloprost, four out of the six polymer-coated liposomal formulations exhibited significantly enhanced vasodilation of mouse pulmonary arteries. Iloprost that was encapsulated in liposomes containing the polymer polyethylene glycol exhibited concentration-dependent relaxation of arteries. Strikingly, half the concentration of iloprost in liposomes elicited similar pharmacologic efficacy as nonencapsulated iloprost. Cationic liposomes can encapsulate iloprost with high efficacy and can serve as potential iloprost carriers to improve its therapeutic efficacy. PMID:25045260

  16. 32 CFR 705.26 - Exhibit availability report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of all exhibits is required. (b) A current inventory of exhibits headquartered in Washington, DC, and...: Officer-in-Charge, Navy Recruiting Exhibit Center, Washington Navy Yard, Washington, DC 20374....

  17. 32 CFR 705.26 - Exhibit availability report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of all exhibits is required. (b) A current inventory of exhibits headquartered in Washington, DC, and...: Officer-in-Charge, Navy Recruiting Exhibit Center, Washington Navy Yard, Washington, DC 20374....

  18. 32 CFR 705.26 - Exhibit availability report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of all exhibits is required. (b) A current inventory of exhibits headquartered in Washington, DC, and...: Officer-in-Charge, Navy Recruiting Exhibit Center, Washington Navy Yard, Washington, DC 20374....

  19. How Can Museum Exhibits Enhance Earthquake and Tsunami Hazard Resiliency?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olds, S. E.

    2015-12-01

    Creating a natural disaster-ready community requires interoperating scientific, technical, and social systems. In addition to the technical elements that need to be in place, communities and individuals need to be prepared to react when a natural hazard event occurs. Natural hazard awareness and preparedness training and education often takes place through informal learning at science centers and formal k-12 education programs as well as through awareness raising via strategically placed informational tsunami warning signs and placards. Museums and science centers are influential in raising science literacy within a community, however can science centers enhance earthquake and tsunami resiliency by providing hazard science content and preparedness exhibits? Museum docents and informal educators are uniquely situated within the community. They are transmitters and translators of science information to broad audiences. Through interaction with the public, docents are well positioned to be informants of the knowledge beliefs, and feelings of science center visitors. They themselves are life-long learners, both constantly learning from the museum content around them and sharing this content with visitors. They are also members of a community where they live. In-depth interviews with museum informal educators and docents were conducted at a science center in coastal Pacific Northwest. This region has a potential to be struck by a great 9+ Mw earthquake and subsequent tsunami. During the interviews, docents described how they applied learning from natural hazard exhibits at a science visitor center to their daily lives. During the individual interviews, the museum docents described their awareness (knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors) of natural hazards where they live and work, the feelings evoked as they learned about their hazard vulnerability, the extent to which they applied this learning and awareness to their lives, such as creating an evacuation plan, whether

  20. The Effects of Different Reinforcement Systems on Cooperative Behaviors Exhibited by Children in Classroom Contexts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckholdt, David R.; And Others

    This paper describes a series of experiments which indicate how different reinforcement systems affect cooperative, competitive, and individualized learning structures. Following a brief literature review of prior research, the experiments investigated (1) individual reinforcement for peer tutoring and (2) shared-group reinforcement for peer…

  1. 29 CFR 2204.202 - Net worth exhibit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Net worth exhibit. 2204.202 Section 2204.202 Labor... COMMISSION Information Required From Applicants § 2204.202 Net worth exhibit. (a) Each applicant except a... exhibit showing the net worth of the applicant as of the date specified by § 2204.105(c). The exhibit...

  2. 37 CFR 1.95 - Copies of exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Models, Exhibits, Specimens § 1.95 Copies of exhibits. Copies of models or other physical exhibits will not ordinarily be furnished by the Office, and any model or exhibit in an application or patent shall not be taken from...

  3. Temporary and Travelling Exhibitions. Museums and Monuments, X.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daifuku, Hiroshi; And Others

    The permanent exhibition, the most typical form of museum exhibition, has failed to attract repeated visitation, since visitors quickly become familiar with the objects shown. The temporary exhibition evolved as a result for the need of repeated visitation. The temporary exhibition, set up for a period of one to six months, introduces fresh…

  4. Development of Exhibit on Arctic Climate Change Called The Arctic: A Friend Acting Strangely Exhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Stauffer, Barbara W.

    2006-04-01

    The exhibition, The Arctic: A Friend Acting Strangely, was developed at the Smithsonian Institution’s National Museum of Natural History (NMNH) as a part of the museum’s Forces of Change exhibit series on global change. It opened to the public in Spring 2006, in conjunction with another Forces of Change exhibit on the Earth’s atmosphere called Change Is in the Air. The exhibit was a 2000 square-foot presentation that explored the forces and consequences of the changing Arctic as documented by scientists and native residents alike. Native peoples of the Arctic have always lived with year-to-year fluctuations in weather and ice conditions. In recent decades, they have witnessed that the climate has become unpredictable, the land and sea unfamiliar. An elder in Arctic Canada recently described the weather as uggianaqtuq —an Inuit word that can suggest strange, unexpected behavior, sometimes described as that of “a friend acting strangely.” Scientists too have been documenting dramatic changes in the Arctic. Air temperatures have warmed over most—though not all—of the Arctic since the 1950s; Arctic precipitation may have increased by as much as 8%; seasonal melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet has increased on average by 16% since 1979; polar-orbiting satellites have measured a 15¬–20% decline in sea ice extent since the 1970s; aircraft reconnaissance and ship observations show a steady decrease in sea ice since the 1950s. In response to this warming, plant distributions have begun to shift and animals are changing their migration routes. Some of these changes may have beneficial effects while others may bring hardship or have costly implications. And, many scientists consider arctic change to be a ‘bell-weather’ for large-scale changes in other regions of the world. The exhibition included text, photos artifacts, hands-on interactives and other exhibitry that illustrated the changes being documented by indigenous people and scientists alike.

  5. The evaluation of acute pain in individuals with cognitive impairment: a differential effect of the level of impairment.

    PubMed

    Defrin, Ruth; Lotan, Meir; Pick, Chaim G

    2006-10-01

    The present study investigated whether the level of cognitive impairment (CI) affects acute pain behavior and how it is manifested. Participants were 159 individuals (mean age 42+/-12), 121 with CI (divided into four groups according to the level of CI: mild, moderate, severe, profound) and 38 with normal cognition (controls). The behavior of the participants before and during acute pain (influenza vaccination) was coded by two raters with the Facial Action Coding System (FACS - scores facial reactions to pain) and the Non-Communicating Children's Pain Checklist (NCCPC-R - scores both facial and general body reactions). Individuals with severe-profound CI exhibited elevated FACS and NCCPC-R values at baseline compared with all other groups (p<0.01). Both FACS and NCCPC-R scores of individuals with mild-moderate CI and controls increased significantly during vaccination (p<0.001). In contrast, individuals with severe-profound CI exhibited high rates of "freezing reaction" (stillness) during vaccination, manifested mainly in the face and therefore resulting in elevation of only NCCPC-R scores but not of FACS's. The results suggest that the level of CI affects baseline as well as pain behavior and it is therefore necessary to choose an appropriate behavioral tool to measure pain in these individuals accordingly. For example, tools based on facial reactions alone might provide the false impression that individuals with severe-profound CI are insensitive to pain (due to freezing).

  6. Individual Differences in Susceptibility to Inattentional Blindness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seegmiller, Janelle K.; Watson, Jason M.; Strayer, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Inattentional blindness refers to the finding that people do not always see what appears in their gaze. Though inattentional blindness affects large percentages of people, it is unclear if there are individual differences in susceptibility. The present study addressed whether individual differences in attentional control, as reflected by…

  7. Fragile self-esteem and affective instability in posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Kashdan, Todd B; Uswatte, Gitendra; Steger, Michael F; Julian, Terri

    2006-11-01

    Temporal fluctuations in self-esteem and affect are prominent features of several clinical conditions (e.g., depression), but there is an absence of empirical work examining their role in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Individuals who experience large fluctuations in self-evaluations and affect are considered more vulnerable to psychopathology than individuals able to adequately modulate their self-image and emotional responses. We examined the relevance of self-esteem and affective instability to PTSD. Veterans with and without PTSD completed 14 daily ratings of self-esteem, positive affect, negative affect, and gratitude. Compared to veterans without PTSD, veterans with PTSD exhibited more temporal fluctuations in self-esteem, negative affect, and gratitude, with a smaller effect for positive affect. For all veterans, self-esteem and negative affective instability was associated with diminished well-being. Except for self-esteem instability, most findings were substantially reduced after accounting for variance attributable to PTSD diagnoses and mean intensity levels over the 14-day monitoring period. These data suggest self-esteem instability is important in understanding the lives of veterans with and without PTSD.

  8. Behavioral and physiological responses in felids to exhibit construction.

    PubMed

    Chosy, Julia; Wilson, Megan; Santymire, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    Despite the growing body of literature examining the welfare of zoo-housed animals, little standardized work has been published on the effect of construction and environmental disruption on the physiology and behavior of affected animals. When Lincoln Park Zoo (Chicago, IL), embarked on a renovation project for its Kovler Lion House, the opportunity was taken to perform a scientific study of behavioral and physiological markers in the resident felids to determine the effect of construction and environmental disruption. Fecal samples and behavioral observations were collected on four felid species (five individuals) before, during, and after the period of construction. As a group, the average z-score for fecal glucocorticoid metabolite concentration increased during construction relative to baseline. Levels remained elevated after construction, but trended toward baseline. All individuals demonstrated a significant decrease in the frequency of pacing and time spent visible during construction. Overall activity levels also showed a significant decrease relative to baseline measures. As zoological institutions continue to recognize the importance of habitat design, construction and renovation become inevitable. It is important to be aware of the potential consequences this can have on animals in the vicinity and to work toward minimizing negative effects. One recommendation is the availability of ample retreat and hiding space for felids during disruption to their environment. PMID:25042703

  9. Individualized Healthcare Plans (IHP). Position Statement. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of School Nurses (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) that students whose healthcare needs affect or have the potential to affect safe and optimal school attendance and academic performance require the professional school nurse to write an Individualized Healthcare Plan (IHP), in collaboration with the student, family, educators,…

  10. Children with Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome Exhibit Impaired Spatial Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Ling M.; Riggins, Tracy; Harvey, Danielle; Cabaral, Margarita; Simon, Tony J.

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) have been shown to have impairments in processing spatiotemporal information. The authors examined whether children with 22q11.2DS exhibit impairments in spatial working memory performance due to these weaknesses, even when controlling for maintenance of attention. Children with…

  11. Rethinking evolutionary individuality

    PubMed Central

    Ereshefsky, Marc; Pedroso, Makmiller

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers whether multispecies biofilms are evolutionary individuals. Numerous multispecies biofilms have characteristics associated with individuality, such as internal integrity, division of labor, coordination among parts, and heritable adaptive traits. However, such multispecies biofilms often fail standard reproductive criteria for individuality: they lack reproductive bottlenecks, are comprised of multiple species, do not form unified reproductive lineages, and fail to have a significant division of reproductive labor among their parts. If such biofilms are good candidates for evolutionary individuals, then evolutionary individuality is achieved through other means than frequently cited reproductive processes. The case of multispecies biofilms suggests that standard reproductive requirements placed on individuality should be reconsidered. More generally, the case of multispecies biofilms indicates that accounts of individuality that focus on single-species eukaryotes are too restrictive and that a pluralistic and open-ended account of evolutionary individuality is needed. PMID:26039982

  12. First-Person Assignments: Considering How History Affects and Is Affected by the Individual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johansen, Mary Carroll

    2014-01-01

    This author is an avid consumer of history and has a desire to open students to the endless supply of the riveting stories of men and women struggling to cope with a changing world. The fascination toward the people of the past is enthralling history, and students need to feel that same sense of wonder and love of history. To accomplish this goal,…

  13. Explicating Individual Training Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Marcel; Mueller, Normann

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we explicate individual training decisions. For this purpose, we propose a framework based on instrumentality theory, a psychological theory of motivation that has frequently been applied to individual occupational behavior. To test this framework, we employ novel German individual data and estimate the effect of subjective expected…

  14. The neurobiology of individuality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Bivort, Benjamin

    2015-03-01

    Individuals often display conspicuously different patterns of behavior, even when they are very closely related genetically. These differences give rise to our sense of individuality, but what is their molecular and neurobiological basis? Individuals that are nominally genetically identical differ at various molecular and neurobiological levels: cell-to-cell variation in somatic genomes, cell-to-cell variation in expression patterns, individual-to-individual variation in neuronal morphology and physiology, and individual-to-individual variation in patterns of brain activity. It is unknown which of these levels is fundamentally causal of behavioral differences. To investigate this problem, we use the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, whose genetic toolkit allows the manipulation of each of these mechanistic levels, and whose rapid lifecycle and small size allows for high-throughput automation of behavioral assays. This latter point is crucial; identifying inter-individual behavioral differences requires high sample sizes both within and across individual animals. Automated behavioral characterization is at the heart of our research strategy. In every behavior examined, individual flies have individual behavioral preferences, and we have begun to identify both neural genes and circuits that control the degree of behavioral variability between individuals.

  15. Models for Individualized Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgiades, William, Ed.; Clark, Donald C., Ed.

    This book, consisting of five parts, provides a collection of source materials that will assist in implementing individualized instruction; provides examples of interrelated systems for individualizing instruction; and describes the components of individualized instructional systems, including flexible use of time, differentiated staffing, new…

  16. Increasing awareness and preparedness by an exhibition and studying the effect of visuals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charrière, Marie; Bogaard, Thom; Malet, Jean-Philippe; Mostert, Erik

    2013-04-01

    Damages caused by natural hazards can be reduced not only by protection, management and intervention activities, but also by information and communication to improve awareness and preparedness of local communities and tourists. Risk communication is particularly crucial for mountainous areas, such as the Ubaye Valley (France), as they are affected by multiple hazards and are particularly sensitive to the potential effects of climate and socio-economic changes which may increase the risk associated with natural hazards significantly. An exhibition is a powerful tool to communicate with the general public. It allows1: (1) targeting specific audiences, (2) transmitting technical and scientific knowledge using a suitable language, (3) anchoring the collective memory of past events, (4) visualize and emotionalize the topic of natural hazards, (5) strengthening the communication between peers, and (6) highlighting local resources and knowledge. In addition to these theoretical advantages, an exhibition may fulfill the requirements of a community. In the Ubaye Valley (France), this tool was proposed by the stakeholders themselves to increase awareness and preparedness of the general public. To meet this demand, the exhibition was designed following three general topics: (1) the natural phenomena and their potential consequences on the elements at risk, (2) the management and protection measures (individual and collective) and (3) the evolution of events and knowledge throughout past up to the present and the anticipation of the future situations. Besides being a real risk communication practice, this exhibition will be the setting for an extensive research project studying the effect of the use of visualization tools on the awareness and preparedness of a community. A wide range of visuals (photos, videos, maps, models, animations, multimedia, etc.) will present many dimensions of locally occurring natural hazards and risk problems. The aim of the research is (1) to

  17. The Face of War: A Study Guide for the Exhibition at the National Archives. March 1994 - September 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, DC.

    This document is a study guide to "The Face of War," an exhibition of documents and photographs from the vast World War II holdings of the National Archives. This brochure contains reproductions of selected documents from the exhibit as well as discussion questions. The guide can be used by individuals, families, or school groups while viewing the…

  18. Testing the Grandchildren's Received Affection Scale using Affection Exchange Theory.

    PubMed

    Mansson, Daniel H

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the Grandchildren's Received Affection Scale (GRAS) using Affection Exchange Theory (Floyd, 2006). In accordance with Affection Exchange Theory, it was hypothesized that grandchildren's scores on the Trait Affection Received Scale (i.e., the extent to which individuals by nature receive affection) would be related significantly and positively to their reports of received affection from their grandparents (i.e., their scores on the GRAS). Additionally, a research question was asked to explore if grandchildren's received affection from their grandparents is dependent on their grandparent's biological sex or lineage (i.e., maternal vs paternal). Thus, young adult grandchildren (N = 422) completed the GRAS and the Trait Affection Received Scale. The results of zero-order Pearson correlational analyses provided support for the hypothesis, whereas the results of MANOVAs tests only partially support extant grandparent-grandchild theory and research. These findings broaden the scope of Affection Exchange Theory and also bolster the GRAS's utility in future grandparent-grandchild affectionate communication research. PMID:23833883

  19. Testing the Grandchildren's Received Affection Scale using Affection Exchange Theory.

    PubMed

    Mansson, Daniel H

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the Grandchildren's Received Affection Scale (GRAS) using Affection Exchange Theory (Floyd, 2006). In accordance with Affection Exchange Theory, it was hypothesized that grandchildren's scores on the Trait Affection Received Scale (i.e., the extent to which individuals by nature receive affection) would be related significantly and positively to their reports of received affection from their grandparents (i.e., their scores on the GRAS). Additionally, a research question was asked to explore if grandchildren's received affection from their grandparents is dependent on their grandparent's biological sex or lineage (i.e., maternal vs paternal). Thus, young adult grandchildren (N = 422) completed the GRAS and the Trait Affection Received Scale. The results of zero-order Pearson correlational analyses provided support for the hypothesis, whereas the results of MANOVAs tests only partially support extant grandparent-grandchild theory and research. These findings broaden the scope of Affection Exchange Theory and also bolster the GRAS's utility in future grandparent-grandchild affectionate communication research.

  20. Bonobos and chimpanzees exhibit human-like framing effects.

    PubMed

    Krupenye, Christopher; Rosati, Alexandra G; Hare, Brian

    2015-02-01

    Humans exhibit framing effects when making choices, appraising decisions involving losses differently from those involving gains. To directly test for the evolutionary origin of this bias, we examined decision-making in humans' closest living relatives: bonobos (Pan paniscus) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). We presented the largest sample of non-humans to date (n = 40) with a simple task requiring minimal experience. Apes made choices between a 'framed' option that provided preferred food, and an alternative option that provided a constant amount of intermediately preferred food. In the gain condition, apes experienced a positive 'gain' event in which the framed option was initially presented as one piece of food but sometimes was augmented to two. In the loss condition, apes experienced a negative 'loss' event in which they initially saw two pieces but sometimes received only one. Both conditions provided equal pay-offs, but apes chose the framed option more often in the positive 'gain' frame. Moreover, male apes were more susceptible to framing than were females. These results suggest that some human economic biases are shared through common descent with other apes and highlight the importance of comparative work in understanding the origins of individual differences in human choice. PMID:25672997

  1. Mechanical Amplification Exhibited by Quiescent Saccular Hair Bundles

    PubMed Central

    Roongthumskul, Yuttana; Bozovic, Dolores

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous oscillations exhibited by free-standing hair bundles from the Bullfrog sacculus suggest the existence of an active process that might underlie the exquisite sensitivity of the sacculus to mechanical stimulation. However, this spontaneous activity is suppressed by coupling to an overlying membrane, which applies a large mechanical load on the bundle. How a quiescent hair bundle utilizes its active process is still unknown. We studied the dynamics of motion of individual hair bundles under different offsets in the bundle position, and observed the occurrence of spikes in hair-bundle motion, associated with the generation of active work. These mechanical spikes can be evoked by a sinusoidal stimulus, leading to an amplified movement of the bundle with respect to the passive response. Amplitude gain reached as high as 100-fold at small stimulus amplitudes. Amplification of motion decreased with increasing amplitude of stimulation, ceasing at ∼6–12 pN stimuli. Results from numerical simulations suggest that the adaptation process, mediated by myosin 1c, is not required for the production of mechanical spikes. PMID:25564852

  2. Mechanical amplification exhibited by quiescent saccular hair bundles.

    PubMed

    Roongthumskul, Yuttana; Bozovic, Dolores

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous oscillations exhibited by free-standing hair bundles from the Bullfrog sacculus suggest the existence of an active process that might underlie the exquisite sensitivity of the sacculus to mechanical stimulation. However, this spontaneous activity is suppressed by coupling to an overlying membrane, which applies a large mechanical load on the bundle. How a quiescent hair bundle utilizes its active process is still unknown. We studied the dynamics of motion of individual hair bundles under different offsets in the bundle position, and observed the occurrence of spikes in hair-bundle motion, associated with the generation of active work. These mechanical spikes can be evoked by a sinusoidal stimulus, leading to an amplified movement of the bundle with respect to the passive response. Amplitude gain reached as high as 100-fold at small stimulus amplitudes. Amplification of motion decreased with increasing amplitude of stimulation, ceasing at ∼6-12 pN stimuli. Results from numerical simulations suggest that the adaptation process, mediated by myosin 1c, is not required for the production of mechanical spikes. PMID:25564852

  3. Bonobos and chimpanzees exhibit human-like framing effects.

    PubMed

    Krupenye, Christopher; Rosati, Alexandra G; Hare, Brian

    2015-02-01

    Humans exhibit framing effects when making choices, appraising decisions involving losses differently from those involving gains. To directly test for the evolutionary origin of this bias, we examined decision-making in humans' closest living relatives: bonobos (Pan paniscus) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). We presented the largest sample of non-humans to date (n = 40) with a simple task requiring minimal experience. Apes made choices between a 'framed' option that provided preferred food, and an alternative option that provided a constant amount of intermediately preferred food. In the gain condition, apes experienced a positive 'gain' event in which the framed option was initially presented as one piece of food but sometimes was augmented to two. In the loss condition, apes experienced a negative 'loss' event in which they initially saw two pieces but sometimes received only one. Both conditions provided equal pay-offs, but apes chose the framed option more often in the positive 'gain' frame. Moreover, male apes were more susceptible to framing than were females. These results suggest that some human economic biases are shared through common descent with other apes and highlight the importance of comparative work in understanding the origins of individual differences in human choice.

  4. Bonobos and chimpanzees exhibit human-like framing effects

    PubMed Central

    Krupenye, Christopher; Rosati, Alexandra G.; Hare, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Humans exhibit framing effects when making choices, appraising decisions involving losses differently from those involving gains. To directly test for the evolutionary origin of this bias, we examined decision-making in humans' closest living relatives: bonobos (Pan paniscus) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). We presented the largest sample of non-humans to date (n = 40) with a simple task requiring minimal experience. Apes made choices between a ‘framed’ option that provided preferred food, and an alternative option that provided a constant amount of intermediately preferred food. In the gain condition, apes experienced a positive ‘gain’ event in which the framed option was initially presented as one piece of food but sometimes was augmented to two. In the loss condition, apes experienced a negative ‘loss' event in which they initially saw two pieces but sometimes received only one. Both conditions provided equal pay-offs, but apes chose the framed option more often in the positive ‘gain’ frame. Moreover, male apes were more susceptible to framing than were females. These results suggest that some human economic biases are shared through common descent with other apes and highlight the importance of comparative work in understanding the origins of individual differences in human choice. PMID:25672997

  5. Investigation of 15q11-q13, 16p11.2 and 22q13 CNVs in Autism Spectrum Disorder Brazilian Individuals with and without Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Danielle P.; Griesi-Oliveira, Karina; Bossolani-Martins, Ana L.; Lourenço, Naila C. V.; Takahashi, Vanessa N. O.; da Rocha, Kátia M.; Moreira, Eloisa S.; Vadasz, Estevão; Meira, Joanna Goes Castro; Bertola, Debora; Halloran, Eoghan O’; Magalhães, Tiago R.; Fett-Conte, Agnes C.; Passos-Bueno, Maria Rita

    2014-01-01

    Copy number variations (CNVs) are an important cause of ASD and those located at 15q11-q13, 16p11.2 and 22q13 have been reported as the most frequent. These CNVs exhibit variable clinical expressivity and those at 15q11-q13 and 16p11.2 also show incomplete penetrance. In the present work, through multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) analysis of 531 ethnically admixed ASD-affected Brazilian individuals, we found that the combined prevalence of the 15q11-q13, 16p11.2 and 22q13 CNVs is 2.1% (11/531). Parental origin could be determined in 8 of the affected individuals, and revealed that 4 of the CNVs represent de novo events. Based on CNV prediction analysis from genome-wide SNP arrays, the size of those CNVs ranged from 206 kb to 2.27 Mb and those at 15q11-q13 were limited to the 15q13.3 region. In addition, this analysis also revealed 6 additional CNVs in 5 out of 11 affected individuals. Finally, we observed that the combined prevalence of CNVs at 15q13.3 and 22q13 in ASD-affected individuals with epilepsy (6.4%) was higher than that in ASD-affected individuals without epilepsy (1.3%; p<0.014). Therefore, our data show that the prevalence of CNVs at 15q13.3, 16p11.2 and 22q13 in Brazilian ASD-affected individuals is comparable to that estimated for ASD-affected individuals of pure or predominant European ancestry. Also, it suggests that the likelihood of a greater number of positive MLPA results might be found for the 15q13.3 and 22q13 regions by prioritizing ASD-affected individuals with epilepsy. PMID:25255310

  6. Investigation of 15q11-q13, 16p11.2 and 22q13 CNVs in autism spectrum disorder Brazilian individuals with and without epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Danielle P; Griesi-Oliveira, Karina; Bossolani-Martins, Ana L; Lourenço, Naila C V; Takahashi, Vanessa N O; da Rocha, Kátia M; Moreira, Eloisa S; Vadasz, Estevão; Meira, Joanna Goes Castro; Bertola, Debora; O'Halloran, Eoghan; Magalhães, Tiago R; Fett-Conte, Agnes C; Passos-Bueno, Maria Rita

    2014-01-01

    Copy number variations (CNVs) are an important cause of ASD and those located at 15q11-q13, 16p11.2 and 22q13 have been reported as the most frequent. These CNVs exhibit variable clinical expressivity and those at 15q11-q13 and 16p11.2 also show incomplete penetrance. In the present work, through multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) analysis of 531 ethnically admixed ASD-affected Brazilian individuals, we found that the combined prevalence of the 15q11-q13, 16p11.2 and 22q13 CNVs is 2.1% (11/531). Parental origin could be determined in 8 of the affected individuals, and revealed that 4 of the CNVs represent de novo events. Based on CNV prediction analysis from genome-wide SNP arrays, the size of those CNVs ranged from 206 kb to 2.27 Mb and those at 15q11-q13 were limited to the 15q13.3 region. In addition, this analysis also revealed 6 additional CNVs in 5 out of 11 affected individuals. Finally, we observed that the combined prevalence of CNVs at 15q13.3 and 22q13 in ASD-affected individuals with epilepsy (6.4%) was higher than that in ASD-affected individuals without epilepsy (1.3%; p<0.014). Therefore, our data show that the prevalence of CNVs at 15q13.3, 16p11.2 and 22q13 in Brazilian ASD-affected individuals is comparable to that estimated for ASD-affected individuals of pure or predominant European ancestry. Also, it suggests that the likelihood of a greater number of positive MLPA results might be found for the 15q13.3 and 22q13 regions by prioritizing ASD-affected individuals with epilepsy.

  7. Men without a sense of smell exhibit a strongly reduced number of sexual relationships, women exhibit reduced partnership security - a reanalysis of previously published data.

    PubMed

    Croy, Ilona; Bojanowski, Viola; Hummel, Thomas

    2013-02-01

    Olfactory function influences social behavior. For instance, olfaction seems to play a key role in mate choice and helps detecting emotions in other people. In a previous study, we showed that people who were born without a sense of smell exhibit enhanced social insecurity. Based on the comments to this article we decided to have a closer look to whether the absence of the sense of smell affects men and women differently. Under this focus questionnaire data of 32 patients, diagnosed with isolated congenital anosmia (10 men, 22 women) and 36 age-matched healthy controls (15 men, 21 women) was reanalyzed. In result, men and women without a sense of smell reported enhanced social insecurity, but with different consequences: Men who were born without a sense of smell exhibit a strongly reduced number of sexual relationships and women are affected such that they feel less secure about their partner. This emphasizes the importance of the sense of smell for intimate relationships.

  8. Intuition, Affect, and Peculiar Beliefs

    PubMed Central

    Boden, Matthew Tyler; Berenbaum, Howard; Topper, Maurice

    2012-01-01

    Research with college students has found that intuitive thinking (e.g., using hunches to ascribe meaning to experiences) and positive affect interactively predict ideas of reference and odd/magical beliefs. We investigated whether these results would generalize to a diverse community sample of adults that included individuals with elevated levels of peculiar perceptions and beliefs. We measured positive and negative affect and intuitive thinking through questionnaires, and peculiar beliefs (i.e., ideas of reference and odd/magical beliefs) through structured clinical interviews. We found that peculiar beliefs were associated with intuitive thinking and negative affect, but not positive affect. Furthermore, in no instance did the interaction of affect and intuitive thinking predict peculiar beliefs. These results suggest that there are important differences in the factors that contribute to peculiar beliefs between college students and clinically meaningful samples. PMID:22707815

  9. Identification of two new phylogenetically distant phytoplasmas from Senna surattensis plants exhibiting stem fasciation and shoot proliferation symptoms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sunshine trees (Senna surattensis Burm.) exhibiting unusual stem fasciation symptoms were observed in Yunnan, China. Morphological abnormalities of the affected plants included enlargement and flattening of stems and excessive proliferation of shoots. An electron microscopic investigation revealed...

  10. 48 CFR 204.7105 - Contract exhibits and attachments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... attachments. 204.7105 Section 204.7105 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS... 204.7105 Contract exhibits and attachments. Follow the procedures at PGI 204.7105 for use and numbering of contract exhibits and attachments....

  11. 32 CFR 705.25 - Navy Exhibit Center.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... AND OFFICIAL RECORDS PUBLIC AFFAIRS REGULATIONS § 705.25 Navy Exhibit Center. (a) The center is a... mission is to produce, transport and display U.S. Navy exhibits throughout the United States. It...

  12. Outbreak of malignant catarrhal fever among cattle associated with a state livestock exhibition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Case description – Severe disease and death in cattle exhibited at a state fair and naturally infected with Ovine Herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2). Clinical Findings – Most affected cattle had anorexia, depression, diarrhea, fever and respiratory distress ultimately leading to death. Average duration of clin...

  13. Glucocorticoid receptor exhibits sexually dimorphic expression in the medaka brain.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Yukiko; Hosono, Kohei; Yamashita, Junpei; Kawabata, Yukika; Okubo, Kataaki

    2015-11-01

    The differential impact of stress on brain functions of males and females has been widely observed in vertebrates. Recent evidence suggests that stress-induced glucocorticoid signaling affects sexual differentiation and sex changes in teleost fish. These facts led us to postulate that there were sex differences in glucocorticoid signaling in the teleost brain that underlie some sex differences in their physiological and behavioral traits. Here we found sexually dimorphic expression of a glucocorticoid receptor gene (gr1) in the brain of medaka fish (Oryzias latipes), with females having greater expression in several preoptic and thalamic nuclei. Further, gr1 exhibits female-biased expression in neurons of the anterior parvocellular preoptic nucleus that produce the neuropeptides vasotocin and gonadotropin-releasing hormone 1 (these neuropeptides have been implicated in the regulation of neuroendocrine and behavioral functions). These findings suggest that glucocorticoids have a greater influence on physiology and behavior mediated by these neuropeptides in females than in males, which may contribute to sex differences in the brain's response to stress. PMID:26433060

  14. Morphology development in polymer blends exhibiting strong intermolecular interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, R.A.; Feng, Y.; Han, C.C.; Karim, A.

    1996-12-31

    He et al. measured the spinodal decomposition (SD) kinetics of a blend of poly(butyl methacrylate) with a polystyrene modified with 1.5 mol% of a hydroxy-containing comonomer that exhibited intermolecular hydrogen bonding, who studied blends. For small excursions into the spinodal region, multiple structures developed in the blend, which suggested that multiple mechanisms may be involved in the phase separation process. For most cases, however, the kinetics of phase separation followed Cahn-Hilliard theory in the early stage of spinodal decomposition and a self-similar mechanism in the later stages, similar to non-associating polymer blends such as PS/PVME. The failure to observe an effect of a specific intermolecular interaction on SD kinetics may be a consequence of the low concentration of hydroxyl groups on the polystyrene, ca. five per chain, and the weakening of the hydrogen bond at the elevated temperatures used to study phase separation where the crosslink effect of hydrogen bonding may not be significant. At elevated temperatures, the association-dissociation equilibrium shifts towards non-associated hydroxyl and ester groups. An objective of the present study was to use a polymer blend having a relatively higher degree of intermolecular association at the phase separation temperature and to investigate how physical crosslinks affect the phase separation kinetics accompanying spinodal decomposition.

  15. Respiratory-deficient human fibroblasts exhibiting defective mitochondrial DNA replication.

    PubMed Central

    Bodnar, A G; Cooper, J M; Leonard, J V; Schapira, A H

    1995-01-01

    We have characterized cultured skin fibroblasts from two siblings affected with a fatal mitochondrial disease caused by a nuclear genetic defect. Mitochondrial respiratory-chain function was severely decreased in these cells. Southern-blot analysis showed that the fibroblasts had reduced levels of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). The mtDNA was unstable and was eliminated from the cultured cells over many generations, generating the rho0 genotype. As the mtDNA level decreased, the cells became more dependent upon pyruvate and uridine for growth. Nuclear-encoded subunits of respiratory-chain complexes were synthesized and imported into the mitochondria of the mtDNA-depleted cells, albeit at reduced levels compared with the controls. Mitochondrial protein synthesis directed by the residual mtDNA indicated that the mtDNA was expressed and that the defect specifically involves the replication or maintenance of mtDNA. This is a unique example of a respiratory-deficient human cell line exhibiting defective mtDNA replication. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:7848281

  16. 45 CFR 1160.5 - Eligibility for domestic exhibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... AND ARTIFACTS INDEMNITY ACT § 1160.5 Eligibility for domestic exhibitions. An indemnity agreement for...-owned objects; (B) Exhibitions outside of the United States of domestic-owned objects; or (C) Exhibitions in the United States of both foreign- and domestic-owned objects, with the foreign-owned...

  17. 77 FR 31420 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-25

    ... Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Alighiero Boetti: Game Plan... determine that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``Alighiero Boetti: Game Plan'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within the United States, are of cultural significance. The objects...

  18. 14 CFR Appendix to Subpart A of... - Listing of Exhibits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Listing of Exhibits Appendix to Subpart A of Part 1260 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS General Pt. 1260, Subpt. A, App. Appendix to Subpart A of Part 1260—Listing of Exhibits Exhibit...

  19. A Major Children's Educational Art Exhibit: An Evaluative Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenk, George W.; Shrock, Sharon A.

    Results of a case study of an exhibit of art and artifacts designed for children are presented. The focus of the study was to apply the principles of instructional-message design to the evaluation of the exhibit. The exhibit, "Art Inside Out: Exploring Art and Culture through Time," was displayed at the Art Institute of Chicago. Textual elements,…

  20. 17 CFR 201.42 - Net worth exhibit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... that exhibit in accordance with 17 CFR 201.190. ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Net worth exhibit. 201.42... Regulations Pertaining to the Equal Access to Justice Act § 201.42 Net worth exhibit. (a) Each...

  1. 39 CFR 960.10 - Net worth exhibit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Net worth exhibit. 960.10 Section 960.10 Postal... JUSTICE ACT IN POSTAL SERVICE PROCEEDINGS Information Required From Applicants § 960.10 Net worth exhibit... with its application a detailed exhibit showing the net worth of the applicant and any affiliates...

  2. 10 CFR 1023.311 - Net worth exhibit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Net worth exhibit. 1023.311 Section 1023.311 Energy... Access to Justice Act Information Required from Applicants § 1023.311 Net worth exhibit. (a) Each... application a detailed exhibit showing the net worth of the applicant and any affiliates (as defined in §...

  3. 45 CFR 13.11 - Net worth exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net worth exhibits. 13.11 Section 13.11 Public... TO JUSTICE ACT IN AGENCY PROCEEDINGS Information Required from Applicants § 13.11 Net worth exhibits. (a) Each applicant must provide with its application a detailed exhibit showing the net worth of...

  4. 49 CFR 826.22 - Net worth exhibit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net worth exhibit. 826.22 Section 826.22... Net worth exhibit. (a) Each applicant except a qualified tax-exempt organization or cooperative association must provide with its application a detailed exhibit showing the net worth of the applicant...

  5. 7 CFR 1.191 - Net worth exhibit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Net worth exhibit. 1.191 Section 1.191 Agriculture... § 1.191 Net worth exhibit. (a) An applicant, except a qualified tax-exempt organization or cooperative association, must provide with its application a detailed exhibit showing the net worth of the applicant...

  6. 17 CFR 148.12 - Net worth exhibit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Net worth exhibit. 148.12... Required from Applicants § 148.12 Net worth exhibit. (a) Each applicant except a qualified tax-exempt organization or cooperative association must provide with its application a detailed exhibit showing the...

  7. 31 CFR 6.9 - Net worth exhibit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Net worth exhibit. 6.9 Section 6.9... EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT Information Required From Applicants § 6.9 Net worth exhibit. (a) Each... application a detailed exhibit showing the net worth of the applicant and any affiliates (as defined in §...

  8. 5 CFR 2610.202 - Net worth exhibit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Net worth exhibit. 2610.202 Section 2610... THE EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT Information Required From Applicants § 2610.202 Net worth exhibit. (a... with its application a detailed exhibit showing the net worth of the applicant and any affiliates...

  9. 49 CFR 6.19 - Net worth exhibit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net worth exhibit. 6.19 Section 6.19... PROCEEDINGS Information Required from Applicants § 6.19 Net worth exhibit. (a) Each applicant except a... exhibit showing the net worth of the applicant and any affiliates (as defined in this part) when...

  10. 49 CFR 1016.202 - Net worth exhibit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net worth exhibit. 1016.202 Section 1016.202... BY PARTIES TO BOARD ADJUDICATORY PROCEEDINGS Information Required From Applicants § 1016.202 Net worth exhibit. (a) Each applicant must provide with its application a detailed exhibit showing the...

  11. African Past: Migrant Present. A Guide to the Exhibition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twining, Mary Arnold; Roark-Calnek, Sue

    This exhibit guide describes an exhibition of African folk arts produced by seasonal migrant farmworkers in western New York State. Workers come from the American South, Haiti, Puerto Rico, and Jamaica. The exhibition pieces were collected through the BOCES Geneseo Migrant Center's Folk Arts Program and Creative Artists Migrant Program Services…

  12. Online Cultural Heritage Exhibitions: A Survey of Strategic Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liew, Chern Li

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to report findings from a study that looked at a range of strategic issues faced in the development, management and maintenance of online cultural heritage exhibitions. The study examined exhibitions from different types of cultural agencies and asked questions about whether, for instance, the exhibitions are part of the…

  13. 47 CFR 1.356 - Copies of exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Copies of exhibits. 1.356 Section 1.356....356 Copies of exhibits. No document or exhibit, or part thereof, shall be received as, or admitted in... offered in evidence, copies shall be furnished to other counsel unless the presiding officer...

  14. Prevalence of Influenza A Virus in Exhibition Swine during Arrival at Agricultural Fairs.

    PubMed

    Bliss, N; Nelson, S W; Nolting, J M; Bowman, A S

    2016-09-01

    The exhibition swine at agricultural fairs provides a critical human-swine interface that allows for the bidirectional transmission of influenza A virus (IAV). Previous IAV surveillance at the end of fairs has resulted in frequent detection of IAV-infected swine; little is known, however, about the frequency with which swine arrive at fairs already infected with IAV. We investigated the IAV prevalence among exhibition swine entering fairs to better understand the epidemiology of IAV in this unique human-swine interface. In 2014, snout wipes were collected from 3547 swine during the first day of nine agricultural exhibitions in Indiana and Ohio. Samples were screened for IAV using rRT-PCR and positive samples were inoculated into cultured cells for virus isolation. The overall IAV prevalence detected among swine arriving at exhibitions was 5.3% (188/3547) via rRT-PCR and 1.5% (53/3547) via virus isolation, with IAV being detected and recovered from swine at 5 of the 9 exhibitions. Within the fairs with IAV-positive swine, the individual exhibition IAV prevalence ranged from 0.2% (1/523) to 34.4% (144/419) using rRT-PCR and 0.2% (1/523) to 10.3% (43/419) with virus isolation. Single IAV subtypes were detected at three of the fairs but subtype diversity was detected among the pigs at two fairs as both H1N1 and H3N2 were recovered from incoming swine. At two of the exhibitions, a temporal relationship was observed between the order of the individual swine in sampling and the associated IAV rRT-PCR results, indicating the fomite transmission of IAV through common contact surfaces may occur. With the knowledge that a small proportion of swine arrive at fairs shedding IAV, resources should be directed towards preventive strategies focused on limiting transmission during fairs to protect swine and humans during exhibitions. PMID:26750204

  15. Leader affective presence and innovation in teams.

    PubMed

    Madrid, Hector P; Totterdell, Peter; Niven, Karen; Barros, Eduardo

    2016-05-01

    Affective presence is a novel personality construct that describes the tendency of individuals to make their interaction partners feel similarly positive or negative. We adopt this construct, together with the input-process-output model of teamwork, to understand how team leaders influence team interaction and innovation performance. In 2 multisource studies, based on 350 individuals working in 87 teams of 2 public organizations and 734 individuals working in 69 teams of a private organization, we tested and supported hypotheses that team leader positive affective presence was positively related to team information sharing, whereas team leader negative affective presence was negatively related to the same team process. In turn, team information sharing was positively related to team innovation, mediating the effects of leader affective presence on this team output. The results indicate the value of adopting an interpersonal individual differences approach to understanding how affect-related characteristics of leaders influence interaction processes and complex performance in teams. (PsycINFO Database Record

  16. Life on Earth is an individual.

    PubMed

    Hermida, Margarida

    2016-06-01

    Life is a self-maintaining process based on metabolism. Something is said to be alive when it exhibits organization and is actively involved in its own continued existence through carrying out metabolic processes. A life is a spatio-temporally restricted event, which continues while the life processes are occurring in a particular chunk of matter (or, arguably, when they are temporally suspended, but can be restarted at any moment), even though there is continuous replacement of parts. Life is organized in discrete packages, particular cells and multicellular organisms with differing degrees of individuality. Biological species, too, have been shown to be individuals, and not classes, as these collections of organisms are spatio-temporally localized, restricted, continuous, and somewhat cohesive entities, with a definite beginning and end. Assuming that all life on Earth has a common origin, all living organisms, cells, and tissues descending from this origin exhibit continuity of the life processes at the cellular level, as well as many of the features that define the individual character of species: spatio-temporal localization and restriction, continuity, historicity, and cohesiveness. Therefore, life on Earth is an ontological individual. Independent origins of life will have produced other such individuals. These provisionally called 'life-individuals' constitute a category of organization of life which has seldom been recognized. The discovery of at least one independent life-individual would go a long way toward the project of the universality of biology.

  17. Life on Earth is an individual.

    PubMed

    Hermida, Margarida

    2016-06-01

    Life is a self-maintaining process based on metabolism. Something is said to be alive when it exhibits organization and is actively involved in its own continued existence through carrying out metabolic processes. A life is a spatio-temporally restricted event, which continues while the life processes are occurring in a particular chunk of matter (or, arguably, when they are temporally suspended, but can be restarted at any moment), even though there is continuous replacement of parts. Life is organized in discrete packages, particular cells and multicellular organisms with differing degrees of individuality. Biological species, too, have been shown to be individuals, and not classes, as these collections of organisms are spatio-temporally localized, restricted, continuous, and somewhat cohesive entities, with a definite beginning and end. Assuming that all life on Earth has a common origin, all living organisms, cells, and tissues descending from this origin exhibit continuity of the life processes at the cellular level, as well as many of the features that define the individual character of species: spatio-temporal localization and restriction, continuity, historicity, and cohesiveness. Therefore, life on Earth is an ontological individual. Independent origins of life will have produced other such individuals. These provisionally called 'life-individuals' constitute a category of organization of life which has seldom been recognized. The discovery of at least one independent life-individual would go a long way toward the project of the universality of biology. PMID:26907555

  18. Positive affect and distressed affect over the day in older people.

    PubMed

    Steptoe, Andrew; Leigh, Elizabeth S; Kumari, Meena

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess patterns of affect over the day in a representative sample of older people, with particular emphasis on the impact of loneliness and depression. Momentary assessments of positive and distressed affect were obtained four times over a single day from 4,258 men and women aged 52-79 years from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Positive and distressed affect were only modestly correlated (r = -0.23). Positive affect was low on waking and peaked in the early evening, while distressed affect decreased progressively over the day. The diurnal variation in positive affect was greater in participants <65 years compared with older individuals. Positive affect was greater in men, married participants and in healthy individuals, while distressed affect was higher among women, unmarried and lower socioeconomic status respondents, and in those with limiting longstanding illnesses. Depressed individuals experienced lower positive affect throughout the day, while differences in distressed affect were more pronounced in the morning. Loneliness was associated with lower positive affect and greater distressed affect independently of age, sex, marital status, paid employment, socioeconomic status, health, and depression. This study demonstrates that ecological momentary assessment of affect is feasible on a large scale in older individuals, and generates information about positive affect and distress that is complementary to standard questionnaire measures. The associations with loneliness highlight the everyday distress and reduced happiness and excitement experienced by lonely older men and women, and these may contribute to enhanced risks to physical and mental health.

  19. [Energy education exhibits for Insights El Paso Science Museum

    SciTech Connect

    Shubinski, R.

    1998-05-27

    The grant in question, DE-FG03-94ER75954, was awarded to Insights El Paso Science Museum to build key exhibits. These exhibits helped the Museum fulfill its mission to ``promote curiosity and stimulate interest by exploratory, entertaining, exciting, and participatory learning in a broad range of scientific disciplines to persons of all ages regionally and internationally.`` There are several current Board of Directors members who also were Board members during the grant period and who helped construct some of the exhibits. Through speaking with them and reviewing minutes of Board meetings during 1994, it has been determined that seven of the ten proposed exhibits were constructed, with an eighth exhibit constructed as an alternative. Photos of seven of the exhibits and preliminary sketches of some are attached. Following is a list of the constructed exhibits: Hot or Cold, Give and Take, Conduction, Convection, Sources of Energy, Wind Generator, Solar Tracker, and Perpetual Motion.

  20. Dynamical and structural properties of monohydroxy alcohols exhibiting a Debye process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieth, P.; Vogel, M.

    2014-04-01

    We perform molecular dynamics simulations to study dynamical and structural properties of various primary monohydroxy alcohols. Comparing rotational correlation functions for the individual dipole moment of the molecules and the total dipole moment of the system, it is shown that the studied models exhibit a Debye process, which is slower than the α process, in harmony with experimental results. Performing cluster analysis, it is found that hydroxyl groups tend to form hydrogen-bonded aggregates, in particular, chain structures, which are transient in nature. To ascertain a possible relation between the Debye process and aggregate fluctuations, we devise an algorithm allowing us to follow the time evolution of transient chains. It is observed that the life times of transient chains are substantially shorter than the correlation times of the Debye process, indicating that the latter relaxation is not a direct consequence of the chain reorganization in the studied models. We assure that this conclusion is not affected when hydrogen-bond cooperativity is mimicked in the simulations or when the polarity of the molecules and the size of the systems are varied. On the other hand, we find that orientational correlations of molecular dipole moments are not limited to hydrogen-bonded chains, but they also exist in more globular regions around these objects, implying that the neighboring molecules are polarized in the dipole field exerted by the hydrogen-bonded chains. Further evidence for a relevance of dipole fields comes from the observation that some correlation between the initial orientation of the total dipole moment and the instantaneous orientations of the molecular dipole moments is retained up to the time scale of the Debye process. The simulation results are discussed in terms of a La-Ola wave model with diffusive propagation.

  1. The affective shift model of work engagement.

    PubMed

    Bledow, Ronald; Schmitt, Antje; Frese, Michael; Kühnel, Jana

    2011-11-01

    On the basis of self-regulation theories, the authors develop an affective shift model of work engagement according to which work engagement emerges from the dynamic interplay of positive and negative affect. The affective shift model posits that negative affect is positively related to work engagement if negative affect is followed by positive affect. The authors applied experience sampling methodology to test the model. Data on affective events, mood, and work engagement was collected twice a day over 9 working days among 55 software developers. In support of the affective shift model, negative mood and negative events experienced in the morning of a working day were positively related to work engagement in the afternoon if positive mood in the time interval between morning and afternoon was high. Individual differences in positive affectivity moderated within-person relationships. The authors discuss how work engagement can be fostered through affect regulation.

  2. The expositive discourse as pedagogical discourse: studying recontextualization in the production of a science museum exhibition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marandino, Martha

    2016-06-01

    In this paper I report on the sociological and educational particulars of The Biodiscovery Space exhibition of the Life Museum of the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, using Basil Bernstein's framework of pedagogic discourse and recontextualization. Data for analysis was obtained from interviews with the exhibition developers, field observations of museum visitors and analysis of exhibition documents. Using the ideas of power, classification and framework, among others, I analyzed the recontextualization process of the production of expositive discourse. Thus, working with Bernstein's idea of classification, I explain the relationship between the discourses of the science of biology, history of science, museology, education, and communication in order to produce an expositive discourse. I also make explicit how agents of the Official Recontextualization Field of the Museum and the Pedagogic Recontextualization Field "....of the Museum determine partly the final expositive discourse of an exhibition". Using the idea of a pedagogic discourse framework, I discuss how the constraints imposed by objects and texts in exhibitions help to create a specific manner of visitor interaction with these elements, "even if they have some autonomy". Considerations about the audience and the intended process of acquisition are presented, when I discuss the control strategies of the exhibition. I propose that the Biodiscovery Space exhibit has a visible pedagogy. Finally, using the collected data I discuss the power tensions created in the production of expositive discourse showing how distributive, recontextualization and evaluation rules work in the context of exhibitions. The study of the dynamics in forming the expositive discourse using Bernstein's framework reveals the individuals and institutions, the selection criteria, the negotiations and the power relations involved. It has the potential to assist both educators and researchers in the museum education

  3. Ants exhibit asymmetric hybridization in a mosaic hybrid zone.

    PubMed

    Purcell, Jessica; Zahnd, Sacha; Athanasiades, Anouk; Türler, Rebecca; Chapuisat, Michel; Brelsford, Alan

    2016-10-01

    Research on hybridization between species provides unparalleled insights into the pre- and postzygotic isolating mechanisms that drive speciation. In social organisms, colony-level incompatibilities may provide additional reproductive barriers not present in solitary species, and hybrid zones offer an opportunity to identify these barriers. Here, we use genotyping-by-sequencing to sequence hundreds of markers in a hybrid zone between two socially polymorphic ant species, Formica selysi and Formica cinerea. We characterize the zone, determine the frequency of hybrid workers, infer whether hybrid queens or males are produced and investigate whether hybridization is influenced by colony social organization. We also compare cuticular hydrocarbon profiles and aggression levels between the two species. The hybrid zone exhibits a mosaic structure. The asymmetric distribution of hybrids skewed towards F. cinerea suggests a pattern of unidirectional nuclear gene flow from F. selysi into F. cinerea. The occurrence of backcrossed individuals indicates that hybrid queens and/or males are fertile, and the presence of the F. cinerea mitochondrial haplotype in 97% of hybrids shows that successful F1 hybrids will generally have F. cinerea mothers and F. selysi fathers. We found no evidence that social organization contributes to speciation, because hybrids occur in both single-queen and multiple-queen colonies. Strongly differentiated cuticular hydrocarbon profiles and heightened interspecific aggression further reveal that species recognition cues are both present and perceived. The discovery of fertile hybrids and asymmetrical gene flow is unusual in ants, and this hybrid zone will therefore provide an ideal system with which to investigate speciation in social insects. PMID:27506180

  4. Ants exhibit asymmetric hybridization in a mosaic hybrid zone.

    PubMed

    Purcell, Jessica; Zahnd, Sacha; Athanasiades, Anouk; Türler, Rebecca; Chapuisat, Michel; Brelsford, Alan

    2016-10-01

    Research on hybridization between species provides unparalleled insights into the pre- and postzygotic isolating mechanisms that drive speciation. In social organisms, colony-level incompatibilities may provide additional reproductive barriers not present in solitary species, and hybrid zones offer an opportunity to identify these barriers. Here, we use genotyping-by-sequencing to sequence hundreds of markers in a hybrid zone between two socially polymorphic ant species, Formica selysi and Formica cinerea. We characterize the zone, determine the frequency of hybrid workers, infer whether hybrid queens or males are produced and investigate whether hybridization is influenced by colony social organization. We also compare cuticular hydrocarbon profiles and aggression levels between the two species. The hybrid zone exhibits a mosaic structure. The asymmetric distribution of hybrids skewed towards F. cinerea suggests a pattern of unidirectional nuclear gene flow from F. selysi into F. cinerea. The occurrence of backcrossed individuals indicates that hybrid queens and/or males are fertile, and the presence of the F. cinerea mitochondrial haplotype in 97% of hybrids shows that successful F1 hybrids will generally have F. cinerea mothers and F. selysi fathers. We found no evidence that social organization contributes to speciation, because hybrids occur in both single-queen and multiple-queen colonies. Strongly differentiated cuticular hydrocarbon profiles and heightened interspecific aggression further reveal that species recognition cues are both present and perceived. The discovery of fertile hybrids and asymmetrical gene flow is unusual in ants, and this hybrid zone will therefore provide an ideal system with which to investigate speciation in social insects.

  5. Mentoring Emotionally Sensitive Individuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaughnessy, Michael F.; Self, Elizabeth

    Mentoring individuals who are gifted, talented, and creative, but somewhat emotionally sensitive is a challenging and provocative arena. Several reasons individuals experience heightened sensitivity include: lack of nurturing, abuse, alcoholism in the family, low self-esteem, unrealistic parental expectations, and parental pressure to achieve.…

  6. Problems of Individualization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Clarence

    Due in part to the open enrollment policy in junior colleges, there is a great diversity in student reading ability that dictates a need to individualize reading instruction. Individualization, defined as personalized instruction, may be accomplished through helping the student to read course materials, helping him to read special materials, or…

  7. Elements of Individualized Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svara, Ronald

    Although many schools claim to make use of individualized instruction, no common definition of this term has been agreed on. The author reviewed definitions of "individualized instruction" in five studies and then surveyed 30 community and junior colleges who claimed to be using this method of instruction to learn what their programs consisted of.…

  8. Individualizing the Mainstream Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munroe, Mary Jeanne

    The Education for All Handicapped Children Act requires an individualized education plan for all students identified as handicapped. While computer technology has application for greater individualization, no single method makes a perfect "fit" for all students. Social survival skills are vital elements of mainstreaming as well as academics.…

  9. Technology and Individual Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavalier, Albert R.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Six papers on special education technology and individual differences are introduced. The papers illustrate the growing influence of constructivist perspectives on the use of technology to accommodate individual differences among people. The papers recognize the importance of using technology to scaffold the client's construction of different…

  10. Transcending Cognitive Individualism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zerubavel, Eviatar; Smith, Eliot R.

    2010-01-01

    Advancing knowledge in many areas of psychology and neuroscience, underlined by dazzling images of brain scans, appear to many professionals and to the public to show that people are on the way to explaining cognition purely in terms of processes within the individual's head. Yet while such cognitive individualism still dominates the popular…

  11. Classroom Demonstrations: Individual Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Sandra M.

    These demonstrations stress individual differences, a concept becoming increasingly important in psychological research. Intended for use in undergraduate psychology courses, four demonstrations that illustrate common examples of human variation are described. The demonstrations deal with the following individual differences: taste blindness,…

  12. The contribution of developmental experience vs. condition to life history, trait variation and individual differences.

    PubMed

    DiRienzo, Nicholas; Montiglio, Pierre-Olivier

    2016-07-01

    1. Developmental experience, for example food abundance during juvenile stages, is known to affect life history and behaviour. However, the life history and behavioural consequences of developmental experience have rarely been studied in concert. As a result, it is still unclear whether developmental experience affects behaviour through changes in life history, or independently of it. 2. The effect of developmental experience on life history and behaviour may also be masked or affected by individual condition during adulthood. Thus, it is critical to tease apart the effects of developmental experience and current individual condition on life history and behaviour. 3. In this study, we manipulated food abundance during development in the western black widow spider, Latrodectus hesperus, by rearing spiders on either a restricted or ad lib diet. We separated developmental from condition-dependent effects by assaying adult foraging behaviour (tendency to attack prey and to stay on out of the refuge following an attack) and web structure multiple times under different levels of satiation following different developmental treatments. 4. Spiders reared under food restriction matured slower and at a smaller size than spiders reared in ad lib conditions. Spiders reared on a restricted diet were more aggressive towards prey and built webs structured for prey capture, while spiders reared on an ad lib diet were less aggressive and built safer webs. Developmental treatment affected which traits were plastic as adults: restricted spiders built safer webs when their adult condition increased, while ad lib spiders reduced their aggression when their adult condition increased. The amount of individual variation in behaviour and web structure varied with developmental treatment. Spiders reared on a restricted diet exhibited consistent variation in all aspects of foraging behaviour and web structure, while spiders reared on an ad lib diet exhibited consistent individual variation in

  13. The contribution of developmental experience vs. condition to life history, trait variation and individual differences.

    PubMed

    DiRienzo, Nicholas; Montiglio, Pierre-Olivier

    2016-07-01

    1. Developmental experience, for example food abundance during juvenile stages, is known to affect life history and behaviour. However, the life history and behavioural consequences of developmental experience have rarely been studied in concert. As a result, it is still unclear whether developmental experience affects behaviour through changes in life history, or independently of it. 2. The effect of developmental experience on life history and behaviour may also be masked or affected by individual condition during adulthood. Thus, it is critical to tease apart the effects of developmental experience and current individual condition on life history and behaviour. 3. In this study, we manipulated food abundance during development in the western black widow spider, Latrodectus hesperus, by rearing spiders on either a restricted or ad lib diet. We separated developmental from condition-dependent effects by assaying adult foraging behaviour (tendency to attack prey and to stay on out of the refuge following an attack) and web structure multiple times under different levels of satiation following different developmental treatments. 4. Spiders reared under food restriction matured slower and at a smaller size than spiders reared in ad lib conditions. Spiders reared on a restricted diet were more aggressive towards prey and built webs structured for prey capture, while spiders reared on an ad lib diet were less aggressive and built safer webs. Developmental treatment affected which traits were plastic as adults: restricted spiders built safer webs when their adult condition increased, while ad lib spiders reduced their aggression when their adult condition increased. The amount of individual variation in behaviour and web structure varied with developmental treatment. Spiders reared on a restricted diet exhibited consistent variation in all aspects of foraging behaviour and web structure, while spiders reared on an ad lib diet exhibited consistent individual variation in

  14. [Poststroke-bipolar affective disorder].

    PubMed

    Bengesser, S A; Wurm, W E; Lackner, N; Birner, A; Reininghaus, B; Kapfhammer, H-P; Reininghaus, E

    2013-08-01

    A few weeks after suffering from a basal ganglia infarction (globus pallidus) with left-sided hemiplegia, a 23-year-old woman exhibited for the first time a pronounced mania with self-endangerment. The use of oral contraceptives was the only determinable risk factor. During the further course, the mother also developed a depressive disorder. Thus a certain genetic predisposition for affective disorders may be relevant, although this would not explain the outbreak by itself. An association between the right-sided basal ganglia infarction and the occurrence of a bipolar affective disorder has been described in the literature. Vascular or, respectively, inflammatory risk factors in synopsis with the aetiopathogenesis of bipolar affective disorders are also discussed in depth in this case report. PMID:23939559

  15. Schemata-constructivist view of what students learn about human evolution from a museum exhibit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calderon, Ismael

    1999-10-01

    The purpose of this research study was to investigate: students' schema structure for human evolution; their idiosyncratic conceptual change after visiting a museum exhibition; the role of alternative frameworks during learning; and the function of affect in learning. Thirty eleventh and twelfth grade high school students, eleven males and nineteen females, visited an exhibition on human evolution and participated in an opened-ended pre and post interview and Likert-type questionnaire. The interviews were transcribed, segmented by using shifts in natural language, and pre and post schema templates developed for each respondent using as background Rumelhart's and Ortony's active structural schema network diagrammatic representation. Analysis of the schema templates indicated that respondents possess varying idiosyncratic schema structures that are brought to bear on the construction of new information during learning. Thirty seven percent of the respondents exhibited a hierarchically organized schema, whereas sixty three percent of the respondents demonstrated a non-hierarchical schema structure. Hierarchically organized ideation allowed for greater elaboration of concepts after viewing the exhibit. The data revealed both a top-down and bottom-up type of information processing. Ninety three percent of the respondents exhibited nonscientific, alternative frameworks during the pre-interview and eighty percent displayed alternative frameworks in the post-interview. Forty seven percent of the respondents were able to modify alternative frameworks to be more scientifically consistent. The data indicated that hierarchically organized schema respondents were able to make more corrections to alternative frameworks. Sixty three percent of the time alternative frameworks were influencing the exhibition's interpretation. Fifty three percent of the respondents demonstrated an observationally-based interpretation of the exhibit, whereas forty seven percent exhibited a theory

  16. Primate vaginal microbiomes exhibit species specificity without universal Lactobacillus dominance

    PubMed Central

    Yildirim, Suleyman; Yeoman, Carl J; Janga, Sarath Chandra; Thomas, Susan M; Ho, Mengfei; Leigh, Steven R; Consortium, Primate Microbiome; White, Bryan A; Wilson, Brenda A; Stumpf, Rebecca M

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial communities colonizing the reproductive tracts of primates (including humans) impact the health, survival and fitness of the host, and thereby the evolution of the host species. Despite their importance, we currently have a poor understanding of primate microbiomes. The composition and structure of microbial communities vary considerably depending on the host and environmental factors. We conducted comparative analyses of the primate vaginal microbiome using pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA genes of a phylogenetically broad range of primates to test for factors affecting the diversity of primate vaginal ecosystems. The nine primate species included: humans (Homo sapiens), yellow baboons (Papio cynocephalus), olive baboons (Papio anubis), lemurs (Propithecus diadema), howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra), red colobus (Piliocolobus rufomitratus), vervets (Chlorocebus aethiops), mangabeys (Cercocebus atys) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Our results indicated that all primates exhibited host-specific vaginal microbiota and that humans were distinct from other primates in both microbiome composition and diversity. In contrast to the gut microbiome, the vaginal microbiome showed limited congruence with host phylogeny, and neither captivity nor diet elicited substantial effects on the vaginal microbiomes of primates. Permutational multivariate analysis of variance and Wilcoxon tests revealed correlations among vaginal microbiota and host species-specific socioecological factors, particularly related to sexuality, including: female promiscuity, baculum length, gestation time, mating group size and neonatal birth weight. The proportion of unclassified taxa observed in nonhuman primate samples increased with phylogenetic distance from humans, indicative of the existence of previously unrecognized microbial taxa. These findings contribute to our understanding of host–microbe variation and coevolution, microbial biogeography, and disease risk, and have important

  17. Do deaf individuals see better?

    PubMed Central

    Bavelier, Daphne; Dye, Matthew W.G.; Hauser, Peter C.

    2010-01-01

    The possibility that, following early auditory deprivation, the remaining senses such as vision are enhanced has been met with much excitement. However, deaf individuals exhibit both better and worse visual skills than hearing controls. We show that, when deafness is considered to the exclusion of other confounds, enhancements in visual cognition are noted. The changes are not, however, widespread but are selective, limited, as we propose, to those aspects of vision that are attentionally demanding and would normally benefit from auditory-visual convergence. The behavioral changes are accompanied by a reorganization of multisensory areas, ranging from higherorder cortex to early cortical areas, highlighting cross-modal interactions as a fundamental feature of brain organization and cognitive processing. PMID:17015029

  18. Amyloid structure exhibits polymorphism on multiple length scales in human brain tissue

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jiliang; Costantino, Isabel; Venugopalan, Nagarajan; Fischetti, Robert F.; Hyman, Bradley T.; Frosch, Matthew P.; Gomez-Isla, Teresa; Makowski, Lee

    2016-01-01

    Aggregation of Aβ amyloid fibrils into plaques in the brain is a universal hallmark of Alzheimer’s Disease (AD), but whether plaques in different individuals are equivalent is unknown. One possibility is that amyloid fibrils exhibit different structures and different structures may contribute differentially to disease, either within an individual brain or between individuals. However, the occurrence and distribution of structural polymorphisms of amyloid in human brain is poorly documented. Here we use X-ray microdiffraction of histological sections of human tissue to map the abundance, orientation and structural heterogeneities of amyloid. Our observations indicate that (i) tissue derived from subjects with different clinical histories may contain different ensembles of fibrillar structures; (ii) plaques harboring distinct amyloid structures can coexist within a single tissue section and (iii) within individual plaques there is a gradient of fibrillar structure from core to margins. These observations have immediate implications for existing theories on the inception and progression of AD. PMID:27629394

  19. Amyloid structure exhibits polymorphism on multiple length scales in human brain tissue.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiliang; Costantino, Isabel; Venugopalan, Nagarajan; Fischetti, Robert F; Hyman, Bradley T; Frosch, Matthew P; Gomez-Isla, Teresa; Makowski, Lee

    2016-01-01

    Aggregation of Aβ amyloid fibrils into plaques in the brain is a universal hallmark of Alzheimer's Disease (AD), but whether plaques in different individuals are equivalent is unknown. One possibility is that amyloid fibrils exhibit different structures and different structures may contribute differentially to disease, either within an individual brain or between individuals. However, the occurrence and distribution of structural polymorphisms of amyloid in human brain is poorly documented. Here we use X-ray microdiffraction of histological sections of human tissue to map the abundance, orientation and structural heterogeneities of amyloid. Our observations indicate that (i) tissue derived from subjects with different clinical histories may contain different ensembles of fibrillar structures; (ii) plaques harboring distinct amyloid structures can coexist within a single tissue section and (iii) within individual plaques there is a gradient of fibrillar structure from core to margins. These observations have immediate implications for existing theories on the inception and progression of AD. PMID:27629394

  20. Exploring the gene: Interactive exhibits on genetics and the human genome. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    Under funding by the United States Department of Energy, the Exploratorium has substantially completed the prototype development of four exhibits on the nature of DNA and genetics, and substantially completed the production of ed exhibits based on these prototypes. Individually these genetic exhibits have been designed to elucidate specific themes, such as, the molecular properties of DNA, the encoding of genetic information, the expression of genetic information, and technological manipulation. The exhibits are titled Dancing DNA, Marching Bands, Protein Production Line, and Genetic Playbook. Specific exhibit projects are detailed below. In all the exhibits we have sought to draw a relationship between the nature of DNA and its expression in organisms. For most visitors, DNA exists as an invisible abstract molecule with marginal connections to their lives, while organisms exist as a familiar tangible entities. Inclusion of this broad thematic connection provides the crucial bridge between the abstract principles and the real world, and serves to underpin scientific, medical, and public interest in the topic.

  1. Questions of time and affect: a person's affectivity profile, time perspective, and well-being.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Danilo; Sailer, Uta; Nima, Ali Al; Archer, Trevor

    2016-01-01

    Background. A "balanced" time perspective has been suggested to have a positive influence on well-being: a sentimental and positive view of the past (high Past Positive), a less pessimistic attitude toward the past (low Past Negative), the desire of experiencing pleasure with slight concern for future consequences (high Present Hedonistic), a less fatalistic and hopeless view of the future (low Present Fatalistic), and the ability to find reward in achieving specific long-term goals (high Future). We used the affective profiles model (i.e., combinations of individuals' experience of high/low positive/negative affectivity) to investigate differences between individuals in time perspective dimensions and to investigate if the influence of time perspective dimensions on well-being was moderated by the individual's type of profile. Method. Participants (N = 720) answered to the Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule, the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory and two measures of well-being: the Temporal Satisfaction with Life Scale and Ryff's Scales of Psychological Well-Being-short version. A Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) was conducted to identify differences in time perspective dimensions and well-being among individuals with distinct affective profiles. Four structural equation models (SEM) were used to investigate which time perspective dimensions predicted well-being for individuals in each profile. Results. Comparisons between individuals at the extreme of the affective profiles model suggested that individuals with a self-fulfilling profile (high positive/low negative affect) were characterized by a "balanced" time perspective and higher well-being compared to individuals with a self-destructive profile (low positive/high negative affect). However, a different pattern emerged when individuals who differed in one affect dimension but matched in the other were compared to each other. For instance, decreases in the past negative time perspective

  2. Questions of time and affect: a person's affectivity profile, time perspective, and well-being.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Danilo; Sailer, Uta; Nima, Ali Al; Archer, Trevor

    2016-01-01

    Background. A "balanced" time perspective has been suggested to have a positive influence on well-being: a sentimental and positive view of the past (high Past Positive), a less pessimistic attitude toward the past (low Past Negative), the desire of experiencing pleasure with slight concern for future consequences (high Present Hedonistic), a less fatalistic and hopeless view of the future (low Present Fatalistic), and the ability to find reward in achieving specific long-term goals (high Future). We used the affective profiles model (i.e., combinations of individuals' experience of high/low positive/negative affectivity) to investigate differences between individuals in time perspective dimensions and to investigate if the influence of time perspective dimensions on well-being was moderated by the individual's type of profile. Method. Participants (N = 720) answered to the Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule, the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory and two measures of well-being: the Temporal Satisfaction with Life Scale and Ryff's Scales of Psychological Well-Being-short version. A Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) was conducted to identify differences in time perspective dimensions and well-being among individuals with distinct affective profiles. Four structural equation models (SEM) were used to investigate which time perspective dimensions predicted well-being for individuals in each profile. Results. Comparisons between individuals at the extreme of the affective profiles model suggested that individuals with a self-fulfilling profile (high positive/low negative affect) were characterized by a "balanced" time perspective and higher well-being compared to individuals with a self-destructive profile (low positive/high negative affect). However, a different pattern emerged when individuals who differed in one affect dimension but matched in the other were compared to each other. For instance, decreases in the past negative time perspective

  3. 18. INTERIOR OF CIVIL RIGHTS INSTITUTE, MILESTONE GALLERY EXHIBITION OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. INTERIOR OF CIVIL RIGHTS INSTITUTE, MILESTONE GALLERY EXHIBITION OF THE SIXTEENTH STREET CHURCH, LOOKING NORTHWEST - Sixteenth Street Baptist Church, 1530 Sixth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  4. Audio Indexing for Individualization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahmlow, Harold F.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Article describes a new development in indexing audiotapes called Zimdex. The system was developed in response to the problem of individualizing review materials for candidates studying the mathematics of life insurance. (Author/HB)

  5. Making an Aquarium Environment Interactive: A Design Research Analysis of Exhibit Design Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanshumaker, William

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the development of an interactive aquarium design motivated by the employment of an innovative technology used in scientific research. The study was informed by research on free-choice learning describing the effects of interactive devices on visitor learning, engagement, and attitudes. The researcher used design research methods to conduct multiple iterations of aquarium environment modifications. Observation data of visitor interactions were analyzed in the development of three different aquarium environments. The researcher used survey, interview, and observation data to study visitor interactions in the three contrasting aquarium environments. Results describe exhibit factors associated with visitor behaviors using the scientific instrument and social or individual interactions in the exhibit environments. Results also present an analysis of design processes that were shaped by data on desired visitor interactions and adult learning. Through design research methods, this study contributes to theory of exhibit design for visitor engagement and learning.

  6. Reaction time of facial affect recognition in Asperger's disorder for cartoon and real, static and moving faces.

    PubMed

    Miyahara, Motohide; Bray, Anne; Tsujii, Masatsugu; Fujita, Chikako; Sugiyama, Toshiro

    2007-08-01

    This study used a choice reaction-time paradigm to test the perceived impairment of facial affect recognition in Asperger's disorder. Twenty teenagers with Asperger's disorder and 20 controls were compared with respect to the latency and accuracy of response to happy or disgusted facial expressions, presented in cartoon or real images and in static or moving conditions. Group analysis revealed that the Asperger group did not differ significantly from the control group in speed and accuracy for both affects and in all presentation modalities. Individual analysis, however, revealed that the proportion of participants exhibiting a happy face advantage was smaller in the Asperger group than in the control group. The results did not support the notion of impairment in facial affect recognition in terms of speed and accuracy in Asperger's disorder. Findings also revealed that the absence of happy face advantage was more prevalent in individuals with Asperger's disorder.

  7. 45 CFR 1160.4 - Eligibility for international exhibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... AND ARTIFACTS INDEMNITY ACT § 1160.4 Eligibility for international exhibitions. An indemnity agreement...- and domestic-owned objects in an international exhibition. The foreign-owned objects are eligible for indemnity coverage under paragraph (a) of this section, and the domestic-owned objects may be eligible...

  8. 78 FR 7849 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-04

    ... Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Edwardian Opulence: British Art at... April 15, 2003), I hereby determine that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``Edwardian... within the United States, are of cultural significance. The objects are imported pursuant to...

  9. 77 FR 31909 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-30

    ... Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``50th Anniversary Remembrance of the..., 2003), I hereby determine that the object to be included in the exhibition ``50th Anniversary... within the United States, is of cultural significance. The object is imported pursuant to a...

  10. 78 FR 50137 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-16

    ... Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Dena'inaq' Huch'ulyeshi: The Dena..., 2003, I hereby determine that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``Dena'inaq' Huch'ulyeshi..., are of cultural significance. The objects are imported pursuant to loan agreements with the...

  11. 75 FR 6079 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ... Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Compass and Rule: Architecture as... 15, 2003 , I hereby determine that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``Compass and Rule... within the United States, are of cultural significance. The objects are imported pursuant to...

  12. 78 FR 25337 - Culturally Significant Object Imported for Exhibition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-30

    ... Culturally Significant Object Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Bronze Statue of a Boxer, Hellenistic..., 2003), I hereby determine that the object to be included in the exhibition ``Bronze Statue of a Boxer... significance. The object is imported pursuant to a loan agreement with the foreign owner or custodian. I...

  13. 77 FR 18295 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-27

    ... Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Roy Lichtenstein: A Retrospective... determine that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``Roy Lichtenstein: A Retrospective'' imported... objects are imported pursuant to loan agreements with the foreign owners or custodians. I also...

  14. 76 FR 68808 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-07

    ... Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Transition to Christianity: Art of... April 15, 2003), I hereby determine that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``Transition to... the United States, are of cultural significance. The objects are imported pursuant to loan...

  15. A Critical Appraisal of State Level Science Exhibition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nath, Baiju K.

    2007-01-01

    Science exhibitions are really great opportunities to students as well as teachers to disseminate knowledge that they have, and to experience a variety of new inventions and innovations that also need wide dissemination. The great significance of exhibition is that it fosters acquisition of different process skills leading to the development of…

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