Science.gov

Sample records for affected larger companies

  1. The Corporate Connection: Effective Company Research Is Just Like People Research--On a Larger Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kourofsky, Carolyn E.

    1992-01-01

    To cultivate companies for fund raising, the college development officer should focus on appropriate people, understand giving trends, follow mergers and acquisitions, and note corporate differences in giving patterns. Annual reports can reveal company self-image, help identify individuals, and illuminate the company's fiscal situation. However,…

  2. Analysis of Transportation and Logistics Challenges Affecting the Deployment of Larger Wind Turbines: Summary of Results

    SciTech Connect

    Cotrell, J.; Stehly, T.; Johnson, J.; Roberts, J. O.; Parker, Z.; Scott, G.; Heimiller, D.

    2014-01-01

    There is relatively little literature that characterizes transportation and logistics challenges and the associated effects on U.S. wind markets. The objectives of this study were to identify the transportation and logistics challenges, assess the associated impacts, and provide recommendations for strategies and specific actions to address the challenges. The authors primarily relied on interviews with wind industry project developers, original equipment manufacturers, and transportation and logistics companies to obtain the information and industry perspectives needed for this study. They also reviewed published literature on trends and developments in increasing wind turbine size, logistics, and transportation issues.

  3. Consumerism's sea change: how it will affect your company in the coming years.

    PubMed

    Domaszewicz, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    Consumerism and care management are the cost-containment strategies most employers say they will focus on over the next five years. This article reviews the growth of these strategies and the different ways employers have implemented them. The author then delineates the ten key ways that consumerism may affect companies over the next five- to ten-year time period, as these strategies continue to move health benefits toward greater transparency, flexibility and accountability. PMID:16827544

  4. Larger Icy Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vance, Steven; Buratti, B. J.; Hansen, C.; Hurford, T.; McKinnon, W. B.; Pappalardo, R. T.; Turtle, E. P.

    2009-09-01

    Outer planets exploration in the past three decades has revealed a diverse host of large icy bodies undergoing a myriad of geological and chemical processes remarkably similar yet alien to those occurring on Earth. The most active of these, including the Galilean satellites and Saturn's moons Enceladus and Titan, are obvious targets for future robotic exploration. The broader host of satellites larger than 100 km should also figure into NASA's goals, owing to their abundance and insights they offer into past and present geological processes, Solar System formation and planetary evolution. Included in this class are the enigmatic objects Dione, with its smooth planes and fractured regions; Mimas with its giant crater Herschel; Iapetus, which has an odd shape and a mysterious equatorial ridge; Miranda, which has been subjected to drastic geologic reconfiguration; and Triton, with its geyser-like plumes. Many bodies in this class are of sufficient size and density to have hosted internal liquid water oceans in their early history, or even in the present epoch, making them targets of astrobiological interest. We discuss the importance of larger icy satellites to NASA's objectives, their importance for understanding, geology, chemistry and dynamics in the Solar System, and observational and experimental challenges that need to be addressed in the next decade.

  5. Does the company's economic performance affect access to occupational health services?

    PubMed Central

    Kankaanpää, Eila; Suhonen, Aki; Valtonen, Hannu

    2009-01-01

    Background In Finland like in many other countries, employers are legally obliged to organize occupational health services (OHS) for their employees. Because employers bear the costs of OHS it could be that in spite of the legal requirement OHS expenditure is more determined by economic performance of the company than by law. Therefore, we explored whether economic performance was associated with the companies' expenditure on occupational health services. Methods We used a prospective design to predict expenditure on OHS in 2001 by a company's economic performance in 1999. Data were provided by Statistics Finland and expressed by key indicators for profitability, solidity and liquidity and by the Social Insurance Institution as employers' reimbursement applications for OHS costs. The data could be linked at the company level. Regression analysis was used to study associations adjusted for various confounders. Results Nineteen percent of the companies (N = 6 155) did not apply for reimbursement of OHS costs in 2001. The profitability of the company represented by operating margin in 1999 and adjusted for type of industry was not significantly related to the company's probability to apply for reimbursement of the costs in 2001 (OR = 1.00, 95%CI: 0.99 to 1.01). Profitability measured as operating profit in 1999 and adjusted for type of industry was not significantly related to costs for curative medical services (Beta -0.001, 95%CI: -0.00 to 0.11) nor to OHS cost of prevention in 2001 (Beta -0.001, 95%CI: -0.00 to 0.00). Conclusion We did not find a relation between the company's economic performance and expenditure on OHS in Finland. We suppose that this is due to legislation obliging employers to provide OHS and the reimbursement system both being strong incentives for employers. PMID:19725952

  6. Factors Affecting Use of Telepresence Technology in a Global Technology Company

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agnor, Robert Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Telepresence uses the latest video conferencing technology, with high definition video, surround sound audio, and specially constructed studios, to create a near face-to-face meeting experience. A Fortune 500 company which markets information technology has organizations distributed around the globe, and has extensive collaboration needs among…

  7. A Corporate Responsibility? The Constitution of Fly-in, Fly-out Mining Companies as Governance Partners in Remote, Mine-Affected Localities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheshire, Lynda

    2010-01-01

    In some remote parts of Australia, mining companies have positioned themselves as central actors in governing nearby affected communities by espousing notions of "voluntary partnerships for sustainability" between business, government and community. It is argued in this paper that the nature and extent of mining company interventions in nearby…

  8. Growth oscillation in larger foraminifera

    PubMed Central

    Briguglio, Antonino; Hohenegger, Johann

    2015-01-01

    This work shows the potential for applying three-dimensional biometry to studying cell growth in larger benthic foraminifera. The volume of each test chamber was measured from the three-dimensional model obtained by means of computed tomography. Analyses of cell growth based on the sequence of chamber volumes revealed constant and significant oscillations for all investigated specimens, characterized by periods of approximately 15, 30, 90, and 360 days. Possible explanations for these periods are connected to tides, lunar cycles, and seasonality. The potential to record environmental oscillations or fluctuations during the lifetime of larger foraminifera is pivotal for reconstructing short-term paleoenvironmental variations or for gaining insight into the influence of tides or tidal current on the shallow-water benthic fauna in both recent and fossil environments. PMID:26166912

  9. Casting larger polycrystalline silicon ingots

    SciTech Connect

    Wohlgemuth, J.; Tomlinson, T.; Cliber, J.; Shea, S.; Narayanan, M.

    1995-08-01

    Solarex has developed and patented a directional solidification casting process specifically designed for photovoltaics. In this process, silicon feedstock is melted in a ceramic crucible and solidified into a large grained semicrystalline silicon ingot. In-house manufacture of low cost, high purity ceramics is a key to the low cost fabrication of Solarex polycrystalline wafers. The casting process is performed in Solarex designed casting stations. The casting operation is computer controlled. There are no moving parts (except for the loading and unloading) so the growth process proceeds with virtually no operator intervention Today Solarex casting stations are used to produce ingots from which 4 bricks, each 11.4 cm by 11.4 cm in cross section, are cut. The stations themselves are physically capable of holding larger ingots, that would yield either: 4 bricks, 15 cm by 15 an; or 9 bricks, 11.4 cm by 11.4 an in cross-section. One of the tasks in the Solarex Cast Polycrystalline Silicon PVMaT Program is to design and modify one of the castings stations to cast these larger ingots. If successful, this effort will increase the production capacity of Solarex`s casting stations by 73% and reduce the labor content for casting by an equivalent percentage.

  10. An exploratory investigation of barriers and enablers affecting investment in renewable companies and technologies in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Victoria; Greenwell, Felicity; Covey, Judith; Rosenthal, Harriet E. S.; Adcock, Mike; Gregory-Smith, Diana

    2013-01-01

    The last few years have seen considerable research expenditure on renewable fuel technologies. However, in many cases, the necessary sustained and long-term funding from the investment community has not been realized at a level needed to allow technologies to become reality. According to global consulting firm Deloitte's recent renewable energy report (http://www.deloitte.com/energypredictions2012), many renewable energy projects stalled or were not completed because of issues including the global economy, the state of government finances, difficulties in funding and regulatory uncertainty. This investigation concentrates on the funding aspect and explores the perceived barriers and enablers to renewable technologies within the investment and renewables community. Thematic analysis of 14 in-depth interviews with representatives from renewable energy producers, banks and investment companies identified key factors affecting the psychology of investor behaviour in renewables. Eight key issues are highlighted, including a range of barriers and enablers, the role of the government, balance between cost/risk, value/return on investment, investment time scales, personality/individual differences of investors and the level of innovation in the renewable technology. It was particularly notable that in the findings the role of the government was discussed more than other themes and generally in quite critical terms, highlighting the need to ensure consistency in government funding and policy and a greater understanding of how government decision-making happens. Specific findings such as these illustrate the value of crossing disciplinary boundaries and highlight potential further research. Behavioural science and economic psychology in particular have much to offer at the interface of other disciplines such as political science and financial economics. PMID:24427512

  11. An exploratory investigation of barriers and enablers affecting investment in renewable companies and technologies in the UK.

    PubMed

    Wells, Victoria; Greenwell, Felicity; Covey, Judith; Rosenthal, Harriet E S; Adcock, Mike; Gregory-Smith, Diana

    2013-02-01

    The last few years have seen considerable research expenditure on renewable fuel technologies. However, in many cases, the necessary sustained and long-term funding from the investment community has not been realized at a level needed to allow technologies to become reality. According to global consulting firm Deloitte's recent renewable energy report (http://www.deloitte.com/energypredictions2012), many renewable energy projects stalled or were not completed because of issues including the global economy, the state of government finances, difficulties in funding and regulatory uncertainty. This investigation concentrates on the funding aspect and explores the perceived barriers and enablers to renewable technologies within the investment and renewables community. Thematic analysis of 14 in-depth interviews with representatives from renewable energy producers, banks and investment companies identified key factors affecting the psychology of investor behaviour in renewables. Eight key issues are highlighted, including a range of barriers and enablers, the role of the government, balance between cost/risk, value/return on investment, investment time scales, personality/individual differences of investors and the level of innovation in the renewable technology. It was particularly notable that in the findings the role of the government was discussed more than other themes and generally in quite critical terms, highlighting the need to ensure consistency in government funding and policy and a greater understanding of how government decision-making happens. Specific findings such as these illustrate the value of crossing disciplinary boundaries and highlight potential further research. Behavioural science and economic psychology in particular have much to offer at the interface of other disciplines such as political science and financial economics. PMID:24427512

  12. Growing Larger Crystals for Neutron Diffraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pusey, Marc

    2003-01-01

    Obtaining crystals of suitable size and high quality has been a major bottleneck in macromolecular crystallography. With the advent of advanced X-ray sources and methods the question of size has rapidly dwindled, almost to the point where if one can see the crystal then it was big enough. Quality is another issue, and major national and commercial efforts were established to take advantage of the microgravity environment in an effort to obtain higher quality crystals. Studies of the macromolecule crystallization process were carried out in many labs in an effort to understand what affected the resultant crystal quality on Earth, and how microgravity improved the process. While technological improvements are resulting in a diminishing of the minimum crystal size required, neutron diffraction structural studies still require considerably larger crystals, by several orders of magnitude, than X-ray studies. From a crystal growth physics perspective there is no reason why these 'large' crystals cannot be obtained: the question is generally more one of supply than limitations mechanism. This talk will discuss our laboratory s current model for macromolecule crystal growth, with highlights pertaining to the growth of crystals suitable for neutron diffraction studies.

  13. College Linemen Larger Than Ever, Study Finds

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159931.html College Linemen Larger Than Ever, Study Finds These athletes will need help adopting healthy lifestyles after their careers end, researcher says To use the sharing features ...

  14. Companies as Business Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rebernik, Miroslav

    2002-01-01

    Describes a business education program whose underlying philosophy is that business education for students who will be employed by smaller companies which feature de-specialization of job tasks, resource poverty, and self-employment must be different from business education for larger companies. (EV)

  15. Is Parental Involvement Lower at Larger Schools?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Parents who volunteer, or who lobby for improvements in school quality, are generally seen as providing a school-wide public good. If so, straightforward public-good theory predicts that free-riding will reduce average involvement at larger schools. This study uses longitudinal data to follow families over time, as their children move from middle…

  16. Why is g Larger at the Poles?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iona, Mario

    1978-01-01

    Explains that the larger value of g at the poles is not due only to differences in the radii of the earth, but that other factors are also responsible such as the rotation of the earth and the increase in the earth's density toward its center. (GA)

  17. Long term cultivation of larger benthic Foraminifera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wöger, Julia; Eder, Wolfgang; Kinoshita, Shunichi; Antonino, Briguglio; Carles, Ferrandes-Cañadell; Hohenegger, Johann

    2015-04-01

    Benthic Foraminifera are used in a variety of applications employing numerous different methods, i.e. ecological monitoring, studying the effects of ocean acidification, reconstructing palaeo-bathymetry or investigating palaeo-salinity and palaeo-temperature to name only a few. To refine our understanding of ecological influences on larger benthic foraminiferal biology and to review inferences from field observations, culture experiments have become an indispensable tool. While culture experiments on smaller benthic foraminifera have become increasingly frequent in the past century, reports of the cultivation of symbiont bearing larger Foraminifera are rare. Generally, cultivation experiments can be divided into two groups: Culturing of populations and cultivation of single specimens allowing individual investigation. The latter differ form the former by several restrictions resulting from the need to limit individual motility without abridging microenvironmental conditions in the Foraminiferans artificial habitat, necessary to enable the individual to development as unfettered as possible. In this study we present first experiences and preliminary results of the long-term cultivation of larger benthic Foraminifera conducted at the 'Tropical Biosphere Research Station Sesoko Island, University of the Ryukyus', Japan, trying to reproduce natural conditions as closely as possible. Individuals of three species of larger benthic Foraminifera (Heterostegina depressa, Palaeonummulites venosus and Operculina complanata) have been cultured since April 2014. At the time of the general assembly the cultivation experiments will have been going on for more than one year, with the aim to investigate growth rates, longevities and reproduction strategies for comparison with results statistically inferred from application of the of the 'natural laboratory' method. The most important factor influencing foraminiferal health and development was found to be light intensity and light

  18. 75 FR 73071 - Northern Natural Gas Company, Southern Natural Gas Company, Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-29

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Northern Natural Gas Company, Southern Natural Gas Company, Florida Gas... Abandonment Project proposed by Northern Natural Gas Company, Southern Natural Gas Company, Florida Gas... affecting the quality of the human environment. The EA has been placed in the public files of the FERC...

  19. Accurate density functional thermochemistry for larger molecules.

    SciTech Connect

    Raghavachari, K.; Stefanov, B. B.; Curtiss, L. A.; Lucent Tech.

    1997-06-20

    Density functional methods are combined with isodesmic bond separation reaction energies to yield accurate thermochemistry for larger molecules. Seven different density functionals are assessed for the evaluation of heats of formation, Delta H 0 (298 K), for a test set of 40 molecules composed of H, C, O and N. The use of bond separation energies results in a dramatic improvement in the accuracy of all the density functionals. The B3-LYP functional has the smallest mean absolute deviation from experiment (1.5 kcal mol/f).

  20. Are Teacher Effects Larger in Small Classes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konstantopoulos, Spyros; Sun, Min

    2014-01-01

    Teachers spend most of their time in school in classrooms, and their instruction and teaching practices may be affected by classroom context such as class size. We examine whether teacher effects interact with classroom context such as class size. Specifically, we seek to determine whether teacher effects are more pronounced in small classes than…

  1. Italian super-eruption larger than thought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2012-07-01

    Recent research suggested that the super-eruption of the Campi Flegrei caldera volcano in southern Italy about 40,000 years ago may have played a part in wiping out, or forcing the migration of, the Neanderthal and modern human populations in the eastern Mediterranean regions that were covered in ash. Now a new modeling study by Costa et al. suggests that this eruption may have been even larger than previously thought. This Campi Flegrei eruption produced a widespread ash layer known as Campanian Ignimbrite (CI). Using ash thickness measurements collected at 115 sites and a three-dimensional ash dispersal model, the researchers found that the CI super-eruption would have spread 250-300 cubic kilometers of ash across a 3.7-million-square kilometer region—2 to 3 times previous ash volume estimates.

  2. Map projections for larger-scale mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, J. P.

    1982-01-01

    For the U.S. Geological Survey maps at 1:1,000,000-scale and larger, the most common projections are conformal, such as the Transverse Mercator and Lambert Conformal Conic. Projections for these scales should treat the Earth as an ellipsoid. In addition, the USGS has conceived and designed some new projections, including the Space Oblique Mercator, the first map projection designed to permit low-distortion mapping of the Earth from satellite imagery, continuously following the groundtrack. The USGS has programmed nearly all pertinent projection equations for inverse and forward calculations. These are used to plot maps or to transform coordinates from one projection to another. The projections in current use are described.

  3. ) Composites Containing Nanoparticles and Larger Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanaraja, S.; Nath, S. K.; Ray, S.

    2014-07-01

    The composites reinforced with nanoparticles result in improved strength and ductility while those containing coarser particles of micron size have limited ductility. The present study investigates the outcome of mechanical properties in a composite reinforced simultaneously with coarse and fine particles. High energy milling of manganese dioxide particles with excess of aluminum powder ensures that nanoparticles generated, either of MnO2 or alumina, are mostly separate and surrounded by aluminum particles. The milled powder when added to aluminum alloy melt, the excess aluminum particles will melt leaving behind separate oxide nanoparticles without significant agglomeration. Different amounts of milled powder mix have been stirred into molten aluminum alloy where nanoparticles of MnO2 react with melt to form alumina. The resulting slurry is cast into composites, which also contains coarser (nearly micron size) alumina particles formed by internal oxidation of the melt during processing. The microstructure of the composites shows good distribution of both the size categories of particles without significant clustering. The oxide particles are primarily γ-alumina in a matrix of aluminum-magnesium-manganese alloy containing some iron picked up from the stirrer. These composites fail during tensile test by ductile fracture due to debonding of coarser particles. The presence of nanoparticles along with coarser particles in a composite improves both strength and ductility considerably, presumably due to delay in debonding of coarser particles to higher stress because of reduced mismatch in extension caused by increased strain hardening in presence of nanoparticles in the matrix. The composites containing only coarser oxide particles show limited strength and ductility attributed to early debonding of particles at a relatively lower stress due to larger mismatch in extension between matrix and larger particles. Higher addition of powder mix beyond a limit, however

  4. The Larger Linear N-Heteroacenes.

    PubMed

    Bunz, Uwe H F

    2015-06-16

    The close structural and chemical relationship of N-heteroacenes to pentacene suggests their broad applicability in organic electronic devices, such as thin-film transistors. The superb materials science properties of azaacenes result from their improved resistance toward oxidation and their potential for electron transport, both of which have been demonstrated recently. The introduction of nitrogen atoms into the aromatic perimeter of acenes stabilizes their frontier molecular orbitals and increases their electron affinity. The HOMO-LUMO gaps in azaacenes in which the nitrogen atoms are symmetrically placed are similar to those of the acenes. The judiciously placed nitrogen atoms induce an "umpolung" of the electronic behavior of these pentacene-like molecules, i.e., instead of hole mobility in thin-film transistors, azaacenes are electron-transporting materials. The fundamental synthetic approaches toward larger azaacenes are described and discussed. Several synthetic methodologies have been exploited, and some have been newly developed to assemble substituted azaacenes. The oldest methods are condensation-based. Aromatic o-diamines are coupled with o-dihydroxyarenes in the melt without solvent. This method works well for unsubstituted azaacenes only. The attachment of substituents to the starting materials renders these "fire and sword" methods less useful. The starting materials decompose under these conditions. The direct condensation of substituted o-diamines with o-quinones proceeds well in some cases. Fluorinated benzene rings next to a pyrazine unit are introduced by nucleophilic aromatic substitution employing hexafluorobenzene. However, with these well-established synthetic methodologies, a number of azaacene topologies cannot be synthesized. The Pd-catalyzed coupling of aromatic halides and aromatic diamines has therefore emerged as versatile tool for azaacene synthesis. Now substituted diaza- and tetraazaacenes, azapentacenes, azahexacenes, and

  5. 13 CFR 108.760 - How a change in size or activity of a Portfolio Concern affects the NMVC Company and the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Financing of Small Businesses by NMVC Companies Determining the Eligibility of A Small Business for Nmvc... Businesses...

  6. 13 CFR 108.760 - How a change in size or activity of a Portfolio Concern affects the NMVC Company and the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Financing of Small Businesses by NMVC Companies Determining the Eligibility of A Small Business for Nmvc... Businesses...

  7. 13 CFR 108.760 - How a change in size or activity of a Portfolio Concern affects the NMVC Company and the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Financing of Small Businesses by NMVC Companies Determining the Eligibility of A Small Business for Nmvc... Businesses...

  8. 13 CFR 108.760 - How a change in size or activity of a Portfolio Concern affects the NMVC Company and the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Financing of Small Businesses by NMVC Companies Determining the Eligibility of A Small Business for Nmvc... Businesses...

  9. 13 CFR 108.760 - How a change in size or activity of a Portfolio Concern affects the NMVC Company and the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Financing of Small Businesses by NMVC Companies Determining the Eligibility of A Small Business for Nmvc... Businesses...

  10. 12 CFR 583.4 - Bank holding company.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bank holding company. 583.4 Section 583.4 Banks... AFFECTING SAVINGS AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 583.4 Bank holding company. The term bank holding company means any company which has control over any bank or over any company that is or becomes a bank...

  11. 12 CFR 583.4 - Bank holding company.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Bank holding company. 583.4 Section 583.4 Banks... AFFECTING SAVINGS AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 583.4 Bank holding company. The term bank holding company means any company which has control over any bank or over any company that is or becomes a bank...

  12. 12 CFR 583.4 - Bank holding company.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bank holding company. 583.4 Section 583.4 Banks... AFFECTING SAVINGS AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 583.4 Bank holding company. The term bank holding company means any company which has control over any bank or over any company that is or becomes a bank...

  13. 12 CFR 583.4 - Bank holding company.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Bank holding company. 583.4 Section 583.4 Banks... AFFECTING SAVINGS AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 583.4 Bank holding company. The term bank holding company means any company which has control over any bank or over any company that is or becomes a bank...

  14. 12 CFR 583.4 - Bank holding company.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Bank holding company. 583.4 Section 583.4 Banks... AFFECTING SAVINGS AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 583.4 Bank holding company. The term bank holding company means any company which has control over any bank or over any company that is or becomes a bank...

  15. Temperature determining larger wildland fires in NE Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina-Terrén, D. M.; Cardil, A.

    2016-07-01

    Significant relationships were found between high-temperature days and wildland fire occurrence in the 1978-2011 period in Aragón (NE Spain). Temperature was analyzed at 850 hPa to characterize the low troposphere state, avoiding problems that affect surface reanalysis and providing regional coverage. A high-temperature day was established when air temperature was higher than 20 °C at 850 hPa. The number of these days increased significantly in the study period, increasing the frequency of adverse weather conditions that could facilitate extreme fire behavior. Specifically, these high-temperature days are more frequent in June than they used to be. The effects of those high-temperature days in wildland fire patterns were significant in terms of burned area, number of wildland fires, and average size. Fires larger than 60 ha were the subject of this study. These wildland fires have been increasing in number and size in the last years of the series.

  16. Local Studies and Larger Issues: The Case of Sara Bagby.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luckett, Judith

    2002-01-01

    Explains that students can study local events within a larger context that clarifies larger events or issues. Focuses on the 1861 case of Sara Lucy Bagby (Cleveland, Ohio), an escaped slave, to illuminate aspects of gender, racial relations, politics, and the origins of the U.S. Civil War. (CMK)

  17. 12 CFR 583.20 - Savings and loan holding company.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Savings and loan holding company. 583.20... REGULATIONS AFFECTING SAVINGS AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 583.20 Savings and loan holding company. The term savings and loan holding company means any company that directly or indirectly controls a...

  18. 12 CFR 583.20 - Savings and loan holding company.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Savings and loan holding company. 583.20... REGULATIONS AFFECTING SAVINGS AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 583.20 Savings and loan holding company. The term savings and loan holding company means any company that directly or indirectly controls a...

  19. Trauma Exposure and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Among Employees of New York City Companies Affected by the September 11, 2001 Attacks on the World Trade Center

    PubMed Central

    North, Carol S.; Pollio, David E.; Smith, Rebecca P.; King, Richard V.; Pandya, Anand; Surís, Alina M.; Hong, Barry A.; Dean, Denis J.; Wallace, Nancy E.; Herman, Daniel B.; Conover, Sarah; Susser, Ezra; Pfefferbaum, Betty

    2013-01-01

    Objective Several studies have provided prevalence estimates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) related to the September 11, 2001 (9/11) attacks in broadly affected populations, although without sufficiently addressing qualifying exposures required for assessing PTSD and estimating its prevalence. A premise that people throughout the New York City area were exposed to the attacks on the World Trade Center (WTC) towers and are thus at risk for developing PTSD has important implications for both prevalence estimates and service provision. This premise has not, however, been tested with respect to DSM-IV-TR criteria for PTSD. This study examined associations between geographic distance from the 9/11 attacks on the WTC and reported 9/11 trauma exposures, and the role of specific trauma exposures in the development of PTSD. Methods Approximately 3 years after the attacks, 379 surviving employees (102 with direct exposures, including 65 in the towers, and 277 with varied exposures) recruited from 8 affected organizations were interviewed using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule/Disaster Supplement and reassessed at 6 years. The estimated closest geographic distance from the WTC towers during the attacks and specific disaster exposures were compared with the development of 9/11–related PTSD as defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, Fourth Edition, Text Revision. Results The direct exposure zone was largely concentrated within a radius of 0.1 mi and completely contained within 0.75 mi of the towers. PTSD symptom criteria at any time after the disaster were met by 35% of people directly exposed to danger, 20% of those exposed only through witnessed experiences, and 35% of those exposed only through a close associate’s direct exposure. Outside these exposure groups, few possible sources of exposure were evident among the few who were symptomatic, most of whom had preexisting psychiatric illness. Conclusions Exposures deserve careful consideration among

  20. Analysis of Transportation and Logistics Challenges Affecting the Deployment of Larger Wind Turbines: Summary of Results

    SciTech Connect

    J. Cotrell, T. Stehly, J. Johnson, J. O. Roberts, Z. Parker, G. Scott, and D. Heimiller

    2014-01-28

    The objectives of this study were to identify the transportation and logistics challenges, assess the associated impacts, and provide recommendations for strategies and specific actions to address the challenges.

  1. Editorial Commentary: The Larger Holes or Larger Number of Holes We Drill in the Coracoid, the Weaker the Coracoid Becomes.

    PubMed

    Brady, Paul

    2016-06-01

    The larger holes or larger number of holes we drill in the coracoid, the weaker the coracoid becomes. Thus, minimizing bone holes (both size and number) is required to lower risk of coracoid process fracture, in patients in whom transosseous shoulder acromioclavicular joint reconstruction is indicated. A single 2.4-mm-diameter tunnel drilled through both the clavicle and the coracoid lowers the risk of fracture, but the risk cannot be entirely eliminated. PMID:27263761

  2. Charting your company's future.

    PubMed

    Kim, W Chan; Mauborgne, Renée

    2002-06-01

    Few companies have a clear strategic vision. The problem, say the authors, stems from the strategic-planning process itself, which usually involves preparing a large document, culled from a mishmash of data provided by people with conflicting agendas. That kind of process almost guarantees an unfocused strategy. Instead, companies should design the strategic-planning process by drawing a picture: a strategy canvas. A strategy canvas shows the strategic profile of your industry by depicting the various factors that affect competition. And it shows the strategic profiles of your current and potential competitors as well as your own company's strategic profile--how it invests in the factors of competition and how it might in the future. The basic component of a strategy canvas--the value curve--is a tool the authors created in their consulting work and have written about in previous HBR articles. This article introduces a four-step process for actually drawing and discussing a strategy canvas. Readers will learn how one European financial services company used this process to create a distinct and easily communicable strategy. The process begins with a visual awakening. Managers compare their business's value curve with competitors' to discover where their strategy needs to change. In the next step--visual exploration--managers do field research on customers and alternative products. At the visual strategy fair, the third step, managers draw new strategic profiles based on field observations and get feedback from customers and peers about these new proposals. Once the best strategy is created from that feedback, it's time for the last step--visual communication. Executives distribute "before" and "after" strategic profiles to the whole company, and only projects that will help move the company closer to the "after" profile are supported. PMID:12048996

  3. Prognostic factors after hepatic resection for the single hepatocellular carcinoma larger than 5 cm

    PubMed Central

    Noh, Ji Hyun; Kim, Tae-Seok; Ahn, Keun Soo; Kim, Yong Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to determine which factors affect the prognosis of hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) larger than 5 cm, including the prognostic difference between tumor sizes from 5–10 cm and larger than 10 cm. Methods The medical records of 114 patients who underwent hepatectomy for single HCC larger than 5 cm were reviewed and analyzed retrospectively. Results In the analysis of the entire cohort of 114 patients, the 5-year overall and diseases-free survival rates were 50% and 29%, respectively. In a comparison of survival rates between groups, tumor sizes of 5 to 10 cm and larger than 10 cm, the overall and disease-free survival rates were not significantly different, respectively (54% vs. 41%, P = 0.433 and 33% vs. 23%, P = 0.083). On multivariate analysis, positive hepatitis B, high prothrombin induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist-II levels over 200 mIU/mL, and vascular invasion (micro- and macrovascular invasion) were independent prognostic factors for recurrence after hepatic resection. However, tumor size larger than 10 cm was not significant for recurrence after resection. Conclusion This study shows that surgical resection of solitary HCC larger than 5 cm showed favorable overall survival. And there is no survival difference with tumors between 5–10 cm and larger than 10 cm.

  4. Do Minorities Experience Larger Lasting Benefits from Small Classes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nye, Barbara; Hedges, Larry V.; Konstantopoulos, Spyros

    2004-01-01

    Recent research from randomized experiments on class size points to positive effects of small classes that persist for several years, but the evidence about the social distribution of effects is less clear. Some scholars have contended that the immediate effects of small classes are larger for minorities and for disadvantaged persons (e.g., J. D.…

  5. Larger trees suffer most during drought in forests worldwide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, Amy C.; McDowell, Nathan G.; Allen, Craig D.; Anderson-Teixeira, Kristina J.

    2015-01-01

    The frequency of severe droughts is increasing in many regions around the world as a result of climate change. Droughts alter the structure and function of forests. Site- and region-specific studies suggest that large trees, which play keystone roles in forests and can be disproportionately important to ecosystem carbon storage and hydrology, exhibit greater sensitivity to drought than small trees. Here, we synthesize data on tree growth and mortality collected during 40 drought events in forests worldwide to see whether this size-dependent sensitivity to drought holds more widely. We find that droughts consistently had a more detrimental impact on the growth and mortality rates of larger trees. Moreover, drought-related mortality increased with tree size in 65% of the droughts examined, especially when community-wide mortality was high or when bark beetles were present. The more pronounced drought sensitivity of larger trees could be underpinned by greater inherent vulnerability to hydraulic stress, the higher radiation and evaporative demand experienced by exposed crowns, and the tendency for bark beetles to preferentially attack larger trees. We suggest that future droughts will have a more detrimental impact on the growth and mortality of larger trees, potentially exacerbating feedbacks to climate change.

  6. 1. GENERAL VIEW, FROM SOUTHEAST. FRONT FACES EAST. Larger Building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW, FROM SOUTHEAST. FRONT FACES EAST. Larger Building is Hotel Williams (HABS No. MI-258). Photocopied from photograph taken August 4, 1965 by Jack Crosby of the Michigan Historical Commission. See also Hotel Williams, MI-258, for a photocopy of a drawing showing Williams House. - Hotel Williams, Williams House, Murray Bay, Munising, Alger County, MI

  7. Asteroid collisional evolution - Evidence for a much larger early population

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, C. R.; Davis, D. R.

    1975-01-01

    The present population of asteroids is a remnant of a vastly larger one that contained perhaps a planetary mass, dominantly distributed in planetesimals approximately 500 kilometers or less in diameter. It constituted a large reservoir of objects that plausibly were responsible for cratering the moon, Mars, and Mercury. Much asteroidal dust may have accumulated on Mars and other planets.

  8. A Larger Scale. Tenth Annual Residence Hall Construction Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Argon, Joe

    1999-01-01

    Presents data from the American School & University's 10th Annual Residence Hall Construction Report that show dormitories are costing more per square foot to build while also becoming larger accommodations. Data tables are provided as are highlighted discussions that include residence hall design flexibility, environmental concerns and building…

  9. One of the larger open spaces on the third floor. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    One of the larger open spaces on the third floor. This space was used most often for drafting work and for general experimentation. Physical evidence on the ceiling indicates existence of partition walls for smaller rooms, but no photographic or documentary evidence has surfaced to verify this. - Thomas A. Edison Laboratories, Building No. 5, Main Street & Lakeside Avenue, West Orange, Essex County, NJ

  10. Can a secondary isotope effect be larger than a primary?

    PubMed

    Perrin, Charles L; Burke, Kathryn D

    2015-05-21

    Primary and secondary (18)O equilibrium isotope effects on the acidities of a variety of Brønsted and Lewis acids centered on carbon, boron, nitrogen, and phosphorus were computed by density-functional theory. For many of these acids, the secondary isotope effect was found to be larger than the primary isotope effect. This is a counterintuitive result, because the H atom that is lost is closer to the (18)O atom that is responsible for the primary isotope effect. The relative magnitudes of the isotope effects can be associated with the vibrational frequency and zero-point energy of the X═O vibrations, which are greater than those of the X-O vibrations. However, the difference between these contributions is small, and the major responsibility for the larger secondary isotope effect comes from the moment-of-inertia factor, which depends on the position of the (18)O atom relative to the principal axes of rotation. PMID:25879248

  11. 60. Interior view, passage, north elevation. Though made larger over ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    60. Interior view, passage, north elevation. Though made larger over time, this circulation space was present since the house's earliest manifestation. The attic stair and closet date from phase II construction (After the mid-1740's). Similarly to the study chamber, the closet on the right was fitted into a former exterior window opening. - John Bartram House & Garden, House, 54th Street & Lindbergh Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  12. Procrastination by pigeons: preference for larger, more delayed work requirements.

    PubMed Central

    Mazur, J E

    1996-01-01

    In three experiments, pigeons chose between alternatives that required the completion of a small ratio schedule early in the trial or a larger ratio schedule later in the trial. Completion of the ratio requirement did not lead to an immediate reinforcer, but simply allowed the events of the trial to continue. In Experiment 1, the ratio requirements interrupted periods in which food was delivered on a variable-time schedule. In Experiments 2 and 3, each ratio requirement was preceded and followed by a delay, and only one reinforcer was delivered, at the end of each trial. Two of the experiments used an adjusting-ratio procedure in which the ratio requirement was increased and decreased over trials so as to estimate an indifference point--a ratio size at which the two alternatives were chosen about equally often. These experiments found clear evidence for "procrastination"--the choice of a larger but more delayed response requirement. In some cases, subjects chose the more delayed ratio schedule even when it was larger than the more immediate alternative by a factor of four or more. The results suggest that as the delay to the start of a ratio requirement is increased, it has progressively less effect on choice behavior, in much the same way that delaying a positive reinforcer reduces it effect on choice. PMID:8583195

  13. Larger brain size indirectly increases vulnerability to extinction in mammals.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Voyer, Alejandro; González-Suárez, Manuela; Vilà, Carles; Revilla, Eloy

    2016-06-01

    Although previous studies have addressed the question of why large brains evolved, we have limited understanding of potential beneficial or detrimental effects of enlarged brain size in the face of current threats. Using novel phylogenetic path analysis, we evaluated how brain size directly and indirectly, via its effects on life history and ecology, influences vulnerability to extinction across 474 mammalian species. We found that larger brains, controlling for body size, indirectly increase vulnerability to extinction by extending the gestation period, increasing weaning age, and limiting litter sizes. However, we found no evidence of direct, beneficial, or detrimental effects of brain size on vulnerability to extinction, even when we explicitly considered the different types of threats that lead to vulnerability. Order-specific analyses revealed qualitatively similar patterns for Carnivora and Artiodactyla. Interestingly, for Primates, we found that larger brain size was directly (and indirectly) associated with increased vulnerability to extinction. Our results indicate that under current conditions, the constraints on life history imposed by large brains outweigh the potential benefits, undermining the resilience of the studied mammals. Contrary to the selective forces that have favored increased brain size throughout evolutionary history, at present, larger brains have become a burden for mammals. PMID:27159368

  14. Red Junglefowl (Gallus gallus) selected for low fear of humans are larger, more dominant and produce larger offspring.

    PubMed

    Agnvall, B; Ali, A; Olby, S; Jensen, P

    2014-09-01

    Many traits associated with domestication are suggested to have developed as correlated responses to reduced fear of humans. Tameness may have reduced the stress of living in human proximity and improved welfare in captivity. We selected Red Junglefowl (ancestors of all domestic chickens) for four generations on high or low fear towards humans, mimicking an important aspect of the earliest period of domestication, and tested birds from the third and fourth generation in three different social tests. Growth and plumage condition, as well as size of eggs and offspring were also recorded, as indicators of some aspects of welfare. Birds selected for low fear had higher weight, laid larger eggs and generated larger offspring, and had a better plumage condition. In a social dominance test they also performed more aggressive behaviour and received less of the same, regardless of whether the restricted resource was feed or not. Hence, dominance appeared to increase as a consequence of reduced fear of humans. Furthermore, egg size and the weight of the offspring were larger in the less fearful birds, and plumage condition better, which could be interpreted as the less fearful animals being better adapted to the environment in which they were selected. PMID:24910136

  15. Behavior and Body Patterns of the Larger Pacific Striped Octopus.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, Roy L; Ross, Richard; Rodaniche, Arcadio; Huffard, Christine L

    2015-01-01

    Over thirty years ago anecdotal accounts of the undescribed Larger Pacific Striped Octopus suggested behaviors previously unknown for octopuses. Beak-to-beak mating, dens shared by mating pairs, inking during mating and extended spawning were mentioned in publications, and enticed generations of cephalopod biologists. In 2012-2014 we were able to obtain several live specimens of this species, which remains without a formal description. All of the unique behaviors listed above were observed for animals in aquaria and are discussed here. We describe the behavior, body color patterns, and postures of 24 adults maintained in captivity. Chromatophore patterns of hatchlings are also shown. PMID:26266543

  16. Behavior and Body Patterns of the Larger Pacific Striped Octopus

    PubMed Central

    Caldwell, Roy L.; Ross, Richard; Rodaniche, Arcadio; Huffard, Christine L.

    2015-01-01

    Over thirty years ago anecdotal accounts of the undescribed Larger Pacific Striped Octopus suggested behaviors previously unknown for octopuses. Beak-to-beak mating, dens shared by mating pairs, inking during mating and extended spawning were mentioned in publications, and enticed generations of cephalopod biologists. In 2012–2014 we were able to obtain several live specimens of this species, which remains without a formal description. All of the unique behaviors listed above were observed for animals in aquaria and are discussed here. We describe the behavior, body color patterns, and postures of 24 adults maintained in captivity. Chromatophore patterns of hatchlings are also shown. PMID:26266543

  17. Treatment and recovery of larger particles of fine oxidized coal

    SciTech Connect

    Finch, R.E.

    1980-09-16

    This invention relates to a method and treating agent for increasing the yield of larger particles of fine oxidized coal where the particle size is 28 X 100 mesh and preferably 28 X 70 mesh and where said coal particles are concentrated by froth flotation. The method consists of utilizing as a promoter an alkali metal or ammonium polyacrylate. A preferred promoter is about 0.05-1.5 lbs of sodium polyacrylate latex per ton of dry coal (0.017-0.5 lb of dry sodium polyacrylate per ton of dry coal), having an average molecular weight of about 100,000, to 1, 000,000 and more, with a preferred range of 1,000,000 or more. This preferred promoter or frothing aid for oxidized coal is a water-in-oil latex of sodium polyacrylate used with a water-inoil emulsifier and preferably used with an alcohol-type frother. The latex may be utilized neat and self inverts with the assistance of an oil-in-water surfactant and the water in the system upon application to form an oil-in-water emulsion, or it may be used as a two part system with an activator (Aqueous) to promote inversion. Additionally, the latex emulsion recovers larger particles in the size 100 mesh and greater and preferably in the range 28 X 70 mesh.

  18. Improved GIA correction yields larger Antarctic mass loss.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velicogna, I.; Sutterley, T. C.; Ivins, E. R.; van den Broeke, M. R.

    2014-12-01

    New regional ice deglaciation models have recently been developed to match a variety of geologic, glaciological, and geodetic observations. In Antarctica, these new models exhibit a smaller East Antarctic ice loss since the Last Glacial Maximum, and hence yield a smaller GIA correction to the Antarctic estimates than those predicted by ICE5G. These revised models yield less negative ice mass losses when using GRACE data. Although these new models represent a significant advance in Antarctic GIA modeling, there are still large uncertainties associated with them. One of the large uncertainties is due to the fact that in the East Antarctica interior, the GIA reconstruction is poorly constrained by observations. These new models assume a monotonic decrease in loading in the last 5000 years. We examine the impact of this assumption on the GIA estimates and how a more realistic non-monotonic loading scenario could impact the results and the GRACE ice mass estimates. We use GRACE in combination with output products from the Regional Atmospheric Climate Model (RACMO) and recent studies of deglaciation history to derive an improved GIA correction, which include a non-monotonic loading scenario, is consistent with available geological and geodetic constraints and reconstruction of recent climate history. We find a larger correction, which implies larger losses of the Antarctica ice sheet by about 70 Gt/yr.

  19. Larger Turbines and the Future Cost of Wind Energy (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Lantz, E.; Hand, M.

    2011-03-01

    The move to larger turbines has been observed in the United States and around the world. Turbine scaling increases energy capture while reducing general project infrastructure costs and landscape impacts, each of which of can reduce the cost of wind energy. However, scaling in the absence of innovation, can increase turbine costs. The ability of turbine designers and manufacturers to continue to scale turbines, while simultaneously reducing costs, is an important factor in long-term viability of the industry. This research seeks to better understand how technology innovation can allow the continued development of larger turbines on taller towers while also achieving lower cost of energy. Modeling incremental technology improvements identified over the past decade demonstrates that cost reductions on the order of 10%, and capacity factor improvements on the order of 5% (for sites with annual mean wind speed of 7.25 m/s at 50m), are achievable for turbines up to 3.5 MW. However, to achieve a 10% cost reduction and a 10% capacity factor improvement for turbines up to 5 MW, additional technology innovations must be developed and implemented.

  20. Low Temperature and Polyploidy Result in Larger Cell and Body Size in an Ectothermic Vertebrate.

    PubMed

    Hermaniuk, Adam; Rybacki, Mariusz; Taylor, Jan R E

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies reported that low temperatures result in increases in both cell size and body size in ectotherms that may explain patterns of geographic variation of their body size across latitudinal ranges. Also, polyploidy showed the same effect on body size in invertebrates. In vertebrates, despite their having larger cells, no clear effect of polyploidy on body size has been found. This article presents the relationship between temperature, cell size, growth rate, and body size in diploid and polyploid hybridogenetic frog Pelophylax esculentus reared as tadpoles at 19° and 24°C. The size of cells was larger in both diploid and triploid tadpoles at 19°C, and triploids had larger cells at both temperatures. In diploid and triploid froglets, the temperature in which they developed as tadpoles did not affect the size of their cells, but triploids still had larger cells. Triploid tadpoles grew faster than diploids at 19°C and had larger body mass; there was no clear difference between ploidies in growth rate at 24°C. This indicates better adaptation of triploid tadpoles to cold environment. This is the first report on the increase of body mass of a polyploid vertebrate caused by low temperature, and we showed relationship between increase in cell size and increased body mass. The large body mass of triploids may provide a selective advantage, especially in colder environments, and this may explain the prevalence of triploids in the northern parts of the geographic range of P. esculentus. PMID:27082722

  1. Lamin A is not synthesized as a larger precursor polypeptide.

    PubMed

    Lebel, S; Raymond, Y

    1987-12-16

    Isolation of rat liver nuclei in the presence of N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) led to the recovery in the final nuclear matrix of a higher molecular weight form of lamin A. The 2 kDa larger form was identified as lamin A by isoelectric point determination, recognition by an anti-lamin A and C monoclonal antibody and peptide mapping using V8 protease and N-chlorosuccinimide. The 2 kDa extension was tentatively localized to the carboxy-terminus of lamin A. Pulse-chase labeling and immunoprecipitation studies using baby hamster kidney cells showed that lysis of the cells in the presence of NEM allowed the recovery of a stable higher molecular weight form of lamin A. We conclude from these results that NEM prevented the degradation of the native form of lamin A previously thought to represent a higher molecular weight transient precursor form. PMID:3426582

  2. V/Q Matched Defect Larger than Hiatal Hernia Itself.

    PubMed

    Wachsmann, Jason W; Kim, Chun K

    2015-01-01

    We present the case report of a patient 83 year old female who developed progressive shortness of breath and subsequently underwent scintigraphic evaluation of her symptoms with a ventilation/perfusion scintigraphic exam. A matched perfusion defect was seen involving the basal segments of the left lower lobe. Following this, the patient was examined with a contrast enhanced CT of the chest to further investigate the defect, which revealed compression of the bronchi and vasculature of the left lower lobe basal segments by the hernia larger than the actual hernia. To our knowledge there has not been a case report of a large hiatal hernia as a cause of matched lower lobe defect. PMID:26420992

  3. Biochronology and palaeoenvironment of Cenozoic Circum-Caribbean Larger Foraminifera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgartner-Mora, C.

    2012-04-01

    During the Cenozoic, the areas of the Gulf of Mexico, Yucatan and Florida-Bahamas were dominated by contiguous passive margins hosting long-lasting, large carbonate platforms. In contrast, Southern Central America and the Antilles were formed by a collage of mostly oceanic terranes and arcs that reflect the complex tectonic emplacement of the Caribbean Plate between N- and S-America. In this context, carbonate palaeoenvironments were short-lived and formed either on volcanic edifices (seamounts and island arcs) or on terranes uplifted into the photic zone by collisional tectonics. Our data comes mainly from localities on the Caribbean Plate (Costa Rica, Panama and the Antilles) but includes also data from Florida, Cuba and Yucatan. The biochronologic range of most Circum-Caribbean taxa of Larger Foraminifera is currently controversial, because it is based on a large number of local and regional stratigraphic publications of the last 50 years. This work reflects a high variability of faunal composition form one area to the other, suggesting that local ranges are more likely to be controlled by changing palaeoenvironments than by biochronology. To overcome these problems, we compiled a database comprising 130 taxa from over 60 localities. Larger Foraminifera from carbonate rocks were studied in several hundred oriented thin sections and oriented sections of isolated specimens that were studied by cathodoluminescence, transmitted light microscopy and SEM for isolated and washed material. X-ray microtomography was also used to produce 3D-imaging of some forms. 87Sr/86Sr ratios were measured for age calibration on Paleocene-Eocene, Oligocene, and Late Miocene-Pliocoene fossils. Biochronologically calibrated and well-documented records of Larger Foraminifera from the literature were also incorporated into the database. Unitary Associations (UA) were calculated using Biograph and the UA-Graph software, UA represent the maximum ranges of all considered species with respect

  4. An Evaluation of TCP with Larger Initial Windows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allman, Mark; Hayes, Christopher; Ostermann, Shawn

    1998-01-01

    Transmission Control Protocol (TCP's) slow start algorithm gradually increases the amount of data a sender injects into the network, which prevents the sender from overwhelming the network with an inappropriately large burst of traffic. However, the slow start algorithm can make poor use of the available band-width for transfers which are small compared to the bandwidth-delay product of the link, such as file transfers up to few thousand characters over satellite links or even transfers of several hundred bytes over local area networks. This paper evaluates a proposed performance enhancement that raises the initial window used by TCP from 1 MSS-sized segment to roughly 4 KB. The paper evaluates the impact of using larger initial windows on TCP transfers over both the shared Internet and dialup modem links.

  5. Larger Mammalian Body Size Leads to Lower Retroviral Activity

    PubMed Central

    Katzourakis, Aris; Magiorkinis, Gkikas; Lim, Aaron G.; Gupta, Sunetra; Belshaw, Robert; Gifford, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Retroviruses have been infecting mammals for at least 100 million years, leaving descendants in host genomes known as endogenous retroviruses (ERVs). The abundance of ERVs is partly determined by their mode of replication, but it has also been suggested that host life history traits could enhance or suppress their activity. We show that larger bodied species have lower levels of ERV activity by reconstructing the rate of ERV integration across 38 mammalian species. Body size explains 37% of the variance in ERV integration rate over the last 10 million years, controlling for the effect of confounding due to other life history traits. Furthermore, 68% of the variance in the mean age of ERVs per genome can also be explained by body size. These results indicate that body size limits the number of recently replicating ERVs due to their detrimental effects on their host. To comprehend the possible mechanistic links between body size and ERV integration we built a mathematical model, which shows that ERV abundance is favored by lower body size and higher horizontal transmission rates. We argue that because retroviral integration is tumorigenic, the negative correlation between body size and ERV numbers results from the necessity to reduce the risk of cancer, under the assumption that this risk scales positively with body size. Our model also fits the empirical observation that the lifetime risk of cancer is relatively invariant among mammals regardless of their body size, known as Peto's paradox, and indicates that larger bodied mammals may have evolved mechanisms to limit ERV activity. PMID:25033295

  6. Larger benthic foraminifera of the Paleogene Promina Beds (Croatia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosovic, V.; Mrinjek, E.; Drobne, K.

    2012-04-01

    In order to add more information about complex origin of Promina Beds (traditionally interpreted as Paleogene molasse of Dinarides), two sections (Lišani Ostrovački and Ostrovica, Central Dalmatia, Croatia) have been studied in detail. Sampled carbonate sequences contain predominantly coralline red algae, larger benthic foraminifera and corals. Based on sedimentary textures, nummulitid (Nummulites s.str and Asterigerina sp.) test shapes and the associated skeletal components, altogether three types of the Middle Eocene (Lutetian to Bartonian) facies were recognized. The Ostrovica section is composed of alternating couples of marly limestones and marls, several decimeters thick with great lateral continuity. Two facies which vertically alternate are recognized as Nummulites - Asterigerina facies, where patchily dispersed large, robust and party reworked larger benthic foraminifera constitute 20% and small bioclasts (fomaniniferal fragments and whole tests less than 3 mm in diameters) 10% of rock volume and, Coral - Red algal facies with coral fragments of solitary and colonial taxa up to 1 cm in size constitute 5 - 40%, red algae 15 - 60% and lager benthic foraminifera up to 5% of rock volume. The textural and compositional differences among the facies suggest rhythmic exchanges of conditions that characterize shallower part of the mesophotic zone with abundant nummulithoclasts with deeper mesophotic, lime mud-dominated settings where nummulitids with the flat tests, coralline red algae and scleractinian corals are common. The scleractinian corals (comprising up to 20% of rock volume) encrusted by foraminifera (Acervulina, Haddonia and nubeculariids) or coralline red algae and foraminiferal assemblage made of orthophragminid and nummulitid tests scattered in matrix, are distributed uniformly throughout the studied Lišani Ostrovački section. In the central part of section, wavy to smooth thin (< 1 mm) crusts (laminas) alternating with encrusted corals occur. The

  7. Super-size me: self biases increase to larger stimuli.

    PubMed

    Sui, Jie; Humphreys, Glyn W

    2015-04-01

    Prior work has shown that simple perceptual match responses to pairings of shapes and labels are more efficient if the pairing is associated with the participant (e.g., circle-you) than if it is associated with another familiar person (e.g., square-friend). There is a similar advantage for matching associations with high-value rewards (circle-£9) versus low-value rewards (square-£1) (Sui, He, & Humphreys Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 38, 1105-1117, 2012). Here we evaluated the relations between the self- and reward-bias effects by introducing occasional trials in which the size of a shape was varied unexpectedly (large or small vs. a standard medium). Participants favored stimuli that were larger than the standard when stimuli were associated with the self, and this enhancement of self bias was predicted by the degree of self bias that participants showed to standard (medium) sized stimuli. Although we observed a correlation between the magnitudes of the self and reward biases over participants, reward-bias effects were not increased to large stimuli. The data suggest both overlapping and independent components of the self and reward biases, and that self biases are uniquely enhanced when stimuli increase in size, consistent with previously reported motivational biases favoring large stimuli. PMID:25112393

  8. Transformation of OODT CAS to Perform Larger Tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattmann, Chris; Freeborn, Dana; Crichton, Daniel; Hughes, John; Ramirez, Paul; Hardman, Sean; Woollard, David; Kelly, Sean

    2008-01-01

    A computer program denoted OODT CAS has been transformed to enable performance of larger tasks that involve greatly increased data volumes and increasingly intensive processing of data on heterogeneous, geographically dispersed computers. Prior to the transformation, OODT CAS (also alternatively denoted, simply, 'CAS') [wherein 'OODT' signifies 'Object-Oriented Data Technology' and 'CAS' signifies 'Catalog and Archive Service'] was a proven software component used to manage scientific data from spaceflight missions. In the transformation, CAS was split into two separate components representing its canonical capabilities: file management and workflow management. In addition, CAS was augmented by addition of a resource-management component. This third component enables CAS to manage heterogeneous computing by use of diverse resources, including high-performance clusters of computers, commodity computing hardware, and grid computing infrastructures. CAS is now more easily maintainable, evolvable, and reusable. These components can be used separately or, taking advantage of synergies, can be used together. Other elements of the transformation included addition of a separate Web presentation layer that supports distribution of data products via Really Simple Syndication (RSS) feeds, and provision for full Resource Description Framework (RDF) exports of metadata.

  9. More ‘altruistic’ punishment in larger societies

    PubMed Central

    Marlowe, Frank W; Berbesque, J. Colette; Barr, Abigail; Barrett, Clark; Bolyanatz, Alexander; Cardenas, Juan Camilo; Ensminger, Jean; Gurven, Michael; Gwako, Edwins; Henrich, Joseph; Henrich, Natalie; Lesorogol, Carolyn; McElreath, Richard; Tracer, David

    2007-01-01

    If individuals will cooperate with cooperators, and punish non-cooperators even at a cost to themselves, then this strong reciprocity could minimize the cheating that undermines cooperation. Based upon numerous economic experiments, some have proposed that human cooperation is explained by strong reciprocity and norm enforcement. Second-party punishment is when you punish someone who defected on you; third-party punishment is when you punish someone who defected on someone else. Third-party punishment is an effective way to enforce the norms of strong reciprocity and promote cooperation. Here we present new results that expand on a previous report from a large cross-cultural project. This project has already shown that there is considerable cross-cultural variation in punishment and cooperation. Here we test the hypothesis that population size (and complexity) predicts the level of third-party punishment. Our results show that people in larger, more complex societies engage in significantly more third-party punishment than people in small-scale societies. PMID:18089534

  10. Ureteroscopic treatment of larger renal calculi (>2 cm)

    PubMed Central

    Bagley, Demetrius H.; Healy, Kelly A.; Kleinmann, Nir

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the current status of ureteroscopic lithotripsy (UL) for treating renal calculi of >2 cm, as advances in flexible ureteroscope design, accessory instrumentation and lithotrites have revolutionised the treatment of urinary calculi. While previously reserved for ureteric and small renal calculi, UL has gained an increasing role in the selective management of larger renal stone burdens. Methods We searched the available databases, including PubMed, Google Scholar, and Scopus, for relevant reports in English, and the article bibliographies to identify additional relevant articles. Keywords included ureteroscopy, lithotripsy, renal calculi, and calculi >2 cm. Retrieved articles were reviewed to consider the number of patients, mean stone size, success rates, indications and complications. Results In all, nine studies (417 patients) were eligible for inclusion. After one, two or three procedures the mean (range) success rates were 68.2 (23–84)%, 87.1 (79–91)% and 94.4 (90.1–96.7)%, respectively. Overall, the success rate was >90% with a mean of 1.2–2.3 procedures per patient. The overall complication rate was 10.3%, including six (1.4%) intraoperative and 37 (8.9%) postoperative complications, most of which were minor. The most common indications for UL were a failed previous treatment (46%), comorbidities (18.2%), and technical and anatomical factors (12.3%). Conclusions UL is safe and effective for treating large renal calculi. While several procedures might be required for total stone clearance, UL should be considered a standard approach in the urologist’s options treating renal calculi of >2 cm. PMID:26558040

  11. Validation of velocity map imaging conditions over larger areas

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, Mike; Koehler, Sven P. K.

    2013-04-15

    We have established through simulations and experiments the area over which Velocity Map Imaging (VMI) conditions prevail. We designed a VMI setup in which we can vary the ionization position perpendicular to the center axis of the time-of-flight spectrometer. We show that weak extraction conditions are far superior over standard three-plate setups if the aim is to increase the ionization volume without distorting VMI conditions. This is important for a number of crossed molecular beam experiments that already utilize weak extraction conditions, but to a greater extent for surface studies where fragments are desorbed or scattered off a surface in all directions. Our results on the dissociation of NO{sub 2} at 226 nm show that ionization of the fragments can occur up to {+-}5.5 mm away from the center axis of the time-of-flight spectrometer without affecting resolution or arrival position.

  12. The Yellowstone magma reservoir is 50% larger than previously imaged

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrell, J.; Smith, R. B.; Husen, S.

    2013-12-01

    Earlier tomographic studies of the Yellowstone crustal magma system have revealed a low P-wave crustal anomaly beneath the 0.64 Ma Yellowstone caldera that has been interpreted to be the magma reservoir of partial melt that provides the thermal energy for Yellowstone's youthful volcanic and hydrothermal systems. The Yellowstone seismic network has evolved over the last decade into a modern real-time volcano monitoring system that consists of 36 short-period, broadband, and borehole seismometers that cover the entire Yellowstone volcanic field and surrounding tectonic areas. Until recently, limited seismograph coverage did not provide for adequate resolution of the velocity structure northeast of the caldera, an area of the largest negative Bouguer gravity field of -60 mGal whose 3D density model reveals a shallow, low density body that extends ~20 km northeast of the caldera. Recent upgrades to the Yellowstone Seismic Network (YSN), including the addition of nine 3-component and broadband seismic stations providing much better ray coverage of the entire Yellowstone area with greater bandwidth data. This allows much-expanded and improved resolution coverage of the Yellowstone crustal velocity structure. We have compiled waveforms for the Yellowstone earthquake catalog from 1984-2011 with 45,643 earthquakes and 1,159,724 waveforms to analyze P-wave arrival times with an automatic picker based on an adaptive high-fidelity human mimicking algorithm. Our analysis reduced the data to the 4,520 best-located earthquakes with 48,622 P-wave arrival times to invert for the velocity structure. The resulting 3D P-wave model reveals a low Vp body (up to -7% ΔVp) that is interpreted to be the Yellowstone crustal magma reservoir and is ~50% larger than previously imaged. It extends as an oblong shaped anomalous body ~90 km NE-SW, ~20 km NE of the 0.64 Ma caldera, and up to 30 km wide and markedly shallowing from 15 km depth beneath the caldera to less than ~2 km deep northeast of

  13. Numerical study of an oscillating smaller cylinder in the wake of an upstream larger cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yangyang; Yu, Dingyong; Wang, Xikun; Tan, Soon Keat

    2012-06-01

    A numerical study of flow around two tandem cylinders with unequal diameters was carried out. The upstream larger cylinder was fixed and the downstream smaller cylinder was allowed to oscillate in the transverse direction only. Comparisons of the experimental and numerical results were made to investigate the effects of the gap ratio on the maximum vibration amplitude and vortex shedding frequency. The results showed that the vibration response of the smaller cylinder was significantly affected by the presence of the upstream larger cylinder, and resulted in greatly reduced vibration amplitudes. With an increasing gap ratio, the vibration amplitude increased. However, the magnitude was lower than that corresponding to a single cylinder (with the same diameter as that of the downstream smaller cylinder) under the same flow conditions.

  14. Action video game players and deaf observers have larger Goldmann visual fields.

    PubMed

    Buckley, David; Codina, Charlotte; Bhardwaj, Palvi; Pascalis, Olivier

    2010-03-01

    We used Goldmann kinetic perimetry to compare how training and congenital auditory deprivation may affect the size of the visual field. We measured the ability of action video game players and deaf observers to detect small moving lights at various locations in the central (around 30 degrees from fixation) and peripheral (around 60 degrees ) visual fields. Experiment 1 found that 10 habitual video game players showed significantly larger central and peripheral field areas than 10 controls. In Experiment 2 we found that 13 congenitally deaf observers had significantly larger visual fields than 13 hearing controls for both the peripheral and central fields. Here the greatest differences were found in the lower parts of the fields. Comparison of the two groups showed that whereas VGP players have a more uniform increase in field size in both central and peripheral fields deaf observers show non-uniform increases with greatest increases in lower parts of the visual field. PMID:19962395

  15. Pharmacy benefit management companies.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, R

    1995-09-01

    The principal services offered by pharmacy benefit management companies (PBMs) are described. A PBM contracts with employers, insurers, and others to provide accessible and cost-effective benefits to those groups' members. PBMs vary in their organization and services because they originate from different types of businesses. Many PBMs have been formed by publicly traded companies that have combined traditional ways of controlling cost and use, such as formularies, with new elements to form organizations whose primary function is managing the pharmacy benefit. Often, the PBM is paid a fixed amount for which it must provide all contracted services. PBMs may provide pharmacy services themselves (e.g., mail order prescription service is offered by Medco, one of the largest PBMs); more often, they subcontract with others to provide certain services. Full-service PBMs have the following functions: establishing networks of pharmacies for use by plan members; processing claims electronically at the time a prescription is filled and thus maintaining a database on drug use and cost; using these data to generate various reports; encouraging the use of generic products; managing existing formularies, helping to establish customized formularies, or providing a national formulary; providing information to support formulary guidelines (counter-detailing); offering programs in which prescriptions for maintenance medications are filled less frequently with larger amounts, often by mail order; negotiating volume-based rebates from manufacturers; performing drug-use review; developing disease management programs based on clinical practice guidelines and measurements of patient outcome; and evaluating outcomes by combining data on drug therapy with information about other parts of the patient's care.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8528857

  16. Air pollution episodes in larger area of Bucharest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raicu, C.; Iorga, G.

    2009-04-01

    In view of the fact that aerosol burdens in Eastern Europe may be heavily impacted by regional anthropogenic sources, this research is focused on analyses of air pollution episodes with the goal to quantify this impact in larger area of Bucharest. City of Bucharest is large size city (population 2.8 million) located in the Romanian Plain, characterised by environmental problems and meteorology typical for several cities in South-eastern Europe. It experiences intense photochemical processes. City environment includes intense emissions from traffic, thermo-electrical power-generation stations (CETs) that use mainly fossil fuels for power generation and domestic heating, and from industry. The data (PM10, SO2, CO, NOx) were collected at eight sampling sites in and around the urban area of Bucharest (three industrial and two traffic sites, one EPA urban background site, one suburban site and one regional site situated outside of Bucharest). Mass concentrations spanning over one year (2005 year) of continuous sampling were taken from data provided by the Air Quality Monitoring Network of the city. Analyses of temporal and spatial variability of PM10 were correlated with data of SO2, CO, NOx. The criterion for selecting the pollution episodes was the daily average concentration of PM10 to exceed by 35 times per year the limit value of 50 gm-3 (in accordance with Romanian Ministry Order 592/2002 criterion). Exceedances were considered as strong pollution events and were studied related to local pollution and long-range transport of pollutants provided by back-trajectories of air masses. As a general characteristics, the main contribution to the aerosol mass is due to anthropogenic local sources, but natural sources play a role, as well. The comparison between the concentration values at different sites indicates that industrial sources are responsible for a large part of the high concentrations in urban area followed by the traffic sources. The urban impact on nearby

  17. Larger genetic differences within africans than between Africans and Eurasians.

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ning; Chen, Feng-Chi; Ota, Satoshi; Jorde, Lynn B; Pamilo, Pekka; Patthy, Laszlo; Ramsay, Michele; Jenkins, Trefor; Shyue, Song-Kun; Li, Wen-Hsiung

    2002-01-01

    The worldwide pattern of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) variation is of great interest to human geneticists, population geneticists, and evolutionists, but remains incompletely understood. We studied the pattern in noncoding regions, because they are less affected by natural selection than are coding regions. Thus, it can reflect better the history of human evolution and can serve as a baseline for understanding the maintenance of SNPs in human populations. We sequenced 50 noncoding DNA segments each approximately 500 bp long in 10 Africans, 10 Europeans, and 10 Asians. An analysis of the data suggests that the sampling scheme is adequate for our purpose. The average nucleotide diversity (pi) for the 50 segments is only 0.061% +/- 0.010% among Asians and 0.064% +/- 0.011% among Europeans but almost twice as high (0.115% +/- 0.016%) among Africans. The African diversity estimate is even higher than that between Africans and Eurasians (0.096% +/- 0.012%). From available data for noncoding autosomal regions (total length = 47,038 bp) and X-linked regions (47,421 bp), we estimated the pi-values for autosomal regions to be 0.105, 0.070, 0.069, and 0.097% for Africans, Asians, Europeans, and between Africans and Eurasians, and the corresponding values for X-linked regions to be 0.088, 0.042, 0.053, and 0.082%. Thus, Africans differ from one another slightly more than from Eurasians, and the genetic diversity in Eurasians is largely a subset of that in Africans, supporting the out of Africa model of human evolution. Clearly, one must specify the geographic origins of the individuals sampled when studying pi or SNP density. PMID:12019240

  18. Domestic Violence and the Workplace: Developing a Company Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Pamela R.; Gardner, Susan

    1999-01-01

    Domestic violence affects employers of victims in several ways, including lost productivity and potential liability. Proactive company responses include security and safety measures and employee counseling. (SK)

  19. An Exercise in the Management of Change: Identifying Factors which Affect the Likelihood of an Engineering Company in the Nottingham Area Choosing a National Vocational Qualifications Route as the Means of Meeting Its Training Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Mike

    2002-01-01

    Five small engineering businesses identified influences on their use of National Vocational Qualifications (NVQs) for worker training: (1) NVQs' separation of knowledge and competence is an obstacle; (2) NVQs must have relevance and value to the company; (3) they are most useful with entry workers; and (4) lack of an assessment and verification…

  20. Larger amygdala volume in first-degree relatives of patients with major depression

    PubMed Central

    Romanczuk-Seiferth, Nina; Pöhland, Lydia; Mohnke, Sebastian; Garbusow, Maria; Erk, Susanne; Haddad, Leila; Grimm, Oliver; Tost, Heike; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Walter, Henrik; Wüstenberg, Torsten; Heinz, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Objective Although a heritable contribution to risk for major depressive disorder (MDD) has been established and neural alterations in patients have been identified through neuroimaging, it is unclear which brain abnormalities are related to genetic risk. Studies on brain structure of high-risk subjects – such as individuals carrying a familial liability for the development of MDD – can provide information on the potential usefulness of these measures as intermediate phenotypes of MDD. Methods 63 healthy first-degree relatives of patients with MDD and 63 healthy controls underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging. Regional gray matter volumes were analyzed via voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Results Whole-brain analysis revealed significantly larger gray matter volume in the bilateral amygdala in first-degree relatives of patients with MDD. Furthermore, relatives showed significantly larger gray matter volume in anatomical structures found relevant to MDD in previous literature, specifically in the bilateral hippocampus and amygdala as well as the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Bilateral DLPFC volume correlated positively with the experience of negative affect. Conclusions Larger gray matter volume in healthy relatives of MDD patients point to a possible vulnerability mechanism in MDD etiology and therefore extend knowledge in the field of high-risk approaches in MDD. PMID:25003028

  1. Section 1: Company directory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    This is a 1992 directory of those companies doing business in all areas of the independent power producers industry. The listing includes the company name, address, telephone and FAX numbers, and the name of a company contact. The listing is international in scope.

  2. 17 CFR 259.213 - Form U-13E-1, for report by affiliate companies and independent service companies pursuant to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...: For Federal Register citations affecting Form U-13E-1, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which...) FORMS PRESCRIBED UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 Forms for Statements and Reports... chapter) by an affiliate of a registered public utility holding company or subsidiary company thereof...

  3. 17 CFR 259.213 - Form U-13E-1, for report by affiliate companies and independent service companies pursuant to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...: For Federal Register citations affecting Form U-13E-1, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which...) FORMS PRESCRIBED UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 Forms for Statements and Reports... chapter) by an affiliate of a registered public utility holding company or subsidiary company thereof...

  4. Paleocene-Early Eocene larger foraminiferal biostratigraphy of Yemen and Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Carlo, M.; Serra-Kiel, J.; Pignatti, J.

    2012-04-01

    The Paleogene larger foraminiferal biostratigraphy is today rather well assessed for the Tethyan domain. In order to contribute to the full integration of the Middle-East in the widely employed Shallow Benthic Zonation, a preliminary report on the Paleocene-Early Eocene larger foraminiferal assemblages from Yemen and Oman is provided here. The sections investigated in Yemen range in age from the Upper Cretaceous to the Oligocene. The Paleogene of Yemen is widely affected by dolomitization and only by analyzing over 1,700 thin sections from 60 stratigraphic sections (mainly from Hadramaut and Socotra) it has been possible to adequately investigate the fossil assemblages. In contrast, the deposits from northern Oman are characterized by rich and extraordinarily well-preserved Paleocene-Lower Eocene larger foraminiferal assemblages. This preliminary report focuses mainly on the Paleocene-Early Eocene deposits of the Umm-er-Radhuma formation. The Paleocene-Lower Eocene assemblages are characterized by strong affinities with northern Somalia. Hyaline forms such as Daviesina khatiyahi, Miscellanea gr. rhomboidea/dukhani, M. miscella, Saudia, Sakesaria, Lockhartia, Ranikothalia, Dictyokathina largely prevail in SBZ 3-4 deposits. Nummulites, Ranikothalia and Daviesina ruida characterize the Lower Ypresian. Subordinately, porcelaneous forms such as "Taberina" daviesi and conical agglutinated (Daviesiconus) also occur; alveolinids (such as Alveolina vredenburgi and A. decipiens) are relatively abundant in the basal Lower Ypresian of Socotra. In contrast to the coeval deposits from Yemen, the Paleocene section of Oman (Wadi Duqm, Abat-Tiwi platform) yields very well-preserved larger foraminiferal assemblages and agglutinated and porcelaneous forms are well represented. The occurrence of abundant Globoreticulina paleocenica is noteworthy along with an as yet undescribed Lacazinella species. The co-occurrence of Coskinon sp., "Plumokathina dienii", Dictyoconus turriculus and

  5. 12 CFR 583.11 - Diversified savings and loan holding company.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Diversified savings and loan holding company... DEFINITIONS FOR REGULATIONS AFFECTING SAVINGS AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 583.11 Diversified savings and loan holding company. The term diversified savings and loan holding company means any savings and loan...

  6. 12 CFR 583.12 - Multiple savings and loan holding company.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Multiple savings and loan holding company. 583... DEFINITIONS FOR REGULATIONS AFFECTING SAVINGS AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 583.12 Multiple savings and loan holding company. The term multiple savings and loan holding company means any savings and loan...

  7. Cortical Thinning in Healthy Aging Correlates with Larger Motor-Evoked EEG Desynchronization

    PubMed Central

    Provencher, David; Hennebelle, Marie; Cunnane, Stephen C.; Bérubé-Lauzière, Yves; Whittingstall, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Although electroencephalography (EEG) is a valuable tool to investigate neural activity in patients and controls, exactly how local anatomy impacts the measured signal remains unclear. Better characterizing this relationship is important to improve the understanding of how inter-subject differences in the EEG signal are related to neural activity. We hypothesized that cortical structure might affect event-related desynchronization (ERD) in EEG. Since aging is a well-documented cause of cortical thinning, we investigated the effects of cortical thickness (CT) and cortical depth (CD – the skull-to-cortex distance) on ERD using anatomical MRI and motor-evoked EEG in 17 healthy young adults and 20 healthy older persons. Results showed a significant negative correlation between ERD and CT, but no consistent relationship between ERD and CD. A thinner cortex was associated with a larger ERD in the α/β band and correcting for CT removed most of the inter-group difference in ERD. This indicates that differences in neural activity might not be the primary cause for the observed aging-related differences in ERD, at least in the motor cortex. Further, it emphasizes the importance of considering conditions affecting the EEG signal, such as cortical anatomical changes due to aging, when interpreting differences between healthy controls and/or patients. PMID:27064767

  8. The mortality of companies.

    PubMed

    Daepp, Madeleine I G; Hamilton, Marcus J; West, Geoffrey B; Bettencourt, Luís M A

    2015-05-01

    The firm is a fundamental economic unit of contemporary human societies. Studies on the general quantitative and statistical character of firms have produced mixed results regarding their lifespans and mortality. We examine a comprehensive database of more than 25 000 publicly traded North American companies, from 1950 to 2009, to derive the statistics of firm lifespans. Based on detailed survival analysis, we show that the mortality of publicly traded companies manifests an approximately constant hazard rate over long periods of observation. This regularity indicates that mortality rates are independent of a company's age. We show that the typical half-life of a publicly traded company is about a decade, regardless of business sector. Our results shed new light on the dynamics of births and deaths of publicly traded companies and identify some of the necessary ingredients of a general theory of firms. PMID:25833247

  9. The mortality of companies

    PubMed Central

    Daepp, Madeleine I. G.; Hamilton, Marcus J.; West, Geoffrey B.; Bettencourt, Luís M. A.

    2015-01-01

    The firm is a fundamental economic unit of contemporary human societies. Studies on the general quantitative and statistical character of firms have produced mixed results regarding their lifespans and mortality. We examine a comprehensive database of more than 25 000 publicly traded North American companies, from 1950 to 2009, to derive the statistics of firm lifespans. Based on detailed survival analysis, we show that the mortality of publicly traded companies manifests an approximately constant hazard rate over long periods of observation. This regularity indicates that mortality rates are independent of a company's age. We show that the typical half-life of a publicly traded company is about a decade, regardless of business sector. Our results shed new light on the dynamics of births and deaths of publicly traded companies and identify some of the necessary ingredients of a general theory of firms. PMID:25833247

  10. Growth of oncology physician practice management companies.

    PubMed

    Mighion, K; Gesme, D H; Rifkin, R M; Bennett, C L

    1999-01-01

    The practice of oncology is changing dramatically, spurred on by managed care initiatives throughout the United States. As a result, physicians are faced with multiple demands from insurers, managed care organizations, and patients. In response to these demands, oncology physician practice management companies have entered the cancer market. This article describes the driving factors leading to consolidation in practice settings, the risks and benefits to oncologists of affiliating with these companies, and the organizational characteristics of four of these larger corporations. This review article is of broad interest to oncologists practicing in the United States and is meant to provide a useful reference for considering a physician practice management company as a business partner. PMID:10370365

  11. Scaling behaviour in the growth of companies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanley, Michael H. R.; Amaral, Luís A. N.; Buldyrev, Sergey V.; Havlin, Shlomo; Leschhorn, Heiko; Maass, Philipp; Salinger, Michael A.; Stanley, H. Eugene

    1996-02-01

    A SUCCESSFUL theory of corporate growth should include both the external and internal factors that affect the growth of a company1-18. Whereas traditional models emphasize production-related influences such as investment in physical capital and in research and development18, recent models10-20 recognize the equal importance of organizational infrastructure. Unfortunately, no exhaustive empirical account of the growth of companies exists by which these models can be tested. Here we present a broad, phenomenological picture of the dependence of growth on company size, derived from data for all publicly traded US manufacturing companies between 1975 and 1991. We find that, for firms with similar sales, the distribution of annual (logarithmic) growth rates has an exponential form; the spread in the distribution of rates decreases with increasing sales as a power law over seven orders of magnitude. A model wherein the probability of a company's growth depends on its past as well as present sales accounts for the former observation. As the latter observation applies to companies that manufacture products of all kinds, organizational structures common to all firms might well be stronger determinants of growth than production-related factors, which differ for companies producing different goods.

  12. Fatigue acceptance test limit criterion for larger diameter rolled thread fasteners

    SciTech Connect

    Kephart, A.R.

    1997-05-01

    This document describes a fatigue lifetime acceptance test criterion by which studs having rolled threads, larger than 1.0 inches in diameter, can be assured to meet minimum quality attributes associated with a controlled rolling process. This criterion is derived from a stress dependent, room temperature air fatigue database for test studs having a 0.625 inch diameter threads of Alloys X-750 HTH and direct aged 625. Anticipated fatigue lives of larger threads are based on thread root elastic stress concentration factors which increase with increasing thread diameters. Over the thread size range of interest, a 30% increase in notch stress is equivalent to a factor of five (5X) reduction in fatigue life. The resulting diameter dependent fatigue acceptance criterion is normalized to the aerospace rolled thread acceptance standards for a 1.0 inch diameter, 0.125 inch pitch, Unified National thread with a controlled Root radius (UNR). Testing was conducted at a stress of 50% of the minimum specified material ultimate strength, 80 Ksi, and at a stress ratio (R) of 0.10. Limited test data for fastener diameters of 1.00 to 2.25 inches are compared to the acceptance criterion. Sensitivity of fatigue life of threads to test nut geometry variables was also shown to be dependent on notch stress conditions. Bearing surface concavity of the compression nuts and thread flank contact mismatch conditions can significantly affect the fastener fatigue life. Without improved controls these conditions could potentially provide misleading acceptance data. Alternate test nut geometry features are described and implemented in the rolled thread stud specification, MIL-DTL-24789(SH), to mitigate the potential effects on fatigue acceptance data.

  13. 78 FR 11638 - Michigan Consolidated Gas Company, DTE Gas Company, DTE Gas Company; Notice of Petition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-19

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Michigan Consolidated Gas Company, DTE Gas Company, DTE Gas Company; Notice... Docket Nos. PR13-29-000, and PR13-30-000 (not consolidated), Michigan Consolidated Gas Company (MichCon) and DTE Gas Company (DTE Gas) filed to institute a name change to both itself from MichCon to DTE...

  14. The Telephone Company Agrees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes, Rembert R.

    1975-01-01

    A representative of the American Telephone and Telegraph Company responds to a statement by the director of the National Institute for Rehabilitation Engineering on telephone communication systems for the hearing impaired. (GW)

  15. Southern Company`s standby generator program

    SciTech Connect

    Swartz, S.

    1995-12-01

    Alabama Power Company (APCO) continues to look for ways to improve customer satisfaction and enact demand-side management programs. The decision was made to evaluate the availability of customer-owned generators in order to meet these objectives. The idea was to utilize customer-owed standby generators (SG) as we would a peaking plant and to pay the customer credits based on the cost of the construction of peaking capacity plants. It was felt that if APCO could utilize this capacity to offset the construction of peaking capacity, then these costs would be passed on to our customers.

  16. 78 FR 25662 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-02

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979), (3) Will not affect intrastate aviation in Alaska... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company...). SUMMARY: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for all The Boeing Company Model...

  17. 78 FR 72836 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-04

    ... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979), (3) Will not affect intrastate aviation... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company...). SUMMARY: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for all The Boeing Company Model...

  18. 12 CFR 561.37 - Parent company; subsidiary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Parent company; subsidiary. 561.37 Section 561.37 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DEFINITIONS FOR REGULATIONS AFFECTING ALL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 561.37 Parent company; subsidiary. The terms parent...

  19. The superefficient company.

    PubMed

    Hammer, M

    2001-09-01

    Most companies do a great job promoting efficiency within their own walls, streamlining internal processes wherever possible. But they have less success coordinating cross-company business interactions. When data pass between companies, inconsistencies, errors, and misunderstandings routinely arise, leading to wasted work--for instance, the same sales, order entry, and customer data may be entered repeatedly into different systems. Typically, scores of employees at each company manage these cumbersome interactions. The costs of such inefficiencies are very real and very large. In this article, Michael Hammer outlines the activities and goals used in streamlining cross-company processes. He breaks down the approach into four stages: scoping--identifying the business process for redesign and selecting a partner; organizing--establishing a joint committee to oversee the redesign and convening a design team to implement it; redesigning--taking apart and reassembling the process, with performance goals in mind; and implementing--rolling out the new process and communicating it across the collaborating companies. The author describes how several companies have streamlined their supply-chain and product development processes. Plastics compounder Geon integrated its forecasting and fulfillment processes with those of its main supplier after watching inventories, working capital, and shipping times creep up. General Mills coordinated the delivery of its yogurt with Land O'Lakes; butter and yogurt travel cost effectively in the same trucks to the same stores. Hammer says this new kind of collaboration promises to change the traditional vocabulary of corporate relationships. What if you and I sell different products to the same customer? We're not competitors, but what are we? In the past, we didn't care. Now, we should, the author says. PMID:11550633

  20. The aphelion distribution of the Near Earth meteoroid orbits with larger eccentricities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolomiyets, Svitlana; Voloshchuk, Yury

    2015-08-01

    The question of the stability of the Solar System has always sparked urgency to research. In some cases, larger values of eccentricity and/or inclination can be a sign of the instability. The time has now come to extend this question to a larger number of planetary systems. The discovery of extrasolar planets systems has raised many similar questions on their formation and dynamical evolution. The origin of the surprisingly large eccentricities and/or inclinations (relative to the stellar equator) of many extrasolar planets remains elusive: planet instabilities, planet-disk interactions, external perturbations from eccentric or inclined stars remain viable options. The understanding of our own planetary system and extrasolar planets systems can leap forward only with the combination of mutual research. The time has now come to the golden years of the space exploration on the distant Solar System bodies. At the same time every day the meteoric matter penetrates in the Earth atmosphere and carries information about the various locations of the Solar system. The meteoroid orbits with large eccentricities and large aphelion distances associated with the distant locations of the Solar system. We used the data of the ground-based radar observations in Kharkiv (Ukraine) to obtain the distribution of aphelion distances for the near Earth meteoroid orbits (100341) with large eccentricities (e>0.5). We analyzed the orbital inclinations too. We obtained the complicated structure of the sporadic meteoroid complex. It is the consequence of the plurality of parent bodies and origin mechanisms of meteoroids. In addition the perturbing action of the planets, non-gravitational forces affect on the stracture of meteoroid complex. Our experimental results in 1972-1978 demonstrated meteoroid masses 10^-3 -10^-6 g. The aphelion distance of orbits for these investigated meteoroids has the range from near 1 till 2 000 AU. Undoubtedly, the meteoric matter contains key information about

  1. Editorial Commentary: Are Larger Screws the Answer When Anatomic Reconstruction of an Acromioclavicular Separation Fails?

    PubMed

    Denard, Patrick J

    2016-08-01

    Although fixation methods have improved, failure after fixation of an acromioclavicular joint separation is not uncommon. This biomechanical study shows that in the setting of graft slippage through previously well-placed clavicular tunnels, a revision anatomic reconstruction is feasible with larger tenodesis screws. Although the risk of clavicular fracture increases with larger tunnels, anatomic revision with larger screws is an option in select cases. PMID:27495861

  2. Captive insurance companies.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The landscape of the business world is changing; and now, more than ever, business owners are recognizing that life is filled with risks: known risk, calculated risk, and unexpected risk. Every day, businesses thrive or fail based on understanding the risk of owning and operating their business, and business owners are recognizing that there are alternative risk financing mechanisms other than simply taking out a basket of standard coverage as recommended by your friendly neighborhood agent. A captive insurance company is an insurance company established to provide a broad range of risk management capabilities to affiliated companies. The captive is owned by the business owner and can provide insurance to the business for potential future losses, whether or not the losses are already covered by a commercial carrier or are "self-insured." The premiums paid by your business are tax deductible. Meanwhile, the premiums that your captive collects are tax-free up to $1.2 million annually. PMID:25807627

  3. Low Concentrations of Methamphetamine Can Protect Dopaminergic Cells against a Larger Oxidative Stress Injury: Mechanistic Study

    PubMed Central

    El Ayadi, Amina; Zigmond, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Mild stress can protect against a larger insult, a phenomenon termed preconditioning or tolerance. To determine if a low intensity stressor could also protect cells against intense oxidative stress in a model of dopamine deficiency associated with Parkinson disease, we used methamphetamine to provide a mild, preconditioning stress, 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) as a source of potentially toxic oxidative stress, and MN9D cells as a model of dopamine neurons. We observed that prior exposure to subtoxic concentrations of methamphetamine protected these cells against 6-OHDA toxicity, whereas higher concentrations of methamphetamine exacerbated it. The protection by methamphetamine was accompanied by decreased uptake of both [3H] dopamine and 6-OHDA into the cells, which may have accounted for some of the apparent protection. However, a number of other effects of methamphetamine exposure suggest that the drug also affected basic cellular survival mechanisms. First, although methamphetamine preconditioning decreased basal pERK1/2 and pAkt levels, it enhanced the 6-OHDA-induced increase in these phosphokinases. Second, the apparent increase in pERK1/2 activity was accompanied by increased pMEK1/2 levels and decreased activity of protein phosphatase 2. Third, methamphetamine upregulated the pro-survival protein Bcl-2. Our results suggest that exposure to low concentrations of methamphetamine cause a number of changes in dopamine cells, some of which result in a decrease in their vulnerability to subsequent oxidative stress. These observations may provide insights into the development of new therapies for prevention or treatment of PD. PMID:22022363

  4. Stronger cortisol response to acute psychosocial stress is correlated with larger decrease in temporal sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Zhuxi; Jiang, Caihong; Zhang, Kan; Wu, Jianhui

    2016-01-01

    As a fundamental dimension of cognition and behavior, time perception has been found to be sensitive to stress. However, how one’s time perception changes with responses to stress is still unclear. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between stress-induced cortisol response and time perception. A group of 40 healthy young male adults performed a temporal bisection task before and after the Trier Social Stress Test for a stress condition. A control group of 27 male participants completed the same time perception task without stress induction. In the temporal bisection task, participants were first presented with short (400 ms) and long (1,600 ms) visual signals serving as anchor durations and then required to judge whether the intermediate probe durations were more similar to the short or the long anchor. The bisection point and Weber ratio were calculated and indicated the subjective duration and the temporal sensitivity, respectively. Data showed that participants in the stress group had significantly increased salivary cortisol levels, heart rates, and negative affects compared with those in the control group. The results did not show significant group differences for the subjective duration or the temporal sensitivity. However, the results showed a significant positive correlation between stress-induced cortisol responses and decreases in temporal sensitivity indexed by increases in the Weber ratio. This correlation was not observed for the control group. Changes in subjective duration indexed by temporal bisection points were not correlated with cortisol reactivity in both the groups. In conclusion, the present study found that although no significant change was observed in time perception after an acute stressor on the group-level comparison (i.e., stress vs. nonstress group), individuals with stronger cortisol responses to stress showed a larger decrease in temporal sensitivity. This finding may provide insight into the understanding of

  5. 75 FR 13524 - Northern Natural Gas Company, Southern Natural Gas Company, Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-22

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Northern Natural Gas Company, Southern Natural Gas Company, Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC, Transcontinental Gas Pipe Line Company, LLC, Enterprise Field Services, LLC; Notice of Application March 16, 2010. Take notice that on March 5, 2010, Northern Natural Gas...

  6. 17 CFR 239.14 - Form N-2 for closed end management investment companies registered on Form N-8A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and at www... closed end management investment companies registered under the Investment Company Act of 1940 on form N... companies pursuant to section 8(b) of the Investment Company Act of 1940 (§ 274.11a-1 of this chapter)....

  7. 17 CFR 239.14 - Form N-2 for closed end management investment companies registered on Form N-8A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and at www... closed end management investment companies registered under the Investment Company Act of 1940 on form N... companies pursuant to section 8(b) of the Investment Company Act of 1940 (§ 274.11a-1 of this chapter)....

  8. 17 CFR 239.14 - Form N-2 for closed end management investment companies registered on Form N-8A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and on GPO... closed end management investment companies registered under the Investment Company Act of 1940 on form N... companies pursuant to section 8(b) of the Investment Company Act of 1940 (§ 274.11a-1 of this chapter)....

  9. 17 CFR 239.14 - Form N-2 for closed end management investment companies registered on Form N-8A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and at www... closed end management investment companies registered under the Investment Company Act of 1940 on form N... companies pursuant to section 8(b) of the Investment Company Act of 1940 (§ 274.11a-1 of this chapter)....

  10. 17 CFR 239.14 - Form N-2 for closed end management investment companies registered on Form N-8A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and at www... closed end management investment companies registered under the Investment Company Act of 1940 on form N... companies pursuant to section 8(b) of the Investment Company Act of 1940 (§ 274.11a-1 of this chapter)....

  11. The Electric Company.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children's Television Workshop, New York, NY.

    This book is intended as an introduction to the television program, "The Electric Company," designed to help teach reading to children in grades 2-4 who are experiencing difficulty. Contents include: Sidney P. Marland, Jr.'s preface, "A Significant New Teaching Tool"; Joan Ganz Cooney's "Television and the Teaching of Reading"; and Barbara…

  12. 17 CFR 239.15 - Form N-1 for open-end management investment companies registered on Form N-8A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... affecting Form N-1, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the... section 2(a)(37) of the Investment Company Act of 1940 registered under the Investment Company Act of 1940... of such companies pursuant to section 8(b) of the Investment Company Act of 1940 (§ 274.11 of...

  13. 17 CFR 239.15 - Form N-1 for open-end management investment companies registered on Form N-8A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... affecting Form N-1, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the... section 2(a)(37) of the Investment Company Act of 1940 registered under the Investment Company Act of 1940... of such companies pursuant to section 8(b) of the Investment Company Act of 1940 (§ 274.11 of...

  14. 17 CFR 239.15 - Form N-1 for open-end management investment companies registered on Form N-8A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... affecting Form N-1, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the... section 2(a)(37) of the Investment Company Act of 1940 registered under the Investment Company Act of 1940... of such companies pursuant to section 8(b) of the Investment Company Act of 1940 (§ 274.11 of...

  15. 17 CFR 239.15 - Form N-1 for open-end management investment companies registered on Form N-8A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... affecting Form N-1, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the... section 2(a)(37) of the Investment Company Act of 1940 registered under the Investment Company Act of 1940... of such companies pursuant to section 8(b) of the Investment Company Act of 1940 (§ 274.11 of...

  16. 17 CFR 239.15 - Form N-1 for open-end management investment companies registered on Form N-8A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... affecting Form N-1, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the... section 2(a)(37) of the Investment Company Act of 1940 registered under the Investment Company Act of 1940... of such companies pursuant to section 8(b) of the Investment Company Act of 1940 (§ 274.11 of...

  17. Examination of Electric Utility CEO Compensation 2000-2011 and its significance to Company Earnings, Company Revenue, Company Stock and the Dow Jones Utility Average

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labovitch, Andrew

    This dissertation examined electric utility CEO compensation during the years 2000 through 2011 for United States owned and operated companies. To determine the extent to which agency theory may apply to electric utility CEO compensation, this examination segmented the industry by four types of company financial metrics: revenue, earnings, stock price and the Dow Jones Utility Average; by five categories of CEO compensation: base salary, bonus, stock grants, all other compensation and total compensation; and by four categories of company size as measured by revenue: large, medium, small and the industry as a whole. Electric utility CEO compensation data was analyzed with the financial metrics to determine correlations. No type of compensation was highly correlated to any of the financial metrics for any size industry segment indicating that there was little agency. CEO compensation in large electric utility companies was higher than compensation in medium and smaller companies even though the CEOs at larger companies earned less per dollar of revenue and per dollar of earnings than their counterparts in smaller companies.

  18. Running, hopping and trotting: tuning step frequency to the resonant frequency of the bouncing system favors larger animals.

    PubMed

    Cavagna, Giovanni A; Legramandi, Mario A

    2015-10-01

    A long-lasting challenge in comparative physiology is to understand why the efficiency of the mechanical work done to maintain locomotion increases with body mass. It has been suggested that this is due to a more elastic step in larger animals. Here, we show in running, hopping and trotting animals, and in human running during growth, that the resonant frequency of the bouncing system decreases with increasing body mass and is, surprisingly, independent of species or gait. Step frequency roughly equals the resonant frequency in trotting and running, whereas it is about half the resonant frequency in hopping. The energy loss by elastic hysteresis during loading and unloading the bouncing system from its equilibrium position decreases with increasing body mass. Similarity to a symmetrical bounce increases with increasing body mass and, for a given body mass, seems to be maximal in hopping, intermediate in trotting and minimal in running. We conclude that: (1) tuning step frequency to the resonant frequency of the bouncing system coincides with a lower hysteresis loss in larger, more-compliant animals; (2) the mechanism of gait per se affects similarity with a symmetrical bounce, independent of hysteresis; and (3) the greater efficiency in larger animals may be due, at least in part, to a lower hysteresis loss. PMID:26347555

  19. Fatigue acceptance test limit criteria for larger diameter rolled thread fasteners

    SciTech Connect

    Kephart, A.R.

    1999-05-19

    This document describes a fatigue lifetime acceptance test criterion by which studs having rolled threads, larger than 1.0 inches (25 mm) in diameter, can be assured to meet minimum quality attributes associated with a controlled rolling process.

  20. 12 CFR 583.11 - Diversified savings and loan holding company.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... DEFINITIONS FOR REGULATIONS AFFECTING SAVINGS AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 583.11 Diversified savings and loan holding company. The term diversified savings and loan holding company means any savings and loan holding... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Diversified savings and loan holding...

  1. Oscillatory growth in Larger Benthic Foraminifera: problems, interpretations and possible solutions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briguglio, Antonino; Eder, Wolfgang; Woeger, Julia; Kinoshita, Shunichi; Ferrandez-Canadell, Carles; Hohenegger, Johann

    2015-04-01

    The possibility to investigate cell growth and its oscillations through time in Larger Benthic Foraminifera (LBF) by means of Micro Computed Tomography (microCT) is a recent and well known methodology. However, the search for factors of oscillations around undisturbed growth - the latter can be modelled by theoretical growth functions (e.g. Gompertz and generalized logistic growth function) - is hampered by a number of factors which have been recently discovered and not yet published. Cycles are obtained based on a mean chamber building rate gained from specimens cultured in the laboratory because punctual data available in the literature are too incomplete to gain a more realistic growth model. The mean chamber building rate can be also modeled (e.g. Power-, Michaelis-Menten- and Bertallanffy function). The periodicity of the cycles observed in LBF is mostly concentrated around a prominent 29 to 30 days cycle. Other cycles, proportions and multiples of this dominant cycle are common, but probably should be considered as calculation effects in case of their inconsistency. The 30 days cycles are present in almost all specimens investigated, which may be a hint to a correlation between cell growth and the light intensity variation of lunar cycles, which can affect the photosynthetic activity of the endosymbionts in LBF tests. However, this correlation is challenged by a number of issues, which need to be further investigated. One of these problems is represented by the recent discovery of similar cycles in LBF tests, which have been laboratory-cultured and should therefore not show any environmental effects. A focused analysis of growth cycles observed in these laboratory tests showed that even if the periods are constant and significant at 30 days, their phases show a much broader variance compared to naturally grown specimens. Epigenetic signals and their influence on the oscillatory growth of cultivated organisms can be considered to play a major role in the

  2. 17 CFR 274.11 - Form N-1, registration statement of open-end management investment companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Note: For Federal Register citations affecting Form N-1, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which... Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FORMS PRESCRIBED UNDER THE INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT...(b) of the Investment Company Act of 1940 by open-end management investment companies that...

  3. 17 CFR 274.11A - Form N-1A, registration statement of open-end management investment companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Note: For Federal Register citations affecting Form N-1A, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which... Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FORMS PRESCRIBED UNDER THE INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT...(b) of the Investment Company Act of 1940 by open-end management investment companies other...

  4. 17 CFR 239.15A - Form N-1A, registration statement of open-end management investment companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... affecting Form N-1A, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the... Investment Company Act of 1940 (on form N-1) (§ 270.11 of this chapter). This form is also to be used for the registration statement of such companies pursuant to section 8(b) of the Investment Company Act of 1940 (§...

  5. 17 CFR 239.17a - Form N-3, registration statement for separate accounts organized as management investment companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... pursuant to section 8(b) of the Investment Company Act of 1940 (§ 274.11b of this chapter). Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting Form N-3, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which... register under the Investment Company Act of 1940 as management investment companies, and certain...

  6. 17 CFR 274.11A - Form N-1A, registration statement of open-end management investment companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Note: For Federal Register citations affecting Form N-1A, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which... Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FORMS PRESCRIBED UNDER THE INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT...(b) of the Investment Company Act of 1940 by open-end management investment companies other...

  7. 17 CFR 274.11A - Form N-1A, registration statement of open-end management investment companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Note: For Federal Register citations affecting Form N-1A, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which... Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FORMS PRESCRIBED UNDER THE INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT...(b) of the Investment Company Act of 1940 by open-end management investment companies other...

  8. 17 CFR 274.11 - Form N-1, registration statement of open-end management investment companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Note: For Federal Register citations affecting Form N-1, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which... Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FORMS PRESCRIBED UNDER THE INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT...(b) of the Investment Company Act of 1940 by open-end management investment companies that...

  9. 17 CFR 239.17a - Form N-3, registration statement for separate accounts organized as management investment companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... pursuant to section 8(b) of the Investment Company Act of 1940 (§ 274.11b of this chapter). Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting Form N-3, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which... register under the Investment Company Act of 1940 as management investment companies, and certain...

  10. 17 CFR 274.11A - Form N-1A, registration statement of open-end management investment companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Note: For Federal Register citations affecting Form N-1A, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which... Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FORMS PRESCRIBED UNDER THE INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT...(b) of the Investment Company Act of 1940 by open-end management investment companies other...

  11. 17 CFR 239.17a - Form N-3, registration statement for separate accounts organized as management investment companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... pursuant to section 8(b) of the Investment Company Act of 1940 (§ 274.11b of this chapter). Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting Form N-3, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which... register under the Investment Company Act of 1940 as management investment companies, and certain...

  12. 17 CFR 239.15A - Form N-1A, registration statement of open-end management investment companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... affecting Form N-1A, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the... Investment Company Act of 1940 (on form N-1) (§ 270.11 of this chapter). This form is also to be used for the registration statement of such companies pursuant to section 8(b) of the Investment Company Act of 1940 (§...

  13. 17 CFR 274.11 - Form N-1, registration statement of open-end management investment companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Note: For Federal Register citations affecting Form N-1, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which... Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FORMS PRESCRIBED UNDER THE INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT...(b) of the Investment Company Act of 1940 by open-end management investment companies that...

  14. 17 CFR 274.11 - Form N-1, registration statement of open-end management investment companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Note: For Federal Register citations affecting Form N-1, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which... Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FORMS PRESCRIBED UNDER THE INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT...(b) of the Investment Company Act of 1940 by open-end management investment companies that...

  15. 17 CFR 274.11 - Form N-1, registration statement of open-end management investment companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Note: For Federal Register citations affecting Form N-1, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which... Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FORMS PRESCRIBED UNDER THE INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT...(b) of the Investment Company Act of 1940 by open-end management investment companies that...

  16. 17 CFR 239.17a - Form N-3, registration statement for separate accounts organized as management investment companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... pursuant to section 8(b) of the Investment Company Act of 1940 (§ 274.11b of this chapter). Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting Form N-3, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which... register under the Investment Company Act of 1940 as management investment companies, and certain...

  17. 17 CFR 274.11A - Form N-1A, registration statement of open-end management investment companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Note: For Federal Register citations affecting Form N-1A, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which... Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FORMS PRESCRIBED UNDER THE INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT...(b) of the Investment Company Act of 1940 by open-end management investment companies other...

  18. 17 CFR 239.15A - Form N-1A, registration statement of open-end management investment companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... affecting Form N-1A, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the... Investment Company Act of 1940 (on form N-1) (§ 270.11 of this chapter). This form is also to be used for the registration statement of such companies pursuant to section 8(b) of the Investment Company Act of 1940 (§...

  19. 17 CFR 239.17a - Form N-3, registration statement for separate accounts organized as management investment companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... pursuant to section 8(b) of the Investment Company Act of 1940 (§ 274.11b of this chapter). Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting Form N-3, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which... register under the Investment Company Act of 1940 as management investment companies, and certain...

  20. 17 CFR 239.15A - Form N-1A, registration statement of open-end management investment companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... affecting Form N-1A, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the... Investment Company Act of 1940 (on form N-1) (§ 270.11 of this chapter). This form is also to be used for the registration statement of such companies pursuant to section 8(b) of the Investment Company Act of 1940 (§...

  1. 17 CFR 239.15A - Form N-1A, registration statement of open-end management investment companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... affecting Form N-1A, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the... Investment Company Act of 1940 (on form N-1) (§ 270.11 of this chapter). This form is also to be used for the registration statement of such companies pursuant to section 8(b) of the Investment Company Act of 1940 (§...

  2. Smart customers, dumb companies.

    PubMed

    Locke, C

    2000-01-01

    Customers today are being bombarded with an overwhelming array of choices. To alleviate customer frustration, say Steven Cristol and Peter Sealey in Simplicity Marketing, companies should stop creating new brands and product extensions. Better to consolidate product and service functions by following a four R approach: replace, repackage, reposition, and replenish. That's an outmoded, dictatorial view of markets, says Christopher Locke. Far from being stymied by choices, customers are rapidly becoming smarter than the companies that pretend to serve them. In this networked economy, people are talking among themselves, and that changes everything. Locke predicts we'll see a growing number of well-defined micromarkets--groups of customers converging in real time around entertaining and knowledgeable voices--such as NPR's car guys and the Motley Fool investment site. "Micromedia" Web sites will replace traditional advertising because they'll provide credible user-supplied news about products and services. Locke contends that an open exchange of information solves the "problem" of choice much better than manipulative strategies like simplicity or even permission marketing. Companies can participate in micromarkets through what Locke dubs "gonzo marketing." If Ford, for example, discovers that a subset of its employees are organic gardeners, it may offer support to a big independent organic-gardening Web site with donations and employee volunteers. This marketing effort would be driven not by advertising managers but by people with genuine interest in each micromarket, so it would have credibility with customers. With gonzo marketing, both companies and their markets will benefit. PMID:11184973

  3. Recipe Book for Larger Benthic Foraminifera X-ray Investigation: a Process Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfgring, E.; Briguglio, A.; Hohenegger, J.

    2012-04-01

    During the past years X-ray microtomography (microCT) has become an essential tool in imaging procedures in micropaleontology. Apart from highest standards in accuracy, well conducted microCT scans aim to resolve the whole specimen in constant quality and free from any artifacts or visual interferences. Normally, to get used to X-ray techniques and get usable results, countless attempts are needed, resulting in enormous waste of time. This work tries to provide an insight into how best exploitable results can be obtained from the scanning process concerning Larger Benthic Foraminifera (LBF). As each specimen features different characteristics regarding substantial composition, density and conservation status, it is impossible and probably erroneous to give standardized guidelines even within this systematic group. Depending on the attributes of the specimen and on the desired visualization, several details have to be taken into account. Samples preparation: to get sharp images the X-ray has to cross the specimen along its shortest diameter, for LBF the equatorial view is almost always the best positioning (not for alveolinids!). The container itself has to be chosen wisely as well; it must not affect a flawless penetration of the specimen by the X-ray and has to provide a high degree of stability. Small plastic pipettes are perfect to store the specimen (or specimens) and some cardboard may help in keeping the position. The nature and quality of the paste used to fixate the object and its container are essential in ensuring a smooth rotation of the specimen which is inevitable for the consistent quality of the image and to avoid vibrations. Scan parameters: beside the correct choice of dedicated filters (which are always different depending on the working station), settings for kv, µA and resolution might have to be revised for each new object to deliver optimal results. Standard values for hyaline forms with empty chambers are normally around 80 Kv and 100 u

  4. 12 CFR 583.15 - Parent company.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Parent company. 583.15 Section 583.15 Banks and... SAVINGS AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 583.15 Parent company. The term parent company means any company which directly or indirectly controls any other company or companies....

  5. Multilingualism in Companies: An Introduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Tamah; Strubell, Miquel

    2013-01-01

    This thematic collection of four papers explores a number of perspectives on companies in which multiple languages are used. The "organisational" perspective concerns the question of how the presence of or demand for multiple languages in the company is managed--how companies are guided by national and other policies in regard to the use…

  6. Could direct killing by larger dingoes have caused the extinction of the thylacine from mainland Australia?

    PubMed

    Letnic, Mike; Fillios, Melanie; Crowther, Mathew S

    2012-01-01

    Invasive predators can impose strong selection pressure on species that evolved in their absence and drive species to extinction. Interactions between coexisting predators may be particularly strong, as larger predators frequently kill smaller predators and suppress their abundances. Until 3500 years ago the marsupial thylacine was Australia's largest predator. It became extinct from the mainland soon after the arrival of a morphologically convergent placental predator, the dingo, but persisted in the absence of dingoes on the island of Tasmania until the 20th century. As Tasmanian thylacines were larger than dingoes, it has been argued that dingoes were unlikely to have caused the extinction of mainland thylacines because larger predators are rarely killed by smaller predators. By comparing Holocene specimens from the same regions of mainland Australia, we show that dingoes were similarly sized to male thylacines but considerably larger than female thylacines. Female thylacines would have been vulnerable to killing by dingoes. Such killing could have depressed the reproductive output of thylacine populations. Our results support the hypothesis that direct killing by larger dingoes drove thylacines to extinction on mainland Australia. However, attributing the extinction of the thylacine to just one cause is problematic because the arrival of dingoes coincided with another the potential extinction driver, the intensification of the human economy. PMID:22567093

  7. Could Direct Killing by Larger Dingoes Have Caused the Extinction of the Thylacine from Mainland Australia?

    PubMed Central

    Letnic, Mike; Fillios, Melanie; Crowther, Mathew S.

    2012-01-01

    Invasive predators can impose strong selection pressure on species that evolved in their absence and drive species to extinction. Interactions between coexisting predators may be particularly strong, as larger predators frequently kill smaller predators and suppress their abundances. Until 3500 years ago the marsupial thylacine was Australia's largest predator. It became extinct from the mainland soon after the arrival of a morphologically convergent placental predator, the dingo, but persisted in the absence of dingoes on the island of Tasmania until the 20th century. As Tasmanian thylacines were larger than dingoes, it has been argued that dingoes were unlikely to have caused the extinction of mainland thylacines because larger predators are rarely killed by smaller predators. By comparing Holocene specimens from the same regions of mainland Australia, we show that dingoes were similarly sized to male thylacines but considerably larger than female thylacines. Female thylacines would have been vulnerable to killing by dingoes. Such killing could have depressed the reproductive output of thylacine populations. Our results support the hypothesis that direct killing by larger dingoes drove thylacines to extinction on mainland Australia. However, attributing the extinction of the thylacine to just one cause is problematic because the arrival of dingoes coincided with another the potential extinction driver, the intensification of the human economy. PMID:22567093

  8. Pressures at larger spatial scales strongly influence the ecological status of heavily modified river water bodies in Germany.

    PubMed

    Kail, Jochem; Wolter, Christian

    2013-06-01

    River biota are influenced by anthropogenic pressures that operate at different spatial scales. Understanding which pressures at which spatial scales affect biota is essential to manage and restore degraded rivers. In Europe, many river reaches were designated as Heavily Modified Water Bodies (HMWB) according to the European Water Framework Directive (WFD), where the ecological potential might mainly be determined by pressures at larger spatial scales outside the HMWB (e.g. hydromorphological alterations at the river network and land use at the catchment scale). In Germany, hydromorphological alterations and diffuse pollution were the main pressures. Therefore, the three objectives of this study were to (i) identify the hydromorphological pressures at the site, reach, and river network scale, and land use categories at the catchment scale which significantly affect the ecological status of HMWB in Germany, (ii) quantify the relative importance of these pressures at different spatial scales, and (iii) analyse the differences in response between fish and macroinvertebrates. The results indicated that: (i) At the reach scale, fish were most strongly influenced by channel-bank conditions whilst the naturalness of channel-planform was the best proxy for the ecological status of macroinvertebrates. At the catchment scale, urbanization was the most detrimental land use. (ii) The pressures at larger spatial scales (catchment land use and hydromorphological alterations in the river network) generally were more important than hydromorphological alterations at the reach scale. (iii) Fish were affected equally by both, hydromorphological alterations at the reach scale and large-scale pressures whereas the latter were far more important for the ecological status of macroinvertebrates. In conclusion, these results indicated that large-scale pressures may often limit the efficiency of reach-scale restoration, especially for macroinvertebrates, even in the absence of saprobic

  9. Ecology of extant nummulitids and other larger benthic foraminifera: applications in palaeoenvironmental analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beavington-Penney, Simon J.; Racey, Andrew

    2004-10-01

    Larger benthic foraminifera (LBF) are important contributors to modern and ancient tropical, shallow-marine sediments. Over the past 30 years, a substantial body of literature has built up on the ecology of modern LBF, especially in terms of their environmentally sensitive depth distribution, reproductive strategy and morphology, and the symbiotic relationship between many larger foraminifera and photosynthetic algae. Over the same period, the extinct genus Nummulites, which is abundant in Eocene sediments of southern Europe, North Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, has increasingly been studied, principally because significant volumes of hydrocarbons have been discovered reservoired within nummulitic limestones offshore Tunisia and Libya. The modern ecological studies of LBF provide a powerful tool with which to develop palaeoecological models for fossil Nummulites (and other symbiont-bearing larger foraminifera in the rock record).

  10. Manufacturing physics: using large(r) data sets and physical insight to develop great products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenblum, Steven

    2011-03-01

    Early stage research does a fantastic job providing knowledge and proof-of-feasibility for new product concepts. However, the handful of data points required to validate a concept is typically insufficient to provide insight on the whole range of effects relevant to manufacturing the product. Moving to manufacturing brings larger data sets and variability; opportunistic analysis of these larger sets can yield better product design rules. In the early 2000s Corning developed an optical transmission fiber optimized to suppress stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS). Analyzing the larger data set provided by the manufacturing environment using the same theoretical framework developed by the original researchers refined our understanding of how to improve SBS in optical fibers beyond what was known from our early efforts. This greater understanding allowed us to design better performing products.

  11. Micrometeoroid Impacts on the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2: Larger Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kearsley, A. T.; Grime, G. W.; Webb, R. P.; Jeynes, C.; Palitsin, V.; Colaux, J. L.; Ross, D. K.; Anz-Meador, P.; Liou, J. C.; Opiela, J.; Griffin, G. T.; Gerlach, L.; Wozniakiewicz, P. J.; Price, M. C.; Burchell, M. J.; Cole, M. J.

    2014-01-01

    The Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) was returned from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) by shuttle mission STS-125 in 2009. In space for 16 years, the surface accumulated hundreds of impact features on the zinc orthotitanate paint, some penetrating through into underlying metal. Larger impacts were seen in photographs taken from within the shuttle orbiter during service missions, with spallation of paint in areas reaching 1.6 cm across, exposing alloy beneath. Here we describe larger impact shapes, the analysis of impactor composition, and the micrometeoroid (MM) types responsible.

  12. 76 FR 38059 - Defining Larger Participants in Certain Consumer Financial Products and Services Markets

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-29

    ...), 75 FR. 48458 (Aug. 10, 2010). \\35\\ Id. The CFPB seeks public comment on the following: What consumer... registration process to use in its larger participant determinations? C. Measurement Dates and Supervision... participant rule. See Act at Sec. 1024(a)(1)(A), (D), and (E). \\23\\ IBIS World Industry Report. Auto...

  13. 77 FR 72913 - Defining Larger Participants of the Consumer Debt Collection Market; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-07

    ... Register of October 31, 2012 (77 FR 65775) amending 12 CFR part 1090 by adding a new section to define... for substantive disagreement. Accordingly, in FR Doc. 2012-26467 published on October 31, 2012 (77 FR... Part 1090 RIN 3170-AA30 Defining Larger Participants of the Consumer Debt Collection Market;...

  14. Optimal Inventory Planning under Permissible Delay in Payments When a Larger Order Quantity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Kuang-Hua; Huang, Hung-Fu; Tu, Yu-Cheng; Huang, Yung-Fu

    In the previous related studies, the inventory replenishment problems under permissible delay in payments are independent of the order quantity. In this study, the restrictive assumption of the trade credit independent of the order quantity is relaxed. This study discusses the inventory policies under permissible delay in payments when a larger order quantity.

  15. 78 FR 18902 - Defining Larger Participants of the Student Loan Servicing Market

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ...\\ The first two rules defined larger participants of markets for consumer reporting, 77 FR 42874 (July 20, 2012) (Consumer Reporting Rule), and for consumer debt collection, 77 FR 65775 (Oct. 31, 2012... participants of the student loan servicing market would become Sec. 1090.106 in subpart B. \\13\\ 77 FR...

  16. Larger Body Size at Metamorphosis Enhances Survival, Growth and Performance of Young Cane Toads (Rhinella marina)

    PubMed Central

    Cabrera-Guzmán, Elisa; Crossland, Michael R.; Brown, Gregory P.; Shine, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Body size at metamorphosis is a key trait in species (such as many anurans) with biphasic life-histories. Experimental studies have shown that metamorph size is highly plastic, depending upon larval density and environmental conditions (e.g. temperature, food supply, water quality, chemical cues from conspecifics, predators and competitors). To test the hypothesis that this developmental plasticity is adaptive, or to determine if inducing plasticity can be used to control an invasive species, we need to know whether or not a metamorphosing anuran’s body size influences its subsequent viability. For logistical reasons, there are few data on this topic under field conditions. We studied cane toads (Rhinella marina) within their invasive Australian range. Metamorph body size is highly plastic in this species, and our laboratory studies showed that larger metamorphs had better locomotor performance (both on land and in the water), and were more adept at catching and consuming prey. In mark-recapture trials in outdoor enclosures, larger body size enhanced metamorph survival and growth rate under some seasonal conditions. Larger metamorphs maintained their size advantage over smaller siblings for at least a month. Our data support the critical but rarely-tested assumption that all else being equal, larger body size at metamorphosis is likely to enhance an individual’s long term viability. Thus, manipulations to reduce body size at metamorphosis in cane toads may help to reduce the ecological impact of this invasive species. PMID:23922930

  17. Neonatal morbidity in growth-discordant monochorionic twins: comparison between the larger and the smaller twin.

    PubMed

    Lopriore, Enrico; Sluimers, Carolien; Pasman, Suzanne A; Middeldorp, Johanna M; Oepkes, Dick; Walther, Frans J

    2012-08-01

    Fetal growth restriction in singletons has been shown to enhance fetal lung maturation and reduce the risk of respiratory distress syndrome due to increased endogenous steroid production. However, data on lung maturation in growth-discordant monochorionic (thus, identical) twins are lacking. Our objective was to compare the risk of severe neonatal morbidity between the larger and the smaller twin in monochorionic twins with birth weight discordance (BWD). We included in the study all consecutive monochorionic diamniotic pregnancies with severe BWD (≥25%) and two live-born twins delivered at our center (n=47 twin pairs). We compared the incidence of neonatal morbidity, particularly respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), and cerebral lesions between the larger and the smaller co-twin. The incidence of severe neonatal morbidity in the larger and smaller twin was 38% (18/47) and 19% (9/47), respectively (odds ratio (OR) 2.66, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.94-7.44) and was due primarily to the higher incidence of RDS, 32% (15/47) and 6% (3/47), respectively (OR 6.88, 95% CI 1.66-32.83). In conclusion, this study shows that the larger twin in monochorionic twin pairs with BWD is at increased risk of severe neonatal morbidity, particularly RDS, compared to the smaller twin. PMID:22854118

  18. Ecological study of the larger black flour beetle in cotton gin trash.

    PubMed

    Nansen, Christian; James, Jacob; Bowling, David; Parajulee, Megha N; Porter, Patrick

    2008-12-01

    The larger black flour beetle Cynaeus angustus (Leconte) thrives in cotton gin trash piles on the Southern High Plains of Texas and sometimes becomes a nuisance after invading public and private structures. For better understanding of the basic larger black flour beetle ecology in gin trash piles, we conducted a series of laboratory and semirealistic field trials. We showed (1) in naturally infested gin trash piles, that similar trap captures were obtained in three cardinal directions; (2) in a laboratory study, late-instar larvae stayed longer in larval stage in moist soil compared with drier soil; (3) in both horizontal and vertical choice experiments, late instars preferred soil with low moisture content; and (4) specifically larger black flour beetle adults, but most larvae as well, responded negatively to high moisture content in gin trash. The results presented are consistent with reports of larger black flour beetle living in decaying yucca palms in deserts and suggest that maintaining gin trash piles with high moisture content may be an important component in an integrated control strategy. PMID:19161678

  19. [Migration and problems related to population concentration in larger Bulgarian cities].

    PubMed

    Kiradzhiev, S

    1989-01-01

    The author examines the growing concentration of population in the larger cities of Bulgaria. Various methods for achieving a more balanced population distribution are suggested, including placing limits on migration to cities, relocating some industry, reducing labor-intensive production through automation, and improving local transportation systems to permit development of satellite towns and villages. (SUMMARY IN ENG AND RUS) PMID:12316673

  20. 77 FR 9592 - Defining Larger Participants in Certain Consumer Financial Product and Service Markets

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-17

    ... FR 38059. \\9\\ In July 2011, the Bureau held four roundtable discussions on the larger participant... closed-end credit at 120 days delinquency. See 65 FR 36903, June 12, 2000. Debt buying is another... data aggregators, law firms, data and record suppliers, account maintenance services, call...

  1. 29 CFR 779.231 - Franchise arrangements which do not create a larger enterprise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... enterprise. 779.231 Section 779.231 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... Apply; Enterprise Coverage Leased Departments, Franchise and Other Business Arrangements § 779.231 Franchise arrangements which do not create a larger enterprise. (a) While it is clear that in...

  2. 29 CFR 779.232 - Franchise or other arrangements which create a larger enterprise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... enterprise. 779.232 Section 779.232 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... Apply; Enterprise Coverage Leased Departments, Franchise and Other Business Arrangements § 779.232 Franchise or other arrangements which create a larger enterprise. (a) In other instances,...

  3. 29 CFR 779.232 - Franchise or other arrangements which create a larger enterprise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... enterprise. 779.232 Section 779.232 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... Apply; Enterprise Coverage Leased Departments, Franchise and Other Business Arrangements § 779.232 Franchise or other arrangements which create a larger enterprise. (a) In other instances,...

  4. 29 CFR 779.231 - Franchise arrangements which do not create a larger enterprise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... enterprise. 779.231 Section 779.231 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... Apply; Enterprise Coverage Leased Departments, Franchise and Other Business Arrangements § 779.231 Franchise arrangements which do not create a larger enterprise. (a) While it is clear that in...

  5. 29 CFR 779.231 - Franchise arrangements which do not create a larger enterprise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... enterprise. 779.231 Section 779.231 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... Apply; Enterprise Coverage Leased Departments, Franchise and Other Business Arrangements § 779.231 Franchise arrangements which do not create a larger enterprise. (a) While it is clear that in...

  6. 29 CFR 779.231 - Franchise arrangements which do not create a larger enterprise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... enterprise. 779.231 Section 779.231 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... Apply; Enterprise Coverage Leased Departments, Franchise and Other Business Arrangements § 779.231 Franchise arrangements which do not create a larger enterprise. (a) While it is clear that in...

  7. 29 CFR 779.232 - Franchise or other arrangements which create a larger enterprise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... enterprise. 779.232 Section 779.232 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... Apply; Enterprise Coverage Leased Departments, Franchise and Other Business Arrangements § 779.232 Franchise or other arrangements which create a larger enterprise. (a) In other instances,...

  8. 29 CFR 779.232 - Franchise or other arrangements which create a larger enterprise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... enterprise. 779.232 Section 779.232 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... Apply; Enterprise Coverage Leased Departments, Franchise and Other Business Arrangements § 779.232 Franchise or other arrangements which create a larger enterprise. (a) In other instances,...

  9. 29 CFR 779.232 - Franchise or other arrangements which create a larger enterprise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... enterprise. 779.232 Section 779.232 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... Apply; Enterprise Coverage Leased Departments, Franchise and Other Business Arrangements § 779.232 Franchise or other arrangements which create a larger enterprise. (a) In other instances,...

  10. 29 CFR 779.231 - Franchise arrangements which do not create a larger enterprise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... enterprise. 779.231 Section 779.231 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... Apply; Enterprise Coverage Leased Departments, Franchise and Other Business Arrangements § 779.231 Franchise arrangements which do not create a larger enterprise. (a) While it is clear that in...

  11. 11. Interior of larger DL&W passenger building showing main concourse ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Interior of larger DL&W passenger building showing main concourse on upper level, with stairway from street level at right of photo and passage to trains at left. Skyway can be seen through large window facing Buffalo River. Matching window is directly opposite. - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad, Lackawanna Terminal, Main Street & Buffalo River, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  12. Off to new shores: Modeling the potential distribution and future range expansion of larger foraminifera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinmann, A. E.; Rödder, D.; Lötters, S.; Langer, M. R.

    2012-04-01

    The distribution of larger foraminifera is strongly controlled by environmental variables, especially temperature. Most of today's taxa of larger foraminifera are restricted to tropical and subtropical regions (between 30° N and 30° S) and their minimum temperature limits are governed by the 14 to 20° C isotherms. However, during times of extensive global warming (e.g. the Eocene and Miocene), larger foraminifera have been found as far North as 50° N (North America and Central Europe) as well as towards 40° S in New Zealand. It has been stated that larger foraminifera are more tolerant of rising sea surface temperatures than reef-building corals. As such they may play a more prominent role as future reef framework and carbonate producers in a steadily warming ocean. During the last century, sea surface temperatures have been rising significantly due to higher CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere. This trend is expected to continue and climate change scenarios for 2100 suggest a further increase by 1 to 6° C (IPCC Synthesis Report, 2007). We applied Species Distribution Models (SDMs) on several taxa of larger foraminifera in order to evaluate their potential distribution under current climate conditions and to predict range expansions within the next 40 years. The studied taxa include Archaias angulatus, which is regionally distributed within the Caribbean region, Calcarina spp., which occurs in the Indo-Pacific area and the true circumglobal taxon Amphistegina spp. Under present climate, Amphistegina spp. shows the widest distribution range due to its greater temperature tolerance. Both Archaias angulatus and Calcarina spp. display potential distributions that cover currently uninhabitet regions, suggesting that weak dispersal abilities are major reasons for their limited distributions. Under future climate, Archaias angulatus and Calcarina spp. show an increase in habitat suitability within their native occurrence ranges, suggesting that their tolerance for

  13. Heading for New Shores: Projecting Marine Distribution Ranges of Selected Larger Foraminifera

    PubMed Central

    Weinmann, Anna E.; Rödder, Dennis; Lötters, Stefan; Langer, Martin R.

    2013-01-01

    The distribution of modern symbiont-bearing larger foraminifera is confined to tropical and subtropical shallow water marine habitats and a narrow range of environmental variables (e.g. temperature). Most of today's taxa are restricted to tropical and subtropical regions (between 30°N and 30°S) and their minimum temperature limits are governed by the 14 to 20°C isotherms. However, during times of extensive global warming (e.g., the Eocene and Miocene), larger foraminifera have been found as far north as 50°N (North America and Central Europe) as well as towards 47°S in New Zealand. During the last century, sea surface temperatures have been rising significantly. This trend is expected to continue and climate change scenarios for 2050 suggest a further increase by 1 to 3°C. We applied Species Distribution Models to assess potential distribution range changes of three taxa of larger foraminifera under current and future climate. The studied foraminifera include Archaias angulatus, Calcarina spp., and Amphistegina spp., and represent taxa with regional, superregional and global distribution patterns. Under present environmental conditions, Amphistegina spp. shows the largest potential distribution, apparently due to its temperature tolerance. Both Archaias angulatus and Calcarina spp. display potential distributions that cover currently uninhabited regions. Under climate conditions expected for the year 2050, all taxa should display latitudinal range expansions between 1 to 2.5 degrees both north- and southward. The modeled range projections suggest that some larger foraminifera may colonize biogeographic regions that so far seemed unsuitable. Archaias angulatus and Calcarina spp. also show an increase in habitat suitability within their native occurrence ranges, suggesting that their tolerance for maximum temperatures has yet not been fully exploited and that they benefit from ocean warming. Our findings suggest an increased role of larger foraminifera as

  14. Females Have Larger Ratio of Second-to-Fourth Digits Than Males in Four Species of Salamandridae, Caudata.

    PubMed

    Kaczmarski, Mikołaj; Kubicka, Anna Maria; Tryjanowski, Piotr; Hromada, Martin

    2015-08-01

    Digit ratio (2D:4D) denotes the relative length of the second and fourth digits. It is considered to be a suitable biomarker of the in utero balance of fetal sex hormones, which affect early development of individuaĺs behavioral and morphological characteristics. In recent decades, digit ratio attracted a great attention in biology and psychology. However, for unmasking the biological basis of the phenomenon, extensive studies on non-human animals are necessary. Despite it was hypothesized that digit ratio is well conserved in all Tetrapoda, and there exist studies on mammals, birds, and reptiles, there are only two such study on anuran amphibians. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the 2D:4D in the most basal salamanders, Caudata. We have studied digit ratio in four species of newts: Triturus cristatus, Mesotriton alpestris, Lissotriton montandoni, and Lissotriton vulgaris, using museum collection. We used computerized measuring of each limbś photos. We have found out that, in M. alpestris, females 2D:4D of all four limbs were significantly larger than in males. In L. montandoni and L. vulgaris, only 2D:4D of rear limbs significantly differed, in females being larger. In T. cristatus, digit ratios of males and females did not statistically differ. Thus, the results confirmed our hypothesis that at least in M. alpestris, L. montandoni, and L. vulgaris, females seem to have larger 2D:4D comparing to males, the pattern known from most mammals and opposite to birds, reptiles and anuran amphibians. PMID:25704339

  15. 17 CFR 230.497 - Filing of investment company prospectuses-number of copies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... citations affecting § 230.497, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Filing of investment company... Governments Or Political Subdivisions Thereof § 230.497 Filing of investment company prospectuses—number...

  16. 17 CFR 230.497 - Filing of investment company prospectuses-number of copies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... citations affecting § 230.497, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Filing of investment company... Governments Or Political Subdivisions Thereof § 230.497 Filing of investment company prospectuses—number...

  17. 17 CFR 230.497 - Filing of investment company prospectuses-number of copies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... citations affecting § 230.497, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Filing of investment company... Governments Or Political Subdivisions Thereof § 230.497 Filing of investment company prospectuses—number...

  18. 17 CFR 230.497 - Filing of investment company prospectuses-number of copies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... citations affecting § 230.497, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Filing of investment company... Governments Or Political Subdivisions Thereof § 230.497 Filing of investment company prospectuses—number...

  19. Your company's secret change agents.

    PubMed

    Pascale, Richard Tanner; Sternin, Jerry

    2005-05-01

    Organizational change has traditionally come about through top-down initiatives such as hiring experts or importing best-of-breed practices. Such methods usually result in companywide rollouts of templates mandated from on high. These do little to get people excited. But within every organization, there are a few individuals who find unique ways to look at problems that seem impossible to solve. Although these change agents start out with the same tools and access to resources as their peers, they are able to see solutions where others do not. They find a way to bridge the divide between what is happening and what is possible. These positive deviants are the key, the authors believe, to a better way of creating organizational change. Your company can make the most of their methods by following six steps. In Step 1, Make the group the guru, the members of the community are engaged in the process of their own evolution. Step 2, Reframe through facts, entails restating the problem in a way that opens minds to new possibilities. Step 3, Make it safe to learn, involves creating an environment that supports innovative ideas. In Step 4, Make the problem concrete, the community combats abstraction by stating uncomfortable truths. In Step 5, Leverage social proof, the community looks to the larger society for examples of solutions that have worked in parallel situations. In Step 6, Confound the immune defense response, solutions are introduced organically from within the group in a way that promotes acceptance. Throughout the steps, the leader must suspend his or her traditional role in favor of more facilitatory practices. The positive-deviance approach has unearthed solutions to such complicated and diverse problems as malnutrition in Mali and human trafficking in East Java. This methodology can help solve even the most extreme dilemmas. PMID:15929405

  20. Podocyte-Specific GLUT4-Deficient Mice Have Fewer and Larger Podocytes and Are Protected From Diabetic Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Guzman, Johanna; Jauregui, Alexandra N.; Merscher-Gomez, Sandra; Maiguel, Dony; Muresan, Cristina; Mitrofanova, Alla; Diez-Sampedro, Ana; Szust, Joel; Yoo, Tae-Hyun; Villarreal, Rodrigo; Pedigo, Christopher; Molano, R. Damaris; Johnson, Kevin; Kahn, Barbara; Hartleben, Bjoern; Huber, Tobias B.; Saha, Jharna; Burke, George W.; Abel, E. Dale; Brosius, Frank C.; Fornoni, Alessia

    2014-01-01

    Podocytes are a major component of the glomerular filtration barrier, and their ability to sense insulin is essential to prevent proteinuria. Here we identify the insulin downstream effector GLUT4 as a key modulator of podocyte function in diabetic nephropathy (DN). Mice with a podocyte-specific deletion of GLUT4 (G4 KO) did not develop albuminuria despite having larger and fewer podocytes than wild-type (WT) mice. Glomeruli from G4 KO mice were protected from diabetes-induced hypertrophy, mesangial expansion, and albuminuria and failed to activate the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. In order to investigate whether the protection observed in G4 KO mice was due to the failure to activate mTOR, we used three independent in vivo experiments. G4 KO mice did not develop lipopolysaccharide-induced albuminuria, which requires mTOR activation. On the contrary, G4 KO mice as well as WT mice treated with the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin developed worse adriamycin-induced nephropathy than WT mice, consistent with the fact that adriamycin toxicity is augmented by mTOR inhibition. In summary, GLUT4 deficiency in podocytes affects podocyte nutrient sensing, results in fewer and larger cells, and protects mice from the development of DN. This is the first evidence that podocyte hypertrophy concomitant with podocytopenia may be associated with protection from proteinuria. PMID:24101677

  1. On the topological properties of the cross-shareholding networks of listed companies in China: Taking shareholders’ cross-shareholding relationships into account

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Huajiao; An, Haizhong; Gao, Xiangyun; Huang, Jiachen; Xu, Qun

    2014-07-01

    Shareholders are the owners of listed companies, and their relationships can directly affect the structure of the stock market. In this paper, we analyze the topological properties and evolution of the cross-shareholding networks of listed companies in the past 5 years in China from 2007 to 2011, an infrequently considered topic, by taking shareholders’ cross-shareholding relationships into account. This analysis arrives at a deeper insight into the inner characteristics of China’s stock market. We find that the cross-shareholding networks of listed companies with shareholders’ cross-shareholding relationships display statistical features that reveal the stock market’s complex relationships more precisely. In particular, the results show that when the shareholders’ cross-shareholding relationships are considered, first, the In-degree and Out-degree of the cross-shareholding networks follow power-law distribution and the R2 of the linear regression analysis of the cumulative degree distribution is relatively higher; second, the modularity of the communities is larger; finally, both the number of members of top-ranked communities and the number of communities that have a large number of members are larger than those of which only considering the relationships between shareholders and listed companies are taken into account. Such cross-shareholding networks analysis taking shareholders’ cross-shareholding relations into account would be a helpful tool for supervisory departments and for stock market researchers to grasp the inner cross-shareholding relationships of listed companies in China, and it will be also helpful for the further researches about the “agent problems” in the stock markets from a whole point of view.

  2. Balance control impairment in obese individuals is caused by larger balance motor commands variability.

    PubMed

    Simoneau, Martin; Teasdale, Normand

    2015-01-01

    It is acknowledged that various factors impaired balance control. Among them, heavy body weight is associated with poor balance control because the location of the center of mass is further away from the ankle joint. Thus, a larger active ankle torque is required to counter the greater gravitational torque. Because balance motor commands have signal-dependent noise whose standard deviation increases with the absolute value of the neural control signal, it was hypothesized that faster center of pressure speed observed in obese individuals would be related to larger balance motor commands variability. A feedback-control model and parametric system identification technique was used to estimate the variability in the balance motor commands and neural controller parameters based on previously published experimental data. Results of the neuromechanical model confirmed that the balance motor commands of obese individuals are more variable than that of lean individuals. PMID:25455209

  3. Evolutionary constraints over microsatellite abundance in larger mammals as a potential mechanism against carcinogenic burden

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jung Youn; An, Yong-Rock; An, Chul-Min; Kang, Jung-Ha; Kim, Eun Mi; Kim, Heebal; Cho, Seoae; Kim, Jaemin

    2016-01-01

    Larger organisms tend to live longer, have more potentially carcinogenic cells, and undergo more cell divisions. While one might intuitively expect cancer incidence to scale with body size, this assertion does not hold over the range of different mammals. Explaining this lack of correlation, so-called ‘Peto’s paradox’ can likely increase our understanding of how cancer defense mechanisms are shaped by natural selection. Here, we study the occurrence of microsatellite in mammal genomes and observe that animals with expanded body size restrain the number of microsatellite. To take into account of higher mutation rate in the microsatellite region compared to that of genome, limiting the abundance of somatic mutations might explain how larger organisms could overcome the burden of cancer. These observations may serve as the basis to better understand how evolution has modeled protective mechanisms against cancer development. PMID:27125812

  4. [Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy in the treatment of distal ureteral stones larger than 10 mm in diameter].

    PubMed

    Ishii, Nobuyuki; Yoshinaga, Atsushi; Ohno, Rena; Chiba, Koji; Hayashi, Tetsuo; Kamata, Shigeyoshi; Watanabe, Toru; Yamada, Takumi

    2004-06-01

    Optimal treatment for distal ureteral stones remains controversial. During a period of 10 years, from December 1992 to December 2002, 103 distal ureteral stones larger than 10 mm in diameter were treated at our institution with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) using the Siemens Lithostar. Only 2 patients had a ureteral stent in place at the time of treatment. The overall stone-free rate was 98% with 1-12 session and 3-month stone-free rate was 95.1%. These data reveal that a high success rate was achieved in multisession ESWL. Therefore, ESWL is considered to be acceptable as first-line therapy for fragmentation of distal ureteral stones larger than 10 mm in diameter. PMID:15293734

  5. Higher trends but larger uncertainty and geographic variability in 21st century temperature and heat waves

    SciTech Connect

    Ganguly, Auroop R; Steinhaeuser, Karsten J K; Erickson III, David J; Branstetter, Marcia L; Parish, Esther S; Singh, Nagendra; Drake, John B; Buja, Lawrence

    2009-01-01

    Generating credible climate change and extremes projections remains a high-priority challenge, especially since recent observed emissions are above the worst-case scenario. Bias and uncertainty analyses of ensemble simulations from a global earth systems model show increased warming and more intense heat waves combined with greater uncertainty and large regional variability in the 21st century. Global warming trends are statistically validated across ensembles and investigated at regional scales. Observed heat wave intensities in the current decade are larger than worst-case projections. Model projections are relatively insensitive to initial conditions, while uncertainty bounds obtained by comparison with recent observations are wider than ensemble ranges. Increased trends in temperature and heat waves, concurrent with larger uncertainty and variability, suggest greater urgency and complexity of adaptation or mitigation decisions.

  6. Do larger femoral heads improve the functional outcome in total hip arthroplasty?

    PubMed

    Allen, Charlotte L; Hooper, Gary J; Frampton, Christopher M A

    2014-02-01

    Use of larger diameter femoral heads has been popularised in total hip arthroplasty (THA). Recent studies have implicated larger femoral heads in early failure. We evaluated what effect the size of the femoral head had on the early functional outcome in order to determine the optimal head size for the maximal functional outcome. There were 726 patients who underwent elective THA and were divided into 3 groups according to head size then compared with respect to functional outcome scores and dislocation rates. This study failed to show that increasing the size of the femoral head significantly improved the functional outcome at 1 year after total hip arthroplasty but that the use of a 36 mm or greater femoral head did reduce the dislocation rate. PMID:23891058

  7. Evolutionary constraints over microsatellite abundance in larger mammals as a potential mechanism against carcinogenic burden.

    PubMed

    Park, Jung Youn; An, Yong-Rock; An, Chul-Min; Kang, Jung-Ha; Kim, Eun Mi; Kim, Heebal; Cho, Seoae; Kim, Jaemin

    2016-01-01

    Larger organisms tend to live longer, have more potentially carcinogenic cells, and undergo more cell divisions. While one might intuitively expect cancer incidence to scale with body size, this assertion does not hold over the range of different mammals. Explaining this lack of correlation, so-called 'Peto's paradox' can likely increase our understanding of how cancer defense mechanisms are shaped by natural selection. Here, we study the occurrence of microsatellite in mammal genomes and observe that animals with expanded body size restrain the number of microsatellite. To take into account of higher mutation rate in the microsatellite region compared to that of genome, limiting the abundance of somatic mutations might explain how larger organisms could overcome the burden of cancer. These observations may serve as the basis to better understand how evolution has modeled protective mechanisms against cancer development. PMID:27125812

  8. Larger aftershocks happen farther away: Nonseparability of magnitude and spatial distributions of aftershocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elst, Nicholas J.; Shaw, Bruce E.

    2015-07-01

    Aftershocks may be driven by stress concentrations left by the main shock rupture or by elastic stress transfer to adjacent fault sections or strands. Aftershocks that occur within the initial rupture may be limited in size, because the scale of the stress concentrations should be smaller than the primary rupture itself. On the other hand, aftershocks that occur on adjacent fault segments outside the primary rupture may have no such size limitation. Here we use high-precision double-difference relocated earthquake catalogs to demonstrate that larger aftershocks occur farther away than smaller aftershocks, when measured from the centroid of early aftershock activity—a proxy for the initial rupture. Aftershocks as large as or larger than the initiating event nucleate almost exclusively in the outer regions of the aftershock zone. This observation is interpreted as a signature of elastic rebound in the earthquake catalog and can be used to improve forecasting of large aftershocks.

  9. 76 FR 1666 - Susquehanna Union Railroad Company-Control Exemption-North Shore Railroad Company, Nittany & Bald...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-11

    ... Company, Nittany & Bald Eagle Railroad Company, Shamokin Valley Railroad Company, Juniata Valley Railroad... Class III railroads: North Shore Railroad Company, Nittany & Bald Eagle Railroad Company,...

  10. A forward looking company

    SciTech Connect

    Christian, David A.

    2004-06-01

    The article is an excerpt of an interview with David A. Christian, Senior Vice President-Nuclear and Chief Nuclear Officer, Dominion Generation conducted at NEI's Nuclear Energy Assembly in New Orleans, Louisiana on 13 May 2004. It highlights the company's energy diversity, and in particular, activities related to early-site permits and possible future plans for nuclear power plant development in the U.S. The interview touches on questions related to the Consortium (composed of Dominion, AECL Technologies, the U.S. subsidiary of AECL, Hatachi America and Bechtel Power Corp.) and the DOE financial support involved (approximately 50%) along with comments related to job impacts, energy security and climate change impacts, human resource issues (particularly about getting high school students interested in jobs related to the nuclear industry) and public policy. The interview ends with a discussion of investment interest and the state of standardization in the industry.

  11. Health care automation companies.

    PubMed

    1995-12-01

    Health care automation companies: card transaction processing/EFT/EDI-capable banks; claims auditing/analysis; claims processors/clearinghouses; coding products/services; computer hardware; computer networking/LAN/WAN; consultants; data processing/outsourcing; digital dictation/transcription; document imaging/optical disk storage; executive information systems; health information networks; hospital/health care information systems; interface engines; laboratory information systems; managed care information systems; patient identification/credit cards; pharmacy information systems; POS terminals; radiology information systems; software--claims related/computer-based patient records/home health care/materials management/supply ordering/physician practice management/translation/utilization review/outcomes; telecommunications products/services; telemedicine/teleradiology; value-added networks. PMID:10153839

  12. Larger groups of passerines are more efficient problem solvers in the wild.

    PubMed

    Morand-Ferron, Julie; Quinn, John L

    2011-09-20

    Group living commonly helps organisms face challenging environmental conditions. Although a known phenomenon in humans, recent findings suggest that a benefit of group living in animals generally might be increased innovative problem-solving efficiency. This benefit has never been demonstrated in a natural context, however, and the mechanisms underlying improved efficiency are largely unknown. We examined the problem-solving performance of great and blue tits at automated devices and found that efficiency increased with flock size. This relationship held when restricting the analysis to naive individuals, demonstrating that larger groups increased innovation efficiency. In addition to this effect of naive flock size, the presence of at least one experienced bird increased the frequency of solving, and larger flocks were more likely to contain experienced birds. These findings provide empirical evidence for the "pool of competence" hypothesis in nonhuman animals. The probability of success also differed consistently between individuals, a necessary condition for the pool of competence hypothesis. Solvers had a higher probability of success when foraging with a larger number of companions and when using devices located near rather than further from protective tree cover, suggesting a role for reduced predation risk on problem-solving efficiency. In contrast to traditional group living theory, individuals joining larger flocks benefited from a higher seed intake, suggesting that group living facilitated exploitation of a novel food source through improved problem-solving efficiency. Together our results suggest that both ecological and social factors, through reduced predation risk and increased pool of competence, mediate innovation in natural populations. PMID:21930936

  13. Larger sized wire arrays on 1.5 MA Z-pinch generator

    SciTech Connect

    Safronova, A. S. Kantsyrev, V. L. Weller, M. E. Shlyaptseva, V. V. Shrestha, I. K. Esaulov, A. A. Stafford, A.; Chuvatin, A. S.; Coverdale, C. A.; Jones, B.

    2014-12-15

    Experiments on the UNR Zebra generator with Load Current Multiplier (LCM) allow for implosions of larger sized wire array loads than at standard current of 1 MA. Advantages of larger sized planar wire array implosions include enhanced energy coupling to plasmas, better diagnostic access to observable plasma regions, and more complex geometries of the wire loads. The experiments with larger sized wire arrays were performed on 1.5 MA Zebra with LCM (the anode-cathode gap was 1 cm, which is half the gap used in the standard mode). In particular, larger sized multi-planar wire arrays had two outer wire planes from mid-atomic-number wires to create a global magnetic field (gmf) and plasma flow between them. A modified central plane with a few Al wires at the edges was put in the middle between outer planes to influence gmf and to create Al plasma flow in the perpendicular direction (to the outer arrays plasma flow). Such modified plane has different number of empty slots: it was increased from 6 up to 10, hence increasing the gap inside the middle plane from 4.9 to 7.7 mm, respectively. Such load configuration allows for more independent study of the flows of L-shell mid-atomic-number plasma (between the outer planes) and K-shell Al plasma (which first fills the gap between the edge wires along the middle plane) and their radiation in space and time. We demonstrate that such configuration produces higher linear radiation yield and electron temperatures as well as advantages of better diagnostics access to observable plasma regions and how the load geometry (size of the gap in the middle plane) influences K-shell Al radiation. In particular, K-shell Al radiation was delayed compared to L-shell mid-atomic-number radiation when the gap in the middle plane was large enough (when the number of empty slots was increased up to ten)

  14. Larger sized wire arrays on 1.5 MA Z-pinch generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safronova, A. S.; Kantsyrev, V. L.; Weller, M. E.; Shlyaptseva, V. V.; Shrestha, I. K.; Esaulov, A. A.; Stafford, A.; Chuvatin, A. S.; Coverdale, C. A.; Jones, B.

    2014-12-01

    Experiments on the UNR Zebra generator with Load Current Multiplier (LCM) allow for implosions of larger sized wire array loads than at standard current of 1 MA. Advantages of larger sized planar wire array implosions include enhanced energy coupling to plasmas, better diagnostic access to observable plasma regions, and more complex geometries of the wire loads. The experiments with larger sized wire arrays were performed on 1.5 MA Zebra with LCM (the anode-cathode gap was 1 cm, which is half the gap used in the standard mode). In particular, larger sized multi-planar wire arrays had two outer wire planes from mid-atomic-number wires to create a global magnetic field (gmf) and plasma flow between them. A modified central plane with a few Al wires at the edges was put in the middle between outer planes to influence gmf and to create Al plasma flow in the perpendicular direction (to the outer arrays plasma flow). Such modified plane has different number of empty slots: it was increased from 6 up to 10, hence increasing the gap inside the middle plane from 4.9 to 7.7 mm, respectively. Such load configuration allows for more independent study of the flows of L-shell mid-atomic-number plasma (between the outer planes) and K-shell Al plasma (which first fills the gap between the edge wires along the middle plane) and their radiation in space and time. We demonstrate that such configuration produces higher linear radiation yield and electron temperatures as well as advantages of better diagnostics access to observable plasma regions and how the load geometry (size of the gap in the middle plane) influences K-shell Al radiation. In particular, K-shell Al radiation was delayed compared to L-shell mid-atomic-number radiation when the gap in the middle plane was large enough (when the number of empty slots was increased up to ten).

  15. [Collaboration between academia and companies].

    PubMed

    Ueda, Minoru

    2008-05-01

    Recently the collaboration between academia and company has been recommended by the government and more than 1,000 venture companies have established since 2001. Indeed this situation caused the researchers active, on the other side many undesirable troubles has been increasing among researches in the university. In this paper the cause of these troubles related to the collaboration between academia and company has been analyzed and proposed the possible solutions for the problems. PMID:18464523

  16. Speaker Input Variability Does Not Explain Why Larger Populations Have Simpler Languages.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Mark; Kirby, Simon; Smith, Kenny

    2015-01-01

    A learner's linguistic input is more variable if it comes from a greater number of speakers. Higher speaker input variability has been shown to facilitate the acquisition of phonemic boundaries, since data drawn from multiple speakers provides more information about the distribution of phonemes in a speech community. It has also been proposed that speaker input variability may have a systematic influence on individual-level learning of morphology, which can in turn influence the group-level characteristics of a language. Languages spoken by larger groups of people have less complex morphology than those spoken in smaller communities. While a mechanism by which the number of speakers could have such an effect is yet to be convincingly identified, differences in speaker input variability, which is thought to be larger in larger groups, may provide an explanation. By hindering the acquisition, and hence faithful cross-generational transfer, of complex morphology, higher speaker input variability may result in structural simplification. We assess this claim in two experiments which investigate the effect of such variability on language learning, considering its influence on a learner's ability to segment a continuous speech stream and acquire a morphologically complex miniature language. We ultimately find no evidence to support the proposal that speaker input variability influences language learning and so cannot support the hypothesis that it explains how population size determines the structural properties of language. PMID:26057624

  17. Why have microsaccades become larger? Investigating eye deformations and detection algorithms.

    PubMed

    Nyström, Marcus; Hansen, Dan Witzner; Andersson, Richard; Hooge, Ignace

    2016-01-01

    The reported size of microsaccades is considerably larger today compared to the initial era of microsaccade studies during the 1950s and 1960s. We investigate whether this increase in size is related to the fact that the eye-trackers of today measure different ocular structures than the older techniques, and that the movements of these structures may differ during a microsaccade. In addition, we explore the impact such differences have on subsequent analyzes of the eye-tracker signals. In Experiment I, the movement of the pupil as well as the first and fourth Purkinje reflections were extracted from series of eye images recorded during a fixation task. Results show that the different ocular structures produce different microsaccade signatures. In Experiment II, we found that microsaccade amplitudes computed with a common detection algorithm were larger compared to those reported by two human experts. The main reason was that the overshoots were not systematically detected by the algorithm and therefore not accurately accounted for. We conclude that one reason to why the reported size of microsaccades has increased is due to the larger overshoots produced by the modern pupil-based eye-trackers compared to the systems used in the classical studies, in combination with the lack of a systematic algorithmic treatment of the overshoot. We hope that awareness of these discrepancies in microsaccade dynamics across eye structures will lead to more generally accepted definitions of microsaccades. PMID:25481631

  18. The relationship between wolverine and larger predators, lynx and wolf, in a historical ecosystem context.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Hussein; Pasanen-Mortensen, Marianne; Elmhagen, Bodil

    2014-06-01

    Apex predators play an important role in shaping ecosystem structure. They may suppress smaller predators (mesopredators) but also subsidize scavengers via carrion provisioning. However, the importance of these interactions can change with ecosystem context. The wolverine (Gulo gulo) is a cold-adapted carnivore and facultative scavenger. It has a circumboreal distribution, where it could be either suppressed or subsidized by larger predators. In Scandinavia, the wolverine might interact with two larger predators, wolf (Canis lupus) and lynx (Lynx lynx), but human persecution decimated the populations in the nineteenth and early twentieth century. We investigated potential relationships between wolverine and the larger predators using hunting bag statistics from 15 Norwegian and Swedish counties in 1846-1922. Our best models showed a positive association between wolverine and lynx trends, taking ecological and human factors into account. There was also a positive association between year-to-year fluctuations in wolverine and wolf in the latter part of the study period. We suggest these associations could result from positive lynx-wolverine interactions through carrion provisioning, while wolves might both suppress wolverine and provide carrion with the net effect becoming positive when wolf density drops below a threshold. Wolverines could thus benefit from lynx presence and low-to-intermediate wolf densities. PMID:24652527

  19. Speaker Input Variability Does Not Explain Why Larger Populations Have Simpler Languages

    PubMed Central

    Atkinson, Mark; Kirby, Simon; Smith, Kenny

    2015-01-01

    A learner’s linguistic input is more variable if it comes from a greater number of speakers. Higher speaker input variability has been shown to facilitate the acquisition of phonemic boundaries, since data drawn from multiple speakers provides more information about the distribution of phonemes in a speech community. It has also been proposed that speaker input variability may have a systematic influence on individual-level learning of morphology, which can in turn influence the group-level characteristics of a language. Languages spoken by larger groups of people have less complex morphology than those spoken in smaller communities. While a mechanism by which the number of speakers could have such an effect is yet to be convincingly identified, differences in speaker input variability, which is thought to be larger in larger groups, may provide an explanation. By hindering the acquisition, and hence faithful cross-generational transfer, of complex morphology, higher speaker input variability may result in structural simplification. We assess this claim in two experiments which investigate the effect of such variability on language learning, considering its influence on a learner’s ability to segment a continuous speech stream and acquire a morphologically complex miniature language. We ultimately find no evidence to support the proposal that speaker input variability influences language learning and so cannot support the hypothesis that it explains how population size determines the structural properties of language. PMID:26057624

  20. 17 CFR 259.113 - Form U-13-1, for applications for approval of mutual service companies pursuant to Rule 88 (§ 250...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and on GPO... PRESCRIBED UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 Forms for Applications and Declarations § 259... approval of a company as a mutual service company, by the company or person proposing to organize it...

  1. 17 CFR 259.113 - Form U-13-1, for applications for approval of mutual service companies pursuant to Rule 88 (§ 250...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and at at... PRESCRIBED UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 Forms for Applications and Declarations § 259... approval of a company as a mutual service company, by the company or person proposing to organize it...

  2. 17 CFR 256.01-2 - Application to service companies doing business with nonassociate companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... companies doing business with nonassociate companies. 256.01-2 Section 256.01-2 Commodity and Securities... COMPANIES AND SUBSIDIARY SERVICE COMPANIES, PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 General Instructions § 256.01-2 Application to service companies doing business with nonassociate companies. While...

  3. Environmental effects of planting biomass crops at larger scales on agricultural lands

    SciTech Connect

    Tolbert, V.R.; Downing, M.E.

    1995-09-01

    Increasing from research-scale to larger-scale plantings of herbaceous. and short rotation woody crops on agricultural land in the United States has raised questions about the positive and negative environmental effects of farmland conversion. Research currently underway at experimental plot scales enables us examine runoff quality and quantity, erosion, and changes in soil characteristics associated with these energy crops compared to conventional row crops. A study of the fate of chemicals applied to the different crop types will enhance our knowledge of uptake, release, and off-site movement of nutrients and pesticides. Ongoing biodiversity studies in the North Central US allow us to compare differences in scale of plantings on bird and small mammal populations and habitat use. Plantings of 50--100 or more contiguous acres are needed to allow both researchers and producers to determine the benefits of including temporal energy crop rotations in the landscape. Results from these larger-scale plantings will help identify (1) the monitoring requirements needed to determine environmental effects of larger-scale plantings, (2) the best methods to determine the environmental effects of rotation length and the best crop management strategies for full-scale production. Because of the variations in soils, temperature, rainfall and other climatic conditions, as well as differences in the types of energy crops most suited for different regions, monitoring of large-scale plantings in these different regions of the US will be required to predict the environmental effects of regional agricultural land-use shifts for full-scale plantings.

  4. Environmental effects of planting energy crops at larger scales on agricultural lands

    SciTech Connect

    Tolbert, V.R.; Downing, M.

    1995-09-01

    Increasing from research-scale to larger-scale plantings of herbaceous and short rotation woody crops on agricultural land in the United States has raised questions about the positive and negative environmental effects of farmland conversion. Research currently underway at experimental plot scales enables us examine runoff quality and quantity, erosion, and changes in soil characteristics associated with these energy crops compared to conventional row crops. A study of the fate of chemicals applied to the different crop types will enhance our knowledge of uptake, release, and off-site movement of nutrients and pesticides. Ongoing biodiversity studies in the North Central US allow us to compare differences in scale of plantings on bird and small mammal populations and habitat use. Plantings of 50--100 or more contiguous acres are needed to allow both researchers and producers to determine the benefits of including temporal energy crop rotations in the landscape. Results from these larger-scale plantings will help identify (1) the monitoring requirements needed to determine environmental effects of larger-scale plantings, (2) the best methods to determine the environmental effects of rotation length and the best crop management strategies for full-scale production. Because of the variations in soils, temperature, rainfall and other climatic conditions, as well as differences in the types of energy crops most suited for different regions, monitoring of large-scale plantings in these different regions of the US will be required to predict the environmental effects of regional agricultural land-use shifts for full-scale plantings.

  5. An improved permanent magnet quadrupole design with larger good field region for high intensity proton linacs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathew, Jose V.; Rao, S. V. L. S.; Krishnagopal, S.; Singh, P.

    2013-11-01

    The Low Energy High Intensity Proton Accelerator (LEHIPA), being developed at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) will produce a 20 MeV, 30 mA, continuous wave (CW) proton beam. At these low velocities, space-charge forces dominate, and could lead to larger beam sizes and beam halos. Hence in the design of the focusing lattice of the LEHIPA drift tube linac (DTL) using permanent magnet quadrupoles (PMQs), a larger good field region is preferred. Here we study, using the two dimensional (2D) and three dimensional (3D) simulation codes PANDIRA and RADIA, four different types of cylindrical PMQ designs: 16-segment trapezoidal Halbach configuration, bullet-nosed geometry and 8- and 16-segment rectangular geometries. The trapezoidal Halbach geometry is used in a variety of accelerators since it provides very high field gradients in small bores, while the bullet-nosed geometry, which is a combination of the trapezoidal and rectangular designs, is used in some DTLs. This study shows that a larger good field region is possible in the 16-segment rectangular design as compared to the Halbach and bullet-nosed designs, making it more attractive for high-intensity proton linacs. An improvement in good-field region by ˜16% over the Halbach design is obtained in the optimized 16-segment rectangular design, although the field gradient is lower by ˜20%. Tolerance studies show that the rectangular segment PMQ design is substantially less sensitive to the easy axis orientation errors and hence will be a better choice for DTLs.

  6. Light scattering by irregular particles much larger than the wavelength with wavelength-scale surface roughness.

    PubMed

    Grynko, Yevgen; Shkuratov, Yuriy; Förstner, Jens

    2016-08-01

    We simulate light scattering by random irregular particles that have dimensions much larger than the wavelength of incident light at the size parameter of X=200 using the discontinuous Galerkin time domain method. A comparison of the DGTD solution for smoothly faceted particles with that obtained with a geometric optics model shows good agreement for the scattering angle curves of intensity and polarization. If a wavelength-scale surface roughness is introduced, diffuse scattering at rough interface results in smooth and featureless curves for all scattering matrix elements which is consistent with the laboratory measurements of real samples. PMID:27472601

  7. Application of 13C NMR spectroscopy to paratope mapping for larger antigen-Fab complexes.

    PubMed

    Kim, H; Kato, K; Yamato, S; Igarashi, T; Matsunaga, C; Ohtsuka, H; Higuchi, A; Nomura, N; Noguchi, H; Arata, Y

    1994-06-13

    For the purpose of engineering the antibody combining site, mapping residues that are involved in antigen binding provide us with valuable information. By use of 13C NMR spectroscopy with selectively 13C-labeled Fv fragments, we have established a general strategy to identify the residues that are perturbed upon binding of small antigen (hapten) molecules [(1990) Biochemistry 30, 6604-6610]. In the present paper, we demonstrate that this strategy can be extended to molecular structural analyses of the complexes of an Fab fragment and a larger antigen molecule such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin A with a molecular mass of 67 kDa. PMID:8013642

  8. Accurate thermochemistry for larger molecules : gaussian-2 theory with bond separation energies.

    SciTech Connect

    Raghavachari, K.; Stefanov, B. B.; Curtiss, L. A.; Lucent Tech.

    1997-04-22

    Gaussian-2 (G2) theory is combined with isodesmic bond separation reaction energies to yield accurate thermochemistry for larger molecules. For a test set of 40 molecules composed of H, C, O, and N, our method yields enthalpies of formation, {Delta}H{sub f}{sup 0}(298 K), with a mean absolute deviation from experiment of only 0.5 kcal/mol. This is an improvement of a factor of three over the deviation of 1.5 kcal/mol seen in standard G2 theory.

  9. 2. Spar, bramble, and the larger cutters storis (W38) make ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Spar, bramble, and the larger cutters storis (W38) make their way through arctic ice during the first transit of the northwest passage by a U.S. vessel. The lead 180 has a weight suspended over its starboard side. By swinging this weight back and forth across the centerline, the vessel can rock to free herself from ice. - U.S. Coast Guard Buoy Tenders, 180' Class, U.S. Coast Guard Headquarters, 2100 Second Street Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  10. More rapid shift to a benthic niche in larger Gadus morhua juveniles.

    PubMed

    Ólafsdóttir, G Á; Gunnarsson, G S; Karlsson, H

    2015-08-01

    Trophic use by Atlantic cod Gadus morhua juveniles was examined early and late in the shift from pelagic to benthic habitats. Changes in the proportion of pelagic copepods, estimates of benthic prey indicated by isotope mixing models and stable-isotope values between sample periods suggested a gradual shift towards a benthic niche. Values of the trophic proxies, however, changed most markedly in the largest juvenile group, suggesting a more rapid trophic niche shift, and in turn competitive advantage, of larger juveniles. PMID:26104859

  11. A strategy for company improvement.

    PubMed

    Howley, L

    2000-03-01

    Strategies based on the kaizen methodology are designed to continuously improve company performance without the need for large capital investments. This article looks at how one company used simple kaizen principles to its advantage, achieving 67% increase in productivity and 10% reduction in the standard cost of product. PMID:10915491

  12. College Companies and Commercial Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Further Education Unit, London (England).

    A feasibility study determined the number and scope of existing college companies set up by permission of the Commercial Activities in Further Education Act in Great Britain. A sample of six colleges was studied; managing directors of the six companies took part in semistructured interviews to explore some issues in greater depth. The advantages…

  13. 78 FR 43197 - Duke Energy Florida, Inc.; Florida Power & Light Company; Tampa Electric Company; Orlando...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-19

    ... Company; Orlando Utilities Commission; Notice of Compliance Filings Take notice that on July 10, 2013, Duke Energy Florida, Inc., Florida Power & Light Company, Tampa Electric Company, and Orlando...

  14. Company profile: Complete Genomics Inc.

    PubMed

    Reid, Clifford

    2011-02-01

    Complete Genomics Inc. is a life sciences company that focuses on complete human genome sequencing. It is taking a completely different approach to DNA sequencing than other companies in the industry. Rather than building a general-purpose platform for sequencing all organisms and all applications, it has focused on a single application - complete human genome sequencing. The company's Complete Genomics Analysis Platform (CGA™ Platform) comprises an integrated package of biochemistry, instrumentation and software that sequences human genomes at the highest quality, lowest cost and largest scale available. Complete Genomics offers a turnkey service that enables customers to outsource their human genome sequencing to the company's genome sequencing center in Mountain View, CA, USA. Customers send in their DNA samples, the company does all the library preparation, DNA sequencing, assembly and variant analysis, and customers receive research-ready data that they can use for biological discovery. PMID:21345140

  15. Larger benthic foraminiferal turnover across the Eocene-Oligocene transition at Siwa Oasis, Western Desert, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orabi, H.; El Beshtawy, M.; Osman, R.; Gadallah, M.

    2015-05-01

    In the Eocene part of the Siwa Oasis, the larger foraminifera are represented by the genera Nummulites, Arxina, Operculina, Sphaerogypsina, Asterocyclina, Grzybowskia, Silvestriella, Gaziryina and Discocyclina in order of abundance. Operculina continues up to the early Oligocene as modern representatives in tropical regions, while the other genera became extinct. Nevertheless, the most common larger foraminiferal genus Lepidocyclina (Nephrolepidina) appears only in the lowermost Oligocene. In spite of the Eocene-Oligocene (E/O) transition is thought to have been attended by major continental cooling at northern middle and high latitudes, we discover that at the Siwa Oasis, there is a clear warming trend from the late Eocene (extinction level of Nummulites, Sphaerogypsina, Asterocyclina, Grzybowskia, Silvestriella and Discocyclina) to the early Oligocene is observed due to the high abundance of Operculina and occurrence of kaolinite and gypsiferous shale deposits in both Qatrani and El Qara formations (Oligocene) at this transition. The El Qara Formation is a new rock unit proposed herein for the Oligocene (Rupelian age) in the first time. Several episodes of volcanic activity occurred in Egypt during the Cenozoic. Mid Tertiary volcanicity was widespread and a number of successive volcanic pulses are starting in the late Eocene. The release of mantle CO2 from this very active volcanic episode may have in fact directly caused the warm Eocene-Oligocene greenhouse climate effect.

  16. Design and performance of tapered cubic anvil used for achieving higher pressure and larger sample cell.

    PubMed

    Han, Qi-Gang; Yang, Wen-Ke; Zhu, Pin-Wen; Ban, Qing-Chu; Yan, Ni; Zhang, Qiang

    2013-07-01

    In order to increase the maximum cell pressure of the cubic high pressure apparatus, we have developed a new structure of tungsten carbide cubic anvil (tapered cubic anvil), based on the principle of massive support and lateral support. Our results indicated that the tapered cubic anvil has some advantages. First, tapered cubic anvil can push the transfer rate of pressure well into the range above 36.37% compare to the conventional anvil. Second, the rate of failure crack decreases about 11.20% after the modification of the conventional anvil. Third, the limit of static high-pressure in the sample cell can be extended to 13 GPa, which can increase the maximum cell pressure about 73.3% than that of the conventional anvil. Fourth, the volume of sample cell compressed by tapered cubic anvils can be achieved to 14.13 mm(3) (3 mm diameter × 2 mm long), which is three and six orders of magnitude larger than that of double-stage apparatus and diamond anvil cell, respectively. This work represents a relatively simple method for achieving higher pressures and larger sample cell. PMID:23902079

  17. Description of the Weatherization Assistance Program in larger multifamily buildings for Program Year 1989

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, J.M.

    1993-04-01

    The efforts of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Weatherization Assistance Program (the Program) in larger multifamily buildings were examined for Program Year 1989. The results show that about 20,000 dwellings in these multifamily buildings were served under the Program that year. This is 9% of the total number of units served nationally, while costs were 7% of total national costs. High levels of activity in larger multifamily buildings were reported for some States, with New York accounting for half of all the residences treated. Owner investment is an important strategy in New York for improving their efforts. A wide range of measures was installed, but the materials costs for the measures are dominated by the cost of windows (80% of the total for that year). Where the whole building was treated, $561 was invested per unit, while for partial-building work the total invested was $417. The energy savings and cost effectiveness of the Program were not estimated, because energy use and cost data adequate for developing such estimates could not be obtained.

  18. Pharmacogenomic variants have larger effect sizes than genetic variants associated with other dichotomous complex traits.

    PubMed

    Maranville, J C; Cox, N J

    2016-08-01

    It has been suggested that pharmacogenomic phenotypes are influenced by genetic variants with larger effect sizes than other phenotypes, such as complex disease risk. This is presumed to reflect the fact that relevant environmental factors (drug exposure) are appropriately measured and taken into account. To test this hypothesis, we performed a systematic comparison of effect sizes between pharmacogenomic and non-pharmacogenomic phenotypes across all genome-wide association studies (GWAS) reported in the NHGRI GWAS catalog. We found significantly larger effect sizes for studies focused on pharmacogenomic phenotypes, as compared with complex disease risk, morphological phenotypes and endophenotypes. We found no significant differences in effect sizes between pharmacogenomic studies focused on adverse events versus those focused on drug efficacy. Furthermore, we found that this pattern persists among sample size-matched studies, suggesting that this pattern does not reflect overestimation of effect sizes due to smaller sample sizes in pharmacogenomic studies.The Pharmacogenomics Journal advance online publication, 7 July 2015; doi:10.1038/tpj.2015.47. PMID:26149738

  19. Functional convergence of tundra vegetation simplifies the interpretation of flux observations at larger spatial scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoy, P. C.; Williams, M.; Evans, J. G.; Lloyd, C. R.; Prieto-Blanco, A.; Disney, M.; Street, L. E.; Shaver, G. R.

    2007-12-01

    A central challenge in terrestrial carbon cycle research is upscaling measurements of vegetation function to larger spatial and temporal scales. A solution is required to, for example, make chamber-based measurements relevant at larger spatial scales and to make eddy covariance measurements applicable to leaf or chamber- based studies. Here we demonstrate that a simple model for photosynthesis and ecosystem respiration parameterized using pan-arctic chamber flux measurements closely matches eddy covariance flux observations in a tundra ecosystem near Abisko, Sweden. The agreement holds when using a generic parameter set that does not account for vegetation type or measurement location. Inverting the model to predict leaf area using eddy covariance-measured net ecosystem exchange closely approximates tower-based LAI estimates across seasons and during periods of drought stress. Thus, recent findings documenting functional convergence of arctic vegetation holds at multiple spatial as well as temporal scales using both chamber and tower measurements. After validating the model using the eddy covariance measurements, we integrate the model with meteorological and LAI observations using a simple data assimilation scheme. The reduction of error achieved via data assimilation is compared to standard techniques of estimating eddy covariance error. Our analysis demonstrates that accurate estimates of C flux at multiple spatial scales across the tundra biome are possible given accurate estimates of photosynthetically active radiation, temperature, and leaf area index given the observed functional convergence of tundra vegetation.

  20. Multivalent display of minimal Clostridium difficile glycan epitopes mimics antigenic properties of larger glycans

    PubMed Central

    Broecker, Felix; Hanske, Jonas; Martin, Christopher E.; Baek, Ju Yuel; Wahlbrink, Annette; Wojcik, Felix; Hartmann, Laura; Rademacher, Christoph; Anish, Chakkumkal; Seeberger, Peter H.

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic cell-surface glycans are promising vaccine candidates against Clostridium difficile. The complexity of large, highly antigenic and immunogenic glycans is a synthetic challenge. Less complex antigens providing similar immune responses are desirable for vaccine development. Based on molecular-level glycan–antibody interaction analyses, we here demonstrate that the C. difficile surface polysaccharide-I (PS-I) can be resembled by multivalent display of minimal disaccharide epitopes on a synthetic scaffold that does not participate in binding. We show that antibody avidity as a measure of antigenicity increases by about five orders of magnitude when disaccharides are compared with constructs containing five disaccharides. The synthetic, pentavalent vaccine candidate containing a peptide T-cell epitope elicits weak but highly specific antibody responses to larger PS-I glycans in mice. This study highlights the potential of multivalently displaying small oligosaccharides to achieve antigenicity characteristic of larger glycans. The approach may result in more cost-efficient carbohydrate vaccines with reduced synthetic effort. PMID:27091615

  1. The trans-neptunian object UB313 is larger than Pluto.

    PubMed

    Bertoldi, F; Altenhoff, W; Weiss, A; Menten, K M; Thum, C

    2006-02-01

    The most distant known object in the Solar System, 2003 UB313 (97 au from the Sun), was recently discovered near its aphelion. Its high eccentricity and inclination to the ecliptic plane, along with its perihelion near the orbit of Neptune, identify it as a member of the 'scattered disk'. This disk of bodies probably originates in the Kuiper belt objects, which orbit near the ecliptic plane in circular orbits between 30 and 50 au, and may include Pluto as a member. The optical brightness of 2003 UB313, if adjusted to Pluto's distance, is greater than that of Pluto, which suggested that it might be larger than Pluto. The actual size, however, could not be determined from the optical measurements because the surface reflectivity (albedo) was unknown. Here we report observations of the thermal emission of 2003 UB313 at a wavelength of 1.2 mm, which in combination with the measured optical brightness leads to a diameter of 3,000 +/- 300 +/- 100 km. Here the first error reflects measurement uncertainties, while the second derives from the unknown object orientation. This makes 2003 UB313 the largest known trans-neptunian object, even larger than Pluto (2,300 km). The albedo is 0.60 +/- 0.10 +/- 0.05, which is strikingly similar to that of Pluto, suggesting that the methane seen in the optical spectrum causes a highly reflective icy surface. PMID:16452973

  2. Transurethral holmium laser enucleation of prostates (HoLEP) larger than 80 g

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuntz, Rainer M.; Lehrich, Karin; Fayad, Amr

    2001-05-01

    In this prospective study, the efficiency of HoLEP inpatients with prostates larger than 80 grams was to be evaluated. 64 urodynamically obstructed patients with prostate glands of 103 (80-230) grams of weight underwent HoLEP (80 W, 2.0 J, 40 Hz, 550 nm bare laser fibers). The resected weight was 70 (50-200) grams, the resection time was 120.5 (83-170) min., the average resection weight was 0.7 gm/min. The postoperative catheter time was 1.3 (1-3) days. The postoperative hospital stay was 2.5 (1-7) days. HoLEP induced a significant, pronounced and immediate improvement of lower urinary tract symptoms and micturition. The symptom score decreased from 22.3 preoperatively to 5.7 one week and 2.8 one year postoperatively. The peak urinary flow rate of 4.3 ml/sec preoperatively increased to 22 ml/sec one week and 32 ml/sec one year postoperatively. The residual urine dropped from 267 ml preoperatively to 11.5 ml one week and 5.0 ml one year postoperatively. There was one incident of postoperative arterial bleeding, one patient developed urethral stricture and two patients needed a second HoLEP. HoLEP appeared to be a highly effective treatment for prostates larger than 80 grams, with excellent functional results, minor blood loss, low complication rate and very short catheter time and hospital stay.

  3. SIGNALING EFFICACY DRIVES THE EVOLUTION OF LARGER SEXUAL ORNAMENTS BY SEXUAL SELECTION

    PubMed Central

    Tazzyman, Samuel J; Iwasa, Yoh; Pomiankowski, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Why are there so few small secondary sexual characters? Theoretical models predict that sexual selection should lead to reduction as often as exaggeration, and yet we mainly associate secondary sexual ornaments with exaggerated features such as the peacock's tail. We review the literature on mate choice experiments for evidence of reduced sexual traits. This shows that reduced ornamentation is effectively impossible in certain types of ornamental traits (behavioral, pheromonal, or color-based traits, and morphological ornaments for which the natural selection optimum is no trait), but that there are many examples of morphological traits that would permit reduction. Yet small sexual traits are very rarely seen. We analyze a simple mathematical model of Fisher's runaway process (the null model for sexual selection). Our analysis shows that the imbalance cannot be wholly explained by larger ornaments being less costly than smaller ornaments, nor by preferences for larger ornaments being less costly than preferences for smaller ornaments. Instead, we suggest that asymmetry in signaling efficacy limits runaway to trait exaggeration. PMID:24099137

  4. 17 CFR 274.5 - Form N-5, for registration statement of small business investment company under the Securities...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and at www... statement of small business investment company under the Securities Act of 1933 and the Investment Company... (CONTINUED) FORMS PRESCRIBED UNDER THE INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 Registration Statements § 274.5 Form...

  5. 17 CFR 274.5 - Form N-5, for registration statement of small business investment company under the Securities...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and at www... statement of small business investment company under the Securities Act of 1933 and the Investment Company... (CONTINUED) FORMS PRESCRIBED UNDER THE INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 Registration Statements § 274.5 Form...

  6. 17 CFR 274.5 - Form N-5, for registration statement of small business investment company under the Securities...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and on GPO... statement of small business investment company under the Securities Act of 1933 and the Investment Company... (CONTINUED) FORMS PRESCRIBED UNDER THE INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 Registration Statements § 274.5 Form...

  7. 17 CFR 274.5 - Form N-5, for registration statement of small business investment company under the Securities...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and at at www... statement of small business investment company under the Securities Act of 1933 and the Investment Company... (CONTINUED) FORMS PRESCRIBED UNDER THE INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 Registration Statements § 274.5 Form...

  8. 17 CFR 274.5 - Form N-5, for registration statement of small business investment company under the Securities...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and at www... statement of small business investment company under the Securities Act of 1933 and the Investment Company... (CONTINUED) FORMS PRESCRIBED UNDER THE INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 Registration Statements § 274.5 Form...

  9. 75 FR 42432 - Northern Natural Gas Company, Southern Natural Gas Company, Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-21

    ... Transmission Company, LLC, Transcontinental Gas Pipe Line Company, LLC, and Enterprise Field Services, LLC..., LLC, and Enterprise Field Services, LLC, collectively referred to as the Applicants, in Refugio County... scoping process the Commission will use to gather input from the public and interested agencies on...

  10. 12 CFR 583.6 - Company.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Company. 583.6 Section 583.6 Banks and Banking... AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 583.6 Company. The term company means any corporation, partnership, trust, joint-stock company, or similar organization, but does not include: (a) The Federal Deposit...

  11. 12 CFR 583.6 - Company.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Company. 583.6 Section 583.6 Banks and Banking... AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 583.6 Company. The term company means any corporation, partnership, trust, joint-stock company, or similar organization, but does not include: (a) The Federal Deposit...

  12. 12 CFR 583.6 - Company.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Company. 583.6 Section 583.6 Banks and Banking... AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 583.6 Company. The term company means any corporation, partnership, trust, joint-stock company, or similar organization, but does not include: (a) The Federal Deposit...

  13. 12 CFR 583.6 - Company.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Company. 583.6 Section 583.6 Banks and Banking... AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 583.6 Company. The term company means any corporation, partnership, trust, joint-stock company, or similar organization, but does not include: (a) The Federal Deposit...

  14. 12 CFR 583.6 - Company.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Company. 583.6 Section 583.6 Banks and Banking... AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 583.6 Company. The term company means any corporation, partnership, trust, joint-stock company, or similar organization, but does not include: (a) The Federal Deposit...

  15. 17 CFR 239.24 - Form N-5, form for registration of small business investment company under the Securities Act of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Register citations affecting Form N-5, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding... registration of small business investment company under the Securities Act of 1933 and the Investment Company... N-5, form for registration of small business investment company under the Securities Act of 1933...

  16. 17 CFR 239.24 - Form N-5, form for registration of small business investment company under the Securities Act of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Register citations affecting Form N-5, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding... registration of small business investment company under the Securities Act of 1933 and the Investment Company... N-5, form for registration of small business investment company under the Securities Act of 1933...

  17. 17 CFR 239.24 - Form N-5, form for registration of small business investment company under the Securities Act of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Register citations affecting Form N-5, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding... registration of small business investment company under the Securities Act of 1933 and the Investment Company... N-5, form for registration of small business investment company under the Securities Act of 1933...

  18. 4π Noncoplanar Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Centrally Located or Larger Lung Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Peng; Lee, Percy; Ruan, Dan; Long, Troy; Romeijn, Edwin; Low, Daniel A.; Kupelian, Patrick; Abraham, John; Yang, Yingli; Sheng, Ke

    2013-07-01

    Purpose: To investigate the dosimetric improvements in stereotactic body radiation therapy for patients with larger or central lung tumors using a highly noncoplanar 4π planning system. Methods and Materials: This study involved 12 patients with centrally located or larger lung tumors previously treated with 7- to 9-field static beam intensity modulated radiation therapy to 50 Gy. They were replanned using volumetric modulated arc therapy and 4π plans, in which a column generation method was used to optimize the beam orientation and the fluence map. Maximum doses to the heart, esophagus, trachea/bronchus, and spinal cord, as well as the 50% isodose volume, the lung volumes receiving 20, 10, and 5 Gy were minimized and compared against the clinical plans. A dose escalation study was performed to determine whether a higher prescription dose to the tumor would be achievable using 4π without violating dose limits set by the clinical plans. The deliverability of 4π plans was preliminarily tested. Results: Using 4π plans, the maximum heart, esophagus, trachea, bronchus and spinal cord doses were reduced by 32%, 72%, 37%, 44%, and 53% (P≤.001), respectively, and R{sub 50} was reduced by more than 50%. Lung V{sub 20}, V{sub 10}, and V{sub 5} were reduced by 64%, 53%, and 32% (P≤.001), respectively. The improved sparing of organs at risk was achieved while also improving planning target volume (PTV) coverage. The minimal PTV doses were increased by the 4π plans by 12% (P=.002). Consequently, escalated PTV doses of 68 to 70 Gy were achieved in all patients. Conclusions: We have shown that there is a large potential for plan quality improvement and dose escalation for patients with larger or centrally located lung tumors using noncoplanar beams with sufficient quality and quantity. Compared against the clinical volumetric modulated arc therapy and static intensity modulated radiation therapy plans, the 4π plans yielded significantly and consistently improved tumor

  19. The thermodynamic stability of clathrate hydrate. II. Simultaneous occupation of larger and smaller cages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Hideki; Kiyohara, Kenji

    1993-05-01

    The thermodynamic stability of a clathrate hydrate encaging methane or xenon has been investigated by examining the free energy of formation. The total free energy is divided into several contributions: the interaction between water and guest molecules, the entropic contribution arising from the combinations of cage occupancy, and also the free energy arising from the guest molecular motions inside cages. Our method is based on the generalized van der Waals and Platteeuw theory used for the study of the hydrate encaging propane and is free from some of the fundamental assumptions in the original theory. This enables us to evaluate separately the factors which contribute significantly to the thermodynamic stability of the hydrate, and to address a question as to what extent the original theory is applicable to the prediction of the phase diagrams. While the potential energy curve of the guest molecule with surrounding water molecules in a smaller cage has a single minimum and the molecular motion can be accurately approximated to a collection of harmonic oscillators strongly coupled with the host molecules, the guest molecular motion in a larger cage does not couple with the host. To show evidence that the fixed lattice approximation is sufficient to describe molecular motions inside the larger cage, two kinds of molecular dynamics simulations have been carried out. In one simulation, both host water and guest molecules move according to the classical equations of motion. In another simulation only guest molecules are allowed to move, interacting with fixed host molecules. We perform two kinds of analyses on those motions. In the first analysis, the velocity autocorrelation functions are calculated from molecular dynamics simulations at several temperatures and the power spectra are obtained by the Fourier transform of the correlation functions. In the second, a so-called normal mode analysis is performed and the densities of state for intermolecular vibrations are

  20. WATER QUALITY CHANGES IN HYPORHEIC FLOW AT THE AQUATIC-TERRESTRIAL INTERFACE OF A LARGER RIVER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exchange between river water and groundwater in hyporheic flow at the aquatic-terrestrial interface can importantly affect water quality and aquatic habitat in the main channel of large rivers and at off-channel sites that include flowing and stagnant side channels. With tracer ...

  1. Affective Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Charles T.

    This paper addresses itself to the question, "What does feeling have to do with knowing?" Two movements in affective education are discussed which have come into focus in recent years and which attempt to define the relationship between knowing and feeling. The first, a conscious application of the role of arousal in learning, emphasizes arousal…

  2. Practical aspects of NMR signal assignment in larger and challenging proteins

    PubMed Central

    Frueh, Dominique P.

    2014-01-01

    NMR has matured into a technique routinely employed for studying proteins in near physiological conditions. However, applications to larger proteins are impeded by the complexity of the various correlation maps necessary to assign NMR signals. This article reviews the data analysis techniques traditionally employed for resonance assignment and describes alternative protocols necessary for overcoming challenges in large protein spectra. In particular, simultaneous analysis of multiple spectra may help overcome ambiguities or may reveal correlations in an indirect manner. Similarly, visualization of orthogonal planes in a multidimensional spectrum can provide alternative assignment procedures. We describe examples of such strategies for assignment of backbone, methyl, and nOe resonances. We describe experimental aspects of data acquisition for the related experiments and provide guidelines for preliminary studies. Focus is placed on large folded monomeric proteins and examples are provided for 37, 48, 53, and 81 kDa proteins. PMID:24534088

  3. NMR Structure Determination for Larger Proteins Using Backbone-Only Data

    PubMed Central

    Raman, Srivatsan; Lange, Oliver F.; Rossi, Paolo; Tyka, Michael; Wang, Xu; Aramini, James; Liu, Gaohua; Ramelot, Theresa; Eletsky, Alexander; Szyperski, Thomas; Kennedy, Michael; Prestegard, James; Montelione, Gaetano T.; Baker, David

    2010-01-01

    Conventional protein structure determination from nuclear magnetic resonance data relies heavily on side-chain proton-proton distances. The necessary side-chain resonance assignment, however, is labor intensive and prone to error. Here we show that structures can be accurately determined without NMR information on the sidechains for proteins up to 25 kDa by incorporating backbone chemical shifts, residual dipolar couplings, and amide proton distances into the Rosetta protein structure modelling methodology. These data, which are too sparse for conventional methods, serve only to guide conformational search towards the lowest energy conformations in the folding landscape; the details of the computed models are determined by the physical chemistry implicit in the Rosetta all atom energy function. The new method is not hindered by the deuteration required to suppress nuclear relaxation processes for proteins greater than 15 kDa, and should enable routine NMR structure determination for larger proteins. PMID:20133520

  4. A specialist toxicity database (TRACE) is more effective than its larger, commercially available counterparts.

    PubMed

    Anderson, C A; Copestake, P T; Robinson, L

    2000-10-26

    The retrieval precision and recall of a specialist bibliographic toxicity database (TRACE) and a range of widely available bibliographic databases used to identify toxicity papers were compared. The analysis indicated that the larger size and resources of the major bibliographic databases did not, for a series of test queries, assure superior retrieval of relevant papers. The specialist database, in which document selection and indexing is undertaken by the same expert toxicologists who use the database in their day-to-day work, achieved markedly better retrieval, using simpler search strategies, than the other databases. Specialist databases may offer a valuable alternative to the existing major bibliographic databases. The concept of relevance, as used to determine the effectiveness of bibliographic databases, is discussed. PMID:11074298

  5. Introgression of a rare haplotype from Southeastern Africa to breed California blackeyes with larger seeds

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, Mitchell R.; Huynh, Bao-Lam; Roberts, Philip A.; Close, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    Seed size distinguishes most crops from their wild relatives and is an important quality trait for the grain legume cowpea. In order to breed cowpea varieties with larger seeds we introgressed a rare haplotype associated with large seeds at the Css-1 locus from an African buff seed type cultivar, IT82E-18 (18.5 g/100 seeds), into a blackeye seed type cultivar, CB27 (22 g/100 seed). Four recombinant inbred lines derived from these two parents were chosen for marker-assisted breeding based on SNP genotyping with a goal of stacking large seed haplotypes into a CB27 background. Foreground and background selection were performed during two cycles of backcrossing based on genome-wide SNP markers. The average seed size of introgression lines homozygous for haplotypes associated with large seeds was 28.7g/100 seed and 24.8 g/100 seed for cycles 1 and 2, respectively. One cycle 1 introgression line with desirable seed quality was selfed for two generations to make families with very large seeds (28–35 g/100 seeds). Field-based performance trials helped identify breeding lines that not only have large seeds but are also desirable in terms of yield, maturity, and plant architecture when compared to industry standards. A principal component analysis was used to explore the relationships between the parents relative to a core set of landraces and improved varieties based on high-density SNP data. The geographic distribution of haplotypes at the Css-1 locus suggest the haplotype associated with large seeds is unique to accessions collected from Southeastern Africa. Therefore this quantitative trait locus has a strong potential to develop larger seeded varieties for other growing regions which is demonstrated in this work using a California pedigree. PMID:25852699

  6. Compensatory larger cortical thickness in healthy elderly individuals with electroencephalographic risk for cognitive decline.

    PubMed

    Castro-Chavira, Susana A; Barrios, Fernando A; Pasaye, Erick H; Alatorre-Cruz, Graciela C; Fernández, Thalía

    2016-06-15

    Excess theta electroencephalographic (EEG) activity has been described as an accurate predictor for cognitive decline at least 7 years before symptom presentation. To test whether this predictor for cognitive decline correlates with structural changes in the brains of healthy elderly individuals, we compared the magnetic resonance structural images of healthy individuals with excess of theta activity [group with a risk for cognitive decline, risk group (RG); n=14] with healthy controls with normal EEG activity (control group; n=14). Neuropsychological and epidemiological analyses showed significant differences in only two features: more years of education and better performance in the visuospatial process task in the control group. Voxel-based morphometry results were not conclusive, but showed tendencies toward larger volumes in the prefrontal and parietal lobes, and smaller volumes in the right temporal lobe, right occipital lobe, and left cerebellum for the RG; these tendencies are in agreement with those proposed by the posterior-anterior shift in an aging model. Cortical-thickness analyses yielded a significant correlation between cortical thickness and years of education in the prefrontal and inferior-temporal regions, and larger cortical thickness in the RG, independent of age and years of education, in the right superior temporal region. These results suggest changes in the cortical thickness of structures related to memory and visuospatial functions in healthy, cognitively normal individuals before the appearance of cognitive decline. Thus, the performance of healthy elderly individuals with EEG risk may only be slightly different from normal because of compensation mechanisms allowing them to fulfill daily-life tasks, masking structural changes during preclinical neurocognitive disorders. PMID:27171033

  7. How to react to shallow water hydrodynamics: The larger benthic foraminifera solution

    PubMed Central

    Briguglio, Antonino; Hohenegger, Johann

    2016-01-01

    Symbiont-bearing larger benthic foraminifera inhabit the photic zone to provide their endosymbiotic algae with light. Because of the hydrodynamic conditions of shallow water environments, tests of larger foraminifera can be entrained and transported by water motion. To resist water motion, these foraminifera have to build a test able to avoid transport or have to develop special mechanisms to attach themselves to substrate or to hide their test below sediment grains. For those species which resist transport by the construction of hydrodynamic convenient shapes, the calculation of hydrodynamic parameters of their test defines the energetic input they can resist and therefore the scenario where they can live in. Measuring the density, size and shape of every test, combined with experimental data, helps to define the best mathematical approach for the settling velocity and Reynolds number of every shell. The comparison between water motion at the sediment-water interface and the specimen-specific settling velocity helps to calculate the water depths at which, for a certain test type, transport, deposition and accumulation may occur. The results obtained for the investigated taxa show that the mathematical approach gives reliable results and can discriminate the hydrodynamic behaviour of different shapes. Furthermore, the study of the settling velocities, calculated for all the investigated taxa, shows that several species are capable to resist water motion and therefore they appear to be functionally adapted to the hydrodynamic condition of its specific environment. The same study is not recommended on species which resist water motion by adopting hiding or anchoring strategies to avoid the effect of water motion.

  8. Larger ejaculate volumes are associated with a lower degree of polyandry across bushcricket taxa

    PubMed Central

    Vahed, Karim

    2006-01-01

    In numerous insects, including bushcrickets (Tettigoniidae), males are known to transfer substances in the ejaculate that inhibit the receptivity of females to further matings, but it has not yet been established whether these substances reduce the lifetime degree of polyandry of the female. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that larger ejaculate volumes should be associated with a lower degree of polyandry across tettigoniid taxa, controlling for male body mass and phylogeny. Data on ejaculate mass, sperm number, nuptial gift mass and male mass were taken primarily from the literature. The degree of polyandry for 14 species of European bushcrickets was estimated by counting the number of spermatodoses within the spermathecae of field-caught females towards the end of their adult lifespans. Data for four further species were obtained from the literature. Data were analysed by using both species regression and independent contrasts to control for phylogeny. Multiple regression analysis revealed that, as predicted, there was a significant negative association between the degree of polyandry and ejaculate mass, relative to male body mass, across bushcricket taxa. Nuptial gift size and sperm number, however, did not contribute further to interspecific variation in the degree of polyandry. A positive relationship was found, across bushcricket taxa, between relative nuptial gift size and relative ejaculate mass, indicating that larger nuptial gifts allow the male to overcome female resistance to accepting large ejaculates. This appears to be the first comparative evidence that males can manipulate the lifetime degree of polyandry of their mates through the transfer of large ejaculates. PMID:16928643

  9. 77 FR 66607 - Sierra Pacific Power Company, Nevada Power Company; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Sierra Pacific Power Company, Nevada Power Company; Notice of... Pacific Power Company and Nevada Power Company (Applicants) filed a petition for declaratory...

  10. Competitive intelligence information management and innovation in small technology-based companies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanev, Stoyan

    2007-05-01

    In this article we examine how (i) company type and (ii) the competitive intelligence information used by small technology-based companies affect their innovation performance. The focus is on the specific information types used and not on the information sources. Information topics are classified in four groups - customers (10), company (9), competitor (11) and industry (12). The sample consists of 45 small new technology-based companies, specialized suppliers, and service companies from a variety of sectors - software, photonics, telecommunications, biomedical engineering and biotech, traditional manufacturing etc. The results suggest that the total number of intelligence information topics companies use to make decisions about innovation is not associated with the number of their new products, processes, services and patents. Therefore the companies in our sample do not seem to have the resources, processes or value systems required to use different competitive intelligence information when making decisions on innovation or may rely more on their own internal logic than on external information. Companies are classified using a Pavitt-like taxonomy. Service companies are considered as a separate company type. This allows for explicitly studying both, the innovative role of new services in product driven companies, and the role of new product development in service companies.

  11. Eastern Kodak Company

    SciTech Connect

    Y.S. Tyan

    2009-06-30

    Lighting consumes more than 20% of electricity generated in the United States. Solid state lighting relies upon either inorganic or organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). OLED devices because of their thinness, fast response, excellent color, and efficiency could become the technology of choice for future lighting applications, provided progress is made to increase power efficiency and device lifetime and to develop cost-effective manufacturing processes. As a first step in this process, Eastman Kodak Company has demonstrated an OLED device architecture having an efficacy over 50 lm/W that exceeds the specifications of DOE Energy Star Program Requirements for Solid State Lighting. The project included work designed to optimize an OLED device, based on a stacked-OLED structure, with performance parameters of: low voltage; improved light extraction efficiency; improved internal quantum efficiency; and acceptable lifetime. The stated goal for the end of the project was delivery of an OLED device architecture, suitable for development into successful commercial products, having over 50 lum/W power efficiency and 10,000 hours lifetime at 1000 cd/m{sup 2}. During the project, Kodak developed and tested a tandem hybrid IES device made with a fluorescent blue emitter, a phosphorescent yellow emitter, and a phosphorescent red emitter in a stacked structure. The challenge was to find low voltage materials that do not absorb excessive amounts of emitted light when the extraction enhancement structure is applied. Because an extraction enhancement structure forces the emitted light to travel several times through the OLED layers before it is emitted, it exacerbates the absorption loss. A variety of ETL and HTL materials was investigated for application in the low voltage SSL device structure. Several of the materials were found to successfully yield low operating device voltages without incurring excessive absorption loss when the extraction enhancement structure was applied

  12. Examining the form-function relationship of convective organization and the larger scale with observations and models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, Emily Marie

    This work uses a two-pronged approach to study the form-function relationship of convective organization and the larger scale. Form is simply the visual shape of convection and function is how the convection and larger scale interact. First, CloudSat observations are used to study cloud modulation during the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO). Second, a cloud systems resolving model (CSRM) with parameterized large-scale dynamics is used to examine how convective organization affects the interdependence of convection and the larger-scale. Using CloudSat observations, cloud type, total cloud cover, and temperature and moisture evolution are document across MJO phases. Deep cloud types were classified as wide or narrow as a proxy for designating organized and unorganized convective systems. For locally defined phases, the MJO exhibits a familiar progression of cloud types from shallow clouds mixed with deep, isolated convection in the growing stages of the MJO, to deep, widespread, organized convection during the mature stages, to more anvil dominated conditions during the decay stages. Comparison to the convectively coupled Kelvin wave reveals both wave types exhibit similar cloud type evolution, though, the MJO was found to be modulated more by moisture variation, while the Kelvin wave was modulated more by temperature variations. In terms of globally defined MJO phases, the wide deep precipitating systems were modulated more than other cloud types by MJO phases, with the well-known progression of cloud cover from the Indian Ocean to the central Pacific. The narrow deep precipitating systems only propagated from the Indian Ocean to the Maritime Continent. The modeling component of this work involved periodic domains, where convective organization was controlled by adding shear to a three-dimensional (3D) isotropic CSRM domain or by altering the 3D domain to be longer and narrower, until eventually becoming a 2D domain. Snapshots of convective activity in various

  13. 12 CFR 239.24 - Issuances of stock by subsidiary holding companies of mutual holding companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... companies of mutual holding companies. 239.24 Section 239.24 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) MUTUAL HOLDING COMPANIES (REGULATION... mutual holding companies. (a) Requirements. No subsidiary holding company of a mutual holding company...

  14. 12 CFR 239.24 - Issuances of stock by subsidiary holding companies of mutual holding companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... companies of mutual holding companies. 239.24 Section 239.24 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) MUTUAL HOLDING COMPANIES (REGULATION... mutual holding companies. (a) Requirements. No subsidiary holding company of a mutual holding company...

  15. Determining the Probability that a Small Event in Brazil (magnitude 3.5 to 4.5 mb) will be Followed by a Larger Event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assumpcao, M.

    2013-05-01

    A typical earthquake story in Brazil: A swarm of small earthquakes starts to occur near a small town, reaching magnitude 3.5, causing some alarm but no damage. The freightened population, not used to feeling earthquakes, calls the seismology experts who set up a local network to study the seismicity. To the usual and inevitable question "Are we going to have a larger earthquake?", the usual and standard answer "It is not possible to predict earthquakes; larger earthquakes are possible". Fearing unecessary panic, seismologists often add that "however, large earthquakes are not very likely". This vague answer has proven quite inadequate. "Not very likely" is interpreted by the population and authorities as "not going to happen, and there is not need to do anything". Before L'Aquila 2009, one case of magnitude 3.8 in Eastern Brazil was followed seven months later by a magnitude 4.9 causing serious damage to poorly built houses. One child died and the affected population felt deceived by the seismologists. In order to provide better answers than just a vague "not likely", we examined the Brazilian catalog of earthquakes for all cases of moderate magnitude (3.4 mb or larger) that were followed, up to one year later, by a larger event. We found that the chance of an event with magnitude 3.4 or larger being the foreshock of a larger magntitude is roughly 1/6. The probability of an event being a foreshock varies with magnitude from about 20% for a 3.5 mb to about 5% for a 4.5 mb. Also, given that an event in the range 3.4 to 4.3 is a foreshock, the probability that the mainshock will be 4.7 or larger is 1/6. The probability for a larger event to occur decreases with time after the occurrence of the possible foreshock with a time constant of ~70 days. Perhaps, by giving the population and civil defense a more quantitative answer (such as "the chance of a larger even is like rolling a six in a dice") may help the decision to reinforce poor houses or even evacuate people from

  16. Distribution of living larger benthic foraminifera in littoral environments of the United Arab Emirates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorini, Flavia; Lokier, Stephen W.

    2015-04-01

    The distribution of larger benthic foraminifera in Recent littoral environment of the United Arab Emirates (Abu Dhabi and Western regions) was investigated with the aim of understanding the response of those foraminifera to an increase in water salinity. For this purpose, 100 sediment samples from nearshore shelf, beach-front, channel, lagoon, and intertidal environment were collected. Sampling was undertaken at a water depth shallower than 15 m in water with a temperature of 22 to 35˚C, a salinity ranging from 40 to 60‰ and a pH of 8. Samples were stained with rose Bengal at the moment of sample collection in order to identify living specimens. The most abundant epiphytic larger benthic foraminifera in the studied area were Peneroplis pertusus and P. planatus with less common Spirolina areatina, S. aciculate and Sorites marginalis. The living specimens of the above mentioned species with normal test growing were particularly abundant in the nearshore shelf and lagoonal samples collected on seaweed. Dead specimens were concentrated in the coarser sediments of the beach-front, probably transported from nearby environments. Shallow coastal ponds are located in the upper intertidal zone and have a maximum salinity of 60‰ and contain abundant detached seagrass. Samples collected from these ponds possess a living foraminifera assemblage dominated by Peneroplis pertusus and P. planatus. High percentages (up to 50% of the stained assemblage) of Peneroplis presented abnormality in test growth, such as the presence of multiple apertures with reduced size, deformation in the general shape of the test, irregular suture lines and abnormal coiling. The high percentage of abnormal tests reflects natural environmental stress mainly caused by high and variable salinity. The unique presence of living epiphytic species, suggests that epiphytic foraminifera may be transported into the pond together with seagrass and continued to live in the pond. This hypothesis is supported by

  17. RNA Interference in Schistosoma mansoni Schistosomula: Selectivity, Sensitivity and Operation for Larger-Scale Screening

    PubMed Central

    Horn, Martin; Braschi, Simon; Sojka, Daniel; Ruelas, Debbie S.; Suzuki, Brian; Lim, Kee-Chong; Hopkins, Stephanie D.; McKerrow, James H.; Caffrey, Conor R.

    2010-01-01

    Background The possible emergence of resistance to the only available drug for schistosomiasis spurs drug discovery that has been recently incentivized by the availability of improved transcriptome and genome sequence information. Transient RNAi has emerged as a straightforward and important technique to interrogate that information through decreased or loss of gene function and identify potential drug targets. To date, RNAi studies in schistosome stages infecting humans have focused on single (or up to 3) genes of interest. Therefore, in the context of standardizing larger RNAi screens, data are limited on the extent of possible off-targeting effects, gene-to-gene variability in RNAi efficiency and the operational capabilities and limits of RNAi. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated in vitro the sensitivity and selectivity of RNAi using double-stranded (ds)RNA (approximately 500 bp) designed to target 11 Schistosoma mansoni genes that are expressed in different tissues; the gut, tegument and otherwise. Among the genes investigated were 5 that had been previously predicted to be essential for parasite survival. We employed mechanically transformed schistosomula that are relevant to parasitism in humans, amenable to screen automation and easier to obtain in greater numbers than adult parasites. The operational parameters investigated included defined culture media for optimal parasite maintenance, transfection strategy, time- and dose- dependency of RNAi, and dosing limits. Of 7 defined culture media tested, Basch Medium 169 was optimal for parasite maintenance. RNAi was best achieved by co-incubating parasites and dsRNA (standardized to 30 µg/ml for 6 days); electroporation provided no added benefit. RNAi, including interference of more than one transcript, was selective to the gene target(s) within the pools of transcripts representative of each tissue. Concentrations of dsRNA above 90 µg/ml were directly toxic. RNAi efficiency was transcript

  18. 77 FR 39153 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-02

    ... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979), (3) Will not affect intrastate aviation... (76 FR 9498, February 18, 2011). (c) Applicability This AD applies to all The Boeing Company Model 737... by paragraphs (h) and (i) of AD 2011-04-10, Amendment 39-16609 (76 FR 9498, February 18,...

  19. 78 FR 49229 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-13

    ... proposed AD. Discussion On November 12, 2009, we issued AD 2009-24-07, Amendment 39-16095 (74 FR 62231...'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979), (3) Will not affect... (74 FR 62231, November 27, 2009), and adding the following new AD: The Boeing Company: Docket No....

  20. 78 FR 19628 - Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company Turbofan Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-02

    ... Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979), (3) Will not affect intrastate aviation in Alaska to the extent... Electric Company, One Neumann Way, MD Y-75, Cincinnati, OH; phone: 513-552-2913; email: geae.aoc@ge.com... Neumann Way, MD Y-75, Cincinnati, OH; phone: 513-552-2913; email: geae.aoc@ge.com ; and Web site:...

  1. 77 FR 51720 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-27

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM... Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979), (3) Will not affect intrastate aviation in Alaska, and (4)...

  2. 78 FR 21276 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-10

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM... Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979), (3) Will not affect intrastate aviation in Alaska, and (4)...

  3. 76 FR 82205 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-30

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed... Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979), (3) Will not affect intrastate aviation in Alaska, and (4)...

  4. Self-humidified proton exchange membrane fuel cells: Operation of larger cells and fuel cell stacks

    SciTech Connect

    Dhar, H.P.; Lee, J.H.; Lewinski, K.A.

    1996-12-31

    The PEM fuel cell is promising as the power source for use in mobile and stationary applications primarily because of its high power density, all solid components, and simplicity of operation. For wide acceptability of this power source, its cost has to be competitive with the presently available energy sources. The fuel cell requires continuous humidification during operation as a power source. The humidification unit however, increases fuel cell volume, weight, and therefore decreases its overall power density. Great advantages in terms of further fuel cell simplification can be achieved if the humidification process can be eliminated or minimized. In addition, cost reductions are associated with the case of manufacturing and operation. At BCS Technology we have developed a technology of self-humidified operation of PEM fuel cells based on the mass balance of the reactants and products and the ability of membrane electrode assembly (MEA) to retain water necessary for humidification under the cell operating conditions. The reactants enter the fuel cell chambers without carrying any form of water, whether in liquid or vapor form. Basic principles of self-humidified operation of fuel cells as practiced by BCS Technology, Inc. have been presented previously in literature. Here, we report the operation of larger self-humidified single cells and fuel cell stacks. Fuel cells of areas Up to 100 cm{sup 2} have been operated. We also show the self-humidified operation of fuel cell stacks of 50 and 100 cm{sup 2} electrode areas.

  5. Prolonged institutional rearing is associated with atypically larger amygdala volume and difficulties in emotion regulation

    PubMed Central

    Tottenham, Nim; Hare, Todd A.; Quinn, Brian T.; McCarry, Thomas W.; Nurse, Marcella; Gilhooly, Tara; Milner, Alex; Galvan, Adriana; Davidson, Matthew C.; Eigsti, Inge-Marie; Thomas, Kathleen M.; Freed, Peter; Booma, Elizabeth S.; Gunnar, Megan; Altemus, Margaret; Aronson, Jane; Casey, BJ

    2009-01-01

    Early adversity, for example poor caregiving, can have profound effects on emotional development. Orphanage rearing, even in the best circumstances, lies outside of the bounds of a species-typical caregiving environment. The long-term effects of this early adversity on the neurobiological development associated with socio-emotional behaviors are not well understood. Seventy-eight children, who include those who have experienced orphanage care and a comparison group, were assessed. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to measure volumes of whole brain and limbic structures (e.g., amygdala, hippocampus). Emotion regulation was assessed with an emotional go-nogo paradigm, and anxiety and internalizing behaviors were assessed using the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders, the Child Behavior Checklist, and a structured clinical interview. Late adoption was associated with larger corrected amygdala volumes, poorer emotion regulation, and increased anxiety. Although more than 50% of the children who experienced orphanage rearing met criteria for a psychiatric disorder, with a third having an anxiety disorder, the group differences observed in amygdala volume were not driven by the presence of an anxiety disorder. The findings are consistent with previous reports describing negative effects of prolonged orphanage care on emotional behavior and with animal models that show long term changes in the amygdala and emotional behavior following early postnatal stress. These changes in limbic circuitry may underlie residual emotional and social problems experienced by children who have been internationally adopted. PMID:20121862

  6. Larger Planet Radii Inferred from Stellar "Flicker" Brightness Variations of Bright Planet-host Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastien, Fabienne A.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Pepper, Joshua

    2014-06-01

    Most extrasolar planets have been detected by their influence on their parent star, typically either gravitationally (the Doppler method) or by the small dip in brightness as the planet blocks a portion of the star (the transit method). Therefore, the accuracy with which we know the masses and radii of extrasolar planets depends directly on how well we know those of the stars, the latter usually determined from the measured stellar surface gravity, log g. Recent work has demonstrated that the short-timescale brightness variations ("flicker") of stars can be used to measure log g to a high accuracy of ~0.1-0.2 dex. Here, we use flicker measurements of 289 bright (Kepmag < 13) candidate planet-hosting stars with T eff = 4500-6650 K to re-assess the stellar parameters and determine the resulting impact on derived planet properties. This re-assessment reveals that for the brightest planet-host stars, Malmquist bias contaminates the stellar sample with evolved stars: nearly 50% of the bright planet-host stars are subgiants. As a result, the stellar radii, and hence the radii of the planets orbiting these stars, are on average 20%-30% larger than previous measurements had suggested.

  7. Molecular Evidence for Lessepsian Invasion of Soritids (Larger Symbiont Bearing Benthic Foraminifera)

    PubMed Central

    Apothéloz-Perret-Gentil, Laure; Pawlowski, Jan; Abdu, Uri; Almogi-Labin, Ahuva; Hyams-Kaphzan, Orit; Bakhrat, Anna; Abramovich, Sigal

    2013-01-01

    The Mediterranean Sea is considered as one of the hotspots of marine bioinvasions, largely due to the influx of tropical species migrating through the Suez Canal, so-called Lessepsian migrants. Several cases of Lessepsian migration have been documented recently, however, little is known about the ecological characteristics of the migrating species and their aptitude to colonize the new areas. This study focused on Red Sea soritids, larger symbiont-bearing benthic foraminifera (LBF) that are indicative of tropical and subtropical environments and were recently found in the Israeli coast of the Eastern Mediterranean. We combined molecular phylogenetic analyses of soritids and their algal symbionts as well as network analysis of Sorites orbiculus Forskål to compare populations from the Gulf of Elat (northern Red Sea) and from a known hotspot in Shikmona (northern Israel) that consists of a single population of S. orbiculus. Our phylogenetic analyses show that all specimens found in Shikmona are genetically identical to a population of S. orbiculus living on a similar shallow water pebbles habitat in the Gulf of Elat. Our analyses also show that the symbionts found in Shikmona and Elat soritids belong to the Symbiodinium clade F5, which is common in the Red Sea and also present in the Indian Ocean and Caribbean Sea. Our study therefore provides the first genetic and ecological evidences that indicate that modern population of soritids found on the Mediterranean coast of Israel is probably Lessepsian, and is less likely the descendant of a native ancient Mediterranean species. PMID:24204936

  8. Maternal support in early childhood predicts larger hippocampal volumes at school age.

    PubMed

    Luby, Joan L; Barch, Deanna M; Belden, Andy; Gaffrey, Michael S; Tillman, Rebecca; Babb, Casey; Nishino, Tomoyuki; Suzuki, Hideo; Botteron, Kelly N

    2012-02-21

    Early maternal support has been shown to promote specific gene expression, neurogenesis, adaptive stress responses, and larger hippocampal volumes in developing animals. In humans, a relationship between psychosocial factors in early childhood and later amygdala volumes based on prospective data has been demonstrated, providing a key link between early experience and brain development. Although much retrospective data suggests a link between early psychosocial factors and hippocampal volumes in humans, to date there has been no prospective data to inform this potentially important public health issue. In a longitudinal study of depressed and healthy preschool children who underwent neuroimaging at school age, we investigated whether early maternal support predicted later hippocampal volumes. Maternal support observed in early childhood was strongly predictive of hippocampal volume measured at school age. The positive effect of maternal support on hippocampal volumes was greater in nondepressed children. These findings provide prospective evidence in humans of the positive effect of early supportive parenting on healthy hippocampal development, a brain region key to memory and stress modulation. PMID:22308421

  9. LARGER PLANET RADII INFERRED FROM STELLAR ''FLICKER'' BRIGHTNESS VARIATIONS OF BRIGHT PLANET-HOST STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Bastien, Fabienne A.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Pepper, Joshua

    2014-06-10

    Most extrasolar planets have been detected by their influence on their parent star, typically either gravitationally (the Doppler method) or by the small dip in brightness as the planet blocks a portion of the star (the transit method). Therefore, the accuracy with which we know the masses and radii of extrasolar planets depends directly on how well we know those of the stars, the latter usually determined from the measured stellar surface gravity, log g. Recent work has demonstrated that the short-timescale brightness variations ({sup f}licker{sup )} of stars can be used to measure log g to a high accuracy of ∼0.1-0.2 dex. Here, we use flicker measurements of 289 bright (Kepmag < 13) candidate planet-hosting stars with T {sub eff} = 4500-6650 K to re-assess the stellar parameters and determine the resulting impact on derived planet properties. This re-assessment reveals that for the brightest planet-host stars, Malmquist bias contaminates the stellar sample with evolved stars: nearly 50% of the bright planet-host stars are subgiants. As a result, the stellar radii, and hence the radii of the planets orbiting these stars, are on average 20%-30% larger than previous measurements had suggested.

  10. Viscosity, relaxation time, and dynamics within a model asphalt of larger molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Derek D.; Greenfield, Michael L.

    2014-01-21

    The dynamics properties of a new “next generation” model asphalt system that represents SHRP AAA-1 asphalt using larger molecules than past models is studied using molecular simulation. The system contains 72 molecules distributed over 12 molecule types that range from nonpolar branched alkanes to polar resins and asphaltenes. Molecular weights range from 290 to 890 g/mol. All-atom molecular dynamics simulations conducted at six temperatures from 298.15 to 533.15 K provide a wealth of correlation data. The modified Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts equation was regressed to reorientation time correlation functions and extrapolated to calculate average rotational relaxation times for individual molecules. The rotational relaxation rate of molecules decreased significantly with increasing size and decreasing temperature. Translational self-diffusion coefficients followed an Arrhenius dependence. Similar activation energies of ∼42 kJ/mol were found for all 12 molecules in the model system, while diffusion prefactors spanned an order of magnitude. Viscosities calculated directly at 533.15 K and estimated at lower temperatures using the Debye-Stokes-Einstein relationship were consistent with experimental data for asphalts. The product of diffusion coefficient and rotational relaxation time showed only small changes with temperature above 358.15 K, indicating rotation and translation that couple self-consistently with viscosity. At lower temperatures, rotation slowed more than diffusion.

  11. Lecture archiving on a larger scale at the University of Michigan and CERN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herr, Jeremy; Lougheed, Robert; Neal, Homer A.

    2010-04-01

    The ATLAS Collaboratory Project at the University of Michigan has been a leader in the area of collaborative tools since 1999. Its activities include the development of standards, software and hardware tools for lecture archiving, and making recommendations for videoconferencing and remote teaching facilities. Starting in 2006 our group became involved in classroom recordings, and in early 2008 we spawned CARMA, a University-wide recording service. This service uses a new portable recording system that we developed. Capture, archiving and dissemination of rich multimedia content from lectures, tutorials and classes are increasingly widespread activities among universities and research institutes. A growing array of related commercial and open source technologies is becoming available, with several new products introduced in the last couple years. As the result of a new close partnership between U-M and CERN IT, a market survey of these products was conducted and a summary of the results are presented here. It is informing an ambitious effort in 2009 to equip many CERN rooms with automated lecture archiving systems, on a much larger scale than before. This new technology is being integrated with CERN's existing webcast, CDS, and Indico applications.

  12. Foraging competition in larger groups overrides harassment avoidance benefits in female reindeer (Rangifer tarandus).

    PubMed

    Uccheddu, Stefania; Body, Guillaume; Weladji, Robert B; Holand, Øystein; Nieminen, Mauri

    2015-11-01

    Male harassment toward females during the breeding season may have a negative effect on their reproductive success by disturbing their foraging activity, thereby inducing somatic costs. Accordingly, it is predicted that females will choose mates based on their ability to provide protection or will aggregate into large groups to dilute per capita harassment level. Conversely, increasing group size may also lead to a decrease in foraging activity by increasing foraging competition, but this effect has rarely been considered in mating tactic studies. This study examined the importance of two non-exclusive hypotheses in explaining the variations of the female activity budget during the breeding season: the male harassment hypothesis, and the female foraging competition hypothesis. We used focal observations of female activity from known mating groups collected during the breeding season from a long-term (15 years) study on reindeer Rangifer tarandus. We found that females were more disturbed (i.e., spent less time feeding) in the presence of young dominant males, and marginally disturbed in the presence of satellite males, which supports the male harassment hypothesis. We also found that female disturbance level increased with group size, being independent of the adult sex ratio. Consequently, these results rejected the dilution effect, but strongly supported the foraging competition hypothesis. This study therefore highlights a potential conflict in female behaviour. Indeed, any gains from harassment protection were negated by an increase of 6-7 females, since adult males lead larger groups than young males. PMID:26188521

  13. Stable isotope stratigraphy and larger benthic foraminiferal extinctions in the Melinau Limestone, Sarawak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotton, Laura J.; Pearson, Paul N.; Renema, Willem

    2014-01-01

    Important long-ranging groups of larger benthic foraminifera (LBF) are known to have become extinct during a period of global cooling and climate disruption at the Eocene-Oligocene transition (EOT) but the precise timing and mechanisms are uncertain. Recent study showed unexpectedly that the LBF extinction in Tanzania occurs very close to the Eocene/Oligocene boundary, as recognised by the extinction of the planktonic foraminiferal Family Hantkeninidae, rather than at the later period of maximum global ice growth and sea-level fall, as previously thought. Here we investigate the same phase of extinction in the Melinau Limestone of Sarawak, on the island of Borneo, Malaysia one of the most complete carbonate successions spanning the Eocene to Lower Miocene. Assemblages of LBF from the Melinau Limestone were studied extensively by Geoffrey Adams during the 1960s-80s, confirming a major extinction during the EOT, but the section lacked independent means of correlation. By analysing rock samples originally studied by Adams and now in the Natural History Museum, London, we provide new bulk stable isotope (δ13C and δ18O) records. This enables us to identify, albeit tentatively, the level of maximum stable isotope excursion and show that the LBF extinction event in the Melinau Limestone occurs below this isotope excursion, supporting the results from Tanzania and indicating that the extinction of LBF close to the Eocene/Oligocene boundary may be a global phenomenon.

  14. Larger hippocampus size in women with anorexia nervosa who exercise excessively than healthy women.

    PubMed

    Beadle, Janelle N; Paradiso, Sergio; Brumm, Michael; Voss, Michelle; Halmi, Katherine; McCormick, Laurie M

    2015-05-30

    Exercise has been shown to increase hippocampal volume in healthy older adults. Observations from animal models of diabetes and hypertension suggest that the combination of exercise and caloric restriction may exert greater neuroprotection in the hippocampus than either behavior alone. Yet, in humans, the effects of exercise and caloric restriction on the hippocampus are not known. We measured the volume of the hippocampus prior to clinical treatment in women with anorexia nervosa (AN) who were restricting calories and engaging in excessive exercise, women with AN who did not exercise excessively, and healthy women who did not engage in either behavior. Women with AN were also examined longitudinally (once weight was restored and 6 months later). In the present report, we found that women with AN engaged in caloric restriction and excessive exercising prior to clinical treatment had larger hippocampal volumes than healthy comparison women. After weight restoration, women with AN who had engaged in food restriction and excessive exercise prior to treatment had hippocampal volumes similar to that of women with AN who only engaged in caloric restriction. These results advance the field by showing for the first time that hippocampal volume may be increased by exercise alone or exercise interacting with food restriction in AN. PMID:25624068

  15. A loophole-free Bell test and the route to larger quantum networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiserer, Andreas; Hensen, Bas; Bernien, Hannes; Dréau, Anaïs; Kalb, Norbert; Blok, Machiel; Taminiau, Tim; Hanson, Ronald

    2016-05-01

    The nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center in diamond gives access to few-qubit nuclear-spin registers with exceptional coherence properties. Entanglement between remote registers can be established via a joint measurement of single photons that are each entangled with the electron spin of one NV center. The entanglement protocol is thus probabilistic but heralded, which has allowed us to perform the first loophole-free test of Bell's inequality using two NV centers at a distance of 1.3km. Extending the size of the network requires control over additional qubits at each node. To this end, we use nuclear spins that are controlled via the hyperfine interaction with the electronic spin. I will present our recent experimental results, where we keep a qubit locally in a single nuclear spin or in a decoherence-protected two-spin state while applying a sequence of optical pulses on the electronic spin that generates remote entanglement. Our results open perspectives toward the purification of remote entanglement and toward larger quantum networks.

  16. Growing coral larger and faster: micro-colony-fusion as a strategy for accelerating coral cover

    PubMed Central

    Page, Christopher A.; Toonen, Robert J.; Vaughan, David

    2015-01-01

    Fusion is an important life history strategy for clonal organisms to increase access to shared resources, to compete for space, and to recover from disturbance. For reef building corals, fragmentation and colony fusion are key components of resilience to disturbance. Observations of small fragments spreading tissue and fusing over artificial substrates prompted experiments aimed at further characterizing Atlantic and Pacific corals under various conditions. Small (∼1–3 cm2) fragments from the same colony spaced regularly over ceramic tiles resulted in spreading at rapid rates (e.g., tens of square centimeters per month) followed by isogenic fusion. Using this strategy, we demonstrate growth, in terms of area encrusted and covered by living tissue, of Orbicella faveolata, Pseudodiploria clivosa, and Porites lobata as high as 63, 48, and 23 cm2 per month respectively. We found a relationship between starting and ending size of fragments, with larger fragments growing at a faster rate. Porites lobata showed significant tank effects on rates of tissue spreading indicating sensitivity to biotic and abiotic factors. The tendency of small coral fragments to encrust and fuse over a variety of surfaces can be exploited for a variety of applications such as coral cultivation, assays for coral growth, and reef restoration. PMID:26500822

  17. Technique for Extension of Small Antenna Array Mutual-Coupling Data to Larger Antenna Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, M. C.

    1996-01-01

    A technique is presented whereby the mutual interaction between a small number of elements in a planar array can be interpolated and extrapolated to accurately predict the combined interactions in a much larger array of many elements. An approximate series expression is developed, based upon knowledge of the analytical characteristic behavior of the mutual admittance between small aperture antenna elements in a conducting ground plane. This expression is utilized to analytically extend known values for a few spacings and orientations to other element configurations, thus eliminating the need to numerically integrate a large number of highly oscillating and slowly converging functions. This paper shows that the technique can predict very accurately the mutual coupling between elements in a very large planar array with a knowledge of the self-admittance of an isolated element and the coupling between only two-elements arranged in eight different pair combinations. These eight pair combinations do not necessarily have to correspond to pairs in the large array, although all of the individual elements must be identical.

  18. Origami-inspired metamaterial absorbers for improving the larger-incident angle absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yang; Pang, Yongqiang; Wang, Jiafu; Ma, Hua; Pei, Zhibin; Qu, Shaobo

    2015-11-01

    When a folded resistive patch array stands up on a metallic plane, it can exhibit more outstanding absorption performance. Our theoretical investigations and simulations demonstrated that the folded resistive patch arrays can enhance the absorption bandwidth progressively with the increase of the incident angle for the oblique transverse magnetic incidence, which is contrary to the conventional resistive frequency selective surface absorber. On illumination, we achieved a 3D structure metamaterial absorber with the folded resistive patches. The proposed absorber is obtained from the inspiration of the origami, and it has broadband and lager-incident angle absorption. Both the simulations and the measurements indicate that the proposed absorber achieves the larger-incident angle absorption until 75° in the frequency band of 3.6-11.4 GHz. In addition, the absorber is extremely lightweight. The areal density of the fabricated sample is about 0.023 g cm-2. Due to the broadband and lager-incident angle absorption, it is expected that the absorbers may find potential applications such as stealth technologies and electromagnetic interference.

  19. Analysis of the community structure of abyssal kinetoplastids revealed similar communities at larger spatial scales

    PubMed Central

    Salani, Faezeh Shah; Arndt, Hartmut; Hausmann, Klaus; Nitsche, Frank; Scheckenbach, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of the spatial scales of diversity is necessary to evaluate the mechanisms driving biodiversity and biogeography in the vast but poorly understood deep sea. The community structure of kinetoplastids, an important group of microbial eukaryotes belonging to the Euglenozoa, from all abyssal plains of the South Atlantic and two areas of the eastern Mediterranean was studied using partial small subunit ribosomal DNA gene clone libraries. A total of 1364 clones from 10 different regions were retrieved. The analysis revealed statistically not distinguishable communities from both the South-East Atlantic (Angola and Guinea Basin) and the South-West Atlantic (Angola and Brazil Basin) at spatial scales of 1000–3000 km, whereas all other communities were significantly differentiated from one another. It seems likely that multiple processes operate at the same time to shape communities of deep-sea kinetoplastids. Nevertheless, constant and homogenous environmental conditions over large spatial scales at abyssal depths, together with high dispersal capabilities of microbial eukaryotes, maintain best the results of statistically indistinguishable communities at larger spatial scales. PMID:22071346

  20. Larger aggregates of mutant seipin in Celia's Encephalopathy, a new protein misfolding neurodegenerative disease.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Riquelme, Alejandro; Sánchez-Iglesias, Sofía; Rábano, Alberto; Guillén-Navarro, Encarna; Domingo-Jiménez, Rosario; Ramos, Adriana; Rosa, Isaac; Senra, Ana; Nilsson, Peter; García, Ángel; Araújo-Vilar, David; Requena, Jesús R

    2015-11-01

    Celia's Encephalopathy (MIM #615924) is a recently discovered fatal neurodegenerative syndrome associated with a new BSCL2 mutation (c.985C>T) that results in an aberrant isoform of seipin (Celia seipin). This mutation is lethal in both homozygosity and compounded heterozygosity with a lipodystrophic BSCL2 mutation, resulting in a progressive encephalopathy with fatal outcomes at ages 6-8. Strikingly, heterozygous carriers are asymptomatic, conflicting with the gain of toxic function attributed to this mutation. Here we report new key insights about the molecular pathogenic mechanism of this new syndrome. Intranuclear inclusions containing mutant seipin were found in brain tissue from a homozygous patient suggesting a pathogenic mechanism similar to other neurodegenerative diseases featuring brain accumulation of aggregated, misfolded proteins. Sucrose gradient distribution showed that mutant seipin forms much larger aggregates as compared with wild type (wt) seipin, indicating an impaired oligomerization. On the other hand, the interaction between wt and Celia seipin confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation (CoIP) assays, together with the identification of mixed oligomers in sucrose gradient fractionation experiments can explain the lack of symptoms in heterozygous carriers. We propose that the increased aggregation and subsequent impaired oligomerization of Celia seipin leads to cell death. In heterozygous carriers, wt seipin might prevent the damage caused by mutant seipin through its sequestration into harmless mixed oligomers. PMID:26282322

  1. A comparison of small and larger mesoscale latent heat and radiative fluxes: December 6 case study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gultepe, I.; Starr, David; Heymsfield, A. J.

    1993-01-01

    Because of the small amounts of water vapor, the potential for rapid changes, and the very cold temperatures in the upper troposphere, moisture measuring instruments face several problems related to calibration and response. Calculations of eddy moisture fluxes are, therefore, subject to significant uncertainty. The purpose of this study is to examine the importance of latent heat (moisture) fluxes due to small and larger mesoscale circulations in comparison to radiative fluxes within cirrus. Scale separation is made at about 1 km because of significant changes in the structures within cirrus. Only observations at warmer than -40 C are used in this study. The EG&G hygrometer that is used for measuring dewpoint temperature (Td) is believed to be fairly accurate down to -40 C. On the other hand, Lyman-Alpha (L-alpha) hygrometer measurements of moisture may include large drift errors. In order to compensate for these drift errors, the L-alpha hygrometer is often calibrated against the EG&G hygrometer. However, large errors ensue for Td measurements at temperatures less than -40 C. The cryogenic hygrometer frost point measurements may be used to calibrate L-alpha measurements at temperatures less than -40 C. In this study, however, measurements obtained by EG&G hygrometer and L-alpha measurements are used for the flux calculations.

  2. Aspirations and common tensions: larger lessons from the third US national climate assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Moser, Susanne C.; Melillo, Jerry M.; Jacobs, Katharine L.; Moss, Richard H.; Buizer, James L.

    2015-10-21

    The Third US National Climate Assessment (NCA3) was produced by experts in response to the US Global Change Research Act of 1990. Based on lessons learned from previous domestic and international assessments, the NCA3 was designed to speak to a broad public and inform the concerns of policy- and decision-makers at different scales. The NCA3 was also intended to be the first step in an ongoing assessment process that would build the nation’s capacity to respond to climate change. This concluding paper draws larger lessons from the insights gained throughout the assessment process that are of significance to future US and international assessment designers. We bring attention to process and products delivered, communication and engagement efforts, and how they contributed to the sustained assessment. Based on areas where expectations were exceeded or not fully met, we address four common tensions that all assessment designers must confront and manage: between (1) core assessment ingredients (knowledge base, institutional set-up, principled process, and the people involved), (2) national scope and subnational adaptive management information needs, (3) scope, complexity, and manageability, and (4) deliberate evaluation and ongoing learning approaches. Managing these tensions, amidst the social and political contexts in which assessments are conducted, is critical to ensure that assessments are feasible and productive, while its outcomes are perceived as credible, salient, and legitimate.

  3. Variably male-biased sex ratio in a marine bird with females larger than males.

    PubMed

    Torres, R; Drummond, H

    1999-01-01

    When the costs of rearing males and females differ progeny sex ratios are expected to be biased toward the less expensive sex. Blue-footed booby (Sula nebouxii) females are larger and roughly 32% heavier than males, thus presumably more costly to rear. We recorded hatching and fledging sex ratios in 1989, and fledging sex ratios during the next 5 years. In 1989, the sample of 751 chicks showed male bias at hatching (56%) and at fledging (57% at 90 days). Fledging sex ratios during the five subsequent reproductive seasons were at unity (1 year) or male-biased, varying from 56% to 70%. Male bias was greater during years when mean sea surface temperature was warmer and food was presumably in short supply. During two warm-water years (only) fledging sex ratio varied with hatching date. Proportions of male fledglings increased with date from 0.48 to 0.73 in 1994, and from 0.33 to 0.79 in 1995. Similar results were obtained when the analysis was repeated using only broods with no nestling mortality, suggesting that the overall increase in the proportion of males over the season was the result of sex ratio adjustments at hatching. The male-biased sex ratio, and the increased male bias during poor breeding conditions supports the idea that daughters may be more costly than sons, and that their relative cost increases in poor conditions. PMID:20135156

  4. Larger receptive fields revealed using Battenberg stimuli to assess contrast summation with moving patterns.

    PubMed

    McDougall, Thomas J; Dickinson, J Edwin; Badcock, David R

    2016-09-01

    This study reevaluated the summation extent for moving stimuli using the Battenberg summation paradigm (Meese, 2010), which aims to circumvent internal noise changes with increasing stimulus size by holding display size constant. In the checkerboard stimulus, the size of the checks (luminance-modulated drifting gratings) was varied to measure dependence on signal area. Experiment 1 was a contrast detection task that used either signal checks alternating with uniform, mean luminance, checks (single-motion) or alternate checks containing gratings moving in opposite directions (opposing-motion). The latter was designed to test whether summation extent changes when segregating regions based on motion direction. Results showed summation over a square summation area with a side length of 3.33°, much larger than previous estimates of less than 1° for similar stimuli (Anderson & Burr, 1991). This was found for both motion combinations, providing no evidence that summation extent differs when segregating patterns based on direction, at contrast detection threshold. These results are in close agreement with those obtained for static patterns (Meese, 2010) and support the same underlying summation model. Experiment 2 was a contrast increment detection task conducted to determine whether differences in summation extent arise under suprathreshold contrast conditions. There was no dependence on check size for either condition across the range of sizes tested. This supports the suggestion that segmentation mechanisms dominate perception under high-contrast conditions, a potential adaptive strategy employed by the visual system. PMID:27604069

  5. Acorn cotyledons are larger than their seedlings' need: evidence from artificial cutting experiments

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Xianfeng; Wang, Zhenyu; Liu, Changqu; Liu, Guoqiang; Zhang, Mingming

    2015-01-01

    Although the consequences of cotyledon removal have been widely studied in oaks producing large acorns, we have little knowledge of at what level cotyledons can be removed without affecting acorn survival and seedling development. In this study, we aimed to test the hypothesis that the amount of energy reserves in cotyledons is more than the demands of seedlings and that large acorns can tolerate seed predation and/or attract seed predators for seed dispersal. Acorn germination rates were not affected even when 60% of cotyledons were cut off at the basal end, suggesting that the energy reserves contained in cotyledons are not essential for acorn survival. Post-cut acorn mass, more than initial acorn mass, appear to be a better predictor of seedling performance, indicating that the energy reserves in cotyledons are sufficient for seedlings. Acorns with large masses sustained cotyledon damage better than small ones with respect to seedling performance. Large acorns were more likely to be dispersed and cached by animals, implying that producing large acorns is more important for oaks to manipulate seed predators and dispersers rather than provide a seedling with cotyledonary reserves. PMID:25630843

  6. The nature and possible roles of larger organic molecules in the atmosphere of Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imanaka, Hiroshi; Smith, Mark A.; McKay, Chris

    Active organic chemistry in the thick N2 /CH4 atmosphere of Titan leads eventually to heavy organic gaseous species and aerosol particles. Recent observations by the Cassini Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) and the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) clearly demonstrate the formation of large organic molecules and organic aerosols in the ionosphere. The efficient formation of organic aerosol in the ionosphere may affect the chemistry, dynamics, and radia-tive balance in the mesosphere and stratosphere. We have conducted laboratory simulations in order to understand the chemistry of aerosol nucleation and their chemical growth via hetero-geneous reactions. The mass spectrum of C2 H2 plasma polymer shows a reasonable match with the CAPS positive ion mass spectrum. This implies the initial growth of large hydrocarbon molecules via ion-molecule reactions in the ionosphere. In the dusty environment of the upper atmosphere, the further nitrogen and hydrogen incorporation to aerosol particles via heteroge-neous reactions is plausible and significantly affects the C/H/N budgets in the atmosphere of Titan.

  7. 76 FR 1349 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company (Cessna) (Type Certificate A00003SE Previously...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-10

    ... Company (Cessna) (Type Certificate A00003SE Previously Held by Columbia Aircraft Manufacturing (Previously... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979), (3) Will not affect intrastate aviation in Alaska... Columbia Aircraft Manufacturing (previously The Lancair Company)): Amendment 39-16569; Docket No....

  8. 12 CFR 583.12 - Multiple savings and loan holding company.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Multiple savings and loan holding company. 583.12 Section 583.12 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DEFINITIONS FOR REGULATIONS AFFECTING SAVINGS AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 583.12 Multiple savings and...

  9. 12 CFR 583.12 - Multiple savings and loan holding company.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Multiple savings and loan holding company. 583.12 Section 583.12 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DEFINITIONS FOR REGULATIONS AFFECTING SAVINGS AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 583.12 Multiple savings and...

  10. The 'Natural Laboratory', a tool for deciphering growth, lifetime and population dynamics in larger benthic foraminifera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hohenegger, Johann

    2015-04-01

    The shells of symbiont-bearing larger benthic Foraminifera (LBF) represent the response to physiological requirements in dependence of environmental conditions. All compartments of the shell such as chambers and chamberlets accommodate the growth of the cell protoplasm and are adaptations for housing photosymbiotic algae. Investigations on the biology of LBF were predominantly based on laboratory studies. The lifetime of LBF under natural conditions is still unclear. LBF, which can build >100 chambers during their lifetime, are thought to live at least one year under natural conditions. This is supported by studies on population dynamics of eulittoral foraminifera. In species characterized by a time-restricted single reproduction period the mean size of specimens increases from small to large during lifetime simultaneously reducing individual number. This becomes more complex when two or more reproduction times are present within a one-year cycle leading to a mixture of abundant small individuals with few large specimens during the year, while keeping mean size more or less constant. This mixture is typical for most sublittoral megalospheric (gamonts or schizonts) LBF. Nothing is known on the lifetime of agamonts, the diploid asexually reproducing generation. In all hyaline LBF it is thought to be significantly longer than 1 year based on the large size and considering the mean chamber building rate of the gamont/schizonts. Observations on LBF under natural conditions have not been performed yet in the deeper sublittoral. This reflects the difficulties due to intense hydrodynamics that hinder deploying technical equipment for studies in the natural environment. Therefore, studying growth, lifetime and reproduction of sublittoral LBF under natural conditions can be performed using the so-called 'natural laboratory' in comparison with laboratory investigations. The best sampling method in the upper sublittoral from 5 to 70 m depth is by SCUBA diving. Irregular

  11. The phylogenetic and palaeographic evolution of the miogypsinid larger benthic foraminifera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    BouDagher-Fadel, M. K.

    2012-04-01

    The phylogenetic and palaeographic evolution of the miogypsinid larger benthic foraminifera MARCELLE K. BOUDAGHER-FADEL AND G. DAVID PRICE Department of Earth Sciences, University College London, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT, UK One of the notable features of the Oligocene oceans was the appearance in Tethys of American lineages of larger benthic foraminifera, including the miogypsinids. They were reef-forming, and became very widespread and diverse, and so they play an important role in defining the Late Paleogene and Early Neogene biostratigraphy of the carbonates of the Mediterranean and the Indo-Pacific Tethyan sub-provinces. Until now, however, it has not been possible to develop an effective global view of the evolution of the miogypsinids, as the descriptions of specimens from Africa were rudimentary, and the stratigraphic ranges of genera of Tethyan forms appear to be highly dependent on palaeography. Our recent work, however, now enables a first systematic and biostratigraphic comparison of the miogypsinids from the Tethyan sub-provinces of the Mediterranean-West Africa and the Indo-Pacific, and can show for the first time that South Africa forms a new distinct bio-province. We infer that sea level, tectonic and climatic changes determined and constrained in turn the palaeogeographic distribution, evolution and eventual extinctions of the miogypsinid. The global sea level regressions in the Early Oligocene facilitated the trans-Atlantic migration of Neorotalia and miogypsinids from the Americas. This eastward migration followed two, distinct, unidirectional dispersals. One dispersal route was to the south towards South Africa, where a distinct phylogenetic lineage, similar to their American ancestors, was found in the Burdigalian. They became extinct together with their American ancestors, at the end of the Burdigalian; a time that coincided with a major global transgressions, circulation changes on closure of Panama and the major eruption of the

  12. PALEOBIOLOGICAL APPLICATIONS OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL BIOMETRY ON LARGER BENTHIC FORAMINIFERA: A NEW ROUTE OF DISCOVERIES

    PubMed Central

    Briguglio, Antonino; Hohenegger, Johann; Less, György

    2015-01-01

    Four specimens of larger benthic foraminifera (the Recent Palaeonummulites venosus and Operculina ammonoides, and the phylogenetically related Paleogene Nummulites fabianii and N. fichteli) were investigated by X-ray tomography. The resulting three-dimensional measurements enabled a comprehensive, quantitative study of shell morphology to interpret cell growth without specific shell preparation and/or destruction. After segmentation and extraction of all scanned lumina, the following characters were measured on all chambers of each specimen: chamber volume, septal distance, chamber height, and chamber width. The sequence of chamber lumina follows either a logistic function (Palaeonummulites, Operculina), where the deceleration in growth rate of the latest chambers could mark the onset of reproduction, or it can be modeled by a series of stepwise functions with differing constants (Nummulites). Variations around the growth model are either periodic, following external cycles, or random as expressed by abrupt deviations. Therefore, they may reflect the response of the cell to environmental changes in terms of cyclic changes (e.g., seasonality) or single events (e.g., predator attack). Correlations between chamber volume and the other chamber parameters show that septal distance always matches the sequence in chamber volume and can therefore be used as a proxy for environmental analyses in both growth models. Chamber height and width often remain constant around their function and rarely deviate drastically to accommodate the needed lumen for retaining test size and shape. Chamber width may vary according to chamber volume in involute specimens, whereas both chamber height and width correlate with volume in those tests following an Archimedean spiral. X-ray-tomography shows particular promise in determining which parameters that can be assessed routinely in two dimensions primarily reflect environmental conditions vs. parameters best used for taxonomic identification

  13. Weapons Make the Man (Larger): Formidability Is Represented as Size and Strength in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Fessler, Daniel M. T.; Holbrook, Colin; Snyder, Jeffrey K.

    2012-01-01

    In order to determine how to act in situations of potential agonistic conflict, individuals must assess multiple features of a prospective foe that contribute to the foe's resource-holding potential, or formidability. Across diverse species, physical size and strength are key determinants of formidability, and the same is often true for humans. However, in many species, formidability is also influenced by other factors, such as sex, coalitional size, and, in humans, access to weaponry. Decision-making involving assessments of multiple features is enhanced by the use of a single summary variable that encapsulates the contributions of these features. Given both a) the phylogenetic antiquity of the importance of size and strength as determinants of formidability, and b) redundant experiences during development that underscore the contributions of size and strength to formidability, we hypothesize that size and strength constitute the conceptual dimensions of a representation used to summarize multiple diverse determinants of a prospective foe's formidability. Here, we test this hypothesis in humans by examining the effects of a potential foe's access to weaponry on estimations of that individual's size and strength. We demonstrate that knowing that an individual possesses a gun or a large kitchen knife leads observers to conceptualize him as taller, and generally larger and more muscular, than individuals who possess only tools or similarly mundane objects. We also document that such patterns are not explicable in terms of any actual correlation between gun ownership and physical size, nor can they be explained in terms of cultural schemas or other background knowledge linking particular objects to individuals of particular size and strength. These findings pave the way for a fuller understanding of the evolution of the cognitive systems whereby humans – and likely many other social vertebrates – navigate social hierarchies. PMID:22509247

  14. Magnetic nanoparticles formed in glasses co-doped with iron and larger radius elements

    SciTech Connect

    Edelman, I.; Ivanova, O.; Ivantsov, R.; Velikanov, D.; Zabluda, V.; Zubavichus, Y.; Veligzhanin, A.; Zaikovskiy, V.; Stepanov, S.; Artemenko, A.; Curely, J.; Kliava, J.

    2012-10-15

    A new type of nanoparticle-containing glasses based on borate glasses co-doped with low contents of iron and larger radius elements, Dy, Tb, Gd, Ho, Er, Y, and Bi, is studied. Heat treatment of these glasses results in formation of magnetic nanoparticles, radically changing their physical properties. Transmission electron microscopy and synchrotron radiation-based techniques: x-ray diffraction, extended x-ray absorption fine structure, x-ray absorption near-edge structure, and small-angle x-ray scattering, show a broad distribution of nanoparticle sizes with characteristics depending on the treatment regime; a crystalline structure of these nanoparticles is detected in heat treated samples. Magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) studies of samples subjected to heat treatment as well as of maghemite, magnetite, and iron garnet allow to unambiguously assign the nanoparticle structure to maghemite, independently of co-dopant nature and of heat treatment regime used. Different features observed in the MCD spectra are related to different electron transitions in Fe{sup 3+} ions gathered in the nanoparticles. The static magnetization in heat treated samples has non-linear dependence on the magnetizing field with hysteresis. Zero-field cooled magnetization curves show that at higher temperatures the nanoparticles occur in superparamagnetic state with blocking temperatures above 100 K. Below ca. 20 K, a considerable contribution to both zero field-cooled and field-cooled magnetizations occurs from diluted paramagnetic ions. Variable-temperature electron magnetic resonance (EMR) studies unambiguously show that in as-prepared glasses paramagnetic ions are in diluted state and confirm the formation of magnetic nanoparticles already at earlier stages of heat treatment. Computer simulations of the EMR spectra corroborate the broad distribution of nanoparticle sizes found by 'direct' techniques as well as superparamagnetic nanoparticle behaviour demonstrated in the magnetization

  15. Recruitment-dance signals draw larger audiences when honey bee colonies have multiple patrilines

    PubMed Central

    Mattila, H. R.; Seeley, T. D.

    2010-01-01

    Honey bee queens (Apis mellifera) who mate with multiple males produce colonies that are filled with numerous genetically distinct patrilines of workers. A genetically diverse colony benefits from an enhanced foraging effort, fuelled in part by an increase in the number of recruitment signals that are produced by foragers. However, the influence of patriline diversity on the attention paid to these signals by audiences of potentially receptive workers remains unexplored. To determine whether recruitment dances performed by foragers in multiple-patriline colonies attract a greater number of dance followers than dances in colonies that lack patriline diversity, we trained workers from multiple- and single-patriline colonies to forage in a greenhouse and monitored their dance-following activity back in the hives. On average, more workers followed a dance if it was performed in a multiple-patriline colony rather than a single-patriline colony (33% increase), and for a greater number of dance circuits per follower. Furthermore, dance-following workers in multiple-patriline colonies were more likely to exit their hive after following a dance, although this did not translate to a difference in colony-level exit rates between treatment types. Recruiting nest mates to profitable food sources through dance communication is critical to a colony’s foraging success and long-term fitness; polyandrous queens produce colonies that benefit not only from increased recruitment signalling, but also from the generation of larger and more attentive audiences of signal receivers. This study highlights the importance of integrating responses of both signal senders and receivers to understand more fully the success of animal-communication systems. PMID:21350596

  16. Developing Renewable Energy Projects Larger Than 10 MWs at Federal Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    2013-03-01

    To accomplish Federal goals for renewable energy, sustainability, and energy security, large-scale renewable energy projects must be developed and constructed on Federal sites at a significant scale with significant private investment. For the purposes of this Guide, large-scale Federal renewable energy projects are defined as renewable energy facilities larger than 10 megawatts (MW) that are sited on Federal property and lands and typically financed and owned by third parties.1 The U.S. Department of Energy’s Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) helps Federal agencies meet these goals and assists agency personnel navigate the complexities of developing such projects and attract the necessary private capital to complete them. This Guide is intended to provide a general resource that will begin to develop the Federal employee’s awareness and understanding of the project developer’s operating environment and the private sector’s awareness and understanding of the Federal environment. Because the vast majority of the investment that is required to meet the goals for large-scale renewable energy projects will come from the private sector, this Guide has been organized to match Federal processes with typical phases of commercial project development. FEMP collaborated with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and professional project developers on this Guide to ensure that Federal projects have key elements recognizable to private sector developers and investors. The main purpose of this Guide is to provide a project development framework to allow the Federal Government, private developers, and investors to work in a coordinated fashion on large-scale renewable energy projects. The framework includes key elements that describe a successful, financially attractive large-scale renewable energy project. This framework begins the translation between the Federal and private sector operating environments. When viewing the overall

  17. Microwaves create larger ablations than radiofrequency when controlled for power in ex vivo tissue

    PubMed Central

    Andreano, A.; Huang, Yu; Meloni, M. Franca; Lee, Fred T.; Brace, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To compare ablation zones created with equal amounts of 2.45 GHz microwave and 480 kHz radiofrequency (RF) energy in ex vivo liver and lung. Methods: A total of 38 ablations were performed in ex vivo liver and lung for 10 min each. Nineteen RF ablations (nine liver, ten lung) were performed with a 480 kHz system (200 W max, impedance-based pulsing) and cooled electrode while measuring the average RF power applied. Nineteen microwave ablations (nine liver, ten lung) were then created using a cooled triaxial antenna to deliver 2.45 GHz at the same power level as in RF experiments. Ablation zones were then sectioned and measured for minimum, maximum and mean diameters, and circularity. Measurements were compared using t-tests, with P<0.05 indicating statistical significance. Results: Mean diameters of microwave ablations were greater than RF ablations in both liver and lung (4.4±0.3 vs 3.3±0.2 cm in liver; 2.45±0.3 vs 1.6±0.5 cm in lungs; P<0.0005 all comparisons). There was no significant difference in the mean power applied during microwave or RF ablations in either organ (54.44±1.71 W vs 56.4±6.7 W in liver, P>0.05; 40±0.95 W vs 44.9±7.1 W in lung, P>0.05). Conclusions: Using a single cooled applicator, microwave energy at 2.45 GHz produces larger ablations than an equivalent amount of 480 kHz RF energy in normal liver and lung. This was more apparent in lung, likely due to the high baseline impedance which limits RF, but not microwave power delivery. PMID:20632609

  18. Test flattening in the larger foraminifer Heterostegina depressa: predicting bathymetry from axial sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eder, Wolfgang; Hohenegger, Johann; Kinoshita, Shunichi; Wöger, Julia; Briguglio, Antonino

    2016-04-01

    . This might enable us to better reconstruct palaeonenvironments of fossil larger foraminiferal communities or even give a hint on the degree of transport in allochtonous deposits.

  19. Weapons make the man (larger): formidability is represented as size and strength in humans.

    PubMed

    Fessler, Daniel M T; Holbrook, Colin; Snyder, Jeffrey K

    2012-01-01

    In order to determine how to act in situations of potential agonistic conflict, individuals must assess multiple features of a prospective foe that contribute to the foe's resource-holding potential, or formidability. Across diverse species, physical size and strength are key determinants of formidability, and the same is often true for humans. However, in many species, formidability is also influenced by other factors, such as sex, coalitional size, and, in humans, access to weaponry. Decision-making involving assessments of multiple features is enhanced by the use of a single summary variable that encapsulates the contributions of these features. Given both a) the phylogenetic antiquity of the importance of size and strength as determinants of formidability, and b) redundant experiences during development that underscore the contributions of size and strength to formidability, we hypothesize that size and strength constitute the conceptual dimensions of a representation used to summarize multiple diverse determinants of a prospective foe's formidability. Here, we test this hypothesis in humans by examining the effects of a potential foe's access to weaponry on estimations of that individual's size and strength. We demonstrate that knowing that an individual possesses a gun or a large kitchen knife leads observers to conceptualize him as taller, and generally larger and more muscular, than individuals who possess only tools or similarly mundane objects. We also document that such patterns are not explicable in terms of any actual correlation between gun ownership and physical size, nor can they be explained in terms of cultural schemas or other background knowledge linking particular objects to individuals of particular size and strength. These findings pave the way for a fuller understanding of the evolution of the cognitive systems whereby humans--and likely many other social vertebrates--navigate social hierarchies. PMID:22509247

  20. 17 CFR 274.14 - Form N-8B-4, registration statements of face-amount certificate companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... under the Investment Company Act of 1940. Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting Form N-8B-4, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FORMS PRESCRIBED UNDER THE INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF...

  1. 17 CFR 274.14 - Form N-8B-4, registration statements of face-amount certificate companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... under the Investment Company Act of 1940. Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting Form N-8B-4, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FORMS PRESCRIBED UNDER THE INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF...

  2. 17 CFR 274.13 - Form N-8B-3, registration statement of unincorporated management investment companies currently...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... citations affecting Form N-8B-3, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids... (CONTINUED) FORMS PRESCRIBED UNDER THE INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 Registration Statements § 274.13 Form N..., pursuant to section 8(b) of the Investment Company Act of 1940, by unincorporated management...

  3. 17 CFR 274.218 - Form N-8F, application for deregistration of certain registered investment companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...: For Federal Register citations affecting Form N-8F, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which... Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FORMS PRESCRIBED UNDER THE INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT... cases in which the applicant is a registered investment company that: (a) Has sold substantially all...

  4. 17 CFR 274.13 - Form N-8B-3, registration statement of unincorporated management investment companies currently...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... citations affecting Form N-8B-3, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids... (CONTINUED) FORMS PRESCRIBED UNDER THE INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 Registration Statements § 274.13 Form N..., pursuant to section 8(b) of the Investment Company Act of 1940, by unincorporated management...

  5. 17 CFR 274.13 - Form N-8B-3, registration statement of unincorporated management investment companies currently...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... citations affecting Form N-8B-3, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids... (CONTINUED) FORMS PRESCRIBED UNDER THE INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 Registration Statements § 274.13 Form N..., pursuant to section 8(b) of the Investment Company Act of 1940, by unincorporated management...

  6. 17 CFR 274.218 - Form N-8F, application for deregistration of certain registered investment companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...: For Federal Register citations affecting Form N-8F, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which... Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FORMS PRESCRIBED UNDER THE INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT... cases in which the applicant is a registered investment company that: (a) Has sold substantially all...

  7. 17 CFR 274.218 - Form N-8F, application for deregistration of certain registered investment companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...: For Federal Register citations affecting Form N-8F, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which... Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FORMS PRESCRIBED UNDER THE INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT... cases in which the applicant is a registered investment company that: (a) Has sold substantially all...

  8. 17 CFR 274.13 - Form N-8B-3, registration statement of unincorporated management investment companies currently...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... citations affecting Form N-8B-3, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids... (CONTINUED) FORMS PRESCRIBED UNDER THE INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 Registration Statements § 274.13 Form N..., pursuant to section 8(b) of the Investment Company Act of 1940, by unincorporated management...

  9. 17 CFR 274.14 - Form N-8B-4, registration statements of face-amount certificate companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... under the Investment Company Act of 1940. Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting Form N-8B-4, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FORMS PRESCRIBED UNDER THE INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF...

  10. 17 CFR 274.14 - Form N-8B-4, registration statements of face-amount certificate companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... under the Investment Company Act of 1940. Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting Form N-8B-4, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FORMS PRESCRIBED UNDER THE INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF...

  11. 17 CFR 274.14 - Form N-8B-4, registration statements of face-amount certificate companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... under the Investment Company Act of 1940. Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting Form N-8B-4, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FORMS PRESCRIBED UNDER THE INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF...

  12. 17 CFR 274.218 - Form N-8F, application for deregistration of certain registered investment companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...: For Federal Register citations affecting Form N-8F, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which... Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FORMS PRESCRIBED UNDER THE INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT... cases in which the applicant is a registered investment company that: (a) Has sold substantially all...

  13. 17 CFR 274.13 - Form N-8B-3, registration statement of unincorporated management investment companies currently...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... citations affecting Form N-8B-3, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids... (CONTINUED) FORMS PRESCRIBED UNDER THE INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 Registration Statements § 274.13 Form N..., pursuant to section 8(b) of the Investment Company Act of 1940, by unincorporated management...

  14. [Affective dependency].

    PubMed

    Scantamburlo, G; Pitchot, W; Ansseau, M

    2013-01-01

    Affective dependency is characterized by emotional distress (insecure attachment) and dependency to another person with a low self-esteem and reassurance need. The paper proposes a reflection on the definition of emotional dependency and the confusion caused by various denominations. Overprotective and authoritarian parenting, cultural and socio-environmental factors may contribute to the development of dependent personality. Psychological epigenetic factors, such as early socio-emotional trauma could on neuronal circuits in prefronto-limbic regions that are essential for emotional behaviour.We also focus on the interrelations between dependent personality, domestic violence and addictions. The objective for the clinician is to propose a restoration of self-esteem and therapeutic strategies focused on autonomy. PMID:23888587

  15. Three dimensional morphological studies of Larger Benthic Foraminifera at the population level using micro computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinoshita, Shunichi; Eder, Wolfgang; Woeger, Julia; Hohenegger, Johann; Briguglio, Antonino; Ferrandez-Canadell, Carles

    2015-04-01

    Symbiont-bearing larger benthic Foraminifera (LBF) are long-living marine (at least 1 year), single-celled organisms with complex calcium carbonate shells. Their morphology has been intensively studied since the middle of the nineteenth century. This led to a broad spectrum of taxonomic results, important from biostratigraphy to ecology in shallow water tropical to warm temperate marine palaeo-environments. However, it was necessary for the traditional investigation methods to cut or destruct specimens for analysing the taxonomically important inner structures. X-ray micro-computed tomography (microCT) is one of the newest techniques used in morphological studies. The greatest advantage is the non-destructive acquisition of inner structures. Furthermore, the running improve of microCT scanners' hard- and software provides high resolution and short time scans well-suited for LBF. Three-dimensional imaging techniques allow to select and extract each chamber and to measure easily its volume, surface and several form parameters used for morphometric analyses. Thus, 3-dimensional visualisation of LBF-tests is a very big step forward from traditional morphology based on 2-dimensional data. The quantification of chamber form is a great opportunity to tackle LBF structures, architectures and the bauplan geometry. The micrometric digital resolution is the only way to solve many controversies in phylogeny and evolutionary trends of LBF. For the present study we used micro-computed tomography to easily investigate the chamber number of every specimen from statistically representative part of populations to estimate population dynamics. Samples of living individuals are collected at monthly intervals from fixed locations. Specific preparation allows to scan up to 35 specimens per scan within 2 hours and to obtain the complete digital dataset for each specimen of the population. MicroCT enables thus a fast and precise count of all chambers built by the foraminifer from its

  16. Can We Prevent a Postoperative Spinal Epidural Hematoma by Using Larger Diameter Suction Drains?

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin Hak; Chang, Byung Kwon; Lee, Jae Il

    2016-01-01

    Background Epidural hematoma is a rare but serious complication. According to previous studies, it is not prevented by suction drains. This study evaluated the following alternative hypothesis: the larger the diameter of a suction drain, the less the remaining epidural hematoma after spinal surgery. Methods This was a randomized prospective study. Patients who underwent posterior lumbar decompression and instrumented fusion were divided into two groups: the large drain (LD, 2.8-mm-diameter tube) and small drain (SD, 1.6-mm-diameter tube) groups according to the diameter of the suction drains. All patients were consecutive and allocated alternately according to the date of operations. Suction drains were removed on day 3 and magnetic resonance imaging was performed on day 7 postoperatively. The size of remaining hematomas was measured by the degree of thecal sac compression in cross section using the following 4-point numeric scale: G1, less than one quarter; G2, between one quarter and half; G3, more than half; and G4, more than subtotal obstruction. Results There were 39 patients with LDs and 38 with SDs. They did not differ significantly in terms of sex, number of fusion segments, revision or not, antiplatelet medication, intraoperative injection of tranexamic acid. However, patient age differed significantly between the two groups (LD, 63.3 years and < SD, 68.6 years; p = 0.007). The two groups did not differ significantly in terms of prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, platelet number, blood loss, or operation duration. However, platelet function analysis exhibited a significant difference (LD, 164.7 seconds and < SD, 222.3 seconds; p = 0.002). The two blinded readers showed high consistency (Kappa value = 0.740; p = 0.000). The results of reader 1 were as follows: LD and SD had 21 and 21 cases of G1, 9 and 11 cases of G2, 6 and 6 cases of G3, and 3 and 0 cases of G4, respectively. The results of reader 2 were as follows: LD and SD had 22

  17. Why do oceanic negative cloud-to-ground lightning exhibit larger peak current values?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chronis, T.; Koshak, W.; McCaul, E.

    2016-04-01

    This study examines the temporal (monthly) and spatial climatology (2004-2010) of the first return stroke of the cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning flash peak current (Ip) across various land/water boundaries over the contiguous United States. Four regions are examined: the Gulf of Mexico (region 1), the Florida peninsula (region 2), Lake Michigan (region 3), and part of the U.S. Mid-Atlantic (region 4). The crosss across the coastlines of regions 1, 2, and 4 show a gradual oceanward increase in the mean negative polarity CG peak current values (-Ip). This transition along the respective land/ocean boundaries is not sharp but gradual. In direct contrast with ocean, there is no consistent behavior in -Ip values as we move from land out across the fresh water of Lake Michigan (region 3). Meanwhile, the positive CG flash peak current (+Ip) values do not exhibit a consistent variation across any coastal boundary. For region 1, the -Ip values increase as we move toward the coast (southwards) especially during the wet season (June-October). This finding is in direct contrast with studies that documented winter as the season of maximum -Ip values. The zonal and seasonal variations of -Ip values across region 4 are not quite as pronounced, but the oceanic -Ip values are still larger than over the adjoining landmass. We explore in turn which up to date hypotheses pertinent to the oceanic -Ip enhancement are supported or refuted by our findings. It is concluded that the oceanic -Ip enhancement is not an artifact related to CG detection or Ip retrieval methods, nor is it likely related to the cloud top heights or CG activity. The study cannot refute the role of electrical conductivity and its contribution to CG leader attachment processes. However, given the observed "blurred transition" of the Ip values across the coastlines this paper suggests that likely the main physical mechanism is acting on the thundercloud potential. The recently suggested role of sodium chloride (Na

  18. Undergraduate research in geochemistry at a larger university: developing a community of undergraduate and graduate researchers.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, J. G.

    2003-12-01

    . Undergraduate research projects in which 3-4 students work together to collect necessary data can get around the class vs. research scheduling issues they face as they can share the laboratory workload through the week. Group projects can thus collect larger bodies of data, allowing students to address more substantive problems.

  19. 75 FR 71417 - 2010 Company Organization Survey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-23

    ... Bureau of the Census 2010 Company Organization Survey AGENCY: Bureau of the Census, Commerce. ACTION... Organization Survey. The survey's data are needed, in part, to update the multilocation companies in the... companies may be selected if an organizational change within the company is indicated, or if they have...

  20. 75 FR 76452 - ConocoPhillips Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission ConocoPhillips Company v. Enterprise TE Products Pipeline Company LLC... (ICA), ConocoPhillips Company (ConocoPhillips or Complainant) filed a complaint against Enterprise TE Products Pipeline Company LLC (Enterprise TEPPCO or Respondent) alleging that Enterprise TEPPCO has...

  1. How to Analyze Company Using Social Network?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palus, Sebastian; Bródka, Piotr; Kazienko, Przemysław

    Every single company or institution wants to utilize its resources in the most efficient way. In order to do so they have to be have good structure. The new way to analyze company structure by utilizing existing within company natural social network and example of its usage on Enron company are presented in this paper.

  2. Illite precipitation and surface cracking during biotite dissolution under hydrothermal conditions: Effects of nanoscale system changes on larger scale processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Y.; Jun, Y.

    2012-12-01

    To ensure safe and efficient geologic CO2 sequestration (GCS), it is crucial to have a better understanding of CO2-brine-caprock interactions under GCS conditions. In this work, using biotite (K(Mg,Fe)3AlSi3O10(OH,F)2) as a model abundant clay mineral of the caprock at GCS sites, CO2-brine-biotite interactions were studied under hydrothermal conditions relevant to GCS sites (at 95 deg C, under 102 atm CO2, in 1 M NaCl, 0.4 M MgCl2, or 0.4 M CaCl2 solution). In these salt solutions, after reaction for 3 hrs, fast growth of micron-sized fibrous illite on flat basal planes of biotite was observed. After 22 hrs reaction, microscale cracks formed on the biotite basal surface, resulting in fibrous illite detaching from the surface. After reaction in 1 M NaCl solution for longer time, the cracked biotite pieces detached from the surface layer and released into solution. In control experiments with water under the same temperature and pressure, neither micron-sized fibrous illite nor cracks were observed, while oriented aggregation of hexagonal nanoparticles starting to form the fibrous-shaped illite was observed. These nano- and micro-scale behaviors have great effects on the macroscopic biotite dissolution and the aquifer properties. The cracking of the biotite surface can increase the surface area in contact with solution and accelerate biotite dissolution. The fibrous illite formation and its later mobilization in the salt solutions after its detachment could decrease the permeability of the aquifers greatly. This work provides unique information on how nanoscale system changes induced by geochemical reactions can affect larger scale chemical interactions and geophysical properties such as porosity and permeability. Ultimately, this information can help design safer and more efficient operations at not only GCS sites, but also other subsurface hydrothermal conditions.

  3. How risky is your company?

    PubMed

    Simons, R

    1999-01-01

    In boom times, it is easy for managers to forget about risk. And not just financial risk, but organizational and operational risk as well. Now there's the risk exposure calculator, a new tool that will help managers determine exactly where and how much internal risk is mounting in their companies. The risk calculator is divided into three parts: The first set of "keys" alerts managers to the pressures that come from growth. Now that the company has taken off, are employees feeling increased pressure to perform? Is the company's infrastructure becoming overloaded? And are more new employees coming on board as the company rushes to fill positions? If the answer is yes to any one of those questions, then risk may be rising to dangerous levels. The second set of keys on the calculator highlights pressures that arise from corporate culture. Are too many rewards being given for entrepreneurial risk taking? Are executives becoming so resistant to bad news that no one feels comfortable alerting them to problems? And is the company's level of internal competition so high that employees see promotion as a zero-sum game? The final set of pressures, the author says, revolves around information management. When calculating these pressures, managers should ask themselves, what was the company's complexity, volume, and velocity of information a year ago? Have they risen? By how much? How much of the time am I doing the work that a computer system should be doing? High pressure on many or all of these points should set off alarm bells for managers. To control risk, managers have four levers of control at their disposal that will show them where they need to make organizational adjustments. PMID:10387580

  4. Roosevelt elk density and social segregation: Foraging behavior and females avoiding larger groups of males

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weckerly, F.; McFarland, K.; Ricca, M.; Meyer, K.

    2004-01-01

    Intersexual social segregation at small spatial scales is prevalent in ruminants that are sexually dimorphic in body size. Explaining social segregation, however, from hypotheses of how intersexual size differences affects the foraging process of males and females has had mixed results. We studied whether body size influences on forage behavior, intersexual social incompatibility or both might influence social segregation in a population of Roosevelt elk (Cervus elaphus roosevelt) that declined 40% over 5 y. Most males and females in the population occurred in the same forage patches, meadows, but occupied different parts of meadows and most groups were overwhelming comprised of one sex. The extent of segregation varied slightly with changing elk density. Cropping rate, our surrogate of forage ingestion, of males in mixed-sex groups differed from males in male-only groups at high, but not low, elk density. In a prior study of intersexual social interactions it was shown that females avoided groups containing ???6 males. Therefore, we predicted that females should avoid parts of meadows where groups of males ???6 were prevalent. Across the 5 y of study this prediction held because ???5% of all females were found in parts of meadows where median aggregation sizes of males were ???6. Social segregation was coupled to body size influences on forage ingestion at high density and social incompatibility was coupled to social segregation regardless of elk density.

  5. Impaired Verbal Learning Is Associated with Larger Caudate Volumes in Early Onset Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Juuhl-Langseth, Monica; Hartberg, Cecilie B.; Holmén, Aina; Thormodsen, Rune; Groote, Inge R.; Rimol, Lars M.; Emblem, Kyrre E.; Agartz, Ingrid; Rund, Bjørn R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Both brain structural abnormalities and neurocognitive impairments are core features of schizophrenia. We have previously reported enlargements in subcortical brain structure volumes and impairment of neurocognitive functioning as measured by the MATRICS Cognitive Consensus Battery (MCCB) in early onset schizophrenia spectrum disorders (EOS). To our knowledge, no previous study has investigated whether neurocognitive performance and volumetric abnormalities in subcortical brain structures are related in EOS. Methods Twenty-four patients with EOS and 33 healthy controls (HC) were included in the study. Relationships between the caudate nucleus, the lateral and fourth ventricles volumes and neurocognitive performance were investigated with multivariate linear regression analyses. Intracranial volume, age, antipsychotic medication and IQ were included as independent predictor-variables. Results The caudate volume was negatively correlated with verbal learning performance uniquely in the EOS group (r=-.454, p=.034). There were comparable positive correlations between the lateral ventricular volume and the processing speed, attention and reasoning and problem solving domains for both the EOS patients and the healthy controls. Antipsychotic medication was related to ventricular enlargements, but did not affect the brain structure-function relationship. Conclusion Enlargement of the caudate volume was related to poorer verbal learning performance in patients with EOS. Despite a 32% enlargement of the lateral ventricles in the EOS group, associations to processing speed, attention and reasoning and problem solving were similar for both the EOS and the HC groups. PMID:26230626

  6. SEXUAL SPECIES ARE SEPARATED BY LARGER GENETIC GAPS THAN ASEXUAL SPECIES IN ROTIFERS

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Cuong Q; Obertegger, Ulrike; Fontaneto, Diego; Barraclough, Timothy G

    2014-01-01

    Why organisms diversify into discrete species instead of showing a continuum of genotypic and phenotypic forms is an important yet rarely studied question in speciation biology. Does species discreteness come from adaptation to fill discrete niches or from interspecific gaps generated by reproductive isolation? We investigate the importance of reproductive isolation by comparing genetic discreteness, in terms of intra- and interspecific variation, between facultatively sexual monogonont rotifers and obligately asexual bdelloid rotifers. We calculated the age (phylogenetic distance) and average pairwise genetic distance (raw distance) within and among evolutionarily significant units of diversity in six bdelloid clades and seven monogonont clades sampled for 4211 individuals in total. We find that monogonont species are more discrete than bdelloid species with respect to divergence between species but exhibit similar levels of intraspecific variation (species cohesiveness). This pattern arises because bdelloids have diversified into discrete genetic clusters at a faster net rate than monogononts. Although sampling biases or differences in ecology that are independent of sexuality might also affect these patterns, the results are consistent with the hypothesis that bdelloids diversified at a faster rate into less discrete species because their diversification does not depend on the evolution of reproductive isolation. PMID:24975991

  7. Expanding Coherent Array Processing to Larger Apertures Using Empirical Matched Field Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Ringdal, F; Harris, D B; Kvaerna, T; Gibbons, S J

    2009-07-23

    necessary to divide event populations from a single mine into identifiable subpopulations. For this purpose, we perform cluster analysis using matched field statistics calculated on pairs of individual events as a distance metric. In our initial work, calibrations were derived from ensembles of events ranging in number to more than 100. We are considering the performance now of matched field calibrations derived with many fewer events (even, as mentioned, individual events). Since these are high-variance estimates, we are testing the use of cross-channel, multitaper, spectral estimation methods to reduce the variance of calibrations and detection statistics derived from single-event observations. To test the applicability of the technique in a different tectonic region, we have obtained four years of continuous data from 4 Kazakh arrays and are extracting large numbers of event segments. Our initial results using 132 mining explosions recorded by the Makanchi array are similar to those obtained in the European Arctic. Matched field processing clearly separates the explosions from three closely-spaced mines located approximately 400 kilometers from the array, again using waveforms in a band (6-10 Hz) normally considered incoherent for this array. Having reproduced ARCES-type performance with another small aperture array, we have two additional objectives for matched field processing. We will attempt to extend matched field processing to larger apertures: a 200 km aperture (the KNET) and, if data permit, to an aperture comprised of several Kazakh arrays. We also will investigate the potential of developing matched field processing to roughly locate and classify natural seismicity, which is more diffuse than the concentrated sources of mining explosions that we have investigated to date.

  8. 26 CFR 1.812-1 - Taxable years affected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) INCOME TAXES Gain and Loss from Operations § 1.812-1 Taxable years affected. Sections 1.812-2 through 1... Internal Revenue Code of 1954, as amended by the Life Insurance Company Income Tax Act of 1959 (73...

  9. 26 CFR 1.811-1 - Taxable years affected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) INCOME TAXES Gain and Loss from Operations § 1.811-1 Taxable years affected. Section 1.811-2, except as... 1954, as amended by the Life Insurance Company Income Tax Act of 1959 (73 Stat. 112)....

  10. 12 CFR 225.102 - Bank holding company indirectly owning nonbanking company through subsidiaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Bank holding company indirectly owning... BANK CONTROL (REGULATION Y) Regulations Financial Holding Companies Interpretations § 225.102 Bank... Company Act of 1956. It is stated that Y Company is an investment company which is not a bank...

  11. 75 FR 14436 - Ameren Corporation, Illinois Power Company, Central Illinois Light Company, Central Illinois...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Ameren Corporation, Illinois Power Company, Central Illinois Light Company, Central Illinois Public Service Company, Ameren Energy Resources Company, LLC, AmerenEnergy Resources Generating Company; Notice of Filing...

  12. 75 FR 28604 - Southern California Edison Company; Pacific Gas and Electric Company; San Diego Gas & Electric...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Southern California Edison Company; Pacific Gas and Electric Company; San Diego Gas & Electric Company; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order May 13, 2010. Take notice that on... and Electric Company, and San Diego Gas & Electric Company filed a Petition for Declaratory...

  13. 17 CFR 250.7 - Companies deemed not to be electric or gas utility companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... electric or gas utility companies. 250.7 Section 250.7 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... Registration and General Exemptions § 250.7 Companies deemed not to be electric or gas utility companies. (a... electric or gas utility company, shall not be deemed an electric or gas utility company within the...

  14. Sales Training for Small Companies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinder, James F.

    1974-01-01

    The author suggests methods a sales manager in a small company can use to train effective salesmen; he defines the sales manager's role, and cites internal and external training resources. The absence of sales training courses in metropolitan Canada is noted. (AJ)

  15. Perceptions of work environment priorities: Are there any differences by company size? An ecological study

    PubMed Central

    Nordlöf, Hasse; Wijk, Katarina; Westergren, Karl-Erik

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Earlier studies suggest that the quality of handling occupational health and safety (OHS) activities differs between companies of different sizes. Company size is a proxy variable for other variables affecting OHS performance. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate if there is an association between company size and perceptions of work environment prioritizations. METHODS: Data from 106 small- and medium-sized Swedish manufacturing companies was collected. One manager and one safety delegate at each company rated different aspects of their companies’ work environment prioritizations with a 43-item questionnaire. Ratings were aggregated to a summary statistic for each company before analysis. RESULTS: No significant differences in perceptions of priority were found to be associated with company sizes. This is in contrast to earlier studies of objective differences. The respondents in small companies, however, showed significantly greater consensus in their ratings. CONCLUSIONS: Company size does not appear to be associated with perceptions of work environment prioritizations. Company size is an important proxy variable to study in order to understand what factors enable and obstruct safe and healthy workplaces. The work presented here should be viewed as an initial exploration to serve as direction for future academic work. PMID:26409368

  16. Natural gas annual 1993 supplement: Company profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-02-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. This report, the Natural Gas Annual 1993 Supplement: Company Profiles, presents a detailed profile of 45 selected companies in the natural gas industry. The purpose of this report is to show the movement of natural gas through the various States served by the companies profiled. The companies in this report are interstate pipeline companies or local distribution companies (LDC`s). Interstate pipeline companies acquire gas supplies from company owned production, purchases from producers, and receipts for transportation for account of others. Pipeline systems, service area maps, company supply and disposition data are presented.

  17. 76 FR 58263 - Kenai Pipe Line Company; Tesoro Alaska Company; Tesoro Logistics Operations, LLC; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Kenai Pipe Line Company; Tesoro Alaska Company; Tesoro Logistics Operations... Company (Tesoro Alaska), and Tesoro Logistics, LLC (TLO) (collectively, Tesoro) filed a Request...

  18. 75 FR 61835 - Jackson & Lansing Railroad Company-Trackage Rights Exemption-Norfolk Southern Railway Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ... Surface Transportation Board Jackson & Lansing Railroad Company--Trackage Rights Exemption-- Norfolk Southern Railway Company Pursuant to a written Assignment of Trackage Rights and Other Joint Facility Agreements (Trackage Agreement) dated September 16, 2010, Norfolk Southern Railway Company (NSR) has...

  19. Optimal choice: assessing the probability of additional damage to buildings caused by water level changes of larger areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bijnagte, J. L.; Luger, D.

    2012-12-01

    In the Northern parts of the Netherlands exploration of natural gas reservoirs causes subsidence over large areas. As a consequence, the water levels in canals and polders have to be adjusted over time in order to keep the groundwater levels at a constant depth relative to the surface level. In the middle of the subsidence area it is relatively easy to follow the settlements by a uniform lowering of the water level. This would however result in a relative lowering of the groundwater table at the edges of the subsidence area. Given the presence of soft compressible soils, this would result in induced settlements. For buildings in these areas this will increase the chance of damage. A major design challenge lies therefore in the optimisation of the use of compartments. The more compartments the higher the cost therefore the aim is to make compartments in the water management system that are as large as possible without causing inadmissible damage to buildings. In order to asses expected damage from different use of compartments three tools are needed. The first is a generally accepted method of damage determination, the second a method to determine the contribution to damage of a new influence, e.g. a groundwater table change. Third, and perhaps most importantly, a method is needed to evaluate effects not for single buildings but for larger areas. The first need is covered by established damage criteria like those of Burland & Wroth or Boscardin & Cording. Up until now the second and the third have been problematic. This paper presents a method which enables to assign a contribution to the probability of damage of various recognised mechanisms such as soil and foundation inhomogeneity, uneven loading, ground water level changes. Shallow subsidence due to peat oxidation and deep subsidence due to reservoir depletion can be combined. In order to address the third issue: evaluation of effects for larger areas, the method uses a probabilistic approach. Apart from a

  20. Impact of Higher Natural Gas Prices on Local Distribution Companies and Residential Customers

    EIA Publications

    2007-01-01

    This report examines some of the problems faced by natural gas consumers as a result of increasing heating bills in recent years and problems associated with larger amounts of uncollectible revenue and lower throughput for the local distribution companies (LDCs) supplying the natural gas.

  1. Land-use impacts on fatty acid profiles of suspended particulate organic matter along a larger tropical river.

    PubMed

    Boëchat, I G; Krüger, A; Chaves, R C; Graeber, D; Gücker, B

    2014-06-01

    Land-use change, such as agricultural expansion and urbanization, can affect riverine biological diversity and ecosystem functioning. Identifying the major stressors associated with catchment land-use change is a prerequisite for devising successful river conservation and restoration strategies. Here, we analyzed land-use effects on the fatty acid (FA) composition and concentrations in suspended particulate organic matter (SPOM) along a fourth-order tropical river, the Rio das Mortes. Thereby, we aimed at testing the potential of fatty acids in riverine suspended particulate organic matter (SPOM-FAs) as indicators of land-use change in tropical catchments, and at identifying major human impacts on the biochemical composition of SPOM, which represents an important basal energy and organic matter resource for aquatic consumers. River water SPOM and total FA concentrations ranged between 2.8 and 10.2mg dry weight(DW)L(-1) and between 130.6 and 268.2μg DW L(-1), respectively, in our study. Urbanization was the only land-use category correlating with both FA composition and concentrations, despite its low contribution to whole catchment (1.5-5.6%) and riparian buffer land cover (1.7-6.6%). Higher concentrations of saturated FAs, especially C16:0 and C18:0, which are the main components of domestic sewage, were observed at sampling stations downstream of urban centers, and were highly correlated to urbanization, especially within the 60m riparian buffer zone. Compared to water chemical characteristics (inorganic nutrients, dissolved oxygen, pH, and specific conductance) and river habitat structural integrity, FA variables exhibited a higher variability along the investigated river and were more strongly correlated to urban land use, suggesting that SPOM-FA profiles may be an efficient indicator of urban land-use impacts on larger tropical rivers. High total FA concentrations in the SPOM of urbanized tropical rivers may represent high-energy biochemical subsidies to food

  2. Warmer Boreal Forest Organic Soil Horizons are Associated with Larger Fluxes of Dissolved Organic Carbon than their Cooler Climate Counterparts.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowering, K.; Edwards, K. A.; Ziegler, S. E.

    2015-12-01

    Boreal forest soils are characterized by large stocks of carbon associated with relatively slow decomposition and deep organic horizons. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) loss from organic soil horizons occurs through hydrologically-mediated leaching processes, and contributes to downstream carbon both in deeper mineral soils and also in connected aquatic systems. However, the amount of DOC that leaves organic horizons and the environmental controls on this flux are poorly understood and are likely to be affected by climate changes. We sampled zero-tension lysimeters along 3 forested sites of a boreal climate transect to estimate DOC export from organic soil horizons of mesic boreal podzols (spodosols), and to investigate the climatic drivers of this flux. The sites are part of the Newfoundland and Labrador Boreal Ecosystems Latitudinal Transect (NL-BELT) and span approximately 5°C in mean annual temperature. Lysimeters were sampled over 4 years and DOC flux was calculated for each seasonal period (summer, fall, and winter) of each year. DOC flux was greatest in the warmest site (114 mg C day-1 m-2), with the two cooler sites having lower flux rates (40 and 36 mg C day-1 m-2 in the intermediate and coolest sites respectively). Seasonal variation was most pronounced in the warmest site where more DOC exited the organic soil horizons during fall than during summer or winter. DOC flux was correlated with the volume of soil solution collected in the lysimeters (R2 = .46), however the larger sample volumes collected in the warmest climate do not reflect greater overall precipitation. During the 4-year period of this study, similar amounts of precipitation were recorded in all regions, and the number of days with >10mm precipitation did not differ. The greater DOC flux in the warmer climate site may be due to higher rates of both litterfall and decomposition, contributing to increased labile DOC sources in the warmer climate. Analyses of the carbon quality of these samples

  3. The effect of carbonate chemistry and light levels on calcification and photosynthesis in the larger benthic foraminifera Operculina ammonoides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oron, Shai; Abramovich, Sigal; Evans, David; Erez, Jonathan

    2015-04-01

    We present data on metabolic measurements and growth experiments conducted on Operculina ammonoides, a symbiont bearing larger benthic foraminifera (LBF) of the family Nummulitidae, which is the closest living descendant of the Eocene Nummulites. The large size, the high abundance and wide distribution of Nummulitids and other LBF make them a vital archive for ancient and recent oceanic environments. LBF are also an important component of the ocean tropical and subtropical benthic ecosystem, where they have a significant contribution to primary production, and are major calcium carbonate producers. Their symbiosis, calcification physiology, and ecological response to environmental changes are poorly understood. The present study is part of an ongoing research effort focused on those topics. Calcification, respiration and symbiont photosynthesis were measured during long-term experiments that included manipulation of carbonate chemistry parameters and light levels. The experiments were done with large number of individuals (1500 in total) divided into incubation groups of 60-100. Diurnal and nocturnal data was obtained, along with cumulative incubations on a time span of a few days. The metabolic rates were estimated from measurements of dissolved oxygen, total alkalinity and pH before and after the incubations. This technique does not interfere with the experimental populations and allow a series of measurements to be performed on the same specimens. In all experiments, both for the diurnal cycles and for the long incubations, we observed significantly higher photosynthesis rates than respiration (positive O2 budget) for the holobiont. This oxygen excess has increased with light intensity, suggesting a significant growth of the symbionts within their host. Calcification was enhanced during the day compared to the night but did not increase with light intensity or with photosynthesis. In normal seawater, higher calcification rates were observed during the cumulative

  4. 17 CFR 239.24 - Form N-5, form for registration of small business investment company under the Securities Act of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Register citations Form N-5, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids... registration of small business investment company under the Securities Act of 1933 and the Investment Company... N-5, form for registration of small business investment company under the Securities Act of 1933...

  5. 17 CFR 239.24 - Form N-5, form for registration of small business investment company under the Securities Act of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Register citations Form N-5, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids... registration of small business investment company under the Securities Act of 1933 and the Investment Company... N-5, form for registration of small business investment company under the Securities Act of 1933...

  6. Ergonomics contributions to company strategies.

    PubMed

    Dul, Jan; Neumann, W Patrick

    2009-07-01

    Managers usually associate ergonomics with occupational health and safety and related legislation, not with business performance. In many companies, these decision makers seem not to be positively motivated to apply ergonomics for reasons of improving health and safety. In order to strengthen the position of ergonomics and ergonomists in the business and management world, we discuss company strategies and business goals to which ergonomics could contribute. Conceptual models are presented and examples are given to illustrate: (1) the present situation in which ergonomics is not part of regular planning and control cycles in organizations to ensure business performance; and (2) the desired situation in which ergonomics is an integrated part of strategy formulation and implementation. In order to realize the desired situation, considerable changes must take place within the ergonomics research, education and practice community by moving from a health ergonomics paradigm to a business ergonomics paradigm, without losing the health and safety goals. PMID:18775532

  7. Investing in medical device companies.

    PubMed

    Benson, B; Mutsch, E

    1993-11-01

    For companies seeking investors, money is available, but it is not as easy to obtain as it has been in recent years. Although the medical device industry remains an attractive proposition, several factors have contributed to the downturn in public-offering investment. This article outlines these factors and discusses the types of medical technologies that are likely to attract investment in the immediate future. PMID:10146504

  8. Natural gas annual 1992: Supplement: Company profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The data for the Natural Gas Annual 1991 Supplement : Company Profiles are taken from Form EIA-176, (open quotes) Annual Report of Natural and Supplemental Gas Supply and Disposition (close quotes). Other sources include industry literature and corporate annual reports to shareholders. The companies appearing in this report are major interstate natural gas pipeline companies, large distribution companies, or combination companies with both pipeline and distribution operations. The report contains profiles of 45 corporate families. The profiles describe briefly each company, where it operates, and any important issues that the company faces. The purpose of this report is to show the movement of natural gas through the various States served by the 45 large companies profiled.

  9. 78 FR 66785 - Luminant Generation Company, LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Luminant Generation Company, LLC AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice of receipt... consecutive weeks of ] a combined license (COL) application from Luminant Generation Company, LLC....

  10. 78 FR 68100 - Luminant Generation Company, LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Luminant Generation Company, LLC AGENCY: U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). ACTION... consecutive weeks of a combined license (COL) application from Luminant Generation Company, LLC....

  11. 78 FR 69710 - Luminant Generation Company, LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Luminant Generation Company, LLC AGENCY: U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). ACTION... consecutive weeks of a combined license (COL) application from Luminant Generation Company, LLC....

  12. Indigenous and multinational pharmaceutical companies.

    PubMed

    Lilja, J

    1983-01-01

    There is a set of complex relationships between governments and the pharmaceutical companies. These relationships can be analysed in many different ways. In the following article the drug system of each country will be the unit of analysis. The drug system includes all the decision processes, formal as well as informal, from the production or importation of drugs to the intake of the drug by the patient. The aim of this paper is to discuss how environmental factors, the strategies of the drug companies and the national policies, will effect the drug system of a country. Satisfying solutions to the economical and health goals of the country will be searched for. If we want a more rational discussion in this area, professionally and politically, we need more empirical knowledge about the multinational drug companies and their effects on society. This does not mean that we shall sit waiting for this new knowledge. We have to make decisions using todays knowledge. However, in the long run rational decision strategy must include ways to collect important empirical data about the phenomenom under investigation. The aim of this survey is to indicate areas where we already have quite good knowledge and indicate other areas where this data is missing. PMID:6623122

  13. 77 FR 55159 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-07

    ...We are revising an earlier proposed airworthiness directive (AD) for certain The Boeing Company Model 737-700, -700C, -800, and - 900ER series airplanes, Model 747-400F series airplanes, and Model 767- 200 and -300 series airplanes. That NPRM proposed to require an inspection for affected serial numbers of the crew oxygen mask stowage box units; and replacement of the crew oxygen mask stowage......

  14. New Regimes of Implosions of Larger Sized Wire Arrays With and Without Modified Central Plane at 1.5-1.7 MA Zebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safronova, A. S.; Kantsyrev, V. L.; Esaulov, A. A.; Weller, M. E.; Shrestha, I.; Shlyaptseva, V. V.; Stafford, A.; Keim, S. F.; Petkov, E. E.; Lorance, M.; Chuvatin, A. S.; Coverdale, C. A.; Jones, B.

    2013-10-01

    The recent experiments at 1.5-1.7 MA on Zebra at UNR with larger sized planar wires arrays (compared to the wire loads at 1 MA current) have demonstrated higher linear radiation yield and electron temperatures as well as advantages of better diagnostics access to observable plasma regions. Such multi-planar wire arrays had two outer wire planes from mid-Z material to create a global magnetic field (gmf) and mid-Z plasma flow between them. Also, they included a modified central plane with a few Al wires at the edges to influence gmf and to create Al plasma flow in the perpendicular direction. The stationary shock waves which existed over tens of ns on shadow images and the early x-ray emissions before the PCD peak on time-gated spectra were observed. The most recent experiments with similar loads but without the central wires demonstrated a very different regime of implosion with asymmetrical jets and no precursor formation. This work was supported by NNSA under DOE Cooperative Agreement DE-NA0001984 and in part by DE-FC52-06NA27616. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Company, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  15. Scaling behavior in economics: The problem of quantifying company growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunes Amaral, Luís A.; Buldyrev, Sergey V.; Havlin, Shlomo; Maass, Philipp; Salinger, Michael A.; Eugene Stanley, H.; Stanley, Michael H. R.

    1997-02-01

    Inspired by work of both Widom and Mandelbrot, we analyze the Computstat database comprising all publicly traded United States manufacturing companies in the years 1974-1993. We find that the distribution of company size remains stable for the 20 years we study, i.e., the mean value and standard deviation remain approximately constant. We study the distribution of sizes of the “new” companies in each year and find it to be well approximated by a log- normal. We find (i) the distribution of the logarithm of the growth rates, for a fixed growth period of T years, and for companies with approximately the same size S displays an exponential “tent-shaped” form rather than the bell-shaped Gaussian, one would expect for a log-normal distribution, and (ii) the fluctuations in the growth rates - measured by the width of this distribution σT - decrease with company size and increase with time T. We find that for annual growth rates ( T = 1), σT ∼ S- β, and that the exponent β takes the same value, within the error bars, for several measures of the size of a company. In particular, we obtain β = 0.20 ± 0.03 for sales, β = 0.18 ± 0.03 for number of employees, β = 0.18±0.03 for assets, β = 0.18 ± 0.03 for cost of goods sold, and β = 0.20 ± 0.03 for propert, plant, and equipment. We propose models that may lead to some insight into these phenomena. First, we study a model in which the growth rate of a company is affected by a tendency to retain an “optimal” size. That model leads to an exponential distribution of the logarithm of growth rate in agreement with the empirical results. Then, we study a hierarchical tree-like model of a company that enables us to relate β to parameters of a company structure. We find that β = -1n Π/1n z, where z defines the mean branching ratio of the hierarchical tree and Π is the probability that the lower levels follow the policy of higher levels in the hierarchy. We also study the output distribution of growth

  16. 78 FR 64911 - 2013 Company Organization Survey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-30

    ... Bureau of the Census 2013 Company Organization Survey AGENCY: Bureau of the Census, Commerce. ACTION... Organization Survey. The survey's data are needed, in part, to update the multilocation companies in the... organizational change within the company is indicated, or if they have been selected through the...

  17. 76 FR 62759 - 2011 Company Organization Survey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-11

    ... Bureau of the Census 2011 Company Organization Survey AGENCY: Bureau of the Census, Commerce. ACTION... Organization Survey. The survey's data are needed, in part, to update the multilocation companies in the... organizational change within the company is indicated, or if they have been selected through the...

  18. 76 FR 20458 - Mutual Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-12

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision Mutual Holding Company AGENCY: Office of Thrift Supervision (OTS), Treasury... collection. Title of Proposal: Mutual Holding Company. OMB Number: 1550-0072. Form Numbers: MHC-1 (OTS Form... whether the applicant meets the statutory and regulatory criteria to form a mutual holding company...

  19. Larger than Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruopp, Amy

    2011-01-01

    Exploring idea and media while developing skills is always an interesting challenge in the middle grades. Often, the daunting task of having to draw a self-portrait turns some students away, so the author set out to create portraits with realistic likenesses while incorporating an exploration of multiple materials and allowing an expressive…

  20. The Larger View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlisle, Peggy

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a series of lessons that focuses on observation and documentation of organisms and that is appropriate for the second through fourth grades. By giving students the necessary initial support, they will have the ability to observe details and the skills and confidence to make realistic scientific drawings and…

  1. 17 CFR 256.311 - Other service company property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR MUTUAL SERVICE COMPANIES AND SUBSIDIARY SERVICE COMPANIES, PUBLIC... company can furnish full information with respect to the amounts included herein. Income and...

  2. 77 FR 8956 - Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds: Integrity Mutual Insurance Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-15

    ... Supplement No. 9 to the Treasury Department Circular 570, 2011 Revision, published July 1, 2011, at 76 FR... Fiscal Service Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds: Integrity Mutual Insurance Company AGENCY.... 9305 to the following company: Integrity Mutual Insurance Company (NAIC 14303). Business Address:...

  3. 12 CFR 225.101 - Bank holding company's subsidiary banks owning shares of nonbanking companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) apply to the aggregate amount of stock held in a particular organization by the bank holding company... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bank holding company's subsidiary banks owning... company's subsidiary banks owning shares of nonbanking companies. (a) The Board's opinion has...

  4. 12 CFR 225.102 - Bank holding company indirectly owning nonbanking company through subsidiaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Bank holding company indirectly owning... CONTROL (REGULATION Y) Regulations Financial Holding Companies Interpretations § 225.102 Bank holding... Act of 1956. It is stated that Y Company is an investment company which is not a bank holding...

  5. 12 CFR 225.102 - Bank holding company indirectly owning nonbanking company through subsidiaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bank holding company indirectly owning... CONTROL (REGULATION Y) Regulations Financial Holding Companies Interpretations § 225.102 Bank holding... Act of 1956. It is stated that Y Company is an investment company which is not a bank holding...

  6. 78 FR 62616 - Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company, Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company, LLC; Notice of Transfer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company, Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company, LLC; Notice of Transfer of Exemption 1. By letter filed September 23, 2013, Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company informed the Commission that they have changed its name to Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company, LLC for...

  7. 78 FR 28831 - Mountaineer Gas Company v. Washington Gas Light Company; Notice of Complaint

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Mountaineer Gas Company v. Washington Gas Light Company; Notice of Complaint... complaint against Washington Gas Light Company (WGL or Respondent), pursuant to the Natural Gas Act (NGA... the contacts of Washington Gas Light Company as listed on the Commission's list of Corporate...

  8. 78 FR 27218 - Mountaineer Gas Company v. Washington Gas Light Company: Notice of Complaint

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-09

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Mountaineer Gas Company v. Washington Gas Light Company: Notice of Complaint... complaint against Washington Gas Light Company (WGL or Respondent), pursuant to the Natural Gas Act (NGA... the contacts of Washington Gas Light Company as listed on the Commission's list of Corporate...

  9. 77 FR 11529 - Louisville Gas and Electric Company; Kentucky Utilities Company; Notice of Petition for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Louisville Gas and Electric Company; Kentucky Utilities Company; Notice of... Gas and Electric Company and Kentucky Utilities Company, filed a Petition for Declaratory Order... (toll free). For TTY, call (202) 502-8659. Comment Date: 5 p.m. Eastern Time on March 15, 2012....

  10. 77 FR 25536 - Surety Companies Acceptable On Federal Bonds: Endurance American Insurance Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-30

    ... Supplement No. 17 to the Treasury Department Circular 570, 2011 Revision, published July 1, 2011, at 76 FR... Fiscal Service Surety Companies Acceptable On Federal Bonds: Endurance American Insurance Company AGENCY.... 9305 to the following company: Endurance American Insurance Company (NAIC 10641). Business Address:...

  11. 75 FR 22689 - Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds: Regent Insurance Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-29

    ... No. 11 to the Treasury Department Circular 570, 2009 Revision, published July 1, 2009, at 74 FR 31536... Fiscal Service Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds: Regent Insurance Company AGENCY: Financial... following company: Regent Insurance Company (NAIC 24449) Business Address: One General Drive, Sun...

  12. 75 FR 11228 - Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds: Pennsylvania Manufacturers Indemnity Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-10

    ..., at 74 FR 31536. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Surety Bond Branch at (202) 874-6850. SUPPLEMENTARY... Fiscal Service Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds: Pennsylvania Manufacturers Indemnity Company....C. 9305 to the following company: Pennsylvania Manufacturers Indemnity Company (NAIC...

  13. 78 FR 15123 - Surety Companies Acceptable On Federal Bonds: Atlantic Specialty Insurance Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-08

    ... Supplement No. 5 to the Treasury Department Circular 570, 2012 Revision, published July 2, 2012, at 77 FR... Fiscal Service Surety Companies Acceptable On Federal Bonds: Atlantic Specialty Insurance Company AGENCY.... 9305 to the following company: Atlantic Specialty Insurance Company (NAIC 27154). BUSINESS ADDRESS:...

  14. 77 FR 25535 - Surety Companies Acceptable On Federal Bonds: Pacific Employers Insurance Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-30

    ... Supplement No. 18 to the Treasury Department Circular 570, 2011 Revision, published July 1, 2011, at 76 FR... Fiscal Service Surety Companies Acceptable On Federal Bonds: Pacific Employers Insurance Company AGENCY....C. 9305 to the following company: Pacific Employers Insurance Company (NAIC 22748). Business...

  15. 75 FR 11228 - Surety Companies Acceptable On Federal Bonds: Manufacturers Alliance Insurance Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-10

    ..., at 74 FR 31536. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Surety Bond Branch at (202) 874-6850. SUPPLEMENTARY... Fiscal Service Surety Companies Acceptable On Federal Bonds: Manufacturers Alliance Insurance Company....C. 9305 to the following company: Manufacturers Alliance Insurance Company (NAIC 36897)....

  16. 77 FR 8956 - Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds: Grange Mutual Casualty Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-15

    ... Supplement No. 7 to the Treasury Department Circular 570, 2011 Revision, published July 1, 2011, at 76 FR... Fiscal Service Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds: Grange Mutual Casualty Company AGENCY.... 9305 to the following company: Grange Mutual Casualty Company (NAIC 14060). Business Address: 671...

  17. 76 FR 77591 - Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds: Aspen American Insurance Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-13

    ... Supplement No. 3 to the Treasury Department Circular 570, 2011 Revision, published July 1, 2011, at 76 FR... Fiscal Service Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds: Aspen American Insurance Company AGENCY.... 9305 to the following company: Aspen American Insurance Company (NAIC 43460). Business Address:...

  18. 75 FR 61246 - Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds: Darwin National Assurance Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-04

    ... Supplement No. 4 to the Treasury Department Circular 570, 2010 Revision, published July 1, 2010, at 75 FR... Fiscal Service Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds: Darwin National Assurance Company AGENCY.... 9305 to the following company: Darwin National Assurance Company (NAIC 16624). Business Address: 9...

  19. 12 CFR 239.24 - Issuances of stock by subsidiary holding companies of mutual holding companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Issuances of stock by subsidiary holding companies of mutual holding companies. 239.24 Section 239.24 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) MUTUAL HOLDING COMPANIES (REGULATION MM) Subsidiary Holding Companies §...

  20. 77 FR 55207 - Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC, Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-07

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC, Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC; Notice of Application Take notice that on August 16, 2012, Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC (FGT... & Tariffs, Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC, 5051 Westheimer Road, Houston, Texas, 77056, or call...

  1. 75 FR 2126 - Calais Pipeline Company, LLC; Calais LNG Project Company, LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-14

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Calais Pipeline Company, LLC; Calais LNG Project Company, LLC; Notice of Application January 6, 2010. Take notice that on December 18, 2009, Calais LNG Project Company, LLC (Calais LNG) and Calais Pipeline Company, LLC (Calais Pipeline) 142 ] Main Street, P.O. Box 133, Calais,...

  2. 75 FR 60865 - Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds: Allied World Reinsurance Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-01

    ... Supplement No. 3 to the Treasury Department Circular 570, 2010 Revision, published July 1, 2010, at 75 FR... Fiscal Service Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds: Allied World Reinsurance Company AGENCY.... 9305 to the following company: Allied World Reinsurance Company (NAIC 22730). Business Address:...

  3. 78 FR 63564 - BNSF Railway Company-Trackage Rights Exemption-Union Pacific Railroad Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ... Surface Transportation Board BNSF Railway Company--Trackage Rights Exemption--Union Pacific Railroad Company Pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement, Union Pacific Railroad Company (UP) has agreed to grant overhead trackage rights to BNSF Railway Company (BNSF) over the following UP rail lines: (1)...

  4. 77 FR 14058 - BNSF Railway Company-Trackage Rights Exemption-Union Pacific Railroad Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-08

    ... Surface Transportation Board BNSF Railway Company--Trackage Rights Exemption--Union Pacific Railroad Company Pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement, Union Pacific Railroad Company (UP) has agreed to grant trackage rights to BNSF Railway Company (BNSF) over a portion of a line of railroad known as...

  5. 76 FR 34805 - Arkansas Midland Railroad Company, Inc., Trackage Rights Exemption; Caddo Valley Railroad Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-14

    ... Surface Transportation Board Arkansas Midland Railroad Company, Inc., Trackage Rights Exemption; Caddo Valley Railroad Company Pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement, Caddo Valley Railroad Company (CVR) has agreed to grant local trackage rights to Arkansas Midland Railroad Company, Inc. (AKMD)...

  6. 77 FR 67442 - Soo Line Railroad Company-Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption-BNSF Railway Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-09

    ... Surface Transportation Board Soo Line Railroad Company--Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption-- BNSF Railway Company BNSF Railway Company (BNSF), pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement (Agreement), has agreed to grant temporary overhead trackage rights to Soo Line Railroad Company d/b/a Canadian...

  7. 75 FR 21146 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Trackage Rights Exemption-BNSF Railway Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-22

    ... Surface Transportation Board Union Pacific Railroad Company--Trackage Rights Exemption--BNSF Railway Company Pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement dated December 16, 2009, BNSF Railway Company (BNSF) has agreed to grant overhead trackage rights to Union Pacific Railroad Company (UP) over a...

  8. 78 FR 50141 - Illinois Central Railroad Company-Trackage Rights Exemption-BNSF Railway Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-16

    ... Surface Transportation Board Illinois Central Railroad Company--Trackage Rights Exemption-- BNSF Railway Company BNSF Railway Company (BNSF), pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement dated June 17, 2013, has agreed to grant overhead trackage rights to Illinois Central Railroad Company (IC), a wholly...

  9. 78 FR 23633 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Trackage Rights Exemption-Illinois Central Railroad Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-19

    ... Surface Transportation Board Union Pacific Railroad Company--Trackage Rights Exemption-- Illinois Central Railroad Company Illinois Central Railroad Company (IC), pursuant to a written agreement dated December 18, 2012, has agreed to grant overhead trackage rights to Union Pacific Railroad Company (UP) over...

  10. 75 FR 10341 - Montoff Transportation Company, LLC-Acquisition Exemption-BNSF Railway Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-05

    ... Surface Transportation Board Montoff Transportation Company, LLC--Acquisition Exemption--BNSF Railway Company Montoff Transportation Company, LLC (Montoff), a noncarrier, has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR 1150.31 to acquire from BNSF Railway Company (BNSF) its right to reactivate...

  11. The Perceived Efficacy by Educational Stakeholders of the Move to Smaller Learning Communities from Larger Comprehensive High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butterfield, Jay V.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions of key stakeholders, including teachers, board members, administrators, community members and parents in a larger suburban, formerly comprehensive high school that adopted a schools-within-a-school reform model (SWAS). The research illuminated similarities and differences in perceptions…

  12. Something Larger than Ourselves: Redefining the Young Artists at Work Program as an Art-as-Activism Residency for Teens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Laurel

    2014-01-01

    The Young Artists at Work Program at the Yerba Buena Center for the Arts (YBCA) recently shifted its model from an afterschool arts program to a young artists' residency. This decision arose from a desire to reposition the youth program as a priority within the larger organization, coupled with a commitment to deepening the pedagogical values of…

  13. Open Walls to a Larger World: What Handheld Computing Can Do for School Libraries and Media Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Embrey Theresa A. R.

    2005-01-01

    Handheld computers give students access to the larger world of information beyond the classroom. Wireless access allows students real time access to all networks resources, including downloading e-books and documents, searching the library media centres catalog and searching databases to which the library has subscribed.

  14. Sponsoring Institutions with Five or Fewer Residency Programs Produce a Larger Proportion of General Internists and Family Physicians.

    PubMed

    Hemeida, Sarah; Klink, Kathleen; Bazemore, Andrew; Petterson, Stephen; Peterson, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Policymakers are increasingly interested in addressing the US primary care physician shortage and achieving measurable accountability for the products of the nation's $15 billion investment in graduate medical education (GME). Using one such measure, we found that sponsoring institutions (SIs) with ≤5 residency programs produce a higher percentage of general internists and family physicians than larger SIs. PMID:27170786

  15. Biological control agent of larger black flour beetles (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae): A nuisance pest developing in cotton gin trash piles.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Larger black flour beetles (LBFB), Cynaeus angustus, feed on saprophytic fungi found in gin trash piles, and become nuisance pests in homes and businesses. We examined the dose-response of three entomopathogenic nematode species (Steinernema carpocapsae, S. feltiae, and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora...

  16. LIGHT MODULATION OF RUBISCO ACTIVATION IN SPECIES WITHOUT A LARGER ACTIVASE ISOFORM - EXISTANCE OF AN ACTIVASE REGULATORY PROTEIN?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rubisco activase in some species like tobacco consists of only the shorter isoform. In Arabidopsis lack of the redox regulated, larger isoform results in an inability to modulate Rubisco activity in response to light intensity. However, light modulation can be observed in tobacco with characteristic...

  17. 26 CFR 1.831-2 - Taxable years affected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Taxable years affected. 1.831-2 Section 1.831-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Other Insurance Companies § 1.831-2 Taxable years affected. Section 1.831-1 is applicable only to taxable years beginning...

  18. 26 CFR 1.801-2 - Taxable years affected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Taxable years affected. 1.801-2 Section 1.801-2...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Life Insurance Companies § 1.801-2 Taxable years affected. Section 1.801-1 is applicable only to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1953, and before January 1, 1955, and...

  19. 26 CFR 1.801-2 - Taxable years affected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Taxable years affected. 1.801-2 Section 1.801-2...) INCOME TAXES Life Insurance Companies § 1.801-2 Taxable years affected. Section 1.801-1 is applicable only to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1953, and before January 1, 1955, and all...

  20. 26 CFR 1.831-2 - Taxable years affected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Taxable years affected. 1.831-2 Section 1.831-2...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Other Insurance Companies § 1.831-2 Taxable years affected. Section 1.831-1 is applicable only to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1953, but before January 1, 1963, and...

  1. 26 CFR 1.802-2 - Taxable years affected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Taxable years affected. 1.802-2 Section 1.802-2...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Life Insurance Companies § 1.802-2 Taxable years affected. Section 1.802(b)-1 is applicable only to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1953, and before January 1, 1955, and...

  2. 26 CFR 1.802-2 - Taxable years affected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Taxable years affected. 1.802-2 Section 1.802-2...) INCOME TAXES Life Insurance Companies § 1.802-2 Taxable years affected. Section 1.802(b)-1 is applicable only to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1953, and before January 1, 1955, and all...

  3. 26 CFR 1.803-7 - Taxable years affected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Taxable years affected. 1.803-7 Section 1.803-7...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Life Insurance Companies § 1.803-7 Taxable years affected. Sections 1.803-1 through 1.803-6 are applicable only to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1953, and before...

  4. 26 CFR 1.832-3 - Taxable years affected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Taxable years affected. 1.832-3 Section 1.832-3...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Other Insurance Companies § 1.832-3 Taxable years affected. Sections 1.832-1 and 1.832-2 are applicable only to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1953, and before January...

  5. 26 CFR 1.831-2 - Taxable years affected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Taxable years affected. 1.831-2 Section 1.831-2...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Other Insurance Companies § 1.831-2 Taxable years affected. Section 1.831-1 is applicable only to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1953, but before January 1, 1963, and...

  6. 26 CFR 1.801-2 - Taxable years affected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Taxable years affected. 1.801-2 Section 1.801-2...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Life Insurance Companies § 1.801-2 Taxable years affected. Section 1.801-1 is applicable only to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1953, and before January 1, 1955, and...

  7. 26 CFR 1.802-2 - Taxable years affected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Taxable years affected. 1.802-2 Section 1.802-2...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Life Insurance Companies § 1.802-2 Taxable years affected. Section 1.802(b)-1 is applicable only to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1953, and before January 1, 1955, and...

  8. 26 CFR 1.803-7 - Taxable years affected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Taxable years affected. 1.803-7 Section 1.803-7...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Life Insurance Companies § 1.803-7 Taxable years affected. Sections 1.803-1 through 1.803-6 are applicable only to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1953, and before...

  9. 26 CFR 1.832-3 - Taxable years affected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Taxable years affected. 1.832-3 Section 1.832-3...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Other Insurance Companies § 1.832-3 Taxable years affected. Sections 1.832-1 and 1.832-2 are applicable only to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1953, and before January...

  10. 26 CFR 1.832-3 - Taxable years affected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Taxable years affected. 1.832-3 Section 1.832-3...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Other Insurance Companies § 1.832-3 Taxable years affected. Sections 1.832-1 and 1.832-2 are applicable only to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1953, and before January...

  11. 26 CFR 1.801-2 - Taxable years affected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Taxable years affected. 1.801-2 Section 1.801-2...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Life Insurance Companies § 1.801-2 Taxable years affected. Section 1.801-1 is applicable only to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1953, and before January 1, 1955, and...

  12. 26 CFR 1.831-2 - Taxable years affected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Taxable years affected. 1.831-2 Section 1.831-2...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Other Insurance Companies § 1.831-2 Taxable years affected. Section 1.831-1 is applicable only to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1953, but before January 1, 1963, and...

  13. 26 CFR 1.803-7 - Taxable years affected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Taxable years affected. 1.803-7 Section 1.803-7...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Life Insurance Companies § 1.803-7 Taxable years affected. Sections 1.803-1 through 1.803-6 are applicable only to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1953, and before...

  14. 26 CFR 1.802-2 - Taxable years affected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Taxable years affected. 1.802-2 Section 1.802-2...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Life Insurance Companies § 1.802-2 Taxable years affected. Section 1.802(b)-1 is applicable only to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1953, and before January 1, 1955, and...

  15. 17 CFR 249.330 - Form N-SAR, annual and semi-annual report of certain registered investment companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Form N-SAR, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the... chapter in satisfaction of the requirement of section 30(a) of the Investment Company Act of 1940 that every registered investment company must file annually with the Commission such information,...

  16. 17 CFR 249.330 - Form N-SAR, annual and semi-annual report of certain registered investment companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Form N-SAR, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the... chapter in satisfaction of the requirement of section 30(a) of the Investment Company Act of 1940 that every registered investment company must file annually with the Commission such information,...

  17. 17 CFR 274.11a-1 - Form N-2, registration statement of closed end management investment companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... chapter. Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting Form N-2, see the List of CFR Sections... COMPANY ACT OF 1940 Registration Statements § 274.11a-1 Form N-2, registration statement of closed end... to section 8(b) of the Investment Company Act of 1940 by closed end management investment...

  18. 17 CFR 249.330 - Form N-SAR, annual and semi-annual report of certain registered investment companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Form N-SAR, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the... chapter in satisfaction of the requirement of section 30(a) of the Investment Company Act of 1940 that every registered investment company must file annually with the Commission such information,...

  19. 17 CFR 274.11b - Form N-3, registration statement of separate accounts organized as management investment companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and on... INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 Registration Statements § 274.11b Form N-3, registration statement of separate... to be filed pursuant to section 8(b) of the Investment Company Act of 1940 by separate accounts...

  20. 17 CFR 249.330 - Form N-SAR, annual and semi-annual report of certain registered investment companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Form N-SAR, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the... chapter in satisfaction of the requirement of section 30(a) of the Investment Company Act of 1940 that every registered investment company must file annually with the Commission such information,...

  1. 17 CFR 274.11b - Form N-3, registration statement of separate accounts organized as management investment companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and at... INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 Registration Statements § 274.11b Form N-3, registration statement of separate... to be filed pursuant to section 8(b) of the Investment Company Act of 1940 by separate accounts...

  2. 17 CFR 259.101 - Form U-1, application or declaration under the Public Utility Holding Company Act of 1935.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... prescribed. Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting Form U-1, see the List of CFR Sections... declaration under the Public Utility Holding Company Act of 1935. 259.101 Section 259.101 Commodity and... HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 Forms for Applications and Declarations § 259.101 Form U-1, application...

  3. 17 CFR 274.11b - Form N-3, registration statement of separate accounts organized as management investment companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and at... INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 Registration Statements § 274.11b Form N-3, registration statement of separate... to be filed pursuant to section 8(b) of the Investment Company Act of 1940 by separate accounts...

  4. 17 CFR 274.11a-1 - Form N-2, registration statement of closed end management investment companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... chapter. Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting Form N-2, see the List of CFR Sections... COMPANY ACT OF 1940 Registration Statements § 274.11a-1 Form N-2, registration statement of closed end... to section 8(b) of the Investment Company Act of 1940 by closed end management investment...

  5. 17 CFR 274.11b - Form N-3, registration statement of separate accounts organized as management investment companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and at... INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 Registration Statements § 274.11b Form N-3, registration statement of separate... to be filed pursuant to section 8(b) of the Investment Company Act of 1940 by separate accounts...

  6. 17 CFR 274.11a-1 - Form N-2, registration statement of closed end management investment companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... chapter. Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting Form N-2, see the List of CFR Sections... COMPANY ACT OF 1940 Registration Statements § 274.11a-1 Form N-2, registration statement of closed end... to section 8(b) of the Investment Company Act of 1940 by closed end management investment...

  7. 17 CFR 274.11a-1 - Form N-2, registration statement of closed end management investment companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... chapter. Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting Form N-2, see the List of CFR Sections... COMPANY ACT OF 1940 Registration Statements § 274.11a-1 Form N-2, registration statement of closed end... to section 8(b) of the Investment Company Act of 1940 by closed end management investment...

  8. 17 CFR 274.11a-1 - Form N-2, registration statement of closed end management investment companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... chapter. Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting Form N-2, see the List of CFR Sections... COMPANY ACT OF 1940 Registration Statements § 274.11a-1 Form N-2, registration statement of closed end... to section 8(b) of the Investment Company Act of 1940 by closed end management investment...

  9. 75 FR 13147 - Integrity Life Insurance Company, et al.;

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-18

    ... COMMISSION Integrity Life Insurance Company, et al.; Notice of Application March 10, 2010. AGENCY: Securities...: Integrity Life Insurance Company (``Integrity''), Separate Account I of Integrity Life Insurance Company (``Integrity Separate Account I''), Separate Account II of Integrity Life Insurance Company...

  10. French oil companies in Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Rosa, S.D.

    1981-10-01

    Petroleum interest in Africa is fairly recent: the first exploration in 1947, Hassi Messaoud (Algeria) in 1957, and more serious interest on the part of French companies in the early 1960s. Two major French companies active in Africa are Elf Aquitaine and CIE Francaise des Petroles (CFP). Elf Aquitaine intends to maintain its effort in Gabon with 9 exploratory wells in 1980 and investments of 50 billion francs, and intends to lessen the production decline in the Congo, particularly after the discovery of the Emeraude offshore field. The difficulties here are the shallow depth forcing high angle directional drilling, high viscosity oil, and a very complex reservoir. Investments in the Congo include 45 billion francs including a terminal and an electric plant. CFP is active mainly in Tunisia, Sudan, and Egypt. In Tunisia, 6 fields are of interest, with investments in the order of 110 million francs. More recently, the effort in Egypt has seen further exploration and production from a well, with the investment of 80 million francs in 1980, probably doubling in 1981.

  11. Occupational noise in printing companies.

    PubMed

    Mihailovic, Aleksandra; Grujic, Selena D; Kiurski, Jelena; Krstic, Jelena; Oros, Ivana; Kovacevic, Ilija

    2011-10-01

    The extent of noise in five printing companies in Novi Sad, Serbia, was determined using TES-1358A Sound Analyzer with RS-232 Interface. The data on equivalent A-level (dBA), as well as, maximum and minimum sound pressure levels were collected. It was found that folders and offset printing units are the predominant noise sources, with the average L (eq) levels of 87.66 and 82.7 dBA, respectively. Forty percent of the machines produced noise levels above the limiting threshold level of 85 dBA, allowed by law. The noise in all printing companies was dominated by higher frequency noise, and the maximum level mostly appeared at 4,000 Hz. For offset printing machines and folders, the means of L (eq) levels exceeded the permissible levels given by NR-80 curve at higher frequencies. There are no published studies of occupational noise and hearing impairment of workers exposed to hazardous noise in printing industry in Serbia. More extensive studies are needed to determine the exact impact of noise on the workers. Technical and organizational measures in order to control noise and prevent noise exposure, and general hearing conservation program to protect workers, should be introduced in printing industry. PMID:21161679

  12. The multiple market-exposure of waste management companies: A case study of two Swedish municipally owned companies

    SciTech Connect

    Corvellec, Herve; Bramryd, Torleif

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Swedish municipally owned waste management companies are active on political, material, technical, and commercial markets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These markets differ in kind and their demands follow different logics. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These markets affect the public service, processing, and marketing of Swedish waste management. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Articulating these markets is a strategic challenge for Swedish municipally owned waste management. - Abstract: This paper describes how the business model of two leading Swedish municipally owned solid waste management companies exposes them to four different but related markets: a political market in which their legitimacy as an organization is determined; a waste-as-material market that determines their access to waste as a process input; a technical market in which these companies choose what waste processing technique to use; and a commercial market in which they market their products. Each of these markets has a logic of its own. Managing these logics and articulating the interrelationships between these markets is a key strategic challenge for these companies.

  13. 26 CFR 1.954-1 - Foreign base company income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) Foreign base company shipping income, as defined in section 954(f); and (v) Foreign base company oil... company oil related income. However, gross income included in adjusted gross foreign base company income...) Foreign base company oil related income; or (v) Full inclusion foreign base company income. (B)...

  14. 26 CFR 1.954-1 - Foreign base company income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) Foreign base company shipping income, as defined in section 954(f); and (v) Foreign base company oil... company oil related income. However, gross income included in adjusted gross foreign base company income...) Foreign base company oil related income; or (v) Full inclusion foreign base company income. (B)...

  15. 26 CFR 1.954-1 - Foreign base company income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) Foreign base company shipping income, as defined in section 954(f); and (v) Foreign base company oil... company oil related income. However, gross income included in adjusted gross foreign base company income...) Foreign base company oil related income; or (v) Full inclusion foreign base company income. (B)...

  16. 26 CFR 1.954-1 - Foreign base company income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Foreign base company shipping income, as defined in section 954(f); and (v) Foreign base company oil... company oil related income. However, gross income included in adjusted gross foreign base company income...) Foreign base company oil related income; or (v) Full inclusion foreign base company income. (B)...

  17. 24-Month-Old Children with Larger Oral Vocabularies Display Greater Academic and Behavioral Functioning at Kindergarten Entry

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Paul L.; Farkas, George; Hillemeier, Marianne M.; Hammer, Carol Scheffner; Maczuga, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Data were analyzed from a population-based, longitudinal sample of 8,650 U.S. children to (a) identify factors associated with or predictive of oral vocabulary size at 24 months of age and (b) evaluate whether oral vocabulary size is uniquely predictive of academic and behavioral functioning at kindergarten entry. Children from higher socioeconomic status households, females, and those experiencing higher-quality parenting had larger oral vocabularies. Children born with very low birth weight or from households where the mother had health problems had smaller oral vocabularies. Even after extensive covariate adjustment, 24-month-old children with larger oral vocabularies displayed greater reading and mathematics achievement, increased behavioral self-regulation, and fewer externalizing and internalizing problem behaviors at kindergarten entry. PMID:26283023

  18. Larger right posterior parietal volume in action video game experts: a behavioral and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) study.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Satoshi; Ikeda, Hanako; Kasahara, Kazumi; Kato, Ryo; Tsubomi, Hiroyuki; Sugawara, Sho K; Mori, Makoto; Hanakawa, Takashi; Sadato, Norihiro; Honda, Manabu; Watanabe, Katsumi

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that action video game players exhibit superior performance in visuospatial cognitive tasks compared with non-game players. However, the neural basis underlying this visuospatial cognitive performance advantage remains largely unknown. The present human behavioral and imaging study compared gray matter volume in action video game experts and non-experts using structural magnetic resonance imaging and voxel-based morphometry analysis. The results revealed significantly larger gray matter volume in the right posterior parietal cortex in experts compared with non-experts. Furthermore, the larger gray matter volume in the right posterior parietal cortex significantly correlated with individual performance in a visual working memory task in experts. These results suggest that differences in brain structure may be linked to extensive video game play, leading to superior visuospatial cognitive performance in action video game experts. PMID:23776706

  19. 24-Month-Old Children With Larger Oral Vocabularies Display Greater Academic and Behavioral Functioning at Kindergarten Entry.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Paul L; Farkas, George; Hillemeier, Marianne M; Hammer, Carol Scheffner; Maczuga, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Data were analyzed from a population-based, longitudinal sample of 8,650 U.S. children to (a) identify factors associated with or predictive of oral vocabulary size at 24 months of age and (b) evaluate whether oral vocabulary size is uniquely predictive of academic and behavioral functioning at kindergarten entry. Children from higher socioeconomic status households, females, and those experiencing higher quality parenting had larger oral vocabularies. Children born with very low birth weight or from households where the mother had health problems had smaller oral vocabularies. Even after extensive covariate adjustment, 24-month-old children with larger oral vocabularies displayed greater reading and mathematics achievement, increased behavioral self-regulation, and fewer externalizing and internalizing problem behaviors at kindergarten entry. PMID:26283023

  20. Larger Right Posterior Parietal Volume in Action Video Game Experts: A Behavioral and Voxel-Based Morphometry (VBM) Study

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Satoshi; Ikeda, Hanako; Kasahara, Kazumi; Kato, Ryo; Tsubomi, Hiroyuki; Sugawara, Sho K.; Mori, Makoto; Hanakawa, Takashi; Sadato, Norihiro; Honda, Manabu; Watanabe, Katsumi

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that action video game players exhibit superior performance in visuospatial cognitive tasks compared with non-game players. However, the neural basis underlying this visuospatial cognitive performance advantage remains largely unknown. The present human behavioral and imaging study compared gray matter volume in action video game experts and non-experts using structural magnetic resonance imaging and voxel-based morphometry analysis. The results revealed significantly larger gray matter volume in the right posterior parietal cortex in experts compared with non-experts. Furthermore, the larger gray matter volume in the right posterior parietal cortex significantly correlated with individual performance in a visual working memory task in experts. These results suggest that differences in brain structure may be linked to extensive video game play, leading to superior visuospatial cognitive performance in action video game experts. PMID:23776706

  1. Basin Waves on a Seafloor Recording of the 1990 Upland, California, Earthquake: Implications for Ground Motions from a Larger Earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boore, D.M.

    1999-01-01

    The velocity and displacement time series from a recording on the seafloor at 74 km from the 1990 Upland earthquake (M = 5.6) are dominated by late-arriving waves with periods of 6 to 7 sec. These waves are probably surface waves traveling across the Los Angeles basin. Response spectra for the recording are in agreement with predictions from empirical regression equations and theoretical models for periods less than about 1 sec but are significantly larger than those predictions for longer periods. The longer-period spectral amplitudes are controlled by the late-arriving waves, which are not included in the theoretical models and are underrepresented in the data used in the empirical analyses. When the motions are scaled to larger magnitude, the results are in general agreement with simulations of wave propagation in the Los Angeles basin by Graves (1998).

  2. Premium Forecasting of AN Insurance Company:

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fouladvand, M. Ebrahim; Darooneh, Amir H.

    We present an analytical study of an insurance company. We model the company's performance on a statistical basis and evaluate the predicted annual income of the company in terms of insurance parameters namely the premium, the total number of insured, average loss claims etc. We restrict ourselves to a single insurance class the so-called automobile insurance. We show the existence of a crossover premium pc below which the company is operating at a loss. Above pc, we also give a detailed statistical analysis of the company's financial status and obtain the predicted profit along with the corresponding risk as well as ruin probability in terms of premium. Furthermore we obtain the optimal premium popt which maximizes the company's profit.

  3. Lateralization produced by interaural intensitive disparities appears to be larger for high- vs low-frequency stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, Leslie R.; Trahiotis, Constantine

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this communication is to report the results of a study indicating that a given magnitude of interaural intensitive disparity (IID) produced a larger extent of laterality, as measured via an acoustic pointer, for stimuli centered at 4 kHz than for stimuli centered at 500 Hz. The data and their analysis, taken together, suggest that the findings reflect true across-frequency differences rather than being manifestations of response-related factors. PMID:21302976

  4. Dermal absorption and short-term biological impact in hairless mice from sunscreens containing zinc oxide nano- or larger particles

    PubMed Central

    Oytam, Yalchin; Kirby, Jason K.; Gomez-Fernandez, Laura; Baxter, Brent; McCall, Maxine J.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown no, or very limited, skin penetration of metal oxide nanoparticles following topical application of sunscreens, yet concerns remain about their safety compared to larger particles. Here, we assessed the comparative dermal absorption of a traceable form of Zn (68Zn) from 68ZnO nano-sized and larger particles in sunscreens. Sunscreens were applied to the backs of virgin or pregnant hairless mice over four days. Control groups received topical applications of the sunscreen formulation containing no ZnO particles, or no treatment. Major organs were assessed for changes in 68Zn/64Zn ratios, 68Zn tracer and total Zn concentrations. Short-term biological impact was assessed by measuring levels of serum amyloid A in blood, and by performing whole-genome transcriptional profiling on livers from each group. Increased concentrations of 68Zn tracer were detected in internal organs of mice receiving topical applications of 68ZnO (nano-sized and larger particles), as well as in fetal livers from treated dams, compared with controls. Furthermore, concentrations of 68Zn in organs of virgin mice treated with sunscreen containing 68ZnO nanoparticles were found to be significantly higher than in mice treated with sunscreen containing larger 68ZnO particles. However, no ZnO-mediated change in total Zn concentration in any of the major organs was observed. Thus, despite 68Zn absorption, which may have been in the form of soluble 68Zn species or 68ZnO particles (not known), Zn homeostasis was largely maintained, and the presence of ZnO particles in sunscreen did not elicit an adverse biological response in the mice following short-term topical applications. PMID:24266363

  5. A proof that tidal heating in a synchronous rotation is always larger than in an asymptotic nonsynchronous rotation state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levrard, B.

    2008-02-01

    In a recent paper, Wisdom [Wisdom, J., 2008. Icarus, 193, 637-640] derived concise expressions for the rate of tidal dissipation in a synchronously rotating body for arbitrary orbital eccentricity and obliquity. He provided numerical evidence than the derived rate is always larger than in an asymptotic nonsynchronous rotation state at any obliquity and eccentricity. Here, I present a simple mathematical proof of this conclusion and show that this result still holds for any spin-orbit resonance.

  6. Larger red-shift in optical emissions obtained from the thin films of globular proteins (BSA, lysozyme) - polyelectrolyte (PAA) complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talukdar, Hrishikesh; Kundu, Sarathi; Basu, Saibal

    2016-09-01

    Globular proteins (lysozyme and BSA) and polyelectrolyte (sodium polyacrylic acid) are used to form protein-polyelectrolyte complexes (PPC). Out-of-plane structures of ≈30-60 nm thick PPC films and their surface morphologies have been studied by using X-ray reflectivity and atomic force microscopy, whereas optical behaviors of PPC and protein conformations have been studied by using UV-vis, photoluminescence and FTIR spectroscopy respectively. Our study reveals that thin films of PPC show a larger red-shift of 23 and 16 nm in the optical emissions in comparison to that of pure protein whereas bulk PPC show a small blue-shift of ≈3 nm. A small amount of peak-shift is found to occur due to the heat treatment or concentration variation of the polyelectrolyte/protein in bulk solution but cannot produce such film thickness independent larger red-shift. Position of the emission peak remains nearly unchanged with the film thickness. Mechanism for such larger red-shift has been proposed.

  7. Honda motor company's CVCC engine

    SciTech Connect

    Abernathy, W.J.; Ronan, L.

    1980-07-01

    Honda Motor Company of Japan in a four-year period from 1968 to 1872 designed, tested, and mass-produced a stratified charge engine, the CVCC, which in comparison to conventional engines of similar output at the time was lower in CO, HC and NO/sub x/ emissions and higher in fuel economy. Honda developed the CVCC engine without government assistance or outside help. Honda's success came at a time when steadily increasing fuel costs and the various provisions of the Clean Air Act had forced US automakers to consider possible alternatives to the conventional gasoline engine. While most major engine manufacturers had investigated some form of stratified charge engine, Honda's CVCC was the only one to find successful market application. This case study examines the circumstances surrounding the development of the CVCC engine and its introduction into the Japanese and American markets.

  8. 17 CFR 250.12 - Exemption of certain public utility companies from the definition of subsidiary companies of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... utility companies from the definition of subsidiary companies of holding companies. 250.12 Section 250.12... REGULATIONS, PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 Registration and General Exemptions § 250.12 Exemption of certain public utility companies from the definition of subsidiary companies of......

  9. How executives can shape their company's information systems.

    PubMed

    Davenport, T H; Hammer, H; Metsisto, T J

    1989-01-01

    When a big New York bank expanded in London, technical specialists in the two cities disagreed about which vendor's information system was best. The debate continued for several months until finally the technical experts took the issue to a senior-management policy committee. But the senior managers didn't understand the terminology and kept postponing the decision. Meanwhile, the London office complained loudly that the slowdown was threatening the unit's growth. Like the bank, most companies need a new approach to making decisions about information technology (IT), especially since it now affects so many aspects of the business. The company's technical experts seldom understand the overall business, and the senior managers who understand the business are usually lost when it comes to computers. One way to blend both perspectives is to establish a task force that solicits input from top management and creates a set of principles to guide subsequent investments in information technology. By drawing on 10 to 15 statements that reflect management's basic beliefs about how the company should use IT, the task force translates the language of corporate strategy into computerese. For instance, an electronics company wanted various functions to act more like one company. It created a principle that said, "Information systems will provide application that support cross-functional integration of business processes." Managers making subsequent decisions about computers could immediately rule out any technologies that contradicted that statement. Principles thus speed up the decision-making process, but more important, they ensure that every investment in IT helps the corporation achieve its strategic goals. PMID:10292511

  10. Preliminary results in larger benthic foraminifera assemblage in a mixed siliciclastic-carbonate platform from the Upper Cretaceous of the External Prebetic Domain (Valencia province, SE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robles-Salcedo, Raquel; Vicedo, Vicent

    2016-04-01

    In the External Prebetic Domain (Betic Mountain Range, Valencia province, SE Spain) it is difficult to find good outcrops to study larger benthic foraminifera (LBF), particularly in the Upper Cretaceous deposits, because of three main reasons. During the Upper Cretaceous, the complex paleogeography in the northern Prebetic Domain developed a complex system of shallow-water platforms. This is directly linked to the complexity in the distribution of the facies observed nowadays, which may change drastically in lateral, closely related outcrops having a special negative impact in the lateral extension of stratigraphical levels containing LBF. The second reason is the nature of the shallow water environments in which the larger foraminifera lived. The local continental influence derived in the establishment of very complex mixed platforms. Thus, there is not a complete register through carbonate rocks, but an alternation of microconglomerates, sandstones, calcarenites and carbonates that can be observed in the stratigraphic series of the Upper Cretaceous. This affects negatively in observing changes in the evolutionary trends of taxa. The third reason difficulting the study of LBF in northern localities of the Prebetic Domain is diagenetic. Dolomitization affects a huge part of the Mesozoic rocks deleting all fossil microfauna in the affected rocks. Such three reasons are behind the difficulty in developing correlations and having a comprehensive understanding of the biostratigraphy and phylogeny of the taxa involved. However, after several field trips developed in the northern Prebetic area, an excellent reference section for the study of the LBF in the Prebetic Domain has been identified in the surroundings of the Pinet village (Valencia province). Here, a relatively continuous section with scarce dolomitization and good conditions of accessibility exists. The larger foraminifera assemblages appering in the Pinet section will be compared with other paleobiogeographic

  11. 17 CFR 270.3a-3 - Certain investment companies owned by companies which are not investment companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT COMPANY... 80a-3(a)(1)(C)), an issuer will be deemed not to be an investment company for purposes of the Act...' qualifying shares, and debt securities owned by the Small Business Administration) are directly or...

  12. Creating Larger and Better Connected Protected Areas Enhances the Persistence of Big Game Species in the Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany Biodiversity Hotspot

    PubMed Central

    Di Minin, Enrico; Hunter, Luke T. B.; Balme, Guy A.; Smith, Robert J.; Goodman, Peter S.; Slotow, Rob

    2013-01-01

    The ideal conservation planning approach would enable decision-makers to use population viability analysis to assess the effects of management strategies and threats on all species at the landscape level. However, the lack of high-quality data derived from long-term studies, and uncertainty in model parameters and/or structure, often limit the use of population models to only a few species of conservation concern. We used spatially explicit metapopulation models in conjunction with multi-criteria decision analysis to assess how species-specific threats and management interventions would affect the persistence of African wild dog, black rhino, cheetah, elephant, leopard and lion, under six reserve scenarios, thereby providing the basis for deciding on a best course of conservation action in the South African province of KwaZulu-Natal, which forms the central component of the Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany biodiversity hotspot. Overall, the results suggest that current strategies of managing populations within individual, small, fenced reserves are unlikely to enhance metapopulation persistence should catastrophic events affect populations in the future. Creating larger and better-connected protected areas would ensure that threats can be better mitigated in the future for both African wild dog and leopard, which can disperse naturally, and black rhino, cheetah, elephant, and lion, which are constrained by electric fences but can be managed using translocation. The importance of both size and connectivity should inform endangered megafauna conservation and management, especially in the context of restoration efforts in increasingly human-dominated landscapes. PMID:23977144

  13. Creating larger and better connected protected areas enhances the persistence of big game species in the maputaland-pondoland-albany biodiversity hotspot.

    PubMed

    Di Minin, Enrico; Hunter, Luke T B; Balme, Guy A; Smith, Robert J; Goodman, Peter S; Slotow, Rob

    2013-01-01

    The ideal conservation planning approach would enable decision-makers to use population viability analysis to assess the effects of management strategies and threats on all species at the landscape level. However, the lack of high-quality data derived from long-term studies, and uncertainty in model parameters and/or structure, often limit the use of population models to only a few species of conservation concern. We used spatially explicit metapopulation models in conjunction with multi-criteria decision analysis to assess how species-specific threats and management interventions would affect the persistence of African wild dog, black rhino, cheetah, elephant, leopard and lion, under six reserve scenarios, thereby providing the basis for deciding on a best course of conservation action in the South African province of KwaZulu-Natal, which forms the central component of the Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany biodiversity hotspot. Overall, the results suggest that current strategies of managing populations within individual, small, fenced reserves are unlikely to enhance metapopulation persistence should catastrophic events affect populations in the future. Creating larger and better-connected protected areas would ensure that threats can be better mitigated in the future for both African wild dog and leopard, which can disperse naturally, and black rhino, cheetah, elephant, and lion, which are constrained by electric fences but can be managed using translocation. The importance of both size and connectivity should inform endangered megafauna conservation and management, especially in the context of restoration efforts in increasingly human-dominated landscapes. PMID:23977144

  14. The importance of basic factors in innovation processes and their effects on innovation capability of Malaysian-owned manufacturing companies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suradi, Nur Riza Mohd; Omar, Aminuddin; Shahabuddin, Faridatulazna Ahmad

    2015-02-01

    Innovation is the core ingredient in the competitiveness of today's businesses. Any company that cannot innovate will be losing its competitiveness. While the study on innovation at conceptual level is widely available, there is still lack of deep understanding of how innovation factors impact each stage of the processes of innovation that happen in Malaysian companies. This process-factor approach and understanding may help the government focuses its assistance on relevant factors at relevant process according to the size of the company. This study examines how companies are affected by fundamental factors needed in innovation. Based on results of MYTIC Study 2012 on the level of Technological Innovation Capability (TIC) of Malaysian companies using the RDCB framework, the significance of each innovation factor in each innovation process is determined. This study shows that human resource factor gives more impact than other factors in most processes. Also, financial and human resource factors are likely dictated by the size of the company.

  15. 78 FR 19366 - Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds: Ohio Security Insurance Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-29

    ... Supplement No. 6 to the Treasury Department Circular 570, 2012 Revision, published July 2, 2012, at 77 FR.... 9305 to the following company: Ohio Security Insurance Company (NAIC 24082). BUSINESS ADDRESS: 62...

  16. 76 FR 21426 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption-BNSF Railway Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-15

    ... Surface Transportation Board Union Pacific Railroad Company--Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption--BNSF Railway Company AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT. ACTION: Partial Revocation of Exemption... protective conditions set forth in Oregon Short Line Railroad--Abandonment Portion Goshen Branch...

  17. Management of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Larger than 100 ml: Simple Open Enucleation Versus Transurethral Laser Prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Elkoushy, Mohamed A; Elhilali, Mostafa M

    2016-06-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is one of the most common causes of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in aging men. Over the age of 60, more than a half of men have BPH and/or bothersome LUTS. Contemporary guidelines advocate surgery as the standard of care for symptomatic BPH after failure of medical therapy, where the choice of the appropriate surgical procedure depends on the prostate size. Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) and simple open prostatectomy (OP) have been considered for decades the reference-standard techniques for men with prostate smaller and larger than 80 ml, respectively. However, both procedures are potentially associated with considerable perioperative morbidity which prompted the introduction of a variety of minimally invasive surgical techniques with comparable long-term outcomes compared to TURP and OP. Nevertheless, the management of prostates larger than 100 ml remains a clinical challenge. Transurethral anatomical enucleation of the prostate utilizing different laser energy represents an excellent alternative concept in transurethral BPH surgery. These procedures gained popularity and demonstrated similar outcomes to OP with the advantages of favorable morbidity profiles and shorter catheter time and hospital stay. Despite the fact that OP remains a viable treatment option for patients with bothersome LUTS secondary to very large prostates, this procedure has been to a large extent replaced by these emerging enucleation techniques. Given the advent of surgical alternatives, the current review presents an evidence-based comparison of the efficacy and safety profile of the currently available transurethral laser techniques with the standard OP for the management of BPH due to adenomas larger than 100 ml. PMID:27048160

  18. The larger mammal fauna from the Lower Paleolithic Schöningen Spear site and its contribution to hominin subsistence.

    PubMed

    Van Kolfschoten, Thijs; Buhrs, Elfi; Verheijen, Ivo

    2015-12-01

    The locality Schöningen (Germany) is an important source of knowledge about Lower Paleolithic hominin subsistence. The locality includes a series of sites dated to the late Middle Pleistocene with a Holsteinian (MIS 11) and Reinsdorf Interglacial (MIS 9) age. One of the youngest sites is Schöningen 13 II-4, the Spear Horizon site also known as the Horse Butchery site. The organic remains excavated here are exceptionally well-preserved as they were embedded in anaerobic, waterlogged sediments in an area where the groundwater is rich in calcium carbonate. The fossil assemblage is ideal for the study of patterns in hominin interference with the mammalian species encountered at the site. The vertebrate record is extensive and very diverse. The fossil larger carnivore guild of the Spear Horizon faunal assemblage includes saber-toothed cat, fox, and wolf. Herbivores are represented by an elephant species, two equid species, two rhinoceros species, two cervid species, and two large bovid species. Evidence of hominin interference presents itself as either marks on skeletal remains related to the use of bones as knapping tools or hammers, or as marks that indicate butchering activities such as skinning, dismembering, defleshing, filleting, and marrow extraction. The humerus of the saber-toothed cat clearly shows that the bone has been used as a knapping tool. The fossil remains of the other larger carnivores do not show any signs of hominin interference or exploitation. This also applies to the limited number of elephant and rhinoceros remains found at the site. The large horse Equus mosbachensis dominates the larger mammal record and played a major role in hominin subsistence. Marks on the horse bones indicate that a large number of carcasses have been butchered. Traces on the fossil remains of both red deer (Cervus elaphus) and the large bovids also indicate exploitation by Lower Paleolithic hominins. PMID:26607346

  19. Low local recurrence rate without postmastectomy radiation in node-negative breast cancer patients with tumors 5 cm and larger

    SciTech Connect

    Floyd, Scott R.; Buchholz, Thomas A.; Haffty, Bruce G.; Goldberg, Saveli; Niemierko, Andrzej; Raad, Rita Abi; Oswald, Mary J.; Sullivan, Timothy; Strom, Eric A.; Powell, Simon N.; Katz, Angela; Taghian, Alphonse G. . E-mail: ataghian@partners.org

    2006-10-01

    Purpose: To assess the need for adjuvant radiotherapy following mastectomy for patients with node-negative breast tumors 5 cm or larger. Methods and Materials: Between 1981 and 2002, a total of 70 patients with node-negative breast cancer and tumors 5 cm or larger were treated with mastectomy and adjuvant systemic therapies but without radiotherapy at three institutions. We retrospectively assessed rates and risk factors for locoregional failure (LRF), overall survival (OS), and disease-free survival (DFS) in these patients. Results: With a median follow-up of 85 months, the 5-year actuarial LRF rate was 7.6% (95% confidence interval, 3%-16%). LRF was primarily in the chest wall (4/5 local failures), and lymphatic-vascular invasion (LVI) was statistically significantly associated with LRF risk by the log-rank test (p = 0.017) and in Cox proportional hazards analysis (p 0.038). The 5-year OS and DFS rates were 83% and 86% respectively. LVI was also significantly associated with OS and DFS in both univariate and multivariate analysis. Conclusions: This series demonstrates a low LRF rate of 7.6% among breast cancer patients with node-negative tumors 5 cm and larger after mastectomy and adjuvant systemic therapy. Our data indicate that further adjuvant radiation therapy to increase local control may not be indicated by tumor size alone in the absence of positive lymph nodes. LVI was significantly associated with LRF in our series, indicating that patients with this risk factor require careful consideration with regard to further local therapy.

  20. "Choosing the larger versus choosing the smaller: Asymmetries in the size congruity effect": Correction to Arend and Henik (2015).

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    Reports an error in "Choosing the larger versus choosing the smaller: Asymmetries in the size congruity effect" by Isabel Arend and Avishai Henik (Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 2015[Nov], Vol 41[6], 1821-1830). In the article the wrong version of Figure 1 was published. The correct version is provided. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2015-23893-001.) The size congruity effect (SiCE) shows that number and physical size interact as magnitudes. That is, response times are faster when number and size are congruent (e.g., 2 4) than when they are incongruent (e.g., 2 4). A shared representational system has been the most influential account for the SiCE. Recently, this account has been challenged by findings showing that the SiCE may be influenced by attention. The attentional contribution to the SiCE suggests that the effect is produced by an attention capture effect to the larger stimulus. Even though plausible, the attentional account overlooks 2 important factors in the study of magnitudes, namely, task (numerical vs. physical) and polarity of instructions (choose the larger vs. the smaller). We studied the influence of these factors using a size congruity task. Experiment 1 showed that the SiCE was modulated by task and instructions. In Experiment 2, we used a new set of numbers to examine a possible influence of the so-called end effect (i.e., responses to the smallest and to the largest numbers may not require number comparison). Experiment 2 successfully replicated the pattern of Experiment 1. We suggest that both feature saliency and long-term semantic processes modulate the SiCE. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27359227

  1. Companies and Climate Risk: Opportunities to Engage the Business Community in Promoting Climate-conscious Policies (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, G. T.; Rogerson, P.

    2013-12-01

    Regardless of their policy orientation, the business community has an interest in how climate change impacts will affect their operations and ultimately change their bottom line. The reality that climate change presents material and financial risks to many companies in diverse sectors of the economy presents an opportunity to engage companies on climate-related issues. Company investors are exposed to such financial risks and can pressure public companies to change behavior through shareholder resolutions, voting, and election of new board members. The US Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) obligates all publicly traded companies to discuss risks that might materially affect their business in their annual Form 10-K filings. In 2010, the guidance for the Form 10-K specifically suggested that companies consider and discuss any significant risks to their business from climate change--both from its physical effects and from impacts of climate regulations. Form 10-Ks for 28 US companies were analyzed for the years 2009 and 2010. Results indicate that some companies comprehensively considered climate-related risks. However, in spite of the SEC guidance, some fail to mention climate change at all. Additionally, many companies discuss only the impacts that regulation would have on their business--not the physical effects of climate change itself. The lack of consideration of climate-related risks in companies' risk assessments demonstrates a need for a more uniform understanding of SEC requirements and additionally, this state of affairs presents an opportunity to push companies to more deeply consider climate change impacts. Several avenues are available for engaging with companies themselves, their shareholders, the SEC, and the public. We will explore what strategies have been effective for engaging such actors and what further opportunities exist for working with the business community to promote more climate-conscious policies and practices.

  2. 12 CFR 225.101 - Bank holding company's subsidiary banks owning shares of nonbanking companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Bank holding company's subsidiary banks owning shares of nonbanking companies. 225.101 Section 225.101 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM... BANK CONTROL (REGULATION Y) Regulations Financial Holding Companies Interpretations § 225.101...

  3. 12 CFR 225.101 - Bank holding company's subsidiary banks owning shares of nonbanking companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bank holding company's subsidiary banks owning shares of nonbanking companies. 225.101 Section 225.101 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM... CONTROL (REGULATION Y) Regulations Financial Holding Companies Interpretations § 225.101 Bank...

  4. 12 CFR 225.101 - Bank holding company's subsidiary banks owning shares of nonbanking companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Bank holding company's subsidiary banks owning shares of nonbanking companies. 225.101 Section 225.101 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM... CONTROL (REGULATION Y) Regulations Financial Holding Companies Interpretations § 225.101 Bank...

  5. 78 FR 40268 - Norfolk Southern Railway Company-Lease Exemption-BNSF Railway Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-03

    ... Surface Transportation Board Norfolk Southern Railway Company--Lease Exemption--BNSF Railway Company... Part 1121 for exemption from the provisions of 49 U.S.C. 11323(a)(2) to lease from BNSF Railway Company....\\1\\ \\1\\ NSR has requested expedited handling, asserting that the proposed lease and upgrade of...

  6. 78 FR 2719 - BNSF Railway Company-Lease Exemption-Norfolk Southern Railway Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-14

    ... TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board BNSF Railway Company--Lease Exemption--Norfolk Southern Railway.... 11323-25 for BNSF Railway Company (BNSF) to lease from Norfolk Southern Railway Company approximately 1... approximately 600 feet north of the Chicago SAG Canal on the southern end in Chicago, Ill. Under the lease,...

  7. 77 FR 10489 - Xcel Energy Services Inc., Northern States Power Company v. American Transmission Company, LLC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-22

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Xcel Energy Services Inc., Northern States Power Company v. American Transmission Company, LLC; Notice of Complaint Take notice that on February 14, 2012, pursuant to section 206...) collectively filed a formal complaint against American Transmission Company, LLC (ATC) regarding...

  8. 77 FR 20882 - Manning Grain Company; Acquisition and Operation Exemption; Fillmore Western Railway Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Manning Grain Company; Acquisition and Operation Exemption; Fillmore Western Railway Company Manning Grain Company (MGC), a noncarrier, has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR 1150.31 to acquire...

  9. 78 FR 42061 - Notice of Complaint; Chevron Products Company v. Enterprise TE Products Pipeline Company, LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-15

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Complaint; Chevron Products Company v. Enterprise TE Products...) and 343.2(c), Chevron Products Company (Complainant) filed a formal complaint against Enterprise TE...\\ \\1\\ Enterprise TE Products Pipeline Company LLC, 143 FERC ] 61,197 (2013). The Complainant...

  10. 76 FR 30397 - Faribault Woolen Mill Company, Faribault, MN; Faribo Woolens, Inc., a Related Company of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-25

    ..., 2010 (75 FR 3930). At the request of the State agency, the Department reviewed the certification for... Related Company of Faribault Woolen Mill Company, Faribault, MN; Amended Certification Regarding..., Faribault Woolen Mill Company. Accordingly, the Department is amending the certification to include...

  11. 77 FR 60742 - BNSF Railway Company-Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption-Union Pacific Railroad Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-04

    ... Surface Transportation Board BNSF Railway Company--Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption--Union Pacific Railroad Company Pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement dated August 10, 2012, Union Pacific Railroad Company (UP) has agreed to grant restricted temporary trackage rights to BNSF Railway...

  12. 75 FR 63540 - Norfolk Southern Railway Company-Trackage Rights Exemption-Illinois Central Railroad Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ... Surface Transportation Board Norfolk Southern Railway Company--Trackage Rights Exemption-- Illinois Central Railroad Company Pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement dated August 17, 2010, Illinois Central Railroad Company (IC) has agreed to grant overhead trackage rights to Norfolk Southern...

  13. 77 FR 64185 - BNSF Railway Company-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-Nebraska Northeastern Railway Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-18

    ... Surface Transportation Board BNSF Railway Company--Acquisition and Operation Exemption-- Nebraska Northeastern Railway Company AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board. ACTION: Notice of exemption. SUMMARY: The.... 11323-25 for BNSF Railway Company (BNSF), a Class I rail carrier, to acquire and operate a 120.4-...

  14. 75 FR 12329 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption-BNSF Railway Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-15

    ... Surface Transportation Board Union Pacific Railroad Company--Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption--BNSF Railway Company AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT. ACTION: Partial revocation of exemption... Railway Company (BNSF) to extend to December 18, 2010, the expiration date of the local trackage...

  15. 75 FR 3523 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption-BNSF Railway Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-21

    ... Surface Transportation Board Union Pacific Railroad Company--Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption--BNSF Railway Company Pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement dated December 22, 2009, BNSF Railway... Railroad Company (UP) over BNSF lines extending between BNSF milepost 10.2 at Tukwila, WA, and...

  16. 12 CFR 225.102 - Bank holding company indirectly owning nonbanking company through subsidiaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bank holding company indirectly owning nonbanking company through subsidiaries. 225.102 Section 225.102 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BANK HOLDING COMPANIES AND CHANGE IN...

  17. 76 FR 61689 - Sutton Hydroelectric Company, LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-05

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Sutton Hydroelectric Company, LLC Notice of Site Visit On February 6, 2008, Sutton Hydroelectric Company, LLC (Sutton Hydroelectric) filed a notice of intent and a... operation, a preliminary list of issues to be addressed in the Commission's National Environmental...

  18. Why Should Companies Think about Women?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catalyst, New York, NY.

    Companies should think about women because women represent half the human resources available to them. Actually, the most productive response companies can make to women's presence in the workplace is the full assimilation of women into all areas and at all levels of corporate operations. Achieving full assimilation will require time, however.…

  19. 12 CFR 1024.16 - Title companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Title companies. 1024.16 Section 1024.16 Banks and Banking BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION REAL ESTATE SETTLEMENT PROCEDURES ACT (REGULATION X) Mortgage Settlement and Escrow Accounts § 1024.16 Title companies. No seller of property...

  20. 12 CFR 1024.16 - Title companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Title companies. 1024.16 Section 1024.16 Banks and Banking BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION REAL ESTATE SETTLEMENT PROCEDURES ACT (REGULATION X) § 1024.16 Title companies. No seller of property that will be purchased with the assistance of...

  1. 12 CFR 1024.16 - Title companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Title companies. 1024.16 Section 1024.16 Banks and Banking BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION REAL ESTATE SETTLEMENT PROCEDURES ACT (REGULATION X) § 1024.16 Title companies. No seller of property that will be purchased with the assistance of...

  2. 33 CFR 117.438 - Company Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Company Canal. 117.438 Section 117.438 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.438 Company Canal. (a) The draw of...

  3. 24 CFR 3500.16 - Title companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Title companies. 3500.16 Section 3500.16 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued... DEVELOPMENT REAL ESTATE SETTLEMENT PROCEDURES ACT § 3500.16 Title companies. No seller of property that...

  4. Childhood Maltreatment Is Associated with Larger Left Thalamic Gray Matter Volume in Adolescents with Generalized Anxiety Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Mei; Yang, Fan; Zhang, Yan; He, Zhong; Song, Ming; Jiang, Tianzi; Li, Zexuan; Lu, Shaojia; Wu, Weiwei; Su, Linyan; Li, Lingjiang

    2013-01-01

    Background Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a common anxiety disorder that usually begins in adolescence. Childhood maltreatment is highly prevalent and increases the possibility for developing a variety of mental disorders including anxiety disorders. An earlier age at onset of GAD is significantly related to maltreatment in childhood. Exploring the underpinnings of the relationship between childhood maltreatment and adolescent onset GAD would be helpful in identifying the potential risk markers of this condition. Methods Twenty-six adolescents with GAD and 25 healthy controls participated in this study. A childhood trauma questionnaire (CTQ) was introduced to assess childhood maltreatment. All subjects underwent high-resolution structural magnetic resonance scans. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was used to investigate gray matter alterations. Results Significantly larger gray matter volumes of the right putamen were observed in GAD patients compared to healthy controls. In addition, a significant diagnosis-by-maltreatment interaction effect for the left thalamic gray matter volume was revealed, as shown by larger volumes of the left thalamic gray matter in GAD patients with childhood maltreatment compared with GAD patients without childhood maltreatment as well as with healthy controls with/without childhood maltreatment. A significant positive association between childhood maltreatment and left thalamic gray matter volume was only seen in GAD patients. Conclusions These findings revealed an increased volume in the subcortical regions in adolescent GAD, and the alterations in the left thalamus might be involved in the association between childhood maltreatment and the occurrence of GAD. PMID:23951265

  5. Combined Ethanol Injection Therapy and Radiofrequency Ablation Therapy in Percutaneous Treatment of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Larger than 4 cm

    SciTech Connect

    Vallone, Paolo; Catalano, Orlando Izzo, Francesco; Siani, Alfredo

    2006-08-15

    Background. Optimal treatment of large-sized hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is still debated, because percutaneous ablation therapies alone do not always achieve complete necrosis. Objective. To report our experience in the treatment of patients with HCC larger than 4 cm in diameter by combined percutaneous ethanol injection and radiofrequency thermal ablation. Methods. In a 5-year period there were 40 consecutive patients meeting the inclusion criteria (24 men and 16 women; age range 41-72 years, mean 58 years). These subjects had a single HCC larger than 4 cm. Twelve subjects also had one or two additional nodules smaller than 4 cm (mean 1.2 nodules per patient). Patients were submitted to one to three sessions consisting of ethanol injection at two opposite tumor poles (mean 12 ml) and then of radiofrequency application through one or two electrodes placed at the tumor center (mean treatment duration 30 min). Results. Complete necrosis was obtained in all cases with one to three sessions (mean 1.3 sessions per patient). All patients experienced pain and fever but one only subject had a major complication requiring treatment (abscess development and fistulization). Overall follow-up was 7-69 months. Two patients showed local recurrence and 9 developed new etherotopic HCC nodules. Seven subjects died during follow-up while 33 were free from recurrence 8-69 months after treatment. Conclusion. A combination of ethanol injection and radiofrequency ablation is effective in the treatment of large HCC.

  6. Source Parameters of the Bhuj Mainshock and Larger Aftershocks from Modeling of Broadband Teleseismic and Regional Waveform data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaur, V.; Maggi, A.; Priestley, K.; Rai, S.; Davuluri, S.

    2001-12-01

    The January 26, 2001 mb 6.9 Bhuj mainshock was well recorded at both teleseismic and regional distances. Many of the larger aftershocks were also well recorded at regional distances by digital broadband seismographs operated by the National Geophysical Research Institute of India, the University of Cambridge and the Indian Meteorological Office. We have modeled the teleseismic P- and SH-waveforms to retrieve the mechanism and focal depth of the mainshock and find a thrust faulting mechanism with a fault strike 281 degrees, dip 42 degrees, rake 107 degrees, a seismic moment of 2.31*E20 Nm and a centroid focal depth of 20 km. The long-period source time function shows a relatively simple source of about 15 seconds duration. We use the source parameters for the mainshock derived from the teleseismic inversion and the records for the mainshock at the regional stations mentioned above to calibrate the 1-D propagation characteristics for these regional paths. Using the calibrated regional propagation paths, we invert the complete regional broadband waveforms (P-wave through the surface wave-train) for the source parameters of the larger aftershocks (M0 1015 to 1017 Nm) which are too small to derive from teleseismic recordings. We model the broadband waveforms using the time-domain, linear moment-tensor inversion code of Randall et al, 1995.

  7. Wear resistance of the biocompatible phospholipid polymer-grafted highly cross-linked polyethylene liner against larger femoral head.

    PubMed

    Moro, Toru; Takatori, Yoshio; Kyomoto, Masayuki; Ishihara, Kazuhiko; Kawaguchi, Hiroshi; Hashimoto, Masami; Tanaka, Takeyuki; Oshima, Hirofumi; Tanaka, Sakae

    2015-07-01

    The use of larger femoral heads to prevent the dislocation of artificial hip joints has recently become more common. However, concerns about the subsequent use of thinner polyethylene liners and their effects on wear rate have arisen. Previously, we prepared and evaluated the biological and mechanical effects of a novel highly cross-linked polyethylene (CLPE) liner with a nanometer-scaled graft layer of poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine) (PMPC). Our findings showed that the PMPC-grafted particles were biologically inert and caused no subsequent bone resorptive responses and that the PMPC-grafting markedly decreased wear in a hip joint simulator. However, the metal or ceramic femoral heads used in this previous study had a diameter of 26 mm. Here, we investigated the wear-resistance of the PMPC-grafted CLPE liner with a 40-mm femoral head during 10 × 10(6) cycles of loading in the hip joint simulator. The results provide preliminary evidence that the grafting markedly decreased gravimetric wear rate and the volume of wear particles, even when coupled with larger femoral heads. Thus, we believe the PMPC-grafting will prolong artificial hip joint longevity both by preventing aseptic loosening and by improving the stability of articular surface. PMID:25764495

  8. Meeting Air Transportation Demand in 2025 by Using Larger Aircraft and Alternative Routing to Complement NextGen Operational Improvements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Jeremy C.; Guerreiro, Nelson M.; Viken, Jeffrey K.; Dollyhigh, Samuel M.; Fenbert, James W.

    2010-01-01

    A study was performed that investigates the use of larger aircraft and alternative routing to complement the capacity benefits expected from the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) in 2025. National Airspace System (NAS) delays for the 2025 demand projected by the Transportation Systems Analysis Models (TSAM) were assessed using NASA s Airspace Concept Evaluation System (ACES). The shift in demand from commercial airline to automobile and from one airline route to another was investigated by adding the route delays determined from the ACES simulation to the travel times used in the TSAM and re-generating new flight scenarios. The ACES simulation results from this study determined that NextGen Operational Improvements alone do not provide sufficient airport capacity to meet the projected demand for passenger air travel in 2025 without significant system delays. Using larger aircraft with more seats on high-demand routes and introducing new direct routes, where demand warrants, significantly reduces delays, complementing NextGen improvements. Another significant finding of this study is that the adaptive behavior of passengers to avoid congested airline-routes is an important factor when projecting demand for transportation systems. Passengers will choose an alternative mode of transportation or alternative airline routes to avoid congested routes, thereby reducing delays to acceptable levels for the 2025 scenario; the penalty being that alternative routes and the option to drive increases overall trip time by 0.4% and may be less convenient than the first-choice route.

  9. Evolution of the Paleocene-Early Eocene larger benthic foraminifera in the Tethyan Himalaya of Tibet, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qinghai; Willems, Helmut; Ding, Lin

    2013-07-01

    The Paleocene-Early Eocene larger benthic foraminifera (LBF) in the far eastern Neo-Tethyan Ocean of Tibet still remain poorly known. Here, we present a novel, high-resolution larger foraminiferal biozonation from the shallow-water limestones in Tibet, which will improve our current understanding of the larger foraminiferal evolution in the eastern Neo-Tethyan Ocean. Based on one continuous section at Tingri and three separate sections at Gamba, ten Shallow Benthic Zones (SBZ 1-10) have been designated in Tibet by following the principle of Oppel Zone. In contrast to those in Europe, the Paleocene LBFs in Tibet are characterized by high diversification of Lockhartia, Kathina, Daviesina, Miscellanea, Ranikothalia, and Operculina and show progressively increasing diversity of genera and species during SBZ 2-5. Adult dimorphism and large shell size of some LBFs as well as differentiation of the diversity between genera and species initiated as early as SBZ 3. It suggests that the occurrence of the Larger Foraminifera Turnover (LFT) was probably not synchronous in the entire Neo-Tethyan Ocean, because in Europe, the LFT was generally thought to occur at the beginning of SBZ 5. During the Early Eocene, the LBFs in Tibet decreased markedly on the generic level and increased on the species level, and some new genera ( Alveolina, Orbitolites, Nummulites, Assilina, Discocyclina) have gained predominance in Tibet. It is nearly identical to the evolution of the LBFs in Europe and indicates a high-degree homogenization of the LBFs in the entire Neo-Tethyan Ocean. Furthermore, the Paleocene-Eocene (P-E) boundary in shallow-water environments has been clearly identified by us, and it is situated in the upper part of SBZ 5 and associated with no evident biotic turnover of shallow benthic foraminiferal communities. The possible diachroneity of the LFT in the Neo-Tethyan Ocean and the evident lagging of the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) behind the LFT imply that the LFT

  10. Matrix-assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time of Flight (MALDI-TOF) Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Intact Proteins Larger than 100 kDa

    PubMed Central

    Signor, Luca; Boeri Erba, Elisabetta

    2013-01-01

    Effectively determining masses of proteins is critical to many biological studies (e.g. for structural biology investigations). Accurate mass determination allows one to evaluate the correctness of protein primary sequences, the presence of mutations and/or post-translational modifications, the possible protein degradation, the sample homogeneity, and the degree of isotope incorporation in case of labelling (e.g. 13C labelling). Electrospray ionisation (ESI) mass spectrometry (MS) is widely used for mass determination of denatured proteins, but its efficiency is affected by the composition of the sample buffer. In particular, the presence of salts, detergents, and contaminants severely undermines the effectiveness of protein analysis by ESI-MS. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) MS is an attractive alternative, due to its salt tolerance and the simplicity of data acquisition and interpretation. Moreover, the mass determination of large heterogeneous proteins (bigger than 100 kDa) is easier by MALDI-MS due to the absence of overlapping high charge state distributions which are present in ESI spectra. Here we present an accessible approach for analysing proteins larger than 100 kDa by MALDI-time of flight (TOF). We illustrate the advantages of using a mixture of two matrices (i.e. 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid and α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid) and the utility of the thin layer method as approach for sample deposition. We also discuss the critical role of the matrix and solvent purity, of the standards used for calibration, of the laser energy, and of the acquisition time. Overall, we provide information necessary to a novice for analysing intact proteins larger than 100 kDa by MALDI-MS. PMID:24056304

  11. Sickness absence at the French National Electric and Gas Company.

    PubMed Central

    Chevalier, A; Luce, D; Blanc, C; Goldberg, M

    1987-01-01

    The certified sickness absence of workers in the French National Electric and Gas Company was studied for 12 months and has been described according to the demographic and occupational characteristics of the employees. The results showed that the principal factors affecting absence are sex, job, and salary. The high percentage of absent women was explained by neither the type of occupation nor family status. Respiratory diseases, accidents, and musculoskeletal and psychiatric disorders were the leading diagnostic categories. Indices of severity, duration, and frequency were calculated and compared between groups. The duration of absence increased with the severity of the medical cause of absence and with the patient's age. PMID:3814541

  12. Investigation of major international and Turkish companies via hierarchical methods and bootstrap approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kantar, E.; Deviren, B.; Keskin, M.

    2011-11-01

    We present a study, within the scope of econophysics, of the hierarchical structure of 98 among the largest international companies including 18 among the largest Turkish companies, namely Banks, Automobile, Software-hardware, Telecommunication Services, Energy and the Oil-Gas sectors, viewed as a network of interacting companies. We analyze the daily time series data of the Boerse-Frankfurt and Istanbul Stock Exchange. We examine the topological properties among the companies over the period 2006-2010 by using the concept of hierarchical structure methods (the minimal spanning tree (MST) and the hierarchical tree (HT)). The period is divided into three subperiods, namely 2006-2007, 2008 which was the year of global economic crisis, and 2009-2010, in order to test various time-windows and observe temporal evolution. We carry out bootstrap analyses to associate the value of statistical reliability to the links of the MSTs and HTs. We also use average linkage clustering analysis (ALCA) in order to better observe the cluster structure. From these studies, we find that the interactions among the Banks/Energy sectors and the other sectors were reduced after the global economic crisis; hence the effects of the Banks and Energy sectors on the correlations of all companies were decreased. Telecommunication Services were also greatly affected by the crisis. We also observed that the Automobile and Banks sectors, including Turkish companies as well as some companies from the USA, Japan and Germany were strongly correlated with each other in all periods.

  13. Mice with an induced mutation in collagen 8A2 develop larger eyes and are resistant to retinal ganglion cell damage in an experimental glaucoma model

    PubMed Central

    Steinhart, Matthew R.; Cone, Frances E.; Nguyen, Cathy; Nguyen, Thao D.; Pease, Mary E.; Puk, Oliver; Graw, Jochen; Oglesby, Ericka N.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To study susceptibility to glaucoma injury as it may be affected by mutations in ocular connective tissue components. Methods Mice homozygous for an N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea induced G257D exchange (Gly to Asp) missense mutation (Aca23) in their collagen 8A2 gene were studied to measure intraocular pressure (IOP), axial length and width, number of retinal ganglion cells (RGC), and inflation responses. Three month old homozygous Aca23 mutant and wild type (WT) mice had 6 weeks exposure to elevated IOP induced by polystyrene microbead injection. Additional Aca23 and matched controls were studied at ages of 10 and 18 months. Results Aca23 mice had no significant difference from WT in IOP level, and in both strains IOP rose with age. In multivariable models, axial length and width were significantly larger in Aca23 than WT, became larger with age, and were larger after exposure to glaucoma (n=227 mice). From inflation test data, the estimates of scleral stress resultants in Aca23 mice were similar to age-matched and younger WT C57BL/6 (B6) mice, while the strain estimates for Aca23 were significantly less than those for either WT group in the mid-sclera and in some of the more anterior scleral measures (p<0.001; n=29, 22, 20 eyes in Aca23, older WT, younger WT, respectively). With chronic IOP elevation, Aca23 eyes increased 9% in length and 7% in width, compared to untreated fellow eyes (p<0.05, <0.01). With similar elevated IOP exposure, WT eyes enlarged proportionately twice as much as Aca23, increasing in length by 18% and in nasal—temporal width by 13% (both p<0.001, Mann–Whitney test). In 4 month old control optic nerves, mean RGC axon number was not different in Aca23 and WT (46,905±7,592, 43,628±11,162, respectively; p=0.43, Mann–Whitney test, n=37 and 29). With chronic glaucoma, Aca23 mice had a mean axon loss of only 0.57±17%, while WT mice lost 21±31% (median loss: 1% versus 10%, n=37, 29, respectively; p=0.001; multivariable model adjusting for

  14. TaGS5-3A, a grain size gene selected during wheat improvement for larger kernel and yield.

    PubMed

    Ma, Lin; Li, Tian; Hao, Chenyang; Wang, Yuquan; Chen, Xinhong; Zhang, Xueyong

    2016-05-01

    Grain size is a dominant component of grain weight in cereals. Earlier studies have shown that OsGS5 plays a major role in regulating both grain size and weight in rice via promotion of cell division. In this study, we isolated TaGS5 homoeologues in wheat and mapped them on chromosomes 3A, 3B and 3D. Temporal and spatial expression analysis showed that TaGS5 homoeologues were preferentially expressed in young spikes and developing grains. Two alleles of TaGS5-3A, TaGS5-3A-T and TaGS5-3A-G were identified in wheat accessions, and a functional marker was developed to discriminate them. Association analysis revealed that TaGS5-3A-T was significantly correlated with larger grain size and higher thousand kernel weight. Biochemical assays showed that TaGS5-3A-T possesses a higher enzymatic activity than TaGS5-3A-G. Transgenic rice lines overexpressing TaGS5-3A-T also exhibited larger grain size and higher thousand kernel weight than TaGS5-3A-G lines, and the transcript levels of cell cycle-related genes in TaGS5-3A-T lines were higher than those in TaGS5-3A-G lines. Furthermore, systematic evolution analysis in diploid, tetraploid and hexaploid wheat showed that TaGS5-3A underwent strong artificial selection during wheat polyploidization events and the frequency changes of two alleles demonstrated that TaGS5-3A-T was favoured in global modern wheat cultivars. These results suggest that TaGS5-3A is a positive regulator of grain size and its favoured allele TaGS5-3A-T exhibits a larger potential application in wheat high-yield breeding. PMID:26480952

  15. 78 FR 54691 - American General Life Insurance Company, et al.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-05

    ... COMMISSION American General Life Insurance Company, et al. August 29, 2013, AGENCY: The Securities and... Life Insurance Company (``American General''), The United States Life Insurance Company in the City of New York (``US Life'') (each, an ``Insurance Company'' and together, the ``Insurance Companies''),...

  16. 31 CFR 223.16 - List of certificate holding companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false List of certificate holding companies... WITH THE UNITED STATES § 223.16 List of certificate holding companies. A list of qualified companies is... submitted by a company, he shall, before issuing Department Circular 570, give a company due notice of...

  17. 31 CFR 223.16 - List of certificate holding companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false List of certificate holding companies... WITH THE UNITED STATES § 223.16 List of certificate holding companies. A list of qualified companies is... submitted by a company, he shall, before issuing Department Circular 570, give a company due notice of...

  18. 31 CFR 223.16 - List of certificate holding companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false List of certificate holding companies... WITH THE UNITED STATES § 223.16 List of certificate holding companies. A list of qualified companies is... submitted by a company, he shall, before issuing Department Circular 570, give a company due notice of...

  19. 31 CFR 223.16 - List of certificate holding companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false List of certificate holding companies... WITH THE UNITED STATES § 223.16 List of certificate holding companies. A list of qualified companies is... submitted by a company, he shall, before issuing Department Circular 570, give a company due notice of...

  20. 31 CFR 223.16 - List of certificate holding companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false List of certificate holding companies... WITH THE UNITED STATES § 223.16 List of certificate holding companies. A list of qualified companies is... submitted by a company, he shall, before issuing Department Circular 570, give a company due notice of...