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Sample records for affected male demonstration

  1. Manifestations of X-linked congenital stationary night blindness in three daughters of an affected male: Demonstration of homozygosity

    SciTech Connect

    Bech-Hansen, N.T. Univ. of Calgary, Alberta ); Pearce, W.G. )

    1993-01-01

    X-linked congenital stationary night blindness (CSNB1) is a hereditary retinal disorder in which clinical features in affected males usually include myopia, nystagmus, and impaired visual acuity. Electroretinography demonstrates a marked reduction in b-wave amplitude. In the study of a large Mennonite family with CSNB1, three of five sisters in one sibship were found to have manifestations of CSNB1. All the sons of these three sisters were affected. Each of the two nonmanifesting sisters had at least one unaffected son. Analysis of Xp markers in the region Xp21.1-Xp11.22 showed that the two sisters who were unaffected had inherited the same maternal X chromosome (i.e., M2). Two of the daughters who manifested with CSNB had inherited the other maternal X chromosome (M1). The third manifesting sister inherited a recombinant X chromosome with a crossover between TIMP and DXS255, which suggests that the CSNB1 locus lies proximal to TIMP. One of the affected daughters' sons had inherited the maternal M1 X chromosome, a finding consistent with that chromosome carrying a mutant CSNB gene; the other affected sons inherited the grandfather's X chromosome (i.e., P). Molecular analysis of DNA from three sisters with manifestations of CSNB is consistent with their being homozygous at the CSNB1 locus and with their mother being a carrier of CSNB1. 23 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Factors affecting the reproductive success of dominant male meerkats.

    PubMed

    Spong, Göran F; Hodge, Sarah J; Young, Andrew J; Clutton-Brock, Tim H

    2008-05-01

    Identifying traits that affect the reproductive success of individuals is fundamental for our understanding of evolutionary processes. In cooperative breeders, a dominant male typically restricts mating access to the dominant female for extended periods, resulting in pronounced variation in reproductive success among males. This may result in strong selection for traits that increase the likelihood of dominance acquisition, dominance retention and reproductive rates while dominant. However, despite considerable research on reproductive skew, few studies have explored the factors that influence these three processes among males in cooperative species. Here we use genetic, behavioural and demographic data to investigate the factors affecting reproductive success in dominant male meerkats (Suricata suricatta). Our data show that dominant males sire the majority of all offspring surviving to 1 year. A male's likelihood of becoming dominant is strongly influenced by age, but not by weight. Tenure length and reproductive rate, both important components of dominant male reproductive success, are largely affected by group size and composition, rather than individual traits. Dominant males in large groups have longer tenures, but after this effect is controlled, male tenure length also correlates negatively to the number of adult females in the group. Male reproductive rate also declines as the number of intra- and extra-group competitors increases. As the time spent in the dominant position and reproductive rate while dominant explain > 80% of the total variance in reproductive success, group composition thus has major implications for male reproductive success.

  3. Experimental demonstration of possible cryptic female choice on male tsetse fly genitalia.

    PubMed

    Briceño, R D; Eberhard, W G

    2009-11-01

    A possible explanation for one of the most general trends in animal evolution - rapid divergent evolution of animal genitalia - is that male genitalia are used as courtship devices that influence cryptic female choice. But experimental demonstrations of stimulatory effects of male genitalia on female reproductive processes have generally been lacking. Previous studies of female reproductive physiology in the tsetse fly Glossina morsitans suggested that stimulation during copulation triggers ovulation and resistance to remating. In this study we altered the form of two male genital structures that squeeze the female's abdomen rhythmically in G. morsitans centralis and induced, as predicted, cryptic female choice against the male: sperm storage decreased, while female remating increased. Further experiments in which we altered the female sensory abilities at the site contacted by these male structures during copulation, and severely altered or eliminated the stimuli the male received from this portion of his genitalia, suggested that the effects of genital alteration on sperm storage were due to changes in tactile stimuli received by the female, rather than altered male behavior. These data support the hypothesis that sexual selection by cryptic female choice has been responsible for the rapid divergent evolution of male genitalia in Glossina; limitations of this support are discussed. It appears that a complex combination of stimuli trigger female ovulation, sperm storage, and remating, and different stimuli affect different processes in G. morsitans, and that the same processes are controlled differently in G. pallidipes. This puzzling diversity in female triggering mechanisms may be due to the action of sexual selection.

  4. The Impact of Induced Positive Affect on Incarcerated Males' Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, Tanis; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Incarcerated adolescent males (n=62) with high and low depression scores were assigned to a positive or neutral affect induction condition. Following affect induction, subjects participated in tasks involving learning to read Hindi words. Results showed a main effect for self-induced positive affect on learning but no main effect for depression…

  5. Sneaker Males Affect Fighter Male Body Size and Sexual Size Dimorphism in Salmon.

    PubMed

    Weir, Laura K; Kindsvater, Holly K; Young, Kyle A; Reynolds, John D

    2016-08-01

    Large male body size is typically favored by directional sexual selection through competition for mates. However, alternative male life-history phenotypes, such as "sneakers," should decrease the strength of sexual selection acting on body size of large "fighter" males. We tested this prediction with salmon species; in southern populations, where sneakers are common, fighter males should be smaller than in northern populations, where sneakers are rare, leading to geographical clines in sexual size dimorphism (SSD). Consistent with our prediction, fighter male body size and SSD (fighter male∶female size) increase with latitude in species with sneaker males (Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and masu salmon Oncorhynchus masou) but not in species without sneakers (chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta and pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha). This is the first evidence that sneaker males affect SSD across populations and species, and it suggests that alternative male mating strategies may shape the evolution of body size.

  6. Male inbreeding status affects female fitness in a seed-feeding beetle.

    PubMed

    Fox, Charles W; Xu, J; Wallin, W G; Curtis, C L

    2012-01-01

    Inbreeding generally reduces male mating activity such that inbred males are less successful in male-male competition. Inbred males can also have smaller accessory glands, transfer less sperm and produce sperm that are less motile, less viable or have a greater frequency of abnormalities, all of which can reduce the fertilization success and fitness of inbred males relative to outbred males. However, few studies have examined how male inbreeding status affects the fitness of females with whom they mate. In this study, we examine the effect of male inbreeding status (inbreeding coefficient f = 0.25 vs. f = 0) on the fecundity, adult longevity and the fate of eggs produced by outbred females in the seed-feeding beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus. Females mated to inbred males were less likely to lay eggs. Of those that laid eggs, females mated to inbred males laid 6-12% fewer eggs. Females mated to inbred males lived on average 5.4% longer than did females mated to outbred males, but this effect disappeared when lifetime fecundity was used as a covariate in the analysis. There was no effect of male inbreeding status on the proportion of a female's eggs that developed or hatched, and no evidence that inbred males produced smaller nuptial gifts. However, ejaculates of inbred males contained 17-33% fewer sperm, on average, than did ejaculates of outbred males. Our study demonstrates that mating with inbred males has significant direct consequences for the fitness of female C. maculatus, likely mediated by effects of inbreeding status on the number of sperm in male ejaculates. Direct effects of male inbreeding status on female fitness should be more widely considered in theoretical models and empirical studies of mate choice.

  7. Does testosterone affect foraging behavior in male frogs?

    PubMed

    Desprat, Julia L; Mondy, Nathalie; Lengagne, Thierry

    2017-02-19

    During the breeding season, males often produce costly and extravagant displays or physical ornaments to attract females. Numerous studies have established that testosterone could directly influence the expression of certain sexual signals. However, few of these studies have focused on the indirect role that testosterone could play in modulating prey detection and visual performance to improve the foraging ability of males and hence their acquisition of nutritional resource. In the present study, we experimentally modified the testosterone levels of European tree frog males (Hyla arborea), staying in the natural range previously measured in the field, and we investigated the effect of testosterone on the foraging ability of individuals. Foraging capacities were measured on males placed in an arena with a virtual cricket moving on a computer screen. Our results demonstrated a significant effect of testosterone on the hunting behavior of H. arborea. We observed that testosterone reduced the orientation latency to virtual prey for supplemented males compared to controls. In addition, testosterone significantly increased the attack promptness of male frogs. Finally, our experiment did not demonstrate any impact of testosterone on male attack success.

  8. X-chromosome dosage affects male sexual behavior

    PubMed Central

    Bonthuis, Paul J.; Cox, Kimberly H.; Rissman, Emilie F.

    2012-01-01

    Sex differences in the brain and behavior are primarily attributed to dichotomous androgen exposure between males and females during neonatal development, as well as adult responses to gonadal hormones. Here we tested an alternative hypothesis and asked if sex chromosome complement influences male copulatory behavior, a standard behavior for studies of sexual differentiation. We used two mouse models with non-canonical associations between chromosomal and gonadal sex. In both models, we found evidence for sex chromosome complement as an important factor regulating sex differences in the expression of masculine sexual behavior. Counter intuitively, males with two X-chromosomes were faster to ejaculate and display more ejaculations than males with a single X. Moreover, mice of both sexes with two X-chromosomes displayed increased frequencies of mounts and thrusts. We speculate that expression levels of a yet to be discovered gene(s) on the X-chromosome may affect sexual behavior in mice and perhaps in other mammals. PMID:22349083

  9. Juvenile hormone agonists affect the occurrence of male Daphnia.

    PubMed

    Tatarazako, Norihisa; Oda, Shigeto; Watanabe, Hajime; Morita, Masatoshi; Iguchi, Taisen

    2003-12-01

    The water flea Daphnia magna reproduces primarily by cyclic parthenogenesis. Environmental stimuli that signal a change to adverse conditions induce the organisms to switch from parthenogenesis to gamogenetic reproduction. During the gamogenetic period, they produce male daphnids and dormant resting eggs, which can survive prolonged periods of environmental adversity. However, little is known about the mechanisms associated with the switch from parthenogenesis to gamogenetic reproduction. We investigated the effects of several juvenoids on sex determination in Daphnia. Females less than 24 h old were exposed to various concentrations of the test substance and were observed for 21 days. It was found that they can trigger the appearance of male daphnids: the percentage of males in the population increases to a level greater than what occurs under ordinary environmental conditions. We found that methylfarnesoate, juvenile hormone III, methoprene, and the phenoxyphenoxy derivatives pyriproxyfen and fenoxycarb (both insecticides) reduced the production of offspring and produced sex ratios dominated by male daphnids. Pyriproxyfen and fenoxycarb showed striking effects at low concentrations. Exposure to either of these chemicals at a concentration of 330 ngl(-1) caused adult females to produce almost all male neonates. Methylfarnesoate, juvenile hormone III, and methoprene showed an effect in inducing male production at higher concentrations (3.7 x 10(3), 3.3 x 10(5), and 1.3 x 10(5) ngl(-1), respectively). Our findings suggest that juvenile hormone agonists, including some insecticides, affect the chemical signaling responsible for inducing the production of male offspring.

  10. Interactions with heterospecific males do not affect how female Mesocricetus hamsters respond to conspecific males

    PubMed Central

    delBarco-Trillo, Javier; Johnston, Robert E.

    2012-01-01

    Reproductive interference includes any interspecific interaction that reduces the fitness of one or both species involved. There are several types of reproductive interference, but they normally involve the direct cost of interacting or mating with heterospecifics. An indirect cost of interacting with heterospecific individuals is a consequent reduction in successful interactions with conspecifics. We tested the hypothesis that being aggressive towards a heterospecific individual will diminish sexual responses towards conspecifics in later encounters. We used two species of Mesocricetus hamsters (Syrian and Turkish hamsters), whose interspecific interactions have previously been determined. We exposed or both exposed and paired Syrian hamster females with a conspecific or a heterospecific male. Five minutes later, we paired all females with a conspecific male and measured the latency to lordosis, the duration of lordosis and any incidence of aggression. We found that (1) interactions with heterospecific males did not affect how females responded to conspecific males in later encounters and (2) previous pairing of female subjects with either conspecific or heterospecific males promoted a faster sexual response by females in subsequent interactions with conspecific males. Thus, aggressive interactions of Syrian hamster females with heterospecific males, contrary to our initial hypothesis, had a positive effect on subsequent interactions with conspecific males. PMID:23439800

  11. [Fluorosis of coal burning affects the male reproductive system].

    PubMed

    Li, Jun-Feng; Feng, Jin; Xiao, Yue-Hai; Sun, Fa

    2014-01-01

    Fluorosis of coal burning is a new type of endemic fluorosis in China, which affects the male reproductive system. Furthermore, the content of fluoride in the semen, sperm mortality, sperm concentration and the incidence of infertility are higher in severe fluorosis areas than in mild- and non-fluorosis areas, so are the levels of serum follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone. However, the levels of inhibin B, serum testosterone and estradiol show different degrees of reduction in severe fluorosis areas. Accordingly, fluorosis of coal burning, just like other endemic fluorosis, may affect the structure of male reproductive organs, the generation of sperm and reproductive endocrinology, resulting in the decline of men's reproductive ability.

  12. Chemosterilization of male sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) does not affect sex pheromone release

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Siefkes, Michael J.; Bergstedt, Roger A.; Twohey, Michael B.; Li, Weiming

    2003-01-01

    Release of males sterilized by injection with bisazir is an important experimental technique in management of sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), an invasive, nuisance species in the Laurentian Great Lakes. Sea lampreys are semelparous and sterilization can theoretically eliminate a male's reproductive capacity and, if the ability to obtain mates is not affected, waste the sex products of females spawning with him. It has been demonstrated that spermiating males release a sex pheromone that attracts ovulating females. We demonstrated that sterilized, spermiating males also released the pheromone and attracted ovulating females. In a two-choice maze, ovulating females increased searching behavior and spent more time in the side of the maze containing chemical stimuli from sterilized, spermiating males. This attraction response was also observed in spawning stream experiments. Also, electro-olfactograms showed that female olfactory organs were equally sensitive to chemical stimuli from sterilized and nonsterilized, spermiating males. Finally, fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry showed that extracts from water conditioned with sterilized and nonsterilized, spermiating males contained the same pheromonal molecule at similar levels. We concluded that injection of bisazir did not affect the efficacy of sex pheromone in sterilized males.

  13. Relative Age Affects Marathon Performance in Male and Female Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Connick, Mark J.; Beckman, Emma M.; Tweedy, Sean M.

    2015-01-01

    Marathon runners are ranked in 5-year age groups. However the extent to which 5-year groupings facilitates equitable competition has not been evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of relative age in male and female marathon running. Marathon finishing times for the top ten male (aged 20-69 years) and female athletes (aged 20-64 years) were obtained from the 2013 New York and Chicago marathons. Intra-class and inter-class validity were evaluated by comparing performances within (intra-class) and between (inter-class) the 5-year age groups. Results showed intra-class effects in all male age groups over 50 years, in all female age groups over 40 years, and in male and female 20-24 age groups (p < 0.05). Inter-class differences existed between the 20-24 and 25-29 age groups in both males and females, between all male age groups over 50 years, and between all female age groups over 40 years (p < 0.05). This study provided the first evaluation of the effects of relative age in male and female marathon running. The results provide preliminary but compelling evidence that the relatively older male athletes in age groups over 50 years and the relatively older females in age groups over 40 years are competitively disadvantaged compared to the younger athletes in these age groups. Key points Results showed a curvilinear relationship between age and marathon running performance with the negative effect of age becoming more pronounced in older runners. Relative age effects were found in all age groups over age 50 years in males and over age 40 years in females indicating that the relatively older runners were competitively disadvantaged compared to the relatively younger runners in these age groups. Relative age affected the 20-24 age classification which is consistent with the hypothesis that marathon performance improves until peak performance occurs in the 25-29 age classification. PMID:26336355

  14. Relative Age Affects Marathon Performance in Male and Female Athletes.

    PubMed

    Connick, Mark J; Beckman, Emma M; Tweedy, Sean M

    2015-09-01

    Marathon runners are ranked in 5-year age groups. However the extent to which 5-year groupings facilitates equitable competition has not been evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of relative age in male and female marathon running. Marathon finishing times for the top ten male (aged 20-69 years) and female athletes (aged 20-64 years) were obtained from the 2013 New York and Chicago marathons. Intra-class and inter-class validity were evaluated by comparing performances within (intra-class) and between (inter-class) the 5-year age groups. Results showed intra-class effects in all male age groups over 50 years, in all female age groups over 40 years, and in male and female 20-24 age groups (p < 0.05). Inter-class differences existed between the 20-24 and 25-29 age groups in both males and females, between all male age groups over 50 years, and between all female age groups over 40 years (p < 0.05). This study provided the first evaluation of the effects of relative age in male and female marathon running. The results provide preliminary but compelling evidence that the relatively older male athletes in age groups over 50 years and the relatively older females in age groups over 40 years are competitively disadvantaged compared to the younger athletes in these age groups. Key pointsResults showed a curvilinear relationship between age and marathon running performance with the negative effect of age becoming more pronounced in older runners.Relative age effects were found in all age groups over age 50 years in males and over age 40 years in females indicating that the relatively older runners were competitively disadvantaged compared to the relatively younger runners in these age groups.Relative age affected the 20-24 age classification which is consistent with the hypothesis that marathon performance improves until peak performance occurs in the 25-29 age classification.

  15. Does furan affect the thymus in growing male rats?

    PubMed

    Koçkaya, E Arzu; Kılıç, Aysun; Karacaoğlu, Elif; Selmanoğlu, Güldeniz

    2012-07-01

    Furan has been identified in foods such as heat-treated foods, including coffee, canned meat, hazelnuts, and infant foods and formulas. Children may be exposed to furan via either consumption of these foods or their derivatives. We evaluated the effects of furan on the thymus of weaning male rats in the present study. Five separate groups containing male rats were used: control, oil control, and three furan-treated groups. Furan was given orally to rats in the treatment groups at doses of 2, 4, and 8 mg/kg/day for 90 days. At the end of the experiment, thymus of the rats were examined morphologically, histopathologically, and immunohistochemically. We observed that absolute and relative weights of thymus were decreased significantly in rats treated with 4- and 8-mg/kg/day doses of furan. In histopathological examination, enlargement of interstitial connective tissue between the thymic lobules, lymphocyte depletion, and hemorrhage were observed. We detected an increase in apoptotic cell counts in thymus of the treatment groups. In addition, we found significant differences in the distribution of fibronectin and transforming growth factor-beta in the thymus of the treatment groups. In conclusion, we suggest that furan has affected the thymus in growing male rats.

  16. Re-feeding food-deprived male meadow voles affects the sperm allocation of their rival males.

    PubMed

    Vaughn, Ashlee A; Delbarco-Trillo, Javier; Ferkin, Michael H

    2012-12-01

    An individual's nutritional status affects the manner in which same- and opposite-sex conspecifics respond to that individual, which may affect their fitness. Male meadow voles, Microtus pennsylvanicus, increase their sperm allocation if they encounter the scent mark of an unfamiliar male that is not nutritionally challenged. If, however, the scent mark comes from a male that has been food deprived for 24 hours, stud male voles do not increase their sperm allocation. Food deprived males may be viewed as being lower quality and a reduced risk of sperm competition by rival males. We hypothesized that stud males in promiscuous mating systems tailor their sperm allocations depending on whether rival males have been food deprived and then re-fed. We predicted that newly re-fed males will be considered a strong risk of sperm competition because of the potentially high fitness and survival costs associated with food deprivation in males, and that they will cause stud males to increase their sperm allocation. Our results, however, showed that the recovery period from 24 hours of food deprivation was a relatively slow process. It took between 96 hours and 336 hours of re-feeding male scent donors that were food deprived for 24 hours to induce stud males to increase their sperm allocation to levels comparable to when scent donors were not food deprived. Stud male voles may be conserving the amount of sperm allocated until the male scent donors have recovered from food deprivation and subsequent re-feeding.

  17. Social adjustment in adult males affected with progressive muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Eggers, S; Zatz, M

    1998-02-07

    Adult male patients affected with Becker (BMD, N = 22), limb girdle (LGMD, N = 22) and facioscapulohumeral (FSHMD, N = 18) muscular dystrophy were interviewed to assess for the first time how the disease's severity and recurrence risk (RR) magnitude alter their social adjustment. BMD (X-linked recessive) is the severest form and confers an intermediate RR because all daughters will be carriers, LGMD (autosomal-recessive) is moderately severe with a low RR in the absence of consanguineous marriage, and FSHMD (autosomal-dominant) is clinically the mildest of these three forms of MD but with the highest RR, of 50%. Results of the semistructured questionnaire [WHO (1988): Psychiatric Disability Assessment Schedule] showed no significant difference between the three clinical groups, but more severely handicapped patients as well as patients belonging to lower socioeconomic levels from all clinical groups showed poorer social adjustment. Taken together, myopathic patients displayed intermediate social dysfunction compared to controls and schizophrenics studied by Jablensky [1988: WHO Psychiatric Disability Assessment Schedule]. Since the items of major dysfunction proportion among myopathic patients concern intimate relationships (70%), interest in working among those unemployed (67%), and social isolation (53%), emotional support and social and legal assistance should concentrate on these aspects. Interestingly, the results of this study also suggest that high RRs do not affect relationships to the opposite sex.

  18. Knowing your audience affects male-male interactions in Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens).

    PubMed

    Bertucci, Frédéric; Matos, Ricardo J; Dabelsteen, Torben

    2014-03-01

    Aggressive interactions between animals often occur in the presence of third parties. By observing aggressive signalling interactions, bystanders may eavesdrop and gain relevant information about conspecifics without the costs of interacting. On the other hand, interactants may also adjust their behaviour when an audience is present. This study aimed to test how knowledge about fighting ability of an audience affects aggressive interactions in male Siamese fighting fish. Subjects were positioned between two dyads of non-interacting males and allowed to observe both dyads shortly before the view to one of the dyads was blocked, and the dyads were allowed to interact. Subjects were subsequently exposed to an unknown opponent in the presence of either the winner or the loser of the seen or unseen interaction. The results suggest a complex role of the characteristic of an audience in the agonistic behaviours of a subject engaged in an interaction. The presence of a seen audience elicited more aggressive displays towards the opponent if the audience was a loser. This response was different in the presence of an unseen audience. Subjects then directed a higher aggressiveness against their opponent if the audience was a winner. These results also suggest a potentially more complex and interesting process allowing individuals to gain information about the quality and threat level of an unknown audience while it is interacting with a third party. The importance of information acquisition for an individual to adapt its behaviour and the role of communication networks in shaping social interactions are discussed.

  19. Y-chromosomal genes affecting male fertility: A review

    PubMed Central

    Dhanoa, Jasdeep Kaur; Mukhopadhyay, Chandra Sekhar; Arora, Jaspreet Singh

    2016-01-01

    The mammalian sex-chromosomes (X and Y) have evolved from autosomes and are involved in sex determination and reproductive traits. The Y-chromosome is the smallest chromosome that consists of 2-3% of the haploid genome and may contain between 70 and 200 genes. The Y-chromosome plays major role in male fertility and is suitable to study the evolutionary relics, speciation, and male infertility and/or subfertility due to its unique features such as long non-recombining region, abundance of repetitive sequences, and holandric inheritance pattern. During evolution, many holandric genes were deleted. The current review discusses the mammalian holandric genes and their functions. The commonly encountered infertility and/or subfertility problems due to point or gross mutation (deletion) of the Y-chromosomal genes have also been discussed. For example, loss or microdeletion of sex-determining region, Y-linked gene results in XY males that exhibit female characteristics, deletion of RNA binding motif, Y-encoded in azoospermic factor b region results in the arrest of spermatogenesis at meiosis. The holandric genes have been covered for associating the mutations with male factor infertility. PMID:27536043

  20. Microwave exposure affecting reproductive system in male rats.

    PubMed

    Kesari, Kavindra Kumar; Behari, Jitendra

    2010-09-01

    The object of present study is to investigate the effects of 50 GHz microwave frequency electromagnetic fields on reproductive system of male rats. Male rats of Wistar strain were used in the study. Animals 60 days old were divided into two groups--group I sham exposed and group II experimental (microwave exposed). During exposure, rats were confined in Plexiglas cages with drilled ventilation holes for 2 h a day for 45 days continuously at a specified specific absorption rate of 8.0 x 10(-4) W/kg. After the last exposure, the rats were sacrificed immediately and sperms were collected. Antioxidant enzyme (superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase), histone kinase, apoptosis, and cell cycle were analyzed in sperm cells. Result shows a significant decrease in the level of sperm GPx and SOD activity (p < or = 0.05), whereas catalase shows significant increase in exposed group of sperm samples as compared with control (p < 0.02). We observed a statistically significant decrease in mean activity of histone kinase as compared to the control (p < 0.016). The percentage of cells dividing in a spermatogenesis was estimated by analyzing DNA per cell by flow cytometry. The percentage of apoptosis in electromagnetic field exposed group shows increased ratio as compared to sham exposed (p < 0.004). There were no significant differences in the G(0)/G(1) phase; however, a significant decrease (p < 0.026) in S phase was obtained. Results also indicate a decrease in percentage of G(2)/M transition phase of cell cycle in exposed group as compared to sham exposed (p < 0.019). We conclude that these radiations may have a significant effect on reproductive system of male rats, which may be an indication of male infertility.

  1. Mass Rearing History and Irradiation Affect Mating Performance of the Male Fruit Fly, Anastrepha obliqua

    PubMed Central

    Rull, Juan; Encarnación, Nery; Birke, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    As an initial step to improve the efficiency of the sterile insect technique applied to eradicate, suppress, and control wild Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in mango producing areas of Mexico, the effect of radiation dose and mass rearing history on male mating performance was examined. Field cage tests in which both male and female laboratory flies were irradiated at different doses (0, 40, and 80 Gy) were released with cohorts of wild flies of both sexes, revealing that both mass rearing history and irradiation affected male mating performance. Laboratory males were accepted for copulation by wild females less frequently than wild males. Copulations involving laboratory males were shorter than those involving wild males. Irradiated males mated less frequently with wild females than wild males, and irradiated females appeared to be less able to reject courting males of both origins. High levels of fertility for untreated laboratory females crossed with males irradiated at different doses may reflect problems in mass rearing affecting homogeneity of pupal age before irradiation, and possibly masked a dose effect. Proposed remedial measures to improve male mating performance are discussed. PMID:22957485

  2. Some Affects of Women's Rights Demonstrations Upon Attitudes of Nonfeminist Mormons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franck, Loren; Carlson, Stephen D.

    Forty-nine introductory psychology students (28 female, 21 male) at the Mormon Church's Brigham Young University in Utah were tested to determine the effects of a pro-feminist, pro-Equal Rights Amendment demonstration by the Utah Women's Rights Movement on attitudes toward the women's movement, civil demonstrations, and Mormon Church leaders.…

  3. Glyphosate Adversely Affects Danio rerio Males: Acetylcholinesterase Modulation and Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Fernanda Moreira; Caldas, Sergiane Souza; Primel, Ednei Gilberto; da Rosa, Carlos Eduardo

    2017-04-01

    It has been demonstrated that glyphosate-based herbicides are toxic to animals. In the present study, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, antioxidant capacity against peroxyl radicals (ACAP), and lipid peroxidation (LPO), as well as the activity and expression of the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme, were evaluated in Danio rerio males exposed to 5 or 10 mg/L of glyphosate for 24 and 96 h. An increase in ACAP in gills after 24 h was observed in the animals exposed to 5 mg/L of glyphosate. A decrease in LPO was observed in brain tissue of animals exposed to 10 mg/L after 24 h, while an increase was observed in muscle after 96 h. No significant alterations were observed in ROS generation. AChE activity was not altered in muscles or brains of animals exposed to either glyphosate concentration for 24 or 96 h. However, gene expression of this enzyme in the brain was reduced after 24 h and was enhanced in both brain and muscle tissues after 96 h. Thus, contrary to previous findings that had attributed the imbalance in the oxidative state of animals exposed to glyphosate-based herbicides to surfactants and other inert compounds, the present study demonstrated that glyphosate per se promotes this same effect in zebrafish males. Although glyphosate concentrations did not alter AChE activity, this study demonstrated for the first time that this molecule affects ache expression in male zebrafish D. rerio.

  4. DNA methylation affected by male sterile cytoplasm in rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Male sterile cytoplasm plays an important role in hybrid rice and cytoplasmic effects are sufficiently documented. However, no reports are available on DNA methylation affected by male sterile cytoplasm in hybrid rice. We used a methylation sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) technique to charac...

  5. Male age and strain affect ejaculate quality in the Mexican fruit fly.

    PubMed

    Herrera-Cruz, Mariana; Abraham, Solana; Nuñez-Beverido, Nicolas; Flores-Estévez, Norma; Reyes-Hernández, Martha; Alvarado, Mayvi; Pérez-Staples, Diana

    2017-02-19

    Aging in all organisms is inevitable. Male age can have profound effects on mating success and female reproduction, yet relatively little is known on the effects of male age on different components of the ejaculate. Furthermore, in mass-reared insects used for the Sterile Insect Technique, there are often behavioral differences between mass-reared and wild males, while differences in the ejaculate have been less studied. The ejaculate in insects is composed mainly of sperm and accessory gland proteins. Here, we studied how male age and strain affected (i) protein quantity of testes and accessory glands, (ii) the biological activity of accessory gland products injected into females, (iii) sperm viability and (iv) sperm quantity stored by females in wild and mass-reared Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae). We found lower protein content in testes of old wild males and lower sperm viability in females mated with old wild males. Females stored more sperm when mated to young wild males than with young mass-reared males. Accessory gland injections of old or young males did not inhibit female remating. Knowledge of how male age affects different ejaculate components will aid our understanding on investment of the ejaculate and possible post-copulatory consequences on female behaviour. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. Male seminal fluid substances affect sperm competition success and female reproductive behavior in a seed beetle.

    PubMed

    Yamane, Takashi; Goenaga, Julieta; Rönn, Johanna Liljestrand; Arnqvist, Göran

    2015-01-01

    Male seminal fluid proteins are known to affect female reproductive behavior and physiology by reducing mating receptivity and by increasing egg production rates. Such substances are also though to increase the competitive fertilization success of males, but the empirical foundation for this tenet is restricted. Here, we examined the effects of injections of size-fractioned protein extracts from male reproductive organs on both male competitive fertilization success (i.e., P2 in double mating experiments) and female reproduction in the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus. We found that extracts of male seminal vesicles and ejaculatory ducts increased competitive fertilization success when males mated with females 1 day after the females' initial mating, while extracts from accessory glands and testes increased competitive fertilization success when males mated with females 2 days after the females' initial mating. Moreover, different size fractions of seminal fluid proteins had distinct and partly antagonistic effects on male competitive fertilization success. Collectively, our experiments show that several different seminal fluid proteins, deriving from different parts in the male reproductive tract and of different molecular weight, affect male competitive fertilization success in C. maculatus. Our results highlight the diverse effects of seminal fluid proteins and show that the function of such proteins can be contingent upon female mating status. We also document effects of different size fractions on female mating receptivity and egg laying rates, which can serve as a basis for future efforts to identify the molecular identity of seminal fluid proteins and their function in this model species.

  7. Male Seminal Fluid Substances Affect Sperm Competition Success and Female Reproductive Behavior in a Seed Beetle

    PubMed Central

    Yamane, Takashi; Goenaga, Julieta; Rönn, Johanna Liljestrand; Arnqvist, Göran

    2015-01-01

    Male seminal fluid proteins are known to affect female reproductive behavior and physiology by reducing mating receptivity and by increasing egg production rates. Such substances are also though to increase the competitive fertilization success of males, but the empirical foundation for this tenet is restricted. Here, we examined the effects of injections of size-fractioned protein extracts from male reproductive organs on both male competitive fertilization success (i.e., P2 in double mating experiments) and female reproduction in the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus. We found that extracts of male seminal vesicles and ejaculatory ducts increased competitive fertilization success when males mated with females 1 day after the females’ initial mating, while extracts from accessory glands and testes increased competitive fertilization success when males mated with females 2 days after the females’ initial mating. Moreover, different size fractions of seminal fluid proteins had distinct and partly antagonistic effects on male competitive fertilization success. Collectively, our experiments show that several different seminal fluid proteins, deriving from different parts in the male reproductive tract and of different molecular weight, affect male competitive fertilization success in C. maculatus. Our results highlight the diverse effects of seminal fluid proteins and show that the function of such proteins can be contingent upon female mating status. We also document effects of different size fractions on female mating receptivity and egg laying rates, which can serve as a basis for future efforts to identify the molecular identity of seminal fluid proteins and their function in this model species. PMID:25893888

  8. Rank among Peers during Game Competition Affects the Tendency to Make Risky Choices in Adolescent Males

    PubMed Central

    Foo, Jerome C.; Nagase, Kohei; Naramura-Ohno, Sawako; Yoshiuchi, Kazuhiro; Yamamoto, Yoshiharu; Morita, Kenji

    2017-01-01

    It has been shown that adolescents take more risks when they are with peers than when they are alone, presumably because the presence of peers can be a social reward/punishment that can bias decision making. Competition is inherent in peer interactions, and recent work has demonstrated that winning/losing is an intrinsic social reward/punishment. Taken together, it can be hypothesized that competition amongst peers affects adolescents’ risky behavior. While there is much evidence that status amongst peers can relate to antisocial/aggressive behavior, it remains unclear whether risky behavior is affected. Moreover, the degree to which ‘temporary status,’ such as ranking in a short-term competitive game, affects behavior is uncertain, an important issue because adolescents might be sensitive to situations or factors which potentially destabilize existing hierarchies. In this experiment, these issues were directly explored in the classroom environment using smartphone technology and Wi-Fi setup. Male junior high school students (aged 14–15) performed a roulette game task on smartphones, playing either independently or against five classmates. In the latter case, the students’ current ranks within the group of six were constantly presented on smartphone screens. To dissociate the effects of the students’ reactions to ranks from their actual performances, unknown to the students, the ranks presented were actually predetermined so that about half of the students were continuously presented with high ranks whereas the other half were continuously presented with low ranks. We found that the students presented with low ranks made more risky plays than those not presented with ranks or those presented with high ranks. This result suggests that even temporary status significantly affects adolescents’ risky behavior, and also demonstrates the usefulness of smartphones in examining and manipulating peer interactions in classroom experiments. PMID:28174543

  9. Repeated administrations of carbon nanotubes in male mice cause reversible testis damage without affecting fertility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Yuhong; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Jingping; Mu, Qingxin; Zhang, Weidong; Butch, Elizabeth R.; Snyder, Scott E.; Yan, Bing

    2010-09-01

    Soluble carbon nanotubes show promise as materials for in vivo delivery and imaging applications. Several reports have described the in vivo toxicity of carbon nanotubes, but their effects on male reproduction have not been examined. Here, we show that repeated intravenous injections of water-soluble multiwalled carbon nanotubes into male mice can cause reversible testis damage without affecting fertility. Nanotubes accumulated in the testes, generated oxidative stress and decreased the thickness of the seminiferous epithelium in the testis at day 15, but the damage was repaired at 60 and 90 days. The quantity, quality and integrity of the sperm and the levels of three major sex hormones were not significantly affected throughout the 90-day period. The fertility of treated male mice was unaffected; the pregnancy rate and delivery success of female mice that mated with the treated male mice did not differ from those that mated with untreated male mice.

  10. Repeated carbon nanotube administrations in male mice cause reversible testis damage without affecting fertility

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Yuhong; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Jingping; Mu, Qingxin; Zhang, Weidong; Butch, Elizabeth R.; Snyder, Scott E.; Yan, Bing

    2010-01-01

    Soluble carbon nanotubes are promising materials for in vivo delivery and imaging applications. Several reports have described the in vivo toxicity of carbon nanotubes, however, their effects on male reproduction have not been examined. Here we show that repeated intravenous injections of water-soluble multi-walled carbon nanotubes into male mice can cause reversible testis damage without affecting fertility. Nanotubes accumulated in the testes, generated oxidative stress, and decreased the thickness of the seminiferous epithelium in the testis at day 15, but the damage was repaired after 60 and 90 days. The quantity, quality, and integrity of the sperm and the levels of three major sex hormones were not significantly affected throughout the 90-day period. The fertility of treated male mice was unaffected; the pregnancy rate and delivery success of female mice that mated with the treated male mice did not differ from those that mated with untreated male mice. PMID:20693989

  11. Condition-dependent ejaculate production affects male mating behavior in the common bedbug Cimex lectularius.

    PubMed

    Kaldun, Bettina; Otti, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    Food availability in the environment is often low and variable, constraining organisms in their resource allocation to different life-history traits. For example, variation in food availability is likely to induce condition-dependent investment in reproduction. Further, diet has been shown to affect ejaculate size, composition and quality. How these effects translate into male reproductive success or change male mating behavior is still largely unknown. Here, we concentrated on the effect of meal size on ejaculate production, male reproductive success and mating behavior in the common bedbug Cimex lectularius. We analyzed the production of sperm and seminal fluid within three different feeding regimes in six different populations. Males receiving large meals produced significantly more sperm and seminal fluid than males receiving small meals or no meals at all. While such condition-dependent ejaculate production did not affect the number of offspring produced after a single mating, food-restricted males could perform significantly fewer matings than fully fed males. Therefore, in a multiple mating context food-restricted males paid a fitness cost and might have to adjust their mating strategy according to the ejaculate available to them. Our results indicate that meal size has no direct effect on ejaculate quality, but food availability forces a condition-dependent mating rate on males. Environmental variation translating into variation in male reproductive traits reveals that natural selection can interact with sexual selection and shape reproductive traits. As males can modulate their ejaculate size depending on the mating situation, future studies are needed to elucidate whether environmental variation affecting the amount of ejaculate available might induce different mating strategies.

  12. The Magea gene cluster regulates male germ cell apoptosis without affecting the fertility in mice

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Siyuan; Xian, Li; Shi, Peiliang; Li, Chaojun; Lin, Zhaoyu; Gao, Xiang

    2016-01-01

    While apoptosis is essential for male germ cell development, improper activation of apoptosis in the testis can affect spermatogenesis and cause reproduction defects. Members of the MAGE-A (melanoma antigen family A) gene family are frequently clustered in mammalian genomes and are exclusively expressed in the testes of normal animals but abnormally activated in a wide variety of cancers. We investigated the potential roles of these genes in spermatogenesis by generating a mouse model with a 210-kb genomic deletion encompassing six members of the Magea gene cluster (Magea1, Magea2, Magea3, Magea5, Magea6 and Magea8). Male mice carrying the deletion displayed smaller testes from 2 months old with a marked increase in apoptotic germ cells in the first wave of spermatogenesis. Furthermore, we found that Magea genes prevented stress-induced spermatogenic apoptosis after N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) treatment during the adult stage. Mechanistically, deletion of the Magea gene cluster resulted in a dramatic increase in apoptotic germ cells, predominantly spermatocytes, with activation of p53 and induction of Bax in the testes. These observations demonstrate that the Magea genes are crucial in maintaining normal testicular size and protecting germ cells from excessive apoptosis under genotoxic stress. PMID:27226137

  13. Delayed breeding affects lifetime reproductive success differently in male and female green woodhoopoes.

    PubMed

    Hawn, Amanda T; Radford, Andrew N; du Plessis, Morné A

    2007-05-15

    In cooperatively breeding species, many individuals only start breeding long after reaching physiological maturity [1], and this delay is expected to reduce lifetime reproductive success (LRS) [1-3]. Although many studies have investigated how nonbreeding helpers might mitigate the assumed cost of delayed breeding (reviewed in [3]), few have directly quantified the cost itself [4, 5] (but see [6, 7]). Moreover, although life-history tradeoffs frequently influence the sexes in profoundly different ways [8, 9], it has been generally assumed that males and females are similarly affected by a delayed start to breeding [7]. Here, we use 24 years of data to investigate the sex-specific cost of delayed breeding in the cooperatively breeding green woodhoopoe (Phoeniculus purpureus) and show that age at first breeding is related to LRS differently in males and females. As is traditionally expected, males that started to breed earlier in life had greater LRS than those that started later. However, females showed the opposite pattern: Those individuals that started to breed later in life actually had greater LRS than those that started earlier. In both sexes, the association between age at first breeding and LRS was driven by differences in breeding-career length, rather than per-season productivity. We hypothesize that the high mortality rate of young female breeders, and thus their short breeding careers, is related to a reduced ability to deal with the high physiological costs of reproduction in this species. These results demonstrate the importance of considering sex-specific reproductive costs when estimating the payoffs of life-history decisions and bring into question the long-held assumption that delayed breeding is necessarily costly.

  14. The facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD1) gene affects males more severely and more frequently than females.

    PubMed

    Zatz, M; Marie, S K; Cerqueira, A; Vainzof, M; Pavanello, R C; Passos-Bueno, M R

    1998-05-01

    We investigated 52 families of patients with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD1), including 172 patients (104 males and 68 females). Among 273 DNA samples which were analyzed with probe p13E-11, 131 (67 males and 64 females) were shown to carry an EcoRI fragment smaller than 35 kb; 114 among them were examined clinically and neurologically. Results of the present investigation showed that: a) there is no molecular evidence for autosomal or X-linked recessive inheritance of FSHD1; b) an excess of affected males, which is explained by a significantly greater proportion of females than males among asymptomatic cases and a significantly greater proportion of affected sons than daughters observed in the offspring of asymptomatic mothers; c) the penetrance of the FSHD1 gene until age 30 was estimated as 83% for both sexes but was significantly greater for males (95%) than for females (69%); d) new mutations occur significantly more frequently in females than males among somatic/germinal mosaic cases; and e) severely affected cases originated more often through new mutations or were transmitted through maternal than through paternal lines including somatic/germinal mothers. These observations have important implications for understanding the molecular mechanisms responsible for FSHD1 and for genetic and prognostic counseling according to the gender of the affected patient.

  15. 40 CFR 63.1318 - PET and polystyrene affected sources-testing and compliance demonstration provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true PET and polystyrene affected sources-testing and compliance demonstration provisions. 63.1318 Section 63.1318 Protection of Environment...: Group IV Polymers and Resins § 63.1318 PET and polystyrene affected sources—testing and...

  16. 40 CFR 63.1318 - PET and polystyrene affected sources-testing and compliance demonstration provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false PET and polystyrene affected sources-testing and compliance demonstration provisions. 63.1318 Section 63.1318 Protection of Environment... Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins § 63.1318 PET and polystyrene affected sources—testing...

  17. Outward Bound and Confluent Education: A Demonstration Project Accentuating Affective Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nadler, Reldan S.

    In 1976 a demonstration project at the Connecticut Wilderness School integrated a Confluent Education curriculum in Outward Bound type courses, to facilitate affective learning for a more meaningful and relevant experience. A review of Outward Bound literature identified the need for affective learning as a significant program constituent. Five…

  18. Environmentally relevant exposure to 17α-ethinylestradiol affects the telencephalic proteome of male fathead minnows

    PubMed Central

    Martyniuk, Christopher J.; Kroll, Kevin J.; Doperalski, Nicholas J.; Barber, David S.; Denslow, Nancy D.

    2010-01-01

    Estrogens are key mediators of neuronal processes in vertebrates. As such, xenoestrogens present in the environment have the potential to alter normal central nervous system (CNS) function. The objectives of the present study were 1) to identify proteins with altered expression in the male fathead minnow telencephalon as a result of low level exposure to 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), and 2) to better understand the underlying mechanisms of 17β-estradiol (E2) feedback in this important neuroendocrine tissue. Male fathead minnows exposed to a measured concentration of 5.4 ng EE2/L for 48 hours showed decreased plasma E2 levels of approximately 2-fold. Of 77 proteins that were quantified statistically, 14 proteins were down-regulated after EE2 exposure, including four histone proteins, ATP synthase, H+ transporting subunits, and metabolic proteins (lactate dehydrogenase B4, malate dehydrogenase 1b). Twelve proteins were significantly induced by EE2 including microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT), astrocytic phosphoprotein, ependymin precursor, and calmodulin. MAPT showed an increase in protein abundance but a decrease in mRNA expression after EE2 exposure, suggesting there may be a negative feedback response in the telencephalon to decrease mRNA transcription with increasing MAPT protein abundance. These results demonstrate that a low, environmentally relevant exposure to EE2 can rapidly alter the abundance of proteins involved in cell differentiation and proliferation, neuron network morphology, and long term synaptic potentiation. Together, these findings provide a better understanding of the molecular responses underlying E2 feedback in the brain and demonstrate that quantitative proteomics can be successfully used in ecotoxicology to characterize affected cellular pathways and endocrine physiology. PMID:20381887

  19. A character demonstrating the occurrence of mating in male Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Marti, O.G.; Carpenter, J.E.

    2007-03-15

    The reproductive system of adult male Cactoblastis cactorum, the cactus moth, was examined to determine whether the mating status of males could be ascertained. In unmated males, the posterior portion of the primary ductus ejaculatorius simplex is opaque yellow in color and contains many small football-shaped hyaline granules 3-5 x 5-10 {mu}m in size. In mated males, the posterior simplex is clear and contains no granules. The presence or absence of these characters was found to be highly reliable and should be of value in determining mating status in marked-recaptured males of this species in a sterile insect release program directed against Cactoblastis. (author)

  20. Individuals with the dominant hand affected following stroke demonstrate less impairment than those with the non-dominant hand affected

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Jocelyn E; Eng, Janice J

    2012-01-01

    Objective The purpose was to determine if upper extremity impairment and function in individuals with chronic stroke is dependent upon whether the dominant or non-dominant hand is affected. Methods Ninety-three community-dwelling individuals with stroke. The Modified Ashworth Scale (tone), hand held dynamometry (isometric strength), monofilaments (sensation), Brief Pain Inventory (pain), Chedoke Arm and Hand Activity Inventory and Motor Activity Log (paretic arm use), and Reintegration to Normal Living Index (participation) were used to form impairment and function models. Results MANOVA models (DOMINANCE x SEVERITY) were created for impairment and function variables. There was a significant interaction and main effect of DOMINANCE for the impairment model (p=0.01) but not the function model (p=0.75). The dependent variables of tone, grip strength and pain were all significantly affected by DOMINANCE, indicating less impairment if the dominant hand was affected. All dependent variables except pain were affected by SEVERITY. Conclusion This study looked at the effect of the dominant hand being affected versus the non-dominant in individuals with chronic stroke. Individuals with the dominant hand affected demonstrated less impairment than those with the non-dominant hand affected. However, there was no effect of dominance on paretic arm use or performance in activities of daily living. Prospective studies to further explore the issue of hand dominance and post stroke function are suggested. PMID:16885424

  1. Acquired resistance affects male sexual display and female choice in guppies

    PubMed Central

    pez, S. L

    1998-01-01

    Is resistance to parasites related to the expression of male secondary sex characters? Handicap models predict a positive relationship, proposing that males displaying extravagant sex characters may be honestly signalling their resistance to females. However, no current evidence addresses whether individual changes in immunity (acquired resistance) are reflected in sexual traits. In this experiment I use guppies to compare male orange colour, sigmoid display and female preferences for individual males, before and after a primary challenge infection of males. Challenge infections were terminated chemically and fish were given ten days' recovery time before proceeding with the second measurements. The degree of acquired resistance was quantified a posteriori, by exposing males to a secondary infection. Sigmoid display rates and female preference for males differed for males of different resistance groups after challenge infection only. This difference was due to resistant males displaying more than non-resistant ones. No differences were detected in male orange colour, but this may be because colour needs a longer time than ten days to be recovered and adjusted. The results show that the level of acquired resistance affects sexual display and attractiveness in guppies. They suggest that once an effective immunity is built up by a male, he can afford to incur higher costs for sexual characteristics, whereas a male that lacks the ability to build up effective resistance cannot. These costs probably consist of higher energy expenditure and/or higher circulating levels of testosterone, which may be needed to increase display. Priming and effective establishment of an individual's resistance to parasitic infection could eventually result in a higher availability of resources for sexual functions.

  2. Individual dispersal decisions affect fitness via maternal rank effects in male rhesus macaques

    PubMed Central

    Weiß, Brigitte M.; Kulik, Lars; Ruiz-Lambides, Angelina V.; Widdig, Anja

    2016-01-01

    Natal dispersal may have considerable social, ecological and evolutionary consequences. While species-specific dispersal strategies have received much attention, individual variation in dispersal decisions and its fitness consequences remain poorly understood. We investigated causes and consequences of natal dispersal age in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), a species with male dispersal. Using long-term demographic and genetic data from a semi-free ranging population on Cayo Santiago, Puerto Rico, we analysed how the social environment such as maternal family, group and population characteristics affected the age at which males leave their natal group. While natal dispersal age was unrelated to most measures of group or population structure, our study confirmed earlier findings that sons of high-ranking mothers dispersed later than sons of low-ranking ones. Natal dispersal age did not affect males’ subsequent survival, but males dispersing later were more likely to reproduce. Late dispersers were likely to start reproducing while still residing in their natal group, frequently produced extra-group offspring before natal dispersal and subsequently dispersed to the group in which they had fathered offspring more likely than expected. Hence, the timing of natal dispersal was affected by maternal rank and influenced male reproduction, which, in turn affected which group males dispersed to. PMID:27576465

  3. Immune activation affects chemical sexual ornaments of male Iberian wall lizards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, Pilar; Gabirot, Marianne; Martín, José

    2009-01-01

    Many animals use chemical signals in sexual selection, but it is not clear how these sexual traits might have evolved to signal honestly male condition. It is possible that there is a trade-off between maintaining the immune system and the elaboration of ornaments. We experimentally challenged the immune system of male Iberian wall lizards, Podarcis hispanica, with a bacterial antigen (lipopolysaccharide), without pathogenic effects, to explore whether the immune activation affected chemical ornaments. Immune activation resulted in decreased proportions of a major chemical in femoral secretions (cholesta-5,7-dien-3-ol = provitamin D3) known to be selected in scent of males by females and which active form (vitamin D) has a variety of important effects on immune system function. This result suggests the existence of a potential trade-off between physiological regulation of the immune system and the allocation of essential nutrients (vitamins) to sexual chemical ornaments in male lizards.

  4. The synthetic progestogen, Levonorgestrel, but not natural progesterone, affects male mate calling behavior of Xenopus laevis.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Frauke; Kloas, Werner

    2012-05-01

    Worldwide, more than 100 million women use hormonal contraceptives, which act through progestogenic modes of action. These man-made hormones can enter the aquatic environment as they are excreted via feces and urine. Xeno-progestins are able to interfere with the endocrine system of female aquatic vertebrates impairing oogenesis and reproduction. However, data on progestogenic effects on reproductive behavior of male aquatic vertebrates are lacking. To evaluate whether progestins affect the mating behavior of male Xenopus laevis, we exposed male frogs to three environmentally relevant concentrations (10(-7) M, 10(-8) M and 10(-10) M) of the synthetic progestin Levonorgestrel (LNG) and the corresponding natural steroid progesterone (PRG), respectively. LNG at all exposure concentrations increased the proportions of advertisement calling, indicating a sexually aroused state of the males. Furthermore LNG at 10(-7) M decreased the relative proportions of rasping, a call type indicating a sexually unaroused state of the male. PRG, on the other hand, did not affect any of those parameters. Temporal and spectral features of the advertisement call itself were not affected by any of the two exposure treatments. Since LNG exhibits slight androgenic activity, the results suggest that LNG effects on male mate calling behavior of X. laevis are due to its moderate androgenic but not to its progestogenic activities. However, although males' sexual arousal seems to be enhanced by LNG, the adverse effects of LNG on female reproduction presumably outweigh these enhancing effects and LNG exposure nonetheless might result in reduced reproductive success of these animals.

  5. Male courtship preferences demonstrate discrimination against allopatric colour morphs in a cichlid fish.

    PubMed

    Zoppoth, P; Koblmüller, S; Sefc, K M

    2013-03-01

    Whether premating isolation is achieved by male-specific, female-specific or sex-independent assortative preferences often depends on the underlying evolutionary processes. Here we test mate preferences of males presented with females of different allopatric colour variants of the cichlid fish Tropheus sp., a Lake Tanganyika endemic with rich geographical colour pattern variation, in which the strength of sexual isolation varies between populations. We conducted two-way mate choice experiments to compare behaviour of males of a red-bodied morph (population Moliro) towards females from their own population with behaviour towards females from four allopatric populations at different stages of phylogenetic and phenotypic divergence. Males courted same-population females significantly more intensely than females of other populations, and reduced their heteromorphic courtship efforts both with increasing genetic and increasing phenotypic distinctness of the females. In particular, females of a closely related red-bodied population received significantly more courtship than either genetically distinct, similarly coloured females ('Kirschfleck' morph) or genetically related, differently coloured females ('yellow-blotch' morph), both of which were courted similarly. Genetically and phenotypically distinct females (Tropheus polli) were not courted at all. Consistent with previous female-choice experiments, female courtship activity also decreased with increasing genetic distance from the males' population. Given successful experimental and natural introgression between colour morphs and the pervasive allopatry of related variants, we consider it unlikely that assortative preferences of both sexes were driven by direct selection during periods of secondary contact or, in turn, drove colour pattern differentiation in allopatry. Rather, we suggest that sexual isolation evolved as by-product of allopatric divergence.

  6. Male irradiation affects female remating behavior in Anastrepha serpentina (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Landeta-Escamilla, Anais; Hernández, Emilio; Arredondo, José; Díaz-Fleischer, Francisco; Pérez-Staples, Diana

    2016-02-01

    Female remating in target pest species can affect the efficacy of control methods such as the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) but very little is known about the postcopulatory mating behavior of these pests. In this study, we investigated the remating behavior of female Anastrepha serpentina (Diptera: Tephritidae), an oligophagous pest of Sapotaceae. First, we tested how long the sexual refractory period of females lasted after an initial mating. Second, we tested the effect of male and female sterility, female ovipositing opportunities and male density on female propensity to remate. Lastly, we tested if the amount of sperm stored by females was correlated to the likelihood of females to remate. We found that receptivity of mass-reared A. serpentina females had a bimodal response, with up to 16% of mass-reared A. serpentina females remating five days after the initial copulation, decreasing to 2% at 10 and 15 days and increasing to 13% after 20 days. Compared to fertile males, sterile males were less likely to mate and less likely to inhibit females from remating. Copula duration of sterile males was shorter compared to fertile males. Remating females were less likely to mate with a sterile male as a second mate. Sterile females were less likely to mate or remate compared to fertile females. Opportunity to oviposit and male density had no effect on female remating probability. Sperm numbers were not correlated with female likelihood to remate. Information on the post-copulatory behavior of mass-reared A. serpentina will aid fruit fly managers in improving the quality of sterile males. We discuss our results in terms of the differences this species presents in female remating behavior compared to other tephritids.

  7. Non-defendable resources affect peafowl lek organization: a male removal experiment.

    PubMed

    Loyau, Adeline; Jalme, Michel Saint; Sorci, Gabriele

    2007-01-10

    A lekking mating system is typically thought to be non-resource based with male providing nothing to females but genes. However, males are thought to clump their display sites on areas where they are more likely to encounter females, which may depend on non-defendable resource location. We tested this hypothesis on a feral population of peacocks. In agreement, we found that, within the lek, display site proximity to food resources had an effect on female visitation rate and male mating success. The attractiveness of display sites to male intruders was explained by the distance to the feeding place and by the female visitation rate. We randomly removed 29 territorial males from their display sites. Display sites that were more attractive to male intruders before removal remained highly attractive after removal and display sites closer to the feeding area attracted the attention of intruders significantly more after removal. Similarly, display sites that were more visited by females before removal remained more visited after removal, suggesting again that the likelihood of encountering females is determined by the display site location. Overall, these results are in agreement with non-defendable resources affecting lek spatial organization in the peafowl.

  8. Parasites and health affect multiple sexual signals in male common wall lizards, Podarcis muralis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín, José; Amo, Luisa; López, Pilar

    2008-04-01

    Multiple advertising sexual traits may either advertise different characteristics of male condition or be redundant to reinforce reliability of signals. Research has focused on multiple visual traits. However, in animals that use different multiple additional sensory systems, such as chemoreception, different types of traits might have evolved to signal similar characteristics of a male quality using different sensory channels. We examined whether ventral coloration and chemicals in femoral gland secretions of male common wall lizards, Podarcis muralis, are affected by their health state (blood-parasite load and cell-mediated immune response). Our results indicated that less parasitized lizards had brighter and more yellowish ventral colorations and also femoral secretions with higher proportions of two esters of octadecenoic acid. In addition, lizards with a greater immune response had more saturated coloration and secretions with higher proportions of octadecenoic acid methyl ester. We suggest that these signals would be reliable because only healthier males seemed able to allocate more carotenoids to coloration and presumably costly chemicals to secretions. The use of multiple sensory channels may provide more opportunities to signal a male quality under different circumstances, but also may reinforce the reliability of the signal when both types of traits may be perceived simultaneously.

  9. Examining the Affects of Literacy Enablers and Obstacles African-American Males Face in an Arkansas College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bland, Anthony D.

    2013-01-01

    African American male students at an Arkansas College inspired this investigation of their life experiences and the affects of literacy enablers and obstacles African American males face in an Arkansas College. The selection process for participants incorporated convenient sampling of African American male students at an Arkansas College. The…

  10. Setting radon-specific release criteria and demonstrating compliance for land affected by NORM.

    PubMed

    García-Talavera, M; Martínez, M; Matarranz, J L M; Ramos, L

    2008-11-01

    Residues from industrial activities involving naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs) may cause radiation exposures to members of the public, particularly when NORM-affected land is brought into residential use. To provide an adequate protection against radiation in such situations, the following limiting criteria are currently required in Spain for releasing NORM-affected land: (i) no more than a 300 microSv yr(-1) increase (excluding radon doses) over the natural background; (ii) (222)Rn concentrations in hypothetical future dwellings lower than 200 Bq m(-3); and (iii) reduction of all radiation exposures to as low as reasonable achievable. This paper addresses some of the problems encountered in translating the (222)Rn criterion into site-specific release limits and in demonstrating compliance with them.

  11. Density affects mating mode and large male mating advantage in a fiddler crab.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Pablo D; Daleo, Pedro; Iribarne, Oscar O

    2010-12-01

    Fiddler crabs show two different mating modes: either females search and crabs mate underground in male burrows, or males search and crabs mate on the surface near female burrows. We explored the relationship between crab density, body size, the searching behavior of both sexes, and the occurrence of both mating modes in the fiddler crab Uca uruguayensis. We found that crabs change their mating mode depending on their size and crab density. Crabs mated mostly on the surface at low densities, and underground at high densities. The proportion of wandering receptive females but not courting males accounted for the variation in mating modes. This suggests that whether crabs mate underground (or on the surface) is determined by the presence (or absence) of searching females. We found that the change in the mating mode affected the level of assortative mating; males mating underground were bigger than those mating on the surface, suggesting active female choice. Given that fiddler crabs experience multiple reproductive cycles, they are prone to showing behavioral plasticity in their mating strategy whenever the payoffs of using different mating modes differ between reproductive events. Our results suggest that the incorporation of different levels of environmental variability may be important in theoretical models aimed at improving our understanding of the evolution of alternative mating tactics and strategies.

  12. Environment and activity affect skin temperature in breeding adult male elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris).

    PubMed

    Norris, A L; Houser, D S; Crocker, D E

    2010-12-15

    The large body size and high rates of metabolic heat production associated with male mating success in polygynous systems creates potential thermoregulatory challenges for species breeding in warm climates. This is especially true for marine predators carrying large blubber reserves intended for thermoregulation in cold water and fuel provision during extended fasts. Thermographic images were used to measure changes in skin temperature (T(S)) in adult male northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) over the breeding season. Environmental variables, primarily ambient temperature and solar radiation, were the principal determinants of mean and maximum T(S). When controlled for environmental variables, dominance rank significantly impacted mean T(S), being highest in alpha males. Behavioral activity significantly influenced T(S) but in a counter-intuitive way, with inactive males exhibiting the highest T(S). This was likely due to strong impacts of environmental variables on the kinds of behavior exhibited, with males being less active on warm, humid days at peak solar radiation. We classified thermal windows as areas in which T(S) was one standard deviation greater than mean T(S) for the individual seal within a thermograph. Thermal features suggest active physiological thermoregulation during and after combat and significant circulatory adaptations for heat dumping, as evidenced by recurring locations of thermal windows representing widely varying T(S) values. Frequent observations of localized T(S) above 37°C, particularly after combat, suggest the production of thermoregulatory stress during breeding behavior. Our findings demonstrate the importance of environmental drivers in shaping activity patterns during breeding and provide evidence for thermoregulatory costs of successful breeding in large polygynous males.

  13. Mixtures of environmentally relevant endocrine disrupting chemicals affect mammary gland development in female and male rats.

    PubMed

    Mandrup, Karen Riiber; Johansson, Hanna Katarina Lilith; Boberg, Julie; Pedersen, Anne Stilling; Mortensen, Mette Sidsel; Jørgensen, Jennifer Solgaard; Vinggaard, Anne Marie; Hass, Ulla

    2015-07-01

    Estrogenic chemicals are able to alter mammary gland development in female rodents, but little is known on the effects of anti-androgens and mixtures of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) with dissimilar modes of action. Pregnant rat dams were exposed during gestation and lactation to mixtures of environmentally relevant EDCs with estrogenic, anti-androgenic or dissimilar modes of action (TotalMix) of 100-, 200- or 450-fold high end human intake estimates. Mammary glands of prepubertal and adult female and male offspring were examined. Oestrogens increased mammary outgrowth in prepubertal females and the mRNA level of matrix metalloproteinase-3, which may be a potential biomarker for increased outgrowth. Mixtures of EDCs gave rise to ductal hyperplasia in adult males. Adult female mammary glands of the TotalMix group showed morphological changes possibly reflecting increased prolactin levels. In conclusion both estrogenic and anti-androgenic chemicals given during foetal life and lactation affected mammary glands in the offspring.

  14. Multiple signals and male spacing affect female preference at cocktail parties in treefrogs

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Christina; Lengagne, Thierry

    2010-01-01

    Effective acoustic communication in the face of intense conspecific background noise constitutes a constant sensory challenge in chorusing and colonial species. An evolutionary approach suggests that behavioural and environmental constraints in these species should have shaped signal design and signalling behaviour to enable communication in noisy conditions. This could be attained both through the use of multicomponent signals and through short-term adjustments in the spatial separation of calling males. We investigated these two hypotheses in a chorusing anuran, the hylid Hyla arborea, through a series of phonotaxis experiments conducted within a six-speaker arena in a high background noise situation, by presenting females with male calls containing either single or multiple attractive call components, and by modifying distances between speakers. We found that female ability to discriminate attractive calls increased when several attractive call components were available, providing novel evidence that the use of multicomponent signals enhances communication in complex acoustic conditions. Signal discrimination in females also improved with speaker separation, demonstrating that within natural choruses, spatial unmasking conditioned by male density and spatial separation probably improves female discrimination of competing males. Implications of these results for the accuracy of mate choice within choruses are discussed. PMID:20018785

  15. Anabolic androgenic steroids differentially affect social behaviors in adolescent and adult male Syrian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Salas-Ramirez, Kaliris Y; Montalto, Pamela R; Sisk, Cheryl L

    2008-02-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are synthetic derivatives of testosterone used by over half a million adolescents in the United States for their tissue-building potency and performance-enhancing effects. AAS also affect behavior, including reports of heightened aggression and changes in sexual libido. The expression of sexual and aggressive behaviors is a function of complex interactions among hormones, social context, and the brain, which is extensively remodeled during adolescence. Thus, AAS may have different consequences on behavior during adolescence and adulthood. Using a rodent model, these studies directly compared the effects of AAS on the expression of male sexual and aggressive behaviors in adolescents and adults. Male Syrian hamsters were injected daily for 14 days with either vehicle or an AAS cocktail containing testosterone cypionate (2 mg/kg), nandrolone decanoate (2 mg/kg), and boldenone undecylenate (1 mg/kg), either during adolescence (27-41 days of age) or in adulthood (63-77 days of age). The day after the last injection, males were tested for either sexual behavior with a receptive female or agonistic behavior with a male intruder. Adolescent males treated with AAS showed significant increases in sexual and aggressive behaviors relative to vehicle-treated adolescents. In contrast, AAS-treated adults showed significantly lower levels of sexual behavior compared with vehicle-treated adults and did not show heightened aggression. Thus, adolescents, but not adults, displayed significantly higher behavioral responses to AAS, suggesting that the still-developing adolescent brain is more vulnerable than the adult brain to the adverse consequences of AAS on the nervous system and behavior.

  16. Occurrence of two different intragenic deletions in two male relatives affected with Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    SciTech Connect

    Mostacciuolo, M.L.; Miorin, M.; Vitiello, L.; Rampazzo, A.; Fanin, M.; Angelini, C.; Danieli, G.A.

    1994-03-01

    The occurrence of 2 different intragenic deletions (exons 10-44 and exon 45, respectively) is reported in 2 male relatives affected with Duchenne muscular dystrophy, both showing the same haplotype for DNA markers not included in the deleted segment. The 2 different deletions seem to have occurred independently in the same X chromosome. This finding, together with other reports, suggests possibly an increased predisposition to mutations within the DMD locus in some families. Therefore, when dealing with prenatal diagnosis, the investigation on fetal DNA cannot be restricted only to the region in which a mutation was previously identified in the family. 14 refs., 1 fig.

  17. Citrus limon extract: possible inhibitory mechanisms affecting testicular functions and fertility in male mice.

    PubMed

    Singh, Nidhi; Singh, Shio Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The effect of oral administration of 50% ethanolic leaf extract of Citrus limon (500 and 1,000 mg/kg body weight/day) for 35 days on fertility and various male reproductive endpoints was evaluated in Parkes strain of mice. Testicular indices such as histology, 3β- and 17β-HSD enzymes activity, immunoblot expression of StAR and P450scc, and germ cell apoptosis by TUNEL and CASP- 3 expression were assessed. Motility, viability, and number of spermatozoa in the cauda epididymidis, level of serum testosterone, fertility indices, and toxicological parameters were also evaluated. Histologically, testes in extract-treated mice showed nonuniform degenerative changes in the seminiferous tubules. Treatment had adverse effects on steroidogenic markers in the testis and induced germ cell apoptosis. Significant reductions were noted in epididymal sperm parameters and serum level of testosterone in Citrus-treated mice compared to controls. Fertility of the extract-treated males was also suppressed, but libido remained unaffected. By 56 days of treatment withdrawal, alterations induced in the above parameters returned to control levels suggesting that Citrus treatment causes reversible suppression of spermatogenesis and fertility in Parkes mice. Suppression of spermatogenesis may result from germ cell apoptosis because of decreased production of testosterone. The present work indicated that Citrus leaves can affect male reproduction.

  18. Sperm competition affects male behaviour and sperm output in the rainbow darter

    PubMed Central

    Fuller, R. C.

    1998-01-01

    Rainbow darters, Etheostoma caeruleum, are promiscuous fish with moderate rates of group spawning (between one and five males may simultaneously mate with one female). In this study, I examined male sperm output and male willingness to spawn under different levels of sperm competition intensity. One male and one female were allowed to spawn in an aquarium where they had visual and olfactory access to one of four treatments: four males, one male, zero males, or one female. Theory predicts that males should reduce sperm output when there are more than the average number of males at a group spawning (four-male treatment) and should increase sperm output when there are fewer than average males at a group spawning (one-male treatment). Mean sperm output did not differ among treatments. However, males released more sperm when spawning in the presence of competing males (four-male and one-male treatments pooled) than when spawning in the absence of competing males (zero-male and one-female treatments pooled). Males were also most likely to forego spawning opportunities when sperm competition intensity was high. Furthermore, male willingness to spawn was size dependent. Large males were more likely to forego spawning opportunities under high sperm competition intensity. Large males may be better off waiting for future spawning opportunities when there is a lower potential for sperm competition intensity.

  19. Stressors affect the response of male and female rats to clomipramine in a model of behavioral despair (forced swim test).

    PubMed

    Consoli, Daniele; Fedotova, Julia; Micale, Vincenzo; Sapronov, Nikolay S; Drago, Filippo

    2005-09-27

    blunted the hormonal response. However, severe shocks were followed by a surge of plasma corticosterone levels in both male and female clomipramine-treated rats. These results demonstrate that duration and intensity of stressful stimuli may deeply affect the behavioral response of rats in forced swim test and influence clomipramine effect in this behavioral model depending on gender-based variables, probably of the hormonal type. Plasma corticosterone levels correlate with the behavioral response to clomipramine treatment suggesting that reactivity of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis to stress may be involved in the antidepressant effect of this drug.

  20. Brain size affects female but not male survival under predation threat

    PubMed Central

    Kotrschal, Alexander; Buechel, Séverine D; Zala, Sarah M; Corral-Lopez, Alberto; Penn, Dustin J; Kolm, Niclas; Sorci, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    There is remarkable diversity in brain size among vertebrates, but surprisingly little is known about how ecological species interactions impact the evolution of brain size. Using guppies, artificially selected for large and small brains, we determined how brain size affects survival under predation threat in a naturalistic environment. We cohoused mixed groups of small- and large-brained individuals in six semi-natural streams with their natural predator, the pike cichlid, and monitored survival in weekly censuses over 5 months. We found that large-brained females had 13.5% higher survival compared to small-brained females, whereas the brain size had no discernible effect on male survival. We suggest that large-brained females have a cognitive advantage that allows them to better evade predation, whereas large-brained males are more colourful, which may counteract any potential benefits of brain size. Our study provides the first experimental evidence that trophic interactions can affect the evolution of brain size. PMID:25960088

  1. Xylitol affects the intestinal microbiota and metabolism of daidzein in adult male mice.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Motoi; Hoshi, Chigusa; Hori, Sachiko

    2013-12-10

    This study examined the effects of xylitol on mouse intestinal microbiota and urinary isoflavonoids. Xylitol is classified as a sugar alcohol and used as a food additive. The intestinal microbiota seems to play an important role in isoflavone metabolism. Xylitol feeding appears to affect the gut microbiota. We hypothesized that dietary xylitol changes intestinal microbiota and, therefore, the metabolism of isoflavonoids in mice. Male mice were randomly divided into two groups: those fed a 0.05% daidzein with 5% xylitol diet (XD group) and those fed a 0.05% daidzein-containing control diet (CD group) for 28 days. Plasma total cholesterol concentrations were significantly lower in the XD group than in the CD group (p < 0.05). Urinary amounts of equol were significantly higher in the XD group than in the CD group (p < 0.05). The fecal lipid contents (% dry weight) were significantly greater in the XD group than in the CD group (p < 0.01). The cecal microbiota differed between the two dietary groups. The occupation ratios of Bacteroides were significantly greater in the CD than in the XD group (p < 0.05). This study suggests that xylitol has the potential to affect the metabolism of daidzein by altering the metabolic activity of the intestinal microbiota and/or gut environment. Given that equol affects bone health, dietary xylitol plus isoflavonoids may exert a favorable effect on bone health.

  2. Demonstration of genome-wide association studies for identifying markers for wood property and male strobili traits in Cryptomeria japonica.

    PubMed

    Uchiyama, Kentaro; Iwata, Hiroyoshi; Moriguchi, Yoshinari; Ujino-Ihara, Tokuko; Ueno, Saneyoshi; Taguchi, Yuriko; Tsubomura, Miyoko; Mishima, Kentaro; Iki, Taiichi; Watanabe, Atsushi; Futamura, Norihiro; Shinohara, Kenji; Tsumura, Yoshihiko

    2013-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are an alternative to bi-parental QTL mapping in long-lived perennials. In the present study, we examined the potential of GWAS in conifers using 367 unrelated plus trees of Cryptomeria japonica D. Don, which is the most widely planted and commercially important tree species in Japan, and tried to detect significant associations between wood property traits and quantity of male strobili on the one hand, and 1,032 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) assigned to 1,032 genes on the other. Association analysis was performed with the mixed linear model taking into account kinship relationships and subpopulation structure. In total, 6 SNPs were found to have significant associations with the variations in phenotype. These SNPs were not associated with the positions of known genes and QTLs that have been reported to date, thus they may identify novel QTLs. These 6 SNPs were all found in sequences showing similarities with known genes, although further analysis is required to dissect the ways in which they affect wood property traits and abundance of male strobili. These presumptive QTL loci provide opportunities for improvement of C. japonica, based on a marker approach. The results suggest that GWAS has potential for use in future breeding programs in C. japonica.

  3. Female brain size affects the assessment of male attractiveness during mate choice

    PubMed Central

    Corral-López, Alberto; Bloch, Natasha I.; Kotrschal, Alexander; van der Bijl, Wouter; Buechel, Severine D.; Mank, Judith E.; Kolm, Niclas

    2017-01-01

    Mate choice decisions are central in sexual selection theory aimed to understand how sexual traits evolve and their role in evolutionary diversification. We test the hypothesis that brain size and cognitive ability are important for accurate assessment of partner quality and that variation in brain size and cognitive ability underlies variation in mate choice. We compared sexual preference in guppy female lines selected for divergence in relative brain size, which we have previously shown to have substantial differences in cognitive ability. In a dichotomous choice test, large-brained and wild-type females showed strong preference for males with color traits that predict attractiveness in this species. In contrast, small-brained females showed no preference for males with these traits. In-depth analysis of optomotor response to color cues and gene expression of key opsins in the eye revealed that the observed differences were not due to differences in visual perception of color, indicating that differences in the ability to process indicators of attractiveness are responsible. We thus provide the first experimental support that individual variation in brain size affects mate choice decisions and conclude that differences in cognitive ability may be an important underlying mechanism behind variation in female mate choice. PMID:28345039

  4. Mosaicism for the FMR1 gene influences adaptive skills development in fragile X-affected males

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, I.L.; Sudhalter, V.; Nolin, S.L.

    1996-08-09

    Fragile X syndrome is one of the most common forms of inherited mental retardation, and the first of a new class of genetic disorders associated with expanded trinucleotide repeats. Previously, we found that about 41% of affected males are mosaic for this mutation in that some of their blood cells have an active fragile X gene and others do not. It has been hypothesized that these mosaic cases should show higher levels of functioning than those who have only the inactive full mutation gene, but previous studies have provided negative or equivocal results. In the present study, the cross-sectional development of communication, self-care, socialization, and motor skills was studied in 46 males with fragile X syndrome under age 20 years as a function of two variables: age and the presence or absence of mosaicism. The rate of adaptive skills development was 2-4 times as great in mosaic cases as in full mutation cases. There was also a trend for cases with autism to be more prevalent in the full-mutation group. These results have implications for prognosis, for the utility of gene or protein replacement therapies for this disorder, and for understanding the association between mental retardation, developmental disorders, and fragile X syndrome. 21 refs., 3 figs.

  5. Social experiences during adolescence affect anxiety-like behavior but not aggressiveness in male mice.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Neele; Jenikejew, Julia; Richter, S Helene; Kaiser, Sylvia; Sachser, Norbert

    2017-03-09

    Adolescence has lately been recognized as a key developmental phase during which an individual's behavior can be shaped. In a recent study with male mice varying in the expression of the serotonin transporter, escapable adverse social experiences during adolescence led to decreased anxiety-like behavior and increased exploratory and aggressive behavior compared to throughout beneficial experiences. Since in this study some behavioral tests took place with a delay of one week after the last social experiences have been made, it was not clear whether the observed effects really reflected the consequences of the experienced different social environments. To test this, the present study focused on the direct effects of beneficial and adverse social experiences on aggressiveness and anxiety-like behavior in C57BL/6J mice. In contrast to the previous study, behavioral testing took place immediately after the last social experiences had been made. Interestingly, whereas individuals from an escapable adverse environment showed significantly lower levels of anxiety-like and higher levels of exploratory behavior than animals from a beneficial environment, aggressive behavior was not affected. From this, we conclude that different social experiences during adolescence exert immediate effects on anxiety-like but not aggressive behavior in male mice.

  6. Involvement of right STS in audio-visual integration for affective speech demonstrated using MEG.

    PubMed

    Hagan, Cindy C; Woods, Will; Johnson, Sam; Green, Gary G R; Young, Andrew W

    2013-01-01

    Speech and emotion perception are dynamic processes in which it may be optimal to integrate synchronous signals emitted from different sources. Studies of audio-visual (AV) perception of neutrally expressed speech demonstrate supra-additive (i.e., where AV>[unimodal auditory+unimodal visual]) responses in left STS to crossmodal speech stimuli. However, emotions are often conveyed simultaneously with speech; through the voice in the form of speech prosody and through the face in the form of facial expression. Previous studies of AV nonverbal emotion integration showed a role for right (rather than left) STS. The current study therefore examined whether the integration of facial and prosodic signals of emotional speech is associated with supra-additive responses in left (cf. results for speech integration) or right (due to emotional content) STS. As emotional displays are sometimes difficult to interpret, we also examined whether supra-additive responses were affected by emotional incongruence (i.e., ambiguity). Using magnetoencephalography, we continuously recorded eighteen participants as they viewed and heard AV congruent emotional and AV incongruent emotional speech stimuli. Significant supra-additive responses were observed in right STS within the first 250 ms for emotionally incongruent and emotionally congruent AV speech stimuli, which further underscores the role of right STS in processing crossmodal emotive signals.

  7. Alcohol Affects Brain Functional Connectivity and its Coupling with Behavior: Greater Effects in Male Heavy Drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Shokri-Kojori, Ehsan; Tomasi, Dardo; Wiers, Corinde E.; Wang, Gene-Jack; Volkow, Nora D.

    2016-01-01

    Acute and chronic alcohol exposure significantly affect behavior but the underlying neurobiological mechanisms are still poorly understood. Here we used functional connectivity density (FCD) mapping to study alcohol-related changes in resting brain activity and their association with behavior. Heavy drinkers (HD; N=16; 16 males) and normal controls (NM; N=24; 14 males) were tested after placebo and after acute alcohol administration. Group comparisons showed that NM had higher FCD in visual and prefrontal cortices, default-mode network regions, and thalamus, while HD had higher FCD in cerebellum. Acute alcohol significantly increased FCD within the thalamus, impaired cognitive and motor functions, and affected self-reports of mood/drug effects in both groups. Partial least squares regression showed alcohol-induced changes in mood/drug effects were associated with changes in thalamic FCD in both groups. Disruptions in motor function were associated with increases in cerebellar FCD in NM and thalamus FCD in HD. Alcohol-induced declines in cognitive performance were associated with connectivity increases in visual cortex and thalamus in NM, but in HD, increases in precuneus FCD were associated with improved cognitive performance. Acute alcohol reduced “neurocognitive coupling”, the association between behavioral performance and FCD (indexing brain activity), an effect that was accentuated in HD compared to NM. Findings suggest that reduced cortical connectivity in HD contribute to decline in cognitive abilities associated with heavy alcohol consumption, whereas increased cerebellar connectivity in HD may have compensatory effects on behavioral performance. The results reveal how drinking history alters the association between brain functional connectivity density and individual differences in behavioral performance. PMID:27021821

  8. Alcohol affects brain functional connectivity and its coupling with behavior: greater effects in male heavy drinkers.

    PubMed

    Shokri-Kojori, E; Tomasi, D; Wiers, C E; Wang, G-J; Volkow, N D

    2016-03-29

    Acute and chronic alcohol exposure significantly affect behavior but the underlying neurobiological mechanisms are still poorly understood. Here, we used functional connectivity density (FCD) mapping to study alcohol-related changes in resting brain activity and their association with behavior. Heavy drinkers (HD, N=16, 16 males) and normal controls (NM, N=24, 14 males) were tested after placebo and after acute alcohol administration. Group comparisons showed that NM had higher FCD in visual and prefrontal cortices, default mode network regions and thalamus, while HD had higher FCD in cerebellum. Acute alcohol significantly increased FCD within the thalamus, impaired cognitive and motor functions, and affected self-reports of mood/drug effects in both groups. Partial least squares regression showed that alcohol-induced changes in mood/drug effects were associated with changes in thalamic FCD in both groups. Disruptions in motor function were associated with increases in cerebellar FCD in NM and thalamus FCD in HD. Alcohol-induced declines in cognitive performance were associated with connectivity increases in visual cortex and thalamus in NM, but in HD, increases in precuneus FCD were associated with improved cognitive performance. Acute alcohol reduced 'neurocognitive coupling', the association between behavioral performance and FCD (indexing brain activity), an effect that was accentuated in HD compared with NM. Findings suggest that reduced cortical connectivity in HD contribute to decline in cognitive abilities associated with heavy alcohol consumption, whereas increased cerebellar connectivity in HD may have compensatory effects on behavioral performance. The results reveal how drinking history alters the association between brain FCD and individual differences in behavioral performance.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 29 March 2016; doi:10.1038/mp.2016.25.

  9. Argon does not affect cerebral circulation or metabolism in male humans

    PubMed Central

    Kazmaier, Stephan; Hoeks, Sanne Elisabeth; Stolker, Robert Jan; Coburn, Marc; Weyland, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Objective Accumulating data have recently underlined argon´s neuroprotective potential. However, to the best of our knowledge, no data are available on the cerebrovascular effects of argon (Ar) in humans. We hypothesized that argon inhalation does not affect mean blood flow velocity of the middle cerebral artery (Vmca), cerebral flow index (FI), zero flow pressure (ZFP), effective cerebral perfusion pressure (CPPe), resistance area product (RAP) and the arterio-jugular venous content differences of oxygen (AJVDO2), glucose (AJVDG), and lactate (AJVDL) in anesthetized patients. Materials and methods In a secondary analysis of an earlier controlled cross-over trial we compared parameters of the cerebral circulation under 15 minutes exposure to 70%Ar/30%O2 versus 70%N2/30%O2 in 29 male patients under fentanyl-midazolam anaesthesia before coronary surgery. Vmca was measured by transcranial Doppler sonography. ZFP and RAP were estimated by linear regression analysis of pressure-flow velocity relationships of the middle cerebral artery. CPPe was calculated as the difference between mean arterial pressure and ZFP. AJVDO2, AJVDG and AJVDL were calculated as the differences in contents between arterial and jugular-venous blood of oxygen, glucose, and lactate. Statistical analysis was done by t-tests and ANOVA. Results Mechanical ventilation with 70% Ar did not cause any significant changes in mean arterial pressure, Vmca, FI, ZFP, CPPe, RAP, AJVDO2, AJVDG, and AJVDL. Discussion Short-term inhalation of 70% Ar does not affect global cerebral circulation or metabolism in male humans under general anaesthesia. PMID:28207907

  10. Temperature, but Not Available Energy, Affects the Expression of a Sexually Selected Ultraviolet (UV) Colour Trait in Male European Green Lizards

    PubMed Central

    Bajer, Katalin; Molnár, Orsolya; Török, János; Herczeg, Gábor

    2012-01-01

    Background Colour signals are widely used in intraspecific communication and often linked to individual fitness. The development of some pigment-based (e.g. carotenoids) colours is often environment-dependent and costly for the signaller, however, for structural colours (e.g. ultraviolet [UV]) this topic is poorly understood, especially in terrestrial ectothermic vertebrates. Methodology/Principal Findings In a factorial experiment, we studied how available energy and time at elevated body temperature affects the annual expression of the nuptial throat colour patch in male European green lizards (Lacerta viridis) after hibernation and before mating season. In this species, there is a female preference for males with high throat UV reflectance, and males with high UV reflectance are more likely to win fights. We found that (i) while food shortage decreased lizards' body condition, it did not affect colour development, and (ii) the available time for maintaining high body temperature affected the development of UV colour without affecting body condition or other colour traits. Conclusions/Significance Our results demonstrate that the expression of a sexually selected structural colour signal depends on the time at elevated body temperature affecting physiological performance but not on available energy gained from food per se in an ectothermic vertebrate. We suggest that the effect of high ambient temperature on UV colour in male L. viridis makes it an honest signal, because success in acquiring thermally favourable territories and/or effective behavioural thermoregulation can both be linked to individual quality. PMID:22479611

  11. 40 CFR 63.1318 - PET and polystyrene affected sources-testing and compliance demonstration provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false PET and polystyrene affected sources...: Group IV Polymers and Resins § 63.1318 PET and polystyrene affected sources—testing and compliance... not apply and owners or operators are not required to comply with § 63.113. (b) PET affected...

  12. Prenatal and lactation nicotine exposure affects morphology and function of brown adipose tissue in male rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jie; Ping, Jie; Zhang, Wan-Xia; Rao, Yi-Song; Liu, Han-Xiao; Zhang, Jing; Yan, You-E

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of prenatal and lactation nicotine exposure on the morphology and function of brown adipose tissue (BAT) in male rat offspring. We conducted a morphological assay and gene expression study of interscapular BAT (iBAT) in male rat offspring. The male offspring from nicotine-exposed dams exhibited higher body weight and iBAT weight. Hematoxylin and eosin staining and transmission electron microscopy showed that iBAT from nicotine-exposed male offspring presented a "whitening" phenotype characterized by lipid droplet accumulation and impaired mitochondria with a randomly oriented and fractured cristae. The expression of the iBAT structure and function-related genes all decreased in nicotine-exposed male offspring. These data indicate that prenatal and lactation nicotine exposure affects morphology and function of iBAT in male rat offspring.

  13. Supplementary feeding affects the breeding behaviour of male European treefrogs (Hyla arborea)

    PubMed Central

    Meuche, Ivonne; Grafe, T Ulmar

    2009-01-01

    Background We investigated the effects of energetic constraints on the breeding behaviour of male European treefrogs Hyla arborea and how calling males allocated additional energy supplied by feeding experiments. Results Presence in the chorus was energetically costly indicated by both fed and unfed males losing weight. Males that were supplied with additional energy did not show longer chorus tenure. Instead, fed males returned sooner to the chorus. Additionally, fed males called more often than control males, a novel response for anurans. A significantly higher calling rate was noted from males even 31 nights after supplementary feeding. Conclusion This strategy of allocating additional energy reserves to increasing calling rate is beneficial given the preference of female hylids for males calling at high rates and a female's ability to detect small incremental increases in calling rate. PMID:19128468

  14. Aging differentially affects male and female neural stem cell neurogenic properties

    PubMed Central

    Waldron, Jay; McCourty, Althea; Lecanu, Laurent

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Neural stem cell transplantation as a brain repair strategy is a very promising technology. However, despite many attempts, the clinical success remains very deceiving. Despite clear evidence that sexual dimorphism rules many aspects of human biology, the occurrence of a sex difference in neural stem cell biology is largely understudied. Herein, we propose to determine whether gender is a dimension that drives the fate of neural stem cells through aging. Should it occur, we believe that neural stem cell sexual dimorphism and its variation during aging should be taken into account to refine clinical approaches of brain repair strategies. Methods Neural stem cells were isolated from the subventricular zone of three- and 20-month-old male and female Long-Evans rats. Expression of the estrogen receptors, ERα and ERβ, progesterone receptor, androgen receptor, and glucocorticoid receptor was analyzed and quantified by Western blotting on undifferentiated neural stem cells. A second set of neural stem cells was treated with retinoic acid to trigger differentiation, and the expression of neuronal, astroglial, and oligodendroglial markers was determined using Western blotting. Conclusion We provided in vitro evidence that the fate of neural stem cells is affected by sex and aging. Indeed, young male neural stem cells mainly expressed markers of neuronal and oligodendroglial fate, whereas young female neural stem cells underwent differentiation towards an astroglial phenotype. Aging resulted in a lessened capacity to express neuron and astrocyte markers. Undifferentiated neural stem cells displayed sexual dimorphism in the expression of steroid receptors, in particular ERα and ERβ, and the expression level of several steroid receptors increased during aging. Such sexual dimorphism might explain, at least in part, the sex difference in neural fate we observed in young and old neural stem cells. These results suggest that sex and aging are two factors to be taken

  15. Quinine controls body weight gain without affecting food intake in male C57BL6 mice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Quinine is a natural molecule commonly used as a flavouring agent in tonic water. Diet supplementation with quinine leads to decreased body weight and food intake in rats. Quinine is an in vitro inhibitor of Trpm5, a cation channel expressed in taste bud cells, the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas. The objective of this work is to determine the effect of diet supplementation with quinine on body weight and body composition in male mice, to investigate its mechanism of action, and whether the effect is mediated through Trpm5. Results Compared with mice consuming AIN, a regular balanced diet, mice consuming AIN diet supplemented with 0.1% quinine gained less weight (2.89 ± 0.30 g vs 5.39 ± 0.50 g) and less fat mass (2.22 ± 0.26 g vs 4.33 ± 0.43 g) after 13 weeks of diet, and had lower blood glucose and plasma triglycerides. There was no difference in food intake between the mice consuming quinine supplemented diet and those consuming control diet. Trpm5 knockout mice gained less fat mass than wild-type mice. There was a trend for a diet-genotype interaction for body weight and body weight gain, with the effect of quinine less pronounced in the Trpm5 KO than in the WT background. Faecal weight, energy and lipid contents were higher in quinine fed mice compared to regular AIN fed mice and in Trpm5 KO mice compared to wild type mice. Conclusion Quinine contributes to weight control in male C57BL6 mice without affecting food intake. A partial contribution of Trpm5 to quinine dependent body weight control is suggested. PMID:23394313

  16. Maternal administration of flutamide during late gestation affects the brain and reproductive organs development in the rat male offspring.

    PubMed

    Pallarés, M E; Adrover, E; Imsen, M; González, D; Fabre, B; Mesch, V; Baier, C J; Antonelli, M C

    2014-10-10

    We have previously demonstrated that male rats exposed to stress during the last week of gestation present age-specific impairments of brain development. Since the organization of the fetal developing brain is subject to androgen exposure and prenatal stress was reported to disrupt perinatal testosterone surges, the aim of this research was to explore whether abnormal androgen concentrations during late gestation affects the morphology of the prefrontal cortex (PFC), hippocampus (HPC) and ventral tegmental area (VTA), three major areas that were shown to be affected by prenatal stress in our previous studies. We administered 10-mg/kg/day of the androgen receptor antagonist flutamide (4'nitro-3'-trifluoromethylsobutyranilide) or vehicle injections to pregnant rats from days 15-21 of gestation. The antiandrogenic effects of flutamide were confirmed by the analysis of androgen-dependent developmental markers: flutamide-exposed rats showed reduced anogenital distance, delay in the completion of testis descent, hypospadias, cryptorchidism and atrophied seminal vesicles. Brain morphological studies revealed that prenatal flutamide decreased the number of MAP2 (a microtubule-associated protein type 2, present almost exclusively in dendrites) immunoreactive neuronal processes in all evaluated brain areas, both in prepubertal and adult offspring, suggesting that prenatal androgen disruption induces long-term reductions of the dendritic arborization of several brain structures, affecting the normal connectivity between areas. Moreover, the number of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-immunopositive neurons in the VTA of prepubertal offspring was reduced in flutamide rats but reach normal values at adulthood. Our results demonstrate that the effects of prenatal flutamide on the offspring brain morphology resemble several prenatal stress effects suggesting that the mechanism of action of prenatal stress might be related to the impairment of the organizational role of androgens on brain

  17. Male Age Affects Female Mate Preference, Quantity of Accessory Gland Proteins, and Sperm Traits and Female Fitness in D. melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Rezaei, Abolhasan; Krishna, Mysore Siddaiah; Santhosh, Hassan T

    2015-01-01

    For species in which mating is resource-independent and offspring do not receive parental care, theoretical models of age-based female mate preference predict that females should prefer to mate with older males as they have demonstrated ability to survive. Thus, females should obtain a fitness benefit from mating with older males. However, male aging is often associated with reductions in quantity of sperm. The adaptive significance of age-based mate choice is therefore unclear. Various hypotheses have made conflicting predictions concerning this issue, because published studies have not investigated the effect of age on accessory gland proteins and sperm traits. D. melanogaster exhibits resource-independent mating, and offspring do not receive parental care, making this an appropriate model for studying age-based mate choice. In the present study, we found that D. melanogaster females of all ages preferred to mate with the younger of two competing males. Young males performed significantly greater courtship attempts and females showed least rejection for the same than middle-aged and old males. Young males had small accessory glands that contained very few main cells that were larger than average. Nevertheless, compared with middle-aged or old males, the young males transferred greater quantities of accessory gland proteins and sperm to mated females. As a result, females that mated with young male produced more eggs and progeny than those that mated with older males. Furthermore, mating with young male reduced female's lifespan. These studies indicate that quantity of accessory gland proteins and sperm traits decreased with male age and females obtain direct fitness benefit from mating with preferred young males.

  18. 40 CFR 63.1318 - PET and polystyrene affected sources-testing and compliance demonstration provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...: Group IV Polymers and Resins § 63.1318 PET and polystyrene affected sources—testing and compliance... calculate organic HAP emissions from the collection of material recovery sections at an existing affected... paragraphs (b)(1)(i) and (b)(1)(ii) of this section. ER12SE96.000 where: ER=Emission rate of total...

  19. Gossypol with methyltestosterone and ethinylestradiol male does not affect rat spermatogonial stem cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Cui, G; Zheng, W; Sun, Y; Zhang, Q; Deng, X; Chen, X

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether administration of the regimen of gossypol at 12 mg/kg/day combined with methyltestosterone at 20 mg/kg/day and ethinylestradiol at 100 microg/kg/day for a long term of twenty-four weeks could affect the existence and differentiation of rat spermatogonial stem cell. This was assessed by conducting TdT-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling detection, spermatogonial stem cell transplantation and fertility recovery evaluation. Our results showed that spontaneous apoptosis was observed in normal rats' testes from the control group with an apoptotic index (AI) average of 10.24+/-1.52. In the regimen-treated group, the predominant apoptotic cells were spermatocytes and spermatids in the seminiferous tubules. Spermatogonia were not apoptotic (AI averaged 113.42+/-13.24). Two to three months after transplantation of spermatogonial stem cells isolated from regimen-treated rats into recipient nude mice, elongated rat spermatids were identified in the seminiferous tubules of recipient nude mice. Six weeks after withdrawal of the administration, fertility of the regimen-treated rats was recovered compared with that of the control group. The number of litters produced by females mated with regimen-treated males averaged 9.88+/-0.166 matched 10.30+/-0.171 of control group and the litters of the first generation appeared to be normal. These results indicated that the administration of this regimen did not affect the existence and differentiation potential of spermatogonial stem cells of the regimen-treated rats.

  20. 40 CFR 63.5996 - How do I demonstrate initial compliance with the emission limits for tire production affected...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... with the emission limits for tire production affected sources? 63.5996 Section 63.5996 Protection of... Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Testing and Initial Compliance Requirements for Tire Production Affected Sources § 63.5996 How do I demonstrate initial compliance with the emission limits for...

  1. The copulatory plug delays ejaculation by rival males and affects sperm competition outcome in house mice.

    PubMed

    Sutter, A; Lindholm, A K

    2016-08-01

    Females of many species mate with multiple males (polyandry), resulting in male-male competition extending to post-copulation (sperm competition). Males adapt to such post-copulatory sexual selection by altering features of their ejaculate that increase its competitiveness and/or by decreasing the risk of sperm competition through female manipulation or interference with rival male behaviour. At ejaculation, males of many species deposit copulatory plugs, which are commonly interpreted as a male adaptation to post-copulatory competition and are thought to reduce or delay female remating. Here, we used a vertebrate model species, the house mouse, to study the consequences of copulatory plugs for post-copulatory competition. We experimentally manipulated plugs after a female's first mating and investigated the consequences for rival male behaviour and paternity outcome. We found that even intact copulatory plugs were ineffective at preventing female remating, but that plugs influenced the rival male copulatory behaviour. Rivals facing intact copulatory plugs performed more but shorter copulations and ejaculated later than when the plug had been fully or partially removed. This suggests that the copulatory plug represents a considerable physical barrier to rival males. The paternity share of first males increased with a longer delay between the first and second males' ejaculations, indicative of fitness consequences of copulatory plugs. However, when males provided little copulatory stimulation, the incidence of pregnancy failure increased, representing a potential benefit of intense and repeated copulation besides plug removal. We discuss the potential mechanisms of how plugs influence sperm competition outcome and consequences for male copulatory behaviour.

  2. Acute interval exercise intensity does not affect appetite and nutrient preferences in overweight and obese males.

    PubMed

    Alkahtani, Shaea A; Byrne, Nuala M; Hills, Andrew P; King, Neil A

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of two different intensities of acute interval exercise on food preferences and appetite sensations in overweight and obese men. Twelve overweight/obese males (age=29.0±4.1 years; BMI =29.1±2.4 kg/m2) completed three exercise sessions: an initial graded exercise test, and two interval cycling sessions: moderate-(MIIT) and high-intensity (HIIT) interval exercise sessions on separate days in a counterbalanced order. The MIIT session involved cycling for 5-minute repetitions of alternate workloads 20% below and 20% above maximal fat oxidation. The HIIT session consisted of cycling for alternate bouts of 15 seconds at 85% VO2max and 15 seconds unloaded recovery. Appetite sensations and food preferences were measured immediately before and after the exercise sessions using the Visual Analogue Scale and the Liking & Wanting experimental procedure. Results indicated that liking significantly increased and wanting significantly decreased in all food categories after both MIIT and HIIT. There were no differences between MIIT and HIIT on the effect on appetite sensations and Liking & Wanting. In conclusion, manipulating the intensity of acute interval exercise did not affect appetite and nutrient preferences.

  3. New X linked spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia: report on eight affected males in the same family.

    PubMed Central

    Camera, G; Stella, G; Camera, A

    1994-01-01

    We report on a probably new form of spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia (SEMD) with an X linked inheritance pattern. Eight males were affected in the same family. We were able to examine three adult patients and we studied the skeletal radiological aspect of one of these patients at 2 years 6 months and at 9 years of age. The main clinical features are severe short trunked dwarfism, brachydactyly, normal facies, and normal intelligence. Radiologically, the diaphyses of all the long bones are short and broad. The epiphyses of the distal portion of the femora and those of the proximal and distal portions of the tibia are embedded in their metaphyses and there is marked narrowing of the intercondylar groove. There is moderate platyspondyly. Several vertebrae show an anterior tongue in infancy and severe irregularities of the upper and lower surfaces are present in adulthood. The 11th or 12th thoracic vertebra is wedge shaped. The pelvis is narrow. The distal ulnae and fibulae are disproportionately long. The hands show radial deviation and brachydactyly is present in the hands and feet. This X linked SEMD was not detectable at birth. Images PMID:8064814

  4. When What's Inside Counts: Sequence of Demonstrated Actions Affects Preschooler's Categorization by Nonobvious Properties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Yue; Kushnir, Tamar

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the role of a particular social cue--the "sequence" of demonstrated actions and events--in preschooler's categorization. A demonstrator sorted objects that varied on both a surface feature (color) and a nonobvious property (sound made when shaken). Children saw a sequence of actions in which the nonobvious property…

  5. Sexual experience affects reproductive behavior and preoptic androgen receptors in male mice

    PubMed Central

    Swaney, William T.; Dubose, Brittany N.; Curley, James P.; Champagne, Frances A.

    2012-01-01

    Reproductive behavior in male rodents is made up of anticipatory and consummatory elements which are regulated in the brain by sensory systems, reward circuits and hormone signaling. Gonadal steroids play a key role in the regulation of male sexual behavior via steroid receptors in the hypothalamus and preoptic area. Typical patterns of male reproductive behavior have been characterized, however these are not fixed but are modulated by adult experience. We assessed the effects of repeated sexual experience on male reproductive behavior of C57BL/6 mice; including measures of olfactory investigation of females, mounting, intromission and ejaculation. The effects of sexual experience on the number of cells expressing either androgen receptor (AR) or estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) in the primary brain nuclei regulating male sexual behavior was also measured. Sexually experienced male mice engaged in less sniffing of females before initiating sexual behavior and exhibited shorter latencies to mount and intromit, increased frequency of intromission, and increased duration of intromission relative to mounting. No changes in numbers of ERα-positive cells were observed, however sexually experienced males had increased numbers of AR-positive cells in the medial preoptic area (MPOA); the primary regulatory nucleus for male sexual behavior. These results indicate that sexual experience results in a qualitative change in male reproductive behavior in mice that is associated with increased testosterone sensitivity in the MPOA and that this nucleus may play a key integrative role in mediating the effects of sexual experience on male behavior. PMID:22266118

  6. Feminization of pheromone-sensing neurons affects mating decisions in Drosophila males.

    PubMed

    Lu, Beika; Zelle, Kathleen M; Seltzer, Raya; Hefetz, Abraham; Ben-Shahar, Yehuda

    2014-02-15

    The response of individual animals to mating signals depends on the sexual identity of the individual and the genetics of the mating targets, which represent the mating social context (social environment). However, how social signals are sensed and integrated during mating decisions remains a mystery. One of the models for understanding mating behaviors in molecular and cellular terms is the male courtship ritual in the fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster). We have recently shown that a subset of gustatory receptor neurons (GRNs) that are enriched in the male appendages and express the ion channel ppk23 play a major role in the initiation and maintenance of male courtship via the perception of cuticular contact pheromones, and are likely to represent the main chemosensory pathway that influences mating decisions by males. Here we show that genetic feminization of ppk23-expressing GRNs in male flies resulted in a significant increase in male-male sexual attraction without an apparent impact on sexual attraction to females. Furthermore, we show that this increase in male-male sexual attraction is sensory specific, which can be modulated by variable social contexts. Finally, we show that feminization of ppk23-expressing sensory neurons lead to major transcriptional shifts, which may explain the altered interpretation of the social environment by feminized males. Together, these data indicate that the sexual cellular identity of pheromone sensing GRNs plays a major role in how individual flies interpret their social environment in the context of mating decisions.

  7. Male age is not an independent factor to affect the outcome of assisted reproductive techniques.

    PubMed

    Kumtepe, Yakup; Yakin, Kayhan; Kahraman, Semra; Sertyel, Semra; Vanlioğlu, Faruk; Cengiz, Sami; Dönmez, Ersan

    2003-06-01

    Controversy exists whether advanced male age is associated with poor sperm quality and subsequent failure in the assisted reproductive techniques (ART). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of male age on sperm quality and the outcome of ART as well as the association of male age with other relevant factors, particularly with the female age. A retrospective study was performed in order to evaluate the effect of male age on the sperm parameters in 880 routine seminal analyses. Additionally, sperm parameters were also compared among different age groups in 919 cases with male factor infertility who had been included in an ART programme. The laboratory and clinical results of ART (fertilization rate, number and quality of embryos transferred, as well as pregnancy rates) were compared according to different age groups. The results were also evaluated by one-way correlation and also step-wise logistic regression analysis to identify the interactions and correlations between different parameters. There were no statistically significant differences between male age groups in terms of sperm concentration, motility and morphology either in routine seminal analyses or in ART groups. In the ART group, a statistically significant linear correlation was present between male and female ages. Male age was increasing in parallel to female age. Female age was also correlated significantly with ART results. In one-way correlation analysis, male age was found to be correlated with the pregnancy rate, but not with fertilization rate and the quality of the transferred embryos. However, regression analysis revealed that correlation between male age and pregnancy results was simply dependent on the effect of the female age. Seminal parameters did not reveal a significant change with the increasing male age. The effect of male age on ART results in cases with male factor infertility is not a direct effect but a reflection of the negative impact of the parallel increase in

  8. Increasing the Understanding and Demonstration of Appropriate Affection in Children with Asperger Syndrome: A Pilot Trial

    PubMed Central

    Sofronoff, Kate; Eloff, Johann; Sheffield, Jeanie; Attwood, Tony

    2011-01-01

    The study was conducted to examine relationships between affectionate behavior in children with Asperger syndrome and variables likely to influence its expression (e.g., tactile sensitivity, social ability). It also evaluated the impact of a cognitive behavioral intervention that aimed to improve a child's understanding and expression of affection. Twenty-one children, aged 7 to 12 years, participated in the trial. The results showed significant correlations between measures of affection and tactile sensitivity and social ability. After attending the 5-week program, parents identified significant increases in the appropriateness of children's affectionate behavior both towards immediate family and people outside the immediate family, despite reporting no significant changes in their child's general difficulties with affectionate behavior. There was a significant improvement in children's understanding of the purpose of affection. The findings are discussed as well as the limitations of the study. PMID:22937243

  9. Increasing the understanding and demonstration of appropriate affection in children with asperger syndrome: a pilot trial.

    PubMed

    Sofronoff, Kate; Eloff, Johann; Sheffield, Jeanie; Attwood, Tony

    2011-01-01

    The study was conducted to examine relationships between affectionate behavior in children with Asperger syndrome and variables likely to influence its expression (e.g., tactile sensitivity, social ability). It also evaluated the impact of a cognitive behavioral intervention that aimed to improve a child's understanding and expression of affection. Twenty-one children, aged 7 to 12 years, participated in the trial. The results showed significant correlations between measures of affection and tactile sensitivity and social ability. After attending the 5-week program, parents identified significant increases in the appropriateness of children's affectionate behavior both towards immediate family and people outside the immediate family, despite reporting no significant changes in their child's general difficulties with affectionate behavior. There was a significant improvement in children's understanding of the purpose of affection. The findings are discussed as well as the limitations of the study.

  10. Abiotic factors affecting summer distribution and movement of male paddlefish, Polyodon spathula, in a prairie reservoir

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paukert, C.P.; Fisher, W.L.

    2000-01-01

    Six male paddlefish, Polyodon spathula, were implanted with ultrasonic temperature-sensing transmitters and tracked during June through August 1997 to quantify effects of physicochemical conditions on their distribution and movement in Keystone Reservoir, Oklahoma. Paddlefish moved about twice as much during night than day. Movement rate of paddlefish was related to reservoir water level, inflow, and discharge from the reservoir at night; however, none of these variables was significant during the day. Location in the reservoir (distance from the dam) was negatively related to water level and positively related to inflow during day and night periods. Location in the reservoir was negatively related to discharge during the day. Paddlefish avoided the highest available water temperatures, but did not always avoid low dissolved oxygen concentrations. Paddlefish avoided the Cimarron River arm of the reservoir in summer, possibly because of high salinity. Our study demonstrates that distribution of paddlefish during summer and movement in Keystone Reservoir was influenced by physicochemical and hydrologic conditions in the system. However, biotic factors (e.g., food availability) not measured in this study may have been influenced by abiotic conditions in the reservoir.

  11. 40 CFR 63.1318 - PET and polystyrene affected sources-testing and compliance demonstration provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., continuous process vents using a control or recovery device to comply with § 63.1316 shall comply with the... shall calculate organic HAP emissions from the collection of material recovery sections at an existing... of material recovery sections at the affected source. 0.001=Conversion factor, kg to Mg. (i) The...

  12. Morphine decreases social interaction of adult male rats, while THC does not affect it.

    PubMed

    Šlamberová, R; Mikulecká, A; Macúchová, E; Hrebíčková, I; Ševčíková, M; Nohejlová, K; Pometlová, M

    2016-12-22

    The aim of the present study was to compare effect of three low doses of morphine (MOR) and delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on social behavior tested in Social interaction test (SIT). 45 min prior to testing adult male rats received one of the drugs or solvents: MOR (1; 2.5; 5 mg/kg); saline as a solvent for MOR; THC (0.5; 1; 2 mg/kg); ethanol as a solvent for THC. Occurrence and time spent in specific patterns of social interactions (SI) and non-social activities (locomotion and rearing) was video-recorded for 5 min and then analyzed. MOR in doses of 1 and 2.5 mg/kg displayed decreased SI in total. Detailed analysis of specific patterns of SI revealed decrease in mutual sniffing and allo-grooming after all doses of MOR. The highest dose (5 mg/kg) of MOR decreased following and increased genital investigation. Rearing activity was increased by lower doses of MOR (1 and 2.5 mg/kg). THC, in each of the tested doses, did not induce any specific changes when compared to matching control group (ethanol). However, an additional statistical analysis showed differences between all THC groups and their ethanol control group when compared to saline controls. There was lower SI in total, lower mutual sniffing and allo-grooming, but higher rearing in THC and ethanol groups than in saline control group. Thus, changes seen in THC and ethanol groups are seemed to be attributed mainly to the effect of the ethanol. Based on the present results we can assume that opioids affect SI more than cannabinoid.

  13. Cerebral White Matter Lesions and Affective Episodes Correlate in Male Individuals with Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Birner, Armin; Seiler, Stephan; Lackner, Nina; Bengesser, Susanne A.; Queissner, Robert; Fellendorf, Frederike T.; Platzer, Martina; Ropele, Stefan; Enzinger, Christian; Schwingenschuh, Petra; Mangge, Harald; Pirpamer, Lukas; Deutschmann, Hannes; McIntyre, Roger S.; Kapfhammer, Hans-Peter; Reininghaus, Bernd; Reininghaus, Eva Z.

    2015-01-01

    Background Cerebral white matter lesions (WML) have been found in normal aging, vascular disease and several neuropsychiatric conditions. Correlations of WML with clinical parameters in BD have been described, but not with the number of affective episodes, illness duration, age of onset and Body Mass Index in a well characterized group of euthymic bipolar adults. Herein, we aimed to evaluate the associations between bipolar course of illness parameters and WML measured with volumetric analysis. Methods In a cross-sectional study 100 euthymic individuals with BD as well as 54 healthy controls (HC) were enrolled to undergo brain magnetic resonance imaging using 3T including a FLAIR sequence for volumetric assessment of WML-load using FSL-software. Additionally, clinical characteristics and psychometric measures including Structured Clinical Interview according to DSM-IV, Hamilton-Depression, Young Mania Rating Scale and Beck’s Depression Inventory were evaluated. Results Individuals with BD had significantly more (F = 3.968, p < .05) WML (Mdn = 3710mm3; IQR = 2961mm3) than HC (Mdn = 2185mm3; IQR = 1665mm3). BD men (Mdn = 4095mm3; IQR = 3295mm3) and BD women (Mdn = 3032mm3; IQR = 2816mm3) did not significantly differ as to the WML-load or the number and type of risk factors for WML. However, in men only, the number of manic/hypomanic episodes (r = 0.72; p < .001) as well as depressive episodes (r = 0.51; p < .001) correlated positively with WML-load. Conclusions WML-load strongly correlated with the number of manic episodes in male BD patients, suggesting that men might be more vulnerable to mania in the context of cerebral white matter changes. PMID:26252714

  14. Subcortical band heterotopia in rare affected males can be caused by missense mutations in DCX (XLIS) or LIS1.

    PubMed

    Pilz, D T; Kuc, J; Matsumoto, N; Bodurtha, J; Bernadi, B; Tassinari, C A; Dobyns, W B; Ledbetter, D H

    1999-09-01

    Subcortical band heterotopia (SBH) are bilateral and symmetric ribbons of gray matter found in the central white matter between the cortex and the ventricular surface, which comprises the less severe end of the lissencephaly (agyria-pachygyria-band) spectrum of malformations. Mutations in DCX (also known as XLIS ) have previously been described in females with SBH. We have now identified mutations in either the DCX or LIS1 gene in three of 11 boys studied, demonstrating for the first time that mutations of either DCX or LIS1 can cause SBH or mixed pachygyria-SBH (PCH-SBH) in males. All three changes detected are missense mutations, predicted to be of germline origin. They include a missense mutation in exon 4 of DCX in a boy with PCH-SBH (R78H), a different missense mutation in exon 4 of DCX in a boy with mild SBH and in his mildly affected mother (R89G) and a missense mutation in exon 6 of LIS1 in a boy with SBH (S169P). The missense mutations probably account for the less severe brain malformations, although other patients with missense mutations in the same exons have had diffuse lissencephaly. Therefore, it appears likely that the effect of the specific amino acid change on the protein determines the severity of the phenotype, with some mutations enabling residual protein function and allowing normal migration in a larger proportion of neurons. However, we expect that somatic mosaic mutations of both LIS1 and DCX will also prove to be an important mechanism in causing SBH in males.

  15. Sex- and Gonad-Affecting Scent Compounds and 3 Male Pheromones in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Lixing; Zhang, Jin-Hua; Feng, Zhi-Yong

    2008-01-01

    This study was aimed at identifying sex pheromones of the rat (Rattus norvegicus). We characterized the volatiles and semivolatiles of rat preputial gland and voided urine by using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) and quantified them by their GC areas (abundances) and percentage of GC areas (relative abundances). Although all the compounds other than 4-heptanone and phenol detected were shared by males and females, the quantities for some of these sex-common compounds exhibited sexual dimorphism and decreased with gonadectomy. Thus, these compounds might be sex pheromones. Among them, squalene from preputial glands and 2-heptanone and 4-ethyl phenol from urine were 3 major compounds. They were richer in males and could be suppressed by castration. Adding any of the 3 compounds (at a concentration higher than its physiological level in male urine) to castrated male urine (CMU) increased the attractiveness of CMU to sex-naive females. Adding the 3 together (at the levels in normal male urine) to CMU significantly increased the attractiveness of CMU to females. However, such combination did not fully restore females' preference for urine from intact males, suggesting that some other trace compounds such as 4-heptanone and phenol might also play some roles in sex attractiveness. Thus, squalene, 2-heptanone, and 4-ethyl phenol were indeed male pheromone molecules in rats. Our study also indicates that E,E-β-farnesene and E-α-farnesene, both richer in females than males, might be putative female pheromones. PMID:18515819

  16. Sex- and gonad-affecting scent compounds and 3 male pheromones in the rat.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian-Xu; Sun, Lixing; Zhang, Jin-Hua; Feng, Zhi-Yong

    2008-09-01

    This study was aimed at identifying sex pheromones of the rat (Rattus norvegicus). We characterized the volatiles and semivolatiles of rat preputial gland and voided urine by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and quantified them by their GC areas (abundances) and percentage of GC areas (relative abundances). Although all the compounds other than 4-heptanone and phenol detected were shared by males and females, the quantities for some of these sex-common compounds exhibited sexual dimorphism and decreased with gonadectomy. Thus, these compounds might be sex pheromones. Among them, squalene from preputial glands and 2-heptanone and 4-ethyl phenol from urine were 3 major compounds. They were richer in males and could be suppressed by castration. Adding any of the 3 compounds (at a concentration higher than its physiological level in male urine) to castrated male urine (CMU) increased the attractiveness of CMU to sex-naive females. Adding the 3 together (at the levels in normal male urine) to CMU significantly increased the attractiveness of CMU to females. However, such combination did not fully restore females' preference for urine from intact males, suggesting that some other trace compounds such as 4-heptanone and phenol might also play some roles in sex attractiveness. Thus, squalene, 2-heptanone, and 4-ethyl phenol were indeed male pheromone molecules in rats. Our study also indicates that E,E-beta-farnesene and E-alpha-farnesene, both richer in females than males, might be putative female pheromones.

  17. An Experiment To Demonstrate How a Catalyst Affects the Rate of a Reaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copper, Christine L.; Koubeck, Edward

    1999-01-01

    Describes a chemistry experiment that allows students to calculate rates of reaction, orders of reaction, and activation energies. The activity demonstrates that to increase a reaction's rate, a catalyst need only provide any additional pathway for the reaction, not necessarily a pathway having lower activation energy. (WRM)

  18. Preservice Elementary School Teachers' Conceptual Change about Projectile Motion: Refutation Text, Demonstration, Affective Factors, and Relevance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hynd, Cynthia; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Investigates changes in preservice teachers' conceptions about projectile motion brought about by a combination of reading and demonstration and appeal to usefulness. Results indicate the effectiveness of a combined Demo-Text condition on immediate posttests and effectiveness of text in producing long-term change. Analysis also indicates an…

  19. Heat exposure of Cannabis sativa extracts affects the pharmacokinetic and metabolic profile in healthy male subjects.

    PubMed

    Eichler, Martin; Spinedi, Luca; Unfer-Grauwiler, Sandra; Bodmer, Michael; Surber, Christian; Luedi, Markus; Drewe, Juergen

    2012-05-01

    The most important psychoactive constituent of CANNABIS SATIVA L. is Δ (9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Cannabidiol (CBD), another important constituent, is able to modulate the distinct unwanted psychotropic effect of THC. In natural plant extracts of C. SATIVA, large amounts of THC and CBD appear in the form of THCA-A (THC-acid-A) and CBDA (cannabidiolic acid), which can be transformed to THC and CBD by heating. Previous reports of medicinal use of cannabis or cannabis preparations with higher CBD/THC ratios and use in its natural, unheated form have demonstrated that pharmacological effects were often accompanied with a lower rate of adverse effects. Therefore, in the present study, the pharmacokinetics and metabolic profiles of two different C. SATIVA extracts (heated and unheated) with a CBD/THC ratio > 1 were compared to synthetic THC (dronabinol) in a double-blind, randomized, single center, three-period cross-over study involving 9 healthy male volunteers. The pharmacokinetics of the cannabinoids was highly variable. The metabolic pattern was significantly different after administration of the different forms: the heated extract showed a lower median THC plasma AUC (24 h) than the unheated extract of 2.84 vs. 6.59 pmol h/mL, respectively. The later was slightly higher than that of dronabinol (4.58 pmol h/mL). On the other hand, the median sum of the metabolites (THC, 11-OH-THC, THC-COOH, CBN) plasma AUC (24 h) was higher for the heated than for the unheated extract. The median CBD plasma AUC (24 h) was almost 2-fold higher for the unheated than for the heated extract. These results indicate that use of unheated extracts may lead to a beneficial change in metabolic pattern and possibly better tolerability.

  20. When what's inside counts: Sequence of demonstrated actions affects preschooler's categorization by nonobvious properties.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yue; Kushnir, Tamar

    2016-03-01

    This study explores the role of a particular social cue-the sequence of demonstrated actions and events-in preschooler's categorization. A demonstrator sorted objects that varied on both a surface feature (color) and a nonobvious property (sound made when shaken). Children saw a sequence of actions in which the nonobvious property was revealed before (shake-first) or after (shake-last) categorization. Four experiments (N = 150) showed that both 4-year-olds (M(age) = 4.5 years) and 3-year-olds (M(age) = 3.5 years) shifted toward categorizing by nonobvious property after the shake-first sequence compared with the shake-last sequence (Experiment 1 and 4); 4-year-olds also generalized their categorization strategy to new objects (Experiment 2) and objects that were both labeled and categorized (Experiment 3). Results are discussed with regard to preschooler's ability to integrate social and pedagogical cues in category learning.

  1. Testosterone affects song modulation during simulated territorial intrusions in male black redstarts (Phoenicurus ochruros).

    PubMed

    Apfelbeck, Beate; Kiefer, Sarah; Mortega, Kim G; Goymann, Wolfgang; Kipper, Silke

    2012-01-01

    Although it has been suggested that testosterone plays an important role in resource allocation for competitive behavior, details of the interplay between testosterone, territorial aggression and signal plasticity are largely unknown. Therefore, we investigated if testosterone acts specifically on signals that communicate the motivation or ability of individuals to engage in competitive situations in a natural context. We studied the black redstart, a territorial songbird species, during two different life-cycle stages, the early breeding phase in spring and the non-breeding phase in fall. Male territory holders were implanted with the androgen receptor blocker flutamide (Flut) and the aromatase inhibitor letrozole (Let) to inhibit the action of testosterone and its estrogenic metabolites. Controls received a placebo treatment. Three days after implantation birds were challenged with a simulated territorial intrusion (STI). Song was recorded before, during and after the challenge. In spring, both treatment groups increased the number of elements sung in parts of their song in response to the STI. However, Flut/Let-implanted males reacted to the STI with a decreased maximum acoustic frequency of one song part, while placebo-implanted males did not. Instead, placebo-implanted males sang the atonal part of their song with a broader frequency range. Furthermore, placebo-, but not Flut/Let-implanted males, sang shorter songs with shorter pauses between parts in the STIs. During simulated intrusions in fall, when testosterone levels are naturally low in this species, males of both treatment groups sang similar to Flut/Let-implanted males during breeding. The results suggest that song sung during a territorial encounter is of higher competitive value than song sung in an undisturbed situation and may, therefore, convey information about the motivation or quality of the territory holder. We conclude that testosterone facilitates context-dependent changes in song structures

  2. Pair housing differentially affects motivation to self-administer cocaine in male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Westenbroek, Christel; Perry, Adam N; Becker, Jill B

    2013-09-01

    Female rats exhibit greater intake and motivation to self-administer cocaine. In females but not males, isolation by itself is a stressor, which could lead to increased drug intake. Therefore, we hypothesized that social housing would buffer against stress and reduce the motivation to self-administer cocaine primarily in females. Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were housed individually or in same-sex pairs. The individually housed rats and one of each pair were allowed to self-administer (SA) a low dose of cocaine (0.2 mg/kg/inf) on a fixed ratio (FR1) schedule for one week. Motivation for cocaine SA was measured for an additional 2 weeks on a progressive ratio schedule. Isolated females had greater cocaine-intake on the FR1 schedule and greater motivation to take cocaine than males. Pair-housing in females, but not males, attenuated the motivation to take cocaine. Isolated females, but not males, showed escalation of their motivation to take cocaine, which was attenuated by pair housing of females. Concluding, the motivation to take cocaine escalates in females but not males, and pair-housing of females attenuates this escalation.

  3. A female's past experience with predators affects male courtship and the care her offspring will receive from their father.

    PubMed

    McGhee, Katie E; Feng, Sally; Leasure, Sagan; Bell, Alison M

    2015-11-22

    Differential allocation occurs when individuals adjust their reproductive investment based on their partner's traits. However, it remains unknown whether animals differentially allocate based on their partner's past experiences with predation risk. If animals can detect a potential mate's experience with predators, this might inform them about the stress level of their potential mate, the likelihood of parental effects in offspring and/or the dangers present in the environment. Using threespined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus), we examined whether a female's previous experience with being chased by a model predator while yolking eggs affects male mating effort and offspring care. Males displayed fewer conspicuous courtship behaviours towards females that had experienced predation risk in the past compared with unexposed females. This differential allocation extended to how males cared for the resulting offspring of these matings: fathers provided less parental care to offspring of females that had experienced predation risk in the past. Our results show for the first time, to our knowledge, that variation among females in their predator encounters can contribute to behavioural variation among males in courtship and parental care, even when males themselves do not encounter a predator. These results, together with previous findings, suggest that maternal predator exposure can influence offspring development both directly and indirectly, through how it affects father care.

  4. Factors Affecting Implementation of the California Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration (CA-CORD) Project, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Brunner, Julian; Moody, Jamie; Ibarra, Leticia; Hoyt, Helina; McKenzie, Thomas L.; Binggeli-Vallarta, Amy; Cervantes, Griselda; Finlayson, Tracy L.; Ayala, Guadalupe X.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Ecological approaches to health behavior change require effective engagement from and coordination of activities among diverse community stakeholders. We identified facilitators of and barriers to implementation experienced by project leaders and key stakeholders involved in the Imperial County, California, Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration project, a multilevel, multisector intervention to prevent and control childhood obesity. Methods A total of 74 semistructured interviews were conducted with project leaders (n = 6) and key stakeholders (n = 68) representing multiple levels of influence in the health care, early care and education, and school sectors. Interviews, informed by the Multilevel Implementation Framework, were conducted in 2013, approximately 12 months after year-one project implementation, and were transcribed, coded, and summarized. Results Respondents emphasized the importance of engaging parents and of ensuring support from senior leaders of participating organizations. In schools, obtaining teacher buy-in was described as particularly important, given lower perceived compatibility of the intervention with organizational priorities. From a program planning perspective, key facilitators of implementation in all 3 sectors included taking a participatory approach to the development of program materials, gradually introducing intervention activities, and minimizing staff burden. Barriers to implementation were staff turnover, limited local control over food provided by external vendors or school district policies, and limited availability of supportive resources within the broader community. Conclusion Project leaders and stakeholders in all sectors reported similar facilitators of and barriers to implementation, suggesting the possibility for synergy in intervention planning efforts. PMID:27763831

  5. Low-Volatility Model Demonstrates Humidity Affects Environmental Toxin Deposition on Plastics at a Molecular Level.

    PubMed

    Hankett, Jeanne M; Collin, William R; Yang, Pei; Chen, Zhan; Duhaime, Melissa

    2016-02-02

    Despite the ever-increasing prevalence of plastic debris and endocrine disrupting toxins in aquatic ecosystems, few studies describe their interactions in freshwater environments. We present a model system to investigate the deposition/desorption behaviors of low-volatility lake ecosystem toxins on microplastics in situ and in real time. Molecular interactions of gas-phase nonylphenols (NPs) with the surfaces of two common plastics, poly(styrene) and poly(ethylene terephthalate), were studied using quartz crystal microbalance and sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy. NP point sources were generated under two model environments: plastic on land and plastic on a freshwater surface. We found the headspace above calm water provides an excellent environment for NP deposition and demonstrate significant NP deposition on plastic within minutes at relevant concentrations. Further, NP deposits and orders differently on both plastics under humid versus dry environments. We attributed the unique deposition behaviors to surface energy changes from increased water content during the humid deposition. Lastly, nanograms of NP remained on microplastic surfaces hours after initial NP introduction and agitating conditions, illustrating feasibility for plastic-bound NPs to interact with biota and surrounding matter. Our model studies reveal important interactions between low-volatility environmental toxins and microplastics and hold potential to correlate the environmental fate of endocrine disrupting toxins in the Great Lakes with molecular behaviors.

  6. Using electrophysiology to demonstrate that cueing affects long-term memory storage over the short term.

    PubMed

    Maxcey, Ashleigh M; Fukuda, Keisuke; Song, Won S; Woodman, Geoffrey F

    2015-10-01

    As researchers who study working memory, we often assume that participants keep a representation of an object in working memory when we present a cue that indicates that the object will be tested in a couple of seconds. This intuitively accounts for how well people can remember a cued object, relative to their memory for that same object presented without a cue. However, it is possible that this superior memory does not purely reflect storage of the cued object in working memory. We tested the hypothesis that cues presented during a stream of objects, followed by a short retention interval and immediate memory test, can change how information is handled by long-term memory. We tested this hypothesis by using a family of frontal event-related potentials believed to reflect long-term memory storage. We found that these frontal indices of long-term memory were sensitive to the task relevance of objects signaled by auditory cues, even when the objects repeated frequently, such that proactive interference was high. Our findings indicate the problematic nature of assuming process purity in the study of working memory, and demonstrate that frequent stimulus repetitions fail to isolate the role of working memory mechanisms.

  7. Developmental exposure to Ethinylestradiol affects transgenerationally sexual behavior and neuroendocrine networks in male mice

    PubMed Central

    Derouiche, Lyes; Keller, Matthieu; Duittoz, Anne Hélène; Pillon, Delphine

    2015-01-01

    Reproductive behavior and physiology in adulthood are controlled by hypothalamic sexually dimorphic neuronal networks which are organized under hormonal control during development. These organizing effects may be disturbed by endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). To determine whether developmental exposure to Ethinylestradiol (EE2) may alter reproductive parameters in adult male mice and their progeny, Swiss mice (F1 generation) were exposed from prenatal to peripubertal periods to EE2 (0.1–1 μg/kg/d). Sexual behavior and reproductive physiology were evaluated on F1 males and their F2, F3 and F4 progeny. EE2-exposed F1 males and their F2 to F4 progeny exhibited EE2 dose-dependent increased sexual behavior, with reduced latencies of first mount and intromission, and higher frequencies of intromissions with a receptive female. The EE2 1 μg/kg/d exposed animals and their progeny had more calbindin immunoreactive cells in the medial preoptic area, known to be involved in the control of male sexual behavior in rodents. Despite neuroanatomical modifications in the Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone neuron population of F1 males exposed to both doses of EE2, no major deleterious effects on reproductive physiology were detected. Therefore EE2 exposure during development may induce a hypermasculinization of the brain, illustrating how widespread exposure of animals and humans to EDCs can impact health and behaviors. PMID:26640081

  8. A barley PHD finger transcription factor that confers male sterility by affecting tapetal development.

    PubMed

    Fernández Gómez, José; Wilson, Zoe A

    2014-08-01

    Controlling pollen development is of major commercial importance in generating hybrid crops and selective breeding, but characterized genes for male sterility in crops are rare, with no current examples in barley. However, translation of knowledge from model species is now providing opportunities to understand and manipulate such processes in economically important crops. We have used information from regulatory networks in Arabidopsis to identify and functionally characterize a barley PHD transcription factor MALE STERTILITY1 (MS1), which expresses in the anther tapetum and plays a critical role during pollen development. Comparative analysis of Arabidopsis, rice and Brachypodium genomes was used to identify conserved regions in MS1 for primer design to amplify the barley MS1 gene; RACE-PCR was subsequently used to generate the full-length sequence. This gene shows anther-specific tapetal expression, between late tetrad stage and early microspore release. HvMS1 silencing and overexpression in barley resulted in male sterility. Additionally, HvMS1 cDNA, controlled by the native Arabidopsis MS1 promoter, successfully complemented the homozygous ms1 Arabidopsis mutant. These results confirm the conservation of MS1 function in higher plants and in particular in temperate cereals. This has provided the first example of a characterized male sterility gene in barley, which presents a valuable tool for the future control of male fertility in barley for hybrid development.

  9. Developmental exposure to Ethinylestradiol affects transgenerationally sexual behavior and neuroendocrine networks in male mice.

    PubMed

    Derouiche, Lyes; Keller, Matthieu; Duittoz, Anne Hélène; Pillon, Delphine

    2015-12-07

    Reproductive behavior and physiology in adulthood are controlled by hypothalamic sexually dimorphic neuronal networks which are organized under hormonal control during development. These organizing effects may be disturbed by endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). To determine whether developmental exposure to Ethinylestradiol (EE2) may alter reproductive parameters in adult male mice and their progeny, Swiss mice (F1 generation) were exposed from prenatal to peripubertal periods to EE2 (0.1-1 μg/kg/d). Sexual behavior and reproductive physiology were evaluated on F1 males and their F2, F3 and F4 progeny. EE2-exposed F1 males and their F2 to F4 progeny exhibited EE2 dose-dependent increased sexual behavior, with reduced latencies of first mount and intromission, and higher frequencies of intromissions with a receptive female. The EE2 1 μg/kg/d exposed animals and their progeny had more calbindin immunoreactive cells in the medial preoptic area, known to be involved in the control of male sexual behavior in rodents. Despite neuroanatomical modifications in the Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone neuron population of F1 males exposed to both doses of EE2, no major deleterious effects on reproductive physiology were detected. Therefore EE2 exposure during development may induce a hypermasculinization of the brain, illustrating how widespread exposure of animals and humans to EDCs can impact health and behaviors.

  10. Cuticular Hydrocarbon Content that Affects Male Mate Preference of Drosophila melanogaster from West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Aya; Fujiwara-Tsujii, Nao; Yamaoka, Ryohei; Itoh, Masanobu; Ozaki, Mamiko; Takano-Shimizu, Toshiyuki

    2012-01-01

    Intraspecific variation in mating signals and preferences can be a potential source of incipient speciation. Variable crossability between Drosophila melanogaster and D. simulans among different strains suggested the abundance of such variations. A particular focus on one combination of D. melanogaster strains, TW1(G23) and Mel6(G59), that showed different crossabilities to D. simulans, revealed that the mating between females from the former and males from the latter occurs at low frequency. The cuticular hydrocarbon transfer experiment indicated that cuticular hydrocarbons of TW1 females have an inhibitory effect on courtship by Mel6 males. A candidate component, a C25 diene, was inferred from the gas chromatography analyses. The intensity of male refusal of TW1 females was variable among different strains of D. melanogaster, which suggested the presence of variation in sensitivity to different chemicals on the cuticle. Such variation could be a potential factor for the establishment of premating isolation under some conditions. PMID:22536539

  11. Cellular interference in craniofrontonasal syndrome: males mosaic for mutations in the X-linked EFNB1 gene are more severely affected than true hemizygotes

    PubMed Central

    Twigg, Stephen R.F.; Babbs, Christian; van den Elzen, Marijke E.P.; Goriely, Anne; Taylor, Stephen; McGowan, Simon J.; Giannoulatou, Eleni; Lonie, Lorne; Ragoussis, Jiannis; Akha, Elham Sadighi; Knight, Samantha J.L.; Zechi-Ceide, Roseli M.; Hoogeboom, Jeannette A.M.; Pober, Barbara R.; Toriello, Helga V.; Wall, Steven A.; Rita Passos-Bueno, M.; Brunner, Han G.; Mathijssen, Irene M.J.; Wilkie, Andrew O.M.

    2013-01-01

    Craniofrontonasal syndrome (CFNS), an X-linked disorder caused by loss-of-function mutations of EFNB1, exhibits a paradoxical sex reversal in phenotypic severity: females characteristically have frontonasal dysplasia, craniosynostosis and additional minor malformations, but males are usually more mildly affected with hypertelorism as the only feature. X-inactivation is proposed to explain the more severe outcome in heterozygous females, as this leads to functional mosaicism for cells with differing expression of EPHRIN-B1, generating abnormal tissue boundaries—a process that cannot occur in hemizygous males. Apparently challenging this model, males occasionally present with a more severe female-like CFNS phenotype. We hypothesized that such individuals might be mosaic for EFNB1 mutations and investigated this possibility in multiple tissue samples from six sporadically presenting males. Using denaturing high performance liquid chromatography, massively parallel sequencing and multiplex-ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) to increase sensitivity above standard dideoxy sequencing, we identified mosaic mutations of EFNB1 in all cases, comprising three missense changes, two gene deletions and a novel point mutation within the 5′ untranslated region (UTR). Quantification by Pyrosequencing and MLPA demonstrated levels of mutant cells between 15 and 69%. The 5′ UTR variant mutates the stop codon of a small upstream open reading frame that, using a dual-luciferase reporter construct, was demonstrated to exacerbate interference with translation of the wild-type protein. These results demonstrate a more severe outcome in mosaic than in constitutionally deficient males in an X-linked dominant disorder and provide further support for the cellular interference mechanism, normally related to X-inactivation in females. PMID:23335590

  12. Repeated psychosocial stress at night affects the circadian activity rhythm of male mice.

    PubMed

    Bartlang, Manuela S; Oster, Henrik; Helfrich-Förster, Charlotte

    2015-06-01

    We have recently shown that molecular rhythms in the murine suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) are affected by repeated social defeat (SD) during the dark/active phase (social defeat dark [SDD]), while repeated SD during the light/inactive phase (social defeat light [SDL]) had no influence on PERIOD2::LUCIFERASE explant rhythms in the SCN. Here we assessed the effects of the same stress paradigm by in vivo biotelemetry on 2 output rhythms of the circadian clock (i.e., activity and core body temperature) in wild-type (WT) and clock-deficient Period (Per)1/2 double-mutant mice during and following repeated SDL and SDD. In general, stress had more pronounced effects on activity compared to body temperature rhythms. Throughout the SD procedure, activity and body temperature were markedly increased during the 2 h of stressor exposure at zeitgeber time (ZT) 1 to ZT3 (SDL mice) and ZT13 to ZT15 (SDD mice), which was compensated by decreased activity during the remaining dark phase (SDL and SDD mice) and light phase (SDL mice) in both genotypes. Considerable differences in the activity between SDL and SDD mice were seen in the poststress period. SDD mice exhibited a reduced first activity bout at ZT13, delayed activity onset, and, consequently, a more narrow activity bandwidth compared with single-housed control (SHC) and SDL mice. Given that this effect was absent in Per1/2 mutant SDD mice and persisted under constant darkness conditions in SDD WT mice, it suggests an involvement of the endogenous clock. Taken together, the present findings demonstrate that SDD has long-lasting consequences for the functional output of the biological clock that, at least in part, appear to depend on the clock genes Per1 and Per2.

  13. Demonstrating the Efficacy of Group Prolonged Exposure Treatment of PTSD in OEF/OIF/OND Male Veterans

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    format. The study population is male OEF/OIF/OND veterans who will be block randomized in groups of 3 into a 10- week , 90-minute, Prolonged Exposure...be block randomized in groups of 3 into a 10- week , 90-minute, Prolonged Exposure Group (PEG) or Present-Centered Therapy (PCT) group. The goal of

  14. Heterosexuals' Attitudes toward Lesbianism and Male Homosexuality: Their Affective Orientation toward Sexuality and Sex Guilt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarber, William L.; Yee, Bernadette

    1983-01-01

    A study sought to determine if a relationship existed between heterosexual college students' attitudes toward lesbianism and male homosexuality and their feelings about their own sexuality, including sex guilt. High sex guilt proved to be related to negative attitudes toward homosexuals of both sexes. (Authors/PP)

  15. Song environment affects singing effort and vasotocin immunoreactivity in the forebrain of male Lincoln's sparrows.

    PubMed

    Sewall, Kendra B; Dankoski, Elyse C; Sockman, Keith W

    2010-08-01

    Male songbirds often establish territories and attract mates by singing, and some song features can reflect the singer's condition or quality. The quality of the song environment can change, so male songbirds should benefit from assessing the competitiveness of the song environment and appropriately adjusting their own singing behavior and the neural substrates by which song is controlled. In a wide range of taxa, social modulation of behavior is partly mediated by the arginine vasopressin or vasotocin (AVP/AVT) systems. To examine the modulation of singing behavior in response to the quality of the song environment, we compared the song output of laboratory-housed male Lincoln's sparrows (Melospiza lincolnii) exposed to 1 week of chronic playback of songs categorized as either high or low quality, based on song length, complexity, and trill performance. To explore the neural basis of any facultative shifts in behavior, we also quantified the subjects' AVT immunoreactivity (AVT-IR) in three forebrain regions that regulate sociosexual behavior: the medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTm), the lateral septum (LS), and the preoptic area. We found that high-quality songs increased singing effort and reduced AVT-IR in the BSTm and LS, relative to low-quality songs. The effect of the quality of the song environment on both singing effort and forebrain AVT-IR raises the hypothesis that AVT within these brain regions plays a role in the modulation of behavior in response to competition that individual males may assess from the prevailing song environment.

  16. Psychosocial maternal stress during pregnancy affects serum corticosterone, blood immune parameters and anxiety behaviour in adult male rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Götz, Alexander A; Stefanski, Volker

    2007-01-30

    Exposure to prenatal stress can impair the behavioural and hormonal development in mammals. However, the consequences for the immune system are rarely investigated and there is only limited evidence that naturalistic prenatal stressors do also have the potential to affect the offspring. Thus, by using a social conflict model in female Long-Evans rats, we investigated the effects of prenatal social stress on several behavioural, hormonal and immunological parameters. Offspring from stressed and non-stressed pregnant females were housed in pairs after weaning, and tested at an age of 4-6 months. Prenatally stressed (PS) males were more active in the elevated plus-maze test as indicated by significantly more frequent entries into the open arms compared to prenatal control males (PC). In addition, PS males had significantly lower serum corticosterone concentrations under basal conditions as well as after ACTH-challenge. The basal number of total leukocytes was significantly lower in the PS group due to significantly lower lymphocyte counts. In particular, the CD4+ T-helper cell subset was affected. The lymphocyte proliferation to pokeweed mitogen was lower in PS males. Because some of the present findings do not correspond to previous studies using conventional stressors, we assume that the nature of the stressor plays an important role for pregnancy outcome and behaviour and physiology of the offspring in later life.

  17. Cocaine differentially affects synaptic activity in memory and midbrain areas of female and male rats: an in vivo MEMRI study.

    PubMed

    Perez, Pablo D; Hall, Gabrielle; Zubcevic, Jasenka; Febo, Marcelo

    2017-02-24

    Manganese enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) has been previously used to determine the effect of acute cocaine on calcium-dependent synaptic activity in male rats. However, there have been no MEMRI studies examining sex differences in the functional neural circuits affected by repeated cocaine. In the present study, we used MEMRI to investigate the effects of repeated cocaine on brain activation in female and male rats. Adult female and male rats were scanned at 4.7 Tesla three days after final treatment with saline, a single cocaine injection (15 mg kg(-1), i.p. × 1 day) or repeated cocaine injections (15 mg kg(-1), i.p. × 10 days). A day before imaging rats were provided with an i.p. injection of manganese chloride (70 mg kg(-1)). Cocaine produced effects on MEMRI activity that were dependent on sex. In females, we observed that a single cocaine injection reduced MEMRI activity in hippocampal CA3, ventral tegmental area (VTA), and median Raphé, whereas repeated cocaine increased MEMRI activity in dentate gyrus and interpeduncular nucleus. In males, repeated cocaine reduced MEMRI activity in VTA. Overall, it appeared that female rats showed a general trend towards increase MEMRI activity with single cocaine and reduced activity with repeated exposure, while male rats showed a trend towards opposite effects. Our results provide evidence for sex differences in the in vivo neural response to cocaine, which involves primarily hippocampal, amygdala and midbrain areas.

  18. Egg-laying "intermorphs" in the ant Crematogaster smithi neither affect sexual production nor male parentage.

    PubMed

    Oettler, Jan; Dijkstra, Michiel B; Heinze, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    We study male parentage and between-colony variation in sex allocation and sexual production in the desert ant Crematogaster smithi, which usually has only one singly-mated queen per nest. Colonies of this species are known to temporarily store nutrients in the large fat body of intermorphs, a specialized female caste intermediate in morphology between queens and workers. Intermorphs repackage at least part of this fat into consumable but viable male-destined eggs. If these eggs sometimes develop instead of being eaten, intermorphs will be reproductive competitors of the queen but--due to relatedness asymmetries--allies of their sister worker. Using genetic markers we found a considerable proportion of non-queen sons in some, but not all, colonies. Even though intermorphs produce ∼1.7× more eggs than workers, their share in the parentage of adult males is estimated to be negligible due to their small number compared to workers. Furthermore, neither colony-level sex allocation nor overall sexual production was correlated with intermorph occurrence or number. We conclude that intermorph-laid eggs typically do not survive and that the storage of nutrients and their redistribution as eggs by intermorphs is effectively altruistic.

  19. Wolbachia Influences the Production of Octopamine and Affects Drosophila Male Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Rohrscheib, Chelsie E.; Bondy, Elizabeth; Josh, Peter; Riegler, Markus; Eyles, Darryl; van Swinderen, Bruno; Weible, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    Wolbachia bacteria are endosymbionts that infect approximately 40% of all insect species and are best known for their ability to manipulate host reproductive systems. Though the effect Wolbachia infection has on somatic tissues is less well understood, when present in cells of the adult Drosophila melanogaster brain, Wolbachia exerts an influence over behaviors related to olfaction. Here, we show that a strain of Wolbachia influences male aggression in flies, which is critically important in mate competition. A specific strain of Wolbachia was observed to reduce the initiation of aggressive encounters in Drosophila males compared to the behavior of their uninfected controls. To determine how Wolbachia was able to alter aggressive behavior, we investigated the role of octopamine, a neurotransmitter known to influence male aggressive behavior in many insect species. Transcriptional analysis of the octopamine biosynthesis pathway revealed that two essential genes, the tyrosine decarboxylase and tyramine β-hydroxylase genes, were significantly downregulated in Wolbachia-infected flies. Quantitative chemical analysis also showed that total octopamine levels were significantly reduced in the adult heads. PMID:25934616

  20. Methoprene and 20-OH-ecdysone affect male production in Daphnia pulex.

    PubMed

    Peterson, J K; Kashian, D R; Dodson, S I

    2001-03-01

    Exposure of Daphnia pulex to the insecticide and juvenile hormone-mimic methoprene resulted in a decrease in the incidence of all-male broods and an increase in the incidence of all-female broods compared with controls. These effects were observed at nominal concentrations of 10 and 100 microg/L, within the upper range of concentrations at which methoprene is applied in the environment. Because methoprene has been found to bind to the mammalian retinoid X receptor, we also tested the effects of retinoic acid on Daphnia reproduction. Neither 9-cis-retinoic acid nor all-trans-retinoic acid had any observable effect. Because juvenile hormone and ecdysteroids interact in many insect systems, we also exposed Daphnia to 20-OH-ecdysone. Exposure to the crustacean hormone 20-OH-ecdysone at levels of 1 and 10 microg/L resulted in an increase in all-male broods and a decrease in all-female broods, but 100 microg/L 20-OH-ecdysone resulted in a decrease in all-male broods and an increase in all-female broods. Our results suggest that juvenile hormone and ecdysteroids might play a role in the Daphnia sex determination system.

  1. Wolbachia Influences the Production of Octopamine and Affects Drosophila Male Aggression.

    PubMed

    Rohrscheib, Chelsie E; Bondy, Elizabeth; Josh, Peter; Riegler, Markus; Eyles, Darryl; van Swinderen, Bruno; Weible, Michael W; Brownlie, Jeremy C

    2015-07-01

    Wolbachia bacteria are endosymbionts that infect approximately 40% of all insect species and are best known for their ability to manipulate host reproductive systems. Though the effect Wolbachia infection has on somatic tissues is less well understood, when present in cells of the adult Drosophila melanogaster brain, Wolbachia exerts an influence over behaviors related to olfaction. Here, we show that a strain of Wolbachia influences male aggression in flies, which is critically important in mate competition. A specific strain of Wolbachia was observed to reduce the initiation of aggressive encounters in Drosophila males compared to the behavior of their uninfected controls. To determine how Wolbachia was able to alter aggressive behavior, we investigated the role of octopamine, a neurotransmitter known to influence male aggressive behavior in many insect species. Transcriptional analysis of the octopamine biosynthesis pathway revealed that two essential genes, the tyrosine decarboxylase and tyramine β-hydroxylase genes, were significantly downregulated in Wolbachia-infected flies. Quantitative chemical analysis also showed that total octopamine levels were significantly reduced in the adult heads.

  2. Sexual competition affects biomass partitioning, carbon-nutrient balance, Cd allocation and ultrastructure of Populus cathayana females and males exposed to Cd stress.

    PubMed

    Chen, Juan; Duan, Baoli; Xu, Gang; Korpelainen, Helena; Niinemets, Ülo; Li, Chunyang

    2016-11-01

    Although increasing attention has been paid to plant adaptation to soil heavy metal contamination, competition and neighbor effects have been largely overlooked, especially in dioecious plants. In this study, we investigated growth as well as biochemical and ultrastructural responses of Populus cathayana Rehder females and males to cadmium (Cd) stress under different sexual competition patterns. The results showed that competition significantly affects biomass partitioning, photosynthetic capacity, leaf and root ultrastructure, Cd accumulation, the contents of polyphenols, and structural and nonstructural carbohydrates. Compared with single-sex cultivation, plants of opposite sexes exposed to sexual competition accumulated more Cd in tissues and their growth was more strongly inhibited, indicating enhanced Cd toxicity under sexual competition. Under intrasexual competition, females showed greater Cd accumulation, more serious damage at the ultrastructural level and greater reduction in physiological activity than under intersexual competition, while males performed better under intrasexual competition than under intersexual competition. Males improved the female microenvironment by greater Cd uptake and lower resource consumption under intersexual competition. These results demonstrate that the sex of neighbor plants and competition affect sexual differences in growth and in key physiological processes under Cd stress. The asymmetry of sexual competition highlighted here might regulate population structure, and spatial segregation and phytoremediation potential of both sexes in P. cathayana growing in heavy metal-contaminated soils.

  3. Migratory stopover conditions affect the developmental state of male gonads in garden warblers (Sylvia borin).

    PubMed

    Bauchinger, Ulf; Van't Hof, Thomas; Biebach, Herbert

    2008-08-01

    Long-distance migrants face the challenge of a short window for reproduction that requires optimal timing and full functional gonads. Male garden warblers (Sylvia borin) meet these demands by initiating testicular recrudescence during spring migration, enabling them to reproduce immediately after arrival at the breeding grounds. In a combined field and laboratory study, we investigated testicular size, plasma levels of luteinizing hormone (LH), androstenedione (AE), 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), testosterone and nocturnal migratory restlessness (Zugunruhe) under different stopover conditions. We manipulated food availability, the duration of stopover and simulated migration by food deprivation. Garden warblers showed significantly retarded testicular development after nine days of stopover under limited food conditions compared to birds that had ad libitum access to food. However, there was no significant difference in Zugunruhe between the two groups. Thus, the degree of Zugunruhe was unaffected by the quality of the stopover site and migration continued independent of the developmental state of the testis. We suggest that male garden warblers face the necessity to either compensate for slowed testicular recrudescence during the subsequent leg of migration and delay arrival at the breeding grounds, or arrive with less developed testes. Either of these may reduce annual reproductive success.

  4. Inhibition of Polo kinase by BI2536 affects centriole separation during Drosophila male meiosis.

    PubMed

    Riparbelli, Maria G; Gottardo, Marco; Glover, David M; Callaini, Giuliano

    2014-01-01

    Pharmacological inhibition of Drosophila Polo kinase with BI2536 has allowed us to re-examine the requirements for Polo during Drosophila male gametogenesis. BI2536-treated spermatocytes persisted in a pro-metaphase state without dividing and had condensed chromosomes that did not separate. Centrosomes failed to recruit γ-tubulin and centrosomin (Cnn) and were not associated with microtubule arrays that were abnormal and did not form proper bipolar spindles. Centrioles, which usually separate during the anaphase of the first meiosis, remained held together in a V-shaped configuration suggesting that Polo kinase regulates the proteolysis that breaks centriole linkage to ensure their disengagement. Despite these defects spermatid differentiation proceeds, leading to axoneme formation.

  5. Influence of gang membership on negative affect, substance use, and antisocial behavior among homeless African American male youth.

    PubMed

    Harper, Gary W; Davidson, Jonathan; Hosek, Sybil G

    2008-09-01

    The current study examined differences between gang-involved and non-gang-involved homeless African American male youth with regard to negative affect, substance use, and antisocial/violent behavior. A total of 69 homeless African American young men were recruited from community agencies and completed structured face-to-face interviews. Overall, gang members reported higher rates of negative mental and physical health outcomes than did non-gang members, with current gang members reporting higher levels of depression and anxiety, greater levels of antisocial and violent behavior, and higher levels of lifetime alcohol and marijuana use. Multiple linear regression analyses revealed that greater levels of gang involvement were associated with more frequent lifetime use of alcohol and marijuana and higher levels of participation in violent behaviors. Implications of these findings for interventions with homeless African American male youth and future research directions are discussed.

  6. Bisphenol-A Affects Male Fertility via Fertility-related Proteins in Spermatozoa

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Md Saidur; Kwon, Woo-Sung; Lee, June-Sub; Yoon, Sung-Jae; Ryu, Buom-Yong; Pang, Myung-Geol

    2015-01-01

    The xenoestrogen bisphenol-A (BPA) is a widespread environmental contaminant that has been studied for its impact on male fertility in several species of animals and humans. Growing evidence suggests that xenoestrogens can bind to receptors on spermatozoa and thus alter sperm function. The objective of the study was to investigate the effects of varying concentrations of BPA (0.0001, 0.01, 1, and 100 μM for 6 h) on sperm function, fertilization, embryonic development, and on selected fertility-related proteins in spermatozoa. Our results showed that high concentrations of BPA inhibited sperm motility and motion kinematics by significantly decreasing ATP levels in spermatozoa. High BPA concentrations also increased the phosphorylation of tyrosine residues on sperm proteins involved in protein kinase A-dependent regulation and induced a precocious acrosome reaction, which resulted in poor fertilization and compromised embryonic development. In addition, BPA induced the down-regulation of β-actin and up-regulated peroxiredoxin-5, glutathione peroxidase 4, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and succinate dehydrogenase. Our results suggest that high concentrations of BPA alter sperm function, fertilization, and embryonic development via regulation and/or phosphorylation of fertility-related proteins in spermatozoa. We conclude that BPA-induced changes in fertility-related protein levels in spermatozoa may be provided a potential cue of BPA-mediated disease conditions. PMID:25772901

  7. Dermatoglyphics of digitopalmar complex in forty male patients affected by rheumatoid arthritis--quantitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Cvjeticanin, Miljenko; Jajić, Zrinka; Jajić, Ivo

    2009-01-01

    Quantitative analysis of digitopalmar ridge count was performed in forty male patients with rheumatoid arthritis to evaluation of genetic factors in that disease. Twenty five variables (ridge count on each of ten fingers, their sum on five and ten fingers, four traits on each palm, i. e. ridge count between a-b, b-c and c-d triradii, their sum on each and both palm and at angle on two palms and their bilateral sum) were determined. The data thus obtained were compared with digitopalmar prints of 200 healthy men who served as a control group. A significant difference from the control group was found in eight variables. Ridge count was increased on the first and fifth finger bilaterally, on the fourth right finger tip, and their sum on each, and both fists. Accordingly, a polygenic system identical in some loci to the polygenic system predisposing to rheumatoid arthritis susceptibility might be found responsible for the dermatoglyphic pattern development. That means that they could used, and that is the aim of this study, as a diagnostic tool in rheumatic diseases.

  8. Hypo- and hyperthyroidism affect NEI concentration in discrete brain areas of adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Ayala, Carolina; Valdez, Susana Ruth; Morero, María Luján Navarra; Soaje, Marta; Carreño, Norma Beatriz; Sanchez, Mónica Silvina; Bittencourt, Jakson Cioni; Jahn, Graciela Alma; Celis, María Ester

    2011-06-01

    To date, there has been only one in vitro study of the relationship between neuropeptide EI (NEI) and the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis. To investigate the possible relationship between NEI and the HPT axis, we developed a rat model of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism that allows us to determine whether NEI content is altered in selected brain areas after treatment, as well as whether such alterations are related to the time of day. Hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism, induced in male rats, with 6-propyl-1-thiouracil and l-thyroxine, respectively, were confirmed by determination of triiodothyronine, total thyroxine, and thyrotropin levels. All groups were studied at the morning and the afternoon. In rats with hypothyroidism, NEI concentration, evaluated on postinduction days 7 and 24, was unchanged or slightly elevated on day 7 but was decreased on day 24. In rats with hyperthyroidism, NEI content, which was evaluated after 4 days of l-thyroxine administration, was slightly elevated, principally in the preoptic area in the morning and in the median eminence-arcuate nucleus and pineal gland in the afternoon, the morning and afternoon NEI contents being similar in the controls. These results provide the bases to pursue the study of the interaction between NEI and the HPT axis.

  9. Musically induced arousal affects pain perception in females but not in males: a psychophysiological examination.

    PubMed

    Kenntner-Mabiala, Ramona; Gorges, Susanne; Alpers, Georg W; Lehmann, Andreas C; Pauli, Paul

    2007-04-01

    The present study investigated affective and physiological responses to changes of tempo and mode in classical music and their effects on heat pain perception. Thirty-eight healthy non-musicians (17 female) listened to sequences of 24 music stimuli which were variations of 4 pieces of classical music. Tempo (46, 60, and 95 beats/min) and mode (major and minor) were manipulated digitally, all other musical elements were held constant. Participants rated valence, arousal, happiness and sadness of the musical stimuli as well as the intensity and the unpleasantness of heat pain stimuli which were applied during music listening. Heart rate, respiratory rate and end-tidal PCO(2) were recorded. Pain ratings were highest for the fastest tempo. Also, participants' arousal ratings, their respiratory rate and heart rate were accelerated by the fastest tempo. The modulation of pain perception by the tempo of music seems to be mediated by the listener's arousal.

  10. Reduced rDNA copy number does not affect "competitive" chromosome pairing in XYY males of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Maggert, Keith A

    2014-03-20

    The ribosomal DNA (rDNA) arrays are causal agents in X-Y chromosome pairing in meiosis I of Drosophila males. Despite broad variation in X-linked and Y-linked rDNA copy number, polymorphisms in regulatory/spacer sequences between rRNA genes, and variance in copy number of interrupting R1 and R2 retrotransposable elements, there is little evidence that different rDNA arrays affect pairing efficacy. I investigated whether induced rDNA copy number polymorphisms affect chromosome pairing in a "competitive" situation in which complex pairing configurations were possible using males with XYY constitution. Using a common normal X chromosome, one of two different full-length Y chromosomes, and a third chromosome from a series of otherwise-isogenic rDNA deletions, I detected no differences in X-Y or Y-Y pairing or chromosome segregation frequencies that could not be attributed to random variation alone. This work was performed in the context of an undergraduate teaching program at Texas A&M University, and I discuss the pedagogical utility of this and other such experiments.

  11. Reduced rDNA Copy Number Does Not Affect “Competitive” Chromosome Pairing in XYY Males of Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Maggert, Keith A.

    2014-01-01

    The ribosomal DNA (rDNA) arrays are causal agents in X-Y chromosome pairing in meiosis I of Drosophila males. Despite broad variation in X-linked and Y-linked rDNA copy number, polymorphisms in regulatory/spacer sequences between rRNA genes, and variance in copy number of interrupting R1 and R2 retrotransposable elements, there is little evidence that different rDNA arrays affect pairing efficacy. I investigated whether induced rDNA copy number polymorphisms affect chromosome pairing in a “competitive” situation in which complex pairing configurations were possible using males with XYY constitution. Using a common normal X chromosome, one of two different full-length Y chromosomes, and a third chromosome from a series of otherwise-isogenic rDNA deletions, I detected no differences in X-Y or Y-Y pairing or chromosome segregation frequencies that could not be attributed to random variation alone. This work was performed in the context of an undergraduate teaching program at Texas A&M University, and I discuss the pedagogical utility of this and other such experiments. PMID:24449686

  12. Female major histocompatibility complex type affects male testosterone levels and sperm number in the horse (Equus caballus)

    PubMed Central

    Burger, D.; Dolivo, G.; Marti, E.; Sieme, H.; Wedekind, C.

    2015-01-01

    Odours of vertebrates often contain information about the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), and are used in kin recognition, mate choice or female investment in pregnancy. It is, however, still unclear whether MHC-linked signals can also affect male reproductive strategies. We used horses (Equus caballus) to study this question under experimental conditions. Twelve stallions were individually exposed either to an unfamiliar MHC-similar mare and then to an unfamiliar MHC-dissimilar mare, or vice versa. Each exposure lasted over a period of four weeks. Peripheral blood testosterone levels were determined weekly. Three ejaculates each were collected in the week after exposure to both mares (i.e. in the ninth week) to determine mean sperm number and sperm velocity. We found high testosterone levels when stallions were kept close to MHC-dissimilar mares and significantly lower ones when kept close to MHC-similar mares. Mean sperm number per ejaculate (but not sperm velocity) was positively correlated to mean testosterone levels and also affected by the order of presentation of mares: sperm numbers were higher if MHC-dissimilar mares were presented last than if MHC-similar mares were presented last. We conclude that MHC-linked signals influence testosterone secretion and semen characteristics, two indicators of male reproductive strategies. PMID:25904670

  13. Female major histocompatibility complex type affects male testosterone levels and sperm number in the horse (Equus caballus).

    PubMed

    Burger, D; Dolivo, G; Marti, E; Sieme, H; Wedekind, C

    2015-05-22

    Odours of vertebrates often contain information about the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), and are used in kin recognition, mate choice or female investment in pregnancy. It is, however, still unclear whether MHC-linked signals can also affect male reproductive strategies. We used horses (Equus caballus) to study this question under experimental conditions. Twelve stallions were individually exposed either to an unfamiliar MHC-similar mare and then to an unfamiliar MHC-dissimilar mare, or vice versa. Each exposure lasted over a period of four weeks. Peripheral blood testosterone levels were determined weekly. Three ejaculates each were collected in the week after exposure to both mares (i.e. in the ninth week) to determine mean sperm number and sperm velocity. We found high testosterone levels when stallions were kept close to MHC-dissimilar mares and significantly lower ones when kept close to MHC-similar mares. Mean sperm number per ejaculate (but not sperm velocity) was positively correlated to mean testosterone levels and also affected by the order of presentation of mares: sperm numbers were higher if MHC-dissimilar mares were presented last than if MHC-similar mares were presented last. We conclude that MHC-linked signals influence testosterone secretion and semen characteristics, two indicators of male reproductive strategies.

  14. Transporters involved in pH and K+ homeostasis affect pollen wall formation, male fertility, and embryo development

    DOE PAGES

    Padmanaban, Senthilkumar; Czerny, Daniel D.; Levin, Kara A.; ...

    2017-02-23

    Flowering plant genomes encode multiple cation/H+ exchangers (CHXs) whose functions are largely unknown. AtCHX17, AtCHX18, and AtCHX19 are membrane transporters that modulate K+ and pH homeostasis and are localized in the dynamic endomembrane system. Loss of function reduced seed set, but the particular phase(s) of reproduction affected was not determined. Pollen tube growth and ovule targeting of chx17chx18chx19 mutant pollen appeared normal, but reciprocal cross experiments indicate a largely male defect. Although triple mutant pollen tubes reach ovules of a wild-type pistil and a synergid cell degenerated, half of those ovules were unfertilized or showed fertilization of the egg ormore » central cell, but not both female gametes. Fertility could be partially compromised by impaired pollen tube and/or sperm function as CHX19 and CHX18 are expressed in the pollen tube and sperm cell, respectively. When fertilization was successful in self-pollinated mutants, early embryo formation was retarded compared with embryos from wild-type ovules receiving mutant pollen. Thus CHX17 and CHX18 proteins may promote embryo development possibly through the endosperm where these genes are expressed. The reticulate pattern of the pollen wall was disorganized in triple mutants, indicating perturbation of wall formation during male gametophyte development. Lastly, as pH and cation homeostasis mediated by AtCHX17 affect membrane trafficking and cargo delivery, these results suggest that male fertility, sperm function, and embryo development are dependent on proper cargo sorting and secretion that remodel cell walls, plasma membranes, and extracellular factors.« less

  15. A cognitive-perceptual model of symptom perception in males and females: the roles of negative affect, selective attention, health anxiety and psychological job demands.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Laura; Fairclough, Stephen H; Poole, Helen M

    2013-06-01

    Kolk et al.'s model of symptom perception underlines the effects of trait negative affect, selective attention and external stressors. The current study tested this model in 263 males and 498 females from an occupational sample. Trait negative affect was associated with symptom reporting in females only, and selective attention and psychological job demands were associated with symptom reporting in both genders. Health anxiety was associated with symptom reporting in males only. Future studies might consider the inclusion of selective attention, which was more strongly associated with symptom reporting than negative affect. Psychological job demands appear to influence symptom reporting in both males and females.

  16. Targeted Manipulation of Serotonergic Neurotransmission Affects the Escalation of Aggression in Adult Male Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Alekseyenko, Olga V.; Lee, Carol; Kravitz, Edward A.

    2010-01-01

    Dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5HT) are reported to serve important roles in aggression in a wide variety of animals. Previous investigations of 5HT function in adult Drosophila behavior have relied on pharmacological manipulations, or on combinations of genetic tools that simultaneously target both DA and 5HT neurons. Here, we generated a transgenic line that allows selective, direct manipulation of serotonergic neurons and asked whether DA and 5HT have separable effects on aggression. Quantitative morphological examination demonstrated that our newly generated tryptophan hydroxylase (TRH)-Gal4 driver line was highly selective for 5HT-containing neurons. This line was used in conjunction with already available Gal4 driver lines that target DA or both DA and 5HT neurons to acutely alter the function of aminergic systems. First, we showed that acute impairment of DA and 5HT neurotransmission using expression of a temperature sensitive form of dynamin completely abolished mid- and high-level aggression. These flies did not escalate fights beyond brief low-intensity interactions and therefore did not yield dominance relationships. We showed next that manipulation of either 5HT or DA neurotransmission failed to duplicate this phenotype. Selective disruption of 5HT neurotransmission yielded flies that fought, but with reduced ability to escalate fights, leading to fewer dominance relationships. Acute activation of 5HT neurons using temperature sensitive dTrpA1 channel expression, in contrast, resulted in flies that escalated fights faster and that fought at higher intensities. Finally, acute disruption of DA neurotransmission produced hyperactive flies that moved faster than controls, and rarely engaged in any social interactions. By separately manipulating 5HT- and DA- neuron systems, we collected evidence demonstrating a direct role for 5HT in the escalation of aggression in Drosophila. PMID:20520823

  17. GHB differentially affects morphine actions on motor activity and social behaviours in male mice.

    PubMed

    Maldonado, C; Rodriíuez-Arias, M; Aguilar, M A; Miñarro, J

    2003-09-01

    There are several reports suggesting that gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) influences the endogenous opioid system. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of GHB on motor and social activities and to examine its influence on morphine's actions on these behaviours. In a first experiment, several doses of GHB were studied but only the highest (200 and 400 mg/kg) produced a decrease in spontaneous motor activity measured in an actimeter cage. When hyperactivity induced by injecting 50 mg/kg of morphine was evaluated, all the GHB doses efficiently counteracted this morphine action. Using the paradigm of isolation-induced aggression, administration of 200 mg/kg of GHB significantly decreased threat and attack without impairing motor activity and, in addition, increased time spent in social contact. GHB increased morphine's suppression of threat or nonsocial exploratory behaviours. In conclusion, the interaction between GHB and the opioid systems was confirmed, with the drug having an additive effect on morphine-affected social behaviours but counteracting morphine-induced increases in motor activity.

  18. Male Aedes aegypti mosquitoes use JH III transferred during copulation to influence previtellogenic ovary physiology and affect the reproductive output of female mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Clifton, Mark E; Correa, Stefano; Rivera-Perez, Crisalejandra; Nouzova, Marcela; Noriega, Fernando G

    2014-05-01

    The effect of male accessory gland substances on female reproductive physiology has been previously described as "activating" egg development. However, no mechanism has been described that can explain how male mosquitoes are able to influence egg development in female mosquitoes. To investigate how male mosquitoes are able to influence ovarian physiology and reproductive output we explored three main questions: (1) Do mating and male accessory gland substances affect ovarian physiology and alter markers of oocyte quality during the previtellogenic resting stage? (2) Does the male accessory gland contain JH III and is JH III transferred to the female during copulation? (3) Finally, does the nutritional history of the male affect the amount of JH III transferred to the female and alter reproductive output? By answering these questions it is clear that male mosquitoes are able to alter the female's resource allocation priorities towards reproduction by transferring JH III during copulation; reducing the rate of previtellogenic resorption and increasing the amount of stored ovarian lipids. These changes improve an individual follicle's likelihood of development after a blood meal. In addition, males maintained under better nutritional conditions make and transfer more JH III, prevent more follicular resorption and realize higher fecundities than other males. Together these results illustrate one mechanism behind the "activating" effect of mating described as well as the role sugar feeding plays in male mosquitoes.

  19. Male Aedes aegypti mosquitoes use JH III transferred during copulation to influence previtellogenic ovary physiology and affect the reproductive output of female mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Clifton, Mark E.; Correa, Stefano; Rivera-Perez, Crisalejandra; Nouzova, Marcela; Noriega, Fernando G.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of male accessory gland substances on female reproductive physiology has been previously described as “activating” egg development. However, no mechanism has been described that can explain how male mosquitoes are able to influence egg development in female mosquitoes. To investigate how male mosquitoes are able to influence ovarian physiology and reproductive output we explored three main questions: 1) Do mating and male accessory gland substances affect ovarian physiology and alter markers of oocyte quality during the previtellogenic resting stage? 2) Does the male accessory gland contain JH III and is JH III transferred to the female during copulation? 3) Finally, does the nutritional history of the male affect the amount of JH III transferred to the female and alter reproductive output? By answering these questions it is clear that male mosquitoes are able to alter the female’s resource allocation priorities towards reproduction by transferring JH III during copulation; reducing the rate of previtellogenic resorption and increasing the amount of stored ovarian lipids. These changes improve an individual follicle’s likelihood of development after a blood meal. In addition, males maintained under better nutritional conditions make and transfer more JH III, prevent more follicular resorption and realize higher fecundities than other males. Together these results illustrate one mechanism behind the “activating” effect of mating described as well as the role sugar feeding plays in male mosquitoes. PMID:24657670

  20. When sex work becomes your everything: The complex linkages between economy and affection among male sex workers in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Bayer, Angela M.; Garvich, Mijail; Díaz, David A.; Sánchez, Hugo; García, Patricia J.; Coates, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    In Peru, there are few studies on male sex workers (MSWs) and existing studies explore limited sub-groups or offer limited information about MSWs’ perspectives. This study provides in-depth perspectives from 40 MSWs who work in downtown Lima (Cercado) and in surrounding urban neighborhoods (non-Cercado) through interviews on their identities, lives and HIV/STI risks and vulnerabilities. Findings are that entry into sex work links economy and affection, particularly among Cercado MSWs. Continued sex work cements this link, making it difficult to exit sex work and establish goals. Ties between economics and affections influence MSWs’ perceived HIV/STI risks, vulnerabilities and prevention practices. Although Cercado MSWs report higher HIV/STI risks and vulnerabilities than non-Cercado peers, they report fewer prevention practices given inability to buy condoms and acceptance of client offers of higher payment, especially clients they feel affection for. MSWs need support to strengthen their self-perceptions and define and pursue their goals in order to improve their HIV/STI prevention practices, health and well-being. PMID:24368712

  1. Maternal protein restriction in pregnancy and/or lactation affects seminiferous tubule organization in male rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-González, G L; Vigueras-Villaseñor, R M; Millán, S; Moran, N; Trejo, R; Nathanielsz, P W; Larrea, F; Zambrano, E

    2012-10-01

    Maternal protein restriction (MPR) during pregnancy impaired the reproduction of male offspring. We investigated, during the first wave of spermatogenesis, whether MPR exerts deleterious effects on germ cell proliferation and differentiation, as well as androgen receptor (AR) protein expression, which was used as a marker for Sertoli cell (SC) maturation. At the beginning of pregnancy (day 0), dams were fed a control diet (C: 20% casein) or a restricted isocaloric diet (R: 10% casein). After birth, four groups were established: CC, RR, CR and RC (first letter diet during pregnancy and second during lactation). Male offspring were studied at postnatal days 14, 21 and 36. At birth, pup body weight was unchanged. Body weight and testis weight were reduced in RR and CR groups at all ages evaluated. MPR delayed the germinal epithelium development at all ages evaluated. On performing Western blot and immunohistochemistry, AR expression was found to be lower in the three restricted groups. The results suggest that MPR during pregnancy and/or lactation delays SC maturation and germ cell differentiation, and affects intratubular organization. These changes might be responsible for the lower fertility rate at older ages.

  2. How various drugs affect anxiety-related behavior in male and female rats prenatally exposed to methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Macúchová, E; Ševčíková, M; Hrebíčková, I; Nohejlová, K; Šlamberová, R

    2016-06-01

    Different forms of anxiety-related behavior have been reported after a single drug use of many abused substances, however, less is known about how males and females are affected differently from exposure to various drugs. Furthermore, chronic prenatal methamphetamine (MA) exposure was shown to predispose the animal to an increased sensitivity to drugs administrated in adulthood. Using the Elevated plus-maze test (EPM), the first aim of the present study was to examine how male and female rats are affected by acute drug treatment with subcutaneously (s.c.) administrated (a) MA (1mg/kg); (b) drugs with a similar mechanism of action to MA: amphetamine (AMP, 1mg/kg), cocaine (COC, 5mg/kg), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, 5mg/kg); and (c) drugs with different mechanisms of action: morphine (MOR, 5mg/kg), and Δ 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC, 2mg/kg). The second aim was to determine if prenatally MA-exposed (5mg/kg) animals show an increased sensitivity to adult drug treatment. The parameters analyzed were divided into two categories: anxiety-related behavior and anxiety-unrelated/exploratory behavior. Our results showed in female rats a decreased percentage of the time spent in the closed arms (CA) after MA, and an increased percentage of the time spent in the open arms (OA) after MA, AMP, and COC treatment, indicating an anxiolytic-like effect. In females, MDMA and THC treatment increased the percentage of the time spent in the CA. An increased percentage of the time spent in the CA was also seen after MOR treatment in females as well as in males, indicating an anxiogenic-like effect. As far as the interaction between prenatal MA exposure and adult drug treatment is concerned, there was no effect found. In conclusion, it seems that: (a) in some cases female rats are more vulnerable to acute drug treatment, in terms of either anxiogenic- or anxiolytic-like effects; (b) prenatal MA exposure does not sensitize animals to the anxiety-related effects of any of the

  3. I saw where you have been--The topography of human demonstration affects dogs' search patterns and perseverative errors.

    PubMed

    Péter, András; Topál, József; Miklósi, Ádám; Pongrácz, Péter

    2016-04-01

    Performance in object search tasks is not only influenced by the subjects' object permanence ability. For example, ostensive cues of the human manipulating the target markedly affect dogs' choices. However, the interference between the target's location and the spatial cues of the human hiding the object is still unknown. In a five-location visible displacement task, the experimental groups differed in the hiding route of the experimenter. In the 'direct' condition he moved straight towards the actual location, hid the object and returned to the dog. In the 'indirect' conditions, he additionally walked behind each screen before returning. The two 'indirect' conditions differed from each other in that the human either visited the previously baited locations before (proactive interference) or after (retroactive interference) hiding the object. In the 'indirect' groups, dogs' performance was significantly lower than in the 'direct' group, demonstrating that for dogs, in an ostensive context, spatial cues of the hider are as important as the observed location of the target. Based on their incorrect choices, dogs were most attracted to the previously baited locations that the human visited after hiding the object in the actual trial. This underlines the importance of retroactive interference in multiple choice tasks.

  4. Maize Milling Method Affects Growth and Zinc Status but Not Provitamin A Carotenoid Bioefficacy in Male Mongolian Gerbils.

    PubMed

    Gannon, Bryan M; Pixley, Kevin V; Tanumihardjo, Sherry A

    2017-03-01

    Background: Vitamin A (VA) and zinc deficiencies are prevalent. Maize is a common staple, and milling affects nutrient and nutrient-modifier profiles.Objective: We investigated the interaction of maize milling methods (i.e., whole grain compared with refined) in male Mongolian gerbils aged 29-35 d with conventionally bred provitamin A-biofortified (orange) or white maize on VA and zinc status.Methods: Study 1 (n = 67) was a 2 × 3 milling (whole compared with refined) by VA [no-vitamin A placebo group (VA-), orange, and VA-supplemented group (VA+)] design, with 4 wk of VA depletion followed by six 4-wk treatments (n = 10/treatment). Study 2 (n = 33) was a 2 × 2 milling-by-zinc [no-zinc placebo group (Zn-) compared with zinc-supplemented group (Zn+)] design, including 2 wk of VA depletion followed by four 3-wk treatments (n = 8-9/treatment). For study 1, positive and negative control groups were given supplemental VA at equimolar amounts to β-carotene equivalents consumed by the orange groups (74 ± 5 nmol/d) or placebo, respectively. For study 2, positive and negative control groups were given 152 μg Zn/d or placebo, respectively.Results: Milling significantly affected zinc concentration, providing 44-45% (whole grain) or 9-14% (refined) NRC requirements. In study 1, orange maize improved liver VA concentrations (mean ± SD: 0.28 ± 0.08 μmol/g) compared with the white maize groups (0.072 ± 0.054 μmol/g). Provitamin A bioefficacy was similar. In study 2, neither zinc nor milling influenced liver retinol. Refined Zn- gerbils weighed less than others by day 14 (46.6 ± 7.1 compared with 56.5 ± 3.5 g, respectively; P < 0.0001). Milling affected pancreas zinc concentrations (refined Zn-: 21.1 ± 1.8 μg Zn/g; whole Zn-: 32.5 ± 5.8 μg Zn/g).Conclusions: Whole-grain intake improved zinc and did not affect provitamin A bioefficacy. Other factors affected by milling (e.g., shelf life, preference, aflatoxin fractioning) need to be considered to maximize health.

  5. Mutations in exons of the CYP17-II gene affect sex steroid concentration in male Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Ruiqin; He, Feng; Wen, Haishen; Li, Jifang; Shi, Bao; Shi, Dan; Liu, Miao; Mu, Weijie; Zhang, Yuanqing; Hu, Jian; Han, Weiguo; Zhang, Jianan; Wang, Qingqing; Yuan, Yuren; Liu, Qun

    2012-03-01

    As a specific gene of fish, cytochrome P450c17-II ( CYP17-II) gene plays a key role in the growth, development an reproduction level of fish. In this study, the single-stranded conformational polymorphism (SSCP) technique was used to characterize polymorphisms within the coding region of CYP17-II gene in a population of 75 male Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus). Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified in CYP17-II gene of Japanese flounder. They were c.G594A (p.G188R), c.G939A and c.G1502A (p.G490D). SNP1 (c.G594A), located in exon 4 of CYP17-II gene, was significantly associated with gonadosomatic index (GSI). Individuals with genotype GG of SNP1 had significantly lower GSI ( P < 0.05) than those with genotype AA or AG. SNP2 (c.G939A) located at the CpG island of CYP17-II gene. The mutation changed the methylation of exon 6. Individuals with genotype AA of SNP2 had significantly lower serum testosterone (T) level and hepatosomatic index (HSI) compared to those with genotype GG. The results suggested that SNP2 could influence the reproductive endocrine of male Japanese flounder. However, the SNP3 (c.G1502A) located in exon 9 did not affect the four measured reproductive traits. This study showed that CYP17-II gene could be a potentially useful candidate gene for the research of genetic breeding and physiological aspects of Japanese flounder.

  6. Exposure of Paracentrotus lividus male gametes to engineered nanoparticles affects skeletal bio-mineralization processes and larval plasticity.

    PubMed

    Gambardella, Chiara; Ferrando, Sara; Morgana, Silvia; Gallus, Lorenzo; Ramoino, Paola; Ravera, Silvia; Bramini, Mattia; Diaspro, Alberto; Faimali, Marco; Falugi, Carla

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to contribute to the understanding of the mechanisms underlying nanoparticle (NP)-induced embryotoxicity in aquatic organisms. We previously demonstrated that exposure of male gametes to NPs causes non-dose-dependent skeletal damage in sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus) larvae. In the present study, the molecular mechanisms responsible for these anomalies in sea urchin development from male gametes exposed to cobalt (Co), titanium dioxide (TiO2) and silver (Ag) NPs were investigated by histochemical, immunohistochemical and Western blot analyses. P. lividus sperm were exposed to different NP concentrations (from 0.0001 to 1 mg/L). The distribution of molecules related to skeletogenic cell identification, including ID5 immunoreactivity (IR), wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) affinity and fibronectin (FN) IR, were investigated by confocal laser scanning microscopy at the gastrula (24 h) and pluteus (72 h) stages. Our results identified a spatial correspondence among PMCs, ID5 IR and WGA affinity sites. The altered FN pattern suggests that it is responsible for the altered skeletogenic cell migration, while the Golgi apparatus of the skeletogenic cells, denoted by their WGA affinity, shows different aspects according to the degree of anomalies caused by NP concentrations. The ID5 IR, a specific marker of skeletogenic cells in sea urchin embryos (in particular of the msp130 protein responsible for Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) mineralization), localized in the cellular strands prefiguring the skeletal rods in the gastrula stage and, in the pluteus stage, was visible according to the degree of mineralization of the skeleton. In conclusion, the present study suggests that the investigated NPs suspended in seawater interfere with the bio-mineralization processes in marine organisms, and the results of this study offer a new series of specific endpoints for the mechanistic understanding of NP toxicity.

  7. The timing of "catch-up growth" affects metabolism and appetite regulation in male rats born with intrauterine growth restriction.

    PubMed

    Coupé, Bérengère; Grit, Isabelle; Darmaun, Dominique; Parnet, Patricia

    2009-09-01

    Epidemiological studies demonstrated a relationship between low birth weight mainly caused by intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and adult metabolic disorders. The concept of metabolic programming centers on the idea that nutritional and hormonal status during the key period of development determines the long-term control of energy balance by programming future feeding behavior and energy expenditure. The present study examined the consequence of early or late "catch-up growth" after IUGR on feeding behavior and metabolic cues of male offspring of rat dams exposed to protein restriction during gestation and/or lactation. Our results suggest that early catch-up growth may be favorable for fasting metabolic parameters at weaning, as no differences were observed on plasma leptin, triglyceride, glucose, and insulin levels compared with controls. In contrast, if pups remained malnourished until weaning, low insulin concentration was detected and was accompanied by hyperphagia associated with a large increase in hypothalamic NPY and AgRP mRNA expression. At adult age, on a regular chow diet, only the meal structure was modified by fetal programming. The two IUGR groups demonstrated a reduced meal duration that enhanced the speed of food ingestion and consequently increased the rest period associated to the satiety state without changes in the hypothalamic expression of appetite neuropeptides. Our findings demonstrate that in IUGR, regardless of postnatal growth magnitude, metabolic programming occurred in utero and was responsible for both feeding behavior alteration and postprandial higher insulin level in adults. Additionally, catch-up growth immediately after early malnutrition could be a key point for the programming of postprandial hyperleptinemia.

  8. Short-term treatment of adult male zebrafish (Danio Rerio) with 17α-ethinyl estradiol affects the transcription of genes involved in development and male sex differentiation.

    PubMed

    Reyhanian Caspillo, Nasim; Volkova, Kristina; Hallgren, Stefan; Olsson, Per-Erik; Porsch-Hällström, Inger

    2014-08-01

    The synthetic estrogen 17α-ethinyl estradiol (EE2) disturbs reproduction and causes gonadal malformation in fish. Effects on the transcription of genes involved in gonad development and function that could serve as sensitive biomarkers of reproductive effects in the field is, however, not well known. We have studied mRNA expression in testes and liver of adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) males treated with 0, 5 or 25 ng/L EE2for 14 days. qPCR analysis showed that the mRNA expression of four genes linked to zebrafish male sex determination and differentiation, Anti-Mullerian Hormone, Double sex and mab-related protein, Sry-related HMG box-9a and Nuclear receptor subfamily 5 group number 1b were significantly decreased by 25 ng/L, but not 5 ng/L EE2 compared with the levels in untreated fish. The decreased transcription was correlated with a previously shown spawning failure in these males (Reyhanian et al., 2011. Aquat Toxicol 105, 41-48), suggesting that decreased mRNA expression of genes regulating male sexual function could be involved in the functional sterility. The mRNA level of Cytochrome P-45019a, involved in female reproductive development, was unaffected by hormone treatment. The transcription of the female-specific Vitellogenin was significantly induced in testes. While testicular Androgen Receptor and the Estrogen Receptor-alpha mRNA levels were unchanged, Estrogen receptor-beta was significantly decreased by 25 ng/L EE2. Hepatic Estrogen Receptor-alpha mRNA was significantly increased by both exposure concentrations, while Estrogen Receptor-beta transcription was unaltered. The decreased transcription of male-predominant genes supports a demasculinization of testes by EE2 and might reflect reproductive disturbances in the environment.

  9. Pre- and/or postnatal protein restriction developmentally programs affect and risk assessment behaviors in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Castro, L A; Rodriguez, J S; Rodríguez-González, G L; Chavira, R; Bautista, C J; McDonald, T J; Nathanielsz, P W; Zambrano, E

    2012-02-14

    Developmental programming resulting from a suboptimal intrauterine environment can predispose offspring to a wide-range of lifelong health complications. Little is known about the effects maternal protein restriction during pregnancy and/or lactation has on offspring neurodevelopment. We hypothesized that maternal isocaloric low protein diet during pregnancy and/or lactation would negatively influence male offspring affect and risk assessment behaviors as measured by elevated plus maze and open field tests. Control mothers received 20% casein (C) and restricted mothers (R) 10% casein to provide four groups: CC, RR, CR, and RC (first letter pregnancy diet and second letter lactation diet) to evaluate effects of maternal diet on offspring risk assessment, anxiety and exploratory behaviors. Elevated plus maze results showed an effect of pre- and/or postnatal diet manipulation in open arm time (p<0.05) with increases seen in the RR (157±22.7s), CR (137±23.2s) and RC (146.8±10.8s) offspring relative to CC (52±8.6s) offspring. This behavior indicates decreased avoidance (less anxiety) and increased exploration by experimental groups. However, in the open field test the RR (17±4.2 entries) offspring entered the center zone less than the CC (35±6.6 entries) offspring thus exhibiting increased anxiety with no other groups showing effects. Elevated levels of corticosterone were measured before, during and after immobilization in the RR compared to CC offspring. These findings show protein restriction during critical periods of development negatively program offspring behavior. The underlying anatomical structures affected remain to be elucidated.

  10. Can providing feedback on driving behavior and training on parental vigilant care affect male teen drivers and their parents?

    PubMed

    Farah, Haneen; Musicant, Oren; Shimshoni, Yaara; Toledo, Tomer; Grimberg, Einat; Omer, Haim; Lotan, Tsippy

    2014-08-01

    This study focuses on investigating the driving behavior of young novice male drivers during the first year of driving (three months of accompanied driving and the following nine months of solo driving). The study's objective is to examine the potential of various feedback forms on driving to affect young drivers' behavior and to mitigate the transition from accompanied to solo driving. The study examines also the utility of providing parents with guidance on how to exercise vigilant care regarding their teens' driving. Driving behavior was evaluated using data collected by In-Vehicle Data Recorders (IVDR), which document events of extreme g-forces measured in the vehicles. IVDR systems were installed in 242 cars of the families of young male drivers, however, only 217 families of young drivers aged 17-22 (M=17.5; SD=0.8) completed the one year period. The families were randomly allocated into 4 groups: (1) Family feedback: In which all the members of the family were exposed to feedback on their own driving and on that of the other family members; (2) Parental training: in which in addition to the family feedback, parents received personal guidance on ways to enhance vigilant care regarding their sons' driving; (3) Individual feedback: In which family members received feedback only on their own driving behavior (and were not exposed to the data on other family members); (4) CONTROL: Group that received no feedback at all. The feedback was provided to the different groups starting from the solo period, thus, the feedback was not provided during the supervised period. The data collected by the IVDRs was first analyzed using analysis of variance in order to compare the groups with respect to their monthly event rates. Events' rates are defined as the number of events in a trip divided by its duration. This was followed by the development and estimation of random effect negative binomial models that explain the monthly event rates of young drivers and their parents

  11. Female access and diet affect insemination success, senescence, and the cost of reproduction in male Mexican fruit flies Anastrepha ludens.

    PubMed

    Harwood, James F; Chen, Kehui; Liedo, Pablo; Müller, Hans-Georg; Wang, Jane-Ling; Morice, Amy E; Carey, James R

    2015-03-01

    Hypotheses exploring the influence of dietary conditions on the life history trade-off between survival and reproductive success are extensively tested in female insects, but are rarely explored in males. Here, the impact of dietary quality and female access on age-specific reproduction and survival of male Mexican fruit flies, Anastrepha ludens Loew (Diptera: Tephritidae), are examined. There is a clear cost of female access for males with access to dietary protein, measurable as a decrease in life expectancy, which is further influenced by the age when females are introduced. A protein deficient diet reduces the lifespan benefit of virginity and masks the detrimental effect of female access on male life expectancy. Dietary protein is not necessary for reproductive success, but access to protein at eclosion improves the lifetime reproductive success of males compared to when it is delayed. Overall, reproductive success diminishes as the male flies age, regardless of the dietary conditions, providing evidence for reproductive senescence in males. Delaying the males' access to a protein source fails to influence the negative effect of age on reproductive ability. Because age specific reproductive rates decline with age, regardless of diet, male fitness does not benefit from lifespan extension. Therefore, males can be expected to allocate available resources towards reproductive effort in favour of extended lifespan, regardless of mate and protein availability.

  12. Variable Autosomal and X Divergence Near and Far from Genes Affects Estimates of Male Mutation Bias in Great Apes.

    PubMed

    Narang, Pooja; Wilson Sayres, Melissa A

    2016-12-31

    Male mutation bias, when more mutations are passed on via the male germline than via the female germline, is observed across mammals. One common way to infer the magnitude of male mutation bias, α, is to compare levels of neutral sequence divergence between genomic regions that spend different amounts of time in the male and female germline. For great apes, including human, we show that estimates of divergence are reduced in putatively unconstrained regions near genes relative to unconstrained regions far from genes. Divergence increases with increasing distance from genes on both the X chromosome and autosomes, but increases faster on the X chromosome than autosomes. As a result, ratios of X/A divergence increase with increasing distance from genes and corresponding estimates of male mutation bias are significantly higher in intergenic regions near genes versus far from genes. Future studies in other species will need to carefully consider the effect that genomic location will have on estimates of male mutation bias.

  13. Female access and diet affect insemination success, senescence, and the cost of reproduction in male Mexican fruit flies Anastrepha ludens

    PubMed Central

    HARWOOD, JAMES F.; CHEN, KEHUI; LIEDO, PABLO; MÜLLER, HANS-GEORG; WANG, JANE-LING; MORICE, AMY E.; CAREY, JAMES R.

    2014-01-01

    Hypotheses exploring the influence of dietary conditions on the life history trade-off between survival and reproductive success are extensively tested in female insects, but are rarely explored in males. Here, the impact of dietary quality and female access on age-specific reproduction and survival of male Mexican fruit flies, Anastrepha ludens Loew (Diptera: Tephritidae), are examined. There is a clear cost of female access for males with access to dietary protein, measurable as a decrease in life expectancy, which is further influenced by the age when females are introduced. A protein deficient diet reduces the lifespan benefit of virginity and masks the detrimental effect of female access on male life expectancy. Dietary protein is not necessary for reproductive success, but access to protein at eclosion improves the lifetime reproductive success of males compared to when it is delayed. Overall, reproductive success diminishes as the male flies age, regardless of the dietary conditions, providing evidence for reproductive senescence in males. Delaying the males’ access to a protein source fails to influence the negative effect of age on reproductive ability. Because age specific reproductive rates decline with age, regardless of diet, male fitness does not benefit from lifespan extension. Therefore, males can be expected to allocate available resources towards reproductive effort in favour of extended lifespan, regardless of mate and protein availability. PMID:25709143

  14. Branched-chain amino acid supplementation lowers perceived exertion but does not affect performance in untrained males.

    PubMed

    Greer, Beau Kjerulf; White, Jim P; Arguello, Eric M; Haymes, Emily M

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) supplementation affects aerobic performance, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), or substrate utilization as compared with an isocaloric, carbohydrate (CHO) beverage or a noncaloric placebo (PLAC) beverage. Nine untrained males performed three 90-minute cycling bouts at 55% VO₂ peak followed by 15-minute time trials. Subjects, who were blinded to beverage selection, ingested a total of 200 kcal via the CHO or BCAA beverage before and at 60 minutes of exercise or the PLAC beverage on the same time course. RPE and metabolic measurements were taken every 15 minutes during steady-state exercise, and each of the trials was separated by 8 weeks. Plasma glucose and BCAA concentrations were measured pre- and post-exercise. A greater distance (4.6 ± 0.6 km) was traveled in the time-trial during the CHO trial than the PLAC trial (3.9 ± 0.4 km) (p < 0.05). There was no difference between the BCAA (4.4 ± 0.5 km) and PLAC trials. RPE was reduced at the 75-minute and 90-minute mark during the BCAA trial as compared with the PLAC trial. There were no significant differences found for the trial vs. time interaction in regard to respiratory exchange ratio. Thus, CHO supplementation improves performance in a loaded time-trial as compared with a PLAC beverage. BCAA supplementation, although effective at increasing blood concentrations of BCAA, did not influence aerobic performance but did attenuate RPE as compared with a PLAC beverage.

  15. Temporal changes in nutritional state affect hypothalamic POMC peptide levels independently of leptin in adult male mice.

    PubMed

    Mercer, Aaron J; Stuart, Ronald C; Attard, Courtney A; Otero-Corchon, Veronica; Nillni, Eduardo A; Low, Malcolm J

    2014-04-15

    Hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons constitute a critical anorexigenic node in the central nervous system (CNS) for maintaining energy balance. These neurons directly affect energy expenditure and feeding behavior by releasing bioactive neuropeptides but are also subject to signals directly related to nutritional state such as the adipokine leptin. To further investigate the interaction of diet and leptin on hypothalamic POMC peptide levels, we exposed 8- to 10-wk-old male POMC-Discosoma red fluorescent protein (DsRed) transgenic reporter mice to either 24-48 h (acute) or 2 wk (chronic) food restriction, high-fat diet (HFD), or leptin treatment. Using semiquantitative immunofluorescence and radioimmunoassays, we discovered that acute fasting and chronic food restriction decreased the levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH), and β-endorphin in the hypothalamus, together with decreased DsRed fluorescence, compared with control ad libitum-fed mice. Furthermore, acute but not chronic HFD or leptin administration selectively increased α-MSH levels in POMC fibers and increased DsRed fluorescence in POMC cell bodies. HFD and leptin treatments comparably increased circulating leptin levels at both time points, suggesting that transcription of Pomc and synthesis of POMC peptide products are not modified in direct relation to the concentration of plasma leptin. Our findings indicate that negative energy balance persistently downregulated POMC peptide levels, and this phenomenon may be partially explained by decreased leptin levels, since these changes were blocked in fasted mice treated with leptin. In contrast, sustained elevation of plasma leptin by HFD or hormone supplementation did not significantly alter POMC peptide levels, indicating that enhanced leptin signaling does not chronically increase Pomc transcription and peptide synthesis.

  16. Temporal changes in nutritional state affect hypothalamic POMC peptide levels independently of leptin in adult male mice

    PubMed Central

    Mercer, Aaron J.; Stuart, Ronald C.; Attard, Courtney A.; Otero-Corchon, Veronica; Nillni, Eduardo A.

    2014-01-01

    Hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons constitute a critical anorexigenic node in the central nervous system (CNS) for maintaining energy balance. These neurons directly affect energy expenditure and feeding behavior by releasing bioactive neuropeptides but are also subject to signals directly related to nutritional state such as the adipokine leptin. To further investigate the interaction of diet and leptin on hypothalamic POMC peptide levels, we exposed 8- to 10-wk-old male POMC-Discosoma red fluorescent protein (DsRed) transgenic reporter mice to either 24–48 h (acute) or 2 wk (chronic) food restriction, high-fat diet (HFD), or leptin treatment. Using semiquantitative immunofluorescence and radioimmunoassays, we discovered that acute fasting and chronic food restriction decreased the levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH), and β-endorphin in the hypothalamus, together with decreased DsRed fluorescence, compared with control ad libitum-fed mice. Furthermore, acute but not chronic HFD or leptin administration selectively increased α-MSH levels in POMC fibers and increased DsRed fluorescence in POMC cell bodies. HFD and leptin treatments comparably increased circulating leptin levels at both time points, suggesting that transcription of Pomc and synthesis of POMC peptide products are not modified in direct relation to the concentration of plasma leptin. Our findings indicate that negative energy balance persistently downregulated POMC peptide levels, and this phenomenon may be partially explained by decreased leptin levels, since these changes were blocked in fasted mice treated with leptin. In contrast, sustained elevation of plasma leptin by HFD or hormone supplementation did not significantly alter POMC peptide levels, indicating that enhanced leptin signaling does not chronically increase Pomc transcription and peptide synthesis. PMID:24518677

  17. 40 CFR 63.6004 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limits for tire production affected...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....5985(a): (1) If, after you submit the Notification of Compliance Status, you use a cement or solvent... must verify that each cement and solvent used in the affected source meets the emission limit, using any of the methods in § 63.5994(a). (2) You must update the list of all the cements and solvents...

  18. 40 CFR 63.6004 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limits for tire production affected...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... you submit the Notification of Compliance Status, you use a cement or solvent for which you have not previously verified percent HAP mass using the methods in § 63.5994(a), you must verify that each cement and...) You must update the list of all the cements and solvents used at the affected source. (3) With...

  19. 40 CFR 63.6004 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limits for tire production affected...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Continuous Compliance Requirements for Tire Production....5985(a): (1) If, after you submit the Notification of Compliance Status, you use a cement or solvent... must verify that each cement and solvent used in the affected source meets the emission limit,...

  20. 40 CFR 63.6004 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limits for tire production affected...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Continuous Compliance Requirements for Tire Production Affected Sources... you submit the Notification of Compliance Status, you use a cement or solvent for which you have not previously verified percent HAP mass using the methods in § 63.5994(a), you must verify that each cement...

  1. 40 CFR 63.6004 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limits for tire production affected...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Continuous Compliance Requirements for Tire Production....5985(a): (1) If, after you submit the Notification of Compliance Status, you use a cement or solvent... must verify that each cement and solvent used in the affected source meets the emission limit,...

  2. Adolescent nicotine exposure produces less affective measures of withdrawal relative to adult nicotine exposure in male rats

    PubMed Central

    O’Dell, Laura E.; Torres, Oscar V.; Natividad, Luis A.; Tejeda, Hugo A.

    2012-01-01

    Vulnerability to nicotine addiction is significantly increased in individuals who begin smoking during adolescence; however, the underlying mechanisms of this phenomenon remain unclear. This study examined the motivational effects of nicotine withdrawal in adolescent (PND 27–42) and adult (PND 60–75) rats using the conditioned place aversion paradigm. Male Wistar rats were tested for their initial preference for either of two distinct compartments of our conditioning apparatus. Rats were then implanted with subcutaneous (sc) pumps that produce equivalent blood plasma levels of nicotine for 14 days. Conditioning was conducted over the last 8 days of nicotine exposure. Rats received the nicotinic antagonist mecamylamine (1.5 or 3.0 mg/kg, sc) to precipitate withdrawal in their initially preferred compartment, and on alternate days they received saline in their non-preferred compartment. Following conditioning, rats were re-tested for their preference for each compartment. A subsequent study was conducted to examine potential developmental differences in learning place aversion produced by another aversive stimulus, lithium chloride (LiCl). Rats received LiCl (0, 10, 30, or 100 mg/kg, sc) in their initially preferred side using similar conditioning procedures. Adults displayed robust place aversion produced by nicotine withdrawal. This effect was lower in adolescent rats even in a group of young rats that received 7 additional days of nicotine exposure prior to conditioning. This developmental difference was specific to nicotine withdrawal since there were no differences between adolescents and adults in learning place aversion with LiCl. Our findings demonstrating reduced effects of nicotine withdrawal constitute a powerful basis for the increased vulnerability to nicotine dependence during adolescence. PMID:17184972

  3. THE ESTROGENIC AND ANTIANDROGENIC PESTICIDE METHOXYCHLOR ALTERS THE REPRODUCTIVE TRACT AND BEHAVIOR WITHOUT AFFECTING PITUITARY SIZE OR LH AND PROLACTIN SECRETION IN MALE RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The estrogenic and antiandrogenic pesticide methoxychlor alters the reproductive tract and behavior without affecting pituitary size or LH and prolactin secretion in male rats.

    Gray LE Jr, Ostby J, Cooper RL, Kelce WR.

    Endocrinology Branch, United States Environment...

  4. Mass rearing history negatively affects mating success of male Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) reared for sterile insect technique programs.

    PubMed

    Rull, Juan; Brunel, Odette; Mendez, Maria Elena

    2005-10-01

    Mating competitiveness and sterility induction into cohorts of wild Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae) was compared among wild and laboratory flies reared for use in the sterile insect technique Mexican program. Laboratory flies stemming from an 11-yr-old bisexual strain were either not irradiated, irradiated at 3 krad (low dose), or irradiated at 8 krad. In 30 by 30 by 30-cm Plexiglas cages, where a cohort of laboratory flies (male and female) irradiated at different doses (0, 3, and 8 krad) was introduced with a cohort of wild flies, males and females of each type mated randomly among themselves. Compared with nonirradiated laboratory and wild males, irradiated males, irrespective of dose (3 or 8 krad), induced shorter refractory periods and greater mating frequency in wild females. Nevertheless, laboratory flies irradiated at a low dose induced greater sterility into cohorts of wild flies than laboratory flies irradiated at a high dose. In a 3 by 3 by 3-m walk-in cage, wild males gained significantly more matings with wild females than nonirradiated and irradiated laboratory males a finding that revealed a strong effect of strain on mating performance. Mating incompatibility of the laboratory strain might have obscured the effect of reduced irradiation doses on male mating performance in the walk-in cage. Our results highlight an urgent need to replace the A. ludens strain currently used by the Mexican fruit fly eradication campaign and at least suggest that reducing irradiation doses result in an increase in sterility induction in wild populations.

  5. The Effectiveness of Online Instructional Videos in the Acquisition and Demonstration of Cognitive, Affective and Psychomotor Rehabilitation Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Darren; Higgins, Steve

    2015-01-01

    The use of instructional videos to teach clinical skills is an ever growing area of e-learning based upon observational learning that is cited as one of the most basic yet powerful learning strategies. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the effectiveness of online instructional videos for the acquisition and demonstration of cognitive,…

  6. Variable Autosomal and X Divergence Near and Far from Genes Affects Estimates of Male Mutation Bias in Great Apes

    PubMed Central

    Narang, Pooja; Wilson Sayres, Melissa A.

    2016-01-01

    Male mutation bias, when more mutations are passed on via the male germline than via the female germline, is observed across mammals. One common way to infer the magnitude of male mutation bias, α, is to compare levels of neutral sequence divergence between genomic regions that spend different amounts of time in the male and female germline. For great apes, including human, we show that estimates of divergence are reduced in putatively unconstrained regions near genes relative to unconstrained regions far from genes. Divergence increases with increasing distance from genes on both the X chromosome and autosomes, but increases faster on the X chromosome than autosomes. As a result, ratios of X/A divergence increase with increasing distance from genes and corresponding estimates of male mutation bias are significantly higher in intergenic regions near genes versus far from genes. Future studies in other species will need to carefully consider the effect that genomic location will have on estimates of male mutation bias. PMID:27702816

  7. Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) induces cognitive deficits and affects GABAB receptors and IGF-1 receptors in male rats.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Jenny; Grönbladh, Alfhild; Hallberg, Mathias

    2014-08-01

    In recent years, the abuse of the club drug gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) has become increasingly popular among adolescents. The drug induces euphoria but can also result in sedation, anaesthesia as well as short-term amnesia. In addition, the abuse of GHB causes cognitive impairments and the mechanism by which GHB induces these impairments is not clarified. The present study investigates the impact of GHB treatment on spatial learning and memory using a water maze (WM) test in rats. Furthermore, the behavioural data is combined with an autoradiographic analysis of the GABAB and the IGF-1 receptor systems. The results demonstrate that the animals administered with GHB display an impaired performance in the WM test as compared to controls. In addition, significant alterations in GABAB and IGF-1 receptor density as well as GABAB receptor functionality, were observed in several brain regions associated with cognitive functions e.g. hippocampus. To conclude, our findings suggest that GHB treatment can affect spatial learning and memory, and that this outcome at least to some extent is likely to involve both GABAB and IGF-1 receptors.

  8. Maternal postpartum corticosterone and fluoxetine differentially affect adult male and female offspring on anxiety-like behavior, stress reactivity, and hippocampal neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Gobinath, Aarthi R; Workman, Joanna L; Chow, Carmen; Lieblich, Stephanie E; Galea, Liisa A M

    2016-02-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) affects approximately 15% of mothers, disrupts maternal care, and can represent a form of early life adversity for the developing offspring. Intriguingly, male and female offspring are differentially vulnerable to the effects of PPD. Antidepressants, such as fluoxetine, are commonly prescribed for treating PPD. However, fluoxetine can reach offspring via breast milk, raising serious concerns regarding the long-term consequences of infant exposure to fluoxetine. The goal of this study was to examine the long-term effects of maternal postpartum corticosterone (CORT, a model of postpartum stress/depression) and concurrent maternal postpartum fluoxetine on behavioral, endocrine, and neural measures in adult male and female offspring. Female Sprague-Dawley dams were treated daily with either CORT or oil and fluoxetine or saline from postnatal days 2-23, and offspring were weaned and left undisturbed until adulthood. Here we show that maternal postpartum fluoxetine increased anxiety-like behavior and impaired hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis negative feedback in adult male, but not female, offspring. Furthermore, maternal postpartum fluoxetine increased the density of immature neurons (doublecortin-expressing) in the hippocampus of adult male offspring but decreased the density of immature neurons in adult female offspring. Maternal postpartum CORT blunted HPA axis negative feedback in males and tended to increase density of immature neurons in males but decreased it in females. These results indicate that maternal postpartum CORT and fluoxetine can have long-lasting effects on anxiety-like behavior, HPA axis negative feedback, and adult hippocampal neurogenesis and that adult male and female offspring are differentially affected by these maternal manipulations.

  9. Nutrition and dopamine: An intake of tyrosine in royal jelly can affect the brain levels of dopamine in male honeybees (Apis mellifera L.).

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Ken

    2016-04-01

    Precursors of neuroactive substances can be obtained from dietary sources, which can affect the resulting production of such substances in the brain. In social species, an intake of the precursor in food could be controlled by social interactions. To test the effects of dietary tyrosine on the brain dopamine levels in social insect colonies, male and worker honeybees were fed tyrosine or royal jelly under experimental conditions and the brain levels of dopamine and its metabolite were then measured. The results showed that the levels of dopamine and its metabolite in the brains of 4- and 8-day-old workers and 8-day-old males were significantly higher in tyrosine-fed bees than in control bees, but the levels in 4-day-old males were not. The brain levels of dopamine and its metabolite in 4- and 8-day-old males and workers were significantly higher in royal jelly-fed bees than in control bees, except for one group of 4-day-old workers. Food exchanges with workers were observed in males during 1-3 days, but self-feedings were also during 5-7 days. These results suggest that the brain levels of dopamine in males can be controlled by an intake of tyrosine in food via exchanging food with nestmates and by self-feeding.

  10. How do esters and dimethyl sulphide concentrations affect fruity aroma perception of red wine? Demonstration by dynamic sensory profile evaluation.

    PubMed

    Lytra, Georgia; Tempere, Sophie; Marchand, Stéphanie; de Revel, Gilles; Barbe, Jean-Christophe

    2016-03-01

    Our study focused on variations in wine aroma perception and molecular composition during tasting over a period of 30min. In parallel, dynamic analytical and sensory methods were applied to study changes in the wines' molecular and aromatic evolution. Dynamic sensory profile evaluations clearly confirmed the evolution of the wine's fruity notes during sensory analysis, highlighting significant differences for red-berry and fresh fruit as well as black berry and jammy fruit, after 5 and 15min, respectively. Dynamic analytical methods revealed a decrease in ester and dimethyl sulphide (DMS) concentrations in the first few minutes. Sensory profiles of aromatic reconstitutions demonstrated that the aromatic modulation of fruity notes observed during wine tasting was explained by changes in ester and DMS concentrations. These results revealed that variations in concentrations of DMS and esters during wine tasting had a qualitative impact, by modulating fruity aromas in red wine.

  11. Molecular modeling studies demonstrate key mutations that could affect the ligand recognition by influenza AH1N1 neuraminidase.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Salinas, Gema L; García-Machorro, J; Quiliano, Miguel; Zimic, Mirko; Briz, Verónica; Rojas-Hernández, Saul; Correa-Basurto, J

    2015-11-01

    The goal of this study was to identify neuraminidase (NA) residue mutants from human influenza AH1N1 using sequences from 1918 to 2012. Multiple alignment studies of complete NA sequences (5732) were performed. Subsequently, the crystallographic structure of the 1918 influenza (PDB ID: 3BEQ-A) was used as a wild-type structure and three-dimensional (3-D) template for homology modeling of the mutated selected NA sequences. The 3-D mutated NAs were refined using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations (50 ns). The refined 3-D models were used to perform docking studies using oseltamivir. Multiple sequence alignment studies showed seven representative mutations (A232V, K262R, V263I, T264V, S367L, S369N, and S369K). MD simulations applied to 3-D NAs showed that each NA had different active-site shapes according to structural surface visualization and docking results. Moreover, Cartesian principal component analyses (cPCA) show structural differences among these NA structures caused by mutations. These theoretical results suggest that the selected mutations that are located outside of the active site of NA could affect oseltamivir recognition and could be associated with resistance to oseltamivir.

  12. Factors Regarding a Sense of Belonging on a University Campus: Affects on the Success of African American Male Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Addo-Yobo, Festus

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines the relationship of African American male undergraduate students from the context of one academic institution in the southwest border region of the United States. It explores the aspect of a sense of belonging on this particular university campus. The multiple mixed simultaneous study was conducted through the…

  13. Exposure to high fluoride concentration in drinking water will affect spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis in male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Pushpalatha, T; Srinivas, M; Sreenivasula Reddy, P

    2005-06-01

    Sodium fluoride (NaF) administered orally to adult male rats at a dose level of 4.5 ppm and 9.0 ppm for 75 days caused significant decrease in the body weight, brain index and testicular index. A significant decrease in sperm count, sperm motility, sperm viability and sperm function (HOS positive) with increased sperm abnormalities was also observed in NaF-exposed male rats. The activity levels of testicular steroidogenic marker enzymes 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3beta-HSD) and 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17beta-HSD) were significantly decreased in NaF-treated rats indicating decreased steroidogenesis and in turn spermatogenesis in rats exposed to NaF.

  14. Song environment affects singing effort and vasotocin immunoreactivity in the forebrain of male Lincoln’s sparrows

    PubMed Central

    Sewall, Kendra B.; Dankoski, Elyse C.; Sockman, Keith W.

    2010-01-01

    Male songbirds often establish territories and attract mates by singing, and some song features can reflect the singer’s condition or quality. The quality of the song environment can change, so male songbirds should benefit from assessing the competitiveness of the song environment and appropriately adjusting their own singing behavior and the neural substrates by which song is controlled. In a wide range of taxa social modulation of behavior is partly mediated by the arginine vasopressin or vasotocin (AVP/AVT) systems. To examine the modulation of singing behavior in response to the quality of the song environment we compared the song output of laboratory-housed male Lincoln’s sparrows (Melospiza lincolnii) exposed to one week of chronic playback of songs categorized as either high or low quality, based on song length, complexity and trill performance. To explore the neural basis of any facultative shifts in behavior, we also quantified the subjects’ AVT immunoreactivity (AVT-IR) in three forebrain regions that regulate socio-sexual behavior: the medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTm), the lateral septum (LS) and the preoptic area. We found that high quality songs increased singing effort and reduced AVT-IR in the BSTm and LS, relative to low quality songs. The effect of the quality of the song environment on both singing effort and forebrain AVT-IR raises the hypothesis that AVT within these brain regions plays a role in the modulation of behavior in response to competition that individual males may assess from the prevailing song environment. PMID:20399213

  15. Song Competition Affects Monoamine Levels in Sensory and Motor Forebrain Regions of Male Lincoln's Sparrows (Melospiza lincolnii)

    PubMed Central

    Sewall, Kendra B.; Caro, Samuel P.; Sockman, Keith W.

    2013-01-01

    Male animals often change their behavior in response to the level of competition for mates. Male Lincoln's sparrows (Melospiza lincolnii) modulate their competitive singing over the period of a week as a function of the level of challenge associated with competitors' songs. Differences in song challenge and associated shifts in competitive state should be accompanied by neural changes, potentially in regions that regulate perception and song production. The monoamines mediate neural plasticity in response to environmental cues to achieve shifts in behavioral state. Therefore, using high pressure liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection, we compared levels of monoamines and their metabolites from male Lincoln's sparrows exposed to songs categorized as more or less challenging. We compared levels of norepinephrine and its principal metabolite in two perceptual regions of the auditory telencephalon, the caudomedial nidopallium and the caudomedial mesopallium (CMM), because this chemical is implicated in modulating auditory sensitivity to song. We also measured the levels of dopamine and its principal metabolite in two song control nuclei, area X and the robust nucleus of the arcopallium (RA), because dopamine is implicated in regulating song output. We measured the levels of serotonin and its principal metabolite in all four brain regions because this monoamine is implicated in perception and behavioral output and is found throughout the avian forebrain. After controlling for recent singing, we found that males exposed to more challenging song had higher levels of norepinephrine metabolite in the CMM and lower levels of serotonin in the RA. Collectively, these findings are consistent with norepinephrine in perceptual brain regions and serotonin in song control regions contributing to neuroplasticity that underlies socially-induced changes in behavioral state. PMID:23555809

  16. Egg-Laying “Intermorphs” in the Ant Crematogaster smithi neither Affect Sexual Production nor Male Parentage

    PubMed Central

    Oettler, Jan; Dijkstra, Michiel B.; Heinze, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    We study male parentage and between-colony variation in sex allocation and sexual production in the desert ant Crematogaster smithi, which usually has only one singly-mated queen per nest. Colonies of this species are known to temporarily store nutrients in the large fat body of intermorphs, a specialized female caste intermediate in morphology between queens and workers. Intermorphs repackage at least part of this fat into consumable but viable male-destined eggs. If these eggs sometimes develop instead of being eaten, intermorphs will be reproductive competitors of the queen but—due to relatedness asymmetries—allies of their sister worker. Using genetic markers we found a considerable proportion of non-queen sons in some, but not all, colonies. Even though intermorphs produce ∼1.7× more eggs than workers, their share in the parentage of adult males is estimated to be negligible due to their small number compared to workers. Furthermore, neither colony-level sex allocation nor overall sexual production was correlated with intermorph occurrence or number. We conclude that intermorph-laid eggs typically do not survive and that the storage of nutrients and their redistribution as eggs by intermorphs is effectively altruistic. PMID:24130699

  17. Raphe serotonin neuron-specific oxytocin receptor knockout reduces aggression without affecting anxiety-like behavior in male mice only

    PubMed Central

    Pagani, Jerome H.; Williams Avram, Sarah K.; Cui, Zhenzhong; Song, June; Mezey, Éva; Senerth, Julia M.; Baumann, Michael H.; Young, W. Scott

    2015-01-01

    Serotonin and oxytocin influence aggressive and anxiety-like behaviors, though it is unclear how the two may interact. That the oxytocin receptor is expressed in the serotonergic raphe nuclei suggests a mechanism by which the two neurotransmitters may cooperatively influence behavior. We hypothesized that oxytocin acts on raphe neurons to influence serotonergically-mediated anxiety-like, aggressive and parental care behaviors. We eliminated expression of the oxytocin receptor in raphe neurons by crossing mice expressing Cre recombinase under control of the serotonin transporter promoter (Slc6a4) with our conditional oxytocin receptor knockout line. The knockout mice generated by this cross are normal across a range of behavioral measures: there are no effects for either sex on locomotion in an open-field, olfactory habituation/dishabituation or, surprisingly, anxiety-like behaviors in the elevated O and plus mazes. There was a profound deficit in male aggression: only one of 11 raphe oxytocin receptor knockouts showed any aggressive behavior, compared to eight of 11 wildtypes. In contrast, female knockouts displayed no deficits in maternal behavior or aggression. Our results show that oxytocin, via its effects on raphe neurons, is a key regulator of resident-intruder aggression in males but not maternal aggression. Furthermore, this reduction in male aggression is quite different from the effects reported previously after forebrain or total elimination of oxytocin receptors. Finally, we conclude that when constitutively eliminated, oxytocin receptors expressed by serotonin cells do not contribute to baseline anxiety-like behaviors or maternal care. PMID:25677455

  18. Experimental defoliation affects male but not female reproductive performance of the tropical monoecious plant Croton suberosus (Euphorbiaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Narbona, Eduardo; Dirzo, Rodolfo

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Monoecious plants have the capacity to allocate resources separately to male and female functions more easily than hermaphrodites. This can be advantageous against environmental stresses such as leaf herbivory. However, studies showing effects of herbivory on male and female functions and on the interaction with the plant's pollinators are limited, particularly in tropical plants. Here, the effects of experimental defoliation were examined in the monoecious shrub Croton suberosus (Euphorbiaceae), a wasp-pollinated species from a Mexican tropical dry forest. Methods Three defoliation treatments were applied: 0 % (control), 25 % (low) or 75 % (high) of plant leaf area removed. Vegetative (production of new leaves) and reproductive (pistillate and staminate flower production, pollen viability, nectar production, fruit set, and seed set) performance variables, and the abundance and activity of floral visitors were examined. Key Results Defoliated plants overcompensated for tissue loss by producing more new leaves than control plants. Production of staminate flowers gradually decreased with increasing defoliation and the floral sex ratio (staminate : pistillate flowers) was drastically reduced in high-defoliation plants. In contrast, female reproductive performance (pistillate flower production, fruit set and seed set) and pollinator visitation and abundance were not impacted by defoliation. Conclusions The asymmetrical effects of defoliation on male and female traits of C. suberosus may be due to the temporal and spatial flexibility in the allocation of resources deployed by monoecious plants. We posit that this helps to maintain the plant's pollination success in the face of leaf herbivory stress. PMID:20519239

  19. 17α-Ethinyl estradiol affects anxiety and shoaling behavior in adult male zebra fish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Reyhanian, Nasim; Volkova, Kristina; Hallgren, Stefan; Bollner, Tomas; Olsson, Per-Erik; Olsén, Håkan; Hällström, Inger Porsch

    2011-09-01

    Ethinyl estradiol is a potent endocrine disrupting compound in fish and ubiquitously present in the aquatic environment. In this study, we exposed adult zebra fish (Danio rerio) males to 0, 5 or 25 ng Ethinyl estradiol/L for 14 days and analyzed the effects on non-reproductive behavior. Effects of treatment of the exposed males was shown by vitellogenin induction, while brain aromatase (CYP 19B) activity was not significantly altered. Both concentrations of Ethinyl estradiol significantly altered the behavior in the Novel tank test, where anxiety is determined as the tendency to stay at the bottom when introduced into an unfamiliar environment. The effects were, however, opposite for the two concentrations. Fish that were exposed to 5 ng/L had longer latency before upswim, fewer transitions to the upper half and shorter total time spent in the upper half compared with control fish, while 25 ng Ethinyl estradiol treatment resulted in shorter latency and more and longer visits to the upper half. The swimming activity of 25, but not 5 ng-exposed fish were slightly but significantly reduced, and these fish tended to spend a lot of time at the surface. We also studied the shoaling behavior as the tendency to leave a shoal of littermates trapped behind a Plexiglas barrier at one end of the test tank. The fish treated with Ethinyl estradiol had significantly longer latency before leaving shoal mates and left the shoal fewer times. Further, the fish exposed to 5 ng/L also spent significantly less time away from shoal than control fish. Fertilization frequency was higher in males exposed to 5 ng/L Ethinyl estradiol when compared with control males, while no spawning was observed after treatment with 25 ng/L. The testes from both treatment groups contained a normal distribution of spermatogenesis stages, and no abnormality in testis morphology could be observed. In conclusion, we have observed effects on two behaviors not related to reproduction in zebra fish males after

  20. Down, But Not Out: Partial Elimination of Androgen Receptors in the Male Mouse Brain Does Not Affect Androgenic Regulation of Anxiety or HPA Activity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chieh V; Brummet, Jennifer L; Jordan, Cynthia L; Breedlove, S Marc

    2016-02-01

    We previously found that androgen receptor (AR) activity mediates two effects of T in adult male mice: reduction of anxiety-like behaviors and dampening of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal response to stress. To determine whether brain ARs mediate these effects, we used the Cre/loxP technology seeking to disable AR throughout the central nervous system (CNS). Female mice carrying the floxed AR allele (ARlox) were crossed with males carrying cre recombinase transgene controlled by the nestin promoter (NesCre), producing cre in developing neurons and glia. Among male offspring, four genotypes resulted: males carrying ARlox and NesCre (NesARko), and three control groups (wild types, NesCre, and ARlox). Reporter mice indicated ubiquitous Cre expression throughout the CNS. Nevertheless, AR immunocytochemistry in NesARko mice revealed efficient knockout (KO) of AR in some brain regions (hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex [mPFC]), but not others. Substantial AR protein was seen in the amygdala and hypothalamus among other regions, whereas negligible AR remained in others like the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and dorsal periaqueductal gray. This selective KO allowed for testing the role of AR in hippocampus and mPFC. Males were castrated and implanted with T at postnatal day 60 before testing on postnatal day 90-100. In contrast with males with global KO of AR, T still modulated anxiety-related behavior and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity in NesARko males. These results leave open the possibility that AR acting in the CNS mediates these effects of T, but demonstrate that AR is not required in the hippocampus or mPFC for T's anxiolytic effects.

  1. Does Fluoride Affect Serum Testosterone and Androgen Binding Protein with Age-Specificity? A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study in Chinese Male Farmers.

    PubMed

    Duan, Leizhen; Zhu, Jingyuan; Wang, Keyan; Zhou, Guoyu; Yang, Yuejin; Cui, Liuxin; Huang, Hui; Cheng, Xuemin; Ba, Yue

    2016-12-01

    Many studies have demonstrated that exposure to excess fluoride was associated with a variety of diseases. Little is known about the variation of testosterone (T) levels caused by fluoride exposure. The aim of this study is to explore the association of fluoride exposure and age with serum T and androgen-binding protein (ABP) levels in male farmers. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a county of Henan Province, China, including high fluoride exposure from drinking water villages and control villages. Male farmers aged 18-55 years old who lived in these villages were recruited by cluster sampling and divided into a higher fluoride exposure group (HFG) and a lower fluoride exposure group (LFG) according to the level of urinary fluoride. Levels of T and ABP in serum were measured using chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) respectively. Markedly lower T levels were observed in male farmers from the HFG than in those from the LFG (t = 2.496, P < 0.05). Furthermore, younger farmers, 18-29 and 30-39 years old, may be the most likely to have lower T levels when exposed to fluoride (P < 0.05). No significant differences were observed in serum ABP levels in all male farmers between the two groups with different fluoride exposure. These results supported that excess fluoride exposure decreased serum T levels of male farmers with age-specificity.

  2. Using Castration Surgery in Male Rats to Demonstrate the Physiological Effects of Testosterone on Seminal Vesicle Anatomy in an Undergraduate Laboratory Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belanger, Rachelle M.; Conant, Stephanie B.; Grabowski, Gregory M.

    2013-01-01

    Rats can be used as a model organism to teach physiological concepts in a laboratory setting. This article describes a two-part laboratory that introduces students to hypothesis testing, experimental design, the appropriate use of controls and surgical techniques. Students perform both a castration and sham-control surgery on male rats and test…

  3. Factors affecting clinical pregnancy rates after IUI for the treatment of unexplained infertility and mild male subfertility

    PubMed Central

    Atasever, Melahat; Kalem, Müberra Namlı; Hatırnaz, Şafak; Hatırnaz, Ebru; Kalem, Ziya; Kalaylıoğlu, Zeynep

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of the present retrospective study was to evaluate intrauterine insemination (IUI) clinical experiences and to define the variables for predicting success. Material and Methods The present study was an observational trial performed in a private IVF center on subfertile couples who had applied for treatment between 2002 and 2012, in which the data of 503 IUI cases were retrospectively reviewed. Couples who had been diagnosed with unexplained and mild male subfertility were included. The primary outcome measure was the clinical pregnancy rate in an attempt to form a predictive model for the odds of a clinical pregnancy. Recorded parameters were used to determine the prediction model. Results Utilizing univariate logistic regression analysis, clinical pregnancy was positively associated with the duration of infertility (OR=1.09, p=0.089), secondary infertility (OR=1.77, p=0.050), and +4 sperm motility after preparation (OR=1.03, p=0.091). Following an adjustment analysis involving a multivariate logistic regression, clinical pregnancy was still found to positively associate with secondary infertility (OR=2.51, p=0.008). Conclusion IUI success in secondary infertile couples who were in the unexplained infertility and mild male subfertility groups was higher than that in primary infertile couples, and the chances of pregnancy increased as sperm numbers with +4 motility increased. It is difficult to concomitantly evaluate all these parameters and to determine a predictive parameter in IUI independent from other factors. PMID:27651720

  4. Gonadal hormones and oxidative stress interaction differentially affects survival of male and female mice after lung Klebsiella pneumoniae infection.

    PubMed

    Durrani, Faryal; Phelps, David S; Weisz, Judith; Silveyra, Patricia; Hu, Sanmei; Mikerov, Anatoly N; Floros, Joanna

    2012-05-01

    Survival of mice after Klebsiella pneumoniae infection and phagocytosis by alveolar macrophages (AMs), in the presence or absence of ozone (O(3)) exposure prior to infection, is sex dependent. The objective of this work was to study the role of gonadal hormones, 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and 17β-estradiol (E(2)), on mouse survival after filtered air (FA) or O(3) exposure. Gonadectomized female (G×F) and male (G×M) mice implanted with control or hormone pellets (DHT in G×F, or E(2) in G×M), exposed to O(3) (2 ppm, 3h) or FA, and infected with K. pneumoniae were monitored for survival. Survival in G×F was identical after FA or O(3) exposure; in G×M O(3) exposure resulted in lower survival compared to FA. In O(3)-exposed females, gonadectomy resulted in increased survival compared to intact females or to G×M+E(2). A similar effect was observed in G×F+DHT. The combined negative effect of oxidative stress and hormone on survival was higher for E(2). Gonadectomy eliminated (females) or minimized (males) the previously observed sex differences in survival in response to oxidative stress, and hormone treatment restored them. These findings indicate that gonadal hormones and/or oxidative stress have a significant effect on mouse survival.

  5. Links between breeding readiness, opioid immunolabeling, and the affective state induced by hearing male courtship song in female European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris)

    PubMed Central

    Riters, Lauren V.; Ellis, Jesse M. S.; Angyal, Caroline S.; Borkowski, Vincent; Cordes, Melissa A.; Stevenson, Sharon A.

    2013-01-01

    Male courtship vocalizations represent a potent signal designed to attract females; however, not all females find male signals equally attractive. We explored the possibility that the affective state induced by hearing courtship vocalizations depends on the motivational state of a receiver. We used a conditioned place preference test of reward to determine the extent to which the rewarding properties of hearing male courtship song differed in female European starlings categorized as nest box owners (a sign of breeding readiness) or non-owners. Nest box owners developed a preference for a chamber in which they previously heard male courtship song. Non-owners displayed no preference for a chamber in which they previously heard song. Positive correlations were identified between the preference a female developed for the song-paired chamber and female nesting and dominance behaviors observed prior to conditioning (indices of the motivation to breed). Immunolabeling for met-enkephalin (an opioid neuropeptide involved in reward) in the medial preoptic nucleus, ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus, nucleus accumbens, and periaqueductal gray was higher in females with compared to those without nest boxes. Both nest box entries and song-induced place preference also correlated positively with met-enkephalin labeling in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus. These findings indicate that the reward value of vocal signals is linked to individual differences in motivational state; and that differences in enkephalin activity may play a role in modifying an individual’s motivational state and/or the reward value of song. PMID:23473880

  6. How the magnitude of clinical severity and recurrence risk affects reproductive decisions in adult males with different forms of progressive muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed Central

    Eggers, S; Zatz, M

    1998-01-01

    The reproductive history of 177 male patients affected with Becker (BMD) (n=69), limb-girdle (LGMD) (n=54), and facioscapulohumeral (FSHMD) (n=54) muscular dystrophy (MD) was analysed according to severity of the disease (BMD>LGMD>FSHMD) and magnitude of recurrence risk (RR) (high for FSHMD, intermediate for BMD, and low for LGMD). Additionally, 62 male patients were interviewed on psychosocial issues, in order to disentangle the factors influencing reproductive decisions among patients affected with MD. Among male adults, significantly more FSHMD than LGMD or BMD patients were married and had children. Age specific reproductive outcome was 0.31-0.32 for BMD, 0.51-0.62 for LGMD, and 0.58-1.02 for FSHMD, reflecting the influence of the disease's severity. High RRs did not significantly diminish reproduction after genetic counselling or correlate with less prospective desire for children. Instead, early onset, severity of the disease, and past reproductive history were found to diminish reproductive outcome after genetic counselling, and prospective family planning was also found to be influenced by past reproductive history as well as by emotional/sexual dysfunction with the opposite sex. PMID:9541101

  7. How the magnitude of clinical severity and recurrence risk affects reproductive decisions in adult males with different forms of progressive muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Eggers, S; Zatz, M

    1998-03-01

    The reproductive history of 177 male patients affected with Becker (BMD) (n=69), limb-girdle (LGMD) (n=54), and facioscapulohumeral (FSHMD) (n=54) muscular dystrophy (MD) was analysed according to severity of the disease (BMD>LGMD>FSHMD) and magnitude of recurrence risk (RR) (high for FSHMD, intermediate for BMD, and low for LGMD). Additionally, 62 male patients were interviewed on psychosocial issues, in order to disentangle the factors influencing reproductive decisions among patients affected with MD. Among male adults, significantly more FSHMD than LGMD or BMD patients were married and had children. Age specific reproductive outcome was 0.31-0.32 for BMD, 0.51-0.62 for LGMD, and 0.58-1.02 for FSHMD, reflecting the influence of the disease's severity. High RRs did not significantly diminish reproduction after genetic counselling or correlate with less prospective desire for children. Instead, early onset, severity of the disease, and past reproductive history were found to diminish reproductive outcome after genetic counselling, and prospective family planning was also found to be influenced by past reproductive history as well as by emotional/sexual dysfunction with the opposite sex.

  8. Exposure to altered gravity during specific developmental periods differentially affects growth, development, the cerebellum and motor functions in male and female rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguon, K.; Ladd, B.; Sajdel-Sulkowska, E. M.

    2006-01-01

    We previously reported that perinatal exposure to hypergravity affects cerebellar structure and motor coordination in rat neonates. In the present study, we explored the hypothesis that neonatal cerebellar structure and motor coordination may be particularly vulnerable to the effects of hypergravity during specific developmental stages. To test this hypothesis, we compared neurodevelopment, motor behavior and cerebellar structure in rat neonates exposed to 1.65 G on a 24-ft centrifuge during discrete periods of time: the 2nd week of pregnancy [gestational day (G) 8 through G15; group A], the 3rd week of pregnancy (G15 through birth on G22/G23; group B), the 1st week of nursing [birth through postnatal day (P) 6; group C], the 2nd and 3rd weeks of nursing (P6 through P21; group D), the combined 2nd and 3rd weeks of pregnancy and nursing (G8 through P21; group E) and stationary control (SC) neonates (group F). Prenatal exposure to hypergravity resulted in intrauterine growth retardation as reflected by a decrease in the number of pups in a litter and lower average mass at birth. Exposure to hypergravity immediately after birth impaired the righting response on P3, while the startle response in both males and females was most affected by exposure during the 2nd and 3rd weeks after birth. Hypergravity exposure also impaired motor functions, as evidenced by poorer performance on a rotarod; while both males and females exposed to hypergravity during the 2nd and 3rd weeks after birth performed poorly on P21, male neonates were most dramatically affected by exposure to hypergravity during the second week of gestation, when the duration of their recorded stay on the rotarod was one half that of SC males. Cerebellar mass was most reduced by later postnatal exposure. Thus, for the developing rat cerebellum, the postnatal period that overlaps the brain growth spurt is the most vulnerable to hypergravity. However, male motor behavior is also affected by midpregnancy exposure to

  9. Maternal high-fat diet inversely affects insulin sensitivity in dams and young adult male rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Karbaschi, Roxana; Sadeghimahalli, Forouzan; Zardooz, Homeira

    2016-09-01

    This study attempts to further clarify the potential effects of maternal high-fat (HF) diet on glucose homeostasis in dams and young adult male rat offspring. Female rats were divided into control (CON dams) and HF (HF dams) diet groups, which received the diet 4 weeks prior to and through pregnancy and lactation periods. Blood samples were taken to determine metabolic parameters, then an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) was performed. Maternal HF diet increased intra-abdominal fat mass and plasma corticosterone level, but decreased leptin concentration in dams. In HF offspring intra-abdominal fat mass, plasma leptin, and corticosterone levels decreased. Following IPGTT, the plasma insulin level of HF dams was higher than the controls. In HF offspring plasma insulin level was not significantly different from the controls, but a steeper decrease of their plasma glucose concentration was observed.

  10. Orally administered glucagon-like peptide-1 affects glucose homeostasis following an oral glucose tolerance test in healthy male subjects.

    PubMed

    Steinert, R E; Poller, B; Castelli, M C; Friedman, K; Huber, A R; Drewe, J; Beglinger, C

    2009-12-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) exerts several effects on glucose homeostasis and reduces food intake. After its release from intestinal L cells, GLP-1 is subject to (i) rapid breakdown by dipeptidyl peptidase IV and (ii) high liver extraction. The highest concentrations of GLP-1 are found in the splanchnic blood rather than in the systemic circulation. An oral delivery system would mimic endogenous secretion. Here we investigated the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) effects of a single dose (2 mg) of oral GLP-1 administered prior to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in 16 healthy males. GLP-1 was rapidly absorbed from the gut, leading to tenfold higher plasma concentrations compared with controls. The PD profile was consistent with reported pharmacology; GLP-1 significantly stimulated basal insulin release (P < 0.027), with marked effects on glucose levels. The postprandial glucose peak was delayed with GLP-1, suggesting an effect on gastric emptying.

  11. Oxidative stress during courtship affects male and female reproductive effort differentially in a wild bird with biparental care.

    PubMed

    Montoya, Bibiana; Valverde, Mahara; Rojas, Emilio; Torres, Roxana

    2016-12-15

    Oxidative stress has been suggested as one of the physiological mechanisms modulating reproductive effort, including investment in mate choice. Here, we evaluated whether oxidative stress influences breeding decisions by acting as a cost of or constraint on reproduction in the brown booby (Sula leucogaster), a long-lived seabird with prolonged biparental care. We found that during courtship, levels of lipid peroxidation (LP) of males and females were positively associated with gular skin color, a trait presumably used in mate choice, while levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were higher as laying approached and in early breeding pairs. Evidence of a constraining effect of oxidative stress for females was suggested by the fact that females with higher ROS during courtship laid smaller first eggs and had chicks with lower rates of body mass gain, and higher female LP was associated with lower offspring attendance time. No evidence of an oxidative cost of parental effort was found; from courtship to parental care, levels of ROS in males and females decreased, and changes in LP levels were non-significant. Finally, using a cross-fostering experiment we found that offspring ROS was unrelated to rearing and genetic parents' ROS. Interestingly, offspring LP was positively associated with the LP during courtship of both the rearing parents and the genetic father, suggesting that offspring LP might have both a genetic and an environmental component. Hence, in the brown booby, oxidative stress may be a cost of investment in reproductive traits before egg laying and constrain females' investment in eggs and parental care.

  12. Mutations that affect meiosis in male mice influence the dynamics of the mid-preleptotene and bouquet stages

    SciTech Connect

    Liebe, B.; Petukhova, G.; Barchi, M.; Bellani, M.; Braselmann, H.; Nakano, T.; Pandita, T.K.; Jasin, M.; Fornace, A.; Meistrich, M.L.; Baarends, W.M.; Schimenti, J.; Lange, T. de; Keeney, S.; Camerini-Otero, R.D.; Scherthan, H. . E-mail: scherth@web.de

    2006-11-15

    Meiosis pairs and segregates homologous chromosomes and thereby forms haploid germ cells to compensate the genome doubling at fertilization. Homologue pairing in many eukaryotic species depends on formation of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) during early prophase I when telomeres begin to cluster at the nuclear periphery (bouquet stage). By fluorescence in situ hybridization criteria, we observe that mid-preleptotene and bouquet stage frequencies are altered in male mice deficient for proteins required for recombination, ubiquitin conjugation and telomere length control. The generally low frequencies of mid-preleptotene spermatocytes were significantly increased in male mice lacking recombination proteins SPO11, MEI1, MLH1, KU80, ubiquitin conjugating enzyme HR6B, and in mice with only one copy of the telomere length regulator Terf1. The bouquet stage was significantly enriched in Atm {sup -/-}, Spo11 {sup -/-}, Mei1 {sup m1Jcs/m1Jcs}, Mlh1 {sup -/-}, Terf1 {sup +/-} and Hr6b {sup -/-} spermatogenesis, but not in mice lacking recombination proteins DMC1 and HOP2, the non-homologous end-joining DNA repair factor KU80 and the ATM downstream effector GADD45a. Mice defective in spermiogenesis (Tnp1 {sup -/-}, Gmcl1 {sup -/-}, Asm {sup -/-}) showed wild-type mid-preleptotene and bouquet frequencies. A low frequency of bouquet spermatocytes in Spo11 {sup -/-} Atm {sup -/-} spermatogenesis suggests that DSBs contribute to the Atm {sup -/-}-correlated bouquet stage exit defect. Insignificant changes of bouquet frequencies in mice with defects in early stages of DSB repair (Dmc1 {sup -/-}, Hop2 {sup -/-}) suggest that there is an ATM-specific influence on bouquet stage duration. Altogether, it appears that several pathways influence telomere dynamics in mammalian meiosis.

  13. Maternal in utero exposure to the endocrine disruptor di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate affects the blood pressure of adult male offspring

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez–Arguelles, D.B.; McIntosh, M.; Rohlicek, C.V.; Culty, M.; Zirkin, B.R.; Papadopoulos, V.

    2013-01-01

    Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is used industrially to add flexibility to polyvinyl chloride (PVC) polymers and is ubiquitously found in the environment, with evidence of prenatal, perinatal and early infant exposure in humans. In utero exposure to DEHP decreases circulating testosterone levels in the adult rat. In addition, DEHP reduces the expression of the angiotensin II receptors in the adrenal gland, resulting in decreased circulating aldosterone levels. The latter may have important effects on water and electrolyte balance as well as systemic arterial blood pressure. Therefore, we determined the effects of in utero exposure to DEHP on systemic arterial blood pressure in the young (2 month-old) and older (6.5 month-old) adult rats. Sprague-Dawley pregnant dams were exposed from gestational day 14 until birth to 300 mg DEHP/kg/day. Blood pressure, heart rate, and activity data were collected using an intra-aortal transmitter in the male offspring at postnatal day (PND) 60 and PND200. A low (0.01%) and high-salt (8%) diet was used to challenge the animals at PND200. In utero exposure to DEHP resulted in reduced activity at PND60. At PND200, systolic and diastolic systemic arterial pressures as well as activity were reduced in response to DEHP exposure. This is the first evidence showing that in utero exposure to DEHP has cardiovascular and behavioral effects in the adult male offspring. Highlights: ► In utero exposure to 300 mg DEHP/kg/day decreases activity at postnatal day 60. ► In utero exposure to DEHP decreases aldosterone levels at postnatal day 200. ► In utero exposure to DEHP decreases systolic blood pressure at postnatal day 200. ► An 8% salt diet recovers the decreased blood pressure at postnatal day 200.

  14. The extent to which garments affect the assessment of body shapes of males from faceless CCTV images.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Teghan; Kumaratilake, Jaliya; Henneberg, Maciej

    2014-01-01

    Closed circuit television (CCTV) systems are being widely used in crime surveillance. The images produced are of poor quality often face details are not visible, however expert witnesses in the field of biological anthropology use morphological descriptions of body shapes in an attempt to identify persons of interest. These methods can be applied to individual images when other cues such as gait, are not present. Criminals commonly disguise their faces, but body shape characteristics can be used to distinguish a person of interest from others. Garments may distort the body shape appearance, thus this study was undertaken to investigate the effects of garments on the description of body shape from CCTV images. Twelve adult males representing a wide body shape range of Sheldonian somatotypes were photographed in identical garments comprising of tight fitting black shirt, horizontally striped shirt, padded leather jacket and in naked torso. These photographs were assessed by 51 males and females aged 18-50 years, with varying levels of education, and different experience in use of CCTV images for identification of people, to identify the 12 participants. The effect of assessors was not significant. They correctly distinguished 88.6% of individuals wearing the same wear, but could not match the same individuals wearing different wear above the random expectations. However, they matched somatotypes above random expectation. Type of clothing produced little bias in somatotype matching; ectomorphic component of individuals wearing black shirts and padded jackets was overestimated and underestimated, respectively. In conclusion, type of the wear had little effect in the description of individuals from CCTV images using the body shapes.

  15. Blockage of the Neonatal Leptin Surge Affects the Gene Expression of Growth Factors, Glial Proteins, and Neuropeptides Involved in the Control of Metabolism and Reproduction in Peripubertal Male and Female Rats.

    PubMed

    Mela, Virginia; Díaz, Francisca; Lopez-Rodriguez, Ana Belen; Vázquez, María Jesús; Gertler, Arieh; Argente, Jesús; Tena-Sempere, Manuel; Viveros, María-Paz; Chowen, Julie A

    2015-07-01

    Leptin (Lep) is important in the development of neuroendocrine circuits involved in metabolic control. Because both Lep and metabolism influence pubertal development, we hypothesized that early changes in Lep signaling could also modulate hypothalamic (HT) systems involved in reproduction. We previously demonstrated that a single injection of a Lep antagonist (Antag) on postnatal day (PND)9, coincident with the neonatal Lep peak, induced sexually dimorphic modifications in trophic factors and markers of cell turnover and neuronal maturation in the HT on PND13. Here, our aim was to investigate whether the alterations induced by Lep antagonism persist into puberty. Accordingly, male and female rats were treated with a pegylated super Lep Antag from PND5 to PND9 and killed just before the normal appearance of external signs of puberty (PND33 in females and PND43 in males). There was no effect on body weight, but in males food intake increased, subcutaneous adipose tissue decreased and HT neuropeptide Y and Agouti-related peptide mRNA levels were reduced, with no effect in females. In both sexes, the Antag increased HT mRNA levels of the kisspeptin receptor, G protein-coupled recepter 54 (Gpr54). Expression of the Lep receptor, trophic factors, and glial markers were differently affected in the HT of peripubertal males and females. Lep production in adipose tissue was decreased in Antag-treated rats of both sexes, with production of other cytokines being differentially regulated between sexes. In conclusion, in addition to the long-term effects on metabolism, changes in neonatal Lep levels modifies factors involved in reproduction that could possibly affect sexual maturation.

  16. Segregation of the fragile-X mutation from an affected male: Evidence of unusual somatic instability in the FMR-1 locus

    SciTech Connect

    Kambouris, M.; Bluhm, D.; Feldman, G.L.

    1994-09-01

    Fragile X syndrome is associated with an unstable CGG-repeat in the FMR-1 gene. There are few reports of affected males transmitting the FMR-1 gene to offspring. We report a family in which the paternal grandfather has an unusual FMR-1 pattern, with allele sizes ranging from premutation to full mutation. The family was initially ascertained because of a diagnosis of fragile X syndrome in this individual`s grandson. For Southern blot analyses, the samples were digested with Pst 1 and hybridized to the pE5.1 probe or digested with HindIII and hybridized to the StB12.3 probe. The proband had a high molecular weight allele, indicating significant amplifications, and an abnormal methylation pattern, consistent with a full mutation. His twin sister, who also had features of fragile X syndrome, had a similar pattern in addition to her normal allele (30 repeats). Their mother had one normal allele (33 repeats) and a premutation allele (>130 CGG repeats), with a normal methylation pattern. The maternal grandmother had alleles of 32 and 33 CGG repeats. These findings support the hypothesis that transmission of a full fragile-X mutation does not occur through a male, even if that male has clincial and molecular evidence of a full mutation. Gonadal mosaicism is an alternative explanation. Thus, an affected male with extensive FMR-1 somatic mosaicism transmitted a large premutation to his daughter, who in turn transmitted a full mutation to both of her offspring. FMR-1 protein studies on this individual, which are in progress, should help to determine the correlation, if any, of the molecular findings with the phenotypic effects.

  17. X chromosome exome sequencing reveals a novel ALG13 mutation in a nonsyndromic intellectual disability family with multiple affected male siblings.

    PubMed

    Bissar-Tadmouri, Nesrine; Donahue, Whithey L; Al-Gazali, Lihadh; Nelson, Stanley F; Bayrak-Toydemir, Pinar; Kantarci, Sibel

    2014-01-01

    X-linked intellectual disability (XLID) is a heterogeneous condition associated with mutations in >100 genes, accounting for over 10% of all cases of intellectual impairment. The majority of XLID cases show nonsyndromic forms (NSXLID), in which intellectual disability is the sole clinically consistent manifestation. Here we performed X chromosome exome (X-exome) sequencing to identify the causative mutation in an NSXLID family with four affected male siblings and five unaffected female siblings. The X-exome sequencing at 88× coverage in one affected male sibling revealed a novel missense mutation (p.Tyr1074Cys) in the asparagine-linked glycosylation 13 homolog (ALG13) gene. Segregation analysis by Sanger sequencing showed that the all affected siblings were hemizygous and the mother was heterozygous for the mutation. Recently, a de novo missense mutation in ALG13 has been reported in a patient with X-linked congenital disorders of glycosylation type I. Our study reports the first case of NSXLID caused by a mutation in ALG13 involved in protein N-glycosylation.

  18. Disturbance of the gut microbiota in early-life selectively affects visceral pain in adulthood without impacting cognitive or anxiety-related behaviors in male rats.

    PubMed

    O'Mahony, S M; Felice, V D; Nally, K; Savignac, H M; Claesson, M J; Scully, P; Woznicki, J; Hyland, N P; Shanahan, F; Quigley, E M; Marchesi, J R; O'Toole, P W; Dinan, T G; Cryan, J F

    2014-09-26

    Disruption of bacterial colonization during the early postnatal period is increasingly being linked to adverse health outcomes. Indeed, there is a growing appreciation that the gut microbiota plays a role in neurodevelopment. However, there is a paucity of information on the consequences of early-life manipulations of the gut microbiota on behavior. To this end we administered an antibiotic (vancomycin) from postnatal days 4-13 to male rat pups and assessed behavioral and physiological measures across all aspects of the brain-gut axis. In addition, we sought to confirm and expand the effects of early-life antibiotic treatment using a different antibiotic strategy (a cocktail of pimaricin, bacitracin, neomycin; orally) during the same time period in both female and male rat pups. Vancomycin significantly altered the microbiota, which was restored to control levels by 8 weeks of age. Notably, vancomycin-treated animals displayed visceral hypersensitivity in adulthood without any significant effect on anxiety responses as assessed in the elevated plus maze or open field tests. Moreover, cognitive performance in the Morris water maze was not affected by early-life dysbiosis. Immune and stress-related physiological responses were equally unaffected. The early-life antibiotic-induced visceral hypersensitivity was also observed in male rats given the antibiotic cocktail. Both treatments did not alter visceral pain perception in female rats. Changes in visceral pain perception in males were paralleled by distinct decreases in the transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1, the α-2A adrenergic receptor and cholecystokinin B receptor. In conclusion, a temporary disruption of the gut microbiota in early-life results in very specific and long-lasting changes in visceral sensitivity in male rats, a hallmark of stress-related functional disorders of the brain-gut axis such as irritable bowel disorder.

  19. Subacute oral exposure to benzo[alpha]pyrene (B[alpha]P) increases aggressiveness and affects consummatory aspects of sexual behaviour in male mice.

    PubMed

    Bouayed, Jaouad; Desor, Frédéric; Soulimani, Rachid

    2009-09-30

    Benzo[alpha]pyrene (B[alpha]P) is a neurotoxic pollutant which is also able to affect some behaviour and cognitive function. Here we report that a subacute oral exposure to B[alpha]P increases aggressiveness and affects copulatory behaviour in male mice. Indeed, after 3 weeks of exposure to B[alpha]P at 0.02 and 0.2mg/kg, we have observed that B[alpha]P 0.02 mg/kg-treated male mice are more aggressive than control mice in resident-intruder test because a significant decrease in the latency time of the first attack and a significant increase in the number of attacks in B[alpha]P 0.02 mg/kg-treated mice were found. On the other hand, we have found that subacute exposure (4 weeks) to B[alpha]P, does not affect the appetitive aspects and sexual motivation in copulatory behaviour because the latency to the first mount between control and B[alpha]P-treated male mice was not significantly different. We have nevertheless, surprisingly found that B[alpha]P (0.02-0.2)mg/kg-treated mice have performed significantly more sexual behavioural acts including mounting, intromission latency and intromission frequency than control mice. Although these last results suggest that B[alpha]P improves the consummatory aspects of sexual behaviour, we cannot conclude that this neurotoxic pollutant has advantage of sexual function because B[alpha]P has been shown to alter the monoaminergic neurotransmitter system and causes endocrine dysregulation via toxic effect.

  20. How do video-based demonstration assessment tasks affect problem-solving process, test anxiety, chemistry anxiety and achievement in general chemistry students?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terrell, Rosalind Stephanie

    2001-12-01

    Because paper-and-pencil testing provides limited knowledge about what students know about chemical phenomena, we have developed video-based demonstrations to broaden measurement of student learning. For example, students might be shown a video demonstrating equilibrium shifts. Two methods for viewing equilibrium shifts are changing the concentration of the reactants and changing the temperature of the system. The students are required to combine the data collected from the video and their knowledge of chemistry to determine which way the equilibrium shifts. Video-based demonstrations are important techniques for measuring student learning because they require students to apply conceptual knowledge learned in class to a specific chemical problem. This study explores how video-based demonstration assessment tasks affect problem-solving processes, test anxiety, chemistry anxiety and achievement in general chemistry students. Several instruments were used to determine students' knowledge about chemistry, students' test and chemistry anxiety before and after treatment. Think-aloud interviews were conducted to determine students' problem-solving processes after treatment. The treatment group was compared to a control group and a group watching video demonstrations. After treatment students' anxiety increased and achievement decreased. There were also no significant differences found in students' problem-solving processes following treatment. These negative findings may be attributed to several factors that will be explored in this study.

  1. Aging and exercise affect the level of protein acetylation and SIRT1 activity in cerebellum of male rats.

    PubMed

    Marton, Orsolya; Koltai, Erika; Nyakas, Csaba; Bakonyi, Tibor; Zenteno-Savin, Tania; Kumagai, Shuzo; Goto, Sataro; Radak, Zsolt

    2010-12-01

    Aging is associated with a gradual decline in cognitive and motor functions, the result of complex biochemical processes including pre- and posttranslational modifications of proteins. Sirtuins are NAD(+) dependent protein deacetylases. These enzymes modulate the aging process by lysine deacetylation, which alters the activity and stability of proteins. Exercise can increase mean life-span and improve quality of life. Data from our laboratories revealed that 4 weeks of treadmill running improves performance in the Morris Maze test for young (4 months, old) but not old (30 months, old) male rats, and the exercise could not prevent the age-associated loss in muscle strength assessed by a gripping test. The positive correlation between protein acetylation and the gripping test suggests that the age-dependent decrease in relative activity of SIRT1 in the cerebellum impairs motor function. Similarly to the acetylation level of total proteins, the acetylation of ά -tubulin is also increased with aging, while the effect of exercise training was not found to be significant. Moreover, the protein content of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase, one of the key enzymes of NAD biosynthesis, decreased in the young exercise group. These data suggest that aging results in decreased specific activity of SIRT1 in cerebellum, which could lead to increased acetylation of protein residues, including ά-tubulin, that interfere with motor function.

  2. Paternal obesity negatively affects male fertility and assisted reproduction outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Jared M; Lane, Michelle; Owens, Julie A; Bakos, Hassan W

    2015-11-01

    This systematic review investigated the effect of paternal obesity on reproductive potential. Databases searched were Pubmed, Ovid, Web of Science, Scopus, Cinahl and Embase. Papers were critically appraised by two reviewers, and data were extracted using a standardized tool. Outcomes were: likelihood of infertility, embryo development, clinical pregnancy, live birth, pregnancy viability, infant development, sperm; concentration, morphology, motility, volume, DNA fragmentation, chromatin condensation, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and seminal plasma factors. Thirty papers were included, with a total participant number of 115,158. Obese men were more likely to experience infertility (OR = 1.66, 95% CI 1.53-1.79), their rate of live birth per cycle of assisted reproduction technology (ART) was reduced (OR = 0.65, 95% CI 0.44-0.97) and they had a 10% absolute risk increase of pregnancy non-viability. Additionally, obese men had an increased percentage of sperm with low MMP, DNA fragmentation, and abnormal morphology. Clinically significant differences were not found for conventional semen parameters. From these findings it can be concluded that male obesity is associated with reduced reproductive potential. Furthermore, it may be informative to incorporate DNA fragmentation analysis and MMP assessment into semen testing, especially for obese men whose results suggest they should have normal fertility.

  3. Adult nutrition, but not inbreeding, affects male primary sexual traits in the leaf-footed cactus bug Narnia femorata (Hemiptera: Coreidae).

    PubMed

    Joseph, Paul N; Sasson, Daniel A; Allen, Pablo E; Somjee, Ummat; Miller, Christine W

    2016-07-01

    Adverse conditions may be the norm rather than the exception in natural populations. Many populations experience poor nutrition on a seasonal basis. Further, brief interludes of inbreeding can be common as population density fluctuates and because of habitat fragmentation. Here, we investigated the effects of poor nutrition and inbreeding on traits that can be very important to reproductive success and fitness in males: testes mass, sperm concentration, and sperm viability. Our study species was Narnia femorata, a species introduced to north-central Florida in the 1950s. This species encounters regular, seasonal changes in diet that can have profound phenotypic effects on morphology and behavior. We generated inbred and outbred individuals through a single generation of full-sibling mating or outcrossing, respectively. All juveniles were provided a natural, high-quality diet of Opuntia humifusa cactus cladode with fruit until they reached adulthood. New adult males were put on a high- or low-quality diet for at least 21 days before measurements were taken. As expected, the low-quality diet led to significantly decreased testes mass in both inbred and outbred males, although there were surprisingly no detectable effects on sperm traits. We did not find evidence that inbreeding affected testes mass, sperm concentration, and sperm viability. Our results highlight the immediate and overwhelming effects of nutrition on testes mass, while suggesting that a single generation of inbreeding might not be detrimental for primary sexual traits in this particular population.

  4. Gene-by-Diet Interactions Affect Serum 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D Levels in Male BXD Recombinant Inbred Mice

    PubMed Central

    Replogle, Rebecca A.; Reyes-Fernandez, Perla; Wang, Libo; Zhang, Min; Clinkenbeard, Erica L.; White, Kenneth E.

    2016-01-01

    1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25[OH]2D) regulates calcium (Ca), phosphate, and bone metabolism. Serum 1,25(OH)2D levels are reduced by low vitamin D status and high fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) levels and increased by low Ca intake and high PTH levels. Natural genetic variation controls serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) levels, but it is unclear how it controls serum 1,25(OH)2D or the response of serum 1,25(OH)2D levels to dietary Ca restriction (RCR). Male mice from 11 inbred lines and from 51 BXD recombinant inbred lines were fed diets with either 0.5% (basal) or 0.25% Ca from 4 to 12 weeks of age (n = 8 per line per diet). Significant variation among the lines was found in basal serum 1,25(OH)2D and in the RCR as well as basal serum 25(OH)D and FGF23 levels. 1,25(OH)2D was not correlated to 25(OH)D but was negatively correlated to FGF23 (r = −0.5). Narrow sense heritability of 1,25(OH)2D was 0.67 on the 0.5% Ca diet, 0.66 on the 0.25% Ca diet, and 0.59 for the RCR, indicating a strong genetic control of serum 1,25(OH)2D. Genetic mapping revealed many loci controlling 1,25(OH)2D (seven loci) and the RCR (three loci) as well as 25(OH)D (four loci) and FGF23 (two loci); a locus on chromosome 18 controlled both 1,25(OH)2D and FGF23. Candidate genes underlying loci include the following: Ets1 (1,25[OH]2D), Elac1 (FGF23 and 1,25[OH]2D), Tbc1d15 (RCR), Plekha8 and Lyplal1 (25[OH]D), and Trim35 (FGF23). This report is the first to reveal that serum 1,25(OH)2D levels are controlled by multiple genetic factors and that some of these genetic loci interact with the dietary environment. PMID:26587785

  5. Short communication: A missense mutation in the PROP1 (prophet of Pit 1) gene affects male fertility and milk production traits in the US Holstein population.

    PubMed

    Lan, X Y; Peñagaricano, F; DeJung, L; Weigel, K A; Khatib, H

    2013-02-01

    In previous studies, we reported significant associations of the POU1F1 pathway genes with reproduction and production traits in several dairy cattle populations. Polymorphisms in genes of this pathway were found to be associated with both female and male fertility traits in dairy cattle. The POU1F1 gene is a direct downstream target for the regulation of the prophet of Pit1 (PROP1) gene, also known as PROP paired-like homeobox 1. Interestingly, the position of PROP1 coincides with a quantitative trait locus affecting ovulation rate in cattle. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate whether PROP1 affects fertility and milk production traits in Holstein cattle. Using the DNA pooling sequencing approach, a missense single nucleotide polymorphism that replaces a histidine amino acid with an arginine was detected in exon 3 of PROP1. The arginine allele was found to be associated with a decrease in sire conception rate and an increase in productive life, protein yield, and net merit index in a population of 1,951 Holstein bulls. The transcription factors produced from the histidine and arginine isoforms are known to have different transcription, DNA binding, and regulation activities. As such, we propose that the association of the arginine isoform with decreased bull fertility is likely caused by reduced activity of this allele in male functions. The findings of this study suggest PROP1 polymorphisms as candidates in selection programs for fertility, health, and milk production traits in dairy cattle.

  6. Does blood transfusion affect pituitary gonadal axis and sperm parameters in young males with sickle cell disease?

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Ashraf T.; Yasin, Mohamed; El-Awwa, Ahmed; Abdelrahman, Mohamed O.; De Sanctis, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    Objective: We evaluated the effect of packed red cell transfusion (PCTx) on serum concentrations of gonadotropins luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone (LH and FSH) and testosterone (T) levels and measured sperm parameters in young adults with sickle cell disease (SCD) on top-up transfusion (TTx) and those on exchange transfusion (ETx) regimen. Materials and Methods: Basal serum concentrations of FSH, LH, and T and semen parameters were evaluated before and 7 days after PCTx in 18 young adults with transfusion-dependent SCD, aged 20.7 ± 2.88 years. They had full pubertal development (Tanner's stage 5), and capacity to ejaculate. They were regularly transfused since early childhood. Chelation therapy was started early during the first 2 years of life using desferrioxamine and was replaced by deferasirox for the last 4-5 years. Ten patients were on TTx and eight were on ETx regimen. Results: PCTx significantly increased hemoglobin (Hb) from 8.5 ± 1.17 g/dl to 10.5 ± 0.4 g/dl, T from 12.3 ± 1.24 nmol/L to 14.23 ± 1.22 nmol/L and gonadotropins’ concentrations. Sperm parameters improved significantly after PCTx including: total sperm count from 87.4 ± 24.6 million/ml to 146.2 ± 51.25 million/ml, total progressive sperm motility (TPM) from 40.8 ± 11.1 million/ml to 93.4 ± 38.3 million/ml, rapid progressive sperm motility (RPM) progressive motility from 29.26 ± 8.75 million/ml to 67.4 ± 29 million/ml. After PCTx the total sperm count, TPM and RPM were significantly better in the ETx group versus the TTx group. Before and after PCTx, T concentrations were correlated significantly with sperm total count, volume, TPM and RPM (r = 0.53, 0.55, 0.42, and 0.38, respectively, P < 0.01). Hb concentrations were correlated significantly with sperm count, TPM, RPM, and % of sperms with normal morphology (r = 0.60, 0.69, 0.66, and 0.86, respectively, P < 0.001). Conclusion: Our study suggests that in males with SCD blood transfusion is associated with

  7. A DUF-246 family glycosyltransferase-like gene affects male fertility and the biosynthesis of pectic arabinogalactans

    DOE PAGES

    Stonebloom, Solomon; Ebert, Berit; Xiong, Guangyan; ...

    2016-04-18

    We report pectins are a group of structurally complex plant cell wall polysaccharides whose biosynthesis and function remain poorly understood. The pectic polysaccharide rhamnogalacturonan-I (RG-I) has two types of arabinogalactan side chains, type-I and type-II arabinogalactans. To date few enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of pectin have been described. Here we report the identification of a highly conserved putative glycosyltransferase encoding gene, Pectic ArabinoGalactan synthesis-Related (PAGR), affecting the biosynthesis of RG-I arabinogalactans and critical for pollen tube growth. T-DNA insertions in PAGR were identified in Arabidopsis thaliana and were found to segregate at a 1:1 ratio of heterozygotes to wildmore » type. We were unable to isolate homozygous pagr mutants as pagr mutant alleles were not transmitted via pollen. In vitro pollen germination assays revealed reduced rates of pollen tube formation in pollen from pagr heterozygotes. To characterize a loss-of-function phenotype for PAGR, the Nicotiana benthamiana orthologs, NbPAGR-A and B, were transiently silenced using Virus Induced Gene Silencing. NbPAGR-silenced plants exhibited reduced internode and petiole expansion. Cell wall materials from NbPAGR-silenced plants had reduced galactose content compared to the control. Immunological and linkage analyses support that RG-I has reduced type-I arabinogalactan content and reduced branching of the RG-I backbone in NbPAGR-silenced plants. Arabidopsis lines overexpressing PAGR exhibit pleiotropic developmental phenotypes and the loss of apical dominance as well as an increase in RG-I type-II arabinogalactan content. Together, results support a function for PAGR in the biosynthesis of RG-I arabinogalactans and illustrate the essential roles of these polysaccharides in vegetative and reproductive plant growth.« less

  8. A DUF-246 family glycosyltransferase-like gene affects male fertility and the biosynthesis of pectic arabinogalactans

    SciTech Connect

    Stonebloom, Solomon; Ebert, Berit; Xiong, Guangyan; Pattathil, Sivakumar; Birdseye, Devon; Lao, Jeemeng; Pauly, Markus; Hahn, Michael G.; Heazlewood, Joshua L.; Scheller, Henrik Vibe

    2016-04-18

    We report pectins are a group of structurally complex plant cell wall polysaccharides whose biosynthesis and function remain poorly understood. The pectic polysaccharide rhamnogalacturonan-I (RG-I) has two types of arabinogalactan side chains, type-I and type-II arabinogalactans. To date few enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of pectin have been described. Here we report the identification of a highly conserved putative glycosyltransferase encoding gene, Pectic ArabinoGalactan synthesis-Related (PAGR), affecting the biosynthesis of RG-I arabinogalactans and critical for pollen tube growth. T-DNA insertions in PAGR were identified in Arabidopsis thaliana and were found to segregate at a 1:1 ratio of heterozygotes to wild type. We were unable to isolate homozygous pagr mutants as pagr mutant alleles were not transmitted via pollen. In vitro pollen germination assays revealed reduced rates of pollen tube formation in pollen from pagr heterozygotes. To characterize a loss-of-function phenotype for PAGR, the Nicotiana benthamiana orthologs, NbPAGR-A and B, were transiently silenced using Virus Induced Gene Silencing. NbPAGR-silenced plants exhibited reduced internode and petiole expansion. Cell wall materials from NbPAGR-silenced plants had reduced galactose content compared to the control. Immunological and linkage analyses support that RG-I has reduced type-I arabinogalactan content and reduced branching of the RG-I backbone in NbPAGR-silenced plants. Arabidopsis lines overexpressing PAGR exhibit pleiotropic developmental phenotypes and the loss of apical dominance as well as an increase in RG-I type-II arabinogalactan content. Together, results support a function for PAGR in the biosynthesis of RG-I arabinogalactans and illustrate the essential roles of these polysaccharides in vegetative and reproductive plant growth.

  9. Sigma virus and male reproductive success in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Pattanaik, Swetapadma; Johnson, Laura; Matos, Luis F.; Brusini, Jérémie; Wayne, Marta L.

    2016-01-01

    The risk of disease transmission can affect female mating rate, and thus sexual conflict. Furthermore, the interests of a sexually transmitted organism may align or diverge with those of either sex, potentially making the disease agent a third participant in the sexual arms race. In Drosophila melanogaster, where sexual conflict over female mating rate is well established, we investigated how a common, non-lethal virus (sigma virus) might affect this conflict. We gave uninfected females the opportunity to copulate twice in no-choice trials: either with two uninfected males, or with one male infected with sigma virus followed by an uninfected male. We assessed whether females respond behaviorally to male infection, determined whether male infection affects either female or male reproductive success, and measured offspring infection rates. Male infection status did not influence time to copulation, or time to re-mating. However, male infection did affect male reproductive success: first males sired a significantly greater proportion of offspring, as well as more total offspring, when they were infected with sigma virus. Thus viral infection may provide males an advantage in sperm competition, or, possibly, females may preferentially use infected sperm. We found no clear costs of infection in terms of offspring survival. Viral reproductive success (the number of infected offspring) was strongly correlated with male reproductive success. Further studies are needed to demonstrate whether virus-induced changes in reproductive success affect male and female lifetime fitness, and whether virus-induced changes are under male, female, or viral control. PMID:27616808

  10. Breeding resource distribution affects selection gradients on male phenotypic traits: experimental study on lifetime reproductive success in the bitterling fish (Rhodeus amarus).

    PubMed

    Reichard, Martin; Ondracková, Markéta; Bryjová, Anna; Smith, Carl; Bryja, Josef

    2009-02-01

    The spatial distribution of breeding resources can have pronounced demographic and evolutionary consequences. We used 20 experimental groups of the bitterling (Rhodeus amarus), an annual fish with a promiscuous, resource-based mating system, and extended breeding season to investigate how the spatial distribution (clumped or regular) of bitterling oviposition sites (live freshwater mussels) affected offspring production, variation in reproductive success, and directional selection on phenotypic traits over their entire reproductive lifetime. We did not detect any effect of resource distribution on offspring production or variation in reproductive success among individual fish, although variation between replicates was higher with a clumped distribution. This finding is discussed with regard to the incidence of alternative mating behaviors (sneaking) within the limitations imposed by our experimental design. Breeding resource distribution had a significant effect on selection on male phenotypic traits. Stronger directional selection on traits associated with intrasexual competition for fertilizations, gonad mass (an indicator of sperm competition), and the extent of red, carotenoid-based pigment in the iris (an index of dominance status), was detected with a clumped resource distribution. With a regular resource distribution, a stronger positive selection on male body size was detected. We discuss the implications of our results for natural populations.

  11. On-ground housing in “Mice Drawer System” (MDS) cage affects locomotor behaviour but not anxiety in male mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simone, Luciano; Bartolomucci, Alessandro; Palanza, Paola; Parmigiani, Stefano

    2008-03-01

    In the present study adult male mice were housed for 21 days in a housing modules of the Mice Drawer System (MDS). MDS is the facility that will support the research on board the International Space Station (ISS). Our investigation focused on: circadian rhythmicity of wide behavioural categories such as locomotor activity, food intake/drinking and resting; emotionality in the elevated plus maze (EPM); body weight. Housing in the MDS determined a strong up-regulation of activity and feeding behaviour and a concomitant decrease in inactivity. Importantly, housing in the MDS disrupted circadian rhythmicity in mice and also determined a decrease in body weight. Finally, when mice were tested in the EPM a clear hyperactivity (i.e. increased total transitions) was found, while no evidence for altered anxiety was detected. In conclusion, housing adult male mice in the MDS housing modules may affect their behaviour, circadian rhythmicity while having no effect on anxiety. It is suggested that to allow adaptation to the peculiar housing allowed by MDS a longer housing duration is needed.

  12. Supplementation of Eurycoma longifolia Jack Extract for 6 Weeks Does Not Affect Urinary Testosterone: Epitestosterone Ratio, Liver and Renal Functions in Male Recreational Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chee Keong; Mohamad, Wan Mohd Zahiruddin Wan; Ooi, Foong Kiew; Ismail, Shaiful Bahari; Abdullah, Mohamad Rusli; George, Annie

    2014-01-01

    Background: Eurycoma longifolia Jack (ElJ) has been shown to elevate serum testosterone and increased muscle strength in humans. This study investigated the effects of Physta® a standardized water extract of ElJ (400 mg/day for 6 weeks) on testosterone: epitestosterone (T:E) ratio, liver and renal functions in male recreational athletes. Methods: A total of 13 healthy male recreational athletes were recruited in this double blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study. The participants were required to consume either 400 mg of ElJ or placebo daily for 6 weeks in the first supplementation regimen. Following a 3 week wash-out period, the participants were requested to consume the other supplement for another 6 weeks. Mid-stream urine samples and blood samples were collected prior to and after 6 weeks of supplementation with either ElJ or placebo. The urine samples were subsequently analyzed for T:E ratio while the blood samples were analyzed for liver and renal functions. Results: T:E ratio was not significantly different following 6 weeks supplementation of either ElJ or placebo compared with their respective baseline values. Similarly, there were no significant changes in both the liver and renal functions tests following the supplementation of ElJ. Conclusions: Supplementation of ElJ i.e. Physta® at a dosage of 400 mg/day for 6 weeks did not affect the urinary T:E ratio and hence will not breach any doping policies of the International Olympic Committee for administration of exogenous testosterone or its precursor. In addition, the supplementation of ElJ at this dosage and duration was safe as it did adversely affect the liver and renal functions. PMID:25013692

  13. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha during neonatal brain development affects anxiety- and depression-related behaviors in adult male and female mice.

    PubMed

    Babri, Shirin; Doosti, Mohammad-Hossein; Salari, Ali-Akbar

    2014-03-15

    A nascent literature suggests that neonatal infection is a risk factor for the development of brain, behavior and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis which can affect anxiety- and depression-related behaviors in later life. It has been documented that neonatal infection raises the concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in neonate rodents and such infections may result in neonatal brain injury, at least in part, through pro-inflammatory cytokines. In addition, previous studies have shown that TNF-α is involved in cellular differentiation, neurogenesis and programmed cell death during the development of the central nervous system. We investigated for the first time whether neonatal exposure to TNF-α can affect body weight, stress-induced corticosterone (COR), anxiety- and depression-related behaviors in adult mice. In the present study, neonatal mice were treated to recombinant mouse TNF-α (0.2, 0.4, 0.7 and 1 μg/kg) or saline on postnatal days 3 and 5, then adult male and female mice were exposed to different behavioral tests. The results indicated that neonatal TNF-α treatment reduced body weight in neonatal period in both sexes. In addition, this study presents findings indicating that high doses of TNF- increase stress-induced COR levels, anxiety- and depression-related behaviors in adult males, but increase levels of anxiety without significantly influencing depression in adult female mice [corrected]. Our findings suggest that TNF-α exposure during neonatal period can alter brain and behavior development in a dose and sex-dependent manner in mice.

  14. Low protein provision during the first year of life, but not during foetal life, affects metabolic traits, organ mass development and growth in male mink (Neovison vison).

    PubMed

    Vesterdorf, K; Blache, D; Harrison, A; Matthiesen, C F; Tauson, A-H

    2014-04-01

    Low protein provision in utero and post-partum may induce metabolic disorders in adulthood. Studies in mink have mainly focused on short-term consequences of low protein provision in utero whereas the long-term responses to low protein (LP) provision in metabolically programmed mink are unknown. We investigated whether low protein provision in utero affects the long-term response to adequate (AP) or LP provision after weaning in male mink. Eighty-six male mink were exposed to low (19% of ME from CP; crude protein) or adequate (31% of ME from CP) protein provision in utero, and to LP (~20% of ME from CP) or AP (30-42% of ME from CP) provision post-weaning. Being metabolically programmed by low protein provision in utero did not affect the response to post-weaning diets. Dietary protein content in the LP feed after weaning was below requirements; evidenced by lower nitrogen retention (p < 0.001) preventing LP mink from attaining their growth potential (p < 0.02). LP mink had a lower liver, pancreas and kidney weight (p < 0.05) as well as lower plasma IGF-1 concentrations at 8 and 25 (p < 0.05) weeks, and a higher incidence of hepatic lipidosis at 25 weeks (p < 0.05). Furthermore, LP mink had a higher body fat (p < 0.05) and lower body CP content (p < 0.05) at 50 weeks of age. It is concluded that some effects of low protein provision in utero can be alleviated by an adequate nutrient supply post-partum. However, long-term exposure to low protein provision in mink reduces their growth potential and induces transient hepatic lipidosis and modified body composition.

  15. Neonatal treatment with lipopolysaccharide differentially affects adult anxiety responses in the light-dark test and taste neophobia test in male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Tenk, Christine M; Kavaliers, Martin; Ossenkopp, Klaus-Peter

    2013-05-01

    Neonatal administration of the bacterial cell wall component, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has been shown to alter a variety of behavioural and physiological processes in the adult rat, including altering adult anxiety-like behaviour. Research conducted to date, however, has produced conflicting findings with some results demonstrating increases in adult anxiety-like behaviour while others report decreases or no changes in anxiety-like behaviour. Thus, the current study conducted additional evaluation of the effects of neonatal LPS exposure on adult anxiety-like behaviours by comparing the behavioural outcomes in the more traditional light-dark test, together with the less common hyponeophagia to sucrose solution paradigm. Male and female Long-Evans rats were treated systemically with either LPS (50μg/kg) or saline (0.9%) on postnatal days 3 and 5. Animals were then tested in the light-dark apparatus on postnatal day 90 for 30min. Next, following 5 days of habituation to distilled water delivery in Lickometer drinking boxes, animal were tested for neophagia to a 10% sucrose solution (0.3M) for 30min daily on postnatal days 96 and 97. In the light-dark test, neonatal LPS treatment decreased adult anxiety-like behaviour in females, but not males. In contrast, neonatal exposure to LPS did not influence adult anxiety-like behaviour as measured by hyponeophagia, but altered the licking patterns of drinking displayed towards a novel, palatable sucrose solution in adult males and females, in a manner that may reflect a decrease in situational anxiety. The current study supports the idea that neonatal LPS treatment results in highly specific alterations of adult anxiety-like behaviour, the nature of which seems to depend not only on the measure of anxiety behaviour used, but also possibly, on the degree of anxiety experienced during the behavioural test.

  16. Social stress in pregnant squirrel monkeys (Saimiri boliviensis peruviensis) differentially affects placental transfer of maternal antibody to male and female infants.

    PubMed

    Coe, C L; Crispen, H R

    2000-11-01

    The capacity of prenatal stress to disrupt the placental transfer of maternal antibody was evaluated in neonatal squirrel monkeys (Saimiri boliviensis peruviensis) gestated under different pregnancy conditions. Normal squirrel monkey offspring (n = 63) were compared with infants generated from pregnancies that involved either a single or 3 periods of disturbance (ns = 21 and 29, respectively). At parturition, levels of antibody (IgG) were determined in mothers and neonates. Only the chronic disturbance condition significantly altered antibody levels in the mothers, resulting in lower IgG. Antibody transfer to the fetus was also affected only by chronic disturbance. In this case the effect was bidirectional, influenced by the sex of the infant. Males were born with lower levels, whereas female infants actually had higher-than-normal IgG, despite lower titers in their mothers. Because virtually all IgG is derived from the prenatal transfer of maternal antibody, it indicates that the sex of the fetus differentially affected this placental process. The IgG receptor may have been up-regulated selectively on the placentas of female fetuses, compensating for reduced antibody in the disturbed mothers.

  17. Short-term exposure to low concentrations of the synthetic androgen methyltestosterone affects vitellogenin and steroid levels in adult male zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Andersen, Lene; Goto-Kazeto, Rie; Trant, John M; Nash, Jon P; Korsgaard, Bodil; Bjerregaard, Poul

    2006-03-10

    Short-term effects of methyltestosterone (MT) on the endocrine system of adult male zebrafish (Danio rerio) were examined. Males were exposed to 0, 4.5, 6.6, 8.5, 19.8, 35.9, 62.3 ng MT/l and ethinylestradiol (EE2) (26.4 ng/l) for 7 days. Several physiological endpoints that may be affected by endocrine disrupters were analysed, specifically vitellogenin (VTG) concentration, estradiol (E2), testosterone (T), and 11-ketotestosterone (KT) content, brain aromatase activity and gene expression of CYP19A1 and CYP19A2 in the testis. Exposure to the lowest MT concentration (4.5 ng MT/l), and the EE2 increased the concentration of VTG significantly compared to solvent control group. Exposure to higher concentrations of MT did not increase VTG levels. Endogenous KT and T levels decreased significantly in a concentration-dependent manner in response to the MT exposure and the lowest effective concentrations were 6.4 and 8.5 ng MT/l, respectively. The levels of KT and T were also significantly suppressed by EE2 when compared to the solvent control group. Significant decreases in endogenous E2 levels were found in some MT groups but it was not possible to distinguish a simple concentration-response relationship. No effects of MT or EE2 on the brain aromatase activity or on testicular gene expression of CYP19A1 and CYP19A2 were detected. The results show that androgens such as MT can act as endocrine disrupters even at very low concentrations.

  18. Male contraception.

    PubMed

    Wang, Christina; Swerdloff, Ronald S

    2002-04-01

    Currently approved male-directed contraceptive methods include condoms and vas occlusion. Vas occlusion is very effective but is intended to be non-reversible. Condoms have a relatively high failure rate, at least partially due to compliance problems and are not accepted by many couples. The only other male-oriented methods in clinical trials utilize the administration of testosterone alone or its combination with another gonadotropin-suppressing agent such as a progestin or a gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist. Studies published in the 1990s demonstrated that a testosterone-containing hormonal contraceptive method suppressed spermatogenesis to azoospermia in most men and severe oligozoospermia in the remaining. The contraceptive efficacy after treatment with testosterone alone was comparable to that of female hormonal methods. Having proven that reversible male contraception is a reality, present trials are attempting to identify the best androgen delivery system and the most effective androgen plus progestin preparation. It is likely that the first marketed male hormonal contraceptive method will be a long-acting (injectable or implant) combination of an androgen plus a progestin. Research is continuing to identify other target areas for male contraceptive development, including agents with post-testicular and epididymal sites of action.

  19. Early hyperandrogenism affects the development of hippocampal function: preliminary evidence from a functional magnetic resonance imaging study of boys with familial male precocious puberty.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Sven C; Mandell, Darcy; Leschek, Ellen W; Pine, Daniel S; Merke, Deborah P; Ernst, Monique

    2009-02-01

    The way in which sex hormones influence cognitive and affective brain development is poorly understood. Despite increasing knowledge in the area of pediatric mood disorders, little is known about the influence of sex hormones on the regulation of emotion. Animal studies and preliminary human studies suggest a strong impact of testosterone on limbic structures such as the hippocampus and amygdala. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine emotional processing in familial male-precocious puberty (FMPP), an extremely rare gonadotropin-independent form of precocious puberty characterized by early excess testosterone secretion. We compared this group (n = 7, mean age = 13 +/- 3.3 years) to healthy age and sex-matched controls (n = 14, mean age = 13 +/- 2.3 years). Participants were presented with emotional and neutral face stimuli and were required either to judge the hostility of the presented face, their subjective level of anxiety, or the width of the nose of the presented faces (nonemotional condition). In a fourth, passive viewing condition, no responses were required. Boys with FMPP responded faster to fearful faces during perception of threat compared to unaffected controls. Concurrently, fMRI data revealed significant differences in hippocampus activation in response to fearful faces relative to baseline whereas controls showed no differences. In contrast, no significant activation of the amygdala was found. These data are consistent with previous studies of the effects of sex hormones on brain function and support the role of testosterone on emotional development.

  20. Family affection as a protective factor against the negative effects of perceived Asian values gap on the parent-child relationship for Asian American male and female college students.

    PubMed

    Park, Yong S; Vo, Leyna P; Tsong, Yuying

    2009-01-01

    The study examined whether family affection (i.e., affective responsiveness, affectionate communication, and affective orientation) protected against the negative effects of perceived parent-child Asian values gap on the quality of their parent relationships for 259 female and 77 male Asian American college students. Asian values gap was higher for women than men, and inversely related to a perceived healthy parent-child relationship for both genders. Participants rated the relationship with their mothers as more positive and affectionate than with their fathers. Both parents were reported to communicate more supportive affection than verbal and nonverbal affection. Affective responsiveness was identified as a protective factor in the father-son relationship whereas verbal affection protected the mother-daughter relationship. The study also revealed that daughters' affective orientation had beneficial effects on the father-daughter relationship at lower levels of Asian values gap. Clinical implications and directions for future research are discussed.

  1. 40 CFR 60.5410 - How do I demonstrate initial compliance with the standards for my gas well affected facility, my...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... affected facility, and my equipment leaks and sweetening unit affected facilities at onshore natural gas... Performance for Crude Oil and Natural Gas Production, Transmission and Distribution § 60.5410 How do I... at onshore natural gas processing plants? You must determine initial compliance with the...

  2. 40 CFR 60.5410 - How do I demonstrate initial compliance with the standards for my gas well affected facility, my...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... affected facility, and my equipment leaks and sweetening unit affected facilities at onshore natural gas... Performance for Crude Oil and Natural Gas Production, Transmission and Distribution § 60.5410 How do I... at onshore natural gas processing plants? You must determine initial compliance with the...

  3. Melamine and/or formaldehyde exposures affect steroidogenesis via alteration of StAR protein and testosterone synthetic enzyme expression in male mice.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Samah R; Awad, Ashraf; Ali, Sozan A

    2017-03-01

    The reproductive effects of melamine and formaldehyde, either alone or in combination, on mature male Swiss mice were investigated. The animals were orally administered melamine (50mg/kg/day), formaldehyde (25mg/kg/day), a mixture of melamine and formaldehyde, or a vehicle control for 65 consecutive days. As a result, the deterioration of sperm characteristics and inhibition of testicular enzyme activity were observed in the melamine- and formaldehyde-exposed groups. In addition, testosterone and luteinizing hormone levels were significantly reduced in the melamine but not in the formaldehyde-exposed group, which correlated with down-regulation of transcription levels of steroidogenic-related genes. Histopathologically, both compounds caused lesions in the testes. However, the co-exposure reduced the induced alterations in spermatogenesis, steroidogenesis, and testicular architecture that were obviously observed in the melamine-exposed group. Consequently, we demonstrated that melamine exhibited more pronounced reproductive impact in comparison with formaldehyde. In addition, formaldehyde was able to substantially temper the melamine -induced reproductive toxic effect.

  4. Peripubertal exposure to low doses of tributyltin chloride affects the homeostasis of serum T, E2, LH, and body weight of male mice.

    PubMed

    Si, Jiliang; Wu, Xuesen; Wan, Chengen; Zeng, Tao; Zhang, Miao; Xie, Keqin; Li, Jie

    2011-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that tributyltin could act as an endocrine disruptor in mammals. However, the data on the low-dose effect of tributyltin in animals are still lacking. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the endocrine disruption induced by low levels of tributyltin chloride (TBTCl) in male KM mice. The animals were treated with 0.05 or 0.5 mg TBTCl/kg body weight/3 days from postnatal days (PNDs) 24 to 45, and killed on PNDs 49 and 84, respectively. Mice treated with 0.5 mg TBTCl/kg exhibited decreased serum and intratesticular testosterone (T) levels on PND 49 and then followed by an obvious recovery on PND 84. Furthermore, mice treated with 0.05 mg TBTCl/kg showed reduced serum 17β-estradiol (E2) levels on PND 49. However, treatments with TBTCl resulted in a dose-dependent increase in serum E2 concentration of the mice on PND 84. Administration of TBTCl also decreased levels of serum luteinizing hormone and intratesticular E2 on PND 84. In addition, mice exposed to 0.05 mg/kg TBTCl exhibited an increase in body weight in the late stage of the experiment. These results indicate that treatment with low doses of TBTCl could disturb hormone homeostasis and body weight gain in rodents, and exposure to different levels of TBTCl might have different effects on changing some physiologic parameters.

  5. Early Hyperandrogenism Affects the Development of Hippocampal Function: Preliminary Evidence from a Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study of Boys with Familial Male Precocious Puberty

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Sven C.; Mandell, Darcy; Leschek, Ellen W.; Pine, Daniel S.; Merke, Deborah P.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The way in which sex hormones influence cognitive and affective brain development is poorly understood. Despite increasing knowledge in the area of pediatric mood disorders, little is known about the influence of sex hormones on the regulation of emotion. Animal studies and preliminary human studies suggest a strong impact of testosterone on limbic structures such as the hippocampus and amygdala. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine emotional processing in familial male-precocious puberty (FMPP), an extremely rare gonadotropin-independent form of precocious puberty characterized by early excess testosterone secretion. We compared this group (n = 7, mean age = 13 ± 3.3 years) to healthy age and sex-matched controls (n = 14, mean age = 13 ± 2.3 years). Participants were presented with emotional and neutral face stimuli and were required either to judge the hostility of the presented face, their subjective level of anxiety, or the width of the nose of the presented faces (nonemotional condition). In a fourth, passive viewing condition, no responses were required. Boys with FMPP responded faster to fearful faces during perception of threat compared to unaffected controls. Concurrently, fMRI data revealed significant differences in hippocampus activation in response to fearful faces relative to baseline whereas controls showed no differences. In contrast, no significant activation of the amygdala was found. These data are consistent with previous studies of the effects of sex hormones on brain function and support the role of testosterone on emotional development. PMID:19232022

  6. Long-term pyrene exposure of grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio, affects molting and reproduction of exposed males and offspring of exposed females.

    PubMed Central

    Oberdörster, E; Brouwer, M; Hoexum-Brouwer, T; Manning, S; McLachlan, J A

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of long-term pyrene exposure on molting and reproduction in the model estuarine invertebrate, the grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio). Grass shrimp were exposed to measured concentrations of 5.1, 15.0, and 63. 4 ppb (microg/L) pyrene for 6 weeks, during which time we determined molting and survivorship. At the end of the exposure, we immediately sacrificed some of the shrimp for biomarker (CYP1A and vitellin) analyses. The remaining shrimp were used to analyze fecundity and embryo survivorship during an additional 6 weeks after termination of pyrene exposure. Male shrimp at the highest pyrene dose (63 ppb) experienced a significant delay in molting and in time until reproduction, and showed elevated ethoxycoumarin o-deethylase (ECOD) activity immediately after the 6-week exposure period. In contrast, 63 ppb pyrene did not affect these parameters in female shrimp. Females produced the same number of eggs per body weight, with high egg viability (98-100%) at all exposure levels, but with decreased survival for the offspring of the 63-ppb pyrene-exposed females. In addition, vitellin levels were elevated only in females at 63 ppb pyrene after the 6-week exposure. We hypothesize that the elevated vitellin binds pyrene and keeps it biologically unavailable to adult females, resulting in maternal transfer of pyrene to the embryos. This would account for the lack of effect of pyrene exposure on ECOD activity, molting, and reproduction in the adult females, and for reduced survival of their offspring. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:10903618

  7. Orthopedic, ophthalmic, and psychiatric diseases primarily affect activity limitation for Japanese males and females: Based on the Comprehensive Survey of Living Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Myojin, Tomoya; Ojima, Toshiyuki; Kikuchi, Keiko; Okada, Eisaku; Shibata, Yosuke; Nakamura, Mieko; Hashimoto, Shuji

    2016-01-01

    Background Healthy life expectancy (HLE) is used as one of the primary objectives of fundamental health promotion plans and social development plans. Activity limitation is used to calculate HLE, but little study has been done to identify determinants of activity limitation in order to extend HLE. The purpose of this study is to identify diseases and injuries that commonly lead to activity limitation to prioritize countermeasures against activity limitation. Methods We used anonymous data from the 2007 “Comprehensive Survey of Living Conditions,” collected by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan according to the Statistics Act, Article 36. We used logistic regression analyses and calculated odds ratios (ORs) after adjusting for age and sex. Limitation in daily activities was applied as the dependent variable, and each disease/injury was applied as an independent variable in this analysis. Furthermore, population attributable fractions (PAFs) were calculated. Results The provided data included 98,789 subjects. We used data for 75,986 valid subjects aged 12 years or older. The following diseases showed high PAF: backache (PAF 13.27%, OR 3.88), arthropathia (PAF 7.61%, OR 4.82), eye and optical diseases (PAF 6.39%, OR 2.01), and depression and other mental diseases (PAF 5.70%, OR 11.55). PAFs of cerebrovascular diseases, hypertension, and diabetes were higher for males than for females; on the other hand, PAFs of orthopedic diseases were higher among females. Conclusions Our results indicate that orthopedic diseases, ophthalmic diseases, and psychiatric diseases particularly affect activity limitation. PMID:28142015

  8. In utero exposure to dietheylhexyl phthalate differentially affects fetal testosterone and insl3 levels in the testes of male Sprague Dawley and Wistar rats: A dose response study

    EPA Science Inventory

    We previously reported that 750 mg/kg/day of diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) administered in utero during the period of sex differentiation resulted in a higher prevalence of gubernacular lesions in male Wistar offspring than in the male Sprague Dawley (SD) rat offspring, whereas D...

  9. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1979-01-01

    Presents two demonstrations which are intended for chemistry college students. These demonstrations are: (1) enhancement of concentration quenching by micelles; and (2) the thermite lecture demonstration. (HM)

  10. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Procedures for two demonstrations are presented. The first is a demonstration of chemiluminescence. The second is a demonstration using a secondary battery constructed from common household articles. (JN)

  11. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1978-01-01

    Presents the following chemistry lecture demonstrations and experiments: (1) a versatile kinetic demonstration; (2) the Bakelite Demonstration; (3) applying Beer's law; and (4) entropy calculations. (HM)

  12. [Male contraception].

    PubMed

    Demoulin, A

    1984-04-01

    Among the reasons why male hormonal contraception has lagged behind female methods are the necessity of preserving virility, the fact that spermatogenesis is a continuous process, the need to control secondary effects and toxicity, and the requirement that modes of administration be acceptable to both partners. Among currently available reversible mehtods, withdrawal is undoubtedly the most ancient. It is still widespread but cannot be recommended because of its limited effectiveness. The condom is used by about 10% of couples worldwide as a principal or temporary method, but its inter-ference with sensation has limited its acceptance. Condoms are nevertheless highly effective when used with a spermicide. Various androgens are currently under investigation. High doses of testosterone can induce azoospermia without affecting libido but their side effects may be serious. The use of combinations of steroids permits doses to be reduced and offers promise for the future. The combination of oral medroxyprogesterone acetate and percutaneous testosterone is one of the better approaches; the combination is effective and nontoxic but has the disadvantage of percutaneous administration. Gossypol, a pigment extracted from the cotton plant, has been used as a contraceptive in China with a reported efficacy of 99.89%, recovery of fertility within 3 months, and no effect on future fertility. However, its toxicity appears to be significant in the animal and its reversibility is uncertain. A search is on for analogs which would preserve the contraceptive effects while eliminating toxic effects. Several gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) analogs under investigation for their interference with spermatogenesis have given promising results. Several chemicals tested for contraceptive effects have had unacceptably high toxicity. Chinese investigators have reported good results with various physical methods of interfering with sperm production, but their reversibility and innocuity

  13. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Details three demonstrations for use in chemistry classrooms. Includes: "A Demonstration of Corrosion by Differential Aeration"; "A Simple Demonstration of the Activation Energy Concept"; and "A Boiling Demonstration at Room Temperature." Each description includes equipment, materials, and methods. (CW)

  14. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Describes two chemistry demonstrations including a demonstration of chemical inhibition and "The Rayleigh Fountain" which demonstrates the polarity of the water molecule. Provides instructions and explanations for each demonstration. (CW)

  15. PROCHLORAZ INHIBITS TESTOSTERONE PRODUCTION AT DOSAGE BELOW THOSE THAT AFFECT ANDROGEN-DEPENDENT ORGAN WEIGHTS OR THE ONSET OF PUBERTY IN THE MALE SPRAGUE DAWLEY RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT: Since prochloraz (PCZ) is an imidazole fungicide that inhibits gonadal steroidogenesis and antagonizes the androgen receptor (AR), we hypothesized that pubertal exposure to PCZ would delay male rat reproductive development. Sprague Dawley rats were dosed by gavage with...

  16. Consistent male-male paternity differences across female genotypes.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Craig D H; Wapstra, Erik; Olsson, Mats

    2009-04-23

    In a recent paper, we demonstrated that male-female genetic relatedness determines male probability of paternity in experimental sperm competition in the Peron's tree frog (Litoria peronii), with a more closely related male outcompeting his rival. Here, we test the hypothesis that a male-male difference in siring success with one female significantly predicts the corresponding difference in siring success with another female. With male sperm concentration held constant, and the proportion of viable sperm controlled statistically, the male-male difference in siring success with one female strongly predicted the corresponding difference in siring success with another female, and alone explained more than 62 per cent of the variance in male-male siring differences. This study demonstrates that male siring success is primarily dictated by among-male differences in innate siring success with less influence of male-female relatedness.

  17. Male circumcision.

    PubMed

    2012-09-01

    Male circumcision consists of the surgical removal of some, or all, of the foreskin (or prepuce) from the penis. It is one of the most common procedures in the world. In the United States, the procedure is commonly performed during the newborn period. In 2007, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) convened a multidisciplinary workgroup of AAP members and other stakeholders to evaluate the evidence regarding male circumcision and update the AAP's 1999 recommendations in this area. The Task Force included AAP representatives from specialty areas as well as members of the AAP Board of Directors and liaisons representing the American Academy of Family Physicians, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The Task Force members identified selected topics relevant to male circumcision and conducted a critical review of peer-reviewed literature by using the American Heart Association's template for evidence evaluation. Evaluation of current evidence indicates that the health benefits of newborn male circumcision outweigh the risks; furthermore, the benefits of newborn male circumcision justify access to this procedure for families who choose it. Specific benefits from male circumcision were identified for the prevention of urinary tract infections, acquisition of HIV, transmission of some sexually transmitted infections, and penile cancer. Male circumcision does not appear to adversely affect penile sexual function/sensitivity or sexual satisfaction. It is imperative that those providing circumcision are adequately trained and that both sterile techniques and effective pain management are used. Significant acute complications are rare. In general, untrained providers who perform circumcisions have more complications than well-trained providers who perform the procedure, regardless of whether the former are physicians, nurses, or traditional religious providers. Parents are entitled to factually correct

  18. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Presented are three demonstrations for chemical education. The activities include: (1) demonstration of vapor pressure; (2) a multicolored luminol-based chemiluminescence demonstration; and (3) a Charles's Law/Vapor pressure apparatus. (RH)

  19. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1982-01-01

    Three chemistry demonstrations are described: (1) partition coefficients; (2) Rutherford simulation experiment; and (3) demonstration of the powerful oxidizing property of dimanganeseheptoxide. Background information, materials needed, and procedures are provided for each demonstration. (JN)

  20. Reflectance Demonstration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowalski, Frank

    1993-01-01

    Presents a demonstration in which a mirror "disappears" upon rotation. The author has used the demonstration with students from fourth grade up through college. Suggestions are given for making the demonstration into a permanent hallway display. (MVL)

  1. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Provides procedures for demonstrations: (1) the ferrioxalate actinometer, which demonstrates a photochemical reaction; and (2) the silver mirror, which demonstrates the reduction of a metal salt to the metal and/or the reducing power of sugars. (CS)

  2. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Background information (including chemical reactions) and procedures used are provided for (1) three buffer demonstrations and (2) a demonstration of phase transfer catalysis and carbanion formation. (JN)

  3. Sunitinib-ibuprofen drug interaction affects the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of sunitinib to brain, liver, and kidney in male and female mice differently.

    PubMed

    Lau, Christine Li Ling; Chan, Sook Tyng; Selvaratanam, Manimegahlai; Khoo, Hui Wen; Lim, Adeline Yi Ling; Modamio, Pilar; Mariño, Eduardo L; Segarra, Ignacio

    2015-08-01

    Tyrosine kinase inhibitor sunitinib (used in GIST, advanced RCC, and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors) undergoes CYP3A4 metabolism and is an ABCB1B and ABCG2 efflux transporters substrate. We assessed the pharmacokinetic interaction with ibuprofen (an NSAID used by patients with cancer) in Balb/c male and female mice. Mice (study group) were coadministered (30 min apart) 30 mg/kg of ibuprofen and 60 mg/kg of sunitinib PO and compared with the control groups, which received sunitinib alone (60 mg/kg, PO). Sunitinib concentration in plasma, brain, kidney, and liver was measured by HPLC as scheduled and noncompartmental pharmacokinetic parameters estimated. In female control mice, sunitinib AUC0→∞ decreased in plasma (P < 0.05), was higher in liver and brain (P < 0.001), and lower in kidney (P < 0.001) vs. male control mice. After ibuprofen coadministration, female mice showed lower AUC0→∞ in plasma (P < 0.01), brain, liver, and kidney (all P < 0.001). However, in male mice, AUC0→∞ remained unchanged in plasma, increased in liver and kidney, and decreased in brain (all P < 0.001). The tissue-to-plasma AUC0→∞ ratio was similar between male and female control mice, but changed after ibuprofen coadministration: Male mice showed 1.6-fold higher liver-to-plasma ratio (P < 0.001) while remained unchanged in female mice and in kidney (male and female mice) but decreased 55% in brain (P < 0.05). The tissue-to-plasma partial AUC ratio, the drug tissue targeting index, and the tissue-plasma hysteresis-like plots also showed sex-based ibuprofen-sunitinib drug interaction differences. The results illustrate the relevance of this DDI on sunitinib pharmacokinetics and tissue uptake. These may be due to gender-based P450 and efflux/transporters differences.

  4. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Describes three flame test demonstrations including "Student-Presented Demonstrations on the Colors of Transition Metal Complexes,""A Flame Test Demonstration Device," and "Vivid Flame Tests." Preparation and procedures are discussed. Included in the first demonstration is an evaluation scheme for grading student…

  5. Tested Demonstrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1977-01-01

    Three demonstrations are described: paramagnetic properties of Fe(11) and Fe(111), the preparation of polyurethane foam: a lecture demonstration and the electrolysis of water-fuel cell reactions. A small discussion of the concepts demonstrated is included in each demonstration's description. (MR)

  6. FETAL TESTOSTERONE LEVELS ARE DIFFERENTIALLY AFFECTED IN MALE SPRAGUE DAWLEY AND WISTAR RATS AFTER IN UTERO EXPOSURE TO DIETHYLHEXYL PHTHALATE: A DOSE RESPONSE STUDY.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to phthalate esters during sexual differentiation disrupts testosterone resulting in malformations of androgen-dependent tissues. We have found that gubernacular lesions are more prevalent in in utero diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP)-treated Wistar male than in the SD rat o...

  7. Chronic exposure to low levels of dibromoacetic acid, a water disinfection by-product, adversely affects reproductive function in male rabbits

    EPA Science Inventory

    Four groups (minimum of 10/dose group) of male Dutch-Belted rabbits were treated daily to dibromoacetic acid (DBA) via drinking water beginning in utero from gestation day 15 throughout life; target dosages were 1, 5, and 50 mg DBA /kg body weight. Developmental, prepubertal as ...

  8. [Male contraception].

    PubMed

    Demery, A

    1987-05-01

    Except for condoms, male contraception is very slightly utilized in France. Several male experimental methods are under study. A synthetic luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) analog has been used successfully in women and offers promise in men of blocking LHRH and thus blocking spermatogenesis. Several nonsteroid substances such an hypertensives and adrenaline would suppress follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone release, but are too toxic for use. The combination of 40 mcg ethinyl estradiol and 20 mg of methyltestosterone inhibits gonadotropin release and produces azoospermia in men, but at the risk of loss of libido, constant gynecomastia, and testicular atrophy. Several combinations of androgens and progestins have been evaluated. Percutaneous testosterone and medroxyprogesterone acetate appears to be the most effective, with good metabolic tolerance and maintenance of libido and sexual performance. Injections of inhibine, a testicular factor that controls secretion of follicle stimulating hormone by feedback, offer promise of suppressing spermatogenesis without affecting other systems. Numerous substances are known to inhibit spermatogenesis but are to toxic for use or entail an unacceptable loss of libido. Gossypol has been employed as a contraceptive by the Chinese for its action in inhibiting protein synthesis, but it is known to have serious secondary effects. Among male methods currently in use, the condom had a Pearl index of .4-1.6 in the most recent British studies. Coitus interruptus can seriously interfere with sexual pleasure and has a failure rate of 25-30%. Vasectomy is safe, effective, and easy to perform, but is not a reversible method. The combination of 20 mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate in 2 daily doses and 100 mg of testosterone applied in an abdominal spray has given very promising results in 2 small studies in France and merits further development and diffusion.

  9. Are Uric Acid Levels Different from Healthy Subjects in Bipolar Affective Disorder and Schizophrenia?: Relationship Between Clinical Improvement and Episode Severity in Male Patients

    PubMed Central

    GÜLTEKİN, Bülent Kadri; KESEBİR, Sermin; KABAK, Sevgi Gül; ERGÜN, Ferzan Fikret; TATLIDİL YAYLACI, Elif

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Purinergic system dysfunction has been shown both in patients with bipolar disorder (BD) and those with schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether uric acid levels in male BD patients with manic episode and schizophrenia patients with psychotic relapse differ from healthy male subjects. Secondly to assess whether uric acid levels in both patient groups correlate with episode severity and if a decrease in uric acid levels correlate with clinical improvement. Method A total of 55 BD patients with manic episode and 59 schizophrenic patients with psychotic relapse were evaluated at baseline and at weeks 1, 2, 3 using the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), and their plasma uric acid levels were measured. 60 age-matched healthy males without history of any previous or current psychiatric diagnosis and treatment constituted the control group. In order to determine plasma uric acid levels, blood samples were centrifuged at 3000 × g for 15 minutes, stored at −80°C and measured in milligrams per deciliter. Results Uric acid levels in both patient groups with manic episode and psychotic relapse were found higher than in healthy controls (f=6.122, p=.027). The difference between repeated measurements of uric acid levels in BD patient group was found to be between baseline and first week measurements (after Bonferroni correction) (p<.001). No correlation was found between YMRS and PANSS scores and uric acid levels at 4 assessment times. Conclusion Uric acid levels in male BD and schizophrenia patients with manic episode and psychotic relapse were similar with each other, and higher than in healthy males. No correlation was found between uric acid levels and episode severity in both groups. However, for patients with BD, a decrease in uric acid levels between baseline and first week seems to be correlated with clinical improvement.

  10. Dietary contaminant exposure affects plasma testosterone, but not thyroid hormones, vitamin A, and vitamin E, in male juvenile arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus).

    PubMed

    Hallanger, Ingeborg G; Jørgensen, Even H; Fuglei, Eva; Ahlstrøm, Øystein; Muir, Derek C G; Jenssen, Bjørn Munro

    2012-01-01

    Levels of persistent organic pollutants (POP), such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), are high in many Arctic top predators, including the Arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus). The aim of this study was to examine possible endocrine-disruptive effects of dietary POP exposure in male juvenile Arctic foxes in a controlled exposure experiment. The study was conducted using domesticated farmed blue foxes (Vulpes lagopus) as a model species. Two groups of newly weaned male foxes received a diet supplemented with either minke whale (Baleneoptera acutorostrata) blubber that was naturally contaminated with POP (exposed group, n = 5 or 21), or pork (Sus scrofa) fat (control group, n = 5 or 21). When the foxes were 6 mo old and had received the 2 diets for approximately 4 mo (147 d), effects of the dietary exposure to POP on plasma concentrations of testosterone (T), thyroid hormones (TH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), retinol (vitamin A), and tocopherol (viramin E) were examined. At sampling, the total body concentrations of 104 PCB congeners were 0.1 ± 0.03 μg/g lipid weight (l.w.; n = 5 [mean ± standard deviation]) and 1.5 ± 0.17 μg/g l.w. (n = 5) in the control and exposed groups, respectively. Plasma testosterone concentrations in the exposed male foxes were significantly lower than in the control males, being approximately 25% of that in the exposed foxes. There were no between-treatment differences for TH, TSH, retinol, or tocopherol. The results suggest that the high POP levels experienced by costal populations of Arctic foxes, such as in Svalbard and Iceland, may result in delayed masculine maturation during adolescence. Sex hormone disruption during puberty may thus have lifetime consequences on all aspects of reproductive function in adult male foxes.

  11. TMV mutants with poly(A) tracts of different lengths demonstrate structural variations in 3′UTR affecting viral RNAs accumulation and symptom expression

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Song; Kierzek, Elzbieta; Chen, Gang; Zhou, Yi-Jun; Wong, Sek-Man

    2015-01-01

    The upstream pseudoknots domain (UPD) of Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) is located at the 3′-untranslated region (UTR). It plays an important role in virus replication and translation. To determine the importance of UPD and 3′-UTR, and the effects of introduced RNA elements in TMV 3′-UTR, a series of TMV mutants with internal poly(A) tract upstream of UPD was constructed for structural analysis by selective 2′-hydroxyl acylation analyzed by primer extension (SHAPE). TMV(24A+UPD) and TMV(42A+UPD) formed a similar structure as that of TMV 3′-UTR, but TMV(62A+UPD) structures altered by the introduced poly(A) tract. In addition, TMV(24A+UPD) had a higher viral RNAs accumulation than TMV in N. benthamiana protoplasts, and induced lethal symptoms in the infected plants. TMV(62A+UPD) showed a drastically reduced accumulation, its coat protein was undetectable in protoplasts, and the inoculated plants remained symptomless. This study analyzed the structures of 3′-UTR of TMV and found that the longer poly(A) tract introduced upstream of UPD reduced viral RNAs accumulation and induced milder symptoms in N. benthamiana. In conclusion, different lengths of the internal poly(A) tract introduced into the TMV 3′UTR lead to structural variations that affect virus accumulation and symptom expression. PMID:26678425

  12. Male catheterization.

    PubMed

    Hadfield-Law, L

    2001-10-01

    The insertion of catheters into male emergency patients is fairly common practice and is associated with a worryingly high rate of infection. Everyday pressures within the department, along with the added stress of resuscitation can result in inappropriately trained or skilled staff undertaking this procedure. The issue of gender and whether female nurses should catheterize male patients may also affect this vulnerable group of patients. Acquiring the psychomotor skills of inserting a urethral catheter is only one part of preparation for practice. Emergency nurses must know when and when not to resort to catheterization. Choosing the type and size of catheter requires careful judgment. What will you do if insertion proves difficult? Prevention of infection is of paramount importance and there are an increasing number of evidence-based sources of information, which are crucial to formulating procedures and informing every day practice. In the pressured surroundings of A&E departments, it is easy to ignore the vulnerability of men requiring catheterization, both from a physical and psychological point of view. Making the effort to explain the procedure, listen to questions and concerns and record relevant details in the notes, will take only a few extra moments. There is no doubt that urinary catheterization is not without complications. It is associated with significant morbidity and occasionally, mortality.

  13. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Provides instructions on conducting four demonstrations for the chemistry classroom. Outlines procedures for demonstrations dealing with coupled oscillations, the evaporation of liquids, thioxanthone sulfone radical anion, and the control of variables and conservation of matter. (TW)

  14. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1978-01-01

    Presents two demonstrations; one on Boyle's Law, to illustrate the gas law and serve as a challenging problem for the students; the other is a modified Color Blind Traffic Light demonstration in which the oscillating reactions were speeded up. (GA)

  15. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1978-01-01

    Two demonstrations are described which are suitable for introductory chemistry classes. The first involves the precipitation of silver, and the second is a demonstration of the relationship between rate constants and equilibrium constants using water and beakers. (BB)

  16. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Presented are two demonstrations; "Heat of Solution and Colligative Properties: An Illustration of Enthalpy and Entropy," and "A Vapor Pressure Demonstration." Included are lists of materials and experimental procedures. Apparatus needed are illustrated. (CW)

  17. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Presented are two demonstrations including a variation of the iodine clock reaction, and a simple demonstration of refractive index. The materials, procedures, and a discussion of probable results are given for each. (CW)

  18. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Presents: (1) a simple demonstration which illustrates the driving force of entropy using the familiar effects of the negative thermal expansion coefficient of rubber; and (2) a demonstration of tetrahedral bonding using soap films. (CS)

  19. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Two demonstrations are described: (1) red cabbage and electrolysis of water to bring together acid/base and electrochemical concepts; and (2) a model to demonstrate acid/base conjugate pairs utilizing magnets. (SK)

  20. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Describes two classroom chemistry demonstrations which focus on the descriptive chemistry of bromine and iodine. Outlines the chemicals and equipment needed, experimental procedures, and discussion of one demonstration of the oxidation states of bromine and iodine, and another demonstration of the oxidation states of iodine. (TW)

  1. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sands, Robert; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Procedures for two demonstrations are provided. The solubility of ammonia gas in water is demonstrated by introducing water into a closed can filled with the gas, collapsing the can. The second demonstration relates scale of standard reduction potentials to observed behavior of metals in reactions with hydrogen to produce hydrogen gas. (Author/JN)

  2. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1985-01-01

    List of materials needed, procedures used, and results obtained are provided for two demonstrations. The first is an inexpensive and quick method for demonstrating column chromatography of plant pigments of spinach extract. The second is a demonstration of cathodic protection by impressed current. (JN)

  3. Demonstrating Diffusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foy, Barry G.

    1977-01-01

    Two demonstrations are described. Materials and instructions for demonstrating movement of molecules into cytoplasm using agar blocks, phenolphthalein, and sodium hydroxide are given. A simple method for demonstrating that the rate of diffusion of a gas is inversely proportional to its molecular weight is also presented. (AJ)

  4. Could dromedary camels develop stereotypy? The first description of stereotypical behaviour in housed male dromedary camels and how it is affected by different management systems.

    PubMed

    Padalino, Barbara; Aubé, Lydiane; Fatnassi, Meriem; Monaco, Davide; Khorchani, Touhami; Hammadi, Mohamed; Lacalandra, Giovanni Michele

    2014-01-01

    Dromedary camel husbandry has recently been evolving towards a semi-intensive system, due to the changes in use of the animal and the settlement of nomadic populations. Captivity could restrict its social activities, limiting the expression of various behavioural needs and causing the manifestation of stereotypy. The aims of this trial were, firstly, to identify and describe some stereotypical behaviours in captive male dromedary camels used for artificial insemination and, secondly, to study the effects on them of the following husbandry management systems: i) housing in single boxes for 24 hours (H24), ii) housing in single boxes for 23 hours with one hour free in the paddock (H23), and iii) housing in single boxes for 22 hours 30 min with 1 h of paddock time and 30 min exposure to a female camel herd (ExF). Every day, the camels were filmed in their single box in the morning for 30 minutes to record their behavioural activities and a focal animal sampling ethogram was filled in. In this study, male camels showed both oral and locomotor stereotypy most frequently when the bulls were reared in H24. Overall, this preliminary study is a starting point in the identification of stereotypies in male camels, reporting the positive effects of spending one hour outdoor and of social interaction with females.

  5. Could Dromedary Camels Develop Stereotypy? The First Description of Stereotypical Behaviour in Housed Male Dromedary Camels and How It Is Affected by Different Management Systems

    PubMed Central

    Padalino, Barbara; Aubé, Lydiane; Fatnassi, Meriem; Monaco, Davide; Khorchani, Touhami; Hammadi, Mohamed; Lacalandra, Giovanni Michele

    2014-01-01

    Dromedary camel husbandry has recently been evolving towards a semi-intensive system, due to the changes in use of the animal and the settlement of nomadic populations. Captivity could restrict its social activities, limiting the expression of various behavioural needs and causing the manifestation of stereotypy. The aims of this trial were, firstly, to identify and describe some stereotypical behaviours in captive male dromedary camels used for artificial insemination and, secondly, to study the effects on them of the following husbandry management systems: i) housing in single boxes for 24 hours (H24), ii) housing in single boxes for 23 hours with one hour free in the paddock (H23), and iii) housing in single boxes for 22 hours 30 min with 1 h of paddock time and 30 min exposure to a female camel herd (ExF). Every day, the camels were filmed in their single box in the morning for 30 minutes to record their behavioural activities and a focal animal sampling ethogram was filled in. In this study, male camels showed both oral and locomotor stereotypy most frequently when the bulls were reared in H24. Overall, this preliminary study is a starting point in the identification of stereotypies in male camels, reporting the positive effects of spending one hour outdoor and of social interaction with females. PMID:24586522

  6. The social environment during a post-match video presentation affects the hormonal responses and playing performance in professional male athletes.

    PubMed

    Cook, Christian J; Crewther, Blair T

    2014-05-10

    This study examined the social environment effects during a post-match video presentation on the hormonal responses and match performance in professional male rugby union players. The study participants (n=12) watched a 1-hour video of mixed content (player mistakes and successes) from a match played 1 day earlier in the presence of; (1) strangers who were bigger (SB), (2) strangers who were smaller (SS), (3) friends who were bigger (FB) and (4) friends who were smaller (FS). The salivary testosterone (T) and cortisol (C) responses to a physical stress test were assessed 3 days later, along with pre-match T levels and match-ranked performance 6-7 days later. All treatments were associated with elevated T responses (% change from baseline) to the stress test with SS>SB and FB>FS. The C stress responses after the SS and SB interventions were both greater than FS and FB. On match-day, the FB approach was linked to higher T concentrations than SB and better ranked performance than FS and SS. The subsequent testing of a population sub-group (n=8) across a video (V) and a non-video (NV) presentation in a neutral social environment produced similar stress-test and performance outcomes, but pre-match T concentrations differed (V>NV). In conclusion, the presence of other males during a post-match video assessment had some influence on the hormonal responses of male athletes and match performance in the week that followed. Thus, the social environment during a post-match assessment could moderate performance and recovery in elite sport and, in a broader context, could be a possible modulator of human stress responses.

  7. Chronic Maternal Low-Protein Diet in Mice Affects Anxiety, Night-Time Energy Expenditure and Sleep Patterns, but Not Circadian Rhythm in Male Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Mahadevan, Sangeetha K.; Fiorotto, Marta L.; Van den Veyver, Ignatia B.

    2017-01-01

    Offspring of murine dams chronically fed a protein-restricted diet have an increased risk for metabolic and neurobehavioral disorders. Previously we showed that adult offspring, developmentally exposed to a chronic maternal low-protein (MLP) diet, had lower body and hind-leg muscle weights and decreased liver enzyme serum levels. We conducted energy expenditure, neurobehavioral and circadian rhythm assays in male offspring to examine mechanisms for the body-weight phenotype and assess neurodevelopmental implications of MLP exposure. C57BL/6J dams were fed a protein restricted (8%protein, MLP) or a control protein (20% protein, C) diet from four weeks before mating until weaning of offspring. Male offspring were weaned to standard rodent diet (20% protein) and single-housed until 8–12 weeks of age. We examined body composition, food intake, energy expenditure, spontaneous rearing activity and sleep patterns and performed behavioral assays for anxiety (open field activity, elevated plus maze [EPM], light/dark exploration), depression (tail suspension and forced swim test), sociability (three-chamber), repetitive (marble burying), learning and memory (fear conditioning), and circadian behavior (wheel-running activity during light-dark and constant dark cycles). We also measured circadian gene expression in hypothalamus and liver at different Zeitgeber times (ZT). Male offspring from separate MLP exposed dams had significantly greater body fat (P = 0.03), less energy expenditure (P = 0.004), less rearing activity (P = 0.04) and a greater number of night-time rest/sleep bouts (P = 0.03) compared to control. MLP offspring displayed greater anxiety-like behavior in the EPM (P<0.01) but had no learning and memory deficit in fear-conditioning assay (P = 0.02). There was an effect of time on Per1, Per 2 and Clock circadian gene expression in the hypothalamus but not on circadian behavior. Thus, transplacental and early developmental exposure of dams to chronic MLP reduces

  8. Nectar amino acids enhance reproduction in male butterflies.

    PubMed

    Cahenzli, Fabian; Erhardt, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    After over 30 years of research, it was recently shown that nectar amino acids increase female butterfly fecundity. However, little attention has been paid to the effect of nectar amino acids on male butterfly reproduction. Here, we show that larval food conditions (nitrogen-rich vs. nitrogen-poor host plants) and adult diet quality (nectar with or without amino acids) affected the amount of consumed nectar in Coenonympha pamphilus males. Furthermore, amino acids in the nectar diet of males increased progeny's larval hatching mass, irrespective of paternal larval reserves. Our study takes the whole reproductive cycle of male butterflies into account, and also considers the role of females in passing male nutrients to offspring, as males' realized reproduction was examined indirectly via nuptial gifts, by female performance. With this comprehensive approach, we demonstrate for the first time that nectar amino acids can improve male butterfly reproduction, supporting the old postulate that nectar amino acids generally enhance butterfly fitness.

  9. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a lecture demonstration of a solid state phase transition using a thermodynamic material which changes state at room temperature. Also describes a demonstration on kinetics using a "Big Bang" (trade mark) calcium carbide cannon. Indicates that the cannon is safe to use. (JN)

  10. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Presented are two chemistry demonstrations: (1) an alternative method for the demonstration of the properties of alkali metals, water is added to small amounts of metal; (2) an exploration of the properties of hydrogen, helium, propane, and carbon dioxide using an open trough and candle. (MVL)

  11. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Outlines a simple, inexpensive way of demonstrating electroplating using the reaction between nickel ions and copper metal. Explains how to conduct a demonstration of the electrolysis of water by using a colored Na2SO4 solution as the electrolyte so that students can observe the pH changes. (TW)

  12. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1982-01-01

    Three chemistry demonstrations are described: (1) modification of copper catalysis demonstration apparatus; (2) experiments in gas-liquid chromatography with simple gas chromatography at room temperature; and (3) equilibria in silver arsenate-arsenic acid and silver phosphate-phosphoric acid systems. Procedures and materials needed are provided.…

  13. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1980-01-01

    Two demonstrations are described: (1) a variant of preparing purple benzene by phase transfer catalysis with quaternary ammonium salts and potassium permanganate in which crown ethers are used; (2) a corridor or "hallway" demonstration in which unknown molecular models are displayed and prizes awarded to students correctly identifying the…

  14. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Background information and procedures are provided for a second part to the dichromate volcano demonstration. The green ash produced during the demonstration is reduced to metal using aluminothermy (Goldschmide process). Also describes suitable light sources and spectroscopes for student observation of emission spectra in lecture halls. (JN)

  15. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Free radical chlorination of methane is used in organic chemistry to introduce free radical/chain reactions. In spite of its common occurrence, demonstrations of the reaction are uncommon. Therefore, such a demonstration is provided, including background information, preparation of reactants/reaction vessel, introduction of reactants, irradiation,…

  16. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses a supplement to the "water to rose" demonstration in which a pink color is produced. Also discusses blood buffer demonstrations, including hydrolysis of sodium bicarbonate, simulated blood buffer, metabolic acidosis, natural compensation of metabolic acidosis, metabolic alkalosis, acidosis treatment, and alkalosis treatment. Procedures…

  17. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Presented are three demonstrations: "The Construction and Use of Commercial Voltaic Cell Displays in Freshman Chemistry"; Dramatizing Isotopes: Deuterated Ice Cubes Sink"; and "A Simple Apparatus to Demonstrate Differing Gas Diffusion Rates (Graham's Law)." Materials, procedures, and safety considerations are discussed. (CW)

  18. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Describes two laboratory demonstrations in chemistry. One uses dry ice, freon, and freezer bags to demonstrate volume changes, vapor-liquid equilibrium, a simulation of a rain forest, and vaporization. The other uses the clock reaction technique to illustrate fast reactions and kinetic problems in releasing carbon dioxide during respiration. (TW)

  19. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1980-01-01

    Described is a demonstration utilized to measure the heat of vaporization using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation. Explained is that when measurement is made as part of a demonstration, it raises student's consciousness that chemistry is experimentally based. (Author/DS)

  20. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Two demonstrations are described. The first (useful as an introduction to kinetics) shows how the rate of a reaction is fast at first and then gradually decreases to zero when one reactant has been used up. The second is a gas density demonstration using 1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoro ethane. (JN)

  1. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Provides three descriptions of demonstrations used in various chemistry courses. Includes the use of a simple demonstration model to illustrate principles of chromatography, techniques for using balloons to teach about the behavior of gases, and the use of small concentrations of synthetic polyelectrolytes to induce the flocculation hydrophobic…

  2. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Provides directions for setup and performance of two demonstrations. The first demonstrates the principles of Raoult's Law; using a simple apparatus designed to measure vapor pressure. The second illustrates the energy available from alcohol combustion (includes safety precautions) using an alcohol-fueled missile. (JM)

  3. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Provided are two demonstrations for an introductory course in chemistry. The first one emphasizes the observation and the interpretation of facts to form hypotheses during the heating of a beaker of water. The second demonstration shows the liquid phase of carbon dioxide using dry ice and a pressure gauge. (YP)

  4. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the photochromic behavior of mercury(II) bis(dithizonate) in providing a colorful demonstration of the effect that visible light can have on the conformation and bonding of molecules in solution. Provides a description of the demonstration itself, along with the preparation needed to complete it. (TW)

  5. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1979-01-01

    Presents two demonstrations for classroom use related to precipitation of ferrous hydroxide and to variation of vapor pressure with temperature. The former demonstration is simple and useful when discussing solubility of ionic compounds electrode potential of transition elements, and mixed valence compounds. (Author/SA)

  6. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Describes two demonstrations designed to help chemistry students visualize certain chemical properties. One experiment uses balloons to illustrate the behavior of gases under varying temperatures and pressures. The other uses a makeshift pea shooter and a commercial model to demonstrate atomic structure and the behavior of high-speed particles.…

  7. Toxic Effect of Blood Feeding in Male Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Nikbakhtzadeh, Mahmood R.; Buss, Garrison K.; Leal, Walter S.

    2016-01-01

    Blood- and sugar feeding of female mosquitoes has been frequently observed in the laboratory and in the field, but only sugar feeding of males has been reported. Here, we describe for the first time that Culex quinquefasciatus males feed on blood as well. Blood feeding easily happened on a blood-soaked cotton roll and, to a lesser extent, through a thin artificial layer. Mating history of a male specimen does not affect his blood feeding behavior. Male mosquitoes feed on blood even when they have a readily available sugar source. Nevertheless, feeding on blood reduces the survival rate of males to just a few days, as compared to more than a month for mosquitoes fed only on sugar. Comparing survival of male mosquitoes fed on blood only, sugar only, and a combination of both clearly demonstrated that mortality is not affected by malnutrition (reduced sugar levels), but rather due to ingested blood. On average male mosquitoes ingested ca. 0.5 μl of blood, i.e., about 10% of the amount of blood ingested by an engorged female. Although this unexpected observation of blood feeding in the laboratory by male mosquitoes is interesting, structural impairment prevents male feeding on vertebrate blood. In agreement with the literature, male and female proboscises and stylets were in general of similar size, but male mandibles were significantly shorter than female counterparts, thus explaining their inability to pierce through skin layers. PMID:26858651

  8. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Background information, list of materials needed, and procedures used are provided for a demonstration involving the transformation of a hydrophobic liquid to a partially hydrophobic semisolid. Safety considerations are noted. (JN)

  9. Tested Demonstrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1977-01-01

    Describes a room-temperature method for demonstrating phosphorescence by including samples in a polymer matrix. Also discusses the Old Nassau Reaction, a clock reaction which turns orange then black. (MLH)

  10. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1980-01-01

    Presented is a Corridor Demonstration which can be set up in readily accessible areas such as hallways or lobbies. Equipment is listed for a display of three cells (solar cells, fuel cells, and storage cells) which develop electrical energy. (CS)

  11. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roffia, Sergio; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Reports two electrochemical demonstrations. Uses a hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell to power a clock. Includes description of methods and materials. Investigates the "potato clock" used with different fruits. Lists emf and current for various fruit and electrode combinations. (ML)

  12. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rehfeld, D. W.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes two demonstrations (1) a dust explosion using a coffee can, candle, rubber tubing, and cornstarch and (2) forming a silicate-polyvinyl alcohol polymer which can be pressed into plastic sheets or molded. Gives specific instructions. (MVL)

  13. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Presents three demonstrations suitable for undergraduate chemistry classes. Focuses on experiments with calcium carbide, the induction by iron of the oxidation of iodide by dichromate, and the classical iodine clock reaction. (ML)

  14. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L.

    1990-01-01

    Included are three demonstrations that include the phase change of ice when under pressure, viscoelasticity and colloid systems, and flame tests for metal ions. The materials, procedures, probable results, and applications to real life situations are included. (KR)

  15. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1979-01-01

    Presents a recipe for the Nylon Rope Trick, which is considered to be one of the most spectacular demonstrations in chemistry. Materials for growing the polymer and some safety precautions are given. (SA)

  16. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Describes two demonstrations for use in college chemistry classes. Includes "Spectroscopy in Large Lecture Halls" and "The Endothermic Dissolution of Ammonium Nitrate." Gives materials lists and procedures as well as a discussion of the results. (CW)

  17. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L.

    1982-01-01

    Two demonstrations are described: (1) a sunset effect using a gooseneck lamp and 20 sheets of paper and (2) the preparation and determination of structural features of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) by infrared spectroscopy. (SK)

  18. Counseling Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scher, Murray, Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Contains 16 articles about counseling males including: (1) gender role conflict; (2) sex-role development; (3) counseling adolescent, adult, and gay males; (4) teenage fathers; (5) female therapists and male clients; (6) career development; (7) hypermasculinity; (8) counseling physically abusive men, uncoupling men; (9) group therapy, men's…

  19. Pyridoxine responsive hereditary sideroblastic erythropoiesis and iron overload: two microcytic subpopulations in the affected male, one normocytic and one microcytic subpopulation in the obligate female carrier.

    PubMed

    Harris, J W; Danish, E H; Brittenham, G M; McLaren, C E

    1993-04-01

    Mild hepatic iron overload has been demonstrated by magnetic susceptibility measurements in a 22-year-old man with hereditary sideroblastic erythropoiesis despite hemoglobin levels in the normal range and a normal erythropoietin level. His grandfather's sideroblastic anemia has been found to be responsive to pyridoxine; his mother's hemoglobin has persisted in the normal range but red cell volume distribution analysis demonstrated two subpopulations; 30% with estimated geometric mean of 68 fl and 70% an estimated mean of 93 fl. Red cell distribution analysis of the grandson demonstrated two microcytic subpopulations; 46% with an estimated geometric mean of 45 fl and 54% an estimated mean of 70 fl. A therapeutic regimen is outlined to reduce to normal his iron stores and to prevent the future development of excessive iron overload.

  20. Repeated in utero and lactational 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin exposure affects male gonads in offspring, leading to sex ratio changes in F2 progeny.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Masahiko; Tamura, Masashi; Yamashita, Junko; Suzuki, Chinatsu; Tomita, Takako

    2005-08-15

    The effects of in utero and lactational 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) on the reproductive system of male rat offspring (F1) and the sex ratio of the subsequent generation (F2) were examined. Female Holtzman rats were gavaged with an initial loading dose of 400 ng/kg TCDD prior to mating, followed by weekly maintenance doses of 80 ng/kg during mating, pregnancy, and the lactation period. Maternal exposure to TCDD had no significant effects on fetus/pup (F1) mortality, litter size, or sex ratio on gestation day (GD) 20 or postnatal day (PND) 2. The TCDD concentration in maternal livers and adipose tissue on GD20 was 1.21 and 1.81 ng/kg, respectively, and decreased at weaning to 0.72 in the liver and 0.84 in the adipose tissue. In contrast, the TCDD concentration in pup livers was 1.32 ng/kg on PND2 and increased to 1.80 ng/kg at weaning. Ventral prostate weight of male offspring was significantly decreased by TCDD exposure on PND28 and 120 compared with that of controls. Weight of the testes, cauda epididymides, and seminal vesicle, and sperm number in the cauda epididymis were not changed by TCDD exposure at PND120. TCDD- or vehicle-exposed male offspring were mated with unexposed females. The sex ratio (percentage of male pups) of F2 offspring was significantly reduced in the TCDD-exposed group compared with controls. These results suggest that in utero and lactational TCDD exposures affect the development of male gonads in offspring (F1), leading to changes in the sex ratio of the subsequent generation (F2).

  1. Repeated in utero and lactational 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin exposure affects male gonads in offspring, leading to sex ratio changes in F{sub 2} progeny

    SciTech Connect

    Ikeda, Masahiko . E-mail: ikedam@ys2.u-shizuoka-ken.ac.jp; Tamura, Masashi; Yamashita, Junko; Suzuki, Chinatsu; Tomita, Takako

    2005-08-15

    The effects of in utero and lactational 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) on the reproductive system of male rat offspring (F{sub 1}) and the sex ratio of the subsequent generation (F{sub 2}) were examined. Female Holtzman rats were gavaged with an initial loading dose of 400 ng/kg TCDD prior to mating, followed by weekly maintenance doses of 80 ng/kg during mating, pregnancy, and the lactation period. Maternal exposure to TCDD had no significant effects on fetus/pup (F{sub 1}) mortality, litter size, or sex ratio on gestation day (GD) 20 or postnatal day (PND) 2. The TCDD concentration in maternal livers and adipose tissue on GD20 was 1.21 and 1.81 ng/kg, respectively, and decreased at weaning to 0.72 in the liver and 0.84 in the adipose tissue. In contrast, the TCDD concentration in pup livers was 1.32 ng/kg on PND2 and increased to 1.80 ng/kg at weaning. Ventral prostate weight of male offspring was significantly decreased by TCDD exposure on PND28 and 120 compared with that of controls. Weight of the testes, cauda epididymides, and seminal vesicle, and sperm number in the cauda epididymis were not changed by TCDD exposure at PND120. TCDD- or vehicle-exposed male offspring were mated with unexposed females. The sex ratio (percentage of male pups) of F{sub 2} offspring was significantly reduced in the TCDD-exposed group compared with controls. These results suggest that in utero and lactational TCDD exposures affect the development of male gonads in offspring (F{sub 1}), leading to changes in the sex ratio of the subsequent generation (F{sub 2})

  2. Demonstration Explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Charles "Skip"

    1998-05-01

    Last week I did a demonstration that produced a serious explosion. After putting methanol in a big glass carboy and rotating the carboy to build up some methanol vapor, I lit the mouth of the carboy. What normally happens is a "jet engine" effect out of the mouth of the carboy. In my case, the carboy exploded. Two polycarbonate blast shields were shattered and glass was blown as far as 15 feet away. I was not seriously cut and bruised, but had I not been using the two blast shields, I would have been severely injured. At this time, I am not sure what caused the explosion. I have done this demonstration around one hundred times with no problem using the exact same amount of methanol and technique. I think it is important to get the word out that this demonstration may be more dangerous than previously thought. I would also welcome any hypotheses concerning what caused the carboy to explode.

  3. Device Demonstration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-31

    effecting change in the electrical properties of the material. Due to the heating requirement in setting the state, stray radiation does not affect the...device as in traditional binary RAM, thus giving the device radiation-hard properties . Uniformity of the heater elements at a small size below 100 nm is...Molybdenum was chosen for the cathode tube material because it has a low sputtering coefficient, and it’s high temperature properties .. The tubes are

  4. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Describes two demonstrations that require almost no preparation time, are visually stimulating, and present a variety of material for class discussion (with sample questions provided). The first involves a sodium bicarbonate hydrochloric acid volcano; the second involves a dissolving polystyrene cup. Procedures used and information on…

  5. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Describes two demonstrations to illustrate characteristics of substances. Outlines a method to detect the changes in pH levels during the electrolysis of water. Uses water pistols, one filled with methane gas and the other filled with water, to illustrate the differences in these two substances. (TW)

  6. Tested Demonstrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1976-01-01

    Describes two demonstrations: one that illustrates the attainment of equilibrium in first-order reactions by changing the volumes of two beakers of water at a specified rate, and another that illustrates the role of indicators in showing pH changes in buffer solutions. (MLH)

  7. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses three broad classes of magnetic behavior: diamagnetic, paramagnetic, and ferromagnetic. Presents a simple lecture demonstration using an overhead projector to synthesize triiron tetraoxide and to show its interaction with a magnetic field and comparing it to a paramagnetic material. (MVL)

  8. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Provides instructions and a list of materials needed to demonstrate: (1) a model of the quantum mechanical atom; (2) principles involved in metal corrosion and in the prevention of this destructive process by electrochemical means; and (3) a Thermit reaction, modified to make it more dramatic and interesting for students. (SK)

  9. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L.

    1983-01-01

    An apparatus is described in which effects of pressure, volume, and temperature changes on a gas can be observed simultaneously. Includes use of the apparatus in demonstrating Boyle's, Gay-Lussac's, and Charles' Laws, attractive forces, Dalton's Law of Partial pressures, and in illustrating measurable vapor pressures of liquids and some solids.…

  10. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Two demonstrations are described. The first shows the effect of polarity on solubility. The second is based on the unexpected formation of a precipitate of barium nitrate when barium carbonate or barium phosphate is treated with dilute nitric acid. List of materials needed and procedures used are included. (JN)

  11. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Background information, procedures, and typical results obtained are provided for two demonstrations. The first involves the colorful complexes of copper(II). The second involves reverse-phase separation of Food, Drug, and Cosmetic (FD & C) dyes using a solvent gradient. (JN)

  12. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cliche, Jean-Marie; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes two demonstrations: 1) the effect of polarity on solubility using sodium dichromate, TTE, ligroin, and water to form nonpolar-polar-nonpolar layers with the polar layer being colored; 2) determination of egg whites to be yellow by determining the content of yellow colored riboflavin in the egg white. (MVL)

  13. The Nuclear Gene Rf3 Affects the Expression of the Mitochondrial Chimeric Sequence R Implicated in S-Type Male Sterility in Maize

    PubMed Central

    Zabala, G.; Gabay-Laughnan, S.; Laughnan, J. R.

    1997-01-01

    The mitochondrial genomes of maize plants exhibiting S-type cytoplasmic male sterility (cms-S) contain a repeated DNA region designated R. This region was found to be rearranged in the mitochondria of all cms-S cytoplasmically revertant fertile plants in all nuclear backgrounds analyzed. A 1.6-kb mRNA transcribed from the R region in mitochondria of sterile plants was absent from all cytoplasmic revertants examined. The nuclear gene Rf3, which suppresses the cms-S phenotype, was found to have a specific effect on the expression of the R sequence; the abundance of the major R transcripts, including the cms-S-specific 1.6-kb mRNA, is decreased in mitochondria of restored plants. Nucleotide sequence analysis of R has revealed similarities to the R1 plasmid found in some South American maize races with RU cytoplasm, to the M1 plasmid found in one source of Zea luxurians teosinte, to the atp9 mitochondrial gene and its 3' flanking sequence, and also to a region 3' to the orf221 gene. The derived amino acid sequence of the R region predicts two open reading frames (ORFs). These ORFs contain the similarities to R1, M1, atp9 and orf221. The present report reveals the chimeric nature of the R region, describes the complex effect of Rf3 on the expression of the R sequence and implicates R in the sterile phenotype of cms-S maize. PMID:9335619

  14. Intrauterine growth restriction increases the preference for palatable foods and affects sensitivity to food rewards in male and female adult rats.

    PubMed

    Dalle Molle, Roberta; Laureano, Daniela Pereira; Alves, Márcio Bonesso; Reis, Tatiane Madeira; Desai, Mina; Ross, Michael G; Silveira, Patrícia Pelufo

    2015-08-27

    Clinical evidence suggests that intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) can cause persistent changes in the preference for palatable foods. In this study, we compared food preferences, the response to food rewards, and the role of the mesolimbic dopaminergic system in feeding behavior, between IUGR and control rats. Time-mated pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly allocated to a control group (standard chow ad libitum) or a 50% food restriction (FR) group, which received 50% of the control dams׳ habitual intake. These diets were provided from gestation day 10 to the 21st day of lactation. Within 24h of birth, pups were cross-fostered and divided into four groups: Adlib/Adlib, FR/Adlib, FR/FR, Adlib/FR. Standard chow consumption was compared between all groups. Food preferences, conditioned place preference to a palatable diet, and the levels of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) phosphorylation and D2 receptors in the nucleus accumbens were analyzed and compared between the two groups of interest: Adlib/Adlib (control) and FR/Adlib (exposed to growth restriction during the fetal period only). IUGR adult rats had a stronger preference for palatable foods, but showed less conditioned place preference to a palatable diet than controls. D2 receptors levels were lower in IUGR rats. At baseline, TH and pTH levels were higher in FR/Adlib than control males. Measurements taken after exposure to sweet foods revealed higher levels of TH and pTH in FR/Adlib than control females. These data showed that IUGR rats exhibited a preference for palatable foods, potentially due to alterations in their mesolimbic reward pathway. Additionally, the changes observed in the mesolimbic dopaminergic system of IUGR rats proved to be sex-specific. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 1618.

  15. Pain and affective distress before and after ACL surgery: a comparison of amateur and professional male soccer players in the early postoperative period.

    PubMed

    Oztekin, Haluk H; Boya, Hakan; Ozcan, Ozal; Zeren, Bulent; Pinar, Pelin

    2008-10-01

    Pain thresholds and levels of distress before and in the early postoperative period after anterior cruciate ligament surgery were measured in professional and amateur male soccer players and compared. Between June 2005 and March 2007, 30 soccer players (10 amateur, 20 professional) with acute or chronic tears of the anterior cruciate ligament who were scheduled for a bone-tendon-bone ACL reconstruction procedure were enrolled in the study. Measures of pain intensity, depression and anxiety were assessed 1 day pre-operation and 1 week and 3 weeks post-operation (T1 T2 and T3). Pain was assessed using a visual analog scale (VAS), depression with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and anxiety with both the state and trait forms of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Scores on the VAS, BDI, and STAI in both groups were analyzed. The mean VAS scores at T1 and T2 in professional players were not significantly higher than those in amateur players (P>0.05). Professionals had significantly higher BDI scores at T1 and T2 (P<0.05), but this difference was not significant at T3 (P=0.12). High depression scores did not correlate with high pain scores. Pain scores between professional and amateur soccer players with ACL injuries were not significantly different pre-op or in the early post-op period. Depression was more common in professionals before and after their ACL surgery, but anxiety levels were not significantly different between the two groups.

  16. Learning to obtain reward, but not avoid punishment, is affected by presence of PTSD symptoms in male veterans: empirical data and computational model.

    PubMed

    Myers, Catherine E; Moustafa, Ahmed A; Sheynin, Jony; Vanmeenen, Kirsten M; Gilbertson, Mark W; Orr, Scott P; Beck, Kevin D; Pang, Kevin C H; Servatius, Richard J

    2013-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms include behavioral avoidance which is acquired and tends to increase with time. This avoidance may represent a general learning bias; indeed, individuals with PTSD are often faster than controls on acquiring conditioned responses based on physiologically-aversive feedback. However, it is not clear whether this learning bias extends to cognitive feedback, or to learning from both reward and punishment. Here, male veterans with self-reported current, severe PTSD symptoms (PTSS group) or with few or no PTSD symptoms (control group) completed a probabilistic classification task that included both reward-based and punishment-based trials, where feedback could take the form of reward, punishment, or an ambiguous "no-feedback" outcome that could signal either successful avoidance of punishment or failure to obtain reward. The PTSS group outperformed the control group in total points obtained; the PTSS group specifically performed better than the control group on reward-based trials, with no difference on punishment-based trials. To better understand possible mechanisms underlying observed performance, we used a reinforcement learning model of the task, and applied maximum likelihood estimation techniques to derive estimated parameters describing individual participants' behavior. Estimations of the reinforcement value of the no-feedback outcome were significantly greater in the control group than the PTSS group, suggesting that the control group was more likely to value this outcome as positively reinforcing (i.e., signaling successful avoidance of punishment). This is consistent with the control group's generally poorer performance on reward trials, where reward feedback was to be obtained in preference to the no-feedback outcome. Differences in the interpretation of ambiguous feedback may contribute to the facilitated reinforcement learning often observed in PTSD patients, and may in turn provide new insight into how

  17. Co-Ingestion of Whey Protein with a Carbohydrate-Rich Breakfast Does Not Affect Glycemia, Insulinemia or Subjective Appetite Following a Subsequent Meal in Healthy Males

    PubMed Central

    Allerton, Dean M.; Campbell, Matthew D.; Gonzalez, Javier T.; Rumbold, Penny L. S.; West, Daniel J.; Stevenson, Emma J.

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to assess postprandial metabolic and appetite responses to a mixed-macronutrient lunch following prior addition of whey protein to a carbohydrate-rich breakfast. Ten healthy males (age: 24 ± 1 years; body mass index (BMI): 24.5 ± 0.7 kg/m2) completed three trials in a non-isocaloric, crossover design. A carbohydrate-rich breakfast (93 g carbohydrate; 1799 kJ) was consumed with (CHO + WP) or without (CHO) 20 g whey protein isolate (373 kJ), or breakfast was omitted (NB). At 180 min, participants consumed a mixed-macronutrient lunch meal. Venous blood was sampled at 15 min intervals following each meal and every 30 min thereafter, while subjective appetite sensations were collected every 30 min throughout. Post-breakfast insulinemia was greater after CHO + WP (time-averaged area under the curve (AUC0–180 min): 193.1 ± 26.3 pmol/L), compared to CHO (154.7 ± 18.5 pmol/L) and NB (46.1 ± 8.0 pmol/L; p < 0.05), with no difference in post-breakfast (0–180 min) glycemia (CHO + WP, 3.8 ± 0.2 mmol/L; CHO, 4.2 ± 0.2 mmol/L; NB, 4.2 ± 0.1 mmol/L; p = 0.247). There were no post-lunch (0–180 min) effects of condition on glycemia (p = 0.492), insulinemia (p = 0.338) or subjective appetite (p > 0.05). Adding whey protein to a carbohydrate-rich breakfast enhanced the acute postprandial insulin response, without influencing metabolic or appetite responses following a subsequent mixed-macronutrient meal. PMID:26927166

  18. A postweaning reduction in circulating ghrelin temporarily alters growth hormone (GH) responsiveness to GH-releasing hormone in male mice but does not affect somatic growth.

    PubMed

    Ariyasu, Hiroyuki; Iwakura, Hiroshi; Yamada, Go; Kanamoto, Naotetsu; Bando, Mika; Kohno, Kenji; Sato, Takahiro; Kojima, Masayasu; Nakao, Kazuwa; Kangawa, Kenji; Akamizu, Takashi

    2010-04-01

    Ghrelin was initially identified as an endogenous ligand for the GH secretagogue receptor. When administrated exogenously, ghrelin stimulates GH release and food intake. Previous reports in ghrelin-null mice, which do not exhibit impaired growth nor appetite, question the physiologic role of ghrelin in the regulation of the GH/IGF-I axis. In this study, we generated a transgenic mouse that expresses human diphtheria toxin (DT) receptor (DTR) cDNA in ghrelin-secretion cells [ghrelin-promoter DTR-transgenic (GPDTR-Tg) mice]. Administration of DT to this mouse ablates ghrelin-secretion cells in a controlled manner. After injection of DT into GPDTR-Tg mice, ghrelin-secreting cells were ablated, and plasma levels of ghrelin were markedly decreased [nontransgenic littermates, 70.6 +/- 10.2 fmol/ml vs. GPDTR-Tg, 5.3 +/- 2.3 fmol/ml]. To elucidate the physiological roles of circulating ghrelin on GH secretion and somatic growth, 3-wk-old GPDTR-Tg mice were treated with DT twice a week for 5 wk. The GH responses to GHRH in male GPDTR-Tg mice were significantly lower than those in wild-type mice at 5 wk of age. However, those were normalized at 8 wk of age. In contrast, in female mice, there was no difference in GH response to GHRH between GPDTR-Tg mice and controls at 5 or 8 wk of age. The gender-dependent differences in response to GHRH were observed in ghrelin-ablated mice. However, GPDTR-Tg mice did not display any decreases in IGF-I levels or any growth retardation. Our results strongly suggest that circulating ghrelin does not play a crucial role in somatic growth.

  19. 2.45-GHz microwave irradiation adversely affects reproductive function in male mouse, Mus musculus by inducing oxidative and nitrosative stress.

    PubMed

    Shahin, S; Mishra, V; Singh, S P; Chaturvedi, C M

    2014-05-01

    Electromagnetic radiations are reported to produce long-term and short-term biological effects, which are of great concern to human health due to increasing use of devices emitting EMR especially microwave (MW) radiation in our daily life. In view of the unavoidable use of MW emitting devices (microwaves oven, mobile phones, Wi-Fi, etc.) and their harmful effects on biological system, it was thought worthwhile to investigate the long-term effects of low-level MW irradiation on the reproductive function of male Swiss strain mice and its mechanism of action. Twelve-week-old mice were exposed to non-thermal low-level 2.45-GHz MW radiation (CW for 2 h/day for 30 days, power density = 0.029812 mW/cm(2) and SAR = 0.018 W/Kg). Sperm count and sperm viability test were done as well as vital organs were processed to study different stress parameters. Plasma was used for testosterone and testis for 3β HSD assay. Immunohistochemistry of 3β HSD and nitric oxide synthase (i-NOS) was also performed in testis. We observed that MW irradiation induced a significant decrease in sperm count and sperm viability along with the decrease in seminiferous tubule diameter and degeneration of seminiferous tubules. Reduction in testicular 3β HSD activity and plasma testosterone levels was also noted in the exposed group of mice. Increased expression of testicular i-NOS was observed in the MW-irradiated group of mice. Further, these adverse reproductive effects suggest that chronic exposure to nonionizing MW radiation may lead to infertility via free radical species-mediated pathway.

  20. Consumption of caffeinated coffee and a high carbohydrate meal affects postprandial metabolism of a subsequent oral glucose tolerance test in young, healthy males.

    PubMed

    Moisey, Lesley L; Robinson, Lindsay E; Graham, Terry E

    2010-03-01

    Caffeine and caffeinated coffee (CC) elicit acute insulin insensitivity when ingested before a carbohydrate load. The effects of CC on glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity when co-ingested with a high carbohydrate meal and on postprandial metabolism of a subsequent (second) carbohydrate load have not been studied. In a randomised, crossover design, ten healthy males ingested either CC (5 mg caffeine/kg body weight), decaffeinated coffee (DC) or water (W; equal volume) co-ingested with a high glycaemic index cereal followed 3 h later by a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test. After the initial meal, insulin area under the curve (AUC) and insulin sensitivity index did not differ between treatments, although glucose AUC for CC (107 (sem 18) mmol/l x 3 h) and DC (74 (sem 15) mmol/l x 3 h) was greater than W ( - 0.2 (sem 29) mmol/l x 3 h, P < 0.05). After the second carbohydrate load, insulin AUC for CC was 49 % and 57 % greater (P < 0.01) than for DC and W, respectively. Despite the greater insulin response, glucose AUC for CC (217 (sem 24) mmol/l x 2 h) was greater than both DC (126 (sem 11) mmol/l x 2 h, P = 0.01) and W (55 (sem 34) mmol/l x 2 h, P < 0.001). Insulin sensitivity index after the second meal was lower after CC (8.2 (sem 0.9)) compared with both DC (12.4 (sem 1.2), P < 0.01) and W (13.4 (sem 1.4), P < 0.001). Co-ingestion of CC with one meal resulted in insulin insensitivity during the postprandial phase of a second meal in the absence of further CC ingestion. Thus, CC may play a role in daily glycaemic management.

  1. Testosterone Affects Neural Gene Expression Differently in Male and Female Juncos: A Role for Hormones in Mediating Sexual Dimorphism and Conflict

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Mark P.; Rosvall, Kimberly A.; Choi, Jeong-Hyeon; Ziegenfus, Charles; Tang, Haixu; Colbourne, John K.; Ketterson, Ellen D.

    2013-01-01

    Despite sharing much of their genomes, males and females are often highly dimorphic, reflecting at least in part the resolution of sexual conflict in response to sexually antagonistic selection. Sexual dimorphism arises owing to sex differences in gene expression, and steroid hormones are often invoked as a proximate cause of sexual dimorphism. Experimental elevation of androgens can modify behavior, physiology, and gene expression, but knowledge of the role of hormones remains incomplete, including how the sexes differ in gene expression in response to hormones. We addressed these questions in a bird species with a long history of behavioral endocrinological and ecological study, the dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis), using a custom microarray. Focusing on two brain regions involved in sexually dimorphic behavior and regulation of hormone secretion, we identified 651 genes that differed in expression by sex in medial amygdala and 611 in hypothalamus. Additionally, we treated individuals of each sex with testosterone implants and identified many genes that may be related to previously identified phenotypic effects of testosterone treatment. Some of these genes relate to previously identified effects of testosterone-treatment and suggest that the multiple effects of testosterone may be mediated by modifying the expression of a small number of genes. Notably, testosterone-treatment tended to alter expression of different genes in each sex: only 4 of the 527 genes identified as significant in one sex or the other were significantly differentially expressed in both sexes. Hormonally regulated gene expression is a key mechanism underlying sexual dimorphism, and our study identifies specific genes that may mediate some of these processes. PMID:23613935

  2. In utero exposure of mice to diesel exhaust particles affects spatial learning and memory with reduced N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor expression in the hippocampus of male offspring.

    PubMed

    Yokota, Satoshi; Sato, Akira; Umezawa, Masakazu; Oshio, Shigeru; Takeda, Ken

    2015-09-01

    Diesel exhaust consists of diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) and gaseous compounds. Previous studies reported that in utero exposure to diesel exhaust affects the central nervous system. However, there was no clear evidence that these effects were caused by diesel exhaust particles themselves, gaseous compounds, or both. Here, we explored the effects of in utero exposure to DEPs on learning and memory in male ICR mice. DEP solutions were administered subcutaneously to pregnant ICR mice at a dose of 0 or 200 μg/kg body weight on gestation days 6, 9, 12, 15, and 18. We examined learning and memory in 9-to-10-week-old male offspring using the Morris water maze test and passive avoidance test. Immediately after the behavioral tests, hippocampi were isolated. Hippocampal N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NR) expression was also measured by quantitative RT-PCR analysis. Mice exposed to DEPs in utero showed deficits in the Morris water maze test, but their performance was not significantly different from that of control mice in the passive avoidance test. In addition, DEP-exposed mice exhibited decreased hippocampal NR2A expression. The present results indicate that maternal DEP exposure disrupts learning and memory in male offspring, which is associated with reduced hippocampal NR2A expression.

  3. Daily exposure to summer temperatures affects the motile subpopulation structure of epididymal sperm cells but not male fertility in an in vivo rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Maya-Soriano, M J; Taberner, E; Sabés-Alsina, M; Ramon, J; Rafel, O; Tusell, L; Piles, M; López-Béjar, M

    2015-08-01

    High temperatures have negative effects on sperm quality leading to temporary or permanent sterility. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of long exposure to summer circadian heat stress cycles on sperm parameters and the motile subpopulation structure of epididymal sperm cells from rabbit bucks. Twelve White New Zealand rabbit bucks were exposed to a daily constant temperature of the thermoneutral zone (from 18 °C to 22 °C; control group) or exposed to a summer circadian heat stress cycles (30 °C, 3 h/day; heat stress group). Spermatozoa were flushed from the epididymis and assessed for sperm quality parameters at recovery. Sperm total motility and progressivity were negatively affected by high temperatures (P < 0.05), as were also specific motility parameters (curvilinear velocity, linear velocity, mean velocity, straightness coefficient, linearity coefficient, wobble coefficient, and frequency of head displacement; P < 0.05, but not the mean amplitude of lateral head displacement). Heat stress significantly increased the percentage of less-motile sperm subpopulations, although the percentage of the high-motile subpopulation was maintained, which is consistent with the fact that no effect was detected on fertility rates. However, prolificacy was reduced in females submitted to heat stress when inseminated by control bucks. In conclusion, our results suggest that environmental high temperatures are linked to changes in the proportion of motile sperm subpopulations of the epididymis, although fertility is still preserved despite the detrimental effects of heat stress. On the other hand, prolificacy seems to be affected by the negative effects of high temperatures, especially by altering female reproduction.

  4. Paracetamol (acetaminophen) administration during neonatal brain development affects cognitive function and alters its analgesic and anxiolytic response in adult male mice.

    PubMed

    Viberg, Henrik; Eriksson, Per; Gordh, Torsten; Fredriksson, Anders

    2014-03-01

    Paracetamol (acetaminophen) is one of the most commonly used drugs for the treatment of pain and fever in children, both at home and in the clinic, and is now also found in the environment. Paracetamol is known to act on the endocannabinoid system, involved in normal development of the brain. We examined if neonatal paracetamol exposure could affect the development of the brain, manifested as adult behavior and cognitive deficits, as well as changes in the response to paracetamol. Ten-day-old mice were administered a single dose of paracetamol (30 mg/kg body weight) or repeated doses of paracetamol (30 + 30 mg/kg body weight, 4h apart). Concentrations of paracetamol and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were measured in the neonatal brain, and behavioral testing was done when animals reached adulthood. This study shows that acute neonatal exposure to paracetamol (2 × 30 mg) results in altered locomotor activity on exposure to a novel home cage arena and a failure to acquire spatial learning in adulthood, without affecting thermal nociceptive responding or anxiety-related behavior. However, mice neonatally exposed to paracetamol (2 × 30 mg) fail to exhibit paracetamol-induced antinociceptive and anxiogenic-like behavior in adulthood. Behavioral alterations in adulthood may, in part, be due to paracetamol-induced changes in BDNF levels in key brain regions at a critical time during development. This indicates that exposure to and presence of paracetamol during a critical period of brain development can induce long-lasting effects on cognitive function and alter the adult response to paracetamol in mice.

  5. Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection Using DNA-Fragmented Sperm in Mice Negatively Affects Embryo-Derived Embryonic Stem Cells, Reduces the Fertility of Male Offspring and Induces Heritable Changes in Epialleles

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-González, Raúl; Laguna-Barraza, Ricardo; Pericuesta, Eva; Calero, Antonia; Ramírez, Miguel Ángel; Gutiérrez-Adán, Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in mice using DNA-fragmented sperm (DFS) has been linked to an increased risk of genetic and epigenetic abnormalities both in embryos and offspring. This study examines: whether embryonic stem cells (ESCs) derived from DFS-ICSI embryos reflect the abnormalities observed in the DFS-ICSI progeny; the effect of DFS-ICSI on male fertility; and whether DFS-ICSI induces epigenetic changes that lead to a modified heritable phenotype. DFS-ICSI-produced embryos showed a low potential to generate ESC lines. However, these lines had normal karyotype accompanied by early gene expression alterations, though a normal expression pattern was observed after several passages. The fertility of males in the DFS-ICSI and control groups was compared by mating test. Sperm quantity, vaginal plug and pregnancy rates were significantly lower for the DFS-ICSI-produced males compared to in vivo-produced mice, while the number of females showing resorptions was higher. The epigenetic effects of DFS-ICSI were assessed by analyzing the phenotype rendered by the Axin1Fu allele, a locus that is highly sensitive to epigenetic perturbations. Oocytes were injected with spermatozoa from Axin1Fu/+ mice and the DFS-ICSI-generated embryos were transferred to females. A significantly higher proportion of pups expressed the active kinky-tail epiallele in the DFS-ICSI group than the controls. In conclusion: 1) ESCs cannot be used as a model of DFS-ICSI; 2) DFS-ICSI reduces sperm production and fertility in the male progeny; and 3) DFS-ICSI affects the postnatal expression of a defined epigenetically sensitive allele and this modification may be inherited across generations. PMID:24743851

  6. Alternate cadmium exposure differentially affects the content of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and taurine within the hypothalamus, median eminence, striatum and prefrontal cortex of male rats.

    PubMed

    Esquifino, A I; Seara, R; Fernández-Rey, E; Lafuente, A

    2001-05-01

    This work examines changes of gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) and taurine contents in the hypothalamus, striatum and prefrontal cortex of the rat after an alternate schedule of cadmium administration. Age-associated changes were also evaluated, of those before puberty and after adult age. In control rats GABA content decreased with age in the median eminence and in anterior, mediobasal and posterior hypothalamus, prefrontal cortex and the striatum. Taurine content showed similar results with the exception of mediobasal hypothalamus and striatum, where no changes were detected. In pubertal rats treated with cadmium from 30 to 60 days of life, GABA content significantly decreased in all brain regions except in the striatum. When cadmium was administered from day 60 to 90 of life, GABA content was significantly changed in prefrontal cortex only compared with the age matched controls. Taurine content showed similar results in pubertal rats, with the exception of the median eminence and the mediobasal hypothalamus, neither of which showed a change. However, when cadmium was administered to rats from day 60 to 90 of life, taurine content only changed in prefrontal cortex compared with the age matched controls. These results suggest that cadmium differentially affects GABA and taurine contents within the hypothalamus, median eminence, striatum and prefrontal cortex as a function of age.

  7. Film Excerpts Shown to Specifically Elicit Various Affects Lead to Overlapping Activation Foci in a Large Set of Symmetrical Brain Regions in Males

    PubMed Central

    Karama, Sherif; Armony, Jorge; Beauregard, Mario

    2011-01-01

    While the limbic system theory continues to be part of common scientific parlance, its validity has been questioned on multiple grounds. Nonetheless, the issue of whether or not there exists a set of brain areas preferentially dedicated to emotional processing remains central within affective neuroscience. Recently, a widespread neural reference space for emotion which includes limbic as well as other regions was characterized in a large meta-analysis. As methodologically heterogeneous studies go into such meta-analyses, showing in an individual study in which all parameters are kept constant, the involvement of overlapping areas for various emotion conditions in keeping with the neural reference space for emotion, would serve as valuable confirmatory evidence. Here, using fMRI, 20 young adult men were scanned while viewing validated neutral and effective emotion-eliciting short film excerpts shown to quickly and specifically elicit disgust, amusement, or sexual arousal. Each emotion-specific run included, in random order, multiple neutral and emotion condition blocks. A stringent conjunction analysis revealed a large overlap across emotion conditions that fit remarkably well with the neural reference space for emotion. This overlap included symmetrical bilateral activation of the medial prefrontal cortex, the anterior cingulate, the temporo-occipital junction, the basal ganglia, the brainstem, the amygdala, the hippocampus, the thalamus, the subthalamic nucleus, the posterior hypothalamus, the cerebellum, as well as the frontal operculum extending towards the anterior insula. This study clearly confirms for the visual modality, that processing emotional stimuli leads to widespread increases in activation that cluster within relatively confined areas, regardless of valence. PMID:21818311

  8. GASIS demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Vidas, E.H.

    1995-04-01

    A prototype of the GASIS database and retrieval software has been developed and is the subject of this poster session and computer demonstration. The prototype consists of test or preliminary versions of the GASIS Reservoir Data System and Source Directory datasets and the software for query and retrieval. The prototype reservoir database covers the Rocky Mountain region and contains the full GASIS data matrix (all GASIS data elements) that will eventually be included on the CD-ROM. It is populated for development purposes primarily by the information included in the Rocky Mountain Gas Atlas. The software has been developed specifically for GASIS using Foxpro for Windows. The application is an executable file that does not require Foxpro to run. The reservoir database software includes query and retrieval, screen display, report generation, and data export functions. Basic queries by state, basin, or field name will be assisted by scrolling selection lists. A detailed query screen will allow record selection on the basis of any data field, such as depth, cumulative production, or geological age. Logical operators can be applied to any-numeric data element or combination of elements. Screen display includes a {open_quotes}browse{close_quotes} display with one record per row and a detailed single record display. Datasets can be exported in standard formats for manipulation with other software packages. The Source Directory software will allow record retrieval by database type or subject area.

  9. Condoms - male

    MedlinePlus

    Prophylactics; Rubbers; Male condoms; Contraceptive - condom; Contraception - condom; Barrier method - condom ... rubber Polyurethane Condoms are the only method of birth control for men that are not permanent. They can ...

  10. An Exploratory Study on Initial STEM Classes and African American Freshman Males Who Are STEM Majors at a Large Mid-Atlantic State University: Factors Affecting Self-Efficacy Beliefs and Persistence in the STEM Pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calhoun, William Jason

    The purpose of this study was to test how well social cognitive career theory (SCCT) explains the effects of an introductory freshman year science course on the career perspectives of African American males at a large, public mid-Atlantic state university. Embracing SCCT as the foundation of this project, the dissertation intended to gather data from these young men to develop insight into how and in what ways their self-efficacy throughout the semester was influenced by their first science course, and changing their outlook on Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) careers while in school and after graduation. To a small number of freshman African American male students who have declared themselves STEM majors, I utilized a qualitative study investigating this phenomenon. The major findings detailed themes that affected these young men including concerns about mathmatics preparation, isolation, balance, microagression, and help-seeking. Results indicate that there was an impact on the confidence, achievement, and goal setting for these young men due to these factors and that social cognitive career theory was an appropriate framework from which to test these questions.

  11. 3,3 diindolylmethane leads to apoptosis, decreases sperm quality, affects blood estradiol 17 β and testosterone, oestrogen (α and β) and androgen receptor levels in the reproductive system in male rats.

    PubMed

    Aksu, E H; Akman, O; Ömür, A D; Karakuş, E; Can, I; Kandemir, F M; Dorman, E; Uçar, Ö

    2016-12-01

    3,3 Diindolylmethane (DIM) is a major digestive product of indole-3 carbinol, obtained from Brassica family vegetables such as broccoli, cabbage and Brussels sprouts. This study aimed to investigate the effects of DIM on sperm parameters, histological structures of testicular tissues, blood testosterone (T) and estradiol 17-β (E2) in male rats. Thirty-eight male Sprague Dawley rats were used. Rats were divided into four groups: Group I: referred as Control group, received corn oil only; Group II: as DIM-10, rats received 10 mg kg(-1) DIM; Group III: as DIM-50, rats received 50 mg kg(-1) DIM; Group IV: as DIM-100, received 100 mg kg(-1) DIM during 53 days. Spermatological parameters, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels of testes and serum T and E2 levels were assayed. Histopathological examinations of tests were done. DIM caused an increase in MDA levels. It decreased motility and live sperm rates and increased degeneration of testicular tissues. While DIM-10 did not affect abnormal sperm rate, higher concentrations increased the abnormalities. Sperm density was higher in DIM-10 groups when compared to both other groups. Only DIM-50 had an anti-androgenic effect among all groups. Only, DIM-10 showed anti-estrogenic activity as compared to higher DIM groups. In conclusion, DIM (i) had side effect on some sperm characteristics, (ii) increased the MDA levels and (iii) led to histological degeneration of testicular tissues and apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner.

  12. Ambiguous genitalia in XX male children: report of two infants.

    PubMed

    Roe, T F; Alfi, O S

    1977-07-01

    Two infants with ambiguous genitalia were recognized to have the XX male syndrome. Although most XX males have normal penile development, a review of the reported cases showed that eight of the 14 affected children, diagnosed before age 15 years, had penile abnormalities, most commonly hypospadias and/or chordee. This syndrome should be considered in children with incomplete genital differentiation. The available indirect evidence suggests that deficient testosterone production by the fetal testes accounts for the genital ambiguity. Although no explanation has been established for the presence of testes in the apparent absence of the Y chromosome, studies of the X-linked Xg blood group in XX males demonstrate a high frequency of unusual inheritance patterns. This implies that the abnormality in the transmission of maleness in affected families may also be X-related rather than autosomal.

  13. Male-male interactions and mating kinetics in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Wallace, B

    1990-05-01

    Male-male interaction (K) has been estimated from data on the attrition rate of virgin females per minute in a study of the mating kinetics in Drosophila. K is expressed as the time males expend on other males relative to that expended while searching for, courting, and copulating with females. The value of K in these studies ranged from 0 (approximately) to .695; it was affected both by strain (sepia or ebony D. melanogaster and wild-type D. simulans) and by size of the mating chamber. Host-parasitoid models of ecologists appear to be appropriate for examining mating kinetics in Drosophila.

  14. Male offspring production by asexual Potamopyrgus antipodarum, a New Zealand snail.

    PubMed

    Neiman, M; Larkin, K; Thompson, A R; Wilton, P

    2012-07-01

    As only females contribute directly to population growth, sexual females investing equally in sons and daughters experience a two-fold cost relative to asexuals producing only daughters. Typically, researchers have focused on benefits of sex that can counter this 'cost of males' and thus explain its predominance. Here, we instead ask whether asexuals might also pay a cost of males by quantifying the rate of son production in 45 experimental populations ('lineages') founded by obligately asexual female Potamopyrgus antipodarum. This New Zealand snail is a powerful model for studying sex because phenotypically similar sexual and asexual forms often coexist, allowing direct comparisons between sexuals and asexuals. After 2 years of culture, 23 of the 45 lineages had produced males, demonstrating that asexual P. antipodarum can make sons. We used maximum-likelihood analysis of a model of male production in which only some lineages can produce males to estimate that ~50% of lineages have the ability to produce males and that ~5% of the offspring of male-producing lineages are male. Lineages producing males in the first year of the experiment were more likely to make males in the second, suggesting that some asexual lineages might pay a cost of males relative to other asexual lineages. Finally, we used a simple deterministic model of population dynamics to evaluate how male production affects the rate of invasion of an asexual lineage into a sexual population, and found that the estimated rate of male production by asexual P. antipodarum is too low to influence invasion dynamics.

  15. Female metasternal gland odours mediate male aggregation in Rhodnius prolixus, a triatomid bug.

    PubMed

    Pontes, G B; Lorenzo, M G

    2012-03-01

    We investigated whether metasternal gland (MG) products mediate male aggregation during mating in Rhodnius prolixus (Heteroptera: Reduviidae) Stål, 1859, through selective occlusion of female MGs. Pairs of insects presenting intact MGs mated and other males aggregated around them confirming conclusions from previous studies. However, when female MGs were occluded, males did not aggregate. Conversely, the occlusion of male MGs did not affect aggregation of males. The present experiments demonstrated that the products emitted by the MGs of a mating R. prolixus female induce other males to aggregate around the mating pair. Aggregation behaviour of males probably results from the eventual release of volatiles from the female's MGs. We reinforce the hypothesis suggesting that the compounds produced by the MGs of R. prolixus act as sexual communication signals for this species.

  16. Dopaminergic modulation of reproductive behavior and activity in male zebra finches.

    PubMed

    Rauceo, Sharon; Harding, Cheryl F; Maldonado, Alexandra; Gaysinkaya, Lina; Tulloch, Ingrid; Rodriguez, Elizabeth

    2008-02-11

    We previously demonstrated that hormone treatments which stimulate female-directed singing increased levels and turnover of dopamine (DA) in brain areas controlling the motor patterning of song. To help determine how DA affects singing, we quantified the effects of treating adult male finches with the D1/D2 receptor antagonist cis-flupenthixol. Adult males were given subcutaneous silastic implants of androgen, in case drug treatment interfered with androgen secretion. One week later, they were tested with females. Males were divided into three groups matched for levels of courtship singing. Males were then subcutaneously implanted with osmotic minipumps containing either saline, a low, or a high dose of cis-flupenthixol. Each male was tested with a different female 5 and 10 days after implantation to determine how this D1/D2 receptor antagonist affected behavior. Both drug doses affected female-directed singing 5 days after initiation of treatment. High-dose males sang to females significantly less often than males in the other two groups. Low-dose males showed fewer high-intensity courtship displays in which males dance towards females as they sing. These effects on courtship singing were not seen at day 10, though other behavioral effects were seen at this time. Male beak wipes, rocks, following females and female withdrawals from males were also affected by drug treatment. General activity in the home cage was decreased by day 11. These data demonstrate that singing and several other female-directed behaviors are sensitive to perturbations in DA receptor function.

  17. Mating with large males decreases the immune defence of females in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Imroze, K; Prasad, N G

    2011-12-01

    Mating has been widely reported to be a costly event for females. Studies indicate that female cost of mating in terms of fecundity and survivorship can be affected by their mates, leading to antagonistic coevolution between the sexes. However, as of now, there is no evidence that the female cost of mating in terms of immune defence is affected by their mates. We assess the effect of different sized males on antibacterial immune defence and reproductive fitness of their mates. We used a large outbred population of Drososphila melanogaster as the host and Serratia marcescens as the pathogen. We generated three different male phenotypes: small, medium and large, by manipulating larval densities. Compared to females mating with small males, those mating with large males had higher bacterial loads and lower fecundity. There was no significant effect of male phenotype on the fraction of females mated or copulation duration (an indicator of ejaculate investment). Thus, our study is the first clear demonstration that male phenotype can affect the cost of mating to females in terms of their antibacterial immune defence. Mating with large males imposes an additional cost of mating to females in terms of reduced immune defence. The observed results are very likely due to qualitative/quantitative differences in the ejaculates of the three different types of males. If the phenotypic variation that we observed in males in our study is mirrored by genetic variation, then, it can potentially lead to antagonistic coevolution of the sexes over immune defence.

  18. MALE OSTEOPOROSIS

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Lindomar Guimarães; Guimarães, Mara Lucia Rassi

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Population aging is a reality that is being faced worldwide, and Brazil is no different. Osteoporosis was considered to be a postmenopausal women's disease for many years. Men have many development and hormonal factors that differentiate their skeletal maturation, which affects the incidence of osteoporosis and fractures. An up-to-date review of the specific literature within the Medline system is presented. PMID:27022584

  19. The turn of the sword: length increases male swimming costs in swordtails.

    PubMed

    Basolo, Alexandra L; Alcaraz, Guillermina

    2003-08-07

    Sexual selection via female mate choice can result in the evolution of elaborate male traits that incur substantial costs for males. Despite increased interest in how female mating preferences contribute to the evolution of male traits, few studies have directly quantified the locomotor costs of such traits. A sexually selected trait that could affect movement costs is the sword exhibited by male swordtail fishes: while longer swords may increase male mating success, they could negatively affect the hydrodynamic aspects of swimming activities. Here, we examine the energetic costs of the sword in Xiphophorus montezumae by experimentally manipulating sword length and measuring male aerobic metabolism during two types of activity, routine swimming and courtship swimming. Direct measurements of oxygen consumption indicate that males with longer swords expend more energy than males with shortened swords during both types of swimming. In addition, the sword increases the cost of male courtship. Thus, while sexual selection via female choice favours long swords, males with longer swords experience higher metabolic costs during swimming, suggesting that sexual and natural selection have opposing effects on sword evolution. This study demonstrates a hydrodynamic cost of a sexually selected trait. In addition, this study discriminates between the cost of a sexually selected trait used in courtship and other courtship costs.

  20. Melatonin and male reproduction.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunjin; Zhou, Xu

    2015-06-15

    Melatonin is a neurohormone secreted by the pineal gland whose concentrations in the body are regulated by both the dark-light and seasonal cycles. The reproductive function of seasonal breeding animals is clearly influenced by the circadian variation in melatonin levels. Moreover, a growing body of evidence indicates that melatonin has important effects in the reproduction of some non-seasonal breeding animals. In males, melatonin affects reproductive regulation in three main ways. First, it regulates the secretion of two key neurohormones, GnRH and LH. Second, it regulates testosterone synthesis and testicular maturation. Third, as a potent free radical scavenger that is both lipophilic and hydrophilic, it prevents testicular damage caused by environmental toxins or inflammation. This review summarizes the existing data on the possible biological roles of melatonin in male reproduction. Overall, the literature data indicate that melatonin affects the secretion of both gonadotropins and testosterone while also improving sperm quality. This implies that it has important effects on the regulation of testicular development and male reproduction.

  1. A Combined Classical Genetic and High Resolution Two-Dimensional Electrophoretic Approach to the Assessment of the Number of Genes Affecting Hybrid Male Sterility in Drosophila Simulans and Drosophila Sechellia

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, L. W.; Singh, R. S.

    1993-01-01

    We have attempted to estimate the number of genes involved in postzygotic reproductive isolation between two closely related species, Drosophila simulans and Drosophila sechellia, by a novel approach that involves the use of high resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) to examine testis proteins in parents, hybrids and fertile and sterile backcross progenies. The important results that have emerged from this study are as follows: (1) about 8% of about 1000 proteins examined showed divergence (presence/absence) between the two species; (2) by tracing individual proteins in parental, hybrid and backcross males, we were able to associate the divergent proteins with different chromosomes and found that most divergent proteins are associated with autosomes and very few with X chromosome, Y chromosome and cytoplasm; (3) when proteins showing both quantitative and qualitative differences between the two species were examined in F(1) hybrid males, most (97.4%) proteins were expressed at levels between the two parents and no sign of large scale changes in spot density was observed. All the proteins observed in the two parental species were present in F(1) hybrid males except two species-specific proteins that may be encoded (or regulated) by sex chromosomes; (4) when different fertile and sterile backcross male testes were compared, a few D. sechellia-specific proteins were identified to be consistently associated with male sterility. These results along with the observation that a large proportion (23.6%) of first generation backcross males were fertile show that hybrid male sterility between D. simulans and D. sechellia involves a relatively small number of genes. Role of large scale genetic changes due to general genome incompatibility is not supported. The results also suggest that the large effect of X chromosome on hybrid male sterility is not due to higher divergence of X chromosome than autosomes. PMID:8224814

  2. Fluoride caused thyroid endocrine disruption in male zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Jianjie, Chen; Wenjuan, Xue; Jinling, Cao; Jie, Song; Ruhui, Jia; Meiyan, Li

    2016-02-01

    Excessive fluoride in natural water ecosystem has the potential to detrimentally affect thyroid endocrine system, but little is known of such effects or underlying mechanisms in fish. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of fluoride on growth performance, thyroid histopathology, thyroid hormone levels, and gene expressions in the HPT axis in male zebrafish (Danio rerio) exposed to different determined concentrations of 0.1, 0.9, 2.0 and 4.1 M of fluoride to investigate the effects of fluoride on thyroid endocrine system and the potential toxic mechanisms caused by fluoride. The results indicated that the growth of the male zebrafish used in the experiments was significantly inhibited, the thyroid microtrastructure was changed, and the levels of T3 and T4 were disturbed in fluoride-exposed male fish. In addition, the expressional profiles of genes in HPT axis displayed alteration. The expressions of all studied genes were significantly increased in all fluoride-exposed male fish after exposure for 45 days. The transcriptional levels of corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroglobulin (TG), sodium iodide symporter (NIS), iodothyronine I (DIO1), and thyroid hormone receptor alpha (TRα) were also elevated in all fluoride-exposed male fish after 90 days of exposure, while the inconsistent expressions were found in the mRNA of iodothyronineⅡ (DIO2), UDP glucuronosyltransferase 1 family a, b (UGT1ab), transthyretin (TTR), and thyroid hormone receptor beta (TRβ). These results demonstrated that fluoride could notably inhibit the growth of zebrafish, and significantly affect thyroid endocrine system by changing the microtrastructure of thyroid, altering thyroid hormone levels and endocrine-related gene expressions in male zebrafish. All above indicated that fluoride could pose a great threat to thyroid endocrine system, thus detrimentally affected the normal function of thyroid of male zebrafish.

  3. Misexpression of the white (w) gene triggers male-male courtship in Drosophila.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, S D; Odenwald, W F

    1995-01-01

    We report here that the general ectopic expression of a tryptophan/guanine transmembrane transporter gene, white (w), induces male-male courtship in Drosophila. Activation of a hsp-70/miniwhite (mini-w) transgene in mature males results in a marked change in their sexual behavior such that they begin to vigorously court other mature males. In transformant populations containing equal numbers of both sexes, most males participate, thus forming male-male courtship chains, circles, and lariats. Mutations that ablate the w transgene function also abolish this inducible behavior. Female sexual behavior does not appear to be altered by ectopic w expression. By contrast, when exposed to an active homosexual courtship environment, non-transformant males alter their behavior and actively participate in the male-male chaining. These findings demonstrate that, in Drosophila, both genetic and environmental factors play a role in male sexual behavior. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:7777542

  4. Homosexual behaviour increases male attractiveness to females

    PubMed Central

    Bierbach, David; Jung, Christian T.; Hornung, Simon; Streit, Bruno; Plath, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Male homosexual behaviour—although found in most extant clades across the Animal Kingdom—remains a conundrum, as same-sex mating should decrease male reproductive fitness. In most species, however, males that engage in same-sex sexual behaviour also mate with females, and in theory, same-sex mating could even increase male reproductive fitness if males improve their chances of future heterosexual mating. Females regularly use social information to choose a mate; e.g. male attractiveness increases after a male has interacted sexually with a female (mate choice copying). Here, we demonstrate that males of the tropical freshwater fish Poecilia mexicana increase their attractiveness to females not only by opposite-sex, but likewise, through same-sex interactions. Hence, direct benefits for males of exhibiting homosexual behaviour may help explain its occurrence and persistence in species in which females rely on mate choice copying as one component of mate quality assessment. PMID:23234866

  5. Male to male transmission of supernumerary nipples.

    PubMed

    Tsukahara, M; Uchida, M; Uchino, S; Fujisawa, R; Kamei, T; Itoh, T

    1997-03-17

    We report on a father and his son with supernumerary nipples. No male-to-male transmission has previously been described with this trait. This observation confirms that this trait is inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion.

  6. Ontogenetic timing as a condition-dependent life history trait: High-condition males develop quickly, peak early, and age fast.

    PubMed

    Hooper, Amy K; Spagopoulou, Foteini; Wylde, Zachariah; Maklakov, Alexei A; Bonduriansky, Russell

    2017-03-01

    Within-population variation in ageing remains poorly understood. In males, condition-dependent investment in secondary sexual traits may incur costs that limit ability to invest in somatic maintenance. Moreover, males often express morphological and behavioral secondary sexual traits simultaneously, but the relative effects on ageing of investment in these traits remain unclear. We investigated the condition dependence of male life history in the neriid fly Telostylinus angusticollis. Using a fully factorial design, we manipulated male early-life condition by varying nutrient content of the larval diet and, subsequently, manipulated opportunity for adult males to interact with rival males. We found that high-condition males developed more quickly and reached their reproductive peak earlier in life, but also experienced faster reproductive ageing and died sooner than low-condition males. By contrast, interactions with rival males reduced male lifespan but did not affect male reproductive ageing. High-condition in early life is therefore associated with rapid ageing in T. angusticollis males, even in the absence of damaging male-male interactions. Our results show that abundant resources during the juvenile phase are used to expedite growth and development and enhance early-life reproductive performance at the expense of late-life performance and survival, demonstrating a clear link between male condition and ageing.

  7. Social modulation of testosterone levels in male black howlers (Alouatta pigra).

    PubMed

    Rangel-Negrín, Ariadna; Dias, Pedro A D; Chavira, Roberto; Canales-Espinosa, Domingo

    2011-01-01

    The influence of social factors on the modulation of male testosterone levels has been demonstrated among several vertebrate species. In addition to sexual activity, parental care and reproductive competition affect testosterone secretion. We examined variations in testosterone levels among male black howlers (Alouatta pigra) in various social contexts. Fecal samples were collected from nine males living in five different groups in the Mexican state of Campeche. The potential for intragroup and extragroup competition varied among the groups. The number of resident males living in the groups was the only variable that significantly explained variations in testosterone levels. Males living in unimale groups had higher testosterone levels; the highest testosterone levels were recorded for males that had experienced a shift from multimale to unimale group compositions. In this species, the probability of being challenged by extragroup males and evicted from the group during immigration events increases when males live in unimale groups. Therefore, our results suggest that male black howlers respond to competition for group membership by increasing their testosterone levels. In this context, testosterone secretion represents an anticipatory response to reproductive conflicts. Therefore, although males living in unimale groups have exclusive access to females, they face higher physiological costs associated with sustaining high testosterone levels for extended time periods.

  8. Sperm wars and the evolution of male fertility.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Leigh W; Fitzpatrick, John L

    2012-11-01

    Females frequently mate with several males, whose sperm then compete to fertilize available ova. Sperm competition represents a potent selective force that is expected to shape male expenditure on the ejaculate. Here, we review empirical data that illustrate the evolutionary consequences of sperm competition. Sperm competition favors the evolution of increased testes size and sperm production. In some species, males appear capable of adjusting the number of sperm ejaculated, depending on the perceived levels of sperm competition. Selection is also expected to act on sperm form and function, although the evidence for this remains equivocal. Comparative studies suggest that sperm length and swimming speed may increase in response to selection from sperm competition. However, the mechanisms driving this pattern remain unclear. Evidence that sperm length influences sperm swimming speed is mixed and fertilization trials performed across a broad range of species demonstrate inconsistent relationships between sperm form and function. This ambiguity may in part reflect the important role that seminal fluid proteins (sfps) play in affecting sperm function. There is good evidence that sfps are subject to selection from sperm competition, and recent work is pointing to an ability of males to adjust their seminal fluid chemistry in response to sperm competition from rival males. We argue that future research must consider sperm and seminal fluid components of the ejaculate as a functional unity. Research at the genomic level will identify the genes that ultimately control male fertility.

  9. Regulation of male fertility by X-linked genes.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ke; Yang, Fang; Wang, Peijing Jeremy

    2010-01-01

    Infertility is a worldwide reproductive health problem, affecting men and women about equally. Mouse genetic studies demonstrate that more than 200 genes specifically or predominantly regulate fertility. However, few genetic causes of infertility in humans have been identified. Here, we focus on the regulation of male fertility by X-linked, germ cell-specific genes. Previous genomic studies reveal that the mammalian X chromosome is enriched for genes expressed in early spermatogenesis. Recent genetic studies in mice show that X-linked, germ cell-specific genes, such as A-kinase anchor protein 4 (Akap4), nuclear RNA export factor 2 (Nxf2), TBP-associated factor 7l (Taf7l), and testis-expressed gene 11 (Tex11), indeed play important roles in the regulation of male fertility. Moreover, we find that the Taf7l Tex11 double-mutant males exhibit much more severe defects in meiosis than either single mutant, suggesting that these 2 X-linked genes regulate male meiosis synergistically. The X-linked, germ cell-specific genes are particularly attractive in the study of male infertility in humans. Because males are hemizygous for X-linked genes, loss-of-function mutations in the single-copy X-linked genes, unlike in autosomal genes, would not be masked by a normal allele. The genetic studies of X-linked, germ cell-specific genes in mice have laid a foundation for mutational analysis of their human orthologues in infertile men.

  10. Adaptive male effects on female ageing in seed beetles.

    PubMed

    Maklakov, Alexei A; Kremer, Natacha; Arnqvist, Göran

    2005-12-07

    Selection can favour the evolution of a high reproductive rate early in life even when this results in a subsequent increase in the rate of mortality, because selection is relatively weak late in life. However, the optimal reproductive schedule of a female may be suboptimal to any one of her mates, and males may thus be selected to modulate female reproductive rate. Owing to such sexual conflict, coevolution between males and females may contribute to the evolution of senescence. By using replicated beetle populations selected for reproduction at an early or late age, we show that males evolve to affect senescence in females in a manner consistent with the genetic interests of males. 'Late' males evolved to decelerate senescence and increase the lifespan of control females, relative to 'early' males. Our findings demonstrate that adaptive evolution in one sex may involve its effects on senescence in the other, showing that the evolution of optimal life histories in one sex may be either facilitated or constrained by genes expressed in the other.

  11. MECP2 mutations in males

    PubMed Central

    Villard, Laurent

    2007-01-01

    Rett syndrome (RS; MIM 312750) is a severe neurological disorder affecting exclusively females. Its prevalence is about 1 in 10 000 female births, and it is a prominent cause of profound mental handicap in women. RS is caused by mutations in the X‐linked methyl CpG‐binding protein 2 (MECP2) gene. These mutations were initially thought to be lethal in males. However, MECP2 mutations are now frequently identified in mentally retarded male patients. The frequency of disease‐causing MECP2 mutations in this population is between 1.3% and 1.7%. Surprisingly, MECP2 mutations in males are responsible for a wide spectrum of neurological disorders, ranging from mild mental retardation to severe neonatal encephalopathy. The aim of this review is to describe the nature of the MECP2 mutations identified in male patients to date and their associated phenotypes. PMID:17351020

  12. Conspicuous Coloration in Males of the Damselfly Nehalennia irene (Zygoptera: Coenagrionidae): Do Males Signal Their Unprofitability to Other Males?

    PubMed Central

    Beatty, Christopher D.; Andrés, José A.; Sherratt, Thomas N.

    2015-01-01

    In damselflies, sexual colour dimorphism is commonly explained as a consequence of selection on traits that increase male attractiveness to females. However, while many species in the damselfly family Coenagrionidae (Insecta: Odonata) are sexually dimorphic, the males do not engage in displays, and male competition for mates resembles a “scramble”. An alternative explanation for the sexual differences in coloration within these species is that sexual dimorphism has evolved as a sex-related warning signal, with males signalling their uprofitability as mates to other males, thereby avoiding harassment from conspecifics. We evaluated an underlying assumption of the theory that male-male harassment rate is influenced by colour by comparing harassment of males of the species Nehalennia irene that had been painted to make them appear: (i) similar to an unaltered male (blue), (ii) different from a male (orange) and (iii) more similar to a female (black). When caged together we found that blue-painted males experienced significantly lower harassment than black-painted males. When unpainted males were caged with each type of painted male we found that blue-painted males and the unpainted males housed in the same cages experienced lower rates of harassment than males housed in cages where some males were painted black, suggesting that a single, reliable signal of unprofitability may benefit the individuals that carry it. While our results do not in themselves demonstrate that sexual colour dimorphism originally evolved as an intra-specific warning signal, they do show that harassment is influenced by coloration, and that such selection could conceivably maintain male coloration as a warning signal. PMID:26587979

  13. What’s in a Face? How Face Gender and Current Affect Influence Perceived Emotion

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Daniel A.; Hayes-Skelton, Sarah A.; Ciaramitaro, Vivian M.

    2016-01-01

    Faces drive our social interactions. A vast literature suggests an interaction between gender and emotional face perception, with studies using different methodologies demonstrating that the gender of a face can affect how emotions are processed. However, how different is our perception of affective male and female faces? Furthermore, how does our current affective state when viewing faces influence our perceptual biases? We presented participants with a series of faces morphed along an emotional continuum from happy to angry. Participants judged each face morph as either happy or angry. We determined each participant’s unique emotional ‘neutral’ point, defined as the face morph judged to be perceived equally happy and angry, separately for male and female faces. We also assessed how current state affect influenced these perceptual neutral points. Our results indicate that, for both male and female participants, the emotional neutral point for male faces is perceptually biased to be happier than for female faces. This bias suggests that more happiness is required to perceive a male face as emotionally neutral, i.e., we are biased to perceive a male face as more negative. Interestingly, we also find that perceptual biases in perceiving female faces are correlated with current mood, such that positive state affect correlates with perceiving female faces as happier, while we find no significant correlation between negative state affect and the perception of facial emotion. Furthermore, we find reaction time biases, with slower responses for angry male faces compared to angry female faces. PMID:27733839

  14. Chronic Prostatitis Affects Male Reproductive Health and Is Associated with Systemic and Local Epigenetic Inactivation of C-X-C Motif Chemokine 12 Receptor C-X-C Chemokine Receptor Type 4.

    PubMed

    Schagdarsurengin, Undraga; Teuchert, Lisa M; Hagenkötter, Christina; Nesheim, Nils; Dansranjavin, Temuujin; Schuppe, Hans-Christian; Gies, Sabrina; Pilatz, Adrian; Weidner, Wolfgang; Wagenlehner, Florian M E

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims/Objectives: Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) has detrimental effects on the quality of life including the aspect of sexual dysfunction. The aim of the study was to identify if there was an adverse effect on the male genital compartment and if there are systemic or compartment-specific local signals for epigenetic dysregulation of inflammatory factors in CP/CPPS patients.

  15. Effects of egg testosterone on female mate choice and male sexual behavior in the pheasant.

    PubMed

    Bonisoli-Alquati, Andrea; Matteo, Angelo; Ambrosini, Roberto; Rubolini, Diego; Romano, Maria; Caprioli, Manuela; Dessì-Fulgheri, Francesco; Baratti, Mariella; Saino, Nicola

    2011-01-01

    Evidence is accumulating that sex steroids in the eggs, besides affecting progeny phenotype and behavior in the short term, also have enduring effects until adulthood, when they may translate into differences in reproductive strategies and success. Maternal steroids transfer may therefore affect both agonistic behavior and mate choice decisions, either through the promotion of body size and condition or through a priming effect on the neuroendocrine system. However, owing to the prevalence of a short-term perspective, relevance of maternal transfer of sex steroids to sexual selection processes has been seldom studied. Here we investigate the effects of an experimental increase in egg testosterone on male dominance and copulation success in the ring-necked pheasant, Phasianus colchicus, a polygynous galliform with multiple male ornamental traits, in captivity. We found that females from testosterone (T) injected eggs copulated less than control females. Males from T-injected eggs obtained more copulations than control males, specifically with control females. The effect of male 'ordinary' and secondary sexual traits on either dominance or copulation frequency did not depend on early exposure to T, nor did T treatment affect male dominance. Present results demonstrate that variation in the early hormonal environment set up by mothers affects sexual behavior of the offspring, which might translate into fitness differences.

  16. Chronic High Fat Diet Consumption Impairs Metabolic Health of Male Mice.

    PubMed

    Morselli, Eugenia; Criollo, Alfredo; Rodriguez-Navas, Carlos; Clegg, Deborah J

    We show that chronic high fat diet (HFD) feeding affects the hypothalamus of male but not female mice. In our study we demonstrate that palmitic acid and sphingolipids accumulate in the central nervous system of HFD-fed males. Additionally, we show that HFD-feeding reduces proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1α) thus reducing estrogen receptor α (ERα) and driving hypothalamic inflammation in male but not female mice. Hypothalamic inflammation correlates with markers of metabolic dysregulation as indicated by dysregulation in glucose intolerance and myocardial function. Lastly, we demonstrate that there are blockages in mitophagy and lipophagy in hypothalamic tissues in males. Our data suggest there is a sexually dimorphic response to chronic HDF exposure, females; despite gaining the same amount of body weight following HFD-feeding, appear to be protected from the adverse metabolic effects of the HFD.

  17. Chronic High Fat Diet Consumption Impairs Metabolic Health of Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    Morselli, Eugenia; Criollo, Alfredo; Rodriguez-Navas, Carlos; Clegg, Deborah J.

    2015-01-01

    We show that chronic high fat diet (HFD) feeding affects the hypothalamus of male but not female mice. In our study we demonstrate that palmitic acid and sphingolipids accumulate in the central nervous system of HFD-fed males. Additionally, we show that HFD-feeding reduces proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1α) thus reducing estrogen receptor α (ERα) and driving hypothalamic inflammation in male but not female mice. Hypothalamic inflammation correlates with markers of metabolic dysregulation as indicated by dysregulation in glucose intolerance and myocardial function. Lastly, we demonstrate that there are blockages in mitophagy and lipophagy in hypothalamic tissues in males. Our data suggest there is a sexually dimorphic response to chronic HDF exposure, females; despite gaining the same amount of body weight following HFD-feeding, appear to be protected from the adverse metabolic effects of the HFD. PMID:26046098

  18. SpaceFibre Demonstrator (Demonstration and Testing)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helfers, T.; Rastetter, P.; Papadas, C.; Parkes, S.

    2014-08-01

    Currently Astrium GmbH and ISD S.A. are planning the development of a demonstrator for SpaceFibre. The SpaceFibre demonstrator will be used to execute functional performance tests and EMC (Electro Magnetic Compatibility) tests. University of Dundee is program prime contractor and provides Astrium with the SpaceFibre IP core. The work si shared between the two partners in the following way: • Astrium: Prime Contractor and Technical Coordination; FPGA Design; EMC Testing• ISD: Development of Demonstrator Board including housing, development of test bed and functional performance testingThe driving requirements for this development are:• SpaceFibre performance, while implementing it into space equivalent components• Design and MAIT of the demonstrator in such a way that representative EMC testing is possible.

  19. Males disposed to commit rape.

    PubMed

    Freund, K; Scher, H; Racansky, I G; Campbell, K; Heasman, G

    1986-02-01

    The hypothesis that the preferential rape pattern belongs among the courtship disorders like voyeurism, exhibitionism, and toucheurism was tested. The study consisted of two experiments. The first compared 11 rape-prone males, who were most likely afflicted with the preferential rape pattern, with 11 sexually normal controls on penile response to narratives that depicted scenes in which the individual engaged in behavior typical of voyeurs, exhibitionists, or toucheurs. Narratives depicting normal tactile interaction (short of intercourse) with a genuinely participating woman, normal intercourse, and sexually neutral scenes were also presented. The rape-prone males responded more to the voyeuristic situations than did the controls. The standing of the normal intercourse situations on the scale of erotic value, relative to the other above-mentioned situations, was lower for the rape-prone males than for the normal controls. A second experiment compared 12 rape-prone males, who most likely demonstrated the preferential rape pattern, with 12 males with (other) courtship disorders and 12 sexually normal controls. Penile response to narratives depicting the individual involved in pretactile erotic activity, in tactile sexual activity short of intercourse, or in having intercourse was compared. Each situation was presented in two modalities depicting either a genuinely participating woman or a woman fearful of the individual. The penile responses of the rape-prone males, as well as those of males with other courtship disorders, differentiated less between sexual interaction with a fearful woman and such interaction with a participating woman than did the penile responses of normal controls. There was no significant difference in this respect between the rape-prone males and males with other courtship disorders.

  20. Exposure to a Highly Caloric Palatable Diet During Pregestational and Gestational Periods Affects Hypothalamic and Hippocampal Endocannabinoid Levels at Birth and Induces Adiposity and Anxiety-Like Behaviors in Male Rat Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez-López, María Teresa; Vázquez, Mariam; Bindila, Laura; Lomazzo, Ermelinda; Hofmann, Clementine; Blanco, Rosario Noemí; Alén, Francisco; Antón, María; Decara, Juan; Ouro, Daniel; Orio, Laura; Suarez, Juan; Lutz, Beat; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Gómez de Heras, Raquel

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to unbalanced diets during pre-gestational and gestational periods may result in long-term alterations in metabolism and behavior. The contribution of the endocannabinoid system to these long-term adaptive responses is unknown. In the present study, we investigated the impact of female rat exposure to a hypercaloric-hypoproteic palatable diet during pre-gestational, gestational and lactational periods on the development of male offspring. In addition, the hypothalamic and hippocampal endocannabinoid contents at birth and the behavioral performance in adulthood were investigated. Exposure to a palatable diet resulted in low weight offspring who exhibited low hypothalamic contents of arachidonic acid and the two major endocannabinoids (anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol) at birth. Palmitoylethanolamide, but not oleoylethanolamide, also decreased. Additionally, pups from palatable diet-fed dams displayed lower levels of anandamide and palmitoylethanolamide in the hippocampus. The low-weight male offspring, born from palatable diet exposed mothers, gained less weight during lactation and although they recovered weight during the post-weaning period, they developed abdominal adiposity in adulthood. These animals exhibited anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus-maze and open field test and a low preference for a chocolate diet in a food preference test, indicating that maternal exposure to a hypercaloric diet induces long-term behavioral alterations in male offspring. These results suggest that maternal diet alterations in the function of the endogenous cannabinoid system can mediate the observed phenotype of the offspring, since both hypothalamic and hippocampal endocannabinoids regulate feeding, metabolic adaptions to caloric diets, learning, memory, and emotions. PMID:26778987

  1. Exposure to a Highly Caloric Palatable Diet During Pregestational and Gestational Periods Affects Hypothalamic and Hippocampal Endocannabinoid Levels at Birth and Induces Adiposity and Anxiety-Like Behaviors in Male Rat Offspring.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-López, María Teresa; Vázquez, Mariam; Bindila, Laura; Lomazzo, Ermelinda; Hofmann, Clementine; Blanco, Rosario Noemí; Alén, Francisco; Antón, María; Decara, Juan; Ouro, Daniel; Orio, Laura; Suarez, Juan; Lutz, Beat; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Gómez de Heras, Raquel

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to unbalanced diets during pre-gestational and gestational periods may result in long-term alterations in metabolism and behavior. The contribution of the endocannabinoid system to these long-term adaptive responses is unknown. In the present study, we investigated the impact of female rat exposure to a hypercaloric-hypoproteic palatable diet during pre-gestational, gestational and lactational periods on the development of male offspring. In addition, the hypothalamic and hippocampal endocannabinoid contents at birth and the behavioral performance in adulthood were investigated. Exposure to a palatable diet resulted in low weight offspring who exhibited low hypothalamic contents of arachidonic acid and the two major endocannabinoids (anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol) at birth. Palmitoylethanolamide, but not oleoylethanolamide, also decreased. Additionally, pups from palatable diet-fed dams displayed lower levels of anandamide and palmitoylethanolamide in the hippocampus. The low-weight male offspring, born from palatable diet exposed mothers, gained less weight during lactation and although they recovered weight during the post-weaning period, they developed abdominal adiposity in adulthood. These animals exhibited anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus-maze and open field test and a low preference for a chocolate diet in a food preference test, indicating that maternal exposure to a hypercaloric diet induces long-term behavioral alterations in male offspring. These results suggest that maternal diet alterations in the function of the endogenous cannabinoid system can mediate the observed phenotype of the offspring, since both hypothalamic and hippocampal endocannabinoids regulate feeding, metabolic adaptions to caloric diets, learning, memory, and emotions.

  2. Ac-Trp-DPhe(p-I)-Arg-Trp-NH2, a 250-Fold Selective Melanocortin-4 Receptor (MC4R) Antagonist over the Melanocortin-3 Receptor (MC3R), Affects Energy Homeostasis in Male and Female Mice Differently.

    PubMed

    Lensing, Cody J; Adank, Danielle N; Doering, Skye R; Wilber, Stacey L; Andreasen, Amy; Schaub, Jay W; Xiang, Zhimin; Haskell-Luevano, Carrie

    2016-09-21

    The melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) has been indicated as a therapeutic target for metabolic disorders such as anorexia, cachexia, and obesity. The current study investigates the in vivo effects on energy homeostasis of a 15 nM MC4R antagonist SKY2-23-7, Ac-Trp-DPhe(p-I)-Arg-Trp-NH2, that is a 3700 nM melanocortin-3 receptor (MC3R) antagonist with minimal MC3R and MC4R agonist activity. When monitoring both male and female mice in TSE metabolic cages, sex-specific responses were observed in food intake, respiratory exchange ratio (RER), and energy expenditure. A 7.5 nmol dose of SKY2-23-7 increased food intake, increased RER, and trended toward decreasing energy expenditure in male mice. However, this compound had minimal effect on female mice's food intake and RER at the 7.5 nmol dose. A 2.5 nmol dose of SKY2-23-7 significantly increased female food intake, RER, and energy expenditure while having a minimal effect on male mice at this dose. The observed sex differences of SKY2-23-7 administration result in the discovery of a novel chemical probe for elucidating the molecular mechanisms of the sexual dimorphism present within the melanocortin pathway. To further explore the melanocortin sexual dimorphism, hypothalamic gene expression was examined. The mRNA expression of the MC3R and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) were not significantly different between sexes. However, the expression of agouti-related peptide (AGRP) was significantly higher in female mice which may be a possible mechanism for the sex-specific effects observed with SKY2-23-7.

  3. Modification of Male Courtship Motivation by Olfactory Habituation via the GABAA Receptor in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Tachibana, Shin-Ichiro; Touhara, Kazushige; Ejima, Aki

    2015-01-01

    A male-specific component, 11-cis-vaccenyl acetate (cVA) works as an anti-aphrodisiac pheromone in Drosophila melanogaster. The presence of cVA on a male suppresses the courtship motivation of other males and contributes to suppression of male-male homosexual courtship, while the absence of cVA on a female stimulates the sexual motivation of nearby males and enhances the male-female interaction. However, little is known how a male distinguishes the presence or absence of cVA on a target fly from either self-produced cVA or secondhand cVA from other males in the vicinity. In this study, we demonstrate that male flies have keen sensitivity to cVA; therefore, the presence of another male in the area reduces courtship toward a female. This reduced level of sexual motivation, however, could be overcome by pretest odor exposure via olfactory habituation to cVA. Real-time imaging of cVA-responsive sensory neurons using the neural activity sensor revealed that prolonged exposure to cVA decreased the levels of cVA responses in the primary olfactory center. Pharmacological and genetic screening revealed that signal transduction via GABAA receptors contributed to this olfactory habituation. We also found that the habituation experience increased the copulation success of wild-type males in a group. In contrast, transgenic males, in which GABA input in a small subset of local neurons was blocked by RNAi, failed to acquire the sexual advantage conferred by habituation. Thus, we illustrate a novel phenomenon in which olfactory habituation positively affects sexual capability in a competitive environment. PMID:26252206

  4. A Fluorescence Lecture Demonstration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bozzelli, Joseph W.; Kemp, Marwin

    1982-01-01

    Describes fluorescence demonstrations related to several aspects of molecular theory and quantitized energy levels. Demonstrations use fluorescent chemical solutions having luminescence properties spanning the visible spectrum. Also describes a demonstration of spontaneous combustion of familiar substances in chlorine. (JN)

  5. ORION II bus demonstration. Demonstration report (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Shanley, J.

    1989-02-01

    The Central New York Regional Transportation Authority conducted an 18-month demonstration to determine how the ORION II bus operates in actual service. The ORION II vehicle is a small low floor, accessible heavy duty, diesel-powered transit bus designed to meet the needs of the elderly and handicapped. It has the capacity to seat 26 passengers with 4 wheelchair lockdowns. Side and rear doors are equipped with electrically powered ramps. Eight Thomas vehicles (22-foot, 11,500 lbs, wheelchair equipped, gasoline fueled) were also tested during the demonstration period. Operations (fuel and oil usage) and maintenance (scheduled and unscheduled) data were collected and charted-out in the report as well as driver, passenger, and maintenance surveys. This report provides descriptions, photographs, and comparison charts of both the diesel-fueled ORION II transit bus and the gasoline-fueled Thomas vehicles along with the demonstration test plan, evaluations, conclusions, and survey results.

  6. Male Reproductive System

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Male Reproductive System KidsHealth > For Parents > Male Reproductive System Print A ... understand your son's reproductive health. continue About the Male Reproductive System Most species have two sexes: male and female. ...

  7. Male Anorexia Nervosa: A New Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosscope-Happel, Cindy; Hutchins, David E.; Getz, Hildy G.; Hayes, Gerald L.

    2000-01-01

    Although anorexia nervosa affects over one million males yearly, it is often misdiagnosed or overlooked by mental health and medical practitioners. This article brings the problem to the forefront and outlines features that are unique to these males. Greater recognition of the disorder can lead to more accurate diagnoses and, subsequently, better…

  8. Career Development of Black Males: Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Y. Barry; Baskin, Monica L.; Case, Andrew B.

    1999-01-01

    Case studies of six black males explored background, school and work experiences, and career issues. These themes emerged: fathers' financial support and role modeling influenced career development; other male role models affected aspirations; social, especially parental support for education and careers influenced decision making; and racism…

  9. Obesity and male infertility: a practical approach.

    PubMed

    Hammoud, Ahmad O; Meikle, A Wayne; Reis, Leonardo Oliveira; Gibson, Mark; Peterson, C Matthew; Carrell, Douglas T

    2012-12-01

    Obesity in men is associated with infertility in numerous studies, and the temporal trend for a decline in semen parameters parallels the increasing prevalence of obesity in the developed world. In addition to impaired semen quality, fertility among obese men may be affected by decreased libido and erectile dysfunction. This spectrum of expression of hypogonadism among obese men originates from multiple interacting factors including reduced levels of gonadotropins and testosterone, altered androgen-to-estrogen ratios, insulin resistance, and sleep apnea. No evidence-based treatment that increases the likelihood of pregnancy for the infertility associated with male obesity has been demonstrated to date. Interventions associated with improvement of intermediate outcomes that include the endocrine profile, semen parameters, and sexual function may be appropriately selected based on history, physical findings, as well as endocrine and metabolic evaluation. Among these interventions are weight loss through lifestyle change, relief from sleep apnea, use of aromatase inhibitors, gonadotropin administration, phosphodiesterase inhibitors, and insulin-sensitizing agents.

  10. Lifestyle, environment, and male reproductive health.

    PubMed

    Barazani, Yagil; Katz, Benjamin Farrel; Nagler, Harris Mark; Stember, Doron Sol

    2014-02-01

    A large number of environmental and lifestyle factors may negatively affect spermatogenesis and male fertility. This article enumerates the current state of knowledge regarding those that have been identified, and extrapolates the predicted magnitude of these effects over the next 20 years based on current societal trends. However, it is likely that additional factors have yet to be recognized. Additional research is needed to further define and clarify environmental factors that affect male fertility in order to mitigate their effects.

  11. Male mice produced by in vitro culture have reduced fertility and transmit organomegaly and glucose intolerance to their male offspring.

    PubMed

    Calle, Alexandra; Miranda, Alberto; Fernandez-Gonzalez, Raul; Pericuesta, Eva; Laguna, Ricardo; Gutierrez-Adan, Alfonso

    2012-08-01

    It has been reported that suboptimal in vitro culture (IVC) of mouse embryos can affect the postnatal expression of epigenetically sensitive alleles, resulting in altered postnatal growth, organ dimensions, health, and behavior in the offspring. Although these detrimental impacts on the offspring are well described, the relative contribution of the IVC-produced fathers is unclear. In this work, we have analyzed if suboptimal IVC (achieved by altering the culture medium by the addition of FCS) can affect male fertility and if organ size and glucose clearance, two of the adverse effects produced by suboptimal IVC conditions, were transmitted to the next two generations. IVC-produced males had lower sperm concentrations (5.8 × 10(6) spermatozoa in IVC vs. 14.5 × 10(6) spermatozoa in control), and these sperm exhibited decreased overall motility (49.6% vs. 72.8% in control) and progressive motility (22.6% vs. 32.2% in control). Fertility tests demonstrated that the percentage of pregnancies was reduced for IVC males (35% for IVC-produced males vs. 86% for in vivo controls). These features were related to a modified gene expression pattern in adult male testes, showing an altered gene expression in genes involved in DNA repair and apoptosis that was confirmed by TUNEL assay. Regarding the IVC related adverse phenotype transmitted to offspring, male glucose intolerance was shown only in F1 and F2 male but not female offspring. The same occurred with male abnormalities in the organ size of the liver, which were transmitted to F1 and F2 males but not to F1 females; moreover, analysis of the F0, F1, and F2 males revealed greater coefficients of variance in body weight and glucose intolerance than the control group. Finally, we analyzed, through gene silencing, the effect of IVC on the mRNA expression at the blastocyst stage for 11 known gene expression modifiers of epigenetic reprogramming. Suboptimal IVC reduced the expression of Kap1, Sox2, Hdac1, Dnmt1, and Dnmt3a

  12. Science faculty's subtle gender biases favor male students.

    PubMed

    Moss-Racusin, Corinne A; Dovidio, John F; Brescoll, Victoria L; Graham, Mark J; Handelsman, Jo

    2012-10-09

    Despite efforts to recruit and retain more women, a stark gender disparity persists within academic science. Abundant research has demonstrated gender bias in many demographic groups, but has yet to experimentally investigate whether science faculty exhibit a bias against female students that could contribute to the gender disparity in academic science. In a randomized double-blind study (n = 127), science faculty from research-intensive universities rated the application materials of a student-who was randomly assigned either a male or female name-for a laboratory manager position. Faculty participants rated the male applicant as significantly more competent and hireable than the (identical) female applicant. These participants also selected a higher starting salary and offered more career mentoring to the male applicant. The gender of the faculty participants did not affect responses, such that female and male faculty were equally likely to exhibit bias against the female student. Mediation analyses indicated that the female student was less likely to be hired because she was viewed as less competent. We also assessed faculty participants' preexisting subtle bias against women using a standard instrument and found that preexisting subtle bias against women played a moderating role, such that subtle bias against women was associated with less support for the female student, but was unrelated to reactions to the male student. These results suggest that interventions addressing faculty gender bias might advance the goal of increasing the participation of women in science.

  13. Complex mitonuclear interactions and metabolic costs of mating in male seed beetles.

    PubMed

    Immonen, E; Rönn, J; Watson, C; Berger, D; Arnqvist, G

    2016-02-01

    The lack of evolutionary response to selection on mitochondrial genes through males predicts the evolution of nuclear genetic influence on male-specific mitochondrial function, for example by gene duplication and evolution of sex-specific expression of paralogs involved in metabolic pathways. Intergenomic epistasis may therefore be a prevalent feature of the genetic architecture of male-specific organismal function. Here, we assess the role of mitonuclear genetic variation for male metabolic phenotypes [metabolic rate and respiratory quotient (RQ)] associated with ejaculate renewal, in the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, by assaying lines with crossed combinations of distinct mitochondrial haplotypes and nuclear lineages. We found a significant increase in metabolic rate following mating relative to virgin males. Moreover, processes associated with ejaculate renewal showed variation in metabolic rate that was affected by mitonuclear interactions. Mitochondrial haplotype influenced mating-related changes in RQ, but this pattern varied over time. Mitonuclear genotype and the energy spent during ejaculate production affected the weight of the ejaculate, but the strength of this effect varied across mitochondrial haplotypes showing that the genetic architecture of male-specific reproductive function is complex. Our findings unveil hitherto underappreciated metabolic costs of mating and ejaculate renewal, and provide the first empirical demonstration of mitonuclear epistasis on male reproductive metabolic processes.

  14. Vocal competition in male Xenopus laevis frogs

    PubMed Central

    Tobias, Martha L.; Corke, Anna; Korsh, Jeremy; Yin, David; Kelley, Darcy B.

    2011-01-01

    Male Xenopus laevis frogs produce underwater advertisement calls that attract gravid females and suppress calling by male competitors. Here we explore whether groups of males establish vocal ranks and whether auditory cues alone suffice for vocal suppression. Tests of male–male pairs within assigned groups reveal linear vocal dominance relations, in which each male has a defined rank. Both the duration over which males interact, as well as the number of competitive opportunities, affect linearity. Linear dominance across the group is stable for about 2 weeks; rank is dynamic. Males engage in physical interactions (clasping) while paired but clasping and vocal rank are not correlated. Playbacks of advertisement calls suppress calling and calls from high- and low-ranking males are equally effective. Thus, auditory cues alone suffice to suppress vocal behavior. Playback intensities equivalent to a nearby male advertising effectively suppress calling while low-intensity playbacks are either ineffective or stimulate vocal behavior. X. laevis advertisement calls are biphasic, composed of alternating fast and slow click trills. Approximately half the males tested are more vocally suppressed by all slow than by all fast trills; thus, these males can distinguish between the two phases. The fully aquatic family Pipidae diverged from terrestrial ancestors approximately 170 mya. Vocal suppression in the X. laevis mating system may represent the translation of an ancient anuran social strategy to underwater life. PMID:21442049

  15. Extra-nuclear effects of estrogen on cortical bone in males require ERαAF-1

    PubMed Central

    Wu, J; Gustafsson, K L; Windahl, S H; Kim, S H; Katzenellenbogen, J A; Ohlsson, C; Lagerquist, M K

    2017-01-01

    Estradiol (E2) signaling via estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) is important for the male skeleton as demonstrated by ERα inactivation in both mice and man. ERα mediates estrogenic effects not only by translocating to the nucleus and affecting gene transcription but also by extra-nuclear actions e.g., triggering cytoplasmic signaling cascades. ERα contains various domains, and the role of activation function 1 (ERαAF-1) is known to be tissue specific. The aim of this study was to determine the importance of extra-nuclear estrogen effects for the skeleton in males and to determine the role of ERαAF-1 for mediating these effects. Five-month-old male wild-type (WT) and ERαAF-1-inactivated (ERαAF-10) mice were orchidectomized and treated with equimolar doses of 17β-estradiol (E2) or an estrogen dendrimer conjugate (EDC), which is incapable of entering the nucleus and thereby only initiates extra-nuclear ER actions or their corresponding vehicles for 3.5 weeks. As expected, E2 treatment increased cortical thickness and trabecular bone volume per total volume (BV/TV) in WT males. EDC treatment increased cortical thickness in WT males, whereas no effect was detected in trabecular bone. In ERαAF-10 males, E2 treatment increased cortical thickness, but did not affect trabecular bone. Interestingly, the effect of EDC on cortical bone was abolished in ERαAF-10 mice. In conclusion, extra-nuclear estrogen signaling affects cortical bone mass in males, and this effect is dependent on a functional ERαAF-1. Increased knowledge regarding estrogen signaling mechanisms in the regulation of the male skeleton may aid the development of new treatment options for male osteoporosis. PMID:28057769

  16. Extra-nuclear effects of estrogen on cortical bone in males require ERαAF-1.

    PubMed

    Farman, H H; Wu, J; Gustafsson, K L; Windahl, S H; Kim, S H; Katzenellenbogen, J A; Ohlsson, C; Lagerquist, M K

    2017-02-01

    Estradiol (E2) signaling via estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) is important for the male skeleton as demonstrated by ERα inactivation in both mice and man. ERα mediates estrogenic effects not only by translocating to the nucleus and affecting gene transcription but also by extra-nuclear actions e.g., triggering cytoplasmic signaling cascades. ERα contains various domains, and the role of activation function 1 (ERαAF-1) is known to be tissue specific. The aim of this study was to determine the importance of extra-nuclear estrogen effects for the skeleton in males and to determine the role of ERαAF-1 for mediating these effects. Five-month-old male wild-type (WT) and ERαAF-1-inactivated (ERαAF-1(0)) mice were orchidectomized and treated with equimolar doses of 17β-estradiol (E2) or an estrogen dendrimer conjugate (EDC), which is incapable of entering the nucleus and thereby only initiates extra-nuclear ER actions or their corresponding vehicles for 3.5 weeks. As expected, E2 treatment increased cortical thickness and trabecular bone volume per total volume (BV/TV) in WT males. EDC treatment increased cortical thickness in WT males, whereas no effect was detected in trabecular bone. In ERαAF-1(0) males, E2 treatment increased cortical thickness, but did not affect trabecular bone. Interestingly, the effect of EDC on cortical bone was abolished in ERαAF-1(0) mice. In conclusion, extra-nuclear estrogen signaling affects cortical bone mass in males, and this effect is dependent on a functional ERαAF-1. Increased knowledge regarding estrogen signaling mechanisms in the regulation of the male skeleton may aid the development of new treatment options for male osteoporosis.

  17. Behavioral tactics of male sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) under varying operating sex ratios

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Quinn, Thomas P; Adkison, Milo D.; Ward, Michael B.

    1996-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated several reproductive-behavior patterns in male salmon, including competitive and sneaking tactics, the formation of hierarchies, and non-hierarchical aggregations around ripe females. Through behavioral observations at varying spatial and temporal scales, we examined the hypothesis that operational sex ratio (OSR) determines male sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) distribution and breeding tactics. Patterns of male distribution and behavior varied over both coarse and fine scales, associated with apparent shifts in reproductive opportunities, the physical characteristics of the breeding sites, and the deterioration of the fish as they approached death. Females spawned completely within a few days of arriving on the spawning grounds, whereas males courted the available ripe females from the date of their arrival on the spawning ground until their death. This difference in reproductive lifespans tended to elevate late-season OSRs but was partially counterbalanced by male departures and the arrival of other ripe females. The proportion of males able to dominate access to ripe females decreased and the number of large courting groups increased over the course of the season, apparently related to both increasing OSR and the deteriorating physical condition of males. However, great variation in OSR was observed within the spawning sites on a given day. OSRs were generally higher in shallow than in deep water, perhaps because larger females or more desirable breeding sites were concentrated in shallow water. The aggregations of males courting females were not stable (i.e. many arrivals and departures took place) and male aggression varied with group size. Aggression was most frequent at low OSRs and in groups of intermediate size (2–4 males per female), and much less frequent in larger groups, consistent with the needs of maximizing reproductive opportunities while minimizing unproductive energy expenditure. These results indicate

  18. Behavioural and physiological consequences of male reproductive trade-offs in edible dormice ( Glis glis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fietz, Joanna; Klose, Stefan M.; Kalko, Elisabeth K. V.

    2010-10-01

    Testosterone mediates male reproductive trade-offs in vertebrates including mammals. In male edible dormice ( Glis glis), reproductivity linked to high levels of testosterone reduces their ability to express torpor, which may be expected to dramatically increase thermoregulatory costs. Aims of this study were therefore to analyse behavioural and physiological consequences of reproductive activity in male edible dormice under ecologically and evolutionary relevant conditions in the field. As we frequently encountered sleeping groups in the field, we hypothesized that social thermoregulation should be an important measure to reduce energy expenditure especially in sexually active male edible dormice. Our results revealed that the occurrence of sleeping groups was negatively influenced by male body mass but not by reproductive status or ambient temperature. In reproductive as in non-reproductive males, the number of individuals huddling together was negatively influenced by their body mass. Thus in general males with a high body mass were sitting in smaller groups than males with a low body mass. However, in reproductive males group size was further negatively affected by ambient temperature and positively by testes size. Thus breeders formed larger sleeping groups at lower ambient temperatures and males with larger testes were found in larger groups than males with smaller testes. Measurements of oxygen consumption demonstrated that grouping behaviour represents an efficient strategy to reduce energy expenditure in edible dormice as it reduced energy requirements by almost 40%. In summary, results of this field study showcase how sexually active male edible dormice may, through behavioural adjustment, counterbalance high thermoregulatory costs associated with reproductive activity.

  19. Behavioural and physiological consequences of male reproductive trade-offs in edible dormice (Glis glis).

    PubMed

    Fietz, Joanna; Klose, Stefan M; Kalko, Elisabeth K V

    2010-10-01

    Testosterone mediates male reproductive trade-offs in vertebrates including mammals. In male edible dormice (Glis glis), reproductivity linked to high levels of testosterone reduces their ability to express torpor, which may be expected to dramatically increase thermoregulatory costs. Aims of this study were therefore to analyse behavioural and physiological consequences of reproductive activity in male edible dormice under ecologically and evolutionary relevant conditions in the field. As we frequently encountered sleeping groups in the field, we hypothesized that social thermoregulation should be an important measure to reduce energy expenditure especially in sexually active male edible dormice. Our results revealed that the occurrence of sleeping groups was negatively influenced by male body mass but not by reproductive status or ambient temperature. In reproductive as in non-reproductive males, the number of individuals huddling together was negatively influenced by their body mass. Thus in general males with a high body mass were sitting in smaller groups than males with a low body mass. However, in reproductive males group size was further negatively affected by ambient temperature and positively by testes size. Thus breeders formed larger sleeping groups at lower ambient temperatures and males with larger testes were found in larger groups than males with smaller testes. Measurements of oxygen consumption demonstrated that grouping behaviour represents an efficient strategy to reduce energy expenditure in edible dormice as it reduced energy requirements by almost 40%. In summary, results of this field study showcase how sexually active male edible dormice may, through behavioural adjustment, counterbalance high thermoregulatory costs associated with reproductive activity.

  20. The vibrational signals that male fiddler crabs (Uca lactea) use to attract females into their burrows.

    PubMed

    Takeshita, Fumio; Murai, Minoru

    2016-06-01

    In some fiddler crab species, males emit vibrations from their burrows to mate-searching females after they have attracted a female to the burrow entrance using a waving display. Although the vibrations are considered acoustic signals to induce mating, it has not been demonstrated whether the vibrations attract the females into the burrow and, consequently, influence females' mating decisions. We investigated the structures and patterns of the vibrations using a dummy female and demonstrated experimentally a female preference for male vibrations in Uca lactea in the field. The acoustic signals consisted of repetitions of pulses. The dominant frequency of the pulses decreased with male carapace width. The pulse length decreased slightly with an increasing number of vibrational repetitions, and the pulse interval increased with increasing repetitions. These factors imply that the vibrations convey information on male characteristics, such as body size and stamina. In the experiment on female mate choice, the females significantly preferred males with higher pulse repetition rates when they were positioned at the entrance of the burrow, indicating that the females use the male vibrational signals to decide whether to enter the burrow. However, females showed no preference for the vibrations once they were inside a burrow, i.e., whether they decided to copulate, suggesting that the vibrations do not independently affect a female's final decision of mate choice. The vibrations inside the burrow might influence a female's decision by interaction with other male traits such as the burrow structure.

  1. The vibrational signals that male fiddler crabs ( Uca lactea) use to attract females into their burrows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeshita, Fumio; Murai, Minoru

    2016-06-01

    In some fiddler crab species, males emit vibrations from their burrows to mate-searching females after they have attracted a female to the burrow entrance using a waving display. Although the vibrations are considered acoustic signals to induce mating, it has not been demonstrated whether the vibrations attract the females into the burrow and, consequently, influence females' mating decisions. We investigated the structures and patterns of the vibrations using a dummy female and demonstrated experimentally a female preference for male vibrations in Uca lactea in the field. The acoustic signals consisted of repetitions of pulses. The dominant frequency of the pulses decreased with male carapace width. The pulse length decreased slightly with an increasing number of vibrational repetitions, and the pulse interval increased with increasing repetitions. These factors imply that the vibrations convey information on male characteristics, such as body size and stamina. In the experiment on female mate choice, the females significantly preferred males with higher pulse repetition rates when they were positioned at the entrance of the burrow, indicating that the females use the male vibrational signals to decide whether to enter the burrow. However, females showed no preference for the vibrations once they were inside a burrow, i.e., whether they decided to copulate, suggesting that the vibrations do not independently affect a female's final decision of mate choice. The vibrations inside the burrow might influence a female's decision by interaction with other male traits such as the burrow structure.

  2. Polarized Light Corridor Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, G. R.

    1990-01-01

    Eleven demonstrations of light polarization are presented. Each includes a brief description of the apparatus and the effect demonstrated. Illustrated are strain patterns, reflection, scattering, the Faraday Effect, interference, double refraction, the polarizing microscope, and optical activity. (CW)

  3. Overhead Projector Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolb, Doris, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Described are demonstrations of the optical activity of two sugar solutions, and the effects of various substituents on acid strength using an overhead projector. Materials and procedures for each demonstration are discussed. (CW)

  4. Sport and male sexuality.

    PubMed

    Sgrò, P; Di Luigi, L

    2017-03-22

    The relationships between sport and sexuality in males are of great social and clinical interest, because of sports and motor activities that highly promote social and sexual relationships. Even if few literature exist, two main questions should be taken into account: whether and how physical exercise and sport positively or negatively influence sexual health and behavior and/or whether and how sexual behavior may affect a sub-sequent sport performance. Physical exercise and sport per se can influence, positively or negatively, the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis function and, consequently, the individual's reproductive and/or sexual health. This depends on individual factors such as genetic and epigenetic ones and on different variables involved in the practice of sport activities (type of sport, intensity and duration of training, doping and drug use and abuse, nutrition, supplements, psychological stress, allostatic load, etc.). If well conducted, motor and sport activities could have beneficial effects on sexual health in males. Among different lifestyle changes, influencing sexual health, regular physical activity is fundamental to antagonize the onset of erectile dysfunction (ED). However, competitive sport can lead both reproductive and/or sexual tract damages and dysfunctions, transient (genital pain, hypoesthesia of the genitalia, hypogonadism, DE, altered sexual drive, etc.) or permanent (hypogonadism, DE, etc.), by acting directly (traumas of the external genitalia, saddle-related disorders in cyclists, etc.) or indirectly (exercise-related hypogonadism, drug abuse, doping, stress, etc.). Sexual activities shortly performed before a sport competition could differently influence sport performance. Due to the few existing data, it is advisable to avoid an absolute pre-competition sexual abstinence.

  5. [Obesity and male fertility].

    PubMed

    Martini, Ana C; Molina, Rosa I; Ruiz, Rubén D; Fiol de Cuneo, Marta

    2012-01-01

    Obesity and male infertility have increased in the last decades; therefore, a possible association between these pathologies has been explored. Studies inform that obesity may affect fertility through different mechanisms, which alltogether could exert erectile dysfunction and/or sperm quality impairment. These include: 1) hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular (HPG) axis malfunction: obese hormonal profile is characterized by reduction of testosterone, gonadotrophins, SHBG and/or inhibin B concentrations (marker of Sertoli cells function) and hyperestrogenemy (consequence of aromatase overactivity ascribed to adipose tissue increase); 2) increased release of adipose-derived hormones: leptin increase could be responsible for some of the alterations on the HPG axis and could also exert direct deleterious effects on Leydig cells physiology, spermatogenesis and sperm function; 3) proinflammatory adipokines augmentation, higher scrotal temperature (due to fat accumulation in areas surrounding testes) and endocrine disruptors accumulation in adiposites, all of these responsible for the increase in testes oxidative stress and 4) sleep apnea, frequent in obese patients, suppresses the nocturnal testosterone rise needed for normal spermatogenesis. Finally, although controversial, all the above mentioned factors could comprise gametes quality; i.e. decrease sperm density and motility and increase DNA fragmentation, probably disturbing spermatogenesis and/or epididymal function. In summary, although obesity may impair male fertility by some/all of the described mechanisms, the fact is that only a small proportion of obese men are infertile, probably those genetically predisposed or morbidly obese. Nevertheless, it is likely that because the incidence of obesity is growing, the number of men with reduced fertility will increase as well.

  6. Exposure to Endosulfan can result in male infertility due to testicular atrophy and reduced sperm count

    PubMed Central

    Sebastian, R; Raghavan, SC

    2015-01-01

    Endosulfan (ES) is a widely used organochlorine pesticide and is speculated to be detrimental to human health. However, very little is known about mechanism of its genotoxicity. Using mouse model system, we show that exposure to ES affected physiology and cellular architecture of organs and tissues. Among all organs, damage to testes was extensive and it resulted in death of different testicular-cell populations. We find that the damage in testes resulted in qualitative and quantitative defects during spermatogenesis in a time-dependent manner, increasing epididymal reactive oxygen species levels, affecting sperm chromatin integrity. This further culminated in reduced number of epididymal sperms and actively motile sperms. Finally, we show that ES exposure affected fertility in male but not in female mice. Therefore, we demonstrate that ES exerts pathophysiological changes in mice, induces testicular atrophy, affects spermatogenesis, reduces quantity and vigour of epididymal sperm and leads to infertility in males. PMID:27551453

  7. Overhead Projector Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolb, Doris, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Details two demonstrations for use with an overhead projector in a chemistry lecture. Includes "A Very Rapidly Growing Silicate Crystal" and "A Colorful Demonstration to Simulate Orbital Hybridization." The materials and directions for each demonstration are included as well as a brief explanation of the essential learning involved. (CW)

  8. Classroom Demonstrations: Individual Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Sandra M.

    These demonstrations stress individual differences, a concept becoming increasingly important in psychological research. Intended for use in undergraduate psychology courses, four demonstrations that illustrate common examples of human variation are described. The demonstrations deal with the following individual differences: taste blindness,…

  9. Adolescents' Demonstrative Behavior Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parfilova, Gulfiya G.; Karimova, Lilia Sh.

    2016-01-01

    The problem of demonstrative behavior is very topical among teenagers and this issue has become the subject of systematic scientific research. Demonstrative manifestations in adolescents disrupt the favorable socialization; therefore, understanding, prevention and correction of demonstrative behavior at this age is relevant and requires special…

  10. A Boyle's Law Demonstrator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sathe, Dileep V.

    1984-01-01

    The usual apparatus for demonstrating Boyle's law produces reasonably accurate results, but is not impressive as a demonstration because students cannot easily appreciate the change in pressure. An apparatus designed to produce a more effective demonstration is described. Procedures employed are also described. (JN)

  11. Classical Demonstration of Polarization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauman, Robert P.; Moore, Dennis R.

    1980-01-01

    Presents a classical demonstration of polarization for high school students. The initial state of this model, which demonstrates the important concepts of the optical and quantum problems, was developed during the 1973 summer program on lecture demonstration at the U.S. Naval Academy. (HM)

  12. Male pattern baldness (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Male pattern baldness is a sex-linked characteristic that is passed from mother to child. A man can more accurately predict his chances of developing male pattern baldness by observing his mother's father than by looking ...

  13. Water maze performance in young male Long-Evans rats is inversely affected by dietary intakes of niacin and may be linked to levels of the NAD+ metabolite cADPR.

    PubMed

    Young, Genevieve S; Jacobson, Elaine L; Kirkland, James B

    2007-04-01

    Niacin is converted in tissues to NAD(+), which is required for synthesis of the intracellular calcium signaling molecule cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR). cADPR is involved in many aspects of cognitive function, including long-term depression, in the hippocampus, a brain region that regulates spatial learning ability. The objective of this study was to determine whether niacin deficiency and pharmacological nicotinamide supplementation have an effect on spatial learning ability in young male Long-Evans rats as assessed by the Morris Water Maze, and whether brain NAD(+) and cADPR are modified by dietary niacin intake. We investigated 3 models of niacin deficiency: niacin deficient (ND) vs. pair fed (PF), ND vs. partially feed restricted (PFR), and ND vs. niacin recovered (REC). ND rats showed an improvement in spatial learning ability relative to PF, PFR, and REC rats. ND rats also showed a decrease in both NAD(+) and cADPR relative to PF and REC rats. We also investigated 1 model of pharmacological supplementation, niacin-supplemented vs. control. The niacin-supplemented group showed a small but significant spatial learning impairment relative to controls, and an increase in brain cADPR and NAD(+). Changes in neural function related to the NAD(+) associated calcium signaling molecule, cADPR, may be the link between diet and behavior.

  14. Edible Astronomy Demonstrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubowich, D. A.

    2006-08-01

    By using astronomy demonstrations with edible ingredients, I have been able to increase student interest and knowledge of astronomical concepts. This approach has been successful with all age groups from elementary school through college students. I will present some of the edible demonstrations I have created including using popcorn to simulate radioactivity; using chocolate, nuts, and marshmallows to illustrate density and differentiation during the formation of the planets; and making big-bang brownies or chocolate chip-cookies to illustrate the expansion of the Universe. Sometimes the students eat the results of the astronomical demonstrations. These demonstrations are an effective teaching tool and the students remember these demonstrations after they are presented.

  15. Data surety demonstrations

    SciTech Connect

    Draelos, T.; Harris, M.; Herrington, P.; Kromer, D.

    1998-08-01

    The use of data surety within the International Monitoring System (IMS) is designed to offer increased trust of acquired sensor data at a low cost. The demonstrations discussed in the paper illustrate the feasibility of hardware authentication for sensor data and commands in a retrofit environment and a new system and of the supporting key management system. The individual demonstrations which are summarized in the paper are: (1) demonstration of hardware authentication for communication authentication in a retrofit environment; (2)demonstration of hardware authentication in a new system; and (3) demonstration of key management for sensor data and command authentication.

  16. Strategy Guideline: Demonstration Home

    SciTech Connect

    Savage, C.; Hunt, A.

    2012-12-01

    This guideline will provide a general overview of the different kinds of demonstration home projects, a basic understanding of the different roles and responsibilities involved in the successful completion of a demonstration home, and an introduction into some of the lessons learned from actual demonstration home projects. Also, this guideline will specifically look at the communication methods employed during demonstration home projects. And lastly, we will focus on how to best create a communication plan for including an energy efficient message in a demonstration home project and carry that message to successful completion.

  17. Strategy Guideline. Demonstration Home

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, A.; Savage, C.

    2012-12-01

    This guideline will provide a general overview of the different kinds of demonstration home projects, a basic understanding of the different roles and responsibilities involved in the successful completion of a demonstration home, and an introduction into some of the lessons learned from actual demonstration home projects. Also, this guideline will specifically look at the communication methods employed during demonstration home projects. And lastly, we will focus on how to best create a communication plan for including an energy efficient message in a demonstration home project and carry that message to successful completion.

  18. Social isolation prompts maternal behavior in sexually naïve male ddN mice.

    PubMed

    Orikasa, Chitose; Nagaoka, Kentaro; Katsumata, Harumi; Sato, Manami; Kondo, Yasuhiko; Minami, Shiro; Sakuma, Yasuo

    2015-11-01

    Maternal behavior in mice is considered to be sexually dimorphic; that is, females show maternal care for their offspring, whereas this behavior is rarely shown in males. Here, we examined how social isolation affects the interaction of adult male mice with pups. Three weeks of isolation during puberty (5-8 weeks old) induced retrieving and crouching when exposed to pups, while males with 1 week isolation (7-8 weeks old) also showed such maternal care, but were less responsive to pups. We also examined the effect of isolation during young adulthood (8-11 weeks old), and found an induction of maternal behavior comparable to that in younger male mice. This effect was blocked by exposure to chemosensory and auditory social signals derived from males in an attached compartment separated by doubled opaque barriers. These results demonstrate that social isolation in both puberty and postpuberty facilitates male maternal behavior in sexually naïve mice. The results also indicate that air-borne chemicals and/or sounds of male conspecifics, including ultrasonic vocalization and noise by their movement may be sufficient to interfere with the isolation effect on induction of maternal behavior in male mice.

  19. Affect and psychiatric symptoms in a veteran polytrauma clinic.

    PubMed

    Kraal, A Zarina; Waldron-Perrine, Brigid; Pangilinan, Percival H; Bieliauskas, Linas A

    2015-02-01

    Although the relationship between negative affect and psychiatric symptoms has been well-demonstrated in research, less is known about positive affect relative to negative affect, and its relationship to psychiatric symptoms, especially among veterans. This study examined how levels of positive and negative affect are associated with symptoms of depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Data were collected in a veteran polytrauma clinic; analyses were conducted using data from 94 veterans (87 males) with and without a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) diagnosis. Results demonstrate that positive and negative affect were separate dimensions and that both were independently related to each symptom measure. After removing the contribution of negative affect from symptom reports, strong relationships remained between positive affect and psychiatric symptoms. Furthermore, the magnitude of the associations for positive affect and for negative affect with symptoms of depression, anxiety, and PTSD were not impacted by a mTBI diagnosis. Altogether, findings suggest that both positive and negative affect should be uniquely considered when conceptualizing, assessing, and treating returning service members; in addition, positive affect may be an appropriate target of assessment and interventions of persons who have experienced polytrauma.

  20. The scent of inbreeding: a male sex pheromone betrays inbred males

    PubMed Central

    van Bergen, Erik; Brakefield, Paul M.; Heuskin, Stéphanie; Zwaan, Bas J.; Nieberding, Caroline M.

    2013-01-01

    Inbreeding depression results from mating among genetically related individuals and impairs reproductive success. The decrease in male mating success is usually attributed to an impact on multiple fitness-related traits that reduce the general condition of inbred males. Here, we find that the production of the male sex pheromone is reduced significantly by inbreeding in the butterfly Bicyclus anynana. Other traits indicative of the general condition, including flight performance, are also negatively affected in male butterflies by inbreeding. Yet, we unambiguously show that only the production of male pheromones affects mating success. Thus, this pheromone signal informs females about the inbreeding status of their mating partners. We also identify the specific chemical component (hexadecanal) probably responsible for the decrease in male mating success. Our results advocate giving increased attention to olfactory communication as a major causal factor of mate-choice decisions and sexual selection. PMID:23466986

  1. Astragalus polysaccharides affect insulin resistance by regulating the hepatic SIRT1-PGC-1α/PPARα-FGF21 signaling pathway in male Sprague Dawley rats undergoing catch-up growth.

    PubMed

    Gu, Chengying; Zeng, Yipeng; Tang, Zhaosheng; Wang, Chaoxun; He, Yanju; Feng, Xinge; Zhou, Ligang

    2015-11-01

    The present study investigated the effects of Astragalus polysaccharides (APS) on insulin resistance by modulation of hepatic sirtuin 1 (SIRT1)‑peroxisome proliferator‑activated receptor (PPAR)‑γ coactivator (PGC)‑1α/PPARα‑fibroblast growth factor (FGF)21, and glucose and lipid metabolism. Thirty male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into three groups: A normal control group, a catch‑up growth group and an APS‑treated (APS-G) group. The latter two groups underwent food restriction for 4 weeks, prior to being provided with a high fat diet, which was available ad libitum. The APS‑G group was orally treated with APS for 8 weeks, whereas the other groups were administered saline. Body weight was measured and an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was conducted after 8 weeks. The plasma glucose and insulin levels obtained from the OGTT were assayed, and hepatic morphology was observed by light and transmission electron microscopy. In addition, the mRNA expression levels of PGC‑1α/PPARα, and the protein expression levels of SIRT1, FGF21 and nuclear factor‑κB were quantified in the liver and serum. APS treatment suppressed abnormal glycolipid metabolism and insulin resistance following 8 weeks of catch‑up growth by improving hepatic SIRT1‑PPARα‑FGF21 intracellular signaling and reducing chronic inflammation, and by partially attenuating hepatic steatosis. The suppressive effects of APS on liver acetylation and glycolipid metabolism‑associated molecules contributed to the observed suppression of insulin resistance. However, the mechanism underlying the effects of APS on insulin resistance requires further research in order to be elucidated. Rapid and long‑term treatment with APS may provide a novel, safe and effective therapeutic strategy for type 2 diabetes.

  2. Astragalus polysaccharides affect insulin resistance by regulating the hepatic SIRT1-PGC-1α/PPARα-FGF21 signaling pathway in male Sprague Dawley rats undergoing catch-up growth

    PubMed Central

    GU, CHENGYING; ZENG, YIPENG; TANG, ZHAOSHENG; WANG, CHAOXUN; HE, YANJU; FENG, XINGE; ZHOU, LIGANG

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of Astragalus polysaccharides (APS) on insulin resistance by modulation of hepatic sirtuin 1 (SIRT1)-peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ coactivator (PGC)-1α/PPARα-fibroblast growth factor (FGF)21, and glucose and lipid metabolism. Thirty male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into three groups: A normal control group, a catch-up growth group and an APS-treated (APS-G) group. The latter two groups underwent food restriction for 4 weeks, prior to being provided with a high fat diet, which was available ad libitum. The APS-G group was orally treated with APS for 8 weeks, whereas the other groups were administered saline. Body weight was measured and an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was conducted after 8 weeks. The plasma glucose and insulin levels obtained from the OGTT were assayed, and hepatic morphology was observed by light and transmission electron microscopy. In addition, the mRNA expression levels of PGC-1α/PPARα, and the protein expression levels of SIRT1, FGF21 and nuclear factor-κB were quantified in the liver and serum. APS treatment suppressed abnormal glycolipid metabolism and insulin resistance following 8 weeks of catch-up growth by improving hepatic SIRT1-PPARα-FGF21 intracellular signaling and reducing chronic inflammation, and by partially attenuating hepatic steatosis. The suppressive effects of APS on liver acetylation and glycolipid metabolism-associated molecules contributed to the observed suppression of insulin resistance. However, the mechanism underlying the effects of APS on insulin resistance requires further research in order to be elucidated. Rapid and long-term treatment with APS may provide a novel, safe and effective therapeutic strategy for type 2 diabetes. PMID:26323321

  3. Receipt of seminal fluid proteins causes reduction of male investment in a simultaneous hermaphrodite.

    PubMed

    Nakadera, Yumi; Swart, Elferra M; Hoffer, Jeroen N A; den Boon, Onno; Ellers, Jacintha; Koene, Joris M

    2014-04-14

    Mating partners often have conflicting interests when copulating. One of the major agents affecting female mating partners is seminal fluid, transferred along with sperm. The role of seminal fluid proteins (SFPs) in reproductive success is well studied in separate-sexed animals but is much less so in simultaneous hermaphrodites. The latter potentially have a unique target to exploit for the sperm donor's own benefit: the male function of their mating partners. Here we show that, in the great pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis, receipt of specific SFPs reduces both sperm transfer and paternity success in a subsequent insemination event. Lowering investment in the mating partner's male function constitutes a novel role for SFPs. This demonstrates for the first time that hermaphrodites alter their mates' male as well as female reproductive output. Although it remains to be tested whether this represents mate manipulation or an adaptive response of recipients, our findings identify male investment as a new target for postcopulatory sexual selection.

  4. Experimental Demonstration of Isomorphism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamenicek, J.; Melicharek, M.

    2000-01-01

    Describes some simple experiments related to the properties of crystals. Illustrates isomorphism using single crystals of alum. Presents experiments for determining how various mixture compositions affect the growth of salt crystals. (WRM)

  5. Demonstrating Bacterial Flagella.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, John R.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Describes an effective laboratory method for demonstrating bacterial flagella that utilizes the Proteus mirabilis organism and a special harvesting technique. Includes safety considerations for the laboratory exercise. (MDH)

  6. Exploration Technology Development & Demonstration

    NASA Video Gallery

    Chris Moore delivers a presentation from the Exploration Technology Development & Demonstration (ETDD) study team on May 25, 2010, at the NASA Exploration Enterprise Workshop held in Galveston, TX....

  7. A Greener Chemiluminescence Demonstration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jilani, Osman; Donahue, Trisha M.; Mitchell, Miguel O.

    2011-01-01

    Because they are dramatic and intriguing, chemiluminescence demonstrations have been used for decades to stimulate interest in chemistry. One of the most intense chemiluminescent reactions is the oxidation of diaryl oxalate diesters with hydrogen peroxide in the presence of a fluorescer. In typical lecture demonstrations, the commercially…

  8. Levitation Kits Demonstrate Superconductivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worthy, Ward

    1987-01-01

    Describes the "Project 1-2-3" levitation kit used to demonstrate superconductivity. Summarizes the materials included in the kit. Discusses the effect demonstrated and gives details on how to obtain kits. Gives an overview of the documentation that is included. (CW)

  9. Demonstrating Newton's Second Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fricker, H. S.

    1994-01-01

    Describes an apparatus for demonstrating the second law of motion. Provides sample data and discusses the merits of this method over traditional methods of supplying a constant force. The method produces empirical best-fit lines which convincingly demonstrate that for a fixed mass, acceleration is proportional to force. (DDR)

  10. Demonstrating Phase Changes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohr, Walter

    1995-01-01

    Presents two experiments that demonstrate phase changes. The first experiment explores phase changes of carbon dioxide using powdered dry ice sealed in a piece of clear plastic tubing. The second experiment demonstrates an equilibrium process in which a crystal grows in equilibrium with its saturated solution. (PVD)

  11. USFWS demonstration fees

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, Jonathan; Vaske, Jerry; Donnelly, Maureen; Shelby, Lori

    2002-01-01

    This study examined National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) visitors' reactions to changes in fees implemented as part of the fee demonstration program. Visitors' evaluations of the fees paid were examined in addition to their beliefs about fees and the fee demonstration program, and the impact of fees paid on their intention to return. All results were analyzed relative to socio-demographic characteristics.

  12. A Stellar Demonstrator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ros, Rosa M.

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of the stellar demonstrator is to help explain the movement of stars. In particular, students have difficulties understanding why, if they are living in the Northern Hemisphere, they may observe starts in the Southern Hemisphere, or why circumpolar stars are not the same in different parts of Europe. Using the demonstrator, these…

  13. Kinetics and Catalysis Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falconer, John L.; Britten, Jerald A.

    1984-01-01

    Eleven videotaped kinetics and catalysis demonstrations are described. Demonstrations include the clock reaction, oscillating reaction, hydrogen oxidation in air, hydrogen-oxygen explosion, acid-base properties of solids, high- and low-temperature zeolite reactivity, copper catalysis of ammonia oxidation and sodium peroxide decomposition, ammonia…

  14. Better Ira Remsen Demonstration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalby, David K.; Maynard, James H.; Moore, John W.

    2011-01-01

    Many versions of the classic Ira Remsen experience involving copper and concentrated nitric acid have been used as lecture demonstrations. Remsen's original reminiscence from 150 years ago is included in the Supporting Information, and his biography can be found on the Internet. This article presents a new version that makes the demonstration more…

  15. Demonstrating Reduced Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearlman, Howard; Stocker, Dennis; Gotti, Daniel; Urban, David; Ross, Howard; Sours, Thomas

    1996-01-01

    A miniature drop tower, Reduced-Gravity Demonstrator is developed to illustrate the effects of gravity on a variety of phenomena including the way fluids flow, flames burn, and mechanical systems (such as pendulum) behave. A schematic and description of the demonstrator and payloads are given, followed by suggestions for how one can build his (her) own.

  16. Sources of (co)variation in alternative siring routes available to male great tits (Parus major).

    PubMed

    Araya-Ajoy, Yimen G; Kuhn, Sylvia; Mathot, Kimberley J; Mouchet, Alexia; Mutzel, Ariane; Nicolaus, Marion; Wijmenga, Jan J; Kempenaers, Bart; Dingemanse, Niels J

    2016-10-01

    Males of socially monogamous species can increase their siring success via within-pair and extra-pair fertilizations. In this study, we focused on the different sources of (co)variation between these siring routes, and asked how each contributes to total siring success. We quantified the fertilization routes to siring success, as well as behaviors that have been hypothesized to affect siring success, over a five-year period for a wild population of great tits Parus major. We considered siring success and its fertilization routes as "interactive phenotypes" arising from phenotypic contributions of both members of the social pair. We show that siring success is strongly affected by the fecundity of the social (female) partner. We also demonstrate that a strong positive correlation between extra-pair fertilization success and paternity loss likely constrains the evolution of these two routes. Moreover, we show that more explorative and aggressive males had less extra-pair fertilizations, whereas more explorative females laid larger clutches. This study thus demonstrates that (co)variation in siring routes is caused by multiple factors not necessarily related to characteristics of males. We thereby highlight the importance of acknowledging the multilevel structure of male fertilization routes when studying the evolution of male mating strategies.

  17. Free radicals and male reproduction.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Ashok; Allamaneni, Shyam S R

    2011-03-01

    Male factor accounts for almost 50% cases of infertility. The exact mechanism of sperm dysfunction is not known in many cases. Extensive research in the last decade has led to the identification of free radicals (reactive oxygen species) as mediators of sperm dysfunction in both specific diagnoses and idiopathic cases of male infertility. Elevated levels of reactive oxygen species are seen in up to 30-80% of men with male infertility. The role of free radicals has been studied extensively in the process of human reproduction. We know now that a certain level of free radicals is necessary for normal sperm function, whereas an excessive level of free radicals can cause detrimental effect on sperm function and subsequent fertilisation and offspring health. Oxidative stress develops when there is an imbalance between generation of free radicals and scavenging capacity of anti-oxidants in reproductive tract. Oxidative stress has been shown to affect both standard semen parameters and fertilising capacity. In addition, high levels of free radicals have been associated with lack of or poor fertility outcome after natural conception or assisted reproduction. Diagnostic techniques to quantify free radicals in infertile patients can assist physicians treating patients with infertility to plan for proper treatment strategies. In vivo anti-oxidants can be used against oxidative stress in male reproductive tract. Supplementation of in vitro anti-oxidants can help prevent the oxidative stress during sperm preparation techniques in assisted reproduction.

  18. Meiotic abnormalities in infertile males.

    PubMed

    Egozcue, J; Sarrate, Z; Codina-Pascual, M; Egozcue, S; Oliver-Bonet, M; Blanco, J; Navarro, J; Benet, J; Vidal, F

    2005-01-01

    Meiotic anomalies, as reviewed here, are synaptic chromosome abnormalities, limited to germ cells that cannot be detected through the study of the karyotype. Although the importance of synaptic errors has been underestimated for many years, their presence is related to many cases of human male infertility. Synaptic anomalies can be studied by immunostaining of synaptonemal complexes (SCs), but in this case their frequency is probably underestimated due to the phenomenon of synaptic adjustment. They can also be studied in classic meiotic preparations, which, from a clinical point of view, is still the best approach, especially if multiplex fluorescence in situ hybridization is at hand to solve difficult cases. Sperm chromosome FISH studies also provide indirect evidence of their presence. Synaptic anomalies can affect the rate of recombination of all bivalents, produce achiasmate small univalents, partially achiasmate medium-sized or large bivalents, or affect all bivalents in the cell. The frequency is variable, interindividually and intraindividually. The baseline incidence of synaptic anomalies is 6-8%, which may be increased to 17.6% in males with a severe oligozoospermia, and to 27% in normozoospermic males with one or more previous IVF failures. The clinical consequences are the production of abnormal spermatozoa that will produce a higher number of chromosomally abnormal embryos. The indications for a meiotic study in testicular biopsy are provided.

  19. Male Killing Spiroplasma Preferentially Disrupts Neural Development in the Drosophila melanogaster Embryo

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Jennifer; Chong, Trisha; Ferree, Patrick M.

    2013-01-01

    Male killing bacteria such as Spiroplasma are widespread pathogens of numerous arthropods including Drosophila melanogaster. These maternally transmitted bacteria can bias host sex ratios toward the female sex in order to ‘selfishly’ enhance bacterial transmission. However, little is known about the specific means by which these pathogens disrupt host development in order to kill males. Here we show that a male-killing Spiroplasma strain severely disrupts nervous tissue development in male but not female D. melanogaster embryos. The neuroblasts, or neuron progenitors, form properly and their daughter cells differentiate into neurons of the ventral nerve chord. However, the neurons fail to pack together properly and they produce highly abnormal axons. In contrast, non-neural tissue, such as mesoderm, and body segmentation appear normal during this time, although the entire male embryo becomes highly abnormal during later stages. Finally, we found that Spiroplasma is altogether absent from the neural tissue but localizes within the gut and the epithelium immediately surrounding the neural tissue, suggesting that the bacterium secretes a toxin that affects neural tissue development across tissue boundaries. Together these findings demonstrate the unique ability of this insect pathogen to preferentially affect development of a specific embryonic tissue to induce male killing. PMID:24236124

  20. Role of anxiety in subordinate male mice sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    D'Amato, F R; Pavone, F

    1992-09-01

    Dominant and subordinate male mice behave differently when exposed to a female, with subordinates showing impairment of their sexual performance in the presence of the male antagonist. In the present study, we investigate whether these rank-related behavioral differences can be modified by an anxiolytic treatment. In a first experiment, diazepam (0.25 mg/kg) improves the performance of subordinate mice toward the female, as shown by the increase of proxemic behavior, anogenital sniffing, and social grooming of the female. Social grooming of the female is the only behavior modified by a higher dose of the anxiolytic drug (0.5 mg/kg). A second experiment, in which dominant and isolated mice are subjected to the same experimental procedure, demonstrates that social behavior of these two classes of males is not affected by the pharmacological treatment. The results are discussed in terms of the advantages of using subordinate males in such a sexual context as a model for the study of anxiolytic drugs.

  1. Demonstration of Surface Tension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenthal, Andrew J.

    2001-01-01

    Surface tension is a fundamental obstacle in the spontaneous formation of bubbles, droplets, and crystal nuclei in liquids. Describes a simple overhead projector demonstration that illustrates the power of surface tension that can prevent so many industrial processes. (ASK)

  2. Demonstrating Natural Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinds, David S.; Amundson, John C.

    1975-01-01

    Describes laboratory exercises with chickens selecting their food from dyed and natural corn kernels as a method of demonstrating natural selection. The procedure is based on the fact that organisms that blend into their surroundings escape predation. (BR)

  3. Floating Magnet Demonstration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wake, Masayoshi

    1990-01-01

    A room-temperature demonstration of a floating magnet using a high-temperature superconductor is described. The setup and operation of the apparatus are described. The technical details of the effect are discussed. (CW)

  4. Overhead Projector Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hambly, Gordon F.; Goldsmith, Robert H.

    1988-01-01

    Presented is a method of demonstrating the optical activity of glucose using an overhead projector and easily obtainable materials. Explores the difference between reflected and transmitted light (Tyndall Effect) using sodium thiosulfate, hydrochloric acid, and an overhead projector. (ML)

  5. EVA Retriever Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The EVA retriever is demonstrated in the Manipulator Development Facility (MDF). The retriever moves on the air bearing table 'searching' for its target, in this case tools 'dropped' by astronauts on orbit.

  6. Spacecraft servicing demonstration plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergonz, F. H.; Bulboaca, M. A.; Derocher, W. L., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    A preliminary spacecraft servicing demonstration plan is prepared which leads to a fully verified operational on-orbit servicing system based on the module exchange, refueling, and resupply technologies. The resulting system can be applied at the space station, in low Earth orbit with an orbital maneuvering vehicle (OMV), or be carried with an OMV to geosynchronous orbit by an orbital transfer vehicle. The three phase plan includes ground demonstrations, cargo bay demonstrations, and free flight verifications. The plan emphasizes the exchange of multimission modular spacecraft (MMS) modules which involves space repairable satellites. Three servicer mechanism configurations are the engineering test unit, a protoflight quality unit, and two fully operational units that have been qualified and documented for use in free flight verification activity. The plan balances costs and risks by overlapping study phases, utilizing existing equipment for ground demonstrations, maximizing use of existing MMS equipment, and rental of a spacecraft bus.

  7. Classroom Demonstration of Sunspots.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callaway, Thomas O.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    An overhead projector, projection screen, and clear tungsten Filament light bulb operated through a dimmer or variac switch are used to demonstrate the fact that black appearance of sunspots is due only to contrast and that sunspots are bright. (SK)

  8. Technology Demonstration Missions

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Technology Demonstration Missions (TDM) Program seeks to infuse new technology into space applications, bridging the gap between mature “lab-proven” technology and "flight-ready" status....

  9. Methanol Cannon Demonstrations Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolson, David A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes two variations on the traditional methanol cannon demonstration. The first variation is a chain reaction using real metal chains. The second example involves using easily available components to produce sequential explosions that can be musical in nature. (AIM)

  10. Flagship Technology Demonstrations (FTD)

    NASA Video Gallery

    Mike Conley delivers a presentation from the Flagship Technology Demonstrations (FTD) study team on May 25, 2010, at the NASA Exploration Enterprise Workshop held in Galveston, TX. The purpose of t...

  11. Education Payload Operation - Demonstrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keil, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    Education Payload Operation - Demonstrations (EPO-Demos) are recorded video education demonstrations performed on the International Space Station (ISS) by crewmembers using hardware already onboard the ISS. EPO-Demos are videotaped, edited, and used to enhance existing NASA education resources and programs for educators and students in grades K-12. EPO-Demos are designed to support the NASA mission to inspire the next generation of explorers.

  12. Edible Astronomy Demonstrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubowich, Donald A.

    2007-12-01

    Astronomy demonstrations with edible ingredients are an effective way to increase student interest and knowledge of astronomical concepts. This approach has been successful with all age groups from elementary school through college students - and the students remember these demonstrations after they are presented. In this poster I describe edible demonstrations I have created to simulate the expansion of the universe (using big-bang chocolate chip cookies); differentiation during the formation of the Earth and planets (using chocolate or chocolate milk with marshmallows, cereal, candy pieces or nuts); and radioactivity/radioactive dating (using popcorn). Other possible demonstrations include: plate tectonics (crackers with peanut butter and jelly); convection (miso soup or hot chocolate); mud flows on Mars (melted chocolate poured over angel food cake); formation of the Galactic disk (pizza); formation of spiral arms (coffee with cream); the curvature of Space (Pringles); constellations patterns with chocolate chips and chocolate chip cookies; planet shaped cookies; star shaped cookies with different colored frostings; coffee or chocolate milk measurement of solar radiation; Oreo cookie lunar phases. Sometimes the students eat the results of the astronomical demonstrations. These demonstrations are an effective teaching tool and can be adapted for cultural, culinary, and ethnic differences among the students.

  13. Black Male Youth: Their Employment Problems and Training Programs. Background Paper No. 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollister, Robinson G.

    Employment problems of black males remain substantial. The unemployment rate for black males is 2.3 times that of white males. Less than one-third of 16- 19-year-old black males were employed in 1988. The most important policies affecting the employment of black males are monetary and fiscal policies. No employment and training policies can come…

  14. Effects of abiotic factors and species interactions on estimates of male plant function: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Schaeffer, Robert N; Manson, Jessamyn S; Irwin, Rebecca E

    2013-03-01

    The majority of angiosperms are hermaphroditic with total fitness comprised of both male and female components of reproduction. However, most studies examining the effects of abiotic factors and species interactions on fitness have focussed on female reproduction, potentially biasing our understanding of the consequences of environmental factors on total fitness. Here, we use meta-analysis to test how environmental factors affect male function. We obtained 278 effect sizes from 96 studies that measured male function responses to manipulated environmental factors. We found significant effects of abiotic factors and species interactions on estimates of male function, with responses varying depending on environmental factor identity. Male and female responses were correlated for abiotic factor manipulations, but varied based on the type of species interaction (antagonistic or mutualistic). This suggests that measuring only female function may misrepresent whole-plant reproduction depending on context. Finally, we found differences amongst components of male function in response to environmental factors, suggesting that some male function estimates may fail to capture the effects of environmental factors on male fitness. Our results demonstrate the importance of incorporating male function into ecological and evolutionary studies to provide a more accurate understanding of the effects of environmental factors on total fitness.

  15. Autonomous docking ground demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamkin, Steve L.; Le, Thomas Quan; Othon, L. T.; Prather, Joseph L.; Eick, Richard E.; Baxter, Jim M.; Boyd, M. G.; Clark, Fred D.; Spehar, Peter T.; Teters, Rebecca T.

    1991-01-01

    The Autonomous Docking Ground Demonstration is an evaluation of the laser sensor system to support the docking phase (12 ft to contact) when operated in conjunction with the guidance, navigation, and control (GN&C) software. The docking mechanism being used was developed for the Apollo/Soyuz Test Program. This demonstration will be conducted using the 6-DOF Dynamic Test System (DTS). The DTS simulates the Space Station Freedom as the stationary or target vehicle and the Orbiter as the active or chase vehicle. For this demonstration, the laser sensor will be mounted on the target vehicle and the retroflectors will be on the chase vehicle. This arrangement was chosen to prevent potential damage to the laser. The laser sensor system, GN&C, and 6-DOF DTS will be operated closed-loop. Initial conditions to simulate vehicle misalignments, translational and rotational, will be introduced within the constraints of the systems involved.

  16. TRUEX hot demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Chamberlain, D.B.; Leonard, R.A.; Hoh, J.C.; Gay, E.C.; Kalina, D.G.; Vandegrift, G.F.

    1990-04-01

    In FY 1987, a program was initiated to demonstrate technology for recovering transuranic (TRU) elements from defense wastes. This hot demonstration was to be carried out with solution from the dissolution of irradiated fuels. This recovery would be accomplished with both PUREX and TRUEX solvent extraction processes. Work planned for this program included preparation of a shielded-cell facility for the receipt and storage of spent fuel from commercial power reactors, dissolution of this fuel, operation of a PUREX process to produce specific feeds for the TRUEX process, operation of a TRUEX process to remove residual actinide elements from PUREX process raffinates, and processing and disposal of waste and product streams. This report documents the work completed in planning and starting up this program. It is meant to serve as a guide for anyone planning similar demonstrations of TRUEX or other solvent extraction processing in a shielded-cell facility.

  17. A Facile and Effective Chemiluminescence Demonstration Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohan, Arthur G.; Turro, Nicholas J.

    1974-01-01

    Describes a chemiluminescence system which can be used to demonstrate the effects of certain factors which affect the rate of reaction (temperature, concentration, catalysis, solvent, etc.), and to perform experiments relevant to the mechanism of the system. (SLH)

  18. Hemorrhagic urethritis in female-to-male transsexual. Possible androgen-related phenomena.

    PubMed

    Cohen, M S; Sanchez, R L

    1987-12-01

    This article describes a case of hematuria and urethritis related to androgen stimulation in a female-to-male transsexual receiving testosterone cypionate. Biopsy of the affected urethral tissue revealed periurethral glands which demonstrated a strong positive reaction with immunoperoxidase staining for prostatic specific antigen. When the androgen stimulus was reduced, the patient's symptoms resolved. This report gives evidence for possible androgen-induced pathology in the female urethra.

  19. Overview and trends in male grooming.

    PubMed

    Elsner, P

    2012-03-01

    The use of cosmetics and medical cosmetic procedures by men has been widely ignored in dermatological research in the past, but it is finding increasing attention. As men are changing their habits and increasingly tend to use cosmetic products, the dermatologist will be asked for expert advice regarding efficacy and safety of cosmetics for male skin. For this service, dermatologists need to be aware of anatomical and physiological differences between male and female skin, about specific environmental stress factors affecting male skin, about cosmetic practices and product use especially regarding shaving, and about the counselling needs in men relating to protective cosmetic use.

  20. Innovative technology demonstrations

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, D.B.; Luttrell, S.P.; Hartley, J.N.; Hinchee, R.

    1992-08-01

    Environmental Management Operations (EMO) is conducting an Innovative Technology Demonstration Program for Tinker Air Force Base (TAFB). Several innovative technologies are being demonstrated to address specific problems associated with remediating two contaminated test sites at the base. Cone penetrometer testing (CPT) is a form of testing that can rapidly characterize a site. This technology was selected to evaluate its applicability in the tight clay soils and consolidated sandstone sediments found at TAFB. Directionally drilled horizontal wells was selected as a method that may be effective in accessing contamination beneath Building 3001 without disrupting the mission of the building, and in enhancing the extraction of contamination both in ground water and in soil. A soil gas extraction (SGE) demonstration, also known as soil vapor extraction, will evaluate the effectiveness of SGE in remediating fuels and TCE contamination contained in the tight clay soil formations surrounding the abandoned underground fuel storage vault located at the SW Tanks Site. In situ sensors have recently received much acclaim as a technology that can be effective in remediating hazardous waste sites. Sensors can be useful for determining real-time, in situ contaminant concentrations during the remediation process for performance monitoring and in providing feedback for controlling the remediation process. Following the SGE demonstration, the SGE system and SW Tanks test site will be modified to demonstrate bioremediation as an effective means of degrading the remaining contaminants in situ. The bioremediation demonstration will evaluate a bioventing process in which the naturally occurring consortium of soil bacteria will be stimulated to aerobically degrade soil contaminants, including fuel and TCE, in situ.

  1. Demonstrating marketing accountability.

    PubMed

    Gombeski, William R; Britt, Jason; Taylor, Jan; Riggs, Karen; Wray, Tanya; Adkins, Wanda; Springate, Suzanne

    2008-01-01

    Pressure on health care marketers to demonstrate effectiveness of their strategies and show their contribution to organizational goals is growing. A seven-tiered model based on the concepts of structure (having the right people, systems), process (doing the right things in the right way), and outcomes (results) is discussed. Examples of measures for each tier are provided and the benefits of using the model as a tool for measuring, organizing, tracking, and communicating appropriate information are provided. The model also provides a framework for helping management understand marketing's value and can serve as a vehicle for demonstrating marketing accountability.

  2. Gigashot Optical Laser Demonstrator

    SciTech Connect

    Deri, R. J.

    2015-10-13

    The Gigashot Optical Laser Demonstrator (GOLD) project has demonstrated a novel optical amplifier for high energy pulsed lasers operating at high repetition rates. The amplifier stores enough pump energy to support >10 J of laser output, and employs conduction cooling for thermal management to avoid the need for expensive and bulky high-pressure helium subsystems. A prototype amplifier was fabricated, pumped with diode light at 885 nm, and characterized. Experimental results show that the amplifier provides sufficient small-signal gain and sufficiently low wavefront and birefringence impairments to prove useful in laser systems, at repetition rates up to 60 Hz.

  3. Demonstrating Supernova Remnant Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leahy, Denis A.; Williams, Jacqueline

    2017-01-01

    We have created a software tool to calculate at display supernova remnant evolution which includes all stages from early ejecta dominated phase to late-time merging with the interstellar medium. The software was created using Python, and can be distributed as Python code, or as an executable file. The purpose of the software is to demonstrate the different phases and transitions that a supernova remnant undergoes, and will be used in upper level undergraduate astrophysics courses as a teaching tool. The usage of the software and its graphical user interface will be demonstrated.

  4. Responses of female rock lizards to multiple scent marks of males: effects of male age, male density and scent over-marking.

    PubMed

    Martín, José; López, Pilar

    2013-03-01

    Scent-marked substrates may inform conspecifics on the characteristics of territorial males. Scent-marks of male Carpetan rock lizards (Iberolacerta cyreni) affect space use of females, which by selecting an area may increase the probability of mating with the male that has scent-marked that area. However, males do not hold exclusive territories, and scent-marks of different individual males are often together. This may provide complex information from multiple sources on the social structure. Here, we examined female preference in response to scent marks of various males and combinations in a laboratory experiment. Females preferred areas scent-marked by territorial old males against those scent-marked by young satellite-sneaker males. This reflected the known preference of females for mating with old males. In a second experiment, females preferred areas scent-marked by two males to areas of similar size marked by a single male. This may increase the probability of obtaining multiple copulations with different males, which may favour sperm competition and cryptic female choice, or may be a way to avoid infertile males. Finally, when we experimentally over-marked the scent-marks of an old male with scent-marks of a young male, females did not avoid, nor prefer, the over-marked area, suggesting that the quality of the old male may override the presence of a satellite male. We suggest that, irrespective of the causes underlying why a female selects a scent-marked area, this strategy may affect her reproductive success, which may have the same evolutionary consequences that "direct" mate choice decisions of other animals.

  5. Will male advertisement be a reliable indicator of paternal care, if offspring survival depends on male care?

    PubMed

    Kelly, Natasha B; Alonzo, Suzanne H

    2009-09-07

    Existing theory predicts that male signalling can be an unreliable indicator of paternal care, but assumes that males with high levels of mating success can have high current reproductive success, without providing any parental care. As a result, this theory does not hold for the many species where offspring survival depends on male parental care. We modelled male allocation of resources between advertisement and care for species with male care where males vary in quality, and the effect of care and advertisement on male fitness is multiplicative rather than additive. Our model predicts that males will allocate proportionally more of their resources to whichever trait (advertisement or paternal care) is more fitness limiting. In contrast to previous theory, we find that male advertisement is always a reliable indicator of paternal care and male phenotypic quality (e.g. males with higher levels of advertisement never allocate less to care than males with lower levels of advertisement). Our model shows that the predicted pattern of male allocation and the reliability of male signalling depend very strongly on whether paternal care is assumed to be necessary for offspring survival and how male care affects offspring survival and male fitness.

  6. Calculus Demonstrations Using MATLAB

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Peter K.; Harman, Chris

    2002-01-01

    The note discusses ways in which technology can be used in the calculus learning process. In particular, five MATLAB programs are detailed for use by instructors or students that demonstrate important concepts in introductory calculus: Newton's method, differentiation and integration. Two of the programs are animated. The programs and the…

  7. A Biofeedback Demonstration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrity, Michael K.

    1978-01-01

    Describes a demonstration for measurement of biophysical signals produced by the human body. The signals, after amplification, could provide acoustical feedback through a voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO), or they could be seen either with an oscilloscope or a high speed chart recorder. (GA)

  8. Polarized Light: Three Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goehmann, Ruth; Welty, Scott

    1984-01-01

    Describes three demonstrations used in the Chicago Museum of Science and Industry polarized light show. The procedures employed are suitable for the classroom by using smaller polarizers and an overhead projector. Topic areas include properties of cellophane tape, nondisappearing arrows, and rope through a picket fence. (JN)

  9. Demonstrating the Gas Laws.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holko, David A.

    1982-01-01

    Presents a complete computer program demonstrating the relationship between volume/pressure for Boyle's Law, volume/temperature for Charles' Law, and volume/moles of gas for Avagadro's Law. The programing reinforces students' application of gas laws and equates a simulated moving piston to theoretical values derived using the ideal gas law.…

  10. A Fruity Biochemistry Demonstration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shmaefsky, Brian R.

    2005-01-01

    Classroom demonstrations are a great vehicle for getting students to apply information they have heard in a lecture. Educational research is replete with data showing that concept application in an inquiry setting reinforces long-term science content retention. This means that students learn best when they experience applications of concepts and…

  11. DEMONSTRATION PLAN FIELD MEASUREMENT ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The demonstration of innovative field measurement devices for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in soil is being conducted under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation Program in June 2000 at the Navy Base Ventura County site in Port Hueneme, California. The primary purpose of the demonstration is to evaluate innovative field measurement devices for TPH in soil based on their performance and cost as compared to a conventional, off-site laboratory analytical method. The seven field measurement devices listed below will be demonstrated. CHEMetrics, Inc.'s, RemediAidTm Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon Starter Kit Wilks Enterprise, Inc.'s, Infracal' TOG/TPH Analyzer, Models CVH and HATR-T Horiba Instruments, Incorporated's, OCMA-350 Oil Content Analyzer Dexsil' Corporation's PetroFLAGTm Hydrocarbon Test Kit for Soil Environmental Systems Corporation's Synchronous Scanning Luminoscope siteLAB@ Corporation's Analytical Test Kit UVF-3 I OOA Strategic Diagnostics, Inc.'s, EnSys Petro Test System This demonstration plan describes the procedures that will be used to verify the performance and cost of each field measurement device. The plan incorporates the quality assurance and quality control elements needed to generate data of sufficient quality to document each device's performance and cost. A separate innovative technology verification report (ITVR) will be prepared for each device. The ITVRs will present the demonstratio

  12. ROUGH ROCK DEMONSTRATION SCHOOL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FORBES, JACK

    THE ROUGH ROCK DEMONSTRATION SCHOOL IS LOCATED IN NORTHEASTERN ARIZONA, WHERE THE NAVAJO LANGUAGE IS UNIVERSALLY SPOKEN BY THE NAVAJO PEOPLE. IT IS LOCATED ON A NAVAJO RESERVATION AND WAS DESIGNED AS A BIA EXPERIMENTAL SCHOOL TO SERVE 200 ELEMENTARY PUPILS, MOST OF WHOM ARE IN THE BOARDING SCHOOL SITUATION. AN OBJECTIVE OF THE SCHOOL IS TO GAIN…

  13. Participatory Lecture Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battino, Rubin

    1979-01-01

    The use of participatory lecture demonstrations in the classroom is described. Examples are given for the following topics: chromatography, chemical kinetics, balancing equations, the gas laws, kinetic molecular theory, Henry's law of gas solubility, electronic energy levels in atoms, and translational, vibrational, and rotational energies of…

  14. Demonstrating carbon capture

    SciTech Connect

    Qader, A.; Hooper, B.; Stevens, G.

    2009-11-15

    Australia is at the forefront of advancing CCS technology. The CO2CRC's H3 (Post-combustion) and Mulgrave (pre-combustion) capture projects are outlined. The capture technologies for these 2 demonstration projects are described. 1 map., 2 photos.

  15. Astronomy Demonstrations and Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckroth, Charles A.

    Demonstrations in astronomy classes seem to be more necessary than in physics classes for three reasons. First, many of the events are very large scale and impossibly remote from human senses. Secondly, while physics courses use discussions of one- and two-dimensional motion, three-dimensional motion is the normal situation in astronomy; thus,…

  16. Overhead Projector Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolb, Doris, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Provides two demonstrations: (1) electrolyte migration of ions using colored ions which cross a strip of gelatin allowing for noticeable migration; and (2) photochemical reduction of Fe+3 by the citrate ion. Points out both reactions can be done in a Petri dish using common lab materials. (MVL)

  17. A Magnetic Circuit Demonstration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderkooy, John; Lowe, June

    1995-01-01

    Presents a demonstration designed to illustrate Faraday's, Ampere's, and Lenz's laws and to reinforce the concepts through the analysis of a two-loop magnetic circuit. Can be made dramatic and challenging for sophisticated students but is suitable for an introductory course in electricity and magnetism. (JRH)

  18. Overhead Projector Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolb, Doris, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Described are three chemistry demonstrations: (1) a simple qualitative technique for taste pattern recognition in structure-activity relationships; (2) a microscale study of gaseous diffusion using bleach, HCl, ammonia, and phenolphthalein; and (3) the rotation of polarized light by stereoisomers of limonene. (MVL)

  19. Organic Lecture Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silversmith, Ernest F.

    1988-01-01

    Provides a listing of 35 demonstrations designed to generate interest in organic chemistry and help put points across. Topics include opening lecture; molecular structure and properties; halogenation; nucleophilic substitution, alkenes and dienes, stereochemistry, spectroscopy, alcohols and phenols, aldehydes and ketones; carboxylic acids, amines,…

  20. Repository Drift Backfilling Demonstrator

    SciTech Connect

    Londe, I.; Dubois, J.Ph.; Bauer, C.

    2008-07-01

    The 'Backfilling Demonstrator' is one of the technological demonstrators developed by ANDRA in the framework of the feasibility studies for a geological repository for high-level long-lived (HL-LL waste) within a clay formation. The demonstrator concerns the standard and supporting backfills as defined in Andra's 2005 design. The standard backfill is intended to fill up almost all drifts of the underground repository in order to limit any deformation of the rock after the degradation of the drift lining. The supporting backfill only concerns a small portion of the volume to be backfilled in order to counter the swelling pressure of the swelling clay contained in the sealing structures. The first objective of the demonstrator was to show the possibility of manufacturing a satisfactory backfill, in spite of the exiguity of the underground structures, and of reusing as much as possible the argillite muck. For the purpose of this experiment, the argillite muck was collected on Andra's work-site for the implementation of an underground research laboratory. Still ongoing, the second objective is to follow up the long-term evolution of the backfill. Approximately 200 m{sup 3} of compacted backfill material have been gathered in a large concrete tube simulating a repository drift. The standard backfill was manufactured exclusively with argillite. The supporting backfill was made by forming a mixture of argillite and sand. Operations were carried out mostly at Richwiller, close to Mulhouse, France. The objectives of the demonstrator were met: an application method was tested and proven satisfactory. The resulting dry densities are relatively high, although the moduli of deformation do not always reach the set goal. The selected objective for the demonstrator was a dry density corresponding to a relatively high compaction level (95% of the standard Proctor optimum [SPO]), for both pure argillite and the argillite-sand mixture. The plate-percussion compaction technique was

  1. Nucla CFB Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-01

    This report documents Colorado-Ute Electric Association's Nucla Circulating Atmospheric Fluidized-Bed Combustion (AFBC) demonstration project. It describes the plant equipment and system design for the first US utility-size circulating AFBC boiler and its support systems. Included are equipment and system descriptions, design/background information and appendices with an equipment list and selected information plus process flow and instrumentation drawings. The purpose of this report is to share the information gathered during the Nucla circulating AFBC demonstration project and present it so that the general public can evaluate the technical feasibility and cost effectiveness of replacing pulverized or stoker-fired boiler units with circulating fluidized-bed boiler units. (VC)

  2. LIMB Demonstration Project Extension

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-03-15

    The basic goal of the Limestone Injection Multistage Burner (LIMB) demonstration is to extend LIMB technology development to a full-scale application on a representative wall-fired utility boiler. The successful retrofit of LIMB to an existing boiler is expected to demonstrate that (a) reductions of 50 percent or greater in SO{sub x} and NO{sub x} emissions can be achieved at a fraction of the cost of add-on FGD systems, (b) boiler reliability, operability, and steam production can be maintained at levels existing prior to LIMB retrofit, and (c) technical difficulties attributable to LIMB operation, such as additional slagging and fouling, changes in ash disposal requirements, and an increased particulate load, can be resolved in a cost-effective manner. The primary fuel to be used will be an Ohio bituminous coal having a nominal sulfur content of 3 percent or greater.

  3. Education Demonstration Equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagy, A.; Lee, R. L.

    2005-10-01

    Several GA Fusion Education Program plasma related demonstration items were developed this year. A 120 V ac powered electromagnetic coil shows eddy current levitation over an aluminum sheet and continuously changing magnetic force interactions using additional permanent magnets. A 300 V dc plasma device, with variable current capability and analog data ports, is used to develop plasma I/V plots. An on-demand (via push button) fully enclosed 24 in. Jacob's ladder provides air plasma and buoyancy effects. A low cost Mason jar vacuum chamber filled with inert gas shows pressure and gas species plasma characteristics when excited by a Tesla coil. These demonstration items are used in the Scientist-In-the-Classroom program, GA facility tours, and teacher seminars to present plasma to students and teachers. Three very popular Build-It workshops were held to enable teachers to build these items and take them back to their classroom.

  4. LIMB Demonstration Project Extension

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-09-15

    The basic goal of the Limestone Injection Multistage Burner (LIMB) demonstration is to extend LIMB technology development to a full-scale application on a representative wall-fired utility boiler. The successful retrofit of LIMB to an existing boiler is expected to demonstrate that (a) reductions of 50 percent or greater in SO and NO emissions can be achieved at a fraction of the cost of add-on FGD systems, (b) boiler reliability, operability, and steam production can be maintained at levels existing prior to LIMB retrofit, and (c) technical difficulties attributable to LIMB operation, such as additional slagging and fouling, changes in ash disposal requirements, and an increased particulate load, can be resolved in a cost-effective manner. The primary fuel to be used will be an Ohio bituminous coal having a nominal sulfur content of 3 percent or greater.

  5. Chemical Domino Demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, M. Dale

    1998-04-01

    The Chemical Domino Demonstration is both educational and entertaining. It provides an excellent means for a review of chemical concepts at the conclusion of a general chemistry course. This demonstration consists of a number of different chemical reactions occurring in sequence in a Rube Goldberg-type apparatus. These reactions include the reduction of water by an active metal, the oxidation of a moderately active metal by an acid, reduction of metallic ions by a metal of greater activity, acid-base neutralization reactions in solution monitored with indicators, a gas-phase acid-base neutralization reaction, decomposition of a compound, precipitation of an insoluble salt, substitution reactions of coordination complexes, and pyrotechnic oxidation-reduction reactions including a hypergolic oxidation-reduction reaction, an intramolecular oxidation-reduction reaction, and the combustion of a flammable gas.

  6. Mars Umbilical Technology Demonstrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houshangi, Nasser

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a autonomous umbilical mating for the mars umbilical technology demonstrator. The Mars Umbilical Technology Demonstrator (MUTD) shall provide electrical power and fiber optic data cable connections between two simulated mars vehicles. The Omnibot is used to provide the mobile base for the system. The mate to umbilical plate is mounted on a three axis Cartesian table, which is installed on the Omnibot mobile base. The Omnibot is controlled in a teleoperated mode. The operator using the vision system will guide the Omnibot to get close to the mate to plate. The information received from four ultrasonic sensors is used to identify the position of mate to plate and mate the umbilical plates autonomously. A successful experimentation verifies the approach.

  7. Stress promotes maleness in hermaphroditic modular animals

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, R. N.; Manríquez, P. H.; Bishop, J. D. D.; Burrows, M. T.

    2003-01-01

    Sex-allocation theory developed for hermaphroditic plants predicts that impaired phenotype or reduced parental survivorship caused by environmental stress should induce relatively greater allocation to the male function. We provide experimental evidence of stress-induced maleness, already well documented in flowering plants, in a modular animal. By using cloned copies of replicate genotypes, we show that the marine bryozoan Celleporella hyalina increases the ratio of male to female modules in response to diverse environmental stressors. Mating trials confirmed that paternity is determined by fair-raffle sperm competition, which should obviate local mate competition at characteristic population density and promote the advantage of increased male allocation. The demonstrated similarity to plants transcends specific physiological pathways and suggests that stress-induced bias toward male function is a general response of hermaphroditic modular organisms to impaired prospects for parental productivity or survival. PMID:12930903

  8. Arctic Craft Demonstration Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-01

    up the beach towards the NARL facility because beluga whales were in the area and they might be scared further offshore. He stated that the local...Eskimo Whaling Commission (AEWC) both to ensure the demonstration would not interfere with their sustenance hunting activities and also to inquire about...weather conditions were sunny with a light breeze. Occasional whale spouts were sighted in the distance but not close enough for mammal

  9. The Blowgun Demonstration Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsukamoto, Koji; Uchino, Masanori

    2008-01-01

    We have found that a simple demonstration experiment using a match or a cotton swab and a drinking straw or an acrylic pipe serves as an effective introduction to dynamics. The most basic apparatus has a cotton swab serving as a dart and the straw as the blowgun. When blown from a starting point near the exit end of the straw, the cotton swab does…

  10. Joined Beryllium Mirror Demonstrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Parsonage, Tom; Burdine, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Fabrications of large Beryllium optical components are fundamentally limited by available facility capabilities. To overcome this limitation, NASA funded Brush Wellman Corp to study a Be joining process. Four 76 mm diameters samples and a 0.5 mm diameter Joined Beryllium Mirror Demonstrator (JBMD) were fabricated. This presentation will review the fabrication of these samples and summarize the results of their cryogenic testing at MSFCs XRCF.

  11. Great Lakes Demonstration 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    Representatives from CG Districts 1, 5 , 13, and 17  Enbridge Pipeline, Co.  EPA  National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)  Observers (CG...distances from the vessel‟s hull. (Figure 5 ) In that configuration, the recovery hose and hydraulic lines dragged across the surface of the nearby...No. CG-D-08-12 2. Government Accession Number 3. Recipient’s Catalog No. 4. Title and Subtitle Great Lakes Demonstration 2 Final Report 5

  12. Space Fabrication Demonstration System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The completion of assembly of the beam builder and its first automatic production of truss is discussed. A four bay, hand assembled, roll formed members truss was built and tested to ultimate load. Detail design of the fabrication facility (beam builder) was completed and designs for subsystem debugging are discussed. Many one bay truss specimens were produced to demonstrate subsystem operation and to detect problem areas.

  13. Simple SAR demonstrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulpa, Krzysztof; Misiurewicz, Jacek; Baranowski, Piotr; Wojdołowicz, Grzegorz

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present a simple SAR radar demonstrator build using commercially available (COTS) components. For the microwave analog front end, a standard police radar microwave head has been used. The Motorola DSP processor board, equipped with ADC and DAC, has been used for generating of modulating signal and for signal acquisition. The raw radar signal (I and Q components) have been recorded on 2.5" HDD. The signal processing has been performed on standard PC computer after copying the recorded data. The aim of constructing simple and relatively cheap demonstrator was to provide the students the real-life unclassified radar signals and motivate them to test and develop various kinds of SAR and ISAR algorithms, including image formation, motion compensation and autofocusing. The simple microwave frontend hardware has a lot of non-idealities, so for obtaining nice SAR image it was necessary to develop the number of correction algorithms at the calibration stage. The SAR demonstrator have been tested using car as a moving platform. The flight tests with a small airborne platform are planned for the summer.

  14. Lunar Water Resource Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muscatello, Anthony C.

    2008-01-01

    In cooperation with the Canadian Space Agency, the Northern Centre for Advanced Technology, Inc., the Carnegie-Mellon University, JPL, and NEPTEC, NASA has undertaken the In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) project called RESOLVE. This project is a ground demonstration of a system that would be sent to explore permanently shadowed polar lunar craters, drill into the regolith, determine what volatiles are present, and quantify them in addition to recovering oxygen by hydrogen reduction. The Lunar Prospector has determined these craters contain enhanced hydrogen concentrations averaging about 0.1%. If the hydrogen is in the form of water, the water concentration would be around 1%, which would translate into billions of tons of water on the Moon, a tremendous resource. The Lunar Water Resource Demonstration (LWRD) is a part of RESOLVE designed to capture lunar water and hydrogen and quantify them as a backup to gas chromatography analysis. This presentation will briefly review the design of LWRD and some of the results of testing the subsystem. RESOLVE is to be integrated with the Scarab rover from CMIJ and the whole system demonstrated on Mauna Kea on Hawaii in November 2008. The implications of lunar water for Mars exploration are two-fold: 1) RESOLVE and LWRD could be used in a similar fashion on Mars to locate and quantify water resources, and 2) electrolysis of lunar water could provide large amounts of liquid oxygen in LEO, leading to lower costs for travel to Mars, in addition to being very useful at lunar outposts.

  15. Budget Constraints Affect Male Rats’ Choices between Differently Priced Commodities

    PubMed Central

    Kalenscher, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Demand theory can be applied to analyse how a human or animal consumer changes her selection of commodities within a certain budget in response to changes in price of those commodities. This change in consumption assessed over a range of prices is defined as demand elasticity. Previously, income-compensated and income-uncompensated price changes have been investigated using human and animal consumers, as demand theory predicts different elasticities for both conditions. However, in these studies, demand elasticity was only evaluated over the entirety of choices made from a budget. As compensating budgets changes the number of attainable commodities relative to uncompensated conditions, and thus the number of choices, it remained unclear whether budget compensation has a trivial effect on demand elasticity by simply sampling from a different total number of choices or has a direct effect on consumers’ sequential choice structure. If the budget context independently changes choices between commodities over and above price effects, this should become apparent when demand elasticity is assessed over choice sets of any reasonable size that are matched in choice opportunities between budget conditions. To gain more detailed insight in the sequential choice dynamics underlying differences in demand elasticity between budget conditions, we trained N=8 rat consumers to spend a daily budget by making a number of nosepokes to obtain two liquid commodities under different price regimes, in sessions with and without budget compensation. We confirmed that demand elasticity for both commodities differed between compensated and uncompensated budget conditions, also when the number of choices considered was matched, and showed that these elasticity differences emerge early in the sessions. These differences in demand elasticity were driven by a higher choice rate and an increased reselection bias for the preferred commodity in compensated compared to uncompensated budget conditions, suggesting a budget context effect on relative valuation. PMID:26053764

  16. TRW utility demonstration unit

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The TRW Advanced Entrained Coal Combustor Demonstration Project consists of retrofitting Orange and Rockland (O R) Utility Corporation's Lovett Plant Unit No. 3 with four (4) slagging combustors which will allow the gas/oil unit to fire 2.5% sulfur coal. The slagging combustor process will provide NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} emissions that meet NSPS and New York State Environmental Standards. During this report period, activity continued to address the total program funding shortfall. Ideas and responsibilities for further evaluation have been put forward to reduce the shortfall. In addition, an effort aimed at gaining additional program sponsorships, was initiated.

  17. Space Research Benefits Demonstrated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Angie Jackman, a NASA project manager in microgravity research, demonstrates the enhanced resilience of undercooled metal alloys as compared to conventional alloys. Experiments aboard the Space Shuttle helped scientists refine their understanding of the physical properties of certain metal alloys when undercooled (i.e., kept liquid below their normal solidification temperature). This new knowledge then allowed scientists to modify a terrestrial production method so they can now make limited quantities marketed under the Liquid Metal trademark. The exhibit was a part of the NASA outreach activity at AirVenture 2000 sponsored by the Experimental Aircraft Association in Oshkosh, WI.

  18. Santa Clara Demonstration Status

    SciTech Connect

    Leo, Anthony J.; Skok, Andrew J.; O'Shea, Thomas P.

    1996-08-01

    Fuel Cell Engineering Corporation (FCE) is in the fourth year of a DOE Cooperative Agreement Program (private-sector cost-shared) aimed at the demonstration of ERC's direct carbonate fuel cell (DFC) technology at full scale. FCE is a wholly owned subsidiary of Energy Research Corporation (ERC), which has been pursuing the development of the DFC for commercialization near the end of this decade. The DFC produces power directly from hydrocarbon fuels electrochemically, without the need for external reforming or intermediate mechanical conversion steps. As a result, the DFC has the potential to achieve very high efficiency with very low levels of environmental emissions. Modular DFC power plants, which can be shop-fabricated and sited near the user, are ideally suited for distributed generation, cogeneration, industrial, and defense applications. This project is an integral part of the ERC effort to commercialize the technology to serve these applications. Potential users of the commercial DFC power plant under development at ERC will require that the technology be demonstrated at or near the full scale of the commercial products. The objective of the Santa Clara Demonstration Project (SCDP) is to provide the first such demonstration of the technology. The approach ERC has taken in the commercialization of the DFC is described in detail elsewhere [1]. Briefly, an aggressive core technology development program is in place which is focused by ongoing contact with customers and vendors to optimize the design of the commercial power plant. ERC has selected a 2.85 MW power plant unit for initial market entry. Two ERC subsidiaries are supporting the commercialization effort: The Fuel Cell Manufacturing Corporation (FCMC) and the Fuel Cell Engineering Corporation (FCE). FCMC manufactures carbonate stacks and multi-stack modules, currently from its manufacturing facility in Torrington, CT. FCE is responsible for power plant design, integration of all subsystems, sales

  19. Exploration Medical System Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubin, D. A.; Watkins, S. D.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exploration class missions will present significant new challenges and hazards to the health of the astronauts. Regardless of the intended destination, beyond low Earth orbit a greater degree of crew autonomy will be required to diagnose medical conditions, develop treatment plans, and implement procedures due to limited communications with ground-based personnel. SCOPE: The Exploration Medical System Demonstration (EMSD) project will act as a test bed on the International Space Station (ISS) to demonstrate to crew and ground personnel that an end-to-end medical system can assist clinician and non-clinician crew members in optimizing medical care delivery and data management during an exploration mission. Challenges facing exploration mission medical care include limited resources, inability to evacuate to Earth during many mission phases, and potential rendering of medical care by non-clinicians. This system demonstrates the integration of medical devices and informatics tools for managing evidence and decision making and can be designed to assist crewmembers in nominal, non-emergent situations and in emergent situations when they may be suffering from performance decrements due to environmental, physiological or other factors. PROJECT OBJECTIVES: The objectives of the EMSD project are to: a. Reduce or eliminate the time required of an on-orbit crew and ground personnel to access, transfer, and manipulate medical data. b. Demonstrate that the on-orbit crew has the ability to access medical data/information via an intuitive and crew-friendly solution to aid in the treatment of a medical condition. c. Develop a common data management framework that can be ubiquitously used to automate repetitive data collection, management, and communications tasks for all activities pertaining to crew health and life sciences. d. Ensure crew access to medical data during periods of restricted ground communication. e. Develop a common data management framework that

  20. West Valley Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Under the West Valley Demonstration Project Act, Public Law 96-368, liquid high-level radioactive waste stored at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center in West Valley, New York, is to be solidified (vitrified) in borosilicate glass and transported to a federal repository for geologic disposal. This waste material resulted from spent nuclear fuel reprocessing operations conducted between 1966 and 1972. Project costs are shared by the US Department of Energy (90 percent) and the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (10 percent). The site on which the Project is located is owned by New York State. This report is an overview of West Valley's plans and accomplishments.

  1. NAVAJO ELECTRIFICATION DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Terry W. Battiest

    2008-06-11

    The Navajo Electrification Demonstration Project (NEDP) is a multi-year project which addresses the electricity needs of the unserved and underserved Navajo Nation, the largest American Indian tribe in the United States. The program serves to cumulatively provide off-grid electricty for families living away from the electricty infrastructure, line extensions for unserved families living nearby (less than 1/2 mile away from) the electricity, and, under the current project called NEDP-4, the construction of a substation to increase the capacity and improve the quality of service into the central core region of the Navajo Nation.

  2. Excitotoxic lesions of the tegmental pedunculopontine nucleus impair copulation in naive male rats and block the rewarding effects of copulation in experienced male rats.

    PubMed

    Kippin, Tod E; van der Kooy, Derek

    2003-11-01

    The tegmental pedunculopontine nucleus (TPP) of the brainstem mediates food reward in food-sated animals and opiate reward in drug-naive animals. In the present study, we examine the effect of excitotoxic lesions of the TPP on sexual behaviour in naive and experienced male rats. Male, Long-Evans rats received either 0.25 micro L injections of NMDA (4.2 micro g/side) or vehicle (shams) into the TPP. In sexually naive males, complete bilateral TPP lesions decreased all measure of copulation (i.e. mounts, intromissions and ejaculations), prevented acquisition of conditioned sexual excitement, decreased approach preference for a receptive female over a non-receptive one, and decreased non-contact erections; unilateral or bilateral posterior-sparing TPP lesions did not affect any of these measures. Conversely, in sexually experienced males, lesions not only failed to disrupt copulation, but also increased conditioned sexual excitement, decreased post-ejaculatory interval and blocked the effect of prolonged copulation on conditioned sexual excitement. Following differential pairing of distinctive environments with and without copulation, sham males with sexual experience displayed a significant preference for the environment paired with copulation, whereas the lesion males with sexual experience displayed a significant aversion for the environment paired with copulation. These findings indicate that the TPP is critical for the acquisition of copulation in naive males and mediates the rewarding consequences of copulation in experienced males. Together these findings demonstrate that the TPP mediates sexual reward, but that sexual experience is not sufficient to produce a deprivation state.

  3. Experimental food supplementation reveals habitat-dependent male reproductive investment in a migratory bird

    PubMed Central

    Kaiser, Sara A.; Sillett, T. Scott; Risk, Benjamin B.; Webster, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental factors can shape reproductive investment strategies and influence the variance in male mating success. Environmental effects on extrapair paternity have traditionally been ascribed to aspects of the social environment, such as breeding density and synchrony. However, social factors are often confounded with habitat quality and are challenging to disentangle. We used both natural variation in habitat quality and a food supplementation experiment to separate the effects of food availability—one key aspect of habitat quality—on extrapair paternity (EPP) and reproductive success in the black-throated blue warbler, Setophaga caerulescens. High natural food availability was associated with higher within-pair paternity (WPP) and fledging two broods late in the breeding season, but lower EPP. Food-supplemented males had higher WPP leading to higher reproductive success relative to controls, and when in low-quality habitat, food-supplemented males were more likely to fledge two broods but less likely to gain EPP. Our results demonstrate that food availability affects trade-offs in reproductive activities. When food constraints are reduced, males invest in WPP at the expense of EPP. These findings imply that environmental change could alter how individuals allocate their resources and affect the selective environment that drives variation in male mating success. PMID:25673677

  4. Experimental food supplementation reveals habitat-dependent male reproductive investment in a migratory bird.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Sara A; Sillett, T Scott; Risk, Benjamin B; Webster, Michael S

    2015-03-22

    Environmental factors can shape reproductive investment strategies and influence the variance in male mating success. Environmental effects on extrapair paternity have traditionally been ascribed to aspects of the social environment, such as breeding density and synchrony. However, social factors are often confounded with habitat quality and are challenging to disentangle. We used both natural variation in habitat quality and a food supplementation experiment to separate the effects of food availability-one key aspect of habitat quality-on extrapair paternity (EPP) and reproductive success in the black-throated blue warbler, Setophaga caerulescens. High natural food availability was associated with higher within-pair paternity (WPP) and fledging two broods late in the breeding season, but lower EPP. Food-supplemented males had higher WPP leading to higher reproductive success relative to controls, and when in low-quality habitat, food-supplemented males were more likely to fledge two broods but less likely to gain EPP. Our results demonstrate that food availability affects trade-offs in reproductive activities. When food constraints are reduced, males invest in WPP at the expense of EPP. These findings imply that environmental change could alter how individuals allocate their resources and affect the selective environment that drives variation in male mating success.

  5. Bladder catheterization, male (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... kept empty (decompressed) and urinary flow assured. The balloon holds the catheter in place for a duration of time. Catheterization in males is slightly more difficult and uncomfortable than in females because of the longer urethra.

  6. Chlamydial infections - male

    MedlinePlus

    ... Have sex without wearing a male or female condom Have more than one sexual partner Use drugs ... to have sexual contact, use latex or polyurethane condoms. Remember to: Use condoms for all vaginal, anal, ...

  7. Male Reproductive System

    MedlinePlus

    ... gamete, the egg or ovum, meet in the female's reproductive system to create a baby. Both the male and female reproductive systems are essential for reproduction. Humans pass certain characteristics ...

  8. Oxidative stress & male infertility.

    PubMed

    Makker, Kartikeya; Agarwal, Ashok; Sharma, Rakesh

    2009-04-01

    The male factor is considered a major contributory factor to infertility. Apart from the conventional causes for male infertility such as varicocoele, cryptorchidism, infections, obstructive lesions, cystic fibrosis, trauma, and tumours, a new and important cause has been identified: oxidative stress. Oxidative stress is a result of the imbalance between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidants in the body. It is a powerful mechanism that can lead to sperm damage, deformity and eventually, male infertility. This review discusses the physiological need for ROS and their role in normal sperm function. It also highlights the mechanism of production and the pathophysiology of ROS in relation to the male reproductive system and enumerate the benefits of incorporating antioxidants in clinical and experimental settings.

  9. Male Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... hasn't spread beyond your breast tissue. Radiation therapy Radiation therapy uses high-energy beams to kill ... option for men with advanced breast cancer. Hormone therapy Most men with male breast cancer have tumors ...

  10. Corticosterone regulates multiple colour traits in Lacerta [Zootoca] vivipara males.

    PubMed

    San-Jose, L M; Fitze, P S

    2013-12-01

    Ornamental colours usually evolve as honest signals of quality, which is supported by the fact that they frequently depend on individual condition. It has generally been suggested that some, but not all types of ornamental colours are condition dependent, indicating that different evolutionary mechanisms underlie the evolution of multiple types of ornamental colours even when these are exhibited by the same species. Stress hormones, which negatively affect condition, have been shown to affect colour traits based on different pigments and structures, suggesting that they mediate condition dependence of multiple ornament types both among and within individuals. However, studies investigating effects of stress hormones on different ornament types within individuals are lacking, and thus, evidence for this hypothesis is scant. Here, we investigated whether corticosterone mediates condition dependence of multiple ornaments by manipulating corticosterone levels and body condition (via food availability) using a two-factorial design and by assessing their effect on multiple colour traits in male common lizards. Corticosterone negatively affected ventral melanin- and carotenoid-based coloration, whereas food availability did not affect coloration, despite its significant effect on body condition. The corticosterone effect on melanin- and carotenoid-based coloration demonstrates the condition dependence of both ornaments. Moreover, corticosterone affected ventral coloration and had no effect on the nonsexually selected dorsal coloration, showing specific effects of corticosterone on ornamental ventral colours. This suggests that corticosterone simultaneously mediates condition dependence of multiple colour traits and that it therefore accounts for covariation among them, which may influence their evolution via correlational selection.

  11. SSME Key Operations Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Brian; Bradley, Michael; Ives, Janet

    1997-01-01

    A Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) test program was conducted between August 1995 and May 1996 using the Technology Test Bed (TTB) Engine. SSTO vehicle studies have indicated that increases in the propulsion system operating range can save significant weight and cost at the vehicle level. This test program demonstrated the ability of the SSME to accommodate a wide variation in safe operating ranges and therefore its applicability to the SSTO mission. A total of eight tests were completed with four at Marshall Space Flight Center's Advanced Engine Test Facility and four at the Stennis Space Center (SSC) A-2 attitude test stand. Key demonstration objectives were: 1) Mainstage operation at 5.4 to 6.9 mixture ratio; 2) Nominal engine start with significantly reduced engine inlet pressures of 50 psia LOX and 38 psia fuel; and 3) Low power level operation at 17%, 22%, 27%, 40%, 45%, and 50% of Rated Power Level. Use of the highly instrumented TTB engine for this test series has afforded the opportunity to study in great detail engine system operation not possible with a standard SSME and has significantly contributed to a greater understanding of the capabilities of the SSME and liquid rocket engines in general.

  12. Puget Sound telecommuting demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Quaid, M.; Heifetz, L.; Farley, M.; Christensen, D.; Ulberg, C.; Gordon, A.; Spain, D.; Whitaker, B.

    1992-04-01

    This report discusses the Puget Sound Telecommuting demonstration project. This is a part-time work and transportation alternative that substitutes the normal work commute with the choice of working at home or at an office close to home. According to Link Resources, a research and consulting firm located in New York, there were 4.6 million part-time home telecommuters in the United States in 1991. This figure, which included only company employees who work at home during normal business hours, is up from 3.4 million in 1990, an increase of 35 percent in one year. Part-time telecommuters average 2.5 days per week at home. (There are also about 876,000 full-time telecommuters in the US.) The study done by Link Resources estimates that 4.5 percent of the civilian work force age 18 or older is telecommuting. The Washington State Energy Office (WSEO) began exploring telecommuting as an alternate route to work for Washington, first through The Governor`s Conference on Telecommuting in June 1989. The conference raised corporate and government awareness of telecommuting, and set the stage for further investigation. In 1990, WSEO launched the Puget Sound Telecommuting Demonstration to explore the environmental, organizational, and personal sides of telecommuting. This report presents the interim research results.

  13. Puget Sound telecommuting demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Quaid, M.; Heifetz, L.; Farley, M.; Christensen, D. ); Ulberg, C.; Gordon, A.; Spain, D.; Whitaker, B. )

    1992-04-01

    This report discusses the Puget Sound Telecommuting demonstration project. This is a part-time work and transportation alternative that substitutes the normal work commute with the choice of working at home or at an office close to home. According to Link Resources, a research and consulting firm located in New York, there were 4.6 million part-time home telecommuters in the United States in 1991. This figure, which included only company employees who work at home during normal business hours, is up from 3.4 million in 1990, an increase of 35 percent in one year. Part-time telecommuters average 2.5 days per week at home. (There are also about 876,000 full-time telecommuters in the US.) The study done by Link Resources estimates that 4.5 percent of the civilian work force age 18 or older is telecommuting. The Washington State Energy Office (WSEO) began exploring telecommuting as an alternate route to work for Washington, first through The Governor's Conference on Telecommuting in June 1989. The conference raised corporate and government awareness of telecommuting, and set the stage for further investigation. In 1990, WSEO launched the Puget Sound Telecommuting Demonstration to explore the environmental, organizational, and personal sides of telecommuting. This report presents the interim research results.

  14. PFBC Utility Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-01

    This report provides a summary of activities by American Electric Power Service Corporation during the first budget period of the PFBC Utility Demonstration Project. In April 1990, AEP signed a Cooperative Agreement with the US Department of Energy to repower the Philip Sporn Plant, Units 3 4 in New Haven, West Virginia, with a 330 KW PFBC plant. The purpose of the program was to demonstrate and verify PFBC in a full-scale commercial plant. The technical and cost baselines of the Cooperative Agreement were based on a preliminary engineering and design and a cost estimate developed by AEP subsequent to AEP's proposal submittal in May 1988, and prior to the signing of the Cooperative Agreement. The Statement of Work in the first budget period of the Cooperative Agreement included a task to develop a preliminary design and cost estimate for erecting a Greenfield plant and to conduct a comparison with the repowering option. The comparative assessment of the options concluded that erecting a Greenfield plant rather than repowering the existing Sporn Plant could be the technically and economically superior alternative. The Greenfield plant would have a capacity of 340 MW. The ten additional MW output is due to the ability to better match the steam cycle to the PFBC system with a new balance of plant design. In addition to this study, the conceptual design of the Sporn Repowering led to several items which warranted optimization studies with the goal to develop a more cost effective design.

  15. BEAM Technology Flight Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, David

    2005-01-01

    As technologies advance, their growing complexity makes them harder to maintain. Detection methods for isolating and identifying impending problems are needed to balance this complexity. Through comparison of signal pairs from onboard sensors, the Beacon-based Exception Analysis For Multimissions (BEAM) algorithm can identify and help classify deviations in system operation from a data-trained statistical model. The goal of this task is to mature BEAM and validate its performance on a flying test bed. A series of F-18 flight demonstrations with BEAM monitoring engine parameters in real time was used to demonstrate in-the-field readiness. Captured F-18 and simulated F-18 engine data were used in model creation and training. The algorithm was then ported to the embedded system with a data buffering, file writing, and data-time-stamp monitoring shell to reduce the impact of embedded system faults on BEAM'S ability to correctly identify engine faults. Embedded system testing identified hardware related restrictions and contributed to iterative improvements in the code's runtime performance. The system was flown with forced engine flameouts and other pilot induced faults to simulate operation out of the norm. Successful detection of these faults, confirmed through post-flight data analysis, helped BEAM achieve TRL6.

  16. Residential Transactive Control Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Widergren, Steven E.; Fuller, Jason C.; Marinovici, Maria C.; Somani, Abhishek

    2014-02-19

    Arguably the most exciting aspect of the smart grid vision is the full participation of end-use resources with all forms of generation and energy storage in the reliable and efficient operation of an electric power system. Engaging all of these resources in a collaborative manner that respects the objectives of each resource, is sensitive to the system and local constraints of electricity flow, and scales to the large number of devices and systems participating is a grand challenge. Distributed decision-making system approaches have been presented and experimentation is underway. This paper reports on the preliminary findings of a residential demand response demonstration that uses the bidding transactions of supply and end-use air conditioning resources communicating with a real-time, 5 minute market to balance the various needs of the participants on a distribution feeder. The nature of the demonstration, the value streams being explored, and the operational scenarios implemented to characterize the system response are summarized along with preliminary findings.

  17. Smart Grid Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Craig; Carroll, Paul; Bell, Abigail

    2015-03-11

    The National Rural Electric Cooperative Association (NRECA) organized the NRECA-U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Smart Grid Demonstration Project (DE-OE0000222) to install and study a broad range of advanced smart grid technologies in a demonstration that spanned 23 electric cooperatives in 12 states. More than 205,444 pieces of electronic equipment and more than 100,000 minor items (bracket, labels, mounting hardware, fiber optic cable, etc.) were installed to upgrade and enhance the efficiency, reliability, and resiliency of the power networks at the participating co-ops. The objective of this project was to build a path for other electric utilities, and particularly electrical cooperatives, to adopt emerging smart grid technology when it can improve utility operations, thus advancing the co-ops’ familiarity and comfort with such technology. Specifically, the project executed multiple subprojects employing a range of emerging smart grid technologies to test their cost-effectiveness and, where the technology demonstrated value, provided case studies that will enable other electric utilities—particularly electric cooperatives— to use these technologies. NRECA structured the project according to the following three areas: Demonstration of smart grid technology; Advancement of standards to enable the interoperability of components; and Improvement of grid cyber security. We termed these three areas Technology Deployment Study, Interoperability, and Cyber Security. Although the deployment of technology and studying the demonstration projects at coops accounted for the largest portion of the project budget by far, we see our accomplishments in each of the areas as critical to advancing the smart grid. All project deliverables have been published. Technology Deployment Study: The deliverable was a set of 11 single-topic technical reports in areas related to the listed technologies. Each of these reports has already been submitted to DOE, distributed to co-ops, and

  18. Mitochondria, maternal inheritance, and male aging.

    PubMed

    Camus, M Florencia; Clancy, David J; Dowling, Damian K

    2012-09-25

    The maternal transmission of mitochondrial genomes invokes a sex-specific selective sieve, whereby mutations in mitochondrial DNA can only respond to selection acting directly on females. In theory, this enables male-harming mutations to accumulate in mitochondrial genomes when these same mutations are neutral, beneficial, or only slightly deleterious in their effects on females. Ultimately, this evolutionary process could result in the evolution of male-specific mitochondrial mutation loads; an idea previously termed Mother's Curse. Here, we present evidence that the effects of this process are broader than hitherto realized, and that it has resulted in mutation loads affecting patterns of aging in male, but not female Drosophila melanogaster. Furthermore, our results indicate that the mitochondrial mutation loads affecting male aging generally comprise numerous mutations over multiple sites. Our findings thus suggest that males are subject to dramatic consequences that result from the maternal transmission of mitochondrial genomes. They implicate the diminutive mitochondrial genome as a hotspot for mutations that affect sex-specific patterns of aging, thus promoting the idea that a sex-specific selective sieve in mitochondrial genome evolution is a contributing factor to sexual dimorphism in aging, commonly observed across species.

  19. A neo-W chromosome in a tropical butterfly links colour pattern, male-killing, and speciation

    PubMed Central

    Smith, David A. S.; Gordon, Ian J.; Traut, Walther; Herren, Jeremy; Collins, Steve; Martins, Dino J.; Saitoti, Kennedy; Ireri, Piera

    2016-01-01

    Sexually antagonistic selection can drive both the evolution of sex chromosomes and speciation itself. The tropical butterfly the African Queen, Danaus chrysippus, shows two such sexually antagonistic phenotypes, the first being sex-linked colour pattern, the second, susceptibility to a male-killing, maternally inherited mollicute, Spiroplasma ixodeti, which causes approximately 100% mortality in male eggs and first instar larvae. Importantly, this mortality is not affected by the infection status of the male parent and the horizontal transmission of Spiroplasma is unknown. In East Africa, male-killing of the Queen is prevalent in a narrow hybrid zone centred on Nairobi. This hybrid zone separates otherwise allopatric subspecies with different colour patterns. Here we show that a neo-W chromosome, a fusion between the W (female) chromosome and an autosome that controls both colour pattern and male-killing, links the two phenotypes thereby driving speciation across the hybrid zone. Studies of the population genetics of the neo-W around Nairobi show that the interaction between colour pattern and male-killer susceptibility restricts gene flow between two subspecies of D. chrysippus. Our results demonstrate how a complex interplay between sex, colour pattern, male-killing, and a neo-W chromosome, has set up a genetic ‘sink' that keeps the two subspecies apart. The association between the neo-W and male-killing thus provides a ‘smoking gun' for an ongoing speciation process. PMID:27440667

  20. A neo-W chromosome in a tropical butterfly links colour pattern, male-killing, and speciation.

    PubMed

    Smith, David A S; Gordon, Ian J; Traut, Walther; Herren, Jeremy; Collins, Steve; Martins, Dino J; Saitoti, Kennedy; Ireri, Piera; Ffrench-Constant, Richard

    2016-07-27

    Sexually antagonistic selection can drive both the evolution of sex chromosomes and speciation itself. The tropical butterfly the African Queen, Danaus chrysippus, shows two such sexually antagonistic phenotypes, the first being sex-linked colour pattern, the second, susceptibility to a male-killing, maternally inherited mollicute, Spiroplasma ixodeti, which causes approximately 100% mortality in male eggs and first instar larvae. Importantly, this mortality is not affected by the infection status of the male parent and the horizontal transmission of Spiroplasma is unknown. In East Africa, male-killing of the Queen is prevalent in a narrow hybrid zone centred on Nairobi. This hybrid zone separates otherwise allopatric subspecies with different colour patterns. Here we show that a neo-W chromosome, a fusion between the W (female) chromosome and an autosome that controls both colour pattern and male-killing, links the two phenotypes thereby driving speciation across the hybrid zone. Studies of the population genetics of the neo-W around Nairobi show that the interaction between colour pattern and male-killer susceptibility restricts gene flow between two subspecies of D. chrysippus Our results demonstrate how a complex interplay between sex, colour pattern, male-killing, and a neo-W chromosome, has set up a genetic 'sink' that keeps the two subspecies apart. The association between the neo-W and male-killing thus provides a 'smoking gun' for an ongoing speciation process.