Science.gov

Sample records for affected male demonstration

  1. Manifestations of X-linked congenital stationary night blindness in three daughters of an affected male: Demonstration of homozygosity

    SciTech Connect

    Bech-Hansen, N.T. Univ. of Calgary, Alberta ); Pearce, W.G. )

    1993-01-01

    X-linked congenital stationary night blindness (CSNB1) is a hereditary retinal disorder in which clinical features in affected males usually include myopia, nystagmus, and impaired visual acuity. Electroretinography demonstrates a marked reduction in b-wave amplitude. In the study of a large Mennonite family with CSNB1, three of five sisters in one sibship were found to have manifestations of CSNB1. All the sons of these three sisters were affected. Each of the two nonmanifesting sisters had at least one unaffected son. Analysis of Xp markers in the region Xp21.1-Xp11.22 showed that the two sisters who were unaffected had inherited the same maternal X chromosome (i.e., M2). Two of the daughters who manifested with CSNB had inherited the other maternal X chromosome (M1). The third manifesting sister inherited a recombinant X chromosome with a crossover between TIMP and DXS255, which suggests that the CSNB1 locus lies proximal to TIMP. One of the affected daughters' sons had inherited the maternal M1 X chromosome, a finding consistent with that chromosome carrying a mutant CSNB gene; the other affected sons inherited the grandfather's X chromosome (i.e., P). Molecular analysis of DNA from three sisters with manifestations of CSNB is consistent with their being homozygous at the CSNB1 locus and with their mother being a carrier of CSNB1. 23 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Assessment of environmental factors affecting male fertility

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, R. L.; Sherins, R. J.; Lee, I. P.

    1979-01-01

    Exposure to drinking water containing as much as 500 ppm aluminum chloride for periods of 30, 60, and 90 days had no apparent effect on male reproductive processes. In an attempt to correlate enzyme activity with particular spermatogenic cell types, postnatal development of testicular enzymes was studied. Eight enzymes were selected: hyaluronidase (H), lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme-X (LDH-X), dehydrogenases of sorbitol (SDH), α-glycerophosphate (GPDH), glucose-6-phosphate (G6PDH), malate (MDH), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G3PDH), and isocitrate (ICDH). Enzyme specific activities in testicular homogenates were determined. Two types of enzyme developmental patterns were observed. One was represented by H, LDH-X, SDH, and GPDH; and the other by G6PDH, MDH, G3PDH, and ICDH. The former was characterized by a change in enzyme activities from low in newborn to high in adult while in the latter this pattern was reversed. The two complementary enzyme systems crossed each other at puberty. Prior to puberty, only spermatogonial cells are present; sperm differentiation initiated at puberty adds spermatocytes and spermatids to the testicular cell population. Male rats were exposed to borax in their diet for periods of 30 and 60 days. Concentrations of boron were 0, 500, 1000, and 2000 ppm. At the end of each experimental period, the specific activities of the selected enzymes were determined in the testis and prostate. Correlations of enzyme activity with testicular histology and androgen activities of the male accessory organs were sought. In addition, plasma FSH, LH, and testosterone levels were measured to assess pituitary-testicular interaction. Plasma and testicular boron concentrations were determined and a minimum boron concentration which induced germinal aplasia and male infertility was estimated. In both 30 and 60 day feeding studies, male rats receiving 500 ppm failed to demonstrate any significant adverse effects. In contrast, male rats receiving 100 and 2000 ppm

  3. Experimental demonstration of possible cryptic female choice on male tsetse fly genitalia.

    PubMed

    Briceño, R D; Eberhard, W G

    2009-11-01

    A possible explanation for one of the most general trends in animal evolution - rapid divergent evolution of animal genitalia - is that male genitalia are used as courtship devices that influence cryptic female choice. But experimental demonstrations of stimulatory effects of male genitalia on female reproductive processes have generally been lacking. Previous studies of female reproductive physiology in the tsetse fly Glossina morsitans suggested that stimulation during copulation triggers ovulation and resistance to remating. In this study we altered the form of two male genital structures that squeeze the female's abdomen rhythmically in G. morsitans centralis and induced, as predicted, cryptic female choice against the male: sperm storage decreased, while female remating increased. Further experiments in which we altered the female sensory abilities at the site contacted by these male structures during copulation, and severely altered or eliminated the stimuli the male received from this portion of his genitalia, suggested that the effects of genital alteration on sperm storage were due to changes in tactile stimuli received by the female, rather than altered male behavior. These data support the hypothesis that sexual selection by cryptic female choice has been responsible for the rapid divergent evolution of male genitalia in Glossina; limitations of this support are discussed. It appears that a complex combination of stimuli trigger female ovulation, sperm storage, and remating, and different stimuli affect different processes in G. morsitans, and that the same processes are controlled differently in G. pallidipes. This puzzling diversity in female triggering mechanisms may be due to the action of sexual selection.

  4. Factors affecting the reproductive success of dominant male meerkats.

    PubMed

    Spong, Göran F; Hodge, Sarah J; Young, Andrew J; Clutton-Brock, Tim H

    2008-05-01

    Identifying traits that affect the reproductive success of individuals is fundamental for our understanding of evolutionary processes. In cooperative breeders, a dominant male typically restricts mating access to the dominant female for extended periods, resulting in pronounced variation in reproductive success among males. This may result in strong selection for traits that increase the likelihood of dominance acquisition, dominance retention and reproductive rates while dominant. However, despite considerable research on reproductive skew, few studies have explored the factors that influence these three processes among males in cooperative species. Here we use genetic, behavioural and demographic data to investigate the factors affecting reproductive success in dominant male meerkats (Suricata suricatta). Our data show that dominant males sire the majority of all offspring surviving to 1 year. A male's likelihood of becoming dominant is strongly influenced by age, but not by weight. Tenure length and reproductive rate, both important components of dominant male reproductive success, are largely affected by group size and composition, rather than individual traits. Dominant males in large groups have longer tenures, but after this effect is controlled, male tenure length also correlates negatively to the number of adult females in the group. Male reproductive rate also declines as the number of intra- and extra-group competitors increases. As the time spent in the dominant position and reproductive rate while dominant explain > 80% of the total variance in reproductive success, group composition thus has major implications for male reproductive success.

  5. Male rats that differ in novelty exploration demonstrate distinct patterns of sexual behavior

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, Jennifer A.; Clinton, Sarah M.; Perry, Adam N.; Akil, Huda; Becker, Jill B.

    2014-01-01

    High versus low novelty exploration predicts a variety of behavioral differences. For example, rats selectively-bred for high novelty exploration (bred High Responders, bHR) exhibit exaggerated aggression, impulsivity, and proclivity to addictive behaviors compared to low novelty-reactive rats (bred Low Responders, bLRs), which are characterized by a high anxiety/depressive-like phenotype. Since bHR/bLR rats exhibit differences in dopaminergic circuitry and differential response to rewarding stimuli (i.e., psychostimulants, food), the present study examined whether they also differ in another key hedonic behavior – sex. Thus, adult bHR/bLR males were given five 30-min opportunities to engage in sexual activity with a receptive female. Sexual behavior and motivation were examined and compared between the groups. The bHR/bLR phenotype affected both sexual motivation and behavior, with bLR males demonstrating reduced motivation for sex compared with bHR males (i.e., fewer animals copulated, longer latency to engage in sex). The bHR males required more intromissions at a faster pace per ejaculation than did bLR males. Thus, neurobiological differences that affect motivation for drugs of abuse, aggression, and impulsivity in rats also affect sexual motivation and performance. PMID:23398441

  6. The Impact of Induced Positive Affect on Incarcerated Males' Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, Tanis; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Incarcerated adolescent males (n=62) with high and low depression scores were assigned to a positive or neutral affect induction condition. Following affect induction, subjects participated in tasks involving learning to read Hindi words. Results showed a main effect for self-induced positive affect on learning but no main effect for depression…

  7. Sneaker Males Affect Fighter Male Body Size and Sexual Size Dimorphism in Salmon.

    PubMed

    Weir, Laura K; Kindsvater, Holly K; Young, Kyle A; Reynolds, John D

    2016-08-01

    Large male body size is typically favored by directional sexual selection through competition for mates. However, alternative male life-history phenotypes, such as "sneakers," should decrease the strength of sexual selection acting on body size of large "fighter" males. We tested this prediction with salmon species; in southern populations, where sneakers are common, fighter males should be smaller than in northern populations, where sneakers are rare, leading to geographical clines in sexual size dimorphism (SSD). Consistent with our prediction, fighter male body size and SSD (fighter male∶female size) increase with latitude in species with sneaker males (Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and masu salmon Oncorhynchus masou) but not in species without sneakers (chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta and pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha). This is the first evidence that sneaker males affect SSD across populations and species, and it suggests that alternative male mating strategies may shape the evolution of body size.

  8. Immune challenge affects sexual coloration of male Iberian wall lizards.

    PubMed

    López, Pilar; Gabirot, Marianne; Martín, José

    2009-02-01

    Sexual signals can be evolutionarily stable if they are honest and condition dependent or costly to the signaler. One possible cost is the existence of a trade-off between maintaining the immune system and the elaboration of ornaments. We experimentally challenged the immune system of male Iberian wall lizards, Podarcis hispanica, with a bacterial antigen (lipopolysaccharide) without pathogenic effects to explore whether the immune activation affected sexually dimorphic visual ornaments. Ventrolateral coloration changed in all males, but immune activation affected some characteristics of coloration of experimental males (i.e., challenged males failed to increase brightness and medium wavelengths over time as control males did, and the proportion of yellow pigments decreased after the immune activation) but not others (i.e., proportion of blue, green and red pigments changed equally in all males). Results suggested the existence of a trade-off between physiological regulation of the immune system and the allocation of essential compounds (probably carotenoids) to sexual ornaments. We suggest that this trade-off may allow one to honestly signal individual male quality via characteristics of coloration in lizards, which may have an important role in both intra- and intersexual selection processes.

  9. Male inbreeding status affects female fitness in a seed-feeding beetle.

    PubMed

    Fox, Charles W; Xu, J; Wallin, W G; Curtis, C L

    2012-01-01

    Inbreeding generally reduces male mating activity such that inbred males are less successful in male-male competition. Inbred males can also have smaller accessory glands, transfer less sperm and produce sperm that are less motile, less viable or have a greater frequency of abnormalities, all of which can reduce the fertilization success and fitness of inbred males relative to outbred males. However, few studies have examined how male inbreeding status affects the fitness of females with whom they mate. In this study, we examine the effect of male inbreeding status (inbreeding coefficient f = 0.25 vs. f = 0) on the fecundity, adult longevity and the fate of eggs produced by outbred females in the seed-feeding beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus. Females mated to inbred males were less likely to lay eggs. Of those that laid eggs, females mated to inbred males laid 6-12% fewer eggs. Females mated to inbred males lived on average 5.4% longer than did females mated to outbred males, but this effect disappeared when lifetime fecundity was used as a covariate in the analysis. There was no effect of male inbreeding status on the proportion of a female's eggs that developed or hatched, and no evidence that inbred males produced smaller nuptial gifts. However, ejaculates of inbred males contained 17-33% fewer sperm, on average, than did ejaculates of outbred males. Our study demonstrates that mating with inbred males has significant direct consequences for the fitness of female C. maculatus, likely mediated by effects of inbreeding status on the number of sperm in male ejaculates. Direct effects of male inbreeding status on female fitness should be more widely considered in theoretical models and empirical studies of mate choice.

  10. Does testosterone affect foraging behavior in male frogs?

    PubMed

    Desprat, Julia L; Mondy, Nathalie; Lengagne, Thierry

    2017-02-19

    During the breeding season, males often produce costly and extravagant displays or physical ornaments to attract females. Numerous studies have established that testosterone could directly influence the expression of certain sexual signals. However, few of these studies have focused on the indirect role that testosterone could play in modulating prey detection and visual performance to improve the foraging ability of males and hence their acquisition of nutritional resource. In the present study, we experimentally modified the testosterone levels of European tree frog males (Hyla arborea), staying in the natural range previously measured in the field, and we investigated the effect of testosterone on the foraging ability of individuals. Foraging capacities were measured on males placed in an arena with a virtual cricket moving on a computer screen. Our results demonstrated a significant effect of testosterone on the hunting behavior of H. arborea. We observed that testosterone reduced the orientation latency to virtual prey for supplemented males compared to controls. In addition, testosterone significantly increased the attack promptness of male frogs. Finally, our experiment did not demonstrate any impact of testosterone on male attack success.

  11. X-chromosome dosage affects male sexual behavior

    PubMed Central

    Bonthuis, Paul J.; Cox, Kimberly H.; Rissman, Emilie F.

    2012-01-01

    Sex differences in the brain and behavior are primarily attributed to dichotomous androgen exposure between males and females during neonatal development, as well as adult responses to gonadal hormones. Here we tested an alternative hypothesis and asked if sex chromosome complement influences male copulatory behavior, a standard behavior for studies of sexual differentiation. We used two mouse models with non-canonical associations between chromosomal and gonadal sex. In both models, we found evidence for sex chromosome complement as an important factor regulating sex differences in the expression of masculine sexual behavior. Counter intuitively, males with two X-chromosomes were faster to ejaculate and display more ejaculations than males with a single X. Moreover, mice of both sexes with two X-chromosomes displayed increased frequencies of mounts and thrusts. We speculate that expression levels of a yet to be discovered gene(s) on the X-chromosome may affect sexual behavior in mice and perhaps in other mammals. PMID:22349083

  12. An Autistic Male Presenting Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) and Trichotillomania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurita, Hiroshi; Nakayasu, Nobuo

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a case report of a young adult Japanese male with infantile autism who also met diagnostic criteria for seasonal affective disorder and trichotillomania (compulsive hair pulling). The case report deals with difficulties in diagnosing mood disorder in such individuals, potential treatment effectiveness of valproic acid, and…

  13. Juvenile hormone agonists affect the occurrence of male Daphnia.

    PubMed

    Tatarazako, Norihisa; Oda, Shigeto; Watanabe, Hajime; Morita, Masatoshi; Iguchi, Taisen

    2003-12-01

    The water flea Daphnia magna reproduces primarily by cyclic parthenogenesis. Environmental stimuli that signal a change to adverse conditions induce the organisms to switch from parthenogenesis to gamogenetic reproduction. During the gamogenetic period, they produce male daphnids and dormant resting eggs, which can survive prolonged periods of environmental adversity. However, little is known about the mechanisms associated with the switch from parthenogenesis to gamogenetic reproduction. We investigated the effects of several juvenoids on sex determination in Daphnia. Females less than 24 h old were exposed to various concentrations of the test substance and were observed for 21 days. It was found that they can trigger the appearance of male daphnids: the percentage of males in the population increases to a level greater than what occurs under ordinary environmental conditions. We found that methylfarnesoate, juvenile hormone III, methoprene, and the phenoxyphenoxy derivatives pyriproxyfen and fenoxycarb (both insecticides) reduced the production of offspring and produced sex ratios dominated by male daphnids. Pyriproxyfen and fenoxycarb showed striking effects at low concentrations. Exposure to either of these chemicals at a concentration of 330 ngl(-1) caused adult females to produce almost all male neonates. Methylfarnesoate, juvenile hormone III, and methoprene showed an effect in inducing male production at higher concentrations (3.7 x 10(3), 3.3 x 10(5), and 1.3 x 10(5) ngl(-1), respectively). Our findings suggest that juvenile hormone agonists, including some insecticides, affect the chemical signaling responsible for inducing the production of male offspring.

  14. Sperm DNA fragmentation affects epigenetic feature in human male pronucleus.

    PubMed

    Rajabi, H; Mohseni-Kouchesfehani, H; Eslami-Arshaghi, T; Salehi, M

    2017-03-06

    To evaluate whether the sperm DNA fragmentation affects male pronucleus epigenetic factors, semen analysis was performed and DNA fragmentation was assessed by the method of sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA). Human-mouse interspecies fertilisation was used to create human male pronucleus. Male pronucleus DNA methylation and H4K12 acetylation were evaluated by immunostaining. Results showed a significant positive correlation between the level of sperm DNA fragmentation and DNA methylation in male pronuclei. In other words, an increase in DNA damage caused an upsurge in DNA methylation. In the case of H4K12 acetylation, no correlation was detected between DNA damage and the level of histone acetylation in the normal group, but results for the group in which male pronuclei were derived from sperm cells with DNA fragmentation, increased DNA damage led to a decreased acetylation level. Sperm DNA fragmentation interferes with the active demethylation process and disrupts the insertion of histones into the male chromatin in the male pronucleus, following fertilisation. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Interactions with heterospecific males do not affect how female Mesocricetus hamsters respond to conspecific males

    PubMed Central

    delBarco-Trillo, Javier; Johnston, Robert E.

    2012-01-01

    Reproductive interference includes any interspecific interaction that reduces the fitness of one or both species involved. There are several types of reproductive interference, but they normally involve the direct cost of interacting or mating with heterospecifics. An indirect cost of interacting with heterospecific individuals is a consequent reduction in successful interactions with conspecifics. We tested the hypothesis that being aggressive towards a heterospecific individual will diminish sexual responses towards conspecifics in later encounters. We used two species of Mesocricetus hamsters (Syrian and Turkish hamsters), whose interspecific interactions have previously been determined. We exposed or both exposed and paired Syrian hamster females with a conspecific or a heterospecific male. Five minutes later, we paired all females with a conspecific male and measured the latency to lordosis, the duration of lordosis and any incidence of aggression. We found that (1) interactions with heterospecific males did not affect how females responded to conspecific males in later encounters and (2) previous pairing of female subjects with either conspecific or heterospecific males promoted a faster sexual response by females in subsequent interactions with conspecific males. Thus, aggressive interactions of Syrian hamster females with heterospecific males, contrary to our initial hypothesis, had a positive effect on subsequent interactions with conspecific males. PMID:23439800

  16. [Fluorosis of coal burning affects the male reproductive system].

    PubMed

    Li, Jun-Feng; Feng, Jin; Xiao, Yue-Hai; Sun, Fa

    2014-01-01

    Fluorosis of coal burning is a new type of endemic fluorosis in China, which affects the male reproductive system. Furthermore, the content of fluoride in the semen, sperm mortality, sperm concentration and the incidence of infertility are higher in severe fluorosis areas than in mild- and non-fluorosis areas, so are the levels of serum follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone. However, the levels of inhibin B, serum testosterone and estradiol show different degrees of reduction in severe fluorosis areas. Accordingly, fluorosis of coal burning, just like other endemic fluorosis, may affect the structure of male reproductive organs, the generation of sperm and reproductive endocrinology, resulting in the decline of men's reproductive ability.

  17. Chemosterilization of male sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) does not affect sex pheromone release

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Siefkes, Michael J.; Bergstedt, Roger A.; Twohey, Michael B.; Li, Weiming

    2003-01-01

    Release of males sterilized by injection with bisazir is an important experimental technique in management of sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), an invasive, nuisance species in the Laurentian Great Lakes. Sea lampreys are semelparous and sterilization can theoretically eliminate a male's reproductive capacity and, if the ability to obtain mates is not affected, waste the sex products of females spawning with him. It has been demonstrated that spermiating males release a sex pheromone that attracts ovulating females. We demonstrated that sterilized, spermiating males also released the pheromone and attracted ovulating females. In a two-choice maze, ovulating females increased searching behavior and spent more time in the side of the maze containing chemical stimuli from sterilized, spermiating males. This attraction response was also observed in spawning stream experiments. Also, electro-olfactograms showed that female olfactory organs were equally sensitive to chemical stimuli from sterilized and nonsterilized, spermiating males. Finally, fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry showed that extracts from water conditioned with sterilized and nonsterilized, spermiating males contained the same pheromonal molecule at similar levels. We concluded that injection of bisazir did not affect the efficacy of sex pheromone in sterilized males.

  18. Relative Age Affects Marathon Performance in Male and Female Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Connick, Mark J.; Beckman, Emma M.; Tweedy, Sean M.

    2015-01-01

    Marathon runners are ranked in 5-year age groups. However the extent to which 5-year groupings facilitates equitable competition has not been evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of relative age in male and female marathon running. Marathon finishing times for the top ten male (aged 20-69 years) and female athletes (aged 20-64 years) were obtained from the 2013 New York and Chicago marathons. Intra-class and inter-class validity were evaluated by comparing performances within (intra-class) and between (inter-class) the 5-year age groups. Results showed intra-class effects in all male age groups over 50 years, in all female age groups over 40 years, and in male and female 20-24 age groups (p < 0.05). Inter-class differences existed between the 20-24 and 25-29 age groups in both males and females, between all male age groups over 50 years, and between all female age groups over 40 years (p < 0.05). This study provided the first evaluation of the effects of relative age in male and female marathon running. The results provide preliminary but compelling evidence that the relatively older male athletes in age groups over 50 years and the relatively older females in age groups over 40 years are competitively disadvantaged compared to the younger athletes in these age groups. Key points Results showed a curvilinear relationship between age and marathon running performance with the negative effect of age becoming more pronounced in older runners. Relative age effects were found in all age groups over age 50 years in males and over age 40 years in females indicating that the relatively older runners were competitively disadvantaged compared to the relatively younger runners in these age groups. Relative age affected the 20-24 age classification which is consistent with the hypothesis that marathon performance improves until peak performance occurs in the 25-29 age classification. PMID:26336355

  19. Relative Age Affects Marathon Performance in Male and Female Athletes.

    PubMed

    Connick, Mark J; Beckman, Emma M; Tweedy, Sean M

    2015-09-01

    Marathon runners are ranked in 5-year age groups. However the extent to which 5-year groupings facilitates equitable competition has not been evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of relative age in male and female marathon running. Marathon finishing times for the top ten male (aged 20-69 years) and female athletes (aged 20-64 years) were obtained from the 2013 New York and Chicago marathons. Intra-class and inter-class validity were evaluated by comparing performances within (intra-class) and between (inter-class) the 5-year age groups. Results showed intra-class effects in all male age groups over 50 years, in all female age groups over 40 years, and in male and female 20-24 age groups (p < 0.05). Inter-class differences existed between the 20-24 and 25-29 age groups in both males and females, between all male age groups over 50 years, and between all female age groups over 40 years (p < 0.05). This study provided the first evaluation of the effects of relative age in male and female marathon running. The results provide preliminary but compelling evidence that the relatively older male athletes in age groups over 50 years and the relatively older females in age groups over 40 years are competitively disadvantaged compared to the younger athletes in these age groups. Key pointsResults showed a curvilinear relationship between age and marathon running performance with the negative effect of age becoming more pronounced in older runners.Relative age effects were found in all age groups over age 50 years in males and over age 40 years in females indicating that the relatively older runners were competitively disadvantaged compared to the relatively younger runners in these age groups.Relative age affected the 20-24 age classification which is consistent with the hypothesis that marathon performance improves until peak performance occurs in the 25-29 age classification.

  20. X-chromosome dosage affects male sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Bonthuis, Paul J; Cox, Kimberly H; Rissman, Emilie F

    2012-04-01

    Sex differences in the brain and behavior are primarily attributed to dichotomous androgen exposure between males and females during neonatal development, as well as adult responses to gonadal hormones. Here we tested an alternative hypothesis and asked if sex chromosome complement influences male copulatory behavior, a standard behavior for studies of sexual differentiation. We used two mouse models with non-canonical associations between chromosomal and gonadal sex. In both models, we found evidence for sex chromosome complement as an important factor regulating sex differences in the expression of masculine sexual behavior. Counter intuitively, males with two X-chromosomes were faster to ejaculate and display more ejaculations than males with a single X. Moreover, mice of both sexes with two X-chromosomes displayed increased frequencies of mounts and thrusts. We speculate that expression levels of a yet to be discovered gene(s) on the X-chromosome may affect sexual behavior in mice and perhaps in other mammals. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Does furan affect the thymus in growing male rats?

    PubMed

    Koçkaya, E Arzu; Kılıç, Aysun; Karacaoğlu, Elif; Selmanoğlu, Güldeniz

    2012-07-01

    Furan has been identified in foods such as heat-treated foods, including coffee, canned meat, hazelnuts, and infant foods and formulas. Children may be exposed to furan via either consumption of these foods or their derivatives. We evaluated the effects of furan on the thymus of weaning male rats in the present study. Five separate groups containing male rats were used: control, oil control, and three furan-treated groups. Furan was given orally to rats in the treatment groups at doses of 2, 4, and 8 mg/kg/day for 90 days. At the end of the experiment, thymus of the rats were examined morphologically, histopathologically, and immunohistochemically. We observed that absolute and relative weights of thymus were decreased significantly in rats treated with 4- and 8-mg/kg/day doses of furan. In histopathological examination, enlargement of interstitial connective tissue between the thymic lobules, lymphocyte depletion, and hemorrhage were observed. We detected an increase in apoptotic cell counts in thymus of the treatment groups. In addition, we found significant differences in the distribution of fibronectin and transforming growth factor-beta in the thymus of the treatment groups. In conclusion, we suggest that furan has affected the thymus in growing male rats.

  2. Periconceptional Undernutrition in Sheep Affects Adult Phenotype Only in Males

    PubMed Central

    Jaquiery, Anne L.; Oliver, Mark H.; Honeyfield-Ross, Maggie; Harding, Jane E.; Bloomfield, Frank H.

    2012-01-01

    Periconceptional undernutrition (PCUN) in sheep alters fetal growth and metabolism and postnatal growth regulation, but effects on adult body composition are unknown. We investigated the effects of PCUN on adult phenotype. Singleton lambs of ewes fed normally (N, n = 17) or undernourished before (UN-61-0 d, n = 23), before and after (UN-61-30 d, n = 19), or after (UN-2-30d, n = 17) mating (d0) were weighed at birth, 12 weeks, and intermittently to adulthood. At the age of 3-4 years, body composition was assessed by dual-emission X-ray absorptiometry followed by postmortem examination. Compared with N animals, male, but not female, offspring of all UN groups had greater % fat mass (all UN versus N: 9 ± 1 versus 2 ± 1%, P < 0.001) and perirenal fat (544 ± 36 versus 222 ± 44 g, P = 0.002), and proportionately smaller hearts (4.5 ± 0.1 versus 5.2 ± 0.2 g·kg−1), lungs (9.1 ± 0.2 versus 10.6 ± 0.5 g·kg−1), and adrenals (0.06 ± 0.002 versus 0.08 ± 0.003 g·kg−1). UN males also had larger testes (726 ± 21 versus 545 ± 32 g, P = 0.007), but UN females had smaller ovaries (2.7 ± 0.08 versus 3.4 ± 0.4 g, P = 0.01). Changes were independent of birth weight or postnatal growth velocity. Brief PCUN has sex-specific effects on adult phenotype, predominantly affecting males, which may contribute to adverse metabolic outcomes. PMID:23091706

  3. Social adjustment in adult males affected with progressive muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Eggers, S; Zatz, M

    1998-02-07

    Adult male patients affected with Becker (BMD, N = 22), limb girdle (LGMD, N = 22) and facioscapulohumeral (FSHMD, N = 18) muscular dystrophy were interviewed to assess for the first time how the disease's severity and recurrence risk (RR) magnitude alter their social adjustment. BMD (X-linked recessive) is the severest form and confers an intermediate RR because all daughters will be carriers, LGMD (autosomal-recessive) is moderately severe with a low RR in the absence of consanguineous marriage, and FSHMD (autosomal-dominant) is clinically the mildest of these three forms of MD but with the highest RR, of 50%. Results of the semistructured questionnaire [WHO (1988): Psychiatric Disability Assessment Schedule] showed no significant difference between the three clinical groups, but more severely handicapped patients as well as patients belonging to lower socioeconomic levels from all clinical groups showed poorer social adjustment. Taken together, myopathic patients displayed intermediate social dysfunction compared to controls and schizophrenics studied by Jablensky [1988: WHO Psychiatric Disability Assessment Schedule]. Since the items of major dysfunction proportion among myopathic patients concern intimate relationships (70%), interest in working among those unemployed (67%), and social isolation (53%), emotional support and social and legal assistance should concentrate on these aspects. Interestingly, the results of this study also suggest that high RRs do not affect relationships to the opposite sex.

  4. Defense Acquisitions: Factors Affecting Outcomes of Advanced Concept Technology Demonstrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-12-01

    Since the ACTD (Advanced Concept Technology Demonstrations) program was started in 1994, a wide range of products have been tested by technology experts and military operators in realistic settings-from unmanned aerial vehicles, to friend-or-foe detection systems, to biological agent detection systems, to advanced simulation technology designed to enhance joint training. Many of these have successfully delivered new technologies to users. Though the majority of the projects that were examined, transitioned technologies to users, there are factors that hamper the ACTD process. For example: Technology has been too immature to be tested in a realistic setting, leading to cancellation of the demonstration. Military services and defense agencies have been reluctant to fund acquisition of ACTD-proven technologies, especially those focusing on joint requirements, because of competing priorities. ACTD's military utility may not have been assessed consistently. Some of the barriers identified can be addressed through efforts DOD (Department of Defense) now has underway, including an evaluation of how the ACTD process can be improved; adoption of criteria to be used to ensure technology is sufficiently mature; and placing of more attention on the end phase of the ACTD process. Other barriers, however, will be much more difficult to address in view of cultural resistance to joint initiatives and the requirements of DOD's planning and funding process.

  5. Male Syrian Hamsters Demonstrate a Conditioned Place Preference for Sexual Behavior and Female Chemosensory Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Margaret R.; Meerts, Sarah H.; Sisk, Cheryl L.

    2010-01-01

    Sexual behavior is a natural reward for many rodent species, and it often includes chemosensory-directed components. Chemosensory stimuli themselves may also be rewarding. Conditioned place preference (CPP) is one paradigm frequently used to test the rewarding properties of a range of stimuli. Males and females of several rodent species show a CPP for sexual behavior, however, it is currently unknown whether sexual behavior can induce a CPP in male Syrian hamsters. As male Syrian hamsters are an animal model commonly used for investigation of the neurobiology of sexual behavior, understanding the rewarding components of sexual stimuli will better direct future research on brain regions and neurotransmitters involved in these behaviors. Experiment 1 tested the prediction that male hamsters show a CPP for sexual behavior. Female chemosensory stimuli are essential for the display of sexual behavior in male hamsters, however, the rewarding properties of female chemosensory stimuli contained in vaginal secretions (VS) are uncertain. Therefore, Experiment 2 tested the prediction that male hamsters show a CPP for VS. This study is the first demonstration that both sexual behavior and VS induce a CPP in male hamsters. Thus, female chemosensory stimuli are a natural reward in a species that is dependent on these stimuli for reproductive fitness. PMID:20515693

  6. Male Syrian hamsters demonstrate a conditioned place preference for sexual behavior and female chemosensory stimuli.

    PubMed

    Bell, Margaret R; Meerts, Sarah H; Sisk, Cheryl L

    2010-08-01

    Sexual behavior is a natural reward for many rodent species, and it often includes chemosensory-directed components. Chemosensory stimuli themselves may also be rewarding. Conditioned place preference (CPP) is one paradigm frequently used to test the rewarding properties of a range of stimuli. Males and females of several rodent species show a CPP for sexual behavior; however, it is currently unknown whether sexual behavior can induce a CPP in male Syrian hamsters. As male Syrian hamsters are an animal model commonly used for investigation of the neurobiology of sexual behavior, understanding the rewarding components of sexual stimuli will better direct future research on brain regions and neurotransmitters involved in these behaviors. Experiment 1 tested the prediction that male hamsters show a CPP for sexual behavior. Female chemosensory stimuli are essential for the display of sexual behavior in male hamsters; however, the rewarding properties of female chemosensory stimuli contained in vaginal secretions (VS) are uncertain. Therefore, experiment 2 tested the prediction that male hamsters show a CPP for VS. This study is the first demonstration that both sexual behavior and VS induce a CPP in male hamsters. Thus, female chemosensory stimuli are a natural reward in a species that is dependent on these stimuli for reproductive fitness. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Knowing your audience affects male-male interactions in Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens).

    PubMed

    Bertucci, Frédéric; Matos, Ricardo J; Dabelsteen, Torben

    2014-03-01

    Aggressive interactions between animals often occur in the presence of third parties. By observing aggressive signalling interactions, bystanders may eavesdrop and gain relevant information about conspecifics without the costs of interacting. On the other hand, interactants may also adjust their behaviour when an audience is present. This study aimed to test how knowledge about fighting ability of an audience affects aggressive interactions in male Siamese fighting fish. Subjects were positioned between two dyads of non-interacting males and allowed to observe both dyads shortly before the view to one of the dyads was blocked, and the dyads were allowed to interact. Subjects were subsequently exposed to an unknown opponent in the presence of either the winner or the loser of the seen or unseen interaction. The results suggest a complex role of the characteristic of an audience in the agonistic behaviours of a subject engaged in an interaction. The presence of a seen audience elicited more aggressive displays towards the opponent if the audience was a loser. This response was different in the presence of an unseen audience. Subjects then directed a higher aggressiveness against their opponent if the audience was a winner. These results also suggest a potentially more complex and interesting process allowing individuals to gain information about the quality and threat level of an unknown audience while it is interacting with a third party. The importance of information acquisition for an individual to adapt its behaviour and the role of communication networks in shaping social interactions are discussed.

  8. Experimental enhancement of corticosterone levels positively affects subsequent male survival.

    PubMed

    Cote, J; Clobert, J; Meylan, S; Fitze, P S

    2006-03-01

    Corticosterone is an important hormone of the stress response that regulates physiological processes and modifies animal behavior. While it positively acts on locomotor activity, it may negatively affect reproduction and social activity. This suggests that corticosterone may promote behaviors that increase survival at the cost of reproduction. In this study, we experimentally investigate the link between corticosterone levels and survival in adult common lizards (Lacerta vivipara) by comparing corticosterone-treated with placebo-treated lizards. We experimentally show that corticosterone enhances energy expenditure, daily activity, food intake, and it modifies the behavioral time budget. Enhanced appetite of corticosterone-treated individuals compensated for increased energy expenditure and corticosterone-treated males showed increased survival. This suggests that corticosterone may promote behaviors that reduce stress and it shows that corticosterone per se does not reduce but directly or indirectly increases longer-term survival. This suggests that the production of corticosterone as a response to a stressor may be an adaptive mechanism that even controls survival.

  9. Cultural factors affecting urban Mexican male homosexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Carrier, J M

    1976-03-01

    Some aspects of the mestizoized urban culture in Mexico are linked to male homosexuality in support of the theory that cultural factors play an important role in the kind of life styles and sex practices of males involved in homosexual behavior. The following factors are considered relevant: the sharp dichotomization of gender roles, dual categorization of females as good or bad, separate social networks maintained by males before and after marriage, proportion of unmarried males, and distribution of income. One result of the sharp dichotomization of male and female gender roles is the widely held belief that effeminate males generally prefer to play the female role rather than the male. Effeminacy and homosexuality are also linked by the belief that as a result of this role preference effeminate males are sexually interested only in masculine males with whom they play the passive sex role. The participation of masculine males in homosexual encounters is related in part to a relatively high level of sexual awareness in combination with the lack of stigmatization of the insertor sex role and in part to the restraints placed on alternative sexual outlets by available income and/or marital status. Males involved in homosexual behavior in Mexico operate in a sociocultural environment which gives rise to expectations that they should play either the insertee or insertor sex role but not both and that they should obtain ultimate sexual satisfaction with anal intercourse rather than fellatio. In spite of cultural imperatives, however, individual preferences stemming from other variables such as personality needs, sexual gratification, desires of wanted partners, and amount of involvement may override the imperatives with resulting variations in sexual behavior patterns.

  10. Y-chromosomal genes affecting male fertility: A review

    PubMed Central

    Dhanoa, Jasdeep Kaur; Mukhopadhyay, Chandra Sekhar; Arora, Jaspreet Singh

    2016-01-01

    The mammalian sex-chromosomes (X and Y) have evolved from autosomes and are involved in sex determination and reproductive traits. The Y-chromosome is the smallest chromosome that consists of 2-3% of the haploid genome and may contain between 70 and 200 genes. The Y-chromosome plays major role in male fertility and is suitable to study the evolutionary relics, speciation, and male infertility and/or subfertility due to its unique features such as long non-recombining region, abundance of repetitive sequences, and holandric inheritance pattern. During evolution, many holandric genes were deleted. The current review discusses the mammalian holandric genes and their functions. The commonly encountered infertility and/or subfertility problems due to point or gross mutation (deletion) of the Y-chromosomal genes have also been discussed. For example, loss or microdeletion of sex-determining region, Y-linked gene results in XY males that exhibit female characteristics, deletion of RNA binding motif, Y-encoded in azoospermic factor b region results in the arrest of spermatogenesis at meiosis. The holandric genes have been covered for associating the mutations with male factor infertility. PMID:27536043

  11. Microwave exposure affecting reproductive system in male rats.

    PubMed

    Kesari, Kavindra Kumar; Behari, Jitendra

    2010-09-01

    The object of present study is to investigate the effects of 50 GHz microwave frequency electromagnetic fields on reproductive system of male rats. Male rats of Wistar strain were used in the study. Animals 60 days old were divided into two groups--group I sham exposed and group II experimental (microwave exposed). During exposure, rats were confined in Plexiglas cages with drilled ventilation holes for 2 h a day for 45 days continuously at a specified specific absorption rate of 8.0 x 10(-4) W/kg. After the last exposure, the rats were sacrificed immediately and sperms were collected. Antioxidant enzyme (superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase), histone kinase, apoptosis, and cell cycle were analyzed in sperm cells. Result shows a significant decrease in the level of sperm GPx and SOD activity (p < or = 0.05), whereas catalase shows significant increase in exposed group of sperm samples as compared with control (p < 0.02). We observed a statistically significant decrease in mean activity of histone kinase as compared to the control (p < 0.016). The percentage of cells dividing in a spermatogenesis was estimated by analyzing DNA per cell by flow cytometry. The percentage of apoptosis in electromagnetic field exposed group shows increased ratio as compared to sham exposed (p < 0.004). There were no significant differences in the G(0)/G(1) phase; however, a significant decrease (p < 0.026) in S phase was obtained. Results also indicate a decrease in percentage of G(2)/M transition phase of cell cycle in exposed group as compared to sham exposed (p < 0.019). We conclude that these radiations may have a significant effect on reproductive system of male rats, which may be an indication of male infertility.

  12. Female-to-Male Transsexual Individuals Demonstrate Different Own Body Identification.

    PubMed

    Feusner, Jamie D; Dervisic, Jasenko; Kosidou, Kyriaki; Dhejne, Cecilia; Bookheimer, Susan; Savic, Ivanka

    2016-04-01

    Transsexualism is characterized by feelings of incongruity between one's natal sex and one's gender identity. It is unclear whether transsexual individuals have a body image that is more congruent with their gender identity than their sex assigned at birth (natal sex) and, if so, whether there are contributions from perceptual dysfunctions. We compared 16 pre-hormone treatment female-to-male transsexual (FtM) individuals to 20 heterosexual female and 20 heterosexual male controls on a visual identification task. Participants viewed photographs of their own body that were morphed by different degrees to bodies of other females or males, and were instructed to rate "To what degree is this picture you?" We also tested global vs. local visual processing using the inverted faces task. FtM differed from both control groups in demonstrating higher self-identification ratings for bodies morphed to the sex congruent with their gender identity, and across a broad range of morph percentages. This difference was more pronounced for longer viewing durations. FtM showed reduced accuracy for upright faces compared with female controls for short duration stimuli, but no advantage for inverted faces. These results suggest different own body identification in FtM, consisting of a relatively diffuse identification with body images congruent with their gender identity. This is more likely accounted for by conscious, cognitive factors than perceptual differences.

  13. Some Affects of Women's Rights Demonstrations Upon Attitudes of Nonfeminist Mormons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franck, Loren; Carlson, Stephen D.

    Forty-nine introductory psychology students (28 female, 21 male) at the Mormon Church's Brigham Young University in Utah were tested to determine the effects of a pro-feminist, pro-Equal Rights Amendment demonstration by the Utah Women's Rights Movement on attitudes toward the women's movement, civil demonstrations, and Mormon Church leaders.…

  14. Observer effects on the rating of perceived exertion and affect during exercise in recreationally active males.

    PubMed

    Winchester, Rachel; Turner, Louise A; Thomas, Kevin; Ansley, Les; Thompson, Kevin G; Micklewright, Dominic; St Clair Gibson, Alan

    2012-08-01

    This study examined the effect of introducing either a male or female observer on the ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and affect of male runners during a moderate intensity running task. 10 moderately active men completed three 20-min. moderate intensity running trials at 60% of their peak treadmill running speed. Each participant completed three trials in random order: control, male-observed, and female-observed, where either the male or female observer joined the trial after 10 min. of the trial had elapsed, during which RPE and affect were monitored. The introduction of a female observer caused a significant decrease in RPE, whereas the introduction of a male observer caused a significant increase in RPE compared to the control trial. Affect was higher in the presence of both a male and female observer compared to control. It was concluded that there is a social, interpersonal, psychological dimension to RPE during exercise.

  15. Mass Rearing History and Irradiation Affect Mating Performance of the Male Fruit Fly, Anastrepha obliqua

    PubMed Central

    Rull, Juan; Encarnación, Nery; Birke, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    As an initial step to improve the efficiency of the sterile insect technique applied to eradicate, suppress, and control wild Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in mango producing areas of Mexico, the effect of radiation dose and mass rearing history on male mating performance was examined. Field cage tests in which both male and female laboratory flies were irradiated at different doses (0, 40, and 80 Gy) were released with cohorts of wild flies of both sexes, revealing that both mass rearing history and irradiation affected male mating performance. Laboratory males were accepted for copulation by wild females less frequently than wild males. Copulations involving laboratory males were shorter than those involving wild males. Irradiated males mated less frequently with wild females than wild males, and irradiated females appeared to be less able to reject courting males of both origins. High levels of fertility for untreated laboratory females crossed with males irradiated at different doses may reflect problems in mass rearing affecting homogeneity of pupal age before irradiation, and possibly masked a dose effect. Proposed remedial measures to improve male mating performance are discussed. PMID:22957485

  16. Glyphosate Adversely Affects Danio rerio Males: Acetylcholinesterase Modulation and Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Fernanda Moreira; Caldas, Sergiane Souza; Primel, Ednei Gilberto; da Rosa, Carlos Eduardo

    2017-04-01

    It has been demonstrated that glyphosate-based herbicides are toxic to animals. In the present study, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, antioxidant capacity against peroxyl radicals (ACAP), and lipid peroxidation (LPO), as well as the activity and expression of the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme, were evaluated in Danio rerio males exposed to 5 or 10 mg/L of glyphosate for 24 and 96 h. An increase in ACAP in gills after 24 h was observed in the animals exposed to 5 mg/L of glyphosate. A decrease in LPO was observed in brain tissue of animals exposed to 10 mg/L after 24 h, while an increase was observed in muscle after 96 h. No significant alterations were observed in ROS generation. AChE activity was not altered in muscles or brains of animals exposed to either glyphosate concentration for 24 or 96 h. However, gene expression of this enzyme in the brain was reduced after 24 h and was enhanced in both brain and muscle tissues after 96 h. Thus, contrary to previous findings that had attributed the imbalance in the oxidative state of animals exposed to glyphosate-based herbicides to surfactants and other inert compounds, the present study demonstrated that glyphosate per se promotes this same effect in zebrafish males. Although glyphosate concentrations did not alter AChE activity, this study demonstrated for the first time that this molecule affects ache expression in male zebrafish D. rerio.

  17. DNA methylation affected by male sterile cytoplasm in rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Male sterile cytoplasm plays an important role in hybrid rice and cytoplasmic effects are sufficiently documented. However, no reports are available on DNA methylation affected by male sterile cytoplasm in hybrid rice. We used a methylation sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) technique to charac...

  18. Male age and strain affect ejaculate quality in the Mexican fruit fly.

    PubMed

    Herrera-Cruz, Mariana; Abraham, Solana; Nuñez-Beverido, Nicolas; Flores-Estévez, Norma; Reyes-Hernández, Martha; Alvarado, Mayvi; Pérez-Staples, Diana

    2017-02-19

    Aging in all organisms is inevitable. Male age can have profound effects on mating success and female reproduction, yet relatively little is known on the effects of male age on different components of the ejaculate. Furthermore, in mass-reared insects used for the Sterile Insect Technique, there are often behavioral differences between mass-reared and wild males, while differences in the ejaculate have been less studied. The ejaculate in insects is composed mainly of sperm and accessory gland proteins. Here, we studied how male age and strain affected (i) protein quantity of testes and accessory glands, (ii) the biological activity of accessory gland products injected into females, (iii) sperm viability and (iv) sperm quantity stored by females in wild and mass-reared Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae). We found lower protein content in testes of old wild males and lower sperm viability in females mated with old wild males. Females stored more sperm when mated to young wild males than with young mass-reared males. Accessory gland injections of old or young males did not inhibit female remating. Knowledge of how male age affects different ejaculate components will aid our understanding on investment of the ejaculate and possible post-copulatory consequences on female behaviour. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. Male Seminal Fluid Substances Affect Sperm Competition Success and Female Reproductive Behavior in a Seed Beetle

    PubMed Central

    Yamane, Takashi; Goenaga, Julieta; Rönn, Johanna Liljestrand; Arnqvist, Göran

    2015-01-01

    Male seminal fluid proteins are known to affect female reproductive behavior and physiology by reducing mating receptivity and by increasing egg production rates. Such substances are also though to increase the competitive fertilization success of males, but the empirical foundation for this tenet is restricted. Here, we examined the effects of injections of size-fractioned protein extracts from male reproductive organs on both male competitive fertilization success (i.e., P2 in double mating experiments) and female reproduction in the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus. We found that extracts of male seminal vesicles and ejaculatory ducts increased competitive fertilization success when males mated with females 1 day after the females’ initial mating, while extracts from accessory glands and testes increased competitive fertilization success when males mated with females 2 days after the females’ initial mating. Moreover, different size fractions of seminal fluid proteins had distinct and partly antagonistic effects on male competitive fertilization success. Collectively, our experiments show that several different seminal fluid proteins, deriving from different parts in the male reproductive tract and of different molecular weight, affect male competitive fertilization success in C. maculatus. Our results highlight the diverse effects of seminal fluid proteins and show that the function of such proteins can be contingent upon female mating status. We also document effects of different size fractions on female mating receptivity and egg laying rates, which can serve as a basis for future efforts to identify the molecular identity of seminal fluid proteins and their function in this model species. PMID:25893888

  20. Male seminal fluid substances affect sperm competition success and female reproductive behavior in a seed beetle.

    PubMed

    Yamane, Takashi; Goenaga, Julieta; Rönn, Johanna Liljestrand; Arnqvist, Göran

    2015-01-01

    Male seminal fluid proteins are known to affect female reproductive behavior and physiology by reducing mating receptivity and by increasing egg production rates. Such substances are also though to increase the competitive fertilization success of males, but the empirical foundation for this tenet is restricted. Here, we examined the effects of injections of size-fractioned protein extracts from male reproductive organs on both male competitive fertilization success (i.e., P2 in double mating experiments) and female reproduction in the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus. We found that extracts of male seminal vesicles and ejaculatory ducts increased competitive fertilization success when males mated with females 1 day after the females' initial mating, while extracts from accessory glands and testes increased competitive fertilization success when males mated with females 2 days after the females' initial mating. Moreover, different size fractions of seminal fluid proteins had distinct and partly antagonistic effects on male competitive fertilization success. Collectively, our experiments show that several different seminal fluid proteins, deriving from different parts in the male reproductive tract and of different molecular weight, affect male competitive fertilization success in C. maculatus. Our results highlight the diverse effects of seminal fluid proteins and show that the function of such proteins can be contingent upon female mating status. We also document effects of different size fractions on female mating receptivity and egg laying rates, which can serve as a basis for future efforts to identify the molecular identity of seminal fluid proteins and their function in this model species.

  1. Protein restriction affects sperm number but not sperm viability in male ants.

    PubMed

    Dávila, Francisco; Aron, Serge

    2017-07-01

    Sperm cells are costly to produce; diet should therefore affect sperm number and/or viability. In non-social insects and vertebrates, there is compelling evidence that diet influences sperm production. Less is known about this relationship in eusocial hymenopterans (all ants and some bees and wasps), whose mating systems impose unique selective pressures on sperm production. Males face physiological constraints: they acquire all of the resources they will use in future reproductive efforts as larvae and emerge from the pupal stage with a fixed, non-renewable amount of sperm. Furthermore, males die shortly after copulation, but their genetic material persists for years since their spermatozoa are stored in their mates' spermathecae. We examined the effects of protein restriction during larval development on sperm number and viability in the Argentine ant Linepithema humile. We also looked at its impact on male development, adult mass, and adult fluctuating asymmetry. We found that protein restriction during larval development significantly reduced sperm production, but not sperm viability. It did not affect the number of males reared, male mass, or male asymmetry. However, males from protein-restricted nests developed much more slowly than males from protein-supplemented nests. These results suggest investing in sperm quality and in somatic growth, which enhances a male's ability to disperse and find a mate, are critical to successful male reproduction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Outward Bound and Confluent Education: A Demonstration Project Accentuating Affective Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nadler, Reldan S.

    In 1976 a demonstration project at the Connecticut Wilderness School integrated a Confluent Education curriculum in Outward Bound type courses, to facilitate affective learning for a more meaningful and relevant experience. A review of Outward Bound literature identified the need for affective learning as a significant program constituent. Five…

  3. Rank among Peers during Game Competition Affects the Tendency to Make Risky Choices in Adolescent Males

    PubMed Central

    Foo, Jerome C.; Nagase, Kohei; Naramura-Ohno, Sawako; Yoshiuchi, Kazuhiro; Yamamoto, Yoshiharu; Morita, Kenji

    2017-01-01

    It has been shown that adolescents take more risks when they are with peers than when they are alone, presumably because the presence of peers can be a social reward/punishment that can bias decision making. Competition is inherent in peer interactions, and recent work has demonstrated that winning/losing is an intrinsic social reward/punishment. Taken together, it can be hypothesized that competition amongst peers affects adolescents’ risky behavior. While there is much evidence that status amongst peers can relate to antisocial/aggressive behavior, it remains unclear whether risky behavior is affected. Moreover, the degree to which ‘temporary status,’ such as ranking in a short-term competitive game, affects behavior is uncertain, an important issue because adolescents might be sensitive to situations or factors which potentially destabilize existing hierarchies. In this experiment, these issues were directly explored in the classroom environment using smartphone technology and Wi-Fi setup. Male junior high school students (aged 14–15) performed a roulette game task on smartphones, playing either independently or against five classmates. In the latter case, the students’ current ranks within the group of six were constantly presented on smartphone screens. To dissociate the effects of the students’ reactions to ranks from their actual performances, unknown to the students, the ranks presented were actually predetermined so that about half of the students were continuously presented with high ranks whereas the other half were continuously presented with low ranks. We found that the students presented with low ranks made more risky plays than those not presented with ranks or those presented with high ranks. This result suggests that even temporary status significantly affects adolescents’ risky behavior, and also demonstrates the usefulness of smartphones in examining and manipulating peer interactions in classroom experiments. PMID:28174543

  4. A character demonstrating the occurrence of mating in male Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Marti, O.G.; Carpenter, J.E.

    2007-03-15

    The reproductive system of adult male Cactoblastis cactorum, the cactus moth, was examined to determine whether the mating status of males could be ascertained. In unmated males, the posterior portion of the primary ductus ejaculatorius simplex is opaque yellow in color and contains many small football-shaped hyaline granules 3-5 x 5-10 {mu}m in size. In mated males, the posterior simplex is clear and contains no granules. The presence or absence of these characters was found to be highly reliable and should be of value in determining mating status in marked-recaptured males of this species in a sterile insect release program directed against Cactoblastis. (author)

  5. Repeated carbon nanotube administrations in male mice cause reversible testis damage without affecting fertility

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Yuhong; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Jingping; Mu, Qingxin; Zhang, Weidong; Butch, Elizabeth R.; Snyder, Scott E.; Yan, Bing

    2010-01-01

    Soluble carbon nanotubes are promising materials for in vivo delivery and imaging applications. Several reports have described the in vivo toxicity of carbon nanotubes, however, their effects on male reproduction have not been examined. Here we show that repeated intravenous injections of water-soluble multi-walled carbon nanotubes into male mice can cause reversible testis damage without affecting fertility. Nanotubes accumulated in the testes, generated oxidative stress, and decreased the thickness of the seminiferous epithelium in the testis at day 15, but the damage was repaired after 60 and 90 days. The quantity, quality, and integrity of the sperm and the levels of three major sex hormones were not significantly affected throughout the 90-day period. The fertility of treated male mice was unaffected; the pregnancy rate and delivery success of female mice that mated with the treated male mice did not differ from those that mated with untreated male mice. PMID:20693989

  6. Repeated administrations of carbon nanotubes in male mice cause reversible testis damage without affecting fertility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Yuhong; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Jingping; Mu, Qingxin; Zhang, Weidong; Butch, Elizabeth R.; Snyder, Scott E.; Yan, Bing

    2010-09-01

    Soluble carbon nanotubes show promise as materials for in vivo delivery and imaging applications. Several reports have described the in vivo toxicity of carbon nanotubes, but their effects on male reproduction have not been examined. Here, we show that repeated intravenous injections of water-soluble multiwalled carbon nanotubes into male mice can cause reversible testis damage without affecting fertility. Nanotubes accumulated in the testes, generated oxidative stress and decreased the thickness of the seminiferous epithelium in the testis at day 15, but the damage was repaired at 60 and 90 days. The quantity, quality and integrity of the sperm and the levels of three major sex hormones were not significantly affected throughout the 90-day period. The fertility of treated male mice was unaffected; the pregnancy rate and delivery success of female mice that mated with the treated male mice did not differ from those that mated with untreated male mice.

  7. The Magea gene cluster regulates male germ cell apoptosis without affecting the fertility in mice

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Siyuan; Xian, Li; Shi, Peiliang; Li, Chaojun; Lin, Zhaoyu; Gao, Xiang

    2016-01-01

    While apoptosis is essential for male germ cell development, improper activation of apoptosis in the testis can affect spermatogenesis and cause reproduction defects. Members of the MAGE-A (melanoma antigen family A) gene family are frequently clustered in mammalian genomes and are exclusively expressed in the testes of normal animals but abnormally activated in a wide variety of cancers. We investigated the potential roles of these genes in spermatogenesis by generating a mouse model with a 210-kb genomic deletion encompassing six members of the Magea gene cluster (Magea1, Magea2, Magea3, Magea5, Magea6 and Magea8). Male mice carrying the deletion displayed smaller testes from 2 months old with a marked increase in apoptotic germ cells in the first wave of spermatogenesis. Furthermore, we found that Magea genes prevented stress-induced spermatogenic apoptosis after N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) treatment during the adult stage. Mechanistically, deletion of the Magea gene cluster resulted in a dramatic increase in apoptotic germ cells, predominantly spermatocytes, with activation of p53 and induction of Bax in the testes. These observations demonstrate that the Magea genes are crucial in maintaining normal testicular size and protecting germ cells from excessive apoptosis under genotoxic stress. PMID:27226137

  8. Individuals with the dominant hand affected following stroke demonstrate less impairment than those with the non-dominant hand affected

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Jocelyn E; Eng, Janice J

    2012-01-01

    Objective The purpose was to determine if upper extremity impairment and function in individuals with chronic stroke is dependent upon whether the dominant or non-dominant hand is affected. Methods Ninety-three community-dwelling individuals with stroke. The Modified Ashworth Scale (tone), hand held dynamometry (isometric strength), monofilaments (sensation), Brief Pain Inventory (pain), Chedoke Arm and Hand Activity Inventory and Motor Activity Log (paretic arm use), and Reintegration to Normal Living Index (participation) were used to form impairment and function models. Results MANOVA models (DOMINANCE x SEVERITY) were created for impairment and function variables. There was a significant interaction and main effect of DOMINANCE for the impairment model (p=0.01) but not the function model (p=0.75). The dependent variables of tone, grip strength and pain were all significantly affected by DOMINANCE, indicating less impairment if the dominant hand was affected. All dependent variables except pain were affected by SEVERITY. Conclusion This study looked at the effect of the dominant hand being affected versus the non-dominant in individuals with chronic stroke. Individuals with the dominant hand affected demonstrated less impairment than those with the non-dominant hand affected. However, there was no effect of dominance on paretic arm use or performance in activities of daily living. Prospective studies to further explore the issue of hand dominance and post stroke function are suggested. PMID:16885424

  9. Condition-dependent ejaculate production affects male mating behavior in the common bedbug Cimex lectularius.

    PubMed

    Kaldun, Bettina; Otti, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    Food availability in the environment is often low and variable, constraining organisms in their resource allocation to different life-history traits. For example, variation in food availability is likely to induce condition-dependent investment in reproduction. Further, diet has been shown to affect ejaculate size, composition and quality. How these effects translate into male reproductive success or change male mating behavior is still largely unknown. Here, we concentrated on the effect of meal size on ejaculate production, male reproductive success and mating behavior in the common bedbug Cimex lectularius. We analyzed the production of sperm and seminal fluid within three different feeding regimes in six different populations. Males receiving large meals produced significantly more sperm and seminal fluid than males receiving small meals or no meals at all. While such condition-dependent ejaculate production did not affect the number of offspring produced after a single mating, food-restricted males could perform significantly fewer matings than fully fed males. Therefore, in a multiple mating context food-restricted males paid a fitness cost and might have to adjust their mating strategy according to the ejaculate available to them. Our results indicate that meal size has no direct effect on ejaculate quality, but food availability forces a condition-dependent mating rate on males. Environmental variation translating into variation in male reproductive traits reveals that natural selection can interact with sexual selection and shape reproductive traits. As males can modulate their ejaculate size depending on the mating situation, future studies are needed to elucidate whether environmental variation affecting the amount of ejaculate available might induce different mating strategies.

  10. Delayed breeding affects lifetime reproductive success differently in male and female green woodhoopoes.

    PubMed

    Hawn, Amanda T; Radford, Andrew N; du Plessis, Morné A

    2007-05-15

    In cooperatively breeding species, many individuals only start breeding long after reaching physiological maturity [1], and this delay is expected to reduce lifetime reproductive success (LRS) [1-3]. Although many studies have investigated how nonbreeding helpers might mitigate the assumed cost of delayed breeding (reviewed in [3]), few have directly quantified the cost itself [4, 5] (but see [6, 7]). Moreover, although life-history tradeoffs frequently influence the sexes in profoundly different ways [8, 9], it has been generally assumed that males and females are similarly affected by a delayed start to breeding [7]. Here, we use 24 years of data to investigate the sex-specific cost of delayed breeding in the cooperatively breeding green woodhoopoe (Phoeniculus purpureus) and show that age at first breeding is related to LRS differently in males and females. As is traditionally expected, males that started to breed earlier in life had greater LRS than those that started later. However, females showed the opposite pattern: Those individuals that started to breed later in life actually had greater LRS than those that started earlier. In both sexes, the association between age at first breeding and LRS was driven by differences in breeding-career length, rather than per-season productivity. We hypothesize that the high mortality rate of young female breeders, and thus their short breeding careers, is related to a reduced ability to deal with the high physiological costs of reproduction in this species. These results demonstrate the importance of considering sex-specific reproductive costs when estimating the payoffs of life-history decisions and bring into question the long-held assumption that delayed breeding is necessarily costly.

  11. Female recreational athletes demonstrate different knee biomechanics from male counterparts during jumping rope and turning activities.

    PubMed

    Tanikawa, Hidenori; Matsumoto, Hideo; Harato, Kengo; Kiriyama, Yoshimori; Suda, Yasunori; Toyama, Yoshiaki; Nagura, Takeo

    2014-01-01

    A variety of athletic exercises are performed in sports training or rehabilitation after knee injuries. However, it remains unclear whether males and females exhibit similar joint loading during the various athletic motions. The purpose of this study was to identify gender differences in knee biomechanics during the athletic motions. Three-dimensional knee kinematics and kinetics were investigated in 20 recreational athletes (10 males and 10 females) while jumping rope, backward running, side running, side-to-side running, side-to-forward running, inside turning, and outside turning. The strengths of the quadriceps and hamstring muscles, the knee joint force, the knee joint angle, and the knee joint moment were compared between males and females using one-tailed t tests. Peak knee anterior force was greater in female recreational athletes than in their male counterparts during jumping rope, side-to-forward running, inside turning, and outside turning. Female subjects displayed greater peak knee abduction angles and greater peak knee flexion moments while jumping rope compared to their male counterparts. There were no significant differences between the sexes in knee kinematics and kinetics in the frontal and transverse planes during running and turning motions. Female recreational athletes exhibited significantly different knee biomechanics compared with male counterparts during jumping rope and turning motions.

  12. The facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD1) gene affects males more severely and more frequently than females.

    PubMed

    Zatz, M; Marie, S K; Cerqueira, A; Vainzof, M; Pavanello, R C; Passos-Bueno, M R

    1998-05-01

    We investigated 52 families of patients with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD1), including 172 patients (104 males and 68 females). Among 273 DNA samples which were analyzed with probe p13E-11, 131 (67 males and 64 females) were shown to carry an EcoRI fragment smaller than 35 kb; 114 among them were examined clinically and neurologically. Results of the present investigation showed that: a) there is no molecular evidence for autosomal or X-linked recessive inheritance of FSHD1; b) an excess of affected males, which is explained by a significantly greater proportion of females than males among asymptomatic cases and a significantly greater proportion of affected sons than daughters observed in the offspring of asymptomatic mothers; c) the penetrance of the FSHD1 gene until age 30 was estimated as 83% for both sexes but was significantly greater for males (95%) than for females (69%); d) new mutations occur significantly more frequently in females than males among somatic/germinal mosaic cases; and e) severely affected cases originated more often through new mutations or were transmitted through maternal than through paternal lines including somatic/germinal mothers. These observations have important implications for understanding the molecular mechanisms responsible for FSHD1 and for genetic and prognostic counseling according to the gender of the affected patient.

  13. Individual dispersal decisions affect fitness via maternal rank effects in male rhesus macaques.

    PubMed

    Weiß, Brigitte M; Kulik, Lars; Ruiz-Lambides, Angelina V; Widdig, Anja

    2016-08-31

    Natal dispersal may have considerable social, ecological and evolutionary consequences. While species-specific dispersal strategies have received much attention, individual variation in dispersal decisions and its fitness consequences remain poorly understood. We investigated causes and consequences of natal dispersal age in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), a species with male dispersal. Using long-term demographic and genetic data from a semi-free ranging population on Cayo Santiago, Puerto Rico, we analysed how the social environment such as maternal family, group and population characteristics affected the age at which males leave their natal group. While natal dispersal age was unrelated to most measures of group or population structure, our study confirmed earlier findings that sons of high-ranking mothers dispersed later than sons of low-ranking ones. Natal dispersal age did not affect males' subsequent survival, but males dispersing later were more likely to reproduce. Late dispersers were likely to start reproducing while still residing in their natal group, frequently produced extra-group offspring before natal dispersal and subsequently dispersed to the group in which they had fathered offspring more likely than expected. Hence, the timing of natal dispersal was affected by maternal rank and influenced male reproduction, which, in turn affected which group males dispersed to.

  14. Environmentally relevant exposure to 17α-ethinylestradiol affects the telencephalic proteome of male fathead minnows

    PubMed Central

    Martyniuk, Christopher J.; Kroll, Kevin J.; Doperalski, Nicholas J.; Barber, David S.; Denslow, Nancy D.

    2010-01-01

    Estrogens are key mediators of neuronal processes in vertebrates. As such, xenoestrogens present in the environment have the potential to alter normal central nervous system (CNS) function. The objectives of the present study were 1) to identify proteins with altered expression in the male fathead minnow telencephalon as a result of low level exposure to 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), and 2) to better understand the underlying mechanisms of 17β-estradiol (E2) feedback in this important neuroendocrine tissue. Male fathead minnows exposed to a measured concentration of 5.4 ng EE2/L for 48 hours showed decreased plasma E2 levels of approximately 2-fold. Of 77 proteins that were quantified statistically, 14 proteins were down-regulated after EE2 exposure, including four histone proteins, ATP synthase, H+ transporting subunits, and metabolic proteins (lactate dehydrogenase B4, malate dehydrogenase 1b). Twelve proteins were significantly induced by EE2 including microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT), astrocytic phosphoprotein, ependymin precursor, and calmodulin. MAPT showed an increase in protein abundance but a decrease in mRNA expression after EE2 exposure, suggesting there may be a negative feedback response in the telencephalon to decrease mRNA transcription with increasing MAPT protein abundance. These results demonstrate that a low, environmentally relevant exposure to EE2 can rapidly alter the abundance of proteins involved in cell differentiation and proliferation, neuron network morphology, and long term synaptic potentiation. Together, these findings provide a better understanding of the molecular responses underlying E2 feedback in the brain and demonstrate that quantitative proteomics can be successfully used in ecotoxicology to characterize affected cellular pathways and endocrine physiology. PMID:20381887

  15. Male and female runners demonstrate different sagittal plane mechanics as a function of static hamstring flexibility.

    PubMed

    Williams, D S Blaise; Welch, Lee M

    2015-01-01

    Injuries to runners are common. However, there are many potential contributing factors to injury. While lack of flexibility alone is commonly related to injury, there are clear differences in hamstring flexibility between males and females. To compare the effect of static hamstring length on sagittal plane mechanics between male and female runners. Forty subjects (30.0±6.4 years) participated and were placed in one of 4 groups: flexible males (n=10), inflexible males (n=10), flexible females (n=10), and inflexible females (n=10). All subjects were free of injury at the time of data collection. Three-dimensional kinematics and kinetics were collected while subjects ran over ground across 2 force platforms. Sagittal plane joint angles and moments were calculated at the knee and hip and compared with a 2-way (sex X flexibility) ANOVA (α=0.05). Males exhibited greater peak knee extension moment than females (M=2.80±0.47, F=2.48±0.52 Nm/kg*m, p=0.05) and inflexible runners exhibited greater peak knee extension moment than flexible runners (In=2.83±0.56, Fl=2.44±0.51 Nm/kg*m, p=0.01). For hip flexion at initial contact, a significant interaction existed (p<0.05). Flexible females (36.7±7.4º) exhibited more hip flexion than inflexible females (27.9±4.6º, p<0.01) and flexible males (30.1±9.5º, p<0.05). No differences existed for knee angle at initial contact, peak knee angle, peak hip angle, or peak hip moment. Hamstring flexibility results in different mechanical profiles in males and females. Flexibility in the hamstrings may result in decreased moments via active or passive tension. These differences may have implications for performance and injury in flexible female runners.

  16. Acquired resistance affects male sexual display and female choice in guppies

    PubMed Central

    pez, S. L

    1998-01-01

    Is resistance to parasites related to the expression of male secondary sex characters? Handicap models predict a positive relationship, proposing that males displaying extravagant sex characters may be honestly signalling their resistance to females. However, no current evidence addresses whether individual changes in immunity (acquired resistance) are reflected in sexual traits. In this experiment I use guppies to compare male orange colour, sigmoid display and female preferences for individual males, before and after a primary challenge infection of males. Challenge infections were terminated chemically and fish were given ten days' recovery time before proceeding with the second measurements. The degree of acquired resistance was quantified a posteriori, by exposing males to a secondary infection. Sigmoid display rates and female preference for males differed for males of different resistance groups after challenge infection only. This difference was due to resistant males displaying more than non-resistant ones. No differences were detected in male orange colour, but this may be because colour needs a longer time than ten days to be recovered and adjusted. The results show that the level of acquired resistance affects sexual display and attractiveness in guppies. They suggest that once an effective immunity is built up by a male, he can afford to incur higher costs for sexual characteristics, whereas a male that lacks the ability to build up effective resistance cannot. These costs probably consist of higher energy expenditure and/or higher circulating levels of testosterone, which may be needed to increase display. Priming and effective establishment of an individual's resistance to parasitic infection could eventually result in a higher availability of resources for sexual functions.

  17. Male and female runners demonstrate different sagittal plane mechanics as a function of static hamstring flexibility

    PubMed Central

    Williams III, D. S. Blaise; Welch, Lee M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Injuries to runners are common. However, there are many potential contributing factors to injury. While lack of flexibility alone is commonly related to injury, there are clear differences in hamstring flexibility between males and females. Objective: To compare the effect of static hamstring length on sagittal plane mechanics between male and female runners. Method: Forty subjects (30.0±6.4 years) participated and were placed in one of 4 groups: flexible males (n=10), inflexible males (n=10), flexible females (n=10), and inflexible females (n=10). All subjects were free of injury at the time of data collection. Three-dimensional kinematics and kinetics were collected while subjects ran over ground across 2 force platforms. Sagittal plane joint angles and moments were calculated at the knee and hip and compared with a 2-way (sex X flexibility) ANOVA (α=0.05). Results: Males exhibited greater peak knee extension moment than females (M=2.80±0.47, F=2.48±0.52 Nm/kg*m, p=0.05) and inflexible runners exhibited greater peak knee extension moment than flexible runners (In=2.83±0.56, Fl=2.44±0.51 Nm/kg*m, p=0.01). For hip flexion at initial contact, a significant interaction existed (p<0.05). Flexible females (36.7±7.4º) exhibited more hip flexion than inflexible females (27.9±4.6º, p<0.01) and flexible males (30.1±9.5º, p<0.05). No differences existed for knee angle at initial contact, peak knee angle, peak hip angle, or peak hip moment. Conclusion: Hamstring flexibility results in different mechanical profiles in males and females. Flexibility in the hamstrings may result in decreased moments via active or passive tension. These differences may have implications for performance and injury in flexible female runners. PMID:26537812

  18. Individual dispersal decisions affect fitness via maternal rank effects in male rhesus macaques

    PubMed Central

    Weiß, Brigitte M.; Kulik, Lars; Ruiz-Lambides, Angelina V.; Widdig, Anja

    2016-01-01

    Natal dispersal may have considerable social, ecological and evolutionary consequences. While species-specific dispersal strategies have received much attention, individual variation in dispersal decisions and its fitness consequences remain poorly understood. We investigated causes and consequences of natal dispersal age in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), a species with male dispersal. Using long-term demographic and genetic data from a semi-free ranging population on Cayo Santiago, Puerto Rico, we analysed how the social environment such as maternal family, group and population characteristics affected the age at which males leave their natal group. While natal dispersal age was unrelated to most measures of group or population structure, our study confirmed earlier findings that sons of high-ranking mothers dispersed later than sons of low-ranking ones. Natal dispersal age did not affect males’ subsequent survival, but males dispersing later were more likely to reproduce. Late dispersers were likely to start reproducing while still residing in their natal group, frequently produced extra-group offspring before natal dispersal and subsequently dispersed to the group in which they had fathered offspring more likely than expected. Hence, the timing of natal dispersal was affected by maternal rank and influenced male reproduction, which, in turn affected which group males dispersed to. PMID:27576465

  19. Male courtship preferences demonstrate discrimination against allopatric colour morphs in a cichlid fish.

    PubMed

    Zoppoth, P; Koblmüller, S; Sefc, K M

    2013-03-01

    Whether premating isolation is achieved by male-specific, female-specific or sex-independent assortative preferences often depends on the underlying evolutionary processes. Here we test mate preferences of males presented with females of different allopatric colour variants of the cichlid fish Tropheus sp., a Lake Tanganyika endemic with rich geographical colour pattern variation, in which the strength of sexual isolation varies between populations. We conducted two-way mate choice experiments to compare behaviour of males of a red-bodied morph (population Moliro) towards females from their own population with behaviour towards females from four allopatric populations at different stages of phylogenetic and phenotypic divergence. Males courted same-population females significantly more intensely than females of other populations, and reduced their heteromorphic courtship efforts both with increasing genetic and increasing phenotypic distinctness of the females. In particular, females of a closely related red-bodied population received significantly more courtship than either genetically distinct, similarly coloured females ('Kirschfleck' morph) or genetically related, differently coloured females ('yellow-blotch' morph), both of which were courted similarly. Genetically and phenotypically distinct females (Tropheus polli) were not courted at all. Consistent with previous female-choice experiments, female courtship activity also decreased with increasing genetic distance from the males' population. Given successful experimental and natural introgression between colour morphs and the pervasive allopatry of related variants, we consider it unlikely that assortative preferences of both sexes were driven by direct selection during periods of secondary contact or, in turn, drove colour pattern differentiation in allopatry. Rather, we suggest that sexual isolation evolved as by-product of allopatric divergence.

  20. The Impact of Types and Extent of Trauma on Depressive Affect Among Male Juvenile Sexual Offenders.

    PubMed

    Jencks, Jennifer W; Leibowitz, George S

    2016-11-18

    High levels of depression have been found among incarcerated youth, which suggests that mental health problems are associated with delinquent behavior and are part of a constellation of risk factors that contribute to youth entering the juvenile justice system. In this project, we investigated trauma and mental health issues among male youth in residential treatment, and addressed the following questions: (a) Does childhood trauma predict current depression for male juvenile sexual offenders? (b) If so, do different types of traumas predict depressive affect better than others? and, (c) Does extent of trauma exposure predict depression? Data on incarcerated male juvenile sexual offenders were analyzed (n = 379). Multiple regressions of various types of traumas and cumulative trauma and depression were conducted. Emotional abuse was the strongest predictor of depressive affect for this sample, and multiple exposures to trauma were the second strongest predictor. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. Immune activation affects chemical sexual ornaments of male Iberian wall lizards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, Pilar; Gabirot, Marianne; Martín, José

    2009-01-01

    Many animals use chemical signals in sexual selection, but it is not clear how these sexual traits might have evolved to signal honestly male condition. It is possible that there is a trade-off between maintaining the immune system and the elaboration of ornaments. We experimentally challenged the immune system of male Iberian wall lizards, Podarcis hispanica, with a bacterial antigen (lipopolysaccharide), without pathogenic effects, to explore whether the immune activation affected chemical ornaments. Immune activation resulted in decreased proportions of a major chemical in femoral secretions (cholesta-5,7-dien-3-ol = provitamin D3) known to be selected in scent of males by females and which active form (vitamin D) has a variety of important effects on immune system function. This result suggests the existence of a potential trade-off between physiological regulation of the immune system and the allocation of essential nutrients (vitamins) to sexual chemical ornaments in male lizards.

  2. Immune activation affects chemical sexual ornaments of male Iberian wall lizards.

    PubMed

    López, Pilar; Gabirot, Marianne; Martín, José

    2009-01-01

    Many animals use chemical signals in sexual selection, but it is not clear how these sexual traits might have evolved to signal honestly male condition. It is possible that there is a trade-off between maintaining the immune system and the elaboration of ornaments. We experimentally challenged the immune system of male Iberian wall lizards, Podarcis hispanica, with a bacterial antigen (lipopolysaccharide), without pathogenic effects, to explore whether the immune activation affected chemical ornaments. Immune activation resulted in decreased proportions of a major chemical in femoral secretions (cholesta-5,7-dien-3-ol = provitamin D(3)) known to be selected in scent of males by females and which active form (vitamin D) has a variety of important effects on immune system function. This result suggests the existence of a potential trade-off between physiological regulation of the immune system and the allocation of essential nutrients (vitamins) to sexual chemical ornaments in male lizards.

  3. The synthetic progestogen, Levonorgestrel, but not natural progesterone, affects male mate calling behavior of Xenopus laevis.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Frauke; Kloas, Werner

    2012-05-01

    Worldwide, more than 100 million women use hormonal contraceptives, which act through progestogenic modes of action. These man-made hormones can enter the aquatic environment as they are excreted via feces and urine. Xeno-progestins are able to interfere with the endocrine system of female aquatic vertebrates impairing oogenesis and reproduction. However, data on progestogenic effects on reproductive behavior of male aquatic vertebrates are lacking. To evaluate whether progestins affect the mating behavior of male Xenopus laevis, we exposed male frogs to three environmentally relevant concentrations (10(-7) M, 10(-8) M and 10(-10) M) of the synthetic progestin Levonorgestrel (LNG) and the corresponding natural steroid progesterone (PRG), respectively. LNG at all exposure concentrations increased the proportions of advertisement calling, indicating a sexually aroused state of the males. Furthermore LNG at 10(-7) M decreased the relative proportions of rasping, a call type indicating a sexually unaroused state of the male. PRG, on the other hand, did not affect any of those parameters. Temporal and spectral features of the advertisement call itself were not affected by any of the two exposure treatments. Since LNG exhibits slight androgenic activity, the results suggest that LNG effects on male mate calling behavior of X. laevis are due to its moderate androgenic but not to its progestogenic activities. However, although males' sexual arousal seems to be enhanced by LNG, the adverse effects of LNG on female reproduction presumably outweigh these enhancing effects and LNG exposure nonetheless might result in reduced reproductive success of these animals.

  4. Remating behavior in Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) females is affected by male juvenile hormone analog treatment but not by male sterilization.

    PubMed

    Abraham, S; Liendo, M C; Devescovi, F; Peralta, P A; Yusef, V; Ruiz, J; Cladera, J L; Vera, M T; Segura, D F

    2013-06-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) has been proposed as an area-wide method to control the South American fruit fly, Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann). This technique requires sterilization, a procedure that affects, along with other factors, the ability of males to modulate female sexual receptivity after copulation. Numerous pre-release treatments have been proposed to counteract the detrimental effects of irradiation, rearing and handling and increase SIT effectiveness. These include treating newly emerged males with a juvenile hormone mimic (methoprene) or supplying protein to the male's diet to accelerate sexual maturation prior to release. Here, we examine how male irradiation, methoprene treatment and protein intake affect remating behavior and the amount of sperm stored in inseminated females. In field cage experiments, we found that irradiated laboratory males were equally able to modulate female remating behavior as fertile wild males. However, females mated with 6-day-old, methoprene-treated males remated more and sooner than females mated with naturally matured males, either sterile or wild. Protein intake by males was not sufficient to overcome reduced ability of methoprene-treated males to induce refractory periods in females as lengthy as those induced by wild and naturally matured males. The amount of sperm stored by females was not affected by male irradiation, methoprene treatment or protein intake. This finding revealed that factors in addition to sperm volume intervene in regulating female receptivity after copulation. Implications for SIT are discussed.

  5. Male irradiation affects female remating behavior in Anastrepha serpentina (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Landeta-Escamilla, Anais; Hernández, Emilio; Arredondo, José; Díaz-Fleischer, Francisco; Pérez-Staples, Diana

    2016-02-01

    Female remating in target pest species can affect the efficacy of control methods such as the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) but very little is known about the postcopulatory mating behavior of these pests. In this study, we investigated the remating behavior of female Anastrepha serpentina (Diptera: Tephritidae), an oligophagous pest of Sapotaceae. First, we tested how long the sexual refractory period of females lasted after an initial mating. Second, we tested the effect of male and female sterility, female ovipositing opportunities and male density on female propensity to remate. Lastly, we tested if the amount of sperm stored by females was correlated to the likelihood of females to remate. We found that receptivity of mass-reared A. serpentina females had a bimodal response, with up to 16% of mass-reared A. serpentina females remating five days after the initial copulation, decreasing to 2% at 10 and 15 days and increasing to 13% after 20 days. Compared to fertile males, sterile males were less likely to mate and less likely to inhibit females from remating. Copula duration of sterile males was shorter compared to fertile males. Remating females were less likely to mate with a sterile male as a second mate. Sterile females were less likely to mate or remate compared to fertile females. Opportunity to oviposit and male density had no effect on female remating probability. Sperm numbers were not correlated with female likelihood to remate. Information on the post-copulatory behavior of mass-reared A. serpentina will aid fruit fly managers in improving the quality of sterile males. We discuss our results in terms of the differences this species presents in female remating behavior compared to other tephritids.

  6. Fathers matter: male body mass affects life-history traits in a size-dimorphic seabird.

    PubMed

    Cornioley, Tina; Jenouvrier, Stéphanie; Börger, Luca; Weimerskirch, Henri; Ozgul, Arpat

    2017-05-17

    One of the predicted consequences of climate change is a shift in body mass distributions within animal populations. Yet body mass, an important component of the physiological state of an organism, can affect key life-history traits and consequently population dynamics. Over the past decades, the wandering albatross-a pelagic seabird providing bi-parental care with marked sexual size dimorphism-has exhibited an increase in average body mass and breeding success in parallel with experiencing increasing wind speeds. To assess the impact of these changes, we examined how body mass affects five key life-history traits at the individual level: adult survival, breeding probability, breeding success, chick mass and juvenile survival. We found that male mass impacted all traits examined except breeding probability, whereas female mass affected none. Adult male survival increased with increasing mass. Increasing adult male mass increased breeding success and mass of sons but not of daughters. Juvenile male survival increased with their chick mass. These results suggest that a higher investment in sons by fathers can increase their inclusive fitness, which is not the case for daughters. Our study highlights sex-specific differences in the effect of body mass on the life history of a monogamous species with bi-parental care. © 2017 The Authors.

  7. Male axillary extracts contain pheromones that affect pulsatile secretion of luteinizing hormone and mood in women recipients.

    PubMed

    Preti, George; Wysocki, Charles J; Barnhart, Kurt T; Sondheimer, Steven J; Leyden, James J

    2003-06-01

    Human underarm secretions, when applied to women recipients, alter the length and timing of the menstrual cycle. These effects are thought to arise from exposure to primer pheromones that are produced in the underarm. Pheromones can affect endocrine (primer) or behavioral (releaser) responses, provide information (signaler), or perhaps even modify emotion or mood (modulator). In this study, we extracted underarm secretions from pads worn by men and placed the extract under the nose of women volunteers while monitoring serum LH and emotion/mood. Pulses of LH are excellent indicators of the release of GnRH from the brain's hypothalamus. In women, the positive influence of GnRH on LH affects the length and timing of the menstrual cycle, which, in turn, affects fertility. Here we show that extracts of male axillary secretions have a direct effect upon LH-pulsing and mood of women. In our subjects, the putative male pheromone(s) advanced the onset of the next peak of LH after its application, reduced tension, and increased relaxation. These results demonstrate that male axillary secretions contain one or more constituents that act as primer and modulator pheromones.

  8. Non-defendable resources affect peafowl lek organization: a male removal experiment.

    PubMed

    Loyau, Adeline; Jalme, Michel Saint; Sorci, Gabriele

    2007-01-10

    A lekking mating system is typically thought to be non-resource based with male providing nothing to females but genes. However, males are thought to clump their display sites on areas where they are more likely to encounter females, which may depend on non-defendable resource location. We tested this hypothesis on a feral population of peacocks. In agreement, we found that, within the lek, display site proximity to food resources had an effect on female visitation rate and male mating success. The attractiveness of display sites to male intruders was explained by the distance to the feeding place and by the female visitation rate. We randomly removed 29 territorial males from their display sites. Display sites that were more attractive to male intruders before removal remained highly attractive after removal and display sites closer to the feeding area attracted the attention of intruders significantly more after removal. Similarly, display sites that were more visited by females before removal remained more visited after removal, suggesting again that the likelihood of encountering females is determined by the display site location. Overall, these results are in agreement with non-defendable resources affecting lek spatial organization in the peafowl.

  9. Setting radon-specific release criteria and demonstrating compliance for land affected by NORM.

    PubMed

    García-Talavera, M; Martínez, M; Matarranz, J L M; Ramos, L

    2008-11-01

    Residues from industrial activities involving naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs) may cause radiation exposures to members of the public, particularly when NORM-affected land is brought into residential use. To provide an adequate protection against radiation in such situations, the following limiting criteria are currently required in Spain for releasing NORM-affected land: (i) no more than a 300 microSv yr(-1) increase (excluding radon doses) over the natural background; (ii) (222)Rn concentrations in hypothetical future dwellings lower than 200 Bq m(-3); and (iii) reduction of all radiation exposures to as low as reasonable achievable. This paper addresses some of the problems encountered in translating the (222)Rn criterion into site-specific release limits and in demonstrating compliance with them.

  10. Parasites and health affect multiple sexual signals in male common wall lizards, Podarcis muralis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín, José; Amo, Luisa; López, Pilar

    2008-04-01

    Multiple advertising sexual traits may either advertise different characteristics of male condition or be redundant to reinforce reliability of signals. Research has focused on multiple visual traits. However, in animals that use different multiple additional sensory systems, such as chemoreception, different types of traits might have evolved to signal similar characteristics of a male quality using different sensory channels. We examined whether ventral coloration and chemicals in femoral gland secretions of male common wall lizards, Podarcis muralis, are affected by their health state (blood-parasite load and cell-mediated immune response). Our results indicated that less parasitized lizards had brighter and more yellowish ventral colorations and also femoral secretions with higher proportions of two esters of octadecenoic acid. In addition, lizards with a greater immune response had more saturated coloration and secretions with higher proportions of octadecenoic acid methyl ester. We suggest that these signals would be reliable because only healthier males seemed able to allocate more carotenoids to coloration and presumably costly chemicals to secretions. The use of multiple sensory channels may provide more opportunities to signal a male quality under different circumstances, but also may reinforce the reliability of the signal when both types of traits may be perceived simultaneously.

  11. Extraneous color affects female macaques’ gaze preference for photographs of male conspecifics

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Kelly D.; Higham, James P.; Allen, William L.; Elliot, Andrew J.; Hayden, Benjamin Y.

    2014-01-01

    Humans find members of the opposite sex more attractive when their image is spatially associated with the color red. This effect even occurs when the red color is not on the skin or clothing (i.e. is extraneous). We hypothesize that this extraneous color effect could be at least partially explained by a low-level and biologically innate generalization process, and so similar extraneous color effects should be observed in non-humans. To test this possibility, we examined the influence of extraneous color in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Across two experiments, we determined the influence of extraneous red on viewing preferences (assessed by looking time) in free-ranging rhesus monkeys. We presented male and female monkeys with black and white photographs of the hindquarters of same and opposite sex conspecifics on either a red (experimental condition) or blue (control condition) background. As a secondary control, we also presented neutral stimuli (photographs of seashells) on red and blue backgrounds. We found that female monkeys looked longer at a picture of a male scrotum, but not a seashell, on a red background (Experiment 1), while males showed no bias. Neither male nor female monkeys showed an effect of color on looking time for female hindquarters or seashells (Experiment 2). The finding for females viewing males suggests that extraneous color affects preferences among rhesus macaques. Further, it raises the possibility that evolutionary processes gave rise to extraneous color effects during human evolution. PMID:25530698

  12. Acute Stress Differentially Affects Aromatase Activity in Specific Brain Nuclei of Adult Male and Female Quail

    PubMed Central

    Cornil, Charlotte A.; Balthazart, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    The rapid and temporary suppression of reproductive behavior is often assumed to be an important feature of the adaptive acute stress response. However, how this suppression operates at the mechanistic level is poorly understood. The enzyme aromatase converts testosterone to estradiol in the brain to activate reproductive behavior in male Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). The discovery of rapid and reversible modification of aromatase activity (AA) provides a potential mechanism for fast, stress-induced changes in behavior. We investigated the effects of acute stress on AA in both sexes by measuring enzyme activity in all aromatase-expressing brain nuclei before, during, and after 30 min of acute restraint stress. We show here that acute stress rapidly alters AA in the male and female brain and that these changes are specific to the brain nuclei and sex of the individual. Specifically, acute stress rapidly (5 min) increased AA in the male medial preoptic nucleus, a region controlling male reproductive behavior; in females, a similar increase was also observed, but it appeared delayed (15 min) and had smaller amplitude. In the ventromedial and tuberal hypothalamus, regions associated with female reproductive behavior, stress induced a quick and sustained decrease in AA in females, but in males, only a slight increase (ventromedial) or no change (tuberal) in AA was observed. Effects of acute stress on brain estrogen production, therefore, represent one potential way through which stress affects reproduction. PMID:21878510

  13. Serum albumin correlates with affective prosody in adult males with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Grabemann, Marco; Mette, Christian; Zimmermann, Marco; Wiltfang, Jens; Kis, Bernhard

    2014-07-30

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between serum albumin, affective prosody, and symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) found coincidentally in a recently published study. Here, serum albumin levels were assessed as a covariate. Twenty healthy male adults (controls) and 20 adult male patients with ADHD participated in the study on two study days. Serum albumin levels and performance in an affective prosody task were assessed, and correlations were determined. Serum albumin had a significant correlation with performance on an affective prosody task on both of the 2 study days. The same correlations were not significant in the healthy control group. There was no difference in the serum albumin level between patients with ADHD and healthy controls. The association between serum albumin and affective prosody in adults with ADHD is a novel finding. However, to date, there is no clear theory that explains this association. Future research should analyze whether serum albumin influences causes changes in performance in affective prosody using experimental designs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The direction of cross affects [corrected] obesity after puberty in male but not female offspring.

    PubMed

    Kärst, Stefan; Arends, Danny; Heise, Sebastian; Trost, Jan; Yaspo, Marie-Laure; Amstislavskiy, Vyacheslav; Risch, Thomas; Lehrach, Hans; Brockmann, Gudrun A

    2015-11-06

    We investigated parent-of-origin and allele-specific expression effects on obesity and hepatic gene expression in reciprocal crosses between the Berlin Fat Mouse Inbred line (BFMI) and C57Bl/6NCrl (B6N). We found that F1-males with a BFMI mother developed 1.8 times more fat mass on a high fat diet at 10 weeks than F1-males of a BFMI father. The phenotype was detectable from six weeks on and was preserved after cross-fostering. RNA-seq data of liver provided evidence for higher biosynthesis and elongation of fatty acids (p = 0.00635) in obese male offspring of a BFMI mother versus lean offspring of a BFMI father. Furthermore, fatty acid degradation (p = 0.00198) and the peroxisome pathway were impaired (p = 0.00094). The circadian rhythm was affected as well (p = 0.00087). Among the highest up-regulated protein coding genes in obese males were Acot4 (1.82 fold, p = 0.022), Cyp4a10 (1.35 fold, p = 0.026) and Cyp4a14 (1.32 fold, p = 0.012), which hydroxylize fatty acids and which are known to be increased in liver steatosis. Obese males showed lower expression of the genetically imprinted and paternally expressed 3 (Peg3) gene (0.31 fold, p = 0.046) and higher expression of the androgen receptor (Ar) gene (2.38 fold, p = 0.068). Allelic imbalance was found for expression of ATP-binding cassette transporter gene Abca8b. Several of the differentially expressed genes contain estrogen response elements. Parent-of-origin effects during gametogenesis and/or fetal development in an obese mother epigenetically modify the transcription of genes that lead to enhanced fatty acid synthesis and impair β-oxidation in the liver of male, but not female F1 offspring. Down-regulation of Peg3 could contribute to trigger this metabolic setting. At puberty, higher amounts of the androgen receptor and altered access to estrogen response elements in affected genes are likely responsible for male specific expression of genes that were epigenetically

  15. Examining the Affects of Literacy Enablers and Obstacles African-American Males Face in an Arkansas College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bland, Anthony D.

    2013-01-01

    African American male students at an Arkansas College inspired this investigation of their life experiences and the affects of literacy enablers and obstacles African American males face in an Arkansas College. The selection process for participants incorporated convenient sampling of African American male students at an Arkansas College. The…

  16. Density affects mating mode and large male mating advantage in a fiddler crab.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Pablo D; Daleo, Pedro; Iribarne, Oscar O

    2010-12-01

    Fiddler crabs show two different mating modes: either females search and crabs mate underground in male burrows, or males search and crabs mate on the surface near female burrows. We explored the relationship between crab density, body size, the searching behavior of both sexes, and the occurrence of both mating modes in the fiddler crab Uca uruguayensis. We found that crabs change their mating mode depending on their size and crab density. Crabs mated mostly on the surface at low densities, and underground at high densities. The proportion of wandering receptive females but not courting males accounted for the variation in mating modes. This suggests that whether crabs mate underground (or on the surface) is determined by the presence (or absence) of searching females. We found that the change in the mating mode affected the level of assortative mating; males mating underground were bigger than those mating on the surface, suggesting active female choice. Given that fiddler crabs experience multiple reproductive cycles, they are prone to showing behavioral plasticity in their mating strategy whenever the payoffs of using different mating modes differ between reproductive events. Our results suggest that the incorporation of different levels of environmental variability may be important in theoretical models aimed at improving our understanding of the evolution of alternative mating tactics and strategies.

  17. Environment and activity affect skin temperature in breeding adult male elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris).

    PubMed

    Norris, A L; Houser, D S; Crocker, D E

    2010-12-15

    The large body size and high rates of metabolic heat production associated with male mating success in polygynous systems creates potential thermoregulatory challenges for species breeding in warm climates. This is especially true for marine predators carrying large blubber reserves intended for thermoregulation in cold water and fuel provision during extended fasts. Thermographic images were used to measure changes in skin temperature (T(S)) in adult male northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) over the breeding season. Environmental variables, primarily ambient temperature and solar radiation, were the principal determinants of mean and maximum T(S). When controlled for environmental variables, dominance rank significantly impacted mean T(S), being highest in alpha males. Behavioral activity significantly influenced T(S) but in a counter-intuitive way, with inactive males exhibiting the highest T(S). This was likely due to strong impacts of environmental variables on the kinds of behavior exhibited, with males being less active on warm, humid days at peak solar radiation. We classified thermal windows as areas in which T(S) was one standard deviation greater than mean T(S) for the individual seal within a thermograph. Thermal features suggest active physiological thermoregulation during and after combat and significant circulatory adaptations for heat dumping, as evidenced by recurring locations of thermal windows representing widely varying T(S) values. Frequent observations of localized T(S) above 37°C, particularly after combat, suggest the production of thermoregulatory stress during breeding behavior. Our findings demonstrate the importance of environmental drivers in shaping activity patterns during breeding and provide evidence for thermoregulatory costs of successful breeding in large polygynous males.

  18. Mixtures of environmentally relevant endocrine disrupting chemicals affect mammary gland development in female and male rats.

    PubMed

    Mandrup, Karen Riiber; Johansson, Hanna Katarina Lilith; Boberg, Julie; Pedersen, Anne Stilling; Mortensen, Mette Sidsel; Jørgensen, Jennifer Solgaard; Vinggaard, Anne Marie; Hass, Ulla

    2015-07-01

    Estrogenic chemicals are able to alter mammary gland development in female rodents, but little is known on the effects of anti-androgens and mixtures of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) with dissimilar modes of action. Pregnant rat dams were exposed during gestation and lactation to mixtures of environmentally relevant EDCs with estrogenic, anti-androgenic or dissimilar modes of action (TotalMix) of 100-, 200- or 450-fold high end human intake estimates. Mammary glands of prepubertal and adult female and male offspring were examined. Oestrogens increased mammary outgrowth in prepubertal females and the mRNA level of matrix metalloproteinase-3, which may be a potential biomarker for increased outgrowth. Mixtures of EDCs gave rise to ductal hyperplasia in adult males. Adult female mammary glands of the TotalMix group showed morphological changes possibly reflecting increased prolactin levels. In conclusion both estrogenic and anti-androgenic chemicals given during foetal life and lactation affected mammary glands in the offspring.

  19. Aging affects sex categorization of male and female faces in opposite ways.

    PubMed

    Kloth, Nadine; Damm, Madeleine; Schweinberger, Stefan R; Wiese, Holger

    2015-06-01

    Faces are rich in social information; they easily give away a person's sex, approximate age, feelings, or focus of attention. Past research has mostly focused on investigating the distinct facial signals and perceptual mechanisms that allow us to categorize faces on these individual dimensions. It is less well understood how the different kinds of facial information interact. Here we investigated how the age of a face affects the ease with which young and older adults categorize its sex. Disconfirming everyday intuition, we showed that sex categorization is not generally hampered for older faces. Although categorization of female faces took progressively more time with increasing age, the opposite was found for male faces (Experiment 1). Differential effects of stimulus blurring and inversion for male and female faces of different ages (Experiment 2) strongly suggest one feature as a crucial mediator of the interdependence of age and sex perception - skin texture. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Short-term exposure to an endocrine disruptor affects behavioural consistency in male threespine stickleback.

    PubMed

    Dzieweczynski, Teresa L

    2011-10-01

    It has been established that exposure to xenooestrogens can have profound effects on reproductive and aggressive behaviours in aquatic organisms. Studies on the effects of 17α-ethinyloestradiol (EE2) on behaviour, however, rarely examine these effects over multiple trials, across time, or across contexts. In addition, it is possible that individuals vary in their sensitivity to EE2 and individuals may differ in the degree to which their behaviour is affected. The study of consistent individual differences in behaviour has grown in popularity in recent years perhaps because of the evolutionary questions this behavioural variation raises. Adult male threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) from an anadromous population repeatedly received the simultaneous presentation of a dummy male and dummy female conspecific both before and after exposure to a short-term, nominal (15 ng L(-1)) concentration of 17α-ethinyloestradiol (EE2). These before and after measures were then compared against one another as well as against responses of males in a control group that was not exposed to EE2. Courtship, aggression, and nesting behaviours were all affected by EE2 exposure. In addition, behavioural consistency over trials was markedly reduced after EE2 exposure, as shown by lower repeatability values in the after exposure measures and in weaker correlations between the before and after exposure measures in the EE2 group compared to the control group. This suggests that male threespine stickleback vary in their sensitivity to EE2. This study is one of the first to examine the effects of short-term EE2 exposure on behaviour across trials and has important implications for population-level fitness consequences of xenooestrogens. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Multiple signals and male spacing affect female preference at cocktail parties in treefrogs

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Christina; Lengagne, Thierry

    2010-01-01

    Effective acoustic communication in the face of intense conspecific background noise constitutes a constant sensory challenge in chorusing and colonial species. An evolutionary approach suggests that behavioural and environmental constraints in these species should have shaped signal design and signalling behaviour to enable communication in noisy conditions. This could be attained both through the use of multicomponent signals and through short-term adjustments in the spatial separation of calling males. We investigated these two hypotheses in a chorusing anuran, the hylid Hyla arborea, through a series of phonotaxis experiments conducted within a six-speaker arena in a high background noise situation, by presenting females with male calls containing either single or multiple attractive call components, and by modifying distances between speakers. We found that female ability to discriminate attractive calls increased when several attractive call components were available, providing novel evidence that the use of multicomponent signals enhances communication in complex acoustic conditions. Signal discrimination in females also improved with speaker separation, demonstrating that within natural choruses, spatial unmasking conditioned by male density and spatial separation probably improves female discrimination of competing males. Implications of these results for the accuracy of mate choice within choruses are discussed. PMID:20018785

  2. Perinatal iron deficiency affects locomotor behavior and water maze performance in adult male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Bourque, Stephane L; Iqbal, Umar; Reynolds, James N; Adams, Michael A; Nakatsu, Kanji

    2008-05-01

    Iron deficiency during early growth and development adversely affects multiple facets of cognition and behavior in adult rats. The purpose of this study was to assess the nature of the learning and locomotor behavioral deficits observed in male and female rats in the absence of depressed brain iron levels at the time of testing. Adult female Wistar rats were fed either an iron-enriched diet (>225 mg/kg Fe) or an iron-restricted diet (3 mg/kg Fe) for 2 wk prior to and throughout gestation, and a nonpurified diet (270 mg/kg Fe) thereafter. Open-field (OF) and Morris water maze (MWM) testing began when the offspring reached early adulthood (12 wk). At birth, perinatal iron-deficient (PID) offspring had reduced (P < 0.001) hematocrits (-33%), liver iron stores (-83%), and brain iron concentrations (-38%) compared with controls. Although there were no differences in iron status in adults, the PID males and females exhibited reduced OF exploratory behavior, albeit only PID males had an aversion to the center of the apparatus (2.5 vs. 6.9% in controls, P < 0.001). Additionally, PID males required greater path lengths to reach the hidden platform in the MWM, had reduced spatial bias for the target quadrant, and had a tendency for greater thigmotactic behavior in the probe trials (16.5 vs. 13.0% in controls; P = 0.06). PID females had slower swim speeds in all testing phases (-6.2%; P < 0.001). These results suggest that PID has detrimental programming effects in both male and female rats, although the behaviors suggest different mechanisms may be involved in each sex.

  3. Anabolic androgenic steroids differentially affect social behaviors in adolescent and adult male Syrian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Salas-Ramirez, Kaliris Y; Montalto, Pamela R; Sisk, Cheryl L

    2008-02-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are synthetic derivatives of testosterone used by over half a million adolescents in the United States for their tissue-building potency and performance-enhancing effects. AAS also affect behavior, including reports of heightened aggression and changes in sexual libido. The expression of sexual and aggressive behaviors is a function of complex interactions among hormones, social context, and the brain, which is extensively remodeled during adolescence. Thus, AAS may have different consequences on behavior during adolescence and adulthood. Using a rodent model, these studies directly compared the effects of AAS on the expression of male sexual and aggressive behaviors in adolescents and adults. Male Syrian hamsters were injected daily for 14 days with either vehicle or an AAS cocktail containing testosterone cypionate (2 mg/kg), nandrolone decanoate (2 mg/kg), and boldenone undecylenate (1 mg/kg), either during adolescence (27-41 days of age) or in adulthood (63-77 days of age). The day after the last injection, males were tested for either sexual behavior with a receptive female or agonistic behavior with a male intruder. Adolescent males treated with AAS showed significant increases in sexual and aggressive behaviors relative to vehicle-treated adolescents. In contrast, AAS-treated adults showed significantly lower levels of sexual behavior compared with vehicle-treated adults and did not show heightened aggression. Thus, adolescents, but not adults, displayed significantly higher behavioral responses to AAS, suggesting that the still-developing adolescent brain is more vulnerable than the adult brain to the adverse consequences of AAS on the nervous system and behavior.

  4. Occurrence of two different intragenic deletions in two male relatives affected with Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    SciTech Connect

    Mostacciuolo, M.L.; Miorin, M.; Vitiello, L.; Rampazzo, A.; Fanin, M.; Angelini, C.; Danieli, G.A.

    1994-03-01

    The occurrence of 2 different intragenic deletions (exons 10-44 and exon 45, respectively) is reported in 2 male relatives affected with Duchenne muscular dystrophy, both showing the same haplotype for DNA markers not included in the deleted segment. The 2 different deletions seem to have occurred independently in the same X chromosome. This finding, together with other reports, suggests possibly an increased predisposition to mutations within the DMD locus in some families. Therefore, when dealing with prenatal diagnosis, the investigation on fetal DNA cannot be restricted only to the region in which a mutation was previously identified in the family. 14 refs., 1 fig.

  5. Citrus limon extract: possible inhibitory mechanisms affecting testicular functions and fertility in male mice.

    PubMed

    Singh, Nidhi; Singh, Shio Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The effect of oral administration of 50% ethanolic leaf extract of Citrus limon (500 and 1,000 mg/kg body weight/day) for 35 days on fertility and various male reproductive endpoints was evaluated in Parkes strain of mice. Testicular indices such as histology, 3β- and 17β-HSD enzymes activity, immunoblot expression of StAR and P450scc, and germ cell apoptosis by TUNEL and CASP- 3 expression were assessed. Motility, viability, and number of spermatozoa in the cauda epididymidis, level of serum testosterone, fertility indices, and toxicological parameters were also evaluated. Histologically, testes in extract-treated mice showed nonuniform degenerative changes in the seminiferous tubules. Treatment had adverse effects on steroidogenic markers in the testis and induced germ cell apoptosis. Significant reductions were noted in epididymal sperm parameters and serum level of testosterone in Citrus-treated mice compared to controls. Fertility of the extract-treated males was also suppressed, but libido remained unaffected. By 56 days of treatment withdrawal, alterations induced in the above parameters returned to control levels suggesting that Citrus treatment causes reversible suppression of spermatogenesis and fertility in Parkes mice. Suppression of spermatogenesis may result from germ cell apoptosis because of decreased production of testosterone. The present work indicated that Citrus leaves can affect male reproduction.

  6. Sperm competition affects male behaviour and sperm output in the rainbow darter

    PubMed Central

    Fuller, R. C.

    1998-01-01

    Rainbow darters, Etheostoma caeruleum, are promiscuous fish with moderate rates of group spawning (between one and five males may simultaneously mate with one female). In this study, I examined male sperm output and male willingness to spawn under different levels of sperm competition intensity. One male and one female were allowed to spawn in an aquarium where they had visual and olfactory access to one of four treatments: four males, one male, zero males, or one female. Theory predicts that males should reduce sperm output when there are more than the average number of males at a group spawning (four-male treatment) and should increase sperm output when there are fewer than average males at a group spawning (one-male treatment). Mean sperm output did not differ among treatments. However, males released more sperm when spawning in the presence of competing males (four-male and one-male treatments pooled) than when spawning in the absence of competing males (zero-male and one-female treatments pooled). Males were also most likely to forego spawning opportunities when sperm competition intensity was high. Furthermore, male willingness to spawn was size dependent. Large males were more likely to forego spawning opportunities under high sperm competition intensity. Large males may be better off waiting for future spawning opportunities when there is a lower potential for sperm competition intensity.

  7. Argon does not affect cerebral circulation or metabolism in male humans.

    PubMed

    Grüne, Frank; Kazmaier, Stephan; Hoeks, Sanne Elisabeth; Stolker, Robert Jan; Coburn, Marc; Weyland, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Accumulating data have recently underlined argon´s neuroprotective potential. However, to the best of our knowledge, no data are available on the cerebrovascular effects of argon (Ar) in humans. We hypothesized that argon inhalation does not affect mean blood flow velocity of the middle cerebral artery (Vmca), cerebral flow index (FI), zero flow pressure (ZFP), effective cerebral perfusion pressure (CPPe), resistance area product (RAP) and the arterio-jugular venous content differences of oxygen (AJVDO2), glucose (AJVDG), and lactate (AJVDL) in anesthetized patients. In a secondary analysis of an earlier controlled cross-over trial we compared parameters of the cerebral circulation under 15 minutes exposure to 70%Ar/30%O2 versus 70%N2/30%O2 in 29 male patients under fentanyl-midazolam anaesthesia before coronary surgery. Vmca was measured by transcranial Doppler sonography. ZFP and RAP were estimated by linear regression analysis of pressure-flow velocity relationships of the middle cerebral artery. CPPe was calculated as the difference between mean arterial pressure and ZFP. AJVDO2, AJVDG and AJVDL were calculated as the differences in contents between arterial and jugular-venous blood of oxygen, glucose, and lactate. Statistical analysis was done by t-tests and ANOVA. Mechanical ventilation with 70% Ar did not cause any significant changes in mean arterial pressure, Vmca, FI, ZFP, CPPe, RAP, AJVDO2, AJVDG, and AJVDL. Short-term inhalation of 70% Ar does not affect global cerebral circulation or metabolism in male humans under general anaesthesia.

  8. Brain size affects female but not male survival under predation threat.

    PubMed

    Kotrschal, Alexander; Buechel, Séverine D; Zala, Sarah M; Corral-Lopez, Alberto; Penn, Dustin J; Kolm, Niclas

    2015-07-01

    There is remarkable diversity in brain size among vertebrates, but surprisingly little is known about how ecological species interactions impact the evolution of brain size. Using guppies, artificially selected for large and small brains, we determined how brain size affects survival under predation threat in a naturalistic environment. We cohoused mixed groups of small- and large-brained individuals in six semi-natural streams with their natural predator, the pike cichlid, and monitored survival in weekly censuses over 5 months. We found that large-brained females had 13.5% higher survival compared to small-brained females, whereas the brain size had no discernible effect on male survival. We suggest that large-brained females have a cognitive advantage that allows them to better evade predation, whereas large-brained males are more colourful, which may counteract any potential benefits of brain size. Our study provides the first experimental evidence that trophic interactions can affect the evolution of brain size. © 2015 The Authors Ecology Letters published by CNRS and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Brain size affects female but not male survival under predation threat

    PubMed Central

    Kotrschal, Alexander; Buechel, Séverine D; Zala, Sarah M; Corral-Lopez, Alberto; Penn, Dustin J; Kolm, Niclas; Sorci, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    There is remarkable diversity in brain size among vertebrates, but surprisingly little is known about how ecological species interactions impact the evolution of brain size. Using guppies, artificially selected for large and small brains, we determined how brain size affects survival under predation threat in a naturalistic environment. We cohoused mixed groups of small- and large-brained individuals in six semi-natural streams with their natural predator, the pike cichlid, and monitored survival in weekly censuses over 5 months. We found that large-brained females had 13.5% higher survival compared to small-brained females, whereas the brain size had no discernible effect on male survival. We suggest that large-brained females have a cognitive advantage that allows them to better evade predation, whereas large-brained males are more colourful, which may counteract any potential benefits of brain size. Our study provides the first experimental evidence that trophic interactions can affect the evolution of brain size. PMID:25960088

  10. Breathing Techniques Affect Female but Not Male Hip Flexion Range of Motion.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Alan R; Beck, Katie L; Kaulbach, Jillian; Kenny, Megan; Basset, Fabien A; DiSanto, Mario C; Behm, David G

    2015-11-01

    Two protocols were undertaken to help clarify the effects of breathing techniques on hamstrings (hip flexion) range of motion (ROM). The protocols examined effects of breathing conditions on ROM and trunk muscle activity. Protocol 1: Thirty recreationally active participants (15 male, 15 female, 20-25 years) were monitored for changes in single-leg raise (SLR) ROM with 7 breathing conditions before or during a passive supine SLR stretch. Breathing conditions included prestretch inhale, prestretch exhale, inhale-during stretch, exhale-during stretch, neutral, hyperventilation, and hypoventilation before stretch. Protocol 2: Eighteen recreationally active participants (9 male, 9 female, 20-25 years) were monitored for electromyographic (EMG) activity of the rectus abdominus, external obliques, lower abdominal stabilizers, and lower erector spinae while performing the 7 breathing conditions before or during a passive SLR stretch. Control exhibited less ROM (p = 0.008) than the prestretch inhale (7.7%), inhale-during stretch (10.9%), and hypoventilation (11.2%) conditions with females. Protocol 3: Greater overall muscle activity in the prestretch exhale condition was found compared with inhale-during stretch (43.1%↓; p = 0.029) and hypoventilation (51.2%↓; p = 0.049) conditions. As the inhale-during stretch and hypoventilation conditions produced the lowest levels of muscle activity for both sexes and the highest ROM for the females, it can be assumed that both mechanical and neural factors affect female SLR ROM. Lesser male ROM might be attributed to anatomical differences such as greater joint stiffness. The breathing techniques may have affected intra-abdominal pressure, trunk muscle cocontractions, and sympathetic neural activity to enhance female ROM.

  11. Stressors affect the response of male and female rats to clomipramine in a model of behavioral despair (forced swim test).

    PubMed

    Consoli, Daniele; Fedotova, Julia; Micale, Vincenzo; Sapronov, Nikolay S; Drago, Filippo

    2005-09-27

    blunted the hormonal response. However, severe shocks were followed by a surge of plasma corticosterone levels in both male and female clomipramine-treated rats. These results demonstrate that duration and intensity of stressful stimuli may deeply affect the behavioral response of rats in forced swim test and influence clomipramine effect in this behavioral model depending on gender-based variables, probably of the hormonal type. Plasma corticosterone levels correlate with the behavioral response to clomipramine treatment suggesting that reactivity of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis to stress may be involved in the antidepressant effect of this drug.

  12. Involvement of right STS in audio-visual integration for affective speech demonstrated using MEG.

    PubMed

    Hagan, Cindy C; Woods, Will; Johnson, Sam; Green, Gary G R; Young, Andrew W

    2013-01-01

    Speech and emotion perception are dynamic processes in which it may be optimal to integrate synchronous signals emitted from different sources. Studies of audio-visual (AV) perception of neutrally expressed speech demonstrate supra-additive (i.e., where AV>[unimodal auditory+unimodal visual]) responses in left STS to crossmodal speech stimuli. However, emotions are often conveyed simultaneously with speech; through the voice in the form of speech prosody and through the face in the form of facial expression. Previous studies of AV nonverbal emotion integration showed a role for right (rather than left) STS. The current study therefore examined whether the integration of facial and prosodic signals of emotional speech is associated with supra-additive responses in left (cf. results for speech integration) or right (due to emotional content) STS. As emotional displays are sometimes difficult to interpret, we also examined whether supra-additive responses were affected by emotional incongruence (i.e., ambiguity). Using magnetoencephalography, we continuously recorded eighteen participants as they viewed and heard AV congruent emotional and AV incongruent emotional speech stimuli. Significant supra-additive responses were observed in right STS within the first 250 ms for emotionally incongruent and emotionally congruent AV speech stimuli, which further underscores the role of right STS in processing crossmodal emotive signals.

  13. Demonstration of genome-wide association studies for identifying markers for wood property and male strobili traits in Cryptomeria japonica.

    PubMed

    Uchiyama, Kentaro; Iwata, Hiroyoshi; Moriguchi, Yoshinari; Ujino-Ihara, Tokuko; Ueno, Saneyoshi; Taguchi, Yuriko; Tsubomura, Miyoko; Mishima, Kentaro; Iki, Taiichi; Watanabe, Atsushi; Futamura, Norihiro; Shinohara, Kenji; Tsumura, Yoshihiko

    2013-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are an alternative to bi-parental QTL mapping in long-lived perennials. In the present study, we examined the potential of GWAS in conifers using 367 unrelated plus trees of Cryptomeria japonica D. Don, which is the most widely planted and commercially important tree species in Japan, and tried to detect significant associations between wood property traits and quantity of male strobili on the one hand, and 1,032 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) assigned to 1,032 genes on the other. Association analysis was performed with the mixed linear model taking into account kinship relationships and subpopulation structure. In total, 6 SNPs were found to have significant associations with the variations in phenotype. These SNPs were not associated with the positions of known genes and QTLs that have been reported to date, thus they may identify novel QTLs. These 6 SNPs were all found in sequences showing similarities with known genes, although further analysis is required to dissect the ways in which they affect wood property traits and abundance of male strobili. These presumptive QTL loci provide opportunities for improvement of C. japonica, based on a marker approach. The results suggest that GWAS has potential for use in future breeding programs in C. japonica.

  14. 40 CFR 63.1318 - PET and polystyrene affected sources-testing and compliance demonstration provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true PET and polystyrene affected sources...: Group IV Polymers and Resins § 63.1318 PET and polystyrene affected sources—testing and compliance... not apply and owners or operators are not required to comply with § 63.113. (b) PET affected sources...

  15. 40 CFR 63.1318 - PET and polystyrene affected sources-testing and compliance demonstration provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false PET and polystyrene affected sources... Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins § 63.1318 PET and polystyrene affected sources—testing and... effectiveness) do not apply and owners or operators are not required to comply with § 63.113. (b) PET affected...

  16. 40 CFR 63.1318 - PET and polystyrene affected sources-testing and compliance demonstration provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true PET and polystyrene affected sources...: Group IV Polymers and Resins § 63.1318 PET and polystyrene affected sources—testing and compliance... not apply and owners or operators are not required to comply with § 63.113. (b) PET affected sources...

  17. 40 CFR 63.1318 - PET and polystyrene affected sources-testing and compliance demonstration provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false PET and polystyrene affected sources...: Group IV Polymers and Resins § 63.1318 PET and polystyrene affected sources—testing and compliance... not apply and owners or operators are not required to comply with § 63.113. (b) PET affected...

  18. Neonatal diabetes caused by a homozygous KCNJ11 mutation demonstrates that tiny changes in ATP sensitivity markedly affect diabetes risk.

    PubMed

    Vedovato, Natascia; Cliff, Edward; Proks, Peter; Poovazhagi, Varadarajan; Flanagan, Sarah E; Ellard, Sian; Hattersley, Andrew T; Ashcroft, Frances M

    2016-07-01

    The pancreatic ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channel plays a pivotal role in linking beta cell metabolism to insulin secretion. Mutations in KATP channel genes can result in hypo- or hypersecretion of insulin, as in neonatal diabetes mellitus and congenital hyperinsulinism, respectively. To date, all patients affected by neonatal diabetes due to a mutation in the pore-forming subunit of the channel (Kir6.2, KCNJ11) are heterozygous for the mutation. Here, we report the first clinical case of neonatal diabetes caused by a homozygous KCNJ11 mutation. A male patient was diagnosed with diabetes shortly after birth. At 5 months of age, genetic testing revealed he carried a homozygous KCNJ11 mutation, G324R, (Kir6.2-G324R) and he was successfully transferred to sulfonylurea therapy (0.2 mg kg(-1) day(-1)). Neither heterozygous parent was affected. Functional properties of wild-type, heterozygous and homozygous mutant KATP channels were examined after heterologous expression in Xenopus oocytes. Functional studies indicated that the Kir6.2-G324R mutation reduces the channel ATP sensitivity but that the difference in ATP inhibition between homozygous and heterozygous channels is remarkably small. Nevertheless, the homozygous patient developed neonatal diabetes, whereas the heterozygous parents were, and remain, unaffected. Kir6.2-G324R channels were fully shut by the sulfonylurea tolbutamide, which explains why the patient's diabetes was well controlled by sulfonylurea therapy. The data demonstrate that tiny changes in KATP channel activity can alter beta cell electrical activity and insulin secretion sufficiently to cause diabetes. They also aid our understanding of how the Kir6.2-E23K variant predisposes to type 2 diabetes.

  19. The Perceptions and Pressures Experienced by Male Primary Elementary Teachers and How These Affect Their Behaviors and Career Choices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siefert, Darin William

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation was a qualitative study of the perceptions and pressure of male primary elementary teachers and how these may affect their behavior and career choices. The researcher sought, through interviews of all stakeholders, to better understand the world of a male primary elementary teacher and how they are impacted by the thoughts and…

  20. Xylitol affects the intestinal microbiota and metabolism of daidzein in adult male mice.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Motoi; Hoshi, Chigusa; Hori, Sachiko

    2013-12-10

    This study examined the effects of xylitol on mouse intestinal microbiota and urinary isoflavonoids. Xylitol is classified as a sugar alcohol and used as a food additive. The intestinal microbiota seems to play an important role in isoflavone metabolism. Xylitol feeding appears to affect the gut microbiota. We hypothesized that dietary xylitol changes intestinal microbiota and, therefore, the metabolism of isoflavonoids in mice. Male mice were randomly divided into two groups: those fed a 0.05% daidzein with 5% xylitol diet (XD group) and those fed a 0.05% daidzein-containing control diet (CD group) for 28 days. Plasma total cholesterol concentrations were significantly lower in the XD group than in the CD group (p < 0.05). Urinary amounts of equol were significantly higher in the XD group than in the CD group (p < 0.05). The fecal lipid contents (% dry weight) were significantly greater in the XD group than in the CD group (p < 0.01). The cecal microbiota differed between the two dietary groups. The occupation ratios of Bacteroides were significantly greater in the CD than in the XD group (p < 0.05). This study suggests that xylitol has the potential to affect the metabolism of daidzein by altering the metabolic activity of the intestinal microbiota and/or gut environment. Given that equol affects bone health, dietary xylitol plus isoflavonoids may exert a favorable effect on bone health.

  1. Female brain size affects the assessment of male attractiveness during mate choice

    PubMed Central

    Corral-López, Alberto; Bloch, Natasha I.; Kotrschal, Alexander; van der Bijl, Wouter; Buechel, Severine D.; Mank, Judith E.; Kolm, Niclas

    2017-01-01

    Mate choice decisions are central in sexual selection theory aimed to understand how sexual traits evolve and their role in evolutionary diversification. We test the hypothesis that brain size and cognitive ability are important for accurate assessment of partner quality and that variation in brain size and cognitive ability underlies variation in mate choice. We compared sexual preference in guppy female lines selected for divergence in relative brain size, which we have previously shown to have substantial differences in cognitive ability. In a dichotomous choice test, large-brained and wild-type females showed strong preference for males with color traits that predict attractiveness in this species. In contrast, small-brained females showed no preference for males with these traits. In-depth analysis of optomotor response to color cues and gene expression of key opsins in the eye revealed that the observed differences were not due to differences in visual perception of color, indicating that differences in the ability to process indicators of attractiveness are responsible. We thus provide the first experimental support that individual variation in brain size affects mate choice decisions and conclude that differences in cognitive ability may be an important underlying mechanism behind variation in female mate choice. PMID:28345039

  2. Mosaicism for the FMR1 gene influences adaptive skills development in fragile X-affected males

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, I.L.; Sudhalter, V.; Nolin, S.L.

    1996-08-09

    Fragile X syndrome is one of the most common forms of inherited mental retardation, and the first of a new class of genetic disorders associated with expanded trinucleotide repeats. Previously, we found that about 41% of affected males are mosaic for this mutation in that some of their blood cells have an active fragile X gene and others do not. It has been hypothesized that these mosaic cases should show higher levels of functioning than those who have only the inactive full mutation gene, but previous studies have provided negative or equivocal results. In the present study, the cross-sectional development of communication, self-care, socialization, and motor skills was studied in 46 males with fragile X syndrome under age 20 years as a function of two variables: age and the presence or absence of mosaicism. The rate of adaptive skills development was 2-4 times as great in mosaic cases as in full mutation cases. There was also a trend for cases with autism to be more prevalent in the full-mutation group. These results have implications for prognosis, for the utility of gene or protein replacement therapies for this disorder, and for understanding the association between mental retardation, developmental disorders, and fragile X syndrome. 21 refs., 3 figs.

  3. Female brain size affects the assessment of male attractiveness during mate choice.

    PubMed

    Corral-López, Alberto; Bloch, Natasha I; Kotrschal, Alexander; van der Bijl, Wouter; Buechel, Severine D; Mank, Judith E; Kolm, Niclas

    2017-03-01

    Mate choice decisions are central in sexual selection theory aimed to understand how sexual traits evolve and their role in evolutionary diversification. We test the hypothesis that brain size and cognitive ability are important for accurate assessment of partner quality and that variation in brain size and cognitive ability underlies variation in mate choice. We compared sexual preference in guppy female lines selected for divergence in relative brain size, which we have previously shown to have substantial differences in cognitive ability. In a dichotomous choice test, large-brained and wild-type females showed strong preference for males with color traits that predict attractiveness in this species. In contrast, small-brained females showed no preference for males with these traits. In-depth analysis of optomotor response to color cues and gene expression of key opsins in the eye revealed that the observed differences were not due to differences in visual perception of color, indicating that differences in the ability to process indicators of attractiveness are responsible. We thus provide the first experimental support that individual variation in brain size affects mate choice decisions and conclude that differences in cognitive ability may be an important underlying mechanism behind variation in female mate choice.

  4. Social experiences during adolescence affect anxiety-like behavior but not aggressiveness in male mice.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Neele; Jenikejew, Julia; Richter, S Helene; Kaiser, Sylvia; Sachser, Norbert

    2017-03-09

    Adolescence has lately been recognized as a key developmental phase during which an individual's behavior can be shaped. In a recent study with male mice varying in the expression of the serotonin transporter, escapable adverse social experiences during adolescence led to decreased anxiety-like behavior and increased exploratory and aggressive behavior compared to throughout beneficial experiences. Since in this study some behavioral tests took place with a delay of one week after the last social experiences have been made, it was not clear whether the observed effects really reflected the consequences of the experienced different social environments. To test this, the present study focused on the direct effects of beneficial and adverse social experiences on aggressiveness and anxiety-like behavior in C57BL/6J mice. In contrast to the previous study, behavioral testing took place immediately after the last social experiences had been made. Interestingly, whereas individuals from an escapable adverse environment showed significantly lower levels of anxiety-like and higher levels of exploratory behavior than animals from a beneficial environment, aggressive behavior was not affected. From this, we conclude that different social experiences during adolescence exert immediate effects on anxiety-like but not aggressive behavior in male mice.

  5. Transgenerational sex determination: the embryonic environment experienced by a male affects offspring sex ratio

    PubMed Central

    Warner, Daniel A.; Uller, Tobias; Shine, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Conditions experienced during embryonic development can have lasting effects, even carrying across generations. Most evidence for transgenerational effects comes from studies of female mammals, with much less known about egg-laying organisms or paternally-mediated effects. Here we show that offspring sex can be affected by the incubation temperature its father experiences years earlier. We incubated eggs of an Australian lizard with temperature-dependent sex determination under three thermal regimes; some eggs were given an aromatase inhibitor to produce sons at temperatures that usually produce only daughters. Offspring were raised to maturity and freely interbred within field enclosures. After incubating eggs of the subsequent generation and assigning parentage, we found that the developmental temperature experienced by a male significantly influences the sex of his future progeny. This transgenerational effect on sex ratio may reflect an epigenetic influence on paternally-inherited DNA. Clearly, sex determination in reptiles is far more complex than is currently envisaged. PMID:24048344

  6. Alcohol affects brain functional connectivity and its coupling with behavior: greater effects in male heavy drinkers.

    PubMed

    Shokri-Kojori, E; Tomasi, D; Wiers, C E; Wang, G-J; Volkow, N D

    2016-03-29

    Acute and chronic alcohol exposure significantly affect behavior but the underlying neurobiological mechanisms are still poorly understood. Here, we used functional connectivity density (FCD) mapping to study alcohol-related changes in resting brain activity and their association with behavior. Heavy drinkers (HD, N=16, 16 males) and normal controls (NM, N=24, 14 males) were tested after placebo and after acute alcohol administration. Group comparisons showed that NM had higher FCD in visual and prefrontal cortices, default mode network regions and thalamus, while HD had higher FCD in cerebellum. Acute alcohol significantly increased FCD within the thalamus, impaired cognitive and motor functions, and affected self-reports of mood/drug effects in both groups. Partial least squares regression showed that alcohol-induced changes in mood/drug effects were associated with changes in thalamic FCD in both groups. Disruptions in motor function were associated with increases in cerebellar FCD in NM and thalamus FCD in HD. Alcohol-induced declines in cognitive performance were associated with connectivity increases in visual cortex and thalamus in NM, but in HD, increases in precuneus FCD were associated with improved cognitive performance. Acute alcohol reduced 'neurocognitive coupling', the association between behavioral performance and FCD (indexing brain activity), an effect that was accentuated in HD compared with NM. Findings suggest that reduced cortical connectivity in HD contribute to decline in cognitive abilities associated with heavy alcohol consumption, whereas increased cerebellar connectivity in HD may have compensatory effects on behavioral performance. The results reveal how drinking history alters the association between brain FCD and individual differences in behavioral performance.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 29 March 2016; doi:10.1038/mp.2016.25.

  7. Alcohol Affects Brain Functional Connectivity and its Coupling with Behavior: Greater Effects in Male Heavy Drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Shokri-Kojori, Ehsan; Tomasi, Dardo; Wiers, Corinde E.; Wang, Gene-Jack; Volkow, Nora D.

    2016-01-01

    Acute and chronic alcohol exposure significantly affect behavior but the underlying neurobiological mechanisms are still poorly understood. Here we used functional connectivity density (FCD) mapping to study alcohol-related changes in resting brain activity and their association with behavior. Heavy drinkers (HD; N=16; 16 males) and normal controls (NM; N=24; 14 males) were tested after placebo and after acute alcohol administration. Group comparisons showed that NM had higher FCD in visual and prefrontal cortices, default-mode network regions, and thalamus, while HD had higher FCD in cerebellum. Acute alcohol significantly increased FCD within the thalamus, impaired cognitive and motor functions, and affected self-reports of mood/drug effects in both groups. Partial least squares regression showed alcohol-induced changes in mood/drug effects were associated with changes in thalamic FCD in both groups. Disruptions in motor function were associated with increases in cerebellar FCD in NM and thalamus FCD in HD. Alcohol-induced declines in cognitive performance were associated with connectivity increases in visual cortex and thalamus in NM, but in HD, increases in precuneus FCD were associated with improved cognitive performance. Acute alcohol reduced “neurocognitive coupling”, the association between behavioral performance and FCD (indexing brain activity), an effect that was accentuated in HD compared to NM. Findings suggest that reduced cortical connectivity in HD contribute to decline in cognitive abilities associated with heavy alcohol consumption, whereas increased cerebellar connectivity in HD may have compensatory effects on behavioral performance. The results reveal how drinking history alters the association between brain functional connectivity density and individual differences in behavioral performance. PMID:27021821

  8. Argon does not affect cerebral circulation or metabolism in male humans

    PubMed Central

    Kazmaier, Stephan; Hoeks, Sanne Elisabeth; Stolker, Robert Jan; Coburn, Marc; Weyland, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Objective Accumulating data have recently underlined argon´s neuroprotective potential. However, to the best of our knowledge, no data are available on the cerebrovascular effects of argon (Ar) in humans. We hypothesized that argon inhalation does not affect mean blood flow velocity of the middle cerebral artery (Vmca), cerebral flow index (FI), zero flow pressure (ZFP), effective cerebral perfusion pressure (CPPe), resistance area product (RAP) and the arterio-jugular venous content differences of oxygen (AJVDO2), glucose (AJVDG), and lactate (AJVDL) in anesthetized patients. Materials and methods In a secondary analysis of an earlier controlled cross-over trial we compared parameters of the cerebral circulation under 15 minutes exposure to 70%Ar/30%O2 versus 70%N2/30%O2 in 29 male patients under fentanyl-midazolam anaesthesia before coronary surgery. Vmca was measured by transcranial Doppler sonography. ZFP and RAP were estimated by linear regression analysis of pressure-flow velocity relationships of the middle cerebral artery. CPPe was calculated as the difference between mean arterial pressure and ZFP. AJVDO2, AJVDG and AJVDL were calculated as the differences in contents between arterial and jugular-venous blood of oxygen, glucose, and lactate. Statistical analysis was done by t-tests and ANOVA. Results Mechanical ventilation with 70% Ar did not cause any significant changes in mean arterial pressure, Vmca, FI, ZFP, CPPe, RAP, AJVDO2, AJVDG, and AJVDL. Discussion Short-term inhalation of 70% Ar does not affect global cerebral circulation or metabolism in male humans under general anaesthesia. PMID:28207907

  9. Temperature, but Not Available Energy, Affects the Expression of a Sexually Selected Ultraviolet (UV) Colour Trait in Male European Green Lizards

    PubMed Central

    Bajer, Katalin; Molnár, Orsolya; Török, János; Herczeg, Gábor

    2012-01-01

    Background Colour signals are widely used in intraspecific communication and often linked to individual fitness. The development of some pigment-based (e.g. carotenoids) colours is often environment-dependent and costly for the signaller, however, for structural colours (e.g. ultraviolet [UV]) this topic is poorly understood, especially in terrestrial ectothermic vertebrates. Methodology/Principal Findings In a factorial experiment, we studied how available energy and time at elevated body temperature affects the annual expression of the nuptial throat colour patch in male European green lizards (Lacerta viridis) after hibernation and before mating season. In this species, there is a female preference for males with high throat UV reflectance, and males with high UV reflectance are more likely to win fights. We found that (i) while food shortage decreased lizards' body condition, it did not affect colour development, and (ii) the available time for maintaining high body temperature affected the development of UV colour without affecting body condition or other colour traits. Conclusions/Significance Our results demonstrate that the expression of a sexually selected structural colour signal depends on the time at elevated body temperature affecting physiological performance but not on available energy gained from food per se in an ectothermic vertebrate. We suggest that the effect of high ambient temperature on UV colour in male L. viridis makes it an honest signal, because success in acquiring thermally favourable territories and/or effective behavioural thermoregulation can both be linked to individual quality. PMID:22479611

  10. Temperature, but not available energy, affects the expression of a sexually selected ultraviolet (UV) colour trait in male European green lizards.

    PubMed

    Bajer, Katalin; Molnár, Orsolya; Török, János; Herczeg, Gábor

    2012-01-01

    Colour signals are widely used in intraspecific communication and often linked to individual fitness. The development of some pigment-based (e.g. carotenoids) colours is often environment-dependent and costly for the signaller, however, for structural colours (e.g. ultraviolet [UV]) this topic is poorly understood, especially in terrestrial ectothermic vertebrates. In a factorial experiment, we studied how available energy and time at elevated body temperature affects the annual expression of the nuptial throat colour patch in male European green lizards (Lacerta viridis) after hibernation and before mating season. In this species, there is a female preference for males with high throat UV reflectance, and males with high UV reflectance are more likely to win fights. We found that (i) while food shortage decreased lizards' body condition, it did not affect colour development, and (ii) the available time for maintaining high body temperature affected the development of UV colour without affecting body condition or other colour traits. Our results demonstrate that the expression of a sexually selected structural colour signal depends on the time at elevated body temperature affecting physiological performance but not on available energy gained from food per se in an ectothermic vertebrate. We suggest that the effect of high ambient temperature on UV colour in male L. viridis makes it an honest signal, because success in acquiring thermally favourable territories and/or effective behavioural thermoregulation can both be linked to individual quality.

  11. 40 CFR 63.5996 - How do I demonstrate initial compliance with the emission limits for tire production affected...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... compliance with the emission limits for tire production affected sources? 63.5996 Section 63.5996 Protection... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Testing and Initial Compliance Requirements for Tire... tire production affected sources? (a) You must demonstrate initial compliance with each emission limit...

  12. 40 CFR 63.5996 - How do I demonstrate initial compliance with the emission limits for tire production affected...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... with the emission limits for tire production affected sources? 63.5996 Section 63.5996 Protection of... Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Testing and Initial Compliance Requirements for Tire Production Affected Sources § 63.5996 How do I demonstrate initial compliance with the emission limits for tire...

  13. 40 CFR 63.5996 - How do I demonstrate initial compliance with the emission limits for tire production affected...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... compliance with the emission limits for tire production affected sources? 63.5996 Section 63.5996 Protection... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Testing and Initial Compliance Requirements for Tire... tire production affected sources? (a) You must demonstrate initial compliance with each emission limit...

  14. 40 CFR 63.5996 - How do I demonstrate initial compliance with the emission limits for tire production affected...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... with the emission limits for tire production affected sources? 63.5996 Section 63.5996 Protection of... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Testing and Initial Compliance Requirements for Tire... tire production affected sources? (a) You must demonstrate initial compliance with each emission limit...

  15. 40 CFR 63.6004 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limits for tire production affected...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... compliance with the emission limits for tire production affected sources? 63.6004 Section 63.6004 Protection... Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Continuous Compliance Requirements for Tire Production Affected Sources § 63.6004 How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limits for tire production...

  16. 40 CFR 63.5996 - How do I demonstrate initial compliance with the emission limits for tire production affected...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... with the emission limits for tire production affected sources? 63.5996 Section 63.5996 Protection of... Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Testing and Initial Compliance Requirements for Tire Production Affected Sources § 63.5996 How do I demonstrate initial compliance with the emission limits for tire...

  17. 40 CFR 63.6004 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limits for tire production affected...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... compliance with the emission limits for tire production affected sources? 63.6004 Section 63.6004 Protection... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Continuous Compliance Requirements for Tire Production Affected Sources § 63.6004 How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limits for tire...

  18. When What's Inside Counts: Sequence of Demonstrated Actions Affects Preschooler's Categorization by Nonobvious Properties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Yue; Kushnir, Tamar

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the role of a particular social cue--the "sequence" of demonstrated actions and events--in preschooler's categorization. A demonstrator sorted objects that varied on both a surface feature (color) and a nonobvious property (sound made when shaken). Children saw a sequence of actions in which the nonobvious property…

  19. Prenatal and lactation nicotine exposure affects morphology and function of brown adipose tissue in male rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jie; Ping, Jie; Zhang, Wan-Xia; Rao, Yi-Song; Liu, Han-Xiao; Zhang, Jing; Yan, You-E

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of prenatal and lactation nicotine exposure on the morphology and function of brown adipose tissue (BAT) in male rat offspring. We conducted a morphological assay and gene expression study of interscapular BAT (iBAT) in male rat offspring. The male offspring from nicotine-exposed dams exhibited higher body weight and iBAT weight. Hematoxylin and eosin staining and transmission electron microscopy showed that iBAT from nicotine-exposed male offspring presented a "whitening" phenotype characterized by lipid droplet accumulation and impaired mitochondria with a randomly oriented and fractured cristae. The expression of the iBAT structure and function-related genes all decreased in nicotine-exposed male offspring. These data indicate that prenatal and lactation nicotine exposure affects morphology and function of iBAT in male rat offspring.

  20. Supplementary feeding affects the breeding behaviour of male European treefrogs (Hyla arborea)

    PubMed Central

    Meuche, Ivonne; Grafe, T Ulmar

    2009-01-01

    Background We investigated the effects of energetic constraints on the breeding behaviour of male European treefrogs Hyla arborea and how calling males allocated additional energy supplied by feeding experiments. Results Presence in the chorus was energetically costly indicated by both fed and unfed males losing weight. Males that were supplied with additional energy did not show longer chorus tenure. Instead, fed males returned sooner to the chorus. Additionally, fed males called more often than control males, a novel response for anurans. A significantly higher calling rate was noted from males even 31 nights after supplementary feeding. Conclusion This strategy of allocating additional energy reserves to increasing calling rate is beneficial given the preference of female hylids for males calling at high rates and a female's ability to detect small incremental increases in calling rate. PMID:19128468

  1. Affective Responses to Acute Exercise in Elderly Impaired Males: The Moderating Effects of Self-Efficacy and Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAuley, Edward; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examined relationships between perceptions of personal efficacy and affective responsibility to acute exercise in elderly male inpatients and outpatients at a Veterans Administration Medical Center. A significant change in feelings of fatigue was revealed over time but exercise effects on affect were shown to be moderated by perceptions of…

  2. Increasing the Understanding and Demonstration of Appropriate Affection in Children with Asperger Syndrome: A Pilot Trial

    PubMed Central

    Sofronoff, Kate; Eloff, Johann; Sheffield, Jeanie; Attwood, Tony

    2011-01-01

    The study was conducted to examine relationships between affectionate behavior in children with Asperger syndrome and variables likely to influence its expression (e.g., tactile sensitivity, social ability). It also evaluated the impact of a cognitive behavioral intervention that aimed to improve a child's understanding and expression of affection. Twenty-one children, aged 7 to 12 years, participated in the trial. The results showed significant correlations between measures of affection and tactile sensitivity and social ability. After attending the 5-week program, parents identified significant increases in the appropriateness of children's affectionate behavior both towards immediate family and people outside the immediate family, despite reporting no significant changes in their child's general difficulties with affectionate behavior. There was a significant improvement in children's understanding of the purpose of affection. The findings are discussed as well as the limitations of the study. PMID:22937243

  3. Increasing the understanding and demonstration of appropriate affection in children with asperger syndrome: a pilot trial.

    PubMed

    Sofronoff, Kate; Eloff, Johann; Sheffield, Jeanie; Attwood, Tony

    2011-01-01

    The study was conducted to examine relationships between affectionate behavior in children with Asperger syndrome and variables likely to influence its expression (e.g., tactile sensitivity, social ability). It also evaluated the impact of a cognitive behavioral intervention that aimed to improve a child's understanding and expression of affection. Twenty-one children, aged 7 to 12 years, participated in the trial. The results showed significant correlations between measures of affection and tactile sensitivity and social ability. After attending the 5-week program, parents identified significant increases in the appropriateness of children's affectionate behavior both towards immediate family and people outside the immediate family, despite reporting no significant changes in their child's general difficulties with affectionate behavior. There was a significant improvement in children's understanding of the purpose of affection. The findings are discussed as well as the limitations of the study.

  4. Aging differentially affects male and female neural stem cell neurogenic properties

    PubMed Central

    Waldron, Jay; McCourty, Althea; Lecanu, Laurent

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Neural stem cell transplantation as a brain repair strategy is a very promising technology. However, despite many attempts, the clinical success remains very deceiving. Despite clear evidence that sexual dimorphism rules many aspects of human biology, the occurrence of a sex difference in neural stem cell biology is largely understudied. Herein, we propose to determine whether gender is a dimension that drives the fate of neural stem cells through aging. Should it occur, we believe that neural stem cell sexual dimorphism and its variation during aging should be taken into account to refine clinical approaches of brain repair strategies. Methods Neural stem cells were isolated from the subventricular zone of three- and 20-month-old male and female Long-Evans rats. Expression of the estrogen receptors, ERα and ERβ, progesterone receptor, androgen receptor, and glucocorticoid receptor was analyzed and quantified by Western blotting on undifferentiated neural stem cells. A second set of neural stem cells was treated with retinoic acid to trigger differentiation, and the expression of neuronal, astroglial, and oligodendroglial markers was determined using Western blotting. Conclusion We provided in vitro evidence that the fate of neural stem cells is affected by sex and aging. Indeed, young male neural stem cells mainly expressed markers of neuronal and oligodendroglial fate, whereas young female neural stem cells underwent differentiation towards an astroglial phenotype. Aging resulted in a lessened capacity to express neuron and astrocyte markers. Undifferentiated neural stem cells displayed sexual dimorphism in the expression of steroid receptors, in particular ERα and ERβ, and the expression level of several steroid receptors increased during aging. Such sexual dimorphism might explain, at least in part, the sex difference in neural fate we observed in young and old neural stem cells. These results suggest that sex and aging are two factors to be taken

  5. Quinine controls body weight gain without affecting food intake in male C57BL6 mice.

    PubMed

    Cettour-Rose, Philippe; Bezençon, Carole; Darimont, Christian; le Coutre, Johannes; Damak, Sami

    2013-02-08

    Quinine is a natural molecule commonly used as a flavouring agent in tonic water. Diet supplementation with quinine leads to decreased body weight and food intake in rats. Quinine is an in vitro inhibitor of Trpm5, a cation channel expressed in taste bud cells, the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas. The objective of this work is to determine the effect of diet supplementation with quinine on body weight and body composition in male mice, to investigate its mechanism of action, and whether the effect is mediated through Trpm5. Compared with mice consuming AIN, a regular balanced diet, mice consuming AIN diet supplemented with 0.1% quinine gained less weight (2.89 ± 0.30 g vs 5.39 ± 0.50 g) and less fat mass (2.22 ± 0.26 g vs 4.33 ± 0.43 g) after 13 weeks of diet, and had lower blood glucose and plasma triglycerides. There was no difference in food intake between the mice consuming quinine supplemented diet and those consuming control diet. Trpm5 knockout mice gained less fat mass than wild-type mice. There was a trend for a diet-genotype interaction for body weight and body weight gain, with the effect of quinine less pronounced in the Trpm5 KO than in the WT background. Faecal weight, energy and lipid contents were higher in quinine fed mice compared to regular AIN fed mice and in Trpm5 KO mice compared to wild type mice. Quinine contributes to weight control in male C57BL6 mice without affecting food intake. A partial contribution of Trpm5 to quinine dependent body weight control is suggested.

  6. Acute severe male hypo-testosteronemia affects central motor command in humans.

    PubMed

    Felici, Francesco; Bazzucchi, Ilenia; Sgrò, Paolo; Quinzi, Federico; Conti, Alessandra; Aversa, Antonio; Gizzi, Leonardo; Mezzullo, Marco; Romanelli, Francesco; Pasquali, Renato; Lenzi, Andrea; Di Luigi, Luigi

    2016-06-01

    To indirectly evaluate the effect of androgens on neuromuscular system in humans we analyzed if an induced short-term hypogonadal state (serum total testosterone-TT<2.3ng/ml) may affect central drive to skeletal muscle and/or muscle neuro-mechanical performance. We compared voluntary and electrically evoked muscle sEMG signals from biceps brachii in nine hypogonadal male volunteers (Hypo) and in ten healthy controls (Cont). Serum TT and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) were assayed. With respect to Hypo, Cont exhibited significantly higher median frequency content (MDF) at any angular velocity; normalized MDF [95.9% (SD=23.3) vs 73.8% (SD=9.3)]; muscle fiber conduction velocity (CV) from lowest to highest angular velocities; initial MDF at fatigue test [91.78Hz (SD=22.03) vs 70.94Hz (SD=11.06)] as well as was the normalized slope [-0.64 (SD=0.14 vs -0.5 (SD=0.11)]. In the non-fatigued state, Hypo showed a slower single twitches time to peak (TTP). In Cont, half relaxation time (HRT) decreased after fatigue while increased in Hypo (p<0.05 between groups). A significant correlation between both TT and dihydrotestosterone with MDF and CV was found during voluntary contractions only. A brief exposure to very low serum TT concentration in males seem to determine a reduced excitability of the NM system which, in turn, would favor a predominant recruitment of slow twitch MUs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Medical male circumcision: How does price affect the risk-profile of take-up?

    PubMed

    Thornton, Rebecca; Godlonton, Susan

    2016-11-01

    The benefit of male circumcision is greatest among men who are most at risk of HIV infection. Encouraging this population of men to get circumcised maximizes the benefit that can be achieved through the scale-up of circumcision programs. This paper examines how the price of circumcision affects the risk profile of men who receive a voluntary medical circumcision. In 2010, 1649 uncircumcised adult men in urban Malawi were interviewed and provided a voucher for a subsidized voluntary medical male circumcision, at randomly assigned prices. Clinical data were collected indicating whether the men in the study received a circumcision. Men who took-up circumcision with a zero-priced voucher were 25 percentage points less likely than those who took-up with a positive-price voucher, to be from a tribe that traditionally circumcises (p=0.101). Zero-priced vouchers also brought in men with more sexual partners in the past year (p=0.075) and past month (p=0.003). None of the men who were most at risk of HIV at baseline (those with multiple partners and who did not use a condom the last time they had sex) received a circumcision if they were offered a positive-priced voucher. Lowering the price to zero increased circumcision take-up to 25% for men of this risk group. The effect of price on take-up was largest among those at highest risk (p=0.096). Reducing the price of circumcision surgery to zero can increase take-up among those who are most at risk of HIV infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Quinine controls body weight gain without affecting food intake in male C57BL6 mice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Quinine is a natural molecule commonly used as a flavouring agent in tonic water. Diet supplementation with quinine leads to decreased body weight and food intake in rats. Quinine is an in vitro inhibitor of Trpm5, a cation channel expressed in taste bud cells, the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas. The objective of this work is to determine the effect of diet supplementation with quinine on body weight and body composition in male mice, to investigate its mechanism of action, and whether the effect is mediated through Trpm5. Results Compared with mice consuming AIN, a regular balanced diet, mice consuming AIN diet supplemented with 0.1% quinine gained less weight (2.89 ± 0.30 g vs 5.39 ± 0.50 g) and less fat mass (2.22 ± 0.26 g vs 4.33 ± 0.43 g) after 13 weeks of diet, and had lower blood glucose and plasma triglycerides. There was no difference in food intake between the mice consuming quinine supplemented diet and those consuming control diet. Trpm5 knockout mice gained less fat mass than wild-type mice. There was a trend for a diet-genotype interaction for body weight and body weight gain, with the effect of quinine less pronounced in the Trpm5 KO than in the WT background. Faecal weight, energy and lipid contents were higher in quinine fed mice compared to regular AIN fed mice and in Trpm5 KO mice compared to wild type mice. Conclusion Quinine contributes to weight control in male C57BL6 mice without affecting food intake. A partial contribution of Trpm5 to quinine dependent body weight control is suggested. PMID:23394313

  9. Maternal administration of flutamide during late gestation affects the brain and reproductive organs development in the rat male offspring.

    PubMed

    Pallarés, M E; Adrover, E; Imsen, M; González, D; Fabre, B; Mesch, V; Baier, C J; Antonelli, M C

    2014-10-10

    We have previously demonstrated that male rats exposed to stress during the last week of gestation present age-specific impairments of brain development. Since the organization of the fetal developing brain is subject to androgen exposure and prenatal stress was reported to disrupt perinatal testosterone surges, the aim of this research was to explore whether abnormal androgen concentrations during late gestation affects the morphology of the prefrontal cortex (PFC), hippocampus (HPC) and ventral tegmental area (VTA), three major areas that were shown to be affected by prenatal stress in our previous studies. We administered 10-mg/kg/day of the androgen receptor antagonist flutamide (4'nitro-3'-trifluoromethylsobutyranilide) or vehicle injections to pregnant rats from days 15-21 of gestation. The antiandrogenic effects of flutamide were confirmed by the analysis of androgen-dependent developmental markers: flutamide-exposed rats showed reduced anogenital distance, delay in the completion of testis descent, hypospadias, cryptorchidism and atrophied seminal vesicles. Brain morphological studies revealed that prenatal flutamide decreased the number of MAP2 (a microtubule-associated protein type 2, present almost exclusively in dendrites) immunoreactive neuronal processes in all evaluated brain areas, both in prepubertal and adult offspring, suggesting that prenatal androgen disruption induces long-term reductions of the dendritic arborization of several brain structures, affecting the normal connectivity between areas. Moreover, the number of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-immunopositive neurons in the VTA of prepubertal offspring was reduced in flutamide rats but reach normal values at adulthood. Our results demonstrate that the effects of prenatal flutamide on the offspring brain morphology resemble several prenatal stress effects suggesting that the mechanism of action of prenatal stress might be related to the impairment of the organizational role of androgens on brain

  10. Male Age Affects Female Mate Preference, Quantity of Accessory Gland Proteins, and Sperm Traits and Female Fitness in D. melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Rezaei, Abolhasan; Krishna, Mysore Siddaiah; Santhosh, Hassan T

    2015-01-01

    For species in which mating is resource-independent and offspring do not receive parental care, theoretical models of age-based female mate preference predict that females should prefer to mate with older males as they have demonstrated ability to survive. Thus, females should obtain a fitness benefit from mating with older males. However, male aging is often associated with reductions in quantity of sperm. The adaptive significance of age-based mate choice is therefore unclear. Various hypotheses have made conflicting predictions concerning this issue, because published studies have not investigated the effect of age on accessory gland proteins and sperm traits. D. melanogaster exhibits resource-independent mating, and offspring do not receive parental care, making this an appropriate model for studying age-based mate choice. In the present study, we found that D. melanogaster females of all ages preferred to mate with the younger of two competing males. Young males performed significantly greater courtship attempts and females showed least rejection for the same than middle-aged and old males. Young males had small accessory glands that contained very few main cells that were larger than average. Nevertheless, compared with middle-aged or old males, the young males transferred greater quantities of accessory gland proteins and sperm to mated females. As a result, females that mated with young male produced more eggs and progeny than those that mated with older males. Furthermore, mating with young male reduced female's lifespan. These studies indicate that quantity of accessory gland proteins and sperm traits decreased with male age and females obtain direct fitness benefit from mating with preferred young males.

  11. Gossypol with methyltestosterone and ethinylestradiol male does not affect rat spermatogonial stem cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Cui, G; Zheng, W; Sun, Y; Zhang, Q; Deng, X; Chen, X

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether administration of the regimen of gossypol at 12 mg/kg/day combined with methyltestosterone at 20 mg/kg/day and ethinylestradiol at 100 microg/kg/day for a long term of twenty-four weeks could affect the existence and differentiation of rat spermatogonial stem cell. This was assessed by conducting TdT-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling detection, spermatogonial stem cell transplantation and fertility recovery evaluation. Our results showed that spontaneous apoptosis was observed in normal rats' testes from the control group with an apoptotic index (AI) average of 10.24+/-1.52. In the regimen-treated group, the predominant apoptotic cells were spermatocytes and spermatids in the seminiferous tubules. Spermatogonia were not apoptotic (AI averaged 113.42+/-13.24). Two to three months after transplantation of spermatogonial stem cells isolated from regimen-treated rats into recipient nude mice, elongated rat spermatids were identified in the seminiferous tubules of recipient nude mice. Six weeks after withdrawal of the administration, fertility of the regimen-treated rats was recovered compared with that of the control group. The number of litters produced by females mated with regimen-treated males averaged 9.88+/-0.166 matched 10.30+/-0.171 of control group and the litters of the first generation appeared to be normal. These results indicated that the administration of this regimen did not affect the existence and differentiation potential of spermatogonial stem cells of the regimen-treated rats.

  12. Preservice Elementary School Teachers' Conceptual Change about Projectile Motion: Refutation Text, Demonstration, Affective Factors, and Relevance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hynd, Cynthia; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Investigates changes in preservice teachers' conceptions about projectile motion brought about by a combination of reading and demonstration and appeal to usefulness. Results indicate the effectiveness of a combined Demo-Text condition on immediate posttests and effectiveness of text in producing long-term change. Analysis also indicates an…

  13. An Experiment To Demonstrate How a Catalyst Affects the Rate of a Reaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copper, Christine L.; Koubeck, Edward

    1999-01-01

    Describes a chemistry experiment that allows students to calculate rates of reaction, orders of reaction, and activation energies. The activity demonstrates that to increase a reaction's rate, a catalyst need only provide any additional pathway for the reaction, not necessarily a pathway having lower activation energy. (WRM)

  14. An Experiment To Demonstrate How a Catalyst Affects the Rate of a Reaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copper, Christine L.; Koubeck, Edward

    1999-01-01

    Describes a chemistry experiment that allows students to calculate rates of reaction, orders of reaction, and activation energies. The activity demonstrates that to increase a reaction's rate, a catalyst need only provide any additional pathway for the reaction, not necessarily a pathway having lower activation energy. (WRM)

  15. Preservice Elementary School Teachers' Conceptual Change about Projectile Motion: Refutation Text, Demonstration, Affective Factors, and Relevance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hynd, Cynthia; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Investigates changes in preservice teachers' conceptions about projectile motion brought about by a combination of reading and demonstration and appeal to usefulness. Results indicate the effectiveness of a combined Demo-Text condition on immediate posttests and effectiveness of text in producing long-term change. Analysis also indicates an…

  16. New X linked spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia: report on eight affected males in the same family.

    PubMed Central

    Camera, G; Stella, G; Camera, A

    1994-01-01

    We report on a probably new form of spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia (SEMD) with an X linked inheritance pattern. Eight males were affected in the same family. We were able to examine three adult patients and we studied the skeletal radiological aspect of one of these patients at 2 years 6 months and at 9 years of age. The main clinical features are severe short trunked dwarfism, brachydactyly, normal facies, and normal intelligence. Radiologically, the diaphyses of all the long bones are short and broad. The epiphyses of the distal portion of the femora and those of the proximal and distal portions of the tibia are embedded in their metaphyses and there is marked narrowing of the intercondylar groove. There is moderate platyspondyly. Several vertebrae show an anterior tongue in infancy and severe irregularities of the upper and lower surfaces are present in adulthood. The 11th or 12th thoracic vertebra is wedge shaped. The pelvis is narrow. The distal ulnae and fibulae are disproportionately long. The hands show radial deviation and brachydactyly is present in the hands and feet. This X linked SEMD was not detectable at birth. Images PMID:8064814

  17. Acute interval exercise intensity does not affect appetite and nutrient preferences in overweight and obese males.

    PubMed

    Alkahtani, Shaea A; Byrne, Nuala M; Hills, Andrew P; King, Neil A

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of two different intensities of acute interval exercise on food preferences and appetite sensations in overweight and obese men. Twelve overweight/obese males (age=29.0±4.1 years; BMI =29.1±2.4 kg/m2) completed three exercise sessions: an initial graded exercise test, and two interval cycling sessions: moderate-(MIIT) and high-intensity (HIIT) interval exercise sessions on separate days in a counterbalanced order. The MIIT session involved cycling for 5-minute repetitions of alternate workloads 20% below and 20% above maximal fat oxidation. The HIIT session consisted of cycling for alternate bouts of 15 seconds at 85% VO2max and 15 seconds unloaded recovery. Appetite sensations and food preferences were measured immediately before and after the exercise sessions using the Visual Analogue Scale and the Liking & Wanting experimental procedure. Results indicated that liking significantly increased and wanting significantly decreased in all food categories after both MIIT and HIIT. There were no differences between MIIT and HIIT on the effect on appetite sensations and Liking & Wanting. In conclusion, manipulating the intensity of acute interval exercise did not affect appetite and nutrient preferences.

  18. The copulatory plug delays ejaculation by rival males and affects sperm competition outcome in house mice.

    PubMed

    Sutter, A; Lindholm, A K

    2016-08-01

    Females of many species mate with multiple males (polyandry), resulting in male-male competition extending to post-copulation (sperm competition). Males adapt to such post-copulatory sexual selection by altering features of their ejaculate that increase its competitiveness and/or by decreasing the risk of sperm competition through female manipulation or interference with rival male behaviour. At ejaculation, males of many species deposit copulatory plugs, which are commonly interpreted as a male adaptation to post-copulatory competition and are thought to reduce or delay female remating. Here, we used a vertebrate model species, the house mouse, to study the consequences of copulatory plugs for post-copulatory competition. We experimentally manipulated plugs after a female's first mating and investigated the consequences for rival male behaviour and paternity outcome. We found that even intact copulatory plugs were ineffective at preventing female remating, but that plugs influenced the rival male copulatory behaviour. Rivals facing intact copulatory plugs performed more but shorter copulations and ejaculated later than when the plug had been fully or partially removed. This suggests that the copulatory plug represents a considerable physical barrier to rival males. The paternity share of first males increased with a longer delay between the first and second males' ejaculations, indicative of fitness consequences of copulatory plugs. However, when males provided little copulatory stimulation, the incidence of pregnancy failure increased, representing a potential benefit of intense and repeated copulation besides plug removal. We discuss the potential mechanisms of how plugs influence sperm competition outcome and consequences for male copulatory behaviour. © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  19. When what's inside counts: Sequence of demonstrated actions affects preschooler's categorization by nonobvious properties.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yue; Kushnir, Tamar

    2016-03-01

    This study explores the role of a particular social cue-the sequence of demonstrated actions and events-in preschooler's categorization. A demonstrator sorted objects that varied on both a surface feature (color) and a nonobvious property (sound made when shaken). Children saw a sequence of actions in which the nonobvious property was revealed before (shake-first) or after (shake-last) categorization. Four experiments (N = 150) showed that both 4-year-olds (M(age) = 4.5 years) and 3-year-olds (M(age) = 3.5 years) shifted toward categorizing by nonobvious property after the shake-first sequence compared with the shake-last sequence (Experiment 1 and 4); 4-year-olds also generalized their categorization strategy to new objects (Experiment 2) and objects that were both labeled and categorized (Experiment 3). Results are discussed with regard to preschooler's ability to integrate social and pedagogical cues in category learning.

  20. Sexual experience affects reproductive behavior and preoptic androgen receptors in male mice

    PubMed Central

    Swaney, William T.; Dubose, Brittany N.; Curley, James P.; Champagne, Frances A.

    2012-01-01

    Reproductive behavior in male rodents is made up of anticipatory and consummatory elements which are regulated in the brain by sensory systems, reward circuits and hormone signaling. Gonadal steroids play a key role in the regulation of male sexual behavior via steroid receptors in the hypothalamus and preoptic area. Typical patterns of male reproductive behavior have been characterized, however these are not fixed but are modulated by adult experience. We assessed the effects of repeated sexual experience on male reproductive behavior of C57BL/6 mice; including measures of olfactory investigation of females, mounting, intromission and ejaculation. The effects of sexual experience on the number of cells expressing either androgen receptor (AR) or estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) in the primary brain nuclei regulating male sexual behavior was also measured. Sexually experienced male mice engaged in less sniffing of females before initiating sexual behavior and exhibited shorter latencies to mount and intromit, increased frequency of intromission, and increased duration of intromission relative to mounting. No changes in numbers of ERα-positive cells were observed, however sexually experienced males had increased numbers of AR-positive cells in the medial preoptic area (MPOA); the primary regulatory nucleus for male sexual behavior. These results indicate that sexual experience results in a qualitative change in male reproductive behavior in mice that is associated with increased testosterone sensitivity in the MPOA and that this nucleus may play a key integrative role in mediating the effects of sexual experience on male behavior. PMID:22266118

  1. Feminization of pheromone-sensing neurons affects mating decisions in Drosophila males.

    PubMed

    Lu, Beika; Zelle, Kathleen M; Seltzer, Raya; Hefetz, Abraham; Ben-Shahar, Yehuda

    2014-02-15

    The response of individual animals to mating signals depends on the sexual identity of the individual and the genetics of the mating targets, which represent the mating social context (social environment). However, how social signals are sensed and integrated during mating decisions remains a mystery. One of the models for understanding mating behaviors in molecular and cellular terms is the male courtship ritual in the fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster). We have recently shown that a subset of gustatory receptor neurons (GRNs) that are enriched in the male appendages and express the ion channel ppk23 play a major role in the initiation and maintenance of male courtship via the perception of cuticular contact pheromones, and are likely to represent the main chemosensory pathway that influences mating decisions by males. Here we show that genetic feminization of ppk23-expressing GRNs in male flies resulted in a significant increase in male-male sexual attraction without an apparent impact on sexual attraction to females. Furthermore, we show that this increase in male-male sexual attraction is sensory specific, which can be modulated by variable social contexts. Finally, we show that feminization of ppk23-expressing sensory neurons lead to major transcriptional shifts, which may explain the altered interpretation of the social environment by feminized males. Together, these data indicate that the sexual cellular identity of pheromone sensing GRNs plays a major role in how individual flies interpret their social environment in the context of mating decisions.

  2. Male age is not an independent factor to affect the outcome of assisted reproductive techniques.

    PubMed

    Kumtepe, Yakup; Yakin, Kayhan; Kahraman, Semra; Sertyel, Semra; Vanlioğlu, Faruk; Cengiz, Sami; Dönmez, Ersan

    2003-06-01

    Controversy exists whether advanced male age is associated with poor sperm quality and subsequent failure in the assisted reproductive techniques (ART). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of male age on sperm quality and the outcome of ART as well as the association of male age with other relevant factors, particularly with the female age. A retrospective study was performed in order to evaluate the effect of male age on the sperm parameters in 880 routine seminal analyses. Additionally, sperm parameters were also compared among different age groups in 919 cases with male factor infertility who had been included in an ART programme. The laboratory and clinical results of ART (fertilization rate, number and quality of embryos transferred, as well as pregnancy rates) were compared according to different age groups. The results were also evaluated by one-way correlation and also step-wise logistic regression analysis to identify the interactions and correlations between different parameters. There were no statistically significant differences between male age groups in terms of sperm concentration, motility and morphology either in routine seminal analyses or in ART groups. In the ART group, a statistically significant linear correlation was present between male and female ages. Male age was increasing in parallel to female age. Female age was also correlated significantly with ART results. In one-way correlation analysis, male age was found to be correlated with the pregnancy rate, but not with fertilization rate and the quality of the transferred embryos. However, regression analysis revealed that correlation between male age and pregnancy results was simply dependent on the effect of the female age. Seminal parameters did not reveal a significant change with the increasing male age. The effect of male age on ART results in cases with male factor infertility is not a direct effect but a reflection of the negative impact of the parallel increase in

  3. Sucrose and fat content significantly affects palatable food consumption in adolescent male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Tenk, Christine M; Felfeli, Tina

    2017-11-01

    Hyperpalatable foods are highly pleasurable and possess a heightened capacity to stimulate eating. Adolescents appear especially vulnerable to hyperpalatable foods. These foods are typically high in sugar, fat, or both, but the specific elements that underlie their increased consumption are still not clearly understood. Combinations of high fat and high sugar may particularly intensify overeating. Animal models allow investigation of the consumption of these foods separately from many of the environmental and psychological influences that impact eating in humans. The current study compared intakes of sucrose, fat, and a sucrose-fat combination when offered to male and female rats intermittently (2 h, three times per week for five weeks) during the vulnerable period of adolescence. Consumption of these foods, and of freely available normally nutritive lab chow was measured. Animals given the sucrose-fat food consumed significantly more than all other groups and were the only group to show significant increases in consumption during the first week. Moreover, the sucrose-fat group consumed significantly less chow than any other group. In comparison with previous reports in adult rats, adolescent rats appeared to heighten consumption of the sucrose-fat food more markedly and to show less pronounced sex differences. These data highlight the unique vulnerability and increased biological susceptibility of adolescent rats to sweet-fat food rewards and demonstrate the need to similarly investigate the preference for and the consumption of different hyperpalatable foods in human adolescents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Abiotic factors affecting summer distribution and movement of male paddlefish, Polyodon spathula, in a prairie reservoir

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paukert, C.P.; Fisher, W.L.

    2000-01-01

    Six male paddlefish, Polyodon spathula, were implanted with ultrasonic temperature-sensing transmitters and tracked during June through August 1997 to quantify effects of physicochemical conditions on their distribution and movement in Keystone Reservoir, Oklahoma. Paddlefish moved about twice as much during night than day. Movement rate of paddlefish was related to reservoir water level, inflow, and discharge from the reservoir at night; however, none of these variables was significant during the day. Location in the reservoir (distance from the dam) was negatively related to water level and positively related to inflow during day and night periods. Location in the reservoir was negatively related to discharge during the day. Paddlefish avoided the highest available water temperatures, but did not always avoid low dissolved oxygen concentrations. Paddlefish avoided the Cimarron River arm of the reservoir in summer, possibly because of high salinity. Our study demonstrates that distribution of paddlefish during summer and movement in Keystone Reservoir was influenced by physicochemical and hydrologic conditions in the system. However, biotic factors (e.g., food availability) not measured in this study may have been influenced by abiotic conditions in the reservoir.

  5. Childhood maltreatment affects the serotonergic system in male alcohol-dependent individuals.

    PubMed

    Berglund, Kristina J; Balldin, Jan; Berggren, Ulf; Gerdner, Arne; Fahlke, Claudia

    2013-05-01

    Reduced central serotonergic neurotransmission has been demonstrated in individuals with excessive alcohol consumption and/or alcohol dependence. Childhood maltreatment has also been found to have a negative impact on central serotonergic neurotransmission. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of childhood maltreatment on central serotonergic dysfunction in alcohol-dependent individuals. Adult men with a diagnosis of alcohol dependence (n = 18) were recruited from outpatient treatment units for alcoholism. Central serotonergic neurotransmission was assessed by a neuroendocrine method, that is, the prolactin (PRL) response to the selective 5-HT reuptake inhibitor citalopram. Childhood maltreatment was assessed retrospectively by the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Alcohol-dependent individuals with childhood experience of emotional abuse had significantly lower PRL response compared with those without such abuse (3 ± 5 and 64 ± 24 mU/l, respectively; t = 6.51, p < 0.001). Among those who reported childhood emotional abuse, 4 of 7 individuals had flat PRL responses in comparison with none in those with no report of such abuse (p < 0.01). This is the first study to show that self-reported childhood maltreatment, in particular emotional abuse, in male alcohol-dependent individuals is associated with a quite dramatic (more than 90%) reduction in central serotonergic neurotransmission. It should, however, be noted that the number of individuals is relatively small, and the results should therefore be considered as preliminary. Copyright © 2013 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  6. Long tails affect swimming performance and habitat choice in the male guppy.

    PubMed

    Karino, Kenji; Orita, Kazuhiro; Sato, Aya

    2006-03-01

    Sexual selection often favors male secondary sexual traits, although in some cases the elaborate traits incur costs to the males with respect to natural selection. Males of the guppy Poecilia reticulata have longer tails (caudal fins) than females, and the long tails contribute to the mating success of the males through female mate choice. We examined the effect of tail length on the swimming performance of male and female guppies. In a laboratory experiment, males with longer tails exhibited poorer swimming performance than those with shorter tails. However, this effect was not apparent in females. In addition, in a feral population, tail length of males was negatively correlated with water flow velocity in their microhabitats. Although body size of females was negatively correlated with water flow velocity in their microhabitats, tail length of females showed no significant correlation with degree of water flow. These results suggest that the long tail of male guppies incurs costs, such as a decrease in swimming performance, to the males with respect to natural selection and consequently limits their choice of habitats to those with slow water flow.

  7. Morphine decreases social interaction of adult male rats, while THC does not affect it.

    PubMed

    Šlamberová, R; Mikulecká, A; Macúchová, E; Hrebíčková, I; Ševčíková, M; Nohejlová, K; Pometlová, M

    2016-12-22

    The aim of the present study was to compare effect of three low doses of morphine (MOR) and delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on social behavior tested in Social interaction test (SIT). 45 min prior to testing adult male rats received one of the drugs or solvents: MOR (1; 2.5; 5 mg/kg); saline as a solvent for MOR; THC (0.5; 1; 2 mg/kg); ethanol as a solvent for THC. Occurrence and time spent in specific patterns of social interactions (SI) and non-social activities (locomotion and rearing) was video-recorded for 5 min and then analyzed. MOR in doses of 1 and 2.5 mg/kg displayed decreased SI in total. Detailed analysis of specific patterns of SI revealed decrease in mutual sniffing and allo-grooming after all doses of MOR. The highest dose (5 mg/kg) of MOR decreased following and increased genital investigation. Rearing activity was increased by lower doses of MOR (1 and 2.5 mg/kg). THC, in each of the tested doses, did not induce any specific changes when compared to matching control group (ethanol). However, an additional statistical analysis showed differences between all THC groups and their ethanol control group when compared to saline controls. There was lower SI in total, lower mutual sniffing and allo-grooming, but higher rearing in THC and ethanol groups than in saline control group. Thus, changes seen in THC and ethanol groups are seemed to be attributed mainly to the effect of the ethanol. Based on the present results we can assume that opioids affect SI more than cannabinoid.

  8. Type of sweet flavour carrier affects thyroid axis activity in male rats.

    PubMed

    Pałkowska-Goździk, Ewelina; Bigos, Anna; Rosołowska-Huszcz, Danuta

    2016-12-31

    Non-nutritive sweeteners are the most widely used food additives worldwide. However, their metabolic outcomes are still a matter of controversy and their effect on the thyroid activity, a key regulator of metabolism, has not been previously studied. Therefore, we aim to determine the influence of the sweet type flavour carrier on selected parameters of thyroid axis activity. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 105) were divided into 3 groups fed ad libitum for three weeks isocaloric diets (3.76 ± 0.5 kcal/g): two with the same sweet flavour intensity responded to 10% of sucrose (with sucrose-SC-and sucralose-SU) and one non-sweet diet (NS). To evaluate the post-ingested effects, animals were euthanised at fast and 30, 60, 120, 180 min after meal. The results obtained indicate that both the presence and the type of sweet taste flavour carrier affect thyroid axis activity both at fasting and postprandial state. Compared to diet with sucrose which stimulates thyroid axis activity, sucralose addition diminishes thyroid hormone synthesis as thyroid peroxidase (TPO) activity, plasma thyroxine (T4), and triiodothyronine (T3) concentration was lower than in SC and NS while in non-sweet diet the lowest level of hepatic deiodinase type 1 (DIO1) and the highest reverse T3 (rT3) level indicate on altered thyroid hormone peripheral metabolism. Both the presence and the type of sweet flavour carrier have a significant impact on thyroid axis activity. Our findings suggest that this organochlorine sweetener is metabolically active and might exacerbate metabolic disorders via an adverse effect on thyroid hormone metabolism.

  9. Cerebral White Matter Lesions and Affective Episodes Correlate in Male Individuals with Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Birner, Armin; Seiler, Stephan; Lackner, Nina; Bengesser, Susanne A.; Queissner, Robert; Fellendorf, Frederike T.; Platzer, Martina; Ropele, Stefan; Enzinger, Christian; Schwingenschuh, Petra; Mangge, Harald; Pirpamer, Lukas; Deutschmann, Hannes; McIntyre, Roger S.; Kapfhammer, Hans-Peter; Reininghaus, Bernd; Reininghaus, Eva Z.

    2015-01-01

    Background Cerebral white matter lesions (WML) have been found in normal aging, vascular disease and several neuropsychiatric conditions. Correlations of WML with clinical parameters in BD have been described, but not with the number of affective episodes, illness duration, age of onset and Body Mass Index in a well characterized group of euthymic bipolar adults. Herein, we aimed to evaluate the associations between bipolar course of illness parameters and WML measured with volumetric analysis. Methods In a cross-sectional study 100 euthymic individuals with BD as well as 54 healthy controls (HC) were enrolled to undergo brain magnetic resonance imaging using 3T including a FLAIR sequence for volumetric assessment of WML-load using FSL-software. Additionally, clinical characteristics and psychometric measures including Structured Clinical Interview according to DSM-IV, Hamilton-Depression, Young Mania Rating Scale and Beck’s Depression Inventory were evaluated. Results Individuals with BD had significantly more (F = 3.968, p < .05) WML (Mdn = 3710mm3; IQR = 2961mm3) than HC (Mdn = 2185mm3; IQR = 1665mm3). BD men (Mdn = 4095mm3; IQR = 3295mm3) and BD women (Mdn = 3032mm3; IQR = 2816mm3) did not significantly differ as to the WML-load or the number and type of risk factors for WML. However, in men only, the number of manic/hypomanic episodes (r = 0.72; p < .001) as well as depressive episodes (r = 0.51; p < .001) correlated positively with WML-load. Conclusions WML-load strongly correlated with the number of manic episodes in male BD patients, suggesting that men might be more vulnerable to mania in the context of cerebral white matter changes. PMID:26252714

  10. Subcortical band heterotopia in rare affected males can be caused by missense mutations in DCX (XLIS) or LIS1.

    PubMed

    Pilz, D T; Kuc, J; Matsumoto, N; Bodurtha, J; Bernadi, B; Tassinari, C A; Dobyns, W B; Ledbetter, D H

    1999-09-01

    Subcortical band heterotopia (SBH) are bilateral and symmetric ribbons of gray matter found in the central white matter between the cortex and the ventricular surface, which comprises the less severe end of the lissencephaly (agyria-pachygyria-band) spectrum of malformations. Mutations in DCX (also known as XLIS ) have previously been described in females with SBH. We have now identified mutations in either the DCX or LIS1 gene in three of 11 boys studied, demonstrating for the first time that mutations of either DCX or LIS1 can cause SBH or mixed pachygyria-SBH (PCH-SBH) in males. All three changes detected are missense mutations, predicted to be of germline origin. They include a missense mutation in exon 4 of DCX in a boy with PCH-SBH (R78H), a different missense mutation in exon 4 of DCX in a boy with mild SBH and in his mildly affected mother (R89G) and a missense mutation in exon 6 of LIS1 in a boy with SBH (S169P). The missense mutations probably account for the less severe brain malformations, although other patients with missense mutations in the same exons have had diffuse lissencephaly. Therefore, it appears likely that the effect of the specific amino acid change on the protein determines the severity of the phenotype, with some mutations enabling residual protein function and allowing normal migration in a larger proportion of neurons. However, we expect that somatic mosaic mutations of both LIS1 and DCX will also prove to be an important mechanism in causing SBH in males.

  11. Sex- and Gonad-Affecting Scent Compounds and 3 Male Pheromones in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Lixing; Zhang, Jin-Hua; Feng, Zhi-Yong

    2008-01-01

    This study was aimed at identifying sex pheromones of the rat (Rattus norvegicus). We characterized the volatiles and semivolatiles of rat preputial gland and voided urine by using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) and quantified them by their GC areas (abundances) and percentage of GC areas (relative abundances). Although all the compounds other than 4-heptanone and phenol detected were shared by males and females, the quantities for some of these sex-common compounds exhibited sexual dimorphism and decreased with gonadectomy. Thus, these compounds might be sex pheromones. Among them, squalene from preputial glands and 2-heptanone and 4-ethyl phenol from urine were 3 major compounds. They were richer in males and could be suppressed by castration. Adding any of the 3 compounds (at a concentration higher than its physiological level in male urine) to castrated male urine (CMU) increased the attractiveness of CMU to sex-naive females. Adding the 3 together (at the levels in normal male urine) to CMU significantly increased the attractiveness of CMU to females. However, such combination did not fully restore females' preference for urine from intact males, suggesting that some other trace compounds such as 4-heptanone and phenol might also play some roles in sex attractiveness. Thus, squalene, 2-heptanone, and 4-ethyl phenol were indeed male pheromone molecules in rats. Our study also indicates that E,E-β-farnesene and E-α-farnesene, both richer in females than males, might be putative female pheromones. PMID:18515819

  12. Sex- and gonad-affecting scent compounds and 3 male pheromones in the rat.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian-Xu; Sun, Lixing; Zhang, Jin-Hua; Feng, Zhi-Yong

    2008-09-01

    This study was aimed at identifying sex pheromones of the rat (Rattus norvegicus). We characterized the volatiles and semivolatiles of rat preputial gland and voided urine by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and quantified them by their GC areas (abundances) and percentage of GC areas (relative abundances). Although all the compounds other than 4-heptanone and phenol detected were shared by males and females, the quantities for some of these sex-common compounds exhibited sexual dimorphism and decreased with gonadectomy. Thus, these compounds might be sex pheromones. Among them, squalene from preputial glands and 2-heptanone and 4-ethyl phenol from urine were 3 major compounds. They were richer in males and could be suppressed by castration. Adding any of the 3 compounds (at a concentration higher than its physiological level in male urine) to castrated male urine (CMU) increased the attractiveness of CMU to sex-naive females. Adding the 3 together (at the levels in normal male urine) to CMU significantly increased the attractiveness of CMU to females. However, such combination did not fully restore females' preference for urine from intact males, suggesting that some other trace compounds such as 4-heptanone and phenol might also play some roles in sex attractiveness. Thus, squalene, 2-heptanone, and 4-ethyl phenol were indeed male pheromone molecules in rats. Our study also indicates that E,E-beta-farnesene and E-alpha-farnesene, both richer in females than males, might be putative female pheromones.

  13. Low-Volatility Model Demonstrates Humidity Affects Environmental Toxin Deposition on Plastics at a Molecular Level.

    PubMed

    Hankett, Jeanne M; Collin, William R; Yang, Pei; Chen, Zhan; Duhaime, Melissa

    2016-02-02

    Despite the ever-increasing prevalence of plastic debris and endocrine disrupting toxins in aquatic ecosystems, few studies describe their interactions in freshwater environments. We present a model system to investigate the deposition/desorption behaviors of low-volatility lake ecosystem toxins on microplastics in situ and in real time. Molecular interactions of gas-phase nonylphenols (NPs) with the surfaces of two common plastics, poly(styrene) and poly(ethylene terephthalate), were studied using quartz crystal microbalance and sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy. NP point sources were generated under two model environments: plastic on land and plastic on a freshwater surface. We found the headspace above calm water provides an excellent environment for NP deposition and demonstrate significant NP deposition on plastic within minutes at relevant concentrations. Further, NP deposits and orders differently on both plastics under humid versus dry environments. We attributed the unique deposition behaviors to surface energy changes from increased water content during the humid deposition. Lastly, nanograms of NP remained on microplastic surfaces hours after initial NP introduction and agitating conditions, illustrating feasibility for plastic-bound NPs to interact with biota and surrounding matter. Our model studies reveal important interactions between low-volatility environmental toxins and microplastics and hold potential to correlate the environmental fate of endocrine disrupting toxins in the Great Lakes with molecular behaviors.

  14. Using electrophysiology to demonstrate that cuing affects long-term memory storage over the short term

    PubMed Central

    Maxcey, Ashleigh M.; Fukuda, Keisuke; Song, Won S.; Woodman, Geoffrey F.

    2015-01-01

    As researchers who study working memory, we often assume that participants keep a representation of an object in working memory when we present a cue that indicates that object will be tested in a couple of seconds. This intuitively accounts for how well people can remember a cued object relative to their memory for that same object presented without a cue. However, it is possible that this superior memory does not purely reflect storage of the cued object in working memory. We tested the hypothesis that cued presented during a stream of objects, followed by a short retention interval and immediate memory test, change how information is handled by long-term memory. We tested this hypothesis using a family of frontal event-related potentials (ERPs) believed to reflect long-term memory storage. We found that these frontal indices of long-term memory were sensitive to the task relevance of objects signaled by auditory cues, even when objects repeat frequently such that proactive interference was high. Our findings indicate the problematic nature of assuming process purity in the study of working memory, and demonstrate how frequent stimulus repetitions fail to isolate the role of working memory mechanisms. PMID:25604772

  15. Using electrophysiology to demonstrate that cueing affects long-term memory storage over the short term.

    PubMed

    Maxcey, Ashleigh M; Fukuda, Keisuke; Song, Won S; Woodman, Geoffrey F

    2015-10-01

    As researchers who study working memory, we often assume that participants keep a representation of an object in working memory when we present a cue that indicates that the object will be tested in a couple of seconds. This intuitively accounts for how well people can remember a cued object, relative to their memory for that same object presented without a cue. However, it is possible that this superior memory does not purely reflect storage of the cued object in working memory. We tested the hypothesis that cues presented during a stream of objects, followed by a short retention interval and immediate memory test, can change how information is handled by long-term memory. We tested this hypothesis by using a family of frontal event-related potentials believed to reflect long-term memory storage. We found that these frontal indices of long-term memory were sensitive to the task relevance of objects signaled by auditory cues, even when the objects repeated frequently, such that proactive interference was high. Our findings indicate the problematic nature of assuming process purity in the study of working memory, and demonstrate that frequent stimulus repetitions fail to isolate the role of working memory mechanisms.

  16. Factors Affecting Implementation of the California Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration (CA-CORD) Project, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Brunner, Julian; Moody, Jamie; Ibarra, Leticia; Hoyt, Helina; McKenzie, Thomas L.; Binggeli-Vallarta, Amy; Cervantes, Griselda; Finlayson, Tracy L.; Ayala, Guadalupe X.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Ecological approaches to health behavior change require effective engagement from and coordination of activities among diverse community stakeholders. We identified facilitators of and barriers to implementation experienced by project leaders and key stakeholders involved in the Imperial County, California, Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration project, a multilevel, multisector intervention to prevent and control childhood obesity. Methods A total of 74 semistructured interviews were conducted with project leaders (n = 6) and key stakeholders (n = 68) representing multiple levels of influence in the health care, early care and education, and school sectors. Interviews, informed by the Multilevel Implementation Framework, were conducted in 2013, approximately 12 months after year-one project implementation, and were transcribed, coded, and summarized. Results Respondents emphasized the importance of engaging parents and of ensuring support from senior leaders of participating organizations. In schools, obtaining teacher buy-in was described as particularly important, given lower perceived compatibility of the intervention with organizational priorities. From a program planning perspective, key facilitators of implementation in all 3 sectors included taking a participatory approach to the development of program materials, gradually introducing intervention activities, and minimizing staff burden. Barriers to implementation were staff turnover, limited local control over food provided by external vendors or school district policies, and limited availability of supportive resources within the broader community. Conclusion Project leaders and stakeholders in all sectors reported similar facilitators of and barriers to implementation, suggesting the possibility for synergy in intervention planning efforts. PMID:27763831

  17. Male vocal competition is dynamic and strongly affected by social contexts in music frogs.

    PubMed

    Fang, Guangzhan; Jiang, Fan; Yang, Ping; Cui, Jianguo; Brauth, Steven E; Tang, Yezhong

    2014-03-01

    Male-male vocal competition in anuran species is critical for mating success; however, it is also highly time-consuming, energetically demanding and likely to increase predation risks. Thus, we hypothesized that changes in the social context would cause male vocal competition to change in real time in order to minimize the costs and maximize the benefits of competition. To test this hypothesis, we assessed the effect of repeating playbacks of either white noise (WN) or male advertisement calls on male call production in the Emei music frog (Babina daunchina), a species in which males build mud-retuse burrows and call from within these nests. Previous studies have shown that calls produced from inside burrows are highly sexually attractive (HSA) to females while those produced outside nests are of low sexual attractiveness (LSA). Results showed that most subjects called responsively after the end of WN playbacks but before the onset of conspecific call stimuli although call numbers were similar, indicating that while males adjusted competitive patterns according to the biological significance of signals, their competitive motivation did not change. Furthermore, these data indicate that the frogs had evolved the ability of interval timing. Moreover, when the inter-stimulus interval (ISI) between playbacks was varied, the subjects preferentially competed with HSA calls when the ISI was short (<4 s) but responded equally to HSA and LSA calls if the ISI was long (≥4 s), suggesting that males allocate competitive efforts depending on both the perceived sexual attractiveness of rivals and the time available for calling. Notably, approximately two-thirds of male calls occurred in response to HSA calls, a preference rate comparable to that previously found for females in phonotaxis experiments and consistent with the idea that the mechanisms underlying both the male's competitive responses to rivals and the female's preferences toward potential mates coevolved under the

  18. Heat exposure of Cannabis sativa extracts affects the pharmacokinetic and metabolic profile in healthy male subjects.

    PubMed

    Eichler, Martin; Spinedi, Luca; Unfer-Grauwiler, Sandra; Bodmer, Michael; Surber, Christian; Luedi, Markus; Drewe, Juergen

    2012-05-01

    The most important psychoactive constituent of CANNABIS SATIVA L. is Δ (9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Cannabidiol (CBD), another important constituent, is able to modulate the distinct unwanted psychotropic effect of THC. In natural plant extracts of C. SATIVA, large amounts of THC and CBD appear in the form of THCA-A (THC-acid-A) and CBDA (cannabidiolic acid), which can be transformed to THC and CBD by heating. Previous reports of medicinal use of cannabis or cannabis preparations with higher CBD/THC ratios and use in its natural, unheated form have demonstrated that pharmacological effects were often accompanied with a lower rate of adverse effects. Therefore, in the present study, the pharmacokinetics and metabolic profiles of two different C. SATIVA extracts (heated and unheated) with a CBD/THC ratio > 1 were compared to synthetic THC (dronabinol) in a double-blind, randomized, single center, three-period cross-over study involving 9 healthy male volunteers. The pharmacokinetics of the cannabinoids was highly variable. The metabolic pattern was significantly different after administration of the different forms: the heated extract showed a lower median THC plasma AUC (24 h) than the unheated extract of 2.84 vs. 6.59 pmol h/mL, respectively. The later was slightly higher than that of dronabinol (4.58 pmol h/mL). On the other hand, the median sum of the metabolites (THC, 11-OH-THC, THC-COOH, CBN) plasma AUC (24 h) was higher for the heated than for the unheated extract. The median CBD plasma AUC (24 h) was almost 2-fold higher for the unheated than for the heated extract. These results indicate that use of unheated extracts may lead to a beneficial change in metabolic pattern and possibly better tolerability.

  19. Testosterone affects song modulation during simulated territorial intrusions in male black redstarts (Phoenicurus ochruros).

    PubMed

    Apfelbeck, Beate; Kiefer, Sarah; Mortega, Kim G; Goymann, Wolfgang; Kipper, Silke

    2012-01-01

    Although it has been suggested that testosterone plays an important role in resource allocation for competitive behavior, details of the interplay between testosterone, territorial aggression and signal plasticity are largely unknown. Therefore, we investigated if testosterone acts specifically on signals that communicate the motivation or ability of individuals to engage in competitive situations in a natural context. We studied the black redstart, a territorial songbird species, during two different life-cycle stages, the early breeding phase in spring and the non-breeding phase in fall. Male territory holders were implanted with the androgen receptor blocker flutamide (Flut) and the aromatase inhibitor letrozole (Let) to inhibit the action of testosterone and its estrogenic metabolites. Controls received a placebo treatment. Three days after implantation birds were challenged with a simulated territorial intrusion (STI). Song was recorded before, during and after the challenge. In spring, both treatment groups increased the number of elements sung in parts of their song in response to the STI. However, Flut/Let-implanted males reacted to the STI with a decreased maximum acoustic frequency of one song part, while placebo-implanted males did not. Instead, placebo-implanted males sang the atonal part of their song with a broader frequency range. Furthermore, placebo-, but not Flut/Let-implanted males, sang shorter songs with shorter pauses between parts in the STIs. During simulated intrusions in fall, when testosterone levels are naturally low in this species, males of both treatment groups sang similar to Flut/Let-implanted males during breeding. The results suggest that song sung during a territorial encounter is of higher competitive value than song sung in an undisturbed situation and may, therefore, convey information about the motivation or quality of the territory holder. We conclude that testosterone facilitates context-dependent changes in song structures

  20. Pair housing differentially affects motivation to self-administer cocaine in male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Westenbroek, Christel; Perry, Adam N; Becker, Jill B

    2013-09-01

    Female rats exhibit greater intake and motivation to self-administer cocaine. In females but not males, isolation by itself is a stressor, which could lead to increased drug intake. Therefore, we hypothesized that social housing would buffer against stress and reduce the motivation to self-administer cocaine primarily in females. Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were housed individually or in same-sex pairs. The individually housed rats and one of each pair were allowed to self-administer (SA) a low dose of cocaine (0.2 mg/kg/inf) on a fixed ratio (FR1) schedule for one week. Motivation for cocaine SA was measured for an additional 2 weeks on a progressive ratio schedule. Isolated females had greater cocaine-intake on the FR1 schedule and greater motivation to take cocaine than males. Pair-housing in females, but not males, attenuated the motivation to take cocaine. Isolated females, but not males, showed escalation of their motivation to take cocaine, which was attenuated by pair housing of females. Concluding, the motivation to take cocaine escalates in females but not males, and pair-housing of females attenuates this escalation.

  1. A female's past experience with predators affects male courtship and the care her offspring will receive from their father.

    PubMed

    McGhee, Katie E; Feng, Sally; Leasure, Sagan; Bell, Alison M

    2015-11-22

    Differential allocation occurs when individuals adjust their reproductive investment based on their partner's traits. However, it remains unknown whether animals differentially allocate based on their partner's past experiences with predation risk. If animals can detect a potential mate's experience with predators, this might inform them about the stress level of their potential mate, the likelihood of parental effects in offspring and/or the dangers present in the environment. Using threespined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus), we examined whether a female's previous experience with being chased by a model predator while yolking eggs affects male mating effort and offspring care. Males displayed fewer conspicuous courtship behaviours towards females that had experienced predation risk in the past compared with unexposed females. This differential allocation extended to how males cared for the resulting offspring of these matings: fathers provided less parental care to offspring of females that had experienced predation risk in the past. Our results show for the first time, to our knowledge, that variation among females in their predator encounters can contribute to behavioural variation among males in courtship and parental care, even when males themselves do not encounter a predator. These results, together with previous findings, suggest that maternal predator exposure can influence offspring development both directly and indirectly, through how it affects father care.

  2. A female's past experience with predators affects male courtship and the care her offspring will receive from their father

    PubMed Central

    McGhee, Katie E.; Feng, Sally; Leasure, Sagan; Bell, Alison M.

    2015-01-01

    Differential allocation occurs when individuals adjust their reproductive investment based on their partner's traits. However, it remains unknown whether animals differentially allocate based on their partner's past experiences with predation risk. If animals can detect a potential mate's experience with predators, this might inform them about the stress level of their potential mate, the likelihood of parental effects in offspring and/or the dangers present in the environment. Using threespined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus), we examined whether a female's previous experience with being chased by a model predator while yolking eggs affects male mating effort and offspring care. Males displayed fewer conspicuous courtship behaviours towards females that had experienced predation risk in the past compared with unexposed females. This differential allocation extended to how males cared for the resulting offspring of these matings: fathers provided less parental care to offspring of females that had experienced predation risk in the past. Our results show for the first time, to our knowledge, that variation among females in their predator encounters can contribute to behavioural variation among males in courtship and parental care, even when males themselves do not encounter a predator. These results, together with previous findings, suggest that maternal predator exposure can influence offspring development both directly and indirectly, through how it affects father care. PMID:26559956

  3. Is bigger better? Male body size affects wing-borne courtship signals and mating success in the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Benelli, Giovanni; Donati, Elisa; Romano, Donato; Ragni, Giacomo; Bonsignori, Gabriella; Stefanini, Cesare; Canale, Angelo

    2016-12-01

    Variations in male body size are known to affect inter- and intrasexual selection outcomes in a wide range of animals. In mating systems involving sexual signaling before mating, body size often acts as a key factor affecting signal strength and mate choice. We evaluated the effect of male size on courtship displays and mating success of the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae). Wing vibrations performed during successful and unsuccessful courtships by large and small males were recorded by high-speed videos and analyzed through frame-by-frame analysis. Mating success of large and small males was investigated. The effect of male-male competition on mating success was evaluated. Male body size affected both male courtship signals and mating outcomes. Successful males showed wing-borne signals with high frequencies and short interpulse intervals. Wing vibrations displayed by successful large males during copulation attempt had higher frequencies over smaller males and unsuccessful large males. In no-competition conditions, large males achieved higher mating success with respect to smaller ones. Allowing large and small males to compete for a female, large males achieve more mating success over smaller ones. Mate choice by females may be based on selection of the larger males, able to produce high-frequency wing vibrations. Such traits may be indicative of "good genes," which under sexual selection could means good social-interaction genes, or a good competitive manipulator of conspecifics. © 2015 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  4. Developmental exposure to Ethinylestradiol affects transgenerationally sexual behavior and neuroendocrine networks in male mice.

    PubMed

    Derouiche, Lyes; Keller, Matthieu; Duittoz, Anne Hélène; Pillon, Delphine

    2015-12-07

    Reproductive behavior and physiology in adulthood are controlled by hypothalamic sexually dimorphic neuronal networks which are organized under hormonal control during development. These organizing effects may be disturbed by endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). To determine whether developmental exposure to Ethinylestradiol (EE2) may alter reproductive parameters in adult male mice and their progeny, Swiss mice (F1 generation) were exposed from prenatal to peripubertal periods to EE2 (0.1-1 μg/kg/d). Sexual behavior and reproductive physiology were evaluated on F1 males and their F2, F3 and F4 progeny. EE2-exposed F1 males and their F2 to F4 progeny exhibited EE2 dose-dependent increased sexual behavior, with reduced latencies of first mount and intromission, and higher frequencies of intromissions with a receptive female. The EE2 1 μg/kg/d exposed animals and their progeny had more calbindin immunoreactive cells in the medial preoptic area, known to be involved in the control of male sexual behavior in rodents. Despite neuroanatomical modifications in the Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone neuron population of F1 males exposed to both doses of EE2, no major deleterious effects on reproductive physiology were detected. Therefore EE2 exposure during development may induce a hypermasculinization of the brain, illustrating how widespread exposure of animals and humans to EDCs can impact health and behaviors.

  5. A barley PHD finger transcription factor that confers male sterility by affecting tapetal development.

    PubMed

    Fernández Gómez, José; Wilson, Zoe A

    2014-08-01

    Controlling pollen development is of major commercial importance in generating hybrid crops and selective breeding, but characterized genes for male sterility in crops are rare, with no current examples in barley. However, translation of knowledge from model species is now providing opportunities to understand and manipulate such processes in economically important crops. We have used information from regulatory networks in Arabidopsis to identify and functionally characterize a barley PHD transcription factor MALE STERTILITY1 (MS1), which expresses in the anther tapetum and plays a critical role during pollen development. Comparative analysis of Arabidopsis, rice and Brachypodium genomes was used to identify conserved regions in MS1 for primer design to amplify the barley MS1 gene; RACE-PCR was subsequently used to generate the full-length sequence. This gene shows anther-specific tapetal expression, between late tetrad stage and early microspore release. HvMS1 silencing and overexpression in barley resulted in male sterility. Additionally, HvMS1 cDNA, controlled by the native Arabidopsis MS1 promoter, successfully complemented the homozygous ms1 Arabidopsis mutant. These results confirm the conservation of MS1 function in higher plants and in particular in temperate cereals. This has provided the first example of a characterized male sterility gene in barley, which presents a valuable tool for the future control of male fertility in barley for hybrid development.

  6. Voluntary wheel running differentially affects disease outcomes in male and female mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Mifflin, Katherine A; Frieser, Emma; Benson, Curtis; Baker, Glen; Kerr, Bradley J

    2017-04-15

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system. The primary symptoms of MS include the loss of sensory and motor function. Exercise has been shown to modulate disease parameters in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a mouse model of MS, by reducing immune cell infiltration and oxidative stress. However, these initial studies were carried out exclusively in female mice. The present study compared the effects of daily voluntary wheel running on several disease parameters in male and female mice with EAE. Male and female mice were given access to a running wheel for 1h a day for 30 consecutive days. Daily wheel running significantly improved clinical scores in males with EAE but had little effect on clinical signs in females with the disease. Direct comparison of inflammation, axonal injury, and oxidative stress in male and female mice with EAE revealed significant differences in the amount of T-cell infiltration, microglia reactivity, demyelination and axon integrity. Male mice with EAE given daily access to running wheels also had significantly less ongoing oxidative stress compared to all other groups. Taken together, our results indicate that the inflammatory response generated in EAE is distinct between the sexes and its modulation by daily exercise can have sex-specific effects on disease-related outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Developmental exposure to Ethinylestradiol affects transgenerationally sexual behavior and neuroendocrine networks in male mice

    PubMed Central

    Derouiche, Lyes; Keller, Matthieu; Duittoz, Anne Hélène; Pillon, Delphine

    2015-01-01

    Reproductive behavior and physiology in adulthood are controlled by hypothalamic sexually dimorphic neuronal networks which are organized under hormonal control during development. These organizing effects may be disturbed by endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). To determine whether developmental exposure to Ethinylestradiol (EE2) may alter reproductive parameters in adult male mice and their progeny, Swiss mice (F1 generation) were exposed from prenatal to peripubertal periods to EE2 (0.1–1 μg/kg/d). Sexual behavior and reproductive physiology were evaluated on F1 males and their F2, F3 and F4 progeny. EE2-exposed F1 males and their F2 to F4 progeny exhibited EE2 dose-dependent increased sexual behavior, with reduced latencies of first mount and intromission, and higher frequencies of intromissions with a receptive female. The EE2 1 μg/kg/d exposed animals and their progeny had more calbindin immunoreactive cells in the medial preoptic area, known to be involved in the control of male sexual behavior in rodents. Despite neuroanatomical modifications in the Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone neuron population of F1 males exposed to both doses of EE2, no major deleterious effects on reproductive physiology were detected. Therefore EE2 exposure during development may induce a hypermasculinization of the brain, illustrating how widespread exposure of animals and humans to EDCs can impact health and behaviors. PMID:26640081

  8. Male accessory gland substances from Aedes albopictus affect the locomotor activity of Aedes aegypti females.

    PubMed

    Lima-Camara, Tamara Nunes; Codeço, Claudia Torres; Honório, Nildimar Alves; Bruno, Rafaela Vieira; Peixoto, Alexandre Afranio; Lounibos, Leon Philip

    2013-01-01

    Dengue is one of the world's most important mosquito-borne diseases and is usually transmitted by one of two vector species: Aedes aegypti or Aedes albopictus . These two diurnal mosquitoes are frequently found coexisting in similar habitats, enabling interactions between adults, such as cross-mating. The objective of this study was to assess cross-mating between Ae. aegypti females and Ae. albopictus males under artificial conditions and evaluate the locomotor activity of Ae. aegypti virgin females injected with male accessory gland (MAG) homogenates to infer the physiological and behavioural responses to interspecific mating. After seven days of exposure, 3.3-16% of Ae. aegypti females mated with Ae. albopictus males. Virgin Ae. aegypti females injected with conspecific and heterospecific MAGs showed a general decrease in locomotor activity compared to controls and were refractory to mating with conspecific males. The reduction in diurnal locomotor activity induced by injections of conspecific or heterospecific MAGs is consistent with regulation of female reproductive activities by male substances, which are capable of sterilising female Ae. aegypti through satyrisation by Ae. albopictus.

  9. Male accessory gland substances from Aedes albopictus affect the locomotor activity of Aedes aegypti females

    PubMed Central

    Lima-Camara, Tamara Nunes; Codeço, Claudia Torres; Honório, Nildimar Alves; Bruno, Rafaela Vieira; Peixoto, Alexandre Afranio; Lounibos, Leon Philip

    2013-01-01

    Dengue is one of the world’s most important mosquito-borne diseases and is usually transmitted by one of two vector species: Aedes aegypti or Aedes albopictus . These two diurnal mosquitoes are frequently found coexisting in similar habitats, enabling interactions between adults, such as cross-mating. The objective of this study was to assess cross-mating between Ae. aegypti females and Ae. albopictus males under artificial conditions and evaluate the locomotor activity of Ae. aegypti virgin females injected with male accessory gland (MAG) homogenates to infer the physiological and behavioural responses to interspecific mating. After seven days of exposure, 3.3-16% of Ae. aegypti females mated with Ae. albopictus males. Virgin Ae. aegypti females injected with conspecific and heterospecific MAGs showed a general decrease in locomotor activity compared to controls and were refractory to mating with conspecific males. The reduction in diurnal locomotor activity induced by injections of conspecific or heterospecific MAGs is consistent with regulation of female reproductive activities by male substances, which are capable of sterilising female Ae. aegypti through satyrisation by Ae. albopictus . PMID:24473799

  10. Oxytocin Differentially Affects Sucrose Taking and Seeking in Male and Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Luyi; Ghee, Shannon M.; See, Ronald E.; Reichel, Carmela M.

    2015-01-01

    Oxytocin has a modulatory role in natural and drug reward processes. While the role of oxytocin in pair bonding and reproduction has been extensively studied, sex differences in conditioned and unconditioned behavioral responses to oxytocin treatment have not been fully characterized. Here, we determined whether male and female rats would show similar dose response curves in response to acute oxytocin on measures of locomotor activity, sucrose seeking, and sucrose intake. Male and freely cycling female rats received vehicle or oxytocin (0.1, 0.3, 1, 3 mg/kg, IP) injections before behavioral tests designed to assess general motor activity, as well as sucrose self-administration and seeking. Lower doses of oxytocin decreased motor activity in a novel environment in females relative to males. Likewise, lower doses of oxytocin in females decreased responding for sucrose during maintenance of sucrose self-administration and reinstatement to sucrose-conditioned cues. However, sucrose seeking in response to a sucrose prime was only decreased by the highest oxytocin dose in both sexes. In general, oxytocin had similar effects in both sexes. However, females were more sensitive to lower doses of oxytocin than males. These findings are consistent with the notion that oxytocin regulates many of the same behaviors in males and females, but that the effects are typically more profound in females. Therapeutic use of oxytocin should include sex as a factor in determining dose regimens. PMID:25647756

  11. Cuticular Hydrocarbon Content that Affects Male Mate Preference of Drosophila melanogaster from West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Aya; Fujiwara-Tsujii, Nao; Yamaoka, Ryohei; Itoh, Masanobu; Ozaki, Mamiko; Takano-Shimizu, Toshiyuki

    2012-01-01

    Intraspecific variation in mating signals and preferences can be a potential source of incipient speciation. Variable crossability between Drosophila melanogaster and D. simulans among different strains suggested the abundance of such variations. A particular focus on one combination of D. melanogaster strains, TW1(G23) and Mel6(G59), that showed different crossabilities to D. simulans, revealed that the mating between females from the former and males from the latter occurs at low frequency. The cuticular hydrocarbon transfer experiment indicated that cuticular hydrocarbons of TW1 females have an inhibitory effect on courtship by Mel6 males. A candidate component, a C25 diene, was inferred from the gas chromatography analyses. The intensity of male refusal of TW1 females was variable among different strains of D. melanogaster, which suggested the presence of variation in sensitivity to different chemicals on the cuticle. Such variation could be a potential factor for the establishment of premating isolation under some conditions. PMID:22536539

  12. Repeated psychosocial stress at night affects the circadian activity rhythm of male mice.

    PubMed

    Bartlang, Manuela S; Oster, Henrik; Helfrich-Förster, Charlotte

    2015-06-01

    We have recently shown that molecular rhythms in the murine suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) are affected by repeated social defeat (SD) during the dark/active phase (social defeat dark [SDD]), while repeated SD during the light/inactive phase (social defeat light [SDL]) had no influence on PERIOD2::LUCIFERASE explant rhythms in the SCN. Here we assessed the effects of the same stress paradigm by in vivo biotelemetry on 2 output rhythms of the circadian clock (i.e., activity and core body temperature) in wild-type (WT) and clock-deficient Period (Per)1/2 double-mutant mice during and following repeated SDL and SDD. In general, stress had more pronounced effects on activity compared to body temperature rhythms. Throughout the SD procedure, activity and body temperature were markedly increased during the 2 h of stressor exposure at zeitgeber time (ZT) 1 to ZT3 (SDL mice) and ZT13 to ZT15 (SDD mice), which was compensated by decreased activity during the remaining dark phase (SDL and SDD mice) and light phase (SDL mice) in both genotypes. Considerable differences in the activity between SDL and SDD mice were seen in the poststress period. SDD mice exhibited a reduced first activity bout at ZT13, delayed activity onset, and, consequently, a more narrow activity bandwidth compared with single-housed control (SHC) and SDL mice. Given that this effect was absent in Per1/2 mutant SDD mice and persisted under constant darkness conditions in SDD WT mice, it suggests an involvement of the endogenous clock. Taken together, the present findings demonstrate that SDD has long-lasting consequences for the functional output of the biological clock that, at least in part, appear to depend on the clock genes Per1 and Per2. © 2015 The Author(s).

  13. Cellular interference in craniofrontonasal syndrome: males mosaic for mutations in the X-linked EFNB1 gene are more severely affected than true hemizygotes

    PubMed Central

    Twigg, Stephen R.F.; Babbs, Christian; van den Elzen, Marijke E.P.; Goriely, Anne; Taylor, Stephen; McGowan, Simon J.; Giannoulatou, Eleni; Lonie, Lorne; Ragoussis, Jiannis; Akha, Elham Sadighi; Knight, Samantha J.L.; Zechi-Ceide, Roseli M.; Hoogeboom, Jeannette A.M.; Pober, Barbara R.; Toriello, Helga V.; Wall, Steven A.; Rita Passos-Bueno, M.; Brunner, Han G.; Mathijssen, Irene M.J.; Wilkie, Andrew O.M.

    2013-01-01

    Craniofrontonasal syndrome (CFNS), an X-linked disorder caused by loss-of-function mutations of EFNB1, exhibits a paradoxical sex reversal in phenotypic severity: females characteristically have frontonasal dysplasia, craniosynostosis and additional minor malformations, but males are usually more mildly affected with hypertelorism as the only feature. X-inactivation is proposed to explain the more severe outcome in heterozygous females, as this leads to functional mosaicism for cells with differing expression of EPHRIN-B1, generating abnormal tissue boundaries—a process that cannot occur in hemizygous males. Apparently challenging this model, males occasionally present with a more severe female-like CFNS phenotype. We hypothesized that such individuals might be mosaic for EFNB1 mutations and investigated this possibility in multiple tissue samples from six sporadically presenting males. Using denaturing high performance liquid chromatography, massively parallel sequencing and multiplex-ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) to increase sensitivity above standard dideoxy sequencing, we identified mosaic mutations of EFNB1 in all cases, comprising three missense changes, two gene deletions and a novel point mutation within the 5′ untranslated region (UTR). Quantification by Pyrosequencing and MLPA demonstrated levels of mutant cells between 15 and 69%. The 5′ UTR variant mutates the stop codon of a small upstream open reading frame that, using a dual-luciferase reporter construct, was demonstrated to exacerbate interference with translation of the wild-type protein. These results demonstrate a more severe outcome in mosaic than in constitutionally deficient males in an X-linked dominant disorder and provide further support for the cellular interference mechanism, normally related to X-inactivation in females. PMID:23335590

  14. Male/Female Differential Encoding and Intercultural Differential Decoding of Nonverbal Affective Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Martin, Gail McAllister

    In order to investigate the process of nonverbal communication of emotions in a simulated intercultural context, videotapes were made in which two white Americans (one male and one female) responded to paragraphs which evoked the following emotions: sadness, disgust, anger, surprise, happiness, and fear. These portrayals were then viewed by male…

  15. Inbreeding affects sexual signalling in males but not females of Tenebrio molitor

    PubMed Central

    Pölkki, Mari; Krams, Indrikis; Kangassalo, Katariina; Rantala, Markus J.

    2012-01-01

    In many species of animals, individuals advertise their quality with sexual signals to obtain mates. Chemical signals such as volatile pheromones are species specific, and their primary purpose is to influence mate choice by carrying information about the phenotypic and genetic quality of the sender. The deleterious effects of consanguineous mating on individual quality are generally known, whereas the effect of inbreeding on sexual signalling is poorly understood. Here, we tested whether inbreeding reduces the attractiveness of sexual signalling in the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor, by testing the preferences for odours of inbred and outbred (control) individuals of the opposite sex. Females were more attracted to the odours produced by outbred males than the odours produced by inbred males, suggesting that inbreeding reduces the attractiveness of male sexual signalling. However, we did not find any difference between the attractiveness of inbred and outbred female odours, which may indicate that the quality of females is either irrelevant for T. molitor males or quality is not revealed through female odours. PMID:22237501

  16. Inbreeding affects sexual signalling in males but not females of Tenebrio molitor.

    PubMed

    Pölkki, Mari; Krams, Indrikis; Kangassalo, Katariina; Rantala, Markus J

    2012-06-23

    In many species of animals, individuals advertise their quality with sexual signals to obtain mates. Chemical signals such as volatile pheromones are species specific, and their primary purpose is to influence mate choice by carrying information about the phenotypic and genetic quality of the sender. The deleterious effects of consanguineous mating on individual quality are generally known, whereas the effect of inbreeding on sexual signalling is poorly understood. Here, we tested whether inbreeding reduces the attractiveness of sexual signalling in the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor, by testing the preferences for odours of inbred and outbred (control) individuals of the opposite sex. Females were more attracted to the odours produced by outbred males than the odours produced by inbred males, suggesting that inbreeding reduces the attractiveness of male sexual signalling. However, we did not find any difference between the attractiveness of inbred and outbred female odours, which may indicate that the quality of females is either irrelevant for T. molitor males or quality is not revealed through female odours.

  17. Test Administrator's Gender Affects Female and Male Students' Self-Estimated Verbal General Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortner, Tuulia M.; Vormittag, Isabella

    2011-01-01

    Effects of test administrator's gender on test takers' self-estimated verbal general knowledge and de facto verbal general knowledge were investigated. Based on three theories previously applied in research dealing with the effects of test administrator's ethnicity, it was expected male and female test takers to show higher scores under female…

  18. Females' Evaluations of Males as a Function of Affect Arousing Musical Stimuli.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, James L.; Hamilton, Phyllis Ann

    Female subjects were asked to evaluate either an attractive or unattractive male stimulus person under one of the three experimental conditions; while listening to avant-garde, rock music, or no music at all. Responding on the Interpersonal Judgement Scale (IJS: Byrne, 1971) and a seven-point physical attractiveness scale, subjects indicated more…

  19. Song environment affects singing effort and vasotocin immunoreactivity in the forebrain of male Lincoln's sparrows.

    PubMed

    Sewall, Kendra B; Dankoski, Elyse C; Sockman, Keith W

    2010-08-01

    Male songbirds often establish territories and attract mates by singing, and some song features can reflect the singer's condition or quality. The quality of the song environment can change, so male songbirds should benefit from assessing the competitiveness of the song environment and appropriately adjusting their own singing behavior and the neural substrates by which song is controlled. In a wide range of taxa, social modulation of behavior is partly mediated by the arginine vasopressin or vasotocin (AVP/AVT) systems. To examine the modulation of singing behavior in response to the quality of the song environment, we compared the song output of laboratory-housed male Lincoln's sparrows (Melospiza lincolnii) exposed to 1 week of chronic playback of songs categorized as either high or low quality, based on song length, complexity, and trill performance. To explore the neural basis of any facultative shifts in behavior, we also quantified the subjects' AVT immunoreactivity (AVT-IR) in three forebrain regions that regulate sociosexual behavior: the medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTm), the lateral septum (LS), and the preoptic area. We found that high-quality songs increased singing effort and reduced AVT-IR in the BSTm and LS, relative to low-quality songs. The effect of the quality of the song environment on both singing effort and forebrain AVT-IR raises the hypothesis that AVT within these brain regions plays a role in the modulation of behavior in response to competition that individual males may assess from the prevailing song environment.

  20. Heterosexuals' Attitudes toward Lesbianism and Male Homosexuality: Their Affective Orientation toward Sexuality and Sex Guilt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarber, William L.; Yee, Bernadette

    1983-01-01

    A study sought to determine if a relationship existed between heterosexual college students' attitudes toward lesbianism and male homosexuality and their feelings about their own sexuality, including sex guilt. High sex guilt proved to be related to negative attitudes toward homosexuals of both sexes. (Authors/PP)

  1. Populus cathayana males are less affected than females by excess manganese: comparative proteomic and physiological analyses.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fugui; Zhang, Sheng; Zhu, Guoping; Korpelainen, Helena; Li, Chunyang

    2013-08-01

    The comprehension of sexually different responses in dioecious plants to excess manganese (Mn) stress requires molecular explanation. Physiological and proteomic changes in leaves of Populus cathayana males and females were analyzed after 4 wk of exposure to Mn stress. Under excess Mn conditions, shoot height and photosynthesis decreased more in females than in males. Females also showed severe browning and subcellular damage, higher Mn2+ absorption, and different antioxidant enzyme activities compared with males. There were ten differently regulated protein spots induced by excess Mn stress. They were mainly related to photosynthesis, ROS cleaning, and cell signaling associated to ROS, plant cell death, heat shock, cell defense and rescue, and gene expression and regulation. Variation in protein expression between the sexes clearly showed that males have evolved more efficient photosynthesis capacity, more stable gene expression and regulation, and better cell defense and rescue to prevent further injury under excess Mn stress. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Hierarchy in the home cage affects behaviour and gene expression in group-housed C57BL/6 male mice.

    PubMed

    Horii, Yasuyuki; Nagasawa, Tatsuhiro; Sakakibara, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Aki; Tanave, Akira; Matsumoto, Yuki; Nagayama, Hiromichi; Yoshimi, Kazuto; Yasuda, Michiko T; Shimoi, Kayoko; Koide, Tsuyoshi

    2017-08-01

    Group-housed male mice exhibit aggressive behaviour towards their cage mates and form a social hierarchy. Here, we describe how social hierarchy in standard group-housed conditions affects behaviour and gene expression in male mice. Four male C57BL/6 mice were kept in each cage used in the study, and the social hierarchy was determined from observation of video recordings of aggressive behaviour. After formation of a social hierarchy, the behaviour and hippocampal gene expression were analysed in the mice. Higher anxiety- and depression-like behaviours and elevated gene expression of hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone and hippocampal serotonin receptor subtypes were observed in subordinate mice compared with those of dominant mice. These differences were alleviated by orally administering fluoxetine, which is an antidepressant of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor class. We concluded that hierarchy in the home cage affects behaviour and gene expression in male mice, resulting in anxiety- and depression-like behaviours being regulated differently in dominant and subordinate mice.

  3. Psychosocial maternal stress during pregnancy affects serum corticosterone, blood immune parameters and anxiety behaviour in adult male rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Götz, Alexander A; Stefanski, Volker

    2007-01-30

    Exposure to prenatal stress can impair the behavioural and hormonal development in mammals. However, the consequences for the immune system are rarely investigated and there is only limited evidence that naturalistic prenatal stressors do also have the potential to affect the offspring. Thus, by using a social conflict model in female Long-Evans rats, we investigated the effects of prenatal social stress on several behavioural, hormonal and immunological parameters. Offspring from stressed and non-stressed pregnant females were housed in pairs after weaning, and tested at an age of 4-6 months. Prenatally stressed (PS) males were more active in the elevated plus-maze test as indicated by significantly more frequent entries into the open arms compared to prenatal control males (PC). In addition, PS males had significantly lower serum corticosterone concentrations under basal conditions as well as after ACTH-challenge. The basal number of total leukocytes was significantly lower in the PS group due to significantly lower lymphocyte counts. In particular, the CD4+ T-helper cell subset was affected. The lymphocyte proliferation to pokeweed mitogen was lower in PS males. Because some of the present findings do not correspond to previous studies using conventional stressors, we assume that the nature of the stressor plays an important role for pregnancy outcome and behaviour and physiology of the offspring in later life.

  4. Cocaine differentially affects synaptic activity in memory and midbrain areas of female and male rats: an in vivo MEMRI study.

    PubMed

    Perez, Pablo D; Hall, Gabrielle; Zubcevic, Jasenka; Febo, Marcelo

    2017-02-24

    Manganese enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) has been previously used to determine the effect of acute cocaine on calcium-dependent synaptic activity in male rats. However, there have been no MEMRI studies examining sex differences in the functional neural circuits affected by repeated cocaine. In the present study, we used MEMRI to investigate the effects of repeated cocaine on brain activation in female and male rats. Adult female and male rats were scanned at 4.7 Tesla three days after final treatment with saline, a single cocaine injection (15 mg kg(-1), i.p. × 1 day) or repeated cocaine injections (15 mg kg(-1), i.p. × 10 days). A day before imaging rats were provided with an i.p. injection of manganese chloride (70 mg kg(-1)). Cocaine produced effects on MEMRI activity that were dependent on sex. In females, we observed that a single cocaine injection reduced MEMRI activity in hippocampal CA3, ventral tegmental area (VTA), and median Raphé, whereas repeated cocaine increased MEMRI activity in dentate gyrus and interpeduncular nucleus. In males, repeated cocaine reduced MEMRI activity in VTA. Overall, it appeared that female rats showed a general trend towards increase MEMRI activity with single cocaine and reduced activity with repeated exposure, while male rats showed a trend towards opposite effects. Our results provide evidence for sex differences in the in vivo neural response to cocaine, which involves primarily hippocampal, amygdala and midbrain areas.

  5. Male accessory gland proteins affect differentially female sexual receptivity and remating in closely related Drosophila species.

    PubMed

    Denis, Béatrice; Claisse, Gaëlle; Le Rouzic, Arnaud; Wicker-Thomas, Claude; Lepennetier, Gildas; Joly, Dominique

    2017-05-01

    In sexual species, mating success depends on the male's capacity to find sexual partners and on female receptivity to mating. Mating is under evolutionary constraints to prevent interspecific mating and to maximize the reproductive success of both sexes. In Drosophila melanogaster, female receptivity to mating is mainly controlled by Sex peptide (SP, i.e. Acp70A) produced by the male accessory glands with other proteins (Acps). The transfer of SP during copulation dramatically reduces female receptivity to mating and prevents remating with other males. To date, female postmating responses are well-known in D. melanogaster but have been barely investigated in closely-related species or strains exhibiting different mating systems (monoandrous versus polyandrous). Here, we describe the diversity of mating systems in two strains of D. melanogaster and the three species of the yakuba complex. Remating delay and sexual receptivity were measured in cross-experiments following SP orthologs or Acp injections within females. Interestingly, we discovered strong differences between the two strains of D. melanogaster as well as among the three species of the yakuba complex. These results suggest that reproductive behavior is under the control of complex sexual interactions between the sexes and evolves rapidly, even among closely-related species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Methoprene and 20-OH-ecdysone affect male production in Daphnia pulex.

    PubMed

    Peterson, J K; Kashian, D R; Dodson, S I

    2001-03-01

    Exposure of Daphnia pulex to the insecticide and juvenile hormone-mimic methoprene resulted in a decrease in the incidence of all-male broods and an increase in the incidence of all-female broods compared with controls. These effects were observed at nominal concentrations of 10 and 100 microg/L, within the upper range of concentrations at which methoprene is applied in the environment. Because methoprene has been found to bind to the mammalian retinoid X receptor, we also tested the effects of retinoic acid on Daphnia reproduction. Neither 9-cis-retinoic acid nor all-trans-retinoic acid had any observable effect. Because juvenile hormone and ecdysteroids interact in many insect systems, we also exposed Daphnia to 20-OH-ecdysone. Exposure to the crustacean hormone 20-OH-ecdysone at levels of 1 and 10 microg/L resulted in an increase in all-male broods and a decrease in all-female broods, but 100 microg/L 20-OH-ecdysone resulted in a decrease in all-male broods and an increase in all-female broods. Our results suggest that juvenile hormone and ecdysteroids might play a role in the Daphnia sex determination system.

  7. Wolbachia Influences the Production of Octopamine and Affects Drosophila Male Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Rohrscheib, Chelsie E.; Bondy, Elizabeth; Josh, Peter; Riegler, Markus; Eyles, Darryl; van Swinderen, Bruno; Weible, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    Wolbachia bacteria are endosymbionts that infect approximately 40% of all insect species and are best known for their ability to manipulate host reproductive systems. Though the effect Wolbachia infection has on somatic tissues is less well understood, when present in cells of the adult Drosophila melanogaster brain, Wolbachia exerts an influence over behaviors related to olfaction. Here, we show that a strain of Wolbachia influences male aggression in flies, which is critically important in mate competition. A specific strain of Wolbachia was observed to reduce the initiation of aggressive encounters in Drosophila males compared to the behavior of their uninfected controls. To determine how Wolbachia was able to alter aggressive behavior, we investigated the role of octopamine, a neurotransmitter known to influence male aggressive behavior in many insect species. Transcriptional analysis of the octopamine biosynthesis pathway revealed that two essential genes, the tyrosine decarboxylase and tyramine β-hydroxylase genes, were significantly downregulated in Wolbachia-infected flies. Quantitative chemical analysis also showed that total octopamine levels were significantly reduced in the adult heads. PMID:25934616

  8. Egg-laying "intermorphs" in the ant Crematogaster smithi neither affect sexual production nor male parentage.

    PubMed

    Oettler, Jan; Dijkstra, Michiel B; Heinze, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    We study male parentage and between-colony variation in sex allocation and sexual production in the desert ant Crematogaster smithi, which usually has only one singly-mated queen per nest. Colonies of this species are known to temporarily store nutrients in the large fat body of intermorphs, a specialized female caste intermediate in morphology between queens and workers. Intermorphs repackage at least part of this fat into consumable but viable male-destined eggs. If these eggs sometimes develop instead of being eaten, intermorphs will be reproductive competitors of the queen but--due to relatedness asymmetries--allies of their sister worker. Using genetic markers we found a considerable proportion of non-queen sons in some, but not all, colonies. Even though intermorphs produce ∼1.7× more eggs than workers, their share in the parentage of adult males is estimated to be negligible due to their small number compared to workers. Furthermore, neither colony-level sex allocation nor overall sexual production was correlated with intermorph occurrence or number. We conclude that intermorph-laid eggs typically do not survive and that the storage of nutrients and their redistribution as eggs by intermorphs is effectively altruistic.

  9. Wolbachia Influences the Production of Octopamine and Affects Drosophila Male Aggression.

    PubMed

    Rohrscheib, Chelsie E; Bondy, Elizabeth; Josh, Peter; Riegler, Markus; Eyles, Darryl; van Swinderen, Bruno; Weible, Michael W; Brownlie, Jeremy C

    2015-07-01

    Wolbachia bacteria are endosymbionts that infect approximately 40% of all insect species and are best known for their ability to manipulate host reproductive systems. Though the effect Wolbachia infection has on somatic tissues is less well understood, when present in cells of the adult Drosophila melanogaster brain, Wolbachia exerts an influence over behaviors related to olfaction. Here, we show that a strain of Wolbachia influences male aggression in flies, which is critically important in mate competition. A specific strain of Wolbachia was observed to reduce the initiation of aggressive encounters in Drosophila males compared to the behavior of their uninfected controls. To determine how Wolbachia was able to alter aggressive behavior, we investigated the role of octopamine, a neurotransmitter known to influence male aggressive behavior in many insect species. Transcriptional analysis of the octopamine biosynthesis pathway revealed that two essential genes, the tyrosine decarboxylase and tyramine β-hydroxylase genes, were significantly downregulated in Wolbachia-infected flies. Quantitative chemical analysis also showed that total octopamine levels were significantly reduced in the adult heads. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  10. Predictors of pre- and post-competition affective states in male martial artists: a multilevel interactional approach

    PubMed Central

    Cerin, E; Barnett, A

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study were to examine (a) the effects of competition-related and competition-extraneous concerns on affective states; (b) the relationships of primary and secondary appraisal with affective states and (c) the main and moderating effects of personality traits on pre- and post-competition affects. Thirty-nine male elite martial artists were assessed on 12 affective states, concerns and dimensions of primary and secondary appraisal at five random times a day across 1 week before and 3 days after a competition. On the competition day, they were assessed 1 h before and immediately after the contest. Competitive trait anxiety, neuroticism and extraversion were measured at the start of the study. The competition was the most significant and stressful event experienced in the examined period and had a pervasive influence on athletes' affective states. All examined appraisal and personality factors were somewhat associated with pre- and post-competition affective states. Competitive trait anxiety was a key moderator of the relationship between cognitive appraisal and affective states. This study supports the idea that cognitive appraisal and situational and personality factors exert main and interactive effects on athletes' pre- and post-competition affects. These factors need to be accounted for in planning of emotion regulation interventions. PMID:19883381

  11. Mechanisms linking affective reactions to competition-related and competition-extraneous concerns in male martial artists

    PubMed Central

    Cerin, E; Barnett, A

    2011-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to examine affective linkages between competition-related and competition-extraneous concern domains. A secondary purpose was to establish the contributions of pre-competition affects to post-competition performance appraisals, independent of pre-competition performance expectations. Thirty-nine highly skilled male martial artists were assessed at five random times a day for a week and 1 h before a major competition on affective states and sources of concern. They also reported their performance expectations and post-competition performance appraisals. Affective states triggered by competition-related and competition-extraneous concerns persisted in time. Carry-over effects were stronger after reports of competition-related concerns, emphasizing the subjective importance of the competitive event. Although positive (enjoyment and surprise) and negative (sadness and guilt) affective spill-over was observed from competition-extraneous to competition-related concerns, the reverse held true only for disgust. These findings may be due to the athletes' ability to regulate affective reactions within a sporting setting, in particular. Spill-over from competition-extraneous to competition-related concerns is indicative of a lesser degree of control over work/study and family life. Given that average weekly negative affects and anger/disgust were independent predictors of post-competition performance appraisals, the phenomenon of spill-over and other affective linkage mechanisms in sport warrant further investigation. PMID:21917020

  12. Mechanisms linking affective reactions to competition-related and competition-extraneous concerns in male martial artists.

    PubMed

    Cerin, E; Barnett, A

    2011-10-01

    The main aim of this study was to examine affective linkages between competition-related and competition-extraneous concern domains. A secondary purpose was to establish the contributions of pre-competition affects to post-competition performance appraisals, independent of pre-competition performance expectations. Thirty-nine highly skilled male martial artists were assessed at five random times a day for a week and 1 h before a major competition on affective states and sources of concern. They also reported their performance expectations and post-competition performance appraisals. Affective states triggered by competition-related and competition-extraneous concerns persisted in time. Carry-over effects were stronger after reports of competition-related concerns, emphasizing the subjective importance of the competitive event. Although positive (enjoyment and surprise) and negative (sadness and guilt) affective spill-over was observed from competition-extraneous to competition-related concerns, the reverse held true only for disgust. These findings may be due to the athletes' ability to regulate affective reactions within a sporting setting, in particular. Spill-over from competition-extraneous to competition-related concerns is indicative of a lesser degree of control over work/study and family life. Given that average weekly negative affects and anger/disgust were independent predictors of post-competition performance appraisals, the phenomenon of spill-over and other affective linkage mechanisms in sport warrant further investigation. © 2009 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  13. Sexual competition affects biomass partitioning, carbon-nutrient balance, Cd allocation and ultrastructure of Populus cathayana females and males exposed to Cd stress.

    PubMed

    Chen, Juan; Duan, Baoli; Xu, Gang; Korpelainen, Helena; Niinemets, Ülo; Li, Chunyang

    2016-11-01

    Although increasing attention has been paid to plant adaptation to soil heavy metal contamination, competition and neighbor effects have been largely overlooked, especially in dioecious plants. In this study, we investigated growth as well as biochemical and ultrastructural responses of Populus cathayana Rehder females and males to cadmium (Cd) stress under different sexual competition patterns. The results showed that competition significantly affects biomass partitioning, photosynthetic capacity, leaf and root ultrastructure, Cd accumulation, the contents of polyphenols, and structural and nonstructural carbohydrates. Compared with single-sex cultivation, plants of opposite sexes exposed to sexual competition accumulated more Cd in tissues and their growth was more strongly inhibited, indicating enhanced Cd toxicity under sexual competition. Under intrasexual competition, females showed greater Cd accumulation, more serious damage at the ultrastructural level and greater reduction in physiological activity than under intersexual competition, while males performed better under intrasexual competition than under intersexual competition. Males improved the female microenvironment by greater Cd uptake and lower resource consumption under intersexual competition. These results demonstrate that the sex of neighbor plants and competition affect sexual differences in growth and in key physiological processes under Cd stress. The asymmetry of sexual competition highlighted here might regulate population structure, and spatial segregation and phytoremediation potential of both sexes in P. cathayana growing in heavy metal-contaminated soils. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Peri-pubertal administration of 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one (NTO) affects reproductive organ development in male but not female Sprague Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Lent, Emily May; Crouse, Lee C B; Wallace, Shannon M; Carroll, Erica E

    2015-11-01

    Nitrotriazolone (3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one; NTO) is an insensitive munition that has demonstrated effects on reproductive organs in adult male rats. NTO was administered to male (0, 250, and 500milligrams per kilogram per day (mg/kg-day)) and female (0, 500, and 1000mg/kg-day) Sprague-Dawley rats (15/sex/group) via oral gavage from weaning through post-natal day 53/54 and 42/43, respectively. Age and body mass at vaginal opening (VO) and preputial separation (PPS), as well as all measures of estrous cyclicity were not affected by treatment with NTO. Males treated with NTO exhibited reductions in testis mass associated with tubular degeneration/atrophy. Less pronounced reductions in accessory sex organ masses were also observed in the 500mg/kg-day group. Treatment with NTO did not affect thyroid hormone or testosterone levels. These findings suggest that NTO is not acting as an estrogen or thyroid active compound, but may indicate effects on steroidogenesis and/or direct testicular toxicity. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Migratory stopover conditions affect the developmental state of male gonads in garden warblers (Sylvia borin).

    PubMed

    Bauchinger, Ulf; Van't Hof, Thomas; Biebach, Herbert

    2008-08-01

    Long-distance migrants face the challenge of a short window for reproduction that requires optimal timing and full functional gonads. Male garden warblers (Sylvia borin) meet these demands by initiating testicular recrudescence during spring migration, enabling them to reproduce immediately after arrival at the breeding grounds. In a combined field and laboratory study, we investigated testicular size, plasma levels of luteinizing hormone (LH), androstenedione (AE), 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), testosterone and nocturnal migratory restlessness (Zugunruhe) under different stopover conditions. We manipulated food availability, the duration of stopover and simulated migration by food deprivation. Garden warblers showed significantly retarded testicular development after nine days of stopover under limited food conditions compared to birds that had ad libitum access to food. However, there was no significant difference in Zugunruhe between the two groups. Thus, the degree of Zugunruhe was unaffected by the quality of the stopover site and migration continued independent of the developmental state of the testis. We suggest that male garden warblers face the necessity to either compensate for slowed testicular recrudescence during the subsequent leg of migration and delay arrival at the breeding grounds, or arrive with less developed testes. Either of these may reduce annual reproductive success.

  16. [Chagas disease affecting the central nervous system in a patient with AIDS demonstrated by quantitative molecular methods].

    PubMed

    Fica, Alberto; Salinas, Marcia; Jercic, María Isabel; Dabanch, Jeannette; Soto, Andrés; Quintanilla, Sergio; Flores, Carlos

    2017-02-01

    Although infrequent, Trypanosoma cruzi reactivation is possible among patients with HIV/AIDS infection that develop a tumor-like or granulomatous lesion in the CNS. We report the case of a 60 years old male patient with HIV/AIDS and low CD4 lymphocytes count with cerebellar symptoms and mild paresis, associated to supra and infratentorial hypodense lesions and positive serology tests both to T. gondii and Trypanosoma cruzi. Empirical therapy against toxoplasmosis was prescribed together with antiretroviral therapy but without a favorable response. Brain Chagas disease was confirmed by quantitative PCR in the CSF but he died despite nifurtimox treatment. Despite its rare occurrence, Chagas disease affecting the CNS is possible among patients with HIV/AIDS infection. Epidemiological exposure, a positive Chagas serological test and the image pattern of brain lesions support the suspicion. Diagnosis can be confirmed by molecular test in CSF samples, including new quantitative methods. Despite an adverse prognosis, specific therapy can be attempted besides antiretroviral treatment.

  17. Inhibition of Polo kinase by BI2536 affects centriole separation during Drosophila male meiosis.

    PubMed

    Riparbelli, Maria G; Gottardo, Marco; Glover, David M; Callaini, Giuliano

    2014-01-01

    Pharmacological inhibition of Drosophila Polo kinase with BI2536 has allowed us to re-examine the requirements for Polo during Drosophila male gametogenesis. BI2536-treated spermatocytes persisted in a pro-metaphase state without dividing and had condensed chromosomes that did not separate. Centrosomes failed to recruit γ-tubulin and centrosomin (Cnn) and were not associated with microtubule arrays that were abnormal and did not form proper bipolar spindles. Centrioles, which usually separate during the anaphase of the first meiosis, remained held together in a V-shaped configuration suggesting that Polo kinase regulates the proteolysis that breaks centriole linkage to ensure their disengagement. Despite these defects spermatid differentiation proceeds, leading to axoneme formation.

  18. Inhibition of Polo kinase by BI2536 affects centriole separation during Drosophila male meiosis

    PubMed Central

    Riparbelli, Maria G; Gottardo, Marco; Glover, David M; Callaini, Giuliano

    2014-01-01

    Pharmacological inhibition of Drosophila Polo kinase with BI2536 has allowed us to re-examine the requirements for Polo during Drosophila male gametogenesis. BI2536-treated spermatocytes persisted in a pro-metaphase state without dividing and had condensed chromosomes that did not separate. Centrosomes failed to recruit γ-tubulin and centrosomin (Cnn) and were not associated with microtubule arrays that were abnormal and did not form proper bipolar spindles. Centrioles, which usually separate during the anaphase of the first meiosis, remained held together in a V-shaped configuration suggesting that Polo kinase regulates the proteolysis that breaks centriole linkage to ensure their disengagement. Despite these defects spermatid differentiation proceeds, leading to axoneme formation. PMID:24802643

  19. [High-dose daidzein affects growth and development of reproductive organs in male rats].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Chun-Xia; Pan, Lian-Jun; Feng, Yao; Xia, Xin-Yi; Huang, Yu-Feng

    2008-04-01

    To explore the effect of the phytoestrogen daidzein on the growth and development of the testis and epididymis in male SD rats. Thirty 10-week old (early adult) and 30 4-week old (pubertal) male SD rats were included in the study, each age group equally divided into 5 subgroups: normal control, positive control, low-dose, medium-dose and high-dose. The normal and positive control groups were given 1 ml distilled water and the same amount of distilled water containing diethylstilbestrol (DES) at the dose of 0.1 mg/kg, and the low-, medium- and high-dose groups administered daidzein in the dose of 2mg/kg, 20 mg/ kg and 100 mg/kg, respectively, all by gavage for 90 days. Observations were made on the changes in body weight and testicular and epididymal indexes, as well as on the structural changes of the testis and epididymis by H&E staining. The early adult rats showed no significant differences in body weight and testicular and epididymal indexes between the claiclzein groups and the control (P > 0.05), nor did the pubertal rats in epididymal index (P > 0.05). The testicular index differed significantly between the high-dose group (3.21 +/- 0.07) and the normal control (3.71 +/- 0.45) (P < 0.05). The body weight reduced markedly in the high-dose group (P < 0.05), but with no significant differences between the normal control and the other two dose groups (P > 0.05). No obvious changes were observed in epididymal morphology in all the daidzein groups of the early adult and pubertal rats, but high-dose daidzein resulted in smaller testes and impaired spermatogenesis. The phytoestrogen daidzein, administered in a high dose, could delay the growth and development of the testis and induce structural changes of testicular tissues in pubertal SD rats.

  20. Influence of gang membership on negative affect, substance use, and antisocial behavior among homeless African American male youth.

    PubMed

    Harper, Gary W; Davidson, Jonathan; Hosek, Sybil G

    2008-09-01

    The current study examined differences between gang-involved and non-gang-involved homeless African American male youth with regard to negative affect, substance use, and antisocial/violent behavior. A total of 69 homeless African American young men were recruited from community agencies and completed structured face-to-face interviews. Overall, gang members reported higher rates of negative mental and physical health outcomes than did non-gang members, with current gang members reporting higher levels of depression and anxiety, greater levels of antisocial and violent behavior, and higher levels of lifetime alcohol and marijuana use. Multiple linear regression analyses revealed that greater levels of gang involvement were associated with more frequent lifetime use of alcohol and marijuana and higher levels of participation in violent behaviors. Implications of these findings for interventions with homeless African American male youth and future research directions are discussed.

  1. Dissociation of morphine analgesic effects in the sensory and affective components of formalin-induced spontaneous pain in male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Harton, Lisa R; Richardson, Janell R; Armendariz, Alexander; Nazarian, Arbi

    2017-03-01

    Sex differences in the analgesic effects of morphine have been previously reported in various models that represent the sensory component of pain. However, pain sensation is a complex process that consists of both sensory and affective components. It is presently unclear whether the analgesic effects of morphine between the sensory and affective components of pain are sexually dimorphic. Moreover, differences in morphine dose-response in the two components of pain have not been examined in male and female rats. Therefore, we examined the analgesic effects of morphine on the sensory and affective components of formalin-induced pain behaviors in male and female rats. To discern the sensory component, rats were pretreated with varying doses of morphine and then intraplantar formalin-induced paw flinches were measured. Morphine reduced the number of formalin-induced paw flinches at a treatment dose of 4.0mg/kg. Morphine analgesia was similar across the sexes in the early (phase 1) and late phase (phase 2) of the formalin test. To examine the affective component, rats were pretreated with varying doses of morphine, and then intraplantar formalin-induced conditioned place aversion (CPA) was examined. Formalin produced CPA, which was blocked by morphine at doses of 1.0mg/kg and higher in male and female rats. Lastly, formalin-induced cFos expression and the effects of systemic morphine were examined in the superficial dorsal horn of the spinal cord. Intraplantar formalin produced robust expression of cFos; however, morphine did not attenuate the cFos expression. These results demonstrate a notable dissociation of the analgesic effects of morphine by detecting a fourfold shift in the minimum effective dose between the sensory and affective components of formalin-induced spontaneous pain, that were similar between male and female rats. The findings further suggest disparate mechanisms involved in systemic morphine-induced analgesia in the two components of formalin

  2. Bisphenol-A Affects Male Fertility via Fertility-related Proteins in Spermatozoa

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Md Saidur; Kwon, Woo-Sung; Lee, June-Sub; Yoon, Sung-Jae; Ryu, Buom-Yong; Pang, Myung-Geol

    2015-01-01

    The xenoestrogen bisphenol-A (BPA) is a widespread environmental contaminant that has been studied for its impact on male fertility in several species of animals and humans. Growing evidence suggests that xenoestrogens can bind to receptors on spermatozoa and thus alter sperm function. The objective of the study was to investigate the effects of varying concentrations of BPA (0.0001, 0.01, 1, and 100 μM for 6 h) on sperm function, fertilization, embryonic development, and on selected fertility-related proteins in spermatozoa. Our results showed that high concentrations of BPA inhibited sperm motility and motion kinematics by significantly decreasing ATP levels in spermatozoa. High BPA concentrations also increased the phosphorylation of tyrosine residues on sperm proteins involved in protein kinase A-dependent regulation and induced a precocious acrosome reaction, which resulted in poor fertilization and compromised embryonic development. In addition, BPA induced the down-regulation of β-actin and up-regulated peroxiredoxin-5, glutathione peroxidase 4, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and succinate dehydrogenase. Our results suggest that high concentrations of BPA alter sperm function, fertilization, and embryonic development via regulation and/or phosphorylation of fertility-related proteins in spermatozoa. We conclude that BPA-induced changes in fertility-related protein levels in spermatozoa may be provided a potential cue of BPA-mediated disease conditions. PMID:25772901

  3. Dermatoglyphics of digitopalmar complex in forty male patients affected by rheumatoid arthritis--quantitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Cvjeticanin, Miljenko; Jajić, Zrinka; Jajić, Ivo

    2009-01-01

    Quantitative analysis of digitopalmar ridge count was performed in forty male patients with rheumatoid arthritis to evaluation of genetic factors in that disease. Twenty five variables (ridge count on each of ten fingers, their sum on five and ten fingers, four traits on each palm, i. e. ridge count between a-b, b-c and c-d triradii, their sum on each and both palm and at angle on two palms and their bilateral sum) were determined. The data thus obtained were compared with digitopalmar prints of 200 healthy men who served as a control group. A significant difference from the control group was found in eight variables. Ridge count was increased on the first and fifth finger bilaterally, on the fourth right finger tip, and their sum on each, and both fists. Accordingly, a polygenic system identical in some loci to the polygenic system predisposing to rheumatoid arthritis susceptibility might be found responsible for the dermatoglyphic pattern development. That means that they could used, and that is the aim of this study, as a diagnostic tool in rheumatic diseases.

  4. Sodium fluoride and sulfur dioxide affected male reproduction by disturbing blood-testis barrier in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianhai; Li, Zhihui; Qie, Mingli; Zheng, Ruibo; Shetty, Jagathpala; Wang, Jundong

    2016-08-01

    Fluoride and sulfur dioxide (SO2), two well-known environmental toxicants, have been implicated to have adverse effects on male reproductive health in humans and animals. The objective of this study to investigate if the BTB is one of the pathways that lead to reproductive toxicity of sodium fluoride and sulfur dioxide alone or in combination, in view of the key role of blood testis barrier (BTB) in testis. The results showed that a marked decrease in sperm quality, and altered morphology and ultrastructure of BTB in testis of mice exposure to fluoride (100 mg NaF/L in drinking water) or/and sulfur dioxide (28 mg SO2/m(3), 3 h/day). Meanwhile, the mRNA expression levels of some vital BTB-associated proteins, including occluding, claudin-11, ZO-1, Ncadherin, α-catenin, and connexin-43 were all strikingly reduced after NaF exposure, although only the reduction of DSG-2 was statistically significant in all treatment groups. Moreover, the proteins expressions also decreased significantly in claudin-11, N-cadherin, α-catenin, connexin-43 and desmoglein-2 in mice treated with fluoride and/or SO2. These changes in BTB structure and constitutive proteins may therefore be connected with the low sperm quality in these mice. The role of fluoride should deserves more attention in this process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Oral administration of nasturtium affects peptide YY secretion in male subjects.

    PubMed

    Schiess, Sonja; Platz, Stefanie; Kemper, Margrit; Schreiner, Monika; Mewis, Inga; Rohn, Sascha; Bumke-Vogt, Christiane; Pivovarova, Olga; Pfeiffer, Andreas F H

    2017-08-01

    Nasturtium plants contain the glucosinolate glucotropaeolin and its corresponding breakdown product benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC), the latter being intensively studied with regard to cancer chemoprevention and anti-inflammatory properties. In addition, recent research has shown that isothiocyanates are able to activate the release of several gut hormones in vitro and in rodent studies. Here, we tested the effects of a dietary nasturtium administration on circulating levels of gut hormones in humans. Metabolically healthy males (n = 15) received a single oral dose of 10 g freeze-dried nasturtium leaf material suspended in water or only water (control). Blood samples were taken every hour and serum concentrations of insulin, C-peptide, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), and peptide (PYY) were analyzed. Oral nasturtium intake resulted in an increased release of PYY over a time period of 6 h whereas circulating levels of other hormones were not changed. Given the finding that nasturtium consumption enhances secretion of PYY, a key hormone involved in energy regulation, special diets containing nasturtium, or supplementation with nasturtium or BITC might be considered in the treatment of obesity. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Hypo- and hyperthyroidism affect NEI concentration in discrete brain areas of adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Ayala, Carolina; Valdez, Susana Ruth; Morero, María Luján Navarra; Soaje, Marta; Carreño, Norma Beatriz; Sanchez, Mónica Silvina; Bittencourt, Jakson Cioni; Jahn, Graciela Alma; Celis, María Ester

    2011-06-01

    To date, there has been only one in vitro study of the relationship between neuropeptide EI (NEI) and the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis. To investigate the possible relationship between NEI and the HPT axis, we developed a rat model of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism that allows us to determine whether NEI content is altered in selected brain areas after treatment, as well as whether such alterations are related to the time of day. Hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism, induced in male rats, with 6-propyl-1-thiouracil and l-thyroxine, respectively, were confirmed by determination of triiodothyronine, total thyroxine, and thyrotropin levels. All groups were studied at the morning and the afternoon. In rats with hypothyroidism, NEI concentration, evaluated on postinduction days 7 and 24, was unchanged or slightly elevated on day 7 but was decreased on day 24. In rats with hyperthyroidism, NEI content, which was evaluated after 4 days of l-thyroxine administration, was slightly elevated, principally in the preoptic area in the morning and in the median eminence-arcuate nucleus and pineal gland in the afternoon, the morning and afternoon NEI contents being similar in the controls. These results provide the bases to pursue the study of the interaction between NEI and the HPT axis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Musically induced arousal affects pain perception in females but not in males: a psychophysiological examination.

    PubMed

    Kenntner-Mabiala, Ramona; Gorges, Susanne; Alpers, Georg W; Lehmann, Andreas C; Pauli, Paul

    2007-04-01

    The present study investigated affective and physiological responses to changes of tempo and mode in classical music and their effects on heat pain perception. Thirty-eight healthy non-musicians (17 female) listened to sequences of 24 music stimuli which were variations of 4 pieces of classical music. Tempo (46, 60, and 95 beats/min) and mode (major and minor) were manipulated digitally, all other musical elements were held constant. Participants rated valence, arousal, happiness and sadness of the musical stimuli as well as the intensity and the unpleasantness of heat pain stimuli which were applied during music listening. Heart rate, respiratory rate and end-tidal PCO(2) were recorded. Pain ratings were highest for the fastest tempo. Also, participants' arousal ratings, their respiratory rate and heart rate were accelerated by the fastest tempo. The modulation of pain perception by the tempo of music seems to be mediated by the listener's arousal.

  8. Runx1 Regulates Myeloid Precursor Differentiation Into Osteoclasts Without Affecting Differentiation Into Antigen Presenting or Phagocytic Cells in Both Males and Females

    PubMed Central

    Paglia, David N.; Yang, Xiaochuan; Kalinowski, Judith; Jastrzebski, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Runt-related transcription factor 1 (Runx1), a master regulator of hematopoiesis, is expressed in preosteoclasts. Previously we evaluated the bone phenotype of CD11b-Cre Runx1fl/fl mice and demonstrated enhanced osteoclasts and decreased bone mass in males. However, an assessment of the effects of Runx1 deletion in female osteoclast precursors was impossible with this model. Moreover, the role of Runx1 in myeloid cell differentiation into other lineages is unknown. Therefore, we generated LysM-Cre Runx1fl/fl mice, which delete Runx1 equally (∼80% deletion) in myeloid precursor cells from both sexes and examined the capacity of these cells to differentiate into osteoclasts and phagocytic and antigen-presenting cells. Both female and male LysM-Cre Runx1fl/fl mice had decreased trabecular bone mass (72% decrease in bone volume fraction) and increased osteoclast number (2–3 times) (P < .05) without alteration of osteoblast histomorphometric indices. We also demonstrated that loss of Runx1 in pluripotential myeloid precursors with LysM-Cre did not alter the number of myeloid precursor cells in bone marrow or their ability to differentiate into phagocytizing or antigen-presenting cells. This study demonstrates that abrogation of Runx1 in multipotential myeloid precursor cells significantly and specifically enhanced the ability of receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand to stimulate osteoclast formation and fusion in female and male mice without affecting other myeloid cell fates. In turn, increased osteoclast activity in LysM-Cre Runx1fl/fl mice likely contributed to a decrease in bone mass. These dramatic effects were not due to increased osteoclast precursors in the deleted mutants and argue that inhibition of Runx1 in multipotential myeloid precursor cells is important for osteoclast formation and function. PMID:27267711

  9. Female major histocompatibility complex type affects male testosterone levels and sperm number in the horse (Equus caballus)

    PubMed Central

    Burger, D.; Dolivo, G.; Marti, E.; Sieme, H.; Wedekind, C.

    2015-01-01

    Odours of vertebrates often contain information about the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), and are used in kin recognition, mate choice or female investment in pregnancy. It is, however, still unclear whether MHC-linked signals can also affect male reproductive strategies. We used horses (Equus caballus) to study this question under experimental conditions. Twelve stallions were individually exposed either to an unfamiliar MHC-similar mare and then to an unfamiliar MHC-dissimilar mare, or vice versa. Each exposure lasted over a period of four weeks. Peripheral blood testosterone levels were determined weekly. Three ejaculates each were collected in the week after exposure to both mares (i.e. in the ninth week) to determine mean sperm number and sperm velocity. We found high testosterone levels when stallions were kept close to MHC-dissimilar mares and significantly lower ones when kept close to MHC-similar mares. Mean sperm number per ejaculate (but not sperm velocity) was positively correlated to mean testosterone levels and also affected by the order of presentation of mares: sperm numbers were higher if MHC-dissimilar mares were presented last than if MHC-similar mares were presented last. We conclude that MHC-linked signals influence testosterone secretion and semen characteristics, two indicators of male reproductive strategies. PMID:25904670

  10. Female major histocompatibility complex type affects male testosterone levels and sperm number in the horse (Equus caballus).

    PubMed

    Burger, D; Dolivo, G; Marti, E; Sieme, H; Wedekind, C

    2015-05-22

    Odours of vertebrates often contain information about the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), and are used in kin recognition, mate choice or female investment in pregnancy. It is, however, still unclear whether MHC-linked signals can also affect male reproductive strategies. We used horses (Equus caballus) to study this question under experimental conditions. Twelve stallions were individually exposed either to an unfamiliar MHC-similar mare and then to an unfamiliar MHC-dissimilar mare, or vice versa. Each exposure lasted over a period of four weeks. Peripheral blood testosterone levels were determined weekly. Three ejaculates each were collected in the week after exposure to both mares (i.e. in the ninth week) to determine mean sperm number and sperm velocity. We found high testosterone levels when stallions were kept close to MHC-dissimilar mares and significantly lower ones when kept close to MHC-similar mares. Mean sperm number per ejaculate (but not sperm velocity) was positively correlated to mean testosterone levels and also affected by the order of presentation of mares: sperm numbers were higher if MHC-dissimilar mares were presented last than if MHC-similar mares were presented last. We conclude that MHC-linked signals influence testosterone secretion and semen characteristics, two indicators of male reproductive strategies.

  11. Reduced rDNA copy number does not affect "competitive" chromosome pairing in XYY males of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Maggert, Keith A

    2014-03-20

    The ribosomal DNA (rDNA) arrays are causal agents in X-Y chromosome pairing in meiosis I of Drosophila males. Despite broad variation in X-linked and Y-linked rDNA copy number, polymorphisms in regulatory/spacer sequences between rRNA genes, and variance in copy number of interrupting R1 and R2 retrotransposable elements, there is little evidence that different rDNA arrays affect pairing efficacy. I investigated whether induced rDNA copy number polymorphisms affect chromosome pairing in a "competitive" situation in which complex pairing configurations were possible using males with XYY constitution. Using a common normal X chromosome, one of two different full-length Y chromosomes, and a third chromosome from a series of otherwise-isogenic rDNA deletions, I detected no differences in X-Y or Y-Y pairing or chromosome segregation frequencies that could not be attributed to random variation alone. This work was performed in the context of an undergraduate teaching program at Texas A&M University, and I discuss the pedagogical utility of this and other such experiments.

  12. Reduced rDNA Copy Number Does Not Affect “Competitive” Chromosome Pairing in XYY Males of Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Maggert, Keith A.

    2014-01-01

    The ribosomal DNA (rDNA) arrays are causal agents in X-Y chromosome pairing in meiosis I of Drosophila males. Despite broad variation in X-linked and Y-linked rDNA copy number, polymorphisms in regulatory/spacer sequences between rRNA genes, and variance in copy number of interrupting R1 and R2 retrotransposable elements, there is little evidence that different rDNA arrays affect pairing efficacy. I investigated whether induced rDNA copy number polymorphisms affect chromosome pairing in a “competitive” situation in which complex pairing configurations were possible using males with XYY constitution. Using a common normal X chromosome, one of two different full-length Y chromosomes, and a third chromosome from a series of otherwise-isogenic rDNA deletions, I detected no differences in X-Y or Y-Y pairing or chromosome segregation frequencies that could not be attributed to random variation alone. This work was performed in the context of an undergraduate teaching program at Texas A&M University, and I discuss the pedagogical utility of this and other such experiments. PMID:24449686

  13. Targeted Manipulation of Serotonergic Neurotransmission Affects the Escalation of Aggression in Adult Male Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Alekseyenko, Olga V.; Lee, Carol; Kravitz, Edward A.

    2010-01-01

    Dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5HT) are reported to serve important roles in aggression in a wide variety of animals. Previous investigations of 5HT function in adult Drosophila behavior have relied on pharmacological manipulations, or on combinations of genetic tools that simultaneously target both DA and 5HT neurons. Here, we generated a transgenic line that allows selective, direct manipulation of serotonergic neurons and asked whether DA and 5HT have separable effects on aggression. Quantitative morphological examination demonstrated that our newly generated tryptophan hydroxylase (TRH)-Gal4 driver line was highly selective for 5HT-containing neurons. This line was used in conjunction with already available Gal4 driver lines that target DA or both DA and 5HT neurons to acutely alter the function of aminergic systems. First, we showed that acute impairment of DA and 5HT neurotransmission using expression of a temperature sensitive form of dynamin completely abolished mid- and high-level aggression. These flies did not escalate fights beyond brief low-intensity interactions and therefore did not yield dominance relationships. We showed next that manipulation of either 5HT or DA neurotransmission failed to duplicate this phenotype. Selective disruption of 5HT neurotransmission yielded flies that fought, but with reduced ability to escalate fights, leading to fewer dominance relationships. Acute activation of 5HT neurons using temperature sensitive dTrpA1 channel expression, in contrast, resulted in flies that escalated fights faster and that fought at higher intensities. Finally, acute disruption of DA neurotransmission produced hyperactive flies that moved faster than controls, and rarely engaged in any social interactions. By separately manipulating 5HT- and DA- neuron systems, we collected evidence demonstrating a direct role for 5HT in the escalation of aggression in Drosophila. PMID:20520823

  14. Does Muscle Mass Affect Running Times in Male Long-distance Master Runners?

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Beat; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas

    2012-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate associations between skeletal muscle mass, body fat and training characteristics with running times in master athletes (age > 35 years) in half-marathon, marathon and ultra-marathon. We compared skeletal muscle mass, body fat and training characteristics in master half-marathoners (n=103), master marathoners (n=91) and master ultra-marathoners (n=155) and investigated associations between body composition and training characteristics with race times using bi- and multi-variate analyses. After multi-variate analysis, body fat was related to half-marathon (β=0.9, P=0.0003), marathon (β=2.2, P<0.0001), and ultra-marathon (β=10.5, P<0.0001) race times. In master half-marathoners (β=-4.3, P<0.0001) and master marathoners (β=-11.9, P<0.0001), speed during training was related to race times. In master ultra-marathoners, however, weekly running kilometers (β=-1.6, P<0.0001) were related to running times. To summarize, body fat and training characteristics, not skeletal muscle mass, were associated with running times in master half-marathoners, master marathoners, and master ultra-marathoners. Master half-marathoners and master marathoners rather rely on a high running speed during training whereas master ultra-marathoners rely on a high running volume during training. The common opinion that skeletal muscle mass affects running performance in master runners needs to be questioned.

  15. GHB differentially affects morphine actions on motor activity and social behaviours in male mice.

    PubMed

    Maldonado, C; Rodriíuez-Arias, M; Aguilar, M A; Miñarro, J

    2003-09-01

    There are several reports suggesting that gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) influences the endogenous opioid system. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of GHB on motor and social activities and to examine its influence on morphine's actions on these behaviours. In a first experiment, several doses of GHB were studied but only the highest (200 and 400 mg/kg) produced a decrease in spontaneous motor activity measured in an actimeter cage. When hyperactivity induced by injecting 50 mg/kg of morphine was evaluated, all the GHB doses efficiently counteracted this morphine action. Using the paradigm of isolation-induced aggression, administration of 200 mg/kg of GHB significantly decreased threat and attack without impairing motor activity and, in addition, increased time spent in social contact. GHB increased morphine's suppression of threat or nonsocial exploratory behaviours. In conclusion, the interaction between GHB and the opioid systems was confirmed, with the drug having an additive effect on morphine-affected social behaviours but counteracting morphine-induced increases in motor activity.

  16. Transporters involved in pH and K+ homeostasis affect pollen wall formation, male fertility, and embryo development.

    PubMed

    Padmanaban, Senthilkumar; Czerny, Daniel D; Levin, Kara A; Leydon, Alexander R; Su, Robert T; Maugel, Timothy K; Zou, Yanjiao; Chanroj, Salil; Cheung, Alice Y; Johnson, Mark A; Sze, Heven

    2017-02-23

    Flowering plant genomes encode multiple cation/H+ exchangers (CHXs) whose functions are largely unknown. AtCHX17, AtCHX18, and AtCHX19 are membrane transporters that modulate K+ and pH homeostasis and are localized in the dynamic endomembrane system. Loss of function reduced seed set, but the particular phase(s) of reproduction affected was not determined. Pollen tube growth and ovule targeting of chx17chx18chx19 mutant pollen appeared normal, but reciprocal cross experiments indicate a largely male defect. Although triple mutant pollen tubes reach ovules of a wild-type pistil and a synergid cell degenerated, half of those ovules were unfertilized or showed fertilization of the egg or central cell, but not both female gametes. Fertility could be partially compromised by impaired pollen tube and/or sperm function as CHX19 and CHX18 are expressed in the pollen tube and sperm cell, respectively. When fertilization was successful in self-pollinated mutants, early embryo formation was retarded compared with embryos from wild-type ovules receiving mutant pollen. Thus CHX17 and CHX18 proteins may promote embryo development possibly through the endosperm where these genes are expressed. The reticulate pattern of the pollen wall was disorganized in triple mutants, indicating perturbation of wall formation during male gametophyte development. As pH and cation homeostasis mediated by AtCHX17 affect membrane trafficking and cargo delivery, these results suggest that male fertility, sperm function, and embryo development are dependent on proper cargo sorting and secretion that remodel cell walls, plasma membranes, and extracellular factors. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  17. Transporters involved in pH and K+ homeostasis affect pollen wall formation, male fertility, and embryo development

    DOE PAGES

    Padmanaban, Senthilkumar; Czerny, Daniel D.; Levin, Kara A.; ...

    2017-02-23

    Flowering plant genomes encode multiple cation/H+ exchangers (CHXs) whose functions are largely unknown. AtCHX17, AtCHX18, and AtCHX19 are membrane transporters that modulate K+ and pH homeostasis and are localized in the dynamic endomembrane system. Loss of function reduced seed set, but the particular phase(s) of reproduction affected was not determined. Pollen tube growth and ovule targeting of chx17chx18chx19 mutant pollen appeared normal, but reciprocal cross experiments indicate a largely male defect. Although triple mutant pollen tubes reach ovules of a wild-type pistil and a synergid cell degenerated, half of those ovules were unfertilized or showed fertilization of the egg ormore » central cell, but not both female gametes. Fertility could be partially compromised by impaired pollen tube and/or sperm function as CHX19 and CHX18 are expressed in the pollen tube and sperm cell, respectively. When fertilization was successful in self-pollinated mutants, early embryo formation was retarded compared with embryos from wild-type ovules receiving mutant pollen. Thus CHX17 and CHX18 proteins may promote embryo development possibly through the endosperm where these genes are expressed. The reticulate pattern of the pollen wall was disorganized in triple mutants, indicating perturbation of wall formation during male gametophyte development. Lastly, as pH and cation homeostasis mediated by AtCHX17 affect membrane trafficking and cargo delivery, these results suggest that male fertility, sperm function, and embryo development are dependent on proper cargo sorting and secretion that remodel cell walls, plasma membranes, and extracellular factors.« less

  18. Testosterone and photoperiod interact to affect spatial learning and memory in adult male white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus).

    PubMed

    Pyter, Leah M; Trainor, Brian C; Nelson, Randy J

    2006-06-01

    Gonadal hormones affect spatial learning and memory in mammals and circulating gonadal hormone concentrations fluctuate by season. Most nontropical rodents are spring/summer breeders and males display higher testosterone concentrations during the breeding season compared with the nonbreeding season (fall/winter). Seasonal patterns of testosterone concentration (as well as many other seasonal modifications of physiology, morphology, and behaviour) are induced by manipulation of photoperiod (day length; i.e. short or long days) in the laboratory. Coincident with reducing testosterone concentration, short days also impair spatial learning and memory performance in male white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) compared with long days. We hypothesized that short-day-induced reduction of testosterone concentrations inhibits spatial learning and memory performance compared with long days. Adult male white-footed mice were maintained in long (16 h light/day) or short (8 h light/day) days for 14 weeks following sham-castration, castration plus saline implant, or castration plus testosterone implant treatment. Spatial learning and memory was assessed using a water maze, and photoperiod-evoked changes in gene expression of sex steroid receptors within the hippocampus were also examined. Castrated, short-day mice with testosterone replacement displayed enhanced water maze performance compared with other short-day mice, but no differences among testosterone treatments were observed in long-day mice. Photoperiod did not affect hippocampal androgen, oestrogen alpha, or oestrogen beta receptor gene expression. These results suggest that photoperiod modulates the effects of testosterone on spatial learning performance by mechanisms indirect of the hippocampus.

  19. Fermentable Carbohydrates Differentially Affect Colon Tumor Formation in Azoxymethane-Induced Male Fischer 344 Rats.

    PubMed

    Raju, Jayadev; Roberts, Jennifer; Chen, QiXuan; Aziz, Syed A; Caldwell, Don; Bird, Ranjana P; Scoggan, Kylie A; Brooks, Stephen Pj

    2016-03-09

    The role of fermentation compared with the source or type of the fermentable material in colon tumorigenesis remains an issue in refining the definition of dietary fiber (DF). The aim of this study was to investigate the fermentation and source-specific effects of various carbohydrates in a medium-term colon tumorigenesis model. Six-week-old male Fischer 344 rats were randomly allocated into 6 groups (n = 36/group) to receive either AIN-93G (control) or diets containing fructooligosaccharides, wheat bran (WB), oat bran (OB), polydextrose, or high-amylose maize starch (HAMS), each adjusted to contain a total DF concentration of 7% (wt:wt) and have a fermentability of 3% (wt:wt). After 2 wk, 24 rats/group received 2 subcutaneous doses of azoxymethane (at 15 mg/kg body weight) 1 wk apart while 12 rats/group were injected with a saline vehicle; all rats were maintained on the assigned diets for 24 wk postinjection and then killed. Colon tumor outcomes and pathology together with cecal short-chain fatty acid composition were assessed. No tumors were found in saline-injected rats, and all subsequent analyses were restricted to azoxymethane-injected rats. Colon tumor incidence was significantly lower in the polydextrose (21%) and WB (13%) groups than in the control group (63%; P < 0.05) but not different from the fructooligosaccharide (58%), HAMS (46%), and OB (33%) groups. In comparison to the control group (8 proximal/31 total tumors), fermentable materials reduced the number of tumors (P < 0.05) originating in the proximal colon: HAMS (5/15), polydextrose (2/7), OB (2/9), fructooligosaccharides (1/21), and WB (1/3). The mean ± SEM number of tumors/tumor-bearing rats was significantly lower in the WB (1.00 ± 0.00), OB (1.13 ± 0.13), and HAMS (1.36 ± 0.15) groups than in the control group (2.07 ± 0.27; P < 0.02); other groups did not differ. The mean ± SEM tumor burden/diet group was lower in the WB (1.2 ± 0.7 mm(2)), polydextrose (6.7 ± 3.2 mm(2)), and OB (7.0

  20. A cognitive-perceptual model of symptom perception in males and females: the roles of negative affect, selective attention, health anxiety and psychological job demands.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Laura; Fairclough, Stephen H; Poole, Helen M

    2013-06-01

    Kolk et al.'s model of symptom perception underlines the effects of trait negative affect, selective attention and external stressors. The current study tested this model in 263 males and 498 females from an occupational sample. Trait negative affect was associated with symptom reporting in females only, and selective attention and psychological job demands were associated with symptom reporting in both genders. Health anxiety was associated with symptom reporting in males only. Future studies might consider the inclusion of selective attention, which was more strongly associated with symptom reporting than negative affect. Psychological job demands appear to influence symptom reporting in both males and females.

  1. Nutritional and exercise interventions variably affect estrogen receptor expression in the adipose tissue of male rats.

    PubMed

    Metz, Lore; Gerbaix, Maude; Masgrau, Aurélie; Guillet, Christelle; Walrand, Stéphane; Boisseau, Nathalie; Boirie, Yves; Courteix, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    Energy-dense food consumption and lack of physical activity are implicated in the development of the current obesity epidemic. The role of estrogen in adiposity and fuel partitioning is mediated mainly though the estrogen receptor α (ERα) isoform. We hypothesized that nutritional adaptation and exercise training, either individually or combined, could impact ERα expression in adipose tissue relative to glucose tolerance. Seventy-two Wistar rats were submitted to a high-fat, high-sucrose (HF-HS) diet for 16weeks. The first phase of our study was to investigate the effect of an HF-HS diet on whole-body glucose tolerance, as well as on body composition and ERα expression in different adipose tissues. Second, we investigated the effect of switching to a well-balanced diet, with or without exercise training for 8 weeks, on those same parameters. After the first part of this study, HF-HS-fed rats were fatter (8%) than control rats. Despite a decrease in glucose tolerance, ERα expression in adipose tissues was not significantly altered by an HF-HS diet. The return to a well-balanced diet significantly increased ERα expression in perirenal and epididymal adipose tissue, but there was no effect of diet or exercise training on whole-body glucose tolerance. The present findings suggest that diet is a powerful modulator of ERα expression in adipose tissue, as nutritional modulation after an HF-HS diet strongly affects ERα expression, particularly in perirenal and epididymal adipose tissue. However, ERα expression in adipose tissue does not appear to be associated with whole-body glucose tolerance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Diclofenac can exhibit estrogenic modes of action in male Xenopus laevis, and affects the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad axis and mating vocalizations.

    PubMed

    Efosa, Norah Johanna; Kleiner, Wibke; Kloas, Werner; Hoffmann, Frauke

    2017-04-01

    Diclofenac (DCF) is a non-steroidal analgesic and antiphlogistic. Due to its tremendous use, DCF can be found in the environment, especially in sewage, but also surface waters, ground and drinking water. Previous studies indicated that DCF can modulate the reproductive physiology of fish by altering the expression of important key enzymes of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad-axis (HPG-axis) and might act as an estrogenic endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC). Other studies, however, demonstrated that DCF does not exhibit any estrogenicity. Thus, in the present study we investigated whether an exposure to DCF can affect reproductive behavior and physiology of adult male X. laevis by analyzing DCF effects on the mate calling behavior of the frogs and on gene expression patterns of key biomarkers of the HPG-axis. In addition, plasma sex steroid levels were determined to gain detailed insights into the mechanisms of DCF action. We could demonstrate that DCF can act as EDC by exhibiting slight estrogenic modes of action. In addition, pharmacological impacts on gonadal steroidogenesis could be revealed leading to imbalances in sex steroid levels and ratios. DCF furthermore altered the calling behavior of exposed males, potentially reducing the mating and reproductive success of the frogs, possibly leading to severe population effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. I saw where you have been--The topography of human demonstration affects dogs' search patterns and perseverative errors.

    PubMed

    Péter, András; Topál, József; Miklósi, Ádám; Pongrácz, Péter

    2016-04-01

    Performance in object search tasks is not only influenced by the subjects' object permanence ability. For example, ostensive cues of the human manipulating the target markedly affect dogs' choices. However, the interference between the target's location and the spatial cues of the human hiding the object is still unknown. In a five-location visible displacement task, the experimental groups differed in the hiding route of the experimenter. In the 'direct' condition he moved straight towards the actual location, hid the object and returned to the dog. In the 'indirect' conditions, he additionally walked behind each screen before returning. The two 'indirect' conditions differed from each other in that the human either visited the previously baited locations before (proactive interference) or after (retroactive interference) hiding the object. In the 'indirect' groups, dogs' performance was significantly lower than in the 'direct' group, demonstrating that for dogs, in an ostensive context, spatial cues of the hider are as important as the observed location of the target. Based on their incorrect choices, dogs were most attracted to the previously baited locations that the human visited after hiding the object in the actual trial. This underlines the importance of retroactive interference in multiple choice tasks.

  4. A partial MECP2 duplication in a mildly affected adult male: a putative role for the 3' untranslated region in the MECP2 duplication phenotype

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Duplications of the X-linked MECP2 gene are associated with moderate to severe intellectual disability, epilepsy, and neuropsychiatric illness in males, while triplications are associated with a more severe phenotype. Most carrier females show complete skewing of X-inactivation in peripheral blood and an apparent susceptibility to specific personality traits or neuropsychiatric symptoms. Methods We describe the clinical phenotype of a pedigree segregating a duplication of MECP2 found on clinical array comparative genomic hybridization. The position, size, and extent of the duplication were delineated in peripheral blood samples from affected individuals using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and fluorescence in situ hybridization, as well as targeted high-resolution oligonucleotide microarray analysis and long-range PCR. The molecular consequences of the rearrangement were studied in lymphoblast cell lines using quantitative real-time PCR, reverse transcriptase PCR, and western blot analysis. Results We observed a partial MECP2 duplication in an adult male with epilepsy and mild neurocognitive impairment who was able to function independently; this phenotype has not previously been reported among males harboring gains in MECP2 copy number. The same duplication was inherited by this individual’s daughter who was also affected with neurocognitive impairment and epilepsy and carried an additional copy-number variant. The duplicated segment involved all four exons of MECP2, but excluded almost the entire 3' untranslated region (UTR), and the genomic rearrangement resulted in a MECP2-TEX28 fusion gene mRNA transcript. Increased expression of MECP2 and the resulting fusion gene were both confirmed; however, western blot analysis of lysates from lymphoblast cells demonstrated increased MeCP2 protein without evidence of a stable fusion gene protein product. Conclusion The observations of a mildly affected adult male with a MECP2 duplication and

  5. A partial MECP2 duplication in a mildly affected adult male: a putative role for the 3' untranslated region in the MECP2 duplication phenotype.

    PubMed

    Hanchard, Neil A; Carvalho, Claudia M B; Bader, Patricia; Thome, Aaron; Omo-Griffith, Lisa; del Gaudio, Daniela; Pehlivan, Davut; Fang, Ping; Schaaf, Christian P; Ramocki, Melissa B; Lupski, James R; Cheung, Sau Wai

    2012-08-10

    Duplications of the X-linked MECP2 gene are associated with moderate to severe intellectual disability, epilepsy, and neuropsychiatric illness in males, while triplications are associated with a more severe phenotype. Most carrier females show complete skewing of X-inactivation in peripheral blood and an apparent susceptibility to specific personality traits or neuropsychiatric symptoms. We describe the clinical phenotype of a pedigree segregating a duplication of MECP2 found on clinical array comparative genomic hybridization. The position, size, and extent of the duplication were delineated in peripheral blood samples from affected individuals using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and fluorescence in situ hybridization, as well as targeted high-resolution oligonucleotide microarray analysis and long-range PCR. The molecular consequences of the rearrangement were studied in lymphoblast cell lines using quantitative real-time PCR, reverse transcriptase PCR, and western blot analysis. We observed a partial MECP2 duplication in an adult male with epilepsy and mild neurocognitive impairment who was able to function independently; this phenotype has not previously been reported among males harboring gains in MECP2 copy number. The same duplication was inherited by this individual's daughter who was also affected with neurocognitive impairment and epilepsy and carried an additional copy-number variant. The duplicated segment involved all four exons of MECP2, but excluded almost the entire 3' untranslated region (UTR), and the genomic rearrangement resulted in a MECP2-TEX28 fusion gene mRNA transcript. Increased expression of MECP2 and the resulting fusion gene were both confirmed; however, western blot analysis of lysates from lymphoblast cells demonstrated increased MeCP2 protein without evidence of a stable fusion gene protein product. The observations of a mildly affected adult male with a MECP2 duplication and paternal transmission of this

  6. When Sex Work Becomes Your Everything: The Complex Linkages Between Economy and Affection Among Male Sex Workers in Peru.

    PubMed

    Bayer, Angela M; Garvich, Mijail; Díaz, David A; Sánchez, Hugo; García, Patricia J; Coates, Thomas J

    2014-09-01

    In Peru, there are few studies on male sex workers (MSWs), and existing studies explore limited subgroups or offer limited information about MSWs' perspectives. This study provides in-depth perspectives from 40 MSWs who work in downtown Lima (Cercado) and in surrounding urban neighborhoods (non-Cercado) through interviews on their identities, lives, and HIV/STI (sexually transmitted infection) risks and vulnerabilities. Findings are that entry into sex work links economy and affection, particularly among Cercado MSWs. Continued sex work cements this link, making it difficult to exit sex work and establish goals. Ties between economics and affections influence MSWs' perceived HIV/STI risks, vulnerabilities, and prevention practices. Although Cercado MSWs report higher HIV/STI risks and vulnerabilities than non-Cercado peers, they report fewer prevention practices given inability to buy condoms and acceptance of client offers of higher payment, especially clients they feel affection for. MSWs need support to strengthen their self-perceptions and define and pursue their goals in order to improve their HIV/STI prevention practices, health, and well-being. © The Author(s) 2013.

  7. When sex work becomes your everything: The complex linkages between economy and affection among male sex workers in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Bayer, Angela M.; Garvich, Mijail; Díaz, David A.; Sánchez, Hugo; García, Patricia J.; Coates, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    In Peru, there are few studies on male sex workers (MSWs) and existing studies explore limited sub-groups or offer limited information about MSWs’ perspectives. This study provides in-depth perspectives from 40 MSWs who work in downtown Lima (Cercado) and in surrounding urban neighborhoods (non-Cercado) through interviews on their identities, lives and HIV/STI risks and vulnerabilities. Findings are that entry into sex work links economy and affection, particularly among Cercado MSWs. Continued sex work cements this link, making it difficult to exit sex work and establish goals. Ties between economics and affections influence MSWs’ perceived HIV/STI risks, vulnerabilities and prevention practices. Although Cercado MSWs report higher HIV/STI risks and vulnerabilities than non-Cercado peers, they report fewer prevention practices given inability to buy condoms and acceptance of client offers of higher payment, especially clients they feel affection for. MSWs need support to strengthen their self-perceptions and define and pursue their goals in order to improve their HIV/STI prevention practices, health and well-being. PMID:24368712

  8. Do ambient electromagnetic fields affect behaviour? A demonstration of the relationship between geomagnetic storm activity and suicide.

    PubMed

    Berk, Michael; Dodd, Seetal; Henry, Margaret

    2006-02-01

    The relationship between ambient electromagnetic fields and human mood and behaviour is of great public health interest. The relationship between Ap indices of geomagnetic storm activity and national suicide statistics for Australia from 1968 to 2002 was studied. Ap index data was normalised so as to be globally uniform and gave a measure of storm activity for each day. A geomagnetic storm event was defined as a day in which the Ap index was equal to or exceeded 100 nT. Suicide data was a national tally of daily male and female death figures where suicide had been documented as the cause of death. A total of 51 845 males and 16 327 females were included. The average number of suicides was greatest in spring for males and females, and lowest in autumn for males and summer for females. Suicide amongst females increased significantly in autumn during concurrent periods of geomagnetic storm activity (P = .01). This pattern was not observed in males (P = .16). This suggests that perturbations in ambient electromagnetic field activity impact behaviour in a clinically meaningful manner. The study furthermore raises issues regarding other sources of stray electromagnetic fields and their effect on mental health.

  9. Male Aedes aegypti mosquitoes use JH III transferred during copulation to influence previtellogenic ovary physiology and affect the reproductive output of female mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Clifton, Mark E.; Correa, Stefano; Rivera-Perez, Crisalejandra; Nouzova, Marcela; Noriega, Fernando G.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of male accessory gland substances on female reproductive physiology has been previously described as “activating” egg development. However, no mechanism has been described that can explain how male mosquitoes are able to influence egg development in female mosquitoes. To investigate how male mosquitoes are able to influence ovarian physiology and reproductive output we explored three main questions: 1) Do mating and male accessory gland substances affect ovarian physiology and alter markers of oocyte quality during the previtellogenic resting stage? 2) Does the male accessory gland contain JH III and is JH III transferred to the female during copulation? 3) Finally, does the nutritional history of the male affect the amount of JH III transferred to the female and alter reproductive output? By answering these questions it is clear that male mosquitoes are able to alter the female’s resource allocation priorities towards reproduction by transferring JH III during copulation; reducing the rate of previtellogenic resorption and increasing the amount of stored ovarian lipids. These changes improve an individual follicle’s likelihood of development after a blood meal. In addition, males maintained under better nutritional conditions make and transfer more JH III, prevent more follicular resorption and realize higher fecundities than other males. Together these results illustrate one mechanism behind the “activating” effect of mating described as well as the role sugar feeding plays in male mosquitoes. PMID:24657670

  10. Male Aedes aegypti mosquitoes use JH III transferred during copulation to influence previtellogenic ovary physiology and affect the reproductive output of female mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Clifton, Mark E; Correa, Stefano; Rivera-Perez, Crisalejandra; Nouzova, Marcela; Noriega, Fernando G

    2014-05-01

    The effect of male accessory gland substances on female reproductive physiology has been previously described as "activating" egg development. However, no mechanism has been described that can explain how male mosquitoes are able to influence egg development in female mosquitoes. To investigate how male mosquitoes are able to influence ovarian physiology and reproductive output we explored three main questions: (1) Do mating and male accessory gland substances affect ovarian physiology and alter markers of oocyte quality during the previtellogenic resting stage? (2) Does the male accessory gland contain JH III and is JH III transferred to the female during copulation? (3) Finally, does the nutritional history of the male affect the amount of JH III transferred to the female and alter reproductive output? By answering these questions it is clear that male mosquitoes are able to alter the female's resource allocation priorities towards reproduction by transferring JH III during copulation; reducing the rate of previtellogenic resorption and increasing the amount of stored ovarian lipids. These changes improve an individual follicle's likelihood of development after a blood meal. In addition, males maintained under better nutritional conditions make and transfer more JH III, prevent more follicular resorption and realize higher fecundities than other males. Together these results illustrate one mechanism behind the "activating" effect of mating described as well as the role sugar feeding plays in male mosquitoes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Maternal protein restriction in pregnancy and/or lactation affects seminiferous tubule organization in male rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-González, G L; Vigueras-Villaseñor, R M; Millán, S; Moran, N; Trejo, R; Nathanielsz, P W; Larrea, F; Zambrano, E

    2012-10-01

    Maternal protein restriction (MPR) during pregnancy impaired the reproduction of male offspring. We investigated, during the first wave of spermatogenesis, whether MPR exerts deleterious effects on germ cell proliferation and differentiation, as well as androgen receptor (AR) protein expression, which was used as a marker for Sertoli cell (SC) maturation. At the beginning of pregnancy (day 0), dams were fed a control diet (C: 20% casein) or a restricted isocaloric diet (R: 10% casein). After birth, four groups were established: CC, RR, CR and RC (first letter diet during pregnancy and second during lactation). Male offspring were studied at postnatal days 14, 21 and 36. At birth, pup body weight was unchanged. Body weight and testis weight were reduced in RR and CR groups at all ages evaluated. MPR delayed the germinal epithelium development at all ages evaluated. On performing Western blot and immunohistochemistry, AR expression was found to be lower in the three restricted groups. The results suggest that MPR during pregnancy and/or lactation delays SC maturation and germ cell differentiation, and affects intratubular organization. These changes might be responsible for the lower fertility rate at older ages.

  12. Loss of X-linked Protocadherin-19 differentially affects the behavior of heterozygous female and hemizygous male mice.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Shuichi; Inoue, Yoko; Hattori, Satoko; Kaneko, Mari; Shioi, Go; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi; Takeichi, Masatoshi

    2017-07-19

    Mutations in the X-linked gene Protocadherin-19 (Pcdh19) cause female-limited epilepsy and mental retardation in humans. Although Pcdh19 is known to be a homophilic cell-cell adhesion molecule, how its mutations bring about female-specific disorders remains elusive. Here, we report the effects of Pcdh19 knockout in mice on their development and behavior. Pcdh19 was expressed in various brain regions including the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. Although Pcdh19-positive cells were evenly distributed in layer V of wild-type cortices, their distribution became a mosaic in Pcdh19 heterozygous female cortices. In cortical and hippocampal neurons, Pcdh19 was localized along their dendrites, showing occasional accumulation on synapses. Pcdh19 mutants, however, displayed no detectable abnormalities in dendrite and spine morphology of layer V neurons. Nevertheless, Pcdh19 hemizygous males and heterozygous females showed impaired behaviors including activity defects under stress conditions. Notably, only heterozygous females exhibited decreased fear responses. In addition, Pcdh19 overexpression in wild-type cortices led to ectopic clustering of Pcdh19-positive neurons. These results suggest that Pcdh19 is required for behavioral control in mice, but its genetic loss differentially affects the male and female behavior, as seen in human, and they also support the hypothesis that the mosaic expression of Pcdh19 in brains perturbs neuronal interactions.

  13. Withdrawal of dietary phytoestrogens in adult male rats affects hypothalamic regulation of food intake, induces obesity and alters glucose metabolism.

    PubMed

    Andreoli, María Florencia; Stoker, Cora; Rossetti, María Florencia; Alzamendi, Ana; Castrogiovanni, Daniel; Luque, Enrique H; Ramos, Jorge Guillermo

    2015-02-05

    The absence of phytoestrogens in the diet during pregnancy has been reported to result in obesity later in adulthood. We investigated whether phytoestrogen withdrawal in adult life could alter the hypothalamic signals that regulate food intake and affect body weight and glucose homeostasis. Male Wistar rats fed from conception to adulthood with a high phytoestrogen diet were submitted to phytoestrogen withdrawal by feeding a low phytoestrogen diet, or a high phytoestrogen-high fat diet. Withdrawal of dietary phytoestrogens increased body weight, adiposity and energy intake through an orexigenic hypothalamic response characterized by upregulation of AGRP and downregulation of POMC. This was associated with elevated leptin and T4, reduced TSH, testosterone and estradiol, and diminished hypothalamic ERα expression, concomitant with alterations in glucose tolerance. Removing dietary phytoestrogens caused manifestations of obesity and diabetes that were more pronounced than those induced by the high phytoestrogen-high fat diet intake. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. How various drugs affect anxiety-related behavior in male and female rats prenatally exposed to methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Macúchová, E; Ševčíková, M; Hrebíčková, I; Nohejlová, K; Šlamberová, R

    2016-06-01

    Different forms of anxiety-related behavior have been reported after a single drug use of many abused substances, however, less is known about how males and females are affected differently from exposure to various drugs. Furthermore, chronic prenatal methamphetamine (MA) exposure was shown to predispose the animal to an increased sensitivity to drugs administrated in adulthood. Using the Elevated plus-maze test (EPM), the first aim of the present study was to examine how male and female rats are affected by acute drug treatment with subcutaneously (s.c.) administrated (a) MA (1mg/kg); (b) drugs with a similar mechanism of action to MA: amphetamine (AMP, 1mg/kg), cocaine (COC, 5mg/kg), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, 5mg/kg); and (c) drugs with different mechanisms of action: morphine (MOR, 5mg/kg), and Δ 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC, 2mg/kg). The second aim was to determine if prenatally MA-exposed (5mg/kg) animals show an increased sensitivity to adult drug treatment. The parameters analyzed were divided into two categories: anxiety-related behavior and anxiety-unrelated/exploratory behavior. Our results showed in female rats a decreased percentage of the time spent in the closed arms (CA) after MA, and an increased percentage of the time spent in the open arms (OA) after MA, AMP, and COC treatment, indicating an anxiolytic-like effect. In females, MDMA and THC treatment increased the percentage of the time spent in the CA. An increased percentage of the time spent in the CA was also seen after MOR treatment in females as well as in males, indicating an anxiogenic-like effect. As far as the interaction between prenatal MA exposure and adult drug treatment is concerned, there was no effect found. In conclusion, it seems that: (a) in some cases female rats are more vulnerable to acute drug treatment, in terms of either anxiogenic- or anxiolytic-like effects; (b) prenatal MA exposure does not sensitize animals to the anxiety-related effects of any of the

  15. Variation in sex pheromone emission does not reflect immunocompetence but affects attractiveness of male burying beetles—a combination of laboratory and field experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chemnitz, Johanna; Bagrii, Nadiia; Ayasse, Manfred; Steiger, Sandra

    2017-08-01

    Life history theory predicts a trade-off between male sexual trait expression and immunocompetence. Using burying beetles, Nicrophorus vespilloides, as a model, we investigated the relationship between male immune function, sex pheromone emission, and attractiveness under field conditions. In the first experiment, we tested whether there is a positive correlation between immune capacity, sex pheromone characteristics (quantity, relative composition, and time invested in pheromone emission), and male attractiveness. As a measurement of immune capacity, we used an individual's encapsulation ability against a novel antigen. In the second experiment, we specifically examined whether a trade-off between chemical trait expression and immune function existed. To this end, we challenged the immune system and measured the subsequent investment in sex pheromone emission and the attractiveness of the male under field conditions. We found that a male's immunocompetence was neither related to the emission of the male's sex pheromone nor to its attractiveness in the field. Furthermore, none of the immune-challenge treatments affected the subsequent investment in pheromone emission or number of females attracted. However, we showed that the same males that emitted a high quantity of their sex pheromone in the laboratory were able to attract more females in the field. Our data suggest that the chemical signal is not a reliable predictor of a male's immunocompetence but rather is a general important fitness-related trait, with a higher emission of the sex pheromone measured in the laboratory directly affecting the attractiveness of a male under field conditions.

  16. Maize Milling Method Affects Growth and Zinc Status but Not Provitamin A Carotenoid Bioefficacy in Male Mongolian Gerbils1234

    PubMed Central

    Pixley, Kevin V; Tanumihardjo, Sherry A

    2017-01-01

    Background: Vitamin A (VA) and zinc deficiencies are prevalent. Maize is a common staple, and milling affects nutrient and nutrient-modifier profiles. Objective: We investigated the interaction of maize milling methods (i.e., whole grain compared with refined) in male Mongolian gerbils aged 29–35 d with conventionally bred provitamin A–biofortified (orange) or white maize on VA and zinc status. Methods: Study 1 (n = 67) was a 2 × 3 milling (whole compared with refined) by VA [no–vitamin A placebo group (VA−), orange, and VA-supplemented group (VA+)] design, with 4 wk of VA depletion followed by six 4-wk treatments (n = 10/treatment). Study 2 (n = 33) was a 2 × 2 milling-by-zinc [no-zinc placebo group (Zn−) compared with zinc-supplemented group (Zn+)] design, including 2 wk of VA depletion followed by four 3-wk treatments (n = 8–9/treatment). For study 1, positive and negative control groups were given supplemental VA at equimolar amounts to β-carotene equivalents consumed by the orange groups (74 ± 5 nmol/d) or placebo, respectively. For study 2, positive and negative control groups were given 152 μg Zn/d or placebo, respectively. Results: Milling significantly affected zinc concentration, providing 44–45% (whole grain) or 9–14% (refined) NRC requirements. In study 1, orange maize improved liver VA concentrations (mean ± SD: 0.28 ± 0.08 μmol/g) compared with the white maize groups (0.072 ± 0.054 μmol/g). Provitamin A bioefficacy was similar. In study 2, neither zinc nor milling influenced liver retinol. Refined Zn− gerbils weighed less than others by day 14 (46.6 ± 7.1 compared with 56.5 ± 3.5 g, respectively; P < 0.0001). Milling affected pancreas zinc concentrations (refined Zn−: 21.1 ± 1.8 μg Zn/g; whole Zn−: 32.5 ± 5.8 μg Zn/g). Conclusions: Whole-grain intake improved zinc and did not affect provitamin A bioefficacy. Other factors affected by milling (e.g., shelf life, preference, aflatoxin fractioning) need to be

  17. Maize Milling Method Affects Growth and Zinc Status but Not Provitamin A Carotenoid Bioefficacy in Male Mongolian Gerbils.

    PubMed

    Gannon, Bryan M; Pixley, Kevin V; Tanumihardjo, Sherry A

    2017-03-01

    Background: Vitamin A (VA) and zinc deficiencies are prevalent. Maize is a common staple, and milling affects nutrient and nutrient-modifier profiles.Objective: We investigated the interaction of maize milling methods (i.e., whole grain compared with refined) in male Mongolian gerbils aged 29-35 d with conventionally bred provitamin A-biofortified (orange) or white maize on VA and zinc status.Methods: Study 1 (n = 67) was a 2 × 3 milling (whole compared with refined) by VA [no-vitamin A placebo group (VA-), orange, and VA-supplemented group (VA+)] design, with 4 wk of VA depletion followed by six 4-wk treatments (n = 10/treatment). Study 2 (n = 33) was a 2 × 2 milling-by-zinc [no-zinc placebo group (Zn-) compared with zinc-supplemented group (Zn+)] design, including 2 wk of VA depletion followed by four 3-wk treatments (n = 8-9/treatment). For study 1, positive and negative control groups were given supplemental VA at equimolar amounts to β-carotene equivalents consumed by the orange groups (74 ± 5 nmol/d) or placebo, respectively. For study 2, positive and negative control groups were given 152 μg Zn/d or placebo, respectively.Results: Milling significantly affected zinc concentration, providing 44-45% (whole grain) or 9-14% (refined) NRC requirements. In study 1, orange maize improved liver VA concentrations (mean ± SD: 0.28 ± 0.08 μmol/g) compared with the white maize groups (0.072 ± 0.054 μmol/g). Provitamin A bioefficacy was similar. In study 2, neither zinc nor milling influenced liver retinol. Refined Zn- gerbils weighed less than others by day 14 (46.6 ± 7.1 compared with 56.5 ± 3.5 g, respectively; P < 0.0001). Milling affected pancreas zinc concentrations (refined Zn-: 21.1 ± 1.8 μg Zn/g; whole Zn-: 32.5 ± 5.8 μg Zn/g).Conclusions: Whole-grain intake improved zinc and did not affect provitamin A bioefficacy. Other factors affected by milling (e.g., shelf life, preference, aflatoxin fractioning) need to be considered to maximize health.

  18. Mutations in exons of the CYP17-II gene affect sex steroid concentration in male Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Ruiqin; He, Feng; Wen, Haishen; Li, Jifang; Shi, Bao; Shi, Dan; Liu, Miao; Mu, Weijie; Zhang, Yuanqing; Hu, Jian; Han, Weiguo; Zhang, Jianan; Wang, Qingqing; Yuan, Yuren; Liu, Qun

    2012-03-01

    As a specific gene of fish, cytochrome P450c17-II ( CYP17-II) gene plays a key role in the growth, development an reproduction level of fish. In this study, the single-stranded conformational polymorphism (SSCP) technique was used to characterize polymorphisms within the coding region of CYP17-II gene in a population of 75 male Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus). Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified in CYP17-II gene of Japanese flounder. They were c.G594A (p.G188R), c.G939A and c.G1502A (p.G490D). SNP1 (c.G594A), located in exon 4 of CYP17-II gene, was significantly associated with gonadosomatic index (GSI). Individuals with genotype GG of SNP1 had significantly lower GSI ( P < 0.05) than those with genotype AA or AG. SNP2 (c.G939A) located at the CpG island of CYP17-II gene. The mutation changed the methylation of exon 6. Individuals with genotype AA of SNP2 had significantly lower serum testosterone (T) level and hepatosomatic index (HSI) compared to those with genotype GG. The results suggested that SNP2 could influence the reproductive endocrine of male Japanese flounder. However, the SNP3 (c.G1502A) located in exon 9 did not affect the four measured reproductive traits. This study showed that CYP17-II gene could be a potentially useful candidate gene for the research of genetic breeding and physiological aspects of Japanese flounder.

  19. Unrefined and refined black raspberry seed oils significantly lower triglycerides and moderately affect cholesterol metabolism in male Syrian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Ash, Mark M; Wolford, Kate A; Carden, Trevor J; Hwang, Keum Taek; Carr, Timothy P

    2011-09-01

    Unrefined and refined black raspberry seed oils (RSOs) were examined for their lipid-modulating effects in male Syrian hamsters fed high-cholesterol (0.12% g/g), high-fat (9% g/g) diets. Hamsters fed the refined and the unrefined RSO diets had equivalently lower plasma total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol in comparison with the atherogenic coconut oil diet. The unrefined RSO treatment group did not differ in liver total and esterified cholesterol from the coconut oil-fed control animals, but the refined RSO resulted in significantly elevated liver total and esterified cholesterol concentrations. The unrefined RSO diets significantly lowered plasma triglycerides (46%; P=.0126) in comparison with the coconut oil diet, whereas the refined RSO only tended to lower plasma triglyceride (29%; P=.1630). Liver triglyceride concentrations were lower in the unrefined (46%; P=.0002) and refined (36%; P=.0005) RSO-fed animals than the coconut oil group, with the unrefined RSO diet eliciting a lower concentration than the soybean oil diet. Both RSOs demonstrated a null or moderate effect on cholesterol metabolism despite enrichment in linoleic acid, significantly lowering HDL cholesterol but not non-HDL cholesterol. Dramatically, both RSOs significantly reduced hypertriglyceridemia, most likely due to enrichment in α-linolenic acid. As a terrestrial source of α-linolenic acid, black RSOs, both refined and unrefined, provide a promising alternative to fish oil supplementation in management of hypertriglyceridemia, as demonstrated in hamsters fed high levels of dietary triglyceride and cholesterol.

  20. Exposure of Paracentrotus lividus male gametes to engineered nanoparticles affects skeletal bio-mineralization processes and larval plasticity.

    PubMed

    Gambardella, Chiara; Ferrando, Sara; Morgana, Silvia; Gallus, Lorenzo; Ramoino, Paola; Ravera, Silvia; Bramini, Mattia; Diaspro, Alberto; Faimali, Marco; Falugi, Carla

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to contribute to the understanding of the mechanisms underlying nanoparticle (NP)-induced embryotoxicity in aquatic organisms. We previously demonstrated that exposure of male gametes to NPs causes non-dose-dependent skeletal damage in sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus) larvae. In the present study, the molecular mechanisms responsible for these anomalies in sea urchin development from male gametes exposed to cobalt (Co), titanium dioxide (TiO2) and silver (Ag) NPs were investigated by histochemical, immunohistochemical and Western blot analyses. P. lividus sperm were exposed to different NP concentrations (from 0.0001 to 1 mg/L). The distribution of molecules related to skeletogenic cell identification, including ID5 immunoreactivity (IR), wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) affinity and fibronectin (FN) IR, were investigated by confocal laser scanning microscopy at the gastrula (24 h) and pluteus (72 h) stages. Our results identified a spatial correspondence among PMCs, ID5 IR and WGA affinity sites. The altered FN pattern suggests that it is responsible for the altered skeletogenic cell migration, while the Golgi apparatus of the skeletogenic cells, denoted by their WGA affinity, shows different aspects according to the degree of anomalies caused by NP concentrations. The ID5 IR, a specific marker of skeletogenic cells in sea urchin embryos (in particular of the msp130 protein responsible for Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) mineralization), localized in the cellular strands prefiguring the skeletal rods in the gastrula stage and, in the pluteus stage, was visible according to the degree of mineralization of the skeleton. In conclusion, the present study suggests that the investigated NPs suspended in seawater interfere with the bio-mineralization processes in marine organisms, and the results of this study offer a new series of specific endpoints for the mechanistic understanding of NP toxicity.

  1. The timing of "catch-up growth" affects metabolism and appetite regulation in male rats born with intrauterine growth restriction.

    PubMed

    Coupé, Bérengère; Grit, Isabelle; Darmaun, Dominique; Parnet, Patricia

    2009-09-01

    Epidemiological studies demonstrated a relationship between low birth weight mainly caused by intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and adult metabolic disorders. The concept of metabolic programming centers on the idea that nutritional and hormonal status during the key period of development determines the long-term control of energy balance by programming future feeding behavior and energy expenditure. The present study examined the consequence of early or late "catch-up growth" after IUGR on feeding behavior and metabolic cues of male offspring of rat dams exposed to protein restriction during gestation and/or lactation. Our results suggest that early catch-up growth may be favorable for fasting metabolic parameters at weaning, as no differences were observed on plasma leptin, triglyceride, glucose, and insulin levels compared with controls. In contrast, if pups remained malnourished until weaning, low insulin concentration was detected and was accompanied by hyperphagia associated with a large increase in hypothalamic NPY and AgRP mRNA expression. At adult age, on a regular chow diet, only the meal structure was modified by fetal programming. The two IUGR groups demonstrated a reduced meal duration that enhanced the speed of food ingestion and consequently increased the rest period associated to the satiety state without changes in the hypothalamic expression of appetite neuropeptides. Our findings demonstrate that in IUGR, regardless of postnatal growth magnitude, metabolic programming occurred in utero and was responsible for both feeding behavior alteration and postprandial higher insulin level in adults. Additionally, catch-up growth immediately after early malnutrition could be a key point for the programming of postprandial hyperleptinemia.

  2. Short-term treatment of adult male zebrafish (Danio Rerio) with 17α-ethinyl estradiol affects the transcription of genes involved in development and male sex differentiation.

    PubMed

    Reyhanian Caspillo, Nasim; Volkova, Kristina; Hallgren, Stefan; Olsson, Per-Erik; Porsch-Hällström, Inger

    2014-08-01

    The synthetic estrogen 17α-ethinyl estradiol (EE2) disturbs reproduction and causes gonadal malformation in fish. Effects on the transcription of genes involved in gonad development and function that could serve as sensitive biomarkers of reproductive effects in the field is, however, not well known. We have studied mRNA expression in testes and liver of adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) males treated with 0, 5 or 25 ng/L EE2for 14 days. qPCR analysis showed that the mRNA expression of four genes linked to zebrafish male sex determination and differentiation, Anti-Mullerian Hormone, Double sex and mab-related protein, Sry-related HMG box-9a and Nuclear receptor subfamily 5 group number 1b were significantly decreased by 25 ng/L, but not 5 ng/L EE2 compared with the levels in untreated fish. The decreased transcription was correlated with a previously shown spawning failure in these males (Reyhanian et al., 2011. Aquat Toxicol 105, 41-48), suggesting that decreased mRNA expression of genes regulating male sexual function could be involved in the functional sterility. The mRNA level of Cytochrome P-45019a, involved in female reproductive development, was unaffected by hormone treatment. The transcription of the female-specific Vitellogenin was significantly induced in testes. While testicular Androgen Receptor and the Estrogen Receptor-alpha mRNA levels were unchanged, Estrogen receptor-beta was significantly decreased by 25 ng/L EE2. Hepatic Estrogen Receptor-alpha mRNA was significantly increased by both exposure concentrations, while Estrogen Receptor-beta transcription was unaltered. The decreased transcription of male-predominant genes supports a demasculinization of testes by EE2 and might reflect reproductive disturbances in the environment.

  3. Pre- and/or postnatal protein restriction developmentally programs affect and risk assessment behaviors in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Castro, L A; Rodriguez, J S; Rodríguez-González, G L; Chavira, R; Bautista, C J; McDonald, T J; Nathanielsz, P W; Zambrano, E

    2012-02-14

    Developmental programming resulting from a suboptimal intrauterine environment can predispose offspring to a wide-range of lifelong health complications. Little is known about the effects maternal protein restriction during pregnancy and/or lactation has on offspring neurodevelopment. We hypothesized that maternal isocaloric low protein diet during pregnancy and/or lactation would negatively influence male offspring affect and risk assessment behaviors as measured by elevated plus maze and open field tests. Control mothers received 20% casein (C) and restricted mothers (R) 10% casein to provide four groups: CC, RR, CR, and RC (first letter pregnancy diet and second letter lactation diet) to evaluate effects of maternal diet on offspring risk assessment, anxiety and exploratory behaviors. Elevated plus maze results showed an effect of pre- and/or postnatal diet manipulation in open arm time (p<0.05) with increases seen in the RR (157±22.7s), CR (137±23.2s) and RC (146.8±10.8s) offspring relative to CC (52±8.6s) offspring. This behavior indicates decreased avoidance (less anxiety) and increased exploration by experimental groups. However, in the open field test the RR (17±4.2 entries) offspring entered the center zone less than the CC (35±6.6 entries) offspring thus exhibiting increased anxiety with no other groups showing effects. Elevated levels of corticosterone were measured before, during and after immobilization in the RR compared to CC offspring. These findings show protein restriction during critical periods of development negatively program offspring behavior. The underlying anatomical structures affected remain to be elucidated.

  4. Can providing feedback on driving behavior and training on parental vigilant care affect male teen drivers and their parents?

    PubMed

    Farah, Haneen; Musicant, Oren; Shimshoni, Yaara; Toledo, Tomer; Grimberg, Einat; Omer, Haim; Lotan, Tsippy

    2014-08-01

    This study focuses on investigating the driving behavior of young novice male drivers during the first year of driving (three months of accompanied driving and the following nine months of solo driving). The study's objective is to examine the potential of various feedback forms on driving to affect young drivers' behavior and to mitigate the transition from accompanied to solo driving. The study examines also the utility of providing parents with guidance on how to exercise vigilant care regarding their teens' driving. Driving behavior was evaluated using data collected by In-Vehicle Data Recorders (IVDR), which document events of extreme g-forces measured in the vehicles. IVDR systems were installed in 242 cars of the families of young male drivers, however, only 217 families of young drivers aged 17-22 (M=17.5; SD=0.8) completed the one year period. The families were randomly allocated into 4 groups: (1) Family feedback: In which all the members of the family were exposed to feedback on their own driving and on that of the other family members; (2) Parental training: in which in addition to the family feedback, parents received personal guidance on ways to enhance vigilant care regarding their sons' driving; (3) Individual feedback: In which family members received feedback only on their own driving behavior (and were not exposed to the data on other family members); (4) CONTROL: Group that received no feedback at all. The feedback was provided to the different groups starting from the solo period, thus, the feedback was not provided during the supervised period. The data collected by the IVDRs was first analyzed using analysis of variance in order to compare the groups with respect to their monthly event rates. Events' rates are defined as the number of events in a trip divided by its duration. This was followed by the development and estimation of random effect negative binomial models that explain the monthly event rates of young drivers and their parents

  5. The perception of attractiveness and trustworthiness in male faces affects hypothetical voting decisions differently in wartime and peacetime scenarios.

    PubMed

    Little, Anthony C; Roberts, S Craig; Jones, Benedict C; Debruine, Lisa M

    2012-01-01

    Facial appearance of candidates has been linked to real election outcomes. Here we extend these findings by examining the contributions of attractiveness and trustworthiness in male faces to perceived votability. We first use real faces to show that attractiveness and trustworthiness are positively and independently related to perceptions of good leadership (rating study). We then show that computer graphic manipulations of attractiveness and trustworthiness influence choice of leader (experiments 1 and 2). Finally, we show that changing context from wartime to peacetime can affect which face receives the most votes. Attractive faces were relatively more valued for wartime and trustworthy faces relatively more valued for peacetime (experiments 1 and 2). This pattern suggests that attractiveness, which may indicate health and fitness, is perceived to be a useful attribute in wartime leaders, whereas trustworthiness, which may indicate prosocial traits, is perceived to be more important during peacetime. Our studies highlight the possible role of facial appearance in voting behaviour and the role of attributions of attractiveness and trust. We also show that there may be no general characteristics of faces that make them perceived as the best choice of leader; leaders may be chosen because of characteristics that are perceived as the best for leaders to possess in particular situations.

  6. 40 CFR 63.6004 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limits for tire production affected...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... you submit the Notification of Compliance Status, you use a cement or solvent for which you have not previously verified percent HAP mass using the methods in § 63.5994(a), you must verify that each cement and...) You must update the list of all the cements and solvents used at the affected source. (3) With...

  7. 40 CFR 63.6004 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limits for tire production affected...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....5985(a): (1) If, after you submit the Notification of Compliance Status, you use a cement or solvent... must verify that each cement and solvent used in the affected source meets the emission limit, using any of the methods in § 63.5994(a). (2) You must update the list of all the cements and solvents used...

  8. 40 CFR 63.6004 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limits for tire production affected...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Continuous Compliance Requirements for Tire Production....5985(a): (1) If, after you submit the Notification of Compliance Status, you use a cement or solvent... must verify that each cement and solvent used in the affected source meets the emission limit,...

  9. Female access and diet affect insemination success, senescence, and the cost of reproduction in male Mexican fruit flies Anastrepha ludens.

    PubMed

    Harwood, James F; Chen, Kehui; Liedo, Pablo; Müller, Hans-Georg; Wang, Jane-Ling; Morice, Amy E; Carey, James R

    2015-03-01

    Hypotheses exploring the influence of dietary conditions on the life history trade-off between survival and reproductive success are extensively tested in female insects, but are rarely explored in males. Here, the impact of dietary quality and female access on age-specific reproduction and survival of male Mexican fruit flies, Anastrepha ludens Loew (Diptera: Tephritidae), are examined. There is a clear cost of female access for males with access to dietary protein, measurable as a decrease in life expectancy, which is further influenced by the age when females are introduced. A protein deficient diet reduces the lifespan benefit of virginity and masks the detrimental effect of female access on male life expectancy. Dietary protein is not necessary for reproductive success, but access to protein at eclosion improves the lifetime reproductive success of males compared to when it is delayed. Overall, reproductive success diminishes as the male flies age, regardless of the dietary conditions, providing evidence for reproductive senescence in males. Delaying the males' access to a protein source fails to influence the negative effect of age on reproductive ability. Because age specific reproductive rates decline with age, regardless of diet, male fitness does not benefit from lifespan extension. Therefore, males can be expected to allocate available resources towards reproductive effort in favour of extended lifespan, regardless of mate and protein availability.

  10. The Effectiveness of Online Instructional Videos in the Acquisition and Demonstration of Cognitive, Affective and Psychomotor Rehabilitation Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Darren; Higgins, Steve

    2015-01-01

    The use of instructional videos to teach clinical skills is an ever growing area of e-learning based upon observational learning that is cited as one of the most basic yet powerful learning strategies. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the effectiveness of online instructional videos for the acquisition and demonstration of cognitive,…

  11. The Effectiveness of Online Instructional Videos in the Acquisition and Demonstration of Cognitive, Affective and Psychomotor Rehabilitation Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Darren; Higgins, Steve

    2015-01-01

    The use of instructional videos to teach clinical skills is an ever growing area of e-learning based upon observational learning that is cited as one of the most basic yet powerful learning strategies. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the effectiveness of online instructional videos for the acquisition and demonstration of cognitive,…

  12. Female access and diet affect insemination success, senescence, and the cost of reproduction in male Mexican fruit flies Anastrepha ludens

    PubMed Central

    HARWOOD, JAMES F.; CHEN, KEHUI; LIEDO, PABLO; MÜLLER, HANS-GEORG; WANG, JANE-LING; MORICE, AMY E.; CAREY, JAMES R.

    2014-01-01

    Hypotheses exploring the influence of dietary conditions on the life history trade-off between survival and reproductive success are extensively tested in female insects, but are rarely explored in males. Here, the impact of dietary quality and female access on age-specific reproduction and survival of male Mexican fruit flies, Anastrepha ludens Loew (Diptera: Tephritidae), are examined. There is a clear cost of female access for males with access to dietary protein, measurable as a decrease in life expectancy, which is further influenced by the age when females are introduced. A protein deficient diet reduces the lifespan benefit of virginity and masks the detrimental effect of female access on male life expectancy. Dietary protein is not necessary for reproductive success, but access to protein at eclosion improves the lifetime reproductive success of males compared to when it is delayed. Overall, reproductive success diminishes as the male flies age, regardless of the dietary conditions, providing evidence for reproductive senescence in males. Delaying the males’ access to a protein source fails to influence the negative effect of age on reproductive ability. Because age specific reproductive rates decline with age, regardless of diet, male fitness does not benefit from lifespan extension. Therefore, males can be expected to allocate available resources towards reproductive effort in favour of extended lifespan, regardless of mate and protein availability. PMID:25709143

  13. Temporal changes in nutritional state affect hypothalamic POMC peptide levels independently of leptin in adult male mice

    PubMed Central

    Mercer, Aaron J.; Stuart, Ronald C.; Attard, Courtney A.; Otero-Corchon, Veronica; Nillni, Eduardo A.

    2014-01-01

    Hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons constitute a critical anorexigenic node in the central nervous system (CNS) for maintaining energy balance. These neurons directly affect energy expenditure and feeding behavior by releasing bioactive neuropeptides but are also subject to signals directly related to nutritional state such as the adipokine leptin. To further investigate the interaction of diet and leptin on hypothalamic POMC peptide levels, we exposed 8- to 10-wk-old male POMC-Discosoma red fluorescent protein (DsRed) transgenic reporter mice to either 24–48 h (acute) or 2 wk (chronic) food restriction, high-fat diet (HFD), or leptin treatment. Using semiquantitative immunofluorescence and radioimmunoassays, we discovered that acute fasting and chronic food restriction decreased the levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH), and β-endorphin in the hypothalamus, together with decreased DsRed fluorescence, compared with control ad libitum-fed mice. Furthermore, acute but not chronic HFD or leptin administration selectively increased α-MSH levels in POMC fibers and increased DsRed fluorescence in POMC cell bodies. HFD and leptin treatments comparably increased circulating leptin levels at both time points, suggesting that transcription of Pomc and synthesis of POMC peptide products are not modified in direct relation to the concentration of plasma leptin. Our findings indicate that negative energy balance persistently downregulated POMC peptide levels, and this phenomenon may be partially explained by decreased leptin levels, since these changes were blocked in fasted mice treated with leptin. In contrast, sustained elevation of plasma leptin by HFD or hormone supplementation did not significantly alter POMC peptide levels, indicating that enhanced leptin signaling does not chronically increase Pomc transcription and peptide synthesis. PMID:24518677

  14. Temporal changes in nutritional state affect hypothalamic POMC peptide levels independently of leptin in adult male mice.

    PubMed

    Mercer, Aaron J; Stuart, Ronald C; Attard, Courtney A; Otero-Corchon, Veronica; Nillni, Eduardo A; Low, Malcolm J

    2014-04-15

    Hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons constitute a critical anorexigenic node in the central nervous system (CNS) for maintaining energy balance. These neurons directly affect energy expenditure and feeding behavior by releasing bioactive neuropeptides but are also subject to signals directly related to nutritional state such as the adipokine leptin. To further investigate the interaction of diet and leptin on hypothalamic POMC peptide levels, we exposed 8- to 10-wk-old male POMC-Discosoma red fluorescent protein (DsRed) transgenic reporter mice to either 24-48 h (acute) or 2 wk (chronic) food restriction, high-fat diet (HFD), or leptin treatment. Using semiquantitative immunofluorescence and radioimmunoassays, we discovered that acute fasting and chronic food restriction decreased the levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH), and β-endorphin in the hypothalamus, together with decreased DsRed fluorescence, compared with control ad libitum-fed mice. Furthermore, acute but not chronic HFD or leptin administration selectively increased α-MSH levels in POMC fibers and increased DsRed fluorescence in POMC cell bodies. HFD and leptin treatments comparably increased circulating leptin levels at both time points, suggesting that transcription of Pomc and synthesis of POMC peptide products are not modified in direct relation to the concentration of plasma leptin. Our findings indicate that negative energy balance persistently downregulated POMC peptide levels, and this phenomenon may be partially explained by decreased leptin levels, since these changes were blocked in fasted mice treated with leptin. In contrast, sustained elevation of plasma leptin by HFD or hormone supplementation did not significantly alter POMC peptide levels, indicating that enhanced leptin signaling does not chronically increase Pomc transcription and peptide synthesis.

  15. Effects of acute or repeated paroxetine and fluoxetine treatment on affective behavior in male and female adolescent rats

    PubMed Central

    Amodeo, Leslie R.; Greenfield, Venuz Y.; Humphrey, Danielle E.; Varela, Veronica; Pipkin, Joseph A.; Eaton, Shannon E.; Johnson, Jelesa D.; Plant, Christopher P.; Harmony, Zachary R.; Wang, Li; Crawford, Cynthia A.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale The SSRI antidepressant fluoxetine is one of the few drugs that is effective at treating depression in adolescent humans. In contrast, the SSRI paroxetine has limited efficacy and is more at risk for inducing suicidal behavior. Objective The purpose of the present study was to more fully characterize the differential actions of paroxetine and fluoxetine. Methods In Experiment 1, male and female rats were injected with paroxetine (2.5 or 10 mg/kg), fluoxetine (10 mg/kg), or vehicle for 10 days starting on postnatal day (PD) 35, and affective behaviors were assessed using sucrose preference and elevated plus maze tasks. A separate set of rats were used to examine monoamine levels. In Experiment 2, rats were injected with paroxetine (2.5, 5 or 10 mg/kg), fluoxetine (5, 10 or 20 mg/kg), or vehicle during the same time frame as Experiment 1 and anxiety-like behaviors were measured using elevated plus maze, light/dark box, and acoustic startle. Results Repeated SSRI treatment failed to alter sucrose preference, although both paroxetine and fluoxetine reduced time spent in the open arms of the elevated plus maze and light compartment of the light/dark box. Paroxetine, but not fluoxetine, enhanced acoustic startle and interfered with habituation. Serotonin turnover was decreased by both acute and repeated fluoxetine treatment but unaltered by paroxetine administration. Discussion These results show that repeated treatment with paroxetine and fluoxetine has dissociable actions in adolescent rats. In particular, paroxetine, but not fluoxetine, increases acoustic startle at low doses and may increase sensitivity to environmental stressors. PMID:26141193

  16. Branched-chain amino acid supplementation lowers perceived exertion but does not affect performance in untrained males.

    PubMed

    Greer, Beau Kjerulf; White, Jim P; Arguello, Eric M; Haymes, Emily M

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) supplementation affects aerobic performance, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), or substrate utilization as compared with an isocaloric, carbohydrate (CHO) beverage or a noncaloric placebo (PLAC) beverage. Nine untrained males performed three 90-minute cycling bouts at 55% VO₂ peak followed by 15-minute time trials. Subjects, who were blinded to beverage selection, ingested a total of 200 kcal via the CHO or BCAA beverage before and at 60 minutes of exercise or the PLAC beverage on the same time course. RPE and metabolic measurements were taken every 15 minutes during steady-state exercise, and each of the trials was separated by 8 weeks. Plasma glucose and BCAA concentrations were measured pre- and post-exercise. A greater distance (4.6 ± 0.6 km) was traveled in the time-trial during the CHO trial than the PLAC trial (3.9 ± 0.4 km) (p < 0.05). There was no difference between the BCAA (4.4 ± 0.5 km) and PLAC trials. RPE was reduced at the 75-minute and 90-minute mark during the BCAA trial as compared with the PLAC trial. There were no significant differences found for the trial vs. time interaction in regard to respiratory exchange ratio. Thus, CHO supplementation improves performance in a loaded time-trial as compared with a PLAC beverage. BCAA supplementation, although effective at increasing blood concentrations of BCAA, did not influence aerobic performance but did attenuate RPE as compared with a PLAC beverage.

  17. Adolescent nicotine exposure produces less affective measures of withdrawal relative to adult nicotine exposure in male rats

    PubMed Central

    O’Dell, Laura E.; Torres, Oscar V.; Natividad, Luis A.; Tejeda, Hugo A.

    2012-01-01

    Vulnerability to nicotine addiction is significantly increased in individuals who begin smoking during adolescence; however, the underlying mechanisms of this phenomenon remain unclear. This study examined the motivational effects of nicotine withdrawal in adolescent (PND 27–42) and adult (PND 60–75) rats using the conditioned place aversion paradigm. Male Wistar rats were tested for their initial preference for either of two distinct compartments of our conditioning apparatus. Rats were then implanted with subcutaneous (sc) pumps that produce equivalent blood plasma levels of nicotine for 14 days. Conditioning was conducted over the last 8 days of nicotine exposure. Rats received the nicotinic antagonist mecamylamine (1.5 or 3.0 mg/kg, sc) to precipitate withdrawal in their initially preferred compartment, and on alternate days they received saline in their non-preferred compartment. Following conditioning, rats were re-tested for their preference for each compartment. A subsequent study was conducted to examine potential developmental differences in learning place aversion produced by another aversive stimulus, lithium chloride (LiCl). Rats received LiCl (0, 10, 30, or 100 mg/kg, sc) in their initially preferred side using similar conditioning procedures. Adults displayed robust place aversion produced by nicotine withdrawal. This effect was lower in adolescent rats even in a group of young rats that received 7 additional days of nicotine exposure prior to conditioning. This developmental difference was specific to nicotine withdrawal since there were no differences between adolescents and adults in learning place aversion with LiCl. Our findings demonstrating reduced effects of nicotine withdrawal constitute a powerful basis for the increased vulnerability to nicotine dependence during adolescence. PMID:17184972

  18. How do esters and dimethyl sulphide concentrations affect fruity aroma perception of red wine? Demonstration by dynamic sensory profile evaluation.

    PubMed

    Lytra, Georgia; Tempere, Sophie; Marchand, Stéphanie; de Revel, Gilles; Barbe, Jean-Christophe

    2016-03-01

    Our study focused on variations in wine aroma perception and molecular composition during tasting over a period of 30min. In parallel, dynamic analytical and sensory methods were applied to study changes in the wines' molecular and aromatic evolution. Dynamic sensory profile evaluations clearly confirmed the evolution of the wine's fruity notes during sensory analysis, highlighting significant differences for red-berry and fresh fruit as well as black berry and jammy fruit, after 5 and 15min, respectively. Dynamic analytical methods revealed a decrease in ester and dimethyl sulphide (DMS) concentrations in the first few minutes. Sensory profiles of aromatic reconstitutions demonstrated that the aromatic modulation of fruity notes observed during wine tasting was explained by changes in ester and DMS concentrations. These results revealed that variations in concentrations of DMS and esters during wine tasting had a qualitative impact, by modulating fruity aromas in red wine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Mass rearing history negatively affects mating success of male Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) reared for sterile insect technique programs.

    PubMed

    Rull, Juan; Brunel, Odette; Mendez, Maria Elena

    2005-10-01

    Mating competitiveness and sterility induction into cohorts of wild Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae) was compared among wild and laboratory flies reared for use in the sterile insect technique Mexican program. Laboratory flies stemming from an 11-yr-old bisexual strain were either not irradiated, irradiated at 3 krad (low dose), or irradiated at 8 krad. In 30 by 30 by 30-cm Plexiglas cages, where a cohort of laboratory flies (male and female) irradiated at different doses (0, 3, and 8 krad) was introduced with a cohort of wild flies, males and females of each type mated randomly among themselves. Compared with nonirradiated laboratory and wild males, irradiated males, irrespective of dose (3 or 8 krad), induced shorter refractory periods and greater mating frequency in wild females. Nevertheless, laboratory flies irradiated at a low dose induced greater sterility into cohorts of wild flies than laboratory flies irradiated at a high dose. In a 3 by 3 by 3-m walk-in cage, wild males gained significantly more matings with wild females than nonirradiated and irradiated laboratory males a finding that revealed a strong effect of strain on mating performance. Mating incompatibility of the laboratory strain might have obscured the effect of reduced irradiation doses on male mating performance in the walk-in cage. Our results highlight an urgent need to replace the A. ludens strain currently used by the Mexican fruit fly eradication campaign and at least suggest that reducing irradiation doses result in an increase in sterility induction in wild populations.

  20. Molecular modeling studies demonstrate key mutations that could affect the ligand recognition by influenza AH1N1 neuraminidase.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Salinas, Gema L; García-Machorro, J; Quiliano, Miguel; Zimic, Mirko; Briz, Verónica; Rojas-Hernández, Saul; Correa-Basurto, J

    2015-11-01

    The goal of this study was to identify neuraminidase (NA) residue mutants from human influenza AH1N1 using sequences from 1918 to 2012. Multiple alignment studies of complete NA sequences (5732) were performed. Subsequently, the crystallographic structure of the 1918 influenza (PDB ID: 3BEQ-A) was used as a wild-type structure and three-dimensional (3-D) template for homology modeling of the mutated selected NA sequences. The 3-D mutated NAs were refined using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations (50 ns). The refined 3-D models were used to perform docking studies using oseltamivir. Multiple sequence alignment studies showed seven representative mutations (A232V, K262R, V263I, T264V, S367L, S369N, and S369K). MD simulations applied to 3-D NAs showed that each NA had different active-site shapes according to structural surface visualization and docking results. Moreover, Cartesian principal component analyses (cPCA) show structural differences among these NA structures caused by mutations. These theoretical results suggest that the selected mutations that are located outside of the active site of NA could affect oseltamivir recognition and could be associated with resistance to oseltamivir.

  1. THE ESTROGENIC AND ANTIANDROGENIC PESTICIDE METHOXYCHLOR ALTERS THE REPRODUCTIVE TRACT AND BEHAVIOR WITHOUT AFFECTING PITUITARY SIZE OR LH AND PROLACTIN SECRETION IN MALE RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The estrogenic and antiandrogenic pesticide methoxychlor alters the reproductive tract and behavior without affecting pituitary size or LH and prolactin secretion in male rats.

    Gray LE Jr, Ostby J, Cooper RL, Kelce WR.

    Endocrinology Branch, United States Environment...

  2. THE ESTROGENIC AND ANTIANDROGENIC PESTICIDE METHOXYCHLOR ALTERS THE REPRODUCTIVE TRACT AND BEHAVIOR WITHOUT AFFECTING PITUITARY SIZE OR LH AND PROLACTIN SECRETION IN MALE RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The estrogenic and antiandrogenic pesticide methoxychlor alters the reproductive tract and behavior without affecting pituitary size or LH and prolactin secretion in male rats.

    Gray LE Jr, Ostby J, Cooper RL, Kelce WR.

    Endocrinology Branch, United States Environment...

  3. Prochloraz inhibits testosterone production at dosages below those that affect androgen-dependent organ weights or the onset of puberty in the male Sprague Dawley rat.

    PubMed

    Blystone, Chad R; Furr, Johnathan; Lambright, Christy S; Howdeshell, Kembra L; Ryan, Bryce C; Wilson, Vickie S; Leblanc, Gerald A; Gray, Leon Earl

    2007-05-01

    Prochloraz (PCZ) is an imidazole fungicide that inhibits gonadal steroidogenesis and antagonizes the androgen receptor (AR). We hypothesized that pubertal exposure to PCZ would reduce testosterone production and delay male rat reproductive development. Sprague Dawley rats were dosed by gavage with 0, 31.3, 62.5, or 125 mg/kg/day of PCZ from postnatal day (PND) 23 to 42 or 51. There was a significant delay in preputial separation (PPS) at 125 mg/kg/day PCZ and several of the androgen-dependent organ weights were decreased significantly, but the significant organ weight effects were not consistent between the 2 necropsies (PND 42 vs. 51). At both ages, serum testosterone levels and ex vivo testosterone release from the testis were significantly decreased whereas serum progesterone and 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone levels were significantly increased at dose levels below those that affected PPS or reproductive organ weights. The hormone results suggested that PCZ was inhibiting CYP17 activity. In a second pubertal study (0, 3.9, 7.8, 15.6, 31.3, or 62.5 mg/kg/day PCZ), serum testosterone levels and ex vivo testosterone production were significantly reduced at 15.6 mg/kg/day PCZ. In order to examine the AR antagonism effects of PCZ, independent of its effects on testosterone synthesis, castrated immature male rats were dosed with androgen and 0, 15.6, 31.3, 62.5, or 125 mg/kg/day PCZ for 10-11 days (Hershberger assay). In this assay, androgen-sensitive organ weights were only significantly decreased at 125 mg/kg/day PCZ. These data from the pubertal assays demonstrate that PCZ decreases testosterone levels and delays rat pubertal development, as hypothesized. However, the fact that hormone levels were affected at dosage eightfold below that which delayed the onset of puberty suggests that rather large reductions in serum testosterone may be required to delay puberty and consistently reduce androgen-dependent tissue weights.

  4. Selective behavioral responses to male song are affected by the dopamine agonist GBR-12909 in female European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Pawlisch, Benjamin A; Riters, Lauren V

    2010-09-24

    Female songbirds use attributes of male song to select mates. Different types of male song differ in incentive value (or the ability to attract females). Dopamine plays a role in incentive value and reward; however, little is known about its role in selective female behavioral responses to male courtship signals. We examined the effects of the indirect dopamine agonist (dopamine reuptake inhibitor) GBR-12909 on female songbird responses to male song stimuli. Female European starlings were played recordings of long starling song (presumed high incentive value), short starling song (presumed lower incentive value), or purple martin song (lowest incentive value). Vehicle-treated females investigated nest boxes playing starling song more than purple martin song. However, GBR-12909 disrupted preferential responses to the starling song stimuli. GBR-12909 also increased cFOS immunolabeling in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH) at the same dose that disrupted female selective responses to male starling song. The results suggest that dopamine receptors play an important role in female selective responses to biologically meaningful stimuli and that the VMH may be influenced by dopamine to alter female responses to male song. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Variable Autosomal and X Divergence Near and Far from Genes Affects Estimates of Male Mutation Bias in Great Apes.

    PubMed

    Narang, Pooja; Wilson Sayres, Melissa A

    2016-12-31

    Male mutation bias, when more mutations are passed on via the male germline than via the female germline, is observed across mammals. One common way to infer the magnitude of male mutation bias, α, is to compare levels of neutral sequence divergence between genomic regions that spend different amounts of time in the male and female germline. For great apes, including human, we show that estimates of divergence are reduced in putatively unconstrained regions near genes relative to unconstrained regions far from genes. Divergence increases with increasing distance from genes on both the X chromosome and autosomes, but increases faster on the X chromosome than autosomes. As a result, ratios of X/A divergence increase with increasing distance from genes and corresponding estimates of male mutation bias are significantly higher in intergenic regions near genes versus far from genes. Future studies in other species will need to carefully consider the effect that genomic location will have on estimates of male mutation bias. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  6. Variable Autosomal and X Divergence Near and Far from Genes Affects Estimates of Male Mutation Bias in Great Apes

    PubMed Central

    Narang, Pooja; Wilson Sayres, Melissa A.

    2016-01-01

    Male mutation bias, when more mutations are passed on via the male germline than via the female germline, is observed across mammals. One common way to infer the magnitude of male mutation bias, α, is to compare levels of neutral sequence divergence between genomic regions that spend different amounts of time in the male and female germline. For great apes, including human, we show that estimates of divergence are reduced in putatively unconstrained regions near genes relative to unconstrained regions far from genes. Divergence increases with increasing distance from genes on both the X chromosome and autosomes, but increases faster on the X chromosome than autosomes. As a result, ratios of X/A divergence increase with increasing distance from genes and corresponding estimates of male mutation bias are significantly higher in intergenic regions near genes versus far from genes. Future studies in other species will need to carefully consider the effect that genomic location will have on estimates of male mutation bias. PMID:27702816

  7. The Drosophila takeout gene is regulated by the somatic sex-determination pathway and affects male courtship behavior

    PubMed Central

    Dauwalder, Brigitte; Tsujimoto, Susan; Moss, Jason; Mattox, William

    2002-01-01

    The Drosophila somatic sex-determination regulatory pathway has been well studied, but little is known about the target genes that it ultimately controls. In a differential screen for sex-specific transcripts expressed in fly heads, we identified a highly male-enriched transcript encoding Takeout, a protein related to a superfamily of factors that bind small lipophilic molecules. We show that sex-specific takeout transcripts derive from fat body tissue closely associated with the adult brain and are dependent on the sex determination genes doublesex (dsx) and fruitless (fru). The male-specific Doublesex and Fruitless proteins together activate Takeout expression, whereas the female-specific Doublesex protein represses takeout independently of Fru. When cells that normally express takeout are feminized by expression of the Transformer-F protein, male courtship behavior is dramatically reduced, suggesting that male identity in these cells is necessary for behavior. A loss-of-function mutation in the takeout gene reduces male courtship and synergizes with fruitless mutations, suggesting that takeout plays a redundant role with other fru-dependent factors involved in male mating behavior. Comparison of Takeout sequences to the Drosophila genome reveals a family of 20 related secreted factors. Expression analysis of a subset of these genes suggests that the takeout gene family encodes multiple factors with sex-specific functions. PMID:12435630

  8. Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) induces cognitive deficits and affects GABAB receptors and IGF-1 receptors in male rats.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Jenny; Grönbladh, Alfhild; Hallberg, Mathias

    2014-08-01

    In recent years, the abuse of the club drug gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) has become increasingly popular among adolescents. The drug induces euphoria but can also result in sedation, anaesthesia as well as short-term amnesia. In addition, the abuse of GHB causes cognitive impairments and the mechanism by which GHB induces these impairments is not clarified. The present study investigates the impact of GHB treatment on spatial learning and memory using a water maze (WM) test in rats. Furthermore, the behavioural data is combined with an autoradiographic analysis of the GABAB and the IGF-1 receptor systems. The results demonstrate that the animals administered with GHB display an impaired performance in the WM test as compared to controls. In addition, significant alterations in GABAB and IGF-1 receptor density as well as GABAB receptor functionality, were observed in several brain regions associated with cognitive functions e.g. hippocampus. To conclude, our findings suggest that GHB treatment can affect spatial learning and memory, and that this outcome at least to some extent is likely to involve both GABAB and IGF-1 receptors.

  9. Quantitative molecular biology and gas flux measurements demonstrate soil treatment and depth affects on the distribution and activity of denitrifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, M. M.; Jahangir, M.; Cardenas, L.; Khalil, M.; Richards, K. R.; O'Flaherty, V.

    2010-12-01

    The growing industrialisation of agriculture has led to a dramatic increase in organic and inorganic nitrogen (N) fertiliser inputs to agro-ecosystems. This increase has had negative effects on the quality of water ecosystems and greenhouse gas emissions.The study objective was to quantify denitrification and denitrifying microorganisms, using real-time PCR assays of the nitrite reductase(nir) and nitrous oxide reductase(nos) functional gene copy concentrations (GCC g[soil]-1) in Irish agricultural surface and subsoils. Soil cores from 3 soil horizons (A:0-10 cm; B:45-55 cm; C:120-130cm) were amended with 3 alternate N- and C-source amendments (NO3-; NO3-+glucose-C; NO3-+Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC). Real-time production of N2O and N2 was recorded by gas chromatography in a specialized He/O2 environment. N2O and Total Denitrification (TDN) (N2O+N2) production was generally greater in surface soil (2.052 mg/kg/d TDN) than in subsoils (0.120 mg/kg/d TDN). The abundance of denitrifying nirS, nirK (nir) and nos genes was higher in the surface soil, decreasing with soil depth, except in incubations amended with NO3- and DOC, where the carbon source directly positively affected gene copy numbers and fluxes of N2O and N2 production. C addition increased soil denitrification rates, and resulted in higher N2O/(N2O+N2) ratios in surface soil (0.39) than subsoils (0.005), indicating that the subsoil had higher potential for complete reduction of N2O to N2. In the subsoils, complete reduction of NO3- due to glucose-C and DOC addition was observed. Interestingly, at all 3 soil depths, lower nirK abundance (2.78 105 GCC) was recorded, compared to nirS (1.45 107 GCC), but the overall abundance of nir (S+K) i.e. (1.54 107GCC), corresponded with N2O emission fluxes (3.34 mg/kg/d) Statistical analysis indicates negative correlation between nirK GCC and N2O production, but a strong positive correlation was observed between nirS GCC and N2O. We therefore hypothesize that the

  10. Maternal postpartum corticosterone and fluoxetine differentially affect adult male and female offspring on anxiety-like behavior, stress reactivity, and hippocampal neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Gobinath, Aarthi R; Workman, Joanna L; Chow, Carmen; Lieblich, Stephanie E; Galea, Liisa A M

    2016-02-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) affects approximately 15% of mothers, disrupts maternal care, and can represent a form of early life adversity for the developing offspring. Intriguingly, male and female offspring are differentially vulnerable to the effects of PPD. Antidepressants, such as fluoxetine, are commonly prescribed for treating PPD. However, fluoxetine can reach offspring via breast milk, raising serious concerns regarding the long-term consequences of infant exposure to fluoxetine. The goal of this study was to examine the long-term effects of maternal postpartum corticosterone (CORT, a model of postpartum stress/depression) and concurrent maternal postpartum fluoxetine on behavioral, endocrine, and neural measures in adult male and female offspring. Female Sprague-Dawley dams were treated daily with either CORT or oil and fluoxetine or saline from postnatal days 2-23, and offspring were weaned and left undisturbed until adulthood. Here we show that maternal postpartum fluoxetine increased anxiety-like behavior and impaired hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis negative feedback in adult male, but not female, offspring. Furthermore, maternal postpartum fluoxetine increased the density of immature neurons (doublecortin-expressing) in the hippocampus of adult male offspring but decreased the density of immature neurons in adult female offspring. Maternal postpartum CORT blunted HPA axis negative feedback in males and tended to increase density of immature neurons in males but decreased it in females. These results indicate that maternal postpartum CORT and fluoxetine can have long-lasting effects on anxiety-like behavior, HPA axis negative feedback, and adult hippocampal neurogenesis and that adult male and female offspring are differentially affected by these maternal manipulations.

  11. SDN-POA volume, sexual behavior, and partner preference of male rats affected by perinatal treatment with ATD.

    PubMed

    Houtsmuller, E J; Brand, T; de Jonge, F H; Joosten, R N; van de Poll, N E; Slob, A K

    1994-09-01

    The present study investigated 1) the importance of the aromatization process during the perinatal period for the development of the sexually dimorphic nucleus in the preoptic area of the hypothalamus (SDN-POA) of male rats, and 2) the relationship between SDN-POA volume and parameters of masculinization in male rats that were treated perinatally with the aromatase-inhibitor ATD. Males were treated with ATD either prenatally or pre- and neonatally, or with the vehicle. Masculine sexual behavior and partner preference were investigated in adulthood. Thereafter, animals were sacrificed and SDN-POA volume was measured. The SDN-POA volume was reduced in both the prenatally and the pre- and neonatally treated group, with a larger reduction in the latter than in the former group. Combined pre- and neonatal ATD treatment resulted in reduced frequency of mounts, intromissions, and ejaculations, as well as a reduced preference for a female over a male. The SDN-POA size was significantly and positively correlated with frequency of masculine sexual behavior, as well as preference for a female over a male.

  12. Nutrition and dopamine: An intake of tyrosine in royal jelly can affect the brain levels of dopamine in male honeybees (Apis mellifera L.).

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Ken

    2016-04-01

    Precursors of neuroactive substances can be obtained from dietary sources, which can affect the resulting production of such substances in the brain. In social species, an intake of the precursor in food could be controlled by social interactions. To test the effects of dietary tyrosine on the brain dopamine levels in social insect colonies, male and worker honeybees were fed tyrosine or royal jelly under experimental conditions and the brain levels of dopamine and its metabolite were then measured. The results showed that the levels of dopamine and its metabolite in the brains of 4- and 8-day-old workers and 8-day-old males were significantly higher in tyrosine-fed bees than in control bees, but the levels in 4-day-old males were not. The brain levels of dopamine and its metabolite in 4- and 8-day-old males and workers were significantly higher in royal jelly-fed bees than in control bees, except for one group of 4-day-old workers. Food exchanges with workers were observed in males during 1-3 days, but self-feedings were also during 5-7 days. These results suggest that the brain levels of dopamine in males can be controlled by an intake of tyrosine in food via exchanging food with nestmates and by self-feeding.

  13. Alcohol and Exercise Affect Declining Kidney Function in Healthy Males Regardless of Obesity: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Kanda, Eiichiro; Muneyuki, Toshitaka; Suwa, Kaname; Nakajima, Kei

    2015-01-01

    Although lifestyle is associated with metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases, there has been no sufficient evidence of lifestyles on incident chronic kidney disease (CKD). The purpose of this prospective cohort study is to investigate the effects of lifestyles on kidney function in healthy people. A total of 7473 healthy people were enrolled in this Saitama Cardiometabolic Disease and Organ Impairment Study, Japan. Data on alcohol consumption, exercise frequency, and sleep duration were collected. The outcome event was incident CKD or decrease in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) by >25% in 3 years. Subjects were classified into four groups according to body mass index and gender. Mean ± standard deviation of age was 38.8±10.5 years; eGFR, 78.1±15.2 ml/min/1.73 m2. In the male groups, multivariate logistic regression models showed that the outcome events were associated with a small amount of alcohol consumed (20 to 140 g of alcohol/week) (ref. more than 140 g of alcohol/week); non-obese male, adjusted odds ratio 1.366 (95% confidence interval, 1.086, 1.718); obese male (body mass index ≥25), 1.634 (1.160, 2.302); and with frequent exercise (twice a week or more) (ref. no exercise); non-obese male, 1.417 (1.144, 1.754); obese male, 1.842 (1.317, 2.577). Sleep duration was not associated with the outcome events. These findings suggest that, regardless of obesity, a small amount of alcohol consumed and high exercise frequency were associated with the increased risk of loss of kidney function in the male groups.

  14. Do environmental factors affect male fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) response to estrone? Part 1. Dissolved oxygen and sodium chloride

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Laboratory exposures indicate that estrogens and their mimics can cause endocrine disruption in male fishes. Studies of resident fish populations in estrogen-polluted waters support these findings, yet biomarker expression associated with exposure to estrogenic endocrine disruptors often differs dra...

  15. Factors Regarding a Sense of Belonging on a University Campus: Affects on the Success of African American Male Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Addo-Yobo, Festus

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines the relationship of African American male undergraduate students from the context of one academic institution in the southwest border region of the United States. It explores the aspect of a sense of belonging on this particular university campus. The multiple mixed simultaneous study was conducted through the…

  16. Factors Regarding a Sense of Belonging on a University Campus: Affects on the Success of African American Male Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Addo-Yobo, Festus

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines the relationship of African American male undergraduate students from the context of one academic institution in the southwest border region of the United States. It explores the aspect of a sense of belonging on this particular university campus. The multiple mixed simultaneous study was conducted through the…

  17. Using Castration Surgery in Male Rats to Demonstrate the Physiological Effects of Testosterone on Seminal Vesicle Anatomy in an Undergraduate Laboratory Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belanger, Rachelle M.; Conant, Stephanie B.; Grabowski, Gregory M.

    2013-01-01

    Rats can be used as a model organism to teach physiological concepts in a laboratory setting. This article describes a two-part laboratory that introduces students to hypothesis testing, experimental design, the appropriate use of controls and surgical techniques. Students perform both a castration and sham-control surgery on male rats and test…

  18. Exposure to high fluoride concentration in drinking water will affect spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis in male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Pushpalatha, T; Srinivas, M; Sreenivasula Reddy, P

    2005-06-01

    Sodium fluoride (NaF) administered orally to adult male rats at a dose level of 4.5 ppm and 9.0 ppm for 75 days caused significant decrease in the body weight, brain index and testicular index. A significant decrease in sperm count, sperm motility, sperm viability and sperm function (HOS positive) with increased sperm abnormalities was also observed in NaF-exposed male rats. The activity levels of testicular steroidogenic marker enzymes 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3beta-HSD) and 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17beta-HSD) were significantly decreased in NaF-treated rats indicating decreased steroidogenesis and in turn spermatogenesis in rats exposed to NaF.

  19. Song environment affects singing effort and vasotocin immunoreactivity in the forebrain of male Lincoln’s sparrows

    PubMed Central

    Sewall, Kendra B.; Dankoski, Elyse C.; Sockman, Keith W.

    2010-01-01

    Male songbirds often establish territories and attract mates by singing, and some song features can reflect the singer’s condition or quality. The quality of the song environment can change, so male songbirds should benefit from assessing the competitiveness of the song environment and appropriately adjusting their own singing behavior and the neural substrates by which song is controlled. In a wide range of taxa social modulation of behavior is partly mediated by the arginine vasopressin or vasotocin (AVP/AVT) systems. To examine the modulation of singing behavior in response to the quality of the song environment we compared the song output of laboratory-housed male Lincoln’s sparrows (Melospiza lincolnii) exposed to one week of chronic playback of songs categorized as either high or low quality, based on song length, complexity and trill performance. To explore the neural basis of any facultative shifts in behavior, we also quantified the subjects’ AVT immunoreactivity (AVT-IR) in three forebrain regions that regulate socio-sexual behavior: the medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTm), the lateral septum (LS) and the preoptic area. We found that high quality songs increased singing effort and reduced AVT-IR in the BSTm and LS, relative to low quality songs. The effect of the quality of the song environment on both singing effort and forebrain AVT-IR raises the hypothesis that AVT within these brain regions plays a role in the modulation of behavior in response to competition that individual males may assess from the prevailing song environment. PMID:20399213

  20. Song Competition Affects Monoamine Levels in Sensory and Motor Forebrain Regions of Male Lincoln's Sparrows (Melospiza lincolnii)

    PubMed Central

    Sewall, Kendra B.; Caro, Samuel P.; Sockman, Keith W.

    2013-01-01

    Male animals often change their behavior in response to the level of competition for mates. Male Lincoln's sparrows (Melospiza lincolnii) modulate their competitive singing over the period of a week as a function of the level of challenge associated with competitors' songs. Differences in song challenge and associated shifts in competitive state should be accompanied by neural changes, potentially in regions that regulate perception and song production. The monoamines mediate neural plasticity in response to environmental cues to achieve shifts in behavioral state. Therefore, using high pressure liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection, we compared levels of monoamines and their metabolites from male Lincoln's sparrows exposed to songs categorized as more or less challenging. We compared levels of norepinephrine and its principal metabolite in two perceptual regions of the auditory telencephalon, the caudomedial nidopallium and the caudomedial mesopallium (CMM), because this chemical is implicated in modulating auditory sensitivity to song. We also measured the levels of dopamine and its principal metabolite in two song control nuclei, area X and the robust nucleus of the arcopallium (RA), because dopamine is implicated in regulating song output. We measured the levels of serotonin and its principal metabolite in all four brain regions because this monoamine is implicated in perception and behavioral output and is found throughout the avian forebrain. After controlling for recent singing, we found that males exposed to more challenging song had higher levels of norepinephrine metabolite in the CMM and lower levels of serotonin in the RA. Collectively, these findings are consistent with norepinephrine in perceptual brain regions and serotonin in song control regions contributing to neuroplasticity that underlies socially-induced changes in behavioral state. PMID:23555809

  1. Raphe serotonin neuron-specific oxytocin receptor knockout reduces aggression without affecting anxiety-like behavior in male mice only

    PubMed Central

    Pagani, Jerome H.; Williams Avram, Sarah K.; Cui, Zhenzhong; Song, June; Mezey, Éva; Senerth, Julia M.; Baumann, Michael H.; Young, W. Scott

    2015-01-01

    Serotonin and oxytocin influence aggressive and anxiety-like behaviors, though it is unclear how the two may interact. That the oxytocin receptor is expressed in the serotonergic raphe nuclei suggests a mechanism by which the two neurotransmitters may cooperatively influence behavior. We hypothesized that oxytocin acts on raphe neurons to influence serotonergically-mediated anxiety-like, aggressive and parental care behaviors. We eliminated expression of the oxytocin receptor in raphe neurons by crossing mice expressing Cre recombinase under control of the serotonin transporter promoter (Slc6a4) with our conditional oxytocin receptor knockout line. The knockout mice generated by this cross are normal across a range of behavioral measures: there are no effects for either sex on locomotion in an open-field, olfactory habituation/dishabituation or, surprisingly, anxiety-like behaviors in the elevated O and plus mazes. There was a profound deficit in male aggression: only one of 11 raphe oxytocin receptor knockouts showed any aggressive behavior, compared to eight of 11 wildtypes. In contrast, female knockouts displayed no deficits in maternal behavior or aggression. Our results show that oxytocin, via its effects on raphe neurons, is a key regulator of resident-intruder aggression in males but not maternal aggression. Furthermore, this reduction in male aggression is quite different from the effects reported previously after forebrain or total elimination of oxytocin receptors. Finally, we conclude that when constitutively eliminated, oxytocin receptors expressed by serotonin cells do not contribute to baseline anxiety-like behaviors or maternal care. PMID:25677455

  2. Experimental defoliation affects male but not female reproductive performance of the tropical monoecious plant Croton suberosus (Euphorbiaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Narbona, Eduardo; Dirzo, Rodolfo

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Monoecious plants have the capacity to allocate resources separately to male and female functions more easily than hermaphrodites. This can be advantageous against environmental stresses such as leaf herbivory. However, studies showing effects of herbivory on male and female functions and on the interaction with the plant's pollinators are limited, particularly in tropical plants. Here, the effects of experimental defoliation were examined in the monoecious shrub Croton suberosus (Euphorbiaceae), a wasp-pollinated species from a Mexican tropical dry forest. Methods Three defoliation treatments were applied: 0 % (control), 25 % (low) or 75 % (high) of plant leaf area removed. Vegetative (production of new leaves) and reproductive (pistillate and staminate flower production, pollen viability, nectar production, fruit set, and seed set) performance variables, and the abundance and activity of floral visitors were examined. Key Results Defoliated plants overcompensated for tissue loss by producing more new leaves than control plants. Production of staminate flowers gradually decreased with increasing defoliation and the floral sex ratio (staminate : pistillate flowers) was drastically reduced in high-defoliation plants. In contrast, female reproductive performance (pistillate flower production, fruit set and seed set) and pollinator visitation and abundance were not impacted by defoliation. Conclusions The asymmetrical effects of defoliation on male and female traits of C. suberosus may be due to the temporal and spatial flexibility in the allocation of resources deployed by monoecious plants. We posit that this helps to maintain the plant's pollination success in the face of leaf herbivory stress. PMID:20519239

  3. Egg-Laying “Intermorphs” in the Ant Crematogaster smithi neither Affect Sexual Production nor Male Parentage

    PubMed Central

    Oettler, Jan; Dijkstra, Michiel B.; Heinze, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    We study male parentage and between-colony variation in sex allocation and sexual production in the desert ant Crematogaster smithi, which usually has only one singly-mated queen per nest. Colonies of this species are known to temporarily store nutrients in the large fat body of intermorphs, a specialized female caste intermediate in morphology between queens and workers. Intermorphs repackage at least part of this fat into consumable but viable male-destined eggs. If these eggs sometimes develop instead of being eaten, intermorphs will be reproductive competitors of the queen but—due to relatedness asymmetries—allies of their sister worker. Using genetic markers we found a considerable proportion of non-queen sons in some, but not all, colonies. Even though intermorphs produce ∼1.7× more eggs than workers, their share in the parentage of adult males is estimated to be negligible due to their small number compared to workers. Furthermore, neither colony-level sex allocation nor overall sexual production was correlated with intermorph occurrence or number. We conclude that intermorph-laid eggs typically do not survive and that the storage of nutrients and their redistribution as eggs by intermorphs is effectively altruistic. PMID:24130699

  4. 17α-Ethinyl estradiol affects anxiety and shoaling behavior in adult male zebra fish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Reyhanian, Nasim; Volkova, Kristina; Hallgren, Stefan; Bollner, Tomas; Olsson, Per-Erik; Olsén, Håkan; Hällström, Inger Porsch

    2011-09-01

    Ethinyl estradiol is a potent endocrine disrupting compound in fish and ubiquitously present in the aquatic environment. In this study, we exposed adult zebra fish (Danio rerio) males to 0, 5 or 25 ng Ethinyl estradiol/L for 14 days and analyzed the effects on non-reproductive behavior. Effects of treatment of the exposed males was shown by vitellogenin induction, while brain aromatase (CYP 19B) activity was not significantly altered. Both concentrations of Ethinyl estradiol significantly altered the behavior in the Novel tank test, where anxiety is determined as the tendency to stay at the bottom when introduced into an unfamiliar environment. The effects were, however, opposite for the two concentrations. Fish that were exposed to 5 ng/L had longer latency before upswim, fewer transitions to the upper half and shorter total time spent in the upper half compared with control fish, while 25 ng Ethinyl estradiol treatment resulted in shorter latency and more and longer visits to the upper half. The swimming activity of 25, but not 5 ng-exposed fish were slightly but significantly reduced, and these fish tended to spend a lot of time at the surface. We also studied the shoaling behavior as the tendency to leave a shoal of littermates trapped behind a Plexiglas barrier at one end of the test tank. The fish treated with Ethinyl estradiol had significantly longer latency before leaving shoal mates and left the shoal fewer times. Further, the fish exposed to 5 ng/L also spent significantly less time away from shoal than control fish. Fertilization frequency was higher in males exposed to 5 ng/L Ethinyl estradiol when compared with control males, while no spawning was observed after treatment with 25 ng/L. The testes from both treatment groups contained a normal distribution of spermatogenesis stages, and no abnormality in testis morphology could be observed. In conclusion, we have observed effects on two behaviors not related to reproduction in zebra fish males after

  5. Subcutaneous Injection of Testosterone Is an Effective and Preferred Alternative to Intramuscular Injection: Demonstration in Female-to-Male Transgender Patients.

    PubMed

    Spratt, Daniel I; Stewart, India I; Savage, Clara; Craig, Wendy; Spack, Norman P; Chandler, Donald Walt; Spratt, Lindsey V; Eimicke, Toni; Olshan, Jerrold S

    2017-07-01

    Testosterone (T) is commonly administered intramuscularly to treat hypogonadal males and female-to-male (FTM) transgender patients. However, these injections can involve significant discomfort and may require arrangements for administration by others. We assessed whether T could be administered effectively and safely subcutaneously as an alternative to intramuscular (IM) injections. Retrospective cohort study. Outpatient reproductive endocrinology clinic at an academic medical center. Sixty-three FTM transgender patients aged >18 years electing to receive subcutaneous (SC) T therapy for sex transition were included. Fifty-three patients were premenopausal. Patients were administered T cypionate or enanthate weekly at an initial dose of 50 mg. Dose was adjusted if needed to achieve serum total T levels within the normal male range. Serum concentrations of free and total T and total estradiol (E2), masculinization, and surveillance for reactions at injection sites. Serum T levels within the normal male range were achieved in all 63 patients with doses of 50 to 150 mg (median, 75/80 mg). Therapy was effective across a wide range of body mass index (19.0 to 49.9 kg/m2). Minor and transient local reactions were reported in 9 out of 63 patients. Among 53 premenopausal patients, 51 achieved amenorrhea and 35 achieved serum E2 concentrations <50 pg/mL. Twenty-two patients were originally receiving IM and switched to SC therapy. All 22 had a mild (n = 2) or marked (n = 20) preference for SC injections; none preferred IM injections. Our observations indicate that SC T injections are an effective, safe, and well-accepted alternative to IM T injections.

  6. Down, But Not Out: Partial Elimination of Androgen Receptors in the Male Mouse Brain Does Not Affect Androgenic Regulation of Anxiety or HPA Activity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chieh V; Brummet, Jennifer L; Jordan, Cynthia L; Breedlove, S Marc

    2016-02-01

    We previously found that androgen receptor (AR) activity mediates two effects of T in adult male mice: reduction of anxiety-like behaviors and dampening of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal response to stress. To determine whether brain ARs mediate these effects, we used the Cre/loxP technology seeking to disable AR throughout the central nervous system (CNS). Female mice carrying the floxed AR allele (ARlox) were crossed with males carrying cre recombinase transgene controlled by the nestin promoter (NesCre), producing cre in developing neurons and glia. Among male offspring, four genotypes resulted: males carrying ARlox and NesCre (NesARko), and three control groups (wild types, NesCre, and ARlox). Reporter mice indicated ubiquitous Cre expression throughout the CNS. Nevertheless, AR immunocytochemistry in NesARko mice revealed efficient knockout (KO) of AR in some brain regions (hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex [mPFC]), but not others. Substantial AR protein was seen in the amygdala and hypothalamus among other regions, whereas negligible AR remained in others like the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and dorsal periaqueductal gray. This selective KO allowed for testing the role of AR in hippocampus and mPFC. Males were castrated and implanted with T at postnatal day 60 before testing on postnatal day 90-100. In contrast with males with global KO of AR, T still modulated anxiety-related behavior and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity in NesARko males. These results leave open the possibility that AR acting in the CNS mediates these effects of T, but demonstrate that AR is not required in the hippocampus or mPFC for T's anxiolytic effects.

  7. Does Fluoride Affect Serum Testosterone and Androgen Binding Protein with Age-Specificity? A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study in Chinese Male Farmers.

    PubMed

    Duan, Leizhen; Zhu, Jingyuan; Wang, Keyan; Zhou, Guoyu; Yang, Yuejin; Cui, Liuxin; Huang, Hui; Cheng, Xuemin; Ba, Yue

    2016-12-01

    Many studies have demonstrated that exposure to excess fluoride was associated with a variety of diseases. Little is known about the variation of testosterone (T) levels caused by fluoride exposure. The aim of this study is to explore the association of fluoride exposure and age with serum T and androgen-binding protein (ABP) levels in male farmers. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a county of Henan Province, China, including high fluoride exposure from drinking water villages and control villages. Male farmers aged 18-55 years old who lived in these villages were recruited by cluster sampling and divided into a higher fluoride exposure group (HFG) and a lower fluoride exposure group (LFG) according to the level of urinary fluoride. Levels of T and ABP in serum were measured using chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) respectively. Markedly lower T levels were observed in male farmers from the HFG than in those from the LFG (t = 2.496, P < 0.05). Furthermore, younger farmers, 18-29 and 30-39 years old, may be the most likely to have lower T levels when exposed to fluoride (P < 0.05). No significant differences were observed in serum ABP levels in all male farmers between the two groups with different fluoride exposure. These results supported that excess fluoride exposure decreased serum T levels of male farmers with age-specificity.

  8. How do video-based demonstration assessment tasks affect problem-solving process, test anxiety, chemistry anxiety and achievement in general chemistry students?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terrell, Rosalind Stephanie

    2001-12-01

    Because paper-and-pencil testing provides limited knowledge about what students know about chemical phenomena, we have developed video-based demonstrations to broaden measurement of student learning. For example, students might be shown a video demonstrating equilibrium shifts. Two methods for viewing equilibrium shifts are changing the concentration of the reactants and changing the temperature of the system. The students are required to combine the data collected from the video and their knowledge of chemistry to determine which way the equilibrium shifts. Video-based demonstrations are important techniques for measuring student learning because they require students to apply conceptual knowledge learned in class to a specific chemical problem. This study explores how video-based demonstration assessment tasks affect problem-solving processes, test anxiety, chemistry anxiety and achievement in general chemistry students. Several instruments were used to determine students' knowledge about chemistry, students' test and chemistry anxiety before and after treatment. Think-aloud interviews were conducted to determine students' problem-solving processes after treatment. The treatment group was compared to a control group and a group watching video demonstrations. After treatment students' anxiety increased and achievement decreased. There were also no significant differences found in students' problem-solving processes following treatment. These negative findings may be attributed to several factors that will be explored in this study.

  9. Factors affecting clinical pregnancy rates after IUI for the treatment of unexplained infertility and mild male subfertility

    PubMed Central

    Atasever, Melahat; Kalem, Müberra Namlı; Hatırnaz, Şafak; Hatırnaz, Ebru; Kalem, Ziya; Kalaylıoğlu, Zeynep

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of the present retrospective study was to evaluate intrauterine insemination (IUI) clinical experiences and to define the variables for predicting success. Material and Methods The present study was an observational trial performed in a private IVF center on subfertile couples who had applied for treatment between 2002 and 2012, in which the data of 503 IUI cases were retrospectively reviewed. Couples who had been diagnosed with unexplained and mild male subfertility were included. The primary outcome measure was the clinical pregnancy rate in an attempt to form a predictive model for the odds of a clinical pregnancy. Recorded parameters were used to determine the prediction model. Results Utilizing univariate logistic regression analysis, clinical pregnancy was positively associated with the duration of infertility (OR=1.09, p=0.089), secondary infertility (OR=1.77, p=0.050), and +4 sperm motility after preparation (OR=1.03, p=0.091). Following an adjustment analysis involving a multivariate logistic regression, clinical pregnancy was still found to positively associate with secondary infertility (OR=2.51, p=0.008). Conclusion IUI success in secondary infertile couples who were in the unexplained infertility and mild male subfertility groups was higher than that in primary infertile couples, and the chances of pregnancy increased as sperm numbers with +4 motility increased. It is difficult to concomitantly evaluate all these parameters and to determine a predictive parameter in IUI independent from other factors. PMID:27651720

  10. Gonadal hormones and oxidative stress interaction differentially affects survival of male and female mice after lung Klebsiella pneumoniae infection.

    PubMed

    Durrani, Faryal; Phelps, David S; Weisz, Judith; Silveyra, Patricia; Hu, Sanmei; Mikerov, Anatoly N; Floros, Joanna

    2012-05-01

    Survival of mice after Klebsiella pneumoniae infection and phagocytosis by alveolar macrophages (AMs), in the presence or absence of ozone (O(3)) exposure prior to infection, is sex dependent. The objective of this work was to study the role of gonadal hormones, 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and 17β-estradiol (E(2)), on mouse survival after filtered air (FA) or O(3) exposure. Gonadectomized female (G×F) and male (G×M) mice implanted with control or hormone pellets (DHT in G×F, or E(2) in G×M), exposed to O(3) (2 ppm, 3h) or FA, and infected with K. pneumoniae were monitored for survival. Survival in G×F was identical after FA or O(3) exposure; in G×M O(3) exposure resulted in lower survival compared to FA. In O(3)-exposed females, gonadectomy resulted in increased survival compared to intact females or to G×M+E(2). A similar effect was observed in G×F+DHT. The combined negative effect of oxidative stress and hormone on survival was higher for E(2). Gonadectomy eliminated (females) or minimized (males) the previously observed sex differences in survival in response to oxidative stress, and hormone treatment restored them. These findings indicate that gonadal hormones and/or oxidative stress have a significant effect on mouse survival.

  11. Exposure to altered gravity during specific developmental periods differentially affects growth, development, the cerebellum and motor functions in male and female rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguon, K.; Ladd, B.; Sajdel-Sulkowska, E. M.

    2006-01-01

    We previously reported that perinatal exposure to hypergravity affects cerebellar structure and motor coordination in rat neonates. In the present study, we explored the hypothesis that neonatal cerebellar structure and motor coordination may be particularly vulnerable to the effects of hypergravity during specific developmental stages. To test this hypothesis, we compared neurodevelopment, motor behavior and cerebellar structure in rat neonates exposed to 1.65 G on a 24-ft centrifuge during discrete periods of time: the 2nd week of pregnancy [gestational day (G) 8 through G15; group A], the 3rd week of pregnancy (G15 through birth on G22/G23; group B), the 1st week of nursing [birth through postnatal day (P) 6; group C], the 2nd and 3rd weeks of nursing (P6 through P21; group D), the combined 2nd and 3rd weeks of pregnancy and nursing (G8 through P21; group E) and stationary control (SC) neonates (group F). Prenatal exposure to hypergravity resulted in intrauterine growth retardation as reflected by a decrease in the number of pups in a litter and lower average mass at birth. Exposure to hypergravity immediately after birth impaired the righting response on P3, while the startle response in both males and females was most affected by exposure during the 2nd and 3rd weeks after birth. Hypergravity exposure also impaired motor functions, as evidenced by poorer performance on a rotarod; while both males and females exposed to hypergravity during the 2nd and 3rd weeks after birth performed poorly on P21, male neonates were most dramatically affected by exposure to hypergravity during the second week of gestation, when the duration of their recorded stay on the rotarod was one half that of SC males. Cerebellar mass was most reduced by later postnatal exposure. Thus, for the developing rat cerebellum, the postnatal period that overlaps the brain growth spurt is the most vulnerable to hypergravity. However, male motor behavior is also affected by midpregnancy exposure to

  12. Exposure to Altered Gravity During Specific Developmental Periods Differentially Affects Growth, Development, the Cerebellum and Motor Functions in Male and Female Rats.

    PubMed Central

    Nguon, K.; Ladd, B.; Sajdel-Sulkowska, E.M.

    2006-01-01

    We previously reported that perinatal exposure to hypergravity affects cerebellar structure and motor coordination in rat neonates. In the present study, we explored the hypothesis that neonatal cerebellar structure and motor coordination may be particularly vulnerable to the effects of hypergravity during specific developmental stages. To test this hypothesis, we compared neurodevelopment, motor behavior and cerebellar structure in rat neonates exposed to 1.65 G on a 24-ft centrifuge during discrete periods of time: the 2nd week of pregnancy [gestational day (G) 8 through G15; group A], the 3rd week of pregnancy (G15 through birth on G22/G23; group B), the 1st week of nursing [birth through postnatal day (P) 6; group C], the 2nd and 3rd weeks of nursing (P6 through P21; group D), the combined 2nd and 3rd weeks of pregnancy and nursing (G8 through P21; group E) and stationary control (SC) neonates (group F). Prenatal exposure to hypergravity resulted in intrauterine growth retardation as reflected by a decrease in the number of pups in a litter and lower average mass at birth. Exposure to hypergravity immediately after birth impaired the righting response on P3, while the startle response in both males and females was most affected by exposure during the 2nd and 3rd weeks after birth. Hypergravity exposure also impaired motor functions, as evidenced by poorer performance on a rotarod; while both males and females exposed to hypergravity during the 2nd and 3rd weeks after birth performed poorly on P21, male neonates were most dramatically affected by exposure to hypergravity during the second week of gestation, when the duration of their recorded stay on the rotarod was one half that of SC males. Cerebellar mass was most reduced by later postnatal exposure. Thus, for the developing rat cerebellum, the postnatal period that overlaps the brain growth spurt is the most vulnerable to hypergravity. However, male motor behavior is also affected by midpregnancy exposure to

  13. How the magnitude of clinical severity and recurrence risk affects reproductive decisions in adult males with different forms of progressive muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Eggers, S; Zatz, M

    1998-03-01

    The reproductive history of 177 male patients affected with Becker (BMD) (n=69), limb-girdle (LGMD) (n=54), and facioscapulohumeral (FSHMD) (n=54) muscular dystrophy (MD) was analysed according to severity of the disease (BMD>LGMD>FSHMD) and magnitude of recurrence risk (RR) (high for FSHMD, intermediate for BMD, and low for LGMD). Additionally, 62 male patients were interviewed on psychosocial issues, in order to disentangle the factors influencing reproductive decisions among patients affected with MD. Among male adults, significantly more FSHMD than LGMD or BMD patients were married and had children. Age specific reproductive outcome was 0.31-0.32 for BMD, 0.51-0.62 for LGMD, and 0.58-1.02 for FSHMD, reflecting the influence of the disease's severity. High RRs did not significantly diminish reproduction after genetic counselling or correlate with less prospective desire for children. Instead, early onset, severity of the disease, and past reproductive history were found to diminish reproductive outcome after genetic counselling, and prospective family planning was also found to be influenced by past reproductive history as well as by emotional/sexual dysfunction with the opposite sex.

  14. How the magnitude of clinical severity and recurrence risk affects reproductive decisions in adult males with different forms of progressive muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed Central

    Eggers, S; Zatz, M

    1998-01-01

    The reproductive history of 177 male patients affected with Becker (BMD) (n=69), limb-girdle (LGMD) (n=54), and facioscapulohumeral (FSHMD) (n=54) muscular dystrophy (MD) was analysed according to severity of the disease (BMD>LGMD>FSHMD) and magnitude of recurrence risk (RR) (high for FSHMD, intermediate for BMD, and low for LGMD). Additionally, 62 male patients were interviewed on psychosocial issues, in order to disentangle the factors influencing reproductive decisions among patients affected with MD. Among male adults, significantly more FSHMD than LGMD or BMD patients were married and had children. Age specific reproductive outcome was 0.31-0.32 for BMD, 0.51-0.62 for LGMD, and 0.58-1.02 for FSHMD, reflecting the influence of the disease's severity. High RRs did not significantly diminish reproduction after genetic counselling or correlate with less prospective desire for children. Instead, early onset, severity of the disease, and past reproductive history were found to diminish reproductive outcome after genetic counselling, and prospective family planning was also found to be influenced by past reproductive history as well as by emotional/sexual dysfunction with the opposite sex. PMID:9541101

  15. Links between breeding readiness, opioid immunolabeling, and the affective state induced by hearing male courtship song in female European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris)

    PubMed Central

    Riters, Lauren V.; Ellis, Jesse M. S.; Angyal, Caroline S.; Borkowski, Vincent; Cordes, Melissa A.; Stevenson, Sharon A.

    2013-01-01

    Male courtship vocalizations represent a potent signal designed to attract females; however, not all females find male signals equally attractive. We explored the possibility that the affective state induced by hearing courtship vocalizations depends on the motivational state of a receiver. We used a conditioned place preference test of reward to determine the extent to which the rewarding properties of hearing male courtship song differed in female European starlings categorized as nest box owners (a sign of breeding readiness) or non-owners. Nest box owners developed a preference for a chamber in which they previously heard male courtship song. Non-owners displayed no preference for a chamber in which they previously heard song. Positive correlations were identified between the preference a female developed for the song-paired chamber and female nesting and dominance behaviors observed prior to conditioning (indices of the motivation to breed). Immunolabeling for met-enkephalin (an opioid neuropeptide involved in reward) in the medial preoptic nucleus, ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus, nucleus accumbens, and periaqueductal gray was higher in females with compared to those without nest boxes. Both nest box entries and song-induced place preference also correlated positively with met-enkephalin labeling in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus. These findings indicate that the reward value of vocal signals is linked to individual differences in motivational state; and that differences in enkephalin activity may play a role in modifying an individual’s motivational state and/or the reward value of song. PMID:23473880

  16. Maternal high-fat diet inversely affects insulin sensitivity in dams and young adult male rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Karbaschi, Roxana; Sadeghimahalli, Forouzan; Zardooz, Homeira

    2016-09-01

    This study attempts to further clarify the potential effects of maternal high-fat (HF) diet on glucose homeostasis in dams and young adult male rat offspring. Female rats were divided into control (CON dams) and HF (HF dams) diet groups, which received the diet 4 weeks prior to and through pregnancy and lactation periods. Blood samples were taken to determine metabolic parameters, then an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) was performed. Maternal HF diet increased intra-abdominal fat mass and plasma corticosterone level, but decreased leptin concentration in dams. In HF offspring intra-abdominal fat mass, plasma leptin, and corticosterone levels decreased. Following IPGTT, the plasma insulin level of HF dams was higher than the controls. In HF offspring plasma insulin level was not significantly different from the controls, but a steeper decrease of their plasma glucose concentration was observed.

  17. Orally administered glucagon-like peptide-1 affects glucose homeostasis following an oral glucose tolerance test in healthy male subjects.

    PubMed

    Steinert, R E; Poller, B; Castelli, M C; Friedman, K; Huber, A R; Drewe, J; Beglinger, C

    2009-12-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) exerts several effects on glucose homeostasis and reduces food intake. After its release from intestinal L cells, GLP-1 is subject to (i) rapid breakdown by dipeptidyl peptidase IV and (ii) high liver extraction. The highest concentrations of GLP-1 are found in the splanchnic blood rather than in the systemic circulation. An oral delivery system would mimic endogenous secretion. Here we investigated the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) effects of a single dose (2 mg) of oral GLP-1 administered prior to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in 16 healthy males. GLP-1 was rapidly absorbed from the gut, leading to tenfold higher plasma concentrations compared with controls. The PD profile was consistent with reported pharmacology; GLP-1 significantly stimulated basal insulin release (P < 0.027), with marked effects on glucose levels. The postprandial glucose peak was delayed with GLP-1, suggesting an effect on gastric emptying.

  18. Mutations that affect meiosis in male mice influence the dynamics of the mid-preleptotene and bouquet stages

    SciTech Connect

    Liebe, B.; Petukhova, G.; Barchi, M.; Bellani, M.; Braselmann, H.; Nakano, T.; Pandita, T.K.; Jasin, M.; Fornace, A.; Meistrich, M.L.; Baarends, W.M.; Schimenti, J.; Lange, T. de; Keeney, S.; Camerini-Otero, R.D.; Scherthan, H. . E-mail: scherth@web.de

    2006-11-15

    Meiosis pairs and segregates homologous chromosomes and thereby forms haploid germ cells to compensate the genome doubling at fertilization. Homologue pairing in many eukaryotic species depends on formation of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) during early prophase I when telomeres begin to cluster at the nuclear periphery (bouquet stage). By fluorescence in situ hybridization criteria, we observe that mid-preleptotene and bouquet stage frequencies are altered in male mice deficient for proteins required for recombination, ubiquitin conjugation and telomere length control. The generally low frequencies of mid-preleptotene spermatocytes were significantly increased in male mice lacking recombination proteins SPO11, MEI1, MLH1, KU80, ubiquitin conjugating enzyme HR6B, and in mice with only one copy of the telomere length regulator Terf1. The bouquet stage was significantly enriched in Atm {sup -/-}, Spo11 {sup -/-}, Mei1 {sup m1Jcs/m1Jcs}, Mlh1 {sup -/-}, Terf1 {sup +/-} and Hr6b {sup -/-} spermatogenesis, but not in mice lacking recombination proteins DMC1 and HOP2, the non-homologous end-joining DNA repair factor KU80 and the ATM downstream effector GADD45a. Mice defective in spermiogenesis (Tnp1 {sup -/-}, Gmcl1 {sup -/-}, Asm {sup -/-}) showed wild-type mid-preleptotene and bouquet frequencies. A low frequency of bouquet spermatocytes in Spo11 {sup -/-} Atm {sup -/-} spermatogenesis suggests that DSBs contribute to the Atm {sup -/-}-correlated bouquet stage exit defect. Insignificant changes of bouquet frequencies in mice with defects in early stages of DSB repair (Dmc1 {sup -/-}, Hop2 {sup -/-}) suggest that there is an ATM-specific influence on bouquet stage duration. Altogether, it appears that several pathways influence telomere dynamics in mammalian meiosis.

  19. Oxidative stress during courtship affects male and female reproductive effort differentially in a wild bird with biparental care.

    PubMed

    Montoya, Bibiana; Valverde, Mahara; Rojas, Emilio; Torres, Roxana

    2016-12-15

    Oxidative stress has been suggested as one of the physiological mechanisms modulating reproductive effort, including investment in mate choice. Here, we evaluated whether oxidative stress influences breeding decisions by acting as a cost of or constraint on reproduction in the brown booby (Sula leucogaster), a long-lived seabird with prolonged biparental care. We found that during courtship, levels of lipid peroxidation (LP) of males and females were positively associated with gular skin color, a trait presumably used in mate choice, while levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were higher as laying approached and in early breeding pairs. Evidence of a constraining effect of oxidative stress for females was suggested by the fact that females with higher ROS during courtship laid smaller first eggs and had chicks with lower rates of body mass gain, and higher female LP was associated with lower offspring attendance time. No evidence of an oxidative cost of parental effort was found; from courtship to parental care, levels of ROS in males and females decreased, and changes in LP levels were non-significant. Finally, using a cross-fostering experiment we found that offspring ROS was unrelated to rearing and genetic parents' ROS. Interestingly, offspring LP was positively associated with the LP during courtship of both the rearing parents and the genetic father, suggesting that offspring LP might have both a genetic and an environmental component. Hence, in the brown booby, oxidative stress may be a cost of investment in reproductive traits before egg laying and constrain females' investment in eggs and parental care. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  20. Maternal in utero exposure to the endocrine disruptor di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate affects the blood pressure of adult male offspring

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez–Arguelles, D.B.; McIntosh, M.; Rohlicek, C.V.; Culty, M.; Zirkin, B.R.; Papadopoulos, V.

    2013-01-01

    Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is used industrially to add flexibility to polyvinyl chloride (PVC) polymers and is ubiquitously found in the environment, with evidence of prenatal, perinatal and early infant exposure in humans. In utero exposure to DEHP decreases circulating testosterone levels in the adult rat. In addition, DEHP reduces the expression of the angiotensin II receptors in the adrenal gland, resulting in decreased circulating aldosterone levels. The latter may have important effects on water and electrolyte balance as well as systemic arterial blood pressure. Therefore, we determined the effects of in utero exposure to DEHP on systemic arterial blood pressure in the young (2 month-old) and older (6.5 month-old) adult rats. Sprague-Dawley pregnant dams were exposed from gestational day 14 until birth to 300 mg DEHP/kg/day. Blood pressure, heart rate, and activity data were collected using an intra-aortal transmitter in the male offspring at postnatal day (PND) 60 and PND200. A low (0.01%) and high-salt (8%) diet was used to challenge the animals at PND200. In utero exposure to DEHP resulted in reduced activity at PND60. At PND200, systolic and diastolic systemic arterial pressures as well as activity were reduced in response to DEHP exposure. This is the first evidence showing that in utero exposure to DEHP has cardiovascular and behavioral effects in the adult male offspring. Highlights: ► In utero exposure to 300 mg DEHP/kg/day decreases activity at postnatal day 60. ► In utero exposure to DEHP decreases aldosterone levels at postnatal day 200. ► In utero exposure to DEHP decreases systolic blood pressure at postnatal day 200. ► An 8% salt diet recovers the decreased blood pressure at postnatal day 200.

  1. The extent to which garments affect the assessment of body shapes of males from faceless CCTV images.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Teghan; Kumaratilake, Jaliya; Henneberg, Maciej

    2014-01-01

    Closed circuit television (CCTV) systems are being widely used in crime surveillance. The images produced are of poor quality often face details are not visible, however expert witnesses in the field of biological anthropology use morphological descriptions of body shapes in an attempt to identify persons of interest. These methods can be applied to individual images when other cues such as gait, are not present. Criminals commonly disguise their faces, but body shape characteristics can be used to distinguish a person of interest from others. Garments may distort the body shape appearance, thus this study was undertaken to investigate the effects of garments on the description of body shape from CCTV images. Twelve adult males representing a wide body shape range of Sheldonian somatotypes were photographed in identical garments comprising of tight fitting black shirt, horizontally striped shirt, padded leather jacket and in naked torso. These photographs were assessed by 51 males and females aged 18-50 years, with varying levels of education, and different experience in use of CCTV images for identification of people, to identify the 12 participants. The effect of assessors was not significant. They correctly distinguished 88.6% of individuals wearing the same wear, but could not match the same individuals wearing different wear above the random expectations. However, they matched somatotypes above random expectation. Type of clothing produced little bias in somatotype matching; ectomorphic component of individuals wearing black shirts and padded jackets was overestimated and underestimated, respectively. In conclusion, type of the wear had little effect in the description of individuals from CCTV images using the body shapes.

  2. Segregation of the fragile-X mutation from an affected male: Evidence of unusual somatic instability in the FMR-1 locus

    SciTech Connect

    Kambouris, M.; Bluhm, D.; Feldman, G.L.

    1994-09-01

    Fragile X syndrome is associated with an unstable CGG-repeat in the FMR-1 gene. There are few reports of affected males transmitting the FMR-1 gene to offspring. We report a family in which the paternal grandfather has an unusual FMR-1 pattern, with allele sizes ranging from premutation to full mutation. The family was initially ascertained because of a diagnosis of fragile X syndrome in this individual`s grandson. For Southern blot analyses, the samples were digested with Pst 1 and hybridized to the pE5.1 probe or digested with HindIII and hybridized to the StB12.3 probe. The proband had a high molecular weight allele, indicating significant amplifications, and an abnormal methylation pattern, consistent with a full mutation. His twin sister, who also had features of fragile X syndrome, had a similar pattern in addition to her normal allele (30 repeats). Their mother had one normal allele (33 repeats) and a premutation allele (>130 CGG repeats), with a normal methylation pattern. The maternal grandmother had alleles of 32 and 33 CGG repeats. These findings support the hypothesis that transmission of a full fragile-X mutation does not occur through a male, even if that male has clincial and molecular evidence of a full mutation. Gonadal mosaicism is an alternative explanation. Thus, an affected male with extensive FMR-1 somatic mosaicism transmitted a large premutation to his daughter, who in turn transmitted a full mutation to both of her offspring. FMR-1 protein studies on this individual, which are in progress, should help to determine the correlation, if any, of the molecular findings with the phenotypic effects.

  3. Blockage of the Neonatal Leptin Surge Affects the Gene Expression of Growth Factors, Glial Proteins, and Neuropeptides Involved in the Control of Metabolism and Reproduction in Peripubertal Male and Female Rats.

    PubMed

    Mela, Virginia; Díaz, Francisca; Lopez-Rodriguez, Ana Belen; Vázquez, María Jesús; Gertler, Arieh; Argente, Jesús; Tena-Sempere, Manuel; Viveros, María-Paz; Chowen, Julie A

    2015-07-01

    Leptin (Lep) is important in the development of neuroendocrine circuits involved in metabolic control. Because both Lep and metabolism influence pubertal development, we hypothesized that early changes in Lep signaling could also modulate hypothalamic (HT) systems involved in reproduction. We previously demonstrated that a single injection of a Lep antagonist (Antag) on postnatal day (PND)9, coincident with the neonatal Lep peak, induced sexually dimorphic modifications in trophic factors and markers of cell turnover and neuronal maturation in the HT on PND13. Here, our aim was to investigate whether the alterations induced by Lep antagonism persist into puberty. Accordingly, male and female rats were treated with a pegylated super Lep Antag from PND5 to PND9 and killed just before the normal appearance of external signs of puberty (PND33 in females and PND43 in males). There was no effect on body weight, but in males food intake increased, subcutaneous adipose tissue decreased and HT neuropeptide Y and Agouti-related peptide mRNA levels were reduced, with no effect in females. In both sexes, the Antag increased HT mRNA levels of the kisspeptin receptor, G protein-coupled recepter 54 (Gpr54). Expression of the Lep receptor, trophic factors, and glial markers were differently affected in the HT of peripubertal males and females. Lep production in adipose tissue was decreased in Antag-treated rats of both sexes, with production of other cytokines being differentially regulated between sexes. In conclusion, in addition to the long-term effects on metabolism, changes in neonatal Lep levels modifies factors involved in reproduction that could possibly affect sexual maturation.

  4. X chromosome exome sequencing reveals a novel ALG13 mutation in a nonsyndromic intellectual disability family with multiple affected male siblings.

    PubMed

    Bissar-Tadmouri, Nesrine; Donahue, Whithey L; Al-Gazali, Lihadh; Nelson, Stanley F; Bayrak-Toydemir, Pinar; Kantarci, Sibel

    2014-01-01

    X-linked intellectual disability (XLID) is a heterogeneous condition associated with mutations in >100 genes, accounting for over 10% of all cases of intellectual impairment. The majority of XLID cases show nonsyndromic forms (NSXLID), in which intellectual disability is the sole clinically consistent manifestation. Here we performed X chromosome exome (X-exome) sequencing to identify the causative mutation in an NSXLID family with four affected male siblings and five unaffected female siblings. The X-exome sequencing at 88× coverage in one affected male sibling revealed a novel missense mutation (p.Tyr1074Cys) in the asparagine-linked glycosylation 13 homolog (ALG13) gene. Segregation analysis by Sanger sequencing showed that the all affected siblings were hemizygous and the mother was heterozygous for the mutation. Recently, a de novo missense mutation in ALG13 has been reported in a patient with X-linked congenital disorders of glycosylation type I. Our study reports the first case of NSXLID caused by a mutation in ALG13 involved in protein N-glycosylation.

  5. Genetically-Driven Enhancement of Dopaminergic Transmission Affects Moral Acceptability in Females but Not in Males: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Pellegrini, Silvia; Palumbo, Sara; Iofrida, Caterina; Melissari, Erika; Rota, Giuseppina; Mariotti, Veronica; Anastasio, Teresa; Manfrinati, Andrea; Rumiati, Rino; Lotto, Lorella; Sarlo, Michela; Pietrini, Pietro

    2017-01-01

    those provided by males. As females usually give more emotionally-based answers and engage the “emotional brain” more than males, our results, though preliminary and therefore in need of replication in independent samples, suggest that this increase in dopamine availability enhances the cognitive and reduces the emotional components of moral decision-making in females, thus favoring a more rationally-driven decision process. PMID:28900390

  6. Genetically-Driven Enhancement of Dopaminergic Transmission Affects Moral Acceptability in Females but Not in Males: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Pellegrini, Silvia; Palumbo, Sara; Iofrida, Caterina; Melissari, Erika; Rota, Giuseppina; Mariotti, Veronica; Anastasio, Teresa; Manfrinati, Andrea; Rumiati, Rino; Lotto, Lorella; Sarlo, Michela; Pietrini, Pietro

    2017-01-01

    those provided by males. As females usually give more emotionally-based answers and engage the "emotional brain" more than males, our results, though preliminary and therefore in need of replication in independent samples, suggest that this increase in dopamine availability enhances the cognitive and reduces the emotional components of moral decision-making in females, thus favoring a more rationally-driven decision process.

  7. Disturbance of the gut microbiota in early-life selectively affects visceral pain in adulthood without impacting cognitive or anxiety-related behaviors in male rats.

    PubMed

    O'Mahony, S M; Felice, V D; Nally, K; Savignac, H M; Claesson, M J; Scully, P; Woznicki, J; Hyland, N P; Shanahan, F; Quigley, E M; Marchesi, J R; O'Toole, P W; Dinan, T G; Cryan, J F

    2014-09-26

    Disruption of bacterial colonization during the early postnatal period is increasingly being linked to adverse health outcomes. Indeed, there is a growing appreciation that the gut microbiota plays a role in neurodevelopment. However, there is a paucity of information on the consequences of early-life manipulations of the gut microbiota on behavior. To this end we administered an antibiotic (vancomycin) from postnatal days 4-13 to male rat pups and assessed behavioral and physiological measures across all aspects of the brain-gut axis. In addition, we sought to confirm and expand the effects of early-life antibiotic treatment using a different antibiotic strategy (a cocktail of pimaricin, bacitracin, neomycin; orally) during the same time period in both female and male rat pups. Vancomycin significantly altered the microbiota, which was restored to control levels by 8 weeks of age. Notably, vancomycin-treated animals displayed visceral hypersensitivity in adulthood without any significant effect on anxiety responses as assessed in the elevated plus maze or open field tests. Moreover, cognitive performance in the Morris water maze was not affected by early-life dysbiosis. Immune and stress-related physiological responses were equally unaffected. The early-life antibiotic-induced visceral hypersensitivity was also observed in male rats given the antibiotic cocktail. Both treatments did not alter visceral pain perception in female rats. Changes in visceral pain perception in males were paralleled by distinct decreases in the transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1, the α-2A adrenergic receptor and cholecystokinin B receptor. In conclusion, a temporary disruption of the gut microbiota in early-life results in very specific and long-lasting changes in visceral sensitivity in male rats, a hallmark of stress-related functional disorders of the brain-gut axis such as irritable bowel disorder. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All

  8. Biographic Characteristics and Factors Perceived as Affecting Female and Male Careers in Academic Surgery: The Tenured Gender Battle to Make It to the Top.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Laura; Sippel, Sonia; Entwistle, Andrew; Hell, Anna Kathrin; Koenig, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Given the high attrition rate in the field of academic surgery, we aimed to characterise the professional and personal situations of female and male academic surgeons as well as to gather data on their respective perceptions of career advancement and work satisfaction. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in Germany, inviting all identifiable academically highly qualified female surgeons and their male counterparts in a 1:2 ratio to participate. An anonymous 103-item online questionnaire was designed and the data collected between July and September 2014. The questionnaire was sent to 93 female and 200 male surgeons, of whom 63 women (67.7%) and 70 men (35.0%) replied. The average age was 47.5 and 47.1 years, respectively. Respondents identified 'high degree of expertise', 'ambition', and 'clarity of one's professional aims' as important factors affecting professional career development. Both groups felt 'workload', 'working hours/shifts', and 'gender' to be a hindrance, the latter of significantly greater importance to female surgeons. The mean work satisfaction scores were high in both female (69.5%) and male (75.7%) surgeons. The predictors 'support from superiors' (standardised β coefficient = 0.41) and 'manual aptitude' (β = 0.41) contributed incrementally to the variance in 'high degree of work satisfaction' (90-100%) observed for female surgeons. However, childcare provided by 'kindergarten/crèche/after-school care' had the greatest negative predictive value (β = -1.33). Although there are many parallels, female faculty members experience the culture of academic surgery to some extent differently from their male counterparts, especially when impacted by parenthood and childcare. Faculty development programmes need to develop strategies to improve perceived equality in career opportunities by respecting individuals' requirements as well as offering gender-appropriate career guidance. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Subacute oral exposure to benzo[alpha]pyrene (B[alpha]P) increases aggressiveness and affects consummatory aspects of sexual behaviour in male mice.

    PubMed

    Bouayed, Jaouad; Desor, Frédéric; Soulimani, Rachid

    2009-09-30

    Benzo[alpha]pyrene (B[alpha]P) is a neurotoxic pollutant which is also able to affect some behaviour and cognitive function. Here we report that a subacute oral exposure to B[alpha]P increases aggressiveness and affects copulatory behaviour in male mice. Indeed, after 3 weeks of exposure to B[alpha]P at 0.02 and 0.2mg/kg, we have observed that B[alpha]P 0.02 mg/kg-treated male mice are more aggressive than control mice in resident-intruder test because a significant decrease in the latency time of the first attack and a significant increase in the number of attacks in B[alpha]P 0.02 mg/kg-treated mice were found. On the other hand, we have found that subacute exposure (4 weeks) to B[alpha]P, does not affect the appetitive aspects and sexual motivation in copulatory behaviour because the latency to the first mount between control and B[alpha]P-treated male mice was not significantly different. We have nevertheless, surprisingly found that B[alpha]P (0.02-0.2)mg/kg-treated mice have performed significantly more sexual behavioural acts including mounting, intromission latency and intromission frequency than control mice. Although these last results suggest that B[alpha]P improves the consummatory aspects of sexual behaviour, we cannot conclude that this neurotoxic pollutant has advantage of sexual function because B[alpha]P has been shown to alter the monoaminergic neurotransmitter system and causes endocrine dysregulation via toxic effect.

  10. Metabolic diseases and sex hormone levels affect differently in the development of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases in elderly males.

    PubMed

    Gong, Yanping; Cheng, Xiaoling; Li, Chunlin; Li, Jian; Jin, Mengmeng; Sun, Banruo; Tian, Hui

    2015-03-01

    This single-centre cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the metabolic and gonadal risk factors of vascular diseases in elderly males. After screening, 337 subjects aged 60-90 were found to be qualified. Odds ratios (ORs) in cross-table analyses and exp(B) in logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate the vascular risk of dependent factors. R(2) of logistic regression equation was used to estimate the goodness-of-fit of vascular diseases logistic regression models. Hypertension increased the risk of cardiovascular disease (CAVD) in elderly men approximately 3-fold. The number of metabolic diseases also correlated with incremental risks of CAVD; presence of one abnormality approximately increases the risk approximately 62%. Cerebrovascular disease (CEVD) development was closely associated with both metabolic syndrome and sex hormone levels; their explanation effects of single action and combined action were 13.2%, 12.55% and 28.5%. C-peptide might be the underlying mechanism of the metabolic syndrome's effect on CEVD. C-peptide = 2.43 U/L and FE(2) = 0.66 were the tangent points in receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses. Metabolic diseases and sex hormones play different roles in the development of CAVD and CEVD, the methods for vascular protection in elderly men should be promoted differently according to the their risks of CAVD and CEVD.

  11. Aging and exercise affect the level of protein acetylation and SIRT1 activity in cerebellum of male rats.

    PubMed

    Marton, Orsolya; Koltai, Erika; Nyakas, Csaba; Bakonyi, Tibor; Zenteno-Savin, Tania; Kumagai, Shuzo; Goto, Sataro; Radak, Zsolt

    2010-12-01

    Aging is associated with a gradual decline in cognitive and motor functions, the result of complex biochemical processes including pre- and posttranslational modifications of proteins. Sirtuins are NAD(+) dependent protein deacetylases. These enzymes modulate the aging process by lysine deacetylation, which alters the activity and stability of proteins. Exercise can increase mean life-span and improve quality of life. Data from our laboratories revealed that 4 weeks of treadmill running improves performance in the Morris Maze test for young (4 months, old) but not old (30 months, old) male rats, and the exercise could not prevent the age-associated loss in muscle strength assessed by a gripping test. The positive correlation between protein acetylation and the gripping test suggests that the age-dependent decrease in relative activity of SIRT1 in the cerebellum impairs motor function. Similarly to the acetylation level of total proteins, the acetylation of ά -tubulin is also increased with aging, while the effect of exercise training was not found to be significant. Moreover, the protein content of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase, one of the key enzymes of NAD biosynthesis, decreased in the young exercise group. These data suggest that aging results in decreased specific activity of SIRT1 in cerebellum, which could lead to increased acetylation of protein residues, including ά-tubulin, that interfere with motor function.

  12. Paternal obesity negatively affects male fertility and assisted reproduction outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Jared M; Lane, Michelle; Owens, Julie A; Bakos, Hassan W

    2015-11-01

    This systematic review investigated the effect of paternal obesity on reproductive potential. Databases searched were Pubmed, Ovid, Web of Science, Scopus, Cinahl and Embase. Papers were critically appraised by two reviewers, and data were extracted using a standardized tool. Outcomes were: likelihood of infertility, embryo development, clinical pregnancy, live birth, pregnancy viability, infant development, sperm; concentration, morphology, motility, volume, DNA fragmentation, chromatin condensation, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and seminal plasma factors. Thirty papers were included, with a total participant number of 115,158. Obese men were more likely to experience infertility (OR = 1.66, 95% CI 1.53-1.79), their rate of live birth per cycle of assisted reproduction technology (ART) was reduced (OR = 0.65, 95% CI 0.44-0.97) and they had a 10% absolute risk increase of pregnancy non-viability. Additionally, obese men had an increased percentage of sperm with low MMP, DNA fragmentation, and abnormal morphology. Clinically significant differences were not found for conventional semen parameters. From these findings it can be concluded that male obesity is associated with reduced reproductive potential. Furthermore, it may be informative to incorporate DNA fragmentation analysis and MMP assessment into semen testing, especially for obese men whose results suggest they should have normal fertility.

  13. Adiponectin and resistin: potential metabolic signals affecting hypothalamo-pituitary gonadal axis in females and males of different species.

    PubMed

    Rak, Agnieszka; Mellouk, Namya; Froment, Pascal; Dupont, Joëlle

    2017-06-01

    Adipokines, including adiponectin and resistin, are cytokines produced mainly by the adipose tissue. They play a significant role in metabolic functions that regulate the insulin sensitivity and inflammation. Alterations in adiponectin and resistin plasma levels, or their expression in metabolic and gonadal tissues, are observed in some metabolic pathologies, such as obesity. Several studies have shown that these two hormones and the receptors for adiponectin, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 are present in various reproductive tissues in both sexes of different species. Thus, these adipokines could be metabolic signals that partially explain infertility related to obesity, such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Species and gender differences in plasma levels, tissue or cell distribution and hormonal regulation have been reported for resistin and adiponectin. Furthermore, until now, it has been unclear whether adiponectin and resistin act directly or indirectly on the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis. The objective of this review was to summarise the latest findings and particularly the species and gender differences of adiponectin and resistin on female and male reproduction known to date, based on the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis. © 2017 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  14. Adolescent delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) exposure fails to affect THC-induced place and taste conditioning in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Wakeford, Alison G P; Flax, Shaun M; Pomfrey, Rebecca L; Riley, Anthony L

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent initiation of drug use has been linked to problematic drug taking later in life and may represent an important variable that changes the balance of the rewarding and/or aversive effects of abused drugs which may contribute to abuse vulnerability. The current study examined the effects of adolescent THC exposure on THC-induced place preference (rewarding effects) and taste avoidance (aversive effects) conditioning in adulthood. Forty-six male Sprague-Dawley adolescent rats received eight injections of an intermediate dose of THC (3.2mg/kg) or vehicle. After these injections, animals were allowed to mature and then trained in a combined CTA/CPP procedure in adulthood (PND ~90). Animals were given four trials of conditioning with intervening water-recovery days, a final CPP test and then a one-bottle taste avoidance test. THC induced dose-dependent taste avoidance but did not produce place conditioning. None of these effects was impacted by adolescent THC exposure. Adolescent exposure to THC had no effect on THC taste and place conditioning in adulthood. The failure to see an effect of adolescent exposure was addressed in the context of other research that has assessed exposure of drugs of abuse during adolescence on drug reactivity in adulthood. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Female Rats Demonstrate Improved Locomotor Recovery and Greater Preservation of White and Gray Matter after Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury Compared to Males

    PubMed Central

    Datto, Jeffrey P.; Bastidas, Johana C.; Miller, Nicole L.; Shah, Anna K.; Arheart, Kristopher L.; Marcillo, Alexander E.; Dietrich, W. Dalton

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The possibility of a gender-related difference in recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI) remains a controversial subject. Current empirical animal research lacks sizable test groups to definitively determine whether significant differences exist. Evaluating locomotor recovery variances between sexes following a precise, clinically relevant spinal cord contusion model can provide valuable insight into a possible gender-related advantage in outcome post-SCI. In the current study, we hypothesized that by employing larger sample sizes in a reproducible contusive SCI paradigm, subtle distinctions in locomotor recovery between sexes, if they exist, would be elucidated through a broad range of behavioral tests. During 13 weeks of functional assessment after a thoracic (T8) contusive SCI in rat, significant differences owing to gender existed for the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan score and CatWalk hindlimb swing, support four, and single stance analyses. Significant differences in locomotor performance were noticeable as early as 4 weeks post-SCI. Stereological tissue-volume analysis determined that females, more so than males, also exhibited greater volumes of preserved gray and white matter within the injured cord segment as well as more spared ventral white matter area at the center of the lesion. The stereological tissue analysis differences favoring females directly correlated with the female rats' greater functional improvement observed at endpoint. PMID:25715192

  16. Female Rats Demonstrate Improved Locomotor Recovery and Greater Preservation of White and Gray Matter after Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury Compared to Males.

    PubMed

    Datto, Jeffrey P; Bastidas, Johana C; Miller, Nicole L; Shah, Anna K; Arheart, Kristopher L; Marcillo, Alexander E; Dietrich, W Dalton; Pearse, Damien D

    2015-08-01

    The possibility of a gender-related difference in recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI) remains a controversial subject. Current empirical animal research lacks sizable test groups to definitively determine whether significant differences exist. Evaluating locomotor recovery variances between sexes following a precise, clinically relevant spinal cord contusion model can provide valuable insight into a possible gender-related advantage in outcome post-SCI. In the current study, we hypothesized that by employing larger sample sizes in a reproducible contusive SCI paradigm, subtle distinctions in locomotor recovery between sexes, if they exist, would be elucidated through a broad range of behavioral tests. During 13 weeks of functional assessment after a thoracic (T8) contusive SCI in rat, significant differences owing to gender existed for the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan score and CatWalk hindlimb swing, support four, and single stance analyses. Significant differences in locomotor performance were noticeable as early as 4 weeks post-SCI. Stereological tissue-volume analysis determined that females, more so than males, also exhibited greater volumes of preserved gray and white matter within the injured cord segment as well as more spared ventral white matter area at the center of the lesion. The stereological tissue analysis differences favoring females directly correlated with the female rats' greater functional improvement observed at endpoint.

  17. Adult nutrition, but not inbreeding, affects male primary sexual traits in the leaf-footed cactus bug Narnia femorata (Hemiptera: Coreidae).

    PubMed

    Joseph, Paul N; Sasson, Daniel A; Allen, Pablo E; Somjee, Ummat; Miller, Christine W

    2016-07-01

    Adverse conditions may be the norm rather than the exception in natural populations. Many populations experience poor nutrition on a seasonal basis. Further, brief interludes of inbreeding can be common as population density fluctuates and because of habitat fragmentation. Here, we investigated the effects of poor nutrition and inbreeding on traits that can be very important to reproductive success and fitness in males: testes mass, sperm concentration, and sperm viability. Our study species was Narnia femorata, a species introduced to north-central Florida in the 1950s. This species encounters regular, seasonal changes in diet that can have profound phenotypic effects on morphology and behavior. We generated inbred and outbred individuals through a single generation of full-sibling mating or outcrossing, respectively. All juveniles were provided a natural, high-quality diet of Opuntia humifusa cactus cladode with fruit until they reached adulthood. New adult males were put on a high- or low-quality diet for at least 21 days before measurements were taken. As expected, the low-quality diet led to significantly decreased testes mass in both inbred and outbred males, although there were surprisingly no detectable effects on sperm traits. We did not find evidence that inbreeding affected testes mass, sperm concentration, and sperm viability. Our results highlight the immediate and overwhelming effects of nutrition on testes mass, while suggesting that a single generation of inbreeding might not be detrimental for primary sexual traits in this particular population.

  18. Exposure to a commercial glyphosate formulation (Roundup®) alters normal gill and liver histology and affects male sexual activity of Jenynsia multidentata (Anablepidae, Cyprinodontiformes).

    PubMed

    Hued, Andrea Cecilia; Oberhofer, Sabrina; de los Ángeles Bistoni, María

    2012-01-01

    Roundup is the most popular commercial glyphosate formulation applied in the cultivation of genetically modified glyphosate-resistant crops. The aim of this study was to evaluate the histological lesions of the neotropical native fish, Jenynsia multidentata, in response to acute and subchronic exposure to Roundup and to determine if subchronic exposure to the herbicide causes changes in male sexual activity of individuals exposed to a sublethal concentration (0.5 mg/l) for 7 and 28 days. The estimated 96-h LC50 was 19.02 mg/l for both male and female fish. Gill and liver histological lesions were evaluated through histopathological indices allowing quantification of the histological damages in fish exposed to different concentrations of the herbicide. Roundup induced different histological alterations in a concentration-dependent manner. In subchronic-exposure tests, Roundup also altered normal histology of the studied organs and caused a significant decrease in the number of copulations and mating success in male fish exposed to the herbicide. It is expected that in natural environments contaminated with Roundup, both general health condition and reproductive success of J. multidenatata could be seriously affected.

  19. Busulfan pretreatment for transplantation of rat spermatogonia differentially affects immune and reproductive systems in male recipient mice.

    PubMed

    Hirayanagi, Yoshie; Qu, Ning; Hirai, Shuichi; Naito, Munekazu; Terayama, Hayato; Hayashi, Shogo; Hatayama, Naoyuki; Kuramasu, Miyuki; Ogawa, Yuki; Itoh, Masahiro

    2015-09-01

    Testicular cell transplantation has generally been performed by using immune-deficient recipient mice to investigate the biology of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs), the production of transgenic animals, and restoration of fertility. Recently, we demonstrated that rat spermatogenesis can occur in the seminiferous tubules of immune-competent recipient mice via pretreatment with busulfan (Myleran, 1, 4-butanediol methanesulfonate, 40 mg/kg) after transplantation of rat SSCs. However, considering the immunosuppressive effect of busulfan, there is a possibility that busulfan itself causes immune suppression in immune-competent recipient mice. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of busulfan on the immune system and spermatogenesis in immune-competent recipient mice. The results showed that at 60 days after busulfan treatment, just the same time as the transplantation, the recovery could be seen in the immune system including cell counts and functions of T and B lymphocytes in the spleen, but the spermatogenesis was more compromised. This study demonstrated that after busulfan pretreatment the immune system in immune-competent recipient mice had recovered by the time that rat spermatogenesis could occur in the murine testis. It became clear that xenogenic spermatogenesis can be tolerated in seminiferous tubules in the testes of immune-competent mice.

  20. Gene-by-Diet Interactions Affect Serum 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D Levels in Male BXD Recombinant Inbred Mice

    PubMed Central

    Replogle, Rebecca A.; Reyes-Fernandez, Perla; Wang, Libo; Zhang, Min; Clinkenbeard, Erica L.; White, Kenneth E.

    2016-01-01

    1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25[OH]2D) regulates calcium (Ca), phosphate, and bone metabolism. Serum 1,25(OH)2D levels are reduced by low vitamin D status and high fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) levels and increased by low Ca intake and high PTH levels. Natural genetic variation controls serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) levels, but it is unclear how it controls serum 1,25(OH)2D or the response of serum 1,25(OH)2D levels to dietary Ca restriction (RCR). Male mice from 11 inbred lines and from 51 BXD recombinant inbred lines were fed diets with either 0.5% (basal) or 0.25% Ca from 4 to 12 weeks of age (n = 8 per line per diet). Significant variation among the lines was found in basal serum 1,25(OH)2D and in the RCR as well as basal serum 25(OH)D and FGF23 levels. 1,25(OH)2D was not correlated to 25(OH)D but was negatively correlated to FGF23 (r = −0.5). Narrow sense heritability of 1,25(OH)2D was 0.67 on the 0.5% Ca diet, 0.66 on the 0.25% Ca diet, and 0.59 for the RCR, indicating a strong genetic control of serum 1,25(OH)2D. Genetic mapping revealed many loci controlling 1,25(OH)2D (seven loci) and the RCR (three loci) as well as 25(OH)D (four loci) and FGF23 (two loci); a locus on chromosome 18 controlled both 1,25(OH)2D and FGF23. Candidate genes underlying loci include the following: Ets1 (1,25[OH]2D), Elac1 (FGF23 and 1,25[OH]2D), Tbc1d15 (RCR), Plekha8 and Lyplal1 (25[OH]D), and Trim35 (FGF23). This report is the first to reveal that serum 1,25(OH)2D levels are controlled by multiple genetic factors and that some of these genetic loci interact with the dietary environment. PMID:26587785

  1. Gene-by-Diet Interactions Affect Serum 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D Levels in Male BXD Recombinant Inbred Mice.

    PubMed

    Fleet, James C; Replogle, Rebecca A; Reyes-Fernandez, Perla; Wang, Libo; Zhang, Min; Clinkenbeard, Erica L; White, Kenneth E

    2016-02-01

    1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25[OH]2D) regulates calcium (Ca), phosphate, and bone metabolism. Serum 1,25(OH)2D levels are reduced by low vitamin D status and high fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) levels and increased by low Ca intake and high PTH levels. Natural genetic variation controls serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) levels, but it is unclear how it controls serum 1,25(OH)2D or the response of serum 1,25(OH)2D levels to dietary Ca restriction (RCR). Male mice from 11 inbred lines and from 51 BXD recombinant inbred lines were fed diets with either 0.5% (basal) or 0.25% Ca from 4 to 12 weeks of age (n = 8 per line per diet). Significant variation among the lines was found in basal serum 1,25(OH)2D and in the RCR as well as basal serum 25(OH)D and FGF23 levels. 1,25(OH)2D was not correlated to 25(OH)D but was negatively correlated to FGF23 (r = -0.5). Narrow sense heritability of 1,25(OH)2D was 0.67 on the 0.5% Ca diet, 0.66 on the 0.25% Ca diet, and 0.59 for the RCR, indicating a strong genetic control of serum 1,25(OH)2D. Genetic mapping revealed many loci controlling 1,25(OH)2D (seven loci) and the RCR (three loci) as well as 25(OH)D (four loci) and FGF23 (two loci); a locus on chromosome 18 controlled both 1,25(OH)2D and FGF23. Candidate genes underlying loci include the following: Ets1 (1,25[OH]2D), Elac1 (FGF23 and 1,25[OH]2D), Tbc1d15 (RCR), Plekha8 and Lyplal1 (25[OH]D), and Trim35 (FGF23). This report is the first to reveal that serum 1,25(OH)2D levels are controlled by multiple genetic factors and that some of these genetic loci interact with the dietary environment.

  2. Individual match playing time during the season affects fitness-related parameters of male professional soccer players.

    PubMed

    Silva, João R; Magalhães, José F; Ascensão, António A; Oliveira, Eduardo M; Seabra, André F; Rebelo, António N

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of an entire season on physical fitness parameters (PFPs) in male professional soccer players (N = 18). Performance in 5- and 30-m sprint (T5 and T30), countermovement jump (CMJ), agility (T-test), knee extensor (KE) and knee flexor (KF) isokinetic strength, hamstrings/quadriceps strength ratio (H/Q) and bilateral differences (BDs), and Yo-Yo intermittent endurance test 2 (YYIE2) was evaluated in 4 moments (E1-E4) throughout the season. Individual match playing time was quantified. Significant improvements in CMJ and YYIE2 from E1 to E2 were observed (p < 0.05-0.01). The T30 improved from E2 to E3 (p < 0.01). The CMJ decreased from E2 to E3 and E4, and YYIE2 from E2 to E4 (p < 0.05). There were increments in the H/Q ratio and Agility from E1 and E2 to E3 and E4 (p < 0.05-0.01). Significant correlations were found in all evaluation points between different PFPs and between changes in strength parameters and agility, T5 and T30, CMJ, and YYIE2 (p < 0.05-0.001). Influence of individual match playing time was correlated to changes in T5 (E1 to E3; r = -0.705), KE nondominant leg (KEND; E2 to E3; r = 0.786), and KF (E3 to E4; r = 0.575-0.590). The interrelationship between muscle strength (e.g., KE), sprint (e.g., T5), and jump abilities (CMJ) suggests the importance of muscle strength and power training for soccer. This study suggests that the systematic participation of the players in soccer matches favors the increase and maintenance of soccer players KE and KF muscle strength and sprint ability (T5). Thus, given the unique demands of actual match play, coaches should try to incorporate a competitive friendly match in the weekly training cycle of nonstarter players.

  3. Short communication: A missense mutation in the PROP1 (prophet of Pit 1) gene affects male fertility and milk production traits in the US Holstein population.

    PubMed

    Lan, X Y; Peñagaricano, F; DeJung, L; Weigel, K A; Khatib, H

    2013-02-01

    In previous studies, we reported significant associations of the POU1F1 pathway genes with reproduction and production traits in several dairy cattle populations. Polymorphisms in genes of this pathway were found to be associated with both female and male fertility traits in dairy cattle. The POU1F1 gene is a direct downstream target for the regulation of the prophet of Pit1 (PROP1) gene, also known as PROP paired-like homeobox 1. Interestingly, the position of PROP1 coincides with a quantitative trait locus affecting ovulation rate in cattle. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate whether PROP1 affects fertility and milk production traits in Holstein cattle. Using the DNA pooling sequencing approach, a missense single nucleotide polymorphism that replaces a histidine amino acid with an arginine was detected in exon 3 of PROP1. The arginine allele was found to be associated with a decrease in sire conception rate and an increase in productive life, protein yield, and net merit index in a population of 1,951 Holstein bulls. The transcription factors produced from the histidine and arginine isoforms are known to have different transcription, DNA binding, and regulation activities. As such, we propose that the association of the arginine isoform with decreased bull fertility is likely caused by reduced activity of this allele in male functions. The findings of this study suggest PROP1 polymorphisms as candidates in selection programs for fertility, health, and milk production traits in dairy cattle.

  4. Links between breeding readiness, opioid immunolabeling, and the affective state induced by hearing male courtship song in female European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Riters, Lauren V; Ellis, Jesse M S; Angyal, Caroline S; Borkowski, Vincent J; Cordes, Melissa A; Stevenson, Sharon A

    2013-06-15

    Male courtship vocalizations represent a potent signal designed to attract females; however, not all females find male signals equally attractive. We explored the possibility that the affective state induced by hearing courtship vocalizations depends on the motivational state of a receiver. We used a conditioned place preference test of reward to determine the extent to which the rewarding properties of hearing male courtship song differed in female European starlings categorized as nest box owners (a sign of breeding readiness) or non-owners. Nest box owners developed a preference for a chamber in which they previously heard male courtship song. Non-owners displayed no preference for a chamber in which they previously heard song. Positive correlations were identified between the preference a female developed for the song-paired chamber and female nesting and dominance behaviors observed prior to conditioning (indices of the motivation to breed). Immunolabeling for met-enkephalin (an opioid neuropeptide involved in reward) in the medial preoptic nucleus, ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus, nucleus accumbens, and periaqueductal gray was higher in females with compared to those without nest boxes. Both nest box entries and song-induced place preference also correlated positively with met-enkephalin labeling in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus. These findings indicate that the reward value of vocal signals is linked to individual differences in motivational state; and that differences in enkephalin activity may play a role in modifying an individual's motivational state and/or the reward value of song. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Does blood transfusion affect pituitary gonadal axis and sperm parameters in young males with sickle cell disease?

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Ashraf T.; Yasin, Mohamed; El-Awwa, Ahmed; Abdelrahman, Mohamed O.; De Sanctis, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    Objective: We evaluated the effect of packed red cell transfusion (PCTx) on serum concentrations of gonadotropins luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone (LH and FSH) and testosterone (T) levels and measured sperm parameters in young adults with sickle cell disease (SCD) on top-up transfusion (TTx) and those on exchange transfusion (ETx) regimen. Materials and Methods: Basal serum concentrations of FSH, LH, and T and semen parameters were evaluated before and 7 days after PCTx in 18 young adults with transfusion-dependent SCD, aged 20.7 ± 2.88 years. They had full pubertal development (Tanner's stage 5), and capacity to ejaculate. They were regularly transfused since early childhood. Chelation therapy was started early during the first 2 years of life using desferrioxamine and was replaced by deferasirox for the last 4-5 years. Ten patients were on TTx and eight were on ETx regimen. Results: PCTx significantly increased hemoglobin (Hb) from 8.5 ± 1.17 g/dl to 10.5 ± 0.4 g/dl, T from 12.3 ± 1.24 nmol/L to 14.23 ± 1.22 nmol/L and gonadotropins’ concentrations. Sperm parameters improved significantly after PCTx including: total sperm count from 87.4 ± 24.6 million/ml to 146.2 ± 51.25 million/ml, total progressive sperm motility (TPM) from 40.8 ± 11.1 million/ml to 93.4 ± 38.3 million/ml, rapid progressive sperm motility (RPM) progressive motility from 29.26 ± 8.75 million/ml to 67.4 ± 29 million/ml. After PCTx the total sperm count, TPM and RPM were significantly better in the ETx group versus the TTx group. Before and after PCTx, T concentrations were correlated significantly with sperm total count, volume, TPM and RPM (r = 0.53, 0.55, 0.42, and 0.38, respectively, P < 0.01). Hb concentrations were correlated significantly with sperm count, TPM, RPM, and % of sperms with normal morphology (r = 0.60, 0.69, 0.66, and 0.86, respectively, P < 0.001). Conclusion: Our study suggests that in males with SCD blood transfusion is associated with

  6. A DUF-246 family glycosyltransferase-like gene affects male fertility and the biosynthesis of pectic arabinogalactans

    DOE PAGES

    Stonebloom, Solomon; Ebert, Berit; Xiong, Guangyan; ...

    2016-04-18

    We report pectins are a group of structurally complex plant cell wall polysaccharides whose biosynthesis and function remain poorly understood. The pectic polysaccharide rhamnogalacturonan-I (RG-I) has two types of arabinogalactan side chains, type-I and type-II arabinogalactans. To date few enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of pectin have been described. Here we report the identification of a highly conserved putative glycosyltransferase encoding gene, Pectic ArabinoGalactan synthesis-Related (PAGR), affecting the biosynthesis of RG-I arabinogalactans and critical for pollen tube growth. T-DNA insertions in PAGR were identified in Arabidopsis thaliana and were found to segregate at a 1:1 ratio of heterozygotes to wildmore » type. We were unable to isolate homozygous pagr mutants as pagr mutant alleles were not transmitted via pollen. In vitro pollen germination assays revealed reduced rates of pollen tube formation in pollen from pagr heterozygotes. To characterize a loss-of-function phenotype for PAGR, the Nicotiana benthamiana orthologs, NbPAGR-A and B, were transiently silenced using Virus Induced Gene Silencing. NbPAGR-silenced plants exhibited reduced internode and petiole expansion. Cell wall materials from NbPAGR-silenced plants had reduced galactose content compared to the control. Immunological and linkage analyses support that RG-I has reduced type-I arabinogalactan content and reduced branching of the RG-I backbone in NbPAGR-silenced plants. Arabidopsis lines overexpressing PAGR exhibit pleiotropic developmental phenotypes and the loss of apical dominance as well as an increase in RG-I type-II arabinogalactan content. Together, results support a function for PAGR in the biosynthesis of RG-I arabinogalactans and illustrate the essential roles of these polysaccharides in vegetative and reproductive plant growth.« less

  7. A DUF-246 family glycosyltransferase-like gene affects male fertility and the biosynthesis of pectic arabinogalactans

    SciTech Connect

    Stonebloom, Solomon; Ebert, Berit; Xiong, Guangyan; Pattathil, Sivakumar; Birdseye, Devon; Lao, Jeemeng; Pauly, Markus; Hahn, Michael G.; Heazlewood, Joshua L.; Scheller, Henrik Vibe

    2016-04-18

    We report pectins are a group of structurally complex plant cell wall polysaccharides whose biosynthesis and function remain poorly understood. The pectic polysaccharide rhamnogalacturonan-I (RG-I) has two types of arabinogalactan side chains, type-I and type-II arabinogalactans. To date few enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of pectin have been described. Here we report the identification of a highly conserved putative glycosyltransferase encoding gene, Pectic ArabinoGalactan synthesis-Related (PAGR), affecting the biosynthesis of RG-I arabinogalactans and critical for pollen tube growth. T-DNA insertions in PAGR were identified in Arabidopsis thaliana and were found to segregate at a 1:1 ratio of heterozygotes to wild type. We were unable to isolate homozygous pagr mutants as pagr mutant alleles were not transmitted via pollen. In vitro pollen germination assays revealed reduced rates of pollen tube formation in pollen from pagr heterozygotes. To characterize a loss-of-function phenotype for PAGR, the Nicotiana benthamiana orthologs, NbPAGR-A and B, were transiently silenced using Virus Induced Gene Silencing. NbPAGR-silenced plants exhibited reduced internode and petiole expansion. Cell wall materials from NbPAGR-silenced plants had reduced galactose content compared to the control. Immunological and linkage analyses support that RG-I has reduced type-I arabinogalactan content and reduced branching of the RG-I backbone in NbPAGR-silenced plants. Arabidopsis lines overexpressing PAGR exhibit pleiotropic developmental phenotypes and the loss of apical dominance as well as an increase in RG-I type-II arabinogalactan content. Together, results support a function for PAGR in the biosynthesis of RG-I arabinogalactans and illustrate the essential roles of these polysaccharides in vegetative and reproductive plant growth.

  8. Differential infraslow (<0.1 Hz) cortical activations in the affected and unaffected hemispheres from patients with subacute stroke demonstrated by noninvasive DC-magnetoencephalography.

    PubMed

    Leistner, Stefanie; Sander, Tilmann; Wachs, Michaela; Burghoff, Martin; Curio, Gabriel; Trahms, Lutz; Mackert, Bruno-Marcel

    2009-05-01

    Sustained mass depolarization of neurons, termed cortical spreading depolarization, is one electrophysiological correlate of the ischemic injury of neurons. Cortical spreading depolarizations spread in the gray matter at a rate of approximately 3 mm/min and are associated with large infraslow extracellular potential changes (<0.05 Hz). Moreover, smaller infraslow potential changes accompany functional activation and might help to assess neuronal repair after stroke. The objective of the present pilot study was to investigate whether it is feasible to apply noninvasive near-DC-magnetoencephalography to detect and monitor infraslow field changes in patients with acute stroke. A simple motor condition was used to induce physiological cortical infraslow field changes. Five patients in a subacute state after ischemic stroke performed self-paced simple finger movements (30-second periods of finger movements, always separated by 30-second periods of rest, for a total of 15 minutes). Near-DC-magnetoencephalography signals were recorded over the contralateral primary motor cortex for the affected and unaffected hemisphere, respectively. In all patients, the time courses of the contralateral cortical field amplitudes in the infraslow frequency range followed closely the motor task cycles revealing statistically significant differences between finger movement and rest periods. In 4 of 5 patients, infraslow field amplitudes were significantly stronger over the unaffected hemisphere compared with the affected hemisphere. This study demonstrates that cortical infraslow activity can be recorded noninvasively in patients in the subacute state after ischemic stroke. It is suggested that near-DC-magnetoencephalography is a promising tool to also detect cortical spreading depolarization noninvasively.

  9. Genetically-induced Estrogen Receptor Alpha mRNA (Esr1) Overexpression Does Not Adversely Affect Fertility or Penile Development in Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    Heath, John; Abdelmageed, Yazeed; Braden, Tim D.; Williams, Carol S.; Williams, John W.; Paulose, Tessie; Hernandez-Ochoa, Isabel; Gupta, Rupesh; Flaws, Jodi A.; Goyal, Hari O.

    2011-01-01

    Previously, we reported that estrogen receptor alpha mRNA (Esr1) or protein (ESR1) overexpression resulting from neonatal exposure to estrogens in rats was associated with infertility and mal-developed penis characterized by reduced length and weight and abnormal accumulation of fat cells. The objective of this study was to determine if mutant male mice overexpressing Esr1 are naturally infertile or have reduced fertility and/or develop abnormal penis. The fertility parameters, including fertility and fecundity indices, numbers of days from the day of cohabitation to the day of delivery, and numbers of pups per female, were not altered from controls, as a result of Esr1 overexpression. Likewise, penile morphology, including the length, weight, and diameter and os penis development, was not altered from controls. Conversely, weights of the seminal vesicles and bulbospongiosus and levator ani (BS/LA) muscles were significantly (P < 0.05) lower as compared to controls; however, the weight of the testis, the morphology of the testis and epididymis, and the plasma and testicular testosterone concentration were not different from controls. Hence, the genetically-induced Esr1 overexpression alone, without an exogenous estrogen exposure during the neonatal period, is unable to adversely affect the development of the penis as well as other male reproductive organs, except limited, but significant, reductions in weights of the seminal vesicles and BS/LA muscles. PMID:20930192

  10. Breeding resource distribution affects selection gradients on male phenotypic traits: experimental study on lifetime reproductive success in the bitterling fish (Rhodeus amarus).

    PubMed

    Reichard, Martin; Ondracková, Markéta; Bryjová, Anna; Smith, Carl; Bryja, Josef

    2009-02-01

    The spatial distribution of breeding resources can have pronounced demographic and evolutionary consequences. We used 20 experimental groups of the bitterling (Rhodeus amarus), an annual fish with a promiscuous, resource-based mating system, and extended breeding season to investigate how the spatial distribution (clumped or regular) of bitterling oviposition sites (live freshwater mussels) affected offspring production, variation in reproductive success, and directional selection on phenotypic traits over their entire reproductive lifetime. We did not detect any effect of resource distribution on offspring production or variation in reproductive success among individual fish, although variation between replicates was higher with a clumped distribution. This finding is discussed with regard to the incidence of alternative mating behaviors (sneaking) within the limitations imposed by our experimental design. Breeding resource distribution had a significant effect on selection on male phenotypic traits. Stronger directional selection on traits associated with intrasexual competition for fertilizations, gonad mass (an indicator of sperm competition), and the extent of red, carotenoid-based pigment in the iris (an index of dominance status), was detected with a clumped resource distribution. With a regular resource distribution, a stronger positive selection on male body size was detected. We discuss the implications of our results for natural populations.

  11. On-ground housing in “Mice Drawer System” (MDS) cage affects locomotor behaviour but not anxiety in male mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simone, Luciano; Bartolomucci, Alessandro; Palanza, Paola; Parmigiani, Stefano

    2008-03-01

    In the present study adult male mice were housed for 21 days in a housing modules of the Mice Drawer System (MDS). MDS is the facility that will support the research on board the International Space Station (ISS). Our investigation focused on: circadian rhythmicity of wide behavioural categories such as locomotor activity, food intake/drinking and resting; emotionality in the elevated plus maze (EPM); body weight. Housing in the MDS determined a strong up-regulation of activity and feeding behaviour and a concomitant decrease in inactivity. Importantly, housing in the MDS disrupted circadian rhythmicity in mice and also determined a decrease in body weight. Finally, when mice were tested in the EPM a clear hyperactivity (i.e. increased total transitions) was found, while no evidence for altered anxiety was detected. In conclusion, housing adult male mice in the MDS housing modules may affect their behaviour, circadian rhythmicity while having no effect on anxiety. It is suggested that to allow adaptation to the peculiar housing allowed by MDS a longer housing duration is needed.

  12. Low protein provision during the first year of life, but not during foetal life, affects metabolic traits, organ mass development and growth in male mink (Neovison vison).

    PubMed

    Vesterdorf, K; Blache, D; Harrison, A; Matthiesen, C F; Tauson, A-H

    2014-04-01

    Low protein provision in utero and post-partum may induce metabolic disorders in adulthood. Studies in mink have mainly focused on short-term consequences of low protein provision in utero whereas the long-term responses to low protein (LP) provision in metabolically programmed mink are unknown. We investigated whether low protein provision in utero affects the long-term response to adequate (AP) or LP provision after weaning in male mink. Eighty-six male mink were exposed to low (19% of ME from CP; crude protein) or adequate (31% of ME from CP) protein provision in utero, and to LP (~20% of ME from CP) or AP (30-42% of ME from CP) provision post-weaning. Being metabolically programmed by low protein provision in utero did not affect the response to post-weaning diets. Dietary protein content in the LP feed after weaning was below requirements; evidenced by lower nitrogen retention (p < 0.001) preventing LP mink from attaining their growth potential (p < 0.02). LP mink had a lower liver, pancreas and kidney weight (p < 0.05) as well as lower plasma IGF-1 concentrations at 8 and 25 (p < 0.05) weeks, and a higher incidence of hepatic lipidosis at 25 weeks (p < 0.05). Furthermore, LP mink had a higher body fat (p < 0.05) and lower body CP content (p < 0.05) at 50 weeks of age. It is concluded that some effects of low protein provision in utero can be alleviated by an adequate nutrient supply post-partum. However, long-term exposure to low protein provision in mink reduces their growth potential and induces transient hepatic lipidosis and modified body composition.

  13. Supplementation of Eurycoma longifolia Jack Extract for 6 Weeks Does Not Affect Urinary Testosterone: Epitestosterone Ratio, Liver and Renal Functions in Male Recreational Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chee Keong; Mohamad, Wan Mohd Zahiruddin Wan; Ooi, Foong Kiew; Ismail, Shaiful Bahari; Abdullah, Mohamad Rusli; George, Annie

    2014-01-01

    Background: Eurycoma longifolia Jack (ElJ) has been shown to elevate serum testosterone and increased muscle strength in humans. This study investigated the effects of Physta® a standardized water extract of ElJ (400 mg/day for 6 weeks) on testosterone: epitestosterone (T:E) ratio, liver and renal functions in male recreational athletes. Methods: A total of 13 healthy male recreational athletes were recruited in this double blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study. The participants were required to consume either 400 mg of ElJ or placebo daily for 6 weeks in the first supplementation regimen. Following a 3 week wash-out period, the participants were requested to consume the other supplement for another 6 weeks. Mid-stream urine samples and blood samples were collected prior to and after 6 weeks of supplementation with either ElJ or placebo. The urine samples were subsequently analyzed for T:E ratio while the blood samples were analyzed for liver and renal functions. Results: T:E ratio was not significantly different following 6 weeks supplementation of either ElJ or placebo compared with their respective baseline values. Similarly, there were no significant changes in both the liver and renal functions tests following the supplementation of ElJ. Conclusions: Supplementation of ElJ i.e. Physta® at a dosage of 400 mg/day for 6 weeks did not affect the urinary T:E ratio and hence will not breach any doping policies of the International Olympic Committee for administration of exogenous testosterone or its precursor. In addition, the supplementation of ElJ at this dosage and duration was safe as it did adversely affect the liver and renal functions. PMID:25013692

  14. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha during neonatal brain development affects anxiety- and depression-related behaviors in adult male and female mice.

    PubMed

    Babri, Shirin; Doosti, Mohammad-Hossein; Salari, Ali-Akbar

    2014-03-15

    A nascent literature suggests that neonatal infection is a risk factor for the development of brain, behavior and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis which can affect anxiety- and depression-related behaviors in later life. It has been documented that neonatal infection raises the concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in neonate rodents and such infections may result in neonatal brain injury, at least in part, through pro-inflammatory cytokines. In addition, previous studies have shown that TNF-α is involved in cellular differentiation, neurogenesis and programmed cell death during the development of the central nervous system. We investigated for the first time whether neonatal exposure to TNF-α can affect body weight, stress-induced corticosterone (COR), anxiety- and depression-related behaviors in adult mice. In the present study, neonatal mice were treated to recombinant mouse TNF-α (0.2, 0.4, 0.7 and 1 μg/kg) or saline on postnatal days 3 and 5, then adult male and female mice were exposed to different behavioral tests. The results indicated that neonatal TNF-α treatment reduced body weight in neonatal period in both sexes. In addition, this study presents findings indicating that high doses of TNF- increase stress-induced COR levels, anxiety- and depression-related behaviors in adult males, but increase levels of anxiety without significantly influencing depression in adult female mice [corrected]. Our findings suggest that TNF-α exposure during neonatal period can alter brain and behavior development in a dose and sex-dependent manner in mice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Breast Cancer Detection Demonstration Project data can determine whether the prognosis of breast cancer is affected by the time of surgery during the menstrual cycle.

    PubMed

    Spratt, J S; Zirnheld, J; Yancey, J M

    1993-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of using Breast Cancer Detection Demonstration Project (BCDDP) data to ascertain whether the prognosis of breast cancer in premenopausal women is affected when surgery is performed relative to the different phases of the menstrual cycle. In the Louisville BCDDP only 40 cases were available for study, but even with this small number, the data indicate that survivorship was superior when the surgery was performed between days 7-20 of the menstrual cycle (P < 0.06). One thousand eighty-seven premenopausal women underwent surgery for breast cancer during the first 5 years of the national BCDDP, beginning in 1972. This large number of cases, plus the long period of follow-up should provide sufficient statistical power for us to evaluate if there is any relationship between the day of the menstrual cycle, the day surgery was performed, and prognosis. This feasibility study indicates that these women should be followed up and the appropriate statistical studies should be done.

  16. Neonatal treatment with lipopolysaccharide differentially affects adult anxiety responses in the light-dark test and taste neophobia test in male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Tenk, Christine M; Kavaliers, Martin; Ossenkopp, Klaus-Peter

    2013-05-01

    Neonatal administration of the bacterial cell wall component, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has been shown to alter a variety of behavioural and physiological processes in the adult rat, including altering adult anxiety-like behaviour. Research conducted to date, however, has produced conflicting findings with some results demonstrating increases in adult anxiety-like behaviour while others report decreases or no changes in anxiety-like behaviour. Thus, the current study conducted additional evaluation of the effects of neonatal LPS exposure on adult anxiety-like behaviours by comparing the behavioural outcomes in the more traditional light-dark test, together with the less common hyponeophagia to sucrose solution paradigm. Male and female Long-Evans rats were treated systemically with either LPS (50μg/kg) or saline (0.9%) on postnatal days 3 and 5. Animals were then tested in the light-dark apparatus on postnatal day 90 for 30min. Next, following 5 days of habituation to distilled water delivery in Lickometer drinking boxes, animal were tested for neophagia to a 10% sucrose solution (0.3M) for 30min daily on postnatal days 96 and 97. In the light-dark test, neonatal LPS treatment decreased adult anxiety-like behaviour in females, but not males. In contrast, neonatal exposure to LPS did not influence adult anxiety-like behaviour as measured by hyponeophagia, but altered the licking patterns of drinking displayed towards a novel, palatable sucrose solution in adult males and females, in a manner that may reflect a decrease in situational anxiety. The current study supports the idea that neonatal LPS treatment results in highly specific alterations of adult anxiety-like behaviour, the nature of which seems to depend not only on the measure of anxiety behaviour used, but also possibly, on the degree of anxiety experienced during the behavioural test.

  17. Short-term testosterone manipulations do not affect cognition or motor function but differentially modulate emotions in young and older male rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Brian; Maguire-Herring, Vanessa; Rose, Christian M; Gore, Heather E; Ferrigno, Stephen; Novak, Melinda A; Lacreuse, Agnès

    2014-11-01

    Human aging is characterized by declines in cognition and fine motor function as well as improved emotional regulation. In men, declining levels of testosterone (T) with age have been implicated in the development of these age-related changes. However, studies examining the effects of T replacement on cognition, emotion and fine motor function in older men have not provided consistent results. Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) are excellent models for human cognitive aging and may provide novel insights on this issue. We tested 10 aged intact male rhesus monkeys (mean age=19, range 15-25) on a battery of cognitive, motor and emotional tasks at baseline and under low or high T experimental conditions. Their performance was compared to that of 6 young males previously tested in the same paradigm (Lacreuse et al., 2009; Lacreuse et al., 2010). Following a 4-week baseline testing period, monkeys were treated with a gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist (Depot Lupron, 200 μg/kg) to suppress endogenous T and were tested on the task battery under a 4-week high T condition (injection of Lupron+T enanthate, 20 mg/kg, n=8) or 4-week low T condition (injection of Lupron+oil vehicle, n=8) before crossing over to the opposite treatment. The cognitive tasks consisted of the Delayed Non-Matching-to-Sample (DNMS), the Delayed Response (DR), and the Delayed Recognition Span Test (spatial-DRST). The emotional tasks included an object Approach-Avoidance task and a task in which monkeys were played videos of unfamiliar conspecifics in different emotional context (Social Playbacks). The fine motor task was the Lifesaver task that required monkeys to remove a Lifesaver candy from rods of different complexity. T manipulations did not significantly affect visual recognition memory, working memory, reference memory or fine motor function at any age. In the Approach-Avoidance task, older monkeys, but not younger monkeys, spent more time in proximity of novel objects in the high T condition

  18. Onset and distribution of tissue prp accumulation in scrapie-affected suffolk sheep as demonstrated by sequential necropsies and tonsillar biopsies.

    PubMed

    Jeffrey, M; Martin, S; Thomson, J R; Dingwall, W S; Begara-McGorum, I; González, L

    2001-07-01

    Tonsillar biopsies (single or multiple) or necropsies, or both, were performed on sheep taken from a Suffolk flock in which frequent cases of scrapie had occurred over a period of several years. Clinically affected sheep of the susceptible PrP(AQ/AQ)genotype had widespread disease-specific PrP accumulation in the central nervous system (CNS), lymphoreticular system and peripheral ganglia. In nine healthy PrP(AQ/AQ)Suffolk sheep between 4 and 7 years of age, PrP could not be demonstrated post mortem in any of the lymphoreticular tissues, or in the peripheral ganglia or CNS. Tonsillar biopsies taken from animals of the resistant PrP(AR/AR)and PrP(AR/AQ)genotypes at age 3, 8, 14, 20 or 26 months did not show PrP accumulation. Disease- specific PrP accumulation in tonsillar biopsies from PrP(AQ/AQ)sheep was not seen in 20 animals aged 3 months, but was found in two of 10 animals at age 8 months and in eight of 10 animals at age 20 months. The numbers of PrP-positive tonsillar biopsies obtained from sheep previously biopsied on more than one occasion was greater than the number of positive tonsils obtained from other susceptible sheep of comparable ages. The earliest disease-specific PrP accumulation seen was in tingible body macrophages within germinal centres and only later was it detected in cells resembling follicular dendritic cells. Fourteen PrP(AQ/AQ)sheep examined post mortem at up to 17 months of age and which had not previously been biopsied or were biopsied only once had no CNS or tonsillar PrP accumulations. Two of these sheep subjected to necropsy at 14 months had PrP accumulation in lymphoreticular tissue, where it was confined to the mesenteric lymph nodes. In susceptible sheep, only low levels of immunohistochemically detectable PrP were present in a minority of follicles from tonsillar biopsies of young lambs, but by 14 months of age widespread PrP accumulation, affecting many or even all follicles, was present. Although clinical cases had widespread Pr

  19. Social stress in pregnant squirrel monkeys (Saimiri boliviensis peruviensis) differentially affects placental transfer of maternal antibody to male and female infants.

    PubMed

    Coe, C L; Crispen, H R

    2000-11-01

    The capacity of prenatal stress to disrupt the placental transfer of maternal antibody was evaluated in neonatal squirrel monkeys (Saimiri boliviensis peruviensis) gestated under different pregnancy conditions. Normal squirrel monkey offspring (n = 63) were compared with infants generated from pregnancies that involved either a single or 3 periods of disturbance (ns = 21 and 29, respectively). At parturition, levels of antibody (IgG) were determined in mothers and neonates. Only the chronic disturbance condition significantly altered antibody levels in the mothers, resulting in lower IgG. Antibody transfer to the fetus was also affected only by chronic disturbance. In this case the effect was bidirectional, influenced by the sex of the infant. Males were born with lower levels, whereas female infants actually had higher-than-normal IgG, despite lower titers in their mothers. Because virtually all IgG is derived from the prenatal transfer of maternal antibody, it indicates that the sex of the fetus differentially affected this placental process. The IgG receptor may have been up-regulated selectively on the placentas of female fetuses, compensating for reduced antibody in the disturbed mothers.

  20. Short-term exposure to low concentrations of the synthetic androgen methyltestosterone affects vitellogenin and steroid levels in adult male zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Andersen, Lene; Goto-Kazeto, Rie; Trant, John M; Nash, Jon P; Korsgaard, Bodil; Bjerregaard, Poul

    2006-03-10

    Short-term effects of methyltestosterone (MT) on the endocrine system of adult male zebrafish (Danio rerio) were examined. Males were exposed to 0, 4.5, 6.6, 8.5, 19.8, 35.9, 62.3 ng MT/l and ethinylestradiol (EE2) (26.4 ng/l) for 7 days. Several physiological endpoints that may be affected by endocrine disrupters were analysed, specifically vitellogenin (VTG) concentration, estradiol (E2), testosterone (T), and 11-ketotestosterone (KT) content, brain aromatase activity and gene expression of CYP19A1 and CYP19A2 in the testis. Exposure to the lowest MT concentration (4.5 ng MT/l), and the EE2 increased the concentration of VTG significantly compared to solvent control group. Exposure to higher concentrations of MT did not increase VTG levels. Endogenous KT and T levels decreased significantly in a concentration-dependent manner in response to the MT exposure and the lowest effective concentrations were 6.4 and 8.5 ng MT/l, respectively. The levels of KT and T were also significantly suppressed by EE2 when compared to the solvent control group. Significant decreases in endogenous E2 levels were found in some MT groups but it was not possible to distinguish a simple concentration-response relationship. No effects of MT or EE2 on the brain aromatase activity or on testicular gene expression of CYP19A1 and CYP19A2 were detected. The results show that androgens such as MT can act as endocrine disrupters even at very low concentrations.

  1. 40 CFR 60.5410 - How do I demonstrate initial compliance with the standards for my gas well affected facility, my...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... affected facility, and my equipment leaks and sweetening unit affected facilities at onshore natural gas... Performance for Crude Oil and Natural Gas Production, Transmission and Distribution § 60.5410 How do I... at onshore natural gas processing plants? You must determine initial compliance with the...

  2. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Procedures for two demonstrations are presented. The first is a demonstration of chemiluminescence. The second is a demonstration using a secondary battery constructed from common household articles. (JN)

  3. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1978-01-01

    Presents the following chemistry lecture demonstrations and experiments: (1) a versatile kinetic demonstration; (2) the Bakelite Demonstration; (3) applying Beer's law; and (4) entropy calculations. (HM)

  4. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Procedures for two demonstrations are presented. The first is a demonstration of chemiluminescence. The second is a demonstration using a secondary battery constructed from common household articles. (JN)

  5. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1979-01-01

    Presents two demonstrations which are intended for chemistry college students. These demonstrations are: (1) enhancement of concentration quenching by micelles; and (2) the thermite lecture demonstration. (HM)

  6. Male contraception.

    PubMed

    Wang, Christina; Swerdloff, Ronald S

    2002-04-01

    Currently approved male-directed contraceptive methods include condoms and vas occlusion. Vas occlusion is very effective but is intended to be non-reversible. Condoms have a relatively high failure rate, at least partially due to compliance problems and are not accepted by many couples. The only other male-oriented methods in clinical trials utilize the administration of testosterone alone or its combination with another gonadotropin-suppressing agent such as a progestin or a gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist. Studies published in the 1990s demonstrated that a testosterone-containing hormonal contraceptive method suppressed spermatogenesis to azoospermia in most men and severe oligozoospermia in the remaining. The contraceptive efficacy after treatment with testosterone alone was comparable to that of female hormonal methods. Having proven that reversible male contraception is a reality, present trials are attempting to identify the best androgen delivery system and the most effective androgen plus progestin preparation. It is likely that the first marketed male hormonal contraceptive method will be a long-acting (injectable or implant) combination of an androgen plus a progestin. Research is continuing to identify other target areas for male contraceptive development, including agents with post-testicular and epididymal sites of action.

  7. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Details three demonstrations for use in chemistry classrooms. Includes: "A Demonstration of Corrosion by Differential Aeration"; "A Simple Demonstration of the Activation Energy Concept"; and "A Boiling Demonstration at Room Temperature." Each description includes equipment, materials, and methods. (CW)

  8. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Details three demonstrations for use in chemistry classrooms. Includes: "A Demonstration of Corrosion by Differential Aeration"; "A Simple Demonstration of the Activation Energy Concept"; and "A Boiling Demonstration at Room Temperature." Each description includes equipment, materials, and methods. (CW)

  9. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Describes two chemistry demonstrations including a demonstration of chemical inhibition and "The Rayleigh Fountain" which demonstrates the polarity of the water molecule. Provides instructions and explanations for each demonstration. (CW)

  10. Early hyperandrogenism affects the development of hippocampal function: preliminary evidence from a functional magnetic resonance imaging study of boys with familial male precocious puberty.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Sven C; Mandell, Darcy; Leschek, Ellen W; Pine, Daniel S; Merke, Deborah P; Ernst, Monique

    2009-02-01

    The way in which sex hormones influence cognitive and affective brain development is poorly understood. Despite increasing knowledge in the area of pediatric mood disorders, little is known about the influence of sex hormones on the regulation of emotion. Animal studies and preliminary human studies suggest a strong impact of testosterone on limbic structures such as the hippocampus and amygdala. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine emotional processing in familial male-precocious puberty (FMPP), an extremely rare gonadotropin-independent form of precocious puberty characterized by early excess testosterone secretion. We compared this group (n = 7, mean age = 13 +/- 3.3 years) to healthy age and sex-matched controls (n = 14, mean age = 13 +/- 2.3 years). Participants were presented with emotional and neutral face stimuli and were required either to judge the hostility of the presented face, their subjective level of anxiety, or the width of the nose of the presented faces (nonemotional condition). In a fourth, passive viewing condition, no responses were required. Boys with FMPP responded faster to fearful faces during perception of threat compared to unaffected controls. Concurrently, fMRI data revealed significant differences in hippocampus activation in response to fearful faces relative to baseline whereas controls showed no differences. In contrast, no significant activation of the amygdala was found. These data are consistent with previous studies of the effects of sex hormones on brain function and support the role of testosterone on emotional development.

  11. Honey reduces blood alcohol concentration but not affects the level of serum MDA and GSH-Px activity in intoxicated male mice models.

    PubMed

    Shi, Peiying; Chen, Bing; Chen, Conghai; Xu, Jingyang; Shen, Zhenhuang; Miao, Xiaoqing; Yao, Hong

    2015-07-14

    For a long time, honey was purportedly helpful to prevent drunkenness and relieve hangover symptoms. However, few of the assertions have experienced scientific assessment. The present study examined the effects of honey on intoxicated male mice. Low or high doses of lychee flower honey (2.19 or 4.39 g/kg body weight, respectively) were single orally administrated 30 min before the ethanol intoxication of mice, followed by recording the locomotor activity by autonomic activity instrument and observing the climbing ability after alcohol. On the other hand, 2.19 g/kg honey was single orally administrated 5 min after the ethanol intoxication of mice, followed by determining the ethanol concentration in mice blood. In addition, subacute alcoholism mice models were developed and after the treatment of 2.19 g/kg honey s.i.d for successive three days, the level of serum malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity were detected in the models. Both of the two doses of honey increased the autonomic activity of alcoholized mice. Furthermore, the treatment of 2.19 g/kg honey could decrease significantly the blood ethanol concentration in intoxicated mice. The anti-intoxication activity of honey could be due to the effect of the fructose contained in the honey. Meanwhile, honey could not affect the serum MDA level and GSH-Px activity in alcoholism mice models. Honey indeed possesses anti-intoxication activity.

  12. Family affection as a protective factor against the negative effects of perceived Asian values gap on the parent-child relationship for Asian American male and female college students.

    PubMed

    Park, Yong S; Vo, Leyna P; Tsong, Yuying

    2009-01-01

    The study examined whether family affection (i.e., affective responsiveness, affectionate communication, and affective orientation) protected against the negative effects of perceived parent-child Asian values gap on the quality of their parent relationships for 259 female and 77 male Asian American college students. Asian values gap was higher for women than men, and inversely related to a perceived healthy parent-child relationship for both genders. Participants rated the relationship with their mothers as more positive and affectionate than with their fathers. Both parents were reported to communicate more supportive affection than verbal and nonverbal affection. Affective responsiveness was identified as a protective factor in the father-son relationship whereas verbal affection protected the mother-daughter relationship. The study also revealed that daughters' affective orientation had beneficial effects on the father-daughter relationship at lower levels of Asian values gap. Clinical implications and directions for future research are discussed.

  13. Peripubertal exposure to low doses of tributyltin chloride affects the homeostasis of serum T, E2, LH, and body weight of male mice.

    PubMed

    Si, Jiliang; Wu, Xuesen; Wan, Chengen; Zeng, Tao; Zhang, Miao; Xie, Keqin; Li, Jie

    2011-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that tributyltin could act as an endocrine disruptor in mammals. However, the data on the low-dose effect of tributyltin in animals are still lacking. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the endocrine disruption induced by low levels of tributyltin chloride (TBTCl) in male KM mice. The animals were treated with 0.05 or 0.5 mg TBTCl/kg body weight/3 days from postnatal days (PNDs) 24 to 45, and killed on PNDs 49 and 84, respectively. Mice treated with 0.5 mg TBTCl/kg exhibited decreased serum and intratesticular testosterone (T) levels on PND 49 and then followed by an obvious recovery on PND 84. Furthermore, mice treated with 0.05 mg TBTCl/kg showed reduced serum 17β-estradiol (E2) levels on PND 49. However, treatments with TBTCl resulted in a dose-dependent increase in serum E2 concentration of the mice on PND 84. Administration of TBTCl also decreased levels of serum luteinizing hormone and intratesticular E2 on PND 84. In addition, mice exposed to 0.05 mg/kg TBTCl exhibited an increase in body weight in the late stage of the experiment. These results indicate that treatment with low doses of TBTCl could disturb hormone homeostasis and body weight gain in rodents, and exposure to different levels of TBTCl might have different effects on changing some physiologic parameters.

  14. Melamine and/or formaldehyde exposures affect steroidogenesis via alteration of StAR protein and testosterone synthetic enzyme expression in male mice.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Samah R; Awad, Ashraf; Ali, Sozan A

    2017-03-01

    The reproductive effects of melamine and formaldehyde, either alone or in combination, on mature male Swiss mice were investigated. The animals were orally administered melamine (50mg/kg/day), formaldehyde (25mg/kg/day), a mixture of melamine and formaldehyde, or a vehicle control for 65 consecutive days. As a result, the deterioration of sperm characteristics and inhibition of testicular enzyme activity were observed in the melamine- and formaldehyde-exposed groups. In addition, testosterone and luteinizing hormone levels were significantly reduced in the melamine but not in the formaldehyde-exposed group, which correlated with down-regulation of transcription levels of steroidogenic-related genes. Histopathologically, both compounds caused lesions in the testes. However, the co-exposure reduced the induced alterations in spermatogenesis, steroidogenesis, and testicular architecture that were obviously observed in the melamine-exposed group. Consequently, we demonstrated that melamine exhibited more pronounced reproductive impact in comparison with formaldehyde. In addition, formaldehyde was able to substantially temper the melamine -induced reproductive toxic effect.

  15. Male and female mania.

    PubMed

    Kubacki, A

    1986-02-01

    A total of 74 manic or hypomanic episodes were scrutinized in 31 probands (18 women and 13 men), followed over the years by the author on an outpatient basis. These turned out to herald bipolar affective illness in some 70 percent of males and almost 40% of females. Unipolar mania occurred twice as often in men, as it did in women (38.4% vs. 22.2%). Men tended to be younger (only 30% aged 45 or older), than women (almost a half in the menopausal age bracket). One third of all female probands (and over 46% of those under age 45) manifested their manic episodes in connection with childbirth (gestational mania). As a paradoxical, acute grief reaction ("funeral mania"), the syndrome under scrutiny, occurred in about 1/7 of the men, and more than 1/4 of the women. Significant medico-surgical problems were found to accompany or precede female mania twice as often, compared to male cases (61.1% vs. 30.7%); and clinical confusion or other indices of "organicity" were present in 2/3 of the women, and less than a half (46.1%) of the men. Over half the male probands demonstrated either an inverted sexual attraction, or hypogonadism; and four out of 13 males were aged 45 or older. The above findings are tentatively related to gender differential in cerebral hemispheric specialization.

  16. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Provides procedures for demonstrations: (1) the ferrioxalate actinometer, which demonstrates a photochemical reaction; and (2) the silver mirror, which demonstrates the reduction of a metal salt to the metal and/or the reducing power of sugars. (CS)

  17. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Presented are three demonstrations for chemical education. The activities include: (1) demonstration of vapor pressure; (2) a multicolored luminol-based chemiluminescence demonstration; and (3) a Charles's Law/Vapor pressure apparatus. (RH)

  18. Reflectance Demonstration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowalski, Frank

    1993-01-01

    Presents a demonstration in which a mirror "disappears" upon rotation. The author has used the demonstration with students from fourth grade up through college. Suggestions are given for making the demonstration into a permanent hallway display. (MVL)

  19. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Provides procedures for demonstrations: (1) the ferrioxalate actinometer, which demonstrates a photochemical reaction; and (2) the silver mirror, which demonstrates the reduction of a metal salt to the metal and/or the reducing power of sugars. (CS)

  20. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Presented are three demonstrations for chemical education. The activities include: (1) demonstration of vapor pressure; (2) a multicolored luminol-based chemiluminescence demonstration; and (3) a Charles's Law/Vapor pressure apparatus. (RH)

  1. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1982-01-01

    Three chemistry demonstrations are described: (1) partition coefficients; (2) Rutherford simulation experiment; and (3) demonstration of the powerful oxidizing property of dimanganeseheptoxide. Background information, materials needed, and procedures are provided for each demonstration. (JN)

  2. Reflectance Demonstration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowalski, Frank

    1993-01-01

    Presents a demonstration in which a mirror "disappears" upon rotation. The author has used the demonstration with students from fourth grade up through college. Suggestions are given for making the demonstration into a permanent hallway display. (MVL)

  3. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Background information (including chemical reactions) and procedures used are provided for (1) three buffer demonstrations and (2) a demonstration of phase transfer catalysis and carbanion formation. (JN)

  4. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    This article details two demonstrations involving color changes. Included are "Manganese Color Reactions" and "Flame Colors Demonstration." Include a list of materials needed, procedures, cautions, and results. (CW)

  5. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    This article details two demonstrations involving color changes. Included are "Manganese Color Reactions" and "Flame Colors Demonstration." Include a list of materials needed, procedures, cautions, and results. (CW)

  6. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Background information (including chemical reactions) and procedures used are provided for (1) three buffer demonstrations and (2) a demonstration of phase transfer catalysis and carbanion formation. (JN)

  7. Long-term pyrene exposure of grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio, affects molting and reproduction of exposed males and offspring of exposed females.

    PubMed Central

    Oberdörster, E; Brouwer, M; Hoexum-Brouwer, T; Manning, S; McLachlan, J A

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of long-term pyrene exposure on molting and reproduction in the model estuarine invertebrate, the grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio). Grass shrimp were exposed to measured concentrations of 5.1, 15.0, and 63. 4 ppb (microg/L) pyrene for 6 weeks, during which time we determined molting and survivorship. At the end of the exposure, we immediately sacrificed some of the shrimp for biomarker (CYP1A and vitellin) analyses. The remaining shrimp were used to analyze fecundity and embryo survivorship during an additional 6 weeks after termination of pyrene exposure. Male shrimp at the highest pyrene dose (63 ppb) experienced a significant delay in molting and in time until reproduction, and showed elevated ethoxycoumarin o-deethylase (ECOD) activity immediately after the 6-week exposure period. In contrast, 63 ppb pyrene did not affect these parameters in female shrimp. Females produced the same number of eggs per body weight, with high egg viability (98-100%) at all exposure levels, but with decreased survival for the offspring of the 63-ppb pyrene-exposed females. In addition, vitellin levels were elevated only in females at 63 ppb pyrene after the 6-week exposure. We hypothesize that the elevated vitellin binds pyrene and keeps it biologically unavailable to adult females, resulting in maternal transfer of pyrene to the embryos. This would account for the lack of effect of pyrene exposure on ECOD activity, molting, and reproduction in the adult females, and for reduced survival of their offspring. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:10903618

  8. Moderate increase of mean daily temperature adversely affects fruit set of Lycopersicon esculentum by disrupting specific physiological processes in male reproductive development.

    PubMed

    Sato, S; Kamiyama, M; Iwata, T; Makita, N; Furukawa, H; Ikeda, H

    2006-05-01

    Global warming is gaining significance as a threat to natural and managed ecosystems since temperature is one of the major environmental factors affecting plant productivity. Hence, the effects of moderate temperature increase on the growth and development of the tomato plant (Lycopersicon esculentum) were investigated. Plants were grown at 32/26 degrees C as a moderately elevated temperature stress (METS) treatment or at 28/22 degrees C (day/night temperatures) as a control with natural light conditions. Vegetative growth and reproductive development as well as sugar content and metabolism, proline content and translocation in the androecium were investigated. METS did not cause a significant change in biomass, the number of flowers, or the number of pollen grains produced, but there was a significant decrease in the number of fruit set, pollen viability and the number of pollen grains released. Glucose and fructose contents in the androecium (i.e. all stamens from one flower) were generally higher in the control than METS, but sucrose was higher in METS. Coincidently, the mRNA transcript abundance of acid invertase in the androecium was decreased by METS. Proline contents in the androecium were almost the same in the control and METS, while the mRNA transcript level of proline transporter 1, which expresses specifically at the surface of microspores, was significantly decreased by METS. The research indicated that failure of tomato fruit set under a moderately increased temperature above optimal is due to the disruption of sugar metabolism and proline translocation during the narrow window of male reproductive development.

  9. Early Hyperandrogenism Affects the Development of Hippocampal Function: Preliminary Evidence from a Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study of Boys with Familial Male Precocious Puberty

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Sven C.; Mandell, Darcy; Leschek, Ellen W.; Pine, Daniel S.; Merke, Deborah P.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The way in which sex hormones influence cognitive and affective brain development is poorly understood. Despite increasing knowledge in the area of pediatric mood disorders, little is known about the influence of sex hormones on the regulation of emotion. Animal studies and preliminary human studies suggest a strong impact of testosterone on limbic structures such as the hippocampus and amygdala. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine emotional processing in familial male-precocious puberty (FMPP), an extremely rare gonadotropin-independent form of precocious puberty characterized by early excess testosterone secretion. We compared this group (n = 7, mean age = 13 ± 3.3 years) to healthy age and sex-matched controls (n = 14, mean age = 13 ± 2.3 years). Participants were presented with emotional and neutral face stimuli and were required either to judge the hostility of the presented face, their subjective level of anxiety, or the width of the nose of the presented faces (nonemotional condition). In a fourth, passive viewing condition, no responses were required. Boys with FMPP responded faster to fearful faces during perception of threat compared to unaffected controls. Concurrently, fMRI data revealed significant differences in hippocampus activation in response to fearful faces relative to baseline whereas controls showed no differences. In contrast, no significant activation of the amygdala was found. These data are consistent with previous studies of the effects of sex hormones on brain function and support the role of testosterone on emotional development. PMID:19232022

  10. Orthopedic, ophthalmic, and psychiatric diseases primarily affect activity limitation for Japanese males and females: Based on the Comprehensive Survey of Living Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Myojin, Tomoya; Ojima, Toshiyuki; Kikuchi, Keiko; Okada, Eisaku; Shibata, Yosuke; Nakamura, Mieko; Hashimoto, Shuji

    2016-01-01

    Background Healthy life expectancy (HLE) is used as one of the primary objectives of fundamental health promotion plans and social development plans. Activity limitation is used to calculate HLE, but little study has been done to identify determinants of activity limitation in order to extend HLE. The purpose of this study is to identify diseases and injuries that commonly lead to activity limitation to prioritize countermeasures against activity limitation. Methods We used anonymous data from the 2007 “Comprehensive Survey of Living Conditions,” collected by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan according to the Statistics Act, Article 36. We used logistic regression analyses and calculated odds ratios (ORs) after adjusting for age and sex. Limitation in daily activities was applied as the dependent variable, and each disease/injury was applied as an independent variable in this analysis. Furthermore, population attributable fractions (PAFs) were calculated. Results The provided data included 98,789 subjects. We used data for 75,986 valid subjects aged 12 years or older. The following diseases showed high PAF: backache (PAF 13.27%, OR 3.88), arthropathia (PAF 7.61%, OR 4.82), eye and optical diseases (PAF 6.39%, OR 2.01), and depression and other mental diseases (PAF 5.70%, OR 11.55). PAFs of cerebrovascular diseases, hypertension, and diabetes were higher for males than for females; on the other hand, PAFs of orthopedic diseases were higher among females. Conclusions Our results indicate that orthopedic diseases, ophthalmic diseases, and psychiatric diseases particularly affect activity limitation. PMID:28142015

  11. Naproxen, a Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug, Can Affect Daily Hypobaric Hypoxia-Induced Alterations of Monoamine Levels in Different Areas of the Brain in Male Rats.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Ananda Raj; Dutta, Goutam; Ghosh, Tusharkanti

    2016-06-01

    Goswami, Ananda Raj, Goutam Dutta, and Tusharkanti Ghosh. Naproxen, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug can affect daily hypobaric hypoxia-induced alterations of monoamine levels in different areas of the brain in male rats. High Alt Med Biol. 17:133-140, 2016.-The oxidative stress (OS)-induced prostaglandin (PG) release, in hypobaric hypoxic (HHc) condition, may be linked with the changes of brain monoamines. The present study intends to explore the changes of monoamines in hypothalamus (H), cerebral cortex (CC), and cerebellum (CB) along with the motor activity in rats after exposing them to simulated hypobaric condition and the role of PGs on the daily hypobaric hypoxia (DHH)-induced alteration of brain monoamines by administering, an inhibitor of PG synthesis, naproxen. The rats were exposed to a decompression chamber at 18,000 ft for 8 hours per day for 6 days after administration of vehicle or naproxen (18 mg/kg body wt.). The monoamine levels (epinephrine, E; norepinephrine, NE; dopamine, DA; and 5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) in CC, CB, and H were assayed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with electrochemical detection, and the locomotor behavior was measured by open field test. The NE and DA levels were decreased in CC, CB, and H of the rat brain in HHc condition. The E and 5-HT levels were decreased in CC, but in H and CB, they remained unaltered in HHc condition. These DHH-induced changes of monoamines in brain areas were prevented after administration of naproxen in HHc condition. The locomotor behavior remained unaltered in HHc condition and after administration of naproxen in HHc condition. The DHH-induced changes of monoamines in the brain in HHc condition are probably linked with PGs that may be induced by OS.

  12. Moderate Increase of Mean Daily Temperature Adversely Affects Fruit Set of Lycopersicon esculentum by Disrupting Specific Physiological Processes in Male Reproductive Development

    PubMed Central

    SATO, S.; KAMIYAMA, M.; IWATA, T.; MAKITA, N.; FURUKAWA, H.; IKEDA, H.

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims Global warming is gaining significance as a threat to natural and managed ecosystems since temperature is one of the major environmental factors affecting plant productivity. Hence, the effects of moderate temperature increase on the growth and development of the tomato plant (Lycopersicon esculentum) were investigated. • Methods Plants were grown at 32/26 °C as a moderately elevated temperature stress (METS) treatment or at 28/22 °C (day/night temperatures) as a control with natural light conditions. Vegetative growth and reproductive development as well as sugar content and metabolism, proline content and translocation in the androecium were investigated. • Key Results METS did not cause a significant change in biomass, the number of flowers, or the number of pollen grains produced, but there was a significant decrease in the number of fruit set, pollen viability and the number of pollen grains released. Glucose and fructose contents in the androecium (i.e. all stamens from one flower) were generally higher in the control than METS, but sucrose was higher in METS. Coincidently, the mRNA transcript abundance of acid invertase in the androecium was decreased by METS. Proline contents in the androecium were almost the same in the control and METS, while the mRNA transcript level of proline transporter 1, which expresses specifically at the surface of microspores, was significantly decreased by METS. • Conclusions The research indicated that failure of tomato fruit set under a moderately increased temperature above optimal is due to the disruption of sugar metabolism and proline translocation during the narrow window of male reproductive development. PMID:16497700

  13. Providing male rats deficient in iron and n-3 fatty acids with iron and alpha-linolenic acid alone affects brain serotonin and cognition differently from combined provision

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background We recently showed that a combined deficiency of iron (ID) and n-3 fatty acids (n-3 FAD) in rats disrupts brain monoamine metabolism and produces greater memory deficits than ID or n-3 FAD alone. Providing these double-deficient rats with either iron (Fe) or preformed docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)/eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) alone affected brain monoamine pathways differently from combined repletion and even exacerbated cognitive deficits associated with double-deficiency. Iron is a co-factor of the enzymes responsible for the conversion of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) to EPA and DHA, thus, the provision of ALA with Fe might be more effective in restoring brain EPA and DHA and improving cognition in double-deficient rats than ALA alone. Methods In this study we examined whether providing double-deficient rats with ALA and Fe, alone or in combination, can correct deficits in monoamine metabolism and cognition associated with double-deficiency. Using a 2 × 2 design, male rats with concurrent ID and n-3 FAD were fed an Fe + ALA, Fe + n-3 FAD, ID + ALA, or ID + n-3 FAD diet for 5 weeks (postnatal day 56–91). Biochemical measures, and spatial working and reference memory (using the Morris water maze) were compared to age-matched controls. Results In the hippocampus, we found a significant Fe × ALA interaction on DHA: Compared to the group receiving ALA alone, DHA was significantly higher in the Fe + ALA group. In the brain, we found significant antagonistic Fe × ALA interactions on serotonin concentrations. Provision of ALA alone impaired working memory compared with age-matched controls, while in the reference memory task ALA provided with Fe significantly improved performance. Conclusion These results indicate that providing either iron or ALA alone to double-deficient rats affects serotonin pathways and cognitive performance differently from combined provision. This may be partly explained by the enhancing effect of Fe on

  14. Providing male rats deficient in iron and n-3 fatty acids with iron and alpha-linolenic acid alone affects brain serotonin and cognition differently from combined provision.

    PubMed

    Baumgartner, Jeannine; Smuts, Cornelius M; Zimmermann, Michael B

    2014-06-13

    We recently showed that a combined deficiency of iron (ID) and n-3 fatty acids (n-3 FAD) in rats disrupts brain monoamine metabolism and produces greater memory deficits than ID or n-3 FAD alone. Providing these double-deficient rats with either iron (Fe) or preformed docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)/eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) alone affected brain monoamine pathways differently from combined repletion and even exacerbated cognitive deficits associated with double-deficiency. Iron is a co-factor of the enzymes responsible for the conversion of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) to EPA and DHA, thus, the provision of ALA with Fe might be more effective in restoring brain EPA and DHA and improving cognition in double-deficient rats than ALA alone. In this study we examined whether providing double-deficient rats with ALA and Fe, alone or in combination, can correct deficits in monoamine metabolism and cognition associated with double-deficiency. Using a 2 × 2 design, male rats with concurrent ID and n-3 FAD were fed an Fe + ALA, Fe + n-3 FAD, ID + ALA, or ID + n-3 FAD diet for 5 weeks (postnatal day 56-91). Biochemical measures, and spatial working and reference memory (using the Morris water maze) were compared to age-matched controls. In the hippocampus, we found a significant Fe × ALA interaction on DHA: Compared to the group receiving ALA alone, DHA was significantly higher in the Fe + ALA group. In the brain, we found significant antagonistic Fe × ALA interactions on serotonin concentrations. Provision of ALA alone impaired working memory compared with age-matched controls, while in the reference memory task ALA provided with Fe significantly improved performance. These results indicate that providing either iron or ALA alone to double-deficient rats affects serotonin pathways and cognitive performance differently from combined provision. This may be partly explained by the enhancing effect of Fe on the conversion of ALA to EPA and DHA.

  15. In utero exposure to dietheylhexyl phthalate differentially affects fetal testosterone and insl3 levels in the testes of male Sprague Dawley and Wistar rats: A dose response study

    EPA Science Inventory

    We previously reported that 750 mg/kg/day of diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) administered in utero during the period of sex differentiation resulted in a higher prevalence of gubernacular lesions in male Wistar offspring than in the male Sprague Dawley (SD) rat offspring, whereas D...

  16. In utero exposure to dietheylhexyl phthalate differentially affects fetal testosterone and insl3 levels in the testes of male Sprague Dawley and Wistar rats: A dose response study

    EPA Science Inventory

    We previously reported that 750 mg/kg/day of diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) administered in utero during the period of sex differentiation resulted in a higher prevalence of gubernacular lesions in male Wistar offspring than in the male Sprague Dawley (SD) rat offspring, whereas D...

  17. Tested Demonstrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1977-01-01

    Three demonstrations are described: paramagnetic properties of Fe(11) and Fe(111), the preparation of polyurethane foam: a lecture demonstration and the electrolysis of water-fuel cell reactions. A small discussion of the concepts demonstrated is included in each demonstration's description. (MR)

  18. Tested Demonstrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1977-01-01

    Three demonstrations are described: paramagnetic properties of Fe(11) and Fe(111), the preparation of polyurethane foam: a lecture demonstration and the electrolysis of water-fuel cell reactions. A small discussion of the concepts demonstrated is included in each demonstration's description. (MR)

  19. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Describes three flame test demonstrations including "Student-Presented Demonstrations on the Colors of Transition Metal Complexes,""A Flame Test Demonstration Device," and "Vivid Flame Tests." Preparation and procedures are discussed. Included in the first demonstration is an evaluation scheme for grading student…

  20. [Male contraception].

    PubMed

    Demoulin, A

    1984-04-01

    Among the reasons why male hormonal contraception has lagged behind female methods are the necessity of preserving virility, the fact that spermatogenesis is a continuous process, the need to control secondary effects and toxicity, and the requirement that modes of administration be acceptable to both partners. Among currently available reversible mehtods, withdrawal is undoubtedly the most ancient. It is still widespread but cannot be recommended because of its limited effectiveness. The condom is used by about 10% of couples worldwide as a principal or temporary method, but its inter-ference with sensation has limited its acceptance. Condoms are nevertheless highly effective when used with a spermicide. Various androgens are currently under investigation. High doses of testosterone can induce azoospermia without affecting libido but their side effects may be serious. The use of combinations of steroids permits doses to be reduced and offers promise for the future. The combination of oral medroxyprogesterone acetate and percutaneous testosterone is one of the better approaches; the combination is effective and nontoxic but has the disadvantage of percutaneous administration. Gossypol, a pigment extracted from the cotton plant, has been used as a contraceptive in China with a reported efficacy of 99.89%, recovery of fertility within 3 months, and no effect on future fertility. However, its toxicity appears to be significant in the animal and its reversibility is uncertain. A search is on for analogs which would preserve the contraceptive effects while eliminating toxic effects. Several gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) analogs under investigation for their interference with spermatogenesis have given promising results. Several chemicals tested for contraceptive effects have had unacceptably high toxicity. Chinese investigators have reported good results with various physical methods of interfering with sperm production, but their reversibility and innocuity

  1. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Two demonstrations are described: (1) red cabbage and electrolysis of water to bring together acid/base and electrochemical concepts; and (2) a model to demonstrate acid/base conjugate pairs utilizing magnets. (SK)

  2. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Presents: (1) a simple demonstration which illustrates the driving force of entropy using the familiar effects of the negative thermal expansion coefficient of rubber; and (2) a demonstration of tetrahedral bonding using soap films. (CS)

  3. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Provides instructions on conducting four demonstrations for the chemistry classroom. Outlines procedures for demonstrations dealing with coupled oscillations, the evaporation of liquids, thioxanthone sulfone radical anion, and the control of variables and conservation of matter. (TW)

  4. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Presents: (1) a simple demonstration which illustrates the driving force of entropy using the familiar effects of the negative thermal expansion coefficient of rubber; and (2) a demonstration of tetrahedral bonding using soap films. (CS)

  5. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Presented are two demonstrations including a variation of the iodine clock reaction, and a simple demonstration of refractive index. The materials, procedures, and a discussion of probable results are given for each. (CW)

  6. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1978-01-01

    Presents two demonstrations; one on Boyle's Law, to illustrate the gas law and serve as a challenging problem for the students; the other is a modified Color Blind Traffic Light demonstration in which the oscillating reactions were speeded up. (GA)

  7. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Presented are two demonstrations; "Heat of Solution and Colligative Properties: An Illustration of Enthalpy and Entropy," and "A Vapor Pressure Demonstration." Included are lists of materials and experimental procedures. Apparatus needed are illustrated. (CW)

  8. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1978-01-01

    Two demonstrations are described which are suitable for introductory chemistry classes. The first involves the precipitation of silver, and the second is a demonstration of the relationship between rate constants and equilibrium constants using water and beakers. (BB)

  9. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Presented are two demonstrations including a variation of the iodine clock reaction, and a simple demonstration of refractive index. The materials, procedures, and a discussion of probable results are given for each. (CW)

  10. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Presented are two demonstrations; "Heat of Solution and Colligative Properties: An Illustration of Enthalpy and Entropy," and "A Vapor Pressure Demonstration." Included are lists of materials and experimental procedures. Apparatus needed are illustrated. (CW)

  11. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Two demonstrations are described: (1) red cabbage and electrolysis of water to bring together acid/base and electrochemical concepts; and (2) a model to demonstrate acid/base conjugate pairs utilizing magnets. (SK)

  12. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1978-01-01

    Presents two demonstrations; one on Boyle's Law, to illustrate the gas law and serve as a challenging problem for the students; the other is a modified Color Blind Traffic Light demonstration in which the oscillating reactions were speeded up. (GA)

  13. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Provides instructions on conducting four demonstrations for the chemistry classroom. Outlines procedures for demonstrations dealing with coupled oscillations, the evaporation of liquids, thioxanthone sulfone radical anion, and the control of variables and conservation of matter. (TW)

  14. PROCHLORAZ INHIBITS TESTOSTERONE PRODUCTION AT DOSAGE BELOW THOSE THAT AFFECT ANDROGEN-DEPENDENT ORGAN WEIGHTS OR THE ONSET OF PUBERTY IN THE MALE SPRAGUE DAWLEY RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT: Since prochloraz (PCZ) is an imidazole fungicide that inhibits gonadal steroidogenesis and antagonizes the androgen receptor (AR), we hypothesized that pubertal exposure to PCZ would delay male rat reproductive development. Sprague Dawley rats were dosed by gavage with...

  15. PROCHLORAZ INHIBITS TESTOSTERONE PRODUCTION AT DOSAGE BELOW THOSE THAT AFFECT ANDROGEN-DEPENDENT ORGAN WEIGHTS OR THE ONSET OF PUBERTY IN THE MALE SPRAGUE DAWLEY RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT: Since prochloraz (PCZ) is an imidazole fungicide that inhibits gonadal steroidogenesis and antagonizes the androgen receptor (AR), we hypothesized that pubertal exposure to PCZ would delay male rat reproductive development. Sprague Dawley rats were dosed by gavage with...

  16. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Describes two classroom chemistry demonstrations which focus on the descriptive chemistry of bromine and iodine. Outlines the chemicals and equipment needed, experimental procedures, and discussion of one demonstration of the oxidation states of bromine and iodine, and another demonstration of the oxidation states of iodine. (TW)

  17. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sands, Robert; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Procedures for two demonstrations are provided. The solubility of ammonia gas in water is demonstrated by introducing water into a closed can filled with the gas, collapsing the can. The second demonstration relates scale of standard reduction potentials to observed behavior of metals in reactions with hydrogen to produce hydrogen gas. (Author/JN)

  18. Demonstrating Diffusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foy, Barry G.

    1977-01-01

    Two demonstrations are described. Materials and instructions for demonstrating movement of molecules into cytoplasm using agar blocks, phenolphthalein, and sodium hydroxide are given. A simple method for demonstrating that the rate of diffusion of a gas is inversely proportional to its molecular weight is also presented. (AJ)

  19. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sands, Robert; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Procedures for two demonstrations are provided. The solubility of ammonia gas in water is demonstrated by introducing water into a closed can filled with the gas, collapsing the can. The second demonstration relates scale of standard reduction potentials to observed behavior of metals in reactions with hydrogen to produce hydrogen gas. (Author/JN)

  20. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Describes two classroom chemistry demonstrations which focus on the descriptive chemistry of bromine and iodine. Outlines the chemicals and equipment needed, experimental procedures, and discussion of one demonstration of the oxidation states of bromine and iodine, and another demonstration of the oxidation states of iodine. (TW)

  1. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1985-01-01

    List of materials needed, procedures used, and results obtained are provided for two demonstrations. The first is an inexpensive and quick method for demonstrating column chromatography of plant pigments of spinach extract. The second is a demonstration of cathodic protection by impressed current. (JN)

  2. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1985-01-01

    List of materials needed, procedures used, and results obtained are provided for two demonstrations. The first is an inexpensive and quick method for demonstrating column chromatography of plant pigments of spinach extract. The second is a demonstration of cathodic protection by impressed current. (JN)

  3. Demonstrating Diffusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foy, Barry G.

    1977-01-01

    Two demonstrations are described. Materials and instructions for demonstrating movement of molecules into cytoplasm using agar blocks, phenolphthalein, and sodium hydroxide are given. A simple method for demonstrating that the rate of diffusion of a gas is inversely proportional to its molecular weight is also presented. (AJ)

  4. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Describes a demonstration involving the controlled combustion of a mixture of metals with black and smokeless powder in a small Erlenmeyer flask. Also describes demonstrations using a device that precludes breathing of hazardous vapors during class demonstrations; the device is easy to transport and use in rooms without sinks. (JN)

  5. TMV mutants with poly(A) tracts of different lengths demonstrate structural variations in 3′UTR affecting viral RNAs accumulation and symptom expression

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Song; Kierzek, Elzbieta; Chen, Gang; Zhou, Yi-Jun; Wong, Sek-Man

    2015-01-01

    The upstream pseudoknots domain (UPD) of Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) is located at the 3′-untranslated region (UTR). It plays an important role in virus replication and translation. To determine the importance of UPD and 3′-UTR, and the effects of introduced RNA elements in TMV 3′-UTR, a series of TMV mutants with internal poly(A) tract upstream of UPD was constructed for structural analysis by selective 2′-hydroxyl acylation analyzed by primer extension (SHAPE). TMV(24A+UPD) and TMV(42A+UPD) formed a similar structure as that of TMV 3′-UTR, but TMV(62A+UPD) structures altered by the introduced poly(A) tract. In addition, TMV(24A+UPD) had a higher viral RNAs accumulation than TMV in N. benthamiana protoplasts, and induced lethal symptoms in the infected plants. TMV(62A+UPD) showed a drastically reduced accumulation, its coat protein was undetectable in protoplasts, and the inoculated plants remained symptomless. This study analyzed the structures of 3′-UTR of TMV and found that the longer poly(A) tract introduced upstream of UPD reduced viral RNAs accumulation and induced milder symptoms in N. benthamiana. In conclusion, different lengths of the internal poly(A) tract introduced into the TMV 3′UTR lead to structural variations that affect virus accumulation and symptom expression. PMID:26678425

  6. TMV mutants with poly(A) tracts of different lengths demonstrate structural variations in 3'UTR affecting viral RNAs accumulation and symptom expression.

    PubMed

    Guo, Song; Kierzek, Elzbieta; Chen, Gang; Zhou, Yi-Jun; Wong, Sek-Man

    2015-12-18

    The upstream pseudoknots domain (UPD) of Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) is located at the 3'-untranslated region (UTR). It plays an important role in virus replication and translation. To determine the importance of UPD and 3'-UTR, and the effects of introduced RNA elements in TMV 3'-UTR, a series of TMV mutants with internal poly(A) tract upstream of UPD was constructed for structural analysis by selective 2'-hydroxyl acylation analyzed by primer extension (SHAPE). TMV(24A+UPD) and TMV(42A+UPD) formed a similar structure as that of TMV 3'-UTR, but TMV(62A+UPD) structures altered by the introduced poly(A) tract. In addition, TMV(24A+UPD) had a higher viral RNAs accumulation than TMV in N. benthamiana protoplasts, and induced lethal symptoms in the infected plants. TMV(62A+UPD) showed a drastically reduced accumulation, its coat protein was undetectable in protoplasts, and the inoculated plants remained symptomless. This study analyzed the structures of 3'-UTR of TMV and found that the longer poly(A) tract introduced upstream of UPD reduced viral RNAs accumulation and induced milder symptoms in N. benthamiana. In conclusion, different lengths of the internal poly(A) tract introduced into the TMV 3'UTR lead to structural variations that affect virus accumulation and symptom expression.

  7. Consistent male-male paternity differences across female genotypes.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Craig D H; Wapstra, Erik; Olsson, Mats

    2009-04-23

    In a recent paper, we demonstrated that male-female genetic relatedness determines male probability of paternity in experimental sperm competition in the Peron's tree frog (Litoria peronii), with a more closely related male outcompeting his rival. Here, we test the hypothesis that a male-male difference in siring success with one female significantly predicts the corresponding difference in siring success with another female. With male sperm concentration held constant, and the proportion of viable sperm controlled statistically, the male-male difference in siring success with one female strongly predicted the corresponding difference in siring success with another female, and alone explained more than 62 per cent of the variance in male-male siring differences. This study demonstrates that male siring success is primarily dictated by among-male differences in innate siring success with less influence of male-female relatedness.

  8. Male circumcision.

    PubMed

    2012-09-01

    Male circumcision consists of the surgical removal of some, or all, of the foreskin (or prepuce) from the penis. It is one of the most common procedures in the world. In the United States, the procedure is commonly performed during the newborn period. In 2007, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) convened a multidisciplinary workgroup of AAP members and other stakeholders to evaluate the evidence regarding male circumcision and update the AAP's 1999 recommendations in this area. The Task Force included AAP representatives from specialty areas as well as members of the AAP Board of Directors and liaisons representing the American Academy of Family Physicians, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The Task Force members identified selected topics relevant to male circumcision and conducted a critical review of peer-reviewed literature by using the American Heart Association's template for evidence evaluation. Evaluation of current evidence indicates that the health benefits of newborn male circumcision outweigh the risks; furthermore, the benefits of newborn male circumcision justify access to this procedure for families who choose it. Specific benefits from male circumcision were identified for the prevention of urinary tract infections, acquisition of HIV, transmission of some sexually transmitted infections, and penile cancer. Male circumcision does not appear to adversely affect penile sexual function/sensitivity or sexual satisfaction. It is imperative that those providing circumcision are adequately trained and that both sterile techniques and effective pain management are used. Significant acute complications are rare. In general, untrained providers who perform circumcisions have more complications than well-trained providers who perform the procedure, regardless of whether the former are physicians, nurses, or traditional religious providers. Parents are entitled to factually correct

  9. Intrauterine proximity to male fetuses affects the morphology of the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area in the adult rat brain.

    PubMed

    Pei, Minjuan; Matsuda, Ken-Ichi; Sakamoto, Hirotaka; Kawata, Mitsuhiro

    2006-03-01

    Previous studies on polytocous rodents have revealed that the fetal intrauterine position influences its later anatomy, physiology, reproductive performance and behavior. To investigate whether the position of a fetus in the uterus modifies the development of the brain, we examined whether the structure of the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area (SDN-POA) of rat brains accorded to their intrauterine positions. Brain sections of adult rats gestated between two male fetuses (2M) and between two female fetuses (2F) in the uterus were analysed for their immunoreactivity to calbindin-D28k, which is a marker of the SDN-POA. The SDN-POA volume of the 2M adult males was greater than that of the 2F adult males, whereas the SDN-POA volume of the 2M and 2F adult females showed no significant difference. This result indicated that contiguous male fetuses have a masculinizing effect on the SDN-POA volume of the male. To further examine whether the increment of SDN-POA volume in adulthood was due to exposure to elevated steroid hormones during fetal life, concentrations of testosterone and 17beta-estradiol in the brain were measured with 2M and 2F fetuses during gestation, respectively. On gestation day 21, the concentrations of testosterone and 17beta-estradiol in the brain were significantly higher in the 2M male rats as compared with the 2F male rats. The results suggested that there was a relationship between the fetal intrauterine position, hormone transfer from adjacent fetuses and the SDN-POA volume in adult rat brains.

  10. Adipocyte-derived collagen VI affects early mammary tumor progression in vivo, demonstrating a critical interaction in the tumor/stroma microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Iyengar, Puneeth; Espina, Virginia; Williams, Terence W.; Lin, Ying; Berry, David; Jelicks, Linda A.; Lee, Hyangkyu; Temple, Karla; Graves, Reed; Pollard, Jeffrey; Chopra, Neeru; Russell, Robert G.; Sasisekharan, Ram; Trock, Bruce J.; Lippman, Marc; Calvert, Valerie S.; Petricoin, Emanuel F.; Liotta, Lance; Dadachova, Ekaterina; Pestell, Richard G.; Lisanti, Michael P.; Bonaldo, Paolo; Scherer, Philipp E.

    2005-01-01

    The interactions of transformed cells with the surrounding stromal cells are of importance for tumor progression and metastasis. The relevance of adipocyte-derived factors to breast cancer cell survival and growth is well established. However, it remains unknown which specific adipocyte-derived factors are most critical in this process. Collagen VI is abundantly expressed in adipocytes. Collagen–/– mice in the background of the mouse mammary tumor virus/polyoma virus middle T oncogene (MMTV-PyMT) mammary cancer model demonstrate dramatically reduced rates of early hyperplasia and primary tumor growth. Collagen VI promotes its growth-stimulatory and pro-survival effects in part by signaling through the NG2/chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan receptor expressed on the surface of malignant ductal epithelial cells to sequentially activate Akt and β-catenin and stabilize cyclin D1. Levels of the carboxyterminal domain of collagen VIα3, a proteolytic product of the full-length molecule, are dramatically upregulated in murine and human breast cancer lesions. The same fragment exerts potent growth-stimulatory effects on MCF-7 cells in vitro. Therefore, adipocytes play a vital role in defining the ECM environment for normal and tumor-derived ductal epithelial cells and contribute significantly to tumor growth at early stages through secretion and processing of collagen VI. PMID:15841211

  11. Sunitinib-ibuprofen drug interaction affects the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of sunitinib to brain, liver, and kidney in male and female mice differently.

    PubMed

    Lau, Christine Li Ling; Chan, Sook Tyng; Selvaratanam, Manimegahlai; Khoo, Hui Wen; Lim, Adeline Yi Ling; Modamio, Pilar; Mariño, Eduardo L; Segarra, Ignacio

    2015-08-01

    Tyrosine kinase inhibitor sunitinib (used in GIST, advanced RCC, and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors) undergoes CYP3A4 metabolism and is an ABCB1B and ABCG2 efflux transporters substrate. We assessed the pharmacokinetic interaction with ibuprofen (an NSAID used by patients with cancer) in Balb/c male and female mice. Mice (study group) were coadministered (30 min apart) 30 mg/kg of ibuprofen and 60 mg/kg of sunitinib PO and compared with the control groups, which received sunitinib alone (60 mg/kg, PO). Sunitinib concentration in plasma, brain, kidney, and liver was measured by HPLC as scheduled and noncompartmental pharmacokinetic parameters estimated. In female control mice, sunitinib AUC0→∞ decreased in plasma (P < 0.05), was higher in liver and brain (P < 0.001), and lower in kidney (P < 0.001) vs. male control mice. After ibuprofen coadministration, female mice showed lower AUC0→∞ in plasma (P < 0.01), brain, liver, and kidney (all P < 0.001). However, in male mice, AUC0→∞ remained unchanged in plasma, increased in liver and kidney, and decreased in brain (all P < 0.001). The tissue-to-plasma AUC0→∞ ratio was similar between male and female control mice, but changed after ibuprofen coadministration: Male mice showed 1.6-fold higher liver-to-plasma ratio (P < 0.001) while remained unchanged in female mice and in kidney (male and female mice) but decreased 55% in brain (P < 0.05). The tissue-to-plasma partial AUC ratio, the drug tissue targeting index, and the tissue-plasma hysteresis-like plots also showed sex-based ibuprofen-sunitinib drug interaction differences. The results illustrate the relevance of this DDI on sunitinib pharmacokinetics and tissue uptake. These may be due to gender-based P450 and efflux/transporters differences.

  12. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1979-01-01

    Presents two demonstrations for classroom use related to precipitation of ferrous hydroxide and to variation of vapor pressure with temperature. The former demonstration is simple and useful when discussing solubility of ionic compounds electrode potential of transition elements, and mixed valence compounds. (Author/SA)

  13. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1979-01-01

    Presents two demonstrations for classroom use related to precipitation of ferrous hydroxide and to variation of vapor pressure with temperature. The former demonstration is simple and useful when discussing solubility of ionic compounds electrode potential of transition elements, and mixed valence compounds. (Author/SA)

  14. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1980-01-01

    Two demonstrations are described: (1) a variant of preparing purple benzene by phase transfer catalysis with quaternary ammonium salts and potassium permanganate in which crown ethers are used; (2) a corridor or "hallway" demonstration in which unknown molecular models are displayed and prizes awarded to students correctly identifying the…

  15. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1980-01-01

    Two demonstrations are described: (1) a variant of preparing purple benzene by phase transfer catalysis with quaternary ammonium salts and potassium permanganate in which crown ethers are used; (2) a corridor or "hallway" demonstration in which unknown molecular models are displayed and prizes awarded to students correctly identifying the…

  16. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Provides three descriptions of demonstrations used in various chemistry courses. Includes the use of a simple demonstration model to illustrate principles of chromatography, techniques for using balloons to teach about the behavior of gases, and the use of small concentrations of synthetic polyelectrolytes to induce the flocculation hydrophobic…

  17. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Provides three descriptions of demonstrations used in various chemistry courses. Includes the use of a simple demonstration model to illustrate principles of chromatography, techniques for using balloons to teach about the behavior of gases, and the use of small concentrations of synthetic polyelectrolytes to induce the flocculation hydrophobic…

  18. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses a supplement to the "water to rose" demonstration in which a pink color is produced. Also discusses blood buffer demonstrations, including hydrolysis of sodium bicarbonate, simulated blood buffer, metabolic acidosis, natural compensation of metabolic acidosis, metabolic alkalosis, acidosis treatment, and alkalosis treatment. Procedures…

  19. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a lecture demonstration of a solid state phase transition using a thermodynamic material which changes state at room temperature. Also describes a demonstration on kinetics using a "Big Bang" (trade mark) calcium carbide cannon. Indicates that the cannon is safe to use. (JN)

  20. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Background information and procedures are provided for a second part to the dichromate volcano demonstration. The green ash produced during the demonstration is reduced to metal using aluminothermy (Goldschmide process). Also describes suitable light sources and spectroscopes for student observation of emission spectra in lecture halls. (JN)

  1. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses a supplement to the "water to rose" demonstration in which a pink color is produced. Also discusses blood buffer demonstrations, including hydrolysis of sodium bicarbonate, simulated blood buffer, metabolic acidosis, natural compensation of metabolic acidosis, metabolic alkalosis, acidosis treatment, and alkalosis treatment. Procedures…

  2. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Describes two laboratory demonstrations in chemistry. One uses dry ice, freon, and freezer bags to demonstrate volume changes, vapor-liquid equilibrium, a simulation of a rain forest, and vaporization. The other uses the clock reaction technique to illustrate fast reactions and kinetic problems in releasing carbon dioxide during respiration. (TW)

  3. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1980-01-01

    Described is a demonstration utilized to measure the heat of vaporization using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation. Explained is that when measurement is made as part of a demonstration, it raises student's consciousness that chemistry is experimentally based. (Author/DS)

  4. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Describes two laboratory demonstrations in chemistry. One uses dry ice, freon, and freezer bags to demonstrate volume changes, vapor-liquid equilibrium, a simulation of a rain forest, and vaporization. The other uses the clock reaction technique to illustrate fast reactions and kinetic problems in releasing carbon dioxide during respiration. (TW)

  5. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Provided are two demonstrations for an introductory course in chemistry. The first one emphasizes the observation and the interpretation of facts to form hypotheses during the heating of a beaker of water. The second demonstration shows the liquid phase of carbon dioxide using dry ice and a pressure gauge. (YP)

  6. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Presented are two chemistry demonstrations: (1) an alternative method for the demonstration of the properties of alkali metals, water is added to small amounts of metal; (2) an exploration of the properties of hydrogen, helium, propane, and carbon dioxide using an open trough and candle. (MVL)

  7. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Two demonstrations are described. The first (useful as an introduction to kinetics) shows how the rate of a reaction is fast at first and then gradually decreases to zero when one reactant has been used up. The second is a gas density demonstration using 1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoro ethane. (JN)

  8. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Presented are two chemistry demonstrations: (1) an alternative method for the demonstration of the properties of alkali metals, water is added to small amounts of metal; (2) an exploration of the properties of hydrogen, helium, propane, and carbon dioxide using an open trough and candle. (MVL)

  9. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Presented are three demonstrations: "The Construction and Use of Commercial Voltaic Cell Displays in Freshman Chemistry"; Dramatizing Isotopes: Deuterated Ice Cubes Sink"; and "A Simple Apparatus to Demonstrate Differing Gas Diffusion Rates (Graham's Law)." Materials, procedures, and safety considerations are discussed. (CW)

  10. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Background information and procedures are provided for a second part to the dichromate volcano demonstration. The green ash produced during the demonstration is reduced to metal using aluminothermy (Goldschmide process). Also describes suitable light sources and spectroscopes for student observation of emission spectra in lecture halls. (JN)

  11. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Free radical chlorination of methane is used in organic chemistry to introduce free radical/chain reactions. In spite of its common occurrence, demonstrations of the reaction are uncommon. Therefore, such a demonstration is provided, including background information, preparation of reactants/reaction vessel, introduction of reactants, irradiation,…

  12. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Provided are two demonstrations for an introductory course in chemistry. The first one emphasizes the observation and the interpretation of facts to form hypotheses during the heating of a beaker of water. The second demonstration shows the liquid phase of carbon dioxide using dry ice and a pressure gauge. (YP)

  13. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Provides directions for setup and performance of two demonstrations. The first demonstrates the principles of Raoult's Law; using a simple apparatus designed to measure vapor pressure. The second illustrates the energy available from alcohol combustion (includes safety precautions) using an alcohol-fueled missile. (JM)

  14. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Described are demonstrations designed to reveal the important "nonsolvent" properties of water through its interaction with a toy called "Magic Sand" and other synthetic silica derivatives, especially those bonded with organic moities. The procedures for seven demonstrations along with a discussion of the effects are presented. (CW)

  15. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Free radical chlorination of methane is used in organic chemistry to introduce free radical/chain reactions. In spite of its common occurrence, demonstrations of the reaction are uncommon. Therefore, such a demonstration is provided, including background information, preparation of reactants/reaction vessel, introduction of reactants, irradiation,…

  16. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1980-01-01

    Described is a demonstration utilized to measure the heat of vaporization using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation. Explained is that when measurement is made as part of a demonstration, it raises student's consciousness that chemistry is experimentally based. (Author/DS)

  17. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Presented are three demonstrations: "The Construction and Use of Commercial Voltaic Cell Displays in Freshman Chemistry"; Dramatizing Isotopes: Deuterated Ice Cubes Sink"; and "A Simple Apparatus to Demonstrate Differing Gas Diffusion Rates (Graham's Law)." Materials, procedures, and safety considerations are discussed. (CW)

  18. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Outlines a simple, inexpensive way of demonstrating electroplating using the reaction between nickel ions and copper metal. Explains how to conduct a demonstration of the electrolysis of water by using a colored Na2SO4 solution as the electrolyte so that students can observe the pH changes. (TW)

  19. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Outlines a simple, inexpensive way of demonstrating electroplating using the reaction between nickel ions and copper metal. Explains how to conduct a demonstration of the electrolysis of water by using a colored Na2SO4 solution as the electrolyte so that students can observe the pH changes. (TW)

  20. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Describes two demonstrations designed to help chemistry students visualize certain chemical properties. One experiment uses balloons to illustrate the behavior of gases under varying temperatures and pressures. The other uses a makeshift pea shooter and a commercial model to demonstrate atomic structure and the behavior of high-speed particles.…

  1. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the photochromic behavior of mercury(II) bis(dithizonate) in providing a colorful demonstration of the effect that visible light can have on the conformation and bonding of molecules in solution. Provides a description of the demonstration itself, along with the preparation needed to complete it. (TW)

  2. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a lecture demonstration of a solid state phase transition using a thermodynamic material which changes state at room temperature. Also describes a demonstration on kinetics using a "Big Bang" (trade mark) calcium carbide cannon. Indicates that the cannon is safe to use. (JN)

  3. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1982-01-01

    Three chemistry demonstrations are described: (1) modification of copper catalysis demonstration apparatus; (2) experiments in gas-liquid chromatography with simple gas chromatography at room temperature; and (3) equilibria in silver arsenate-arsenic acid and silver phosphate-phosphoric acid systems. Procedures and materials needed are provided.…

  4. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1982-01-01

    Three chemistry demonstrations are described: (1) modification of copper catalysis demonstration apparatus; (2) experiments in gas-liquid chromatography with simple gas chromatography at room temperature; and (3) equilibria in silver arsenate-arsenic acid and silver phosphate-phosphoric acid systems. Procedures and materials needed are provided.…

  5. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Describes two demonstrations designed to help chemistry students visualize certain chemical properties. One experiment uses balloons to illustrate the behavior of gases under varying temperatures and pressures. The other uses a makeshift pea shooter and a commercial model to demonstrate atomic structure and the behavior of high-speed particles.…

  6. Chronic exposure to low levels of dibromoacetic acid, a water disinfection by-product, adversely affects reproductive function in male rabbits

    EPA Science Inventory

    Four groups (minimum of 10/dose group) of male Dutch-Belted rabbits were treated daily to dibromoacetic acid (DBA) via drinking water beginning in utero from gestation day 15 throughout life; target dosages were 1, 5, and 50 mg DBA /kg body weight. Developmental, prepubertal as ...

  7. FETAL TESTOSTERONE LEVELS ARE DIFFERENTIALLY AFFECTED IN MALE SPRAGUE DAWLEY AND WISTAR RATS AFTER IN UTERO EXPOSURE TO DIETHYLHEXYL PHTHALATE: A DOSE RESPONSE STUDY.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to phthalate esters during sexual differentiation disrupts testosterone resulting in malformations of androgen-dependent tissues. We have found that gubernacular lesions are more prevalent in in utero diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP)-treated Wistar male than in the SD rat o...

  8. FETAL TESTOSTERONE LEVELS ARE DIFFERENTIALLY AFFECTED IN MALE SPRAGUE DAWLEY AND WISTAR RATS AFTER IN UTERO EXPOSURE TO DIETHYLHEXYL PHTHALATE: A DOSE RESPONSE STUDY.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to phthalate esters during sexual differentiation disrupts testosterone resulting in malformations of androgen-dependent tissues. We have found that gubernacular lesions are more prevalent in in utero diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP)-treated Wistar male than in the SD rat o...

  9. Chronic exposure to low levels of dibromoacetic acid, a water disinfection by-product, adversely affects reproductive function in male rabbits

    EPA Science Inventory

    Four groups (minimum of 10/dose group) of male Dutch-Belted rabbits were treated daily to dibromoacetic acid (DBA) via drinking water beginning in utero from gestation day 15 throughout life; target dosages were 1, 5, and 50 mg DBA /kg body weight. Developmental, prepubertal as ...

  10. Examining Academic Variables Affecting the Persistence and Attainment of Black Male Collegians: A Focus on Academic Performance and Integration in the Two-Year College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, J. Luke

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of academic variables (e.g., grade point average, major change, informal meetings with faculty) on six year persistence and attainment among black male students in community colleges. Data was collected from the Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study and was analyzed using…

  11. A Phenomenological Study of Mathematics Meaning: A Possible Factor Affecting the Mathematics Achievement of African-American Male High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Latasha

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the mathematics meanings that are held by higher- and lower-performing African-American male high school students. Meaning in this context was defined as a set of dispositions that included, but were not limited to, values, beliefs, attitudes, feelings, and interests. Using worldview theory as the…

  12. [Male contraception].

    PubMed

    Demery, A

    1987-05-01

    Except for condoms, male contraception is very slightly utilized in France. Several male experimental methods are under study. A synthetic luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) analog has been used successfully in women and offers promise in men of blocking LHRH and thus blocking spermatogenesis. Several nonsteroid substances such an hypertensives and adrenaline would suppress follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone release, but are too toxic for use. The combination of 40 mcg ethinyl estradiol and 20 mg of methyltestosterone inhibits gonadotropin release and produces azoospermia in men, but at the risk of loss of libido, constant gynecomastia, and testicular atrophy. Several combinations of androgens and progestins have been evaluated. Percutaneous testosterone and medroxyprogesterone acetate appears to be the most effective, with good metabolic tolerance and maintenance of libido and sexual performance. Injections of inhibine, a testicular factor that controls secretion of follicle stimulating hormone by feedback, offer promise of suppressing spermatogenesis without affecting other systems. Numerous substances are known to inhibit spermatogenesis but are to toxic for use or entail an unacceptable loss of libido. Gossypol has been employed as a contraceptive by the Chinese for its action in inhibiting protein synthesis, but it is known to have serious secondary effects. Among male methods currently in use, the condom had a Pearl index of .4-1.6 in the most recent British studies. Coitus interruptus can seriously interfere with sexual pleasure and has a failure rate of 25-30%. Vasectomy is safe, effective, and easy to perform, but is not a reversible method. The combination of 20 mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate in 2 daily doses and 100 mg of testosterone applied in an abdominal spray has given very promising results in 2 small studies in France and merits further development and diffusion.

  13. Are Uric Acid Levels Different from Healthy Subjects in Bipolar Affective Disorder and Schizophrenia?: Relationship Between Clinical Improvement and Episode Severity in Male Patients

    PubMed Central

    GÜLTEKİN, Bülent Kadri; KESEBİR, Sermin; KABAK, Sevgi Gül; ERGÜN, Ferzan Fikret; TATLIDİL YAYLACI, Elif

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Purinergic system dysfunction has been shown both in patients with bipolar disorder (BD) and those with schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether uric acid levels in male BD patients with manic episode and schizophrenia patients with psychotic relapse differ from healthy male subjects. Secondly to assess whether uric acid levels in both patient groups correlate with episode severity and if a decrease in uric acid levels correlate with clinical improvement. Method A total of 55 BD patients with manic episode and 59 schizophrenic patients with psychotic relapse were evaluated at baseline and at weeks 1, 2, 3 using the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), and their plasma uric acid levels were measured. 60 age-matched healthy males without history of any previous or current psychiatric diagnosis and treatment constituted the control group. In order to determine plasma uric acid levels, blood samples were centrifuged at 3000 × g for 15 minutes, stored at −80°C and measured in milligrams per deciliter. Results Uric acid levels in both patient groups with manic episode and psychotic relapse were found higher than in healthy controls (f=6.122, p=.027). The difference between repeated measurements of uric acid levels in BD patient group was found to be between baseline and first week measurements (after Bonferroni correction) (p<.001). No correlation was found between YMRS and PANSS scores and uric acid levels at 4 assessment times. Conclusion Uric acid levels in male BD and schizophrenia patients with manic episode and psychotic relapse were similar with each other, and higher than in healthy males. No correlation was found between uric acid levels and episode severity in both groups. However, for patients with BD, a decrease in uric acid levels between baseline and first week seems to be correlated with clinical improvement.

  14. Previous and recent maternal experiences modulate pups' incentive value relative to a male without affecting maternal behavior in postpartum estrous rats.

    PubMed

    Agrati, Daniella; Ferreño, Marcela; Marin, Gabriella; Uriarte, Natalia; Zuluaga, María José; Fernández-Guasti, Alonso; Ferreira, Annabel

    2016-10-01

    This study extends the behavioral analysis of the postpartum estrus (PPE) which represents a unique period in the female rat's lifetime when maternal and sexual motivations co-exist. The aim of this study was to explore how previous and recent maternal experiences influence the maternal responses to pups when confronted with a male in a preference test or when they are presented independently in the home cage. To achieve this objective, we firstly compared the maternal behavior in the home cage and the preference for pups or a male in a Y-maze of primiparous and multiparous females approximately twelve hours after delivery. No differences were observed in the active and passive components of the maternal behavior of primiparous and multiparous rats; however second-time mothers made more efforts to gain access to the pups and tended to spend more time with them in the Y-maze than maternally inexperienced dams. In a second experiment, we assessed the influence of recent maternal experience with pups on PPE females' behavior by comparing pups vs. male preference and maternal behavior of females that had experienced continuous or limited (approximately two hours) interaction with their litters after parturition was completed. PPE rats subjected to reduced interaction with their pups preferred the male, while females continuously exposed to pups chose them over the male. This change in females' preference was not accompanied by significant alterations of maternal performance in the home cage, although anogenital licking tended to decrease in females with limited mother-litter interaction. Together, the results of these experiments indicate that previous and recent maternal experiences influence the motivational responses of PPE females, and that these effects are more evident when both motivations compete. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Dietary contaminant exposure affects plasma testosterone, but not thyroid hormones, vitamin A, and vitamin E, in male juvenile arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus).

    PubMed

    Hallanger, Ingeborg G; Jørgensen, Even H; Fuglei, Eva; Ahlstrøm, Øystein; Muir, Derek C G; Jenssen, Bjørn Munro

    2012-01-01

    Levels of persistent organic pollutants (POP), such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), are high in many Arctic top predators, including the Arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus). The aim of this study was to examine possible endocrine-disruptive effects of dietary POP exposure in male juvenile Arctic foxes in a controlled exposure experiment. The study was conducted using domesticated farmed blue foxes (Vulpes lagopus) as a model species. Two groups of newly weaned male foxes received a diet supplemented with either minke whale (Baleneoptera acutorostrata) blubber that was naturally contaminated with POP (exposed group, n = 5 or 21), or pork (Sus scrofa) fat (control group, n = 5 or 21). When the foxes were 6 mo old and had received the 2 diets for approximately 4 mo (147 d), effects of the dietary exposure to POP on plasma concentrations of testosterone (T), thyroid hormones (TH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), retinol (vitamin A), and tocopherol (viramin E) were examined. At sampling, the total body concentrations of 104 PCB congeners were 0.1 ± 0.03 μg/g lipid weight (l.w.; n = 5 [mean ± standard deviation]) and 1.5 ± 0.17 μg/g l.w. (n = 5) in the control and exposed groups, respectively. Plasma testosterone concentrations in the exposed male foxes were significantly lower than in the control males, being approximately 25% of that in the exposed foxes. There were no between-treatment differences for TH, TSH, retinol, or tocopherol. The results suggest that the high POP levels experienced by costal populations of Arctic foxes, such as in Svalbard and Iceland, may result in delayed masculine maturation during adolescence. Sex hormone disruption during puberty may thus have lifetime consequences on all aspects of reproductive function in adult male foxes.

  16. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L.

    1990-01-01

    Included are three demonstrations that include the phase change of ice when under pressure, viscoelasticity and colloid systems, and flame tests for metal ions. The materials, procedures, probable results, and applications to real life situations are included. (KR)

  17. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L.

    1990-01-01

    Included are three demonstrations that include the phase change of ice when under pressure, viscoelasticity and colloid systems, and flame tests for metal ions. The materials, procedures, probable results, and applications to real life situations are included. (KR)

  18. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L.

    1982-01-01

    Two demonstrations are described: (1) a sunset effect using a gooseneck lamp and 20 sheets of paper and (2) the preparation and determination of structural features of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) by infrared spectroscopy. (SK)

  19. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1979-01-01

    Presents a recipe for the Nylon Rope Trick, which is considered to be one of the most spectacular demonstrations in chemistry. Materials for growing the polymer and some safety precautions are given. (SA)

  20. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Describes two demonstrations for use in college chemistry classes. Includes "Spectroscopy in Large Lecture Halls" and "The Endothermic Dissolution of Ammonium Nitrate." Gives materials lists and procedures as well as a discussion of the results. (CW)

  1. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1979-01-01

    Presents a recipe for the Nylon Rope Trick, which is considered to be one of the most spectacular demonstrations in chemistry. Materials for growing the polymer and some safety precautions are given. (SA)

  2. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L.

    1982-01-01

    Two demonstrations are described: (1) a sunset effect using a gooseneck lamp and 20 sheets of paper and (2) the preparation and determination of structural features of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) by infrared spectroscopy. (SK)

  3. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Presents three demonstrations suitable for undergraduate chemistry classes. Focuses on experiments with calcium carbide, the induction by iron of the oxidation of iodide by dichromate, and the classical iodine clock reaction. (ML)

  4. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Background information, list of materials needed, and procedures used are provided for a demonstration involving the transformation of a hydrophobic liquid to a partially hydrophobic semisolid. Safety considerations are noted. (JN)

  5. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1980-01-01

    Presented is a Corridor Demonstration which can be set up in readily accessible areas such as hallways or lobbies. Equipment is listed for a display of three cells (solar cells, fuel cells, and storage cells) which develop electrical energy. (CS)

  6. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roffia, Sergio; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Reports two electrochemical demonstrations. Uses a hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell to power a clock. Includes description of methods and materials. Investigates the "potato clock" used with different fruits. Lists emf and current for various fruit and electrode combinations. (ML)

  7. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1980-01-01

    Presented is a Corridor Demonstration which can be set up in readily accessible areas such as hallways or lobbies. Equipment is listed for a display of three cells (solar cells, fuel cells, and storage cells) which develop electrical energy. (CS)

  8. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Presents three demonstrations suitable for undergraduate chemistry classes. Focuses on experiments with calcium carbide, the induction by iron of the oxidation of iodide by dichromate, and the classical iodine clock reaction. (ML)

  9. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Describes two demonstrations for use in college chemistry classes. Includes "Spectroscopy in Large Lecture Halls" and "The Endothermic Dissolution of Ammonium Nitrate." Gives materials lists and procedures as well as a discussion of the results. (CW)

  10. Tested Demonstrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1977-01-01

    Describes a room-temperature method for demonstrating phosphorescence by including samples in a polymer matrix. Also discusses the Old Nassau Reaction, a clock reaction which turns orange then black. (MLH)

  11. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roffia, Sergio; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Reports two electrochemical demonstrations. Uses a hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell to power a clock. Includes description of methods and materials. Investigates the "potato clock" used with different fruits. Lists emf and current for various fruit and electrode combinations. (ML)

  12. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rehfeld, D. W.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes two demonstrations (1) a dust explosion using a coffee can, candle, rubber tubing, and cornstarch and (2) forming a silicate-polyvinyl alcohol polymer which can be pressed into plastic sheets or molded. Gives specific instructions. (MVL)

  13. Tested Demonstrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1977-01-01

    Describes a room-temperature method for demonstrating phosphorescence by including samples in a polymer matrix. Also discusses the Old Nassau Reaction, a clock reaction which turns orange then black. (MLH)

  14. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rehfeld, D. W.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes two demonstrations (1) a dust explosion using a coffee can, candle, rubber tubing, and cornstarch and (2) forming a silicate-polyvinyl alcohol polymer which can be pressed into plastic sheets or molded. Gives specific instructions. (MVL)

  15. Male catheterization.

    PubMed

    Hadfield-Law, L

    2001-10-01

    The insertion of catheters into male emergency patients is fairly common practice and is associated with a worryingly high rate of infection. Everyday pressures within the department, along with the added stress of resuscitation can result in inappropriately trained or skilled staff undertaking this procedure. The issue of gender and whether female nurses should catheterize male patients may also affect this vulnerable group of patients. Acquiring the psychomotor skills of inserting a urethral catheter is only one part of preparation for practice. Emergency nurses must know when and when not to resort to catheterization. Choosing the type and size of catheter requires careful judgment. What will you do if insertion proves difficult? Prevention of infection is of paramount importance and there are an increasing number of evidence-based sources of information, which are crucial to formulating procedures and informing every day practice. In the pressured surroundings of A&E departments, it is easy to ignore the vulnerability of men requiring catheterization, both from a physical and psychological point of view. Making the effort to explain the procedure, listen to questions and concerns and record relevant details in the notes, will take only a few extra moments. There is no doubt that urinary catheterization is not without complications. It is associated with significant morbidity and occasionally, mortality.

  16. Demonstration Explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Charles "Skip"

    1998-05-01

    Last week I did a demonstration that produced a serious explosion. After putting methanol in a big glass carboy and rotating the carboy to build up some methanol vapor, I lit the mouth of the carboy. What normally happens is a "jet engine" effect out of the mouth of the carboy. In my case, the carboy exploded. Two polycarbonate blast shields were shattered and glass was blown as far as 15 feet away. I was not seriously cut and bruised, but had I not been using the two blast shields, I would have been severely injured. At this time, I am not sure what caused the explosion. I have done this demonstration around one hundred times with no problem using the exact same amount of methanol and technique. I think it is important to get the word out that this demonstration may be more dangerous than previously thought. I would also welcome any hypotheses concerning what caused the carboy to explode.

  17. Demonstrating Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Dr. Richard DeLombard of NASA's Glenn Research Center, hands the relase line for the Microgravity Demonstrator to a visitor for her to start a short experiment showing the effects of microgravity on candle flames. Combustion physics will be a major line of investigation for NASA aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The Microgravity Demonstrator is frequently used at shows and schools to illustrate how phenomena change in microgravity. The exhibit was part of the NASA outreach activity at AirVenture 2000 sponsored by the Experimental Aircraft Association in Oshkosh, WI

  18. AVR/NAVR deficiency lowers blood pressure and differentially affects urinary concentrating ability, cognition, and anxiety-like behavior in male and female mice

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, Victoria L. M.; Bagamasbad, Pia; Decano, Julius L.

    2011-01-01

    Arginine vasopressin (AVP) and angiotensin II (ANG II) are distinct peptide hormones involved in multiple organs modulating renal, cardiovascular, and brain functions. They achieve these functions via specific G protein-coupled receptors, respectively. The AVR/NAVR locus encodes two overlapping V2-type vasopressin isoreceptors: angiotensin-vasopressin receptor (AVR) responding to ANG II and AVP equivalently, and nonangiotensin vasopressin receptor (NAVR), which binds vasopressin exclusively. AVR and NAVR are expressed from a single gene by alternative promoter usage that is synergistically upregulated by testosterone and estrogen. This study tested the hypothesis that AVR/NAVR modulates urinary concentrating ability, blood pressure, and cognitive performance in vivo in a sex-specific manner. We developed a C57BL/6 inbred AVR/NAVR−/− knockout mouse that showed lower blood pressure in both male and female subjects and a urinary-concentrating defect restricted to male mice. We also detected sex-specific effects on cognitive and anxiety-like behaviors. AVR/NAVR−/− male mice exhibited impaired visuospatial and associative learning, while female mice showed improved performance in both type of cognition. AVR/NAVR deficiency produced an anxiolytic-like effect in female mice, while males were unaffected. Analysis of AVR- and NAVR-mediated phosphorylation/dephosphorylation of signaling proteins revealed activation/deactivation of known modulators of cognitive function. Our studies identify AVR/NAVR as key receptors involved in blood pressure regulation and sex-specific modulation of renal water homeostasis, cognitive function, and anxiety-like behavior. As such, the AVR/NAVR receptor system provides a molecular mechanism for sexually diergic traits and a putative common pathway for the emerging association of hypertension and cognitive decline and dementia. PMID:20923861

  19. AVR/NAVR deficiency lowers blood pressure and differentially affects urinary concentrating ability, cognition, and anxiety-like behavior in male and female mice.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Victoria L M; Bagamasbad, Pia; Decano, Julius L; Ruiz-Opazo, Nelson

    2011-01-07

    Arginine vasopressin (AVP) and angiotensin II (ANG II) are distinct peptide hormones involved in multiple organs modulating renal, cardiovascular, and brain functions. They achieve these functions via specific G protein-coupled receptors, respectively. The AVR/NAVR locus encodes two overlapping V2-type vasopressin isoreceptors: angiotensin-vasopressin receptor (AVR) responding to ANG II and AVP equivalently, and nonangiotensin vasopressin receptor (NAVR), which binds vasopressin exclusively. AVR and NAVR are expressed from a single gene by alternative promoter usage that is synergistically upregulated by testosterone and estrogen. This study tested the hypothesis that AVR/NAVR modulates urinary concentrating ability, blood pressure, and cognitive performance in vivo in a sex-specific manner. We developed a C57BL/6 inbred AVR/NAVR(-/-) knockout mouse that showed lower blood pressure in both male and female subjects and a urinary-concentrating defect restricted to male mice. We also detected sex-specific effects on cognitive and anxiety-like behaviors. AVR/NAVR(-/-) male mice exhibited impaired visuospatial and associative learning, while female mice showed improved performance in both type of cognition. AVR/NAVR deficiency produced an anxiolytic-like effect in female mice, while males were unaffected. Analysis of AVR- and NAVR-mediated phosphorylation/dephosphorylation of signaling proteins revealed activation/deactivation of known modulators of cognitive function. Our studies identify AVR/NAVR as key receptors involved in blood pressure regulation and sex-specific modulation of renal water homeostasis, cognitive function, and anxiety-like behavior. As such, the AVR/NAVR receptor system provides a molecular mechanism for sexually diergic traits and a putative common pathway for the emerging association of hypertension and cognitive decline and dementia.

  20. Device Demonstration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-31

    effecting change in the electrical properties of the material. Due to the heating requirement in setting the state, stray radiation does not affect the...device as in traditional binary RAM, thus giving the device radiation-hard properties . Uniformity of the heater elements at a small size below 100 nm is...Molybdenum was chosen for the cathode tube material because it has a low sputtering coefficient, and it’s high temperature properties .. The tubes are

  1. Could dromedary camels develop stereotypy? The first description of stereotypical behaviour in housed male dromedary camels and how it is affected by different management systems.

    PubMed

    Padalino, Barbara; Aubé, Lydiane; Fatnassi, Meriem; Monaco, Davide; Khorchani, Touhami; Hammadi, Mohamed; Lacalandra, Giovanni Michele

    2014-01-01

    Dromedary camel husbandry has recently been evolving towards a semi-intensive system, due to the changes in use of the animal and the settlement of nomadic populations. Captivity could restrict its social activities, limiting the expression of various behavioural needs and causing the manifestation of stereotypy. The aims of this trial were, firstly, to identify and describe some stereotypical behaviours in captive male dromedary camels used for artificial insemination and, secondly, to study the effects on them of the following husbandry management systems: i) housing in single boxes for 24 hours (H24), ii) housing in single boxes for 23 hours with one hour free in the paddock (H23), and iii) housing in single boxes for 22 hours 30 min with 1 h of paddock time and 30 min exposure to a female camel herd (ExF). Every day, the camels were filmed in their single box in the morning for 30 minutes to record their behavioural activities and a focal animal sampling ethogram was filled in. In this study, male camels showed both oral and locomotor stereotypy most frequently when the bulls were reared in H24. Overall, this preliminary study is a starting point in the identification of stereotypies in male camels, reporting the positive effects of spending one hour outdoor and of social interaction with females.

  2. Could Dromedary Camels Develop Stereotypy? The First Description of Stereotypical Behaviour in Housed Male Dromedary Camels and How It Is Affected by Different Management Systems

    PubMed Central

    Padalino, Barbara; Aubé, Lydiane; Fatnassi, Meriem; Monaco, Davide; Khorchani, Touhami; Hammadi, Mohamed; Lacalandra, Giovanni Michele

    2014-01-01

    Dromedary camel husbandry has recently been evolving towards a semi-intensive system, due to the changes in use of the animal and the settlement of nomadic populations. Captivity could restrict its social activities, limiting the expression of various behavioural needs and causing the manifestation of stereotypy. The aims of this trial were, firstly, to identify and describe some stereotypical behaviours in captive male dromedary camels used for artificial insemination and, secondly, to study the effects on them of the following husbandry management systems: i) housing in single boxes for 24 hours (H24), ii) housing in single boxes for 23 hours with one hour free in the paddock (H23), and iii) housing in single boxes for 22 hours 30 min with 1 h of paddock time and 30 min exposure to a female camel herd (ExF). Every day, the camels were filmed in their single box in the morning for 30 minutes to record their behavioural activities and a focal animal sampling ethogram was filled in. In this study, male camels showed both oral and locomotor stereotypy most frequently when the bulls were reared in H24. Overall, this preliminary study is a starting point in the identification of stereotypies in male camels, reporting the positive effects of spending one hour outdoor and of social interaction with females. PMID:24586522

  3. Males and Eating Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Males and Eating Disorders Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of Contents For ... this page please turn Javascript on. Photo: PhotoDisc Eating disorders primarily affect girls and women, but boys and ...

  4. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Provides instructions and a list of materials needed to demonstrate: (1) a model of the quantum mechanical atom; (2) principles involved in metal corrosion and in the prevention of this destructive process by electrochemical means; and (3) a Thermit reaction, modified to make it more dramatic and interesting for students. (SK)

  5. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L.

    1983-01-01

    An apparatus is described in which effects of pressure, volume, and temperature changes on a gas can be observed simultaneously. Includes use of the apparatus in demonstrating Boyle's, Gay-Lussac's, and Charles' Laws, attractive forces, Dalton's Law of Partial pressures, and in illustrating measurable vapor pressures of liquids and some solids.…

  6. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Two demonstrations are described. The first shows the effect of polarity on solubility. The second is based on the unexpected formation of a precipitate of barium nitrate when barium carbonate or barium phosphate is treated with dilute nitric acid. List of materials needed and procedures used are included. (JN)

  7. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Provides instructions and a list of materials needed to demonstrate: (1) a model of the quantum mechanical atom; (2) principles involved in metal corrosion and in the prevention of this destructive process by electrochemical means; and (3) a Thermit reaction, modified to make it more dramatic and interesting for students. (SK)

  8. Tested Demonstrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1976-01-01

    Describes two demonstrations: one that illustrates the attainment of equilibrium in first-order reactions by changing the volumes of two beakers of water at a specified rate, and another that illustrates the role of indicators in showing pH changes in buffer solutions. (MLH)

  9. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses three broad classes of magnetic behavior: diamagnetic, paramagnetic, and ferromagnetic. Presents a simple lecture demonstration using an overhead projector to synthesize triiron tetraoxide and to show its interaction with a magnetic field and comparing it to a paramagnetic material. (MVL)

  10. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Describes two demonstrations to illustrate characteristics of substances. Outlines a method to detect the changes in pH levels during the electrolysis of water. Uses water pistols, one filled with methane gas and the other filled with water, to illustrate the differences in these two substances. (TW)

  11. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Describes two demonstrations that require almost no preparation time, are visually stimulating, and present a variety of material for class discussion (with sample questions provided). The first involves a sodium bicarbonate hydrochloric acid volcano; the second involves a dissolving polystyrene cup. Procedures used and information on…

  12. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L.

    1983-01-01

    An apparatus is described in which effects of pressure, volume, and temperature changes on a gas can be observed simultaneously. Includes use of the apparatus in demonstrating Boyle's, Gay-Lussac's, and Charles' Laws, attractive forces, Dalton's Law of Partial pressures, and in illustrating measurable vapor pressures of liquids and some solids.…

  13. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Describes two demonstrations that require almost no preparation time, are visually stimulating, and present a variety of material for class discussion (with sample questions provided). The first involves a sodium bicarbonate hydrochloric acid volcano; the second involves a dissolving polystyrene cup. Procedures used and information on…

  14. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Background information, procedures, and typical results obtained are provided for two demonstrations. The first involves the colorful complexes of copper(II). The second involves reverse-phase separation of Food, Drug, and Cosmetic (FD & C) dyes using a solvent gradient. (JN)

  15. Tested Demonstrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1976-01-01

    Describes two demonstrations: one that illustrates the attainment of equilibrium in first-order reactions by changing the volumes of two beakers of water at a specified rate, and another that illustrates the role of indicators in showing pH changes in buffer solutions. (MLH)

  16. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cliche, Jean-Marie; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes two demonstrations: 1) the effect of polarity on solubility using sodium dichromate, TTE, ligroin, and water to form nonpolar-polar-nonpolar layers with the polar layer being colored; 2) determination of egg whites to be yellow by determining the content of yellow colored riboflavin in the egg white. (MVL)

  17. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Describes two demonstrations to illustrate characteristics of substances. Outlines a method to detect the changes in pH levels during the electrolysis of water. Uses water pistols, one filled with methane gas and the other filled with water, to illustrate the differences in these two substances. (TW)

  18. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Background information, procedures, and typical results obtained are provided for two demonstrations. The first involves the colorful complexes of copper(II). The second involves reverse-phase separation of Food, Drug, and Cosmetic (FD & C) dyes using a solvent gradient. (JN)

  19. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Describes two demonstrations for use in chemistry instruction. The first illustrates the preparation of a less common oxide of iron, showing why this oxide is rare. The second is an explosion reaction of hydrogen and oxygen that is recommended for use as an attention-getting device. (TW)

  20. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Two demonstrations are described. The first shows the effect of polarity on solubility. The second is based on the unexpected formation of a precipitate of barium nitrate when barium carbonate or barium phosphate is treated with dilute nitric acid. List of materials needed and procedures used are included. (JN)