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Sample records for affected picture naming

  1. Interference in Joint Picture Naming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gambi, Chiara; Van de Cavey, Joris; Pickering, Martin J.

    2015-01-01

    In 4 experiments we showed that picture naming latencies are affected by beliefs about the task concurrently performed by another speaker. Participants took longer to name pictures when they believed that their partner concurrently named pictures than when they believed their partner was silent (Experiments 1 and 4) or concurrently categorized the…

  2. Lexical-semantic variables affecting picture and word naming in Chinese: a mixed logit model study in aphasia.

    PubMed

    Crepaldi, Davide; Che, Wei-Chun; Su, I-Fan; Luzzatti, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    Lexical-semantic variables (such as word frequency, imageability and age of acquisition) have been studied extensively in neuropsychology to address the structure of the word production system. The evidence available on this issue is still rather controversial, mainly because of the very complex interrelations between lexical-semantic variables. Moreover, it is not clear whether the results obtained in Indo-European languages also hold in languages with a completely different structure and script, such as Chinese. The objective of the present study is to investigate this specific issue by studying the effect of word frequency, imageability, age of acquisition, visual complexity of the stimuli, grammatical class and morphological structure in word and picture naming in Chinese. The effect of these variables on naming and reading accuracy of healthy and brain-damaged individuals is evaluated using mixed-effect models, a statistical technique that allows to model both fixed and random effects; this feature substantially enhances the statistical power of the technique, so that several variables - and their complex interrelations - can be handled effectively in a unique analysis. We found that grammatical class interacts consistently across tasks with morphological structure: all participants, both healthy and brain-damaged, found simple nouns significantly easier to read and name than complex nouns, whereas simple and complex verbs were of comparable difficulty. We also found that imageability was a strong predictor in picture naming, but not in word naming, whereas the contrary held true for age of acquisition. These results are taken to indicate the existence of a morphological level of processing in the Chinese word production system, and that reading aloud may occur along a non-semantic route (either lexical or sub-lexical) in this language. PMID:22713389

  3. Timed picture naming in seven languages

    PubMed Central

    BATES, ELIZABETH; D’AMICO, SIMONA; JACOBSEN, THOMAS; SZÉKELY, ANNA; ANDONOVA, ELENA; DEVESCOVI, ANTONELLA; HERRON, DAN; LU, CHING CHING; PECHMANN, THOMAS; PLÉH, CSABA; WICHA, NICOLE; FEDERMEIER, KARA; GERDJIKOVA, IRINI; GUTIERREZ, GABRIEL; HUNG, DAISY; HSU, JEANNE; IYER, GOWRI; KOHNERT, KATHERINE; MEHOTCHEVA, TEODORA; OROZCO-FIGUEROA, ARACELI; TZENG, ANGELA; TZENG, OVID

    2012-01-01

    Timed picture naming was compared in seven languages that vary along dimensions known to affect lexical access. Analyses over items focused on factors that determine cross-language universals and cross-language disparities. With regard to universals, number of alternative names had large effects on reaction time within and across languages after target–name agreement was controlled, suggesting inhibitory effects from lexical competitors. For all the languages, word frequency and goodness of depiction had large effects, but objective picture complexity did not. Effects of word structure variables (length, syllable structure, compounding, and initial frication) varied markedly over languages. Strong cross-language correlations were found in naming latencies, frequency, and length. Other-language frequency effects were observed (e.g., Chinese frequencies predicting Spanish reaction times) even after within-language effects were controlled (e.g., Spanish frequencies predicting Spanish reaction times). These surprising cross-language correlations challenge widely held assumptions about the lexical locus of length and frequency effects, suggesting instead that they may (at least in part) reflect familiarity and accessibility at a conceptual level that is shared over languages. PMID:12921412

  4. Different Loci of Semantic Interference in Picture Naming vs. Word-Picture Matching Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Denise Y.; Schnur, Tatiana T.

    2016-01-01

    Naming pictures and matching words to pictures belonging to the same semantic category impairs performance relative to when stimuli come from different semantic categories (i.e., semantic interference). Despite similar semantic interference phenomena in both picture naming and word-picture matching tasks, the locus of interference has been attributed to different levels of the language system – lexical in naming and semantic in word-picture matching. Although both tasks involve access to shared semantic representations, the extent to which interference originates and/or has its locus at a shared level remains unclear, as these effects are often investigated in isolation. We manipulated semantic context in cyclical picture naming and word-picture matching tasks, and tested whether factors tapping semantic-level (generalization of interference to novel category items) and lexical-level processes (interactions with lexical frequency) affected the magnitude of interference, while also assessing whether interference occurs at a shared processing level(s) (transfer of interference across tasks). We found that semantic interference in naming was sensitive to both semantic- and lexical-level processes (i.e., larger interference for novel vs. old and low- vs. high-frequency stimuli), consistent with a semantically mediated lexical locus. Interference in word-picture matching exhibited stable interference for old and novel stimuli and did not interact with lexical frequency. Further, interference transferred from word-picture matching to naming. Together, these experiments provide evidence to suggest that semantic interference in both tasks originates at a shared processing stage (presumably at the semantic level), but that it exerts its effect at different loci when naming pictures vs. matching words to pictures. PMID:27242621

  5. How familiarization and repetition modulate the picture naming network

    PubMed Central

    Llorens, Anaïs; Trébuchon, Agnès; Riès, Stéphanie; Liégeois-Chauvel, Catherine; Alario, F.-Xavier

    2014-01-01

    A common strategy to reveal the components of the speech production network is to use psycholinguistic manipulations previously tested in behavioral protocols. This often disregards how implementation aspects that are nonessential for interpreting behavior may affect the neural response. We compared the electrophysiological (EEG) signature of two popular picture naming protocols involving either unfamiliar pictures without repetitions or repeated familiar pictures. We observed significant semantic interference effects in behavior but not in the EEG, contrary to some previous findings. Remarkably, the two protocols elicited clearly distinct EEG responses. These were not due to naming latency differences nor did they reflect a homogeneous modulation of amplitude over the trial time-window. The effect of protocol is attributed to the familiarization induced by the first encounter with the materials. Picture naming processes can be substantially modulated by specific protocol requirements controlled by familiarity and, to a much lesser degree, the repetition of materials. PMID:24785306

  6. Children's Picture Naming Difficulty and Errors: Effects of Age of Acquisition, Uncertainty, and Name Generality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Carla J.; Clark, James M.

    1988-01-01

    Two studies examining three correlates of child picture naming difficulty (age of name acquisition, picture-to-name uncertainty, and name generality) suggested that picture-naming reflected both the availability of the name in the lexical memory and the name's accessibility, which, in turn, partly depended on the amount of interference from…

  7. Cascaded Processing in Written Naming: Evidence from the Picture-Picture Interference Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roux, Sebastien; Bonin, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    The issue of how information flows within the lexical system in written naming was investigated in five experiments. In Experiment 1, participants named target pictures that were accompanied by context pictures having phonologically and orthographically related or unrelated names (e.g., a picture of a "ball" superimposed on a picture of a "bed").…

  8. Decomposition of Repetition Priming Components in Picture Naming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Wendy S.; Corral, Nuvia I.; Jones, Mary L.; Saenz, Silvia P.

    2008-01-01

    Cognitive mechanisms underlying repetition priming in picture naming were decomposed in several experiments. Sets of encoding manipulations meant to selectively prime or reduce priming in object identification or word production components of picture naming were combined factorially to dissociate processes underlying priming in picture naming.…

  9. Predicting naming latencies for action pictures: Dutch norms.

    PubMed

    Shao, Zeshu; Roelofs, Ardi; Meyer, Antje S

    2014-03-01

    The present study provides Dutch norms for age of acquisition, familiarity, imageability, image agreement, visual complexity, word frequency, and word length (in syllables) for 124 line drawings of actions. Ratings were obtained from 117 Dutch participants. Word frequency was determined on the basis of the SUBTLEX-NL corpus (Keuleers, Brysbaert, & New, Behavior Research Methods, 42, 643-650, 2010). For 104 of the pictures, naming latencies and name agreement were determined in a separate naming experiment with 74 native speakers of Dutch. The Dutch norms closely corresponded to the norms for British English. Multiple regression analysis showed that age of acquisition, imageability, image agreement, visual complexity, and name agreement were significant predictors of naming latencies, whereas word frequency and word length were not. Combined with the results of a principal-component analysis, these findings suggest that variables influencing the processes of conceptual preparation and lexical selection affect latencies more strongly than do variables influencing word-form encoding. PMID:23771428

  10. Picture Naming of Cognate and Non-Cognate Nouns in Bilingual Aphasia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Patricia M.; Deslauriers, Louise

    1999-01-01

    This study investigated whether cognateness affected verbal-confrontation naming performance in balanced French/English bilingual (N-15 aphasic and 15 nonaphasic) subjects. Results of a picture-naming test showed that cognate pictures were more often correctly named in both languages than were noncognates. Some error types and self-correction…

  11. Contextual modulation of hippocampal activity during picture naming.

    PubMed

    Llorens, A; Dubarry, A-S; Trébuchon, A; Chauvel, P; Alario, F-X; Liégeois-Chauvel, C

    2016-08-01

    Picture naming is a standard task used to probe language processes in healthy and impaired speakers. It recruits a broad neural network of language related areas, among which the hippocampus is rarely included. However, the hippocampus could play a role during picture naming, subtending, for example, implicit learning of the links between pictured objects and their names. To test this hypothesis, we recorded hippocampal activity during plain picture naming, without memorization requirement; we further assessed whether this activity was modulated by contextual factors such as repetition priming and semantic interference. Local field potentials recorded from intracerebral electrodes implanted in the healthy hippocampi of epileptic patients revealed a specific and reliable pattern of activity, markedly modulated by repetition priming and semantic context. These results indicate that the hippocampus is recruited during picture naming, presumably in relation to implicit learning, with contextual factors promoting differential hippocampal processes, possibly subtended by different sub-circuitries. PMID:27380274

  12. Picture Naming and Developmental Reading Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nation, Kate

    2005-01-01

    One of the most frequently cited papers from the twenty-five years of the Journal of Research in Reading is "Object-naming Deficits in Developmental Dyslexia" by Maggie Snowling, Bente van Wagtendonk and Carolyn Stafford, published in 1988. Looking back at the paper some sixteen years after its publication, it is striking to note how topical some…

  13. Cognitive Predictors of Rapid Picture Naming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decker, Scott L.; Roberts, Alycia M.; Englund, Julia A.

    2013-01-01

    Deficits in rapid automatized naming (RAN) have been found to be a sensitive cognitive marker for children with dyslexia. However, there is a lack of consensus regarding the construct validity and theoretical neuro-cognitive processes involved in RAN. Additionally, most studies investigating RAN include a narrow range of cognitive measures. The…

  14. Brief report: enhanced picture naming in autism.

    PubMed

    Walenski, Matthew; Mostofsky, Stewart H; Gidley-Larson, Jennifer C; Ullman, Michael T

    2008-08-01

    Language and communication deficits are key diagnostic criteria for autism. However, not all aspects of language are equally affected. Here we present evidence of enhanced performance of a critical aspect of language-word processing-in children with autism. The results have implications for explanatory theories of autism and language, and for the development of therapeutic approaches. PMID:18163206

  15. Picture Naming and Verbal Fluency in Children with Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wechsler-Kashi, Deena; Schwartz, Richard G.; Cleary, Miranda

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In the present study, the authors examined lexical naming in children with cochlear implants (CIs). The goal was to determine whether children with CIs have deficits in lexical access and organization as revealed through reaction time in picture-naming and verbal fluency (VF) experiments. Method: Children with CIs (n = 20, ages 7-10) were…

  16. The Hundred Pictures Naming Test. Pictures, Manual, and HPNT Response Sheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, John P.; Glenister, Jennifer M.

    Designed for use by speech pathologists, psychologists, special educators, English-as-a-Second-Language teachers, classroom teachers, and other professionals investigating child, adolescent, and adult language, this test--the Hundred Pictures Naming Test (HPNT)--is a confrontation naming test designed to evaluate rapid naming ability across age…

  17. Development of spatial preferences for counting and picture naming.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, Birgit; Fischer, Martin H; Aschersleben, Gisa

    2015-11-01

    The direction of object enumeration reflects children's enculturation but previous work on the development of such spatial preferences has been inconsistent. Therefore, we documented directional preferences in finger counting, object counting, and picture naming for children (4 groups from 3 to 6 years, N = 104) and adults (N = 56). We found a right-side preference for finger counting in 3- to 6-year-olds and a left-side preference for counting objects and naming pictures by 6 years of age. Children were consistent in their special preferences when comparing object counting and picture naming, but not in other task pairings. Finally, spatial preferences were not related to cardinality comprehension. These results, together with other recent work, suggest a gradual development of spatial-numerical associations from early non-directional mappings into culturally constrained directional mappings. PMID:25326847

  18. My word! Interference from reading object names implies a role for competition during picture name retrieval.

    PubMed

    Vitkovitch, Melanie; Cooper, Elisa

    2012-01-01

    A related word prime has been found to interfere with picture naming after unrelated intervening trials (word-to-picture interference). Recently, Stroop-type picture-word interference effects have been interpreted in terms of a postlexical response exclusion process rather than a competitive lexical selection process. An experiment is reported that examines whether word-to-picture effects could reflect response exclusion mechanisms and, more generally, strategic processing of the word prime. Forty-eight volunteer university students named aloud sequences of semantically related (and unrelated) word primes and picture targets, separated by two unrelated filler stimuli. On half of the trials, participants were asked to count backwards in threes from a random number presented immediately after naming the prime word. They were also given a surprise recall test at the end of the naming block. Results for naming times and errors indicated a main effect of relatedness; semantic interference effects were not dependent on the unfilled gap following the word prime trial and were also not tied to episodic recall of prime words. The data indicate that slowed picture naming times are more likely to emerge from processes intrinsic to word prime naming rather than controlled processing and do not readily fit the postlexical response exclusion account. The results are considered in relation to two recent accounts of interference over unrelated trials, which refer to some form of competition at, or prior to, lexical access. PMID:22390174

  19. Improved Vocabulary Production after Naming Therapy in Aphasia: Can Gains in Picture Naming Generalise to Connected Speech?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conroy, Paul; Sage, Karen; Ralph, Matt Lambon

    2009-01-01

    Background: Naming accuracy for nouns and verbs in aphasia can vary across different elicitation contexts, for example, simple picture naming, composite picture description, narratives, and conversation. For some people with aphasia, naming may be more accurate to simple pictures as opposed to naming in spontaneous, connected speech; for others,…

  20. Written distractor words influence brain activity during overt picture naming

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Michele T.; Hogstrom, Larson J.; Zhuang, Jie; Voyvodic, James T.; Johnson, Micah A.; Camblin, C. Christine

    2014-01-01

    Language production requires multiple stages of processing (e.g., semantic retrieval, lexical selection), each of which may involve distinct brain regions. Distractor words can be combined with picture naming to examine factors that influence language production. Phonologically-related distractors have been found to speed picture naming (facilitation), while slower response times and decreased accuracy (interference) generally occur when a distractor is categorically related to the target image. However, other types of semantically-related distractors have been reported to produce a facilitative effect (e.g., associative, part-whole). The different pattern of results for different types of semantically-related distractors raises the question about how the nature of the semantic relation influences the effect of the distractor. To explore the nature of these semantic effects further, we used functional MRI to examine the influence of four types of written distractors on brain activation during overt picture naming. Distractors began with the same sound, were categorically-related, part of the object to be named, or were unrelated to the picture. Phonologically-related trials elicited greater activation than both semantic conditions (categorically-related and part-whole) in left insula and bilateral parietal cortex, regions that have been attributed to phonological aspects of production and encoding, respectively. Semantic conditions elicited greater activation than phonological trials in left posterior MTG, a region that has been linked to concept retrieval and semantic integration. Overall, the two semantic conditions did not differ substantially in their functional activation which suggests a similarity in the semantic demands and lexical competition across these two conditions. PMID:24715859

  1. Dynamic reorganization of functional brain networks during picture naming.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Mahmoud; Benquet, Pascal; Biraben, Arnaud; Berrou, Claude; Dufor, Olivier; Wendling, Fabrice

    2015-12-01

    For efficient information processing during cognitive activity, functional brain networks have to rapidly and dynamically reorganize on a sub-second time scale. Tracking the spatiotemporal dynamics of large scale networks over this short time duration is a very challenging issue. Here, we tackle this problem by using dense electroencephalography (EEG) recorded during a picture naming task. We found that (i) the picture naming task can be divided into six brain network states (BNSs) characterized by significantly high synchronization of gamma (30-45 Hz) oscillations, (ii) fast transitions occur between these BNSs that last from 30 msec to 160 msec, (iii) based on the state of the art of the picture naming task, we consider that the spatial location of their nodes and edges, as well as the timing of transitions, indicate that each network can be associated with one or several specific function (from visual processing to articulation) and (iv) the comparison with previously-used approach aimed at localizing the sources showed that the network-based approach reveals networks that are more specific to the performed task. We speculate that the persistence of several brain regions in successive BNSs participates to fast and efficient information processing in the brain. PMID:26478964

  2. Cognate Effects in Picture Naming: Does Cross-Language Activation Survive a Change of Script?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoshino, Noriko; Kroll, Judith F.

    2008-01-01

    Bilinguals are faster to name a picture in one language when the picture's name is a cognate in the other language. We asked whether cognate facilitation in picture naming would be obtained for bilinguals whose two languages differ in script. Spanish-English and Japanese-English bilinguals named cognate and noncognate pictures in English, their…

  3. Electrophysiological effects of semantic context in picture and word naming.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Niels; Carreiras, Manuel; Barber, Horacio A

    2011-08-01

    Recent language production studies have started to use electrophysiological measures to investigate the time course of word selection processes. An important contribution with respect to this issue comes from studies that have relied on an effect of semantic context in the semantic blocking task. Here we used this task to further establish the empirical pattern associated with the effect of semantic context, and whether the effect arises during output processing. Electrophysiological and reaction time measures were co-registered while participants overtly named picture and word stimuli in the semantic blocking task. The results revealed inhibitory reaction time effects of semantic context for both words and pictures, and a corresponding electrophysiological effect that could not be interpreted in terms of output processes. These data suggest that the electrophysiological effect of semantic context in the semantic blocking task does not reflect output processes, and therefore undermine an interpretation of this effect in terms of word selection. PMID:21600993

  4. Lexical frequency effects on articulation: a comparison of picture naming and reading aloud

    PubMed Central

    Mousikou, Petroula; Rastle, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated whether lexical frequency, a variable that is known to affect the time taken to utter a verbal response, may also influence articulation. Pairs of words that differed in terms of their relative frequency, but were matched on their onset, vowel, and number of phonemes (e.g., map vs. mat, where the former is more frequent than the latter) were used in a picture naming and a reading aloud task. Low-frequency items yielded slower response latencies than high-frequency items in both tasks, with the frequency effect being significantly larger in picture naming compared to reading aloud. Also, initial-phoneme durations were longer for low-frequency items than for high-frequency items. The frequency effect on initial-phoneme durations was slightly more prominent in picture naming than in reading aloud, yet its size was very small, thus preventing us from concluding that lexical frequency exerts an influence on articulation. Additionally, initial-phoneme and whole-word durations were significantly longer in reading aloud compared to picture naming. We discuss our findings in the context of current theories of reading aloud and speech production, and the approaches they adopt in relation to the nature of information flow (staged vs. cascaded) between cognitive and articulatory levels of processing. PMID:26528223

  5. Effects of Semantic Elaboration and Typicality on Picture Naming in Alzheimer Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morelli, Claudia A.; Altmann, Lori J. P.; Kendall, Diane; Fischler, Ira; Heilman, Kennneth M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Individuals with probable Alzheimer disease (pAD) are frequently impaired at picture naming. This study examined whether a semantic elaboration task would facilitate naming in pAD, and whether training either semantically typical or atypical stimulus items facilitated generalized improvement in picture naming and category generation…

  6. Age of Acquisition and Word Frequency Effects in Picture Naming: A Dual-Task Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dent, Kevin; Johnston, Robert A.; Humphreys, Glyn W.

    2008-01-01

    In 2 experiments, the authors explored age of acquisition (AoA) and word frequency (WF) effects in picture naming using the psychological refractory period paradigm. In Experiment 1, participants named a picture and then, a short time later, categorized 1 of 3 possible auditory tones as high, medium, or low. Both AoA (Experiment 1A) and WF…

  7. When Names and Schools Collide: Critically Analyzing Depictions of Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Children Negotiating Their Names in Picture Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Tina; Franzak, Judith K.

    2016-01-01

    Names and experiences in schools are often tied together in a child's identity formation. This is true for all children, but becomes an increasingly important topic as classrooms in the United States are becoming more diverse. In this study, we seek to explore the idea of names as identity in picture books depicting minority children. In doing so,…

  8. Distinct Effects of Lexical and Semantic Competition during Picture Naming in Younger Adults, Older Adults, and People with Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Britt, Allison E.; Ferrara, Casey; Mirman, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Producing a word requires selecting among a set of similar alternatives. When many semantically related items become activated, the difficulty of the selection process is increased. Experiment 1 tested naming of items with either multiple synonymous labels (“Alternate Names,” e.g., gift/present) or closely semantically related but non-equivalent responses (“Near Semantic Neighbors,” e.g., jam/jelly). Picture naming was fastest and most accurate for pictures with only one label (“High Name Agreement”), slower and less accurate in the Alternate Names condition, and slowest and least accurate in the Near Semantic Neighbors condition. These results suggest that selection mechanisms in picture naming operate at two distinct levels of processing: selecting between similar but non-equivalent names requires two selection processes (semantic and lexical), whereas selecting among equivalent names only requires one selection at the lexical level. Experiment 2 examined how these selection mechanisms are affected by normal aging and found that older adults had significantly more difficulty in the Near Semantic Neighbors condition, but not in the Alternate Names condition. This suggests that aging affects semantic processing and selection more strongly than it affects lexical selection. Experiment 3 examined the role of the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) in these selection processes by testing individuals with aphasia secondary to stroke lesions that either affected the LIFG or spared it. Surprisingly, there was no interaction between condition and lesion group: the presence of LIFG damage was not associated with substantively worse naming performance for pictures with multiple acceptable labels. These results are not consistent with a simple view of LIFG as the locus of lexical selection and suggest a more nuanced view of the neural basis of lexical and semantic selection. PMID:27458393

  9. Distinct Effects of Lexical and Semantic Competition during Picture Naming in Younger Adults, Older Adults, and People with Aphasia.

    PubMed

    Britt, Allison E; Ferrara, Casey; Mirman, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Producing a word requires selecting among a set of similar alternatives. When many semantically related items become activated, the difficulty of the selection process is increased. Experiment 1 tested naming of items with either multiple synonymous labels ("Alternate Names," e.g., gift/present) or closely semantically related but non-equivalent responses ("Near Semantic Neighbors," e.g., jam/jelly). Picture naming was fastest and most accurate for pictures with only one label ("High Name Agreement"), slower and less accurate in the Alternate Names condition, and slowest and least accurate in the Near Semantic Neighbors condition. These results suggest that selection mechanisms in picture naming operate at two distinct levels of processing: selecting between similar but non-equivalent names requires two selection processes (semantic and lexical), whereas selecting among equivalent names only requires one selection at the lexical level. Experiment 2 examined how these selection mechanisms are affected by normal aging and found that older adults had significantly more difficulty in the Near Semantic Neighbors condition, but not in the Alternate Names condition. This suggests that aging affects semantic processing and selection more strongly than it affects lexical selection. Experiment 3 examined the role of the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) in these selection processes by testing individuals with aphasia secondary to stroke lesions that either affected the LIFG or spared it. Surprisingly, there was no interaction between condition and lesion group: the presence of LIFG damage was not associated with substantively worse naming performance for pictures with multiple acceptable labels. These results are not consistent with a simple view of LIFG as the locus of lexical selection and suggest a more nuanced view of the neural basis of lexical and semantic selection. PMID:27458393

  10. Infant VEPs reveal neural correlates of implicit naming: Lateralized differences between lexicalized versus name-unknown pictures

    PubMed Central

    Styles, Suzy J.; Plunkett, Kim; Duta, Mihaela D.

    2015-01-01

    Recent behavioural studies with toddlers have demonstrated that simply viewing a picture in silence triggers a cascade of linguistic processing which activates a representation of the picture’s name (Mani and Plunkett, 2010, 2011). Electrophysiological studies have also shown that viewing a picture modulates the auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) triggered by later speech, from early in the second year of life (Duta et al., 2012; Friedrich and Friederici, 2005; Mani et al., 2011) further supporting the notion that picture viewing gives rise to a representation of the picture’s name against which later speech can be matched. However, little is known about how and when the implicit name arises during picture viewing, or about the electrophysiological activity which supports this linguistic process. We report differences in the visual evoked potentials (VEPs) of fourteen-month-old infants who saw photographs of animals and objects, some of which were name-known (lexicalized), while waiting for an auditory label to be presented. During silent picture viewing, lateralized neural activity was selectively triggered by lexicalized items, as compared to nameless items. Lexicalized items generated a short-lasting negative-going deflection over frontal, left centro-temporal, and left occipital regions shortly after the picture appeared (126–225 ms). A positive deflection was also observed over the right hemisphere (particularly centro-temporal regions) in a later, longer-lasting window (421–720 ms). The lateralization of these differences in the VEP suggests the possible involvement of linguistic processes during picture viewing, and may reflect activity involved in the implicit activation of the picture’s name. PMID:26232744

  11. A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to Articulation: N400 Attenuation despite Behavioral Interference in Picture Naming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackford, Trevor; Holcomb, Phillip J.; Grainger, Jonathan; Kuperberg, Gina R.

    2012-01-01

    We measured Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) and naming times to picture targets preceded by masked words (stimulus onset asynchrony: 80 ms) that shared one of three different types of relationship with the names of the pictures: (1) Identity related, in which the prime was the name of the picture ("socks"--[picture of socks]), (2) Phonemic Onset…

  12. Doing Molecular Biophysics: Finding, Naming, and Picturing Signal Within Complexity

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Jane S.; Richardson, David C.

    2013-01-01

    A macromolecular structure, as measured data or as a list of coordinates or even on-screen as a full atomic model, is an extremely complex and confusing object. The underlying rules of how it folds, moves, and interacts as a biological entity are even less evident or intuitive to the human mind. To do science on such molecules, or to relate them usefully to higher levels of biology, we need to start with a natural history that names their features in meaningful ways and with multiple representations (visual or algebraic) that show some aspect of their organizing principles. The two of us have jointly enjoyed a highly varied and engrossing career in biophysical research over nearly 50 years. Our frequent changes of emphasis are tied together by two threads: first, by finding the right names, visualizations, and methods to help both ourselves and others to better understand the 3D structures of protein and RNA molecules, and second, by redefining the boundary between signal and noise for complex data, in both directions—sometimes identifying and promoting real signal up out of what seemed just noise, and sometimes demoting apparent signal into noise or systematic error. Here we relate parts of our scientific and personal lives, including ups and downs, influences, anecdotes, and guiding principles such as the title theme. PMID:23451888

  13. Doing molecular biophysics: finding, naming, and picturing signal within complexity.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Jane S; Richardson, David C

    2013-01-01

    A macromolecular structure, as measured data or as a list of coordinates or even on-screen as a full atomic model, is an extremely complex and confusing object. The underlying rules of how it folds, moves, and interacts as a biological entity are even less evident or intuitive to the human mind. To do science on such molecules, or to relate them usefully to higher levels of biology, we need to start with a natural history that names their features in meaningful ways and with multiple representations (visual or algebraic) that show some aspect of their organizing principles. The two of us have jointly enjoyed a highly varied and engrossing career in biophysical research over nearly 50 years. Our frequent changes of emphasis are tied together by two threads: first, by finding the right names, visualizations, and methods to help both ourselves and others to better understand the 3D structures of protein and RNA molecules, and second, by redefining the boundary between signal and noise for complex data, in both directions-sometimes identifying and promoting real signal up out of what seemed just noise, and sometimes demoting apparent signal into noise or systematic error. Here we relate parts of our scientific and personal lives, including ups and downs, influences, anecdotes, and guiding principles such as the title theme. PMID:23451888

  14. Assessing Lexicon: Validation and Developmental Data of the Picture Naming Game (PiNG), a New Picture Naming Task for Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bello, A.; Giannantoni, P.; Pettenati, P.; Stefanini, S.; Caselli, M. C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Understanding lexical abilities in infants and toddlers is important, yet no single tool can be used. Aims: To perform a validation of a new tool (known as the Picture Naming Game, or "PiNG") for assessing lexical comprehension and production in toddlers and to obtain developmental trends for Italian children. Methods & Procedures:…

  15. The Impact of Semantic Transparency of Morphologically Complex Words on Picture Naming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dohmes, Petra; Zwitserlood, Pienie; Bolte, Jens

    2004-01-01

    We examined the contribution of semantic similarity to morphological priming effects, using the immediate (Exp. 1 and 3) and the delayed variant (Exp. 2) of picture-word interference. Distractor words were either compounds morphologically related to the picture name, but differing with respect to their semantic transparency (hummingbird, jailbird…

  16. Phonological Facilitation through Translation in a Bilingual Picture-Naming Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knupsky, Aimee C.; Amrhein, Paul C.

    2007-01-01

    We present a critical examination of phonological effects in a picture-word interference task. Using a methodology minimizing stimulus repetition, English/Spanish and Spanish/English bilinguals named pictures in either L1 or L2 (blocked contexts) or in both (mixed contexts) while ignoring word distractors in L1 or L2. Distractors were either…

  17. Investigating the Interplay between Semantic and Phonological Distractor Effects in Picture Naming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melinger, Alissa; Rahman, Rasha Abdel

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the interplay between phonological facilitation and semantic interference effects in picture naming. We use a double distractor variant of the classic picture-word interference paradigm to investigate whether the reported interaction between these effects is dependent on the two types of related information being…

  18. The impact of semantic transparency of morphologically complex words on picture naming.

    PubMed

    Dohmes, Petra; Zwitserlood, Pienie; Bölte, Jens

    2004-01-01

    We examined the contribution of semantic similarity to morphological priming effects, using the immediate (Exp. 1 and 3) and the delayed variant (Exp. 2) of picture-word interference. Distractor words were either compounds morphologically related to the picture name, but differing with respect to their semantic transparency (hummingbird, jailbird (Exp. 1); butterfly, butter dish (Exp. 3)), or form-related non-compound words (e.g., trombone). All three experiments revealed strong facilitation of picture naming due to morphologically related distractors. Form-related distractors facilitated picture naming in the immediate variant only, and to a lesser degree than compounds. Interestingly, the size of the morphemic effect was almost identical for semantically transparent and opaque complex words, which suggests that they share morphemic representations. These results suggest that morphological complexity in speech production is coded at the level of form representations, independent of semantic transparency. PMID:15172538

  19. Testing the embodied account of object naming: a concurrent motor task affects naming artifacts and animals.

    PubMed

    Matheson, Heath E; White, Nicole; McMullen, Patricia A

    2014-01-01

    Embodied theories of object representation propose that the same neural networks are involved in encoding and retrieving object knowledge. In the present study, we investigated whether motor programs play a causal role in the retrieval of object names. Participants performed an object-naming task while squeezing a sponge with either their right or left hand. The objects were artifacts (e.g. hammer) or animals (e.g. giraffe) and were presented in an orientation that favored a grasp or not. We hypothesized that, if activation of motor programs is necessary to retrieve object knowledge, then concurrent motor activity would interfere with naming manipulable artifacts but not non-manipulable animals. In Experiment 1, we observed naming interference for all objects oriented towards the occupied hand. In Experiment 2, we presented the objects in more 'canonical orientations'. Participants named all objects more quickly when they were oriented towards the occupied hand. Together, these interference/facilitation effects suggest that concurrent motor activity affects naming for both categories. These results also suggest that picture-plane orientation interacts with an attentional bias that is elicited by the objects and their relationship to the occupied hand. These results may be more parsimoniously accounted for by a domain-general attentional effect, constraining the embodied theory of object representations. We suggest that researchers should scrutinize attentional accounts of other embodied cognitive effects. PMID:24291119

  20. Factors Influencing the Response Latencies of Subnormal Children in Naming Pictures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Colin

    1978-01-01

    The time taken to name 56 drawings of objects on five separate occasions were analyzed for 21 ESN(M) children (i.e., moderately educationally subnormal) and 21 ESN(S) children (i.e., severely educationally subnormal), matched for picture-naming vocabulary. Results were discussed in terms of the Oldfield (1964) and Lachman (1973) models of lexical…

  1. Bilingual Language Processing and Interference in Bilinguals: Evidence from Eye Tracking and Picture Naming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Marian, Viorica

    2007-01-01

    Recognition and interference of a nontarget language (Russian) during production in a target language (English) were tested in Russian-English bilinguals using eye movements and picture naming. In Experiment 1, Russian words drew more eye movements and delayed English naming to a greater extent than control nonwords and English translation…

  2. Emotion and motivated behavior: postural adjustments to affective picture viewing.

    PubMed

    Hillman, Charles H; Rosengren, Karl S; Smith, Darin P

    2004-03-01

    Thirty-six participants (18 female, 18 male) viewed affective pictures to investigate the coupling between emotional reactions and motivated behavior. Framed within the biphasic theory of emotion, the three systems approach was employed by collecting measures of subjective report, expressive physiology, and motivated behavior. Postural adjustments associated with viewing affective pictures were measured. Results indicated sex-differences for postural responses to unpleasant pictures; an effect not found for pleasant and neutral picture contents. Females exhibited increased postural movement in the posterior direction, and males exhibited increased movement in the anterior direction, for unpleasant pictures. Subjective report of valence and arousal using the self-assessment manikin (SAM), and the startle eye-blink reflex were collected during a separate session, which replicated previous picture-viewing research. Specifically, participants rated pleasant pictures higher in valence and exhibited smaller startle responses compared to unpleasant pictures. Females also reported lower valence ratings compared to males across all picture contents. These findings extend our knowledge of motivated engagement with affective stimuli and indicate that postural responses may provide insight into sex-related differences in withdrawal behavior. PMID:15019170

  3. Picture-Induced Semantic Interference Reflects Lexical Competition during Object Naming

    PubMed Central

    Aristei, Sabrina; Zwitserlood, Pienie; Rahman, Rasha Abdel

    2012-01-01

    With a picture–picture experiment, we contrasted competitive and non-competitive models of lexical selection during language production. Participants produced novel noun–noun compounds in response to two adjacently displayed objects that were categorically related or unrelated (e.g., depicted objects: apple and cherry; naming response: “apple–cherry”). We observed semantic interference, with slower compound naming for related relative to unrelated pictures, very similar to interference effects produced by semantically related context words in picture–word-interference paradigms. This finding suggests that previous failures to observe reliable interference induced by context pictures may be due to the weakness of lexical activation and competition induced by pictures, relative to words. The production of both picture names within one integrated compound word clearly enhances lexical activation, resulting in measurable interference effects. We interpret this interference as resulting from lexical competition, because the alternative interpretation, in terms of response-exclusion from the articulatory buffer, does not apply to pictures, even when they are named. PMID:22363304

  4. Real-time processing in picture naming in adults who stutter: ERP evidence

    PubMed Central

    Maxfield, Nathan D.; Morris, Kalie; Frisch, Stefan A.; Morphew, Kathryn; Constantine, Joseph L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim was to compare real-time language/cognitive processing in picture naming in adults who stutter (AWS) versus typically-fluent adults (TFA). Methods Participants named pictures preceded by masked prime words. Primes and target picture labels were Identical or mismatched. Priming effects on naming and picture-elicited ERP activity were analyzed. Vocabulary knowledge correlations with these measures were assessed. Results Priming improved naming RTs and accuracy in both groups. RTs were longer for AWS, and correlated positively with receptive vocabulary in TFA. Electrophysiologically, posterior-P1 amplitude negatively correlated with expressive vocabulary in TFA versus receptive vocabulary in AWS. Frontal/temporal-P1 amplitude correlated positively with expressive vocabulary in AWS. Identity priming enhanced frontal/posterior-N2 amplitude in both groups, and attenuated P280 amplitude in AWS. N400 priming was topographically-restricted in AWS. Conclusions Results suggest that conceptual knowledge was perceptually-grounded in expressive vocabulary in TFA versus receptive vocabulary in AWS. Poorer expressive vocabulary in AWS was potentially associated with greater suppression of irrelevant conceptual information. Priming enhanced N2-indexed cognitive control and visual attention in both groups. P280-indexed focal attention attenuated with priming in AWS only. Topographically-restricted N400 priming suggests that lemma/word form connections were weaker in AWS. Significance Real-time language/cognitive processing in picture naming operates differently in AWS. PMID:24910149

  5. Effects of picture content and intensity on affective physiological response

    PubMed Central

    BERNAT, EDWARD; PATRICK, CHRISTOPHER J.; BENNING, STEPHEN D.; TELLEGEN, AUKE

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of affective intensity and thematic content of foreground photographic stimuli on various physiological response systems. This was accomplished by assessing responses to pictures that varied systematically in these parameters. Along with overall effects of picture valence reported in previous work, we found effects of thematic content (i.e., specific nature of objects/events depicted) for all measures except heart rate. In addition, we found that the magnitude of startle blink, skin conductance, and corrugator muscle reactions increased with increasing affective intensity of pictures. Additionally, for these three measures, intensity effects also interacted with effects of picture content. These results indicate that stimulus parameters of intensity and thematic content exert separate—and in some cases interactive—modulatory effects on physiological reactions to emotional pictures. PMID:16629689

  6. Beyond Picture Naming: Norms and Patient Data for a Verb Generation Task**

    PubMed Central

    Kurland, Jacquie; Reber, Alisson; Stokes, Polly

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The current study aimed to: 1) acquire a set of verb generation to picture norms; and 2) probe its utility as an outcomes measure in aphasia treatment. Method Fifty healthy volunteers participated in Phase I, the verb generation normative sample. They generated verbs for 218 pictures of common objects (ISI=5s). In Phase II, four persons with aphasia (PWA) generated verbs for 60 objects (ISI=10s). Their stimuli consisted of objects which were: 1) recently trained (for object naming; n=20); 2) untrained (a control set; n=20); or 3) from a set of pictures named correctly at baseline (n=20). Verb generation was acquired twice: two months into, and following, a six-month home practice program. Results No objects elicited perfect verb agreement in the normed sample. Stimuli with the highest percent agreement were mostly artifacts and dominant verbs primary functional associates. Although not targeted in treatment or home practice, PWA mostly improved performance in verb generation post-practice. Conclusions A set of clinically and experimentally useful verb generation norms was acquired for a subset of the Snodgrass and Vanderwart (1980) picture set. More cognitively demanding than confrontation naming, this task may help to fill the sizeable gap between object picture naming and propositional speech. PMID:24686752

  7. A funny thing happened on the way to articulation: N400 attenuation despite behavioral interference in picture naming

    PubMed Central

    Blackford, Trevor; Holcomb, Phillip J.; Grainger, Jonathan; Kuperberg, Gina R.

    2013-01-01

    We measured Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) and naming times to picture targets preceded by masked words (stimulus onset asynchrony: 80 ms) that shared one of three different types of relationship with the names of the pictures: (1) Identity related, in which the prime was the name of the picture (“socks” – <picture of socks>), (2) Phonemic Onset related, in which the initial segment of the prime was the same as the name of the picture (“log” – <picture of a leaf>), and (3) Semantically related in which the prime was a co–category exemplar and associated with the name of the picture (“cake” – <picture of a pie>). Each type of related picture target was contrasted with an Unrelated picture target, resulting in a 3 × 2 design that crossed Relationship Type between the word and the target picture (Identity, Phonemic Onset and Semantic) with Relatedness (Related and Unrelated). Modulation of the N400 component to related (versus unrelated) pictures was taken to reflect semantic processing at the interface between the picture's conceptual features and its lemma, while naming times reflected the end product of all stages of processing. Both attenuation of the N400 and shorter naming times were observed to pictures preceded by Identity related (versus Unrelated) words. No ERP effects within 600 ms, but shorter naming times, were observed to pictures preceded by Phonemic Onset related (versus Unrelated) words. An attenuated N400 (electrophysiological semantic priming) but longer naming times (behavioral semantic interference) were observed to pictures preceded by Semantically related (versus Unrelated) words. These dissociations between ERP modulation and naming times suggest that (a) phonemic onset priming occurred late, during encoding of the articulatory response, and (b) semantic behavioral interference was not driven by competition at the lemma level of representation, but rather occurred at a later stage of production. PMID:22245030

  8. The effects of thematic relations on picture naming abilities across the lifespan.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Naomi; Johnson, Bethany; Peterson, Amy

    2016-07-01

    A picture-word interference paradigm tracked patterns of activation during picture naming in 87 individuals (age range 17-80 years old). Distractor words were presented at stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) of -200, -100, and 0 ms bearing a has a-, location, or no relationship to the picture. Analyses of group naming reaction times revealed significant facilitation effects for both semantic relation types for all age groups. Analyses of temporal patterns of activation revealed significant effects primarily at SOAs of -200 and -100 ms. These findings provide evidence that both thematic relations are particularly salient in how semantic knowledge is organized, and that the patterns of effects from these semantic relations remain the same as one ages. PMID:26667786

  9. Locus of Semantic Interference in Picture Naming: Evidence from Dual-Task Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piai, Vitória; Roelofs, Ardi; Schriefers, Herbert

    2014-01-01

    Disagreement exists regarding the functional locus of semantic interference of distractor words in picture naming. This effect is a cornerstone of modern psycholinguistic models of word production, which assume that it arises in lexical response-selection. However, recent evidence from studies of dual-task performance suggests a locus in…

  10. Age of Acquisition Effects in Picture Naming: Evidence for a Lexical-Semantic Competition Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belke, E.; Brysbaert, M.; Meyer, A.S.; Ghyselinck, M.

    2005-01-01

    In many tasks the effects of frequency and age of acquisition (AoA) on reaction latencies are similar in size. However, in picture naming the AoA-effect is often significantly larger than expected on the basis of the frequency-effect. Previous explanations of this frequency-independent AoA-effect have attributed it to the organisation of the…

  11. Neuroimaging the short- and long-term effects of repeated picture naming in healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Anna D; Heath, Shiree; McMahon, Katie L; Nickels, Lyndsey; Angwin, Anthony J; van Hees, Sophia; Johnson, Kori; Copland, David A

    2015-08-01

    Repeated attempts to name pictures can improve subsequent naming for aphasic individuals with anomia, however, the neurocognitive mechanisms responsible for such improvements are unknown. This study investigated repeated picture naming in healthy older adults over a period of minutes (short-term) after one repetition and a period of days (long-term) after multiple repetitions. Compared to unprimed pictures, both repeated conditions showed faster naming latencies with the fastest latencies evident for the short-term condition. Neuroimaging results identified repetition suppression effects across three left inferior frontal gyrus regions of interest: for both the short- and long-term conditions in the pars orbitalis, and for long-term items in the pars triangularis and pars opercularis regions. The whole brain analysis also showed a repetition suppression effect in bilateral pars triangularis regions for the long-term condition. These findings within the inferior frontal gyrus suggest that effects of repeated naming may be driven by a mapping mechanism across multiple levels of representation, possibly reflecting different levels of learning, and lend support to the idea that processing may be hierarchically organised in the left inferior frontal gyrus. The whole brain analysis also revealed repetition suppression for the long-term condition within the posterior portion of bilateral inferior temporal gyri, which may reflect attenuation of integration processes within this region following the learning of task-relevant information. PMID:26071256

  12. Affective picture perception: Emotion, context, and the late positive potential

    PubMed Central

    Pastor, M. Carmen; Bradley, Margaret M.; Löw, Andreas; Versace, Francesco; Moltó, Javier; Lang, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    Event-related potentials (ERP) were measured when pleasant, neutral or unpleasant pictures were presented in the context of similarly valenced stimuli, and compared to ERPs elicited when the same pictures were viewed in an intermixed context. An early ERP component (150–300 ms) measured over occipital and fronto-central sensors was specific to viewing pleasant pictures and was not affected by presentation context. Replicating previous studies, emotional pictures prompted a larger late positive potential (LPP, 400–700 ms) and a larger positive slow wave (1–6 s) over centro-parietal sensors that also did not differ by presentation context. On the other hand, ERPs elicited when viewing neutral pictures varied as a function of context, eliciting somewhat larger LPPs when presented in blocks, and prompting smaller slow waves over occipital sensors. Taken together, the data indicate that emotional pictures prompt increased attention and orienting that is unaffected by its context of presentation, whereas neutral pictures are more vulnerable to context manipulations. PMID:18068150

  13. Picture Norms for Chinese Preschool Children: Name Agreement, Familiarity, and Visual Complexity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lamei; Chen, Chia-Wen; Zhu, Liqi

    2014-01-01

    Pictorial stimuli standardized for Chinese children are still absent although it is needed in order to test the development of children's cognitive functions. This study presents normative measures for Snodgrass and Vanderwart pictures, viewed by 4- and 6-year old Chinese children. Name agreement, familiarity, and visual complexity were obtained for each age group. The data indicate substantial differences between young and older children in name agreement based on expected name, familiarity and visual complexity. The correlation pattern of the variables collected in the present study were consistent with children's norms in other languages and norms of Chinese adults, while there are cross-age and cross-culture differences in specific variables. The obtained measures represent a useful tool for further research on Chinese children's pictorial processing and constitute the first picture normative study for children in this language. PMID:24599271

  14. Neural dynamics of object noun, action verb and action noun production in picture naming.

    PubMed

    Fargier, Raphaël; Laganaro, Marina

    2015-11-01

    The verb/noun dissociation has often involved the semantic/grammatical confound. We conducted two event-related potentials (ERPs) studies with the aim of minimizing this confound. In Experiment 1 participants named pictures depicting actions, with verbs or nouns and pictures depicting objects with nouns. In Experiment 2, participants named objects (nouns) or actions (verbs/nouns) from the same set of action pictures. Compatible with lexical-semantic processes, semantic category modulated waveform amplitudes and topographic patterns between 250 and 380 ms after picture-onset in Experiment 1. No such effects were observed in Experiment 2. No effects were found for grammatical class in both experiments suggesting that grammatical information is not mandatorily activated during lexical-semantic processes. Given the absence of dissociation when same pictures were used the results are described as feed-forward effects from visual to semantic processing, indicating differential neural networks for lexical selection of action and object words from their corresponding visual referents. PMID:26433472

  15. Affective picture processing: An integrative review of ERP findings

    PubMed Central

    Olofsson, Jonas K.; Nordin, Steven; Sequeira, Henrique; Polich, John

    2008-01-01

    The review summarizes and integrates findings from 40 years of event-related potential (ERP) studies using pictures that differ in valence (unpleasant-to-pleasant) and arousal (low-to-high) and that are used to elicit emotional processing. Affective stimulus factors primarily modulate ERP component amplitude, with little change in peak latency observed. Arousal effects are consistently obtained, and generally occur at longer latencies. Valence effects are inconsistently reported at several latency ranges, including very early components. Some affective ERP modulations vary with recording methodology, stimulus factors, as well as task-relevance and emotional state. Affective ERPs have been linked theoretically to attention orientation for unpleasant pictures at earlier components (< 300 ms). Enhanced stimulus processing has been associated with memory encoding for arousing pictures of assumed intrinsic motivational relevance, with task-induced differences contributing to emotional reactivity at later components (> 300 ms). Theoretical issues, stimulus factors, task demands, and individual differences are discussed. PMID:18164800

  16. Electrophysiology of cross-language interference and facilitation in picture naming.

    PubMed

    Roelofs, Ardi; Piai, Vitória; Garrido Rodriguez, Gabriela; Chwilla, Dorothee J

    2016-03-01

    Disagreement exists about how bilingual speakers select words, in particular, whether words in another language compete, or competition is restricted to a target language, or no competition occurs. Evidence that competition occurs but is restricted to a target language comes from response time (RT) effects obtained when speakers name pictures in one language while trying to ignore distractor words in another language. Compared to unrelated distractor words, RT is longer when the picture name and distractor are semantically related, but RT is shorter when the distractor is the translation of the name of the picture in the other language. These effects suggest that distractor words from another language do not compete themselves but activate their counterparts in the target language, thereby yielding the semantic interference and translation facilitation effects. Here, we report an event-related brain potential (ERP) study testing the prediction that priming underlies both of these effects. The RTs showed semantic interference and translation facilitation effects. Moreover, the picture-word stimuli yielded an N400 response, whose amplitude was smaller on semantic and translation trials than on unrelated trials, providing evidence that interference and facilitation priming underlie the RT effects. We present the results of computer simulations showing the utility of a within-language competition account of our findings. PMID:26820686

  17. Age of Acquisition and Repetition Priming Effects on Picture Naming of Children Who Do and Do Not Stutter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Julie D.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of age of acquisition and repetition priming on picture naming latencies and errors were studied in 22 children who stutter (CWS) and 22 children who do not stutter (CWNS) between the ages of 3;1 and 5;7. Children participated in a computerized picture naming task where they named pictures of both early and late acquired (AoA) words in…

  18. Masked syllable priming effects in word and picture naming in Chinese.

    PubMed

    You, Wenping; Zhang, Qingfang; Verdonschot, Rinus G

    2012-01-01

    Four experiments investigated the role of the syllable in Chinese spoken word production. Chen, Chen and Ferrand (2003) reported a syllable priming effect when primes and targets shared the first syllable using a masked priming paradigm in Chinese. Our Experiment 1 was a direct replication of Chen et al.'s (2003) Experiment 3 employing CV (e.g., ,/ba2.ying2/, strike camp) and CVG (e.g., ,/bai2.shou3/, white haired) syllable types. Experiment 2 tested the syllable priming effect using different syllable types: e.g., CV (,/qi4.qiu2/, balloon) and CVN (,/qing1.ting2/, dragonfly). Experiment 3 investigated this issue further using line drawings of common objects as targets that were preceded either by a CV (e.g., ,/qi3/, attempt), or a CVN (e.g., ,/qing2/, affection) prime. Experiment 4 further examined the priming effect by a comparison between CV or CVN priming and an unrelated priming condition using CV-NX (e.g., ,/mi2.ni3/, mini) and CVN-CX (e.g., ,/min2.ju1/, dwellings) as target words. These four experiments consistently found that CV targets were named faster when preceded by CV primes than when they were preceded by CVG, CVN or unrelated primes, whereas CVG or CVN targets showed the reverse pattern. These results indicate that the priming effect critically depends on the match between the structure of the prime and that of the first syllable of the target. The effect obtained in this study was consistent across different stimuli and different tasks (word and picture naming), and provides more conclusive and consistent data regarding the role of the syllable in Chinese speech production. PMID:23056360

  19. Brain Potentials During Affective Picture Processing in Children

    PubMed Central

    Hajcak, Greg; Dennis, Tracy A.

    2008-01-01

    In adults, emotional (e.g., both unpleasant and pleasant) compared to neutral pictures elicit an increase in the early posterior negativity (EPN) and the late positive potential (LPP); modulation of these ERP components are thought to reflect the facilitated processing of, and increased attention to, motivationally salient stimuli. To determine whether the EPN and LPP are sensitive to emotional content in children, high-density EEG was recorded from 18 children who were 5 to 8 years of age (mean age = 77 months, SD = 11 months) while they viewed developmentally appropriate pictures selected from the International Affective Picture System. Self-reported ratings of valence and arousal were also obtained. An EPN was not evident following emotional compared to neutral pictures; however, a positivity maximal at occipital-parietal recording sites was increased from 500 to 1,000 ms following pleasant pictures and from 500 to 1,500 ms following unpleasant pictures. Comparisons between the EPN and LPP observed in children and adults, and implications for developmental studies of emotion, are discussed. PMID:19103249

  20. Affective Rating of Color and Black-and-White Pictures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winn, William; Everett, Richard J.

    1979-01-01

    This study explored the effect of grade level and sex on affective ratings of color and black-and-white pictures by having 148 students from grades 4, 7, and 12 rate color and black-and-white slides on nine semantic differential scales. (JEG)

  1. Revised and extended norms for a picture naming test sensitive to category dissociations.

    PubMed

    Laiacona, Marcella; Barbarotto, Riccardo; Baratelli, Elena; Capitani, Erminio

    2016-09-01

    This study presents revised and extended norms for a picture naming test [Laiacona et al. (Arch Neurol Psicol Psichiatr 54:209-248, 1993)], based on 80 Snodgrass and Vanderwart (J Exp Psychol Human Learn Mem 6:174-215, 1980) pictures, devised to detect a categorical dissociation in the naming of items between biological and man-made categories. This survey is based on data from 215 healthy Italian participants. Since males are more frequently reported to have a disproportionate impairment of biological categories, norms have also been separately calculated for males and females and for the two categories of man-made objects and biological entities. Besides providing new normative values based on the Equivalent Scores approach, this study reappraises the interaction between categorical dissociations and sex in the normal population, and discusses some methodological aspects concerning the use of statistical norms. PMID:27215621

  2. Lexical Priming in Picture Naming of Young Children Who Do and Do Not Stutter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellowski, Mark W.; Conture, Edward G.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to assess the influence of lexical/semantic priming on the speech reaction time of young children who do and do not stutter during a picture-naming task. Participants were 23 children who stutter, age-matched ([+ or -] 4 months) to 23 children who do not stutter, ranging in age from 3;0 (years;months) to 5;11.…

  3. Brain response to affective pictures in the chimpanzee.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Satoshi; Matsuda, Goh; Ueno, Ari; Fukushima, Hirokata; Fuwa, Koki; Sugama, Keiko; Kusunoki, Kiyo; Tomonaga, Masaki; Hiraki, Kazuo; Hasegawa, Toshikazu

    2013-01-01

    Advancement of non-invasive brain imaging techniques has allowed us to examine details of neural activities involved in affective processing in humans; however, no comparative data are available for chimpanzees, the closest living relatives of humans. In the present study, we measured event-related brain potentials in a fully awake adult chimpanzee as she looked at affective and neutral pictures. The results revealed a differential brain potential appearing 210 ms after presentation of an affective picture, a pattern similar to that in humans. This suggests that at least a part of the affective process is similar between humans and chimpanzees. The results have implications for the evolutionary foundations of emotional phenomena, such as emotional contagion and empathy. PMID:23439389

  4. Lexical selection is competitive: evidence from indirectly activated semantic associates during picture naming.

    PubMed

    Melinger, Alissa; Abdel Rahman, Rasha

    2013-03-01

    In this study, we present 3 picture-word interference (PWI) experiments designed to investigate whether lexical selection processes are competitive. We focus on semantic associative relations, which should interfere according to competitive models but not according to certain noncompetitive models. In a modified version of the PWI paradigm, distractor word pairs were simultaneously presented with the target picture. The distractor words were orthographically related directly to the target picture name (distractors: camera bagel; target: camel), indirectly related to the name of a semantic associate of the target (distractors: camera bagel; target: pyramid, an associate of camel), or unrelated. In a first experiment, which included only indirect relations, we failed to find interference from indirectly activated associates. However, in 2 subsequent experiments that included the associates as naming trials within the experiment, we demonstrated that indirect, orthographically mediated activation of associates produces reliable interference effects. The results indicate that semantic interference is not restricted to members of the same category and are problematic for models of lexical selection that do not include lexical competition. PMID:22732034

  5. Investigating the flow of information during speaking: the impact of morpho-phonological, associative, and categorical picture distractors on picture naming

    PubMed Central

    Bölte, Jens; Böhl, Andrea; Dobel, Christian; Zwitserlood, Pienie

    2015-01-01

    In three experiments, participants named target pictures by means of German compound words (e.g., Gartenstuhl–garden chair), each accompanied by two different distractor pictures (e.g., lawn mower and swimming pool). Targets and distractor pictures were semantically related either associatively (garden chair and lawn mower) or by a shared semantic category (garden chair and wardrobe). Within each type of semantic relation, target and distractor pictures either shared morpho-phonological (word-form) information (Gartenstuhl with Gartenzwerg, garden gnome, and Gartenschlauch, garden hose) or not. A condition with two completely unrelated pictures served as baseline. Target naming was facilitated when distractor and target pictures were morpho-phonologically related. This is clear evidence for the activation of word-form information of distractor pictures. Effects were larger for associatively than for categorically related distractors and targets, which constitute evidence for lexical competition. Mere categorical relatedness, in the absence of morpho-phonological overlap, resulted in null effects (Experiments 1 and 2), and only speeded target naming when effects reflect only conceptual, but not lexical processing (Experiment 3). Given that distractor pictures activate their word forms, the data cannot be easily reconciled with discrete serial models. The results fit well with models that allow information to cascade forward from conceptual to word-form levels. PMID:26528209

  6. Investigating the flow of information during speaking: the impact of morpho-phonological, associative, and categorical picture distractors on picture naming.

    PubMed

    Bölte, Jens; Böhl, Andrea; Dobel, Christian; Zwitserlood, Pienie

    2015-01-01

    In three experiments, participants named target pictures by means of German compound words (e.g., Gartenstuhl-garden chair), each accompanied by two different distractor pictures (e.g., lawn mower and swimming pool). Targets and distractor pictures were semantically related either associatively (garden chair and lawn mower) or by a shared semantic category (garden chair and wardrobe). Within each type of semantic relation, target and distractor pictures either shared morpho-phonological (word-form) information (Gartenstuhl with Gartenzwerg, garden gnome, and Gartenschlauch, garden hose) or not. A condition with two completely unrelated pictures served as baseline. Target naming was facilitated when distractor and target pictures were morpho-phonologically related. This is clear evidence for the activation of word-form information of distractor pictures. Effects were larger for associatively than for categorically related distractors and targets, which constitute evidence for lexical competition. Mere categorical relatedness, in the absence of morpho-phonological overlap, resulted in null effects (Experiments 1 and 2), and only speeded target naming when effects reflect only conceptual, but not lexical processing (Experiment 3). Given that distractor pictures activate their word forms, the data cannot be easily reconciled with discrete serial models. The results fit well with models that allow information to cascade forward from conceptual to word-form levels. PMID:26528209

  7. Priming Picture Naming with a Semantic Task: An fMRI Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Heath, Shiree; McMahon, Katie; Nickels, Lyndsey; Angwin, Anthony; MacDonald, Anna; van Hees, Sophia; Johnson, Kori; Copland, David

    2012-01-01

    Prior semantic processing can enhance subsequent picture naming performance, yet the neurocognitive mechanisms underlying this effect and its longevity are unknown. This functional magnetic resonance imaging study examined whether different neurological mechanisms underlie short-term (within minutes) and long-term (within days) facilitation effects from a semantic task in healthy older adults. Both short- and long-term facilitated items were named significantly faster than unfacilitated items, with short-term items significantly faster than long-term items. Region of interest results identified decreased activity for long-term facilitated items compared to unfacilitated and short-term facilitated items in the mid-portion of the middle temporal gyrus, indicating lexical-semantic priming. Additionally, in the whole brain results, increased activity for short-term facilitated items was identified in regions previously linked to episodic memory and object recognition, including the right lingual gyrus (extending to the precuneus region) and the left inferior occipital gyrus (extending to the left fusiform region). These findings suggest that distinct neurocognitive mechanisms underlie short- and long-term facilitation of picture naming by a semantic task, with long-term effects driven by lexical-semantic priming and short-term effects by episodic memory and visual object recognition mechanisms. PMID:22412928

  8. Comparison of physiological responses to affect eliciting pictures and music.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jongwan; Wedell, Douglas H

    2016-03-01

    Recent investigations of the neural correlates of affect elicited from different modalities have found both modality-general and modality-specific representations (Chikazoe et al., 2014). The implications for how physiological responses to affect differ across stimulus modalities have not been fully investigated. This study examined similarities and differences between physiological signatures of affect derived from two different modes of presentation: visual pictures and auditory music sampled from an affective space defined by valence and arousal. Electromyography recordings for the zygomaticus major (EMGZ) and corrugator supercilii (EMGC) were measured along with heart rate and skin conductance level (SCL). Multidimensional scaling was used to visualize relationships from physiological and behavioral responses, and the observed relationships were statistically evaluated using multivariate and univariate analyses. Results for physiological measures demonstrated that valence was represented in the same general way across modalities, primarily reflected in EMGC responses. Arousal, however, was represented in a modality-specific manner, with SCL and EMGZ sensitive to music-based arousal but not picture-based arousal. Stimulus modality itself was predicted from EMGC. Thus, physiological responses to valence were similar across modalities but physiological responses to arousal differed across modalities. These results support the utility of testing for affective markers across modalities within the same experimental setting to reveal how physiological responses are linked to either affect, stimulus modality or both. PMID:26752207

  9. Dynamic reconfiguration of the language network preceding onset of speech in picture naming.

    PubMed

    Liljeström, Mia; Kujala, Jan; Stevenson, Claire; Salmelin, Riitta

    2015-03-01

    Language production is a complex neural process that requires the interplay between multiple specialized cortical regions. We investigated modulations in large-scale cortical networks underlying preparation for speech production by contrasting cortico-cortical coherence for overt and silent picture naming in an all-to-all connectivity analysis. To capture transient, frequency-specific changes in functional connectivity we analyzed the magnetoencephalography data in two consecutive 300-ms time windows. Within the first 300 ms following picture onset beta frequency coherence was increased for overt naming in a network of regions comprising the bilateral parieto-temporal junction and medial cortices, suggesting that overt articulation modifies selection processes involved in speech planning. In the late time window (300-600 ms after picture onset) beta-range coherence was enhanced in a network that included the ventral sensorimotor and temporal cortices. Coherence in the gamma band was simultaneously reduced between the ventral motor cortex and supplementary motor area, bilaterally. The results suggest functionally distinct roles for beta (facilitatory) and gamma (suppressive) band interactions in speech production, with strong involvement of the motor cortex in both frequency bands. Overall, a striking difference in functional connectivity between the early and late time windows was observed, revealing the dynamic nature of large-scale cortical networks that support language and speech. Our results demonstrate that as the naming task evolves in time, the global connectivity patterns change, and that these changes occur (at least) on the time-scale of a few hundred milliseconds. More generally, these results bear implications for how we view large-scale neural networks underlying task performance. PMID:25413681

  10. Dynamic Reconfiguration of the Language Network Preceding Onset of Speech in Picture Naming

    PubMed Central

    Liljeström, Mia; Kujala, Jan; Stevenson, Claire; Salmelin, Riitta

    2015-01-01

    Language production is a complex neural process that requires the interplay between multiple specialized cortical regions. We investigated modulations in large-scale cortical networks underlying preparation for speech production by contrasting cortico-cortical coherence for overt and silent picture naming in an all-to-all connectivity analysis. To capture transient, frequency-specific changes in functional connectivity we analyzed the magnetoencephalography data in two consecutive 300-ms time windows. Within the first 300 ms following picture onset beta frequency coherence was increased for overt naming in a network of regions comprising the bilateral parieto-temporal junction and medial cortices, suggesting that overt articulation modifies selection processes involved in speech planning. In the late time window (300–600 ms after picture onset) beta-range coherence was enhanced in a network that included the ventral sensorimotor and temporal cortices. Coherence in the gamma band was simultaneously reduced between the ventral motor cortex and supplementary motor area, bilaterally. The results suggest functionally distinct roles for beta (facilitatory) and gamma (suppressive) band interactions in speech production, with strong involvement of the motor cortex in both frequency bands. Overall, a striking difference in functional connectivity between the early and late time windows was observed, revealing the dynamic nature of large-scale cortical networks that support language and speech. Our results demonstrate that as the naming task evolves in time, the global connectivity patterns change, and that these changes occur (at least) on the time-scale of a few hundred milliseconds. More generally, these results bear implications for how we view large-scale neural networks underlying task performance. PMID:25413681

  11. Separating lexical-semantic access from other mnemonic processes in picture-name verification

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Jason F.; Braun, Allen R.; Alexander, Gene E.; Chen, Kewei; Horwitz, Barry

    2013-01-01

    We present a novel paradigm to identify shared and unique brain regions underlying non-semantic, non-phonological, abstract, audio-visual (AV) memory vs. naming using a longitudinal functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment. Participants were trained to associate novel AV stimulus pairs containing hidden linguistic content. Half of the stimulus pairs were distorted images of animals and sine-wave speech versions of the animal's name. Images and sounds were distorted in such a way as to make their linguistic content easily recognizable only after being made aware of its existence. Memory for the pairings was tested by presenting an AV pair and asking participants to verify if the two stimuli formed a learned pairing. After memory testing, the hidden linguistic content was revealed and participants were tested again on their recollection of the pairings in this linguistically informed state. Once informed, the AV verification task could be performed by naming the picture. There was substantial overlap between the regions involved in recognition of non-linguistic sensory memory and naming, suggesting a strong relation between them. Contrasts between sessions identified left angular gyrus and middle temporal gyrus as key additional players in the naming network. Left inferior frontal regions participated in both naming and non-linguistic AV memory suggesting the region is responsible for AV memory independent of phonological content contrary to previous proposals. Functional connectivity between angular gyrus and left inferior frontal gyrus and left middle temporal gyrus increased when performing the AV task as naming. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that, at the spatial resolution of fMRI, the regions that facilitate non-linguistic AV associations are a subset of those that facilitate naming though reorganized into distinct networks. PMID:24130539

  12. The influence of partner-specific memory associations on language production: Evidence from picture naming

    PubMed Central

    Horton, William S.

    2008-01-01

    In typical interactions, speakers frequently produce utterances that appear to reflect beliefs about the common ground shared with particular addressees. Horton and Gerrig (2005a) proposed that one important basis for audience design is the manner in which conversational partners serve as cues for the automatic retrieval of associated information from memory. This paper reports the results of two experiments demonstrating the influence of partner-specific memory associations on language production. Following an initial task designed to establish associations between specific words (Experiment 1) or object categories (Experiment 2) and each of two partners, participants named a series of pictures in the context of the same two individuals. Naming latencies were shortest for responses associated with the current partner, and were not significantly correlated with explicit recall of partner-item associations. Such partner-driven memory retrieval may constrain the information accessible to speakers as they produce utterances for particular addressees. PMID:18584063

  13. “When” Does Picture Naming Take Longer Than Word Reading?

    PubMed Central

    Valente, Andrea; Pinet, Svetlana; Alario, F.-Xavier; Laganaro, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Differences between the cognitive processes involved in word reading and picture naming are well established (e.g., visual or lexico-semantic stages). Still, it is commonly thought that retrieval of phonological forms is shared across tasks. We report a test of this second hypothesis based on the time course of electroencephalographic (EEG) neural activity, reasoning that similar EEG patterns might index similar processing stages. Seventeen participants named objects and read aloud the corresponding words while their behavior and EEG activity were recorded. The latter was analyzed from stimulus onset onward (stimulus-locked analysis) and from response onset backward (response-locked analysis), using non-parametric statistics and the spatio-temporal segmentation of ERPs. Behavioral results confirmed that reading entails shorter latencies than naming. The analysis of EEG activity within the stimulus-to-response period allowed to distinguish three phases, broadly successive. Early on, we observed identical distribution of electric field potentials (i.e., topographies) albeit with large amplitude divergences between tasks. Then, we observed sustained cross-task differences in topographies accompanied by extended amplitude differences. Finally, the two tasks again revealed the same topographies, with significant cross-task delays in their onsets and offsets, and still significant amplitude differences. In the response-locked ERPs, the common topography displayed an offset closer to response articulation in word reading compared with picture naming, that is the transition between the offset of this shared map and the onset of articulation was significantly faster in word reading. The results suggest that the degree of cross-task similarity varies across time. The first phase suggests similar visual processes of variable intensity and time course across tasks, while the second phase suggests marked differences. Finally, similarities and differences within the third phase

  14. Age-of-acquisition effects in novel picture naming: a laboratory analogue.

    PubMed

    Catling, Jonathan; Dent, Kevin; Preece, Emma; Johnston, Robert

    2013-09-01

    Age-of-acquisition (AoA) effects are such that early-acquired items are more quickly recognized and produced than later acquired items. In this laboratory analogue, participants were trained to name a group of Greeble pictures with a novel nonsense name. We manipulated order of acquisition of the stimuli: Half of the stimuli were presented from the onset of training (early acquired) whilst the other half were introduced later in the training schedule (late acquired). At test, when early and late stimuli had equal cumulative frequency, early stimuli were named significantly faster than late items. In a second test, it was also found that visual duration thresholds were significantly smaller for the early items when participants were asked to name the critical items. These findings support the notion that order-of-acquisition effects can be manifest over a short time span in the laboratory, and that the effect of order of acquisition is distinct from mere frequency of exposure. The findings are consistent with the idea that AoA effects occurring over a large temporal scale may be a special case of more general order-of-acquisition effects, and both may be a general property of learning mechanisms. PMID:23398246

  15. Accessibility of the Nondominant Language in Picture Naming: A Counterintuitive Effect of Dementia on Bilingual Language Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gollan, Tamar H.; Salmon, David P.; Montoya, Rosa I.; da Pena, Eileen

    2010-01-01

    The current study tested the assumption that bilinguals with dementia regress to using primarily the dominant language. Spanish-English bilinguals with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD; n = 29), and matched bilingual controls (n = 42) named Boston Naming Test pictures in their dominant and nondominant languages. Surprisingly, differences between…

  16. Effect of Verb Argument Structure on Picture Naming in Children with and without Specific Language Impairment (SLI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreu, Llorenc; Sanz-Torrent, Monica; Legaz, Lucia Buil; MacWhinney, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study investigated verb argument structure effects in children with specific language impairment (SLI). Aims: A picture-naming paradigm was used to compare the response times and naming accuracy for nouns and verbs with differing argument structure between Spanish-speaking children with and without language impairment. Methods &…

  17. Early and Late Electrophysiological Effects of Distractor Frequency in Picture Naming: Reconciling Input and Output Accounts.

    PubMed

    Riès, Stephanie K; Fraser, Douglas; McMahon, Katie L; de Zubicaray, Greig I

    2015-10-01

    The "distractor-frequency effect" refers to the finding that high-frequency (HF) distractor words slow picture naming less than low-frequency distractors in the picture-word interference paradigm. Rival input and output accounts of this effect have been proposed. The former attributes the effect to attentional selection mechanisms operating during distractor recognition, whereas the latter attributes it to monitoring/decision mechanisms operating on distractor and target responses in an articulatory buffer. Using high-density (128-channel) EEG, we tested hypotheses from these rival accounts. In addition to conducting stimulus- and response-locked whole-brain corrected analyses, we investigated the correct-related negativity, an ERP observed on correct trials at fronto-central electrodes proposed to reflect the involvement of domain general monitoring. The whole-brain ERP analysis revealed a significant effect of distractor frequency at inferior right frontal and temporal sites between 100 and 300-msec post-stimulus onset, during which lexical access is thought to occur. Response-locked, region of interest (ROI) analyses of fronto-central electrodes revealed a correct-related negativity starting 121 msec before and peaking 125 msec after vocal onset on the grand averages. Slope analysis of this component revealed a significant difference between HF and low-frequency distractor words, with the former associated with a steeper slope on the time window spanning from 100 msec before to 100 msec after vocal onset. The finding of ERP effects in time windows and components corresponding to both lexical processing and monitoring suggests the distractor frequency effect is most likely associated with more than one physiological mechanism. PMID:26042502

  18. Multidimensional normative ratings for the International Affective Picture System.

    PubMed

    Libkuman, Terry M; Otani, Hajime; Kern, Rosalie; Viger, Steen G; Novak, Nicole

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to replicate and extend the International Affective Picture System norms (Ito, Cacioppo, & Lang, 1998; Lang, Bradley, & Cuthbert, 1999). These norms were developed to provide researchers with photographic slides that varied in emotional evocation, especially arousal and valence. In addition to collecting rating data on the dimensions of arousal and valence, we collected data on the dimensions of consequentiality, meaningfulness, familiarity, distinctiveness, and memorability. Furthermore, we collected ratings on the primary emotions of happiness, surprise, sadness, anger, disgust, and fear. A total of 1,302 participants were tested in small groups. The participants in each group rated a subset of 18 slides on 14 dimensions. Ratings were obtained on 703 slides. The means and standard deviations for all of the ratings are provided. We found our valence ratings to be similar to the previous norms. In contrast, our participants were more likely to rate the slides as less arousing than in the previous norms. The mean ratings on the remaining 12 dimensions were all below the midpoint of the 9-point Likert scale. However, sufficient variability in ratings across the slides indicates that selecting slides on the basis of these variables is feasible. Overall, the present ratings should allow investigators to use these norms for research purposes, especially in research dealing with the interrelationships among emotion and cognition. The means and standard deviations for emotions may be downloaded as an Excel spreadsheet from www.psychonomic.org/archive. PMID:17695361

  19. Breathing and affective picture processing across the adult lifespan.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Patrick; Filippou, Dimitra; Pais, Bruno; von Gunten, Armin; Danuser, Brigitta

    2016-09-01

    The present study investigated differences between healthy younger, middle-aged, and older adults in their respiratory responses to pictures of different valence and arousal. Expiratory time shortened and end-tidal PCO2 decreased with increasing arousal in all age groups; yet, compared to younger adults, older adults' overall change from baseline was smaller for expiratory time and larger for end-tidal PCO2. Contrary to their younger counterparts, older adults' inspiratory time did not shorten with increasing arousal. Inspiratory duty cycle did not covary with affective ratings for younger adults, increased with unpleasantness for middle-aged adults, and increased with arousal for older adults. Thoracic breathing increased with increasing unpleasantness only among older adults. Age had no effects on mean inspiratory flow and minute ventilation, which both augmented as arousal increased. We discuss how age effects on respiratory response magnitude and pattern may depend on age-associated biological changes or reflect age-related differences in emotional processing. PMID:27417701

  20. Selective inhibition and naming performance in semantic blocking, picture-word interference, and color-word Stroop tasks.

    PubMed

    Shao, Zeshu; Roelofs, Ardi; Martin, Randi C; Meyer, Antje S

    2015-11-01

    In 2 studies, we examined whether explicit distractors are necessary and sufficient to evoke selective inhibition in 3 naming tasks: the semantic blocking, picture-word interference, and color-word Stroop task. Delta plots were used to quantify the size of the interference effects as a function of reaction time (RT). Selective inhibition was operationalized as the decrease in the size of the interference effect as a function of naming RT. For all naming tasks, mean naming RTs were significantly longer in the interference condition than in the control condition. The slopes of the interference effects for the longest naming RTs correlated with the magnitude of the mean interference effect in both the semantic blocking task and the picture-word interference task, suggesting that selective inhibition was involved to reduce the interference from strong semantic competitors either invoked by a single explicit competitor or strong implicit competitors in picture naming. However, there was no correlation between the slopes and the mean interference effect in the Stroop task, suggesting less importance of selective inhibition in this task despite explicit distractors. Whereas the results of the semantic blocking task suggest that an explicit distractor is not necessary for triggering inhibition, the results of the Stroop task suggest that such a distractor is not sufficient for evoking inhibition either. PMID:26030631

  1. Teaching Picture Naming to Two Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders Using Systematic Instruction and Speech-Generating Devices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kagohara, Debora M.; van der Meer, Larah; Achmadi, Donna; Green, Vanessa A.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Sutherland, Dean; Lang, Russell; Marschik, Peter B.; Sigafoos, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated an intervention aimed at teaching two adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) to name pictures using speech-generating devices (SGDs). The effects of intervention were evaluated in two studies using multiple-probe across participants designs. Intervention--consisting of time delay, least-to-most prompting, and differential…

  2. Selective Inhibition and Naming Performance in Semantic Blocking, Picture-Word Interference, and Color-Word Stroop Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shao, Zeshu; Roelofs, Ardi; Martin, Randi C.; Meyer, Antje S.

    2015-01-01

    In 2 studies, we examined whether explicit distractors are necessary and sufficient to evoke selective inhibition in 3 naming tasks: the semantic blocking, picture-word interference, and color-word Stroop task. Delta plots were used to quantify the size of the interference effects as a function of reaction time (RT). Selective inhibition was…

  3. Differential Reinforcement of Correct Responses to Probes and Prompts in Picture-Name Training with Severely Retarded Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olenick, Debra L.; Pear, Joseph J.

    1980-01-01

    A systematic sequence of prompt and probe trials was used to teach picture names to three severely retarded children (aged 4). For all children the fixed ratio schedule for correct responses to prompts, combined with the every correct response reinforced schedule for correct responses to probes, generated the best results. (Author/PHR)

  4. The Influence of Partner-Specific Memory Associations on Picture Naming: A Failure to Replicate Horton (2007)

    PubMed Central

    Brown-Schmidt, Sarah; Horton, William S.

    2014-01-01

    The results of two experiments by Horton (2007) show that speakers name a pictured object faster when in the presence of another person with whom the speaker has previously associated that object name. The first of those two experiments (Horton, 2007, Experiment 1) is the focus of the present research. This paper presents the results of three experiments designed to replicate and extend Horton's (2007) Experiment 1. The original findings were not replicated. These findings do not support the hypothesis that partner-specific memory associations facilitate object naming. PMID:25279672

  5. Modulation of the initial light reflex during affective picture viewing.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Robert R; Bradley, Margaret M; Lang, Peter J

    2014-09-01

    An initial reflexive constriction of the pupil to stimulation-the light reflex-is primarily modulated by brightness, but is attenuated when participants are under threat of shock (i.e., fear-inhibited light reflex). The present study assessed whether the light reflex is similarly attenuated when viewing emotional pictures. Pupil diameter was recorded while participants viewed erotic, violent, and neutral scenes that were matched in brightness; scrambled versions identical in brightness were also presented as an additional control. Compared to viewing neutral scenes, the light reflex was reliably modulated by hedonic content, with significant attenuation both when viewing unpleasant as well as pleasant pictures. No differences in the light reflex were found among scrambled versions. Thus, emotional modulation of the initial light reflex is not confined to a context of fear and is not indicative of brightness differences when viewing pictures of natural scenes. PMID:24849784

  6. The pupil's response to affective pictures: Role of image duration, habituation, and viewing mode.

    PubMed

    Snowden, Robert J; O'Farrell, Katherine R; Burley, Daniel; Erichsen, Jonathan T; Newton, Naomi V; Gray, Nicola S

    2016-08-01

    The pupil has been shown to be sensitive to the emotional content of stimuli. We examined this phenomenon by comparing fearful and neutral images carefully matched in the domains of luminance, image contrast, image color, and complexity of content. The pupil was more dilated after viewing affective pictures, and this effect was (a) shown to be independent of the presentation time of the images (from 100-3,000 ms), (b) not diminished by repeated presentations of the images, and (c) not affected by actively naming the emotion of the stimuli in comparison to passive viewing. Our results show that the emotional modulation of the pupil is present over a range of variables that typically vary from study to study (image duration, number of trials, free viewing vs. task), and encourages the use of pupillometry as a measure of emotional processing in populations where alternative techniques may not be appropriate. PMID:27172997

  7. The Role of Functional and Perceptual Attributes: Evidence from Picture Naming in Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harley, Trevor A.; Grant, Fiona

    2004-01-01

    We examined the performance of a group of people with moderately severe Alzheimer's type dementia on a naming task. We found that functional information plays an important role in determining naming performance on both living and non-living things. Perceptual information may play some role in naming living things. We also found some evidence that…

  8. Selective attention affects implicit and explicit memory for familiar pictures at different delay conditions.

    PubMed

    Ballesteros, Soledad; Reales, José M; García, Eulalio; Carrasco, Marisa

    2006-02-01

    Three experiments investigated the effects of two variables -selective attention during encoding and delay between study and test- on implicit (picture fragment completion and object naming) and explicit (free recall and recognition) memory tests. Experiments 1 and 2 consistently indicated that (a) at all delays (immediate to 1 month), picture-fragment identification threshold was lower for the attended than the unattended pictures; (b) the attended pictures were recalled and recognized better than the unattended; and (c) attention and delay interacted in both memory tests. For implicit memory, performance decreased as delay increased for both attended and unattended pictures, but priming was more pronounced and lasted longer for the attended pictures; it was still present after a 1-month delay. For explicit memory, performance decreased as delay increased for attended pictures, but for unattended pictures performance was consistent throughout delay. By using a perceptual object naming task, Experiment 3 showed reliable implicit and explicit memory for attended but not for unattended pictures. This study indicates that picture repetition priming requires attention at the time of study and that neither delay nor attention dissociate performance in explicit and implicit memory tests; both types of memory require attention, but explicit memory does so to a larger degree. PMID:17296015

  9. Improved picture naming in aphasia patients treated with cathodal tDCS to inhibit the right Broca's homologue area

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Eun Kyoung; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Sohn, Hae Min; Cohen, Leonardo G.; Paik, Nam-Jong

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE Previous reports have suggested that noninvasive cortical stimulation could influence speech production in patients with chronic stroke. Here, we evaluated the hypothesis that cathodal transcranial DC stimulation (ctDCS), a technique that decreases excitability of stimulated cortical sites, applied over a healthy right Broca's homologue area could improve picture naming in patients with post-stroke aphasia. METHODS Ten right-handed patients with post-stroke aphasia were enrolled in this double blind, counterbalanced sham-controlled, crossover study. Each patient received an intervention of ctDCS (2 mA for 20 min) and of sham tDCS (2 mA for 1 min) daily for 5 consecutive days in a randomized crossover manner with a minimum interval of one week between interventions, over a healthy right Broca's homologue area using a left supraorbital anode and simultaneous daily sessions of conventional word-retrieval training. The primary endpoint measure of this study was a standardized, validated Korean version of the Boston Naming Test, which is a measure of picture naming skills. RESULTS ctDCS was not found to have any adverse effects. Furthermore, significantly improved picture naming (p=0.02) was observed at 1 hour following the last (5th) ctDCS treatment session, but no changes were observed after sham tDCS. CONCLUSION These results demonstrate that cathodal tDCS over the right healthy Broca's homologue area with a left supraorbital anodal location can improve picture naming task performance in post-stroke aphasia. PMID:21586821

  10. Lexical Selection Is Competitive: Evidence from Indirectly Activated Semantic Associates during Picture Naming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melinger, Alissa; Rahman, Rasha Abdel

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we present 3 picture-word interference (PWI) experiments designed to investigate whether lexical selection processes are competitive. We focus on semantic associative relations, which should interfere according to competitive models but not according to certain noncompetitive models. In a modified version of the PWI paradigm,…

  11. Executive Function Is Necessary to Enhance Lexical Processing in a Less Proficient L2: Evidence from fMRI during Picture Naming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Arturo E.; Meschyan, Gayane

    2006-01-01

    Recent work in the bilingual literature suggests that naming pictures in a second language (L2) differs from naming pictures in the first language (L1) because of effortful lexical retrieval. his finding has received some support in the neuroimaging literature (De Blesser et al., 2003). In the current study, twelve Spanish-English bilinguals, who…

  12. Neural Activation Underlying Cognitive Control in the Context of Neutral and Affectively Charged Pictures in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamm, Connie; White, Lauren K.; McDermott, Jennifer Martin; Fox, Nathan A.

    2012-01-01

    The neural correlates of cognitive control for typically developing 9-year-old children were examined using dense-array ERPs and estimates of cortical activation (LORETA) during a go/no-go task with two conditions: a neutral picture condition and an affectively charged picture condition. Activation was estimated for the entire cortex after which…

  13. Effect of verb argument structure on picture naming in children with and without specific language impairment (SLI)

    PubMed Central

    Andreu, Llorenç; Sanz-Torrent, Mònica; Legaz, Lucia Buil; MacWhinney, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Background This study investigated verb argument structure effects in children with specific language impairment (SLI). Aims A picture-naming paradigm was used to compare the response times and naming accuracy for nouns and verbs with differing argument structure between Spanish-speaking children with and without language impairment. Methods & Procedures Twenty-four children with SLI (ages 5;3–8;2 [years;months]), 24 age-matched controls (ages 5;3–8;2), 24 MLU-w controls (ages 3;3–7;1 years), and 31 adults participated in a picture-naming study. Outcomes & Results The results show all groups produced more correct responses and were faster for nouns than all verbs together. As regards verb type accuracy, there were no differences between groups in naming one-argument verbs. However, for both two- and three-argument verbs, children with SLI were less accurate than adults and age-matched controls, but similar to the MLU-matched controls. For verb type latency, children with SLI were slower than both the age-matched controls and adults for one- and two-argument verbs, while no differences were found in three-argument verbs. No differences were found between children with SLI and MLU-matched controls for any verb type. Conclusions & Implications It has been shown that the naming of verbs is delayed in Spanish children with SLI. It is suggested that children with SLI may have problems encoding semantic representations. PMID:23121524

  14. Let's not be indifferent about neutrality: Neutral ratings in the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) mask mixed affective responses.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Iris K; Veenstra, Lotte; van Harreveld, Frenk; Schwarz, Norbert; Koole, Sander L

    2016-06-01

    The International Affective Picture System (IAPS) is a picture set used by researchers to select pictures that have been prerated on valence. Researchers rely on the ratings in the IAPS to accurately reflect the degree to which the pictures elicit affective responses. Here we show that this may not always be a safe assumption. More specifically, the scale used to measure valence in the IAPS ranges from positive to negative, implying that positive and negative feelings are end-points of the same construct. This makes interpretation of midpoint, or neutral ratings, especially problematic because it is impossible to tell whether these ratings are the result of neutral, or of mixed feelings. In other words, neutral ratings may not be as neutral as researchers assume them to be. Investigating this, in this work we show that pictures that seem neutral according to the valence ratings in the IAPS indeed vary in levels of ambivalence they elicit. Furthermore, the experience of ambivalence in response to these pictures is predictive of the arousal that people report feeling when viewing these pictures. These findings are of particular importance because neutrality differs from ambivalence in its specific psychological consequences, and by relying on seemingly neutral valance ratings, researchers may unwillingly introduce these consequences into their research design, undermining their level of experimental control. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26950363

  15. Lying about the Valence of Affective Pictures: An fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Tatia M. C.; Lee, Tiffany M. Y.; Raine, Adrian; Chan, Chetwyn C. H.

    2010-01-01

    The neural correlates of lying about affective information were studied using a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) methodology. Specifically, 13 healthy right-handed Chinese men were instructed to lie about the valence, positive or negative, of pictures selected from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) while their brain activity was scanned by a 3T Philip Achieva scanner. The key finding is that the neural activity associated with deception is valence-related. Comparing to telling the truth, deception about the valence of the affectively positive pictures was associated with activity in the inferior frontal, cingulate, inferior parietal, precuneus, and middle temporal regions. Lying about the valence of the affectively negative pictures, on the other hand, was associated with activity in the orbital and medial frontal regions. While a clear valence-related effect on deception was observed, common neural regions were also recruited for the process of deception about the valence of the affective pictures. These regions included the lateral prefrontal and inferior parietal regions. Activity in these regions has been widely reported in fMRI studies on deception using affectively-neutral stimuli. The findings of this study reveal the effect of valence on the neural activity associated with deception. Furthermore, the data also help to illustrate the complexity of the neural mechanisms underlying deception. PMID:20811624

  16. Amygdala responses to unpleasant pictures are influenced by task demands and positive affect trait

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Tiago A.; Mocaiber, Izabela; Erthal, Fatima S.; Joffily, Mateus; Volchan, Eliane; Pereira, Mirtes G.; de Araujo, Draulio B.; Oliveira, Leticia

    2015-01-01

    The role of attention in emotional processing is still the subject of debate. Recent studies have found that high positive affect in approach motivation narrows attention. Furthermore, the positive affect trait has been suggested as an important component for determining human variability in threat reactivity. We employed functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate whether different states of attention control would modulate amygdala responses to highly unpleasant pictures relative to neutral and whether this modulation would be influenced by the positive affect trait. Participants (n = 22, 12 male) were scanned while viewing neutral (people) or unpleasant pictures (mutilated bodies) flanked by two peripheral bars. They were instructed to (a) judge the picture content as unpleasant or neutral or (b) to judge the difference in orientation between the bars in an easy condition (0 or 90∘ orientation difference) or (c) in a hard condition (0 or 6∘ orientation difference). Whole brain analysis revealed a task main effect of brain areas related to the experimental manipulation of attentional control, including the amygdala, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and posterior parietal cortex. Region of interest analysis showed an inverse correlation (r = -0.51, p < 0.01) between left amygdala activation and positive affect level when participants viewed unpleasant stimuli and judged bar orientation in the easy condition. This result suggests that subjects with high positive affect exhibit lower amygdala reactivity to distracting unpleasant pictures. In conclusion, the current study suggests that positive affect modulates attention effect on unpleasant pictures, therefore attenuating emotional responses. PMID:25788883

  17. The Emotional Experience of People with Intellectual Disability: An Analysis Using the International Affective Pictures System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bermejo, Belen G.; Mateos, Pedro M.; Sanchez-Mateos, Juan Degado

    2014-01-01

    The present study provides information on the emotional experience of people with intellectual disability. To evaluate this emotional experience, we have used the International Affective Pictures System (IAPS). The most important result from this study is that the emotional reaction of people with intellectual disability to affective stimuli is…

  18. Affective Pictures and the Open Library of Affective Foods (OLAF): Tools to Investigate Emotions toward Food in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Guerra, Pedro; Versace, Francesco; Rodríguez-Ruiz, Sonia; Fernández-Santaella, M. Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Recently, several sets of standardized food pictures have been created, supplying both food images and their subjective evaluations. However, to date only the OLAF (Open Library of Affective Foods), a set of food images and ratings we developed in adolescents, has the specific purpose of studying emotions toward food. Moreover, some researchers have argued that food evaluations are not valid across individuals and groups, unless feelings toward food cues are compared with feelings toward intense experiences unrelated to food, that serve as benchmarks. Therefore the OLAF presented here, comprising a set of original food images and a group of standardized highly emotional pictures, is intended to provide valid between-group judgments in adults. Emotional images (erotica, mutilations, and neutrals from the International Affective Picture System/IAPS) additionally ensure that the affective ratings are consistent with emotion research. The OLAF depicts high-calorie sweet and savory foods and low-calorie fruits and vegetables, portraying foods within natural scenes matching the IAPS features. An adult sample evaluated both food and affective pictures in terms of pleasure, arousal, dominance, and food craving, following standardized affective rating procedures. The affective ratings for the emotional pictures corroborated previous findings, thus confirming the reliability of evaluations for the food images. Among the OLAF images, high-calorie sweet and savory foods elicited the greatest pleasure, although they elicited, as expected, less arousal than erotica. The observed patterns were consistent with research on emotions and confirmed the reliability of OLAF evaluations. The OLAF and affective pictures constitute a sound methodology to investigate emotions toward food within a wider motivational framework. The OLAF is freely accessible at digibug.ugr.es. PMID:27513636

  19. Affective Pictures and the Open Library of Affective Foods (OLAF): Tools to Investigate Emotions toward Food in Adults.

    PubMed

    Miccoli, Laura; Delgado, Rafael; Guerra, Pedro; Versace, Francesco; Rodríguez-Ruiz, Sonia; Fernández-Santaella, M Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Recently, several sets of standardized food pictures have been created, supplying both food images and their subjective evaluations. However, to date only the OLAF (Open Library of Affective Foods), a set of food images and ratings we developed in adolescents, has the specific purpose of studying emotions toward food. Moreover, some researchers have argued that food evaluations are not valid across individuals and groups, unless feelings toward food cues are compared with feelings toward intense experiences unrelated to food, that serve as benchmarks. Therefore the OLAF presented here, comprising a set of original food images and a group of standardized highly emotional pictures, is intended to provide valid between-group judgments in adults. Emotional images (erotica, mutilations, and neutrals from the International Affective Picture System/IAPS) additionally ensure that the affective ratings are consistent with emotion research. The OLAF depicts high-calorie sweet and savory foods and low-calorie fruits and vegetables, portraying foods within natural scenes matching the IAPS features. An adult sample evaluated both food and affective pictures in terms of pleasure, arousal, dominance, and food craving, following standardized affective rating procedures. The affective ratings for the emotional pictures corroborated previous findings, thus confirming the reliability of evaluations for the food images. Among the OLAF images, high-calorie sweet and savory foods elicited the greatest pleasure, although they elicited, as expected, less arousal than erotica. The observed patterns were consistent with research on emotions and confirmed the reliability of OLAF evaluations. The OLAF and affective pictures constitute a sound methodology to investigate emotions toward food within a wider motivational framework. The OLAF is freely accessible at digibug.ugr.es. PMID:27513636

  20. Adaptation of the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) for European Portuguese.

    PubMed

    Soares, Ana Paula; Pinheiro, Ana P; Costa, Ana; Frade, Carla Sofia; Comesaña, Montserrat; Pureza, Rita

    2015-12-01

    This study presents the results of the adaptation of the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) for European Portuguese (EP). Following the original procedure of Lang et al., 2000 native speakers of EP rated the 1,182 pictures of the last version of the IAPS set on the three affective dimensions of valence, arousal, and dominance, using the Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM). Results showed that the normative values of the IAPS for EP are properly distributed in the affective space of valence and arousal, showing the typical boomerang-shaped distribution observed in previous studies. Results also point to important differences in the way Portuguese females and males react to affective pictures that should be taken into consideration when planning and conducting research with Portuguese samples. Furthermore, the results from the cross-cultural comparisons between the EP ratings and the ratings from the American, Spanish, Brazilian, Belgian, Chilean, Indian, and Bosnian-Herzegovinian standardizations, showed that in spite of the fact that IAPS stimuli elicited affective responses that are similar across countries and cultures (at least in Western cultures), there are differences in the way Portuguese individuals react to IAPS pictures that strongly recommend the use of the normative values presented in this work. They can be downloaded as a supplemental archive at http://brm.psychonomic-journals.org/content/supplemental or at http://p-pal.di.uminho.pt/about/databases. PMID:25381023

  1. Event related beta and gamma oscillatory responses during perception of affective pictures.

    PubMed

    Güntekin, Bahar; Tülay, Elif

    2014-08-19

    Several studies reveal that unpleasant pictures elicit higher beta and gamma responses than pleasant and/or neutral pictures; however, the effect of stimulation design (block or random) has not been studied before. The aim of the study is to analyze the common and distinct parameters of affective picture perception in block and random designs by means of analysis of high frequency oscillatory dynamics (beta and gamma). EEG of 22 healthy subjects was recorded at 32 locations. The participants passively viewed 120 emotional pictures (10 × 4 unpleasant, 10 × 4 pleasant, 10 × 4 neutral) in block and random designs. The phase-locking and power of event related beta (14-28 Hz) and gamma (29-48 Hz) oscillations were analyzed for two different time windows (0-200 ms/200-400 ms). Statistical analysis showed that in the 0-200 ms time window, during the block design, unpleasant stimulation elicited higher beta phase-locking and beta power than the pleasant and neutral stimulation (p<0.05). In the 200-400 ms time window, during the block design, over occipital electrodes unpleasant stimulation elicited higher gamma response power than the pleasant stimulation and neutral stimulation (p<0.05). Unpleasant stimulation did not elicit higher beta or gamma responses in the random design. The present study showed that experimental design highly influences the perception of IAPS pictures. Unpleasant stimulation elicited higher event related beta and gamma phase-locking and power only in block design but not in random design. It seems that longer blocks of aversive pictures affect the brain more than the rapid observation of these pictures. PMID:24992292

  2. The Relationship between Frontotemporal Effective Connectivity during Picture Naming, Behavior, and Preserved Cortical Tissue in Chronic Aphasia.

    PubMed

    Meier, Erin L; Kapse, Kushal J; Kiran, Swathi

    2016-01-01

    While several studies of task-based effective connectivity of normal language processing exist, little is known about the functional reorganization of language networks in patients with stroke-induced chronic aphasia. During oral picture naming, activation in neurologically intact individuals is found in "classic" language regions involved with retrieval of lexical concepts [e.g., left middle temporal gyrus (LMTG)], word form encoding [e.g., left posterior superior temporal gyrus, (LpSTG)], and controlled retrieval of semantic and phonological information [e.g., left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG)] as well as domain-general regions within the multiple demands network [e.g., left middle frontal gyrus (LMFG)]. After stroke, lesions to specific parts of the left hemisphere language network force reorganization of this system. While individuals with aphasia have been found to recruit similar regions for language tasks as healthy controls, the relationship between the dynamic functioning of the language network and individual differences in underlying neural structure and behavioral performance is still unknown. Therefore, in the present study, we used dynamic causal modeling (DCM) to investigate differences between individuals with aphasia and healthy controls in terms of task-induced regional interactions between three regions (i.e., LIFG, LMFG, and LMTG) vital for picture naming. The DCM model space was organized according to exogenous input to these regions and partitioned into separate families. At the model level, random effects family wise Bayesian Model Selection revealed that models with driving input to LIFG best fit the control data whereas models with driving input to LMFG best fit the patient data. At the parameter level, a significant between-group difference in the connection strength from LMTG to LIFG was seen. Within the patient group, several significant relationships between network connectivity parameters, spared cortical tissue, and behavior were

  3. The Relationship between Frontotemporal Effective Connectivity during Picture Naming, Behavior, and Preserved Cortical Tissue in Chronic Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Meier, Erin L.; Kapse, Kushal J.; Kiran, Swathi

    2016-01-01

    While several studies of task-based effective connectivity of normal language processing exist, little is known about the functional reorganization of language networks in patients with stroke-induced chronic aphasia. During oral picture naming, activation in neurologically intact individuals is found in “classic” language regions involved with retrieval of lexical concepts [e.g., left middle temporal gyrus (LMTG)], word form encoding [e.g., left posterior superior temporal gyrus, (LpSTG)], and controlled retrieval of semantic and phonological information [e.g., left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG)] as well as domain-general regions within the multiple demands network [e.g., left middle frontal gyrus (LMFG)]. After stroke, lesions to specific parts of the left hemisphere language network force reorganization of this system. While individuals with aphasia have been found to recruit similar regions for language tasks as healthy controls, the relationship between the dynamic functioning of the language network and individual differences in underlying neural structure and behavioral performance is still unknown. Therefore, in the present study, we used dynamic causal modeling (DCM) to investigate differences between individuals with aphasia and healthy controls in terms of task-induced regional interactions between three regions (i.e., LIFG, LMFG, and LMTG) vital for picture naming. The DCM model space was organized according to exogenous input to these regions and partitioned into separate families. At the model level, random effects family wise Bayesian Model Selection revealed that models with driving input to LIFG best fit the control data whereas models with driving input to LMFG best fit the patient data. At the parameter level, a significant between-group difference in the connection strength from LMTG to LIFG was seen. Within the patient group, several significant relationships between network connectivity parameters, spared cortical tissue, and behavior were

  4. Conceptual Coherence Affects Phonological Activation of Context Objects during Object Naming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oppermann, Frank; Jescheniak, Jorg D.; Schriefers, Herbert

    2008-01-01

    In 4 picture-word interference experiments, speakers named a target object that was presented with a context object. Using auditory distractors that were phonologically related or unrelated either to the target object or the context object, the authors assessed whether phonological processing was confined to the target object or not. Phonological…

  5. Applicability of the International Affective Picture System in Chinese older adults: A validation study.

    PubMed

    Gong, Xianmin; Wang, Dahua

    2016-06-01

    The International Affective Picture System (IAPS) is a standardized tool widely used to induce emotions in psychological studies. The present study examined the reliability and validity of the IAPS in Chinese older adults. A sample consisting of 126 Chinese older adults (86 females; aged 67.3 ± 4.96 years; 13.2 ± 2.75 years of education) was recruited to rate valence and arousal for 942 IAPS pictures. The results showed a satisfactory reliability and validity of the IAPS among these participants. The reliability was supported by high internal consistency and low inter-individual variance of participants' ratings; the validity was supported by high similarities (in rating scores and in the distribution of the pictures in the valence-arousal affective space) and small differences (in mean ratings) between Chinese and German older adults. In conclusion, the study adds supportive evidence to the cross-cultural validity of the IAPS in older adults, and provides a set of normative emotional ratings that could be adopted as a criterion in the selection of emotional pictures in future studies engaging Chinese older adults. Comparison of the IAPS ratings across cultures and ages is also discussed. PMID:27256203

  6. Symbolic Understanding of Pictures in Low-Functioning Children with Autism: The Effects of Iconicity and Naming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Calum; Allen, Melissa L.

    2015-01-01

    This research investigated whether symbolic understanding of pictures in low-functioning children with autism is mediated by iconicity and language. In Experiment 1, participants were taught novel words paired with unfamiliar pictures that varied in iconicity (black-and-white line drawings, greyscale photographs, colour line drawings, colour…

  7. Simulating Children's Retrieval Errors in Picture-Naming: A Test of Foygel and Dell's (2000) Semantic/Phonological Model of Speech Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budd, Mary-Jane; Hanley, J. Richard; Griffiths, Yvonne

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated whether Foygel and Dell's (2000) interactive two-step model of speech production could simulate the number and type of errors made in picture-naming by 68 children of elementary-school age. Results showed that the model provided a satisfactory simulation of the mean error profile of children aged five, six, seven, eight and…

  8. Characterization of the Nencki Affective Picture System by discrete emotional categories (NAPS BE).

    PubMed

    Riegel, Monika; Żurawski, Łukasz; Wierzba, Małgorzata; Moslehi, Abnoss; Klocek, Łukasz; Horvat, Marko; Grabowska, Anna; Michałowski, Jarosław; Jednoróg, Katarzyna; Marchewka, Artur

    2016-06-01

    The Nencki Affective Picture System (NAPS; Marchewka, Żurawski, Jednoróg, & Grabowska, Behavior Research Methods, 2014) is a standardized set of 1,356 realistic, high-quality photographs divided into five categories (people, faces, animals, objects, and landscapes). NAPS has been primarily standardized along the affective dimensions of valence, arousal, and approach-avoidance, yet the characteristics of discrete emotions expressed by the images have not been investigated thus far. The aim of the present study was to collect normative ratings according to categorical models of emotions. A subset of 510 images from the original NAPS set was selected in order to proportionally cover the whole dimensional affective space. Among these, using three available classification methods, we identified images eliciting distinguishable discrete emotions. We introduce the basic-emotion normative ratings for the Nencki Affective Picture System (NAPS BE), which will allow researchers to control and manipulate stimulus properties specifically for their experimental questions of interest. The NAPS BE system is freely accessible to the scientific community for noncommercial use as supplementary materials to this article. PMID:26205422

  9. Interference and Facilitation in Spoken Word Production: Effects of Morphologically and Semantically Related Context Stimuli on Picture Naming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolte, Jens; Dohmes, Petra; Zwitserlood, Pienie

    2013-01-01

    We report two picture-word interference experiments investigating conceptual and lexical activation, and response selection, in speaking. We varied stimulus onset asynchrony to investigate potential fine-grained activation and competition effects. Morphologically related existing and pseudoword adjectives, as well as associatively related…

  10. Theta phase coherence in affective picture processing reveals dysfunctional sensory integration in psychopathic offenders.

    PubMed

    Tillem, Scott; Ryan, Jonathan; Wu, Jia; Crowley, Michael J; Mayes, Linda C; Baskin-Sommers, Arielle

    2016-09-01

    Psychopathic offenders are described as emotionally cold, displaying deficits in affective responding. However, research demonstrates that many of the psychopathy-related deficits are moderated by attention, such that under conditions of high attentional and perceptual load psychopathic offenders display deficits in affective responses, but do not in conditions of low load. To date, most studies use measures of defensive reflex (i.e., startle) and conditioning manipulations to examine the impact of load on psychopathy-related processing, but have not examined more direct measures of attention processing. In a sample of adult male offenders, the present study examined time-frequency EEG phase coherence in response to a picture-viewing paradigm that manipulated picture familiarity to assess neural changes in processing based on perceptual demands. Results indicated psychopathy-related differences in the theta response, an index of readiness to perceive and integrate sensory information. These data provide further evidence that psychopathic offenders have disrupted integration of sensory information. PMID:27373371

  11. Food depictions in picture books for preschool children: Frequency, centrality, and affect.

    PubMed

    Goldman, Jane A; Descartes, Lara

    2016-01-01

    The food content and messages depicted in popular children's picture books were examined using a set of 100 "Favorite Books for Preschoolers." Sixty-nine of these books depicted food and comprised the sample. Examined were: the types and frequencies of food depicted in the text and/or illustrations of the books; the centrality (central, background); and the affect (positive, neutral, or negative) of those depictions. Each food item was counted, categorized by type, and where possible, coded for centrality and affect. Fruit was the most frequently depicted food, followed by sweetened baked goods, dairy, and vegetables. However, centrality and affect differed for these foods. For example, sweet baked goods were high in both centrality and affect. In contrast vegetables were relatively high in centrality but most often neutral in affect. Ice cream, although not in many books, always was associated with positive outcomes. Results were compared to findings in the literature on food messages presented in children's television programs. The ratio of healthy foods to nutrient-poor foods was higher in the books. However, as in television, the books emphasized the desirability of sweetened foods. The results point to the need for detailed analyses of the types of presentations associated with different foods presented in books for children, as well as for continued investigations into food messages in the growing range of media available to young children. PMID:26386301

  12. The association between chronic exposure to video game violence and affective picture processing: an ERP study.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Kira; West, Robert; Anderson, Craig A

    2011-06-01

    Exposure to video game violence (VGV) is known to result in desensitization to violent material and may alter the processing of positive emotion related to facial expressions. The present study was designed to address three questions: (1) Does the association between VGV and positive emotion extend to stimuli other than faces, (2) is the association between VGV and affective picture processing observed with a single presentation of the stimuli, and (3) is the association between VGV and the response to violent stimuli sensitive to the relevance of emotion for task performance? The data revealed that transient modulations of the event-related potentials (ERPs) related to attentional orienting and sustained modulations of the ERPs related to evaluative processing were sensitive to VGV exposure. PMID:21461985

  13. Does humor in radio advertising affect recognition of novel product brand names?

    PubMed

    Berg, E M; Lippman, L G

    2001-04-01

    The authors proposed that item selection during shopping is based on brand name recognition rather than recall. College students rated advertisements and news stories of a simulated radio program for level of amusement (orienting activity) before participating in a surprise recognition test. Humor level of the advertisements was varied systematically, and content was controlled. According to signal detection analysis, humor did not affect the strength of recognition memory for brand names (nonsense units). However, brand names and product types were significantly more likely to be associated when appearing in humorous advertisements than in nonhumorous advertisements. The results are compared with prior findings concerning humor and recall. PMID:11506048

  14. Emotion regulation of the affect-modulated startle reflex during different picture categories.

    PubMed

    Conzelmann, Annette; McGregor, Victoria; Pauli, Paul

    2015-09-01

    Previous studies on emotion regulation of the startle reflex found an increase in startle amplitude from down-, to non-, to up-regulation for pleasant and unpleasant stimuli. We wanted to clarify whether this regulation effect remains stable for different picture categories within pleasant and unpleasant picture sets. We assessed startle amplitude of 31 participants during down-, non-, or up-regulation of feelings elicited by pleasant erotic and adventure and unpleasant victim and threat pictures. Startle amplitude was smaller during adventure and erotic compared to victim and threat pictures and increased from down-, to non-, to up-regulation independently of the picture category. Results indicate that the motivational priming effect on startle modulation elicited by different picture categories is independent of emotion regulation instructions. In addition, the emotion regulation effect is independent of motivational priming effects. PMID:26061976

  15. Getting the Picture: Iconicity Does Not Affect Representation-Referent Confusion

    PubMed Central

    Wimmer, Marina C.; Robinson, Elizabeth J.; Koenig, Laura; Corder, Emma

    2014-01-01

    Three experiments examined 3- to 5-year-olds' (N = 428) understanding of the relationship between pictorial iconicity (photograph, colored drawing, schematic drawing) and the real world referent. Experiments 1 and 2 explored pictorial iconicity in picture-referent confusion after the picture-object relationship has been established. Pictorial iconicity had no effect on referential confusion when the referent changed after the picture had been taken/drawn (Experiment 1) and when the referent and the picture were different from the outset (Experiment 2). Experiment 3 investigated whether children are sensitive to iconicity to begin with. Children deemed photographs from a choice of varying iconicity representations as best representations for object reference. Together, findings suggest that iconicity plays a role in establishing a picture-object relation per se but is irrelevant once children have accepted that a picture represents an object. The latter finding may reflect domain general representational abilities. PMID:25247708

  16. Does Colour Affect the Quality or Quantity of Children's Stories Elicited by Pictures?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Phyillis; Rivard, Reane; Debreuil, Buffy

    2011-01-01

    The current study investigated the effect of colour vs. black-and-white pictures on the stories children told using the pictures as stimuli. Participants were 22 preschool children aged 4-6 (M = 59.98, SD = 7.52) attending day-care centres in a Western Canadian city. Two story sets of five pictures each, depicting stories with similar structure,…

  17. Naming names

    PubMed Central

    Vedantam, Gayatri; Viswanathan, V.K.

    2012-01-01

    The constraints imposed by available experimental data, and the need for precision, typically limits the eloquence of researchers. Scientists, however, indulge in their literary and poetic selves in the names that they bestow on genes and proteins, on organisms and diseases. We briefly review some familiar names in the Inside Passage, and explore their historical antecedents. PMID:22572826

  18. Less is More: How manipulative features affect children’s learning from picture books

    PubMed Central

    Tare, Medha; Chiong, Cynthia; Ganea, Patricia; DeLoache, Judy

    2010-01-01

    Picture books are ubiquitous in young children’s lives and are assumed to support children’s acquisition of information about the world. Given their importance, relatively little research has directly examined children’s learning from picture books. We report two studies examining children’s acquisition of labels and facts from picture books that vary on two dimensions: iconicity of the pictures and presence of manipulative features (or “pop-ups”). In Study 1, 20-month-old children generalized novel labels less well when taught from a book with manipulative features than from standard picture books without such elements. In Study 2, 30- and 36-month-old children learned fewer facts when taught from a manipulative picture book with drawings than from a standard picture book with realistic images and no manipulative features. The results of the two studies indicate that children’s learning from picture books is facilitated by realistic illustrations, but impeded by manipulative features. PMID:20948970

  19. On the classification of emotional biosignals evoked while viewing affective pictures: an integrated data-mining-based approach for healthcare applications.

    PubMed

    Frantzidis, Christos A; Bratsas, Charalampos; Klados, Manousos A; Konstantinidis, Evdokimos; Lithari, Chrysa D; Vivas, Ana B; Papadelis, Christos L; Kaldoudi, Eleni; Pappas, Costas; Bamidis, Panagiotis D

    2010-03-01

    Recent neuroscience findings demonstrate the fundamental role of emotion in the maintenance of physical and mental health. In the present study, a novel architecture is proposed for the robust discrimination of emotional physiological signals evoked upon viewing pictures selected from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS). Biosignals are multichannel recordings from both the central and the autonomic nervous systems. Following the bidirectional emotion theory model, IAPS pictures are rated along two dimensions, namely, their valence and arousal. Following this model, biosignals in this paper are initially differentiated according to their valence dimension by means of a data mining approach, which is the C4.5 decision tree algorithm. Then, the valence and the gender information serve as an input to a Mahalanobis distance classifier, which dissects the data into high and low arousing. Results are described in Extensible Markup Language (XML) format, thereby accounting for platform independency, easy interconnectivity, and information exchange. The average recognition (success) rate was 77.68% for the discrimination of four emotional states, differing both in their arousal and valence dimension. It is, therefore, envisaged that the proposed approach holds promise for the efficient discrimination of negative and positive emotions, and it is hereby discussed how future developments may be steered to serve for affective healthcare applications, such as the monitoring of the elderly or chronically ill people. PMID:20064762

  20. Naming names

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The tiny, 1.5-km wide moon that NASA's Galileo mission discovered and photographed around the asteroid Ida no longer has to go by the nondescript appellation of “it.” The International Astronomical Union (IAU) has formally bestowed the name of Dactyl on Ida's moon. Dactyl is derived from the Dactyli, a group of mythological beings who lived on Mount Ida, where the infant Zeus was hidden by the nymph Ida and protected by the Dactyli, according to some mythological accounts. The IAU, which is responsible for naming all solar system bodies, also approved names for the surface features on another asteroid called Gaspra, which was visited by Galileo in October of 1991. Gaspra was the first asteroid to be visited by a spacecraft.

  1. Erotic subset for the Nencki Affective Picture System (NAPS ERO): cross-sexual comparison study

    PubMed Central

    Wierzba, Małgorzata; Riegel, Monika; Pucz, Anna; Leśniewska, Zuzanna; Dragan, Wojciech Ł.; Gola, Mateusz; Jednoróg, Katarzyna; Marchewka, Artur

    2015-01-01

    Research on the processing of sexual stimuli has proved that such material has high priority in human cognition. Yet, although sex differences in response to sexual stimuli were extensively discussed in the literature, sexual orientation was given relatively little consideration, and material suitable for relevant research is difficult to come by. With this in mind, we present a collection of 200 erotic images, accompanied by their self-report ratings of emotional valence and arousal by homo- and heterosexual males and females (n = 80, divided into four equal-sized subsamples). The collection complements the Nencki Affective Picture System (NAPS) and is intended to be used as stimulus material in experimental research. The erotic images are divided into five categories, depending on their content: opposite-sex couple (50), male couple (50), female couple (50), male (25) and female (25). Additional 100 control images from the NAPS depicting people in a non-erotic context were also used in the study. We showed that recipient sex and sexual orientation strongly influenced the evaluation of erotic content. Thus, comparisons of valence and arousal ratings in different subject groups will help researchers select stimuli set for the purpose of various experimental designs. To facilitate the use of the dataset, we provide an on-line tool, which allows the user to browse the images interactively and select proper stimuli on the basis of several parameters. The NAPS ERO image collection together with the data are available to the scientific community for non-commercial use at http://naps.nencki.gov.pl. PMID:26441715

  2. Erotic subset for the Nencki Affective Picture System (NAPS ERO): cross-sexual comparison study.

    PubMed

    Wierzba, Małgorzata; Riegel, Monika; Pucz, Anna; Leśniewska, Zuzanna; Dragan, Wojciech Ł; Gola, Mateusz; Jednoróg, Katarzyna; Marchewka, Artur

    2015-01-01

    Research on the processing of sexual stimuli has proved that such material has high priority in human cognition. Yet, although sex differences in response to sexual stimuli were extensively discussed in the literature, sexual orientation was given relatively little consideration, and material suitable for relevant research is difficult to come by. With this in mind, we present a collection of 200 erotic images, accompanied by their self-report ratings of emotional valence and arousal by homo- and heterosexual males and females (n = 80, divided into four equal-sized subsamples). The collection complements the Nencki Affective Picture System (NAPS) and is intended to be used as stimulus material in experimental research. The erotic images are divided into five categories, depending on their content: opposite-sex couple (50), male couple (50), female couple (50), male (25) and female (25). Additional 100 control images from the NAPS depicting people in a non-erotic context were also used in the study. We showed that recipient sex and sexual orientation strongly influenced the evaluation of erotic content. Thus, comparisons of valence and arousal ratings in different subject groups will help researchers select stimuli set for the purpose of various experimental designs. To facilitate the use of the dataset, we provide an on-line tool, which allows the user to browse the images interactively and select proper stimuli on the basis of several parameters. The NAPS ERO image collection together with the data are available to the scientific community for non-commercial use at http://naps.nencki.gov.pl. PMID:26441715

  3. The Besançon Affective Picture Set-Adolescents (the BAPS-Ado): Development and validation.

    PubMed

    Szymanska, Monika; Monnin, Julie; Noiret, Nicolas; Tio, Grégory; Galdon, Lucie; Laurent, Eric; Nezelof, Sylvie; Vulliez-Coady, Lauriane

    2015-08-30

    Emotional pictures are commonly used as visual stimuli in a number of research fields. Choosing relevant visual stimuli to induce emotion is fundamental in attachment and affective research. Attachment theory provides a theoretical basis for the understanding of emotional and relational problems, and is especially related to two specific emotions: distress and comfort. The lack of normalized visual stimuli soliciting these attachment-related emotions has led us to create and validate a new photographic database: the Besançon Affective Picture Set-Adolescents. This novel stimulus set is composed of 93 photographs, divided into four categories: distress, comfort, joy-complicity and neutral. A group of 140 adolescents rated the pictures with the Self-Assessment Manikin system, yielding three dimensions: valence, emotional arousal, and dominance. The pictures were also assessed, using a continuous scale, for different emotions (distress, hate, horror, comfort, complicity and joy). The ANOVAs for arousal and the Kruskal-Wallis tests for valence and dominance showed strong effects for category. However, for comfort and complicity, the dimensions of valence and dominance were not significantly different, while results for arousal showed no significant difference between complicity and distress. Our study provides a tool that allows researchers to select visual stimuli to investigate attachment-related emotion processing in adolescence. PMID:26163722

  4. Distinct Brain Systems Underlie the Processing of Valence and Arousal of Affective Pictures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielen, M. M. A.; Heslenfeld, D. J.; Heinen, K.; Van Strien, J. W.; Witter, M. P.; Jonker, C.; Veltman, D. J.

    2009-01-01

    Valence and arousal are thought to be the primary dimensions of human emotion. However, the degree to which valence and arousal interact in determining brain responses to emotional pictures is still elusive. This functional MRI study aimed to delineate neural systems responding to valence and arousal, and their interaction. We measured neural…

  5. Incidental Picture Exposure Affects Later Reading: Evidence from the N400

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coppens, Leonora C.; Gootjes, Liselotte; Zwaan, Rolf A.

    2012-01-01

    Language comprehenders form a mental representation of the implied shape of objects mentioned in the text. In the present study, the influence of prior visual experience on subsequent reading was assessed. In two separate phases, participants saw a picture of an object and read a text about the object, suggesting the same or a different shape.…

  6. Acute stress affects free recall and recognition of pictures differently depending on age and sex.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, Vanesa; Pulopulos, Matias M; Puig-Perez, Sara; Espin, Laura; Gomez-Amor, Jesus; Salvador, Alicia

    2015-10-01

    Little is known about age differences in the effects of stress on memory retrieval. Our aim was to perform an in-depth examination of acute psychosocial stress effects on memory retrieval, depending on age and sex. For this purpose, data from 52 older subjects (27 men and 25 women) were reanalyzed along with data from a novel group of 50 young subjects (26 men and 24 women). Participants were exposed to an acute psychosocial stress task (Trier Social Stress Test) or a control task. After the experimental manipulation, the retrieval of positive, negative and neutral pictures learned the previous day was tested. As expected, there was a significant response to the exposure to the stress task, but the older participants had a lower cortisol response to TSST than the younger ones. Stress impaired free recall of emotional (positive and negative) and neutral pictures only in the group of young men. Also in this group, correlation analyses showed a marginally significant association between cortisol and free recall. However, exploratory analyses revealed only a negative relationship between the stress-induced cortisol response and free recall of negative pictures. Moreover, stress impaired recognition memory of positive pictures in all participants, although this effect was not related to the cortisol or alpha-amylase response. These results indicate that both age and sex are critical factors in acute stress effects on specific aspects of long-term memory retrieval of emotional and neutral material. They also point out that more research is needed to better understand their specific role. PMID:26149415

  7. Children's Subjective Emotional Reactivity to Affective Pictures: Gender Differences and Their Antisocial Correlates in an Unselected Sample of 7-11-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, Carla; Van Goozen, Stephanie; Goodyer, Ian

    2006-01-01

    Background: Differential responses in terms of gender and antisocial behaviour in emotional reactivity to affective pictures using the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) have been demonstrated in adult and adolescent samples. Moreover, a quadratic relationship between the arousal (intensity) and valence (degree of unpleasantness) has…

  8. More than pretty pictures? How illustrations affect parent-child story reading and children's story recall

    PubMed Central

    Greenhoot, Andrea Follmer; Beyer, Alisa M.; Curtis, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Previous research showed that story illustrations fail to enhance young preschoolers' memories when they accompany a pre-recorded story (e.g., Greenhoot and Semb, 2008). In this study we tested whether young children might benefit from illustrations in a more interactive story-reading context. For instance, illustrations might influence parent-child reading interactions, and thus children's story comprehension and recall. Twenty-six 3.5- to 4.5-year-olds and their primary caregivers were randomly assigned to an Illustrated or Non-Illustrated story-reading condition, and parents were instructed to “read or tell the story” as they normally would read with their child. Children recalled the story after a distracter and again after 1 week. Analyses of the story-reading interactions showed that the illustrations prompted more interactive story reading and more parent and child behaviors known to predict improved literacy outcomes. Furthermore, in the first memory interview, children in the Illustrated condition recalled more story events than those in the Non-Illustrated condition. Story reading measures predicted recall, but did not completely account for picture effects. These results suggest that illustrations enhance young preschoolers' story recall in an interactive story reading context, perhaps because the joint attention established in this context supports children's processing of the illustrations. PMID:25101018

  9. Maternal Label and Gesture Use Affects Acquisition of Specific Object Names

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zammit, Maria; Schafer, Graham

    2011-01-01

    Ten mothers were observed prospectively, interacting with their infants aged 0 ; 10 in two contexts (picture description and noun description). Maternal communicative behaviours were coded for volubility, gestural production and labelling style. Verbal labelling events were categorized into three exclusive categories: label only; label plus…

  10. Emotion Recognition with Eigen Features of Frequency Band Activities Embedded in Induced Brain Oscillations Mediated by Affective Pictures.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Serap; Demirtaş, Serdar; Ateş, Kahraman; Tunga, M Alper

    2016-05-01

    In this study, singular spectrum analysis (SSA) has been used for the first time in order to extract emotional features from well-defined electroencephalography (EEG) frequency band activities (BAs) so-called delta (0.5-4 Hz), theta (4-8 Hz), alpha (8-16 Hz), beta (16-32 Hz), gamma (32-64 Hz). These five BAs were estimated by applying sixth-level multi-resolution wavelet decomposition (MRWD) with Daubechies wavelets (db-8) to single channel nonaveraged emotional EEG oscillations of 6 s for each scalp location over 16 recording sites (Fp1, Fp2, F3, F4, F7, F8, C3, C4, P3, P4, T3, T4, T5, T6, O1, O2). Every trial was mediated by different emotional stimuli which were selected from international affective picture system (IAPS) to induce emotional states such as pleasant (P), neutral (N), and unpleasant (UP). Largest principal components (PCs) of BAs were considered as emotional features and data mining approaches were used for the first time in order to classify both three different (P, N, UP) and two contrasting (P and UP) emotional states for 30 healthy controls. Emotional features extracted from gamma BAs (GBAs) for 16 recording sites provided the high classification accuracies of 87.1% and 100% for classification of three emotional states and two contrasting emotional states, respectively. In conclusion, we found the followings: (1) Eigenspectra of high frequency BAs in EEG are highly sensitive to emotional hemispheric activations, (2) emotional states are mostly mediated by GBA, (3) pleasant pictures induce the higher cortical activation in contrast to unpleasant pictures, (4) contrasting emotions induce opposite cortical activations, (5) cognitive activities are necessary for an emotion to occur. PMID:26971786

  11. A Comparison of Third Grade Suburban and Inner City Children's Performance on the Standard Administration of the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test and the Naming of the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test Plates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Lenore W.; And Others

    Ninety children were administered the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT) with the standardized administration, as well as an elicited word response task of the PPVT Stimulus Plates. The subjects were inner city black (BIC), inner city white (WIC), and middle class white (WMC) children. The data were analyzed to determine consistency of item…

  12. A Sensitive and Specific Neural Signature for Picture-Induced Negative Affect

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Luke J.; Gianaros, Peter J.; Manuck, Stephen B.; Krishnan, Anjali; Wager, Tor D.

    2015-01-01

    Neuroimaging has identified many correlates of emotion but has not yet yielded brain representations predictive of the intensity of emotional experiences in individuals. We used machine learning to identify a sensitive and specific signature of emotional responses to aversive images. This signature predicted the intensity of negative emotion in individual participants in cross validation (n =121) and test (n = 61) samples (high–low emotion = 93.5% accuracy). It was unresponsive to physical pain (emotion–pain = 92% discriminative accuracy), demonstrating that it is not a representation of generalized arousal or salience. The signature was comprised of mesoscale patterns spanning multiple cortical and subcortical systems, with no single system necessary or sufficient for predicting experience. Furthermore, it was not reducible to activity in traditional “emotion-related” regions (e.g., amygdala, insula) or resting-state networks (e.g., “salience,” “default mode”). Overall, this work identifies differentiable neural components of negative emotion and pain, providing a basis for new, brain-based taxonomies of affective processes. PMID:26098873

  13. Fear recognition in the voice is modulated by unconsciously recognized facial expressions but not by unconsciously recognized affective pictures

    PubMed Central

    de Gelder, Beatrice; Pourtois, Gilles; Weiskrantz, Lawrence

    2002-01-01

    Multisensory integration is a powerful mechanism for increasing adaptive responses, as illustrated by binding of fear expressed in a face with fear present in a voice. To understand the role of awareness in intersensory integration of affective information we studied multisensory integration under conditions of conscious and nonconscious processing of the visual component of an audiovisual stimulus pair. Auditory-event-related potentials were measured in two patients (GY and DB) who were unable to perceive visual stimuli consciously because of striate cortex damage. To explore the role of conscious vision of audiovisual pairing, we also compared audiovisual integration in either naturalistic pairings (a facial expression paired with an emotional voice) or semantic pairings (an emotional picture paired with the same voice). We studied the hypothesis that semantic pairings, unlike naturalistic pairings, might require mediation by intact visual cortex and possibly by feedback to primary cortex from higher cognitive processes. Our results indicate that presenting incongruent visual affective information together with the voice translates as an amplitude decrease of auditory-event-related potentials. This effect obtains for both naturalistic and semantic pairings in the intact field, but is restricted to the naturalistic pairings in the blind field. PMID:11904455

  14. Functional Measurement Analysis of Brand Equity: Does Brand Name Affect Perceptions of Quality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilgenkamp, Heather; Shanteau, James

    2010-01-01

    This research project used Functional Measurement to examine how the brand name of consumer products impacts intended purchasing decisions. Thirty undergraduate students tested actual products from three different product categories (crayons, tissues, and tortilla chips). Each product category consisted of three different brands; one with high…

  15. Fluency affects source memory for familiar names in younger and older adults: evidence from event-related brain potentials.

    PubMed

    Komes, Jessica; Schweinberger, Stefan R; Wiese, Holger

    2014-05-15

    A current debate in memory research is whether and how the access to source information depends not only on recollection, but on fluency-based processes as well. In three experiments, we used event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to examine influences of fluency on source memory for famous names. At test, names were presented visually throughout, whereas visual or auditory presentation was used at learning. In Experiment 1, source decisions following old/new judgments were more accurate for repeated relative to non-repeated visually and auditorily learned names. ERPs were more positive between 300 and 600 ms for visually learned as compared to both auditorily learned and new names, resembling an N400 priming effect. In Experiment 2, we omitted the old/new decision to more directly test fast-acting fluency effects on source memory. We observed more accurate source judgments for repeated versus non-repeated visually learned names, but no such effect for repeated versus non-repeated auditorily learned names. Again, an N400 effect (300-600 ms) differentiated between visually and auditorily learned names. Importantly, this effect occurred for correct source decisions only. We interpret it as indexing fluency arising from within-modality priming of visually learned names at test. This idea was further supported in Experiment 3, which revealed an analogous pattern of results in older adults, consistent with the assumption of spared fluency processes in older age. In sum, our findings suggest that fluency affects person-related source memory via within-modality repetition priming in both younger and older adults. PMID:24531047

  16. Intake of Blueberry Fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum Affects the Gut Microbiota of L-NAME Treated Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ahrén, Irini Lazou; Prykhodko, Olena; Olsson, Crister; Ahrné, Siv; Molin, Göran

    2013-01-01

    Prebiotics, probiotics, or synbiotics can be used as means to regulate the microbiota to exert preventative or beneficial effects to the host. However, not much is known about the effect of the gut microbiota on hypertension which is a major risk factor of cardiovascular disease and also a symptom of the metabolic syndrome. The NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) induced hypertensive rats were used in order to test the effect of a synbiotic dietary supplement of Lactobacillus plantarum HEAL19 either together with fermented blueberry or with three phenolic compounds synthesized during fermentation. The experimental diets did not lower the blood pressure after 4 weeks. However, the fermented blueberries together with live L. plantarum showed protective effect on liver cells indicated by suppressed increase of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALAT) levels. The diversity of the caecal microbiota was neither affected by L-NAME nor the experimental diets. However, inhibition of the nitric oxide synthesis by L-NAME exerted a selection pressure that led to a shift in the bacterial composition. The mixture of fermented blueberries with the bacterial strain altered the caecal microbiota in different direction compared to L-NAME, while the three phenolic compounds together with the bacteria eliminated the selection pressure from the L-NAME. PMID:23690854

  17. The Negativity Bias in Affective Picture Processing Depends on Top-Down and Bottom-Up Motivational Significance

    PubMed Central

    Hilgard, Joseph; Weinberg, Anna; Proudfit, Greg Hajcak; Bartholow, Bruce D.

    2014-01-01

    It is widely believed that negative information is psychologically more meaningful than positive information, a phenomenon known generally as the negativity bias. However, findings concerning the possibility of a negativity bias in emotional picture processing have been mixed, with recent studies indicating the lack of such a bias in event-related brain potentials (ERPs) when pleasant and unpleasant images are equated for motivational relevance. Here, we investigated two factors that could influence the detection of a negativity bias: picture presentation paradigm and specific picture content. Across two studies, participants viewed pleasant-affiliative, pleasant-thrilling, unpleasant-threatening and neutral images presented in the context of oddball, blocked and random viewing paradigms. Across paradigms, emotional images elicited larger responses in the late positive potential (LPP) than did neutral images. A negativity bias was detected in the oddball paradigm and when thrilling, rather than affiliative, pleasant stimuli were used. Findings are discussed in terms of factors known to influence LPP amplitude and their relevance to differential effects across picture viewing paradigms. PMID:24866528

  18. Using Multiple Calibration Indices in Order to Capture the Complex Picture of What Affects Students' Accuracy of Feeling of Confidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boekaerts, Monique; Rozendaal, Jeroen S.

    2010-01-01

    The present study used multiple calibration indices to capture the complex picture of fifth graders' calibration of feeling of confidence in mathematics. Specifically, the effects of gender, type of mathematical problem, instruction method, and time of measurement (before and after problem solving) on calibration skills were investigated. Fourteen…

  19. Simulation of the geomagnetic field experienced by the International Space Station in its revolution around the Earth: Effects on psychophysiological responses to affective picture viewing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Seppia, C.; Mezzasalma, L.; Messerotti, M.; Cordelli, A.; Ghione, S.

    2006-02-01

    There is evidence suggesting that exposure to an abnormal magnetic environment may produce psychophysiological effects related to abnormalities in responses to stress. This may be of relevance for space medicine where astronauts are exposed to a magnetic field different from that exerted by the Earth. Aim of this study was to assess how the exposure of the head to a magnetic field simulating the one encountered by the International Space Station (ISS) during a single orbit (90 min) around the Earth affects the cardiovascular and psychophysiological parameters. Twenty-four human volunteers were studied double blindly in random order under sham and magnetic exposure. During exposure, the persons were shown a set of pictures of different emotional content while subjective self-rating, skin conductance (SC), blood pressure (BP), and heart rate (HR) were measured. In addition, BP, HR, and tooth pain threshold were assessed before and after exposure. While subjects were under magnetic exposure, skin conductance was strongly differentiated (F|2,36 = 22.927; p = 0.0001), being high during emotionally involving (positive and negative) pictures and low during neutral pictures. Conversely, when subjects were under sham exposure, no significant differences were observed. There was, however, a trend for higher heart rate during picture viewing under magnetic exposure as compared to sham exposure. No effects were found for the other variables. These results suggest that an abnormal magnetic field that simulates the one encountered by ISS orbiting around the Earth may enhance autonomic response to emotional stimuli.

  20. Simulation of the geomagnetic field experienced by the International Space Station in its revolution around the Earth: effects on psychophysiological responses to affective picture viewing.

    PubMed

    Del Seppia, Cristina; Mezzasalma, Lorena; Messerotti, Mauro; Cordelli, Alessandro; Ghione, Sergio

    2006-06-12

    There is evidence suggesting that exposure to an abnormal magnetic environment may produce psychophysiological effects related to abnormalities in responses to stress. This may be of relevance for space medicine where astronauts are exposed to a magnetic field different from that exerted by the Earth. Aim of this study was to assess how the exposure of the head to a magnetic field simulating the one encountered by the International Space Station (ISS) during a single orbit (90 min) around the Earth affects the cardiovascular and psychophysiological parameters. Twenty-four human volunteers were studied double blindly in random order under sham and magnetic exposure. During exposure, the persons were shown a set of pictures of different emotional content while subjective self-rating, skin conductance (SC), blood pressure (BP), and heart rate (HR) were measured. In addition, BP, HR, and tooth pain threshold were assessed before and after exposure. While subjects were under magnetic exposure, skin conductance was strongly differentiated (F(2,36)=22.927; p=0.0001), being high during emotionally involving (positive and negative) pictures and low during neutral pictures. Conversely, when subjects were under sham exposure, no significant differences were observed. There was, however, a trend for higher heart rate during picture viewing under magnetic exposure as compared to sham exposure. No effects were found for the other variables. These results suggest that an abnormal magnetic field that simulates the one encountered by ISS orbiting around the Earth may enhance autonomic response to emotional stimuli. PMID:16529860

  1. Picturing Iowa's History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruth, Amy, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This issue focuses on how advancements in photography affected Iowans and the pictures they took of their communities. Five famous and not so famous photographers who have taken pictures of Iowa's history are featured: (1) John Plumbe, Jr.; (2) Isaac A. Wetherby; (3) D. C. Hale; (4) Duluth Pieper; and (5) E. M. Clark. Instructions for making…

  2. Shared and nonshared neural networks of cognitive and affective theory-of-mind: a neuroimaging study using cartoon picture stories.

    PubMed

    Schlaffke, Lara; Lissek, Silke; Lenz, Melanie; Juckel, Georg; Schultz, Thomas; Tegenthoff, Martin; Schmidt-Wilcke, Tobias; Brüne, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Theory of mind (ToM) refers to the ability to represent one's own and others' cognitive and affective mental states. Recent imaging studies have aimed to disentangle the neural networks involved in cognitive as opposed to affective ToM, based on clinical observations that the two can functionally dissociate. Due to large differences in stimulus material and task complexity findings are, however, inconclusive. Here, we investigated the neural correlates of cognitive and affective ToM in psychologically healthy male participants (n = 39) using functional brain imaging, whereby the same set of stimuli was presented for all conditions (affective, cognitive and control), but associated with different questions prompting either a cognitive or affective ToM inference. Direct contrasts of cognitive versus affective ToM showed that cognitive ToM recruited the precuneus and cuneus, as well as regions in the temporal lobes bilaterally. Affective ToM, in contrast, involved a neural network comprising prefrontal cortical structures, as well as smaller regions in the posterior cingulate cortex and the basal ganglia. Notably, these results were complemented by a multivariate pattern analysis (leave one study subject out), yielding a classifier with an accuracy rate of more than 85% in distinguishing between the two ToM-conditions. The regions contributing most to successful classification corresponded to those found in the univariate analyses. The study contributes to the differentiation of neural patterns involved in the representation of cognitive and affective mental states of others. PMID:25131828

  3. Developmental Shifts in Children's Sensitivity to Visual Speech: A New Multimodal Picture-Word Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jerger, Susan; Damian, Markus F.; Spence, Melanie J.; Tye-Murray, Nancy; Abdi, Herve

    2009-01-01

    This research developed a multimodal picture-word task for assessing the influence of visual speech on phonological processing by 100 children between 4 and 14 years of age. We assessed how manipulation of seemingly to-be-ignored auditory (A) and audiovisual (AV) phonological distractors affected picture naming without participants consciously…

  4. Food as Risk: How Eating Habits and Food Knowledge Affect Reactivity to Pictures of Junk and Healthy Foods.

    PubMed

    Yegiyan, Narine S; Bailey, Rachel L

    2016-01-01

    This study explores how people respond to images of junk versus healthy food as a function of their eating habits and food knowledge. The experiment reported here proposed and tested the idea that those with unhealthy eating habits but highly knowledgeable about healthy eating would feel more positive and also more negative toward junk food images compared to images of healthy food because they may perceive them as risky--desirable but potentially harmful. The psychophysiological data collected from participants during their exposure to pictures of junk versus healthy food supported this idea. In addition, unhealthy eaters compared to healthy eaters with the same degree of food knowledge responded more positively to all food items. The findings are critical from a health communication perspective. Because unhealthy eaters produce stronger emotional responses to images of junk food, they are more likely to process information associated with junk food with more cognitive effort and scrutiny. Thus, when targeting this group and using images of junk food, it is important to combine these images with strong message claims and relevant arguments; otherwise, if the arguments are perceived as irrelevant or weak, the motivational activation associated with junk food itself may transfer into an increased desire to consume the unhealthy product. PMID:26503541

  5. Children's and Adults' Memory for Emotional Pictures: Examining Age-Related Patterns Using the Developmental Affective Photo System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cordon, Ingrid M.; Melinder, Annika M. D.; Goodman, Gail S.; Edelstein, Robin S.

    2013-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to examine theoretical questions about children's and adults' memory for emotional visual stimuli. In Study 1, 7- to 9-year-olds and adults (N = 172) participated in the initial creation of the Developmental Affective Photo System (DAPS). Ratings of emotional valence, arousal, and complexity were obtained. In Study 2,…

  6. EEG study on affective valence elicited by novel and familiar pictures using ERD/ERS and SVM-RFE.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo-Muñoz, A R; López, M M; Galvao-Carmona, A; Pereira, A T; Santos, I M; Vázquez-Marrufo, M; Tomé, A M

    2014-02-01

    EEG signals have been widely explored in emotional processing analyses, both in time and frequency domains. However, in such studies, habituation phenomenon is barely considered in the discrimination of different emotional responses. In this work, spectral features of the event-related potentials (ERPs) are studied by means of event-related desynchronization/synchronization computation. In order to determine the most relevant ERP features for distinguishing how positive and negative affective valences are processed within the brain, support vector machine-recursive feature elimination is employed. The proposed approach was applied for investigating in which way the familiarity of stimuli affects the affective valence processing as well as which frequency bands and scalp regions are more involved in this process. In a group composed of young adult women, results prove that parietooccipital region and theta band are especially involved in the processing of novelty in emotional stimuli. Furthermore, the proposed method has shown to perform successfully using a moderated number of trials. PMID:24257836

  7. Picture Postage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osterer, Irv

    2009-01-01

    With the popularity of e-mail cutting into revenues, Canada Post is always searching for a marketing strategy that would encourage people to use the mail. "Picture Postage" is such an initiative. This popular program allows individuals to create their own stamps for family and friends. This opportunity also provides a vehicle for businesses to…

  8. The face of negative affect: Trial-by-trial corrugator responses to negative pictures are positively associated with amygdala and negatively associated with ventromedial prefrontal cortex activity

    PubMed Central

    Heller, Aaron S; Lapate, Regina C; Mayer, Kaitlyn; Davidson, Richard J

    2014-01-01

    The ability to simultaneously acquire objective physiological measures of emotion concurrent with fMRI holds the promise to enhance our understanding of the biological bases of affect, and thus improve our knowledge of the neural circuitry underlying psychiatric disorders. However, the vast majority of neuroimaging studies to date examining emotion have not anchored the examination of emotion-responding circuitry to objective measures of emotional processing. To that end, we acquired electromyographic (EMG) activity of a valence-sensitive facial muscle involved in the frowning response (corrugator muscle) concurrent with fMRI while twenty-six human participants viewed negative and neutral images. Trial-by-trial increases in corrugator EMG activity to negative pictures were associated with greater amygdala activity, and a concurrent decrease in ventromedial prefrontal cortex activity. Thus, this study highlights the reciprocal relation between amygdalar and ventromedial prefrontal cortex in the encoding of emotional valence as reflected by facial expression. PMID:24669790

  9. Pattern Perception and Pictures for the Blind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, Morton A.; McCarthy, Melissa; Clark, Ashley

    2005-01-01

    This article reviews recent research on perception of tangible pictures in sighted and blind people. Haptic picture naming accuracy is dependent upon familiarity and access to semantic memory, just as in visual recognition. Performance is high when haptic picture recognition tasks do not depend upon semantic memory. Viewpoint matters for the ease…

  10. Age-of-Acquisition Effects in Word and Picture Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juhasz, Barbara J.

    2005-01-01

    Words and pictures with earlier learned labels are processed faster than words and pictures with later learned labels. This age-of-acquisition (AoA) effect has been extensively investigated in many different types of tasks. This article provides a review of these studies including picture naming, word naming, speeded word naming, word…

  11. Semantic gradients in picture-word interference tasks: is the size of interference effects affected by the degree of semantic overlap?

    PubMed Central

    Hutson, James; Damian, Markus F.

    2014-01-01

    We report two experiments attempting to identify the role of semantic relatedness in picture-word interference studies. Previously published data sets have rendered results which directly contradict each other, with one study suggesting that the stronger the relation between picture and distractor, the more semantic interference is obtained, and another study suggesting the opposite pattern. We replicated the two key experiments with only minor procedural modifications, and found semantic interference effects in both. Critically, these were largely independent of the strength of semantic overlap. Additionally, we attempted to predict individual interference effects per target picture, via various measures of semantic overlap, which also failed to account for the effects. From our results it appears that semantic interference effects in picture-word tasks are similarly present for weakly and strongly overlapping combinations. Implications are discussed in the light of the recent debate on the role of competition in lexical selection. PMID:25161636

  12. Cover Picture.

    PubMed

    Krömer; Rios-Carreras; Fuhrmann; Musch; Wunderlin; Debaerdemaeker; Mena-Osteritz; Bäuerle

    2000-10-01

    The cover picture shows the synthesis of novel conjugated macrocycles assembled from oligothiophenes bearing terminal acetylene groups. Under pseudo-high-dilution conditions the oxidative cyclooligomerization first gives the oligothiophenediynes, the precursors to the new class of alpha-cyclo[n]thiophenes. The detailed structure of macrocycles with up to 76 ring members and cavities of up to 3 nm could be investigated by means of X-ray structure analysis, scanning tunneling microscopy, and quantum chemical calculations (see the molecular model top right). The novel rings combine the excellent electronic properties of the corresponding linearly conjugated oligomers with the possibility of complexing large organic guest molecules or other objects (the tower of the Cathedral at Ulm represents a nanometer-sized, rodlike entity), which should have new fundamental properties and applications. The background shows the image obtained by scanning electron microscopy of a self-assembled and perfectly ordered monolayer of macrocycles on a graphite surface. More on these fascinating nanometer-sized rings can be found in the communication by P. Bäuerle et al. on p. 3481 ff. PMID:11091367

  13. The picture superiority effect in a cross-modality recognition task.

    PubMed

    Stenbert, G; Radeborg, K; Hedman, L R

    1995-07-01

    Words and pictures were studied and recognition tests given in which each studied object was to be recognized in both word and picture format. The main dependent variable was the latency of the recognition decision. The purpose was to investigate the effects of study modality (word or picture), of congruence between study and test modalities, and of priming resulting from repeated testing. Experiments 1 and 2 used the same basic design, but the latter also varied retention interval. Experiment 3 added a manipulation of instructions to name studied objects, and Experiment 4 deviated from the others by presenting both picture and word referring to the same object together for study. The results showed that congruence between study and test modalities consistently facilitated recognition. Furthermore, items studied as pictures were more rapidly recognized than were items studied as words. With repeated testing, the second instance was affected by its predecessor, but the facilitating effect of picture-to-word priming exceeded that of word-to-picture priming. The finds suggest a two- stage recognition process, in which the first is based on perceptual familiarity and the second uses semantic links for a retrieval search. Common-code theories that grant privileged access to the semantic code for pictures or, alternatively, dual-code theories that assume mnemonic superiority for the image code are supported by the findings. Explanations of the picture superiority effect as resulting from dual encoding of pictures are not supported by the data. PMID:7666756

  14. Semantic Similarity and Grammatical Class in Naming Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vigliocco, Gabriella; Vinson, David P.; Siri, Simona

    2005-01-01

    Italian speakers were asked to name pictures of actions (e.g. "bere", to drink). Pictures were presented at the same time as distracter words that were semantically related or unrelated to the picture names, and were of the same or different grammatical class (verbs or nouns). Half of the participants named the actions as verbs in citation form,…

  15. Distribution of Chinese names

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ding-wei

    2013-03-01

    We present a statistical model for the distribution of Chinese names. Both family names and given names are studied on the same basis. With naive expectation, the distribution of family names can be very different from that of given names. One is affected mostly by genealogy, while the other can be dominated by cultural effects. However, we find that both distributions can be well described by the same model. Various scaling behaviors can be understood as a result of stochastic processes. The exponents of different power-law distributions are controlled by a single parameter. We also comment on the significance of full-name repetition in Chinese population.

  16. First names and perceptions of physical attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Erwin, P G

    1993-11-01

    I examined the impact of first names on ratings of physical attractiveness as judged by British undergraduate subjects using male and female full-face pictures presented on photographic slides. The photographs were identified with attractive names, unattractive names, or without any name indicated. Subjects rated the stimulus figures for physical attractiveness. Names accounted for approximately 6% of the variance in subjects' ratings of physical attractiveness. This effect was highly significant for pictures of women (p < .001), but nonsignificant for pictures of men (p > .05). PMID:8301616

  17. Rapid induction of false memory for pictures.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, Yana; Shanks, David R

    2010-07-01

    Recognition of pictures is typically extremely accurate, and it is thus unclear whether the reconstructive nature of memory can yield substantial false recognition of highly individuated stimuli. A procedure for the rapid induction of false memories for distinctive colour photographs is proposed. Participants studied a set of object pictures followed by a list of words naming those objects, but embedded in the list were names of unseen objects. When subsequently shown full colour pictures of these unseen objects, participants consistently claimed that they had seen them, while discriminating with high accuracy between studied pictures and new pictures whose names did not appear in the misleading word list. These false memories can be reported with high confidence as well as the feeling of recollection. This new procedure allows the investigation of factors that influence false memory reports with ecologically valid stimuli and of the similarities and differences between true and false memories. PMID:20623419

  18. The Aging Neighborhood: Phonological Density in Naming

    PubMed Central

    Kurczek, Jake C.

    2013-01-01

    Aging affects the ability to retrieve words for production, despite maintainence of lexical knowledge. In this study, we investigate the influence of lexical variables on picture naming accuracy and latency in adults ranging in age from 22 to 86 years. In particular, we explored the influence of phonological neighborhood density, which has been shown to exert competitive effects on word recognition, but to facilitate word production, a finding with implications for models of the lexicon. Naming responses were slower and less accurate for older participants, as expected. Target frequency also played a strong role, with facilitative frequency effects becoming stronger with age. Neighborhood density interacted with age, such that naming was slower for high-density than low-density items, but only for older subjects. Explaining this finding within an interactive activation model suggests that, as we age, the ability of activated neighbors to facilitate target production diminishes, while their activation puts them in competition with the target. PMID:24563568

  19. The Untapped Potential of Picture Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hager, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the role picture books play in helping young writers. Third-grade students were read engaging picture books for the sole purpose of noticing and naming different features they encountered during the read-alouds. Students were able to recognize the tools many authors and illustrators use such as onomatopoeia, varied font…

  20. Monochromatic Names

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Main, Marisa J.

    2009-01-01

    The author describes a lesson for middle school students involving their names, with outlets for uniqueness and self-expression. Focusing on contrast, design elements, and a monochromatic color scheme, students created name designs that they loved. Tips for adaptation for special needs students are included. The lesson confirms basic design and…

  1. Do alternative names block young and older adults' retrieval of proper names?

    PubMed

    Cross, Emily S; Burke, Deborah M

    2004-04-01

    This study evaluates whether tip of the tongue experiences (TOTs) are caused by a more accessible word which blocks retrieval of the target word, especially for older adults. In a "competitor priming" paradigm, young and older adults produced the name of a famous character (e.g., Eliza Doolittle) in response to a question and subsequently named a picture of a famous actor or actress depicting this character (e.g., Audrey Hepburn as Eliza Doolittle). Older adults produced more TOTs than young adults, but prior production of a related character name did not affect TOTs, although it did reduce incorrect responses. There were no age differences in knowledge of films and TV and thus the age-related increase in TOTs is not because older adults have more relevant knowledge. The findings are compatible with models in which alternate words are a consequence not a cause of TOT. PMID:15010248

  2. Neural correlates of processing negative and sexually arousing pictures.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Kira; West, Robert; Mullaney, Kellie M

    2012-01-01

    Recent work has questioned whether the negativity bias is a distinct component of affective picture processing. The current study was designed to determine whether there are different neural correlates of processing positive and negative pictures using event-related brain potentials. The early posterior negativity and late positive potential were greatest in amplitude for erotic pictures. Partial Least Squares analysis revealed one latent variable that distinguished erotic pictures from neutral and positive pictures and another that differentiated negative pictures from neutral and positive pictures. The effects of orienting task on the neural correlates of processing negative and erotic pictures indicate that affective picture processing is sensitive to both stimulus-driven, and attentional or decision processes. The current data, together with other recent findings from our laboratory, lead to the suggestion that there are distinct neural correlates of processing negative and positive stimuli during affective picture processing. PMID:23029071

  3. Name Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Nanyoung

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a name design project. The project is one way to teach how repetition makes a composition look harmonious and pleasing without even saying the word, and introduce the concept of "style" that can later be expanded to appreciating different styles of artworks. The main part of the project consists of drawing the chosen design,…

  4. Researching with Pictures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wildman, Diane

    1990-01-01

    Describes a class activity in which students gathered pictures and wrote and recorded narration relating to the first successful flight by the Wright brothers at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina. Notes that, in the process of gathering pictures, the students were motivated to read the information accompanying the pictures. (RS)

  5. Induction of naming after observing visual stimuli and their names in children with autism.

    PubMed

    Carnerero, José Julio; Pérez-González, Luis Antonio

    2014-10-01

    A novel procedure to induce pairing naming, considered the emergence of tacts and selection of pictures after observing names and its corresponding pictures without specific consequences, was probed in 4 persons with autism who lacked this capability with a multiple probe design across participants. Five pictures were selected per set. The participants observed the pictures on a computer screen while the experimenter said the name of the picture. Then, the emission of untaught uninstructed tacts of the pictures was tested without reinforcement. The cycle was repeated until a criterion of 90% correct responses was achieved. Thereafter, in probes without reinforcement, the participants tacted the pictures without specific instructions and also when asked to name them, and selected the correct picture upon hearing their names. The procedure was repeated with two additional stimulus sets and the probed relations emerged always. Two children showed the emergence with fewer trials across sets, which indicate emergence induction. Thus, the procedure served to test whether the pairing naming capability was missing and induced the capability. The results may have important utility in teaching persons diagnosed with autism and other learning difficulties and for accelerating learning in all children. PMID:25014270

  6. Can Pictures Be Arguments?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, David

    1996-01-01

    Maintains that widening the study of argumentation to include the visual unjustifiably expands common understandings of argument, particularly those that define argument as a two-part, two-sided act. Contends that by calling pictures "arguments," it is possible that attention will be diverted away from the rhetorical functions pictures can and do…

  7. Gaze differences in processing pictures with emotional content.

    PubMed

    Budimir, Sanja; Palmović, Marijan

    2011-01-01

    The International Affective Picture System (IAPS) is a set of standardized emotionally evocative color photographs developed by NIMH Center for Emotion and Attention at the University of Florida. It contains more than 900 emotional pictures indexed by emotional valence, arousal and dominance. However, when IAPS pictures were used in studying emotions with the event-related potentials, the results have shown a great deal of variation and inconsistency. In this research arousal and dominance of pictures were controlled while emotional valence was manipulated as 3 categories, pleasant, neutral and unpleasant pictures. Two experiments were conducted with an eye-tracker in order to determine to what the participants turn their gaze. Participants were 25 psychology students with normal vision. Every participant saw all pictures in color and same pictures in black/white version. This makes 200 analyzed units for color pictures and 200 for black and white pictures. Every picture was divided into figure and ground. Considering that perception can be influenced by color, edges, luminosity and contrast and since all those factors are collapsed on the pictures in IAPS, we compared color pictures with same black and white pictures. In first eye-tracking IAPS research we analyzed 12 emotional pictures and showed that participants have higher number of fixations for ground on neutral and unpleasant pictures and for figure on pleasant pictures. Second experiment was conducted with 4 sets of emotional complementary pictures (pleasant/unpleasant) which differ only on the content in the figure area and it was shown that participants were more focused on the figure area than on the ground area. Future ERP (event related potential) research with IAPS pictures should take into consideration these findings and to either choose pictures with blank ground or adjust pictures in the way that ground is blank. For the following experiments suggestion is to put emotional content in the figure

  8. Semantic Interference in a Delayed Naming Task: Evidence for the Response Exclusion Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janssen, Niels; Schirm, Walter; Mahon, Bradford Z.; Caramazza, Alfonso

    2008-01-01

    In 2 experiments participants named pictures of common objects with superimposed distractor words. In one naming condition, the pictures and words were presented simultaneously on every trial, and participants produced the target response immediately. In the other naming condition, the presentation of the picture preceded the presentation of the…

  9. Metaphor in pictures.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, J M

    1982-01-01

    Pictures can be literal or metaphoric. Metaphoric pictures involve intended violations of standard modes of depiction that are universally recognizable. The types of metaphoric pictures correspond to major groups of verbal metaphors, with the addition of a class of pictorial runes. Often the correspondence between verbal and pictorial metaphors depends on individual features of objects and such physical parameters as change of scale. A more sophisticated analysis is required for some pictorial metaphors, involving juxtapositions of well-known objects and indirect reference. PMID:6193482

  10. Vision and Motion Pictures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grambo, Gregory

    1998-01-01

    Presents activities on persistence of vision that involve students in a hands-on approach to the study of early methods of creating motion pictures. Students construct flip books, a Zoetrope, and an early movie machine. (DDR)

  11. Picturing the Heart

    MedlinePlus

    ... Information You are here Home » SCIENCE EDUCATION SCIENCE EDUCATION SCIENCE EDUCATION Science Topics Resource Links for General Public Resource ... Links for Students Glossary Picturing the Heart SCIENCE EDUCATION Science Topics Resource Links for General Public Resource ...

  12. North-American Norms for Name Disagreement: Pictorial Stimuli Naming Discrepancies

    PubMed Central

    O’Sullivan, Mary; Lepage, Martin; Bouras, Maria; Montreuil, Tina; Brodeur, Mathieu B.

    2012-01-01

    Pictorial stimuli are commonly used by scientists to explore central processes; including memory, attention, and language. Pictures that have been collected and put into sets for these purposes often contain visual ambiguities that lead to name disagreement amongst subjects. In the present work, we propose new norms which reflect these sources of name disagreement, and we apply this method to two sets of pictures: the Snodgrass and Vanderwart (S&V) set and the Bank of Standardized Stimuli (BOSS). Naming responses of the presented pictures were classified within response categories based on whether they were correct, incorrect, or equivocal. To characterize the naming strategy where an alternative name was being used, responses were further divided into different sub-categories that reflected various sources of name disagreement. Naming strategies were also compared across the two sets of stimuli. Results showed that the pictures of the S&V set and the BOSS were more likely to elicit alternative specific and equivocal names, respectively. It was also found that the use of incorrect names was not significantly different across stimulus sets but that errors were more likely caused by visual ambiguity in the S&V set and by a misuse of names in the BOSS. Norms for name disagreement presented in this paper are useful for subsequent research for their categorization and elucidation of name disagreement that occurs when choosing visual stimuli from one or both stimulus sets. The sources of disagreement should be examined carefully as they help to provide an explanation of errors and inconsistencies of many concepts during picture naming tasks. PMID:23133526

  13. Naming on a Directed Graph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gosti, Giorgio; Batchelder, William H.

    We address how the structure of a social communication system affects language coordination. The naming game is an abstraction of lexical acquisition dynamics, in which N agents try to find an agreement on the names to give to objects. Most results on naming games are specific to certain communication network topologies. We present two important results that are general to any graph topology: the first proves that under certain topologies the system always converges to a name-object agreement; the second proves that if these conditions are not met the system may end up in a state in which sub-networks with different competing object-name associations coexist.

  14. Life Span Effects of Lexical Factors on Oral Naming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Rochelle S.; German, Diane J.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated how lexical access in naming tasks (picture naming, naming to open-ended sentences, and naming to category exemplars) might be influenced by different lexical factors during adolescence and adulthood. Participants included 1075 individuals, ranging in age from 12 to 83 years. Lexical factors examined included word frequency…

  15. An ERP study of recognition memory for concrete and abstract pictures in school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Boucher, Olivier; Chouinard-Leclaire, Christine; Muckle, Gina; Westerlund, Alissa; Burden, Matthew J; Jacobson, Sandra W; Jacobson, Joseph L

    2016-08-01

    Recognition memory for concrete, nameable pictures is typically faster and more accurate than for abstract pictures. A dual-coding account for these findings suggests that concrete pictures are processed into verbal and image codes, whereas abstract pictures are encoded in image codes only. Recognition memory relies on two successive and distinct processes, namely familiarity and recollection. Whether these two processes are similarly or differently affected by stimulus concreteness remains unknown. This study examined the effect of picture concreteness on visual recognition memory processes using event-related potentials (ERPs). In a sample of children involved in a longitudinal study, participants (N=96; mean age=11.3years) were assessed on a continuous visual recognition memory task in which half the pictures were easily nameable, everyday concrete objects, and the other half were three-dimensional abstract, sculpture-like objects. Behavioral performance and ERP correlates of familiarity and recollection (respectively, the FN400 and P600 repetition effects) were measured. Behavioral results indicated faster and more accurate identification of concrete pictures as "new" or "old" (i.e., previously displayed) compared to abstract pictures. ERPs were characterized by a larger repetition effect, on the P600 amplitude, for concrete than for abstract images, suggesting a graded recollection process dependent on the type of material to be recollected. Topographic differences were observed within the FN400 latency interval, especially over anterior-inferior electrodes, with the repetition effect more pronounced and localized over the left hemisphere for concrete stimuli, potentially reflecting different neural processes underlying early processing of verbal/semantic and visual material in memory. PMID:27329352

  16. Consideration of vision and picture quality: psychological effects induced by picture sharpness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusaka, Hideo

    1989-08-01

    A psychological hierarchy model of human vision(1)(2) suggests that the visual signals are processed in a serial manner from lower to higher stages: that is "sensation" - "perception" - "emotion." For designing a future television system, it is important to find out what kinds of physical factors affect the "emotion" experienced by an observer in front of the display. This paper describes the psychological effects induced by the sharpness of the picture. The subjective picture quality was evaluated for the same pictures with five different levels of sharpness. The experiment was performed on two kinds of printed pictures: (A) a woman's face, and (B) a town corner. From these experiments, it was found that the amount of high-frequency peaking (physical value of the sharpness) which psychologically gives the best picture quality, differs between pictures (A) and (B). That is, the optimum picture sharpness differs depending on the picture content. From these results, we have concluded that the psychophysical sharpness of the picture is not only determined at the stage of "perception" (e.g., resolution or signal to noise ratio, which everyone can judge immediately), but also at the stage of "emotion" (e.g., sensation of reality or beauty).

  17. Science's Big Picture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapp, Gregg

    2007-01-01

    The state of science is a moving target, and its ever-shifting horizons can best be gleaned by the contents of scientific journals. However, the bigger picture of the scientific enterprise, which also encompasses its past, its future, and its overarching philosophies, can often be better represented through the more reflective pace of popular…

  18. Picture Books for Teens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kan, Kat

    2002-01-01

    Discusses picture books that are suitable for teens, particularly middle school readers, and provides detailed reviews for five titles that have appealing story themes and illustrations including: Tony Millionaires' Sock Monkey: A Children's Book; Mick Foley's Christmas Chaos; Mick Foley's Halloween Hijinx; The Book of Jack; and Moby Dick. (LRW)

  19. Voyager picture of Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    NASA's Voyager 1 took this picture of the planet Jupiter on Saturday, Jan. 6, the first in its three-month-long, close-up investigation of the largest planet. The spacecraft, flying toward a March 5 closest approach, was 35.8 million miles (57.6 million kilometers) from Jupiter and 371.7 million miles (598.2 million kilometers) from Earth when the picture was taken. As the Voyager cameras begin their meteorological surveillance of Jupiter, they reveal a dynamic atmosphere with more convective structure than had previously been thought. While the smallest atmospheric features seen in this picture are still as large as 600 miles (1,000 kilometers) across, Voyager will be able to detect individual storm systems as small as 3 miles (5 kilometers) at closest approach. The Great Red Spot can be seen near the limb at the far right. Most of the other features are too small to be seen in terrestrial telescopes. This picture was transmitted to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory through the Deep Space Network's tracking station at Madrid, Spain. The Voyager Project is managed for NASA by Caltech's Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  20. Picturing Objects in Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shinskey, Jeanne L.; Jachens, Liza J.

    2014-01-01

    Infants' transfer of information from pictures to objects was tested by familiarizing 9-month-olds (N = 31) with either a color or black-and-white photograph of an object and observing their preferential reaching for the real target object versus a distractor. One condition tested object recognition by keeping both objects visible, and the…

  1. Knowledge From Pictures (KFP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truszkowski, Walt; Paterra, Frank; Bailin, Sidney

    1993-01-01

    The old maxim goes: 'A picture is worth a thousand words'. The objective of the research reported in this paper is to demonstrate this idea as it relates to the knowledge acquisition process and the automated development of an expert system's rule base. A prototype tool, the Knowledge From Pictures (KFP) tool, has been developed which configures an expert system's rule base by an automated analysis of and reasoning about a 'picture', i.e., a graphical representation of some target system to be supported by the diagnostic capabilities of the expert system under development. This rule base, when refined, could then be used by the expert system for target system monitoring and fault analysis in an operational setting. Most people, when faced with the problem of understanding the behavior of a complicated system, resort to the use of some picture or graphical representation of the system as an aid in thinking about it. This depiction provides a means of helping the individual to visualize the bahavior and dynamics of the system under study. An analysis of the picture augmented with the individual's background information, allows the problem solver to codify knowledge about the system. This knowledge can, in turn, be used to develop computer programs to automatically monitor the system's performance. The approach taken is this research was to mimic this knowledge acquisition paradigm. A prototype tool was developed which provides the user: (1) a mechanism for graphically representing sample system-configurations appropriate for the domain, and (2) a linguistic device for annotating the graphical representation with the behaviors and mutual influences of the components depicted in the graphic. The KFP tool, reasoning from the graphical depiction along with user-supplied annotations of component behaviors and inter-component influences, generates a rule base that could be used in automating the fault detection, isolation, and repair of the system.

  2. Impaired picture recognition in transient epileptic amnesia.

    PubMed

    Dewar, Michaela; Hoefeijzers, Serge; Zeman, Adam; Butler, Christopher; Della Sala, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Transient epileptic amnesia (TEA) is an epileptic syndrome characterized by recurrent, brief episodes of amnesia. Transient epileptic amnesia is often associated with the rapid decline in recall of new information over hours to days (accelerated long-term forgetting - 'ALF'). It remains unknown how recognition memory is affected in TEA over time. Here, we report a systematic study of picture recognition in patients with TEA over the course of one week. Sixteen patients with TEA and 16 matched controls were presented with 300 photos of everyday life scenes. Yes/no picture recognition was tested 5min, 2.5h, 7.5h, 24h, and 1week after picture presentation using a subset of target pictures as well as similar and different foils. Picture recognition was impaired in the patient group at all test times, including the 5-minute test, but it declined normally over the course of 1week. This impairment was associated predominantly with an increased false alarm rate, especially for similar foils. High performance on a control test indicates that this impairment was not associated with perceptual or discrimination deficits. Our findings suggest that, at least in some TEA patients with ALF in verbal recall, picture recognition does not decline more rapidly than in controls over 1week. However, our findings of an early picture recognition deficit suggest that new visual memories are impoverished after minutes in TEA. This could be the result of deficient encoding or impaired early consolidation. The early picture recognition deficit observed could reflect either the early stages of the process that leads to ALF or a separable deficit of anterograde memory in TEA. Lastly, our study suggests that at least some patients with TEA are prone to falsely recognizing new everyday visual information that they have not in fact seen previously. This deficit, alongside their ALF in free recall, likely affects everyday memory performance. PMID:25506793

  3. Picture Stories for ESL Health Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singleton, Kate

    These picture stories help English as a Second Language teachers address topics affecting their students' health and wellbeing. They are useful for beginner and low-literacy students, offering a safe, impromptu way to discuss difficult topics, ask questions, and obtain information. As the stories are about cartoon characters, students are not…

  4. Exploring the Dynamics of Aphasic Word Production Using the Picture-Word Interference Task: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilshire, Carolyn E.; Keall, Leonie M.; Stuart, Elizabeth J.; O'Donnell, Debra J.

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we use an auditory picture-word interference task to examine an anomic individual, NP. NP produced semantic errors in picture naming, but his comprehension was relatively well preserved. In the task, pictures to be named were accompanied by semantically, phonologically or unrelated distractors, presented at onsets ranging from…

  5. Subliminal repetition primes help detection of phonemes in a picture: Evidence for a phonological level of the priming effects.

    PubMed

    Manoiloff, Laura; Segui, Juan; Hallé, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    In this research, we combine a cross-form word-picture visual masked priming procedure with an internal phoneme monitoring task to examine repetition priming effects. In this paradigm, participants have to respond to pictures whose names begin with a prespecified target phoneme. This task unambiguously requires retrieving the word-form of the target picture's name and implicitly orients participants' attention towards a phonological level of representation. The experiments were conducted within Spanish, whose highly transparent orthography presumably promotes fast and automatic phonological recoding of subliminal, masked visual word primes. Experiments 1 and 2 show that repetition primes speed up internal phoneme monitoring in the target, compared to primes beginning with a different phoneme from the target, or sharing only their first phoneme with the target. This suggests that repetition primes preactivate the phonological code of the entire target picture's name, hereby speeding up internal monitoring, which is necessarily based on such a code. To further qualify the nature of the phonological code underlying internal phoneme monitoring, a concurrent articulation task was used in Experiment 3. This task did not affect the repetition priming effect. We propose that internal phoneme monitoring is based on an abstract phonological code, prior to its translation into articulation. PMID:25679503

  6. Phonological Activation of Ignored Pictures: Further Evidence for a Cascade Model of Lexical Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navarrete, Eduardo; Costa, Albert

    2005-01-01

    Four experiments are reported exploring whether distractor pictures activate their phonological properties in the course of speech production. In Experiment 1, participants were presented with two pictures and were asked to name one while ignoring the other. Distractor pictures were phonologically related, semantically related or unrelated to the…

  7. Communicating with Pictures and Precision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Royce, Christine Anne

    2009-01-01

    From the earliest civilizations, humans have used drawings and pictures as a form of communication and to convey information--whether it was the seasons or location of good hunting grounds. In this month's column, simple alphabet picture books show students how pictures can be used to communicate information about a topic. In the first activity,…

  8. Is Phonological Encoding in Naming Influenced by Literacy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ventura, Paulo; Kolinsky, Regine; Querido, Jose-Luis; Fernandes, Sandra; Morais, Jose

    2007-01-01

    We examined phonological priming in illiterate adults, using a cross-modal picture-word interference task. Participants named pictures while hearing distractor words at different Stimulus Onset Asynchronies (SOAs). Ex-illiterates and university students were also tested. We specifically assessed the ability of the three populations to use…

  9. Naming names: the etymology of fungal entomopathogens.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The chapter introduces the reader to the etymology of the generic names given to 26 fungal entomopathogens. Possessing some knowledge on how a name originates sometimes provides us with information on a fungal characteristic that might help us identify the organism, e.g., Conidiobolus, Cordyceps, P...

  10. Author Name Disambiguation in MEDLINE

    PubMed Central

    TORVIK, VETLE I.; SMALHEISER, NEIL R.

    2009-01-01

    Background We recently described “Author-ity,” a model for estimating the probability that two articles in MEDLINE, sharing the same author name, were written by the same individual. Features include shared title words, journal name, coauthors, medical subject headings, language, affiliations, and author name features (middle initial, suffix, and prevalence in MEDLINE). Here we test the hypothesis that the Author-ity model will suffice to disambiguate author names for the vast majority of articles in MEDLINE. Methods Enhancements include: (a) incorporating first names and their variants, email addresses, and correlations between specific last names and affiliation words; (b) new methods of generating large unbiased training sets; (c) new methods for estimating the prior probability; (d) a weighted least squares algorithm for correcting transitivity violations; and (e) a maximum likelihood based agglomerative algorithm for computing clusters of articles that represent inferred author-individuals. Results Pairwise comparisons were computed for all author names on all 15.3 million articles in MEDLINE (2006 baseline), that share last name and first initial, to create Author-ity 2006, a database that has each name on each article assigned to one of 6.7 million inferred author-individual clusters. Recall is estimated at ~98.8%. Lumping (putting two different individuals into the same cluster) affects ~0.5% of clusters, whereas splitting (assigning articles written by the same individual to >1 cluster) affects ~2% of articles. Impact The Author-ity model can be applied generally to other bibliographic databases. Author name disambiguation allows information retrieval and data integration to become person-centered, not just document-centered, setting the stage for new data mining and social network tools that will facilitate the analysis of scholarly publishing and collaboration behavior. Availability The Author-ity 2006 database is available for nonprofit academic

  11. The Distractor Frequency Effect in Picture-Word Interference: Evidence for Response Exclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dhooge, Elisah; Hartsuiker, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    In 3 experiments, subjects named pictures with low- or high-frequency superimposed distractor words. In a 1st experiment, we replicated the finding that low-frequency words induce more interference in picture naming than high-frequency words (i.e., distractor frequency effect; Miozzo & Caramazza, 2003). According to the response exclusion…

  12. Nation's water picture mixed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The nation's water picture for April showed mixed trends: More than half of the index gaging stations reported normal streamflow conditions during the month, while the spring snowmelt boosted streamflow in the Northeast and Northwest to well above normal levels. Parts of the Southeast, however, from West Virginia south to the Carolinas, reported well-below normal streamflow conditions, according to a month-end check on water resources conditions by the U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior.After nearly 2 years of drought conditions the three major reservoirs supplying New York City reached full storage capacity and were spilling during April. Combined contents of the three reservoirs on May 1, 1982, was 272 billion gallons, 101% of their full usable capacity. The full reservoirs and the generally good surface and groundwater conditions throughout the Delaware River basin allowed the Delaware River Basin Commission to lift its drought emergency warning on April 27.

  13. Norms for name agreement, familiarity, subjective frequency, and imageability for 348 object names in Tunisian Arabic.

    PubMed

    Boukadi, Mariem; Zouaidi, Cirine; Wilson, Maximiliano A

    2016-06-01

    Normative databases for pictorial stimuli are widely used in research on language processing in order to control for a number of psycholinguistic variables in the selected stimuli. Such resources are lacking for Arabic and its dialectal varieties. In the present study, we aimed to provide Tunisian Arabic (TA) normative data for 348 line drawings taken from Cycowicz, Friedman, Rothstein, and Snodgrass (1997), which include Snodgrass and Vanderwart's (1980) 260 pictures. Norms were collected for the following psycholinguistic variables: name agreement, familiarity, subjective frequency, and imageability. Word length data (in numbers of phonemes and syllables) are also listed in the database. We investigated the effects of these variables on word reading in TA. We found that word length and frequency were the best predictors of word-reading latencies in TA. Name agreement was also a significant predictor of word-reading latencies. A particularly interesting finding was that the semantic variables, imageability and familiarity, affected word-reading latencies in TA. Thus, it would seem that TA readers rely on semantics even when reading individual Arabic words that are transparent in terms of orthography-to-phonology mappings. This database represents a precious and much-needed psycholinguistic resource for researchers investigating language processing in Arabic-speaking populations. PMID:26019005

  14. British Sign Name Customs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Linda; Sutton-Spence, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    Research presented here describes the sign names and the customs of name allocation within the British Deaf community. While some aspects of British Sign Language sign names and British Deaf naming customs differ from those in most Western societies, there are many similarities. There are also similarities with other societies outside the more…

  15. The Naming Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kashner, Zoe

    2011-01-01

    The practice of naming gifts is commonplace at most educational institutions today, although naming opportunities and policies vary considerably from institution to institution. At a small college, a gift of $1,000 might result in a naming opportunity. At a large university, gifts of $25,000 to $50,000 may be required for naming scholarships or…

  16. This is My Name.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Connie R.

    1998-01-01

    Notes that names are the first words most children write and that learning to write their name can be highly motivating for preschoolers. Addresses: why preschool children should be encouraged to write their names; organizing and facilitating the sign-in process at school; how children develop their ability to write their names; and the benefits…

  17. Picture Detection in RSVP: Features or Identity?

    PubMed Central

    Potter, Mary C.; Wyble, Brad; Pandav, Rijuta; Olejarczyk, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    A pictured object can be readily detected in an RSVP sequence when the target is specified by a superordinate category name such as animal or vehicle. Are category features the initial basis for detection, with identification of the specific object occurring in a second stage (Evans & Treisman, 2005), or is identification of the object the basis for detection? When two targets in the same superordinate category are presented successively (lag 1), only the identification-first hypothesis predicts lag 1 sparing of the second target. The results of two experiments with novel pictures and a wide range of categories supported the identification-first hypothesis and a transient-attention model of lag 1 sparing and the attentional blink (Wyble, Bowman, & Potter, 2009). PMID:20695696

  18. Painting Pictures with Whisky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyoungsoo; Boulogne, François; Um, Eujin; Jacobi, Ian; Stone, Howard

    2014-11-01

    Have you ever looked at the dried mark of whisky on the glass? While the whisky evaporates, various solid components inside the whisky are deposited with a peculiar pattern, which creates a beautiful picture. This particle patterning is induced by the solutal Marangoni effect. We investigate this effect on both the flow behavior and the particle deposition patterns in binary-mixture droplet evaporation by varying the concentration ratio between ethanol and water. To visualize the particle and fluid motion, we perform Particle Image Velocimetry. We observe that at the beginning stage complex circulating flow patterns occurred, which are triggered by the surface tension gradient, i.e. Marangoni effect. Ethanol first evaporates due to the lower vapor pressure compared to water. When the ethanol has vanished, a radial flow pattern is observed. Furthermore, we find that as the initial ethanol concentration increases, the mobility of the receding contact line increased. At high ethanol concentrations, the contact line kept receding so as to draw groups of particles that deposited in an annular pattern. We thank Ernie Button for sharing with us many beautiful images of whisky after it had dried.

  19. PICTURE PERFECT: IN DEPTH LOOK AT THE PICTURE FORMAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    SAS picture format is a very powerful tool. The different options allow the display of data in a more picturesque manner adding symbols, qualifiers, and comments to the data points without modifying the data. With a picture format one can create a series of templates for displ...

  20. PICTURE PERFECT: IN DEPTH LOOK AT THE PICTURE FORMAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    SAS PICTURE format is a very powerful tool. The different options allow the display of data in a more picturesque manner adding symbols, qualifiers, and comments to the data points without modifying the data. With a PICTURE format one can create a series of templates for displa...

  1. The Big Picture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naturescope, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Contains a series of activities which focus on the process of extinction, how the increasing human population affects other species, and on the reasons for helping endangered species. Includes diagrams and illustrations of endangered species. (ML)

  2. What's in a Name?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blau, Susan R.

    Names themselves have great power. Teachers and students of language know that certain words resonate and have the power to make connections to forces that cannot always be identified, or, at least, named. Names are certainly in this category of words--they define an individual, tell who he or she is, and connect a person to his or her ancestors…

  3. What's in a name?

    PubMed

    1999-01-01

    A table charts the various nomenclature of drugs used to treat HIV and AIDS. The common name, generic name, and brand name are given for several categories including NARTIs (NRTIs, "Nukes", Nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors), NNRTIs (Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors), and PIs (Protease Inhibitors). Other drugs listed are Hydroxyurea (anti-cancer drug) and preveon (Adefovir (Nucleotide)). PMID:11366757

  4. How a Picture Book Happens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonners, Susan

    1994-01-01

    The author and illustrator of a picture book about the life cycle of the lynx describes the research and development process she used to create the book. Contacts with wildlife biologists, presenting the predator/prey relationship, creating pictures and text, drawing from life, and creating the book jacket are among the topics covered. (KRN)

  5. Multicolor well-composed pictures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latecki, Longin J.

    1995-01-01

    As was noted early in the history of computer vision, using the same adjacency relation for the entire digital picture leads to so-called `paradoxes' related to the Jordan Curve Theorem. The most popular idea to avoid these paradoxes in binary images was using different adjacency relations for the foreground and the background: 8-adjacency for black points and 4-adjacency for white points, or vice versa. This idea cannot be extended in a straightforward way to multicolor pictures. In this paper a solution is presented which guarantees avoidance of the connectivity paradoxes related to the Jordan Curve Theorem for all multicolor pictures. Only one connectedness relation is used for the entire digital picture, i.e., for every component of every color. The idea is not to allow a certain `critical configuration' which can be detected locally to occur in digital pictures; such pictures are called `well-composed.' Well-composed pictures have very nice topological properties. For example, the Jordan Curve Theorem holds and the Euler characteristic is locally computable. This implies that properties of algorithms used in computer vision can be stated and proved in a clear way, and that the algorithms themselves become simpler and faster. Moreover, if a digitization process is guaranteed to preserve topology, then the obtained digital pictures must be well-composed.

  6. Behavioral modulation by mutilation pictures in women.

    PubMed

    Pereira, M G; Volchan, E; Oliveira, L; Machado-Pinheiro, W; Rodrigues, J A; Nepomuceno, F V P; Pessoa, L

    2004-03-01

    Previous studies have shown that women are more emotionally expressive than men. It is unclear, however, if women are also more susceptible to the emotional modulation of behavior imposed by an affective stimulus. To investigate this issue, we devised a task in which female subjects performed six sequential trials of visual target detection following the presentation of emotional (mutilation and erotic) or neutral pictures (domestic utensils and objects) and compared the data obtained in the present study with those described in a previous study with male subjects. The experiment consisted of three blocks of 24 pictures and each block had an approximate duration of 4 min. Our sample consisted of 36 subjects (age range: 18 to 26 years) and each subject performed all blocks. Trials following the presentation of mutilation pictures (283 ms) had significantly slower reaction times than those following neutral (270 ms) pictures. None of the trials in the "pleasant block" (271 ms) was significantly different from those in the "neutral block". The increase in reaction time observed in the unpleasant block may be related in part to the activation of motivational systems leading to an avoidance behavior. The interference effect observed in this study was similar to the pattern previously described for men. Thus, although women may be more emotionally expressive, they were not more reactive to aversive stimuli than men, as measured by emotional interference in a simple reaction time task. PMID:15060703

  7. Co-Speech Gestures in a Naming Task: Developmental Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stefanini, Silvia; Bello, Arianna; Caselli, Maria Cristina; Iverson, Jana M.; Volterra, Virginia

    2009-01-01

    Few studies have explored the development of the gesture-speech system after the two-word stage. Aim of the present study is to examine developmental changes in speech and gesture use, in the context of a simple naming task. Fifty-one children (age range: 2;3-7;6) were divided into five age groups and requested to name pictures representing…

  8. Rapid Naming by Children with and without Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coady, Jeffry A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Previous studies have reported that children with specific language impairment (SLI) name pictures more slowly than do chronological age-matched (CAM) peers. Rapid naming depends on 2 factors known to be problematic for children with SLI--lexical retrieval and nonlinguistic speed of processing. Although all studies implicate a…

  9. Pictures in Pictures: Art History and Art Museums in Children's Picture Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yohlin, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Children's picture books that recreate, parody, or fictionalize famous artworks and introduce the art museum experience, a genre to which I will refer as "children's art books," have become increasingly popular over the past decade. This essay explores the pedagogical implications of this trend through the family program "Picture Books and Picture…

  10. Spoken name pronunciation evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tepperman, Joseph; Narayanan, Shrikanth

    2004-10-01

    Recognition of spoken names is an important ASR task since many speech applications can be associated with it. However, the task is also among the most difficult ones due to the large number of names, their varying origins, and the multiple valid pronunciations of any given name, largely dependent upon the speaker's mother tongue and familiarity with the name. In order to explore the speaker- and language-dependent pronunciation variability issues present in name pronunciation, a spoken name database was collected from 101 speakers with varying native languages. Each speaker was asked to pronounce 80 polysyllabic names, uniformly chosen from ten language origins. In preliminary experiments, various prosodic features were used to train Gaussian mixture models (GMMs) to identify misplaced syllabic emphasis within the name, at roughly 85% accuracy. Articulatory features (voicing, place, and manner of articulation) derived from MFCCs were also incorporated for that purpose. The combined prosodic and articulatory features were used to automatically grade the quality of name pronunciation. These scores can be used to provide meaningful feedback to foreign language learners. A detailed description of the name database and some preliminary results on the accuracy of detecting misplaced stress patterns will be reported.

  11. Perceptual representations in false recognition and priming of pictures.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, Yana; Shanks, David R

    2008-12-01

    Using a new procedure, we investigate whether imagination can induce false memory by creating a perceptual representation. Participants studied pictures and words with and without an imagery task and at test performed both a direct recognition test and an indirect perceptual identification test on pictorial stimuli. Corrected false recognition rates were 7% for pictures studied in word form (Experiment 1), 26% for pictures imagined once (Experiment 2), and 48% for pictures imagined multiple times (Experiment 3), although on the indirect test, no priming was found for these items. Furthermore, a perceptual/conceptual imagery manipulation did not affect the tendency to claim that imagined items had been studied as pictures (Experiment 4). These results suggest that the false memories reported on direct tests are not driven by perceptual representations. PMID:19015501

  12. Revisiting the picture-superiority effect in symbolic comparisons: do pictures provide privileged access?

    PubMed

    Amrhein, Paul C; McDaniel, Mark A; Waddill, Paula

    2002-09-01

    In 4 experiments, symbolic comparisons were investigated to test semantic-memory retrieval accounts espousing processing advantages for picture over word stimuli. In Experiment 1, participants judged pairs of animal names or pictures by responding to questions probing concrete or abstract attributes (texture or size, ferocity or intelligence). Per pair, attributes were salient or nonsalient concerning their prerated relevance to animals being compared. Distance (near or far) between attribute magnitudes was also varied. Pictures did not significantly speed responding relative to words across all other variables. Advantages were found forfar attribute magnitudes (i.e., the distance effect) and salient attributes. The distance effect was much less for salient than nonsalient concrete-attribute comparisons. These results were consistently found in additional experiments with increased statistical power to detect modality effects. Our findings argue against dual-coding and some common-code accounts of conceptual attribute processing, urging reexamination of the assumption that pictures confer privileged access to long-term knowledge. PMID:12219794

  13. Geographic Names Information System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1984-01-01

    The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is an automated data system developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to standardize and disseminate information on geographic names. GNIS provides primary information for all known places, features, and areas in the United States identified by a proper name. The information in the system can be manipulated to meet varied needs. You can incorporate information from GNIS into your own data base for special applications.

  14. Origins of NASA names

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, H. T.; Whiteley, S. H.; Karegeannes, C. E.

    1976-01-01

    Names are selected for NASA spaceflight projects and programs from various sources. Some have their foundations in mythology and astrology or legend and folklore. Some have historic connotations; others are based on a description of their mission, often resulting in an acronym. Included are names of launch vehicles, spacecraft, manned spaceflight programs, sounding rockets, and NASA field installations. This study is limited to names of approved projects through 1974; it does not include names of numerous projects which have been or are being studied or projects that were canceled or postponed before reaching actual flight.

  15. Reclaiming a name

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Bureau of Reclamation, which became the Water and Power Resources Service in November 1979, will regain its original name, Department of Interior Secretary James Watt announced recently.‘The name Bureau of Reclamation is one of historical significance as well as a symbol of excellence,’ Watt said. ‘Changing the name to Water and Power Resources Service was a mistake. The public we serve did not like it, nor did the employees who loyally worked for it. The name proved to be awkward, difficult to use in speech and writing, and lacked a logical and convincing short form as a ready reference.’

  16. How Do You Picture Electricity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kibble, Bob

    1999-01-01

    Describes an action-research project conducted by student teachers in Edinburgh designed to explore ways in which children picture what happens inside an electric circuit. The student teachers also explored their own understanding of electricity. (Author/WRM)

  17. Pictures, images, and recollective experience.

    PubMed

    Dewhurst, S A; Conway, M A

    1994-09-01

    Five experiments investigated the influence of picture processing on recollective experience in recognition memory. Subjects studied items that differed in visual or imaginal detail, such as pictures versus words and high-imageability versus low-imageability words, and performed orienting tasks that directed processing either toward a stimulus as a word or toward a stimulus as a picture or image. Standard effects of imageability (e.g., the picture superiority effect and memory advantages following imagery) were obtained only in recognition judgments that featured recollective experience and were eliminated or reversed when recognition was not accompanied by recollective experience. It is proposed that conscious recollective experience in recognition memory is cued by attributes of retrieved memories such as sensory-perceptual attributes and records of cognitive operations performed at encoding. PMID:7931096

  18. Evolution of popularity in given names

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Mi Jin; Jo, Woo Seong; Yi, Il Gu; Baek, Seung Ki; Kim, Beom Jun

    2016-02-01

    An individual's identity in a human society is specified by his or her name. Differently from family names, usually inherited from fathers, a given name for a child is often chosen at the parents' disposal. However, their decision cannot be made in a vacuum but affected by social conventions and trends. Furthermore, such social pressure changes in time, as new names gain popularity while some other names are gradually forgotten. In this paper, we investigate how popularity of given names has evolved over the last century by using datasets collected in Korea, the province of Quebec in Canada, and the United States. In each of these countries, the average popularity of given names exhibits typical patterns of rise and fall with a time scale of about one generation. We also observe that notable changes of diversity in given names signal major social changes.

  19. Directory of awardee names

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1999-07-01

    Standardization of grant and contract awardee names has been an area of concern since the development of the Department`s Procurement and Assistance Data System (PADS). A joint effort was begun in 1983 by the Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and the Office of Procurement and Assistance Management/Information Systems and Analysis Division to develop a means for providing uniformity of awardee names. As a result of this effort, a method of assigning vendor identification codes to each unique awardee name, division, city, and state combination was developed and is maintained by OSTI. Changes to vendor identification codes or awardee names contained in PADS can be made only by OSTI. Awardee names in the Directory indicate that the awardee has had a prime contract (excluding purchase orders of $10,000 or less) with, or a financial assistance award from, the Department. Award status--active, inactive, or retired--is not shown. The Directory is in alphabetic sequence based on awardee name and reflects the OSTI-assigned vendor identification code to the right of the name. A vendor identification code is assigned to each unique awardee name, division, city, and state (for place of performance). The same vendor identification code is used for awards throughout the Department.

  20. My Ojibwe Name Is...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minneapolis Public Schools, MN.

    Although suitable for students of all ages, this illustrated resource booklet is specifically intended to help teach young children the Ojibwe names of 19 familiar domestic and wild animals. Three brief, simple English sentences offer clues describing an animal, and these are followed by a final sentence stating the animal's Ojibwe name. The…

  1. Naming a Place Nicodemus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodman, Rosamond C.

    2008-01-01

    Nicodemus, one of the first all-black settlements in Kansas, and the sole remaining western town founded by and for African Americans at the end of Reconstruction, has received a good deal of scholarly attention. Yet one basic matter about it remains unclear: how the town came by its unusual name. Most scholars now think that the name of the town…

  2. Names and Weapons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauffman, Charles

    1989-01-01

    Traces the theoretical significance of using names as titles for situations, and applies this analysis to the United States' intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) programs. Argues that the names given to ICBMs preserve their utility as weapons by linking them to the myths of the nineteenth-century western frontier. (MM)

  3. The Name Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawley, Sharon J.

    Described is a game which provides a method for teaching students to locate cities and towns on a map. Students are provided with a list of descriptive phrases which stand for the name of a city, e.g., hot weather town (Summerville, Georgia); a chocolate candy bar (Hershey, Pennsylvania). Using a map, students must then try to find the name of a…

  4. Geographic names of Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Board on Geographic Names; Department of the Interior; Burrill, Meredith F.; Bertrand, Kenneth J.; Alberts, Fred G.

    1956-01-01

    The geographic nomenclature of Antarctica was long in need of an overall systematic treatment, objective in approach and based upon thorough examination of all the evidence. The results of such treatment over a period of about three years were presented in Geographical Names of Antarctica, Special Publication No. 86 of the Board on Geographical Names, in May 1947, two supplements to which were issued in 1949 and 1951. The continuing program since that publication has now covered most of the geographic naming in Antarctica. As research has filled in many of the previous gaps in knowledge, a number of names have been modified and minor amendments have been made in the policies. This revised publication brings together the greatly enlarged body of names officially standardized for use by the United States Government, together with new pertinent background information.

  5. Blasted Cell Line Names

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing; Byers, Lauren A.; Yordy, John S.; Liu, Wenbin; Shen, Li; Baggerly, Keith A.; Giri, Uma; Myers, Jeffrey N.; Ang, K. Kian; Story, Michael D.; Girard, Luc; Minna, John D.; Heymach, John V.; Coombes, Kevin R.

    2010-01-01

    Background: While trying to integrate multiple data sets collected by different researchers, we noticed that the sample names were frequently entered inconsistently. Most of the variations appeared to involve punctuation, white space, or their absence, at the juncture between alphabetic and numeric portions of the cell line name. Results: Reasoning that the variant names could be described in terms of mutations or deletions of character strings, we implemented a simple version of the Needleman-Wunsch global sequence alignment algorithm and applied it to the cell line names. All correct matches were found by this procedure. Incorrect matches only occured when a cell line was present in one data set but not in the other. The raw match scores tended to be substantially worse for the incorrect matches. Conclusions: A simple application of the Needleman-Wunsch global sequence alignment algorithm provides a useful first pass at matching sample names from different data sets. PMID:21082038

  6. Named Venusian craters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Joel F.; Schaber, Gerald G.

    1993-01-01

    Schaber et al. compiled a database of 841 craters on Venus, based on Magellan coverage of 89 percent of the planet's surface. That database, derived from coverage of approximately 98 percent of Venus' surface, has been expanded to 912 craters, ranging in diameter from 1.5 to 280 km. About 150 of the larger craters were previously identified by Pioneer Venus and Soviet Venera projects and subsequently formally named by the International Astronomical Union (IAU). Altogether, the crater names submitted to the IAU for approval to date number about 550, a little more than half of the number of craters identified on Magellan images. The IAU will consider more names as they are submitted for approval. Anyone--planetary scientist or layman--may submit names; however, candidate names must conform to IAU rules. The person to be honored must be deceased for at least three years, must not be a religious figure or a military or political figure of the 19th or 20th century, and, for Venus, must be a woman. All formally and provisionally approved names for Venusian impact craters, along with their latitude, longitude, size, and origin of their name, will be presented at LPSC and will be available as handouts.

  7. Who Named the -On's?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Charles T.; Slack, Glen A.

    1970-01-01

    Originators of the concept coiners of the name are discussed for the following particles": boson, electron, exciton, fermion, magnon, neutron, phonon, photon, plasmon, polariton, polaron, proton, and roton. (Author/DS)

  8. "Name" that Animal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laird, Shirley

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a texture and pattern project. Students started by doing an outline contour drawing of an animal. With the outline drawn, the students then write one of their names to fit "inside" the animal.

  9. The naming game

    SciTech Connect

    Brew, A. ||

    1998-11-01

    Names are at the heart of brands. Once invested with meaning, they are unique in their ability to communicate that meaning efficiently. For many reasons, names have become a valuable and scarce commodity. The growth of the Internet, the explosion of new companies and products, the escalating cost of media, and a plain shortage of usable words have all made naming a serious and central concern in business today. The only way to identify a winner is through the application of rigorous criteria based on a clear and well-articulated brand positioning. It is a process you must go through from start to finish, whether you are devising a name for a new breakfast cereal or a century-old utility that must adapt its identity to the deregulated world.

  10. A Picture Is Not Always Worth a Thousand Words: Pictures as Distractors in Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willows, Dale M.

    1978-01-01

    Children read sets of words under three conditions: with no pictures, with related pictures, and with unrelated pictures. Results indicated that words were read more slowly whenever pictures were present; that unrelated pictures produced more interference than related pictures; and that both effects were inversely related to reading ability.…

  11. Kaleidoscope Name Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laird, Shirley

    2011-01-01

    It's not that younger students can't master a project; it is that they have trouble coming up with a design for the task. What are they more familiar with than their name? The author thus decided to use names as part of a transfer lesson. She gave her students a piece of computer paper printed with a triangular shape that had a 45-degree angle.…

  12. Digits vs. Pictures: The Influence of Stimulus Type on Language Switching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Declerck, Mathieu; Koch, Iring; Philipp, Andrea M.

    2012-01-01

    Stimuli used in cued language switching studies typically consist of digits or pictures. However, the comparability between both stimulus types remains unclear. In the present study, we directly compared digit and picture naming in a German-English language switching experiment. Because digits represent a semantic group and contain many cognates,…

  13. Word Production and the Picture-Word Interference Paradigm: The Role of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collina, Simona; Tabossi, Patrizia; De Simone, Flavia

    2013-01-01

    Psycholinguistic experiments conducted with the picture-word interference paradigm are typically preceded by a phase during which participants learn the words they will have to produce in the experiment. In Experiment 1, the pictures (e.g., a frog) were to be named and were presented with a categorically related (e.g., "cat") or…

  14. Spatiotemporal analysis of single-trial EEG of emotional pictures based on independent component analysis and source location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jiangang; Tian, Jie

    2007-03-01

    The present study combined the Independent Component Analysis (ICA) and low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (LORETA) algorithms to identify the spatial distribution and time course of single-trial EEG record differences between neural responses to emotional stimuli vs. the neutral. Single-trial multichannel (129-sensor) EEG records were collected from 21 healthy, right-handed subjects viewing the emotion emotional (pleasant/unpleasant) and neutral pictures selected from International Affective Picture System (IAPS). For each subject, the single-trial EEG records of each emotional pictures were concatenated with the neutral, and a three-step analysis was applied to each of them in the same way. First, the ICA was performed to decompose each concatenated single-trial EEG records into temporally independent and spatially fixed components, namely independent components (ICs). The IC associated with artifacts were isolated. Second, the clustering analysis classified, across subjects, the temporally and spatially similar ICs into the same clusters, in which nonparametric permutation test for Global Field Power (GFP) of IC projection scalp maps identified significantly different temporal segments of each emotional condition vs. neutral. Third, the brain regions accounted for those significant segments were localized spatially with LORETA analysis. In each cluster, a voxel-by-voxel randomization test identified significantly different brain regions between each emotional condition vs. the neutral. Compared to the neutral, both emotional pictures elicited activation in the visual, temporal, ventromedial and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulated gyrus. In addition, the pleasant pictures activated the left middle prefrontal cortex and the posterior precuneus, while the unpleasant pictures activated the right orbitofrontal cortex, posterior cingulated gyrus and somatosensory region. Our results were well consistent with other functional imaging

  15. The Picture Exchange Communication System: Digital Photographs versus Picture Symbols

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonaitis, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) is an augmentative and alternative system (AAC) used to improve and increase communication for children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and other developmental disorders. Research addressing the efficacy of this system is increasing; however, there is limited information published that evaluates…

  16. [Sleep and dreams in pictures].

    PubMed

    Stoll, R T

    1995-04-11

    Human life is divided into two thirds wakefulness and one third sleep. A newborn child sleeps to strengthen, the adult for regeneration. At the end of life man sinks down into the sleep of death: Hypnos and Thanatos are twin sons of the Queen of Night. Myths from different cultures are influenced by the experience of sleep and its inner world of pictures, the dreams. Artists, painters and sculptors let their visions float steadily into new pictures, and creatures of sleep formed out of diverse materials. Devine sleep, sleep for new life, sleep of health, creative sleep, prophetic sleep, sleep for revelation and for decisions. PMID:7732243

  17. Attentional disengagement is modulated by the offset of unpleasant pictures: a saccadic reaction time study.

    PubMed

    Machado-Pinheiro, Walter; Faria, Aydamari; Braga, Filipe; Guerra, Pedro; Perakakis, Pandelis; Caldas, Ariane Leão; Mocaiber, Izabela; Oliveira, Letícia; Pereira, Mirtes Garcia; Volchan, Eliane; Vila, Jaime

    2013-12-01

    We studied the influence of passively viewing a picture on saccade latencies to peripheral targets. Thirty-two volunteers were instructed to look at a central picture, wait for the onset of a peripheral target, and execute a saccade toward it as quickly as possible - saccadic reaction time (SRT). The central picture (neutral or unpleasant) could be turned off simultaneously with target onset (the no-gap condition) or 200ms prior to target onset (the gap-200 condition). We found that saccade latencies were influenced by emotional valence and condition. In the no-gap condition, SRTs were longer after viewing unpleasant pictures. In the gap-200 condition, the pattern was reversed, and unpleasant pictures induced shorter SRTs in relation to neutral pictures. Furthermore, the influence of unpleasant pictures gradually decreased when images were re-exposed to the participants - affective habituation. The results are discussed in terms of attentional avoidance and disengagement from unpleasant emotional pictures. PMID:24177247

  18. Sex Stereotype Effects in Children's Picture Recognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cann, Arnie; Newbern, Sara R.

    1984-01-01

    Reports an experiment in which 80 male and female six and eight year olds were presented with pictures consistent or inconsistent with sex stereotypes and pictures of neutral activities. Later, subjects performed a picture-recognition task. Among the variables investigated were subjects' labeling of pictures and sex-stereotype consistency. (CB)

  19. Arousal-Enhanced Location Memory for Pictures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mather, Mara; Nesmith, Kathryn

    2008-01-01

    Four experiments revealed arousal-enhanced location memory for pictures. After an incidental encoding task, participants were more likely to remember the locations of positive and negative arousing pictures than the locations of non-arousing pictures, indicating better binding of location to picture. This arousal-enhanced binding effect did not…

  20. Children's Picture Interpretation: Appearance or Intention?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armitage, Emma; Allen, Melissa L.

    2015-01-01

    Pictures are defined by their creator's intentions and resemblance to their real world referents. Here we examine whether young children follow a realist route (e.g., focusing on how closely pictures resemble their referents) or intentional route (e.g., focusing on what a picture is intended to represent by its artist) when identifying a picture's…

  1. Pikchul Nioki Chulda (Picture Dictionary).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Joan; And Others

    Developed for students in kindergarten through second grade, this alphabet book is one in a series of picture dictionaries in the Pima language developed to instill pride in Pima students by presenting their language in print and to increase their vocabularies in both Pima and English. Introductory sections provide a brief history of the project…

  2. Name Those Quantities

    SciTech Connect

    Strom, Daniel J.

    2004-03-22

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has created a number of radiation protection quantities since its Publication 26 appeared in 1977. The ensuing years have brought chaos in the form of multiple definitions and symbols for the same and similar quantities, conflicting definitions, mathematical absurdities, and a proliferation of terms. Despite this, the most commonly used radiation protection quantities in the USA and in the International Atomic Energy Agency's Basic Safety Standards have not been named or clearly defined by the ICRP. This paper proposes the names "total effective dose" for the prospective quantity, and "total personal effective dose" for the quantity pertaining to an exposed individual.

  3. Picture priming in normal aging and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Ballesteros, Soledad; Reales, José M; Mayas, Julia

    2007-05-01

    The present study investigated age invariance for naming pictures and whether implicit memory is spared in Alzheimer's disease (AD). During the study phase, young adults, AD patients, and older controls were shown outlines of familiar pictures. After a distracter task, implicit memory was assessed incidentally. The results showed similar visual priming for the three groups, although young adults responded faster than the two older groups. Moreover, the number of errors was smaller for studied than for non-studied pictures. This pattern of results was repeated across the three groups, although AD patients produced more errors than young adults and older controls, and there were no differences between these latter groups. These results confirmed previous visual and haptic findings showing unimpaired perceptual priming in normal aging and AD patients when implicit memory is assessed using identification tasks. These results are interpreted from a cognitive neuroscience perspective. PMID:17425893

  4. Vegetarianism and food perception. Selective visual attention to meat pictures.

    PubMed

    Stockburger, Jessica; Renner, Britta; Weike, Almut I; Hamm, Alfons O; Schupp, Harald T

    2009-04-01

    Vegetarianism provides a model system to examine the impact of negative affect towards meat, based on ideational reasoning. It was hypothesized that meat stimuli are efficient attention catchers in vegetarians. Event-related brain potential recordings served to index selective attention processes at the level of initial stimulus perception. Consistent with the hypothesis, late positive potentials to meat pictures were enlarged in vegetarians compared to omnivores. This effect was specific for meat pictures and obtained during passive viewing and an explicit attention task condition. These findings demonstrate the attention capture of food stimuli, deriving affective salience from ideational reasoning and symbolic meaning. PMID:18996158

  5. Name That Asteroid!

    NASA Video Gallery

    The OSIRIS-REx Asteroid Sample Return Mission is going to an asteroidto return a sample to Earth. Instead of traveling to asteroid 1999RQ36, the asteroid’s current name, we’re asking youth un...

  6. Naming the Rape Victim.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clay, Nolan

    Since state laws prohibiting identification of rape victims were struck down in a 1975 United States Supreme Court ruling, the media have been reconsidering their traditional policy of preserving victims' anonymity. Explaining their decision to begin naming victims in rape trials, several newspapers cite the press's responsibility to provide the…

  7. The Name Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oguntoyinbo, Lekan

    2011-01-01

    For eight decades, students at Southeast Missouri State University, a mid-sized college located on the banks of the Mississippi River in rural, conservative Cape Girardeau, had proudly rooted for its sports teams, the Indians. The old-timers said the name was adopted in the mid-1920s to honor the legacy of American Indians and their warrior…

  8. What's in a Name?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Joe

    1997-01-01

    End users think of file names as a way to identify file contents, whereas computer programs often assign special meaning to file extensions. This article discusses different kinds of files on the World Wide Web: text, document, sound, video, and multimedia; file compression; and encoding formats. Includes a chart of file formats and lists Web…

  9. Object and Action Naming in Children With Specific Language Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Li; McGregor, Karla K.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose In this study, the authors aimed to examine the accuracy, latency, and errors of noun (object) and verb (action) naming in children with and without specific language impairment (SLI) and to determine whether children with SLI have a particularly large noun–verb performance gap. Method Children with SLI, age-matched peers (AM), and expressive vocabulary–matched peers (VM) named 120 matched object and action pictures in a computerized confrontation naming task. Results The SLI and VM groups demonstrated comparable naming latency and accuracy; both were slower and less accurate than the AM group. Object naming was more accurate than action naming in the SLI and VM groups; their noun–verb performance gaps were comparable. Object naming was faster than action naming in all children. In comparison with the AM group, the SLI group made proportionally fewer taxonomic errors and more omission errors when naming objects, and fewer misperception errors when naming actions. Conclusions The naming abilities of children with SLI, although deficient given their chronological age, are commensurate with their vocabulary level. Their naming errors suggest immaturities in semantic representation. Action naming is significantly more difficult than object naming, but the noun–verb gap that characterizes the performance of children with SLI is appropriate for their vocabulary level. PMID:20705739

  10. Visual Discrimination Predicts Naming and Semantic Association Accuracy in Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Harnish, Stacy M.; Neils-Strunjas, Jean; Eliassen, James; Reilly, Jamie; Meinzer, Marcus; Clark, John Greer; Joseph, Jane

    2010-01-01

    Objective Language impairment is a common symptom of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and is thought to be related to semantic processing. The present study examines the contribution of another process, namely visual perception, on measures of confrontation naming and semantic association abilities in persons with probable AD. Methods Twenty individuals with probable mild-moderate Alzheimer’s disease and twenty age-matched controls completed a battery of neuropsychological measures assessing visual perception, naming, and semantic association ability. Visual discrimination tasks that varied in the degree to which they likely accessed stored structural representations were used to gauge whether structural processing deficits could account for deficits in naming and in semantic association in AD. Results Visual discrimination abilities of nameable objects in AD strongly predicted performance on both picture naming and semantic association ability but lacked the same predictive value for controls. Although impaired, performance on visual discrimination tests of abstract shapes and novel faces showed no significant relationship with picture naming and semantic association. These results provide additional evidence to support that structural processing deficits exist in AD and may contribute to object recognition and naming deficits. Conclusions Our findings suggest that there is a common deficit in discrimination of pictures using nameable objects, picture naming and semantic association of pictures in AD. Disturbances in structural processing of pictured items may be associated with lexical-semantic impairment in AD due to degraded internal storage of structural knowledge. PMID:21042208

  11. Second Language Listening and Unfamiliar Proper Names: Comprehension Barrier?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobeleva, Polina P.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines whether unfamiliar proper names affect English as a second language (ESL) learners' listening comprehension. A total of 110 intermediate to advanced ESL learners participated; comprehension of a short news text was tested under two conditions, Names Known (all proper names pre-taught in advance) and Names Unknown (all proper…

  12. Geographic names information system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1987-01-01

    of the data in each of the data elements of the four data bases of GNIS. The GNIS program, which includes the automated names system and the National Gazetteer program, is a coordinated effort under the direction of Donald J. Orth, Chief of the Branch of Geographic Names. The automated system was initially developed by Sam Stulberg and Roger L. Payne. System enhancement and software development is coordinated by Judy J. Stella, head programmer for GNIS, and special projects coordinator is Louis A. Yost IV. Coordination of the research and compilation of certain gazetteers is directed by Robin D. Worcester with research assistance and support from Jon Campbell, Linda S. Davis, and Nancy Engel.

  13. Generic names in Magnaporthales.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ning; Luo, Jing; Rossman, Amy Y; Aoki, Takayuki; Chuma, Izumi; Crous, Pedro W; Dean, Ralph; de Vries, Ronald P; Donofrio, Nicole; Hyde, Kevin D; Lebrun, Marc-Henri; Talbot, Nicholas J; Tharreau, Didier; Tosa, Yukio; Valent, Barbara; Wang, Zonghua; Xu, Jin-Rong

    2016-06-01

    The order Magnaporthales comprises about 200 species and includes the economically and scientifically important rice blast fungus and the take-all pathogen of cereals, as well as saprotrophs and endophytes. Recent advances in phylogenetic analyses of these fungi resulted in taxonomic revisions. In this paper we list the 28 currently accepted genera in Magnaporthales with their type species and available gene and genome resources. The polyphyletic Magnaporthe 1972 is proposed for suppression, and Pyricularia 1880 and Nakataea 1939 are recommended for protection as the generic names for the rice blast fungus and the rice stem rot fungus, respectively. The rationale for the recommended names is also provided. These recommendations are made by the Pyricularia/Magnaporthe Working Group established under the auspices of the International Commission on the Taxonomy of Fungi (ICTF). PMID:27433445

  14. Discussion of medical x ray picture normalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dezong; Xiong, Yingen; Cheng, Liping

    1996-01-01

    There is great significance in comparing medical x-ray pictures, which are taken in different periods. For the orthopaedics surgeon comparing the density of bone is one important way of clinical diagnosis. Some persons think that if these orthopaedics pictures are processed by histogram normalization their gray level and pseudo color can be compared directly. But for one picture we know that the gray distribution is different between the original picture and the processed picture. Comparing these pictures is not authentic. In this paper we discuss that subject and describe the basis of histogram normalization. The distribution on original x-ray pictures and processed pictures is provided. The methods to compare different pictures are mentioned.

  15. Arousal-Enhanced Location Memory for Pictures

    PubMed Central

    Mather, Mara; Nesmith, Kathryn

    2008-01-01

    Four experiments revealed arousal-enhanced location memory for pictures. After an incidental encoding task, participants were more likely to remember the locations of positive and negative arousing pictures than the locations of non-arousing pictures, indicating better binding of location to picture. This arousal-enhanced binding effect did not have a cost for the binding of nearby pictures to their locations. Thus, arousal can enhance binding of an arousing picture’s content to its location without interfering with picture-location binding for nearby pictures. In addition, arousal-enhanced picture-location memory binding is not just a side effect of enhanced memory for the picture itself, as it occurs both when recognition memory is good and when it is poor. PMID:19190722

  16. The Multilingual Naming Test in Alzheimer’s Disease: Clues to the Origin of Naming Impairments

    PubMed Central

    Ivanova, Iva; Salmon, David P.; Gollan, Tamar H.

    2015-01-01

    The current study explored the picture naming performance of patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). First, we evaluated the utility of the Multilingual Naming Test (MINT; Gollan et al., 2011), which was designed to assess naming skills in speakers of multiple languages, for detecting naming impairments in monolingual AD and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI). If the MINT were sensitive to linguistic impairment in AD, using it in clinical practice might have advantages over using tests exclusively designed for English monolinguals. We found that the MINT can be used with both monolinguals and bilinguals: A 32-item subset of the MINT is best for distinguishing monolingual patients from controls, while the full MINT is best for assessing degree of bilingualism and language dominance in bilinguals. We then investigated the cognitive mechanisms underlying naming impairment in AD. To this end, we explored which MINT item characteristics best predicted performance differences between monolingual patients and controls. We found that contextual diversity and imageability, but not word frequency (nor words’ number of senses), contributed unique variance to explaining naming impairments in AD. These findings suggest a semantic component to the naming impairment in AD (modulated by names’ semantic richness and network size). PMID:23298442

  17. [Study on pictures in Waike Xinfa Yaojue].

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiao-Feng; Li, Hong-Xiao

    2011-07-01

    Collecting 265 pictures, Waike Xinfa Yaojue (written in Qing Dynasty) is the extant ancient surgical book with most pictures. Pictures could be divided into four kinds, i.e. disease and symptoms, meridians, pulse taking and taboos. Pictures on disease and symptoms account for the largest number and appeared most often and those pictures are also with special subject characteristics and of great importance to the diagnosis of surgical diseases. Pictures in ancient medical books played an important role in academic heritage. PMID:22169494

  18. What's in a Name?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonneau, Joseph; Just, Mike; Matthews, Greg

    We study the efficiency of statistical attacks on human authentication systems relying on personal knowledge questions. We adapt techniques from guessing theory to measure security against a trawling attacker attempting to compromise a large number of strangers' accounts. We then examine a diverse corpus of real-world statistical distributions for likely answer categories such as the names of people, pets, and places and find that personal knowledge questions are significantly less secure than graphical or textual passwords. We also demonstrate that statistics can be used to increase security by proactively shaping the answer distribution to lower the prevalence of common responses.

  19. What's in a name?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whalley, Mark

    2008-03-01

    During a lesson with my A-level physics class, my school's head of English came into the lab and happened to notice the whiteboard. I had just started teaching a section on particle physics and was acquainting the students with the multitude of names found in the particle world. Among others, the board contained the words lepton, hadron, meson, baryon, photon, gluon, boson, muon, neutrino, fermion and quark. The head of English pointed out that none of the words on the board were intelligible to anyone else in the school. He added that the words themselves were utterly bizarre, although in fairness he did recognize the reference to James Joyce.

  20. Astronomy Picture of the Day Archive

    Science.gov Websites

    Astronomy Picture of the Day Archive | Index | Search | Today's Picture | 2016 June 03: NGC 4631: The Whale Galaxy 2016 June 02: Three Planets from Pic du Midi 2016 June 01: Tychos ...

  1. Directed forgetting: Comparing pictures and words.

    PubMed

    Quinlan, Chelsea K; Taylor, Tracy L; Fawcett, Jonathan M

    2010-03-01

    The authors investigated directed forgetting as a function of the stimulus type (picture, word) presented at study and test. In an item-method directed forgetting task, study items were presented 1 at a time, each followed with equal probability by an instruction to remember or forget. Participants exhibited greater yes-no recognition of remember than forget items for each of the 4 study-test conditions (picture-picture, picture-word, word-word, word-picture). However, this difference was significantly smaller when pictures were studied than when words were studied. This finding demonstrates that the magnitude of the directed forgetting effect can be reduced by high item memorability, such as when the picture superiority effect is operating. This suggests caution in using pictures at study when the goal of an experiment is to examine potential group differences in the magnitude of the directed forgetting effect. PMID:20384417

  2. Semantic Facilitation in Category and Action Naming: Testing the Message-Congruency Account

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuipers, Jan-Rouke; La Heij, Wido

    2008-01-01

    Basic-level picture naming is hampered by the presence of a semantically related context word (compared to an unrelated word), whereas picture categorization is facilitated by a semantically related context word. This reversal of the semantic context effect has been explained by assuming that in categorization tasks, basic-level distractor words…

  3. Interactive and Non-Interactive Pictures in Multimedia Learning Environments: Effects on Learning Outcomes and Learning Efficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasch, Thorsten; Schnotz, Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    New technologies enable flexible combinations of text and interactive or non-interactive pictures. The aim of the present study was to investigate (a) whether adding pictures to texts is generally beneficial for learning or whether it can also have detrimental effects, (b) how interactivity of pictures affects learning, (c) whether the…

  4. Children with schizophrenia: clinical picture and pharmacological treatment.

    PubMed

    Masi, Gabriele; Mucci, Maria; Pari, Cinzia

    2006-01-01

    Awareness of childhood-onset schizophrenia is rapidly increasing, with a more precise definition now available of the clinical picture and early signs, the outcome and the treatment strategies. Premorbid developmental impairments, including language, motor and social deficits, are more frequent and more pronounced in earlier- than in later-onset forms of schizophrenia. This 'pan-dysmaturation' is reported from the first months of life in more than half of the children who will develop childhood-onset schizophrenia, and it suggests a more severe and early disruption of brain development compared with the adolescent- and adult-onset disorder. The insidious onset in at least 75% of children, the high rates of premorbid problems and the hesitancy on the part of clinicians to make a diagnosis of schizophrenia in a child usually delay the recognition of the syndrome. Elementary auditory hallucinations are the most frequent positive symptom, while visual and tactile hallucinations are rarer. Delusions are less complex than in adolescents and are usually related to childhood themes. Negative symptoms are largely predominant, namely flat or inappropriate affect. A marked deterioration from the previous level of functioning is present in all these children, and an impaired outcome is reported in approximately 50-60% of them. The main diagnostic challenges are with differentiating childhood-onset schizophrenia from affective disorders (both depression and bipolar disorder) with psychotic symptoms, pervasive developmental disorders and severe personality disorders. Post-traumatic stress disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder without insight may also be misdiagnosed as schizophrenia. Furthermore, approximately 10% of children from the community report nonpsychotic hallucinations or delusions. Finally, children with atypical psychotic features that do not strictly fit diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia have been described, and new labels have been proposed to categorise

  5. Word retrieval in picture descriptions produced by individuals with Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Kavé, Gitit; Goral, Mira

    2016-11-01

    What can tests of single-word production tell us about word retrieval in connected speech? We examined this question in 20 people with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and in 20 cognitively intact individuals. All participants completed tasks of picture naming and semantic fluency and provided connected speech through picture descriptions. Picture descriptions were analyzed for total word output, percentages of content words, percentages of nouns, and percentages of pronouns out of all words, type-token ratio of all words and type-token ratio of nouns alone, mean frequency of all words and mean frequency of nouns alone, and mean word length. Individuals with AD performed worse than did cognitively intact individuals on the picture naming and semantic fluency tasks. They also produced a lower proportion of content words overall, a lower proportion of nouns, and a higher proportion of pronouns, as well as more frequent and shorter words on picture descriptions. Group differences in total word output and type-token ratios did not reach significance. Correlations between scores on tasks of single-word retrieval and measures of retrieval in picture descriptions emerged in the AD group but not in the control group. Scores on a picture naming task were associated with difficulties in word retrieval in connected speech in AD, while scores on a task of semantic verbal fluency were less useful in predicting measures of retrieval in context in this population. PMID:27171756

  6. Contrast control for sonar pictures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, Francoise; Bonnaud, Laurent; Collet, Christophe

    1996-11-01

    During the sonar image acquisition, several physical phenomena degrade the final picture a lot. We examine particularly two damages: the energy loss function of the distance covered by the acoustical wave and the speckle noise. For the first phenomenon, we suggest a corrective post processing which takes some acquisition parameters into account. For the second phenomenon, we apply filtering algorithms like the maximum a posteriori filter, a modified version of the Lee algorithm or an adaptive weighted median filter. The results are shown on real sonar images.

  7. The Role of Decorative Pictures in Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenzner, Alwine; Schnotz, Wolfgang; Müller, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Three experiments with students from 7th and 8th grade were performed to investigate the effects of decorative pictures in learning as compared to instructional pictures. Pictures were considered as instructional, when they were primarily informative, and as decorative, when they were primarily aesthetically appealing. The experiments…

  8. Pictures in United States History Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Dan

    1988-01-01

    Surveys twenty-two U.S. history textbooks for pictures which suggest possible heroes and role models. Results show a domination of pictures of male political leaders with several minority members and women scattered throughout. Includes list of books reviewed and a chart showing the number of pictures per person for junior high and high school…

  9. Cognitive Style Influence in Reacting to Pictures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogden, Darlene H.

    Free verbal responses to pictures as an indication of cognitive style were studied for 199 college students, at Eastern Kentucky University. The Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT) was administered following presentation of the pictures, a series of colored pictures of simple, medium and complex configuration. Responses given to three graduate…

  10. 32 CFR 705.8 - Motion pictures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motion pictures. 705.8 Section 705.8 National... OFFICIAL RECORDS PUBLIC AFFAIRS REGULATIONS § 705.8 Motion pictures. (a) The rules and procedures given in... Navy assists in the production of commercial, privately financed, nontheatrical motion pictures...

  11. Using Picture Books Kindergarten through High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Maurine V.; Miller, Margaret B.

    A picture book is defined as a book in which the illustrations are as important as the text or written story. Picture books published today seem appropriate and exciting for anyone from 1 to 100 years old. Among the many kinds of picture books are Mother Goose books; toy books (board books, pop-up books, concept books, flap books, cloth books, and…

  12. Control point measurements on Mariner 9 pictures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, M. E.

    1973-01-01

    Measurements are given of the control points on the Mariner 9 pictures which were used in the computation of the June 1973 control net of Mars. The method of making the measurements is discussed along with the picture coordinate system and the removal of distortions. Table are presented of the 9804 measurements of 1645 points on 660 pictures.

  13. 32 CFR 705.8 - Motion pictures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Motion pictures. 705.8 Section 705.8 National... OFFICIAL RECORDS PUBLIC AFFAIRS REGULATIONS § 705.8 Motion pictures. (a) The rules and procedures given in the preceding for TV will also apply to cooperation with commercial motion picture producers. (b)...

  14. Effects of transcranial direct current stimulation on naming and cortical excitability in stroke patients with aphasia.

    PubMed

    Wu, Dongyu; Wang, Jie; Yuan, Ying

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (A-tDCS) over the left posterior perisylvian region (PPR) on picture naming and cortical excitability measured with electroencephalography (EEG) nonlinear dynamics analysis (NDA) in aphasic patients. Twelve aphasic patients received 20 sessions of speech-language therapy during each of three phases: sham tDCS (Phase A1); A-tDCS to the left PPR (Phase B); and sham tDCS (Phase A2). Picture naming and auditory word-picture identification were measured before and after each phase. The EEG nonlinear index of approximate entropy (ApEn) was calculated for all subjects and 12 normal controls. Picture naming and auditory word-picture identification was significantly improved after phase B. The EEG ApEn analysis indicated that improved picture naming correlated with a higher activation level in wide areas of the left hemisphere and in isolated areas of the right hemisphere after phase B. These results revealed that A-tDCS over the left PPR coupled with speech-language therapy can improve picture naming and auditory comprehension in aphasic patients. tDCS not only modulates activity in the brain region directly underlying the stimulating electrode but also in a network of brain regions that are function-related. PMID:25603474

  15. Willow plant name 'Preble'

    SciTech Connect

    Abrahamson, Lawrence P.; Kopp, Richard F.; Smart, Lawrence B.; Volk, Timothy A.

    2014-06-10

    A distinct female cultivar of Salix viminalis.times.(Salix sachalinensis.times.Salix miyabeana) named `Preble`, characterized by rapid stem growth producing 29% more woody biomass than the average of three current production cultivars (Salix.times.dasyclados `SV1` (unpatented), Salix sachalinensis `SX61` (unpatented), and Salix miyabeana `SX64` (unpatented)) when grown in the same field for the same length of time (three growing seasons after coppice) in two different trials in Constableville, N.Y. and Middlebury, Vt. `Preble` can be planted from dormant stem cuttings, produces multiple stems after coppice and the stem biomass can be harvested when the plant is dormant. In the spring following harvest, the plant will re-sprout very vigorously, producing new stems that can be harvested repeatedly after two to four years of growth. `Preble` displays a low incidence of rust disease and is not damaged by potato leafhoppers.

  16. Early genital naming.

    PubMed

    Fraley, M C; Nelson, E C; Wolf, A W; Lozoff, B

    1991-10-01

    To evaluate the clinical impression that young girls are given little or confusing information about their genitals, a sample of 117 mothers with 1- to 4-year-old children were asked which words for genitals, if any, they used with their children. The ethnically and socioeconomically heterogeneous sample was composed of 63 girls and 54 boys, with the average ages of 26 and 29 months, respectively. Neither boys nor girls were likely to be given a standard anatomical genital term, although many children received colorful colloquial expressions. However, girls were less likely than boys to receive a term for their genitals. Receiving names for genitals was related to certain family circumstances, such as higher parental education, exposure to adult male nudity, having a sibling of the opposite sex, and cosleeping. Pediatric health professionals have the opportunity to contribute to early sex education by conveying accurate information regarding genital terms in the course of routine physical examinations. PMID:1939685

  17. Brand Suicide? Memory and Liking of Negative Brand Names.

    PubMed

    Guest, Duncan; Estes, Zachary; Gibbert, Michael; Mazursky, David

    2016-01-01

    Negative brand names are surprisingly common in the marketplace (e.g., Poison perfume; Hell pizza, and Monster energy drink), yet their effects on consumer behavior are currently unknown. Three studies investigated the effects of negative brand name valence on brand name memory and liking of a branded product. Study 1 demonstrates that relative to non-negative brand names, negative brand names and their associated logos are better recognised. Studies 2 and 3 demonstrate that negative valence of a brand name tends to have a detrimental influence on product evaluation with evaluations worsening as negative valence increases. However, evaluation is also dependent on brand name arousal, with high arousal brand names resulting in more positive evaluations, such that moderately negative brand names are equally as attractive as some non-negative brand names. Study 3 shows evidence for affective habituation, whereby the effects of negative valence reduce with repeated exposures to some classes of negative brand name. PMID:27023872

  18. Brand Suicide? Memory and Liking of Negative Brand Names

    PubMed Central

    Guest, Duncan; Estes, Zachary; Gibbert, Michael; Mazursky, David

    2016-01-01

    Negative brand names are surprisingly common in the marketplace (e.g., Poison perfume; Hell pizza, and Monster energy drink), yet their effects on consumer behavior are currently unknown. Three studies investigated the effects of negative brand name valence on brand name memory and liking of a branded product. Study 1 demonstrates that relative to non-negative brand names, negative brand names and their associated logos are better recognised. Studies 2 and 3 demonstrate that negative valence of a brand name tends to have a detrimental influence on product evaluation with evaluations worsening as negative valence increases. However, evaluation is also dependent on brand name arousal, with high arousal brand names resulting in more positive evaluations, such that moderately negative brand names are equally as attractive as some non-negative brand names. Study 3 shows evidence for affective habituation, whereby the effects of negative valence reduce with repeated exposures to some classes of negative brand name. PMID:27023872

  19. Developmental shifts in children’s sensitivity to visual speech: A new multimodal picture word task

    PubMed Central

    Jerger, Susan; Damian, Markus F.; Spence, Melanie J.; Tye-Murray, Nancy; Abdi, Herve

    2008-01-01

    This research developed a Multimodal Picture Word Task for assessing the influence of visual speech on phonological processing by100 children between 4 - 14 yrs of age. We assessed how manipulation of seemingly to-be-ignored auditory (A) and audiovisual (AV) phonological distractors affected picture naming without participants consciously trying to respond to the manipulation. Results varied in complex ways as a function of age and type and modality of distractors. Results for congruent AV distractors yielded an inverted U-shaped function with a significant influence of visual speech in 4-yr-olds and 10-14-yr-olds, but not in 5-9-yr-olds. In concert with dynamic systems theory, we proposed that the temporary loss of sensitivity to visual speech was reflecting reorganization of relevant knowledge and processing sub-systems, particularly phonology. We speculated that reorganization may be associated with 1) formal literacy instruction and 2) developmental changes in multimodal processing and auditory perceptual, linguistic, and cognitive skills. PMID:18829049

  20. History of NAMES Conferences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippov, Lev

    2013-03-01

    Franco-Russian NAMES Seminars are held for the purpose of reviewing and discussing actual developments in the field of materials science by researchers from Russia and from the Lorraine Region of France. In more precise terms, as set down by the organizers of the seminar (the Moscow Institute of Steel and Alloys and the Institut National Polytechnique de Lorraine), the mission of the seminars is as follows: the development of scientific and academic contacts, giving a new impulse to joint fundamental research and technology transfer the development and consolidation of scientific, technical and business collaboration between the regions of Russia and Lorraine through direct contact between the universities, institutes and companies involved The first Seminar took place on 27-29 October 2004, at the Institut National Polytechnique de Lorraine (on the premises of the Ecole Européenne d'Ingénieurs en Génie des Matériaux, Nancy, France). The number, variety and quality of the oral presentations given and posters exhibited at the first Seminar were of high international standard. 30 oral presentations were given and 72 posters were presented by 19 participants from five universities and three institutes of the Russian Academy of Sciences participants from 11 laboratories of three universities from the Lorraine region three industrial companies, including the European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company—EADS, and ANVAR (Agence Nationale de Valorisation de la Recherche) From 2005 onwards, it was decided to organize the Seminar every other year. The second Seminar convened on the occasion of the 75th Anniversary of the Moscow Institute of Steel and Alloys on 10-12 November 2005 in Moscow, Russia. The seminar demonstrated the efficiency of the scientific partnership founded between the research groups of Russia and France during the first Seminar. High productivity of the Franco-Russian scientific cooperation on the basis of the Research-Educational Franco

  1. Hebrew names of the planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zucker, Shay

    2011-06-01

    I review in this paper the basic Hebrew planetary terminology. To complete the picture I accompany it with some historical and cultural context, and compare it to the planetary terminology in Arabic, the most widely spoken Semitic language.

  2. Picture recognition improves with subsequent verbal information.

    PubMed

    Wiseman, S; MacLeod, C M; Lootsteen, P J

    1985-07-01

    In three experiments, subjects studied photographs presented alone or followed by a descriptive sentence. The sentence provided additional information not available in the picture. Subsequent yes-no recognition tests for the pictures demonstrated better memory for those pictures that had been followed by descriptive sentences. Experiment 1 showed that described pictures were remembered better regardless of whether comparison was to undescribed pictures presented in immediate succession or to undescribed pictures followed by a blank period equal in duration to the descriptive sentence. Experiment 2 demonstrated that although both unrelated and related sentences aided picture recognition, related sentences were significantly more helpful. Experiment 3 revealed that increasing the amount of related information (low, medium, and high) had no differential effect on picture recognition. Three explanations of these results are considered: integration of the sentence with the picture, formation of a semantic representation in addition to the pictorial one, and elaboration of the pictorial representation initiated by the sentence. Taken together, the findings seem most consistent with the elaboration account--A post-picture sentence improves attention to and perhaps rehearsal of the representation of the picture following its display. PMID:3160818

  3. Conflict Monitoring in Speech Production: Physiological Evidence from Bilingual Picture Naming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acheson, Daniel J.; Ganushchak, Lesya Y.; Christoffels, Ingrid K.; Hagoort, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Self-monitoring in production is critical to correct performance, and recent accounts suggest that such monitoring may occur via the detection of response conflict. The error-related negativity (ERN) is a response-locked event-related potential (ERP) that is sensitive to response conflict. The present study examines whether response conflict is…

  4. Episodic and Semantic Memory Influences on Picture Naming in Alzheimer's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small, Jeff A.; Sandhu, Nirmaljeet

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between semantic and episodic memory as they support lexical access by healthy younger and older adults and individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD). In particular, we were interested in examining the pattern of semantic and episodic memory declines in AD (i.e., word-finding difficulty and impaired recent…

  5. The Influence of Partner-Specific Memory Associations on Language Production: Evidence from Picture Naming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horton, William S.

    2007-01-01

    In typical interactions, speakers frequently produce utterances that appear to reflect beliefs about the common ground shared with particular addressees. Horton and Gerrig (2005a) proposed that one important basis for audience design is the manner in which conversational partners serve as cues for the automatic retrieval of associated information…

  6. A review of brain oscillations in perception of faces and emotional pictures.

    PubMed

    Güntekin, Bahar; Başar, Erol

    2014-05-01

    The differentiation of faces, facial expressions and affective pictures involves processes of higher mental activity that have considerable applications in the psychology of moods and emotions. At present, the search for functional correlates of brain oscillations is an important trend in neuroscience. Furthermore, analyses of oscillatory responses provide key knowledge on the physiology of brain dynamics. Studies analysing oscillatory dynamics in face perception and emotional pictures have increased in recent years; however, the literature lacks a review of the current state of the art. This study provides a comprehensive review of the delta, theta, alpha, beta and gamma oscillatory responses on presentation of faces, facial expressions and affective pictures (International Affective Picture System, IAPS). The reviewed literature revealed that the brain is more sensitive to emotional stimuli than neutral stimuli. A common and reliable finding from all reviewed studies was the increased brain responsiveness towards negative emotional pictures (face expression or IAPS). PMID:24709570

  7. History of NAMES Conferences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippov, Lev

    2013-03-01

    Franco-Russian NAMES Seminars are held for the purpose of reviewing and discussing actual developments in the field of materials science by researchers from Russia and from the Lorraine Region of France. In more precise terms, as set down by the organizers of the seminar (the Moscow Institute of Steel and Alloys and the Institut National Polytechnique de Lorraine), the mission of the seminars is as follows: the development of scientific and academic contacts, giving a new impulse to joint fundamental research and technology transfer the development and consolidation of scientific, technical and business collaboration between the regions of Russia and Lorraine through direct contact between the universities, institutes and companies involved The first Seminar took place on 27-29 October 2004, at the Institut National Polytechnique de Lorraine (on the premises of the Ecole Européenne d'Ingénieurs en Génie des Matériaux, Nancy, France). The number, variety and quality of the oral presentations given and posters exhibited at the first Seminar were of high international standard. 30 oral presentations were given and 72 posters were presented by 19 participants from five universities and three institutes of the Russian Academy of Sciences participants from 11 laboratories of three universities from the Lorraine region three industrial companies, including the European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company—EADS, and ANVAR (Agence Nationale de Valorisation de la Recherche) From 2005 onwards, it was decided to organize the Seminar every other year. The second Seminar convened on the occasion of the 75th Anniversary of the Moscow Institute of Steel and Alloys on 10-12 November 2005 in Moscow, Russia. The seminar demonstrated the efficiency of the scientific partnership founded between the research groups of Russia and France during the first Seminar. High productivity of the Franco-Russian scientific cooperation on the basis of the Research-Educational Franco

  8. Glossary of Motion Picture Terminology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Thurston C., Jr., Ed.

    Over 500 terms used in the film industry are defined in non-technical language. The terms include both technical and common names for equipment, processes, occupations, and organizations. Some of the terms are illustrated with photographs. Cross Referencing is provided where appropriate. (JY)

  9. Portrayals of Bullying: A Content Analysis of Picture Books for Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oppliger, Patrice A.; Davis, Ashley

    2016-01-01

    Bullying affects a significant number of school children in the United States. Great concern for teaching children about bullying is apparent in the number of picture books published with bullying themes. The following study is a content analysis of how bullies and victims are portrayed in picture books suitable for preschoolers. Many of the…

  10. The picture exchange communication system.

    PubMed

    Bondy, A S; Frost, L A

    1998-01-01

    The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) was developed as a means to teach children with autism and related developmental disabilities a rapidly acquired, self-initiating, functional communication system. Its theoretical roots combine principles from applied behavior analysis and guidelines established within the field of alternative and augmentative communication. This approach has several potential advantages relative to imitation-based strategies (both vocal and gestural) and symbol selection strategies. The system begins with the exchange of simple icons but rapidly builds "sentence" structure. The system also emphasizes developing the request function prior to developing responding to simple questions and commenting. The development of requesting with a sentence structure also permits the rapid development of attributes more traditionally taught within a receptive mode. The relationship between the introduction of PECS and various other behavioral issues (i.e., social approach and behavior management) as well as its relationship to the codevelopment of speech are reviewed. PMID:9857393

  11. Lexical Access in Children with and without Specific Language Impairment: A Cross-Modal Picture-Word Interference Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seiger-Gardner, Liat; Schwartz, Richard G.

    2008-01-01

    Two experiments examined the time course of lexical information availability in 20 adults, 20 children (8;0-10;0) with typical language development, and in 20 children (8;0-10;0) with specific language impairment. A cross-modal picture-word interference paradigm was used in which participants named the pictures as quickly as possible while…

  12. The National Map - geographic names

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yost, Lou; Carswell, William J., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS), developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the U.S. Board on Geographic Names (BGN), contains information about the official names for places, features, and areas in the 50 States, the District of Columbia, the territories and outlying areas of the United States, including Antarctica. It is the geographic names component of The National Map. The BGN maintains working relationships with State names authorities to cooperate in achieving the standardization of geographic names. The GNIS contains records on more than 2 million geographic names in the United States - from populated places, schools, reservoirs, and parks to streams, valleys, springs, ridges, and every feature type except roads and highways. Entries include information such as the federally-recognized name and variant names and spellings for the feature; former names; the status of the name as determined by the BGN; county or counties in which each named feature is located; geographic coordinates that locate the approximate center of an aerial feature or the mouth and source of a linear feature, such as a stream; name of the cell of the USGS topographic map or maps on which the feature may appear; elevation figures derived from the National Elevation Dataset; bibliographic code for the source of the name; BGN decision dates and historical information are available for some features. Data from the GNIS are used for emergency preparedness, mapmaking, local and regional planning, service delivery routing, marketing, site selection, environmental analysis, genealogical research, and other applications.

  13. Affective Computing and the Impact of Gender and Age

    PubMed Central

    Rukavina, Stefanie; Gruss, Sascha; Hoffmann, Holger; Tan, Jun-Wen; Walter, Steffen; Traue, Harald C.

    2016-01-01

    Affective computing aims at the detection of users’ mental states, in particular, emotions and dispositions during human-computer interactions. Detection can be achieved by measuring multimodal signals, namely, speech, facial expressions and/or psychobiology. Over the past years, one major approach was to identify the best features for each signal using different classification methods. Although this is of high priority, other subject-specific variables should not be neglected. In our study, we analyzed the effect of gender, age, personality and gender roles on the extracted psychobiological features (derived from skin conductance level, facial electromyography and heart rate variability) as well as the influence on the classification results. In an experimental human-computer interaction, five different affective states with picture material from the International Affective Picture System and ULM pictures were induced. A total of 127 subjects participated in the study. Among all potentially influencing variables (gender has been reported to be influential), age was the only variable that correlated significantly with psychobiological responses. In summary, the conducted classification processes resulted in 20% classification accuracy differences according to age and gender, especially when comparing the neutral condition with four other affective states. We suggest taking age and gender specifically into account for future studies in affective computing, as these may lead to an improvement of emotion recognition accuracy. PMID:26939129

  14. What's in Your Name? Exploring Name Awareness with Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chakraborty, Basanti; Stone, Basanti

    2007-01-01

    When children come to school, they bring with them a common thread they all have their individual names. Children from minority cultures, however, often encounter difficulties for being different; one obvious difference can be their given names. Names that are unfamiliar to other children may cause social tension or ridicule when a teacher calls…

  15. Investigating the effect of respiratory bodily threat on the processing of emotional pictures.

    PubMed

    Juravle, Georgiana; Stoeckel, Maria Cornelia; Rose, Michael; Gamer, Matthias; Büchel, Christian; Wieser, Matthias Johannes; von Leupoldt, Andreas

    2014-12-01

    It has been demonstrated that emotions can substantially impact the perception and neural processing of breathlessness, but little is known about the reverse interaction. Here, we examined the impact of breathlessness on emotional picture processing. The continuous EEG was recorded while volunteers viewed positive/neutral/negative emotional pictures under conditions of resistive-load-induced breathlessness, auditory noise, and an unloaded baseline. Breathlessness attenuated P1 and early posterior negativity (EPN) ERP amplitudes, irrespective of picture valence. Moreover, as expected, larger amplitudes for positive and negative pictures relative to neutral pictures were found for EPN and the late positive potential (LPP) ERPs, which were not affected by breathlessness. The results suggest that breathlessness impacts on the early attention-related neural processing of picture stimuli without influencing the later cognitive processing of emotional contents. PMID:24874555

  16. Geographic Landscape of Place Names.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gritzner, Charles F.

    1988-01-01

    Explores the origins of many geographic place names. Suggests that using toponyms (place names) to study geographic conditions of an area offers rich diversity for the teaching of map skills and regional geography. (DH)

  17. Star names - Origins and misconceptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heuter, Gwyneth

    The sources of present day star names used in the western world are examined. Particular interest is shown in the meanings of the most popular names and those whose meanings have proved difficult to trace. A classification of star names is made and attention is drawn to the errors introduced in translation from one language to another. In particular an in-depth study of pre-Ptolemaic Arabic star names is given.

  18. Proper Names: Reference and Attribution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maumus, Michael Fletcher

    2012-01-01

    In the wake of Saul Kripke's landmark "Naming and Necessity," the claim that proper names are directly referential expressions devoid of descriptive content has come to verge on philosophical commonplace. Nevertheless, the return to a purely referential semantics for proper names has coincided with the resurgence of the very puzzles…

  19. The American Way with Names.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Buren, H.

    1974-01-01

    Americans tend to derive nicknames and more intimate affectionate nicknames from a person's formal first name; the type of name used depends on the social situation and the relationship between the two people. In many cases, for both masculine and feminine names, the nickname is derived from the first (or sometimes the second) syllable of the…

  20. Uncovering trends in gene naming

    PubMed Central

    Seringhaus, Michael R; Cayting, Philip D; Gerstein, Mark B

    2008-01-01

    We take stock of current genetic nomenclature and attempt to organize strange and notable gene names. We categorize, for instance, those that involve a naming system transferred from another context (for example, Pavlov’s dogs). We hope this analysis provides clues to better steer gene naming in the future. PMID:18254929

  1. Ariel - Highest Resolution Color Picture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The complex terrain of Ariel is viewed in this image, the best Voyager 2 color picture of the Uranian moon. The individual photos used to construct this composite were taken Jan. 24, 1986, from a distance of 170,000 kilometers (105,000 miles. Voyager captured this view of Ariel's southern hemisphere through the green, blue and violet filters of the narrow-angle camera; the resolution is about 3 km (2 mi). Most of the visible surface consists of relatively intensely cratered terrain transected by fault scarps and fault-bounded valleys (graben). Some of the largest valleys, which can be seen near the terminator (at right), are partly filled with younger deposits that are less heavily cratered. Bright spots near the limb and toward the left are chiefly the rims of small craters. Most of the brightly rimmed craters are too small to be resolved here, although one about 30 km (20 mi) in diameter can be easily distinguished near the center. These bright-rim craters, though the youngest features on Ariel, probably have formed over a long span of geological time. Although Ariel has a diameter of only about 1,200 km (750 mi), it has clearly experienced a great deal of geological activity in the past. The Voyager project is managed for NASA by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  2. The Proper Name as Starting Point for Basic Reading Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Both-de Vries, Anna C.; Bus, Adriana G.

    2010-01-01

    Does alphabetic-phonetic writing start with the proper name and how does the name affect reading and writing skills? Sixty 4- to 5 1/2-year-old children from middle SES families with Dutch as their first language wrote their proper name and named letters. For each child we created unique sets of words with and without the child's first letter of…

  3. Naming Difficulties in Children with Dyslexia: Application of the Tip-of-the-Tongue Paradigm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faust, Miriam; Dimitrovsky, Lilly; Shacht, Tamar

    2003-01-01

    A study used the tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) experimental paradigm in a picture naming task to explore the source of the naming deficits of 15 children (ages 8-10) with dyslexia. Compared with 15 controls, subjects showed fewer correct responses and spontaneous recalls, more TOT responses, and less accurate feeling of knowing judgments. (Contains…

  4. The Use of Semantic- and Phonological-Based Feature Approaches to Treat Naming Deficits in Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashimoto, Naomi

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare approaches highlighting either semantic or phonological features to treat naming deficits in aphasia. Treatment focused on improving picture naming. An alternating treatments design was used with a multiple baseline design across stimuli to examine effects of both approaches in two participants with varying…

  5. Electrophysiological correlates of brand names.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Mei-chun; Chan, Agnes S; Sze, Sophia L

    2010-11-26

    EEG coherence has been used extensively in the investigation of language processing of different words categories. In contrast, relatively less is known about EEG coherence pattern of processing brand names. The present study aimed to investigate EEG coherence pattern associated with brand names in English and Chinese. EEG coherence of 32 healthy normal participants during 4 reading conditions, including concrete English words, concrete Chinese characters, English brand names and their translated Chinese brand names, were computed and compared. Regardless whether it was in English or Chinese, brand names were generally associated with higher intrahemispheric beta coherence in both the left and right hemispheres than concrete words or characters. Compared to English brand names, Chinese brand names demonstrated increased interhemispheric theta coherence in the frontal and temporal cortical regions. These results suggest that brand names tend to be processed through semantic routes. Similar to proper names and nonwords, they are represented in the lexical systems of both hemispheres. In addition, English and Chinese brand names are processed similarly at the semantic level and the difference in EEG coherence patterns associated with English and Chinese brand names is more likely due to phonological and orthographic processing that are associated with English and Chinese, respectively. PMID:20833227

  6. An innovative technique for recording picture-in-picture ultrasound videos.

    PubMed

    Rajasekaran, Sathish; Finnoff, Jonathan T

    2013-08-01

    Many ultrasound educational products and ultrasound researchers present diagnostic and interventional ultrasound information using picture-in-picture videos, which simultaneously show the ultrasound image and transducer and patient positions. Traditional techniques for creating picture-in-picture videos are expensive, nonportable, or time-consuming. This article describes an inexpensive, simple, and portable way of creating picture-in-picture ultrasound videos. This technique uses a laptop computer with a video capture device to acquire the ultrasound feed. Simultaneously, a webcam captures a live video feed of the transducer and patient position and live audio. Both sources are streamed onto the computer screen and recorded by screen capture software. This technique makes the process of recording picture-in-picture ultrasound videos more accessible for ultrasound educators and researchers for use in their presentations or publications. PMID:23887962

  7. Teaching Picture Reading as an Enabling Skill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberto, Paul A.; Fredrick, Laura D.

    2000-01-01

    This article presents a five-step sequence for teaching children with disabilities to read pictures. Steps are sequenced for content and complexity of picture, student response requirement, and language demands. They include: (1) identify person, (2) identify object, (3) identify person and object, (4) identify action, and (5) identify sequence.…

  8. Positioning Picture Books within the Mathematics Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Kate

    2010-01-01

    Most teachers feel confident espousing the benefits of using picture books in English lessons, talking about the importance of using the illustrations to enhance the text, engaging students and fostering a love and appreciation of literature. How many teachers passionately advocate the use of these same picture books in mathematics lessons? This…

  9. Magazine Picture Collage in Group Supervision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepard, Blythe C.; Guenette, Francis L.

    2010-01-01

    A magazine picture collage activity was used with three female counsellor education students as a vehicle to support them in processing their experience as counsellors in training. The use of magazine picture collage in group supervision is described, and the benefits and challenges are presented. The collages served as jumping-off points for…

  10. Communicating with Pictures. P-8A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peace Corps, Washington, DC. Information Collection and Exchange Div.

    In early 1976, the National Development Service of Nepal and UNICEF conducted a study designed to determine whether it would be possible to communicate ideas and information to Nepalese villagers who cannot read by using pictures only, the kinds of pictures that are most meaningful for villagers, and whether different colors have special meanings…

  11. The Picture Book and Visual Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polette, Nancy

    1986-01-01

    Discusses importance of the ability to visualize images evoked by the written word in the development of children's skills in both reading and creative writing. Specific skills involved are noted, examples from picture books are given, and 48 picture books that would be useful to developing such skills are listed. (EM)

  12. Examining Lateralized Semantic Access Using Pictures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovseth, Kyle; Atchley, Ruth Ann

    2010-01-01

    A divided visual field (DVF) experiment examined the semantic processing strategies employed by the cerebral hemispheres to determine if strategies observed with written word stimuli generalize to other media for communicating semantic information. We employed picture stimuli and vary the degree of semantic relatedness between the picture pairs.…

  13. Real-time computerized annotation of pictures.

    PubMed

    Li, Jia; Wang, James Z

    2008-06-01

    Developing effective methods for automated annotation of digital pictures continues to challenge computer scientists. The capability of annotating pictures by computers can lead to breakthroughs in a wide range of applications, including Web image search, online picture-sharing communities, and scientific experiments. In this work, the authors developed new optimization and estimation techniques to address two fundamental problems in machine learning. These new techniques serve as the basis for the Automatic Linguistic Indexing of Pictures - Real Time (ALIPR) system of fully automatic and high speed annotation for online pictures. In particular, the D2-clustering method, in the same spirit as k-means for vectors, is developed to group objects represented by bags of weighted vectors. Moreover, a generalized mixture modeling technique (kernel smoothing as a special case) for non-vector data is developed using the novel concept of Hypothetical Local Mapping (HLM). ALIPR has been tested by thousands of pictures from an Internet photo-sharing site, unrelated to the source of those pictures used in the training process. Its performance has also been studied at an online demo site where arbitrary users provide pictures of their choices and indicate the correctness of each annotation word. The experimental results show that a single computer processor can suggest annotation terms in real-time and with good accuracy. PMID:18421105

  14. Picture Books and the Art of Collage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prudhoe, Catherine M.

    2003-01-01

    Explores how teachers can use picture book illustrations to teach children the art of collage. Focuses on three children's picture books and offers art activities showcasing three collage techniques: (1) cut and torn paper collage; (2) photomontage; and (3) texture collages and collage constructions. Relates each activity to the National Standards…

  15. Aristotle on Pictures of Ignoble Animals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Socher, David

    2005-01-01

    Noting that the "Poetics" is a widely read, accessible classic, the author points to a minor flaw of some interest. In a well-known passage early in the "Poetics," Aristotle is in error about pictures. The matter is significant to both the theory of pictures and to Aristotle scholarship. The author sets out Aristotle's position as follows: (1) It…

  16. Grandparenting: Using Pictures To Transform the Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackwell, David L.; Hunt, Sara Stockard

    The importance of the grandparent-grandchild relationship can be used effectively in group work with the aged by using pictures of grandchildren to stimulate personal interaction. Participants are asked to bring pictures of their grandchildren, great-grandchildren, or surrogate grandchildren to a two-hour training session on grandparenting. During…

  17. Picture Books Peek behind Cultural Curtains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marantz, Sylvia; Marantz, Kenneth

    2000-01-01

    Discusses culture in picture books in three general categories: legends and histories; current life in particular areas; and the immigrant experience. Considers the translation of visual images, discusses authentic interpretations, and presents an annotated bibliography of picture books showing cultural diversity including African, Asian, Mexican,…

  18. Postmodern Picture Books in the Middle School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Laurie

    In this lesson plan, middle school students analyze the structure of a postmodern picture book to uncover how authors form relationships between words and illustrations. An online teacher resource explains the intent of the picture book "Black and White" and provides background information and suggestions for classroom discussion. During one…

  19. Parallel processing for digital picture comparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, H. D.; Kou, L. T.

    1987-01-01

    In picture processing an important problem is to identify two digital pictures of the same scene taken under different lighting conditions. This kind of problem can be found in remote sensing, satellite signal processing and the related areas. The identification can be done by transforming the gray levels so that the gray level histograms of the two pictures are closely matched. The transformation problem can be solved by using the packing method. Researchers propose a VLSI architecture consisting of m x n processing elements with extensive parallel and pipelining computation capabilities to speed up the transformation with the time complexity 0(max(m,n)), where m and n are the numbers of the gray levels of the input picture and the reference picture respectively. If using uniprocessor and a dynamic programming algorithm, the time complexity will be 0(m(3)xn). The algorithm partition problem, as an important issue in VLSI design, is discussed. Verification of the proposed architecture is also given.

  20. Neuropsychological picture of 33 spinocerebellar ataxia cases.

    PubMed

    Orsi, Laura; D'Agata, Federico; Caroppo, Paola; Franco, Alessandra; Caglio, Marcella Maria; Avidano, Federica; Manzone, Cristina; Mortara, Paolo

    2011-03-01

    We administered a large battery of neuropsychological tests to an heterogeneous cohort of genetically defined spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA) patients in order to assess their cognitive profile and to compare cognitive impairment among different SCA genotypes, particularly between SCA with the classical pattern of olivo-ponto-cerebellar atrophy (SCA1 and SCA2) and those with a relatively "pure" olivo-cerebellar atrophy (SCA6 and SCA8). Our data revealed a neuropsychological picture characterized by fronto-parietal involvement with mnestic, linguistic, visuospatial, attentional, executive, and mood changes, in agreement with the cerebellar cognitive affective syndrome definition. We found a homogeneous neuropsychological profile among SCA subgroups with a prominent role of frontal dysfunction--particularly, attention, memory, and executive functions. We analyzed the possible interactions between neuropsychological pattern and clinical, demographical, and genetic variables. We found the presence of a cognitive impairment at the early stages of the disease, without visuospatial alterations, which appeared later. Age and education represented the most important demographic factors to predict the neuropsychological performance in SCA and in controls, but their effect in patients had definitely more impact. In our sample education could represent a protective factor and a marker of an enriched environment or a better developmental cognitive differentiation. We demonstrated that in our patients there was a distinct subgroup of high functional subjects and that triplet repeats modulated the effect of aging on cognition and progression of motor disability. PMID:21302172

  1. Fish monitoring: Getting a complete picture

    SciTech Connect

    Kuehl, E.S.; Johnson, G.E. ); Olson, F.W. )

    1991-02-01

    During licensing or relicensing procedures, resource agencies often recommend that hydroelectric project owners monitor fish passage at the site of the power plant. By using multiple sampling techniques, an owner can made a comprehensive assessment of the fish population surrounding a site and determine how the project affects these fish. This approach was recently used at a hydro project in southern Ohio along the Ohio River. Recognizing that each commonly used biological sampling method has strengths and weaknesses, the plant owner, its consultants, and agency representatives decided on a strategy that employed four techniques to study the effects of the project on fish. Combining various monitoring methods provided complementary sampling of fish distributions and behavior in the river and at the dam. In this study, hydroacoustic techniques allowed extensive sampling over time and space. When complemented with species composition information from net sampling, hydroacoustic techniques produced useful information on fish population and entrainment. Radiotelemetry was used to estimate minimum survival rates of fish passing through a dam gate and turbine unit. In combination, the use of hydroacoustics, netting, electrofishing, and radio telemetry provided a complete picture of the fish population at Greenup Dam over three seasons, and facilitated an accurate assessment of the project's effects on fish.

  2. Chemistry--The Big Picture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassell, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Chemistry produces materials and releases energy by ionic or electronic rearrangements. Three structure types affect the ease with which a reaction occurs. In the Earth's crust, "solid crystals" change chemically only with extreme heat and pressure, unless their fixed ions touch moving fluids. On the other hand, in living things, "liquid crystals"…

  3. HIV Infection: The Cellular Picture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Jonathan N.; Weiss, Robin A.

    1988-01-01

    Explains a key finding of the research which revealed that initial infection resulted from the binding of the human immunodeficiency virus to a molecule known as the CD4 antigen. Describes various assays used to determine the affect of antibodies on the ability of the virus to infect the cells. (RT)

  4. What's in a Name? Typicality and Relatedness Effects in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jerger, Susan; Damian, Markus F.

    2005-01-01

    We studied how category typicality and out-of-category relatedness affect speeded category verification (vote ''yes'' if pictured object is clothing) in typically developing 4- to 14-year-olds and adults. Stimuli were typical and atypical category objects (e.g., pants, glove) and related and unrelated out-of-category objects (e.g., necklace,…

  5. Explosive Formulation Code Naming SOP

    SciTech Connect

    Martz, H. E.

    2014-09-19

    The purpose of this SOP is to provide a procedure for giving individual HME formulations code names. A code name for an individual HME formulation consists of an explosive family code, given by the classified guide, followed by a dash, -, and a number. If the formulation requires preparation such as packing or aging, these add additional groups of symbols to the X-ray specimen name.

  6. Geographic names of the Antarctic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Board on Geographic Names; U.S. Geological Survey; Defense Mapping Agency; National Science Foundation

    1995-01-01

    This gazetteer contains 12,710 names approved by the United States Board on Geographic Names and the Secretary of the Interior for features in Antarctica and the area extending northward to the Antarctic Convergence. Included in this geographic area, the Antarctic region, are the off-lying South Shetland Islands, the South Orkney Islands, the South Sandwich Islands, South Georgia, Bouvetøya, Heard Island, and the Balleny Islands. These names have been approved for use by U.S. Government agencies. Their use by the Antarctic specialist and the public is highly recommended for the sake of accuracy and uniformity. This publication, which supersedes previous Board gazetteers or lists for the area, contains names approved as recently as December 1994. The basic name coverage of this gazetteer corresponds to that of maps at the scale of 1:250,000 or larger for coastal Antarctica, the off-lying islands, and isolated mountains and ranges of the continent. Much of the interior of Antarctica is a featureless ice plateau. That area has been mapped at a smaller scale and is nearly devoid of toponyms. All of the names are for natural features, such as mountains, glaciers, peninsulas, capes, bays, islands, and subglacial entities. The names of scientific stations have not been listed alphabetically, but they may appear in the texts of some decisions. For the names of submarine features, reference should be made to the Gazetteer of Undersea Features, 4th edition, U.S. Board on Geographic Names, 1990.

  7. Feature overlap slows lexical selection: evidence from the picture-word interference paradigm.

    PubMed

    Vieth, H E; McMahon, K L; de Zubicaray, G I

    2014-01-01

    How does the presence of a categorically related word influence picture naming latencies? In order to test competitive and noncompetitive accounts of lexical selection in spoken word production, we employed the picture-word interference (PWI) paradigm to investigate how conceptual feature overlap influences naming latencies when distractors are category coordinates of the target picture. Mahon et al. (2007. Lexical selection is not by competition: A reinterpretation of semantic interference and facilitation effects in the picture-word interference paradigm. Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 33(3), 503-535. doi:10.1037/0278-7393.33.3.503 ) reported that semantically close distractors (e.g., zebra) facilitated target picture naming latencies (e.g., HORSE) compared to far distractors (e.g., whale). We failed to replicate a facilitation effect for within-category close versus far target-distractor pairings using near-identical materials based on feature production norms, instead obtaining reliably larger interference effects (Experiments 1 and 2). The interference effect did not show a monotonic increase across multiple levels of within-category semantic distance, although there was evidence of a linear trend when unrelated distractors were included in analyses (Experiment 2). Our results show that semantic interference in PWI is greater for semantically close than for far category coordinate relations, reflecting the extent of conceptual feature overlap between target and distractor. These findings are consistent with the assumptions of prominent competitive lexical selection models of speech production. PMID:24830335

  8. An Introduction to Recording, Editing, and Streaming Picture-in-Picture Ultrasound Videos.

    PubMed

    Rajasekaran, Sathish; Hall, Mederic M; Finnoff, Jonathan T

    2016-08-01

    This paper describes the process by which high-definition resolution (up to 1920 × 1080 pixels) ultrasound video can be captured in conjunction with high-definition video of the transducer position (picture-in-picture). In addition, we describe how to edit the recorded video feeds to combine both feeds, and to crop, resize, split, stitch, cut, annotate videos, and also change the frame rate, insert pictures, edit the audio feed, and use chroma keying. We also describe how to stream a picture-in-picture ultrasound feed during a videoconference. PMID:27543992

  9. Failure to detect meaning in RSVP at 27 ms per picture.

    PubMed

    Maguire, John F; Howe, Piers D L

    2016-07-01

    The human visual system has the remarkable ability to rapidly detect meaning from visual stimuli. Potter, Wyble, Hagmann, and McCourt (Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 76, 270-279, 2014) tested the minimum viewing time required to obtain meaning from a stream of pictures shown in a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) sequence containing either six or 12 pictures. They reported that observers could detect the presence of a target picture specified by name (e.g., smiling couple) even when the pictures in the sequence were presented for just 13 ms each. Potter et al. claimed that this was insufficient time for feedback processing to occur, so feedforward processing alone must be able to generate conscious awareness of the target pictures. A potential confound in their study is that the pictures in the RSVP sequence sometime contained areas with no high-contrast edges, and so may not have adequately masked each other. Consequently, iconic memories of portions of the target pictures may have persisted in the visual system, thereby increasing the effective presentation time. Our study addressed this issue by redoing the Potter et al. study, but using four different types of masks. We found that when adequate masking was used, no evidence emerged that observers could detect the presence of a specific target picture, even when each picture in the RSVP sequence was presented for 27 ms. On the basis of these findings, we cannot rule out the possibility that feedback processing is necessary for individual pictures to be recognized. PMID:27048442

  10. Children's picture interpretation: Appearance or intention?

    PubMed

    Armitage, Emma; Allen, Melissa L

    2015-09-01

    Pictures are defined by their creator's intentions and resemblance to their real world referents. Here we examine whether young children follow a realist route (e.g., focusing on how closely pictures resemble their referents) or intentional route (e.g., focusing on what a picture is intended to represent by its artist) when identifying a picture's referent. In 3 experiments, we contrasted an artist's intention with her picture's appearance to investigate children's use of appearance and intentional cues. In Experiment 1, children aged 3-4 and 5-6 years (N = 151) were presented with 4 trials of 3-object arrays (e.g., a pink duck, a blue duck, and a teddy). The experimenter photographed or drew 1 of the objects (e.g., blue duck), however, the subsequent picture depicted the referent in grayscale (black and white condition) or the color of its shape-matched object, for example, a pink duck (color change condition). Children were asked 3 questions regarding the identity of the pictures; responses were guided by intentional cues in the black and white condition, but appearance in the color change condition. Experiment 2 confirmed that appearance responses were not due to the artist's changing knowledge state. Experiment 3 replicated the results of Experiment 1 with adult participants. Together, these studies show that children and adults are neither strictly realist nor intentional route followers. They are realists until resemblance cues fail, at which point they defer to intentional cues. PMID:26192043

  11. GEOGRAPHIC NAMES INFORMATION SYSTEM (GNIS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS), developed by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Board on Geographic Names (BGN), contains information about physical and cultural geographic features in the United States and associated areas, both current and h...

  12. The Meaning of Proper Names.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saka, Paul

    The two major schools of thought concerned with the meaning of proper names, i.e., the direct-reference or referrential/causal theory, and the description theory, are outlined, and new arguments are presented for a strong version of the second of these theories. The referential theory takes the meaning of the name as being the same as its…

  13. Assessing perceptual change with an ambiguous figures task: Normative data for 40 standard picture sets.

    PubMed

    Stöttinger, Elisabeth; Sepahvand, Nazanin Mohammadi; Danckert, James; Anderson, Britt

    2016-03-01

    In many research domains, researchers have employed gradually morphing pictures to study perception under ambiguity. Despite their inherent utility, only a limited number of stimulus sets are available, and those sets vary substantially in quality and perceptual complexity. Here we present normative data for 40 morphing picture series. In all sets, line drawings of pictures of common objects are morphed over 15 iterations into a completely different object. Objects are either morphed from an animate to an inanimate object (or vice versa) or morphed within the animate and inanimate object categories. These pictures, together with the normative naming data presented here, will be of value for research on a diverse range of questions, from perceptual processing to decision making. PMID:25701106

  14. A Reversed-Typicality Effect in Pictures but Not in Written Words in Deaf and Hard of Hearing Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Degao; Gao, Kejuan; Wu, Xueyun; Xong, Ying; Chen, Xiaojun; He, Weiwei; Li, Ling; Huang, Jingjia

    2015-01-01

    Two experiments investigated Chinese deaf and hard of hearing (DHH) adolescents' recognition of category names in an innovative task of semantic categorization. In each trial, the category-name target appeared briefly at the screen center followed by two words or two pictures for two basic-level exemplars of high or middle typicality, which…

  15. Emotional picture processing in children: an ERP study.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Beylul; DeCicco, Jennifer M; Dennis, Tracy A

    2012-01-01

    The late positive potential (LPP) reflects increased attention to emotional versus neutral stimuli in adults. To date, very few studies have examined the LPP in children, and whether it can be used to measure patterns of emotional processing that are related to dispositional mood characteristics, such as temperamental fear and anxiety. To examine this question,39 typically developing 5–7 year olds (M age in months = 75.27, SD = 5.83) passively viewed complex emotional and neutral pictures taken from the International Affective Picture System.Maternal report of temperamental fear and anxiety was obtained and fearful behavior during an emotional challenge was observed. As documented in adults, LPP amplitudes to pleasant and unpleasant stimuli were larger than to neutral stimuli, although some gender differences emerged. Larger LPP amplitude differences between unpleasant and neutral stimuli were associated with greater observed fear. The LPP as a measure of individual differences in emotional processing is discussed. PMID:22163263

  16. NIH Abroad: Pictures Are Crowd Pullers

    MedlinePlus

    ... culture, and the Internet combine to intervene against malaria in Uganda NLM's Julia Royall and Makerere University ... the international team that developed a tutorial on malaria for Africa. Photo courtesy of Julia Royall "Pictures ...

  17. NIH Abroad: Pictures Are Crowd Pullers

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Internet combine to intervene against malaria in Uganda NLM's Julia Royall and Makerere University medical student- ... William Lubega, a fourth-year medical student in Uganda. "They look at the pictures and get the ...

  18. Interframe transform coding of picture data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmed, N.; Natarajan, T. R.

    1976-01-01

    This semi-tutorial paper describes the process of using orthogonal transforms for the purposes of encoding TV picture data. Results pertaining to a 6:1 data compression experiment using the Walsh-Hadamard transform are included.

  19. You Name It – How Memory and Delay Govern First Name Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Kessler, David A.; Maruvka, Yosi E.; Ouren, Jøergen; Shnerb, Nadav M.

    2012-01-01

    The adoption and abandonment of first names through time is a fascinating phenomenon that may shed light on social dynamics and the forces that determine cultural taste in general. Here we show that baby name dynamics is governed almost solely by deterministic forces, even though the emerging abundance statistics resembles the one obtained from a pure drift model. Exogenous events are shown to affect the name dynamics very rarely, and most of the year-to-year fluctuations around the deterministic trend may be attributed solely to demographic noise. We suggest that the rise and fall of a name reflect an “infection” process with delay and memory. The symmetry between adoption and abandonment speed emerges from our model without further assumptions. PMID:22745679

  20. Using Picture Books to Support Young Children's Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strasser, Janis; Seplocha, Holly

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses the importance of using picture books to support young children's literacy. A picture book is different from a children's book, because it contains illustrations. In a picture book, both the picture and text are equally important. The text and illustrations of high-quality picture books weave rich stories that can excite and…

  1. Painting a Data-Rich Picture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Earl, Lorna; Katz, Steven

    2005-01-01

    Using data for school reform is like painting a series of pictures--pictures that are subtle and capture the nuances of the subject. This is a far cry from drawing stick figures or paint-by-numbers. Imagine the experiences of the French painter Claude Monet as he wandered through his garden at Giverny at different times of the day and year,…

  2. Pictorial communication: Pictures and the synthetic universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, Stephen R.

    1989-01-01

    Principles for the design of dynamic spatial instruments for communicating quantitative information to viewers are considered through a brief review of the history of pictorial communication. Pictorial communication is seen to have two directions: (1) from the picture to the viewer; and (2) from the viewer to the picture. Optimization of the design of interactive instruments using pictorial formats requires an understanding of the manipulative, perceptual, and cognitive limitations of human viewers.

  3. Mesoscale wake clouds in Skylab pictures.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fujita, T. T.; Tecson, J. J.

    1974-01-01

    The recognition of cloud patterns formed in the wake of orographic obstacles was investigated using pictures from Skylab, for the purpose of estimating atmospheric motions. The existence of ship-wake-type wave clouds in contrast to vortex sheets were revealed during examination of the pictures, and an attempt was made to characterize the pattern of waves as well as the transition between waves and vortices. Examples of mesoscale cloud patterns which were analyzed photogrammetrically and meteorologically are presented.

  4. Musicality in the Language of Picture Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heald, Robin

    2008-01-01

    The authors of picture books who write especially melodic language are doing more than simply offering up work that is pleasing to the ear. They are accessing more of the whole child. In this article five picture books will be discussed for their musical attributes: "Now One Foot, Now the Other", by Tomie dePaola, "The Cat in the Hat", by Dr.…

  5. Say My Name, Say My Name! Using Children's Names to Enhance Early Literacy Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNair, Jonda

    2007-01-01

    A number of studies on literacy development, as well as two key tenets of social constructivist theory, support the use of children's own names for engaging children in meaningful and authentic reading and writing activities that foster important understandings about print. Spelling and writing their names help children learn the letters of the…

  6. Global Modeling Activities and NAME

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, Siegfried; Atlas, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In this talk I will review global modeling activities in the United States that could contribute to and benefit from NAME activities. I will present some preliminary results from several global atmospheric general circulation model simulation experiments for the initial NAME model intercomparison project period of May-Oct 1990. These include an ensemble of medium resolution simulations, and a high resolution (one half degree) simulation. I will also discuss possible high resolution global data assimilation experiments that could be used to help validate the model simulations and assimilate planned NAME observations.

  7. Neuromagnetic activity during recognition of emotional pictures.

    PubMed

    Kissler, Johanna; Hauswald, Anne

    2008-06-01

    Recently studied 'old' stimuli lead to larger frontal and parietal ERP responses than 'new' stimuli. The present experiment investigated the neuromagnetic correlates (MEG) of this 'old-new' effect and its modulation by emotional stimulus content. Highly arousing pleasant, highly arousing unpleasant and un-arousing neutral photographs were presented to the participants with the instruction to memorize them. They were later re-presented together with new photographs in an old-new decision task. In line with previous ERP studies, a long-lasting old-new effect (350-700 ms) was found. Independently, an emotion effect also occurred, as reflected in a, particularly left temporal, activity increase for emotional pictures between 450 and 580 ms. Moreover, only for the pleasant pictures did the early part of the old-new effect, which is thought to reflect familiarity based recognition processes, interact with picture content: The old-new effect for pleasant pictures in frontal regions was larger than the one for neutral or unpleasant pictures between 350 and 450 ms. In parallel, subjects' responses were accelerated towards and biased in favour of classifying pleasant pictures as old. However, when false alarm rate was taken into account, there was no significant effect of emotional content on recognition accuracy. In sum, this MEG study demonstrates an effect of particularly pleasant emotional content on recognition memory which may be mediated by a familiarity based process. PMID:18335310

  8. Evidence for a limited-cascading account of written word naming.

    PubMed

    Bonin, Patrick; Roux, Sébastien; Barry, Christopher; Canell, Laura

    2012-11-01

    We address the issue of how information flows within the written word production system by examining written object-naming latencies. We report 4 experiments in which we manipulate variables assumed to have their primary impact at the level of object recognition (e.g., quality of visual presentation of pictured objects), at the level of semantic processing (contextual constraint), and at the level of the lexical retrieval of orthographic word forms (e.g., word frequency). In Experiment 1, pictures were presented either in color or in black and white and had names with either high-to-low or low-to-high frequency trajectories. Both factors had reliable but entirely additive effects on written naming times. In Experiment 2, pictures were presented clearly, in visual noise or blurred, and had names of either high or low word frequency. Again, both factors had reliable but additive effects on written naming latencies. In Experiments 3 and 4, pictures were preceded by a sentence that provided either strong or weak contextual constraint and had names of either high or low word frequency. These 2 variables interacted: The advantage for high-frequency words was observed only with low contextual constraint. We argue that, in combination, these findings support a limited-cascading account of written word production. PMID:22612168

  9. What's in a Name Change?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Joseph D.

    2015-03-01

    When solid state physics emerged in the 1940s, its name was controversial. By the 1970s, some physicists came to prefer "condensed matter" as a way to identify the discipline of physics examining complex matter. Physicists and historians often gloss this transition as a simple rebranding of a problematically named field, but attention to the motives behind these names reveals telling nuances. "Solid state physics" and "condensed matter physics"—along with "materials science," which also emerged during the Cold War—were named in accordance with ideological commitments about the identity of physics. Historians, therefore, can profitably understand solid state and condensed matter physics as distinct disciplines. Condensed matter, rather than being continuous with solid state physics, should be considered alongside materials science as an outlet for specific frustrations with the way solid state was organized.

  10. The naming of the deuteron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuewer, Roger H.

    1986-03-01

    The naming of the deuteron involved a protracted debate between 1933 and 1935. The principal protagonists were Harold C. Urey, Gilbert N. Lewis, Ernest O. Lawrence, and Ernest Rutherford, but others on both sides of the Atlantic entered the fray as well. This paper examines the arguments and issues that emerged in the debate, and the process by which agreement was finally achieved on the name for this new particle.

  11. Rutabaga by any other name: extracting biological names.

    PubMed

    Hirschman, Lynette; Morgan, Alexander A; Yeh, Alexander S

    2002-08-01

    As the pace of biological research accelerates, biologists are becoming increasingly reliant on computers to manage the information explosion. Biologists communicate their research findings by relying on precise biological terms; these terms then provide indices into the literature and across the growing number of biological databases. This article examines emerging techniques to access biological resources through extraction of entity names and relations among them. Information extraction has been an active area of research in natural language processing and there are promising results for information extraction applied to news stories, e.g., balanced precision and recall in the 93-95% range for identifying person, organization and location names. But these results do not seem to transfer directly to biological names, where results remain in the 75-80% range. Multiple factors may be involved, including absence of shared training and test sets for rigorous measures of progress, lack of annotated training data specific to biological tasks, pervasive ambiguity of terms, frequent introduction of new terms, and a mismatch between evaluation tasks as defined for news and real biological problems. We present evidence from a simple lexical matching exercise that illustrates some specific problems encountered when identifying biological names. We conclude by outlining a research agenda to raise performance of named entity tagging to a level where it can be used to perform tasks of biological importance. PMID:12755519

  12. Mariner Mars 1971 television picture catalog: Sequence design and picture coverage, volume 2, addendum 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koskela, P. E.

    1973-01-01

    This addendum to the Mariner Mars 1971 Television Picture Catalog, Volume 2 (for abstract, see N73-20850) contains data for the Mariner 9 TV pictures taken after Rev 262. Some of the data presented in Volume 2 is brought up to date. The new provisional mapping pole is discussed, and tables provide the latitude and longitude with respect to the new pole, prime meridian, and rotation rate for the centerpoints of all the Mariner 9 TV pictures.

  13. Playing biology's name game: identifying protein names in scientific text.

    PubMed

    Hanisch, Daniel; Fluck, Juliane; Mevissen, Heinz-Theodor; Zimmer, Ralf

    2003-01-01

    A growing body of work is devoted to the extraction of protein or gene interaction information from the scientific literature. Yet, the basis for most extraction algorithms, i.e. the specific and sensitive recognition of protein and gene names and their numerous synonyms, has not been adequately addressed. Here we describe the construction of a comprehensive general purpose name dictionary and an accompanying automatic curation procedure based on a simple token model of protein names. We designed an efficient search algorithm to analyze all abstracts in MEDLINE in a reasonable amount of time on standard computers. The parameters of our method are optimized using machine learning techniques. Used in conjunction, these ingredients lead to good search performance. A supplementary web page is available at http://cartan.gmd.de/ProMiner/. PMID:12603045

  14. Bilingual Object Naming: A Connectionist Model

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Shin-Yi; Zinszer, Benjamin D.; Malt, Barbara C.; Li, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Patterns of object naming often differ between languages, but bilingual speakers develop convergent naming patterns in their two languages that are distinct from those of monolingual speakers of each language. This convergence appears to reflect interactions between lexical representations for the two languages. In this study, we developed a self-organizing connectionist model to simulate semantic convergence in the bilingual lexicon and investigate the mechanisms underlying this semantic convergence. We examined the similarity of patterns in the simulated data to empirical data from past research, and we identified how semantic convergence was manifested in the simulated bilingual lexical knowledge. Furthermore, we created impaired models in which components of the network were removed so as to examine the importance of the relevant components on bilingual object naming. Our results demonstrate that connections between two languages’ lexicons can be established through the simultaneous activations of related words in the two languages. These connections between languages allow the outputs of their lexicons to become more similar, that is, to converge. Our model provides a basis for future computational studies of how various input variables may affect bilingual naming patterns. PMID:27242575

  15. Bilingual Object Naming: A Connectionist Model.

    PubMed

    Fang, Shin-Yi; Zinszer, Benjamin D; Malt, Barbara C; Li, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Patterns of object naming often differ between languages, but bilingual speakers develop convergent naming patterns in their two languages that are distinct from those of monolingual speakers of each language. This convergence appears to reflect interactions between lexical representations for the two languages. In this study, we developed a self-organizing connectionist model to simulate semantic convergence in the bilingual lexicon and investigate the mechanisms underlying this semantic convergence. We examined the similarity of patterns in the simulated data to empirical data from past research, and we identified how semantic convergence was manifested in the simulated bilingual lexical knowledge. Furthermore, we created impaired models in which components of the network were removed so as to examine the importance of the relevant components on bilingual object naming. Our results demonstrate that connections between two languages' lexicons can be established through the simultaneous activations of related words in the two languages. These connections between languages allow the outputs of their lexicons to become more similar, that is, to converge. Our model provides a basis for future computational studies of how various input variables may affect bilingual naming patterns. PMID:27242575

  16. Different Timing Features in Brain Processing of Core and Moral Disgust Pictures: An Event-Related Potentials Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Youxue; Lou, Liandi; Ding, Daoqun

    2015-01-01

    Disgust, an emotion motivating withdrawal from offensive stimuli, protects us from the risk of biological pathogens and sociomoral violations. Homogeneity of its two types, namely, core and moral disgust has been under intensive debate. To examine the dynamic relationship between them, we recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) for core disgust, moral disgust and neutral pictures while participants performed a modified oddball task. ERP analysis revealed that N1 and P2 amplitudes were largest for the core disgust pictures, indicating automatic processing of the core disgust-evoking pictures. N2 amplitudes were higher for pictures evoking moral disgust relative to core disgust and neutral pictures, reflecting a violation of social norms. The core disgust pictures elicited larger P3 and late positive potential (LPP) amplitudes in comparison with the moral disgust pictures which, in turn, elicited larger P3 and LPP amplitudes when compared to the neutral pictures. Taken together, these findings indicated that core and moral disgust pictures elicited different neural activities at various stages of information processing, which provided supporting evidence for the heterogeneity of disgust. PMID:26011635

  17. Similar names for similar biologics.

    PubMed

    Casadevall, Nicole; Felix, Thomas; Strober, Bruce E; Warnock, David G

    2014-10-01

    Approval of the first biosimilar in the USA may occur by the end of 2014, yet a naming approach for biosimilars has not been determined. Biosimilars are highly similar to their biologic reference product but are not identical to it, because of their structural complexity and variations in manufacturing processes among companies. There is a need for a naming approach that can distinguish a biosimilar from its reference product and other biosimilars and ensure accurate tracing of adverse events (AEs) to the administered product. In contrast, generic small-molecule drugs are identical to their reference product and, therefore, share the same nonproprietary name. Clinical trials required to demonstrate biosimilarity for approval may not detect rare AEs or those occurring after prolonged use, and the incidence of such events may differ between a biosimilar and its reference product. The need for precise biologic identification is further underscored by the possibility of biosimilar interchangeability, a US designation that will allow substitution without prescriber intervention. For several biologics, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has used a naming approach that adds a prefix to a common root nonproprietary name, enabling healthcare providers to distinguish between products, avoid medication errors, and facilitate pharmacovigilance. We recommend that the FDA implement a biosimilars naming policy that likewise would add a distinguishable prefix or suffix to the root nonproprietary name of the reference product. This approach would ensure that a biosimilar could be distinguished from its reference product and other biosimilars in patient records and pharmacovigilance databases/reports, facilitating accurate attribution of AEs. PMID:25001080

  18. Phonological processing of ignored distractor pictures, an fMRI investigation

    PubMed Central

    Bles, Mart; Jansma, Bernadette M

    2008-01-01

    Background Neuroimaging studies of attention often focus on interactions between stimulus representations and top-down selection mechanisms in visual cortex. Less is known about the neural representation of distractor stimuli beyond visual areas, and the interactions between stimuli in linguistic processing areas. In the present study, participants viewed simultaneously presented line drawings at peripheral locations, while in the MRI scanner. The names of the objects depicted in these pictures were either phonologically related (i.e. shared the same consonant-vowel onset construction), or unrelated. Attention was directed either at the linguistic properties of one of these pictures, or at the fixation point (i.e. away from the pictures). Results Phonological representations of unattended pictures could be detected in the posterior superior temporal gyrus, the inferior frontal gyrus, and the insula. Conclusion Under some circumstances, the name of ignored distractor pictures is retrieved by linguistic areas. This implies that selective attention to a specific location does not completely filter out the representations of distractor stimuli at early perceptual stages. PMID:18267005

  19. The Role of Symbol-Based Experience in Early Learning and Transfer from Pictures: Evidence from Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Caren M.; Walker, Lisa B.; Ganea, Patricia A.

    2013-01-01

    Extensive exposure to representational media is common for infants in Western culture, and previous research has shown that soon after their 1st birthday, infants can acquire and extend new information from pictures to real objects. Here we explore the extent to which lack of exposure to pictures during infancy affects children's learning…

  20. Naming Analog Clocks Conceptually Facilitates Naming Digital Clocks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meeuwissen, Marjolein; Roelofs, Ardi; Levelt, Willem J. M.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigates how speakers of Dutch compute and produce relative time expressions. Naming digital clocks (e.g., 2:45, say ''quarter to three'') requires conceptual operations on the minute and hour information for the correct relative time expression. The interplay of these conceptual operations was investigated using a repetition…

  1. The Activation of Embedded Words in Spoken Word Identification Is Robust but Constrained: Evidence from the Picture-Word Interference Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, Jeffrey S.; Davis, Colin J.; Mattys, Sven L.; Damian, Markus F.; Hanley, Derek

    2009-01-01

    Three picture-word interference (PWI) experiments assessed the extent to which embedded subset words are activated during the identification of spoken superset words (e.g., "bone" in "trombone"). Participants named aloud pictures (e.g., "brain") while spoken distractors were presented. In the critical condition, superset distractors contained a…

  2. Contributions of Response Set and Semantic Relatedness to Cross-Modal Stroop-Like Picture--Word Interference in Children and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanauer, John B.; Brooks, Patricia J.

    2005-01-01

    Resistance to interference from irrelevant auditory stimuli undergoes development throughout childhood. To test whether semantic processes account for age-related changes in a Stroop-like picture-word interference effect, children (3-to 12-year-olds) and adults named pictures while listening to words varying in terms of semantic relatedness to the…

  3. Dissociating Stimulus-Driven Semantic and Phonological Effect During Reading and Naming

    PubMed Central

    Mechelli, Andrea; Josephs, Oliver; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A; McClelland, James L; Price, Cathy J

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to dissociate the neural correlates of semantic and phonological processes during word reading and picture naming. Previous studies have addressed this issue by contrasting tasks involving semantic and phonological decisions. However, these tasks engage verbal short-term memory and executive functions that are not required for reading and naming. Here, 20 subjects were instructed to overtly name written words and pictures of objects while their neuronal responses were measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Each trial consisted of a pair of successive stimuli that were either semantically related (e.g., “ROBIN-nest”), phonologically related (e.g., “BELL-belt”), unrelated (e.g., “KITE-lobster”), or semantically and phonologically identical (e.g., “FRIDGE-fridge”). In addition, a pair of stimuli could be presented in either the same modality (word-word or picture-picture) or a different modality (word-picture or picture-word). We report that semantically related pairs modulate neuronal responses in a left-lateralized network, including the pars orbitalis of the inferior frontal gyrus, the middle temporal gyrus, the angular gyrus, and the superior frontal gyrus. We propose that these areas are involved in stimulus-driven semantic processes. In contrast, phonologically related pairs modulate neuronal responses in bilateral insula. This region is therefore implicated in the discrimination of similar, competing phonological and articulatory codes. The above effects were detected with both words and pictures and did not differ between the two modalities even with a less conservative statistical threshold. In conclusion, this study dissociates the effects of semantic and phonological relatedness between successive items during reading and naming aloud. Hum Brain Mapp, 2007. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:16767767

  4. Dissociating stimulus-driven semantic and phonological effect during reading and naming.

    PubMed

    Mechelli, Andrea; Josephs, Oliver; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A; McClelland, James L; Price, Cathy J

    2007-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to dissociate the neural correlates of semantic and phonological processes during word reading and picture naming. Previous studies have addressed this issue by contrasting tasks involving semantic and phonological decisions. However, these tasks engage verbal short-term memory and executive functions that are not required for reading and naming. Here, 20 subjects were instructed to overtly name written words and pictures of objects while their neuronal responses were measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Each trial consisted of a pair of successive stimuli that were either semantically related (e.g., "ROBIN-nest"), phonologically related (e.g., "BELL-belt"), unrelated (e.g., "KITE-lobster"), or semantically and phonologically identical (e.g., "FRIDGE-fridge"). In addition, a pair of stimuli could be presented in either the same modality (word-word or picture-picture) or a different modality (word-picture or picture-word). We report that semantically related pairs modulate neuronal responses in a left-lateralized network, including the pars orbitalis of the inferior frontal gyrus, the middle temporal gyrus, the angular gyrus, and the superior frontal gyrus. We propose that these areas are involved in stimulus-driven semantic processes. In contrast, phonologically related pairs modulate neuronal responses in bilateral insula. This region is therefore implicated in the discrimination of similar, competing phonological and articulatory codes. The above effects were detected with both words and pictures and did not differ between the two modalities even with a less conservative statistical threshold. In conclusion, this study dissociates the effects of semantic and phonological relatedness between successive items during reading and naming aloud. PMID:16767767

  5. Names will never hurt me: racially distinct names and identity in the undergraduate classroom.

    PubMed

    Foster, Gigi

    2008-09-01

    Recent researchers (Fryer Jr., R.G., Levitt, S.D., 2004. The causes and consequences of distinctly black names. Quarterly Journal of Economics 119 (3); Figlio, D.N., 2003. Names, expectations, and black children's achievement. Working Paper; Bertrand, M., Mullainathan, S., 2004. Are Emily and George more employable than Lakisha and Jamal? A field experiment on labor market discrimination. American Economic Review 94 (4); Hess, G., Aura, S., 2004. What's in a name? Working Paper) have shown that people with racially identifiable names tend to have worse economic outcomes, and have tried to explain why. This paper extends this recent literature by deepening the psychological underpinnings of possible answers to this question in the context of undergraduate grades. Using a rich student-level administrative data set, I explore the effects on performance of both first and last name racial identifiability. I test for the presence of effects from either black or Asian names due to differential teacher expectations (Figlio, 2003), conventional teacher discrimination (Bertrand and Mullainathan, 2004), or differences in unobserved ability or racial identity that are correlated with name type and directly affect performance (Fryer and Levitt, 2004; Hess and Aura, 2004). A conceptual and empirical distinction is drawn in the paper between unobserved ability effects and racial identity effects. Name type is found to have little direct influence on performance via any channel. Mild evidence suggests that racial identity may be salient in predicting undergraduate grades. The paper contributes to the literatures in social effects, discrimination, and the burgeoning subfield of economics and identity. PMID:19086117

  6. PixMail: Pictures through mail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blattner, Meera; Sierra, Francisco; Prassinos, Peter

    1989-02-01

    PixMail is a set of procedures for sending pictures through internet mail. The pictures can be sent or received by personal computers, terminals with or without raster capability, and facsimile machines. Optical scanners may be used as input to the picture file and printers may be used as an output device once the raster file is stored in a form used by a paint editor. No additional equipment needs to be purchased by the users to send or receive PixMail (unless facsimile input/output is desired) and it is no more difficult to send or receive than ordinary UNIX mail. PixMail uses the protocols of existing electronic mail for transmission from any ARPAnet or MILnet user to any other.

  7. PixMail: Pictures through mail

    SciTech Connect

    Blattner, M.; Sierra, F.; Prassinos, P.

    1989-02-01

    PixMail is a set of procedures for sending pictures through internet mail. The pictures can be sent or received by personal computers, terminals with or without raster capability, and facsimile machines. Optical scanners may be used as input to the picture file and printers may be used as an output device once the raster file is stored in a form used by a paint editor. No additional equipment needs to be purchased by the users to send or receive PixMail (unless facsimile input/output is desired) and it is no more difficult to send or receive than ordinary UNIX mail. PixMail uses the protocols of existing electronic mail for transmission from any ARPAnet or MILnet user to any other. 15 refs., 1 fig.

  8. [Counselling with modern expressions of mystic pictures].

    PubMed

    Bögle, Robert Michael

    2004-10-01

    The picture-worlds of children in the 21th century are not only evoked anymore by fairytales of the Brothers Grimm, but also by modern audio-visual stories (in books, comics, mangas, swap cards, films, videos and computer games). In psychological counselling and psychotherapy of children and adolescents we like to use such picture-worlds, modern myths and metaphors, to tie up with the experiences of the children and to kick start corresponding processes of maturation. Consultants can not only use their own treasures of myths remembering their own childhood (reading), but should also be familiar with the modern picture-worlds common to children in order to develop images which are shared by both counsellor and child, and should be capable of understanding the meaning of the characters and their actions. Some narratives and forms will be presented here in relation to developmental psychology. PMID:15543710

  9. Names of infamy: tainted eponyms.

    PubMed

    Vajda, F J E; Davis, S M; Byrne, E

    2015-04-01

    The use of eponyms is controversial. A distinction must be made between those doctors and scientists after whom disorders and syndromes are named in honour of their discoveries, and those whose discoveries were made as a result of maltreatment of defenceless prisoners, utilizing specimens from victims of Nazi extermination policies, and euthanasia victims of racial policies. The second group of scientists should have their names expunged from the historical record, and their deeds brought to the attention of their colleagues. We are not however advocating the abolition of eponyms in general, only tainted ones. PMID:25564271

  10. Semantic interference in a randomized naming task: Effects of age, order, and category

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Jean K.; Cheimariou, Spyridoula

    2014-01-01

    Lexical retrieval in production is a competitive process, requiring activation of a target word from semantic input, and its selection from amongst co-activated items. Competitors are automatically primed through spreading activation within the lexicon, but competition may be increased by the prior presentation of related items, the semantic interference effect. This has been demonstrated in tasks in which pictures grouped by semantic category are compared to unrelated pictures (blocked naming) and in tasks involving successive naming of items from the same semantic category (continuous naming). Such highly structured tasks may not be representative of the processes at work under more natural word retrieval conditions. Therefore, we conducted a retrospective examination of naming latencies from a randomized picture naming task containing a wide variety of items and categories. Our large sample of adults, ranging in age from 22 to 89 years, also allowed us to test the hypothesis that older adults, who are particularly susceptible to word-retrieval problems, experience increased difficulty resolving competition among lexical items. Semantic interference effects were evident in the interaction between semantic category and order of presentation within a block—miscellaneous items were named more quickly, whereas related items were named more slowly. This interference effect did not vary with participant age, contrary to the hypothesis that older adults are more susceptible to semantic interference. PMID:24499271

  11. The Role of Pictures in Picture Books on Children's Cognitive Engagement with Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elia, Iliada; van den Heuvel-Panhuizen, Marja; Georgiou, Alexia

    2010-01-01

    The present study examines the cognitive activity that is evoked in young children when they are read a picture book that is written for the purpose of teaching mathematics. The focus of this study is to explore the effects of pictures on children's spontaneous mathematical cognitive engagement. The study is based on the assumption that the…

  12. Picture or Text First? Explaining Sequence Effects When Learning with Pictures and Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eitel, Alexander; Scheiter, Katharina

    2015-01-01

    The present article reviews 42 studies investigating the role of sequencing of text and pictures for learning outcomes. Whereas several of the reviewed studies revealed better learning outcomes from presenting the picture before the text rather than after it, other studies demonstrated the opposite effect. Against the backdrop of theories on…

  13. Is a Picture Is Worth a Thousand Words? Creating Effective Questionnaires with Pictures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds-Keefer, Laura; Johnson, Robert

    2011-01-01

    In developing attitudinal instruments for young children, researchers, program evaluators, and clinicians often use response scales with pictures or images (e.g., smiley faces) as anchors. This article considers connections between word-based and picture based Likert scales and highlights the value in translating conventions used in word-based…

  14. [Influence of the type of visualization on the construction of mental models during picture and text comprehension].

    PubMed

    Schnotz, W; Bannert, M

    1999-01-01

    The following article describes an integrative model of text and picture comprehension. Text and picture comprehension is considered as a task oriented process of constructing descriptive and depictive mental representations by selection and organisation of information, parsing of symbols, mapping of analog structures as well as mental model construction and model inspection. Based on this theoretical model an experiment was conducted in which subjects had to acquire knowledge about a complex learning content (time and date differences on the earth) through self directed learning with a hypertext and different, but informationally equivalent pictures. The study aimed to investigate under which conditions learners prefer which kind of information and whether the kind of visualisation has an effect on the mental model structure created during the comprehension of texts and pictures. The results indicate that simple pictures induce more superficial processing, in which picture comprehension replaces text comprehension to some extent and vice versa. Demanding pictures, on the contrary, induce more intensive processing in which text comprehension and picture comprehension stimulate each other. Furthermore, the results suggest that the surface structure of pictures affects the structure of mental models. Accordingly, the presentation of a visualisation which is not task adequate may interfere with the required mental model construction. In designing texts combined with pictures the form of visualisation deserves therefore special attention. PMID:10474324

  15. Automated Selection Of Pictures In Sequences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rorvig, Mark E.; Shelton, Robert O.

    1995-01-01

    Method of automated selection of film or video motion-picture frames for storage or examination developed. Beneficial in situations in which quantity of visual information available exceeds amount stored or examined by humans in reasonable amount of time, and/or necessary to reduce large number of motion-picture frames to few conveying significantly different information in manner intermediate between movie and comic book or storyboard. For example, computerized vision system monitoring industrial process programmed to sound alarm when changes in scene exceed normal limits.

  16. Ubiquitous picture-rich content representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wiley; Dean, Jennifer; Muzzolini, Russ

    2010-02-01

    The amount of digital images taken by the average consumer is consistently increasing. People enjoy the convenience of storing and sharing their pictures through online (digital) and offline (traditional) media. A set of pictures can be uploaded to: online photo services, web blogs and social network websites. Alternatively, these images can be used to generate: prints, cards, photo books or other photo products. Through uploading and sharing, images are easily transferred from one format to another. And often, a different set of associated content (text, tags) is created across formats. For example, on his web blog, a user may journal his experiences of his recent travel; on his social network website, his friends tag and comment on the pictures; in his online photo album, some pictures are titled and keyword-tagged. When the user wants to tell a complete story, perhaps in a photo book, he must collect, across all formats: the pictures, writings and comments, etc. and organize them in a book format. The user has to arrange the content of his trip in each format. The arrangement, the associations between the images, tags, keywords and text, cannot be shared with other formats. In this paper, we propose a system that allows the content to be easily created and shared across various digital media formats. We define a uniformed data association structure to connect: images, documents, comments, tags, keywords and other data. This content structure allows the user to switch representation formats without reediting. The framework under each format can emphasize (display or hide) content elements based on preference. For example, a slide show view will emphasize the display of pictures with limited text; a blog view will display highlighted images and journal text; and the photo book will try to fit in all images and text content. In this paper, we will discuss the strategy to associate pictures with text content, so that it can naturally tell a story. We will also list

  17. Mariner Mars 1971 television picture catalog. Volume 2: Sequence design and picture coverage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koskela, P. E.; Helton, M. R.; Seeley, L. N.; Zawacki, S. J.

    1972-01-01

    A collection of data relating to the Mariner 9 TV picture is presented. The data are arranged to offer speedy identification of what took place during entire science cycles, on individual revolutions, and during individual science links or sequences. Summary tables present the nominal design for each of the major picture-taking cycles, along with the sequences actually taken on each revolution. These tables permit identification at a glance, all TV sequences and the corresponding individual pictures for the first 262 revolutions (primary mission). A list of TV pictures, categorized according to their latitude and longitude, is also provided. Orthographic and/or mercator plots for all pictures, along with pertinent numerical data for their center points are presented. Other tables and plots of interest are also included. This document is based upon data contained in the Supplementary Experiment Data Record (SEDR) files as of 21 August 1972.

  18. 27 CFR 4.33 - Brand names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Brand names. 4.33 Section... names. (a) General. The product shall bear a brand name, except that if not sold under a brand name, then the name of the person required to appear on the brand label shall be deemed a brand name for...

  19. 27 CFR 4.33 - Brand names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Brand names. 4.33 Section... names. (a) General. The product shall bear a brand name, except that if not sold under a brand name, then the name of the person required to appear on the brand label shall be deemed a brand name for...

  20. 27 CFR 4.33 - Brand names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Brand names. 4.33 Section... names. (a) General. The product shall bear a brand name, except that if not sold under a brand name, then the name of the person required to appear on the brand label shall be deemed a brand name for...

  1. Living Up to Your Name.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benes, Clarence H.; Steinbrink, John E.

    1996-01-01

    Describes a class project where students conduct research about their names. These intensely personal activities foster historical and multicultural insight, prosocial action, and a sense of community on the part of the students. Includes an appendix with lesson plans, extension activities, and related resources. (MJP)

  2. Sound Naming in Neurodegenerative Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chow, Maggie L.; Brambati, Simona M.; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa; Miller, Bruce L.; Johnson, Julene K.

    2010-01-01

    Modern cognitive neuroscientific theories and empirical evidence suggest that brain structures involved in movement may be related to action-related semantic knowledge. To test this hypothesis, we examined the naming of environmental sounds in patients with corticobasal degeneration (CBD) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), two…

  3. On the naming of things

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leyshon, Gareth

    2016-04-01

    When I moved on from my first placement as a parish priest, the Catholic primary school I served decided to present me with a leaving gift. In a public ceremony, I was handed a mysterious box, which I opened to discover that a star had been “named after me”.

  4. A normative study of acronyms and acronym naming.

    PubMed

    Izura, Cristina; Playfoot, David

    2012-09-01

    Acronyms are an idiosyncratic part of our everyday vocabulary. Research in word processing has used acronyms as a tool to answer fundamental questions such as the nature of the word superiority effect (WSE) or which is the best way to account for word-reading processes. In this study, acronym naming was assessed by looking at the influence that a number of variables known to affect mainstream word processing has had in acronym naming. The nature of the effect of these factors on acronym naming was examined using a multilevel regression analysis. First, 146 acronyms were described in terms of their age of acquisition, bigram and trigram frequencies, imageability, number of orthographic neighbors, frequency, orthographic and phonological length, print-to-pronunciation patterns, and voicing characteristics. Naming times were influenced by lexical and sublexical factors, indicating that acronym naming is a complex process affected by more variables than those previously considered. PMID:22180103

  5. Production does not improve memory for face-name associations.

    PubMed

    Hourihan, Kathleen L; Smith, Alexis R S

    2016-06-01

    Strategies for learning face-name associations are generally difficult and time-consuming. However, research has shown that saying a word aloud improves our memory for that word relative to words from the same set that were read silently. Such production effects have been shown for words, pictures, text material, and even word pairs. Can production improve memory for face-name associations? In Experiment 1, participants studied face-name pairs by reading half of the names aloud and half of the names silently, and were tested with cued recall. In Experiment 2, names were repeated aloud (or silently) for the full trial duration. Neither experiment showed a production effect in cued recall. Bayesian analyses showed positive support for the null effect. One possibility is that participants spontaneously implemented more elaborate encoding strategies that overrode any influence of production. However, a more likely explanation for the null production effect is that only half of each stimulus pair was produced-the name, but not the face. Consistent with this explanation, in Experiment 3 a production effect was not observed in cued recall of word-word pairs in which only the target words were read aloud or silently. Averaged across all 3 experiments, aloud targets were more likely to be recalled than silent targets (though not associated with the correct cue). The production effect in associative memory appears to require both members of a pair to be produced. Surprisingly, production shows little promise as a strategy for improving memory for the names of people we have just met. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27244356

  6. Implicit and Explicit Attention to Pictures and Words: An fMRI-Study of Concurrent Emotional Stimulus Processing.

    PubMed

    Flaisch, Tobias; Imhof, Martin; Schmälzle, Ralf; Wentz, Klaus-Ulrich; Ibach, Bernd; Schupp, Harald T

    2015-01-01

    The present study utilized functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the neural processing of concurrently presented emotional stimuli under varying explicit and implicit attention demands. Specifically, in separate trials, participants indicated the category of either pictures or words. The words were placed over the center of the pictures and the picture-word compound-stimuli were presented for 1500 ms in a rapid event-related design. The results reveal pronounced main effects of task and emotion: the picture categorization task prompted strong activations in visual, parietal, temporal, frontal, and subcortical regions; the word categorization task evoked increased activation only in left extrastriate cortex. Furthermore, beyond replicating key findings regarding emotional picture and word processing, the results point to a dissociation of semantic-affective and sensory-perceptual processes for words: while emotional words engaged semantic-affective networks of the left hemisphere regardless of task, the increased activity in left extrastriate cortex associated with explicitly attending to words was diminished when the word was overlaid over an erotic image. Finally, we observed a significant interaction between Picture Category and Task within dorsal visual-associative regions, inferior parietal, and dorsolateral, and medial prefrontal cortices: during the word categorization task, activation was increased in these regions when the words were overlaid over erotic as compared to romantic pictures. During the picture categorization task, activity in these areas was relatively decreased when categorizing erotic as compared to romantic pictures. Thus, the emotional intensity of the pictures strongly affected brain regions devoted to the control of task-related word or picture processing. These findings are discussed with respect to the interplay of obligatory stimulus processing with task-related attentional control mechanisms. PMID:26733895

  7. Implicit and Explicit Attention to Pictures and Words: An fMRI-Study of Concurrent Emotional Stimulus Processing

    PubMed Central

    Flaisch, Tobias; Imhof, Martin; Schmälzle, Ralf; Wentz, Klaus-Ulrich; Ibach, Bernd; Schupp, Harald T.

    2015-01-01

    The present study utilized functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the neural processing of concurrently presented emotional stimuli under varying explicit and implicit attention demands. Specifically, in separate trials, participants indicated the category of either pictures or words. The words were placed over the center of the pictures and the picture-word compound-stimuli were presented for 1500 ms in a rapid event-related design. The results reveal pronounced main effects of task and emotion: the picture categorization task prompted strong activations in visual, parietal, temporal, frontal, and subcortical regions; the word categorization task evoked increased activation only in left extrastriate cortex. Furthermore, beyond replicating key findings regarding emotional picture and word processing, the results point to a dissociation of semantic-affective and sensory-perceptual processes for words: while emotional words engaged semantic-affective networks of the left hemisphere regardless of task, the increased activity in left extrastriate cortex associated with explicitly attending to words was diminished when the word was overlaid over an erotic image. Finally, we observed a significant interaction between Picture Category and Task within dorsal visual-associative regions, inferior parietal, and dorsolateral, and medial prefrontal cortices: during the word categorization task, activation was increased in these regions when the words were overlaid over erotic as compared to romantic pictures. During the picture categorization task, activity in these areas was relatively decreased when categorizing erotic as compared to romantic pictures. Thus, the emotional intensity of the pictures strongly affected brain regions devoted to the control of task-related word or picture processing. These findings are discussed with respect to the interplay of obligatory stimulus processing with task-related attentional control mechanisms. PMID:26733895

  8. Individual Differences in Distraction by Pictures in a Reading Situation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willows, Dale M.

    1978-01-01

    Good, normal, and poor third grade readers were required to read easy, moderate, and difficult one-syllable nouns under three conditions: control condition with no pictures, identifying-picture condition, and unrelated-picture condition. Reading performance of poor readers was influenced by pictures under all conditions. Individual differences…

  9. Strategy Shifts during Learning from Texts and Pictures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnotz, Wolfgang; Ludewig, Ulrich; Ullrich, Mark; Horz, Holger; McElvany, Nele; Baumert, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Reading for learning frequently requires integrating text and picture information into coherent knowledge structures. This article presents an experimental study aimed at analyzing the strategies used by students for integrating text and picture information. Four combinations of texts and pictures (text-picture units) were selected from textbooks…

  10. Regional Changes in Word-Production Laterality after a Naming Treatment Designed to Produce a Rightward Shift in Frontal Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosson, Bruce; Moore, Anna Bacon; McGregor, Keith M.; Chang, Yu-Ling; Benjamin, Michelle; Gopinath, Kaundinya; Sherod, Megan E.; Wierenga, Christina E.; Peck, Kyung K.; Briggs, Richard W.; Rothi, Leslie J. Gonzalez; White, Keith D.

    2009-01-01

    Five nonfluent aphasia patients participated in a picture-naming treatment that used an intention manipulation (opening a box and pressing a button on a device in the box with the left hand) to initiate naming trials and was designed to re-lateralize word production mechanisms from the left to the right frontal lobe. To test the underlying…

  11. Picture Perfect: Document What You Do.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grothe, Mark

    1996-01-01

    Incorporating photographs into reports or promotional materials is an effective means of communicating needs and activities of the library media center. Provides techniques on how to improve picture taking with a standard camera. Discusses photo composition, positioning subjects, photographing reflective objects, lighting and focus tips,…

  12. Teaching Students with Autism to Read Pictures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cihak, David F.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the use of teaching three students with autism how to comprehend pictures. Students were elementary-aged, did not speak, and needed communication training. Students were provided systematic visual literacy instruction. Visual literacy instruction consisted of comprehending familiar people, objects, actions, and sequences…

  13. Picture Communication in Papua New Guinea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Bruce L.

    1980-01-01

    Reports the major findings of a study that investigated the effectiveness of using pictures of different art styles (stick figures, faceless outline drawings, detailed black-and-white, detailed black-and-white with watercolor wash, and black-and-white photographs) with 423 new readers in Papua New Guinea. (JD)

  14. Picture Preferences of Children and Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myatt, Barbara; Carter, Juliet Mason

    1979-01-01

    Defines six types of illustrations and reports on a study of student preference for those picture styles. The subjects (380 students in grades K, 1, 2, 3, 5, 9, and 11) generally preferred photographs, with realistic drawings ranked second. But there were significant differences between sexes and age groups. (Author/JEG)

  15. Electronic pictures from charged-coupled devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccann, D. H.; Turly, A. P.; White, M.

    1979-01-01

    Imaging system uses charge-coupled devices (CCD's) to generate TV-like pictures with high resolution, sensitivity, and signal-to-noise ratio. It combines detectors for five spectral bands as well as processing and control circuitry all on single silicon chip.

  16. Art Guide: Let's Make a Picture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowerfind, Ibby Hallam; And Others

    Guidelines for art education at the elementary through upper grade levels provide guidance and encouragement for students without excessive correction and evaluation procedures on the part of teachers. Elements of a picture and general approaches to teaching art emphasize creative and imaginative expression and skill development. The main body of…

  17. Transmittal Letters: Communicating the Financial Picture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piotrowski, Craig L.

    1987-01-01

    The transmittal letter, part of a school district's comprehensive annual financial report, provides a creative opportunity to communicate the financial picture of a district to readers. After the introduction, the letter should include sections on (1) mission, services, and environment; (2) financial highlights; (3) systems and controls; and (4)…

  18. Using Picture Storybooks To Teach Character Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Susan

    To help aid teachers and librarians in the search for appropriate resources to emphasize good character traits, this book provides an annotated guide to picture storybooks and the character traits each describes. It begins with an introduction that defines character, offers a history of character education, discusses what character education is,…

  19. 32 CFR 705.8 - Motion pictures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... produced film. (4) Imply endorsement of a product. (5) Permit the use of official Navy seals. (c) Navy... Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND... Navy assists in the production of commercial, privately financed, nontheatrical motion pictures...

  20. 32 CFR 705.8 - Motion pictures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... produced film. (4) Imply endorsement of a product. (5) Permit the use of official Navy seals. (c) Navy... Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND... Navy assists in the production of commercial, privately financed, nontheatrical motion pictures...

  1. 32 CFR 705.8 - Motion pictures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... produced film. (4) Imply endorsement of a product. (5) Permit the use of official Navy seals. (c) Navy... Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND... Navy assists in the production of commercial, privately financed, nontheatrical motion pictures...

  2. Princess Picture Books: Content and Messages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Lourdes P.; Higgins, Brittany E.; Pinkerton, Nick; Couto, Michelle; Mansolillo, Victoria; Weisinger, Nica; Flores, Marci

    2016-01-01

    Because many girls develop their understanding of what it means to be a girl from books about princesses, the researchers coded the messages and content in 58 princess books (picture, fairy tales, and fractured fairy tales). Results indicate that gender stereotypes are present in the books--the princesses were more likely to be nurturing, in…

  3. Picture Books Stimulate the Learning of Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van den Heuvel-Panhuizen, Marja; van den Boogaard, Sylvia; Doig, Brian

    2009-01-01

    In this article we describe our experiences using picture books to provide young children (five- to six-year-olds) with a learning environment where they can explore and extend preliminary notions of mathematics-related concepts, without being taught these concepts explicitly. We gained these experiences in the PICO-ma project, which aimed to…

  4. Author! Author! Picture Artist: Stephen Gammell

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodie, Carolyn S.

    2005-01-01

    This column presents a brief biography of illustrator Stephen Gammell, well-known for both his black-and-white and his brightly colored children's picture book art. Stephen Gammell has made a long career illustrating children's stories and poems. The first book he illustrated, "A Nutty Business" (written by Ida Chittum), was published in 1973 and…

  5. The Oxford Picture Dictionary. Beginning Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Marjorie

    The beginning workbook of the Oxford Picture Dictionary is in full color and offers vocabulary reinforcement activities that correspond page for page with the dictionary. Clear and simple instructions with examples make it suitable for independent use in the classroom or at home. The workbook has up-to-date art and graphics, explaining over 3700…

  6. Many Ways to Picture a Cell

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Maura C.

    2005-01-01

    Some innovations in the images of cells and molecules that keep changing for new techniques and as a result of using new approaches to old methods are explored and new ways of illustrating cell and molecular structures are discussed. The three elements that play an important role in any biological image are aesthetic factors such as picture style…

  7. Bilingual Picture Books: Libros Para Todos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agosto, Denise

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the importance of including bilingual English/Spanish picture books in library collections, introduces some recent titles, and describes some programming ideas. Topics include second language study, children teaching English to Spanish-speaking parents, cultural studies, and bilingual presentations. (LRW)

  8. The Work of the Motion Picture Cameraman.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Freddie; Petzold, Paul

    Meant to serve as an authoritative source of information on camera work in large scale feature productions, this book attempts to give some basic understanding of the problems of motion picture photography, the working conditions and artistry of lighting for mood and dramatic effect, budget problems for making films, and facts about working with a…

  9. Hypermnesia for Pictures But Not Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Shelly Rae; Erdelyi, Matthew Hugh

    1974-01-01

    This experiment investigated the time course of recall (from 1/2 to 5 min.) for pictorial and verbal inputs. A hypermnesic (incremental recall) effect was found for pictures but not words, and was shown to be independent of multiple-recall trials. (Editor)

  10. Localism: The Changing Picture for Adult Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Penny

    2012-01-01

    The rapidly changing picture on localism and the government's focus on local economic growth have significant implications for adult learning and skills providers in England. Government now sees a sense of place as key to economic growth and recognises the need for a renewed debate on how business and state interact with localities. There is a…

  11. Track Picture Book. Elementary Science Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, David; And Others

    This picture book was designed to be used with an Elementary Science Study unit that provides opportunities for students in grades 4-6 to study animal tracks. Shown within this book are numerous examples of tracks, including those of tires, human beings, animal tracks, and others in various media, such as snow, sand, mud, dust, and cement. (CS)

  12. A Picture Is Worth a Thousand Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribisi, Stephen, Jr.; Yu, Kristina; Lambertson, Lori

    2007-01-01

    The old adage that a picture is worth a thousand words also holds true in cell biology. Much of the knowledge that we have of the structures and functions of cells has been acquired by biologists peering through the eyepieces of microscopes. The point of this lesson is to provide an opportunity for students to observe cell biological data while…

  13. Attitude determination using digital earth pictures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunshol, L. P.

    1975-01-01

    A computer program called PICATT is reported, which stands for picture attitude determination. Described are the particular satellite to which this technique of attitude determination has been applied, the method of solution, and the results that have been attained using the PICATT program.

  14. Aesthetics and Children's Picture-Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leddy, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Some writers on children's picture-books seem to believe that comfort and reassurance are their most important goals. Yet these books may also provide a context for imaginative adventure, and even for a journey into the dark night of the soul. As Nietzsche would put it, there is a Dionysian as well as an Apollonian element in children's…

  15. Naming and repetition in aphasia: Steps, routes, and frequency effects

    PubMed Central

    Nozari, Nazbanou; Kittredge, Audrey K.; Dell, Gary S.; Schwartz, Myrna F.

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the cognitive processes underlying picture naming and auditory word repetition. In the 2-step model of lexical access, both the semantic and phonological steps are involved in naming, but the former has no role in repetition. Assuming recognition of the to-be-repeated word, repetition could consist of retrieving the word’s output phonemes from the lexicon (the lexical-route model), retrieving the output phonology directly from input phonology (the nonlexical-route model) or employing both routes together (the summation dual-route model). We tested these accounts by comparing the size of the word frequency effect (an index of lexical retrieval) in naming and repetition data from 59 aphasic patients with simulations of naming and repetition models. The magnitude of the frequency effect (and the influence of other lexical variables) was found to be comparable in naming and repetition, and equally large for both the lexical and summation dual-route models. However, only the dual-route model was fully consistent with data from patients, suggesting that nonlexical input is added on top of a fully-utilized lexical route. PMID:21076661

  16. Motivation and semantic context affect brain error-monitoring activity: an event-related brain potentials study.

    PubMed

    Ganushchak, Lesya Y; Schiller, Niels O

    2008-01-01

    During speech production, we continuously monitor what we say. In situations in which speech errors potentially have more severe consequences, e.g. during a public presentation, our verbal self-monitoring system may pay special attention to prevent errors than in situations in which speech errors are more acceptable, such as a casual conversation. In an event-related potential study, we investigated whether or not motivation affected participants' performance using a picture naming task in a semantic blocking paradigm. Semantic context of to-be-named pictures was manipulated; blocks were semantically related (e.g., cat, dog, horse, etc.) or semantically unrelated (e.g., cat, table, flute, etc.). Motivation was manipulated independently by monetary reward. The motivation manipulation did not affect error rate during picture naming. However, the high-motivation condition yielded increased amplitude and latency values of the error-related negativity (ERN) compared to the low-motivation condition, presumably indicating higher monitoring activity. Furthermore, participants showed semantic interference effects in reaction times and error rates. The ERN amplitude was also larger during semantically related than unrelated blocks, presumably indicating that semantic relatedness induces more conflict between possible verbal responses. PMID:17920932

  17. Equivalence Relations, Contextual Control, and Naming

    PubMed Central

    Randell, Tom; Remington, Bob

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports two experiments that investigated the role of verbal behavior in the emergence and generalization of contextually controlled equivalence classes. During both experiments, participants were trained with two different combinations of the same easily nameable, yet formally unrelated, pictorial stimuli. Match-to-sample baselines for eight four-member classes were established under the contextual control of two colors. In the presence of one color, conditional relations were established between stimuli whose normative names rhymed. In the presence of the other color, conditional relations were established between stimuli whose normative names did not rhyme. Although, during Experiment 1, all participants demonstrated equivalence classes involving rhyming stimuli, none demonstrated the formation of nonrhyme equivalence classes. To investigate this finding, Experiment 2 evaluated whether participants would demonstrate both rhyme and nonrhyme equivalence classes given more extensive exposure to the experimental contingencies. All participants demonstrated contextually controlled rhyme and nonrhyme equivalence classes, although rhyme classes were demonstrated with greater facility than nonrhyme classes. Results indicate that visual stimuli are named, that verbal bases for stimulus classification can affect the emergence of contextually controlled equivalence classes, and that untrained contextually controlled conditional discriminations involving novel stimuli can emerge on the basis of participants' verbal behavior. PMID:17191757

  18. "What's Your Name?": Names, Naming Practices, and Contextualized Selves of Young Korean American Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jinhee; Lee, Kyunghwa

    2011-01-01

    This study examined how young Korean American children and the adults around these children perform naming practices and what these practices mean to the children. As part of a large ethnographic study on Korean American children's peer culture in a heritage language school in the United States, data were collected by observing 11 prekindergarten…

  19. Neuroanatomical foundations of naming impairments across different neurologic conditions

    PubMed Central

    Gleichgerrcht, Ezequiel; Fridriksson, Julius

    2015-01-01

    The ability to name objects or abstract entities is an essential feature of speech and language, being commonly considered a central component of normal neurologic function. For this reason, the bedside testing of naming performance is part of the neurologic examination, especially since naming impairments can signify the early onset of a progressive disease or the occurrence of a more established problem. Modern neuroscience research suggests that naming relies on specific and distributed networks that operate in concert to support various processing stages, spanning from object recognition to spoken words. Likewise, studies evaluating the types of naming impairments in patients with neurologic conditions have contributed to the understanding of acquired forms of naming impairments and the underlying stages during normal language processing. In this article, we review the neurobiological mechanisms supporting naming, with a focus on the clinical application of these concepts. We provide an overview of the stages of cognitive processing that are hypothesized to support naming. For each stage, we explore the evidence revealing its neural basis, drawing parallels to clinical syndromes that commonly disrupt each stage. We review the patterns of naming impairment across various neurologic conditions, including classic language disorders, such as poststroke aphasia or primary progressive aphasia, as well as other diseases where language impairments may be subtle but helpful for the appropriate diagnosis. In this context, we provide a structured and practical guide for the bedside naming assessments rooted in modern neuroscience, aimed at supporting the evaluation and diagnosis of neurologic conditions that affect language. PMID:26115732

  20. Feature centrality: naming versus imagining.

    PubMed

    Sloman, S A; Ahn, W K

    1999-05-01

    Being white is central to whether we call an animal a "polar bear," but it is fairly peripheral to our concept of what a polar bear is. We propose that a feature is central to category naming in proportion to the feature's category validity--the probability of the feature, given the category. In contrast, a feature is conceptually central in a representation of the object to the extent that the feature is depended on by other features. Further, we propose that naming and conceptual centrality are more likely to disagree for features that hold at more specific levels (such as is white, which holds only for the specific category of polar bear) than for features that hold at intermediate levels of abstraction (such as has claws, which holds for all bears). In support of these hypotheses, we report evidence that increasing the abstractness of category features has a greater effect on judgments of conceptual centrality than on judgments of name centrality and that other category features depend more on intermediate-level category features than on specific ones. PMID:10355241

  1. Overt naming fMRI pre- and post-TMS: Two nonfluent aphasia patients, with and without improved naming post-TMS.

    PubMed

    Martin, Paula I; Naeser, Margaret A; Ho, Michael; Doron, Karl W; Kurland, Jacquie; Kaplan, Jerome; Wang, Yunyan; Nicholas, Marjorie; Baker, Errol H; Alonso, Miguel; Fregni, Felipe; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2009-10-01

    Two chronic, nonfluent aphasia patients participated in overt naming fMRI scans, pre- and post-a series of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) treatments as part of a TMS study to improve naming. Each patient received 10, 1-Hz rTMS treatments to suppress a part of R pars triangularis. P1 was a 'good responder' with improved naming and phrase length; P2 was a 'poor responder' without improved naming. Pre-TMS (10 years poststroke), P1 had significant activation in R and L sensorimotor cortex, R IFG, and in both L and R SMA during overt naming fMRI (28% pictures named). At 3 mo. post-TMS (42% named), P1 showed continued activation in R and L sensorimotor cortex, R IFG, and in R and L SMA. At 16 mo. post-TMS (58% named), he also showed significant activation in R and L sensorimotor cortex mouth and R IFG. He now showed a significant increase in activation in the L SMA compared to pre-TMS and at 3 mo. post-TMS (p < .02; p < .05, respectively). At 16 mo. there was also greater activation in L than R SMA (p < .08). At 46 mo. post-TMS (42% named), this new LH pattern of activation continued. He improved on the Boston Naming Test from 11 pictures named pre-TMS, to scores ranging from 14 to 18 pictures, post-TMS (2-43 mo. post-TMS). His longest phrase length (Cookie Theft picture) improved from three words pre-TMS, to 5-6 words post-TMS. Pre-TMS (1.5 years poststroke), P2 had significant activation in R IFG (3% pictures named). At 3 and 6 mo. post-TMS, there was no longer significant activation in R IFG, but significant activation was present in R sensorimotor cortex. On all three fMRI scans, P2 had significant activation in both the L and R SMA. There was no new, lasting perilesional LH activation across sessions for this patient. Over time, there was little or no change in his activation. His naming remained only at 1-2 pictures during all three fMRI scans. His BNT score and longest phrase length remained at one word, post-TMS. Lesion site may play a role

  2. Evidence for a Limited-Cascading Account of Written Word Naming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonin, Patrick; Roux, Sebastien; Barry, Christopher; Canell, Laura

    2012-01-01

    We address the issue of how information flows within the written word production system by examining written object-naming latencies. We report 4 experiments in which we manipulate variables assumed to have their primary impact at the level of object recognition (e.g., quality of visual presentation of pictured objects), at the level of semantic…

  3. Selective Attention and Distractor Frequency in Naming Performance: Comment on Dhooge and Hartsuiker (2010)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roelofs, Ardi; Piai, Vitoria; Schriefers, Herbert

    2011-01-01

    E. Dhooge and R. J. Hartsuiker (2010) reported experiments showing that picture naming takes longer with low- than high-frequency distractor words, replicating M. Miozzo and A. Caramazza (2003). In addition, they showed that this distractor-frequency effect disappears when distractors are masked or preexposed. These findings were taken to refute…

  4. Developmental Differences in the Naming of Contextually Non-Categorical Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozcan, Mehmet

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the naming process of contextually non-categorical objects in children from 3 to 9 plus 13-year-olds. 112 children participated in the study. Children were asked to narrate a story individually while looking at Mercer Mayer's textless, picture book "Frog, where are you?" The narratives were audio recorded and transcribed.…

  5. When zebras become painted donkeys: Grammatical gender and semantic priming interact during picture integration in a spoken Spanish sentence

    PubMed Central

    Wicha, Nicole Y. Y.; Orozco-Figueroa, Araceli; Reyes, Iliana; Hernandez, Arturo; de Barreto, Lourdes Gavaldón; Bates, Elizabeth A.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the contribution of grammatical gender to integrating depicted nouns into sentences during on-line comprehension, and whether semantic congruity and gender agreement interact using two tasks: naming and semantic judgement of pictures. Native Spanish speakers comprehended spoken Spanish sentences with an embedded line drawing, which replaced a noun that either made sense or not with the preceding sentence context and either matched or mismatched the gender of the preceding article. In Experiment 1a (picture naming) slower naming times were found for gender mismatching pictures than matches, as well as for semantically incongruous pictures than congruous ones. In addition, the effects of gender agreement and semantic congruity interacted; specifically, pictures that were both semantically incongruous and gender mismatching were named slowest, but not as slow as if adding independent delays from both violations. Compared with a neutral baseline, with pictures embedded in simple command sentences like “Now please say ____”, both facilitative and inhibitory effects were observed. Experiment 1b replicated these results with low-cloze gender-neutral sentences, more similar in structure and processing demands to the experimental sentences. In Experiment 2, participants judged a picture’s semantic fit within a sentence by button-press; gender agreement and semantic congruity again interacted, with gender agreement having an effect on congruous but not incongruous pictures. Two distinct effects of gender are hypothesised: a “global” predictive effect (observed with and without overt noun production), and a “local” inhibitory effect (observed only with production of gender-discordant nouns). PMID:22773871

  6. Timeless: A Large Sample Study on the Temporal Robustness of Affective Responses

    PubMed Central

    Postzich, Christopher; Blask, Katarina; Frings, Christian; Walther, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Emotion and its effects on other psychological phenomena are frequently studied by presenting emotional pictures for a short amount of time. However, the duration of exposure strongly differs across paradigms. In order to ensure the comparability of affective response elicitation across those paradigms, it is crucial to empirically validate emotional material not only with regard to the affective dimensions valence and arousal, but also with regard to varying presentation times. Despite this operational necessity for the temporal robustness of emotional material, there is only tentative empirical evidence on this issue. To close this gap, we conducted a large sample study testing for the influence of presentation time on affective response elicitation. Two hundred and forty emotional pictures were presented for either 200 or 1000 ms and were rated by 302 participants on the core affect dimensions valence and arousal. The most important finding was that affective response elicitation was comparable for 200 and 1000 ms presentation times, indicating reliable temporal robustness of affective response elicitation within the supra-liminal spectrum. Yet, a more detailed look on the data showed that presentation time impacted particularly on high arousing negative stimuli. However, because these interaction effects were exceedingly small, they must be interpreted with caution and do not endanger the main finding, namely the quite reliable temporal robustness of affective response elicitation. Results are discussed with regard to the comparability of affective response elicitation across varying paradigms. PMID:27313561

  7. Higher-order Multivariable Polynomial Regression to Estimate Human Affective States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Jie; Chen, Tong; Liu, Guangyuan; Yang, Jiemin

    2016-03-01

    From direct observations, facial, vocal, gestural, physiological, and central nervous signals, estimating human affective states through computational models such as multivariate linear-regression analysis, support vector regression, and artificial neural network, have been proposed in the past decade. In these models, linear models are generally lack of precision because of ignoring intrinsic nonlinearities of complex psychophysiological processes; and nonlinear models commonly adopt complicated algorithms. To improve accuracy and simplify model, we introduce a new computational modeling method named as higher-order multivariable polynomial regression to estimate human affective states. The study employs standardized pictures in the International Affective Picture System to induce thirty subjects’ affective states, and obtains pure affective patterns of skin conductance as input variables to the higher-order multivariable polynomial model for predicting affective valence and arousal. Experimental results show that our method is able to obtain efficient correlation coefficients of 0.98 and 0.96 for estimation of affective valence and arousal, respectively. Moreover, the method may provide certain indirect evidences that valence and arousal have their brain’s motivational circuit origins. Thus, the proposed method can serve as a novel one for efficiently estimating human affective states.

  8. Higher-order Multivariable Polynomial Regression to Estimate Human Affective States.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jie; Chen, Tong; Liu, Guangyuan; Yang, Jiemin

    2016-01-01

    From direct observations, facial, vocal, gestural, physiological, and central nervous signals, estimating human affective states through computational models such as multivariate linear-regression analysis, support vector regression, and artificial neural network, have been proposed in the past decade. In these models, linear models are generally lack of precision because of ignoring intrinsic nonlinearities of complex psychophysiological processes; and nonlinear models commonly adopt complicated algorithms. To improve accuracy and simplify model, we introduce a new computational modeling method named as higher-order multivariable polynomial regression to estimate human affective states. The study employs standardized pictures in the International Affective Picture System to induce thirty subjects' affective states, and obtains pure affective patterns of skin conductance as input variables to the higher-order multivariable polynomial model for predicting affective valence and arousal. Experimental results show that our method is able to obtain efficient correlation coefficients of 0.98 and 0.96 for estimation of affective valence and arousal, respectively. Moreover, the method may provide certain indirect evidences that valence and arousal have their brain's motivational circuit origins. Thus, the proposed method can serve as a novel one for efficiently estimating human affective states. PMID:26996254

  9. Higher-order Multivariable Polynomial Regression to Estimate Human Affective States

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Jie; Chen, Tong; Liu, Guangyuan; Yang, Jiemin

    2016-01-01

    From direct observations, facial, vocal, gestural, physiological, and central nervous signals, estimating human affective states through computational models such as multivariate linear-regression analysis, support vector regression, and artificial neural network, have been proposed in the past decade. In these models, linear models are generally lack of precision because of ignoring intrinsic nonlinearities of complex psychophysiological processes; and nonlinear models commonly adopt complicated algorithms. To improve accuracy and simplify model, we introduce a new computational modeling method named as higher-order multivariable polynomial regression to estimate human affective states. The study employs standardized pictures in the International Affective Picture System to induce thirty subjects’ affective states, and obtains pure affective patterns of skin conductance as input variables to the higher-order multivariable polynomial model for predicting affective valence and arousal. Experimental results show that our method is able to obtain efficient correlation coefficients of 0.98 and 0.96 for estimation of affective valence and arousal, respectively. Moreover, the method may provide certain indirect evidences that valence and arousal have their brain’s motivational circuit origins. Thus, the proposed method can serve as a novel one for efficiently estimating human affective states. PMID:26996254

  10. Get the picture? The effects of iconicity on toddlers' reenactment from picture books.

    PubMed

    Simcock, Gabrielle; DeLoache, Judy

    2006-11-01

    What do toddlers learn from everyday picture-book reading interactions? To date, there has been scant research exploring this question. In this study, the authors adapted a standard imitation procedure to examine 18- to 30-month-olds' ability to learn how to reenact a novel action sequence from a picture book. The results provide evidence that toddlers can imitate specific target actions on novel real-world objects on the basis of a picture-book interaction. Children's imitative performance after the reading interaction varied both as a function of age and the level of iconicity of the pictures in the book. These findings are discussed in terms of children's emerging symbolic capacity and the flexibility of the cognitive representation. PMID:17087568

  11. 27 CFR 7.23 - Brand names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Brand names. 7.23 Section... Beverages § 7.23 Brand names. (a) General. The product shall bear a brand name, except that if not sold under a brand name, then the name of the person required to appear on the brand label shall be deemed...

  12. 27 CFR 5.34 - Brand names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Brand names. 5.34 Section... Spirits § 5.34 Brand names. (a) Misleading brand names. No label shall contain any brand name, which... officer finds that such brand name (when appropriately qualified if required) conveys no...

  13. 27 CFR 5.34 - Brand names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Brand names. 5.34 Section... Spirits § 5.34 Brand names. (a) Misleading brand names. No label shall contain any brand name, which... officer finds that such brand name (when appropriately qualified if required) conveys no...

  14. 27 CFR 7.23 - Brand names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Brand names. 7.23 Section... Beverages § 7.23 Brand names. (a) General. The product shall bear a brand name, except that if not sold under a brand name, then the name of the person required to appear on the brand label shall be deemed...

  15. 27 CFR 7.23 - Brand names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Brand names. 7.23 Section... Beverages § 7.23 Brand names. (a) General. The product shall bear a brand name, except that if not sold under a brand name, then the name of the person required to appear on the brand label shall be deemed...

  16. 27 CFR 5.34 - Brand names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Brand names. 5.34 Section... Spirits § 5.34 Brand names. (a) Misleading brand names. No label shall contain any brand name, which... officer finds that such brand name (when appropriately qualified if required) conveys no...

  17. 27 CFR 5.34 - Brand names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Brand names. 5.34 Section... Spirits § 5.34 Brand names. (a) Misleading brand names. No label shall contain any brand name, which... officer finds that such brand name (when appropriately qualified if required) conveys no...

  18. 27 CFR 7.23 - Brand names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Brand names. 7.23 Section... Beverages § 7.23 Brand names. (a) General. The product shall bear a brand name, except that if not sold under a brand name, then the name of the person required to appear on the brand label shall be deemed...

  19. 27 CFR 7.23 - Brand names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Brand names. 7.23 Section... Beverages § 7.23 Brand names. (a) General. The product shall bear a brand name, except that if not sold under a brand name, then the name of the person required to appear on the brand label shall be deemed...

  20. Serial order in word form retrieval: New insights from the auditory picture-word interference task.

    PubMed

    Wilshire, Carolyn; Singh, Sunita; Tattersall, Catherine

    2016-02-01

    One important theoretical question about word production concerns whether the phonemes of a word are retrieved in parallel or in sequential order. To address this question, Meyer and Schriefers (Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 17:1146-1160, 1991) used an auditory picture-word interference task and manipulated the position of the phonemes shared between a distractor word and a target picture. They found that begin-related distractors (e.g., boat-bone) facilitated naming times when they were presented within 150 ms before or after the picture, whereas end-related distractors (e.g., cone-bone) were effective only if presented within 150 ms after the picture. This suggested that the word's end phonemes were activated later than the beginning ones. However, it remained unclear whether these effects genuinely reflected facilitation at the level of phonological retrieval. In this study, we examined later distractor presentation onsets, so that the distractors had little opportunity to influence earlier, lexical selection processes. At the latest onset tested, end-related-but not begin-related-distractors significantly facilitated naming. We concluded that late-presented distractors do indeed influence phonological encoding, and that their asymmetric effects support a sequential model of phoneme retrieval. PMID:26084878

  1. Atomic tunneling ionization in a photon picture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yujun; Esry, B. D.

    2015-05-01

    Above-threshold ionization (ATI) and high-harmonic generation (HHG) are studied by the photon-phase formalism in the tunneling regime. Different from the commonly used three-step model for understanding such strong-field phenomena, we show that each order of the ATI or HHG peaks is strongly associated with a single ``photon channel'' in the photon-phase picture. This simplicity allows an identification of pathways for each of the orders. This picture not only provides a convenient means to understand the electron dynamics in the strong field, but also gives insights that may help engineer laser pulses to manipulate the output of the ATI or HHG. We apply this method to quantify the strong-field-induced ionization threshold shift and study the carrier-envelope phase dependence of the HHG. Supported by the Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences Division, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Office of Science, U.S. Department of Energy

  2. Discussion of medical x-ray picture normalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dezong; Xiong, Yingen; Cheng, Liping

    1996-01-01

    There is great significance in comparing medical x-ray pictures, which are taken in different periods. For the orthopaedics surgeon comparing the density of bone is one important way of clinical diagnosis. Some persons think that if these orthopaedics pictures are processed by histogram normalization their gray level and pseudo color can be compared directly. But for one picture we know that the gray distribution is different between the original picture and the processed picture. Comparing these pictures is not authentic. In this paper we discuss that subject and describe the basis of histogram normalization. The distribution on original x-ray pictures and processed pictures is provided. The methods to compare different pictures are mentioned.

  3. ERP Evidence for Ultra-Fast Semantic Processing in the Picture-Word Interference Paradigm.

    PubMed

    Dell'acqua, Roberto; Sessa, Paola; Peressotti, Francesca; Mulatti, Claudio; Navarrete, Eduardo; Grainger, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    We used the event-related potential (ERP) approach combined with a subtraction technique to explore the timecourse of activation of semantic and phonological representations in the picture-word interference paradigm. Subjects were exposed to to-be-named pictures superimposed on to-be-ignored semantically related, phonologically related, or unrelated words, and distinct ERP waveforms were generated time-locked to these different classes of stimuli. Difference ERP waveforms were generated in the semantic condition and in the phonological condition by subtracting ERP activity associated with unrelated picture-word stimuli from ERP activity associated with related picture-word stimuli. We measured both latency and amplitude of these difference ERP waveforms in a pre-articulatory time-window. The behavioral results showed standard interference effects in the semantic condition, and facilitatory effects in the phonological condition. The ERP results indicated a bimodal distribution of semantic effects, characterized by the extremely rapid onset (at about 100 ms) of a primary component followed by a later, distinct, component. Phonological effects in ERPs were characterized by components with later onsets and distinct scalp topography of ERP sources relative to semantic ERP components. Regression analyses revealed a covariation between semantic and phonological behavioral effect sizes and ERP component amplitudes, and no covariation between the behavioral effects and ERP component latency. The early effect of semantic distractors is thought to reflect very fast access to semantic representations from picture stimuli modulating on-going orthographic processing of distractor words. PMID:21833238

  4. Do pictures of faces, and which ones, capture attention in the inattentional-blindness paradigm?

    PubMed

    Devue, Christel; Laloyaux, Cédric; Feyers, Dorothée; Theeuwes, Jan; Brédart, Serge

    2009-01-01

    Faces and self-referential material (eg one's own name) are more likely to capture attention in the inattentional-blindness (IB) paradigm than other stimuli. This effect is presumably due to the meaning of these stimuli rather than to their familiarity [Mack and Rock, 1998 Inattentional Blindness (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press)]. In previous work, IB has been investigated mostly with schematic stimuli. In the present study, the generalisability of this finding was tested with photographic stimuli. In support of the view that faces constitute a special category of stimuli, pictures of faces were found to resist more to IB than pictures of common objects (experiment 1) or than pictures of inverted faces (experiment 2). In a third experiment, the influence of face familiarity and identity (the participant's own face, a friend's face, and an unknown face) on IB rates was evaluated. Unexpectedly, no differential resistence to blindness across these three kinds of faces was found. In conclusion, pictures of faces attracted attention more than pictures of objects or inverted faces in the IB paradigm. However, this effect was not dependent on face familiarity or identity. PMID:19522323

  5. 77 FR 25082 - Picture Permit Imprint Indicia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-27

    ...The Postal Service will revise Mailing Standards of the United States Postal Service, Domestic Mail Manual (DMM[supreg]) 604.5 to add picture permit imprint indicia standards allowing customers to include business-related color images, such as corporate logos, company brand or trademarks, in the permit indicia area of First-Class Mail[supreg] full-service automation letters and postcards, and......

  6. Childhood Picture of Dr. von Braun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1912-01-01

    This is a childhood picture of Dr. von Braun (center) with his brothers. Dr. Wernher von Braun was born in Wirsitz, Germany, March 23, 1912. His childhood dreams of marned space flight were fulfilled when giant Saturn rockets, developed under his direction at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, boosted the manned Apollo spacecraft to the Moon. His life was dedicated to expanding man's knowledge through the exploration of space.

  7. A motion picture presentation of magnetic pulsations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suzuki, A.; Kim, J. S.; Sugura, M.; Nagano, H.

    1981-01-01

    Using the data obtained from the IMS North American magnetometer network stations at high latitudes, a motion picture was made by a computer technique, describing time changes of Pc5 and Pi3 magnetic pulsation vectors. Examples of pulsation characteristics derived from this presentation are regional polarization changes including shifts of polarization demarcation lines, changes in the extent of an active region and its movement with time.

  8. A Spectrum is Worth a Thousand Pictures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelderman, Richard F.

    2006-12-01

    A wise astronomer once pointed out that if a picture is worth a thousand words, then a spectrum is worth a thousand pictures. Unfortunately, spectra are rarely emphasized in the introductory astronomy courses and few students exit such a course with any meaningful understanding or appreciation of spectroscopy. Part of the problem is lack of background knowledge; the typical introductory astronomy student has little experience with spectroscopy or atomic physics. Another issue is that spectra are not pretty pictures and are not intuitively understandable. We present and discuss a series of “minds-on” exercises and activities built into a college-level “stars, galaxies, and cosmology” intro astronomy course. The lessons are structured to help students improve their ability to recognize patterns and improve their ability to really see the details in front of them. Another goal is for students to realize there is “more than meets the eye” to learn how to discover “hidden” diagnostics, such as different sources of light their eyes see as white light. A curriculum that emphasizes spectroscopy also provides the opportunity to stress the story of the “Harvard Women,” a tale that bridges gender gaps and often humanizes scientists in the eyes of non-science majors. Finally, with a solid foundation in spectroscopy, students are better prepared to understand exciting topics such as Hubble’s Law and the importance of primordial nucleosynthesis.

  9. Pictures of pain: their contribution to the neuroscience of empathy

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The study of empathy, a translation of the term ‘Einfühlung’, originated in 19th century Germany in the sphere of aesthetics, and was followed by studies in psychology and then neuroscience. During the past decade the links between empathy and art have started to be investigated, but now from the neuroscientific perspective, and two different approaches have emerged. Recently, the primacy of the mirror neuron system and its association with automaticity and imitative, simulated movement has been envisaged. But earlier, a number of eminent art historians had pointed to the importance of cognitive responses to art; these responses might plausibly be subserved by alternative neural networks. Focusing here mainly on pictures depicting pain and evoking empathy, both approaches are considered by summarizing the evidence that either supports the involvement of the mirror neuron system, or alternatively suggests other neural networks are likely to be implicated. The use of such pictures in experimental studies exploring the underlying neural processes, however, raises a number of concerns, and suggests caution is exercised in drawing conclusions concerning the networks that might be engaged. These various networks are discussed next, taking into account the affective and sensory components of the pain experience, before concluding that both mirror neuron and alternative neural networks are likelyto be enlisted in the empathetic response to images of pain. A somewhat similar duality of spontaneous and cognitive processes may perhaps also be paralleled in the creation of such images. While noting that some have repudiated the neuroscientific approach to the subject, pictures are nevertheless shown here to represent an unusual but invaluable tool in the study of pain and empathy. PMID:25614024

  10. Recognition Memory Measures Yield Disproportionate Effects of Aging on Learning Face-Name Associations

    PubMed Central

    James, Lori E.; Fogler, Kethera A.; Tauber, Sarah K.

    2008-01-01

    No previous research has tested whether the specific age-related deficit in learning face-name associations that has been identified using recall tasks also occurs for recognition memory measures. Young and older participants saw pictures of unfamiliar people with a name and an occupation for each person, and were tested on a matching (in Experiment 1) or multiple-choice (in Experiment 2) recognition memory test. For both recognition measures, the pattern of effects was the same as that obtained using a recall measure: more face-occupation associations were remembered than face-name associations, young adults remembered more associated information than older adults overall, and older adults had disproportionately poorer memory for face-name associations. Findings implicate age-related difficulty in forming and retrieving the association between the face and the name as the primary cause of obtained deficits in previous name learning studies. PMID:18808254

  11. Attachment style impacts behavior and early oculomotor response to positive, but not negative, pictures.

    PubMed

    Silva, Catarina; Chaminade, Thierry; David, Da Fonseca; Santos, Andreia; Esteves, Francisco; Soares, Isabel; Deruelle, Christine

    2015-06-01

    The present study investigated whether oculomotor behavior is influenced by attachment styles. The Relationship Scales Questionnaire was used to assess attachment styles of forty-eight voluntary university students and to classify them into attachment groups (secure, preoccupied, fearful, and dismissing). Eye-tracking was recorded while participants engaged in a 3-seconds free visual exploration of stimuli presenting either a positive or a negative picture together with a neutral picture, all depicting social interactions. The task consisted in identifying whether the two pictures depicted the same emotion. Results showed that the processing of negative pictures was impermeable to attachment style, while the processing of positive pictures was significantly influenced by individual differences in insecure attachment. The groups highly avoidant regarding to attachment (dismissing and fearful) showed reduced accuracy, suggesting a higher threshold for recognizing positive emotions compared to the secure group. The groups with higher attachment anxiety (preoccupied and fearful) showed differences in automatic capture of attention, in particular an increased delay preceding the first fixation to a picture of positive emotional valence. Despite lenient statistical thresholds induced by the limited sample size of some groups (p < 0.05 uncorrected for multiple comparisons), the current findings suggest that the processing of positive emotions is affected by attachment styles. These results are discussed within a broader evolutionary framework. PMID:25693911

  12. A mental picture of the greenhouse effect - A pedagogic explanation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benestad, Rasmus E.

    2016-01-01

    The popular picture of the greenhouse effect emphasises the radiation transfer but fails to explain the observed climate change. An old conceptual model for the greenhouse effect is revisited and presented as a useful resource in climate change communication. It is validated against state-of-the-art data, and nontraditional diagnostics show a physically consistent picture. The earth's climate is constrained by well-known and elementary physical principles, such as energy balance, flow, and conservation. Greenhouse gases affect the atmospheric optical depth for infrared radiation, and increased opacity implies higher altitude from which earth's equivalent bulk heat loss takes place. Such an increase is seen in the reanalyses, and the outgoing long-wave radiation has become more diffuse over time, consistent with an increased influence of greenhouse gases on the vertical energy flow from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. The reanalyses further imply increases in the overturning in the troposphere, consistent with a constant and continuous vertical energy flow. The increased overturning can explain a slowdown in the global warming, and the association between these aspects can be interpreted as an entanglement between the greenhouse effect and the hydrological cycle, where reduced energy transfer associated with increased opacity is compensated by tropospheric overturning activity.

  13. Implicit emotion regulation in the context of viewing artworks: ERP evidence in response to pleasant and unpleasant pictures.

    PubMed

    Van Dongen, Noah N N; Van Strien, Jan W; Dijkstra, Katinka

    2016-08-01

    Presenting affective pictures as a work of art could change perceivers' judgment and strength in emotional reactions. Aesthetic theory states that perceivers of art emotionally distance themselves, allowing them to appreciate works of art depicting gruesome events. To examine whether implicit emotion regulation is induced by an art context, we assessed whether presenting pleasant and unpleasant IAPS pictures as either "works of art comprising paintings, digital renderings, and photographs of staged scenes" or "photographs depicting real events" modulated perceivers' Late Positive Potentials (LPP) and likability ratings. In line with previous research and aesthetic theory, participants evaluated the IAPS pictures as more likable when they were presented as works of art than when they were presented as photographs. Moreover, participants' late LPP amplitudes (600-900ms post picture onset) in response to the pictures were attenuated in the art context condition. These results provide evidence for an implicit emotion regulation induced by the art context. PMID:27367861

  14. Can a Picture Ruin a Thousand Words? The Effects of Visual Resources in Exam Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crisp, Victoria; Sweiry, Ezekiel

    2006-01-01

    Background: When an exam question is read, a mental representation of the task is formed in each student's mind. This processing can be affected by features such as visual resources (e.g. pictures, diagrams, photographs, tables), which can come to dominate the mental representation due to their salience. Purpose: The aim of this research was to…

  15. Using Children's Picture Books about Autism as Resources in Inclusive Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigmon, Miranda L.; Tackett, Mary E.; Azano, Amy Price

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on developing teacher understanding of how to carefully select and use children's picture books about autism as a tool for teaching awareness, empathy, and acceptance in an elementary classroom setting. We describe how the increased rate of autism and growing practice of inclusive educational settings affect classroom practice…

  16. Using Picture Books to Create Peer Awareness about Autism Spectrum Disorders in the Inclusive Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maich, Kimberly; Belcher, E. Christina

    2012-01-01

    Students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) may exhibit behaviors that can negatively affect peer relationships. A process for raising awareness about this exceptionality to their peers can build a foundation for authentic inclusion in the classroom environment. This article suggests that deliberately planned interventions using picture books to…

  17. Actively learning object names across ambiguous situations.

    PubMed

    Kachergis, George; Yu, Chen; Shiffrin, Richard M

    2013-01-01

    Previous research shows that people can use the co-occurrence of words and objects in ambiguous situations (i.e., containing multiple words and objects) to learn word meanings during a brief passive training period (Yu & Smith, 2007). However, learners in the world are not completely passive but can affect how their environment is structured by moving their heads, eyes, and even objects. These actions can indicate attention to a language teacher, who may then be more likely to name the attended objects. Using a novel active learning paradigm in which learners choose which four objects they would like to see named on each successive trial, this study asks whether active learning is superior to passive learning in a cross-situational word learning context. Finding that learners perform better in active learning, we investigate the strategies and discover that most learners use immediate repetition to disambiguate pairings. Unexpectedly, we find that learners who repeat only one pair per trial--an easy way to infer this pair-perform worse than those who repeat multiple pairs per trial. Using a working memory extension to an associative model of word learning with uncertainty and familiarity biases, we investigate individual differences that correlate with these assorted strategies. PMID:23335580

  18. Encouraging prediction during production facilitates subsequent comprehension: Evidence from interleaved object naming in sentence context and sentence reading.

    PubMed

    Hintz, Florian; Meyer, Antje S; Huettig, Falk

    2016-06-01

    Many studies have shown that a supportive context facilitates language comprehension. A currently influential view is that language production may support prediction in language comprehension. Experimental evidence for this, however, is relatively sparse. Here we explored whether encouraging prediction in a language production task encourages the use of predictive contexts in an interleaved comprehension task. In Experiment 1a, participants listened to the first part of a sentence and provided the final word by naming aloud a picture. The picture name was predictable or not predictable from the sentence context. Pictures were named faster when they could be predicted than when this was not the case. In Experiment 1b the same sentences, augmented by a final spill-over region, were presented in a self-paced reading task. No difference in reading times for predictive versus non-predictive sentences was found. In Experiment 2, reading and naming trials were intermixed. In the naming task, the advantage for predictable picture names was replicated. More importantly, now reading times for the spill-over region were considerable faster for predictive than for non-predictive sentences. We conjecture that these findings fit best with the notion that prediction in the service of language production encourages the use of predictive contexts in comprehension. Further research is required to identify the exact mechanisms by which production exerts its influence on comprehension. PMID:26652170

  19. Naming and Address in Afghan Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miran, M. Alam

    Forms of address in Afghan society reflect the relationships between the speakers as well as the society's structure. In Afghan Persian, or Dari, first, second, and last names have different semantic dimensions. Boys' first names usually consist of two parts or morphemes, of which one may be part of the father's name. Girls' names usually consist…

  20. 46 CFR 169.665 - Name plates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Name plates. 169.665 Section 169.665 Shipping COAST... Gross Tons § 169.665 Name plates. Each generator, motor and other major item f power equipment must be provided with a name plate indicating the manufacturer's name, its rating in volts and amperes or in...

  1. 46 CFR 169.665 - Name plates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Name plates. 169.665 Section 169.665 Shipping COAST... Gross Tons § 169.665 Name plates. Each generator, motor and other major item f power equipment must be provided with a name plate indicating the manufacturer's name, its rating in volts and amperes or in...

  2. 46 CFR 169.665 - Name plates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Name plates. 169.665 Section 169.665 Shipping COAST... Gross Tons § 169.665 Name plates. Each generator, motor and other major item f power equipment must be provided with a name plate indicating the manufacturer's name, its rating in volts and amperes or in...

  3. 46 CFR 169.665 - Name plates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Name plates. 169.665 Section 169.665 Shipping COAST... Gross Tons § 169.665 Name plates. Each generator, motor and other major item f power equipment must be provided with a name plate indicating the manufacturer's name, its rating in volts and amperes or in...

  4. 46 CFR 169.665 - Name plates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Name plates. 169.665 Section 169.665 Shipping COAST... Gross Tons § 169.665 Name plates. Each generator, motor and other major item f power equipment must be provided with a name plate indicating the manufacturer's name, its rating in volts and amperes or in...

  5. Effects of Perceptual and Contextual Enrichment on Visual Confrontation Naming in Adult Aging

    PubMed Central

    Rogalski, Yvonne; Peelle, Jonathan E.; Reilly, Jamie

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of enriching line drawings with color/texture and environmental context as a facilitator of naming speed and accuracy in older adults. Method Twenty young and 23 older adults named high-frequency picture stimuli from the Boston Naming Test (Kaplan, Goodglass, & Weintraub, 2001) under three conditions: (a) black-and-white items, (b) colorized-texturized items, and (c) scene-primed colored items (e.g., “hammock” preceded 1,000 ms by a backyard scene). Results With respect to speeded naming latencies, mixed-model analyses of variance revealed that young adults did not benefit from colorization-texturization but did show scene-priming effects. In contrast, older adults failed to show facilitation effects from either colorized-texturized or scene-primed items. Moreover, older adults were consistently slower to initiate naming than were their younger counterparts across all conditions. Conclusions Perceptual and contextual enrichment of sparse line drawings does not appear to facilitate visual confrontation naming in older adults, whereas younger adults do tend to show benefits of scene priming. We interpret these findings as generally supportive of a processing speed account of age-related object picture-naming difficulty. PMID:21498581

  6. Visualizing the quantum interaction picture in phase space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehmani, Bahar; Aiello, Andrea

    2012-09-01

    We present a graphical example of the interaction picture-time evolution. Our aim is to help students understand in a didactic manner the simplicity that this picture provides. Visualizing the interaction picture unveils its advantages, which are hidden behind the involved mathematics. Specifically, we show that the time evolution of a driven harmonic oscillator in the interaction picture corresponds to a local transformation of a phase space-reference frame into the one that is co-rotating with the Wigner function.

  7. A Colossus Gets its Name

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-10-01

    Today, the first of the two ALMA antenna transporters was given its name at a ceremony on the compounds of the manufacturer, the heavy-vehicle specialist Scheuerle Fahrzeugfabrik GmbH, in Baden-Württemberg. The colossus, 10 metres wide, 20 metres long and 6 metres high, will be shipped to Chile by the end of the month. The second one will follow in a few weeks. ESO PR Photo 45a/07 ESO PR Photo 45a/07 The ALMA Antenna Transprorter The transporter was named 'Otto' in honour of Otto Rettenmaier, the owner of the Scheuerle company. "The rather unusual move to name a vehicle is a recognition of the remarkable achievement these unique machines represent," said Hans Rykaczewski, the European ALMA Project Manager. "Their sizes alone would justify using superlatives to describe them. But they are also outstanding as they will operate at 5000 metres altitude, where the air is rare, and they have to be able to place 115-ton antennas with a precision of a few millimetres," he added. "The ALMA antenna transporters are the proof of the excellence of our staff and of our ability to build heavy vehicles that are at the limits of the possible," said Otto Rettenmaier. "Never in the history of our company have we had to comply with such exceptional requirements on material and techniques as we had to do with these machines. We are proud as a company to have been able to contribute with such an exceptional piece of technology for astronomical research." The ALMA Project, in which ESO leads the construction and the operations on behalf of Europe, is a giant, international observatory currently in construction on the high-altitude Chajnantor site in Chile, which will be composed initially of 66 high-precision telescopes, operating at wavelengths of 0.3 to 9.6 mm. The ALMA antennas will be electronically combined and provide astronomical observations which are equivalent to a single large telescope of tremendous size and resolution. The 66 antennas of the array can be placed on 192

  8. Recovering Spirit Sends a New Picture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit took and returned this image on January 28, 2004, the first picture from Spirit since problems with communications began a week earlier. The image from the rover's front hazard identification camera shows the robotic arm extended to the rock called Adirondack. As it had been instructed a week earlier, the Moessbauer spectrometer, an instrument for identifying the minerals in rocks and soils, is still placed against the rock. Engineers are working to restore Spirit to working order so that the rover can resume the scientific exploration of its landing area.

  9. Interaction picture density matrix quantum Monte Carlo

    SciTech Connect

    Malone, Fionn D. Lee, D. K. K.; Foulkes, W. M. C.; Blunt, N. S.; Shepherd, James J.; Spencer, J. S.

    2015-07-28

    The recently developed density matrix quantum Monte Carlo (DMQMC) algorithm stochastically samples the N-body thermal density matrix and hence provides access to exact properties of many-particle quantum systems at arbitrary temperatures. We demonstrate that moving to the interaction picture provides substantial benefits when applying DMQMC to interacting fermions. In this first study, we focus on a system of much recent interest: the uniform electron gas in the warm dense regime. The basis set incompleteness error at finite temperature is investigated and extrapolated via a simple Monte Carlo sampling procedure. Finally, we provide benchmark calculations for a four-electron system, comparing our results to previous work where possible.

  10. Venus in motion. [Mariner 10 television pictures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. L.; Danielson, G. E.; Evans, N.; Soha, J. M.; Belton, M. J. S.

    1978-01-01

    A comprehensive set of television pictures of Venus taken by the Mariner 10 spacecraft is presented. Included is a chronological sequence of television images illustrating the development, variety, and circulation of Venus upper-atmospheric phenomena as viewed in the near-ultraviolet. The higher-resolution images have been assembled into global mosaics to facilitate comparison. Figures and tables describing the imaging sequences have been included to provide a guide to the more complete set of 3400 Venus images on file at the National Space Science Data Center.

  11. [Asperger syndrome. Diagnosis criteria and clinical picture].

    PubMed

    Wahlberg, Ernesto

    2005-01-01

    Asperger syndrome (A.S) is not a very well-known disorder due to its recent incorporation to the international nosography of mental disorders during the early 90s. The intention of this article is to describe the clinical picture with its symptomatic diversity. It will show how the diagnostic criteria were developed since the presentation by Asperger in 1944, to the classification consensed nowadays. It also presents the situations in which this diagnosis is most frequent to facilitate its detection and to permit a more extensive assessment leading to a more accurate treatment. PMID:16077869

  12. The early atmosphere - A new picture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Joel S.

    1986-01-01

    Over the last few years, discoveries in astronomy, geochemistry, and atmospheric chemistry have resulted in a new picture of how our planet and its atmosphere formed. The traditional view held that the early atmosphere was composed of methane, ammonia, and molecular hydrogen, but the actual composition may have been nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and water vapor. The history leading to the present understanding is discussed and topics covered include: chemical evolution, origin of the atmosphere, atmospheric evolution on earth, Venus, and Mars, and prebiological atmospheric oxygen and the early sun.

  13. Science-Oriented Picture Books for Middle School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flack, Jerry; Sullivan, Marie

    1995-01-01

    Describes a project that encouraged combining pictures and words by middle school students to create science picture books. Suggests six steps to help students plan, research, and create picture books. Discusses a variety of final products that emerged, and benefits of the project. (BAC)

  14. 29 CFR 541.709 - Motion picture producing industry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motion picture producing industry. 541.709 Section 541.709... SALES EMPLOYEES Definitions and Miscellaneous Provisions § 541.709 Motion picture producing industry... motion picture producing industry who is compensated at a base rate of at least $695 a week (exclusive...

  15. Teaching with Picture Books in the Middle School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiedt, Iris McClellan

    Arguing that picture books have much to offer students in the upper grades (including middle school and even high school students), this book discusses using picture books to stimulate students' thinking in a variety of topic areas. Chapter 1, Using Picture Books in the Middle School To Stimulate Thinking, introduces the topic of using picture…

  16. 78 FR 57570 - Safety Zone; Motion Picture Production; Chicago, Illinois

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-19

    ... Safety Zone; Motion Picture Production; Chicago, IL (78 FR 20241, August 20, 2013). This updated schedule... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Motion Picture Production; Chicago....T09-0676 Safety Zone; Motion Picture Production; Chicago, IL and 5 U.S.C. 552(a). Because this...

  17. Using Pictures to Assist in Comprehension and Recall.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rich, Rebecca Z.; Blake, Sylvia

    1994-01-01

    This article describes a picture drawing strategy to enhance the comprehension of fourth- and fifth-grade students with language and reading problems. Students used adhesive notes to draw pictures of main ideas as they read aloud or listened. Students learned the strategy rapidly and were able to use the pictures to generate summary statements.…

  18. The Development of the Picture-Superiority Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehouse, Andrew J. O.; Maybery, Murray T.; Durkin, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    When pictures and words are presented serially in an explicit memory task, recall of the pictures is superior. While this effect is well established in the adult population, little is known of the development of this picture-superiority effect in typical development. This task was administered to 80 participants from middle childhood to…

  19. Memory for Pictorial Information and the Picture Superiority Effect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maisto, Albert A.; Queen, Debbie Elaine

    1992-01-01

    The performance of 53 younger adults (mean age 20.7) and 52 older adults (mean age 68.3) was compared in a memory task involving pictures, words, and pictures-plus-words. Results showed (1) significantly higher recall scores for younger adults; (2) equivalent picture superiority effect for both groups; and (3) decline in older adults' performance…

  20. A Middle School Teacher's Guide for Selecting Picture Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costello, Bill; Kolodziej, Nancy J.

    2006-01-01

    The use of picture books as supplementary material for middle level classrooms is becoming more common. Picture books are being created specifically to address the needs and interests of middle school students. Society is becoming more visually oriented and the visual format of picture books appeals to adolescents, who today are exposed to various…

  1. Excitation picture of an interacting Bose gas

    SciTech Connect

    Kira, M.

    2014-12-15

    Atomic Bose–Einstein condensates (BECs) can be viewed as macroscopic objects where atoms form correlated atom clusters to all orders. Therefore, the presence of a BEC makes the direct use of the cluster-expansion approach–lucrative e.g. in semiconductor quantum optics–inefficient when solving the many-body kinetics of a strongly interacting Bose. An excitation picture is introduced with a nonunitary transformation that describes the system in terms of atom clusters within the normal component alone. The nontrivial properties of this transformation are systematically studied, which yields a cluster-expansion friendly formalism for a strongly interacting Bose gas. Its connections and corrections to the standard Hartree–Fock–Bogoliubov approach are discussed and the role of the order parameter and the Bogoliubov excitations are identified. The resulting interaction effects are shown to visibly modify number fluctuations of the BEC. Even when the BEC has a nearly perfect second-order coherence, the BEC number fluctuations can still resolve interaction-generated non-Poissonian fluctuations. - Highlights: • Excitation picture expresses interacting Bose gas with few atom clusters. • Semiconductor and BEC many-body investigations are connected with cluster expansion. • Quantum statistics of BEC is identified in terms of atom clusters. • BEC number fluctuations show extreme sensitivity to many-body correlations. • Cluster-expansion friendly framework is established for an interacting Bose gas.

  2. L1 and L2 Picture Naming in Mandarin-English Bilinguals: A Test of Bilingual Dual Coding Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jared, Debra; Poh, Rebecca Pei Yun; Paivio, Allan

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the nature of bilinguals' conceptual representations and the links from these representations to words in L1 and L2. Specifically, we tested an assumption of the Bilingual Dual Coding Theory that conceptual representations include image representations, and that learning two languages in separate contexts can result in…

  3. Improved Picture Naming in Chronic Aphasia after Tms to Part of Right Broca's Area: An Open-Protocol Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naeser, M.A.; Martin, P.I.; Nicholas, M.; Baker, E.H.; Seekins, H.; Kobayashi, M.; Theoret, H.; Fregni, F.; Maria-Tormos, J.; Kurland, J.; Doron, K.W.; Pascual-Leone, A.

    2005-01-01

    Functional imaging studies with nonfluent aphasia patients have observed ''over-activation'' in right (R) language homologues. This may represent a maladaptive strategy; suppression may result in language improvement. We applied slow, 1 Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to an anterior portion of R Broca's homologue daily, for…

  4. Role of Inhibition in Language Switching: Evidence from Event-Related Brain Potentials in Overt Picture Naming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verhoef, Kim; Roelofs, Ardi; Chwilla, Dorothee J.

    2009-01-01

    How are bilinguals able to switch from one language to another? The prevailing inhibition hypothesis takes larger reaction-time (RT) costs for switching to the first language (L1) than to the second language (L2) as evidence for suppression of the non-target language. Switch cost asymmetries can alternatively be explained by an L1-repeat-benefit,…

  5. Quantifying Precision and Availability of Location Memory in Everyday Pictures and Some Implications for Picture Database Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lansdale, Mark W.; Oliff, Lynda; Baguley, Thom S.

    2005-01-01

    The authors investigated whether memory for object locations in pictures could be exploited to address known difficulties of designing query languages for picture databases. M. W. Lansdale's (1998) model of location memory was adapted to 4 experiments observing memory for everyday pictures. These experiments showed that location memory is…

  6. The relationship between naming and semantic knowledge for different categories in dementia of Alzheimer's type.

    PubMed

    Lambon Ralph, M A; Patterson, K; Hodges, J R

    1997-09-01

    We studied the relationship between naming and semantic memory in a group of 10 patients with dementia of Alzheimer's type. In an extension to a previous cross-sectional study (Hodges, J. R. et al., Brain and Language, 1996, 54, 302-325), this relationship was investigated at two longitudinal points within each patient's cognitive decline. Two types of naming performance were compared: items that each patient named correctly at the first stage but failed to name at the second stage, as contrasted with items named correctly at both stages (thereby providing a control for cognitive decline in general). Semantic knowledge of the concepts represented by the pictures in the naming test was investigated at each stage using definitions to the spoken object name, scored particularly for the number of sensory and associative/functional features provided by the patient. At stage 2, an analysis of the definitions for named-->unnamed items as contrasted with named-->named objects revealed a significant loss of both sensory and associative information. A comparison between natural kinds (animals and birds) and artefacts (household objects, vehicles, etc.), however, demonstrated a striking interaction between category and type of information contained in the definitions. Specifically, stage 2 definitions of artefacts in the named-->unnamed set showed a disproportionate loss of associative/functional information, while definitions of animal names that patients failed to produce in response to the pictures were notably lacking in sensory features. This pattern supports the notion that successful naming relies on a subset of critical semantic features which vary somewhat across different categories of semantic knowledge. We suggest that these findings are best encompassed by a conception of semantic organization, Weighted Overlappingly Organized Features (WOOF), in which (i) knowledge about all objects is represented by a central, distributed network of features activated by both

  7. A new bandwidth compression system of picture signals - The TAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanimoto, M.; Chiba, N.; Yasui, H.; Murakami, M.

    A new bandwidth compression system of picture signals called the Time-Axis Transform (TAT) system is presented. It can be applied to the various fields of transmission and recording of picture signals such as the satellite broadcast of high-definition televison. The TAT compresses the bandwidth by reducing the number of transmitted pixels. The transmitted pixels consist of two kinds of pixels: the basic pixels and the additional pixels. The location of the former is fixed and that of the latter varies from picture to picture to minimize the interpolation error in the reconstructed picture. It compresses the bandwidth of the picture signal to one half or less, keeping high picture quality. Both the average power and the peak value of the distortion due to the interpolation error of the deleted pixels are greatly improved.

  8. Motion Pictures and Motion-Picture Equipment: A Handbook of General Information. Bulletin, 1919, No. 82

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, F. W.; Anderson, Carl

    1920-01-01

    Motion-picture films have come to be recognized quite generally as a valuable and practical means of instruction in schools, college, and universities and for clubs and societies organized for educational purposes. The number of persons making such use of them is now very large and constantly becoming larger. To all these, a handbook of general…

  9. Picturing Economic Childhoods: Agency, Inevitability and Social Class in Children's Picture Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saltmarsh, Sue

    2007-01-01

    This article considers ideological, pedagogical and constitutive functions of children's picture books, with particular emphasis on the ways in which texts construct children and childhood in economic terms. Through an analysis of Lauren Childs' "Hubert Horatio Bartle Bobton-Trent" and Anthony Browne's "Voices in the Park", the article…

  10. A new system for naming ribosomal proteins

    PubMed Central

    Ban, Nenad; Beckmann, Roland; Cate, Jamie HD; Dinman, Jonathan D; Dragon, François; Ellis, Steven R; Lafontaine, Denis LJ; Lindahl, Lasse; Liljas, Anders; Lipton, Jeffrey M; McAlear, Michael A; Moore, Peter B; Noller, Harry F; Ortega, Joaquin; Panse, Vikram Govind; Ramakrishnan, V; Spahn, Christian MT; Steitz, Thomas A; Tchorzewski, Marek; Tollervey, David; Warren, Alan J; Williamson, James R; Wilson, Daniel; Yonath, Ada; Yusupov, Marat

    2015-01-01

    A system for naming ribosomal proteins is described that the authors intend to use in the future. They urge others to adopt it. The objective is to eliminate the confusion caused by the assignment of identical names to ribosomal proteins from different species that are unrelated in structure and function. In the system proposed here, homologous ribosomal proteins are assigned the same name, regardless of species. It is designed so that new names are similar enough to old names to be easily recognized, but are written in a format that unambiguously identifies them as ‘new system’ names. PMID:24524803

  11. Picturing and modelling catchments by representative hillslopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loritz, Ralf; Hassler, Sibylle; Jackisch, Conrad; Zehe, Erwin

    2016-04-01

    Hydrological modelling studies often start with a qualitative sketch of the hydrological processes of a catchment. These so-called perceptual models are often pictured as hillslopes and are generalizations displaying only the dominant and relevant processes of a catchment or hillslope. The problem with these models is that they are prone to become too much predetermined by the designer's background and experience. Moreover it is difficult to know if that picture is correct and contains enough complexity to represent the system under study. Nevertheless, because of their qualitative form, perceptual models are easy to understand and can be an excellent tool for multidisciplinary exchange between researchers with different backgrounds, helping to identify the dominant structures and processes in a catchment. In our study we explore whether a perceptual model built upon an intensive field campaign may serve as a blueprint for setting up representative hillslopes in a hydrological model to reproduce the functioning of two distinctly different catchments. We use a physically-based 2D hillslope model which has proven capable to be driven by measured soil-hydrological parameters. A key asset of our approach is that the model structure itself remains a picture of the perceptual model, which is benchmarked against a) geo-physical images of the subsurface and b) observed dynamics of discharge, distributed state variables and fluxes (soil moisture, matric potential and sap flow). Within this approach we are able to set up two behavioral model structures which allow the simulation of the most important hydrological fluxes and state variables in good accordance with available observations within the 19.4 km2 large Colpach catchment and the 4.5 km2 large Wollefsbach catchment in Luxembourg without the necessity of calibration. This corroborates, contrary to the widespread opinion, that a) lower mesoscale catchments may be modelled by representative hillslopes and b) physically

  12. "A Thousand Names They Called Him" Naming and Proper Names in the Work of S. Y. Agnon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadad, Shira

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation offers a study of proper names and naming as a conceptual and thematic anchor in the work of S.Y. Agnon. Proper names, I argue, constitute an underexplored and highly fruitful prism through which to read literature, and specifically Agnon's fiction. My study consists of a series of readings in several of Agnon's major…

  13. A reversed-typicality effect in pictures but not in written words in deaf and hard of hearing adolescents.

    PubMed

    Li, Degao; Gao, Kejuan; Wu, Xueyun; Xong, Ying; Chen, Xiaojun; He, Weiwei; Li, Ling; Huang, Jingjia

    2015-01-01

    Two experiments investigated Chinese deaf and hard of hearing (DHH) adolescents' recognition of category names in an innovative task of semantic categorization. In each trial, the category-name target appeared briefly at the screen center followed by two words or two pictures for two basic-level exemplars of high or middle typicality, which appeared briefly approximately where the target had appeared. Participants' reaction times when they were deciding whether the target referred to living or nonliving things consistently revealed the typicality effect for the word, but a reversed-typicality effect for picture-presented exemplars. It was found that in automatically processing a category name, DHH adolescents with natural sign language as their first language evidently activate two sets of exemplar representations: those for middle-typicality exemplars, which they develop in interactions with the physical world and in sign language uses; and those in written-language learning. PMID:26004975

  14. Conscious Intention to Speak Proactively Facilitates Lexical Access during Overt Object Naming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strijkers, Kristof; Holcomb, Phillip J.; Costa, Albert

    2011-01-01

    The present study explored when and how the top-down intention to speak influences the language production process. We did so by comparing the brain's electrical response for a variable known to affect lexical access, namely word frequency, during overt object naming and non-verbal object categorization. We found that during naming, the…

  15. Externalizing proneness and brain response during pre-cuing and viewing of emotional pictures.

    PubMed

    Foell, Jens; Brislin, Sarah J; Strickland, Casey M; Seo, Dongju; Sabatinelli, Dean; Patrick, Christopher J

    2016-07-01

    Externalizing proneness, or trait disinhibition, is a concept relevant to multiple high-impact disorders involving impulsive-aggressive behavior. Its mechanisms remain disputed: major models posit hyperresponsive reward circuitry or heightened threat-system reactivity as sources of disinhibitory tendencies. This study evaluated alternative possibilities by examining relations between trait disinhibition and brain reactivity during preparation for and processing of visual affective stimuli. Forty females participated in a functional neuroimaging procedure with stimuli presented in blocks containing either pleasurable or aversive pictures interspersed with neutral, with each picture preceded by a preparation signal. Preparing to view elicited activation in regions including nucleus accumbens, whereas visual regions and bilateral amygdala were activated during viewing of emotional pictures. High disinhibition predicted reduced nucleus accumbens activation during preparation within pleasant/neutral picture blocks, along with enhanced amygdala reactivity during viewing of pleasant and aversive pictures. Follow-up analyses revealed that the augmented amygdala response was related to reduced preparatory activation. Findings indicate that participants high in disinhibition are less able to process implicit cues and mentally prepare for upcoming stimuli, leading to limbic hyperreactivity during processing of actual stimuli. This outcome is helpful for integrating findings from studies suggesting reward-system hyperreactivity and others suggesting threat-system hyperreactivity as mechanisms for externalizing proneness. PMID:26113614

  16. Embedded Picture Mnemonics to Learn Letters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shmidman, Adina; Ehri, Linnea

    2010-01-01

    Can embedded mnemonics ease the task of learning a foreign alphabet? English-speaking preschoolers (N = 36, M = 5;2 years) were taught 10 Hebrew letter-sound relations. Experimental letters were learned with mnemonics that embedded letter shapes in drawings of objects whose shapes resembled the letters and whose English names began with the…

  17. Analysis of Letter Name Knowledge Using Rasch Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowles, Ryan P.; Skibbe, Lori E.; Justice, Laura M.

    2011-01-01

    Letter name knowledge (LNK) is a key predictor of later reading ability and has been emphasized strongly in recent educational policy. Studies of LNK have implicitly treated it as a unidimensional construct with all letters equally relevant to its measurement. However, some empirical research suggests that contextual factors can affect the…

  18. What Lexical Decision and Naming Tell Us about Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Leonard; Brancazio, Larry; Irwin, Julia; Katz, Stephen; Magnuson, James; Whalen, D. H.

    2012-01-01

    The lexical decision (LD) and naming (NAM) tasks are ubiquitous paradigms that employ printed word identification. They are major tools for investigating how factors like morphology, semantic information, lexical neighborhood and others affect identification. Although use of the tasks is widespread, there has been little research into how…

  19. What Is an eBook? What Is a Book App? And Why Should We Care? An Analysis of Contemporary Digital Picture Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sargeant, Betty

    2015-01-01

    Book apps have developed into a new format for the picture book. Given the crucial role that picture books have played in early childhood education, it seems pertinent to ascertain the ways in which they have been affected by digitisation. In response to concerns regarding a lack of models and design principles within children's digital…

  20. Interaction picture density matrix quantum Monte Carlo.

    PubMed

    Malone, Fionn D; Blunt, N S; Shepherd, James J; Lee, D K K; Spencer, J S; Foulkes, W M C

    2015-07-28

    The recently developed density matrix quantum Monte Carlo (DMQMC) algorithm stochastically samples the N-body thermal density matrix and hence provides access to exact properties of many-particle quantum systems at arbitrary temperatures. We demonstrate that moving to the interaction picture provides substantial benefits when applying DMQMC to interacting fermions. In this first study, we focus on a system of much recent interest: the uniform electron gas in the warm dense regime. The basis set incompleteness error at finite temperature is investigated and extrapolated via a simple Monte Carlo sampling procedure. Finally, we provide benchmark calculations for a four-electron system, comparing our results to previous work where possible. PMID:26233116