Science.gov

Sample records for affected source producing

  1. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart Jjj of... - Group 1 Storage Vessels at New Affected Sources Producing the Listed Thermoplastics

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Group 1 Storage Vessels at New Affected Sources Producing the Listed Thermoplastics 5 Table 5 to Subpart JJJ of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR...

  2. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart Jjj of... - Group 1 Storage Vessels at New Affected Sources Producing the Listed Thermoplastics

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Group 1 Storage Vessels at New Affected Sources Producing the Listed Thermoplastics 5 Table 5 to Subpart JJJ of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR...

  3. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart Jjj of... - Group 1 Storage Vessels at New Affected Sources Producing the Listed Thermoplastics

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Group 1 Storage Vessels at New Affected Sources Producing the Listed Thermoplastics 5 Table 5 to Subpart JJJ of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR...

  4. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart Jjj of... - Group 1 Storage Vessels at New Affected Sources Producing the Listed Thermoplastics

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Group 1 Storage Vessels at New Affected Sources Producing the Listed Thermoplastics 5 Table 5 to Subpart JJJ of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR...

  5. Interactions between Bifidobacterium and Bacteroides Species in Cofermentations Are Affected by Carbon Sources, Including Exopolysaccharides Produced by Bifidobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Rios-Covian, David; Arboleya, Silvia; Hernandez-Barranco, Ana M.; Alvarez-Buylla, Jorge R.; Ruas-Madiedo, Patricia; Gueimonde, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    Cocultures of strains from two Bifidobacterium and two Bacteroides species were performed with exopolysaccharides (EPS) previously purified from bifidobacteria, with inulin, or with glucose as the carbon source. Bifidobacterium longum NB667 and Bifidobacterium breve IPLA20004 grew in glucose but showed poor or no growth in complex carbohydrates (inulin, EPS E44, and EPS R1), whereas Bacteroides grew well in the four carbon sources tested. In the presence of glucose, the growth of Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron DSM-2079 was inhibited by B. breve, whereas it remained unaffected in the presence of B. longum. Ba. fragilis DSM-2151 contributed to a greater survival of B. longum, promoting changes in the synthesis of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and organic acids in coculture with respect to monocultures. In complex carbohydrates, cocultures of bifidobacterium strains with Ba. thetaiotaomicron did not modify the behavior of Bacteroides nor improve the poor growth of bifidobacteria. The metabolic activity of Ba. fragilis in coculture with bifidobacteria was not affected by EPS, but greater survival of bifidobacteria at late stages of incubation occurred in cocultures than in monocultures, leading to a higher production of acetic acid than in monocultures. Therefore, cocultures of Bifidobacterium and Bacteroides can behave differently against fermentable carbohydrates as a function of the specific characteristics of the strains from each species. These results stress the importance of considering specific species and strain interactions and not simply higher taxonomic divisions in the relationship among intestinal microbial populations and their different responses to probiotics and prebiotics. PMID:24077708

  6. Factors affecting quality and safety of fresh-cut produce.

    PubMed

    Francis, G A; Gallone, A; Nychas, G J; Sofos, J N; Colelli, G; Amodio, M L; Spano, G

    2012-01-01

    The quality of fresh-cut fruit and vegetable products includes a combination of attributes, such as appearance, texture, and flavor, as well as nutritional and safety aspects that determine their value to the consumer. Nutritionally, fruit and vegetables represent a good source of vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber, and fresh-cut produce satisfies consumer demand for freshly prepared, convenient, healthy food. However, fresh-cut produce deteriorates faster than corresponding intact produce, as a result of damage caused by minimal processing, which accelerates many physiological changes that lead to a reduction in produce quality and shelf-life. The symptoms of produce deterioration include discoloration, increased oxidative browning at cut surfaces, flaccidity as a result of loss of water, and decreased nutritional value. Damaged plant tissues also represent a better substrate for growth of microorganisms, including spoilage microorganisms and foodborne pathogens. The risk of pathogen contamination and growth is one of the main safety concerns associated with fresh-cut produce, as highlighted by the increasing number of produce-linked foodborne outbreaks in recent years. The pathogens of major concern in fresh-cut produce are Listeria monocytogenes, pathogenic Escherichia coli mainly O157:H7, and Salmonella spp. This article describes the quality of fresh-cut produce, factors affecting quality, and various techniques for evaluating quality. In addition, the microbiological safety of fresh-cut produce and factors affecting pathogen survival and growth on fresh-cut produce are discussed in detail.

  7. Discharge produced plasma source for EUV lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisov, V.; Eltzov, A.; Ivanov, A.; Khristoforov, O.; Kirykhin, Yu.; Vinokhodov, A.; Vodchits, V.; Mishhenko, V.; Prokofiev, A.

    2007-04-01

    Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation is seen as the most promising candidate for the next generation of lithography and semiconductor chip manufacturing for the 32 nm node and below. The paper describes experimental results obtained with discharge produced plasma (DPP) sources based on pinch effect in a Xe and Sn vapour as potential tool for the EUV lithography. Problems of DPP source development are discussed.

  8. Method for producing uranium atomic beam source

    DOEpatents

    Krikorian, Oscar H.

    1976-06-15

    A method for producing a beam of neutral uranium atoms is obtained by vaporizing uranium from a compound UM.sub.x heated to produce U vapor from an M boat or from some other suitable refractory container such as a tungsten boat, where M is a metal whose vapor pressure is negligible compared to that of uranium at the vaporization temperature. The compound, for example, may be the uranium-rhenium compound, URe.sub.2. An evaporation rate in excess of about 10 times that of conventional uranium beam sources is produced.

  9. Laser-produced plasma source system development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fomenkov, Igor V.; Brandt, David C.; Bykanov, Alexander N.; Ershov, Alexander I.; Partlo, William N.; Myers, David W.; Böwering, Norbert R.; Vaschenko, Georgiy O.; Khodykin, Oleh V.; Hoffman, Jerzy R.; Vargas L., Ernesto; Simmons, Rodney D.; Chavez, Juan A.; Chrobak, Christopher P.

    2007-03-01

    This paper describes the development of laser produced plasma (LPP) technology as an EUV source for advanced scanner lithography applications in high volume manufacturing. EUV lithography is expected to succeed 193 nm immersion technology for critical layer patterning below 32 nm beginning with beta generation scanners in 2009. This paper describes the development status of subsystems most critical to the performance to meet joint scanner manufacturer requirements and semiconductor industry standards for reliability and economic targets for cost of ownership. The intensity and power of the drive laser are critical parameters in the development of extreme ultraviolet LPP lithography sources. The conversion efficiency (CE) of laser light into EUV light is strongly dependent on the intensity of the laser energy on the target material at the point of interaction. The total EUV light generated then scales directly with the total incident laser power. The progress on the development of a short pulse, high power CO2 laser for EUV applications is reported. The lifetime of the collector mirror is a critical parameter in the development of extreme ultra-violet LPP lithography sources. The deposition of target materials and contaminants, as well as sputtering of the collector multilayer coating and implantation of incident particles can reduce the reflectivity of the mirror substantially over the exposure time even though debris mitigation schemes are being employed. The results of measurements of high energy ions generated by a short-pulse CO2 laser on a laser-produced plasma EUV light source with Sn target are presented. Droplet generation is a key element of the LPP source being developed at Cymer for EUV lithography applications. The main purpose of this device is to deliver small quantities of liquid target material as droplets to the laser focus. The EUV light in such configuration is obtained as a result of creating a highly ionized plasma from the material of the

  10. How Source Affects Response to Public Service Advertising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynn, Jerry R.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Reports that public service advertising attributed to the Advertising Council elicited higher message ratings than did public service advertising attributed to a commercial source, a noncommercial source, or no source; however, it produced the lowest behavioral responses. (GT)

  11. Biomass pretreatment affects Ustilago maydis in producing itaconic acid

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In the last years, the biotechnological production of platform chemicals for fuel components has become a major focus of interest. Although ligno-cellulosic material is considered as suitable feedstock, the almost inevitable pretreatment of this recalcitrant material may interfere with the subsequent fermentation steps. In this study, the fungus Ustilago maydis was used to produce itaconic acid as platform chemical for the synthesis of potential biofuels such as 3-methyltetrahydrofuran. No studies, however, have investigated how pretreatment of ligno-cellulosic biomass precisely influences the subsequent fermentation by U. maydis. Thus, this current study aims to first characterize U. maydis in shake flasks and then to evaluate the influence of three exemplary pretreatment methods on the cultivation and itaconic acid production of this fungus. Cellulose enzymatically hydrolysed in seawater and salt-assisted organic-acid catalysed cellulose were investigated as substrates. Lastly, hydrolysed hemicellulose from fractionated beech wood was applied as substrate. Results U. maydis was characterized on shake flask level regarding its itaconic acid production on glucose. Nitrogen limitation was shown to be a crucial condition for the production of itaconic acid. For itaconic acid concentrations above 25 g/L, a significant product inhibition was observed. Performing experiments that simulated influences of possible pretreatment methods, U. maydis was only slightly affected by high osmolarities up to 3.5 osmol/L as well as of 0.1 M oxalic acid. The production of itaconic acid was achieved on pretreated cellulose in seawater and on the hydrolysed hemicellulosic fraction of pretreated beech wood. Conclusion The fungus U. maydis is a promising producer of itaconic acid, since it grows as single cells (yeast-like) in submerged cultivations and it is extremely robust in high osmotic media and real seawater. Moreover, U. maydis can grow on the hemicellulosic fraction

  12. Energy Efficiency of Biogas Produced from Different Biomass Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Begum, Shahida; Nazri, A. H.

    2013-06-01

    Malaysia has different sources of biomass like palm oil waste, agricultural waste, cow dung, sewage waste and landfill sites, which can be used to produce biogas and as a source of energy. Depending on the type of biomass, the biogas produced can have different calorific value. At the same time the energy, being used to produce biogas is dependent on transportation distance, means of transportation, conversion techniques and for handling of raw materials and digested residues. An energy systems analysis approach based on literature is applied to calculate the energy efficiency of biogas produced from biomass. Basically, the methodology is comprised of collecting data, proposing locations and estimating the energy input needed to produce biogas and output obtained from the generated biogas. The study showed that palm oil and municipal solid waste is two potential sources of biomass. The energy efficiency of biogas produced from palm oil residues and municipal solid wastes is 1.70 and 3.33 respectively. Municipal solid wastes have the higher energy efficiency due to less transportation distance and electricity consumption. Despite the inherent uncertainties in the calculations, it can be concluded that the energy potential to use biomass for biogas production is a promising alternative.

  13. Neutron producing reactions in PuBe neutron sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagi, János; Lakosi, László; Nguyen, Cong Tam

    2016-01-01

    There are a plenty of out-of-use plutonium-beryllium neutron sources in Eastern Europe presenting both nuclear safeguards and security issues. Typically, their actual Pu content is not known. In the last couple of years different non-destructive methods were developed for their characterization. For such methods detailed knowledge of the nuclear reactions taking place within the source is necessary. In this paper we investigate the role of the neutron producing reactions, their contribution to the neutron yield and their dependence on the properties of the source.

  14. A fast and efficient method for producing partially coherent sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyde, M. W., IV; Bose-Pillai, S.; Xiao, X.; Voelz, D. G.

    2017-02-01

    A fast, flexible and efficient method for generating partially coherent sources is presented. It is shown that the Schell-model (uniformly correlated) and non-uniformly correlated sources can be produced quickly using a fast steering mirror and low-actuator-count deformable mirror, respectively. The statistical optics theory underpinning the proposed technique is presented and discussed. Simulation results of two Schell-models and one non-uniformly correlated source are presented and compared to the theory to test the new approach.

  15. Internal energy and fragmentation of ions produced in electrospray sources.

    PubMed

    Gabelica, Valérie; De Pauw, Edwin

    2005-01-01

    This review addresses the determination of the internal energy of ions produced by electrospray ionization (ESI) sources, and the influence of the internal energy on analyte fragmentation. A control of the analyte internal energy is crucial for several applications of electrospray mass spectrometry, like structural studies, construction of reproducible and exportable spectral libraries, analysis of non-covalent complexes. Sections II and III summarize the Electrospray mechanisms and source design considerations which are relevant to the problem of internal energy, and Section IV gives an overview of the inter-relationships between ion internal energy, reaction time scale, and analyte fragmentation. In these three sections we tried to make the most important theoretical elements understandable by all ESI users, and their understanding requires a minimal background in physical chemistry. We then present the different approaches used to experimentally determine the ion internal energy, as well as various attempts in modeling the internal energy uptake in electrospray sources. Finally, a tentative comparison between electrospray and other ionization sources is made. As the reader will see, although many reports appeared on the subject, the knowledge in the field of internal energy of ions produced by soft ionization sources is still scarce, because of the complexity of the system, and this is what makes this area of research so interesting. The last section presents some perspectives for future research.

  16. Producing terahertz coherent synchrotron radiation at the Hefei Light Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, De-Rong; Xu, Hong-Liang; Shao, Yan

    2015-07-01

    This paper theoretically proves that an electron storage ring can generate coherent radiation in the THz region using a quick kicker magnet and an AC sextupole magnet. When the vertical chromaticity is modulated by the AC sextupole magnet, the vertical beam collective motion excited by the kicker produces a wavy spatial structure after a number of longitudinal oscillation periods. The radiation spectral distribution was calculated from the wavy bunch parameters at the Hefei Light Source (HLS). When the electron energy is reduced to 400 MeV, extremely strong coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) at 0.115 THz should be produced. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11375176)

  17. Quantities of lead producing health effects in humans: sources and bioavailability.

    PubMed Central

    Mahaffey, K R

    1977-01-01

    Levels of lead ingestion and inhalation producing increased body burden of lead and clinical toxicity in adults and children are compared with usual levels of exposure. The magnitude of lead exposure from air, water, and food is estimated. Sources of high level exposure to lead are described; urban street dirt, house dust, and paint are particularly common sources of high concentrations of lead. The bioavailability of different lead compounds is reviewed as well as factors affecting susceptibility to lead. PMID:908307

  18. [Soft X-ray reflectometer with laser produced plasma source].

    PubMed

    Chen, Bo; Ni, Qi-liang; Cao, Ji-hong

    2005-03-01

    A soft X-ray reflectometor with laser-produced plasma source developed in the authorial lab is presented for the measurements of efficiencies of gratings, transmission of filter and reflectance of multilayer coatings. The reflectometer is composed of a soft X-ray laser-produced plasma source, a grazing incidence monochromator with a constant deviation angle, a vacuum chamber, a sample table, a photo-electronic unit and a computer controlling unit. The working wavelength is from 8 to 30 nm and the maximum sample size is 130 mm long by 120 mm wide by 120 mm high. In order to test the performances of the reflectometer, the reflectivity of multilayer coatings was obtained by using this device. The measured results agree well with the theoretical calculation. The reproducibility of measured reflectance is +/-0.6%.

  19. Users manual for doctext: Producing documentation from C source code

    SciTech Connect

    Gropp, W.

    1995-03-01

    One of the major problems that software library writers face, particularly in a research environment, is the generation of documentation. Producing good, professional-quality documentation is tedious and time consuming. Often, no documentation is produced. For many users, however, much of the need for documentation may be satisfied by a brief description of the purpose and use of the routines and their arguments. Even for more complete, hand-generated documentation, this information provides a convenient starting point. We describe here a tool that may be used to generate documentation about programs written in the C language. It uses a structured comment convention that preserves the original C source code and does not require any additional files. The markup language is designed to be an almost invisible structured comment in the C source code, retaining readability in the original source. Documentation in a form suitable for the Unix man program (nroff), LaTeX, and the World Wide Web can be produced.

  20. Evolution of laser-produced Sn extreme ultraviolet source diameter for high-brightness source

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, Amitava E-mail: aroy@barc.gov.in; Arai, Goki; Hara, Hiroyuki; Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Ohashi, Hayato; Sunahara, Atsushi; Li, Bowen; Dunne, Padraig; O'Sullivan, Gerry; Miura, Taisuke; Mocek, Tomas; Endo, Akira

    2014-08-18

    We have investigated the effect of irradiation of solid Sn targets with laser pulses of sub-ns duration and sub-mJ energy on the diameter of the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) emitting region and source conversion efficiency. It was found that an in-band EUV source diameter as low as 18 μm was produced due to the short scale length of a plasma produced by a sub-ns laser. Most of the EUV emission occurs in a narrow region with a plasma density close to the critical density value. Such EUV sources are suitable for high brightness and high repetition rate metrology applications.

  1. Alum affects ammonia-producing microorganisms in poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scientists at the USDA-ARS in Bowling Green, KY and in Fayetteville, AR are working to uncover the microbiology of ammonia production in poultry litter. Poultry litter is a valuable nutrient source for plants and microorganisms that contains high levels of protein, nitrogen, and other minerals. Howe...

  2. Biologically Produced Methane as a Renewable Energy Source.

    PubMed

    Holmes, D E; Smith, J A

    2016-01-01

    Methanogens are a unique group of strictly anaerobic archaea that are more metabolically diverse than previously thought. Traditionally, it was thought that methanogens could only generate methane by coupling the oxidation of products formed by fermentative bacteria with the reduction of CO2. However, it has recently been observed that many methanogens can also use electrons extruded from metal-respiring bacteria, biocathodes, or insoluble electron shuttles as energy sources. Methanogens are found in both human-made and natural environments and are responsible for the production of ∼71% of the global atmospheric methane. Their habitats range from the human digestive tract to hydrothermal vents. Although biologically produced methane can negatively impact the environment if released into the atmosphere, when captured, it can serve as a potent fuel source. The anaerobic digestion of wastes such as animal manure, human sewage, or food waste produces biogas which is composed of ∼60% methane. Methane from biogas can be cleaned to yield purified methane (biomethane) that can be readily incorporated into natural gas pipelines making it a promising renewable energy source. Conventional anaerobic digestion is limited by long retention times, low organics removal efficiencies, and low biogas production rates. Therefore, many studies are being conducted to improve the anaerobic digestion process. Researchers have found that addition of conductive materials and/or electrically active cathodes to anaerobic digesters can stimulate the digestion process and increase methane content of biogas. It is hoped that optimization of anaerobic digesters will make biogas more readily accessible to the average person.

  3. Multicharged iron ions produced by using induction heating vapor source.

    PubMed

    Kato, Yushi; Kubo, Takashi; Muramatsu, Masayuki; Tanaka, Kiyokatsu; Kitagawa, Atsushi; Yoshida, Yoshikazu; Asaji, Toyohisa; Sato, Fuminobu; Iida, Toshiyuki

    2008-02-01

    Multiply charged Fe ions are produced from solid pure material in an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source. We develop an evaporator by using induction heating with an induction coil which is made of bare molybdenum wire partially covered by ceramic beads in vacuum and surrounding and heating directly the pure Fe rod. Heated material has no contact with insulators, so that outgas is minimized. The evaporator is installed around the mirror end plate outside of the ECR plasma with its hole grazing the ECR zone. Helium or argon gas is usually chosen for supporting gas. The multicharged Fe ions up to Fe(13+) are extracted from the opposite side of mirror and against the evaporator, and then multicharged Fe ion beam is formed. We compare production of multicharged iron ions by using this new source with our previous methods.

  4. Laser produced plasma EUV sources for device development and HVM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, David C.; Fomenkov, Igor V.; Lercel, Michael J.; La Fontaine, Bruno M.; Myers, David W.; Brown, Daniel J.; Ershov, Alex I.; Sandstrom, Richard L.; Bykanov, Alexander N.; Vaschenko, Georgiy O.; Böwering, Norbert R.; Das, Palash; Fleurov, Vladimir B.; Zhang, Kevin; Srivastava, Shailendra N.; Ahmad, Imtiaz; Rajyaguru, Chirag; De Dea, Silvia; Dunstan, Wayne J.; Baumgart, Peter; Ishihara, Toshi; Simmons, Rod D.; Jacques, Robert N.; Bergstedt, Robert A.; Porshnev, Peter I.; Wittak, Christian J.; Woolston, Michael R.; Rafac, Robert J.; Grava, Jonathan; Schafgans, Alexander A.; Tao, Yezheng

    2012-03-01

    Laser produced plasma (LPP) systems have been developed as the primary approach for the EUV scanner light source for optical imaging of circuit features at sub-22nm and beyond nodes on the ITRS roadmap. This paper provides a review of development progress and productization status for LPP extreme-ultra-violet (EUV) sources with performance goals targeted to meet specific requirements from leading scanner manufacturers. We present the latest results on exposure power generation, collection, and clean transmission of EUV through the intermediate focus. Semiconductor industry standards for reliability and source availability data are provided. We report on measurements taken using a 5sr normal incidence collector on a production system. The lifetime of the collector mirror is a critical parameter in the development of extreme ultra-violet LPP lithography sources. Deposition of target material as well as sputtering or implantation of incident particles can reduce the reflectivity of the mirror coating during exposure. Debris mitigation techniques are used to inhibit damage from occuring, the protection results of these techniques will be shown over multi-100's of hours.

  5. Producers and Important Dietary Sources of Ochratoxin A and Citrinin

    PubMed Central

    Ostry, Vladimir; Malir, Frantisek; Ruprich, Jiri

    2013-01-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a very important mycotoxin, and its research is focused right now on the new findings of OTA, like being a complete carcinogen, information about OTA producers and new exposure sources of OTA. Citrinin (CIT) is another important mycotoxin, too, and its research turns towards nephrotoxicity. Both additive and synergistic effects have been described in combination with OTA. OTA is produced in foodstuffs by Aspergillus Section Circumdati (Aspergillus ochraceus, A. westerdijkiae, A. steynii) and Aspergillus Section Nigri (Aspergillus carbonarius, A. foetidus, A. lacticoffeatus, A. niger, A. sclerotioniger, A. tubingensis), mostly in subtropical and tropical areas. OTA is produced in foodstuffs by Penicillium verrucosum and P. nordicum, notably in temperate and colder zones. CIT is produced in foodstuffs by Monascus species (Monascus purpureus, M. ruber) and Penicillium species (Penicillium citrinum, P. expansum, P. radicicola, P. verrucosum). OTA was frequently found in foodstuffs of both plant origin (e.g., cereal products, coffee, vegetable, liquorice, raisins, wine) and animal origin (e.g., pork/poultry). CIT was also found in foodstuffs of vegetable origin (e.g., cereals, pomaceous fruits, black olive, roasted nuts, spices), food supplements based on rice fermented with red microfungi Monascus purpureus and in foodstuffs of animal origin (e.g., cheese). PMID:24048364

  6. Influential sources affecting Bangkok adolescent body image perceptions.

    PubMed

    Thianthai, Chulanee

    2006-01-01

    The study of body image-related problems in non-Western countries is still very limited. Thus, this study aims to identify the main influential sources and show how they affect the body image perceptions of Bangkok adolescents. The researcher recruited 400 Thai male and female adolescents in Bangkok, attending high school to freshmen level, ranging from 16-19 years, to participate in this study. Survey questionnaires were distributed to every student and follow-up interviews conducted with 40 students. The findings showed that there are eight main influential sources respectively ranked from the most influential to the least influential: magazines, television, peer group, familial, fashion trend, the opposite gender, self-realization and health knowledge. Similar to those studies conducted in Western countries, more than half of the total percentage was the influence of mass media and peer groups. Bangkok adolescents also internalized Western ideal beauty through these mass media channels. Alike studies conducted in the West, there was similarities in the process of how these influential sources affect Bangkok adolescent body image perception, with the exception of familial source. In conclusion, taking the approach of identifying the main influential sources and understanding how they affect adolescent body image perceptions can help prevent adolescents from having unhealthy views and taking risky measures toward their bodies. More studies conducted in non-Western countries are needed in order to build a cultural sensitive program, catered to the body image problems occurring in adolescents within that particular society.

  7. 40 CFR 60.489a - List of chemicals produced by affected facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false List of chemicals produced by affected..., Reconstruction, or Modification Commenced After November 7, 2006 § 60.489a List of chemicals produced by affected facilities. Process units that produce, as intermediates or final products, chemicals listed in § 60.489...

  8. Producing Curious Affects: Visual Methodology as an Affecting and Conflictual Wunderkammer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staunaes, Dorthe; Kofoed, Jette

    2015-01-01

    Digital video cameras, smartphones, internet and iPads are increasingly used as visual research methods with the purpose of creating an affective corpus of data. Such visual methods are often combined with interviews or observations. Not only are visual methods part of the used research methods, the visual products are used as requisites in…

  9. 30 CFR 550.117 - How does a determination of well producibility affect royalty status?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How does a determination of well producibility affect royalty status? 550.117 Section 550.117 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT... Performance Standards § 550.117 How does a determination of well producibility affect royalty status?...

  10. 30 CFR 550.117 - How does a determination of well producibility affect royalty status?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How does a determination of well producibility affect royalty status? 550.117 Section 550.117 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT... Performance Standards § 550.117 How does a determination of well producibility affect royalty status?...

  11. 30 CFR 550.117 - How does a determination of well producibility affect royalty status?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How does a determination of well producibility affect royalty status? 550.117 Section 550.117 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT... Performance Standards § 550.117 How does a determination of well producibility affect royalty status?...

  12. 40 CFR 60.489a - List of chemicals produced by affected facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false List of chemicals produced by affected... Equipment Leaks of VOC in the Synthetic Organic Chemicals Manufacturing Industry for Which Construction, Reconstruction, or Modification Commenced After November 7, 2006 § 60.489a List of chemicals produced by...

  13. 40 CFR 60.489a - List of chemicals produced by affected facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false List of chemicals produced by affected... Equipment Leaks of VOC in the Synthetic Organic Chemicals Manufacturing Industry for Which Construction, Reconstruction, or Modification Commenced After November 7, 2006 § 60.489a List of chemicals produced by...

  14. 40 CFR 60.489a - List of chemicals produced by affected facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false List of chemicals produced by affected... Equipment Leaks of VOC in the Synthetic Organic Chemicals Manufacturing Industry for Which Construction, Reconstruction, or Modification Commenced After November 7, 2006 § 60.489a List of chemicals produced by...

  15. 40 CFR 60.489a - List of chemicals produced by affected facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false List of chemicals produced by affected... Equipment Leaks of VOC in the Synthetic Organic Chemicals Manufacturing Industry for Which Construction, Reconstruction, or Modification Commenced After November 7, 2006 § 60.489a List of chemicals produced by...

  16. Contamination of produce with human pathogens: sources and solutions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Outbreaks of foodborne illnesses associated with the presence of human pathogens have led to increased concern about the prevalence of pathogens in the environment and the vulnerability of fresh produce to contamination by these pathogens. As the FDA strives to mandate treatments to reduce pathogen...

  17. Inertial confinement fusion method producing line source radiation fluence

    DOEpatents

    Rose, Ronald P.

    1984-01-01

    An inertial confinement fusion method in which target pellets are imploded in sequence by laser light beams or other energy beams at an implosion site which is variable between pellet implosions along a line. The effect of the variability in position of the implosion site along a line is to distribute the radiation fluence in surrounding reactor components as a line source of radiation would do, thereby permitting the utilization of cylindrical geometry in the design of the reactor and internal components.

  18. Factors affecting storage stability of various commercial phytase sources.

    PubMed

    Sulabo, R C; Jones, C K; Tokach, M D; Goodband, R D; Dritz, S S; Campbell, D R; Ratliff, B W; DeRouchey, J M; Nelssen, J L

    2011-12-01

    phytase activity than when phytases were mixed with the vitamin or VTM premixes. Coated phytases stored in any form had greater (P < 0.01) activity retention than the uncoated phytases at all sampling periods. Results indicate that storage stability of commercially available phytases is affected by duration of storage, temperature, product form, coating, and phytase source. Pure products held at 23°C or less were the most stable. In premixes, longer storage times and higher temperatures reduced phytase activity, but coating mitigated some of these negative effects.

  19. Commentary: Advances in Research on Sourcing-Source Credibility and Reliable Processes for Producing Knowledge Claims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinn, Clark A.; Rinehart, Ronald W.

    2016-01-01

    In our commentary on this excellent set of articles on "Sourcing in the Reading Process," we endeavor to synthesize the findings from the seven articles and discuss future research. We discuss significant contributions related to source memory, source evaluation, use of sources in action and belief, integration of information from…

  20. How Focus at Encoding Affects Children's Source Monitoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawley, Stacie L.; Newcombe, Nora S.; Bingman, Hannah

    2010-01-01

    Retention of source information is enhanced by focus on speakers' feelings about statements even though recognition is reduced for both adults and children. However, does any focus on another person lead to enhanced source monitoring, or is a particular kind of focus required? Does other-focus enhance source monitoring, or does self-focus detract…

  1. Sources and Processes Affecting Particulate Matter Pollution over North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L.; Shao, J.; Lu, X.; Zhao, Y.; Gong, S.; Henze, D. K.

    2015-12-01

    Severe fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution over North China has received broad attention worldwide in recent years. Better understanding the sources and processes controlling pollution over this region is of great importance with urgent implications for air quality policy. We will present a four-dimensional variational (4D-Var) data assimilation system using the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model and its adjoint model at 0.25° × 0.3125° horizontal resolution, and apply it to analyze the factors affecting PM2.5 concentrations over North China. Hourly surface observations of PM2.5 and sulfur dioxide (SO2) from the China National Environmental Monitoring Center (CNEMC) can be assimilated into the model to evaluate and constrain aerosol (primary and precursors) emissions. Application of the data assimilation system to the APEC period (the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation summit; 5-11 November 2014) shows that 46% of the PM2.5 pollution reduction during APEC ("The APEC Blue") can be attributed to meteorology conditions and the rest 54% to emission reductions due to strict emission controls. Ammonia emissions are shown to significantly contribute to PM2.5 over North China in the fall. By converting sulfuric acid and nitric acid to longer-lived ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate aerosols, ammonia plays an important role in promoting their regional transport influences. We will also discuss the pathways and mechanisms of external long-range transport influences to the PM2.5 pollution over North China.

  2. HVAC SYSTEMS AS EMISSION SOURCES AFFECTING INDOOR AIR QUALITY: A CRITICAL REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study evaluates heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems as contaminant emission sources that affect indoor air quality (IAQ). Various literature sources and methods for characterizing HVAC emission sources are reviewed. Available methods include in situ test...

  3. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart III of... - Compliance Requirements for Slabstock Foam Production Affected Sources Complying With the Source...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Foam Production Affected Sources Complying With the Source-Wide Emission Limitation 4 Table 4 to... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production Pt. 63, Subpt. III, Table 4 Table 4 to Subpart III of Part 63—Compliance Requirements for Slabstock Foam Production Affected...

  4. Mutagens manufactured in fungal culture may affect DNA/RNA of producing fungi.

    PubMed

    Paterson, R R M; Lima, N

    2009-04-01

    Self-produced mutagens in culture by fungi may affect DNA analysis of the same fungi. This has not been considered previously. Many fungi produce numerous mutagenic secondary metabolites (SM) in culture. There is a paradox of growing fungi in media to produce representative DNA which also support mutagenic SM. This is a crucial issue in developing diagnostic and phylogenetic methods, especially for closely-related fungi. For example, idh gene analysis of the patulin metabolic pathway in fungi can be interpreted as producing some false negative and positive results in terms of possession, or nonpossession, of the gene from mutated strains. The most obvious mycotoxins and fungi to consider in this regard are aflatoxins and Aspergillus, as aflatoxins are the most mutagenic natural compounds. Many other fungi and SM are relevant. Conditions to grow fungi have not been selected to inhibit SM production although relevant data exist. In fact, fungi repair damaged nucleic acid (NA) and are capable of removing toxins by employing transporter proteins. These and NA repair mechanisms could be inhibited by secondary metabolites. Mutagenic effects may involve inhibition of DNA stabilizing enzymes. There may be an equivalent situation for bacteria. Researchers need to devise methods to reduce SM for valid protocols. More work on how mutagens affect the NA of producing fungus in vitro is required. The current review assesses the potential seriousness of the situation with selected papers.

  5. 40 CFR 63.1316 - PET and polystyrene affected sources-emissions control provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers.... Compliance can be based on either organic HAP or TOC. (1) The owner or operator of an affected source...) through (b)(1)(iv) of this section. (i) The owner or operator of an existing affected source with...

  6. 40 CFR 63.5984 - What emission limits must I meet for tire production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... tire production affected sources? 63.5984 Section 63.5984 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources § 63.5984 What emission limits must I...

  7. 40 CFR 63.1320 - PET and polystyrene affected sources-reporting provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false PET and polystyrene affected sources... § 63.1320 PET and polystyrene affected sources—reporting provisions. (a) Except as specified in... PET Affected Sources Using a Dimethyl Terephthalate Process. Owners or operators complying with §...

  8. 40 CFR 63.1319 - PET and polystyrene affected sources-recordkeeping provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false PET and polystyrene affected sources... § 63.1319 PET and polystyrene affected sources—recordkeeping provisions. (a) Except as specified in... demonstrating compliance with the applicability determination procedure for PET affected sources using...

  9. Different carbon sources affect PCB accumulation by marine bivalves.

    PubMed

    Laitano, M V; Silva Barni, M F; Costa, P G; Cledón, M; Fillmann, G; Miglioranza, K S B; Panarello, H O

    2016-02-01

    Pampean creeks were evaluated in the present study as potential land-based sources of PCB marine contamination. Different carbon and nitrogen sources from such creeks were analysed as boosters of PCB bioaccumulation by the filter feeder bivalve Brachidontes rodriguezii and grazer limpet Siphonaria lessoni. Carbon of different source than marine and anthropogenic nitrogen assimilated by organisms were estimated through their C and N isotopic composition. PCB concentration in surface sediments and mollusc samples ranged from 2.68 to 6.46 ng g(-1) (wet weight) and from 1074 to 4583 ng g(-1) lipid, respectively, reflecting a punctual source of PCB contamination related to a landfill area. Thus, despite the low flow of creeks, they should not be underestimated as contamination vectors to the marine environment. On the other hand, mussels PCB bioaccumulation was related with the carbon source uptake which highlights the importance to consider this factor when studying PCB distribution in organisms of coastal systems.

  10. Stable droplet generator for a high brightness laser produced plasma extreme ultraviolet source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinokhodov, A.; Krivokorytov, M.; Sidelnikov, Yu.; Krivtsun, V.; Medvedev, V.; Bushuev, V.; Koshelev, K.; Glushkov, D.; Ellwi, S.

    2016-10-01

    We present the results of the low-melting liquid metal droplets generation based on excited Rayleigh jet breakup. We discuss on the operation of the industrial and in-house designed and manufactured dispensing devices for the droplets generation. Droplet diameter can be varied in the range of 30-90 μm. The working frequency of the droplets, velocity, and the operating temperature were in the ranges of 20-150 kHz, 4-15 m/s, and up to 250 °C, respectively. The standard deviations for the droplet center of mass position both their diameter σ < 1 μm at the distance of 45 mm from the nozzle. Stable operation in the long-term (over 1.5 h) was demonstrated for a wide range of the droplet parameters: diameters, frequencies, and velocities. Physical factors affecting the stability of the generator operation have been identified. The technique for droplet synchronization, allowing using the droplet as a target for laser produced plasma, has been created; in particular, the generator has been successfully used in a high brightness extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light source. The operation with frequency up to 8 kHz was demonstrated as a result of the experimental simulation, which can provide an average brightness of the EUV source up to ˜1.2 kW/mm2 sr.

  11. Does the light source affect the repairability of composite resins?

    PubMed

    Karaman, Emel; Gönülol, Nihan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of the light source on the microshear bond strength of different composite resins repaired with the same substrate. Thirty cylindrical specimens of each composite resin--Filtek Silorane, Filtek Z550 (3M ESPE), Gradia Direct Anterior (GC), and Aelite Posterior (BISCO)--were prepared and light-cured with a QTH light curing unit (LCU). The specimens were aged by thermal cycling and divided into three subgroups according to the light source used--QTH, LED, or PAC (n = 10). They were repaired with the same substrate and a Clearfil Repair Kit (Kuraray). The specimens were light-cured and aged for 1 week in distilled water at 37 °C. The microshear bond strength and failure modes were assessed. There was no significant difference in the microshear bond strength values among the composite resins, except for the Filtek Silorane group that showed significantly lower bond strength values when polymerized with the PAC unit compared to the QTH or LED unit. In conclusion, previously placed dimethacrylate-based composites can be repaired with different light sources; however, if the composite to be repaired is silorane-based, then using a QTH or LED device may be the best option.

  12. Gravitational environment produced by a superconducting magnet affects osteoblast morphology and functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Airong; Zhang, Wei; Weng, Yuanyuan; Tian, Zongcheng; Di, Shengmeng; Yang, Pengfei; Yin, Dachuan; Hu, Lifang; Wang, Zhe; Xu, Huiyun; Shang, Peng

    The aims of this study are to investigate the effects of gravitational environment produced by a superconducting magnet on osteoblast morphology, proliferation and adhesion. A superconducting magnet which can produce large gradient high magnetic field (LGHMF) and provide three apparent gravity levels (0g,1gand2g) was employed to simulate space gravity environment. The effects of LGHMF on osteoblast morphology, proliferation, adhesion and the gene expression of fibronectin and collagen I were detected by scanning electron microscopy, immunocytochemistry, adhesion assays and real time PCR, respectively, after exposure of osteoblasts to LGHMF for 24 h. Osteoblast morphology was affected by LGHMF (0g,1gand2g) and the most evident morphology alteration was observed at 0g condition. Proliferative abilities of MC3T3 and MG-63 cell were affected under LGHMF (0g,1gand2g) conditions compared to control condition. The adhesive abilities of MC3T3 and MG-63 cells to extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins (fibronectin, laminin, collagen IV) were also affected by LGHMF (0g,1gand2g), moreover, the effects of LGHMF on osteoblast adhesion to different ECM proteins were different. Fibronectin gene expression in MG63 cells under zero gravity condition was increased significantly compared to other conditions. Collagen I gene expression in MG-63 and MC3T3 cells was altered by both magnetic field and alerted gravity. The study indicates that the superconducting magnet which can produce LGHMF may be a novel ground-based space gravity simulator and can be used for biological experiment at cellular level.

  13. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Nnnnn of... - Performance Test Requirements for HCl Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 14 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Performance Test Requirements for HCl... Requirements for HCl Production Affected Sources As stated in § 63.9020, you must comply with the following requirements for performance tests for HCl production for each affected source. For each HCl process vent...

  14. Source mechanics for monochromatic icequakes produced during iceberg calving at Columbia Glacier, AK

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Neel, Shad; Pfeffer, W.T.

    2007-01-01

    Seismograms recorded during iceberg calving contain information pertaining to source processes during calving events. However, locally variable material properties may cause signal distortions, known as site and path effects, which must be eliminated prior to commenting on source mechanics. We applied the technique of horizontal/vertical spectral ratios to passive seismic data collected at Columbia Glacier, AK, and found no dominant site or path effects. Rather, monochromatic waveforms generated by calving appear to result from source processes. We hypothesize that a fluid-filled crack source model offers a potential mechanism for observed seismograms produced by calving, and fracture-processes preceding calving.

  15. 40 CFR 63.1400 - Applicability and designation of affected sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Manufacture of... source. The affected source is: (1) The total of all amino/phenolic resin process units (APPU); (2)...

  16. 40 CFR 63.1400 - Applicability and designation of affected sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Manufacture of... source. The affected source is: (1) The total of all amino/phenolic resin process units (APPU); (2)...

  17. HVAC SYSTEMS AS EMISSION SOURCES AFFECTING INDOOR AIR QUALITY: A CRITICAL REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses results of an evaluation of literature on heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems as contaminant emission sources that affect indoor air quality (IAQ). The various literature sources and methods for characterizing HVAC emission sources are re...

  18. 40 CFR 63.1340 - Applicability and designation of affected sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Portland Cement Manufacturing... portland cement plant which is a major source or an area source as defined in § 63.2. (b) The affected... portland cement plant which is a major source; (3) Each raw mill at any portland cement plant which is...

  19. 40 CFR 63.1318 - PET and polystyrene affected sources-testing and compliance demonstration provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false PET and polystyrene affected sources...: Group IV Polymers and Resins § 63.1318 PET and polystyrene affected sources—testing and compliance... not apply and owners or operators are not required to comply with § 63.113. (b) PET affected...

  20. Review of uncertainty sources affecting the long-term predictions of space debris evolutionary models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolado-Perez, J. C.; Pardini, Carmen; Anselmo, Luciano

    2015-08-01

    Since the launch of Sputnik-I in 1957, the amount of space debris in Earth's orbit has increased continuously. Historically, besides abandoned intact objects (spacecraft and orbital stages), the primary sources of space debris in Earth's orbit were (i) accidental and intentional break-ups which produced long-lasting debris and (ii) debris released intentionally during the operation of launch vehicle orbital stages and spacecraft. In the future, fragments generated by collisions are expected to become a significant source as well. In this context, and from a purely mathematical point of view, the orbital debris population in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) should be intrinsically unstable, due to the physics of mutual collisions and the relative ineffectiveness of natural sink mechanisms above~700 km. Therefore, the real question should not be "if", but "when" the exponential growth of the space debris population is supposed to start. From a practical point of view, and in order to answer the previous question, since the end of the 1980's several sophisticated long-term debris evolutionary models have been developed. Unfortunately, the predictions performed with such models, in particular beyond a few decades, are affected by considerable uncertainty. Such uncertainty comes from a relative important number of variables that being either under the partial control or completely out of the control of modellers, introduce a variability on the long-term simulation of the space debris population which cannot be captured with standard Monte Carlo statistics. The objective of this paper is to present and discuss many of the uncertainty sources affecting the long-term predictions done with evolutionary models, in order to serve as a roadmap for the uncertainty and the statistical robustness analysis of the long-term evolution of the space debris population.

  1. High average power, highly brilliant laser-produced plasma source for soft X-ray spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Mantouvalou, Ioanna; Witte, Katharina; Grötzsch, Daniel; Neitzel, Michael; Günther, Sabrina; Baumann, Jonas; Jung, Robert; Stiel, Holger; Kanngiesser, Birgit; Sandner, Wolfgang

    2015-03-01

    In this work, a novel laser-produced plasma source is presented which delivers pulsed broadband soft X-radiation in the range between 100 and 1200 eV. The source was designed in view of long operating hours, high stability, and cost effectiveness. It relies on a rotating and translating metal target and achieves high stability through an on-line monitoring device using a four quadrant extreme ultraviolet diode in a pinhole camera arrangement. The source can be operated with three different laser pulse durations and various target materials and is equipped with two beamlines for simultaneous experiments. Characterization measurements are presented with special emphasis on the source position and emission stability of the source. As a first application, a near edge X-ray absorption fine structure measurement on a thin polyimide foil shows the potential of the source for soft X-ray spectroscopy.

  2. High average power, highly brilliant laser-produced plasma source for soft X-ray spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantouvalou, Ioanna; Witte, Katharina; Grötzsch, Daniel; Neitzel, Michael; Günther, Sabrina; Baumann, Jonas; Jung, Robert; Stiel, Holger; Kanngießer, Birgit; Sandner, Wolfgang

    2015-03-01

    In this work, a novel laser-produced plasma source is presented which delivers pulsed broadband soft X-radiation in the range between 100 and 1200 eV. The source was designed in view of long operating hours, high stability, and cost effectiveness. It relies on a rotating and translating metal target and achieves high stability through an on-line monitoring device using a four quadrant extreme ultraviolet diode in a pinhole camera arrangement. The source can be operated with three different laser pulse durations and various target materials and is equipped with two beamlines for simultaneous experiments. Characterization measurements are presented with special emphasis on the source position and emission stability of the source. As a first application, a near edge X-ray absorption fine structure measurement on a thin polyimide foil shows the potential of the source for soft X-ray spectroscopy.

  3. High average power, highly brilliant laser-produced plasma source for soft X-ray spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Mantouvalou, Ioanna; Grötzsch, Daniel; Neitzel, Michael; Günther, Sabrina; Baumann, Jonas; Kanngießer, Birgit; Witte, Katharina; Jung, Robert; Stiel, Holger; Sandner, Wolfgang

    2015-03-15

    In this work, a novel laser-produced plasma source is presented which delivers pulsed broadband soft X-radiation in the range between 100 and 1200 eV. The source was designed in view of long operating hours, high stability, and cost effectiveness. It relies on a rotating and translating metal target and achieves high stability through an on-line monitoring device using a four quadrant extreme ultraviolet diode in a pinhole camera arrangement. The source can be operated with three different laser pulse durations and various target materials and is equipped with two beamlines for simultaneous experiments. Characterization measurements are presented with special emphasis on the source position and emission stability of the source. As a first application, a near edge X-ray absorption fine structure measurement on a thin polyimide foil shows the potential of the source for soft X-ray spectroscopy.

  4. Salmonellosis outbreaks in the United States due to fresh produce: sources and potential intervention measures.

    PubMed

    Hanning, Irene B; Nutt, J D; Ricke, Steven C

    2009-01-01

    Foodborne Salmonella spp. is a leading cause of foodborne illness in the United States each year. Traditionally, most cases of salmonellosis were thought to originate from meat and poultry products. However, an increasing number of salmonellosis outbreaks are occurring as a result of contaminated produce. Several produce items specifically have been identified in outbreaks, and the ability of Salmonella to attach or internalize into vegetables and fruits may be factors that make these produce items more likely to be sources of Salmonella. In addition, environmental factors including contaminated water sources used to irrigate and wash produce crops have been implicated in a large number of outbreaks. Salmonella is carried by both domesticated and wild animals and can contaminate freshwater by direct or indirect contact. In some cases, direct contact of produce or seeds with contaminated manure or animal wastes can lead to contaminated crops. This review examines outbreaks of Salmonella due to contaminated produce, the potential sources of Salmonella, and possible control measures to prevent contamination of produce.

  5. Irrigation water sources and irrigation application methods used by U.S. plant nursery producers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paudel, Krishna P.; Pandit, Mahesh; Hinson, Roger

    2016-02-01

    We examine irrigation water sources and irrigation methods used by U.S. nursery plant producers using nested multinomial fractional regression models. We use data collected from the National Nursery Survey (2009) to identify effects of different firm and sales characteristics on the fraction of water sources and irrigation methods used. We find that regions, sales of plants types, farm income, and farm age have significant roles in what water source is used. Given the fraction of alternative water sources used, results indicated that use of computer, annual sales, region, and the number of IPM practices adopted play an important role in the choice of irrigation method. Based on the findings from this study, government can provide subsidies to nursery producers in water deficit regions to adopt drip irrigation method or use recycled water or combination of both. Additionally, encouraging farmers to adopt IPM may enhance the use of drip irrigation and recycled water in nursery plant production.

  6. Optimizing laser produced plasmas for efficient extreme ultraviolet and soft X-ray light sources

    SciTech Connect

    Sizyuk, Tatyana; Hassanein, Ahmed

    2014-08-15

    Photon sources produced by laser beams with moderate laser intensities, up to 10{sup 14 }W/cm{sup 2}, are being developed for many industrial applications. The performance requirements for high volume manufacture devices necessitate extensive experimental research supported by theoretical plasma analysis and modeling predictions. We simulated laser produced plasma sources currently being developed for several applications such as extreme ultraviolet lithography using 13.5% ± 1% nm bandwidth, possibly beyond extreme ultraviolet lithography using 6.× nm wavelengths, and water-window microscopy utilizing 2.48 nm (La-α) and 2.88 nm (He-α) emission. We comprehensively modeled plasma evolution from solid/liquid tin, gadolinium, and nitrogen targets as three promising materials for the above described sources, respectively. Results of our analysis for plasma characteristics during the entire course of plasma evolution showed the dependence of source conversion efficiency (CE), i.e., laser energy to photons at the desired wavelength, on plasma electron density gradient. Our results showed that utilizing laser intensities which produce hotter plasma than the optimum emission temperatures allows increasing CE for all considered sources that, however, restricted by the reabsorption processes around the main emission region and this restriction is especially actual for the 6.× nm sources.

  7. Open-source genomic analysis of Shiga-toxin-producing E. coli O104:H4.

    PubMed

    Rohde, Holger; Qin, Junjie; Cui, Yujun; Li, Dongfang; Loman, Nicholas J; Hentschke, Moritz; Chen, Wentong; Pu, Fei; Peng, Yangqing; Li, Junhua; Xi, Feng; Li, Shenghui; Li, Yin; Zhang, Zhaoxi; Yang, Xianwei; Zhao, Meiru; Wang, Peng; Guan, Yuanlin; Cen, Zhong; Zhao, Xiangna; Christner, Martin; Kobbe, Robin; Loos, Sebastian; Oh, Jun; Yang, Liang; Danchin, Antoine; Gao, George F; Song, Yajun; Li, Yingrui; Yang, Huanming; Wang, Jian; Xu, Jianguo; Pallen, Mark J; Wang, Jun; Aepfelbacher, Martin; Yang, Ruifu

    2011-08-25

    An outbreak caused by Shiga-toxin–producing Escherichia coli O104:H4 occurred in Germany in May and June of 2011, with more than 3000 persons infected. Here, we report a cluster of cases associated with a single family and describe an open-source genomic analysis of an isolate from one member of the family. This analysis involved the use of rapid, bench-top DNA sequencing technology, open-source data release, and prompt crowd-sourced analyses. In less than a week, these studies revealed that the outbreak strain belonged to an enteroaggregative E. coli lineage that had acquired genes for Shiga toxin 2 and for antibiotic resistance.

  8. 40 CFR 63.7882 - What site remediation sources at my facility does this subpart affect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., surface impoundment, container, oil-water separator, organic-water separator, or transfer system, as...) Equipment leaks. The affected source is the entire group of equipment components (pumps, valves, etc.)...

  9. 40 CFR 63.11194 - What is the affected source of this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... commence construction. (d) A boiler is a new affected source if you commenced fuel switching from natural gas to solid fossil fuel, biomass, or liquid fuel after June 4, 2010. (e) If you are an owner...

  10. 40 CFR 63.11194 - What is the affected source of this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... commence construction. (d) A boiler is a new affected source if you commenced fuel switching from natural gas to solid fossil fuel, biomass, or liquid fuel after June 4, 2010. (e) If you are an owner...

  11. Location of odor sources and the affected population in Imperial County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, J.L.

    1981-08-01

    This report is divided into four sections. The first two sections contain general background information on Imperial County. The third section is a general discussion of odor sources in Imperial County, and the fourth maps the specific odor sources, the expected areas of perception, and the affected populations. this mapping is done for the Imperial Valley and each of the four Imperial County KGRA's (Known Geothermal Resource Areas) where odor from the development of the geothermal energy may affect population.

  12. Use of Bacteroidales microbial source tracking to monitor fecal contamination in fresh produce production.

    PubMed

    Ravaliya, Kruti; Gentry-Shields, Jennifer; Garcia, Santos; Heredia, Norma; Fabiszewski de Aceituno, Anna; Bartz, Faith E; Leon, Juan S; Jaykus, Lee-Ann

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades, fresh and minimally processed produce items have been associated with an increasing proportion of food-borne illnesses. Most pathogens associated with fresh produce are enteric (fecal) in origin, and contamination can occur anywhere along the farm-to-fork chain. Microbial source tracking (MST) is a tool developed in the environmental microbiology field to identify and quantify the dominant source(s) of fecal contamination. This study investigated the utility of an MST method based on Bacteroidales 16S rRNA gene sequences as a means of identifying potential fecal contamination, and its source, in the fresh produce production environment. The method was applied to rinses of fresh produce, source and irrigation waters, and harvester hand rinses collected over the course of 1 year from nine farms (growing tomatoes, jalapeño peppers, and cantaloupe) in Northern Mexico. Of 174 samples, 39% were positive for a universal Bacteroidales marker (AllBac), including 66% of samples from cantaloupe farms (3.6 log10 genome equivalence copies [GEC]/100 ml), 31% of samples from tomato farms (1.7 log10 GEC/100 ml), and 18% of samples from jalapeño farms (1.5 log10 GEC/100 ml). Of 68 AllBac-positive samples, 46% were positive for one of three human-specific markers, and none were positive for a bovine-specific marker. There was no statistically significant correlation between Bacteroidales and generic Escherichia coli across all samples. This study provides evidence that Bacteroidales markers may serve as alternative indicators for fecal contamination in fresh produce production, allowing for determination of both general contamination and that derived from the human host.

  13. Key determinants affecting sheep wool biodegradation directed by a keratinase-producing Bacillus subtilis recombinant strain.

    PubMed

    Zaghloul, Taha I; Embaby, Amira M; Elmahdy, Ahmed R

    2011-02-01

    OVAT (one variable at a time) approach was applied in this study to screen the most important physicochemical key determinants involved in the process of sheep wool biodegradation. The process was directed by a keratinase-producing Bacillus subtilis DB 100 (p5.2) recombinant strain. Data indicate that, sheep wool could be degraded efficiently in cultures incubated at 30°C, with initial pH of 7 with agitation at 150 rpm. Two times autoclaved alkali treated and undefatted chopped sheep wool is more accessible to biodegradation. B. subtilis recombinant cells could utilize sheep wool as a sole source of carbon and nitrogen. Sheep wool-based modified basal medium II, lacking NH₄Cl and yeast extract, could greatly support the growth of these bacterial cells. Sheep wool biodegradation was conducted efficiently in the absence of kanamycin consequently; high stability of the recombinant plasmid (p5.2) represents a great challenge upon scaling up this process. Three key determinants (sheep wool concentration, incubation time and inoculum size) imposing considerable constraints on the process are highlighted. Sheep wool-based tap water medium and sheep wool-based distilled water medium were formulated in this study. High levels of released end products, produced from sheep wool biodegradation are achieved upon using these two sheep wool-based water media. Data indicate that, sheep wool hydrolysate is rich in some amino acids, such as tyrosine, phenylalanine, lysine, proline, isoleucine, leucine, valine, aspartic acid and glutamic acid. Moreover, the resulting sheep wool hydrolysate contains soluble proteins of high and intermediate molecular weights. The present study demonstrates a feasible, cheap, reproducible, efficient and rapid biotechnological approach towards utilization of raw sheep wool waste through a recombinant bacterium.

  14. 40 CFR 63.54 - Preconstruction review procedures for new affected sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES Requirements for Control Technology Determinations for Major Sources in Accordance With Clean Air... to all other State and local air pollution control agencies having jurisdiction in affected...

  15. 40 CFR 63.54 - Preconstruction review procedures for new affected sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES Requirements for Control Technology Determinations for Major Sources in Accordance With Clean Air... to all other State and local air pollution control agencies having jurisdiction in affected...

  16. 40 CFR 63.54 - Preconstruction review procedures for new affected sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES Requirements for Control Technology Determinations for Major Sources in Accordance With Clean Air... to all other State and local air pollution control agencies having jurisdiction in affected...

  17. 40 CFR 63.54 - Preconstruction review procedures for new affected sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES Requirements for Control Technology Determinations for Major Sources in Accordance With Clean Air... to all other State and local air pollution control agencies having jurisdiction in affected...

  18. 40 CFR 63.1420 - Applicability and designation of affected sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... paragraph (a)(3) of this section, and that is located at a plant site that is a major source. (3) A new... of an affected source. (2) Stormwater managed in segregated sewers. (3) Water from fire-fighting and deluge systems in segregated sewers. (4) Spills. (5) Water from safety showers. (6) Water from testing...

  19. 40 CFR 63.1420 - Applicability and designation of affected sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... paragraph (a)(3) of this section, and that is located at a plant site that is a major source. (3) A new... of an affected source. (2) Stormwater managed in segregated sewers. (3) Water from fire-fighting and deluge systems in segregated sewers. (4) Spills. (5) Water from safety showers. (6) Water from testing...

  20. 40 CFR 63.1420 - Applicability and designation of affected sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... paragraph (a)(3) of this section, and that is located at a plant site that is a major source. (3) A new... of an affected source. (2) Stormwater managed in segregated sewers. (3) Water from fire-fighting and deluge systems in segregated sewers. (4) Spills. (5) Water from safety showers. (6) Water from testing...

  1. 40 CFR 63.1317 - PET and polystyrene affected sources-monitoring provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true PET and polystyrene affected sources-monitoring provisions. 63.1317 Section 63.1317 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 63.1317 PET and polystyrene affected sources—monitoring provisions. Continuous process vents using...

  2. 40 CFR 63.1317 - PET and polystyrene affected sources-monitoring provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false PET and polystyrene affected sources-monitoring provisions. 63.1317 Section 63.1317 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 63.1317 PET and polystyrene affected sources—monitoring provisions. Continuous process vents using...

  3. 40 CFR 63.1320 - PET and polystyrene affected sources-reporting provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true PET and polystyrene affected sources-reporting provisions. 63.1320 Section 63.1320 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 63.1320 PET and polystyrene affected sources—reporting provisions. (a) Except as specified...

  4. 40 CFR 63.1317 - PET and polystyrene affected sources-monitoring provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false PET and polystyrene affected sources-monitoring provisions. 63.1317 Section 63.1317 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... and Resins § 63.1317 PET and polystyrene affected sources—monitoring provisions. Continuous...

  5. 40 CFR 63.1318 - PET and polystyrene affected sources-testing and compliance demonstration provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true PET and polystyrene affected sources-testing and compliance demonstration provisions. 63.1318 Section 63.1318 Protection of Environment...: Group IV Polymers and Resins § 63.1318 PET and polystyrene affected sources—testing and...

  6. 40 CFR 63.1319 - PET and polystyrene affected sources-recordkeeping provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false PET and polystyrene affected sources-recordkeeping provisions. 63.1319 Section 63.1319 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... and Resins § 63.1319 PET and polystyrene affected sources—recordkeeping provisions. (a) Except...

  7. 40 CFR 63.1319 - PET and polystyrene affected sources-recordkeeping provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false PET and polystyrene affected sources-recordkeeping provisions. 63.1319 Section 63.1319 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... and Resins § 63.1319 PET and polystyrene affected sources—recordkeeping provisions. (a) Except...

  8. 40 CFR 63.1319 - PET and polystyrene affected sources-recordkeeping provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true PET and polystyrene affected sources-recordkeeping provisions. 63.1319 Section 63.1319 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 63.1319 PET and polystyrene affected sources—recordkeeping provisions. (a) Except as specified...

  9. 40 CFR 63.1320 - PET and polystyrene affected sources-reporting provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false PET and polystyrene affected sources-reporting provisions. 63.1320 Section 63.1320 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... and Resins § 63.1320 PET and polystyrene affected sources—reporting provisions. (a) Except...

  10. 40 CFR 63.1317 - PET and polystyrene affected sources-monitoring provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true PET and polystyrene affected sources-monitoring provisions. 63.1317 Section 63.1317 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 63.1317 PET and polystyrene affected sources—monitoring provisions. Continuous process vents using...

  11. 40 CFR 63.1318 - PET and polystyrene affected sources-testing and compliance demonstration provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false PET and polystyrene affected sources-testing and compliance demonstration provisions. 63.1318 Section 63.1318 Protection of Environment... Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins § 63.1318 PET and polystyrene affected sources—testing...

  12. 40 CFR 63.1317 - PET and polystyrene affected sources-monitoring provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false PET and polystyrene affected sources-monitoring provisions. 63.1317 Section 63.1317 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... and Resins § 63.1317 PET and polystyrene affected sources—monitoring provisions. Continuous...

  13. 40 CFR 63.1320 - PET and polystyrene affected sources-reporting provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false PET and polystyrene affected sources-reporting provisions. 63.1320 Section 63.1320 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... and Resins § 63.1320 PET and polystyrene affected sources—reporting provisions. (a) Except...

  14. How genetics affects the brain to produce higher-level dysfunctions in myotonic dystrophy type 1.

    PubMed

    Serra, Laura; Petrucci, Antonio; Spanò, Barbara; Torso, Mario; Olivito, Giusy; Lispi, Ludovico; Costanzi-Porrini, Sandro; Giulietti, Giovanni; Koch, Giacomo; Giacanelli, Manlio; Caltagirone, Carlo; Cercignani, Mara; Bozzali, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is a multisystemic disorder dominated by muscular impairment and brain dysfunctions. Although brain damage has previously been demonstrated in DM1, its associations with the genetics and clinical/neuropsychological features of the disease are controversial. This study assessed the differential role of gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) damage in determining higher-level dysfunctions in DM1. Ten patients with genetically confirmed DM1 and 16 healthy How genetics affects the brain to produce higher-level dysfunctions in myotonic dystrophy type 1 matched controls entered the study. The patients underwent a neuropsychological assessment and quantification of CTG triplet expansion. All the subjects underwent MR scanning at 3T, with studies including T1-weighted volumes and diffusion-weighted images. Voxel-based morphometry and tractbased spatial statistics were used for unbiased quantification of regional GM atrophy and WM integrity. The DM1 patients showed widespread involvement of both tissues. The extent of the damage correlated with CTG triplet expansion and cognition. This study supports the idea that genetic abnormalities in DM1mainly target the WM, but GM involvement is also crucial in determining the clinical characteristics of DM1.

  15. Volatile organic compounds of Thai honeys produced from several floral sources by different honey bee species

    PubMed Central

    Pattamayutanon, Praetinee; Angeli, Sergio; Thakeow, Prodpran; Abraham, John; Disayathanoowat, Terd; Chantawannakul, Panuwan

    2017-01-01

    The volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of four monofloral and one multifloral of Thai honeys produced by Apis cerana, Apis dorsata and Apis mellifera were analyzed by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) followed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The floral sources were longan, sunflower, coffee, wild flowers (wild) and lychee. Honey originating from longan had more VOCs than all other floral sources. Sunflower honey had the least numbers of VOCs. cis-Linalool oxide, trans-linalool oxide, ho-trienol, and furan-2,5-dicarbaldehyde were present in all the honeys studied, independent of their floral origin. Interestingly, 2-phenylacetaldehyde was detected in all honey sample except longan honey produced by A. cerana. Thirty-two VOCs were identified as possible floral markers. After validating differences in honey volatiles from different floral sources and honeybee species, the results suggest that differences in quality and quantity of honey volatiles are influenced by both floral source and honeybee species. The group of honey volatiles detected from A. cerana was completely different from those of A. mellifera and A. dorsata. VOCs could therefore be applied as chemical markers of honeys and may reflect preferences of shared floral sources amongst different honeybee species. PMID:28192487

  16. Fresh Produce-Associated Listeriosis Outbreaks, Sources of Concern, Teachable Moments, and Insights.

    PubMed

    Garner, Danisha; Kathariou, Sophia

    2016-02-01

    Foodborne transmission of Listeria monocytogenes was first demonstrated through the investigation of the 1981 Maritime Provinces outbreak involving coleslaw. In the following two decades, most listeriosis outbreaks involved foods of animal origin, e.g., deli meats, hot dogs, and soft cheeses. L. monocytogenes serotype 4b, especially epidemic clones I, II, and Ia, were frequently implicated in these outbreaks. However, since 2008 several outbreaks have been linked to diverse types of fresh produce: sprouts, celery, cantaloupe, stone fruit, and apples. The 2011 cantaloupe-associated outbreak was one of the deadliest foodborne outbreaks in recent U.S. history. This review discusses produce-related outbreaks of listeriosis with a focus on special trends, unusual findings, and potential paradigm shifts. With the exception of sprouts, implicated produce types were novel, and outbreaks were one-time events. Several involved serotype 1/2a, and in the 2011 cantaloupe-associated outbreak, serotype 1/2b was for the first time conclusively linked to a common-source outbreak of invasive listeriosis. Also in this outbreak, for the first time multiple strains were implicated in a common-source outbreak. In 2014, deployment of whole genome sequencing as part of outbreak investigation validated this technique as a pivotal tool for outbreak detection and speedy resolution. In spite of the unusual attributes of produce-related outbreaks, in all but one of the investigated cases (the possible exception being the coleslaw outbreak) contamination was traced to the same sources as those for outbreaks associated with other vehicles (e.g., deli meats), i.e., the processing environment and equipment. The public health impact of farm-level contamination remains uncharacterized. This review highlights knowledge gaps regarding virulence and other potentially unique attributes of produce outbreak strains, the potential for novel fresh produce items to become unexpectedly implicated in outbreaks

  17. About the Extraction of Surface Produced Ions in Negative Ion Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taccogna, Francesco; Minelli, Pierpaolo; Longo, Savino; Capitelli, Mario

    2011-09-01

    The enhancement of extracted negative ion current in cesiated sources is usually explained by the surface production of negative ions. In this contribution, the self-consistent production and transport of H- in the extraction region of a radio-frequency driven negative ion source is modelled by means of a parallel two-dimensional Particle-in-Cell/Monte Carlo Collision simulation. It is shown that the number of surface-produced negative ions extracted is regulated by a potential well developed in front of the plasma grid such that the extracted current does not proportionally increase with the flux of negative ions emitted at the surface.

  18. SOURCES OF STRESS AND RECOVERY AS CONCURRENT PREDICTORS OF THE AFFECT BALANCE OF PATIENTS WITH FIBROMYALGIA.

    PubMed

    González, José Luis; López-López, Almudena; Alonso-Fernández, Miriam; Matías-Pompa, Borja; Ciudad, Noelia; Carnero, Josué Fernández

    2015-12-01

    This study examined sources of stress and recovery in a group of 107 patients with fibromyalgia (M age = 50.4 yr., SD = 11.8), in comparison to a control group of 68 healthy participants (M age = 47.8 yr., SD = 8.1) of equivalent age and marital status. Between-group differences in sources of stress and recovery were examined by means of an independent samples t test. In addition, between-groups differences in the relationship between sources of stress and recovery and affect balance were explored through a multi-group SEM analysis. The results provided evidence in support of the hypothesis that fibromyalgia patients find fewer sources of recovery and that the contribution of such sources for improving their affective well-being is lower than in healthy individuals. Relevant clinical implications were discussed.

  19. 30 CFR 519.415 - How will bonus and royalty credits affect revenues allocated to Gulf producing States?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... affect revenues allocated to Gulf producing States? If bonus and royalty credits issued under Section 104(c) of the Gulf of Mexico Energy Security Act are used to pay bonuses or royalties on leases in the... revenues allocated to Gulf producing States? 519.415 Section 519.415 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF...

  20. Bacterial diversity and composition in major fresh produce growing soils affected by physiochemical properties and geographic locations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microbial diversity of agricultural soils is well documented, but information on leafy green producing soils is limited. Our goal was to assess bacterial composition and diversity in leafy green producing soils using pyrosequencing, and to identify factors affecting bacterial community structures. C...

  1. 30 CFR 219.415 - How will bonus and royalty credits affect revenues allocated to Gulf producing States?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How will bonus and royalty credits affect revenues allocated to Gulf producing States? 219.415 Section 219.415 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT... allocated to Gulf producing States? If bonus and royalty credits issued under Section 104(c) of the Gulf...

  2. Nitrogen Isotope Composition of Thermally Produced NOx from Various Fossil-Fuel Combustion Sources.

    PubMed

    Walters, Wendell W; Tharp, Bruce D; Fang, Huan; Kozak, Brian J; Michalski, Greg

    2015-10-06

    The nitrogen stable isotope composition of NOx (δ(15)N-NOx) may be a useful indicator for NOx source partitioning, which would help constrain NOx source contributions in nitrogen deposition studies. However, there is large uncertainty in the δ(15)N-NOx values for anthropogenic sources other than on-road vehicles and coal-fired energy generating units. To this end, this study presents a broad analysis of δ(15)N-NOx from several fossil-fuel combustion sources that includes: airplanes, gasoline-powered vehicles not equipped with a three-way catalytic converter, lawn equipment, utility vehicles, urban buses, semitrucks, residential gas furnaces, and natural-gas-fired power plants. A relatively large range of δ(15)N-NOx values was measured from -28.1‰ to 8.5‰ for individual exhaust/flue samples that generally tended to be negative due to the kinetic isotope effect associated with thermal NOx production. A negative correlation between NOx concentrations and δ(15)N-NOx for fossil-fuel combustion sources equipped with selective catalytic reducers was observed, suggesting that the catalytic reduction of NOx increases δ(15)N-NOx values relative to the NOx produced through fossil-fuel combustion processes. Combining the δ(15)N-NOx measured in this study with previous published values, a δ(15)N-NOx regional and seasonal isoscape was constructed for the contiguous U.S., which demonstrates seasonal and regional importance of various NOx sources.

  3. Computational Assessment of Naturally Occurring Neutron and Photon Background Radiation Produced by Extraterrestrial Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Thomas Martin; de Wet, Wouter C.; Patton, Bruce W.

    2015-10-28

    In this study, a computational assessment of the variation in terrestrial neutron and photon background from extraterrestrial sources is presented. The motivation of this assessment is to evaluate the practicality of developing a tool or database to estimate background in real time (or near–real time) during an experimental measurement or to even predict the background for future measurements. The extraterrestrial source focused on during this assessment is naturally occurring galactic cosmic rays (GCRs). The MCNP6 transport code was used to perform the computational assessment. However, the GCR source available in MCNP6 was not used. Rather, models developed and maintained by NASA were used to generate the GCR sources. The largest variation in both neutron and photon background spectra was found to be caused by changes in elevation on Earth's surface, which can be as large as an order of magnitude. All other perturbations produced background variations on the order of a factor of 3 or less. The most interesting finding was that ~80% and 50% of terrestrial background neutrons and photons, respectively, are generated by interactions in Earth's surface and other naturally occurring and man-made objects near a detector of particles from extraterrestrial sources and their progeny created in Earth's atmosphere. In conclusion, this assessment shows that it will be difficult to estimate the terrestrial background from extraterrestrial sources without a good understanding of a detector's surroundings. Therefore, estimating or predicting background during a measurement environment like a mobile random search will be difficult.

  4. Retinoid-like compounds produced by phytoplankton affect embryonic development of Xenopus laevis.

    PubMed

    Smutná, M; Priebojová, J; Večerková, J; Hilscherová, K

    2017-04-01

    Teratogenic effects, which were remarkably similar to those induced by retinoic acids, have been seen in wild frogs indicating possible source of retinoids in the environment. Recent studies indicate that some cyanobacterial species can contain teratogenic retinoic acids (RAs) and their analogues. Retinoids are known to regulate important processes such as differentiation, development, and embryogenesis. The study investigated the effects of exudates (extracellular compounds) of two cyanobacteria species with retinoic-like activity and one algae species on embryonic development of amphibians. The retinoid-like activity determined by in vitro reporter gene assay reached 528ng retinoid equivalents (REQ)/L and 1000ng REQ/L in exudates of Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii and Microcystis aeruginosa, respectively, while algal exudates showed no detectable activity. Total mean of retinoid-like copounds into exudate was 35.6ng ATRA/mil.cells for M.aeruginosa and 6.71ng ATRA/mil.cells for C.raciborskii, respectively. Toxicity tests with amphibian embryos up to 96h of development were carried out according to the standard guide for the Frog Embryo Teratogenesis Assay Xenopus. Lowest observed effect concentrations (LOEC) of malformations (2.5-2.6µg/L REQ) were two times lower than LOEC for ATRA (5µg/L). The exudates of both cyanobacteria were indeed provoking diverse teratogenic effects (e.g. tail, gut and eyes deformation) and interference with growth in frogs embryos, while such effects were not observed for the algae. Xenopus embryos were also exposed to all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) in concentration range (1-40µg/L) equivalent to the REQs detected in cyanobacterial exudates. ATRA (10µg/L) caused similar teratogenic phenotypes at corresponding REQs as cyanobacterial exudates. The study confirms the ability of some species of cyanobacteria to produce retinoids naturally and excrete them directly into the environment at concentrations which might have adverse influence on

  5. Method and source for producing a high concentration of positively charged molecular hydrogen or deuterium ions

    DOEpatents

    Ehlers, Kenneth W.; Leung, Ka-Ngo

    1988-01-01

    A high concentration of positive molecular ions of hydrogen or deuterium gas is extracted from a positive ion source having a short path length of extracted ions, relative to the mean free path of the gas molecules, to minimize the production of other ion species by collision between the positive ions and gas molecules. The ion source has arrays of permanent magnets to produce a multi-cusp magnetic field in regions remote from the plasma grid and the electron emitters, for largely confining the plasma to the space therebetween. The ion source has a chamber which is short in length, relative to its transverse dimensions, and the electron emitters are at an even shorter distance from the plasma grid, which contains one or more extraction apertures.

  6. Secondary photon fields produced in accelerator-based sources for neutron generation.

    PubMed

    Agosteo, S; Cesana, A; Garlati, L; Pola, A; Terrani, M

    2005-01-01

    Neutrons can be produced with low-energy ion accelerators for many applications, such as the characterisation of neutron detectors, the irradiation of biological samples and the study of the radiation damage in electronic devices. Moreover, accelerator-based neutron sources are under development for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). Thin targets are used for generating monoenergetic neutrons, while thick targets are usually employed for producing more intense neutron fields. The associated photon field produced by the target nuclei may have a strong influence on the application under study. For instance, these photons can play a fundamental role in the design of an accelerator-based neutron source for BNCT. This work focuses on the measurement of the photon field associated with neutrons that are produced by 4.0-6.8 MeV protons striking both a thin 7LiF target (for generating monoenergetic neutrons) and a thick beryllium target. In both cases, very intense photon fields are generated with energy distribution extending up to several MeV.

  7. Identification of the sources of nitrous oxide produced by oxidative and reductive processes in Nitrosomonas europaea

    PubMed Central

    Ritchie, G. A. F.; Nicholas, D. J. D.

    1972-01-01

    1. Cells of Nitrosomonas europaea produced N2O during the oxidation of ammonia and hydroxylamine. 2. The end-product of ammonia oxidation, nitrite, was the predominant source of N2O in cells. 3. Cells also produced N2O, but not N2 gas, by the reduction of nitrite under anaerobic conditions. 4. Hydroxylamine was oxidized by cell-free extracts to yield nitrite and N2O aerobically, but to yield N2O and NO anaerobically. 5. Cell extracts reduced nitrite both aerobically and anaerobically to NO and N2O with hydroxylamine as an electron donor. 6. The relative amounts of NO and N2O produced during hydroxylamine oxidation and/or nitrite reduction are dependent on the type of artificial electron acceptor utilized. 7. Partially purified hydroxylamine oxidase retained nitrite reductase activity but cytochrome oxidase was absent. 8. There is a close association of hydroxylamine oxidase and nitrite reductase activities in purified preparations. PMID:5073730

  8. Emission properties of tin droplets laser-produced-plasma light sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hong; Wang, Xinbing; Zuo, Duluo; Lu, Peixiang; Zhu, Haihong; Wu, Tao

    2014-04-01

    Laser produced plasma (LPP) light sources for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography currently has been extensively studied. Most of the studies are based on CO2 laser induced plasma from mass limited tin targets. In this work, a droplet dispenser that produces uniform droplets size of about 150μm was established. A pulsed TEA-CO2 laser and a Nd: YAG laser irradiated the droplets producing plasma respectively to get EUV emission. An X-ray Spectrometer and EUV photodiodes were used to collect the spectra and EUV radiation. The different EUV spectral composition and angular distribution of EUV emission from plasmas induced by the CO2 and Nd: YAG laser were studied.

  9. 40 CFR 63.5988 - What emission limitations must I meet for puncture sealant application affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... for puncture sealant application affected sources? 63.5988 Section 63.5988 Protection of Environment... Tire Manufacturing Emission Limitations for Puncture Sealant Application Affected Sources § 63.5988 What emission limitations must I meet for puncture sealant application affected sources? (a) You...

  10. 40 CFR 63.5988 - What emission limitations must I meet for puncture sealant application affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for puncture sealant application affected sources? 63.5988 Section 63.5988 Protection of Environment... Tire Manufacturing Emission Limitations for Puncture Sealant Application Affected Sources § 63.5988 What emission limitations must I meet for puncture sealant application affected sources? (a) You...

  11. 40 CFR 63.5987 - What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire cord production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the emission limits for tire cord production affected sources? 63.5987 Section 63.5987 Protection of... Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources § 63.5987 What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire cord production affected sources?...

  12. Development of a compact laser-produced plasma soft X-ray source for radiobiology experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adjei, Daniel; Ayele, Mesfin Getachew; Wachulak, Przemyslaw; Bartnik, Andrzej; Wegrzynski, Łukasz; Fiedorowicz, Henryk; Vyšín, Luděk; Wiechec, Anna; Lekki, Janusz; Kwiatek, Wojciech M.; Pina, Ladislav; Davídková, Marie; Juha, Libor

    2015-12-01

    A desk-top laser-produced plasma (LPP) source of soft X-rays (SXR) has been developed for radiobiology research. The source is based on a double-stream gas puff target, irradiated with the focused beam of a commercial Nd:YAG laser. The source has been optimized to get a maximum photon emission from LPP in the X-ray "water window" spectral wavelength range from 2.3 nm (i.e., an absorption edge of oxygen) to 4.4 nm (i.e., an absorption edge of carbon) (280-540 eV in photon energy units) by using argon gas-puff target and spectral filtering by free-standing thin foils. The present source delivers nanosecond pulses of soft X-rays at a fluence of about 4.2 × 103 photons/μm2/pulse on a sample placed inside the vacuum chamber. In this paper, the source design, radiation output characterization measurements and initial irradiation experiments are described. The source can be useful in addressing observations related to biomolecular, cellular and organisms' sensitivity to pulsed radiation in the "water window", where carbon atoms absorb X-rays more strongly than the oxygen, mostly present in water. The combination of the SXR source and the radiobiology irradiation layout, reported in this article, make possible a systematic investigation of relationships between direct and indirect action of ionizing radiation, an increase of a local dose in carbon-rich compartments of the cell (e.g., lipid membranes), an experimental estimation of a particular role of the Auger effect (in particular in carbon atoms) in the damage to biological systems, and the study of ionization/excitation-density (LET - Linear Energy Transfer) and dose-rate effects in radiobiology.

  13. Factors affecting life cycle assessment of milk produced on 6 Mediterranean buffalo farms.

    PubMed

    Pirlo, G; Carè, S; Fantin, V; Falconi, F; Buttol, P; Terzano, G M; Masoni, P; Pacelli, C

    2014-10-01

    This study quantifies the environmental impact of milk production of Italian Mediterranean buffaloes and points out the farm characteristics that mainly affect their environmental performance. Life cycle assessment was applied in a sample of 6 farms. The functional unit was 1 kg of normalized buffalo milk (LBN), with a reference milk fat and protein content of 8.3 and 4.73%, respectively. The system boundaries included the agricultural phase of the buffalo milk chain from cradle to farm gate. An economic criterion was adopted to allocate the impacts on milk production. Impact categories investigated were global warming (GW), abiotic depletion (AD), photochemical ozone formation (PO), acidification (AC), and eutrophication (EU). The contribution to the total results of the following farm activities were investigated: (1) on-farm energy consumption, (2) manure management, (3) manure application, (4) on-farm feed production (comprising production and application of chemical fertilizers and pesticides), (5) purchased feed production, (6) enteric fermentation, and (7) transport of purchased feeds, chemical fertilizers, and pesticides from producers to farms. Global warming associated with 1 kg of LBN resulted in 5.07 kg of CO₂ Eq [coefficient of variation (CV)=21.9%], AD was 3.5 × 10(-3) kg of Sb Eq (CV=51.7%), PO was 6.8 × 10(-4) kg of C₂H₄ Eq (CV=28.8%), AC was 6.5 × 10(-2) kg of SO₂ Eq (CV=30.3%), and EU was 3.3 × 10(-2) kg of PO₄(3-) Eq (CV=36.5%). The contribution of enteric fermentation and manure application to GW is 37 and 20%, respectively; on-farm consumption, on-farm feed production, and purchased feed production are the main contributors to AD; about 70% of PO is due to enteric fermentation; manure management and manure application are responsible for 55 and 25% of AC and 25 and 55% of EU, respectively. Methane and N₂O are responsible for 44 and 43% of GW, respectively. Crude oil consumption is responsible for about 72% of AD; contribution of

  14. Characterization of Biosurfactant Produced during Degradation of Hydrocarbons Using Crude Oil As Sole Source of Carbon

    PubMed Central

    Patowary, Kaustuvmani; Patowary, Rupshikha; Kalita, Mohan C.; Deka, Suresh

    2017-01-01

    Production and spillage of petroleum hydrocarbons which is the most versatile energy resource causes disastrous environmental pollution. Elevated oil degrading performance from microorganisms is demanded for successful microbial remediation of those toxic pollutants. The employment of biosurfactant-producing and hydrocarbon-utilizing microbes enhances the effectiveness of bioremediation as biosurfactant plays a key role by making hydrocarbons bio-available for degradation. The present study aimed the isolation of a potent biosurfactant producing indigenous bacteria which can be employed for crude oil remediation, along with the characterization of the biosurfactant produced during crude oil biodegradation. A potent bacterial strain Pseudomonas aeruginosa PG1 (identified by 16s rDNA sequencing) was isolated from hydrocarbon contaminated soil that could efficiently produce biosurfactant by utilizing crude oil components as the carbon source, thereby leading to the enhanced degradation of the petroleum hydrocarbons. Strain PG1 could degrade 81.8% of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) after 5 weeks of culture when grown in mineral salt media (MSM) supplemented with 2% (v/v) crude oil as the sole carbon source. GCMS analysis of the treated crude oil samples revealed that P. aeruginosa PG1 could potentially degrade various hydrocarbon contents including various PAHs present in the crude oil. Biosurfactant produced by strain PG1 in the course of crude oil degradation, promotes the reduction of surface tension (ST) of the culture medium from 51.8 to 29.6 mN m−1, with the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of 56 mg L−1. FTIR, LC-MS, and SEM-EDS studies revealed that the biosurfactant is a rhamnolipid comprising of both mono and di rhamnolipid congeners. The biosurfactant did not exhibit any cytotoxic effect to mouse L292 fibroblastic cell line, however, strong antibiotic activity against some pathogenic bacteria and fungus was observed. PMID:28275373

  15. Characterization of Biosurfactant Produced during Degradation of Hydrocarbons Using Crude Oil As Sole Source of Carbon.

    PubMed

    Patowary, Kaustuvmani; Patowary, Rupshikha; Kalita, Mohan C; Deka, Suresh

    2017-01-01

    Production and spillage of petroleum hydrocarbons which is the most versatile energy resource causes disastrous environmental pollution. Elevated oil degrading performance from microorganisms is demanded for successful microbial remediation of those toxic pollutants. The employment of biosurfactant-producing and hydrocarbon-utilizing microbes enhances the effectiveness of bioremediation as biosurfactant plays a key role by making hydrocarbons bio-available for degradation. The present study aimed the isolation of a potent biosurfactant producing indigenous bacteria which can be employed for crude oil remediation, along with the characterization of the biosurfactant produced during crude oil biodegradation. A potent bacterial strain Pseudomonas aeruginosa PG1 (identified by 16s rDNA sequencing) was isolated from hydrocarbon contaminated soil that could efficiently produce biosurfactant by utilizing crude oil components as the carbon source, thereby leading to the enhanced degradation of the petroleum hydrocarbons. Strain PG1 could degrade 81.8% of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) after 5 weeks of culture when grown in mineral salt media (MSM) supplemented with 2% (v/v) crude oil as the sole carbon source. GCMS analysis of the treated crude oil samples revealed that P. aeruginosa PG1 could potentially degrade various hydrocarbon contents including various PAHs present in the crude oil. Biosurfactant produced by strain PG1 in the course of crude oil degradation, promotes the reduction of surface tension (ST) of the culture medium from 51.8 to 29.6 mN m(-1), with the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of 56 mg L(-1). FTIR, LC-MS, and SEM-EDS studies revealed that the biosurfactant is a rhamnolipid comprising of both mono and di rhamnolipid congeners. The biosurfactant did not exhibit any cytotoxic effect to mouse L292 fibroblastic cell line, however, strong antibiotic activity against some pathogenic bacteria and fungus was observed.

  16. A Soft X-Ray/EUV Reflectometer Based on a Laser Produced Plasma Source.

    PubMed

    Gullikson, E M; Underwood, J H; Batson, P C; Nikitin, V

    1992-01-01

    A soft x-ray reflectometer is described which is based on a laser-produced plasma source and is continuously tunable over the range 40 Å < λ < 400 Å. The source is produced by focusing 0.532-μm light from a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser on a solid target. The x-ray wavelength is defined using a high throughput spherical grating monochromator with moderate resolving power (λ/Δλ ≈ 100 to 500). A time-averaged monochromatized flux of more than 109 photons/s in a 1% bandwidth at 100 eV is obtained. Photon "shot noise" limited measurements are obtained by the use of an I0 detector to normalize out the shot-to-shot variations in source intensity. Measurements with submillimeter spot sizes are readily obtainable. Various detectors have been used and the advantages and disadvantages of each are discussed. The higher order contamination of the monochromator output has been analyzed using a second grating for the purpose of making measurement corrections. The reflectometer thus provides the capability for precision absolute measurements of the reflectance of gratings and multilayer mirrors, the transmittance of thin film filters, or other properties of x-ray optical elements.

  17. Studies of extreme ultraviolet emission from laser produced plasmas, as sources for next generation lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cummins, Thomas

    The work presented in this thesis is primarily concerned with the optimisation of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) photoemission around 13.5 nm, from laser produced tin (Sn) plasmas. EUV lithography has been identified as the leading next generation technology to take over from the current optical lithography systems, due to its potential of printing smaller feature sizes on integrated circuits. Many of the problems hindering the implementation of EUV lithography for high volume manufacturing have been overcome during the past 20 years of development. However, the lack of source power is a major concern for realising EUV lithography and remains a major roadblock that must be overcome. Therefore in order to optimise and improve the EUV emission from Sn laser plasma sources, many parameters contributing to the make-up of an EUV source are investigated. Chapter 3 presents the results of varying several different experimental parameters on the EUV emission from Sn laser plasmas. Several of the laser parameters including the energy, gas mixture, focusing lens position and angle of incidence are changed, while their effect on the EUV emission is studied. Double laser pulse experiments are also carried out by creating plasma targets for the main laser pulse to interact with. The resulting emission is compared to that of a single laser pulse on solid Sn. Chapter 4 investigates tailoring the CO2 laser pulse duration to improve the efficiency of an EUV source set-up. In doing so a new technique for shortening the time duration of the pulse is described. The direct effects of shortening the CO2 laser pulse duration on the EUV emission from Sn are then studied and shown to improve the efficiency of the source. In Chapter 5 a new plasma target type is studied and compared to the previous dual laser experiments. Laser produced colliding plasma jet targets form a new plasma layer, with densities that can be optimised for re-heating with the main CO2 laser pulse. Chapter 6 will present

  18. Affective and Behavioural Variables: Reforms as Experiments to Produce a Civil Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitz-Gibbon, Carol T.

    2006-01-01

    Affective and behavioural indicators of the effects of schooling, and of other interventions, might be more important than cognitive indicators, particularly in the long run and considering the urgent need for civil societies. Examples are provided of the statistical properties of affective and behavioural indicators, and of their current use in…

  19. Regulatory Issues Affecting Management of Produced Water from Coal Bed Methane Wells

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, John A.

    2003-03-03

    This paper describes the existing national discharge regulations, the ways in which CBM produced water is currently being managed, the current CBM discharge permitting practices, and how these options might change as the volume of produced water increases because of the many new wells being developed.

  20. Computational Assessment of Naturally Occurring Neutron and Photon Background Radiation Produced by Extraterrestrial Sources

    DOE PAGES

    Miller, Thomas Martin; de Wet, Wouter C.; Patton, Bruce W.

    2015-10-28

    In this study, a computational assessment of the variation in terrestrial neutron and photon background from extraterrestrial sources is presented. The motivation of this assessment is to evaluate the practicality of developing a tool or database to estimate background in real time (or near–real time) during an experimental measurement or to even predict the background for future measurements. The extraterrestrial source focused on during this assessment is naturally occurring galactic cosmic rays (GCRs). The MCNP6 transport code was used to perform the computational assessment. However, the GCR source available in MCNP6 was not used. Rather, models developed and maintained bymore » NASA were used to generate the GCR sources. The largest variation in both neutron and photon background spectra was found to be caused by changes in elevation on Earth's surface, which can be as large as an order of magnitude. All other perturbations produced background variations on the order of a factor of 3 or less. The most interesting finding was that ~80% and 50% of terrestrial background neutrons and photons, respectively, are generated by interactions in Earth's surface and other naturally occurring and man-made objects near a detector of particles from extraterrestrial sources and their progeny created in Earth's atmosphere. In conclusion, this assessment shows that it will be difficult to estimate the terrestrial background from extraterrestrial sources without a good understanding of a detector's surroundings. Therefore, estimating or predicting background during a measurement environment like a mobile random search will be difficult.« less

  1. Development of liquid-jet laser-produced plasma light source for EUV lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, Tamotsu; Suganuma, Takashi; Imai, Yousuke; Sugimoto, Yukihiko; Someya, Hiroshi; Hoshino, Hideo; Soumagne, Georg; Komori, Hiroshi; Mizoguchi, Hakaru; Endo, Akira; Toyoda, Koichi

    2003-06-01

    The Extreme UV Lithography System Development Association (EUVA) was established in Japan in May 2002 and is supported by the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI). EUVA started the light soruce development in September 2002. This development is done by the assocaition members Gigaphoton, Ushio, Komatsu, Canon, Nikon, the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Sciecne and Technology (AIST) and several Japanese universities. The target of the four-year project is the development of a EUV light source with 10W clean focus point power. For the end of the fiscal year 2003 the development of a 4W EUV light source (clean focus point power) is planned. Both, Laser-Produced-Plasma (LPP) and Discharge-Produced-Plasma (DPP) EUV light sources are investigated at first. Our group at the EUVA Hiratsuka R&D Center is working on LPP sources. We are currently focusing on the development of a driver laser and a liquid Xenon plasma target. The laser is a Nd:YAG MOPA (Master Oscillator and Power Amplifier) system oscillating at 1064 nm. Average power, repetition rate and pulse duration of the laser system are 500 Watt, 10 kHa and 30nsec, respectively. The Xenon liquefication system operates at a maximum pressure of 5MPa and a temperature range between 160 K and 190 K. The pressure inside the vacuum chamber is below 0.1Pa during system operation. This paper presents the current status of the EUV system component development as well as first experimental results of generated EUV radiation.

  2. Synchrotron threshold photoelectron photoion coincidence spectroscopy of radicals produced in a pyrolysis source: The methyl radical

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yupeng; Wu, Xiangkun; Tang, Xiaofeng; Wen, Zuoying; Liu, Fuyi; Zhou, Xiaoguo; Zhang, Weijun

    2016-11-01

    We present here a flash pyrolysis source coupled with a threshold photoelectron photoion coincidence (TPEPICO) spectrometer and vacuum ultraviolet synchrotron radiation to investigate the spectroscopy and photochemistry of free radicals. The radicals are produced from pyrolysis in a heated silicon carbide tube, and the TPEPICO scheme provides a strategy to obtain pure spectra of the radicals without contamination from other byproducts. As a representative example, the methyl radical was studied, and its threshold photoelectron spectrum shows a series of umbrella vibrational transitions. The adiabatic ionization energy of the methyl radical was determined to be 9.84 ± 0.01 eV.

  3. 40 CFR 63.11112 - What parts of my affected source does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What parts of my affected source does this subpart cover? 63.11112 Section 63.11112 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... the criteria specified in § 63.11111. Pressure/Vacuum vents on gasoline storage tanks and...

  4. 40 CFR 63.11112 - What parts of my affected source does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 14 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What parts of my affected source does this subpart cover? 63.11112 Section 63.11112 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... the criteria specified in § 63.11111. Pressure/Vacuum vents on gasoline storage tanks and...

  5. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Dddddd... - Emission Limits and Standards for New Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... per million by volume (ppmv). Total hydrocarbons All resin types 46 ppmv measured as propane Total... types 0.56 ppmv. Total hydrocarbons All resin types 2.3 ppmv measured as propane Total organic HAP b All... oxygen, dry basis. b Affected sources have the option to comply with either the total hydrocarbon...

  6. 40 CFR 63.3091 - What emission limits must I meet for an existing affected source?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Surface Coating of Automobiles and Light... bonding primer, and glass bonding adhesive operations plus all coatings and thinners, except for deadener... coating operations added to the affected source pursuant to § 63.3082(c) to no more than 0.072 kg/liter...

  7. 40 CFR 63.3091 - What emission limits must I meet for an existing affected source?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Surface Coating of Automobiles and Light... bonding primer, and glass bonding adhesive operations plus all coatings and thinners, except for deadener... coating operations added to the affected source pursuant to § 63.3082(c) to no more than 0.072 kg/liter...

  8. 40 CFR 63.480 - Applicability and designation of affected sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group I Polymers and Resins... organic HAP. The owner or operator of an EPPU that is part of an affected source, as defined in paragraph (a) of this section, but that does not use or manufacture any organic HAP shall comply with...

  9. 40 CFR 63.1318 - PET and polystyrene affected sources-testing and compliance demonstration provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., continuous process vents using a control or recovery device to comply with § 63.1316 shall comply with the... shall calculate organic HAP emissions from the collection of material recovery sections at an existing... of material recovery sections at the affected source. 0.001=Conversion factor, kg to Mg. (i) The...

  10. 40 CFR 63.3300 - Which of my emission sources are affected by this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Paper and Other Web Coating... affected source subject to this subpart is the collection of all web coating lines at your facility. This includes web coating lines engaged in the coating of metal webs that are used in flexible packaging,...

  11. 40 CFR 63.3300 - Which of my emission sources are affected by this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Paper and Other Web Coating... affected source subject to this subpart is the collection of all web coating lines at your facility. This includes web coating lines engaged in the coating of metal webs that are used in flexible packaging,...

  12. 40 CFR 63.3300 - Which of my emission sources are affected by this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Paper and Other Web Coating... affected source subject to this subpart is the collection of all web coating lines at your facility. This includes web coating lines engaged in the coating of metal webs that are used in flexible packaging,...

  13. 40 CFR 63.1400 - Applicability and designation of affected sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... determination include, but are not limited to, records of chemicals purchased for the process, analyses of... leak provisions. Affected sources with actual annual production of amino/phenolic resin equal to or... exemption shall recheck the actual annual production of amino/phenolic resins for each 12-month...

  14. 40 CFR 63.480 - Applicability and designation of affected sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... process stream composition, engineering calculations, or process knowledge. (2) When requested by the... use shall be reported in the Notification of Compliance Status, as required by § 63.506(e)(5)(vii). (7... new affected sources. The determination of predominant use shall be reported in the Notification...

  15. 40 CFR 63.1316 - PET and polystyrene affected sources-emissions control provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... reaction section (including emissions from any equipment used to further recover ethylene glycol, but... process vents in the collection of raw material preparation sections within the affected source by... materials preparation section shall, as a whole, be no greater than 0.04 kg organic HAP per Mg of...

  16. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Jjj of... - Group 1 Storage Vessels at Existing Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... at Existing Affected Sources Vessel capacity(cubic meters) Vapor pressure a (kilopascals) 75≤capacity 151 ≥13.1 151≤capacity ≥5.2 a Maximum true vapor pressure of total organic HAP at storage temperature....

  17. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Jjj of... - Group 1 Storage Vessels at Existing Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... at Existing Affected Sources Vessel capacity(cubic meters) Vapor pressure a (kilopascals) 75≤capacity 151 ≥13.1 151≤capacity ≥5.2 a Maximum true vapor pressure of total organic HAP at storage temperature....

  18. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Jjj of... - Group 1 Storage Vessels at Existing Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Existing Affected Sources Vessel capacity(cubic meters) Vapor pressure a (kilopascals) 75≤capacity 151 ≥13.1 151≤capacity ≥5.2 a Maximum true vapor pressure of total organic HAP at storage temperature....

  19. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Jjj of... - Group 1 Storage Vessels at Existing Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Existing Affected Sources Vessel capacity(cubic meters) Vapor pressure a (kilopascals) 75≤capacity 151 ≥13.1 151≤capacity ≥5.2 a Maximum true vapor pressure of total organic HAP at storage temperature....

  20. 40 CFR 63.480 - Applicability and designation of affected sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... affected sources. 63.480 Section 63.480 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... the impact of the excess emissions on ambient air quality, the environment, and human health; (F) All... event at issue. The analysis shall also specify, using the best monitoring methods and...

  1. Does Specific Instruction during Collecting from Several Sources Affect the Quality of the Written Text Product?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilbig, Annemarie; Proske, Antje

    2014-01-01

    Although academic writing is a complex interplay of comprehending and producing text the aspect of collecting information from source texts is hardly addressed in writing research. This study examined the impact of instructions supporting the collection process on writing quality, as well as the role of prior motivation and computer experience.…

  2. Directed forgetting in the list method affects recognition memory for source.

    PubMed

    Gottlob, Lawrence R; Golding, Jonathan M

    2007-11-01

    The effects of list-method directed forgetting on recognition memory were explored. In Experiment 1 (N = 40), observers were instructed to remember words and their type-cases; in Experiment 2 (N = 80), the instruction was to remember words and their colours. Two lists of 10 words were presented; after the first list, half of the observers (forget) were instructed to forget that list, and the other half (remember) were not given the forget instruction. Recognition of items (words) as well as source (encoding list + case/colour) was measured for forget and remember observers. The forget instruction affected case/colour memory more consistently than item and list memory, a multinomial analysis indicated that source information was affected by the forget instructions. The results indicated that recognition of source information may be a more sensitive indicator of forgetting than recognition of items.

  3. Affective attitudes to face images associated with intracerebral EEG source location before face viewing.

    PubMed

    Pizzagalli, D; Koenig, T; Regard, M; Lehmann, D

    1999-01-01

    We investigated whether different, personality-related affective attitudes are associated with different brain electric field (EEG) sources before any emotional challenge (stimulus exposure). A 27-channel EEG was recorded in 15 subjects during eyes-closed resting. After recording, subjects rated 32 images of human faces for affective appeal. The subjects in the first (i.e., most negative) and fourth (i.e., most positive) quartile of general affective attitude were further analyzed. The EEG data (mean=25+/-4. 8 s/subject) were subjected to frequency-domain model dipole source analysis (FFT-Dipole-Approximation), resulting in 3-dimensional intracerebral source locations and strengths for the delta-theta, alpha, and beta EEG frequency band, and for the full range (1.5-30 Hz) band. Subjects with negative attitude (compared to those with positive attitude) showed the following source locations: more inferior for all frequency bands, more anterior for the delta-theta band, more posterior and more right for the alpha, beta and 1.5-30 Hz bands. One year later, the subjects were asked to rate the face images again. The rating scores for the same face images were highly correlated for all subjects, and original and retest affective mean attitude was highly correlated across subjects. The present results show that subjects with different affective attitudes to face images had different active, cerebral, neural populations in a task-free condition prior to viewing the images. We conclude that the brain functional state which implements affective attitude towards face images as a personality feature exists without elicitors, as a continuously present, dynamic feature of brain functioning.

  4. Functional Stability Of A Mixed Microbial Consortia Producing PHA From Waste Carbon Sources

    SciTech Connect

    David N. Thompson; Erik R. Coats; William A. Smith; Frank J. Loge; Michael P. Wolcott

    2006-04-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), naturally-occurring biological polyesters that are microbially synthesized from a myriad of carbon sources, can be utilized as biodegradable substitutes for petroleum-derived thermoplastics. However, current PHA commercialization schemes are limited by high feedstock costs, the requirement for aseptic reactors, and high separation and purification costs. Bacteria indigenous to municipal waste streams can accumulate large quantities of PHA under environmentally controlled conditions; hence, a potentially more environmentally-effective method of production would utilize these consortia to produce PHAs from inexpensive waste carbon sources. In this study, PHA production was accomplished in sequencing batch bioreactors utilizing mixed microbial consortia from municipal activated sludge as inoculum, in cultures grown on real wastewaters. PHA production averaged 85%, 53%, and 10% of the cell dry weight from methanol-enriched pulp-and-paper mill foul condensate, fermented municipal primary solids, and biodiesel wastewater, respectively. The PHA-producing microbial consortia were examined to explore the microbial community changes that occurred during reactor operations, employing denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of 16S-rDNA from PCR-amplified DNA extracts. Distinctly different communities were observed both between and within wastewaters following enrichment. More importantly, stable functions were maintained despite the differing and contrasting microbial populations.

  5. Method and source for producing a high concentration of positively charged molecular hydrogen or deuterium ions

    DOEpatents

    Ehlers, K.W.; Leung, K.N.

    1983-07-26

    One principal object of the present invention is to provide a novel method and apparatus for generating a high concentration of H/sub 2//sup +/ or D/sub 2//sup +/ ions by using a new and improved multicusp ion source. The basic principle in achieving a high percentage of H/sub 2//sup +/ or D/sub 2//sup +/ ions is to extract them from the source as soon as they are produced. Otherwise they will react with background gas molecules to form tri-atomic ions H/sub 3//sup +/ or D/sub 3//sup +/ or be dissociated by electrons. The former reaction H/sub 2//sup +/ + H/sub 2/ ..-->.. H/sub 3//sup +/ + H can have a very short mean free path length lambda. Assuming a background neutral gas density of approximately 3.3 x 10/sup 13/ cm/sup -3/ and a cross-section sigma of approximately 6 x 10/sup -15/ cm/sup 2/, lambda = (n/sub 0/ sigma)/sup -1/ is estimated to be about 5 cm. Thus the distance traversed by the H/sub 2//sup +/ ion before it arrives at the extractor electrode cannot exceed this value. This in turn sets a limit on the length of the source chamber.

  6. The effects of different sources of occupational stress on affective, motivational, and psychosomatic outcomes

    SciTech Connect

    Ovalle, N.K. II.

    1991-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of role conflict, role ambiguity, and five additional potential sources of occupational stress on an affective outcome (job satisfaction), a motivational outcome (intent to quit), and two psychosomatic outcomes (mental and physical anxiety). In addition to role conflict and role ambiguity, the five additional sources of occupational stress centered on job characteristics, work pressures, rewards and opportunities, interaction of the job and home life, and lack of job challenge. Data were collected from 85 technicians and managers in a service organization. The results of correlation and multiple regression analyses indicated that each of the sources of stress have significant yet different effects on the outcomes. Moreover, role conflict and ambiguity did not have as much of an effect across all outcomes as the other five sources of stress. These findings could be used to improve the measurement, understanding, and treatment of occupational stress. Other implications are discussed. 23 refs., 2 tabs.

  7. 40 CFR 63.5986 - What emission limits must I meet for tire cord production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... tire cord production affected sources? 63.5986 Section 63.5986 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources § 63.5986 What emission limits must...

  8. Direct structuring of solids by EUV radiation from a table-top laser produced plasma source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barkusky, Frank; Bayer, Armin; Peth, Christian; Mann, Klaus

    2009-05-01

    In recent years, technological developments in the area of extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) have experienced great improvements. Currently, the application of EUV radiation apart from microlithography comes more and more into focus. Main goal of our research is to utilize the unique interaction between soft x-ray radiation and matter for probing, modifying, and structuring solid surfaces. In this contribution we present a setup capable of generating and focusing EUV radiation. It consists of a table-top laser-produced plasma source. In order to obtain a small focal spot resulting in high EUV fluence, a modified Schwarzschild objective consisting of two spherical mirrors with Mo/Si multilayer coatings is adapted to this source, simultaneously blocking unwanted out-of-band radiation. By demagnified (10x) imaging of the plasma an EUV spot of 5 μm diameter with a maximum energy density of ~0.72 J/cm² is generated (pulse length 8.8 ns). We present first applications of this integrated source and optics system, demonstrating its potential for high-resolution modification and structuring of solid surfaces. As an example, etch rates for PMMA, PC and PTFE depending on EUV fluences were determined, indicating a linear etch behavior for lower energy densities. In order to investigate changes of the chemical composition of PMMA induced by EUV radiation we present FTIR and NEXAFS measurements on irradiated samples. The latter were performed using the laboratory source tuned to the XUV spectral range around the carbon K-edge (λ ~ 4.4 nm) and a flat-field spectrometer. For showing the potential of this setup, first damage tests were performed on grazing incidence gold mirrors. For these thin Gold films, threshold energy densities could be determined, scaling linear with the film thickness.

  9. Cryosurvival of in vitro produced embryos as affected by health status effect of oocyte donor cow.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, S M; Hajian, M; Asgari, V; Forouzanfar, M; Ostadhosseini, S; Moulavi, F; Abedi, P; Kiani, M; Vash N, N T; Safahani-Langroodi, M; Nasr-Esfahani, M H

    2013-01-01

    In vitro embryo production and embryo vitrification of genetically superior cows that culled inevitably due to health problems can accelerate genetic progress. This study was carried out to investigate whether maternal age and health status effects of high genetic merit cows affect cryosurvival and developmental competence of IVP embryos. In this sense, the effects of ageing and four common culling causes of dairy cows [repeat breeding (RPB), udder problems (UPM), chronic endometritis (CRE), and lameness (LAM)] on in vitro embryo development, and in vivo developmental competence after embryo vitrification were evaluated. The mean number of oocytes obtained per cow did not vary significantly between donors indifferent groups. Cleavage rates in RPB (86.0+/-4.2%), SEN (81.3+/-2.5%) and CRE (77.6+/-6.3%) cows which were comparable to control (95.9+/-1.5%) but were significantly higher than the related rate of UPM donors (50.6+/-2.6%). Importantly, there was no significant difference between the blastocyst rates of different groups. Mean overall survival rate was not different between the groups and was not affected by the blastocyst production rate. There was no significant difference between pregnancy rates of different groups. The results of the present study indicated that in cattle, neither ageing, nor these four diseases affect ovarian potential in terms of the yield and quality of in vitro embryo development.

  10. Origin of Serum Affects Quality of Engineered Tissues Produced by the Self-Assembly Approach

    PubMed Central

    Chabaud, Stéphane; Simard, Melissa; Gendreau, Isabelle; Pouliot, Roxane; Bolduc, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    Despite the emergence of serum-free media for cell culture, the use of serum to supplement the culture media is still essential in order to produce engineered urologic tissues using the self-assembly approach, not only for the stromal compartment but also for the uroepithelium. Effects of sera on thickness of these two compartments were measured and quality of the epithelial differentiation was evaluated. For bladder mucosa substitute reconstruction, the use of postnatal sera failed to produce an adequate uroepithelium whereas the fetal sera supplementation did. Postnatal sera also provided thinner stromal compartments than the one obtained using fetal sera, no matter if the fibroblasts from healthy or psoriatic donors were used to reconstruct human skin substitutes. PMID:27293972

  11. Effects of biological source on cooking and palatability attributes of beef produced for the Japanese market.

    PubMed

    Busboom, J R; Jeremiah, L E; Gibson, L L; Johnson, K A; Gaskins, C T; Reeves, J J; Wright, R W

    1993-01-01

    Boneless beef loin samples from five biological sources (Japanese Wagyu, American Wagyu (3 4 - 7 8 Wagyu), Angus, Longhorn and US Choice) were evaluated for cooking and palatability attributes as shabu-shabu, steaks and roasts. Japanese Wagyu beef was superior in palatability compared to Angus, Longhorn and US Choice beef when prepared as shabu-shabu or as steaks. Very palatable beef was produced for the Japanese market when the Wagyu breed and a controlled, extended feeding period were utilized. The results were more equivocal when the beef was prepared as roasts, but it is unlikely that a substantial demand for roasts will develop in Japan due to high retail costs and traditions in cookery.

  12. Simulation of particle velocity in a laser-produced tin plasma extreme ultraviolet source

    SciTech Connect

    Masnavi, Majid; Nakajima, Mitsuo; Horioka, Kazuhiko; Araghy, Homaira Parchamy; Endo, Akira

    2011-06-15

    In connection with fast heating in a laser produced plasma (LPP) extreme ultraviolet (EUV) source, the superheating behavior of bulk tin (Sn) at high heating rates is investigated. A constant temperature and pressure molecular dynamics simulation using modified Lennard-Jones and Coulomb potentials suitable for studying the liquid structure of Sn is employed in order to derive the caloric curves of the solid and liquid phases. The results have shown transient effects on the phase transitions. Superheating is observed during the melting and vaporizing processes. The velocity distribution of Sn particles against typical laser fluence in a LPP EUV light source has been numerically investigated using a simplified method including a one-dimensional, two-temperature, molecular dynamics, and steady-state ionization model. In the framework of our model, it was found that ejected Sn particles have a maximum velocity on the order of 10 to 40 km/s in plasma created using a nanosecond pre-pulse neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG, 1.06 {mu}m) laser in EUV lithography experiments.

  13. Characteristics of large three-dimensional heaps of particles produced by ballistic deposition from extended sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topic, Nikola; Gallas, Jason A. C.; Pöschel, Thorsten

    2013-11-01

    This paper reports a detailed numerical investigation of the geometrical and structural properties of three-dimensional heaps of particles. Our goal is the characterization of very large heaps produced by ballistic deposition from extended circular dropping areas. First, we provide an in-depth study of the formation of monodisperse heaps of particles. We find very large heaps to contain three new geometrical characteristics: they may display two external angles of repose, one internal angle of repose, and four distinct packing fraction (density) regions. Such features are found to be directly connected with the size of the dropping zone. We derive a differential equation describing the boundary of an unexpected triangular packing fraction zone formed under the dropping area. We investigate the impact that noise during the deposition has on the final heap structure. In addition, we perform two complementary experiments designed to test the robustness of the novel features found. The first experiment considers changes due to polydispersity. The second checks what happens when letting the extended dropping zone to become a point-like source of particles, the more common type of source.

  14. New food sources of essential trace elements produced by biotechnology facilities.

    PubMed

    Mazo, Vladimir K; Gmoshinski, Ivan V; Zorin, Sergey N

    2007-10-01

    Population satiety with trace elements (TE) is a problem that is widely discussed in nutrition science. For optimal nutrition, the form of TE eaten in food is very important. Organic forms of TE in nutrition are appropriate as human metabolism has adapted to these kinds of nutrients during species evolution. This is now considered a reason for the beneficial use of biotechnologically produced TE sources in human food. Advanced matrixes for TE incorporation are unicellular organisms such as yeast, lactobacilli and Spirulina. Addition of inorganic salts at certain concentrations into cultivation media enables the mineral ions to incorporate into the microbial biomass. As a consequence, the biomass becomes enriched with organic forms of incorporated TE, which are presented by their complexes with amino acids, proteins and probably lipids and polysaccharides. In addition, a new direction of research has made good advances, in which technology has been developed for production of organic forms of TE through complex formation between transition metals (zinc, copper, manganese, chromium, iron) with amino acids and peptides formed during enzymatic hydrolysis of food protein. This brief review discusses the results demonstrating the advances in the biotechnological production of new TE sources, to obtain food components destined for wide prophylaxis of TE deficiency or for dietary treatment of the adverse consequences of these deficiencies.

  15. Simulation of particle velocity in a laser-produced tin plasma extreme ultraviolet source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masnavi, Majid; Nakajima, Mitsuo; Horioka, Kazuhiko; Araghy, Homaira Parchamy; Endo, Akira

    2011-06-01

    In connection with fast heating in a laser produced plasma (LPP) extreme ultraviolet (EUV) source, the superheating behavior of bulk tin (Sn) at high heating rates is investigated. A constant temperature and pressure molecular dynamics simulation using modified Lennard-Jones and Coulomb potentials suitable for studying the liquid structure of Sn is employed in order to derive the caloric curves of the solid and liquid phases. The results have shown transient effects on the phase transitions. Superheating is observed during the melting and vaporizing processes. The velocity distribution of Sn particles against typical laser fluence in a LPP EUV light source has been numerically investigated using a simplified method including a one-dimensional, two-temperature, molecular dynamics, and steady-state ionization model. In the framework of our model, it was found that ejected Sn particles have a maximum velocity on the order of 10 to 40 km/s in plasma created using a nanosecond pre-pulse neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG, 1.06 μm) laser in EUV lithography experiments.

  16. Creating Public Awareness of How Goats Are Reared and Milk Produced May Affect Consumer Acceptability.

    PubMed

    Musto, Mauro; Cardinale, Daniele; Lucia, Pietro; Faraone, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated whether showing a video of the different ways of raising goats for milk affected consumer acceptability. Four combinations, 2 Videos (intensive [INT] and semiextensive [SEM] system) × 2 Milk Types (semiskimmed [S] and whole [W] milk), were evaluated by 70 habitual consumers of goat milk, who scored their liking and purchase intention during blind (B), expected (E), and informed (I) acceptability sessions. In the B session, consumers tasted both milk types without information. S samples were preferred over W samples. In the E session, SEM video created high expectations in terms of milk liking and purchase intent, whereas the opposite happened when showing INT video. In the I session, consumers showed a clear preference for combinations created using SEM video, regardless of milk type. W-SEM and S-INT were worse (negative disconfirmation) and better (positive disconfirmation) than expected, respectively. A complete assimilation toward expectations occurred only for S-INT. INT video adversely affected the acceptability of S samples. Concerning purchase intent, W-SEM and S-SEM were worse than expected, but the assimilation was complete only for S-SEM: SEM video increased purchase intent for S samples.

  17. Spatial coherence properties of a compact and ultrafast laser-produced plasma keV x-ray source

    SciTech Connect

    Boschetto, D.; Mourou, G.; Rousse, A.; Mordovanakis, A.; Hou, Bixue; Nees, J.; Kumah, D.; Clarke, R.

    2007-01-01

    The authors use Fresnel diffraction from knife-edges to demonstrate the spatial coherence of a tabletop ultrafast x-ray source produced by laser-plasma interaction. Spatial coherence is achieved in the far field by producing micrometer-scale x-ray spot dimensions. The results show an x-ray source size of 6 {mu}m that leads to a transversal coherence length of 20 {mu}m at a distance of 60 cm from the source. Moreover, they show that the source size is limited by the spatial spread of the absorbed laser energy.

  18. Effects of plasma spatial profile on conversion efficiency of laser produced plasma sources for EUV lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassanein, A.; Sizyuk, V.; Sizyuk, T.; Harilal, S.

    2009-03-01

    Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography devices that use laser produced plasma (LPP), discharge produced plasma (DPP), and hybrid devices need to be optimized to achieve sufficient brightness with minimum debris generation to support the throughput requirements of High-Volume Manufacturing (HVM) lithography exposure tools with long lifetime. Source performance, debris mitigation, and reflector system are all critical to efficient EUV collection and component lifetime. Enhanced integrated models are continued to be developed using HEIGHTS computer package to simulate EUV emission at high power and debris generation and transport in multiple and colliding LPP. A new center for materials under extreme environments (CMUXE) is established to benchmark HEIGHTS models for various EUV related issues. The models being developed and enhanced include, for example, new ideas and parameters of multiple laser beams in different geometrical configurations and with different pre-pulses to maximize EUV production. Recent experimental and theoretical work show large influence of the hydrodynamic processes on EUV generation. The effect of plasma hydrodynamics evolution on the EUV radiation generation was analyzed for planar and spherical geometry of a tin target in LPP devices. The higher efficiency of planar target in comparison to the spherical geometry was explained with better hydrodynamic containment of the heated plasma. This is not the case if the plasma is slightly overheated. Recent experimental results of the conversion efficiency (CE) of LPP are in good agreement with HEIGHTS simulation.

  19. Handbook for the identification, location and investigation of pollution sources affecting ground water

    SciTech Connect

    Oudijk, G.; Mujica, K.

    1989-01-01

    Due to environmental pollution associated with increased urbanization and industrial development in wellhead areas, many public and domestic supply wells are becoming polluted at an ever-increasing rate. To prevent continued pollution of underground drinking water supplies, investigations must be conducted to locate and identify the sources of pollution. To conduct such investigations requires a diverse knowledge of hydrogeology, chemistry, urban planning, industrial and commercial processes, environmental law, and many other disciplines. Groundwater pollution investigations can be subdivided into the following five phases: (1) the background investigation (historical land usage, aerial photographs, pollutant characteristics, local hydrogeology); (2) the field pollution survey (site inspections, initial waste characterization); (3) the site-specific groundwater pollution investigation (monitoring wells, groundwater sampling); (4) data analysis (groundwater elevation contour maps, statistical analysis); and (5) source identification. This process may be used by investigators in order to locate pollution sources affecting aquifers, potable wells, and/or well fields.

  20. Present Status and Future of EUV (Extreme Ultra Violet) Light Source Research 5.Discharge Produced Plasma Light Sources 5.2Technical Issues Regarding the Practical Application and Future Prospects of a Discharge Produced Plasma Sources for Lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Hiroto

    Some important issues for the practical application of a discharge-basedEUV source for lithography are described. Innovative ideas taking into consideration both plasma physics and technological elements such as pulse power, materials, and heat management are required for the solution of key issues. Engineering approaches are described with the development plan of the EUVA. It is necessary to consider the factors relating to the issue as a whole in research and development in order to produce a clean, high power and high quality photon.

  1. Nutritional Factors Affecting the Ratio of Solvents Produced by Clostridium acetobutylicum

    PubMed Central

    Bahl, H.; Gottwald, M.; Kuhn, A.; Rale, V.; Andersch, W.; Gottschalk, G.

    1986-01-01

    Fermentation of whey by Clostridium acetobutylicum yielded butanol and acetone in a ratio of approximately 100:1. This ratio amounted to only 2:1 in synthetic media with glucose, lactose, or glucose plus galactose as substrates. Removal of citrate from whey and addition of minerals resulted in an increase in the amount of acetone produced. Experiments carried out in a chemostat with a low-phosphate synthetic medium revealed that the butanol/acetone ratio could be increased from 2:1 to 3.8:1 by cofermentation of l-lactate and from 2:1 to 8:1 by iron limitation. The performance of the fermentation in a low-iron glucose medium above pH 5.1 yielded l-lactate as the main product. PMID:16347104

  2. Nutritional factors affecting the ratio of solvents produced by Clostridium acetobutylicum

    SciTech Connect

    Bahl, H.; Gottwald, M.; Kuhn, A.; Rale, V.; Andersch, W.; Gottschalk, G.

    1986-07-01

    Fermentation of whey by Clostridium acetobutylicum yielded butanol and acetone in a ratio of approximately 100:1. This ratio amounted to only 2:1 in synthetic media with glucose, lactose, or glucose plus galactose as substrates. Removal of citrate from whey and addition of minerals resulted in an increase in the amount of acetone produced. Experiments carried out in a chemostat with a low-phosphate synthetic medium revealed that the butanol/acetone ratio could be increased from 2:1 to 3.8:1 by cofermentation of L-lactate and from 2:1 to 8:1 by iron limitation. The performance of the fermentation in a low-iron glucose medium above pH 5.1 yielded L-lactate as the main product. 42 references.

  3. Trace elements affect methanogenic activity and diversity in enrichments from subsurface coal bed produced water.

    PubMed

    Unal, Burcu; Perry, Verlin Ryan; Sheth, Mili; Gomez-Alvarez, Vicente; Chin, Kuk-Jeong; Nüsslein, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Microbial methane from coal beds accounts for a significant and growing percentage of natural gas worldwide. Our knowledge of physical and geochemical factors regulating methanogenesis is still in its infancy. We hypothesized that in these closed systems, trace elements (as micronutrients) are a limiting factor for methanogenic growth and activity. Trace elements are essential components of enzymes or cofactors of metabolic pathways associated with methanogenesis. This study examined the effects of eight trace elements (iron, nickel, cobalt, molybdenum, zinc, manganese, boron, and copper) on methane production, on mcrA transcript levels, and on methanogenic community structure in enrichment cultures obtained from coal bed methane (CBM) well produced water samples from the Powder River Basin, Wyoming. Methane production was shown to be limited both by a lack of additional trace elements as well as by the addition of an overly concentrated trace element mixture. Addition of trace elements at concentrations optimized for standard media enhanced methane production by 37%. After 7 days of incubation, the levels of mcrA transcripts in enrichment cultures with trace element amendment were much higher than in cultures without amendment. Transcript levels of mcrA correlated positively with elevated rates of methane production in supplemented enrichments (R(2) = 0.95). Metabolically active methanogens, identified by clone sequences of mcrA mRNA retrieved from enrichment cultures, were closely related to Methanobacterium subterraneum and Methanobacterium formicicum. Enrichment cultures were dominated by M. subterraneum and had slightly higher predicted methanogenic richness, but less diversity than enrichment cultures without amendments. These results suggest that varying concentrations of trace elements in produced water from different subsurface coal wells may cause changing levels of CBM production and alter the composition of the active methanogenic community.

  4. Trace Elements Affect Methanogenic Activity and Diversity in Enrichments from Subsurface Coal Bed Produced Water

    PubMed Central

    Ünal, Burcu; Perry, Verlin Ryan; Sheth, Mili; Gomez-Alvarez, Vicente; Chin, Kuk-Jeong; Nüsslein, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Microbial methane from coal beds accounts for a significant and growing percentage of natural gas worldwide. Our knowledge of physical and geochemical factors regulating methanogenesis is still in its infancy. We hypothesized that in these closed systems, trace elements (as micronutrients) are a limiting factor for methanogenic growth and activity. Trace elements are essential components of enzymes or cofactors of metabolic pathways associated with methanogenesis. This study examined the effects of eight trace elements (iron, nickel, cobalt, molybdenum, zinc, manganese, boron, and copper) on methane production, on mcrA transcript levels, and on methanogenic community structure in enrichment cultures obtained from coal bed methane (CBM) well produced water samples from the Powder River Basin, Wyoming. Methane production was shown to be limited both by a lack of additional trace elements as well as by the addition of an overly concentrated trace element mixture. Addition of trace elements at concentrations optimized for standard media enhanced methane production by 37%. After 7 days of incubation, the levels of mcrA transcripts in enrichment cultures with trace element amendment were much higher than in cultures without amendment. Transcript levels of mcrA correlated positively with elevated rates of methane production in supplemented enrichments (R2 = 0.95). Metabolically active methanogens, identified by clone sequences of mcrA mRNA retrieved from enrichment cultures, were closely related to Methanobacterium subterraneum and Methanobacterium formicicum. Enrichment cultures were dominated by M. subterraneum and had slightly higher predicted methanogenic richness, but less diversity than enrichment cultures without amendments. These results suggest that varying concentrations of trace elements in produced water from different subsurface coal wells may cause changing levels of CBM production and alter the composition of the active methanogenic community. PMID

  5. Factors affecting magnitude and time course of neuromuscular block produced by suxamethonium.

    PubMed

    Vanlinthout, L E; van Egmond, J; de Boo, T; Lerou, J G; Wevers, R A; Booij, L H

    1992-07-01

    This study was designed to identify factors that significantly alter the magnitude and duration of suxamethonium-induced neuromuscular block in patients with an apparently normal genotype for pseudocholinesterase. One hundred and fifty-six adults (ages 18-65 yr) were allocated to 13 subgroups. Patients in each subgroup received suxamethonium 50-2000 micrograms kg-1. The mechanographic response of the adductor pollicis brevis muscle to ulnar nerve stimulation was recorded. The ED50 was found to be 167 micrograms kg-1, ED90 was 316 micrograms kg-1 and ED95 was 392 micrograms kg-1. The duration of action (delta t) was in agreement with earlier published results. The magnitude of block was dose-related and decreased with increasing onset time (ton) and pseudocholinesterase activity (PChA). Neither age nor gender affected the degree of suxamethonium-induced block. Delta t was dose-related, decreased with increasing PChA, and was shorter for women. Age and ton had no effect on delta t.

  6. Factors affecting the adsorption of buchnericin LB, a bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus [correction of Lactocobacillus] buchneri.

    PubMed

    Yildirim, Zeliha; Avşar, Yahya Kemal; Yildirim, Metin

    2002-01-01

    Buchnericin-LB adsorbs to gram-positive but not to gram-negative bacteria. The tested gram-positive bacteria were species of Lactobacillus, Pediococcus, Leuconostoc, Enterococcus, Lactococcus, Listeria, Bacillus, Staphylococcus; gram-negative bacteria belonged to the genera Salmonella, Escherichia, Yersinia and Pseudomonas. Buchnericin-LB adsorption depended on pH but not on time and temperature. Also some anions of salts and lipoteichoic acid reduced or inhibited its adsorption. Treatment of cells and cell walls of sensitive bacteria with detergents, organic solvents or enzymes did not affect subsequent binding of buchnericin-LB. Treatment with buchnericin-LB caused sensitive cells to lose high amounts of intracellular K+ ions and UV-absorbing materials and became more permeable to o-nitrophenol-beta-D-galactopyranoside. Buchnericin-LB (640-2560 AU/ml) decreased the colony forming units (99%) and absorbance values of Listeria monocytogenes and Bacillus cereus. These results indicate that the mode of action of buchnericin-LB is bactericidal and its lethal effect is very rapid.

  7. Electrochemically produced hydrogen peroxide affects Joliot-type oxygen-evolution measurements of photosystem II.

    PubMed

    Pham, Long Vo; Messinger, Johannes

    2014-09-01

    The main technique employed to characterize the efficiency of water-splitting in photosynthetic preparations in terms of miss and double hit parameters and for the determination of Si (i=2,3,0) state lifetimes is the measurement of flash-induced oxygen oscillation pattern on bare platinum (Joliot-type) electrodes. We demonstrate here that this technique is not innocent. Polarization of the electrode against an Ag/AgCl electrode leads to a time-dependent formation of hydrogen peroxide by two-electron reduction of dissolved oxygen continuously supplied by the flow buffer. While the miss and double hit parameters are almost unaffected by H₂O₂, a time dependent reduction of S1 to S₋₁ occurs over a time period of 20 min. The S1 reduction can be largely prevented by adding catalase or by removing O₂ from the flow buffer with N₂. Importantly, we demonstrate that even at the shortest possible polarization times (40s in our set up) the S₂ and S₀ decays are significantly accelerated by the side reaction with H₂O₂. The removal of hydrogen peroxide leads to unperturbed S₂ state data that reveal three instead of the traditionally reported two phases of decay. In addition, even under the best conditions (catalase+N₂; 40s polarization) about 4% of S₋₁ state is observed in well dark-adapted samples, likely indicating limitations of the equal fit approach. This article is part of a special issue entitled: photosynthesis research for sustainability: keys to produce clean energy.

  8. Measurement of Ultracold Neutrons Produced by Using Doppler-shifted Bragg Reflection at a Pulsed-neutron Source

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Brun, T. O.; Carpenter, J. M.; Krohn, V. E.; Ringo, G. R.; Cronin, J. W.; Dombeck, T. W.; Lynn, J. W.; Werner, S. A.

    1979-01-01

    Ultracold neutrons (UCN) have been produced at the Argonne pulsed-neutron source by the Doppler shift of 400-m/s neutrons Bragg reflected from a moving crystal. The peak density of UCN produced at the crystal exceeds 0.1 n/cm{sup 3}.

  9. Production of bromoform and dibromomethane by Giant Kelp: Factors affecting release and comparison to anthropogenic bromine sources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goodwin, K.D.; North, W.J.; Lidstrom, M.E.

    1998-01-01

    Macrocystis pyrifera (Giant Kelp), a dominant macroalgal species in southern California, produced 171 ng per g fresh wt (gfwt) per day of CHBr3 and 48 ng gfwt-1 d-1 of CH2Br2 during laboratory incubations of whole blades. Comparable rates were measured during in situ incubations of intact fronds. Release of CHBr3 and CH2Br2 by M. pyrifera was affected by light and algal photosynthetic activity, suggesting that environmental factors influencing kelp physiology can affect halomethane release to the atmosphere. Data from H2O2 additions suggest that brominated methane production during darkness is limited by bromide oxidant supply. A bromine budget constructed for a region of southern California indicated that bromine emitted from the use of CH3Br as a fumigant (1 x 108 g Br yr-1) dominates macroalgal sources (3 x 106 g Br yr-1). Global projections, however, suggest that combined emissions of marine algae (including microalgae) contribute substantial amounts of bromine to the global cycle, perhaps on the same order of magnitude as anthropogenic sources.

  10. Reducing structural-element salience on a source problem produces later success in analogical transfer: what role does source difficulty play?

    PubMed

    Didierjean, André; Nogry, Sandra

    2004-10-01

    Two experiments in reasoning by analogy were conducted to study the role of inducing source difficulty by reducing the salience of the source's structural elements. Three nonexclusive hypotheses were tested. According to the first, a difficult source problem improves analogical transfer because it increases the probability that the subject will notice the similarity between the source and the target. For example, errors made on both the source and the target can enhance the subject's awareness of the similarity between the two problems. According to the second hypothesis, a source that is difficult to solve is memorized better than an easier source. According to the third, source-problem difficulty affects the degree of abstractness in the representation of the solution elaborated by subjects. Experiment 1 showed that the higher frequency of spontaneous transfer between the source and the target when the source problem was difficult (Gick & McGarry, 1992) could be replicated in a cued-transfer situation. Experiment 2 showed that subjects given a difficult source, one in which the important element was not very salient, were better at categorizing isomorphic problems on the basis of structural features than were subjects given an easy source. The discussion deals with the implications of these results for the hypotheses tested and, more generally, for reasoning by analogy and education in general.

  11. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Mmmmm of... - Operating Limits for New or Reconstructed Flame Lamination Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Reconstructed Flame Lamination Affected Sources 2 Table 2 to Subpart MMMMM of Part 63 Protection of Environment... Subpart MMMMM of Part 63—Operating Limits for New or Reconstructed Flame Lamination Affected Sources As... established during the performance test. 2. Other type of control device to which flame lamination...

  12. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Mmmmm of... - Operating Limits for New or Reconstructed Flame Lamination Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Reconstructed Flame Lamination Affected Sources 2 Table 2 to Subpart MMMMM of Part 63 Protection of Environment... Subpart MMMMM of Part 63—Operating Limits for New or Reconstructed Flame Lamination Affected Sources As... established during the performance test. 2. Other type of control device to which flame lamination...

  13. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Mmmmm of... - Operating Limits for New or Reconstructed Flame Lamination Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Reconstructed Flame Lamination Affected Sources 2 Table 2 to Subpart MMMMM of Part 63 Protection of Environment... Subpart MMMMM of Part 63—Operating Limits for New or Reconstructed Flame Lamination Affected Sources As... established during the performance test. 2. Other type of control device to which flame lamination...

  14. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Mmmmm of... - Operating Limits for New or Reconstructed Flame Lamination Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Reconstructed Flame Lamination Affected Sources 2 Table 2 to Subpart MMMMM of Part 63 Protection of Environment... Subpart MMMMM of Part 63—Operating Limits for New or Reconstructed Flame Lamination Affected Sources As... established during the performance test. 2. Other type of control device to which flame lamination...

  15. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Mmmmm of... - Operating Limits for New or Reconstructed Flame Lamination Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Reconstructed Flame Lamination Affected Sources 2 Table 2 to Subpart MMMMM of Part 63 Protection of Environment... Subpart MMMMM of Part 63—Operating Limits for New or Reconstructed Flame Lamination Affected Sources As... established during the performance test. 2. Other type of control device to which flame lamination...

  16. 40 CFR 63.1345 - Emissions limits for affected sources other than kilns; clinker coolers; new and reconstructed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Emissions limits for affected sources other than kilns; clinker coolers; new and reconstructed raw material dryers. 63.1345 Section 63.1345... and Operating Limits § 63.1345 Emissions limits for affected sources other than kilns; clinker...

  17. 40 CFR 63.1345 - Emissions limits for affected sources other than kilns; clinker coolers; new and reconstructed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Emissions limits for affected sources other than kilns; clinker coolers; new and reconstructed raw material dryers. 63.1345 Section 63.1345... and Operating Limits § 63.1345 Emissions limits for affected sources other than kilns; clinker...

  18. 40 CFR Table 12 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Continuous Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources 12 Table 12 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63 Protection of... Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. XXXX, Table 12 Table 12 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63—Continuous Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources As stated in §...

  19. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Initial Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources 7 Table 7 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63 Protection of... Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. XXXX, Table 7 Table 7 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63—Initial Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources As stated in § 63.5999,...

  20. Dust particle charge screening in the dry-air plasma produced by an external ionization source

    SciTech Connect

    Derbenev, I. N.; Filippov, A. V.

    2015-08-15

    The ionic composition of the plasma produced by an external ionization source in dry air at atmospheric pressure and room temperature and the screening of the electric field of a dust particle in such a plasma have been investigated. The point sink model based on the diffusion-drift approximation has been used to solve the screening problem. We have established that the main species of ions in the plasma under consideration are O{sub 4}{sup +}, O{sub 2}{sup -}, and O{sub 4}{sup -} and that the dust particle potential distribution is described by a superposition of four exponentials with four different constants. We show that the first constant coincides with the inverse Debye length, the second is described by the inverse ambipolar diffusion length of the positive and negative plasma components in the characteristic time of their recombination, the third is determined by the conversion of negative ions, and the fourth is determined by the attachment and recombination of electrons and diatomic ions.

  1. Pre- and postextraction analyses of different charge state ion components produced in a laser ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belloni, F.; Doria, D.; Lorusso, A.; Nassisi, V.; Krasa, J.

    2006-03-01

    Knowledge of the relative abundance and the energy distributions of various ion species produced in laser ablation plasma is essential both in the fundamental physics ground, to understand the thermalization and expansion dynamics of the plasma plume, and in the applied physics ground, to obtain an efficient and versatile ion source. We present measurements and analyses related to such aspects, both for plasma in free expansion and for the extracted ion bunch. In particular, we characterized the former by means of ion current measurements, employing appropriate Faraday cups and electrostatic spectrometers. With regard to the latter, we performed time-of-flight spectrometry and depth profiling of implanted substrates. The extracted bunch signal showed modulation on time of flight due to the presence of multiply charged ions; depth profiling by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy also showed a maximum penetration range and a profile modulation compatible with a multienergetic beam. In these experiments we used ultraviolet excimer lasers, at irradiance values in the range of 0.1-10GW/cm2, to generate plasma from Cu and Al targets. The ion beams were extracted at voltages of tens of kV, dc.

  2. Protein and lipid sources affect cholesterol concentrations of juvenile Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone).

    PubMed

    Cheng, Z J; Hardy, R W

    2004-04-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of protein and lipid sources on cholesterol, AA, and fatty acid content, and on biological performance of juvenile Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone). In Exp. 1, seven isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets were prepared using fish meal; soybean meal; casein; fish meal + soybean meal; fish meal + casein; soybean meal + casein; and fish meal + soybean meal + casein. In Exp. 2, seven isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets were prepared using fish oil; soy oil; poultry fat; fish oil + soy oil; fish oil + poultry fat; soy oil + poultry fat; and fish oil + soy oil + poultry fat. Nine shrimp (average BW 570 mg) were stocked per 60-L tank, with three tanks per diet in each experiment. Shrimp were fed to apparent satiation twice daily for 28 d. Protein sources affected shrimp cholesterol, feed consumption, feed efficiency, protein consumption, protein efficiency ratio, and crude body fat (P < or = 0.05), but not weight gain, survival, hepatosomatic index, body protein, ash, and AA composition. Body (without hepatopancreas) cholesterol concentrations were the highest in shrimp fed the diet containing fish meal (0.81%), lowest for those fed the casein diet (0.64%), and intermediate in the other dietary treatment groups (range 0.71 to 0.74%). Lipid source also affected shrimp body cholesterol, body fatty acid profiles, and fatty acid profiles in the hepatopancreas (P < or = 0.05), but not growth performance, body protein, fat, ash, and cholesterol concentrations in the hepatopancreas. Shrimp fed the fish oil diet had the highest body cholesterol (0.75%), whereas those fed the soy oil or poultry fat diets were lowest (0.66 and 0.65%, respectively). Results indicate that by replacing fish meal and fish oil with soybean meal and soy oil, shrimp growth performance is not affected, but body cholesterol concentration is reduced.

  3. Lysine requirement of broiler chicks as affected by protein source and method of statistical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Barbour, G; Latshaw, J D; Bishop, B

    1993-09-01

    1. An experiment was designed to test if the lysine requirement, expressed as g lysine/kg CP, was the same for several protein sources. 2. Groundnut meal, groundnut meal adjusted with indispensable amino acids or sesame meal supplied the dietary CP at 180 g/kg diet. Increments of lysine (1.5 g/kg diet) were added to each of these diets. 3. The gain, food intake and food efficiency responses of broiler chicks were analysed using a quadratic equation and a two-slope method. An estimate of lysine requirements was also obtained from a survey of college students. 4. The different methods produced widely different estimates of lysine requirement. 5. The average lysine requirement was estimated at 50.1 g lysine/kg CP for groundnut meal, 61.7 for adjusted groundnut meal and 54.9 for sesame meal. 6. Reasons for the effect of statistical analysis and protein source on lysine requirement are discussed.

  4. A survey of processes for producing hydrogen fuel from different sources for automotive-propulsion fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, L.F.

    1996-03-01

    Seven common fuels are compared for their utility as hydrogen sources for proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells used in automotive propulsion. Methanol, natural gas, gasoline, diesel fuel, aviation jet fuel, ethanol, and hydrogen are the fuels considered. Except for the steam reforming of methanol and using pure hydrogen, all processes for generating hydrogen from these fuels require temperatures over 1000 K at some point. With the same two exceptions, all processes require water-gas shift reactors of significant size. All processes require low-sulfur or zero-sulfur fuels, and this may add cost to some of them. Fuels produced by steam reforming contain {approximately}70-80% hydrogen, those by partial oxidation {approximately}35-45%. The lower percentages may adversely affect cell performance. Theoretical input energies do not differ markedly among the various processes for generating hydrogen from organic-chemical fuels. Pure hydrogen has severe distribution and storage problems. As a result, the steam reforming of methanol is the leading candidate process for on-board generation of hydrogen for automotive propulsion. If methanol unavailability or a high price demands an alternative process, steam reforming appears preferable to partial oxidation for this purpose.

  5. Food source affects the expression of vitellogenin and fecundity of a biological control agent, Neoseiulus cucumeris.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yunlong; Li, Dunsong; Zhang, Min; Chen, Wei; Zhang, Guren

    2014-07-01

    Neoseiulus cucumeris (Oudemans) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) is one of the most widely used and important biological control agents for thrips and other small pests worldwide. In the present study, we cloned two cDNAs of vitellogenins (Vgs, NcVg1 and NcVg2) and analyzed the effect of food source on the expression of both Vgs and fecundity in female adults. NcVgs showed higher sequence similarity to Vgs from Parasitiformes. Both neighbor-joining and maximum likelihood methods for phylogenetic analysis of NcVgs yielded similar topologies and showed that the Parasitiformes except Haemaphysalis longicornis segregated into a single clade that was separated into two subclades including one of both Vgs from N. cucumeris. Both transcripts, NcVg1 and NcVg2 revealed similar trends during developmental periods and reached the maximum level at the pre-oviposition period. When fed with different food sources, both NcVg1 and NcVg2 of female adults demonstrated a significant difference (P < 0.05) during the pre-oviposition period. Meanwhile, a positive correlation between the expression of Vgs and fecundity was observed. Therefore, the nutrients provided by the food sources affected fecundity resulting in differential expression of Vgs. Vitellogenin expression can be used as a molecular marker of fecundity of N. cucumeris.

  6. Functions and sources of perceived social support among children affected by HIV/AIDS in China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guoxiang; Li, Xiaoming; Fang, Xiaoyi; Zhao, Junfeng; Hong, Yan; Lin, Xiuyun; Stanton, Bonita

    2011-06-01

    While the relationship between perceived social support (PSS) and psychosocial well-being has been well documented in the global literature, existing studies also suggest the existence of multiple domains in definition and measurement of PSS. The current study, utilizing data from 1299 rural children affected by HIV/AIDS in central China, examines the relative importance of PSS functional measures (informational/emotional, material/tangible, affectionate, and social interaction) and PSS structural measures (family/relatives, teachers, friends, and significant others) in predicting psychosocial outcomes including internalizing problems, externalizing problems, and educational resilience. Both functional and structural measures of PSS provided reliable measures of related but unique aspects of PSS. The findings of the current study confirmed the previous results that PSS is highly correlated with children's psychosocial well-being and such correlations vary by functions and sources of the PSS as well as different psychosocial outcomes. The findings in the current study suggested the roles of specific social support functions or resources may need to be assessed in relation to specific psychosocial outcome and the context of children's lives. The strong association between PSS and psychosocial outcomes underscores the importance of adequate social support to alleviate stressful life events and improve psychosocial well-being of children affected by HIV/AIDS. Meanwhile, the study findings call for gender and developmentally appropriate and situation-specific social support for children and families affected by HIV/AIDS.

  7. Development of a Laser-Produced Plasma X-ray source for Phase-Contrast Radiography of DT Ice layers

    SciTech Connect

    Izumi, N; Dewald, E; Kozioziemski, B; Landen, O L; Koch, J A

    2008-07-21

    Refraction enhanced x-ray phase contrast imaging is crucial for characterization of deuterium-tritium (DT) ice layer roughness in optically opaque inertial confinement fusion capsules. To observe the time development of DT ice roughness over {approx} second timescales, we need a bright x-ray source that can produce an image faster than the evolution of the ice surface roughness. A laser produced plasma x-ray source is one of the candidates that can meet this requirement. We performed experiments at the Janus laser facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and assessed the characteristics of the laser produced plasma x-ray source as a potential backlight for in situ target characterization.

  8. Dietary starch sources affect net portal appearance of amino acids and glucose in growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Li, T-J; Dai, Q-Z; Yin, Y-L; Zhang, J; Huang, R-L; Ruan, Z; Deng, Z; Xie, M

    2008-05-01

    Four male pigs (Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire; average initial (mean ± SEM) BW = 22.5 ± 1.1 kg), fitted with permanent catheters in the portal vein, ileal vein and carotid artery, were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square experimental design to measure the effect of dietary starch sources on the net portal appearance of glucose and amino acids. Dietary starch sources were resistant starch (RS), maize, sticky rice and brown rice. Diets were provided at 0730, 1530 and 2330 h during a 6-day adjustment period and 1-day collection period. On day 7 of each period, blood samples were collected from the portal vein and carotid artery at 0730 h (prior to feeding) and hourly up to 8 h after meal. Blood samples were used to determine glucose, amino acid, packed cell volume and partial pressure of oxygen (pO2). When calculated per 100 g feed intake, cumulative portal glucose appearance was lower (P < 0.05) for resistant starch than for maize, sticky rice or brown rice up to 8 h after the meal. Cumulative portal glucose appearance was higher (P < 0.05) for sticky rice and brown rice than for other diets until 4 h after the meal, but maize had higher cumulative glucose appearance after 4 h. Net cumulative portal concentrations of most amino acids for resistant starch were also reduced (P < 0.05) than for the other starch sources. Cumulative portal appearance of amino acid represented 48.39%, 63.76%, 61.80% and 59.18% of dietary intake for resistant starch, maize, sticky rice and brown rice, respectively. Collectively, our results indicate that dietary starch sources substantially affect the appearance of amino acids and glucose in the portal circulation.

  9. The cultivation of Bt corn producing Cry1Ac toxins does not adversely affect non-target arthropods.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yanyan; Feng, Yanjie; Ge, Yang; Tetreau, Guillaume; Chen, Xiaowen; Dong, Xuehui; Shi, Wangpeng

    2014-01-01

    Transgenic corn producing Cry1Ac toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) provides effective control of Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée), and thus reduces insecticide applications. However, whether Bt corn exerts undesirable effects on non-target arthropods (NTAs) is still controversial. We conducted a 2-yr study in Shangzhuang Agricultural Experiment Station to assess the potential impact of Bt corn on field population density, biodiversity, community composition and structure of NTAs. On each sampling date, the total abundance, Shannon's diversity index, Pielou's evenness index and Simpson's diversity index were not significantly affected by Bt corn as compared to non-Bt corn. The "sampling dates" had a significant effect on these indices, but no clear tendencies related to "Bt corn" or "sampling dates X corn variety" interaction were recorded. Principal response curve analysis of variance indicated that Bt corn did not alter the distribution of NTAs communities. Bray-Curtis dissimilarity and distance analysis showed that Cry1Ac toxin exposure did not increase community dissimilarities between Bt and non-Bt corn plots and that the evolution of non-target arthropod community was similar on the two corn varieties. The cultivation of Bt corn failed to show any detrimental evidence on the density of non-target herbivores, predators and parasitoids. The composition of herbivores, predators and parasitoids was identical in Bt and non-Bt corn plots. Taken together, results from the present work support that Bt corn producing Cry1Ac toxins does not adversely affect NTAs.

  10. Laser-produced lithium plasma as a narrow-band extended ultraviolet radiation source for photoelectron spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Schriever, G; Mager, S; Naweed, A; Engel, A; Bergmann, K; Lebert, R

    1998-03-01

    Extended ultraviolet (EUV) emission characteristics of a laser-produced lithium plasma are determined with regard to the requirements of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The main features of interest are spectral distribution, photon flux, bandwidth, source size, and emission duration. Laser-produced lithium plasmas are characterized as emitters of intense narrow-band EUV radiation. It can be estimated that the lithium Lyman-alpha line emission in combination with an ellipsoidal silicon/molybdenum multilayer mirror is a suitable EUV source for an x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy microscope with a 50-meV energy resolution and a 10-mum lateral resolution.

  11. Lactobacillus reuteri CRL 1101 highly produces mannitol from sugarcane molasses as carbon source.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Maria Eugenia; Fornaguera, María José; Raya, Raúl R; Mozzi, Fernanda

    2012-08-01

    Mannitol is a natural polyol extensively used in the food industry as low-calorie sugar being applicable for diabetic food products. We aimed to evaluate mannitol production by Lactobacillus reuteri CRL 1101 using sugarcane molasses as low-cost energy source. Mannitol formation was studied in free-pH batch cultures using 3-10% (w/v) molasses concentrations at 37 °C and 30 °C under static and agitated conditions during 48 h. L. reuteri CRL 1101 grew well in all assayed media and heterofermentatively converted glucose into lactic and acetic acids and ethanol. Fructose was used as an alternative electron acceptor and reduced it to mannitol in all media assayed. Maximum mannitol concentrations of 177.7 ± 26.6 and 184.5 ± 22.5 mM were found using 7.5% and 10% molasses, respectively, at 37 °C after 24-h incubation. Increasing the molasses concentration from 7.5% up to 10% (w/v) and the fermentation period up to 48 h did not significantly improve mannitol production. In agitated cultures, high mannitol values (144.8 ± 39.7 mM) were attained at 8 h of fermentation as compared to static ones (5.6 ± 2.9 mM), the highest mannitol concentration value (211.3 ± 15.5 mM) being found after 24 h. Mannitol 2-dehydrogenase (MDH) activity was measured during growth in all fermentations assayed; the highest MDH values were obtained during the log growth phase, and no correlation between MDH activities and mannitol production was observed in the fermentations performed. L. reuteri CRL 1101 successfully produced mannitol from sugarcane molasses being a promising candidate for microbial mannitol synthesis using low-cost substrate.

  12. Local to regional emission sources affecting mercury fluxes to New York lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bookman, Revital; Driscoll, Charles T.; Engstrom, Daniel R.; Effler, Steven W.

    Lake-sediment records across the Northern Hemisphere show increases in atmospheric deposition of anthropogenic mercury (Hg) over the last 150 years. Most of the previous studies have examined remote lakes affected by the global atmospheric Hg reservoir. In this study, we present Hg flux records from lakes in an urban/suburban setting of central New York affected also by local and regional emissions. Sediment cores were collected from the Otisco and Skaneateles lakes from the Finger Lakes region, Cross Lake, a hypereutrophic lake on the Seneca River, and Glacial Lake, a small seepage lake with a watershed that corresponds with the lake area. Sediment accumulation rates and dates were established by 210Pb. The pre-anthropogenic regional atmospheric Hg flux was estimated to be 3.0 μg m -2 yr -1 from Glacial Lake, which receives exclusively direct atmospheric deposition. Mercury fluxes peaked during 1971-2001, and were 3 to more than 30 times greater than pre-industrial deposition. Land use change and urbanization in the Otisco and Cross watersheds during the last century likely enhanced sediment loads and Hg fluxes to the lakes. Skaneateles and Glacial lakes have low sediment accumulation rates, and thus are excellent indicators for atmospheric Hg deposition. In these lakes, we found strong correlations with emission records for the Great Lakes region that markedly increased in the early 1900s, and peaked during WWII and in the early 1970s. Declines in modern Hg fluxes are generally evident in the core records. However, the decrease in sediment Hg flux at Glacial Lake was interrupted and has increased since the early 1990s probably due to the operation of new local emission sources. Assuming the global Hg reservoir tripled since the pre-industrial period, the contribution of local and regional emission sources to central New York lakes was estimated to about 80% of the total atmospheric Hg deposition.

  13. Statistical addition method for external noise sources affecting HF-MF-LF systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neudegg, David

    2001-01-01

    The current statistical method for the addition of external component noise sources in the LF, MF, and lower HF band (100 kHz to 3 MHz) produces total median noise levels that may be less than the largest-component median in some cases. Several case studies illustrate this anomaly. Methods used to sum the components rely on their power (decibels) distributions being represented as normal by the statistical parameters. The atmospheric noise component is not correctly represented by its decile values when it is assumed to have a normal distribution, causing anomalies in the noise summation when components are similar in magnitude. A revised component summation method is proposed, and the way it provides a more physically realistic total noise median for LF, MF, and lower HF frequencies is illustrated.

  14. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Initial Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. XXXX, Table 6 Table 6 to Subpart XXXX of... monthly period that no cements and solvents were purchased and used at the affected source containing...

  15. 40 CFR Table 10 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Continuous Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. XXXX, Table 10 Table 10 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63... no cements and solvents were purchased and used at the affected source containing HAP in...

  16. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Initial Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. XXXX, Table 6 Table 6 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63—Initial... cements and solvents were purchased and used at the affected source containing HAP in amounts above...

  17. Natural and anthropogenic sources and processes affecting water chemistry in two South Korean streams.

    PubMed

    Shin, Woo-Jin; Ryu, Jong-Sik; Mayer, Bernhard; Lee, Kwang-Sik; Lee, Sin-Woo

    2014-07-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) in a watershed provides potential sources of pollutants for surface and subsurface waters that can deteriorate water quality. Between March and early August 2011, water samples were collected from two streams in South Korea, one dominantly draining a watershed with carbonate bedrock affected by coal mines and another draining a watershed with silicate bedrock and a relatively undisturbed catchment area. The objective of the study was to identify the sources and processes controlling water chemistry, which was dependent on bedrock and land use. In the Odae stream (OS), the stream in the silicate-dominated catchment, Ca, Na, and HCO3 were the dominant ions and total dissolved solids (TDS) was low (26.1-165 mg/L). In the Jijang stream (JS), in the carbonate-dominated watershed, TDS (224-434 mg/L) and ion concentrations were typically higher, and Ca and SO4 were the dominant ions due to carbonate weathering and oxidation of pyrite exposed at coal mines. Dual isotopic compositions of sulfate (δ(34)SSO4 and δ(18)OSO4) verified that the SO4 in JS is derived mainly from sulfide mineral oxidation in coal mines. Cl in JS was highest upstream and decreased progressively downstream, which implies that pollutants from recreational facilities in the uppermost part of the catchment are the major source governing Cl concentrations within the discharge basin. Dual isotopic compositions of nitrate (δ(15)NNO3 and δ(18)ONO3) indicated that NO3 in JS is attributable to nitrification of soil organic matter but that NO3 in OS is derived mostly from manure. Additionally, the contributions of potential anthropogenic sources to the two streams were estimated in more detail by using a plot of δ(34)SSO4 and δ(15)NNO3. This study suggests that the dual isotope approach for sulfate and nitrate is an excellent additional tool for elucidating the sources and processes controlling the water chemistry of streams draining watersheds having different lithologies and

  18. The drinking water treatment process as a potential source of affecting the bacterial antibiotic resistance.

    PubMed

    Bai, Xiaohui; Ma, Xiaolin; Xu, Fengming; Li, Jing; Zhang, Hang; Xiao, Xiang

    2015-11-15

    Two waterworks, with source water derived from the Huangpu or Yangtze River in Shanghai, were investigated, and the effluents were plate-screened for antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) using five antibiotics: ampicillin (AMP), kanamycin (KAN), rifampicin (RFP), chloramphenicol (CM) and streptomycin (STR). The influence of water treatment procedures on the bacterial antibiotic resistance rate and the changes that bacteria underwent when exposed to the five antibiotics at concentration levels ranging from 1 to 100 μg/mL were studied. Multi-drug resistance was also analyzed using drug sensitivity tests. The results indicated that bacteria derived from water treatment plant effluent that used the Huangpu River rather than the Yangtze River as source water exhibited higher antibiotic resistance rates against AMP, STR, RFP and CM but lower antibiotic resistance rates against KAN. When the antibiotic concentration levels ranged from 1 to 10 μg/mL, the antibiotic resistance rates of the bacteria in the water increased as water treatment progressed. Biological activated carbon (BAC) filtration played a key role in increasing the antibiotic resistance rate of bacteria. Chloramine disinfection can enhance antibiotic resistance. Among the isolated ARB, 75% were resistant to multiple antibiotics. Ozone oxidation, BAC filtration and chloramine disinfection can greatly affect the relative abundance of bacteria in the community.

  19. Pharmaceutical Residues Affecting the UNESCO Biosphere Reserve Kristianstads Vattenrike Wetlands: Sources and Sinks.

    PubMed

    Björklund, Erland; Svahn, Ola; Bak, Søren; Bekoe, Samuel Oppong; Hansen, Martin

    2016-10-01

    This study is the first to investigate the pharmaceutical burden from point sources affecting the UNESCO Biosphere Reserve Kristianstads Vattenrike, Sweden. The investigated Biosphere Reserve is a >1000 km(2) wetland system with inflows from lakes, rivers, leachate from landfill, and wastewater-treatment plants (WWTPs). We analysed influent and treated wastewater, leachate water, lake, river, and wetland water alongside sediment for six model pharmaceuticals. The two WWTPs investigated released pharmaceutical residues at levels close to those previously observed in Swedish monitoring exercises. Compound-dependent WWTP removal efficiencies ranging from 12 to 100 % for bendroflumethiazide, oxazepam, atenolol, carbamazepine, and diclofenac were observed. Surface-water concentrations in the most affected lake were ≥100 ng/L for the various pharmaceuticals with atenolol showing the highest levels (>300 ng/L). A small risk assessment showed that adverse single-substance toxicity on aquatic organisms within the UNESCO Biosphere Reserve is unlikely. However, the effects of combinations of a large number of known and unknown pharmaceuticals, metals, and nutrients are still unknown.

  20. Transmission distortion affecting human noncrossover but not crossover recombination: a hidden source of meiotic drive.

    PubMed

    Odenthal-Hesse, Linda; Berg, Ingrid L; Veselis, Amelia; Jeffreys, Alec J; May, Celia A

    2014-02-01

    Meiotic recombination ensures the correct segregation of homologous chromosomes during gamete formation and contributes to DNA diversity through both large-scale reciprocal crossovers and very localised gene conversion events, also known as noncrossovers. Considerable progress has been made in understanding factors such as PRDM9 and SNP variants that influence the initiation of recombination at human hotspots but very little is known about factors acting downstream. To address this, we simultaneously analysed both types of recombinant molecule in sperm DNA at six highly active hotspots, and looked for disparity in the transmission of allelic variants indicative of any cis-acting influences. At two of the hotspots we identified a novel form of biased transmission that was exclusive to the noncrossover class of recombinant, and which presumably arises through differences between crossovers and noncrossovers in heteroduplex formation and biased mismatch repair. This form of biased gene conversion is not predicted to influence hotspot activity as previously noted for SNPs that affect recombination initiation, but does constitute a powerful and previously undetected source of recombination-driven meiotic drive that by extrapolation may affect thousands of recombination hotspots throughout the human genome. Intriguingly, at both of the hotspots described here, this drive favours strong (G/C) over weak (A/T) base pairs as might be predicted from the well-established correlations between high GC content and recombination activity in mammalian genomes.

  1. VOC emissions of Grey poplar leaves as affected by salt stress and different N sources.

    PubMed

    Teuber, M; Zimmer, I; Kreuzwieser, J; Ache, P; Polle, A; Rennenberg, H; Schnitzler, J-P

    2008-01-01

    Nitrogen nutrition and salt stress experiments were performed in a greenhouse with hydroponic-cultured, salt-sensitive Grey poplar (Populus x canescens) plants to study the combined influence of different N sources (either 1 mm NO(3) (-) or NH(4)(+)) and salt (up to 75 mm NaCl) on leaf gas exchange, isoprene biosynthesis and VOC emissions. Net assimilation and transpiration proved to be highly sensitive to salt stress and were reduced by approximately 90% at leaf sodium concentrations higher than 1,800 microg Na g dry weight (dw)(-1). In contrast, emissions of isoprene and oxygenated VOC (i.e. acetaldehyde, formaldehyde and acetone) were unaffected. There was no significant effect of combinations of salt stress and N source, and neither NO(3)(-) or NH(4)(+) influenced the salt stress response in the Grey poplar leaves. Also, transcript levels of 1-deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase (PcDXR) and isoprene synthase (PcISPS) did not respond to the different N sources and only responded slightly to salt application, although isoprene synthase (PcISPS) activity was negatively affected at least in one of two experiments, despite high isoprene emission rates. A significant salt effect was the strong reduction of leaf dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMADP) content, probably due to restricted availability of photosynthates for DMADP biosynthesis. Further consequences of reduced photosynthetic gas exchange and maintaining VOC emissions are a very high C loss, up to 50%, from VOC emissions related to net CO(2) uptake and a strong increase in leaf internal isoprene concentrations, with maximum mean values up to 6.6 microl x l(-1). Why poplar leaves maintain VOC biosynthesis and emission under salt stress conditions, despite impaired photosynthetic CO(2) fixation, is discussed.

  2. Dietary protein source affects lipid metabolism in the European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax).

    PubMed

    Dias, J; Alvarez, M J; Arzel, J; Corraze, G; Diez, A; Bautista, J M; Kaushik, S J

    2005-09-01

    The study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of dietary protein sources on lipogenesis and fat deposition in a marine teleost, the European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Four isonitrogenous (crude protein (CP, Nx6.25), 44% DM) and isoenergetic (22-23 kJ/g DM) diets were formulated to contain one of the following as the major protein source: fish meal (FM), one of two soy protein concentrates (SPC) and corn gluten meal (CGM). Apparent digestibility coefficients of the diets and raw ingredients, as well as soluble nitrogen (ammonia and urea) and phosphorus excretion were measured. Growth rates of seabass fed plant protein-based diets were significantly lower than those fed fish meal based diet. The protein utilisation was strongly correlated to the dietary essential amino acids index. Measurements of N excretion (ammonia and urea nitrogen) confirmed these data. Daily fat gain at the whole body level ranged between 1.1 to 1.7 g/kg BW, with the highest values being recorded in fish fed the fish meal based diet. Levels of plasma triglycerides and cholesterol were lower in fish fed soy protein diets than in those fed the diet solely based on fish meal. Soy protein rich diets decreased the activities of selected hepatic lipogenic enzymes (glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, malic enzyme, ATP-citrate lysase, acetylcoenzyme A carboxylase and fatty acid synthetase). Highest lipogenic enzyme activities where found in fish fed the fish meal diet, except for fatty acid synthetase which was increased in seabass fed the corn-gluten meal based diets. Overall data suggest that dietary protein sources affects fat deposition and the lipogenic potential in European seabass.

  3. Elucidating Sources and Factors Affecting Delivery of Nitrogen to Surface Waters of New York State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golden, H. E.; Boyer, E. W.; Burns, D. A.; Elliott, E.; Kendall, C.; Butler, T.

    2005-12-01

    Rapid changes in power generation, transportation, and agriculture have appreciably altered nitrogen (N) cycling at regional scales, increasing N inputs to landscapes and surface waters. Numerous studies have linked this surplus N to a host of concerns, including eutrophication and violations in drinking water standards. Inputs of N nation-wide have increased during recent decades, primarily from the production and use of fertilizers, the planting of N-fixing crops, and the combustion of fossil fuels. The role of atmospheric N sources is of particular concern in New York, as rates of atmospheric N deposition in the northeast are among the highest in the nation. Our work aims to quantify nitrogen sources and fate in watersheds throughout the state. Further, we intend to elucidate factors controlling the retention and release of N to surface waters. We quantify nitrogen inputs through both measurement data (e.g., from wet and dry atmospheric deposition, precipitation, streamflow, water quality, and isotopic tracers) and from synoptic spatial databases (e.g., of terrain, land use, and fertilizer inputs). We present preliminary results from large catchments in contrasting spatial settings across the state (different land use configurations and atmospheric deposition gradients), illustrating the contribution of nitrogen sources to each region and factors affecting delivery to surface waters. Further, we present 30 years of temporal data from a large watershed (Fall Creek) in the Finger Lakes region of the state to demonstrate how hydrological and biogeochemical factors, over seasons and under varying hydrological regimes, combine to control N dynamics in surface waters. Our collective work provides information that is necessary to develop sound strategies for understanding and managing nutrients at regional scales.

  4. Method of producing stable metal oxides and chalcogenides and power source

    DOEpatents

    Doddapaneni, N.; Ingersoll, D.

    1996-10-22

    A method is described for making chemically and electrochemically stable oxides or other chalcogenides for use as cathodes for power source applications, and of making batteries comprising such materials. 6 figs.

  5. The Cultivation of Bt Corn Producing Cry1Ac Toxins Does Not Adversely Affect Non-Target Arthropods

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yanyan; Feng, Yanjie; Ge, Yang; Tetreau, Guillaume; Chen, Xiaowen; Dong, Xuehui; Shi, Wangpeng

    2014-01-01

    Transgenic corn producing Cry1Ac toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) provides effective control of Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée), and thus reduces insecticide applications. However, whether Bt corn exerts undesirable effects on non-target arthropods (NTAs) is still controversial. We conducted a 2-yr study in Shangzhuang Agricultural Experiment Station to assess the potential impact of Bt corn on field population density, biodiversity, community composition and structure of NTAs. On each sampling date, the total abundance, Shannon's diversity index, Pielou's evenness index and Simpson's diversity index were not significantly affected by Bt corn as compared to non-Bt corn. The “sampling dates” had a significant effect on these indices, but no clear tendencies related to “Bt corn” or “sampling dates X corn variety” interaction were recorded. Principal response curve analysis of variance indicated that Bt corn did not alter the distribution of NTAs communities. Bray-Curtis dissimilarity and distance analysis showed that Cry1Ac toxin exposure did not increase community dissimilarities between Bt and non-Bt corn plots and that the evolution of non-target arthropod community was similar on the two corn varieties. The cultivation of Bt corn failed to show any detrimental evidence on the density of non-target herbivores, predators and parasitoids. The composition of herbivores, predators and parasitoids was identical in Bt and non-Bt corn plots. Taken together, results from the present work support that Bt corn producing Cry1Ac toxins does not adversely affect NTAs. PMID:25437213

  6. 40 CFR 63.3090 - What emission limits must I meet for a new or reconstructed affected source?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Surface Coating of... repair, glass bonding primer and glass bonding adhesive operations plus all coatings and thinners, except... systems, used in coating operations added to the affected source pursuant to § 63.3082(c) to no more...

  7. 40 CFR 63.3090 - What emission limits must I meet for a new or reconstructed affected source?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Surface Coating of... repair, glass bonding primer and glass bonding adhesive operations plus all coatings and thinners, except... systems, used in coating operations added to the affected source pursuant to § 63.3082(c) to no more...

  8. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart III of... - Compliance Requirements for Molded and Rebond Foam Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Compliance Requirements for Molded and Rebond Foam Production Affected Sources 5 Table 5 to Subpart III of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE...

  9. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart III of... - Compliance Requirements for Molded and Rebond Foam Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Compliance Requirements for Molded and Rebond Foam Production Affected Sources 5 Table 5 to Subpart III of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE...

  10. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart III of... - Compliance Requirements for Molded and Rebond Foam Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Compliance Requirements for Molded and Rebond Foam Production Affected Sources 5 Table 5 to Subpart III of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE...

  11. 40 CFR 63.5994 - How do I conduct tests and procedures for tire production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Testing and Initial Compliance Requirements for Tire Production Affected... to determine the mass percent of HAP in cements and solvents. To determine the HAP content in the cements and solvents used at your tire production affected source, use EPA Method 311 of appendix A...

  12. 40 CFR 63.5994 - How do I conduct tests and procedures for tire production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Testing and Initial Compliance Requirements for Tire Production Affected... to determine the mass percent of HAP in cements and solvents. To determine the HAP content in the cements and solvents used at your tire production affected source, use EPA Method 311 of appendix A...

  13. 40 CFR 63.560 - Applicability and designation of affected source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... standards compliance dates, except the Valdez Marine Terminal (VMT) source. (i) A new or existing source with emissions of 10 or 25 tons, except the VMT source, and a new source with emissions less than 10 and 25 tons, except the VMT source, that has an initial startup date on or before September 20,...

  14. 40 CFR 63.560 - Applicability and designation of affected source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... dates—(1) MACT standards compliance dates, except the Valdez Marine Terminal (VMT) source. (i) A new or existing source with emissions of 10 or 25 tons, except the VMT source, and a new source with emissions less than 10 and 25 tons, except the VMT source, that has an initial startup date on or...

  15. 40 CFR 63.560 - Applicability and designation of affected source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... standards compliance dates, except the Valdez Marine Terminal (VMT) source. (i) A new or existing source with emissions of 10 or 25 tons, except the VMT source, and a new source with emissions less than 10 and 25 tons, except the VMT source, that has an initial startup date on or before September 20,...

  16. 40 CFR 63.560 - Applicability and designation of affected source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... standards compliance dates, except the Valdez Marine Terminal (VMT) source. (i) A new or existing source with emissions of 10 or 25 tons, except the VMT source, and a new source with emissions less than 10 and 25 tons, except the VMT source, that has an initial startup date on or before September 20,...

  17. 40 CFR 63.560 - Applicability and designation of affected source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... standards compliance dates, except the Valdez Marine Terminal (VMT) source. (i) A new or existing source with emissions of 10 or 25 tons, except the VMT source, and a new source with emissions less than 10 and 25 tons, except the VMT source, that has an initial startup date on or before September 20,...

  18. Sources of ions producing acidic rain and visibility impairment at Grand Canyon, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Sisler, J.F.; Malm, W.C.; Gebbart, K.A. )

    1988-01-01

    Effective management of visibility or wet acidic deposition in selected receptor areas requires an understanding of which chemical/aerosol species are responsible for the effect, the sources of these chemical/aerosol species and the relationships between how changes in emissions of chemical precursors result in changes in chemical/aerosol species at receptor sites. This paper addresses the first two issues at Grand Canyon, Arizona. At Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona, the National Acid Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN) monitoring site has been collocated with the Nation Park Service (NPS) aerosol monitoring site. The monitors were operated simultaneously for nearly three years, allowing a direct comparison between the causes and sources of wet deposition and the causes and sources of fine particulate matter.

  19. Recent developments of target and ion sources to produce ISOL beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stora, T.

    2013-12-01

    In this review on target and ion sources for ISOL (Isotope Separation OnLine) beams, important developments from the past five years are highlighted. While at precedent EMIS conferences, a particular focus was given to a single topics, for instance specifically on ion sources or on chemical purification techniques, here each of the important elements present in an ISOL production unit is discussed. Fast diffusing nanomaterials, uranium-based targets, high power targets for next generation facilities, purification by selective adsorption, new ion sources are all part of this review. For each of these selected topics, the reported results lead to significant gains in intensity, purity, or quality of the delivered beam, or in the production of new isotope beams. Often the outcome resulted from the combination of original ideas with state-of-the-art investigations; this was carried out using very different scientific disciplines, leading to understanding of the underlying chemical or physical mechanisms at the origin of the improvements.

  20. Characteristics of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli from meat and milk products of different origins and association with food producing animals as main contamination sources.

    PubMed

    Martin, Annett; Beutin, Lothar

    2011-03-15

    Shiga toxin-producing strains of Escherichia coli (STEC) cause diarrhoea and haemorrhagic colitis in humans. Most human infections are attributed to consumption of STEC contaminated foodstuff. Food producing animals constitute important reservoirs of STEC and serve as source of food contamination. In this study, we have analyzed 593 foodborne STEC strains for their serotypes and for nine virulence genes (stx1, stx1c, stx1d, stx2, stx2b, stx2e, stx2g, E-hly and eae). The 593 STEC strains grouped into 215 serotypes, and 123 serotypes (57.2%) were represented each by only one STEC isolate. Fifteen serotypes (7.0%) were attributed to 198 (33.3%) of the 593 STEC strains. The foodborne STEC were grouped into different categories in relation to the species of the food producing animal (cattle, pigs, sheep, goats, red deer, wild-boar and hare). Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses revealed significant similarities between the animal origin of the food and the virulence markers of foodborne STEC. Significant associations (p<0.001) were found for stx1 and for stx2 with bovine meat and milk products. The stx2e gene was significantly (p<0.001) associated with STEC from pork and wild boar meat. Stx1c and stx2b genes were significantly (p<0.001) more frequent in STEC from deer meat, as well as from meat and milk products derived from sheep and goats. Using logistic regression models we detected significant (p<0.01) combinations between stx1, stx2 and E-hly genes and STEC from bovine meat. The combination of stx1c and stx2b genes was significant (p<0.001) for STEC derived from red deer, sheep and goat products. The properties of foodborne STEC were compared with published data on faecal STEC from food producing animals. Virulence profiles and serotypes of STEC from food showed remarkable similarities to those of faecal STEC that were from the same animal species. The findings from our study clearly indicate that the food producing animals represent the most important

  1. Molecular and phenotypic characterization of penicillinase-producing Neisseria gonorrhoeae from Canadian sources.

    PubMed Central

    Dillon, J R; Duck, P; Thomas, D Y

    1981-01-01

    The incidence of penicillinase-producing Neisseria gonorrhoeae (PPNG) infections has increased in Canada during the past 2 years. Most of these cases were imported from abroad. The PPNG strains from these cases were characterized with respect to susceptibility to 11 antibiotics, auxotype, and plasmid content. Rosaramicin and cefuroxime proved to be the most potent of the antibiotics tested. The molecular characterization of the isolates indicated that all carried a 2.6-megadalton cryptic plasmid. Most of the PPNG isolates (87%) harbored a 4.5-megadalton penicillinase-producing plasmid, whereas only 13% harbored the 3.2-megadalton penicillinase-producing plasmid. In those cases where contact tracing was possible, the correlation linking strains of Far Eastern etiology with carriage of the 4.5-megadalton plasmid was upheld. The penicillinase-producing strains were typed auxanographically in either the proline-requiring (57%) or prototrophic groups (42%). Substrate hydrolysis profiles and analytical isoelectric focusing of crude beta-lactamase extracts of several isolates has reconfirmed that these strains elaborate a type TEM-1 enzyme. Several of the penicillinase-producing plasmids were also examined for plasmid stability. PMID:6791587

  2. Neutrino Interactions with Matter by a New Neutrino Source From the Isotope Radioactive Decay Produced by the Proton Accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Jae Won; Park, Tae-Sun; Kajino, Toshitaka; Cheoun, Myung-Ki

    A new neutrino source for future's neutrino experiments is suggested in this work. Unstable isotope, 27Si, can be produced when 27Al target is bombarded by 15 MeV proton beams. Through the decay of the 27Si, a new electron-neutrino source in the 0-5.0 MeV energy range is obtained. Production of the neutrino source is studied by using GEANT4 code with JENDL-4.0/HE. For radioactive decay processes, we use "G4RadioactiveDecay" model based on the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF). As for the detection system of the new neutrino source, we evaluate reaction or event rates for available radiochemical detectors and LENA type scintillator detector.

  3. Atrazine exposure affects the ability of crayfish (Orconectes rusticus) to localize a food odor source.

    PubMed

    Belanger, Rachelle M; Peters, Tyler J; Sabhapathy, Gita S; Khan, Sana; Katta, Juhi; Abraham, Noor K

    2015-05-01

    Environmental pollutants, found in aquatic ecosystems, have been shown to have an effect on olfactory-mediated behaviors including feeding, mate attraction, and other important social behaviors. Crayfish are polytrophic, meaning that they feed on and become prey for all levels of the aquatic food web as well as are also important for the transfer of energy between benthic and terrestrial food webs. Because crayfish are a keystone species, it is important to investigate any factors that may affect their population size. Crayfish are active at night and rely heavily on their sensory appendages (e.g., antennulues, maxillipeds, and pereopods) to localize food sources. In this experiment, we investigated the effects of atrazine (ATR) exposure on the chemosensory responses of male and female crayfish to food odors. We exposed crayfish to environmentally relevant, sublethal levels of ATR [80 ppb (µg/L)] for 72 h and then examined the behavioral responses of both ATR-treated and control crayfish to food odor delivered from one end of a test arena. We used Noldus Ethovision XT software to measure odor localization and locomotory behaviors of crayfish in response to food (fish) odor. We found that control crayfish spent more time in the proximal region of the test arena and at the odor source compared with ATR-treated crayfish. Furthermore, there were no differences in the time spent moving and not moving, total distance travelled in the tank, and walking speed (cm/s) when control and ATR-treated crayfish were compared. Overall, this indicates that acute ATR exposure alters chemosensory abilities of crayfish, whereas overall motor function remains unchanged.

  4. Source Characterization of Volatile Organic Compounds Affecting the Air Quality in a Coastal Urban Area of South Texas

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Marciano; Karnae, Saritha; John, Kuruvilla

    2008-01-01

    Selected Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) emitted from various anthropogenic sources including industries and motor vehicles act as primary precursors of ozone, while some VOC are classified as air toxic compounds. Significantly large VOC emission sources impact the air quality in Corpus Christi, Texas. This urban area is located in a semi-arid region of South Texas and is home to several large petrochemical refineries and industrial facilities along a busy ship-channel. The Texas Commission on Environmental Quality has setup two continuous ambient monitoring stations (CAMS 633 and 634) along the ship channel to monitor VOC concentrations in the urban atmosphere. The hourly concentrations of 46 VOC compounds were acquired from TCEQ for a comprehensive source apportionment study. The primary objective of this study was to identify and quantify the sources affecting the ambient air quality within this urban airshed. Principal Component Analysis/Absolute Principal Component Scores (PCA/APCS) was applied to the dataset. PCA identified five possible sources accounting for 69% of the total variance affecting the VOC levels measured at CAMS 633 and six possible sources affecting CAMS 634 accounting for 75% of the total variance. APCS identified natural gas emissions to be the major source contributor at CAMS 633 and it accounted for 70% of the measured VOC concentrations. The other major sources identified at CAMS 633 included flare emissions (12%), fugitive gasoline emissions (9%), refinery operations (7%), and vehicle exhaust (2%). At CAMS 634, natural gas sources were identified as the major source category contributing to 31% of the observed VOC. The other sources affecting this site included: refinery operations (24%), flare emissions (22%), secondary industrial processes (12%), fugitive gasoline emissions (8%) and vehicle exhaust (3%). PMID:19139530

  5. Source characterization of volatile organic compounds affecting the air quality in a coastal urban area of South Texas.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Marciano; Karnae, Saritha; John, Kuruvilla

    2008-09-01

    Selected Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) emitted from various anthropogenic sources including industries and motor vehicles act as primary precursors of ozone, while some VOC are classified as air toxic compounds. Significantly large VOC emission sources impact the air quality in Corpus Christi, Texas. This urban area is located in a semi-arid region of South Texas and is home to several large petrochemical refineries and industrial facilities along a busy ship-channel. The Texas Commission on Environmental Quality has setup two continuous ambient monitoring stations (CAMS 633 and 634) along the ship channel to monitor VOC concentrations in the urban atmosphere. The hourly concentrations of 46 VOC compounds were acquired from TCEQ for a comprehensive source apportionment study. The primary objective of this study was to identify and quantify the sources affecting the ambient air quality within this urban airshed. Principal Component Analysis/Absolute Principal Component Scores (PCA/APCS) was applied to the dataset. PCA identified five possible sources accounting for 69% of the total variance affecting the VOC levels measured at CAMS 633 and six possible sources affecting CAMS 634 accounting for 75% of the total variance. APCS identified natural gas emissions to be the major source contributor at CAMS 633 and it accounted for 70% of the measured VOC concentrations. The other major sources identified at CAMS 633 included flare emissions (12%), fugitive gasoline emissions (9%), refinery operations (7%), and vehicle exhaust (2%). At CAMS 634, natural gas sources were identified as the major source category contributing to 31% of the observed VOC. The other sources affecting this site included: refinery operations (24%), flare emissions (22%), secondary industrial processes (12%), fugitive gasoline emissions (8%) and vehicle exhaust (3%).

  6. Root-zone acidity affects relative uptake of nitrate and ammonium from mixed nitrogen sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vessey, J. K.; Henry, L. T.; Chaillou, S.; Raper, C. D. Jr; Raper CD, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1990-01-01

    Soybean plants (Glycine max [L.] Merr. cv Ransom) were grown for 21 days on 4 sources of N (1.0 mM NO3-, 0.67 mM NO3- plus 0.33 mM NH4+, 0.33 mM NO3- plus 0.67 mM NH4+, and 1.0 mM NH4+) in hydroponic culture with the acidity of the nutrient solution controlled at pH 6.0, 5.5, 5.0, and 4.5. Dry matter and total N accumulation of the plants was not significantly affected by N-source at any of the pH levels except for decreases in these parameters in plants supplied solely with NH4+ at pH 4.5. Shoot-to-root ratios increased in plants which had an increased proportion [correction of proporiton] of NH4(+)-N in their nutrient solutions at all levels of root-zone pH. Uptake of NO3- and NH4+ was monitored daily by ion chromatography as depletion of these ions from the replenished hydroponic solutions. At all pH levels the proportion of either ion that was absorbed increased as the ratio of that ion increased in the nutrient solution. In plants which were supplied with sources of NO3- plus NH4+, NH4+ was absorbed at a ratio of 2:1 over NO3- at pH 6.0. As the pH of the root-zone declined, however, NH4+ uptake decreased and NO3- uptake increased. Thus, the NH4+ to NO3- uptake ratio declined with decreases in root-zone pH. The data indicate a negative effect of declining root-zone pH on NH4+ uptake and supports a hypothesis that the inhibition of growth of plants dependent on NH4(+)-N at low pH is due to a decline in NH4+ uptake and a consequential limitation of growth by N stress.

  7. Experimental Verification of Modeled Thermal Distribution Produced by a Piston Source in Physiotherapy Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Haro, S. A.; Leija, L.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To present a quantitative comparison of thermal patterns produced by the piston-in-a-baffle approach with those generated by a physiotherapy ultrasonic device and to show the dependency among thermal patterns and acoustic intensity distributions. Methods. The finite element (FE) method was used to model an ideal acoustic field and the produced thermal pattern to be compared with the experimental acoustic and temperature distributions produced by a real ultrasonic applicator. A thermal model using the measured acoustic profile as input is also presented for comparison. Temperature measurements were carried out with thermocouples inserted in muscle phantom. The insertion place of thermocouples was monitored with ultrasound imaging. Results. Modeled and measured thermal profiles were compared within the first 10 cm of depth. The ideal acoustic field did not adequately represent the measured field having different temperature profiles (errors 10% to 20%). Experimental field was concentrated near the transducer producing a region with higher temperatures, while the modeled ideal temperature was linearly distributed along the depth. The error was reduced to 7% when introducing the measured acoustic field as the input variable in the FE temperature modeling. Conclusions. Temperature distributions are strongly related to the acoustic field distributions. PMID:27999801

  8. Irrigation waters as a source of pathogenic microorganisms in produce: a review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is increasing evidence that consumption of raw fresh produce is a major factor contributing to human gastrointestinal illness. A wide variety of pathogens contribute to food-borne illnesses, including bacteria (e.g., Salmonella, pathogenic E. coli), protozoa (e.g., Cryptosporidium, Giardia), ...

  9. 40 CFR 63.52 - Approval process for new and existing affected sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES Requirements for Control Technology Determinations for Major Sources in Accordance With Clean Air... potential to emit hazardous air pollutants such that the source becomes a major source that is subject...

  10. 40 CFR 63.52 - Approval process for new and existing affected sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES Requirements for Control Technology Determinations for Major Sources in Accordance With Clean Air... potential to emit hazardous air pollutants such that the source becomes a major source that is subject...

  11. 40 CFR 63.52 - Approval process for new and existing affected sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES Requirements for Control Technology Determinations for Major Sources in Accordance With Clean Air... potential to emit hazardous air pollutants such that the source becomes a major source that is subject...

  12. 40 CFR 63.52 - Approval process for new and existing affected sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES Requirements for Control Technology Determinations for Major Sources in Accordance With Clean Air... potential to emit hazardous air pollutants such that the source becomes a major source that is subject...

  13. Analysis of factors affecting the accuracy, reproducibility, and interpretation of microbial community carbon source utilization patterns

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haack, S.K.; Garchow, H.; Klug, M.J.; Forney, L.J.

    1995-01-01

    We determined factors that affect responses of bacterial isolates and model bacterial communities to the 95 carbon substrates in Biolog microliter plates. For isolates and communities of three to six bacterial strains, substrate oxidation rates were typically nonlinear and were delayed by dilution of the inoculum. When inoculum density was controlled, patterns of positive and negative responses exhibited by microbial communities to each of the carbon sources were reproducible. Rates and extents of substrate oxidation by the communities were also reproducible but were not simply the sum of those exhibited by community members when tested separately. Replicates of the same model community clustered when analyzed by principal- components analysis (PCA), and model communities with different compositions were clearly separated un the first PCA axis, which accounted for >60% of the dataset variation. PCA discrimination among different model communities depended on the extent to which specific substrates were oxidized. However, the substrates interpreted by PCA to be most significant in distinguishing the communities changed with reading time, reflecting the nonlinearity of substrate oxidation rates. Although whole-community substrate utilization profiles were reproducible signatures for a given community, the extent of oxidation of specific substrates and the numbers or activities of microorganisms using those substrates in a given community were not correlated. Replicate soil samples varied significantly in the rate and extent of oxidation of seven tested substrates, suggesting microscale heterogeneity in composition of the soil microbial community.

  14. Microwaves as an energy source for producing beta-SiC.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, J; Rodríguez, J; Hinojosa, M

    2001-01-01

    This work describes the production of silicon carbide using microwaves as the energy source, which was supplied by means of variable power, up to 2000 Watts, magnetron operating at 2.45 GHz. The obtained samples were analyzed by means of X-ray diffraction and observed with electron microscopy (SEM). Temperatures achieved were around 2000 degrees C, which is the upper limit for the beta-SiC growth regime, before getting other SiC polytypes. Analysis of different portions of the sample showed that beta-SiC was the only formed compound, although free SiO2 and graphite were also present. Observations made by SEM demonstrated different crystal growth regime, meaning that thermal conditions were not totally uniform. The amount of beta-SiC found and the relative simplicity of the device prove that production of this material from silica and graphite is possible by applying microwaves as an energy source.

  15. Radioluminescent light sources, tritium containing polymers, and methods for producing the same

    DOEpatents

    Jensen, George A.; Nelson, David A.; Molton, Peter M.

    1989-01-01

    A radioluminescent light source comprises a solid mixture of a phosphorescent substance and a tritiated polymer. The solid mixture forms a solid mass having length, width, and thickness dimensions, and is capable of self-support. In one aspect of the invention, the phosphorescent substance comprises solid phosphor particles supported or surrounded within a solid matix by a tritium containing polymer. The tritium containing polymer comprises a polymer backbone which is essentially void of tritium.

  16. Radioluminescent light sources, tritium containing polymers, and methods for producing the same

    DOEpatents

    Jensen, G.A.; Nelson, D.A.; Molton, P.M.

    1989-12-26

    A radioluminescent light source comprises a solid mixture of a phosphorescent substance and a tritiated polymer. The solid mixture forms a solid mass having length, width, and thickness dimensions, and is capable of self-support. In one aspect of the invention, the phosphorescent substance comprises solid phosphor particles supported or surrounded within a solid matrix by a tritium containing polymer. The tritium containing polymer comprises a polymer backbone which is essentially void of tritium. 2 figs.

  17. Full characterization of a laser-produced keV x-ray betatron source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albert, F.; Phuoc, K. Ta; Shah, R.; Corde, S.; Fitour, R.; Tafzi, A.; Burgy, F.; Douillet, D.; Lefrou, T.; Rousse, A.

    2008-12-01

    This paper presents the complete characterization of a kilo-electron-volt laser-based x-ray source. The main parameters of the electron motion (amplitude of oscillations and initial energy) in the laser wakefield have been investigated using three independent methods relying on spectral and spatial properties of this betatron x-ray source. First we will show studies on the spectral correlation between electrons and x-rays that is analyzed using a numerical code to calculate the expected photon spectra from the experimentally measured electron spectra. High-resolution x-ray spectrometers have been used to characterize the x-ray spectra within 0.8-3 keV and to show that the betatron oscillations lie within 1 µm. Then we observed Fresnel edge diffraction of the x-ray beam. The observed diffraction at the center energy of 4 keV agrees with the Gaussian incoherent source profile of full width half maximum <5 µm, meaning that the amplitude of the betatron oscillations is less than 2.5 µm. Finally, by measuring the far field spatial profile of the radiation, we have been able to characterize the electron's trajectories inside the plasma accelerator structure with a resolution better than 0.5 µm.

  18. Contaminated Handwashing Sinks as the Source of a Clonal Outbreak of KPC-2-Producing Klebsiella oxytoca on a Hematology Ward

    PubMed Central

    Leitner, Eva; Zarfel, Gernot; Luxner, Josefa; Herzog, Kathrin; Pekard-Amenitsch, Shiva; Hoenigl, Martin; Valentin, Thomas; Feierl, Gebhard; Grisold, Andrea J.; Högenauer, Christoph; Sill, Heinz; Krause, Robert

    2014-01-01

    We investigated sinks as possible sources of a prolonged Klebsiella pneumonia carbapenemase (KPC)-producing Klebsiella oxytoca outbreak. Seven carbapenem-resistant K. oxytoca isolates were identified in sink drains in 4 patient rooms and in the medication room. Investigations for resistance genes and genetic relatedness of patient and environmental isolates revealed that all the isolates harbored the blaKPC-2 and blaTEM-1 genes and were genetically indistinguishable. We describe here a clonal outbreak caused by KPC-2-producing K. oxytoca, and handwashing sinks were a possible reservoir. PMID:25348541

  19. Contaminated handwashing sinks as the source of a clonal outbreak of KPC-2-producing Klebsiella oxytoca on a hematology ward.

    PubMed

    Leitner, Eva; Zarfel, Gernot; Luxner, Josefa; Herzog, Kathrin; Pekard-Amenitsch, Shiva; Hoenigl, Martin; Valentin, Thomas; Feierl, Gebhard; Grisold, Andrea J; Högenauer, Christoph; Sill, Heinz; Krause, Robert; Zollner-Schwetz, Ines

    2015-01-01

    We investigated sinks as possible sources of a prolonged Klebsiella pneumonia carbapenemase (KPC)-producing Klebsiella oxytoca outbreak. Seven carbapenem-resistant K. oxytoca isolates were identified in sink drains in 4 patient rooms and in the medication room. Investigations for resistance genes and genetic relatedness of patient and environmental isolates revealed that all the isolates harbored the blaKPC-2 and blaTEM-1 genes and were genetically indistinguishable. We describe here a clonal outbreak caused by KPC-2-producing K. oxytoca, and handwashing sinks were a possible reservoir.

  20. Multi-MeV laser-produced particle sources: Characterization by activation techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerbaux, M.; Aléonard, M. M.; Claverie, G.; Gobet, F.; Hannachi, F.; Malka, G.; Scheurer, J. N.; Tarisien, M.; Méot, V.; Morel, P.; Faure, J.; Glinec, Y.; Guemnie-Tafo, A.; Malka, V.; Manclossi, M.; Santos, J.

    2006-06-01

    We present here results obtained in an experiment carried out using the CPA beam of the “Salle Jaune” laser system at Laboratoire d'Optique Appliquée (LOA). The generation of high energy electrons and protons escaping from the plasma has been investigated in the interaction of a 2 J, 30 fs laser with CH or metallic foils. The energy and angular distributions of the supra-thermal electrons produced with different targets are characterized by using both an electron spectrometer and bremsstrahlung induced (γ ,n) reactions. We measured simultaneously the number of energetic protons produced using (p,n) reactions. A correlation between the electrons and the protons production is observed together with a dependence of the number of supra-thermal electrons on the atomic number of the target element.

  1. Colliding laser-produced plasmas as targets for laser-generated extreme ultraviolet sources

    SciTech Connect

    Cummins, T.; O'Gorman, C.; Dunne, P.; Sokell, E.; O'Sullivan, G.; Hayden, P.

    2014-07-28

    Colliding plasmas produced by neodymium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet (Nd:YAG) laser illumination of tin wedge targets form stagnation layers, the physical parameters of which can be controlled to optimise coupling with a carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) heating laser pulse and subsequent extreme ultraviolet (EUV) production. The conversion efficiency (CE) of total laser energy into EUV emission at 13.5 nm ± 1% was 3.6%. Neglecting both the energy required to form the stagnation layer and the EUV light produced before the CO{sub 2} laser pulse is incident results in a CE of 5.1% of the CO{sub 2} laser energy into EUV light.

  2. Comparison of nanocrystalline material produced using mechanical milling and a RF-plasma heating source

    SciTech Connect

    Breitbach, K.L.; Chumbley, L.S. )

    1991-11-01

    This paper reports on nanocrystals which are polycrystalline materials with a grain size on the order of one to ten nanometers and appear to be a new class of materials with interesting properties and characteristics. Since the grain size of these materials is so small, a large percentage of their atoms are located in the interfaces; thus, the material can be thought of as a composite consisting of a crystalline component and a boundary component. The properties of these materials are, therefore, expected to be dependent upon the relative amounts of these two components. A study has been initiated to produce nanocrystalline Cr{sub 3}Si and Ti{sub 5}Si{sub 3} material. It has been shown that by reducing the grain size to the nanometer scale, the ductility of brittle compounds increases, due presumably to the increase in the percentage of the boundary component. Thus, these materials were examined as models of how hard, brittle, high temperature intermetallic compounds may behave in the nanocrystalline state. The silicide compounds also are being studied since they have excellent properties such as low densities, high melting temperatures, good corrosion resistance at low temperatures and fairly good oxidation resistance at high temperatures. It is hoped that with this combination of characteristics, plus increased ductility due to the small grain size, these materials will find practical industrial applications. The nanocrystalline material studied was produced using mechanical milling techniques and an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) system. Mechanical milling was chosen since it has been demonstrated to be a convenient way to produce large quantities of nanocrystalline material. However, ball milling may produce a significant amount of contamination from the containment vessel and milling medium, the actual amount being dependent upon the specific method, length of milling time, container and medium used.

  3. The Tunisian oasis ecosystem is a source of antagonistic Bacillus spp. producing diverse antifungal lipopeptides.

    PubMed

    El Arbi, Amel; Rochex, Alice; Chataigné, Gabrielle; Béchet, Max; Lecouturier, Didier; Arnauld, Ségolène; Gharsallah, Néji; Jacques, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The use of microbial products has become a promising alternative approach to controlling plant diseases caused by phytopathogenic fungi. Bacteria isolated from the date palm tree rhizosphere of the Tunisian oasis ecosystem could provide new biocontrol microorganisms adapted to extreme conditions, such as drought, salinity and high temperature. The aim of this study was to screen bacteria isolated from the rhizosphere of the date palm tree for their ability to inhibit phytopathogenic fungi, and to identify molecules responsible for their antifungal activity. Screening for antifungal activity was performed on twenty-eight isolates. Five antagonistic isolates were selected and identified as different species of Bacillus using phenotypical methods and a molecular approach. The five antagonistic Bacillus isolated showed tolerance to abiotic stresses (high temperature, salinity, drought). Their ability to produce lipopeptides was investigated using a combination of two techniques: PCR amplification and MALDI-ToF mass spectrometry. Analyses revealed that the antagonistic isolates produced a high diversity of lipopeptides that belonged to surfactin, fengycin, iturin and kurstakin families. Their antagonistic activity, related to their capacity for producing diverse antifungal lipopeptides and their tolerance to abiotic stresses, highlighted Bacillus strains isolated from the rhizosphere of the date palm tree as potential biocontrol agents for combatting plant diseases in extreme environments.

  4. Various light source treatments affect body and skeletal muscle growth by affecting skeletal muscle satellite cell proliferation in broilers.

    PubMed

    Halevy, O; Biran, I; Rozenboim, I

    1998-06-01

    In this study we addressed the effect of various monochromatic light treatments on muscle growth and satellite cell proliferation in broilers (Gallus domesticus). Broilers were reared under green (560 nm), blue (480 nm) and red (660 nm) monochromatic lights and white light as a control from day one until 35 days of age. At five days of age, satellite cells were prepared from the experimental chicks. The number of satellite cells per gram of breast muscle and total number of satellite cells derived from the experimental broilers was substantially higher in the groups reared under green and blue light, compared to the red and white light groups. Growth hormone receptor gene expression was also higher in the former groups. High correlation was found between the breast muscle weight observed on day 35 and the number of satellite cells per gram of breast muscle (r = 0.915) and total number of satellite cells (r = 0.833), derived from the experimental chicks as early as five days of age. In addition, the protein/DNA ratio found in breast muscle at 35 days of age was significantly lower in chicks that were reared under green and blue lights. The lowest ratio which was found in the green group and was twice as low as in the control group, indicates the highest number of nuclei in the former group. As satellite cells are the only source of additional nuclei in skeletal muscles of postnatal animals, our results suggest that the higher muscle weight found in the green and blue light groups was due to increased satellite cell proliferation during the first days of age.

  5. Studies on high-quality electron beams and tunable x-ray sources produced by laser wakefield accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Ming; Luo, Ji; Chen, Min; Sheng, Zheng-Ming

    2016-11-01

    The applications of laser wake field accelerators (LWFA) rely heavily on the quality of produced high energy electron beams and X-ray sources. We present our recent progress on this issue. Firstly we propose a bichromatic laser ionization injection scheme for obtaining high quality electron beams. With the laser pulse combinations of 800 nm and 267 nm, or 2400 nm and 800 nm in wavelengths, electron beams with energy spread of 1% or lower can be produced. Secondly we propose polarization tunable X-ray sources based on LWFA. By shooting a laser pulse into a preformed plasma channel with a skew angle referring to the channel axis, the plasma channel can act as a helical undulator for elliptically polarized X-rays.

  6. Generation of metal ions in the beam plasma produced by a forevacuum-pressure electron beam source

    SciTech Connect

    Tyunkov, A. V.; Yushkov, Yu. G. Zolotukhin, D. B.; Klimov, A. S.; Savkin, K. P.

    2014-12-15

    We report on the production of metal ions of magnesium and zinc in the beam plasma formed by a forevacuum-pressure electron source. Magnesium and zinc vapor were generated by electron beam evaporation from a crucible and subsequently ionized by electron impact from the e-beam itself. Both gaseous and metallic plasmas were separately produced and characterized using a modified RGA-100 quadrupole mass-spectrometer. The fractional composition of metal isotopes in the plasma corresponds to their fractional natural abundance.

  7. Nondestructive single-shot soft x-ray lithography and contact microscopy using a laser-produced plasma source.

    PubMed

    Rosser, R J; Feder, R; Ng, A; Adams, F; Celliers, P; Speer, R J

    1987-10-01

    A toroidal relay optic has been used to overcome the problem of damage caused by debris that has limited previous attempts at soft x-ray lithography and contact microscopy using laser-produced plasma sources. Not only is the specimen preserved, but it is now possible to have a vacuum retaining soft x-ray transparent Si(3)N(4) window as a permanent part of the apparatus, greatly simplifying specimen handling. The exposure times are ~2 ns.

  8. Traveling-wave laser-produced-plasma energy source for photoionization laser pumping and lasers incorporating said

    DOEpatents

    Sher, Mark H.; Macklin, John J.; Harris, Stephen E.

    1989-09-26

    A traveling-wave, laser-produced-plasma, energy source used to obtain single-pass gain saturation of a photoionization pumped laser. A cylindrical lens is used to focus a pump laser beam to a long line on a target. Grooves are cut in the target to present a surface near normal to the incident beam and to reduce the area, and hence increase the intensity and efficiency, of plasma formation.

  9. Classification of acoustic emission sources produced by carbon/epoxy composite based on support vector machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Peng; Li, Qin; Huang, Xunlei

    2015-07-01

    Carbon/epoxy specimens were made and stretched to fracture. In the process, acoustic emission (AE) signals were collected and their parameters were set as the input parameters of the neural network. Results show that using support vector machine (SVM) network can recognize the difference of AE sources more accurately than using the BP neural network. In addition, the accuracy of the SVM increases when the number of the training set increases. It is proved that using AE signal parameters and SVM network can recognize the AE sources’ pattern well.

  10. Experimental validation of a method for the prediction of the acoustic field produced by an acoustic source and the reflected field produced by a solid interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, Sandra; Chopra, Rajiv; Pichardo, Samuel

    2012-11-01

    In this work we present a model to calculate the acoustic pressure generated by the interaction of forward and reflected waves in the vicinity of a solid interface and compare it to experimental data. An experimental setup was designed to measure the forward and the combined forward-reflected acoustic fields produced by a solid interface. A 0.785mm-needle hydrophone was used to characterize the acoustic field produced by a 7.29MHz-ultrasound transducer focused at 6cm. The hydrophone was positioned perpendicularly to the sound propagation direction and moved between the transducer and a 9mm-thick acrylic sample using a robotic arm. Simulations were carried out using a modified Rayleigh-Sommerfeld integral that calculates the particle displacement over a reflecting surface. This particle displacement at the boundary of the interface is then used as an acoustic source to obtain the reflected particle displacement. The complex sum of the forward and reflected fields was compared to the experimental measurements. The measurements showed an interference pattern that increased the pressure amplitude in average 10.4% with peaks of up to 25.8%. The proposed model is able to represent the interference pattern produced by the reflected wave with an average absolute error of 3.4+/-0.54% and a maximal error of 5.6%. The comparison between the experimental measurements and the simulations indicates that the presented model predicts with good accuracy the acoustic field generated by ultrasound transducers facing a solid interface. This model can be used to foresee the outcome of therapeutic applications where the devices are used in proximity to a bone interface.

  11. Relative Importance of Various Sources of Defect-Producing Hydrogen Introduced into Steel During Application of Vitreous Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Dwight G; Mason, Mary A; Harrison, William N

    1953-01-01

    When porcelain enamels or vitreous-type ceramic coatings are applied to ferrous metals, there is believed to be an evolution of hydrogen gas both during and after the firing operation. At elevated temperatures rapid evolution may result in blistering while if hydrogen becomes trapped in the steel during the rapid cooling following the firing operation gas pressures may be generated at the coating-metal interface and flakes of the coating literally blown off the metal. To determine experimentally the relative importance of the principal sources of the hydrogen causing the defects, a procedure was devised in which heavy hydrogen (deuterium) was substituted in turn for regular hydrogen in each of five possible hydrogen-producing operations in the coating process. The findings of the study were as follows: (1) the principal source of the defect-producing hydrogen was the dissolved water present in the enamel frit that was incorporated into the coating. (2) the acid pickling, the milling water, the chemically combined water in the clay, and the quenching water were all minor sources of defect-producing hydrogen under the test conditions used. Confirming experiments showed that fishscaling could be eliminated by using a water-free coating.

  12. Feasibility of meltcasing strontium fluoride to produce high-density heat sources

    SciTech Connect

    Wheelwright, E.J.; Montgomery, D.R.

    1985-02-01

    A modest proof-of-principle effort has been conducted to investigate melt casting as a process for compacting SrF/sub 2/ to near theoretical density. A nonradioactive SrF/sub 2/ mixture, similar in chemical composition and method of prepartion to SrF/sub 2/ encapsulated at the Hanford Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) was used for the test evaluations. Hard, dimensionally stable, monolithic ingots that are >98% of theoretical density have been produced. Significant chemical purification from Al, Fe, Cr, Ni, Na and Zr has been demonstrated.

  13. Innovative X-γ ray sources based on laser-produced plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curcio, A.; Giulietti, D.

    2015-07-01

    The paper concerns with the dynamics and the emitted radiation of electrons undergoing betatron oscillations in laser-produced plasmas. The topic is relevant for a reliable interpretation of data will be obtained in forthcoming experiments in the LASER facility of the National Laboratories of Frascati (LNF) of the National Institute for Nuclear Physics (INFN). The blowout regime will be considered, which makes the electrons reaching very high energies by providing impressive accelerating gradients while keeping a low energy spread value. The accident that the betatron emission occurs meanwhile electrons gain energy is also considered here.

  14. Use of in vivo phycocyanin fluorescence to monitor potential microcystin-producing cyanobacterial biovolume in a drinking water source.

    PubMed

    McQuaid, N; Zamyadi, A; Prévost, M; Bird, D F; Dorner, S

    2011-02-01

    The source water of a drinking water treatment plant prone to blooms, dominated by potential microcystin-producing cyanobacteria, was monitored for two seasons in 2007-2008. In the 2008 season, the median value for potential microcystin-producing cyanobacterial biovolume was 87% of the total phytoplankton biovolume in the untreated water of the plant. Depth profiles taken above the plant's intake identified three sampling days at high risk for the contamination of the plant's raw water with potentially toxic cyanobacteria. Chlorophyceae and Bacillariophyceae caused false positive values to be generated by the phycocyanin probe when cyanobacteria represented a small fraction of the total phytoplanktonic biovolume present. However, there was little interference with the phycocyanin probe readings by other algal species when potential microcystin-producing cyanobacteria dominated the phytoplankton of the plant's untreated water. A two-tiered method for source water monitoring, using in vivo phycocyanin fluorescence, is proposed based on (1) a significant relationship between in vivo phycocyanin fluorescence and cyanobacterial biovolume and (2) the calculated maximum potential microcystin concentration produced by dominant Microcystis sp. biovolume. This method monitors locally-generated threshold values for cyanobacterial biovolume and microcystin concentrations using in vivo phycocyanin fluorescence.

  15. Factors Affecting Source-Water Quality after Disturbance of Forests by Wildfire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, S. F.; Martin, D. A.; McCleskey, R. B.; Writer, J. H.

    2015-12-01

    Forests yield high-quality water supplies to communities throughout the world, in part because forest cover reduces flooding and the consequent transport of suspended and dissolved constituents to surface water. Disturbance by wildfire reduces or eliminates forest cover, leaving watersheds susceptible to increased surface runoff during storms and reduced ability to retain contaminants. We assessed water-quality response to hydrologic events for three years after a wildfire in the Fourmile Creek Watershed, near Boulder, Colorado, and found that hydrologic and geochemical responses downstream of a burned area were primarily driven by small, brief convective storms that had relatively high, but not unusual, rainfall intensity. Total suspended sediment, dissolved organic carbon, nitrate, and manganese concentrations were 10-156 times higher downstream of a burned area compared to upstream, and water quality was sufficiently impaired to pose water-treatment concerns. The response in both concentration and yield of water-quality constituents differed depending on source availability and dominant watershed processes controlling the constituent. For example, while all constituent concentrations were highest during storm events, annual sediment yields downstream of the burned area were controlled by storm events and subsequent mobilization, whereas dissolved organic carbon yields were more dependent on spring runoff from upstream areas. The watershed response was affected by a legacy of historical disturbance: the watershed had been recovering from extensive disturbance by mining, railroad and road development, logging, and fires in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and we observed extensive erosion of mine waste in response to these summer storms. Therefore, both storm characteristics and historical disturbance in a burned watershed must be considered when evaluating the role of wildfire on water quality.

  16. Dietary carbohydrate and lipid source affect cholesterol metabolism of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) juveniles.

    PubMed

    Castro, Carolina; Corraze, Geneviève; Pérez-Jiménez, Amalia; Larroquet, Laurence; Cluzeaud, Marianne; Panserat, Stéphane; Oliva-Teles, Aires

    2015-10-28

    Plant feedstuffs (PF) are rich in carbohydrates, which may interact with lipid metabolism. Thus, when considering dietary replacement of fishery by-products with PF, knowledge is needed on how dietary lipid source (LS) and carbohydrates affect lipid metabolism and other metabolic pathways. For that purpose, a 73-d growth trial was performed with European sea bass juveniles (IBW 74 g) fed four diets differing in LS (fish oil (FO) or a blend of vegetable oils (VO)) and carbohydrate content (0 % (CH-) or 20 % (CH+) gelatinised starch). At the end of the trial no differences among diets were observed on growth and feed utilisation. Protein efficiency ratio was, however, higher in the CH+ groups. Muscle and liver fatty acid profiles reflected the dietary LS. Dietary carbohydrate promoted higher plasma cholesterol and phospholipids (PL), whole-body and hepatic (mainly 16 : 0) lipids and increased muscular and hepatic glycogen. Except for PL, which were higher in the FO groups, no major alterations between FO and VO groups were observed on plasma metabolites (glucose, TAG, cholesterol, PL), liver and muscle glycogen, and lipid and cholesterol contents. Activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and malic enzyme - lipogenesis-related enzymes - increased with carbohydrate intake. Hepatic expression of genes involved in cholesterol metabolism was up-regulated with carbohydrate (HMGCR and CYP3A27) and VO (HMGCR and CYP51A1) intake. No dietary regulation of long-chain PUFA biosynthesis at the transcriptional level was observed. Overall, very few interactions between dietary carbohydrates and LS were observed. However, important insights on the direct relation between dietary carbohydrate and the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway in European sea bass were demonstrated.

  17. Resurrecting Bobrovnikoff to produce crowd-sourced cometary light curves using DSLR photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, S.

    2014-04-01

    One of the aims of cometary observation is putting together the light curve. As well as recording the measurements of magnitude made by observers over a period of time, it feeds the anticipation of professionals and amateurs alike in answering the question "How bright will it be?". This developmental paper acknowledges the accepted wide variety of historic magnitude estimation methods and notes that the stringent rules of modern CCD photometry render it inaccessible to many amateur observers. The paper proposes a method which uses quantity, rather than quality, of individual observations to eliminate inaccuracy. It draws on principles of crowd sourcing already used with great success at the interface between professional and amateur astronomers

  18. Assessment of source probabilities for potential tsunamis affecting the U.S. Atlantic coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geist, E.L.; Parsons, T.

    2009-01-01

    Estimating the likelihood of tsunamis occurring along the U.S. Atlantic coast critically depends on knowledge of tsunami source probability. We review available information on both earthquake and landslide probabilities from potential sources that could generate local and transoceanic tsunamis. Estimating source probability includes defining both size and recurrence distributions for earthquakes and landslides. For the former distribution, source sizes are often distributed according to a truncated or tapered power-law relationship. For the latter distribution, sources are often assumed to occur in time according to a Poisson process, simplifying the way tsunami probabilities from individual sources can be aggregated. For the U.S. Atlantic coast, earthquake tsunami sources primarily occur at transoceanic distances along plate boundary faults. Probabilities for these sources are constrained from previous statistical studies of global seismicity for similar plate boundary types. In contrast, there is presently little information constraining landslide probabilities that may generate local tsunamis. Though there is significant uncertainty in tsunami source probabilities for the Atlantic, results from this study yield a comparative analysis of tsunami source recurrence rates that can form the basis for future probabilistic analyses.

  19. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Xxxxxx... - Description of Source Categories Affected by This Subpart

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...), coke and gas burning salamanders, liquid or gas solar energy collectors, solar heaters, space heaters... supplies industry sector of this source category includes establishments primarily engaged in high...

  20. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Xxxxxx... - Description of Source Categories Affected by This Subpart

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...), coke and gas burning salamanders, liquid or gas solar energy collectors, solar heaters, space heaters... supplies industry sector of this source category includes establishments primarily engaged in high...

  1. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Xxxxxx... - Description of Source Categories Affected by This Subpart

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...), coke and gas burning salamanders, liquid or gas solar energy collectors, solar heaters, space heaters... supplies industry sector of this source category includes establishments primarily engaged in high...

  2. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Xxxxxx... - Description of Source Categories Affected by This Subpart

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...), coke and gas burning salamanders, liquid or gas solar energy collectors, solar heaters, space heaters... supplies industry sector of this source category includes establishments primarily engaged in high...

  3. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Xxxxxx... - Description of Source Categories Affected by This Subpart

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...), coke and gas burning salamanders, liquid or gas solar energy collectors, solar heaters, space heaters... supplies industry sector of this source category includes establishments primarily engaged in high...

  4. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart U of... - Applicability of General Provisions to Subpart U Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Subpart U Affected Sources 1 Table 1 to Subpart U of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Polymers and Resins Pt. 63, Subpt. U, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart U of Part 63—Applicability of General....1(a)(4) Yes Subpart U (this table) specifies the applicability of each paragraph in subpart A...

  5. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart U of... - Applicability of General Provisions to Subpart U Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Subpart U Affected Sources 1 Table 1 to Subpart U of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Polymers and Resins Pt. 63, Subpt. U, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart U of Part 63—Applicability of General....1(a)(4) Yes Subpart U (this table) specifies the applicability of each paragraph in subpart A...

  6. 40 CFR 63.5994 - How do I conduct tests and procedures for tire production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... to determine the mass percent of HAP in cements and solvents. To determine the HAP content in the cements and solvents used at your tire production affected source, use EPA Method 311 of appendix A of... content of your cements and solvents. Other reasonable means include, but are not limited to: a...

  7. 40 CFR 63.5997 - How do I conduct tests and procedures for tire cord production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true How do I conduct tests and procedures for tire cord production affected sources? 63.5997 Section 63.5997 Protection of Environment..., chemistry demonstrations, or other demonstrations that are verifiable to the approving agency. Use...

  8. 40 CFR 63.5997 - How do I conduct tests and procedures for tire cord production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true How do I conduct tests and procedures for tire cord production affected sources? 63.5997 Section 63.5997 Protection of Environment..., chemistry demonstrations, or other demonstrations that are verifiable to the approving agency. Use...

  9. 40 CFR 63.5985 - What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources... either of the emission limits in § 63.5984. (a) Purchase alternative. Use only cements and solvents that... device. Use cements and solvents in such a way that the monthly average HAP emissions do not exceed...

  10. 40 CFR 63.5985 - What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources... either of the emission limits in § 63.5984. (a) Purchase alternative. Use only cements and solvents that... device. Use cements and solvents in such a way that the monthly average HAP emissions do not exceed...

  11. 40 CFR 63.5985 - What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources § 63.5985 What are... emission limits in § 63.5984. (a) Purchase alternative. Use only cements and solvents that, as purchased... constituent option). (b) Monthly average alternative, without using an add-on control device. Use cements...

  12. 40 CFR 63.5985 - What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources... either of the emission limits in § 63.5984. (a) Purchase alternative. Use only cements and solvents that... device. Use cements and solvents in such a way that the monthly average HAP emissions do not exceed...

  13. 40 CFR 63.5985 - What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources § 63.5985 What are... emission limits in § 63.5984. (a) Purchase alternative. Use only cements and solvents that, as purchased... constituent option). (b) Monthly average alternative, without using an add-on control device. Use cements...

  14. 40 CFR Table 10 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Continuous Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Continuous Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources 10 Table 10 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR...

  15. 40 CFR Table 10 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Continuous Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Continuous Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources 10 Table 10 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR...

  16. 40 CFR Table 10 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Continuous Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Continuous Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources 10 Table 10 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR...

  17. 40 CFR 63.1310 - Applicability and designation of affected sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers... source is defined as each group of one or more thermoplastic product process units (TPPU) and...

  18. 40 CFR 63.1310 - Applicability and designation of affected sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers... source is defined as each group of one or more thermoplastic product process units (TPPU) and...

  19. Aging affects the interaction between attentional control and source memory: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Dulas, Michael R; Duarte, Audrey

    2014-12-01

    Age-related source memory impairments may be due, at least in part, to deficits in executive processes mediated by the PFC at both study and test. Behavioral work suggests that providing environmental support at encoding, such as directing attention toward item-source associations, may improve source memory and reduce age-related deficits in the recruitment of these executive processes. The present fMRI study investigated the effects of directed attention and aging on source memory encoding and retrieval. At study, participants were shown pictures of objects. They were either asked to attend to the objects and their color (source) or to their size. At test, participants determined if objects were seen before, and if so, whether they were the same color as previously. Behavioral results showed that direction of attention improved source memory for both groups; however, age-related deficits persisted. fMRI results revealed that, across groups, direction of attention facilitated medial temporal lobe-mediated contextual binding processes during study and attenuated right PFC postretrieval monitoring effects at test. However, persistent age-related source memory deficits may be related to increased recruitment of medial anterior PFC during encoding, indicative of self-referential processing, as well as underrecruitment of lateral anterior PFC-mediated relational processes. Taken together, this study suggests that, even when supported, older adults may fail to selectively encode goal-relevant contextual details supporting source memory performance.

  20. Source segregation of food waste in office areas: Factors affecting waste generation rates and quality.

    PubMed

    Edjabou, Maklawe Essonanawe; Boldrin, Alessio; Scheutz, Charlotte; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2015-12-01

    Existing legislation mandates that the amount of waste being recycled should be increased. Among others, in its Resource Strategy Plan, the Danish Government decided that at least 60% of food waste generated by the service sector, including in office areas, should be source-sorted and collected separately by 2018. To assess the achievability of these targets, source-sorted food waste and residual waste from office areas was collected and weighed on a daily basis during 133 working days. Waste composition analyses were conducted every week to investigate the efficiency of the source-sorting campaign and the purity of the source-sorted food waste. The moisture content of source-sorted food waste and residual waste fractions, and potential methane production from source-sorted food waste, was also investigated. Food waste generation equated to 23 ± 5 kg/employee/year, of which 20 ± 5 kg/employee/year was source-sorted, with a considerably high purity of 99%. Residual waste amounted to 10 ± 5 kg/employee/year and consisted mainly of paper (29 ± 13%), plastic (23 ± 9%) and missorted food waste (24 ± 16%). The moisture content of source-sorted food waste was significantly higher (8%) than missorted food waste, and the methane potential of source-sorted food waste was 463 ± 42 mL CH4/g VS. These results show that food waste in office areas offers promising potential for relatively easily collectable and pure source-sorted food waste, suggesting that recycling targets for food waste could be achieved with reasonable logistical ease in office areas.

  1. Semantic Trouble Sources and Their Repair in Conversations Affected by Parkinson's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saldert, Charlotta; Ferm, Ulrika; Bloch, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Background: It is known that dysarthria arising from Parkinson's disease may affect intelligibility in conversational interaction. Research has also shown that Parkinson's disease may affect cognition and cause word-retrieval difficulties and pragmatic problems in the use of language. However, it is not known whether or how these…

  2. 40 CFR 63.1318 - PET and polystyrene affected sources-testing and compliance demonstration provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...: Group IV Polymers and Resins § 63.1318 PET and polystyrene affected sources—testing and compliance... calculate organic HAP emissions from the collection of material recovery sections at an existing affected... paragraphs (b)(1)(i) and (b)(1)(ii) of this section. ER12SE96.000 where: ER=Emission rate of total...

  3. Positive Affect as a Source of Resilience for Women in Chronic Pain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zautra, Alex J.; Johnson, Lisa M.; Davis, Mary C.

    2005-01-01

    A sample of 124 women with osteoarthritis or fibromyalgia, or both, completed initial assessments for demographic data, health status, and personality traits and 10-12 weekly interviews regarding pain, stress, negative affect, and positive affect. Multilevel modeling analyses indicated that weekly elevations of pain and stress predicted increases…

  4. Supplemental lysine sulfate does not negatively affect performance of broiler chicks fed dietary sulfur from multiple dietary and water sources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Commercial producers and nutritionists have questioned the performance consequences of sulfur (S) from various dietary and water sources combined in current commercial production. The combination of high S containing feed ingredients, including dried distiller’s grains with solubles (DDGS) and dieta...

  5. Effects of Nitrogen Sources and C/N Ratios on the Lipid-Producing Potential of Chlorella sp. HQ.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Jingjing; Hong, Yu; Hu, Hongying

    2016-07-28

    Microalgae are being researched for their potential as attractive biofuel feedstock, particularly for their lipid production. For maximizing biofuel production, it is necessary to explore the effects of environmental factors on algal lipid-producing potential. In this study, the effects of nitrogen (N) sources (NO2-N, NO3-N, urea-N, NH4-N, and N-deficiency) and carbon-to-nitrogen ratios (C/N= 0, 1.0, 3.0, and 5.0) on algal lipid-producing potential of Chlorella sp. HQ were investigated. The results showed that for Chlorella growth and lipid accumulation potential, NO2-N was the best amongst the nitrogen sources, and NO3-N and urea-N also contributed to algal growth and lipid accumulation potential, but NH4-N and N-deficiency instead caused inhibitory effects. Moreover, the results indicated that algal lipid-producing potential was related to C/N ratios. With NO2-N treatment and carbon addition (C/N = 1.0, 3.0, and 5.0), total lipid yield was enhanced by 12.96-20.37%, but triacylglycerol (TAG) yields decreased by 25.52-94.31%. As for NO3-N treatment, carbon addition led to a 17.82-57.43%/ 25.86-82.67% reduction of total lipid/TAG yields. When NH4-N was used as the nitrogen source, total lipid/TAG yields were increased by 46.67-113.33%/28.99-74.76% with carbon addition. The total lipid/TAG yields of urea-N treatment varied with C/N ratios. Overall, the highest TAG yield (TAG yield: 38.75 ± 5.21 mg/l; TAG content: 44.16 ± 4.35%) was achieved under NO2-N treatment without carbon addition (C/N = 0), the condition that had merit for biofuel production.

  6. Persistence of human norovirus in reconstituted pesticides--pesticide application as a possible source of viruses in fresh produce chains.

    PubMed

    Verhaelen, Katharina; Bouwknegt, Martijn; Rutjes, Saskia A; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria

    2013-01-01

    The consumption of fresh produce is frequently associated with outbreaks of human norovirus (hNoV) disease. To prevent the contamination of fresh produce with hNoV, knowledge of the possible introduction sources of the viruses, such as water, is needed to be able to implement appropriate and efficient preventive measures. Contaminated water used to reconstitute pesticides could be a relevant source of infectious hNoV, determined by the initial level of virus contamination and the persistence of these viruses in reconstituted pesticides. We studied the persistence of hNoV GI.4, hNoV GII.4 and murine norovirus (MNV-1), the only culturable norovirus, in eight different pesticides after 0 and 2h. Virus concentrations were determined by reverse transcriptase PCR, and infectivity of MNV-1 was determined by endpoint dilutions followed by maximum likelihood estimations. MNV-1 was found to remain infectious in seven of the eight tested pesticides at the highest concentration applied in practice. In the presence of the insecticide Vertimec, MNV-1 infectivity decreased rapidly with a 1.9 log(10)-unit reduction at timepoint T(0). Also, the concentration of NoV GI.4 RNA decreased considerably with a 1.7 log(10)-unit reduction; whereas the detected PCR fragment of hNoV GII.4 remained stable. Assuming a similar persistence of infectious MNV-1 and hNoV we can conclude that water containing hNoV used to dilute pesticides may be an important source of infectious hNoV in fresh produce chains. The application of pesticides may therefore not only be a chemical hazard, but also a microbiological hazard for public health. The inclusion of antiviral substances in reconstituted pesticides may be appropriate to reduce the virological health risk posed by the application of pesticides.

  7. Pressing device for producing compacts from source material in powder form in particular pulverized nuclear reactor fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Heller, G.; Adelmann, M.; Konigs, W.; Wendorf, W.

    1984-04-17

    Pressing device for producing compacts from source material in powder form, in particular pulverized nuclear reactor fuel having a die-plate contained in platen and a bore associated with a ram, for receiving source material powder, a filling shoe, and a reservoir for powder connected by a hose to the filling shoe. The device is characterized by a passing wheel in the filling shoe as filling aid means; a tube containing a feedscrew disposed between the reservoir and hose as metering means; the reservoir having a bottom part with a can type place-on part with an opening eccentric to the axis; a coupling part and a cover part are placed on the open part of the can, these parts are also provided with a passageway to the feedscrew eccentric to the longitudinal axis.

  8. Plums (Prunus domestica L.) are a good source of yeasts producing organic acids of industrial interest from glycerol.

    PubMed

    García-Fraile, Paula; Silva, Luís R; Sánchez-Márquez, Salud; Velázquez, Encarna; Rivas, Raúl

    2013-08-15

    The production of organic acids from several yeasts isolated from mature plums on media containing glycerol as carbon source was analysed by HPLC-UV. The yeasts isolated were identified by sequencing the 5.8S internal transcribed spacer as Pichia fermentans, Wickerhamomyces anomalus and Candida oleophila. The organic acid profiles of these strains comprise acetic, citric, succinic and malic acids that qualitatively and quantitatively vary between different species as well as among strains from the same species. The production from glycerol of succinic, acetic, citric, malic and oxalic acids from C. oleophila and W. anomalus, and that of succinic, oxalic and acetic acids by P. fermentans is reported for the first time in this work, as is the production of oxalic acid from glycerol in yeasts. Our results also showed that mature fruits can be a good source of new yeasts able to metabolise glycerol, producing different organic acids with industrial and biotechnological interest.

  9. Compact scanning soft-x-ray microscope using a laser-produced plasma source and normal-incidence multilayer mirrors.

    PubMed

    Trail, J A; Byer, R L

    1989-06-01

    We have constructed a scanning soft-x-ray microscope that uses a laser-produced plasma as the soft-x-ray source and normal-incidence multilayer-coated mirrors in a Schwarzschild configuration as the focusing optics. The microscope operates at a wavelength of 14 nm, has a spatial resolution of 0.5 microm, and has a soft-x-ray photon flux through the focus of 10(4)-10(5) sec(-1) when operated with only 170 mW of average laser power. The microscope is compact; the complete system, including the laser, fits on a single optical table.

  10. 40 CFR 63.1505 - Emission standards for affected sources and emission units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... monitoring option. (f) Sweat furnace. The owner or operator of a sweat furnace shall comply with the emission... operator of a sweat furnace at a secondary aluminum production facility that is a major or area source...

  11. 40 CFR 63.1505 - Emission standards for affected sources and emission units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... monitoring option. (f) Sweat furnace. The owner or operator of a sweat furnace shall comply with the emission... operator of a sweat furnace at a secondary aluminum production facility that is a major or area source...

  12. 40 CFR 63.1505 - Emission standards for affected sources and emission units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... monitoring option. (f) Sweat furnace. The owner or operator of a sweat furnace shall comply with the emission... operator of a sweat furnace at a secondary aluminum production facility that is a major or area source...

  13. 40 CFR 63.1505 - Emission standards for affected sources and emission units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... monitoring option. (f) Sweat furnace. The owner or operator of a sweat furnace shall comply with the emission... operator of a sweat furnace at a secondary aluminum production facility that is a major or area source...

  14. 40 CFR 63.1505 - Emission standards for affected sources and emission units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... monitoring option. (f) Sweat furnace. The owner or operator of a sweat furnace shall comply with the emission... operator of a sweat furnace at a secondary aluminum production facility that is a major or area source...

  15. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Jjj of... - Group 1 Storage Vessels at Existing Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers....1 151≤capacity ≥5.2 a Maximum true vapor pressure of total organic HAP at storage temperature....

  16. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart U of... - Group 1 Storage Vessels at Existing Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group I Polymers and... ≤ capacity ≥5.2 a Maximum true vapor pressure of total organic HAP at storage temperature....

  17. 40 CFR 63.52 - Approval process for new and existing affected sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... sources. (4) On or after April 5, 2002, if the Administrator establishes a lesser quantity emission rate... subpart. If the applicability determination is negative, then no further action by the owner or...

  18. Does fine sediment source as well as quantity affect salmonid embryo mortality and development?

    PubMed

    Sear, D A; Jones, J I; Collins, A L; Hulin, A; Burke, N; Bateman, S; Pattison, I; Naden, P S

    2016-01-15

    Fine sediments are known to be an important cause of increased mortality in benthic spawning fish. To date, most of the research has focussed on the relationship between embryo mortality and the quantity of fine sediment accumulated in the egg pocket. However, recent evidence suggests a) that the source of fine sediment might also be important, and b) that fitness of surviving embryos post-hatch might also be impacted by the accumulation of fine sediments. In this paper, we report an experiment designed to simulate the incubation environment of brown trout (Salmo trutta) and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). During the experiment, the incubating embryos were exposed to different quantities of fine (<63 μm) sediment derived from four different sources; agricultural topsoils, damaged road verges, eroding river channel banks and tertiary level treated sewage. Results showed that mass and source are independently important for determining the mortality and fitness of alevin. Differences between species were observed, such that brown trout are less sensitive to mass and source of accumulated sediment. We demonstrate for the first time that sediment source is an additional control on the impact of fine sediment, and that this is primarily controlled by the organic matter content and oxygen consumption of the catchment source material.

  19. Production of spectrally narrow soft-x-ray radiation through the use of broadband laser-produced plasma sources and multilayer-coated reflecting optics.

    PubMed

    Eligon, A M; Gruber, N; Silfvast, W T

    1995-08-01

    We describe a special filter design that produces spectrally narrow soft-x-ray radiation by using a broadband laser-produced plasma source and multilayer-coated reflecting optics. Calculations for the design were carried out at several laser-produced plasma-source temperatures and various multilayermirror combinations with and without a soft-x-ray filter. We determined that the best arrangement for a laser-produced plasma source consists of two multilayer mirrors and one soft-x-ray filter for each temperature investigated.

  20. High repetition rate laser produced soft x-ray source for ultrafast x-ray absorption near edge structure measurements.

    PubMed

    Fourmaux, S; Lecherbourg, L; Harmand, M; Servol, M; Kieffer, J C

    2007-11-01

    Recent progress in high intensity ultrafast laser systems provides the opportunity to produce laser plasma x-ray sources exhibiting broad spectrum and high average x-ray flux that are well adapted to x-ray absorption measurements. In this paper, the development of a laser based x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) beamline exhibiting high repetition rate by using the Advanced Laser Light Source (ALLS) facility 100 Hz laser system (100 mJ, 35 fs at 800 nm) is presented. This system is based on a broadband tantalum solid target soft x-ray source and a grazing incidence grating spectrometer in the 1-5 nm wavelength range. To demonstrate the high potential of this laser based XANES technique in condensed matter physics, material science, or biology, measurements realized with several samples are presented: VO2 vanadium L edge, Si3N4 nitrogen K edge, and BPDA/PPD polyimide carbon K edge. The characteristics of this laser based beamline are discussed in terms of brightness, signal to noise ratio, and compared to conventional synchrotron broadband x-ray sources which allow achieving similar measurements. Apart from the very compact size and the relative low cost, the main advantages of such a laser based soft x-ray source are the picosecond pulse duration and the perfect synchronization between this x-ray probe and a laser pulse excitation which open the way to the realization of time resolved x-ray absorption measurements with picosecond range time resolution to study the dynamics of ultrafast processes and phase transition.

  1. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Zzzzz of... - Compliance Certifications for New and Existing Affected Sources Classified as Large Iron and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Existing Affected Sources Classified as Large Iron and Steel Foundries 4 Table 4 to Subpart ZZZZZ of Part... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Iron and Steel Foundries Area Sources Pt. 63, Subpt... Affected Sources Classified as Large Iron and Steel Foundries As required by § 63.10900(b),...

  2. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Zzzzz of... - Compliance Certifications for New and Existing Affected Sources Classified as Large Iron and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Existing Affected Sources Classified as Large Iron and Steel Foundries 4 Table 4 to Subpart ZZZZZ of Part... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Iron and Steel Foundries Area Sources Pt. 63, Subpt... Affected Sources Classified as Large Iron and Steel Foundries As required by § 63.10900(b),...

  3. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Zzzzz of... - Compliance Certifications for New and Existing Affected Sources Classified as Large Iron and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Existing Affected Sources Classified as Large Iron and Steel Foundries 4 Table 4 to Subpart ZZZZZ of Part... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Iron and Steel Foundries Area Sources Pt. 63, Subpt... Affected Sources Classified as Large Iron and Steel Foundries As required by § 63.10900(b),...

  4. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Zzzzz of... - Compliance Certifications for New and Existing Affected Sources Classified as Large Iron and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Existing Affected Sources Classified as Large Iron and Steel Foundries 4 Table 4 to Subpart ZZZZZ of Part... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Iron and Steel Foundries Area Sources Pt. 63, Subpt... Affected Sources Classified as Large Iron and Steel Foundries As required by § 63.10900(b),...

  5. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Zzzzz of... - Compliance Certifications for New and Existing Affected Sources Classified as Large Iron and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Existing Affected Sources Classified as Large Iron and Steel Foundries 4 Table 4 to Subpart ZZZZZ of Part... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Iron and Steel Foundries Area Sources Pt. 63, Subpt... Affected Sources Classified as Large Iron and Steel Foundries As required by § 63.10900(b),...

  6. Effective source size, radial, angular and energy spread of therapeutic 11C positron emitter beams produced by 12C fragmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazzeroni, Marta; Brahme, Anders

    2014-02-01

    The use of positron emitter light ion beams in combination with PET (Positron Emission Tomography) and PET-CT (Computed Tomography) imaging could significantly improve treatment verification and dose delivery imaging during radiation therapy. The present study is dedicated to the analysis of the beam quality in terms of the effective source size, as well as radial, angular and energy spread of the 11C ion beam produced by projectile fragmentation of a primary point monodirectional and monoenergetic 12C ion beam in a dedicated range shifter of different materials. This study was performed combining analytical methods describing the transport of particles in matter and the Monte Carlo code SHIELD-HIT+. A high brilliance and production yield of 11C fragments with a small effective source size and emittance is best achieved with a decelerator made of two media: a first liquid hydrogen section of about 20 cm followed by a hydrogen rich section of variable length. The calculated intensity of the produced 11C ion beam ranges from about 5% to 8% of the primary 12C beam intensity depending on the exit energy and the acceptance of the beam transport system. The angular spread is lower than 1 degree for all the materials studied, but the brilliance of the beam is the highest with the proposed mixed decelerator.

  7. Green Power Grids: How Energy from Renewable Sources Affects Networks and Markets.

    PubMed

    Mureddu, Mario; Caldarelli, Guido; Chessa, Alessandro; Scala, Antonio; Damiano, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    The increasing attention to environmental issues is forcing the implementation of novel energy models based on renewable sources. This is fundamentally changing the configuration of energy management and is introducing new problems that are only partly understood. In particular, renewable energies introduce fluctuations which cause an increased request for conventional energy sources to balance energy requests at short notice. In order to develop an effective usage of low-carbon sources, such fluctuations must be understood and tamed. In this paper we present a microscopic model for the description and for the forecast of short time fluctuations related to renewable sources in order to estimate their effects on the electricity market. To account for the inter-dependencies in the energy market and the physical power dispatch network, we use a statistical mechanics approach to sample stochastic perturbations in the power system and an agent based approach for the prediction of the market players' behavior. Our model is data-driven; it builds on one-day-ahead real market transactions in order to train agents' behaviour and allows us to deduce the market share of different energy sources. We benchmarked our approach on the Italian market, finding a good accordance with real data.

  8. Green Power Grids: How Energy from Renewable Sources Affects Networks and Markets

    PubMed Central

    Mureddu, Mario; Caldarelli, Guido; Chessa, Alessandro; Scala, Antonio; Damiano, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    The increasing attention to environmental issues is forcing the implementation of novel energy models based on renewable sources. This is fundamentally changing the configuration of energy management and is introducing new problems that are only partly understood. In particular, renewable energies introduce fluctuations which cause an increased request for conventional energy sources to balance energy requests at short notice. In order to develop an effective usage of low-carbon sources, such fluctuations must be understood and tamed. In this paper we present a microscopic model for the description and for the forecast of short time fluctuations related to renewable sources in order to estimate their effects on the electricity market. To account for the inter-dependencies in the energy market and the physical power dispatch network, we use a statistical mechanics approach to sample stochastic perturbations in the power system and an agent based approach for the prediction of the market players’ behavior. Our model is data-driven; it builds on one-day-ahead real market transactions in order to train agents’ behaviour and allows us to deduce the market share of different energy sources. We benchmarked our approach on the Italian market, finding a good accordance with real data. PMID:26335705

  9. Evidence for dissolved organic matter as the primary source and sink of photochemically produced hydroxyl radical in arctic surface waters.

    PubMed

    Page, Sarah E; Logan, J Robert; Cory, Rose M; McNeill, Kristopher

    2014-04-01

    Hydroxyl radical (˙OH) is an indiscriminate oxidant that reacts at near-diffusion-controlled rates with organic carbon. Thus, while ˙OH is expected to be an important oxidant of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and other recalcitrant compounds, the role of ˙OH in the oxidation of these compounds in aquatic ecosystems is not well known due to the poorly constrained sources and sinks of ˙OH, especially in pristine (unpolluted) natural waters. We measured the rates of ˙OH formation and quenching across a range of surface waters in the Arctic varying in concentrations of expected sources and sinks of ˙OH. Photochemical formation of ˙OH was observed in all waters tested, with rates of formation ranging from 2.6 ± 0.6 to 900 ± 100 × 10(-12) M s(-1). Steady-state concentrations ranged from 2 ± 1 to 290 ± 60 × 10(-17) M, and overlapped with previously reported values in surface waters. While iron-mediated photo-Fenton reactions likely contributed to the observed ˙OH production, several lines of evidence suggest that DOM was the primary source and sink of photochemically produced ˙OH in pristine arctic surface waters. DOM from first-order or headwater streams was more efficient in producing ˙OH than what has previously been reported for DOM, and ˙OH formation decreased with increasing residence time of DOM in sunlit surface waters. Despite the ubiquitous formation of ˙OH in arctic surface waters observed in this study, photochemical ˙OH formation was estimated to contribute ≤4% to the observed photo-oxidation of DOM; however, key uncertainties in this estimate must be addressed before ruling out the role of ˙OH in the oxidation of DOM in these waters.

  10. The password is praise: content of feedback affects categorization of feedback sources.

    PubMed

    Rabinovich, Anna; Morton, Thomas A; Landon, Emily; Neill, Caitlin; Mason-Brown, Sapphire; Burdett, Lucie

    2014-09-01

    In three experimental studies, we investigated the effect of the content of group-directed feedback on categorization of the feedback source as an ingroup or an outgroup member. In all studies, feedback valence (criticism vs. praise) and the attributional content of feedback (attributing outcomes to internal properties of the group vs. external circumstances) were experimentally manipulated. The results demonstrated that anonymous (Study 1) and ambiguous (Studies 2 and 3) sources of feedback are more likely to be seen as (typical) ingroup members when they provide praise rather than criticism. In addition, in all studies there was a significant interaction between valence and the attributional content of feedback, such that sources of praise were more likely to be seen as ingroup members when they attributed the group's success to internal (rather than external) causes, while the opposite was observed for critics. These effects were mediated by perceived group image threat. Implications for research on group-based feedback and social categorization are discussed.

  11. 40 CFR 63.480 - Applicability and designation of affected sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group I Polymers and Resins... group of one or more elastomer product process units (EPPU) and associated equipment, as listed...

  12. 40 CFR 63.11194 - What is the affected source of this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... requirements of this subpart after June 4, 2010 due to a fuel switch from gaseous fuel to solid fossil fuel, biomass, or liquid fuel is considered to be an existing source under this subpart as long as the boiler... applicability criteria at the time you commence reconstruction. (e) An existing dual-fuel fired boiler...

  13. 40 CFR 63.11194 - What is the affected source of this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... requirements of this subpart after June 4, 2010 due to a fuel switch from gaseous fuel to solid fossil fuel, biomass, or liquid fuel is considered to be an existing source under this subpart as long as the boiler... applicability criteria at the time you commence reconstruction. (e) An existing dual-fuel fired boiler...

  14. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart U of... - Group 1 Storage Vessels at Existing Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ≤capacity ≥5.2 a Maximum true vapor pressure of total organic HAP at storage temperature. ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group I Polymers...

  15. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Kkkk of... - Emission Limits for New or Reconstructed Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Surface Coating of... the following table as required by § 63.3490(a) through (c). If you apply surface coatings to metal....00 (0.00). c. Repair spray coatings 0.64 (5.34). a If you apply surface coatings of more than...

  16. 40 CFR 63.1320 - PET and polystyrene affected sources-reporting provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins... specified in § 63.1316(b)(1)(i) (i.e., 0.12 kg organic HAP per Mg of product) shall comply with paragraphs... source to be greater than 0.12 kg organic HAP per Mg of product, the owner or operator shall submit...

  17. 40 CFR 63.54 - Preconstruction review procedures for new affected sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CATEGORIES Requirements for Control Technology Determinations for Major Sources in Accordance With Clean Air... required. (2) The permitting authority will approve an applicant's proposed control technology, or the permitting authority will notify the owner or operator in writing of its intention to disapprove a...

  18. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Pt... to this subpart must not exceed 1,000 grams HAP per megagram (2 pounds per ton) of total cements and... subpart must not exceed 10,000 grams HAP per megagram (20 pounds per ton) of total cements and...

  19. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Pt... to this subpart must not exceed 1,000 grams HAP per megagram (2 pounds per ton) of total cements and... subpart must not exceed 10,000 grams HAP per megagram (20 pounds per ton) of total cements and...

  20. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Emission Limits for Tire Cord... POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. XXXX, Table 2 Table 2 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63—Emission Limits for Tire...

  1. 40 CFR 63.1420 - Applicability and designation of affected sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... source, as defined in paragraph (a)(3) of this section, and that is located at a plant site that is a.... (3) Water from fire-fighting and deluge systems in segregated sewers. (4) Spills. (5) Water from safety showers. (6) Water from testing of deluge systems. (7) Water from testing of firefighting...

  2. 40 CFR 63.1420 - Applicability and designation of affected sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... source, as defined in paragraph (a)(3) of this section, and that is located at a plant site that is a... segregated sewers. (3) Water from fire-fighting and deluge systems in segregated sewers. (4) Spills. (5) Water from safety showers. (6) Water from testing of deluge systems. (7) Water from testing...

  3. Source memory retrieval is affected by aging and prefrontal lesions: behavioral and ERP evidence.

    PubMed

    Swick, Diane; Senkfor, Ava J; Van Petten, Cyma

    2006-08-30

    Age-related deficits in source memory have been attributed to alterations in prefrontal cortex (PFC) function, but little is known about the neural basis of such changes. The present study examined the time course of item and source memory retrieval by recording event-related potentials (ERPs) in patients with focal lesions in lateral PFC and in healthy older and young controls. Both normal aging and PFC lesions were associated with decrements in item and source memory. However, older controls showed a decrease in item hit rate with no change in false alarms, whereas patients showed the opposite pattern. Furthermore, ERPs revealed notable differences between the groups. The early positive-going old/new effect was prominent in the young but reduced in patients and older adults, who did not differ from each other. In contrast, older adults displayed a prominent left frontal negativity (600-1200 ms) not observed in the young. This left frontal effect was substantially smaller and delayed in the patients. The current results provide novel insights into the effects of aging on source memory and the role of the lateral PFC in these processes. Older controls appeared to adopt alternate memory strategies and to recruit compensatory mechanisms in left PFC to support task performance. In contrast, the lateral frontal patients were unable to use these mechanisms, thus exhibiting difficulties with strategic memory and monitoring processes.

  4. 40 CFR 63.1270 - Applicability and designation of affected source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... applies to owners and operators of natural gas transmission and storage facilities that transport or store... the natural gas transmission and storage source category. A facility that is determined to be an area... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Natural Gas...

  5. 40 CFR 63.1270 - Applicability and designation of affected source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... applies to owners and operators of natural gas transmission and storage facilities that transport or store... the natural gas transmission and storage source category. A facility that is determined to be an area... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Natural Gas...

  6. Factors, origin and sources affecting PM1 concentrations and composition at an urban background site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Squizzato, Stefania; Masiol, Mauro; Agostini, Chiara; Visin, Flavia; Formenton, Gianni; Harrison, Roy M.; Rampazzo, Giancarlo

    2016-11-01

    PM1 is widely believed to provide better information on the anthropogenic fraction of particulate matter pollution than PM2.5. However, data on PM1 are still limited in Europe as well as comprehensive information about its chemical composition and source apportionment and this gap is more evident in the pollution hot-spots still remaining in Europe, such as the Po Valley (Northern Italy). Elemental and organic carbon, 7 water soluble inorganic ions and 17 elements were quantified in 117 PM1 samples collected at an urban background site in Venice-Mestre, a large city located in the eastern Po Valley, during winter (December 2013-February 2014) and summer (May-July 2014) periods. Results show a strong seasonality for PM1 mass concentration (averages ranging from 6 ± 2 in summer to 34 ± 24 μg m- 3 in winter) and for most of the analysed species. Components mainly related to road traffic, residential heating, biomass burning and secondary inorganic aerosol (ammonium nitrate) reached their highest levels in winter, while mineral dust and marine components were elevated in summer. PMF analysis revealed 7 potential sources. Secondary inorganic aerosol (33%) and biomass burning (33%) are the major contributor in winter followed by EC-primary emissions (16%), aged sulphate (6%), road traffic (7%), fossil fuel combustion (%) and marine aerosol (3%). During summer, these sources account for 12%, 14%, 20%, 22%, 8%, 14% and 10%, respectively. Some PM1 sources are located near the sampling site (residential area, traffic road, industrial area) but a major contribution of long range transport is observed when high pollution events occur. The results give useful insights into PM1 composition in an urban area and chemical profiles of sources helpful in the interpretation of receptor model results.

  7. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Jjj of... - Group 1 Storage Vessels at Existing Affected Sources Producing the Listed Thermoplastics

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins Pt. 63, Subpt. JJJ, Table 3 Table 3 to Subpart JJJ of Part... pressure of total organic HAP at storage temperature. c The applicability criteria in Table 2 of...

  8. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart Jjj of... - Group 1 Storage Vessels at New Affected Sources Producing the Listed Thermoplastics

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...: Group IV Polymers and Resins Pt. 63, Subpt. JJJ, Table 5 Table 5 to Subpart JJJ of Part 63—Group 1... indicated. b Maximum true vapor pressure of total organic HAP at storage temperature. c The...

  9. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Jjj of... - Group 1 Storage Vessels at Existing Affected Sources Producing the Listed Thermoplastics

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Thermoplastics Thermoplastic Chemical a Vessel capacity (cubic meters) Vapor pressure b (kilopascals) ASA/AMSAN c... chemicals vapor pressure criteria are specific to the listed chemical or to “all chemicals,” as indicated. b Maximum true...

  10. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Jjj of... - Group 1 Storage Vessels at Existing Affected Sources Producing the Listed Thermoplastics

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Thermoplastics Thermoplastic Chemical a Vessel capacity (cubic meters) Vapor pressure b (kilopascals) ASA/AMSAN c... vapor pressure criteria are specific to the listed chemical or to “all chemicals,” as indicated. b Maximum true vapor pressure of total organic HAP at storage temperature. c The applicability criteria...

  11. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Jjj of... - Group 1 Storage Vessels at Existing Affected Sources Producing the Listed Thermoplastics

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Thermoplastic Chemical a Vessel capacity (cubic meters) Vapor pressure b (kilopascals) ASA/AMSAN c styrene... vapor pressure criteria are specific to the listed chemical or to “all chemicals,” as indicated. b Maximum true...

  12. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Jjj of... - Group 1 Storage Vessels at Existing Affected Sources Producing the Listed Thermoplastics

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Thermoplastic Chemical a Vessel capacity (cubic meters) Vapor pressure b (kilopascals) ASA/AMSAN c styrene... vapor pressure criteria are specific to the listed chemical or to “all chemicals,” as indicated. b Maximum true...

  13. The affective reactivity of psychotic speech: The role of internal source monitoring in explaining increased thought disorder under emotional challenge.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Paulo; Sellwood, William; Spray, Amy; Bentall, Richard P

    2016-04-01

    Thought disorder (TD) has been shown to vary in relation to negative affect. Here we examine the role internal source monitoring (iSM, i.e. ability to discriminate between inner speech and verbalized speech) in TD and whether changes in iSM performance are implicated in the affective reactivity effect (deterioration of TD when participants are asked to talk about emotionally-laden topics). Eighty patients diagnosed with schizophrenia-spectrum disorder and thirty healthy controls received interviews that promoted personal disclosure (emotionally salient) and interviews on everyday topics (non-salient) on separate days. During the interviews, participants were tested on iSM, self-reported affect and immediate auditory recall. Patients had more TD, poorer ability to discriminate between inner and verbalized speech, poorer immediate auditory recall and reported more negative affect than controls. Both groups displayed more TD and negative affect in salient interviews but only patients showed poorer performance on iSM. Immediate auditory recall did not change significantly across affective conditions. In patients, the relationship between self-reported negative affect and TD was mediated by deterioration in the ability to discriminate between inner speech and speech that was directed to others and socially shared (performance on the iSM) in both interviews. Furthermore, deterioration in patients' performance on iSM across conditions significantly predicted deterioration in TD across the interviews (affective reactivity of speech). Poor iSM is significantly associated with TD. Negative affect, leading to further impaired iSM, leads to increased TD in patients with psychosis. Avenues for future research as well as clinical implications of these findings are discussed.

  14. Statistical Characterization of Environmental Error Sources Affecting Electronically Scanned Pressure Transducers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Del L.; Walker, Eric L.; Everhart, Joel L.

    2006-01-01

    Minimization of uncertainty is essential to extend the usable range of the 15-psid Electronically Scanned Pressure (ESP) transducer measurements to the low free-stream static pressures found in hypersonic wind tunnels. Statistical characterization of environmental error sources inducing much of this uncertainty requires a well defined and controlled calibration method. Employing such a controlled calibration system, several studies were conducted that provide quantitative information detailing the required controls needed to minimize environmental and human induced error sources. Results of temperature, environmental pressure, over-pressurization, and set point randomization studies for the 15-psid transducers are presented along with a comparison of two regression methods using data acquired with both 0.36-psid and 15-psid transducers. Together these results provide insight into procedural and environmental controls required for long term high-accuracy pressure measurements near 0.01 psia in the hypersonic testing environment using 15-psid ESP transducers.

  15. Statistical Characterization of Environmental Error Sources Affecting Electronically Scanned Pressure Transducers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Del L.; Walker, Eric L.; Everhart, Joel L.

    2006-01-01

    Minimization of uncertainty is essential to extend the usable range of the 15-psid Electronically Scanned Pressure [ESP) transducer measurements to the low free-stream static pressures found in hypersonic wind tunnels. Statistical characterization of environmental error sources inducing much of this uncertainty requires a well defined and controlled calibration method. Employing such a controlled calibration system, several studies were conducted that provide quantitative information detailing the required controls needed to minimize environmental and human induced error sources. Results of temperature, environmental pressure, over-pressurization, and set point randomization studies for the 15-psid transducers are presented along with a comparison of two regression methods using data acquired with both 0.36-psid and 15-psid transducers. Together these results provide insight into procedural and environmental controls required for long term high-accuracy pressure measurements near 0.01 psia in the hypersonic testing environment using 15-psid ESP transducers.

  16. Factors affecting quality for beta dose rate measurements using ISO 6980 series I reference sources

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, R.E. Jr.; O`Brien, J.M. Jr.

    1993-12-31

    Atlan-Tech, Inc. has performed several calibrations of ISO 6980 Series 1 reference beta sources over the past two to three years. There were many problems encountered in attempting to compare the results of these calibrations with those from other laboratories, indicating the need for more standardization in the methodology employed for the measurement of the absorbed dose rate from ISO 6980 Series 1 reference beta sources. This document describes some of the problems encountered in attempting to intercompare results of beta dose-rate measurements. It proposes some solutions in an attempt to open a dialogue among facilities using reference beta standards for the purpose of promoting better measurement quality assurance through data intercomparison.

  17. Do knowledge, knowledge sources and reasoning skills affect the accuracy of nursing diagnoses? a randomised study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This paper reports a study about the effect of knowledge sources, such as handbooks, an assessment format and a predefined record structure for diagnostic documentation, as well as the influence of knowledge, disposition toward critical thinking and reasoning skills, on the accuracy of nursing diagnoses. Knowledge sources can support nurses in deriving diagnoses. A nurse’s disposition toward critical thinking and reasoning skills is also thought to influence the accuracy of his or her nursing diagnoses. Method A randomised factorial design was used in 2008–2009 to determine the effect of knowledge sources. We used the following instruments to assess the influence of ready knowledge, disposition, and reasoning skills on the accuracy of diagnoses: (1) a knowledge inventory, (2) the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory, and (3) the Health Science Reasoning Test. Nurses (n = 249) were randomly assigned to one of four factorial groups, and were instructed to derive diagnoses based on an assessment interview with a simulated patient/actor. Results The use of a predefined record structure resulted in a significantly higher accuracy of nursing diagnoses. A regression analysis reveals that almost half of the variance in the accuracy of diagnoses is explained by the use of a predefined record structure, a nurse’s age and the reasoning skills of `deduction’ and `analysis’. Conclusions Improving nurses’ dispositions toward critical thinking and reasoning skills, and the use of a predefined record structure, improves accuracy of nursing diagnoses. PMID:22852577

  18. Source population characteristics affect heterosis following genetic rescue of fragmented plant populations

    PubMed Central

    Pickup, M.; Field, D. L.; Rowell, D. M.; Young, A. G.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the relative importance of heterosis and outbreeding depression over multiple generations is a key question in evolutionary biology and is essential for identifying appropriate genetic sources for population and ecosystem restoration. Here we use 2455 experimental crosses between 12 population pairs of the rare perennial plant Rutidosis leptorrhynchoides (Asteraceae) to investigate the multi-generational (F1, F2, F3) fitness outcomes of inter-population hybridization. We detected no evidence of outbreeding depression, with inter-population hybrids and backcrosses showing either similar fitness or significant heterosis for fitness components across the three generations. Variation in heterosis among population pairs was best explained by characteristics of the foreign source or home population, and was greatest when the source population was large, with high genetic diversity and low inbreeding, and the home population was small and inbred. Our results indicate that the primary consideration for maximizing progeny fitness following population augmentation or restoration is the use of seed from large, genetically diverse populations. PMID:23173202

  19. [Characteristics of non-point source pollution in Tiaoxi watershed and related affecting factors].

    PubMed

    Jin, Jing-liang; Wang, Fei-er; Dai, Lu-ying; Tian, Ping; Zhang, Zhi-jian

    2011-08-01

    By using soil and water assessment tool (SWAT) model, this paper simulated the surface runoff intensity and the export loadings of sediment particulates and nutrients via non-point source hydrological pathway in Tiaoxi watershed, and integrated with the simulation results, analyzed the temporal and spatial distribution characteristics of non-point source pollution in the watershed in 2008. In the study area, the per unit area non-point source pollution was stronger in northern region than in southern region and in eastern region than in western region, and the weakest in central region. Among the land utilization types, farmland had the biggest contribution to the sediment loading. There were significantly positive correlations between the loadings of surface runoff and associated sediment particulates and the rainfall intensity. The export loadings of nutrients through surface runoff were higher in rainy season (from June to September) than in dry season (from December to next March), and there existed significant correlations between the surface runoff loadings of sediment particulates, organic nitrogen, and nitrate and the average gradient of lands.

  20. Smell and taste of chewing gum affect frequency domain EEG source localizations.

    PubMed

    Yagyu, T; Kondakor, I; Kochi, K; Koenig, T; Lehmann, D; Kinoshita, T; Hirota, T; Yagyu, T

    1998-04-01

    We investigated brain electric field signatures of subjective feelings after chewing regular gum or gum base without flavor. 19-channel eyes-closed EEG from 20 healthy males before and after 5 minutes of chewing the two gum types in random sequence was source modeled in the frequency domain using the FFT-Dipole-Approximation. 3-dimensional brain locations and strengths (Global Field Power, GFP) of the equivalent sources of five frequency bands were computed as changes from pre-chewing baseline. Gum types differed (ANOVA) in pre-post changes of source locations for the alpha-2 band (to anterior and right after regular gum, opposite after gum base) and beta-2 band (to anterior and inferior after regular gum, opposite after gum base), and of GFP for delta-theta, alpha-2 and beta-1 (regular gum: increase. gum base: decrease). Subjective feeling changed to more positive values after regular gum than gum base (ANOVA).--Thus, chewing gum with and without taste-smell activates different brain neuronal populations.

  1. Potential formation in a collisionless plasma produced in an open magnetic field in presence of volume negative ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Phukan, Ananya Goswami, K. S.; Bhuyan, P. J.

    2014-08-15

    The electric potential near a wall for a multi-species plasma with volume produced negative ions in presence of axially varying magnetic field is studied following an analytical-numerical approach. A constant negative ion source is assumed throughout the plasma volume, along with finite temperature positive ions and Boltzmann electrons. The particles are assumed to be guided by an open magnetic field that has its maximum at the centre, and field strength decreasing towards the walls. The one dimensional (1D) Poisson equation is derived using an analytical approach, and then solved numerically to study the potential profiles. Effect of (a) negative ion production rate, (b) magnetic field profile, and (c) negative ion temperature on the potential profile has been investigated. A potential peak appears near the wall when the negative ion temperature and density are sufficiently high. Also, the presence of negative ions further decreases the potential in the plasma region for a finite Debye Length (λ{sub D})

  2. Pooling of Immunomagnetic Separation Beads Does Not Affect Detection Sensitivity of Six Major Serogroups of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli in Cattle Feces.

    PubMed

    Noll, Lance W; Baumgartner, William C; Shridhar, Pragathi B; Cull, Charley A; Dewsbury, Diana M; Shi, Xiaorong; Cernicchiaro, Natalia; Renter, David G; Nagaraja, T G

    2016-01-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) of the serogroups O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145, often called non-O157 STEC, are foodborne pathogens. Cattle are asymptomatic reservoirs for STEC; the organisms reside in the hindgut and are shed in the feces, which serve as the source of food product contaminations. Culture-based detection of non-O157 STEC involves an immunomagnetic separation (IMS) step to capture the specific serogroups in complex matrices, such as feces. The IMS procedure is time consuming and labor intensive because of the need to subject each fecal sample to six individual beads. Therefore, our objective was to evaluate whether pooling of IMS beads affects sensitivity of non-O157 STEC detection compared with using individual IMS beads. The evaluation was done by comparing detection of serogroups in feces spiked with pure cultures (experiments 1 and 2) and from feces (n = 384) of naturally shedding cattle (experiment 3). In spiked fecal samples, detection with pools of three, four, six, or seven beads was similar to, or at times higher than, detection with individual IMS beads. In experiment 3, the proportions of fecal samples that tested positive for the six serogroups as detected by individual or pooled beads were similar. Based on noninferiority tests, detection with pooled beads was not substantially inferior to detection with individual beads (P > 0.05). In conclusion, the pooling of IMS beads is a better option for detection of STEC serogroups in fecal samples compared with individual beads because the procedure saves time and labor and has the prospect of a higher throughput.

  3. Media composition and incubation temperature affect Congo red dye affinity of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Escherichia coli biofilm formation is dependent on curli fimbriae and cellulose, and the expression of both varies among Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC). Curli and cellulose expression are often identified by their affinity for Congo red dye (CR) but media composition and incubation...

  4. Satellite and ground detection of very dense smoke clouds produced on the islands of the Paraná river delta that affected a large region in Central Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ipiña, A.; Salum, G. M.; Crinó, E.; Piacentini, R. D.

    2012-03-01

    Intense fires were produced on the Paraná river delta islands, Argentina, during most part of 2008, by a combination of an exceptionally dry period and the farmers' use of a fire land-cleaning technique. In April 2008, those fires significantly affected the nearby regions and their inhabitants, from Rosario city to Buenos Aires mega-city. In this work we present satellite as well as ground Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) at 550 nm data obtained during the propagation of pollution clouds to the central zone of Argentina. The highest value (1.18) was registered at Buenos Aires by atmospheric remote sensing, using the satellite instrument MODIS/Terra on April 18th 2008 at 10:35 local time (= UT - 3 h). On the same day, ground air quality detectors also measured in this city the highest Total Suspended Particle (TSP) value of the month, 2.02 mg/m3. The AOD(550) daily variation at Rosario Astronomical Observatory, which is located near the Paraná riverside, was derived by combining solar ultraviolet erythemal irradiance data (measured with a YES biometre) with model calculations. On April 25th 2008, from 12:00 to 15:30 local time, a rather high and constant AOD(550) value was registered, with a mean value of (0.90 ± 0.21). Cities located on the side of the Rosario-Buenos Aires highway (San Nicolás, Baradero and San Pedro) were also affected, showing a mean AOD(550) between the Rosario and Buenos Aires values. The particulate matter was collected with gridded samplers placed on the Paraná river islands as well as at the Rosario Observatory. They were analysed with a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and mainly showed a biological origin. Even if normally large particles travel small distances from the source, organic aerosol in the range of 40-100 μm and complex asymmetric structures were registered several kilometres away from the aerosol sources on the islands. Another event of intense UV index attenuation (98.6%) occurred on September 18th 2008, due to very dense

  5. Low temperature plasmas created by photoionization of gases with intense radiation pulses from laser-produced plasma sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartnik, A.; Pisarczyk, T.; Wachulak, P.; Chodukowski, T.; Fok, T.; Wegrzyński, Ł.; Kalinowska, Z.; Fiedorowicz, H.

    2016-12-01

    A comparative study of photoionized plasmas created by soft X-ray (SXR) and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) laser plasma sources was performed. The sources, employing high or low energy laser systems, utilized double-stream Xe/He gas-puff targets irradiated with laser pulses of different parameters. The SXR/EUV beams were used for irradiation of a gas stream, injected into a vacuum chamber synchronously with the radiation pulse. Photoionized plasmas produced this way in Ne gas emitted radiation in the SXR/EUV range. The corresponding spectra were dominated by emission lines originating from singly charged ions. Significant differences between spectra obtained in different experimental conditions concern specific transitions in Ne II ions. Creation of photoionized plasmas by SXR or EUV irradiation resulted in K-shell or L-shell emissions respectively. In case of the low energy system absorption spectra were measured additionally. In case of the high energy system, the electron density measurements were performed by laser interferometry, employing a femtosecond laser system. A maximum electron density reached the value of 2·1018cm-3. For the low energy system, a detection limit was too high for the interferometric measurements, thus only an upper estimation for electron density could be made.

  6. Pretreated magnesite as a source of low-cost magnesium for producing struvite from urine in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Krähenbühl, Manuel; Etter, Bastian; Udert, Kai M

    2016-01-15

    Struvite is a solid phosphorus fertilizer that can be recovered easily from source-separated urine by dosing it with a soluble form of magnesium. The process is simple and low-cost, however, previous studies have shown that the cost of magnesium in low-income countries is crucial to the viability and implementation of struvite precipitation. Literature has proposed producing inexpensive magnesium locally by making magnesium oxide from magnesite. This paper aimed to investigate whether process requirements, costs, and environmental impacts would make this process viable for magnesium production in decentralized settings. Magnesite samples were calcined at temperatures between 400 °C and 800 °C and for durations between 0.5 h and 6 h. The release of magnesium was tested by dissolution in phosphate-depleted urine. The optimal processing conditions were at 700 °C for 1h: magnesite conversion was incomplete at lower temperatures, and the formation of large crystallites caused a decrease in solubility at higher temperatures. The narrow optimal range for magnesium production from magnesite requires reliable process control. Cost estimations for Nepal showed that using local magnesite would provide the cheapest source of magnesium and that CO2 emissions from transport and production would be negligible compared to Nepal's overall CO2 emissions.

  7. Perfluorinated Compounds in Greenhouse and Open Agricultural Producing Areas of Three Provinces of China: Levels, Sources and Risk Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yanwei; Tan, Dongfei; Geng, Yue; Wang, Lu; Peng, Yi; He, Zeying; Xu, Yaping; Liu, Xiaowei

    2016-01-01

    Field investigations on perfluoroalkyl acid (PFAA) levels in various environmental matrixes were reported, but there is still a lack of PFAA level data for agricultural environments, especially agricultural producing areas, so we collected soil, irrigation water and agricultural product samples from agricultural producing areas in the provinces of Liaoning, Shandong and Sichuan in China. The background pollution from instruments was removed and C4–C18 PFAAs were detected by LC-MS/MS. The concentrations of PFAAs in the top and deep layers of soil were compared, and the levels of PFAAs in different agricultural environments (greenhouses and open agriculture) were analyzed. We found the order of PFAA levels by province was Shandong > Liaoning > Sichuan. A descending trend of PFAA levels from top to deep soil and open to greenhouse agriculture was shown and perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) was considered as a marker for source analysis. Bean vegetables contribute highly to the overall PFAA load in vegetables. A significant correlation was shown between irrigation water and agricultural products. The EDI (estimated daily intake) from vegetables should be of concern in China. PMID:27973400

  8. Assessment of the sources of error affecting the quantitative accuracy of SPECT imaging in small animals

    SciTech Connect

    Joint Graduate Group in Bioengineering, University of California, San Francisco and University of California, Berkeley; Department of Radiology, University of California; Gullberg, Grant T; Hwang, Andrew B.; Franc, Benjamin L.; Gullberg, Grant T.; Hasegawa, Bruce H.

    2008-02-15

    Small animal SPECT imaging systems have multiple potential applications in biomedical research. Whereas SPECT data are commonly interpreted qualitatively in a clinical setting, the ability to accurately quantify measurements will increase the utility of the SPECT data for laboratory measurements involving small animals. In this work, we assess the effect of photon attenuation, scatter and partial volume errors on the quantitative accuracy of small animal SPECT measurements, first with Monte Carlo simulation and then confirmed with experimental measurements. The simulations modeled the imaging geometry of a commercially available small animal SPECT system. We simulated the imaging of a radioactive source within a cylinder of water, and reconstructed the projection data using iterative reconstruction algorithms. The size of the source and the size of the surrounding cylinder were varied to evaluate the effects of photon attenuation and scatter on quantitative accuracy. We found that photon attenuation can reduce the measured concentration of radioactivity in a volume of interest in the center of a rat-sized cylinder of water by up to 50percent when imaging with iodine-125, and up to 25percent when imaging with technetium-99m. When imaging with iodine-125, the scatter-to-primary ratio can reach up to approximately 30percent, and can cause overestimation of the radioactivity concentration when reconstructing data with attenuation correction. We varied the size of the source to evaluate partial volume errors, which we found to be a strong function of the size of the volume of interest and the spatial resolution. These errors can result in large (>50percent) changes in the measured amount of radioactivity. The simulation results were compared with and found to agree with experimental measurements. The inclusion of attenuation correction in the reconstruction algorithm improved quantitative accuracy. We also found that an improvement of the spatial resolution through the

  9. Assessment of the sources of error affecting the quantitative accuracy of SPECT imaging in small animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Andrew B.; Franc, Benjamin L.; Gullberg, Grant T.; Hasegawa, Bruce H.

    2008-05-01

    Small animal SPECT imaging systems have multiple potential applications in biomedical research. Whereas SPECT data are commonly interpreted qualitatively in a clinical setting, the ability to accurately quantify measurements will increase the utility of the SPECT data for laboratory measurements involving small animals. In this work, we assess the effect of photon attenuation, scatter and partial volume errors on the quantitative accuracy of small animal SPECT measurements, first with Monte Carlo simulation and then confirmed with experimental measurements. The simulations modeled the imaging geometry of a commercially available small animal SPECT system. We simulated the imaging of a radioactive source within a cylinder of water, and reconstructed the projection data using iterative reconstruction algorithms. The size of the source and the size of the surrounding cylinder were varied to evaluate the effects of photon attenuation and scatter on quantitative accuracy. We found that photon attenuation can reduce the measured concentration of radioactivity in a volume of interest in the center of a rat-sized cylinder of water by up to 50% when imaging with iodine-125, and up to 25% when imaging with technetium-99m. When imaging with iodine-125, the scatter-to-primary ratio can reach up to approximately 30%, and can cause overestimation of the radioactivity concentration when reconstructing data with attenuation correction. We varied the size of the source to evaluate partial volume errors, which we found to be a strong function of the size of the volume of interest and the spatial resolution. These errors can result in large (>50%) changes in the measured amount of radioactivity. The simulation results were compared with and found to agree with experimental measurements. The inclusion of attenuation correction in the reconstruction algorithm improved quantitative accuracy. We also found that an improvement of the spatial resolution through the use of resolution

  10. Protein source and choice of anticoagulant decisively affect nanoparticle protein corona and cellular uptake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schöttler, S.; Klein, Katja; Landfester, K.; Mailänder, V.

    2016-03-01

    Protein adsorption on nanoparticles has been a focus of the field of nanocarrier research in the past few years and more and more papers are dealing with increasingly detailed lists of proteins adsorbed to a plethora of nanocarriers. While there is an urgent need to understand the influence of this protein corona on nanocarriers' interactions with cells the strong impact of the protein source on corona formation and the consequence for interaction with different cell types are factors that are regularly neglected, but should be taken into account for a meaningful analysis. In this study, the importance of the choice of protein source used for in vitro protein corona analysis is concisely investigated. Major and decisive differences in cellular uptake of a polystyrene nanoparticle incubated in fetal bovine serum, human serum, human citrate and heparin plasma are reported. Furthermore, the protein compositions are determined for coronas formed in the respective incubation media. A strong influence of heparin, which is used as an anticoagulant for plasma generation, on cell interaction is demonstrated. While heparin enhances the uptake into macrophages, it prevents internalization into HeLa cells. Taken together we can give the recommendation that human plasma anticoagulated with citrate seems to give the most relevant results for in vitro studies of nanoparticle uptake.Protein adsorption on nanoparticles has been a focus of the field of nanocarrier research in the past few years and more and more papers are dealing with increasingly detailed lists of proteins adsorbed to a plethora of nanocarriers. While there is an urgent need to understand the influence of this protein corona on nanocarriers' interactions with cells the strong impact of the protein source on corona formation and the consequence for interaction with different cell types are factors that are regularly neglected, but should be taken into account for a meaningful analysis. In this study, the importance

  11. Influence of nitrogen source and pH value on undesired poly(γ-glutamic acid) formation of a protease producing Bacillus licheniformis strain.

    PubMed

    Meissner, Lena; Kauffmann, Kira; Wengeler, Timo; Mitsunaga, Hitoshi; Fukusaki, Eiichiro; Büchs, Jochen

    2015-09-01

    Bacillus spp. are used for the production of industrial enzymes but are also known to be capable of producing biopolymers such as poly(γ-glutamic acid). Biopolymers increase the viscosity of the fermentation broth, thereby impairing mixing, gas/liquid mass and heat transfer in any bioreactor system. Undesired biopolymer formation has a significant impact on the fermentation and downstream processing performance. This study shows how undesirable poly(γ-glutamic acid) formation of an industrial protease producing Bacillus licheniformis strain was prevented by switching the nitrogen source from ammonium to nitrate. The viscosity was reduced from 32 to 2.5 mPa s. A constant or changing pH value did not influence the poly(γ-glutamic acid) production. Protease production was not affected: protease activities of 38 and 46 U mL(-1) were obtained for ammonium and nitrate, respectively. With the presented results, protease production with industrial Bacillus strains is now possible without the negative impact on fermentation and downstream processing by undesired poly(γ-glutamic acid) formation.

  12. Affective Norms for 718 Polish Short Texts (ANPST): Dataset with Affective Ratings for Valence, Arousal, Dominance, Origin, Subjective Significance and Source Dimensions.

    PubMed

    Imbir, Kamil K

    2016-01-01

    Affective sciences are of burgeoning interest and are attracting more and more research attention. Three components of stimuli meaning have traditionally been distinguished: valence (degree of pleasantness), arousal (degree of intensity of sensations), and dominance (degree of control over sensations). Recently, another three dimensions have been introduced to measure qualities connected to the emotion-duality model: origin (the main component originating in the heart or in the mind), subjective significance (the degree of the subjective goal's relevance), and source (the location of the stimuli evoking the state). All six affective dimensions were assessed in our study of 718 Polish short texts (sentences of 5-23 words and 36-133 characters in length) describing situations or states in a way that can be referenced to an individual's experience. Assessments were carried out by 148 psychology students (all women for 108 sentences) and 2,091 students of different faculties (social science, engineering, life science, and science) from Warsaw colleges and universities (1,061 women and 1,030 men for all 718 sentences). Assessing sets of sentences for emotional response is especially useful for researchers interested in emotion elicitation through the use of a phrase such as "imagine that …" or by simply reading emotionally charged material that is more complex and that provides better context than single pictures or words.

  13. New Evidence That Nonlinear Source-Filter Coupling Affects Harmonic Intensity and fo Stability During Instances of Harmonics Crossing Formants.

    PubMed

    Maxfield, Lynn; Palaparthi, Anil; Titze, Ingo

    2017-03-01

    The traditional source-filter theory of voice production describes a linear relationship between the source (glottal flow pulse) and the filter (vocal tract). Such a linear relationship does not allow for nor explain how changes in the filter may impact the stability and regularity of the source. The objective of this experiment was to examine what effect unpredictable changes to vocal tract dimensions could have on fo stability and individual harmonic intensities in situations in which low frequency harmonics cross formants in a fundamental frequency glide. To determine these effects, eight human subjects (five male, three female) were recorded producing fo glides while their vocal tracts were artificially lengthened by a section of vinyl tubing inserted into the mouth. It was hypothesized that if the source and filter operated as a purely linear system, harmonic intensities would increase and decrease at nearly the same rates as they passed through a formant bandwidth, resulting in a relatively symmetric peak on an intensity-time contour. Additionally, fo stability should not be predictably perturbed by formant/harmonic crossings in a linear system. Acoustic analysis of these recordings, however, revealed that harmonic intensity peaks were asymmetric in 76% of cases, and that 85% of fo instabilities aligned with a crossing of one of the first four harmonics with the first three formants. These results provide further evidence that nonlinear dynamics in the source-filter relationship can impact fo stability as well as harmonic intensities as harmonics cross through formant bandwidths.

  14. Factors affecting the pore space transformation during hydrocarbon generation in source rock (shales): laboratory experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giliazetdinova, D. R.; Korost, D. V.

    2014-12-01

    Oil and gas generation is a set of processes which taking place in the interior, the processes can't be observable in nature. In the process of dumping the source rock, organic matter is transformed into a complex of high-molecular compounds - precursors of oil and gas (kerogen). Entering of a source column for specific thermobaric conditions, triggers the formation of low molecular weight hydrocarbon compounds. Generation of sufficient quantities of hydrocarbons leads to the primary fluid migration within the source rock. For the experiment were selected mainly siliceous-carbonate composition rocks from Domanic horizon South-Tatar arch. The main aim of experiment was heating the rocks in the pyrolyzer to temperatures which correspond katagenes stages. For monitoring changes in the morphology of the pore space X-ray microtomography method was used. As a result, when was made a study of the composition of mineral and organic content of the rocks, as well as textural and structural features, have been identified that the majority of the rock samples within the selected collection are identical. However, characteristics such as organic content and texture of rocks are different. Thus, the experiment was divided into two parts: 1) the study of the influence of organic matter content on the morphology of the rock in the process of thermal effects; 2) study the effect of texture on the primary migration processes for the same values of organic matter. Also, an additional experiment was conducted to study the dynamics of changes in the structure of the pore space. At each stage of the experiment morphology of altered rocks characterized by the formation of new pores and channels connecting the primary voids. However, it was noted that the samples with a relatively low content of the organic matter had less changes in pore space morphology, in contrast to rocks with a high organic content. At the second stage of the research also revealed that the conversion of the pore

  15. [Carbon source metabolic diversity of soil microbial community under different climate types in the area affected by Wenchuan earthquake].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guang-Shuai; Lin, Yong-Ming; Ma, Rui-Feng; Deng, Hao-Jun; Du, Kun; Wu, Cheng-Zhen; Hong, Wei

    2015-02-01

    The MS8.0 Wenchuan earthquake in 2008 led to huge damage to land covers in northwest Sichuan, one of the critical fragile eco-regions in China which can be divided into Semi-arid dry hot climate zone (SDHC) and Subtropical humid monsoon climate zone (SHMC). Using the method of Bilog-ECO-microplate technique, this paper aimed to determine the functional diversity of soil microbial community in the earthquake-affected areas which can be divided into undamaged area (U), recover area (R) and damaged area without recovery (D) under different climate types, in order to provide scientific basis for ecological recovery. The results indicated that the average-well-color-development (AWCD) in undamaged area and recovery area showed SDHC > SHMC, which was contrary to the AWCD in the damaged area without recovery. The AWCD of damaged area without recovery was the lowest in both climate zones. The number of carbon source utilization types of soil microbial in SHMC zone was significantly higher than that in SDHC zone. The carbon source utilization types in both climate zones presented a trend of recover area > undamaged area > damaged area without recovery. The carbon source metabolic diversity characteristic of soil microbial community was significantly different in different climate zones. The diversity index and evenness index both showed a ranking of undamaged area > recover area > damaged area without recovery. In addition, the recovery area had the highest richness index. The soil microbial carbon sources metabolism characteristic was affected by soil nutrient, aboveground vegetation biomass and vegetation coverage to some extent. In conclusion, earthquake and its secondary disasters influenced the carbon source metabolic diversity characteristic of soil microbial community mainly through the change of aboveground vegetation and soil environmental factors.

  16. INTERACTION OF LASER RADIATION WITH MATTER. LASER PLASMA: Quasi-stationary magnetic and electric waves produced by a pulsed shock-wave source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tishchenko, V. N.; Shaikhislamov, I. F.

    2006-01-01

    A merging mechanism of shock waves in a plasma with a magnetic field is considered. The merging criterion is found at which a point source produces low-frequency waves of magnetic and vortex electric fields in the surroundings.

  17. How parental dietary behavior and food parenting practices affect children's dietary behavior. Interacting sources of influence?

    PubMed

    Larsen, Junilla K; Hermans, Roel C J; Sleddens, Ester F C; Engels, Rutger C M E; Fisher, Jennifer O; Kremers, Stef P J

    2015-06-01

    Until now, the literatures on the effects of food parenting practices and parents' own dietary behavior on children's dietary behavior have largely been independent from one another. Integrating findings across these areas could provide insight on simultaneous and interacting influences on children's food intake. In this narrative review, we provide a conceptual model that bridges the gap between both literatures and consists of three main hypotheses. First, parental dietary behavior and food parenting practices are important interactive sources of influence on children's dietary behavior and Body Mass Index (BMI). Second, parental influences are importantly mediated by changes in the child's home food environment. Third, parenting context (i.e., parenting styles and differential parental treatment) moderates effects of food parenting practices, whereas child characteristics (i.e., temperament and appetitive traits) mainly moderate effects of the home food environment. Future studies testing (parts of) this conceptual model are needed to inform effective parent-child overweight preventive interventions.

  18. Sink-source characteristics of two distinctly different forest species as affected by elevated carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Pushnik, J.C.; Florv, W.B.; Demaree, R.S. ); Anderson, P.D.; Houpis J.L.J. )

    1993-05-01

    The basic physiology and biochemistry of photosynthesis is being correlated with the leaf level processes and morphology of the Sierra Nevada varieties of Taxus brevifolia and Pinus ponderosa in an attempt to identify control mechanisms of carbohydrate partitioning. We are evaluating sink/source relationships in terms of carbon assimilation (gas-exchange (A[ci] curves and temperature effects); RuBPCase activity, chloroplast structure, integrity, and distributions, stomatal densities, internal leaf organization); transport functions (sucrose-phosphate synthetase (SPS) activity); long-term sink (immunoelectron microscopic detection of taxol). The results of these investigations suggest carbon acquisition characteristics are similar among the conifers, but with distinct differences in carboxylation efficiencies, SPS activity, needle starch content/chloroplast, and vascular tissue areas. These baseline characteristics are currently being evaluated in response to elevated CO[sub 2].

  19. Intestinal Fluid Permeability in Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.) Is Affected by Dietary Protein Source

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Haibin; Kortner, Trond M.; Gajardo, Karina; Chikwati, Elvis; Tinsley, John; Krogdahl, Åshild

    2016-01-01

    In Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.), and also in other fish species, certain plant protein ingredients can increase fecal water content creating a diarrhea-like condition which may impair gut function and reduce fish growth. The present study aimed to strengthen understanding of the underlying mechanisms by observing effects of various alternative plant protein sources when replacing fish meal on expression of genes encoding proteins playing key roles in regulation of water transport across the mucosa of the distal intestine (DI). A 48-day feeding trial was conducted with five diets: A reference diet (FM) in which fish meal (72%) was the only protein source; Diet SBMWG with a mix of soybean meal (30%) and wheat gluten (22%); Diet SPCPM with a mix of soy protein concentrate (30%) and poultry meal (6%); Diet GMWG with guar meal (30%) and wheat gluten (14.5%); Diet PM with 58% poultry meal. Compared to fish fed the FM reference diet, fish fed the soybean meal containing diet (SBMWG) showed signs of enteritis in the DI, increased fecal water content of DI chyme and higher plasma osmolality. Altered DI expression of a battery of genes encoding aquaporins, ion transporters, tight junction and adherens junction proteins suggested reduced transcellular transport of water as well as a tightening of the junction barrier in fish fed the SBMWG diet, which may explain the observed higher fecal water content and plasma osmolality. DI structure was not altered for fish fed the other experimental diets but alterations in target gene expression and fecal water content were observed, indicating that alterations in water transport components may take place without clear effects on intestinal structure. PMID:27907206

  20. Peers and teachers as sources of relatedness perceptions, motivation, and affective responses in physical education.

    PubMed

    Cox, Anne; Duncheon, Nicole; McDavid, Lindley

    2009-12-01

    Research has demonstrated the importance of relatedness perceptions to self-determined motivation in physical education. Therefore, studies have begun to examine the social factors contributing to feelings of relatedness. The purpose of this study was to examine teacher (perceived emotional support) and peer (acceptance, friendship quality) relationship variables to feelings of relatedness, motivation, and affective responses in junior high physical education students (N = 411). Results revealed that perceived relatedness mediated the relationship between variables and self-determined motivation and related directly to the amount of enjoyment and worry students experienced. These findings demonstrate that relationships with both teachers and peers are important for students' relatedness perceptions, motivation, enjoyment, and worry in physical education.

  1. Foraging reactivation in the honeybee Apis mellifera L.: factors affecting the return to known nectar sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, Mariana; Farina, Walter Marcelo

    2002-05-01

    This paper addresses, what determines that experienced forager honeybees return to places where they have previously exploited nectar. Although there was already some evidence that dance and trophallaxis can cause bees to return to feed, the fraction of unemployed foragers that follow dance or receive food from employed foragers before revisiting the feeder was unknown. We found that 27% of the experienced foragers had no contact with the returning foragers inside the hive. The most common interactions were dance following (64%) and trophallaxis (21%). The great variability found in the amount of interactions suggests that individual bees require different stimulation before changing to the foraging mode. This broad disparity negatively correlated with the number of days after marking at the feeder, a variable that is closely related to the foraging experience, suggesting that a temporal variable might affect the decision-making in reactivated foragers.

  2. Inoculum pre-treatment affects the fermentative activity of hydrogen-producing communities in the presence of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural.

    PubMed

    Bellucci, Micol; Botticella, Giuseppe; Francavilla, Matteo; Beneduce, Luciano

    2016-01-01

    To enhance the productivity of mixed microbial cultures for fermentative bio-hydrogen production, chemical-physical pre-treatments of the original seed are needed to suppress the activity of hydrogen (H2)-consuming microbes. This approach might influence negatively the composition and diversity of the hydrogen-producing community with consequences on the functional stability of the H2-producing systems in case of perturbations. In this study, we aimed at investigating the effect of different types of pre-treatment on the performance of hydrogen production systems in the presence of an inhibitor, such as 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). The efficiency and the microbial community structure of batch reactors amended with HMF and inoculated with non-pretreated and pretreated (acid, heat shock, and aeration) anaerobic sludge were evaluated and compared with control systems. The type of pre-treatments influenced the microbial community assembly and activity in inhibited systems, with significant effect on the performance. Cumulative H2 production tests showed that the pre-aerated systems (control and HMF inhibited) were the most efficient, while the difference of the lag phase of the pre-acidified control and HMF-added test was negligible. Analyses of the structure of the enriched microbial community in the systems through PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) followed by band sequencing revealed that the differences in performance were mostly related to shifts in the metabolic pathways rather than in the predominant species. In conclusion, the findings suggest that the use of specific inoculum pre-treatment could contribute to regulate the metabolic activity of the fermentative H2-producing bacteria in order to enhance the bio-energy production.

  3. Adolescent nicotine exposure produces less affective measures of withdrawal relative to adult nicotine exposure in male rats

    PubMed Central

    O’Dell, Laura E.; Torres, Oscar V.; Natividad, Luis A.; Tejeda, Hugo A.

    2012-01-01

    Vulnerability to nicotine addiction is significantly increased in individuals who begin smoking during adolescence; however, the underlying mechanisms of this phenomenon remain unclear. This study examined the motivational effects of nicotine withdrawal in adolescent (PND 27–42) and adult (PND 60–75) rats using the conditioned place aversion paradigm. Male Wistar rats were tested for their initial preference for either of two distinct compartments of our conditioning apparatus. Rats were then implanted with subcutaneous (sc) pumps that produce equivalent blood plasma levels of nicotine for 14 days. Conditioning was conducted over the last 8 days of nicotine exposure. Rats received the nicotinic antagonist mecamylamine (1.5 or 3.0 mg/kg, sc) to precipitate withdrawal in their initially preferred compartment, and on alternate days they received saline in their non-preferred compartment. Following conditioning, rats were re-tested for their preference for each compartment. A subsequent study was conducted to examine potential developmental differences in learning place aversion produced by another aversive stimulus, lithium chloride (LiCl). Rats received LiCl (0, 10, 30, or 100 mg/kg, sc) in their initially preferred side using similar conditioning procedures. Adults displayed robust place aversion produced by nicotine withdrawal. This effect was lower in adolescent rats even in a group of young rats that received 7 additional days of nicotine exposure prior to conditioning. This developmental difference was specific to nicotine withdrawal since there were no differences between adolescents and adults in learning place aversion with LiCl. Our findings demonstrating reduced effects of nicotine withdrawal constitute a powerful basis for the increased vulnerability to nicotine dependence during adolescence. PMID:17184972

  4. Towards a palaeosalinity proxy: hydrogen isotopic fractionation between source water and lipids produced via different biosynthetic pathways in haptophyte algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chivall, David; M'Boule, Daniela; Heinzelmann, Sandra M.; Kasper, Sebastian; Sinke-Schoen, Daniëlle; Sininnghe-Damsté, Jaap S.; Schouten, Stefan; van der Meer, Marcel T. J.

    2014-05-01

    Palaeosalinity is one of the most important oceanographic parameters that cannot currently be quantified with reasonable accuracy from sedimentary records. Hydrogen isotopic fractionation between water and alkenones is dependent, amongst other factors, upon the salinity in which alkenone-producing haptophyte algae grow and is represented by the fractionation factor, α, increasing with salinity.1 As such, the hydrogen isotopic composition of alkenones is emerging as a palaeosalinity proxy. Understanding the mechanism behind the sensitivity of fractionation to salinity is important for the correct application of the proxy, however this mechanism is currently unknown. Here we present hydrogen isotopic compositions of lipids produced via different biosynthetic pathways from batch cultures of Emiliania huxleyi CCMP 1516 and Isochrysis galbana CCMP 1323 grown over a range of salinities and discuss the possible sources of the sensitivity of hydrogen isotope fractionation to salinity. α for C37 alkenones (produced via an unknown biosynthetic pathway but assumed to be acetogenic; e.g.2) and that for C14:0, C16:0, and C18:1 fatty acids (acetogenic) from exponential growth phase I. galbana show a similar sensitivity to salinity, increasing at 0.0013-0.0019 per salinity unit (S-1). Meanwhile, in exponential growth phase E. huxleyi, α for C37 alkenones and α for brassicasterol (mevalonate pathway) increase at 0.0015-0.0022 S-1, but α for phytol (methylerythritol pathway) shows no significant relationship with salinity. These results suggest that fractionation is sensitive to salinity for lipids formed both in the chloroplast and cytosol. They also suggest that the sensitivity may either originate in glyceralde-3-phosphate or pyruvate but is then lost through hydrogen exchange with cell water during sugar rearrangements in the methylerythritol pathway or sensitivity originates with the production and consumption of acetate. References Schouten, S., Ossebaar, J., Schreiber

  5. Hawaii Integrated Energy Assessment. Volume V. Rules, regulations, permits and policies affecting the development of alternate energy sources in Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    A comprehensive presentaton of the major permits, regulations, rules, and controls which are likely to affect the development of alternate energy sources in Hawaii is presented. An overview of the permit process, showing the major categories and types of permits and controls for energy alternatives is presented. This is followed by a brief resume of current and projected changes designed to streamline the permit process. The permits, laws, regulations, and controls that are applicable to the development of energy alternatives in Hawaii are described. The alternate energy technologies affected, a description of the permit or control, and the requirements for conformance are presented for each applicable permit. Federal, state, and county permits and controls are covered. The individual energy technologies being considered as alternatives to the State's present dependence on imported fossil fuels are emphasized. The alternate energy sources covered are bioconversion, geothermal, ocean thermal, wind, solar (direct), and solid waste. For each energy alternative, the significant permits are summarized with a brief explanation of why they may be necessary. The framework of policy development at each of the levels of government with respect to the alternate energy sources is covered.

  6. Analysis of stray radiation produced by the advanced light source (1.9 GeV synchrotron radiation source) at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Ajemian, Robert C.

    1995-01-01

    The yearly environmental dose equivalent likely to result at the closest site boundary from the Advanced Light Source was determined by generating multiple linear regressions. The independent variables comprised quantified accelerator operating parameters and measurements from synchronized, in-close (outside shielding prior to significant atmospheric scattering), state-of-the-art neutron remmeters and photon G-M tubes. Neutron regression models were more successful than photon models due to lower relative background radiation and redundant detectors at the site boundary. As expected, Storage Ring Beam Fill and Beam Crashes produced radiation at a higher rate than gradual Beam Decay; however, only the latter did not include zero in its 95% confidence interval. By summing for all three accelerator operating modes, a combined yearly DE of 4.3 mRem/yr with a 90% CI of (0.04-8.63) was obtained. These results fall below the DOE reporting level of 10 mRem/yr and suggest repeating the study with improved experimental conditions.

  7. Contribution of the Periaqueductal Gray to the Suppression of Pain Affect produced by Administration of Morphine into the Intralaminar Thalamus of Rat

    PubMed Central

    Munn, Elizabeth M.; Harte, Steven E.; Lagman, Alexander; Borszcz, George S.

    2009-01-01

    The parafascicular nucleus of the intralaminar thalamus is implicated in the processing of pain affect in both animals and humans. Administration of morphine into nPf results in preferential suppression of the affective reaction to noxious tailshock in rats. The involvement of the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray in mediating the antinociceptive action of morphine injected into nPf was evaluated. Vocalizations that occur after tailshock offset (vocalization afterdischarges) are a validated rodent model of pain affect, and were preferentially suppressed by injection of morphine into nPf. Vocalizations that occur during tailshock were suppressed to a lesser degree, whereas, spinal motor reflexes (tail flick and hindlimb movements) were unaffected by injection of morphine into nPf. Inactivation of the vPAG via the microinjection of muscimol (GABAA agonist) produced dose-dependent antagonism of morphine-induced increases in vocalization thresholds. The results demonstrate that a functional link between the nPf and vPAG in generating the antinociceptive action of morphine injected into nPf. Perspective: Microinjection of morphine into nucleus parafascicular preferentially suppressed rats’ affective reaction to noxious stimulation. This affective analgesia was reversed by inactivation of the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray. Understanding the neurobiology underlying the suppression of pain affect will provide insights into new treatments for pain and its associated affective disorders. PMID:19231299

  8. Phagocytosis, oxidative burst, and produced reactive species are affected by iron deficiency anemia and anemia of chronic diseases in elderly.

    PubMed

    Paino, I M M; Miranda, J C; Marzocchi-Machado, C M; Cesarino, E J; de Castro, F A; de Souza, A M

    2009-01-01

    Iron and oxidative stress have a regulatory interplay. During the oxidative burst, phagocytic cells produce free radicals such as hypochlorous acid (HOCl). Nevertheless, scarce studies evaluated the effect of either iron deficiency anemia (IDA) or anemia of chronic disease (ACD) on phagocyte function in the elderly. The aim of the present study was to determine the oxidative burst, phagocytosis, and nitric oxide (*NO) and HOCl, reactive species produced by monocytes and neutrophils in elderly with ACD or IDA. Soluble transferrin receptor, serum ferritin, and soluble transferrin receptor/log ferritin (TfR-F) index determined the iron status. The study was constituted of 39 patients aged over 60 (28 women and 11 men) recruited from the Brazilian Public Health System. Oxidative burst fluorescence intensity per neutrophil in IDA group and HOCl generation in both ACD and IDA groups were found to be lower (p < 0.05). The percentages of neutrophils and monocytes expressing phagocytosis in ACD group were found to be higher (p < 0.05). There was an overproduction of *NO from monocytes, whereas the fundamental generation of HOCl appeared to be lower. Phagocytosis, oxidative burst, and *NO and HOCl production are involved in iron metabolism regulation in elderly patients with ACD and IDA.

  9. Hemolysin-producing Listeria monocytogenes affects the immune response to T-cell-dependent and T-cell-independent antigens.

    PubMed Central

    Hage-Chahine, C M; Del Giudice, G; Lambert, P H; Pechere, J C

    1992-01-01

    A murine experimental infection with a hemolysin-producing (Hly+) strain of Listeria monocytogenes and a non-hemolysin-producing (Hly-) mutant was used as an in vivo model to evaluate the role of hemolysin production in the immune response. No antilisterial antibodies were detectable following sublethal infection with Hly+ bacteria, but consistent antilisterial immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM antibody production was observed following sublethal infection with the Hly- mutant. Hly+ but not Hly- L. monocytogenes induced transient inhibition of antibody response to Hly- bacteria and to unrelated T-cell-dependent (tetanus toxoid) and T-cell-independent (pneumococcal polysaccharide 3) antigens. Transient inhibition of the activation of an antigen-specific T-cell clone was also observed following Hly+ infection of antigen-presenting cells but not following Hly- infection. These results suggest that hemolysin production by L. monocytogenes is an important factor in modulating the immune response to T-cell-dependent and T-cell-independent antigens in infected individuals. Images PMID:1548067

  10. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Dd of... - Tank Control Levels for Tanks at Existing Affected Sources as Required by 40 CFR 63.685(b)(1)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tank Control Levels for Tanks at Existing Affected Sources as Required by 40 CFR 63.685(b)(1) 3 Table 3 to Subpart DD of Part 63 Protection... Subpart DD of Part 63—Tank Control Levels for Tanks at Existing Affected Sources as Required by 40 CFR...

  11. 40 CFR 63.1345 - Emissions limits for affected sources other than kilns; in-line kiln/raw mills; clinker coolers...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Emissions limits for affected sources other than kilns; in-line kiln/raw mills; clinker coolers; new and reconstructed raw material dryers... for affected sources other than kilns; in-line kiln/raw mills; clinker coolers; new and...

  12. 40 CFR 63.1345 - Emissions limits for affected sources other than kilns; in-line kiln/raw mills; clinker coolers...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Emissions limits for affected sources other than kilns; in-line kiln/raw mills; clinker coolers; new and reconstructed raw material dryers... for affected sources other than kilns; in-line kiln/raw mills; clinker coolers; new and...

  13. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Kkkk of... - Emission Limits for Affected Sources Using the Control Efficiency/Outlet Concentration Compliance...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... reconstructed affected source a. reduce emissions of total HAP, measured as THC (as carbon), a by 97 percent; orb. limit emissions of total HAP, measured as THC (as carbon), a to 20 ppmvd at the control device outlet and use a PTE. 2. in an existing affected source a. reduce emissions of total HAP, measured as...

  14. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Kkkk of... - Emission Limits for Affected Sources Using the Control Efficiency/Outlet Concentration Compliance...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... reconstructed affected source a. reduce emissions of total HAP, measured as THC (as carbon), a by 97 percent; orb. limit emissions of total HAP, measured as THC (as carbon), a to 20 ppmvd at the control device outlet and use a PTE. 2. in an existing affected source a. reduce emissions of total HAP, measured as...

  15. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Kkkk of... - Emission Limits for Affected Sources Using the Control Efficiency/Outlet Concentration Compliance...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... reconstructed affected source a. reduce emissions of total HAP, measured as THC (as carbon), a by 97 percent; orb. limit emissions of total HAP, measured as THC (as carbon), a to 20 ppmvd at the control device outlet and use a PTE. 2. in an existing affected source a. reduce emissions of total HAP, measured as...

  16. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Kkkk of... - Emission Limits for Affected Sources Using the Control Efficiency/Outlet Concentration Compliance...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... affected source a. reduce emissions of total HAP, measured as THC (as carbon), a by 97 percent; orb. limit emissions of total HAP, measured as THC (as carbon), a to 20 ppmvd at the control device outlet and use a PTE. 2. in an existing affected source a. reduce emissions of total HAP, measured as THC (as...

  17. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Kkkk of... - Emission Limits for Affected Sources Using the Control Efficiency/Outlet Concentration Compliance...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... affected source a. reduce emissions of total HAP, measured as THC (as carbon), a by 97 percent; orb. limit emissions of total HAP, measured as THC (as carbon), a to 20 ppmvd at the control device outlet and use a PTE. 2. in an existing affected source a. reduce emissions of total HAP, measured as THC (as...

  18. Odor detection thresholds of naphthenic acids from commercial sources and oil sands process-affected water.

    PubMed

    Edge, Kristyn; Barona, Brenda; Young, Rozlyn F; Fedorak, Phillip M; Wismer, Wendy V

    2010-11-01

    Naphthenic acids (NAs) occur naturally in various petroleums and in oil sands tailings waters and have been implicated as potential fish tainting compounds. In this study, trained sensory panels and the general population from a university were used to determine the odor detection thresholds of two commercial NAs preparations (Acros and Merichem) and of NAs extracted from an oil sands experimental reclamation pond (Pond 9). Using the three-alternative forced choice method, a concentration series of NAs were presented to the sensory panels in phosphate buffer (pH 8) and in steamed fish (Sander vitreus). In buffer, the odor detection thresholds of Acros, Merichem and Pond 9 NAs, as evaluated by the trained panelists, were 1.5, 0.04, and 1.0 mg L(-1), respectively. Only the detection threshold for the Merichem NAs was significantly different (p<0.01) than the other two sources. Based on the general population assessments, all three odor detection thresholds were significantly different from one another; 4.8, 0.2, and 2.5 mg L(-1) for Acros, Merichem, and Pond 9 NAs, respectively (p<0.01). The odor detection thresholds of Merichem and Pond 9 NAs in steamed fish were 0.6 and 12 mg kg(-1), respectively and were significantly different from each other (p<0.01). The detection threshold of Acros NAs was estimated to be >21 mg kg(-1). For the steamed fish evaluations, the odor descriptors of all three of the NAs preparations was given as chemical in nature (Acros: oil, plastic; Merichem: gasoline; Pond 9: gasoline, tar). Exposure of live rainbow trout to a non-lethal concentration of Merichem NAs (3 mg L(-1) for 10 d) imparted an odor to the fish flesh. Analyses of the three NAs preparations by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed that each had a unique distribution of acids. We conclude that the source of the NAs is important when interpreting odor threshold data and that the two commercial preparations of NAs that were tested do not represent oil sands waters

  19. Factors affecting reservoir and stream-water quality in the Cambridge, Massachusetts, drinking-water source area and implications for source-water protection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waldron, Marcus C.; Bent, Gardner C.

    2001-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the city of Cambridge, Massachusetts, Water Department, to assess reservoir and tributary-stream quality in the Cambridge drinking-water source area, and to use the information gained to help guide the design of a comprehensive water-quality monitoring program for the source area. Assessments of the quality and trophic state of the three primary storage reservoirs, Hobbs Brook Reservoir, Stony Brook Reservoir, and Fresh Pond, were conducted (September 1997-November 1998) to provide baseline information on the state of these resources and to determine the vulnerability of the reservoirs to increased loads of nutrients and other contaminants. The effects of land use, land cover, and other drainage-basin characteristics on sources, transport, and fate of fecal-indicator bacteria, highway deicing chemicals, nutrients, selected metals, and naturally occurring organic compounds in 11 subbasins that contribute water to the reservoirs also was investigated, and the data used to select sampling stations for incorporation into a water-quality monitoring network for the source area. All three reservoirs exhibited thermal and chemical stratification, despite artificial mixing by air hoses in Stony Brook Reservoir and Fresh Pond. The stratification produced anoxic or hypoxic conditions in the deepest parts of the reservoirs and these conditions resulted in the release of ammonia nitrogen orthophosphate phosphorus, and dissolved iron and manganese from the reservoir bed sediments. Concentrations of sodium and chloride in the reservoirs usually were higher than the amounts recommended by the U.S. Environmental Protection agency for drinking-water sources (20 milligrams per liter for sodium and 250 milligrams per liter for chloride). Maximum measured sodium concentrations were highest in Hobbs Brook Reservoir (113 milligrams per liter), intermediate in Stony Brook Reservoir (62

  20. Sources and processes affecting sulfate in a karstic groundwater system of the Franconian Alb, southern Germany.

    PubMed

    Einsiedl, Florian; Mayer, Bernhard

    2005-09-15

    Chemical and isotope analyses on groundwater sulfate and 3H measurements on groundwaterwere used to determine the sulfate sources and sulfur transformation processes in a heterogeneous karst aquifer of the Franconian Alb, southern Germany. Sulfate was found to be derived from atmospheric deposition. Young groundwater was characterized by high sulfate concentrations and delta34S values similar to those of recent atmospheric sulfate deposition. However, the delta18O values of groundwater SO4(2-) were depleted by several per mil with respect to those of atmospheric deposition. This isotopic shift is indicative of mineralization of carbon-bonded S in the vadose zone of the karst system. In groundwater with mean residence times of more than 60 years, a trend of increasing delta34S values and delta18O values with decreasing sulfate concentrations was observed. This trend could not be solely explained by preindustrial atmospheric sulfate deposition with higher delta34S values, and hence, we conclude that bacterial (dissimilatory) sulfate reduction in the porous matrix of the karst aquifer must have occurred. This process has the potential to contribute to long-term biodegradation of contaminants in the porous rock matrix representing the dominantwater reservoir of the fissured porous karst aquifer.

  1. Nutritional ecology of a parasitic wasp: food source affects gustatory response, metabolic utilization, and survivorship.

    PubMed

    Williams, Livy; Roane, Timberley M

    2007-12-01

    The success of biological control is partly mediated by the longevity and reproductive success of beneficial insects. Availability of nectar and honeydew can improve the nutrition of parasitic insects, and thereby increase their longevity and realized fecundity. The egg parasitoid, Anaphes iole, showed strong gustatory perception of trehalulose, a carbohydrate found in homopteran honeydew. Chromatographic analysis demonstrated that enzymatic hydrolysis of sucrose, a common nectar sugar, proceeded at a faster rate than that of melezitose, a sugar common in aphid honeydew. A long-term bioassay showed that longevity was greater at 20 degrees C than at 27 degrees C, and at both temperatures survival was generally greatest for wasps provisioned with the three major nectar sugars, sucrose, glucose, and fructose. Patterns of food acceptance and utilization showed that A. iole accepted and utilized a broad range of sugars found in nature, including those found in nectar as well as honeydew. Glucose, fructose, and several oligosaccharides composed of these monosaccharide units appear to be more suitable for A. iole than other sugars tested. Evidence suggests that individual fitness benefits afforded by food sources are important for a time-limited parasitoid, and that continued investigations on the interface between nutrition and biological control are warranted for A. iole.

  2. From producer to consumer: greenhouse tomato quality as affected by variety, maturity stage at harvest, transport conditions, and supermarket storage.

    PubMed

    Verheul, Michèl J; Slimestad, Rune; Tjøstheim, Irene Holta

    2015-05-27

    Possible causes for differences in quality traits at the time of buying were studied in two widely different red tomato types. Three maturity stages were harvested from commercial greenhouses and transferred immediately to controlled environments simulating different storage, transport, and supermarket conditions. Results show significant differences in development of color, fruit firmness, contents of soluble solids (SSC), titratable acids (TTA), phenolics, and carotenoids from harvest to sale, as related to postharvest conditions. Fruit firmness, SSC, and TTA of vine-ripened red cherry tomatoes was 30, 55 and 11% higher than for those harvested at breakers and ripened to red. Temperature, light, UVC radiation, or ethylene during 4 days transport affected tomato quality traits, and differences persisted during 3 weeks of supermarket storage. Ethylene exposure gave a 3.7-fold increase in lycopene content in cherry tomatoes, whereas UVC hormesis revealed a 6-fold increase compared with the control. Results can be used to update recommendations concerning optimal handling.

  3. Survival of Enterobacter sakazakii on fresh produce as affected by temperature, and effectiveness of sanitizers for its elimination.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hoikyung; Ryu, Jee-Hoon; Beuchat, Larry R

    2006-09-01

    A study was done to determine the survival characteristics of Enterobacter sakazakii on the surface of apples, cantaloupes, strawberries, lettuce, and tomatoes stored at 4, 12, and 25 degrees C for 8-28 days. Populations significantly decreased (pproduce at all storage temperatures. The efficacy of chlorine, chlorine dioxide, and a peroxyacetic acid-based sanitizer (Tsunami 200) treatments (1 and 5 min) in killing the bacterium on apples, tomatoes, and lettuce was determined. Chlorine and chlorine dioxide, at >or=50 microg/ml, were equivalent in killing E. sakazakii on apples. Populations of E. sakazakii on apples treated with 10 microg/ml chlorine dioxide for 1 or 5 min were significantly reduced (por=4.00 log CFU/apple. Reductions of >or=3.70 log CFU/tomato were achieved by treatment with 10 microg/ml chlorine or chlorine dioxide or 40 microg/ml Tsunami 200 for 5 min. Reductions in populations of E. sakazakii on lettuce treated with chlorine at 10, 50, and 100 microg/ml for 1 min ranged from 1.61 to 2.50 log CFU/sample (26+/-4 g), compared to populations remaining on lettuce washed with water. Chlorine was less effective in killing E. sakazakii on lettuce than on apples or tomatoes. Treatment of lettuce with Tsunami 200 (40 and 80 microg/ml) for 5 min caused a reduction of >or=5.31 log CFU/sample. Results provide insights to predicting survival characteristics of E. sakazakii on produce and the efficacy of sanitizers in killing the bacterium.

  4. Volatile Substances Produced by Fusarium oxysporum from Coffee Rhizosphere and Other Microbes affect Meloidogyne incognita and Arthrobotrys conoides

    PubMed Central

    Freire, E. S.; Campos, V. P.; Pinho, R. S. C.; Oliveira, D. F.; Faria, M. R.; Pohlit, A. M.; Noberto, N. P.; Rezende, E. L.; Pfenning, L. H.; Silva, J. R. C.

    2012-01-01

    Microorganisms produce volatile organic compounds (VOCs) which mediate interactions with other organisms and may be the basis for the development of new methods to control plant-parasitic nematodes that damage coffee plants. In the present work, 35 fungal isolates were isolated from coffee plant rhizosphere, Meloidogyne exigua eggs and egg masses. Most of the fungal isolates belonged to the genus Fusarium and presented in vitro antagonism classified as mutual exclusion and parasitism against the nematode-predator fungus Arthrobotrys conoides (isolated from coffee roots). These results and the stronger activity of VOCs against this fungus by 12 endophytic bacteria may account for the failure of A. conoides to reduce plant-parasitic nematodes in coffee fields. VOCs from 13 fungal isolates caused more than 40% immobility to Meloidogyne incognita second stage juveniles (J2), and those of three isolates (two Fusarium oxysporum isolates and an F. solani isolate) also led to 88-96% J2 mortality. M. incognita J2 infectivity decreased as a function of increased exposure time to F. oxysporum isolate 21 VOCs. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis lead to the detection of 38 VOCs produced by F. oxysporum is. 21 culture. Only five were present in amounts above 1% of the total: dioctyl disulfide (it may also be 2-propyldecan-1-ol or 1-(2-hydroxyethoxy) tridecane); caryophyllene; 4-methyl-2,6-di-tert-butylphenol; and acoradiene. One of them was not identified. Volatiles toxic to nematodes make a difference among interacting microorganisms in coffee rhizosphere defining an additional attribute of a biocontrol agent against plant-parasitic nematodes. PMID:23482720

  5. Local point sources that affect ground-water quality in the East Meadow area, Long Island, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heisig, Paul M.

    1994-01-01

    The extent and chemical characteristics of ground water affected by three local point sources--a stormwater basin, uncovered road-salt-storage piles, and an abandoned sewage-treatment plant--were delineated during a 3-year study of the chemical characteristics and migration of a body of reclaimed wastewater that was applied to the watertable aquifer during recharge experiments from October 1982 through January 1984 in East Meadow. The timing, magnitude, and chemical quality of recharge from these point sources is highly variable, and all sources have the potential to skew determinations of the quality of ambient ground-water and of the reclaimed-wastewater plume if they are not taken into account. Ground water affected by recharge from the stormwater basin is characterized by low concentrations of nitrate + nitrite (less than 5 mg/L [milligrams per liter] as N) and sulfate (less than 40 mg/L) and is almost entirely within the upper glacial aquifer. The plume derived from road-salt piles is narrow, has high concentrations of chloride (greater than 50 mg/L) and sodium (greater than 75 mg/L), and also is limited to the upper glacial aquifer. The sodium, in high concentrations, could react with aquifer material and exchange for sorbed cations such as calcium, potassium, and magnesium. Water affected by secondary-treated sewage from the abandoned treatment plant extends 152 feet below land surface into the upper part of the Magothy aquifer and longitudinally beyond the southern edge of the study area, 7,750 feet south of the recharge site. Ground water affected by secondary-treated sewage within the study area typically contains elevated concentrations of reactive chemical constituents, such as potassium and ammonium, and low concentrations of dissolved oxygen. Conservative or minimally reactive constituents such as chloride and sodium have been transported out of the study area in the upper glacial aquifer and the intermediate (transitional) zone but remain in the less

  6. The functional potential of microbial communities in hydraulic fracturing source water and produced water from natural gas extraction characterized by metagenomic sequencing

    DOE PAGES

    Mohan, Arvind Murali; Bibby, Kyle J.; Lipus, Daniel; ...

    2014-10-22

    Microbial activity in produced water from hydraulic fracturing operations can lead to undesired environmental impacts and increase gas production costs. However, the metabolic profile of these microbial communities is not well understood. Here, for the first time, we present results from a shotgun metagenome of microbial communities in both hydraulic fracturing source water and wastewater produced by hydraulic fracturing. Taxonomic analyses showed an increase in anaerobic/facultative anaerobic classes related to Clostridia, Gammaproteobacteria, Bacteroidia and Epsilonproteobacteria in produced water as compared to predominantly aerobic Alphaproteobacteria in the fracturing source water. Thus, the metabolic profile revealed a relative increase in genes responsiblemore » for carbohydrate metabolism, respiration, sporulation and dormancy, iron acquisition and metabolism, stress response and sulfur metabolism in the produced water samples. These results suggest that microbial communities in produced water have an increased genetic ability to handle stress, which has significant implications for produced water management, such as disinfection.« less

  7. The functional potential of microbial communities in hydraulic fracturing source water and produced water from natural gas extraction characterized by metagenomic sequencing.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Arvind Murali; Bibby, Kyle J; Lipus, Daniel; Hammack, Richard W; Gregory, Kelvin B

    2014-01-01

    Microbial activity in produced water from hydraulic fracturing operations can lead to undesired environmental impacts and increase gas production costs. However, the metabolic profile of these microbial communities is not well understood. Here, for the first time, we present results from a shotgun metagenome of microbial communities in both hydraulic fracturing source water and wastewater produced by hydraulic fracturing. Taxonomic analyses showed an increase in anaerobic/facultative anaerobic classes related to Clostridia, Gammaproteobacteria, Bacteroidia and Epsilonproteobacteria in produced water as compared to predominantly aerobic Alphaproteobacteria in the fracturing source water. The metabolic profile revealed a relative increase in genes responsible for carbohydrate metabolism, respiration, sporulation and dormancy, iron acquisition and metabolism, stress response and sulfur metabolism in the produced water samples. These results suggest that microbial communities in produced water have an increased genetic ability to handle stress, which has significant implications for produced water management, such as disinfection.

  8. The Functional Potential of Microbial Communities in Hydraulic Fracturing Source Water and Produced Water from Natural Gas Extraction Characterized by Metagenomic Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Arvind Murali; Bibby, Kyle J.; Lipus, Daniel; Hammack, Richard W.; Gregory, Kelvin B.

    2014-01-01

    Microbial activity in produced water from hydraulic fracturing operations can lead to undesired environmental impacts and increase gas production costs. However, the metabolic profile of these microbial communities is not well understood. Here, for the first time, we present results from a shotgun metagenome of microbial communities in both hydraulic fracturing source water and wastewater produced by hydraulic fracturing. Taxonomic analyses showed an increase in anaerobic/facultative anaerobic classes related to Clostridia, Gammaproteobacteria, Bacteroidia and Epsilonproteobacteria in produced water as compared to predominantly aerobic Alphaproteobacteria in the fracturing source water. The metabolic profile revealed a relative increase in genes responsible for carbohydrate metabolism, respiration, sporulation and dormancy, iron acquisition and metabolism, stress response and sulfur metabolism in the produced water samples. These results suggest that microbial communities in produced water have an increased genetic ability to handle stress, which has significant implications for produced water management, such as disinfection. PMID:25338024

  9. Dietary Protein Sources Affect Internal Quality of Raw and Cooked Shell Eggs under Refrigerated Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Wang, X. C.; Zhang, H. J.; Wu, S. G.; Yue, H. Y.; Wang, J.; Li, J.; Qi, G. H.

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of various protein sources (soybean meal, SBM; cottonseed protein, CSP; double-zero rapeseed meal, DRM) on the internal quality of refrigerated eggs. A total of 360 laying hens (32 wk of age) were randomly allotted to six treatment groups (five replicates per treatment) and fed diets containing SBM, CSP, or DRM individually or in combination with equal crude protein content (SBM-CSP, SBM-DRM, and CSP-DRM) as the protein ingredient(s). A 6×3 factorial arrangement was employed with dietary types and storage time (0 d, 2 wk, and 4 wk) as the main effects. After 12 wk of diet feeding, a total of 270 eggs were collected for egg quality determination. The egg Haugh unit (HU) in the CSP, SBM-DRM, and DRM groups were significantly lower than those in the SBM and SBM-CSP groups. The hardness and springiness of the cooked yolk in the CSP group were significantly higher than those in the other treatment groups. A lower HU, lower yolk index and higher albumen pH were observed in the DRM group compared to the SBM and SBM-CSP groups when the eggs were stored to 4 wk, and the HU was improved in the CSP-DRM group compared to the DRM group (p<0.05). Higher yolk hardness was observed in the CSP group compared to the other groups during storage (p<0.05), but the hardness of the cooked yolk in the SBM-CSP and CSP-DRM groups showed no difference in comparison to the SBM group. In conclusion, CSP may ameliorate the negative effects of DRM on the HU of refrigerated eggs, and SBM or DRM may alleviate the adverse effects of CSP on yolk hardness. PMID:26580286

  10. Application of biogenic carbon dioxide produced by yeast with different carbon sources for attraction of mosquitoes towards adult mosquito traps.

    PubMed

    Sukumaran, D; Ponmariappan, S; Sharma, Atul K; Jha, Hemendra K; Wasu, Yogesh H; Sharma, Ajay K

    2016-04-01

    Surveillance is a prime requisite for controlling arthropod vectors like mosquitoes that transmit diseases such as malaria, dengue and chikungunya. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is one of the main cues from vertebrate breath that attracts mosquitoes towards the host. Hence, CO2 is used as an attractant during surveillance of mosquitoes either from commercial cylinders or dry ice for mosquito traps. In the present study, the biogenic carbon dioxide production was optimized with different carbon sources such as glucose, simple sugar and jaggery with and without yeast peptone dextrose (YPD) media using commercial baker's yeast. The results showed that yeast produced more biogenic CO2 with simple sugar as compared to other carbon sources. Further substrate concentration was optimized for the continuous production of biogenic CO2 for a minimum of 12 h by using 10 g of baker's yeast with 50 g of simple sugar added to 1.5 l distilled water (without YPD media) in a 2-l plastic bottle. This setup was applied in field condition along with two different mosquito traps namely Mosquito Killing System (MKS) and Biogents Sentinel (BGS) trap. Biogenic CO2 from this setup has increased the trapping efficiency of MKS by 6.48-fold for Culex quinquefasciatus, 2.62-fold for Aedes albopictus and 1.5-fold for Anopheles stephensi. In the case of BGS, the efficiency was found to be increased by 3.54-fold for Ae. albopictus, 4.33-fold for An. stephensi and 1.3-fold for Armigeres subalbatus mosquitoes. On the whole, plastic bottle setup releasing biogenic CO2 from sugar and yeast has increased the efficiency of MKS traps by 6.38-fold and 2.74-fold for BGS traps as compared to traps without biogenic CO2. The present study reveals that, among different carbon sources used, simple sugar as a substance (which is economical and readily available across the world) yielded maximum biogenic CO2 with yeast. This setup can be used as an alternative to CO2 cylinder and dry ice in any adult mosquito traps to

  11. High-coverage gene expression profiling analysis of the cellulase-producing fungus Acremonium cellulolyticus cultured using different carbon sources.

    PubMed

    Hideno, Akihiro; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Fujii, Tatsuya; Yano, Shinichi; Tsukahara, Kenichiro; Murakami, Katsuji; Yunokawa, Harunobu; Sawayama, Shigeki

    2013-06-01

    The gene expression of a cellulase-producing fungus, Acremonium cellulolyticus, was investigated after culturing with three different carbon sources: glycerol, lactose, and Solka-Floc powdered cellulose (SF). High-coverage gene expression profiling (HiCEP) analysis, a method requiring no prior sequence knowledge, was used to screen genes upregulated at the early stage of cellulase production. SF was used as a strong inducer of cellulase production, lactose was used as an inducer of the expression of cellulase genes at the early stage of the culture, and glycerol was used as a negative control. Approximately 15,000 transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) were detected in each sample prepared from the culture grown for 16 h. Based on the expression profiles of the cultured cells, 36 fragments upregulated in both the SF and lactose cultures were selected and sequenced. The deduced gene products of 31 TDFs were likely related to biomass degradation, sugar metabolism, transcriptional regulation, protein modification and metabolism, cell wall recycling, fatty acid and polyketide biosynthesis, and other functions. Quantitative real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis verified that almost all of the transcripts obtained by HiCEP analysis were upregulated in the SF and lactose cultures grown for 18 h. Some of the TDFs in the SF culture were further upregulated over the course of 72 h. The gene products from these TDFs would provide insight into improving the cellulase productivity of A. cellulolyticus.

  12. Xylooligosaccharides from hardwood and cereal xylans produced by a thermostable xylanase as carbon sources for Lactobacillus brevis and Bifidobacterium adolescentis.

    PubMed

    Falck, Peter; Precha-Atsawanan, Suthsiri; Grey, Carl; Immerzeel, Peter; Stålbrand, Henrik; Adlercreutz, Patrick; Karlsson, Eva Nordberg

    2013-07-31

    To compare xylans from forestry with agricultural origins, hardwood xylan (birch) and cereal arabinoxylan (rye) were hydrolyzed using two variants of the xylanase RmXyn10A, full-length enzyme and catalytic module only, from Rhodothermus marinus . Cultivations of four selected bacterial species, using the xylooligosaccharide (XOS) containing hydrolysates as carbon source, showed selective growth of Lactobacillus brevis DSMZ 1264 and Bifidobacterium adolescentis ATCC 15703. Both strains were confirmed to utilize the XOS fraction (DP 2-5), whereas putative arabinoxylooligosaccharides from the rye arabinoxylan hydrolysate were utilized by only B. adolescentis. Escherichia coli did not grow, despite its capability to grow on the monosaccharides arabinose and xylose. It was also shown that Pediococcus parvulus strain 2.6 utilized neither xylose nor XOS for growth. In summary, RmXyn10A or its catalytic module proved suitable for high-temperature hydrolysis of hardwood xylan and cereal arabinoxylan, producing XOS that could qualify as prebiotics for use in functional food products.

  13. In situ measurement of ions parameters of laser produced ion source using high resolution Thomson Parabola Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaurasia, S.; Kaur, C.; Rastogi, V.; Poswal, A. K.; Munda, D. S.; Bhatia, R. K.; Nataraju, V.

    2016-08-01

    The laser produced plasma based heavy ion source has become an outstanding front end for heavy ion accelerators. Before being implemented in the heavy ion accelerators its detailed characterization is required. For this purpose, a high resolution and high dispersion Thomson parabola spectrometer comprising of Time-of-Flight diagnostics has been developed for the characterization of ions with energy in the range from 1 keV to 1 MeV/nucleon and incorporated in the Laser plasma experimental chamber. The ion spectrometer is optimized with graphite target. The carbon ions of charge states C1+ to C6+ are observed in the energy range from 3 keV to 300 keV, which has also been verified by Time-of-Flight measurement. Experimental results were matched with simulation done by SIMION 7.0 code which is used for the design of the spectrometer. We also developed data analysis software using Python language to measure in situ ion's parameters and the results are in better agreement to the experimental results than the commercially available software SIMION 7.0. The resolution of the spectrometer is ΔE/E = 0.026 @ 31 keV for charge state (C4+) of carbon.

  14. External barium affects the gating of KCNQ1 potassium channels and produces a pore block via two discrete sites.

    PubMed

    Gibor, Gilad; Yakubovich, Daniel; Peretz, Asher; Attali, Bernard

    2004-07-01

    The pore properties and the reciprocal interactions between permeant ions and the gating of KCNQ channels are poorly understood. Here we used external barium to investigate the permeation characteristics of homomeric KCNQ1 channels. We assessed the Ba(2+) binding kinetics and the concentration and voltage dependence of Ba(2+) steady-state block. Our results indicate that extracellular Ba(2+) exerts a series of complex effects, including a voltage-dependent pore blockade as well as unique gating alterations. External barium interacts with the permeation pathway of KCNQ1 at two discrete and nonsequential sites. (a) A slow deep Ba(2+) site that occludes the channel pore and could be simulated by a model of voltage-dependent block. (b) A fast superficial Ba(2+) site that barely contributes to channel block and mostly affects channel gating by shifting rightward the voltage dependence of activation, slowing activation, speeding up deactivation kinetics, and inhibiting channel inactivation. A model of voltage-dependent block cannot predict the complex impact of Ba(2+) on channel gating in low external K(+) solutions. Ba(2+) binding to this superficial site likely modifies the gating transitions states of KCNQ1. Both sites appear to reside in the permeation pathway as high external K(+) attenuates Ba(2+) inhibition of channel conductance and abolishes its impact on channel gating. Our data suggest that despite the high degree of homology of the pore region among the various K(+) channels, KCNQ1 channels display significant structural and functional uniqueness.

  15. Cellular Lipid Composition Affects Sensitivity of Plant Pathogens to Fengycin, an Antifungal Compound Produced by Bacillus subtilis Strain CU12.

    PubMed

    Wise, Cody; Falardeau, Justin; Hagberg, Ingrid; Avis, Tyler J

    2014-10-01

    Fengycin is an antimicrobial cyclic lipopeptide produced by various Bacillus subtilis strains, including strain CU12. Direct effects of fengycin include membrane pore formation and efflux of cellular contents leading to cell death in sensitive microorganisms. In this study, four plant pathogens were studied in order to elucidate the role of membrane lipids in their relative sensitivity to fengycin. Inhibition of mycelial growth in these pathogens varied considerably. Analysis of membrane lipids in these microorganisms indicated that sensitivity correlated with low ergosterol content and shorter phospholipid fatty acyl chains. Sensitivity to fengycin also correlated with a lower anionic/zwitterionic phospholipid ratio. Our data suggest that decreased fluidity buffering capacity, as a result of low ergosterol content, and higher intrinsic fluidity afforded by short fatty acyl chain length may increase the sensitivity of microbial membranes to fengycin. Our results also suggest that lower content in anionic phospholipids may increase fengycin insertion into the membrane through reduced electrostatic repulsion with the negatively charged fengycin. The intrinsic membrane lipid composition may contribute, in part, to the observed level of antimicrobial activity of fengycin in various plant pathogens.

  16. Virulent Shigella flexneri Affects Secretion, Expression, and Glycosylation of Gel-Forming Mucins in Mucus-Producing Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sperandio, Brice; Fischer, Natalie; Chevalier-Curt, Marie Joncquel; Rossez, Yannick; Roux, Pascal; Robbe Masselot, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Mucin glycoproteins are secreted in large amounts by the intestinal epithelium and constitute an efficient component of innate immune defenses to promote homeostasis and protect against enteric pathogens. In this study, our objective was to investigate how the bacterial enteropathogen Shigella flexneri, which causes bacillary dysentery, copes with the mucin defense barrier. We report that upon in vitro infection of mucin-producing polarized human intestinal epithelial cells, virulent S. flexneri manipulates the secretion of gel-forming mucins. This phenomenon, which is triggered only by virulent strains, results in accumulation of mucins at the cell apical surface, leading to the appearance of a gel-like structure that favors access of bacteria to the cell surface and the subsequent invasion process. We identify MUC5AC, a gel-forming mucin, as a component of this structure. Formation of this gel does not depend on modifications of electrolyte concentrations, induction of trefoil factor expression, endoplasmic reticulum stress, or response to unfolded proteins. In addition, transcriptional and biochemical analyses of infected cells reveal modulations of mucin gene expression and modifications of mucin glycosylation patterns, both of which are induced by virulent bacteria in a type III secretion system-dependent manner. Thus, S. flexneri has developed a dedicated strategy to alter the mucus barrier by targeting key elements of the gel-forming capacity of mucins: gene transcription, protein glycosylation, and secretion. PMID:23876800

  17. Multi-isotope approach: a tool to better constrain both sources and processes affecting NO3 pollution in watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widory, D.

    2006-12-01

    Nitrate is one of the major pollutants of drinking water resources worldwide. Recent European directives reduced inputs from intensive agriculture, but in most places NO3 levels are approaching the potable limit of 50 mg.l-1 in groundwater. Determining the source(s) of contamination in groundwater is an important first step for improving its quality by emission control. It is with this aim that we review here the benefit of using a multi- isotope approach (d15N, d180, d11B and 87Sr/86Sr), in addition to conventional hydrogeological analysis, to both constrain the watersheds hydrology and trace the origin of their NO3 pollution. Watersheds presented here include both fractured bedrock and alluvial (subsurface and deep) hydrogeological contexts. The strontium budget in watersheds is mainly controlled by the water-rock interactions (human inputs usually represents negligible fluxes). With the example of the Allier river (Central France), we show that, even on a very small watershed, the main water flows can usually be determined by the use of the 87Sr/86Sr ratios, thus helping understanding the hydrology controlling pollution processes. The characterisation of the different usual nitrate sources of pollution in groundwater (mineral fertilisers, wastewater and animals manure) shows that they can clearly be discriminated using isotopes. The isotopic composition of the dissolved nitrogen species has been used extensively to better constrain the sources and fate of nitrate in groundwater. The possibility of quantifying both origin and secondary processes affecting N concentrations by means of a single tracer appears more limited however. Nitrogen cannot be considered conservative because it is biologically modified through nitrification and denitrification reactions, both during infiltration of the water and in the groundwater body, causing isotopic fractionation that modifies the d15N-n signatures of the dissolved N species. Discriminating multiple NO3 sources by their N

  18. Biopsy of embryos produced by in vitro fertilization affects development in C57BL/6 mouse strain

    PubMed Central

    Sugawara, Atsushi; Ward, Monika A.

    2012-01-01

    Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) is considered highly successful in respect to its accuracy in detecting genetic anomalies but the effects of embryo biopsy on embryonic/fetal growth and development are less known, particularly in conjunction with in vitro fertilization (IVF). Here, we compared biopsied (B) and non-biopsied (NB) mouse embryos for their developmental competence. Embryos C57BL/6 (B6) and B6D2F2 (F2) generated by IVF were subjected to single blastomere biopsy at the 4-cell stage, and were either cultured for 120 h and subjected to differential inner cell mass (ICM) and trophoblast (T) staining, or were transferred into the uterine tubes of surrogate mothers after 72 h of culture, to examine their pre- and post-implantation development, respectively. Non-biopsied embryos from the same IVF cohorts served as controls. Embryo biopsy negatively affected preimplantation development to blastocyst in C57BL/6 (69 vs 79%, P<0.01) but not in B6D2F1 mice (89 vs 91%, P=NS). Although B6 embryos had lower total cell number than F2 (B6: 47 and 61 vs. F1: 53 and 70; B and NB, respectively, P<0.05) there were no differences between B and NB blastocysts in %ICM (B6: 19.8 vs 19.8; F2: 20.9 vs 20.4, P=NS) and ICM:T ratio (B6: 4.7 vs 4.7; F2: 4.4 vs. 4.7) in both mouse strains. Post-implantation development to live fetuses of B embryos as compared to NB counterparts was impaired in C57BL/6 (6 vs 18%, P<0.001) but not in B6D2F1 mice (26 vs 35%, P=NS). We conclude that blastomere biopsy impairs embryonic/fetal development in mice known to be sensitive to in vitro culture and manipulations. Such mice model infertile couples with poor quality gametes seeking help in assisted reproduction technologies (ART) clinics. PMID:23174776

  19. Dietary long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids from different sources affect fat and fatty acid excretions in rats.

    PubMed

    Amate, L; Gil, A; Ramírez, M

    2001-12-01

    Several sources of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCP) have been evaluated for infant-formula supplementation. These sources differ in their chemical structure [triglyceride (TG) or phospholipid (PL)], arrangement of fatty acids on the TG or PL backbone, fatty acid composition and presence of other lipid components. All of these characteristics influence fat digestion, may affect fat and fatty acid absorption, and hence, LCP bioavailability and metabolism in infancy. The main objective of this work was to establish the influence of different dietary LCP sources on overall fat and LCP absorption in early life. We compared fat and fatty acid excretions at weaning in rats fed control diets or diets supplemented with LCP as TG or PL. Two separate experiments were conducted. In Experiment 1, weanling rats were fed for 3 wk a control diet (C1), a diet with TG from tuna and fungal oils (TF-TG) or a diet with PL from pig brain concentrate (PB-PL). In Experiment 2, weanling rats were fed for 3 wk a control diet (C2), a diet containing egg-TG (EG-TG) or a diet containing egg-PL (EG-PL). Fat, mineral and saturated fatty acid excretions in feces were higher in rats fed PB-PL compared with those fed TF-TG diet. In Experiment 2, groups did not differ in fat and mineral excretions. However, the EG-PL group had lower fecal excretions of saturated fatty acids than the C2 and EG-TG groups. The 16:1(n-7), 18:1(n-9), 18:2(n-6) and 22:6(n-3) levels in feces were higher in the EG-TG group than in the EG-PL group. In summary, total fat and LCP excretions differed among rats fed diets supplemented with LCP from different sources.

  20. Reciprocity in computer-human interaction: source-based, norm-based, and affect-based explanations.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seungcheol Austin; Liang, Yuhua Jake

    2015-04-01

    Individuals often apply social rules when they interact with computers, and this is known as the Computers Are Social Actors (CASA) effect. Following previous work, one approach to understand the mechanism responsible for CASA is to utilize computer agents and have the agents attempt to gain human compliance (e.g., completing a pattern recognition task). The current study focuses on three key factors frequently cited to influence traditional notions of compliance: evaluations toward the source (competence and warmth), normative influence (reciprocity), and affective influence (mood). Structural equation modeling assessed the effects of these factors on human compliance with computer request. The final model shows that norm-based influence (reciprocity) increased the likelihood of compliance, while evaluations toward the computer agent did not significantly influence compliance.

  1. Experimental and numerical investigation of the residual yield strength of aluminium alloy EN AW-2024-T3 affected by artificially produced pitting corrosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pippig, R.; Schmidl, E.; Steinert, P.; Schubert, A.; Lampke, T.

    2017-03-01

    In this study, the behaviour of the residual yield strength of aluminium alloy EN AW-2024-T3 affected by the morphology and numbers of corrosion pits (defects) is presented. Since specific defect structures are not reproducible during experimental corrosion tests, metal sheets with different numbers of pits and pit shapes are produced using laser micro structuring. The defect structures are measured using laser scanning microscopy. To compare the stress states of the micro structured and real corroded metal sheets, FE-analysis is used. Afterwards, uniaxial tensile tests are carried out and critical defect parameters in terms of yield strength reduction of the investigated aluminium alloy are detected.

  2. List of Potentially Affected Sources for the Asphalt Processing and Roofing Manufacturing National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) November 2001

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This is a November 2001 list of sources identified by EPA as potentially affected by the Asphalt Processing and Roofing Manufacturing National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP).

  3. Genotypes and virulence characteristics of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O104 strains from different origins and sources.

    PubMed

    Miko, Angelika; Delannoy, Sabine; Fach, Patrick; Strockbine, Nancy A; Lindstedt, Björn Arne; Mariani-Kurkdjian, Patricia; Reetz, Jochen; Beutin, Lothar

    2013-12-01

    Sixty-two Escherichia coli strains carrying the wzxO104-gene from different sources, origins and time periods were analyzed for their serotypes, virulence genes and compared for genomic similarity by pulsed-field gel-electrophoresis (PFGE). The O104 antigen was present in 55 strains and the structurally and genetically related capsular antigen K9 in five strains. The presence of 49 genes associated with enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) was investigated. Fifty-four strains of serotypes O104:H2 (n=1), O104:H4 (n=37), O104:H7 (n=5) and O104:H21 (n=11) produced Shiga-toxins (Stx). Among STEC O104, a close association between serotype, virulence gene profile and genomic similarity was found. EAEC virulence genes were only present in STEC O104:H4 strains. EHEC-O157 plasmid-encoded genes were only found in STEC O104:H2, O104:H7 and O104:H21 strains. None of the 62 O104 or K9 strains carried an eae-gene involved in the attaching and effacing phenotype. The 38 O104:H4 strains formed a single PFGE-cluster (>83.7% similarity). Thirty-one of these strains were from the European O104:H4 outbreak in 2011. The outbreak strains and older O104:H4 strains from Germany (2001), Georgia and France (2009) clustered together at>86.2% similarity. O104:H4 strains isolated between 2001 and 2009 differed for some plasmid-encoded virulence genes compared to the outbreak strains from 2011. STEC O104:H21 and STEC O104:H7 strains isolated in the U.S. and in Europe showed characteristic differences in their Stx-types, virulence gene and PFGE profiles indicating that these have evolved separately. E. coli K9 strains were not associated with virulence and were heterogeneous for their serotypes and PFGE profiles.

  4. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Dd of... - Tank Control Levels for Tanks at New Affected Sources as Required by 40 CFR 63.685(b)(2)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tank Control Levels for Tanks at New Affected Sources as Required by 40 CFR 63.685(b)(2) 4 Table 4 to Subpart DD of Part 63 Protection of... Subpart DD of Part 63—Tank Control Levels for Tanks at New Affected Sources as Required by 40 CFR...

  5. Wetlands serve as natural sources for improvement of stream ecosystem health in regions affected by acid deposition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pound, Katrina L; Lawrence, Gregory B.; Passy, Sophia I.

    2013-01-01

    For over 40 years, acid deposition has been recognized as a serious international environmental problem, but efforts to restore acidified streams and biota have had limited success. The need to better understand the effects of different sources of acidity on streams has become more pressing with the recent increases in surface water organic acids, or 'brownification' associated with climate change and decreased inorganic acid deposition. Here, we carried out a large scale multi-seasonal investigation in the Adirondacks, one of the most acid-impacted regions in the United States, to assess how acid stream producers respond to local and watershed influences and whether these influences can be used in acidification remediation. We explored the pathways of wetland control on aluminum chemistry and diatom taxonomic and functional composition. We demonstrate that streams with larger watershed wetlands have higher organic content, lower concentrations of acidic anions, and lower ratios of inorganic to organic monomeric aluminum, all beneficial for diatom biodiversity and guilds producing high biomass. Although brownification has been viewed as a form of pollution, our results indicate that it may be a stimulating force for biofilm producers with potentially positive consequences for higher trophic levels. Our research also reveals that the mechanism of watershed control of local stream diatom biodiversity through wetland export of organic matter is universal in running waters, operating not only in hard streams, as previously reported, but also in acid streams. Our findings that the negative impacts of acid deposition on Adirondack stream chemistry and biota can be mitigated by wetlands have important implications for biodiversity conservation and stream ecosystem management. Future acidification research should focus on the potential for wetlands to improve stream ecosystem health in acid-impacted regions and their direct use in stream restoration, for example, through

  6. Wetlands serve as natural sources for improvement of stream ecosystem health in regions affected by acid deposition.

    PubMed

    Pound, Katrina L; Lawrence, Gregory B; Passy, Sophia I

    2013-09-01

    For over 40 years, acid deposition has been recognized as a serious international environmental problem, but efforts to restore acidified streams and biota have had limited success. The need to better understand the effects of different sources of acidity on streams has become more pressing with the recent increases in surface water organic acids, or 'brownification,' associated with climate change and decreased inorganic acid deposition. Here, we carried out a large scale multi-seasonal investigation in the Adirondacks, one of the most acid-impacted regions in the United States, to assess how acid stream producers respond to local and watershed influences and whether these influences can be used in acidification remediation. We explored the pathways of wetland control on aluminum chemistry and diatom taxonomic and functional composition. We demonstrate that streams with larger watershed wetlands have higher organic content, lower concentrations of acidic anions, and lower ratios of inorganic to organic monomeric aluminum, all beneficial for diatom biodiversity and guilds producing high biomass. Although brownification has been viewed as a form of pollution, our results indicate that it may be a stimulating force for biofilm producers with potentially positive consequences for higher trophic levels. Our research also reveals that the mechanism of watershed control of local stream diatom biodiversity through wetland export of organic matter is universal in running waters, operating not only in hard streams, as previously reported, but also in acid streams. Our findings that the negative impacts of acid deposition on Adirondack stream chemistry and biota can be mitigated by wetlands have important implications for biodiversity conservation and stream ecosystem management. Future acidification research should focus on the potential for wetlands to improve stream ecosystem health in acid-impacted regions and their direct use in stream restoration, for example, through

  7. Varying forage type, metabolizable protein concentration, and carbohydrate source affects manure excretion, manure ammonia, and nitrogen metabolism of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Weiss, W P; Willett, L B; St-Pierre, N R; Borger, D C; McKelvey, T R; Wyatt, D J

    2009-11-01

    Effects of forage source, concentration of metabolizable protein (MP), and type of carbohydrate on manure excretion by dairy cows and production of ammonia from that manure were evaluated using a central composite experimental design. All diets (dry basis) contained 50% forage that ranged from 25:75 to 75:25 alfalfa silage:corn silage. Diets contained 10.7% rumen-degradable protein with variable concentrations of undegradable protein so that dietary MP ranged from 8.8 to 12%. Starch concentration ranged from 22 to 30% with a concomitant decrease in neutral detergent fiber. A total of 15 diets were fed to 36 Holstein cows grouped in 6 blocks. Each block was a replicated 3 x 3 Latin square resulting in 108 observations. Manure output (urine and feces) was measured using total collection, and fresh feces and urine were combined into slurries and incubated for 48 h to measure NH3-N production. Feces, urine, and manure output averaged 50.5, 29.5, and 80.1 kg/d, respectively. Manure output increased with increasing dry matter intake (approximately 3.5 kg of manure/kg of dry matter intake), increased concentrations of alfalfa (mostly via changes in urine output), and decreased concentrations of starch (mostly via changes in fecal output). The amount of NH3-N produced per gram of manure decreased with increasing alfalfa because excreted N shifted from urine to feces. Increasing MP increased NH3-N produced per gram of manure mainly because of increased urinary N, but increased fecal N also contributed to the manure NH3. Manure NH3-N production per cow (accounts for effects on manure production and NH3-N produced per unit of manure) was least and milk protein yields were maximal for diets with high alfalfa (75% of the forage), moderate MP (11% of diet dry matter), and high starch (30% of diet dry matter).

  8. A Hybrid Model for Research on Subjective Well-Being: Examining Common- and Component-Specific Sources of Variance in Life Satisfaction, Positive Affect, and Negative Affect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busseri, Michael; Sadava, Stanley; DeCourville, Nancy

    2007-01-01

    The primary components of subjective well-being (SWB) include life satisfaction (LS), positive affect (PA), and negative affect (NA). There is little consensus, however, concerning how these components form a model of SWB. In this paper, six longitudinal studies varying in demographic characteristics, length of time between assessment periods,…

  9. Application of a set of complementary techniques to understand how varying the proportion of two wastes affects humic acids produced by vermicomposting

    SciTech Connect

    Fernández-Gómez, Manuel J.; Nogales, Rogelio; Plante, Alain; Plaza, César; Fernández, José M.

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • A set of techniques was used to characterize humic acids content of vermicomposts. • The properties of the humic acids produced from different waste mixtures were similar. • This set of techniques allowed distinguishing the humic acids of each vermicomposts. • Increasing humic acid contents in initial mixtures would produce richer vermicomposts. - Abstract: A better understanding of how varying the proportion of different organic wastes affects humic acid (HA) formation during vermicomposting would be useful in producing vermicomposts enriched in HAs. With the aim of improving the knowledge about this issue, a variety of analytical techniques [UV–visible spectroscopic, Fourier transform infrared, fluorescence spectra, solid-state cross-polarization magic-angle spinning (CPMAS) {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra, and thermal analysis] was used in the present study to characterize HAs isolated from two mixtures at two different ratios (2:1 and 1:1) of tomato-plant debris (TD) and paper-mill sludge (PS) before and after vermicomposting. The results suggest that vermicomposting increased the HA content in the TD/PS 2:1 and 1:1 mixtures (15.9% and 16.2%, respectively), but the vermicompost produced from the mixture with a higher amount of TD had a greater proportion (24%) of HAs. Both vermicomposting processes caused equal modifications in the humic precursors contained in the different mixtures of TD and PS, and consequently, the HAs in the vermicomposts produced from different waste mixtures exhibited analogous characteristics. Only the set of analytical techniques used in this research was able to detect differences between the HAs isolated from each type of vermicompost. In conclusion, varying the proportion of different wastes may have a stronger influence on the amount of HAs in vermicomposts than on the properties of HAs.

  10. Sediment composition for the assessment of water erosion and nonpoint source pollution in natural and fire-affected landscapes.

    PubMed

    Carkovic, Athena B; Pastén, Pablo A; Bonilla, Carlos A

    2015-04-15

    Water erosion is a leading cause of soil degradation and a major nonpoint source pollution problem. Many efforts have been undertaken to estimate the amount and size distribution of the sediment leaving the field. Multi-size class water erosion models subdivide eroded soil into different sizes and estimate the aggregate's composition based on empirical equations derived from agricultural soils. The objective of this study was to evaluate these equations on soil samples collected from natural landscapes (uncultivated) and fire-affected soils. Chemical, physical, and soil fractions and aggregate composition analyses were performed on samples collected in the Chilean Patagonia and later compared with the equations' estimates. The results showed that the empirical equations were not suitable for predicting the sediment fractions. Fine particles, including primary clay, primary silt, and small aggregates (<53 μm) were over-estimated, and large aggregates (>53 μm) and primary sand were under-estimated. The uncultivated and fire-affected soils showed a reduced fraction of fine particles in the sediment, as clay and silt were mostly in the form of large aggregates. Thus, a new set of equations was developed for these soils, where small aggregates were defined as particles with sizes between 53 μm and 250 μm and large aggregates as particles>250 μm. With r(2) values between 0.47 and 0.98, the new equations provided better estimates for primary sand and large aggregates. The aggregate's composition was also well predicted, especially the silt and clay fractions in the large aggregates from uncultivated soils (r(2)=0.63 and 0.83, respectively) and the fractions of silt in the small aggregates (r(2)=0.84) and clay in the large aggregates (r(2)=0.78) from fire-affected soils. Overall, these new equations proved to be better predictors for the sediment and aggregate's composition in uncultivated and fire-affected soils, and they reduce the error when estimating soil loss in

  11. Application of a set of complementary techniques to understand how varying the proportion of two wastes affects humic acids produced by vermicomposting.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Gómez, Manuel J; Nogales, Rogelio; Plante, Alain; Plaza, César; Fernández, José M

    2015-01-01

    A better understanding of how varying the proportion of different organic wastes affects humic acid (HA) formation during vermicomposting would be useful in producing vermicomposts enriched in HAs. With the aim of improving the knowledge about this issue, a variety of analytical techniques [UV-visible spectroscopic, Fourier transform infrared, fluorescence spectra, solid-state cross-polarization magic-angle spinning (CPMAS) (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra, and thermal analysis] was used in the present study to characterize HAs isolated from two mixtures at two different ratios (2:1 and 1:1) of tomato-plant debris (TD) and paper-mill sludge (PS) before and after vermicomposting. The results suggest that vermicomposting increased the HA content in the TD/PS 2:1 and 1:1 mixtures (15.9% and 16.2%, respectively), but the vermicompost produced from the mixture with a higher amount of TD had a greater proportion (24%) of HAs. Both vermicomposting processes caused equal modifications in the humic precursors contained in the different mixtures of TD and PS, and consequently, the HAs in the vermicomposts produced from different waste mixtures exhibited analogous characteristics. Only the set of analytical techniques used in this research was able to detect differences between the HAs isolated from each type of vermicompost. In conclusion, varying the proportion of different wastes may have a stronger influence on the amount of HAs in vermicomposts than on the properties of HAs.

  12. The rib index is not practically affected by the distance between the radiation source and the examined child

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background All lateral spinal radiographs in idiopathic scoliosis (IS) show a Double Rib Contour Sign (DRCS) of the thoracic cage, a radiographic expression of the rib hump. The outline of the convex overlies the contour of the concave ribs. The rib index (RI) method was extracted from the DRCS to evaluate rib hump deformity in IS patients. The RI was calculated by the ratio of spine distances d1/d2 where d1 is the distance between the most extended point of the most extending rib contour and the posterior margin of the corresponding vertebra on the lateral scoliosis films, while d2 is the distance from the least projection rib contour and the posterior margin of the same vertebra, (Grivas et al 2002). In a symmetric thorax the “rib index” is 1. This report is the validity study of DRCS, ie how the rib index is affected by the distance between the radiation source and the irradiated child. Methods The American College of Radiology's (2009) guidelines for obtaining radiographs for scoliosis in children recommends for the scoliotic - films distance to be 1,80 meters. Normal values used for the transverse diameter of the ribcage in children aged 6-12 years were those reported by Grivas in 1988. Results Using the Euclidean geometry, it is shown that in a normal 12-year old child d1/d2 = 1.073 provided that the distance ΔZ ≈ 12cm (11,84) and EA = 180cm, with transverse ribcage diameter of the child 22 cm. Conclusions This validity study demonstrates that the DRCS is substantially true and the RI is not practically affected by the distance between the radiation source and the irradiated child. The RI is valid and may be used to evaluate the effect of surgical or conservative treatment on the rib cage deformity (hump) in children with IS. It is noted that RI is a simple method and a safe reproducible way to assess the rib hump deformity based on lateral radiographs, without the need for any other special radiographs and exposure to additional radiation. PMID

  13. Temperature Affects the Use of Storage Fatty Acids as Energy Source in a Benthic Copepod (Platychelipus littoralis, Harpacticoida)

    PubMed Central

    Werbrouck, Eva; Van Gansbeke, Dirk; Vanreusel, Ann; De Troch, Marleen

    2016-01-01

    The utilization of storage lipids and their associated fatty acids (FA) is an important means for organisms to cope with periods of food shortage, however, little is known about the dynamics and FA mobilization in benthic copepods (order Harpacticoida). Furthermore, lipid depletion and FA mobilization may depend on the ambient temperature. Therefore, we subjected the temperate copepod Platychelipus littoralis to several intervals (3, 6 and 14 days) of food deprivation, under two temperatures in the range of the normal habitat temperature (4, 15°C) and under an elevated temperature (24°C), and studied the changes in FA composition of storage and membrane lipids. Although bulk depletion of storage FA occurred after a few days of food deprivation under 4°C and 15°C, copepod survival remained high during the experiment, suggesting the catabolization of other energy sources. Ambient temperature affected both the degree of FA depletion and the FA mobilization. In particular, storage FA were more exhausted and FA mobilization was more selective under 15°C compared with 4°C. In contrast, depletion of storage FA was limited under an elevated temperature, potentially due to a switch to partial anaerobiosis. Food deprivation induced selective DHA retention in the copepod’s membrane, under all temperatures. However, prolonged exposure to heat and nutritional stress eventually depleted DHA in the membranes, and potentially induced high copepod mortality. Storage lipids clearly played an important role in the short-term response of the copepod P. littoralis to food deprivation. However, under elevated temperature, the use of storage FA as an energy source is compromised. PMID:26986852

  14. Temperature Affects the Use of Storage Fatty Acids as Energy Source in a Benthic Copepod (Platychelipus littoralis, Harpacticoida).

    PubMed

    Werbrouck, Eva; Van Gansbeke, Dirk; Vanreusel, Ann; De Troch, Marleen

    2016-01-01

    The utilization of storage lipids and their associated fatty acids (FA) is an important means for organisms to cope with periods of food shortage, however, little is known about the dynamics and FA mobilization in benthic copepods (order Harpacticoida). Furthermore, lipid depletion and FA mobilization may depend on the ambient temperature. Therefore, we subjected the temperate copepod Platychelipus littoralis to several intervals (3, 6 and 14 days) of food deprivation, under two temperatures in the range of the normal habitat temperature (4, 15 °C) and under an elevated temperature (24 °C), and studied the changes in FA composition of storage and membrane lipids. Although bulk depletion of storage FA occurred after a few days of food deprivation under 4 °C and 15 °C, copepod survival remained high during the experiment, suggesting the catabolization of other energy sources. Ambient temperature affected both the degree of FA depletion and the FA mobilization. In particular, storage FA were more exhausted and FA mobilization was more selective under 15 °C compared with 4 °C. In contrast, depletion of storage FA was limited under an elevated temperature, potentially due to a switch to partial anaerobiosis. Food deprivation induced selective DHA retention in the copepod's membrane, under all temperatures. However, prolonged exposure to heat and nutritional stress eventually depleted DHA in the membranes, and potentially induced high copepod mortality. Storage lipids clearly played an important role in the short-term response of the copepod P. littoralis to food deprivation. However, under elevated temperature, the use of storage FA as an energy source is compromised.

  15. Observation and analysis of in vivo vocal fold tissue instabilities produced by nonlinear source-filter coupling: a case study.

    PubMed

    Zañartu, Matías; Mehta, Daryush D; Ho, Julio C; Wodicka, George R; Hillman, Robert E

    2011-01-01

    Different source-related factors can lead to vocal fold instabilities and bifurcations referred to as voice breaks. Nonlinear coupling in phonation suggests that changes in acoustic loading can also be responsible for this unstable behavior. However, no in vivo visualization of tissue motion during these acoustically induced instabilities has been reported. Simultaneous recordings of laryngeal high-speed videoendoscopy, acoustics, aerodynamics, electroglottography, and neck skin acceleration are obtained from a participant consistently exhibiting voice breaks during pitch glide maneuvers. Results suggest that acoustically induced and source-induced instabilities can be distinguished at the tissue level. Differences in vibratory patterns are described through kymography and phonovibrography; measures of glottal area, open/speed quotient, and amplitude/phase asymmetry; and empirical orthogonal function decomposition. Acoustically induced tissue instabilities appear abruptly and exhibit irregular vocal fold motion after the bifurcation point, whereas source-induced ones show a smoother transition. These observations are also reflected in the acoustic and acceleration signals. Added aperiodicity is observed after the acoustically induced break, and harmonic changes appear prior to the bifurcation for the source-induced break. Both types of breaks appear to be subcritical bifurcations due to the presence of hysteresis and amplitude changes after the frequency jumps. These results are consistent with previous studies and the nonlinear source-filter coupling theory.

  16. Within plant distribution of Potato Virus Y in hairy nightshade (Solanum sarrachoides): an inoculum source affecting PVY aphid transmission.

    PubMed

    Cervantes, Felix A; Alvarez, Juan M

    2011-08-01

    Potato virus Y (PVY) is vectored by several potato-colonizing and non-colonizing aphid species in a non-persistent manner and has a wide host range. It occurs naturally in several plant families. Myzus persicae and Macrosiphum euphorbiae are the most efficient potato-colonizing aphid vectors of PVY. Rhopalosiphum padi, a cereal aphid that migrates in large numbers through potato fields during the middle of the growing season, does not colonize potato plants but can transmit PVY. Hairy nightshade, Solanum sarrachoides, a prevalent annual solanaceous weed in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) of the United States, is an alternative host for PVY and a preferred host for M. persicae and M. euphorbiae. Hence, hairy nightshade plants might play an important role as an inoculum source in the epidemiology of PVY. We looked at titre accumulation and distribution of PVY(O), PVY(N:O) and PVY(NTN) in S. sarrachoides and potato after aphid inoculation with M. persicae and studied the transmission of PVY(O) and PVY(NTN), by M. persicae, M. euphorbiae and R. padi from hairy nightshade to potato plants. Virus titre at different positions on the plant was similar in S. sarrachoides and potato plants with strains PVY(O) and PVY(N:O). Titres of PVY(NTN) were similar in S. sarrachoides and potato but differences in titre were observed at different positions within the plant depending on the plant phenology. Percentage transmission of PVY(NTN) by M. persicae and M. euphorbiae was twice as high (46 and 34%, respectively) from hairy nightshade to potato than from potato to potato (20 and 14%). Percentage transmission of PVY(O) by M. persicae and M. euphorbiae was not affected by the inoculum source. No effect of the inoculum source was observed in the transmission of either PVY strain by R. padi. These results show that hairy nightshade may be an equal or better virus reservoir than potato and thus, important in the epidemiology of PVY.

  17. Isotopic assessment of sources and processes affecting sulfate and nitrate in surface water and groundwater of Luxembourg.

    PubMed

    Rock, L; Mayer, B

    2002-12-01

    Surface water and deep and shallow groundwater samples were taken from selected parts of the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg to determine the isotopic composition of nitrate and sulfate, in order to identify sources and/or processes affecting these solutes. Deep groundwater had sulfate concentrations between 20 and 40 mg/L, delta34S(sulfate) values between -3.0 and -20.0 per thousand, and delta18O(sulfate) values between +1.5 and +5.0 per thousand; nitrate was characterized by concentrations varying between < 0.5 and 10 mg/L, delta15N(nitrate) values of approximately -0.5 per thousand, and delta18O(nitrate) values approximately +3.0 per thousand. In the shallow groundwater, sulfate concentrations ranged from 25 to 30 mg/L, delta34S(sulfate) values from -20.0 to +4.5 per thousand, and delta18O(sulfate) values from approximately +0.5 to +4.5 per thousand; nitrate concentrations varied between approximately 10 and 75 mg/L, delta15N(nitrate) values between +2.5 and +10.0 per thousand, and delta18O(nitrate) values between +1.0 and +3.0 per thousand. In surface water, sulfate concentrations ranged from 10 to 210 mg/L, delta34S(sulfate) values varied between -9.3 and +10.9 per thousand, and delta18O(sulfate) values between +3.0 and +10.7 per thousand were observed. Nitrate concentrations ranged from 10 to 40 mg/L, delta15N(nitrate) values from +6.5 to +12.0 per thousand, and delta18O(nitrate) values from -0.4 to +4.0 per thousand. Based on these data, three sulfate sources were identified controlling the riverine sulfate load. These are soil sulfate, dissolution of evaporites, and oxidation of reduced S minerals in the bedrock. Both groundwater types were predominantly influenced by sulfate from the two latter lithogenic S sources. The deep groundwater and a couple shallow groundwater samples had nitrate derived mainly from soil nitrification. All other sampling sites were influenced by nitrate originating from sewage and/or manure. A decrease in nitrate concentration observed

  18. The functional potential of microbial communities in hydraulic fracturing source water and produced water from natural gas extraction characterized by metagenomic sequencing

    SciTech Connect

    Mohan, Arvind Murali; Bibby, Kyle J.; Lipus, Daniel; Hammack, Richard W.; Gregory, Kelvin B.; Forster, Robert J.

    2014-10-22

    Microbial activity in produced water from hydraulic fracturing operations can lead to undesired environmental impacts and increase gas production costs. However, the metabolic profile of these microbial communities is not well understood. Here, for the first time, we present results from a shotgun metagenome of microbial communities in both hydraulic fracturing source water and wastewater produced by hydraulic fracturing. Taxonomic analyses showed an increase in anaerobic/facultative anaerobic classes related to Clostridia, Gammaproteobacteria, Bacteroidia and Epsilonproteobacteria in produced water as compared to predominantly aerobic Alphaproteobacteria in the fracturing source water. Thus, the metabolic profile revealed a relative increase in genes responsible for carbohydrate metabolism, respiration, sporulation and dormancy, iron acquisition and metabolism, stress response and sulfur metabolism in the produced water samples. These results suggest that microbial communities in produced water have an increased genetic ability to handle stress, which has significant implications for produced water management, such as disinfection.

  19. Crustal Seismic Anisotropy Produced by Rock Fabric Terranes in the Taiwan Central Range Deformational Orogen: Integrative Study Combining Rock Physics, Structural Geology, and Passive/Active-Source Seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okaya, D. A.; Ross, Z.; Christensen, N. I.; Wu, F. T.; Byrne, T. B.

    2014-12-01

    The island of Taiwan is currently under construction due to the collision of the northwestern corner of the Philippine Sea plate and the embedded Luzon island arc with the larger continental Eurasian plate. This collision is responsible for the current growth of the Central Range that dominates the eastern half of the island. An international collaboration involving several USA and Taiwan universities and academic institutions was formed to study how the orogen evolves through time and to understand the role of a colliding island arc in mountain building. The project, Taiwan Integrated Geodynamics Research (TAIGER), was funded by NSF-Continental Dynamics and Taiwan National Science Council. The Central Range grows at one of the most rapid rates of uplift in the world, exposing metamorphic rocks that were once at least 10 km deep. The range offers unique opportunities for studies of crustal seismic anisotropy for two major reasons: (1) its geological makeup is conducive for producing crustal seismic anisotropy; that is, the rocks are highly foliated; and (2) a seismological data volume of significant breadth offers extensive coverage of sources and recording stations throughout the region. We carried out a crustal shear wave splitting study by data mining 3300 local earthquakes collected in the TAIGER 2009 sea-land experiment. We used an automated P and S wave arrival time picking method (Ross and Ben-Zion, 2014) applied to over 100,000 event-station pairs. These data were analyzed for shear-wave splitting using the MFAST automated package (Savage et al., 2010), producing 3300 quality shear wave split measurements. The splitting results were then station-averaged. The results show NNE to NE orientation trends that are consistent with regional cleavage strikes. Average crustal shear wave split time is 0.244 sec. These measurements are consistent with rock physics measurements of Central Range slate and metamorphic acoustic velocities. The splits exhibit orientations

  20. A Lagrangian identification of the main sources of moisture affecting northeastern Brazil during its pre-rainy and rainy seasons.

    PubMed

    Drumond, Anita; Nieto, Raquel; Trigo, Ricardo; Ambrizzi, Tercio; Souza, Everaldo; Gimeno, Luis

    2010-06-18

    This work examines the sources of moisture affecting the semi-arid Brazilian Northeast (NEB) during its pre-rainy and rainy season (JFMAM) through a Lagrangian diagnosis method. The FLEXPART model identifies the humidity contributions to the moisture budget over a region through the continuous computation of changes in the specific humidity along back or forward trajectories up to 10 days period. The numerical experiments were done for the period that spans between 2000 and 2004 and results were aggregated on a monthly basis. Results show that besides a minor local recycling component, the vast majority of moisture reaching NEB area is originated in the south Atlantic basin and that the nearby wet Amazon basin bears almost no impact. Moreover, although the maximum precipitation in the "Poligono das Secas" region (PS) occurs in March and the maximum precipitation associated with air parcels emanating from the South Atlantic towards PS is observed along January to March, the highest moisture contribution from this oceanic region occurs slightly later (April). A dynamical analysis suggests that the maximum precipitation observed in the PS sector does not coincide with the maximum moisture supply probably due to the combined effect of the Walker and Hadley cells in inhibiting the rising motions over the region in the months following April.

  1. A Flexible Method for Producing F.E.M. Analysis of Bone Using Open-Source Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boppana, Abhishektha; Sefcik, Ryan; Meyers, Jerry G.; Lewandowski, Beth E.

    2016-01-01

    This project, performed in support of the NASA GRC Space Academy summer program, sought to develop an open-source workflow methodology that segmented medical image data, created a 3D model from the segmented data, and prepared the model for finite-element analysis. In an initial step, a technological survey evaluated the performance of various existing open-source software that claim to perform these tasks. However, the survey concluded that no single software exhibited the wide array of functionality required for the potential NASA application in the area of bone, muscle and bio fluidic studies. As a result, development of a series of Python scripts provided the bridging mechanism to address the shortcomings of the available open source tools. The implementation of the VTK library provided the most quick and effective means of segmenting regions of interest from the medical images; it allowed for the export of a 3D model by using the marching cubes algorithm to build a surface mesh. To facilitate the development of the model domain from this extracted information required a surface mesh to be processed in the open-source software packages Blender and Gmsh. The Preview program of the FEBio suite proved to be sufficient for volume filling the model with an unstructured mesh and preparing boundaries specifications for finite element analysis. To fully allow FEM modeling, an in house developed Python script allowed assignment of material properties on an element by element basis by performing a weighted interpolation of voxel intensity of the parent medical image correlated to published information of image intensity to material properties, such as ash density. A graphical user interface combined the Python scripts and other software into a user friendly interface. The work using Python scripts provides a potential alternative to expensive commercial software and inadequate, limited open-source freeware programs for the creation of 3D computational models. More work

  2. An Attempt at Quantifying Factors that Affect Efficiency in the Management of Solid Waste Produced by Commercial Businesses in the City of Tshwane, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Worku, Yohannes; Muchie, Mammo

    2012-01-01

    Objective. The objective was to investigate factors that affect the efficient management of solid waste produced by commercial businesses operating in the city of Pretoria, South Africa. Methods. Data was gathered from 1,034 businesses. Efficiency in solid waste management was assessed by using a structural time-based model designed for evaluating efficiency as a function of the length of time required to manage waste. Data analysis was performed using statistical procedures such as frequency tables, Pearson's chi-square tests of association, and binary logistic regression analysis. Odds ratios estimated from logistic regression analysis were used for identifying key factors that affect efficiency in the proper disposal of waste. Results. The study showed that 857 of the 1,034 businesses selected for the study (83%) were found to be efficient enough with regards to the proper collection and disposal of solid waste. Based on odds ratios estimated from binary logistic regression analysis, efficiency in the proper management of solid waste was significantly influenced by 4 predictor variables. These 4 influential predictor variables are lack of adherence to waste management regulations, wrong perception, failure to provide customers with enough trash cans, and operation of businesses by employed managers, in a decreasing order of importance. PMID:23209483

  3. Spectral emission properties of a laser-produced plasma light source in the sub-200 nm range for wafer inspection applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gambino, Nadia; Rollinger, Bob; Hudgins, Duane; Abhari, Reza S.

    2015-07-01

    The spectral emission properties of a droplet-based laser-produced plasma are investigated in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) range. Measurements are performed with a spectrograph that operates from 30 to 180 nm with a spectral resolution of 0.1 nm. The emission spectra are recorded for different metal droplet targets, namely tin, indium, and gallium. Measurements were performed at different pressure levels of the background gas. Several characteristic emission lines are observed. The spectra are also calibrated in intensity in terms of spectral radiance to allow absolute emission power estimations from the light source in the VUV region. The presented experimental results are relevant for alternative light sources that would be needed for future wafer inspection tools. In addition, the experimental results help to determine the out-of-band radiation emission of a tin-based extreme ultraviolet (EUV) source. By tuning the type of fuel, the laser energies, and the background gas, the laser-produced plasma light source shows good capabilities to be operated as a light source that covers a spectral emission range from the EUV to the sub-200 nm range.

  4. Note: Effect of hot liner in producing {sup 40,48}Ca beam from RIKEN 18-GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Ozeki, K. Higurashi, Y.; Kidera, M.; Nakagawa, T.

    2015-01-15

    In order to produce a high-intensity and stable {sup 48}Ca beam from the RIKEN 18-GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source, we have begun testing the production of a calcium beam using a micro-oven. To minimize the consumption rate of the material ({sup 48}Ca), we introduced the “hot liner” method and investigated the effect of the liner on the material consumption rate. The micro-oven was first used to produce the {sup 48}Ca beam for experiments in the RIKEN radioisotope beam factory, and a stable beam could be supplied for a long time with low consumption rate.

  5. Method for producing H.sub.2 using a rotating drum reactor with a pulse jet heat source

    DOEpatents

    Paulson, Leland E.

    1990-01-01

    A method of producing hydrogen by an endothermic steam-carbon reaction using a rotating drum reactor and a pulse jet combustor. The pulse jet combustor uses coal dust as a fuel to provide reaction temperatures of 1300.degree. to 1400.degree. F. Low-rank coal, water, limestone and catalyst are fed into the drum reactor where they are heated, tumbled and reacted. Part of the reaction product from the rotating drum reactor is hydrogen which can be utilized in suitable devices.

  6. Urban riverine environment is a source of multidrug-resistant and ESBL-producing clinically important Acinetobacter spp.

    PubMed

    Maravić, Ana; Skočibušić, Mirjana; Fredotović, Željana; Šamanić, Ivica; Cvjetan, Svjetlana; Knezović, Mia; Puizina, Jasna

    2016-02-01

    Some Acinetobacter species have emerged as very important opportunistic pathogens in humans. We investigated Acinetobacter spp. from the polluted urban riverine environment in Croatia in regard to species affiliation, antibiotic resistance pattern, and resistance mechanisms. Considerable number of isolates produced acquired extended-spectrum β-lactamase(s) (ESBLs), CTX-M-15 solely or with TEM-116. By Southern blot hybridization, bla TEM-116 was identified on plasmids ca. 10, 3, and 1.2 kb in Acinetobacter junii, A. gandensis, and A. johnsonii. The bla TEM-116-carrying plasmid in A. gandensis was successfully transferred by conjugation to azide-resistant Escherichia coli J53. A. radioresistens isolate also carried an intrinsic carbapenemase gene bla OXA-133 with ISAba1 insertion sequence present upstream to promote its expression. Majority of ESBL-producing isolates harbored integrases intI1 and/or intI2 and the sulfamethoxazole resistance gene sul1. Almost all isolates had overexpressed resistance-nodulation-cell division (RND) efflux system, indicating that this mechanism may have contributed to multidrug resistance phenotypes. This is the first report of environmental CTX-M-15-producing Acinetobacter spp. and the first identification of CTX-M-15 in A. johnsonii, A. junii, A. calcoaceticus, A. gandensis, A. haemolyticus, and A. radioresistens worldwide. We identified, also for the first time, the environmental Acinetobacter-producing TEM ESBLs, highlighting the potential risk for human health, and the role of these bacteria in maintenance and dissemination of clinically important antibiotic resistance genes in community through riverine environments.

  7. Varying type of forage, concentration of metabolizable protein, and source of carbohydrate affects nutrient digestibility and production by dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Weiss, W P; St-Pierre, N R; Willett, L B

    2009-11-01

    The effects of forage source, concentration of metabolizable protein (MP), type of carbohydrate, and their interactions on nutrient digestibility and production were evaluated using a central composite treatment design. All diets (dry basis) contained 50% forage that ranged from 25:75 to 75:25 alfalfa silage:corn silage. Rumen-degradable protein comprised 10.7% of the dry matter (DM) in all diets, but undegradable protein ranged from 4.1 to 7.1%, resulting in dietary MP concentrations of 8.8 to 12.0% of the DM. Dietary starch ranged from 22 to 30% of the DM with a concomitant decrease in neutral detergent fiber concentrations. A total of 15 diets were fed to 36 Holstein cows grouped in 6 blocks. Each block consisted of three 21-d periods, and each cow was assigned a unique sequence of 3 diets, resulting in 108 observations. Milk production and composition, feed intake, and digestibility of major nutrients (via total collection of feces and urine) were measured. Few significant interactions between main effects were observed. Starch concentration had only minor effects on digestibility and production. Replacing corn silage with alfalfa decreased digestibility of N but increased digestibility of neutral detergent fiber. Increasing the concentration of MP increased N digestibility. The concentration (Mcal/kg) of dietary digestible energy (DE) increased linearly as starch concentration increased (very small effect) and was affected by a forage by MP interaction. At low MP, high alfalfa reduced DE concentration, but at high MP, increasing alfalfa increased DE concentration. Increasing alfalfa increased DM and DE intakes, which increased yields of energy-corrected milk, protein, and fat. Increasing MP increased yields of energy-corrected milk and protein. The response in milk protein to changes in MP was much less than predicted using the National Research Council (2001) model.

  8. Utilization of rye as energy source affects bacterial translocation, intestinal viscosity, microbiota composition, and bone mineralization in broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    Tellez, Guillermo; Latorre, Juan D.; Kuttappan, Vivek A.; Kogut, Michael H.; Wolfenden, Amanda; Hernandez-Velasco, Xochitl; Hargis, Billy M.; Bottje, Walter G.; Bielke, Lisa R.; Faulkner, Olivia B.

    2014-01-01

    Two independent trials were conducted to evaluate the utilization of rye as energy source on bacterial translocation (BT), intestinal viscosity, gut integrity, gut microbiota composition, and bone mineralization, when compared with a traditional cereal (corn) in broiler chickens. In each experiment, day-of-hatch, broiler chickens were randomly assigned to either a corn or a rye diet (n = 20 chickens/group). At 10 d of age, in both experiments, 12 chickens/group were randomly selected, and given an oral gavage dose of fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran (FITC-d). After 2.5 h of oral gavage, blood samples were collected to determine the passage of FITC-d. The liver was collected from each bird to evaluate BT. Duodenum, ileum, and cecum gut sections were collected to evaluate intestinal viscosity and to enumerate gut microbiota. Tibias were collected for observation of bone parameters. Broilers fed with rye showed increased (p < 0.05) intestinal viscosity, BT, and serum FITC-d. Bacterial enumeration revealed that chickens fed with rye had increased the number of total lactic acid bacteria in all three sections of the gastrointestinal tract evaluated when compared to chickens fed with corn. Chickens fed with rye also had significantly higher coliforms in duodenum and ileum, whereas the total number of anaerobes increased only in duodenum. A significant reduction in bone strength and bone mineralization was observed in chickens fed with rye when compared with corn fed chickens. In conclusion, rye evoked mucosal damage in chickens that alter the intestinal viscosity, increased leakage through the intestinal tract, and altered the microbiota composition as well as bone mineralization. Studies to evaluate dietary inclusion of selected DFM candidates that produce exogenous enzymes in rye fed chickens are currently being evaluated. PMID:25309584

  9. The Role of Kelvin-Helmholtz Instability for Producing Loop-top Hard X-Ray Sources in Solar Flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Xia; Yuan, Ding; Xia, Chun; Van Doorsselaere, Tom; Keppens, Rony

    2016-12-01

    We propose a model for the formation of loop-top hard X-ray (HXR) sources in solar flares through the inverse Compton mechanism, scattering the surrounding soft X-ray (SXR) photons to higher energy HXR photons. We simulate the consequences of a flare-driven energy deposit in the upper chromosphere in the impulsive phase of single loop flares. The consequent chromosphere evaporation flows from both footpoints reach speeds up to hundreds of kilometers per second, and we demonstrate how this triggers Kelvin-Helmholtz instability (KHI) in the loop top, under mildly asymmetric conditions, or more toward the loop flank for strongly asymmetric cases. The KHI vortices further fragment the magnetic topology into multiple magnetic islands and current sheets, and the hot plasma within leads to a bright loop-top SXR source region. We argue that the magnetohydrodynamic turbulence that appears at the loop apex could be an efficient accelerator of non-thermal particles, which the island structures can trap at the loop-top. These accelerated non-thermal particles can upscatter the surrounding thermal SXR photons emitted by the extremely hot evaporated plasma to HXR photons.

  10. Separation of fission produced (106)Ru from simulated high level nuclear wastes for production of brachytherapy sources.

    PubMed

    Blicharska, Magdalena; Bartoś, Barbara; Krajewski, Seweryn; Bilewicz, Aleksander

    An effective and simple process for the isolation of (106)Ru from high-level liquid wastes was developed. Radioactive ruthenium was oxidized by H5IO6 in HNO3 solution and was extracted to CCl4 phase in the form of RuO4. In order to obtain ruthenium in the suitable form for production of brachytherapy sources, RuO4 in organic phase was reduced and re-extracted to aqueous phase. The efficiency of extraction of (103)Ru to organic phase was 86 %, re-extraction to aqueous solution was near 100 %, so the overall recovery of (103)Ru is estimated at more than 80 %.

  11. Investigation of high-temperature bright plasma X-ray sources produced in 5-MA X-pinch experiments.

    PubMed

    Sinars, D B; McBride, R D; Pikuz, S A; Shelkovenko, T A; Wenger, D F; Cuneo, M E; Yu, E P; Chittenden, J P; Harding, E C; Hansen, S B; Peyton, B P; Ampleford, D J; Jennings, C A

    2012-10-12

    Using solid, machined X-pinch targets driven by currents rising from 0 to 5-6 MA in 60 ns, we observed bright spots of 5-9-keV continuum radiation from 5±2-μm diameter regions. The >6-keV radiation is emitted in about 0.4 ns, and the bright spots are roughly 75 times brighter than the bright spots measured at 1 MA. A total x-ray power of 10 TW peak and yields of 165±20 kJ were emitted from a 3-mm height. The 3-5-keV continuum radiation had a 50-90-GW peak power and 0.15-0.35-kJ yield. The continuum is plausibly from a 1275±75-eV blackbody or alternatively from a 3500±500-eV bremsstrahlung source.

  12. Using FLUKA to Study Concrete Square Shield Performance in Attenuation of Neutron Radiation Produced by APF Plasma Focus Neutron Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemati, M. J.; Habibi, M.; Amrollahi, R.

    2013-04-01

    In 2010, representatives from the Nuclear Engineering and physics Department of Amirkabir University of Technology (AUT) requested development of a project with the objective of determining the performance of a concrete shield for their Plasma Focus as neutron source. The project team in Laboratory of Nuclear Engineering and physics department of Amirkabir University of Technology choose some shape of shield to study on their performance with Monte Carlo code. In the present work, the capability of Monte Carlo code FLUKA will be explored to model the APF Plasma Focus, and investigating the neutron fluence on the square concrete shield in each region of problem. The physical models embedded in FLUKA are mentioned, as well as examples of benchmarking against future experimental data. As a result of this study suitable thickness of concrete for shielding APF will be considered.

  13. Discharges of produced waters from oil and gas extraction via wastewater treatment plants are sources of disinfection by-products to receiving streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hladik, Michelle; Focazio, Michael J.; Engle, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Fluids co-produced with oil and gas production (produced waters) are often brines that contain elevated concentrations of bromide. Bromide is an important precursor of several toxic disinfection by-products (DBPs) and the treatment of produced water may lead to more brominated DBPs. To determine if wastewater treatment plants that accept produced waters discharge greater amounts of brominated DBPs, water samples were collected in Pennsylvania from four sites along a large river including an upstream site, a site below a publicly owned wastewater treatment plant (POTW) outfall (does not accept produced water), a site below an oil and gas commercial wastewater treatment plant (CWT) outfall, and downstream of the POTW and CWT. Of 29 DBPs analyzed, the site at the POTW outfall had the highest number detected (six) ranging in concentration from 0.01 to 0.09 μg L− 1 with a similar mixture of DBPs that have been detected at POTW outfalls elsewhere in the United States. The DBP profile at the CWT outfall was much different, although only two DBPs, dibromochloronitromethane (DBCNM) and chloroform, were detected, DBCNM was found at relatively high concentrations (up to 8.5 μg L− 1). The water at the CWT outfall also had a mixture of inorganic and organic precursors including elevated concentrations of bromide (75 mg L− 1) and other organic DBP precursors (phenol at 15 μg L− 1). To corroborate these DBP results, samples were collected in Pennsylvania from additional POTW and CWT outfalls that accept produced waters. The additional CWT also had high concentrations of DBCNM (3.1 μg L− 1) while the POTWs that accept produced waters had elevated numbers (up to 15) and concentrations of DBPs, especially brominated and iodinated THMs (up to 12 μg L− 1 total THM concentration). Therefore, produced water brines that have been disinfected are potential sources of DBPs along with DBP precursors to streams wherever these wastewaters are discharged.

  14. Discharges of produced waters from oil and gas extraction via wastewater treatment plants are sources of disinfection by-products to receiving streams.

    PubMed

    Hladik, Michelle L; Focazio, Michael J; Engle, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Fluids co-produced with oil and gas production (produced waters) are often brines that contain elevated concentrations of bromide. Bromide is an important precursor of several toxic disinfection by-products (DBPs) and the treatment of produced water may lead to more brominated DBPs. To determine if wastewater treatment plants that accept produced waters discharge greater amounts of brominated DBPs, water samples were collected in Pennsylvania from four sites along a large river including an upstream site, a site below a publicly owned wastewater treatment plant (POTW) outfall (does not accept produced water), a site below an oil and gas commercial wastewater treatment plant (CWT) outfall, and downstream of the POTW and CWT. Of 29 DBPs analyzed, the site at the POTW outfall had the highest number detected (six) ranging in concentration from 0.01 to 0.09 μg L(-1) with a similar mixture of DBPs that have been detected at POTW outfalls elsewhere in the United States. The DBP profile at the CWT outfall was much different, although only two DBPs, dibromochloronitromethane (DBCNM) and chloroform, were detected, DBCNM was found at relatively high concentrations (up to 8.5 μg L(-1)). The water at the CWT outfall also had a mixture of inorganic and organic precursors including elevated concentrations of bromide (75 mg L(-1)) and other organic DBP precursors (phenol at 15 μg L(-1)). To corroborate these DBP results, samples were collected in Pennsylvania from additional POTW and CWT outfalls that accept produced waters. The additional CWT also had high concentrations of DBCNM (3.1 μg L(-1)) while the POTWs that accept produced waters had elevated numbers (up to 15) and concentrations of DBPs, especially brominated and iodinated THMs (up to 12 μg L(-1) total THM concentration). Therefore, produced water brines that have been disinfected are potential sources of DBPs along with DBP precursors to streams wherever these wastewaters are discharged.

  15. Effect of ventilation systems and air filters on decay rates of particles produced by indoor sources in an occupied townhouse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard-Reed, Cynthia; Wallace, Lance A.; Emmerich, Steven J.

    Several studies have shown the importance of particle losses in real homes due to deposition and filtration; however, none have quantitatively shown the impact of using a central forced air fan and in-duct filter on particle loss rates. In an attempt to provide such data, we measured the deposition of particles ranging from 0.3 to 10 μm in an occupied townhouse and also in an unoccupied test house. Experiments were run with three different sources (cooking with a gas stove, citronella candle, pouring kitty litter), with the central heating and air conditioning (HAC) fan on or off, and with two different types of in-duct filters (electrostatic precipitator and ordinary furnace filter). Particle size, HAC fan operation, and the electrostatic precipitator had significant effects on particle loss rates. The standard furnace filter had no effect. Surprisingly, the type of source (combustion vs. mechanical generation) and the type of furnishings (fully furnished including carpet vs. largely unfurnished including mostly bare floor) also had no measurable effect on the deposition rates of particles of comparable size. With the HAC fan off, average deposition rates varied from 0.3 h -1 for the smallest particle range (0.3-0.5 μm) to 5.2 h -1 for particles greater than 10 μm. Operation of the central HAC fan approximately doubled these rates for particles <5 μm, and increased rates by 2 h -1 for the larger particles. An in-duct electrostatic precipitator increased the loss rates compared to the fan-off condition by factors of 5-10 for particles <2.5 μm, and by a factor of 3 for 2.5-5.0 μm particles. In practical terms, use of the central fan alone could reduce indoor particle concentrations by 25-50%, and use of an in-duct ESP could reduce particle concentrations by 55-85% compared to fan-off conditions.

  16. Experimental and numerical characterization of the neutron field produced in the n@BTF Frascati photo-neutron source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedogni, R.; Quintieri, L.; Buonomo, B.; Esposito, A.; Mazzitelli, G.; Foggetta, L.; Gómez-Ros, J. M.

    2011-12-01

    A photo-neutron irradiation facility is going to be established at the Frascati National Laboratories of INFN on the base of the successful results of the n@BTF experiment. The photo-neutron source is obtained by an electron or positron pulsed beam, tuneable in energy, current and in time structure, impinging on an optimized tungsten target located in a polyethylene-lead shielding assembly. The resulting neutron field, through selectable collimated apertures at different angles, is released into a 100 m2 irradiation room. The neutron beam, characterized by an evaporation spectrum peaked at about 1 MeV, can be used in nuclear physics, material science, calibration of neutron detectors, studies of neutron hardness, ageing and study of single event effect. The intensity of the neutron beam obtainable with 510 MeV electrons and its fluence energy distribution at a point of reference in the irradiation room were predicted by Monte Carlo simulations and experimentally determined with a Bonner Sphere Spectrometer (BSS). Due to the large photon contribution and the pulsed time structure of the beam, passive photon-insensitive thermal neutron detectors were used as sensitive elements of the BSS. For this purpose, a set of Dy activation foils was used. This paper presents the numerical simulations and the measurements, and compares their results in terms of both neutron spectrum and total neutron fluence.

  17. Deuterium Gas-Puff Z-pinch as a Source of Fast Ions Producing Intensive Pulse of Neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezac, K.; Cikhardt, J.; Cikhardtova, B.; Klir, D.; Kravarik, J.; Kubes, P.; Sila, O.; Shishlov, A.; Cherdizov, R.; Fursov, F.; Kokshenev, V.; Kovalchuk, B.; Kurmaev, N.; Labetsky, A.; Ratakhin, N.; Turek, K.

    2015-11-01

    A deuterium gas-puff with outer plasma shell has been examined on GIT-12 generator (on the current level of 3 MA) since 2013. Such a configuration caused more stable implosion at final stage of z-pinch. The consequence of this was a production of intensive pulses of fast ions. During last 4 campaigns in 2013-2015, fast ions were examined by several in-chamber diagnostics such as: stack detector (ion energy), pinhole camera (location of ion source), multi-pinhole camera (asymmetry and anisotropy of ion emission), and ion beam detector (dynamics of ion pulses). A CR-39 track detectors and also GAFCHROMIC HD-V2 films from these diagnostics will be presented. On the basis of obtained results, the solid sample for increasing of neutron yield up to 1e13 could be placed below the cathode mesh. Except of neutron yield, other properties such as: neutron energies (up to 33 MeV), neutron emission time (about 20 ns), and emission anisotropy of neutrons were measured. Such a short and intensive neutron pulse provides various applications. This work was supported by the MSMT project LH13283.

  18. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Zzzzz of... - Applicability of General Provisions to New and Existing Affected Sources Classified as Large...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... test dates. 63.8(a)(1)-(a)(3), (b), (c)(1)-(c)(3), (c)(6)-(c)(8), (d), (e), (f)(1)-(f)(6), (g)(1)-(g)(4... reporting requirements Yes. 63.10(c)(1)-(6), (c)(9)-(15) Additional records for continuous monitoring... New and Existing Affected Sources Classified as Large Foundries 3 Table 3 to Subpart ZZZZZ of Part...

  19. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Zzzzz of... - Applicability of General Provisions to New and Existing Affected Sources Classified as Large...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... test dates. 63.8(a)(1)-(a)(3), (b), (c)(1)-(c)(3), (c)(6)-(c)(8), (d), (e), (f)(1)-(f)(6), (g)(1)-(g)(4... reporting requirements Yes. 63.10(c)(1)-(6), (c)(9)-(15) Additional records for continuous monitoring... New and Existing Affected Sources Classified as Large Foundries 3 Table 3 to Subpart ZZZZZ of Part...

  20. 40 CFR 63.1348 - Standards for affected sources other than kilns; in-line kiln/raw mills; clinker coolers; new and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... than kilns; in-line kiln/raw mills; clinker coolers; new and reconstructed raw material dryers; and raw... Industry Emission Standards and Operating Limits § 63.1348 Standards for affected sources other than kilns; in-line kiln/raw mills; clinker coolers; new and reconstructed raw material dryers; and raw...

  1. 40 CFR 63.5795 - How do I know if my reinforced plastic composites production facility is a new affected source or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true How do I know if my reinforced plastic... for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Reinforced Plastic Composites Production What This Subpart Covers § 63.5795 How do I know if my reinforced plastic composites production facility is a new affected source...

  2. 40 CFR 63.5795 - How do I know if my reinforced plastic composites production facility is a new affected source or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true How do I know if my reinforced plastic... for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Reinforced Plastic Composites Production What This Subpart Covers § 63.5795 How do I know if my reinforced plastic composites production facility is a new affected source...

  3. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Rrr of... - Summary of Operating Requirements for New and Existing Affected Sources and Emission Units

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... operating requirements posted at affected sources and emission units; control device temperature and... accordance with OM&M plan b; operate such that alarm does not sound more than 5% of operating time in 6-month... operating temperature Maintain average temperature for each 3-hr period at or above average...

  4. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Rrr of... - Summary of Operating Requirements for New and Existing Affected Sources and Emission Units

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... operating requirements posted at affected sources and emission units; control device temperature and... accordance with OM&M plan b; operate such that alarm does not sound more than 5% of operating time in 6-month... operating temperature Maintain average temperature for each 3-hr period at or above average...

  5. 40 CFR 63.55 - Maximum achievable control technology (MACT) determinations for affected sources subject to case...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... limitations. 63.55 Section 63.55 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES Requirements for Control Technology Determinations for Major Sources in Accordance With Clean Air Act...

  6. 40 CFR 63.55 - Maximum achievable control technology (MACT) determinations for affected sources subject to case...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... limitations. 63.55 Section 63.55 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES Requirements for Control Technology Determinations for Major Sources in Accordance With Clean Air Act...

  7. 40 CFR 63.55 - Maximum achievable control technology (MACT) determinations for affected sources subject to case...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... limitations. 63.55 Section 63.55 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES Requirements for Control Technology Determinations for Major Sources in Accordance With Clean Air Act...

  8. 40 CFR 63.55 - Maximum achievable control technology (MACT) determinations for affected sources subject to case...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... limitations. 63.55 Section 63.55 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES Requirements for Control Technology Determinations for Major Sources in Accordance With Clean Air Act...

  9. Quantifying the Earthquake Clustering that Independent Sources with Stationary Rates (as Included in Current Risk Models) Can Produce.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzenz, D. D.; Nyst, M.; Apel, E. V.; Muir-Wood, R.

    2014-12-01

    The recent Canterbury earthquake sequence (CES) renewed public and academic awareness concerning the clustered nature of seismicity. Multiple event occurrence in short time and space intervals is reminiscent of aftershock sequences, but aftershock is a statistical definition, not a label one can give an earthquake in real-time. Aftershocks are defined collectively as what creates the Omori event rate decay after a large event or are defined as what is taken away as "dependent events" using a declustering method. It is noteworthy that depending on the declustering method used on the Canterbury earthquake sequence, the number of independent events varies a lot. This lack of unambiguous definition of aftershocks leads to the need to investigate the amount of clustering inherent in "declustered" risk models. This is the task we concentrate on in this contribution. We start from a background source model for the Canterbury region, in which 1) centroids of events of given magnitude are distributed using a latin-hypercube lattice, 2) following the range of preferential orientations determined from stress maps and focal mechanism, 3) with length determined using the local scaling relationship and 4) rates from a and b values derived from the declustered pre-2010 catalog. We then proceed to create tens of thousands of realizations of 6 to 20 year periods, and we define criteria to identify which successions of events in the region would be perceived as a sequence. Note that the spatial clustering expected is a lower end compared to a fully uniform distribution of events. Then we perform the same exercise with rates and b-values determined from the catalog including the CES. If the pre-2010 catalog was long (or rich) enough, then the computed "stationary" rates calculated from it would include the CES declustered events (by construction, regardless of the physical meaning of or relationship between those events). In regions of low seismicity rate (e.g., Canterbury before

  10. Assessment of metabolic flux distribution in the thermophilic hydrogen producer Caloramator celer as affected by external pH and hydrogen partial pressure

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Caloramator celer is a strict anaerobic, alkalitolerant, thermophilic bacterium capable of converting glucose to hydrogen (H2), carbon dioxide, acetate, ethanol and formate by a mixed acid fermentation. Depending on the growth conditions C. celer can produce H2 at high yields. For a biotechnological exploitation of this bacterium for H2 production it is crucial to understand the factors that regulate carbon and electron fluxes and therefore the final distribution of metabolites to channel the metabolic flux towards the desired product. Results Combining experimental results from batch fermentations with genome analysis, reconstruction of central carbon metabolism and metabolic flux analysis (MFA), this study shed light on glucose catabolism of the thermophilic alkalitolerant bacterium C. celer. Two innate factors pertaining to culture conditions have been identified to significantly affect the metabolic flux distribution: culture pH and partial pressures of H2 (PH2). Overall, at alkaline to neutral pH the rate of biomass synthesis was maximized, whereas at acidic pH the lower growth rate and the less efficient biomass formation are accompanied with more efficient energy recovery from the substrate indicating high cell maintenance possibly to sustain intracellular pH homeostasis. Higher H2 yields were associated with fermentation at acidic pH as a consequence of the lower synthesis of other reduced by-products such as formate and ethanol. In contrast, PH2 did not affect the growth of C. celer on glucose. At high PH2 the cellular redox state was balanced by rerouting the flow of carbon and electrons to ethanol and formate production allowing unaltered glycolytic flux and growth rate, but resulting in a decreased H2 synthesis. Conclusion C. celer possesses a flexible fermentative metabolism that allows redistribution of fluxes at key metabolic nodes to simultaneously control redox state and efficiently harvest energy from substrate even under unfavorable

  11. Genetic diversity of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 : H7 recovered from human and food sources.

    PubMed

    Elhadidy, Mohamed; Elkhatib, Walid F; Elfadl, Eman A Abo; Verstraete, Karen; Denayer, Sarah; Barbau-Piednoir, Elodie; De Zutter, Lieven; Verhaegen, Bavo; De Rauw, Klara; Piérard, Denis; De Reu, Koen; Heyndrickx, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify an epidemiological association between Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 : H7 strains associated with human infection and with food sources. Frequency distributions of different genetic markers of E. coli O157 : H7 strains recovered from human and food sources were compared using molecular assays to identify E. coli O157 : H7 genotypes associated with variation in pathogenic potential and host specificity. Genotypic characterization included: lineage-specific polymorphism assay (LSPA-6), clade typing, tir (A255T) polymorphism, Shiga toxin-encoding bacteriophage insertion site analysis and variant analysis of Shiga toxin 2 gene (stx2a and stx2c) and antiterminator Q genes (Q933 and Q21). The intermediate lineage (LI/II) dominated among both food and human strains. Compared to other clades, clades 7 and 8 were more frequent among food and human strains, respectively. The tir (255T) polymorphism occurred more frequently among human strains than food strains. Q21 and Q933 + Q21 were found at significantly higher frequencies among food and human strains, respectively. Moreover, stx2a and stx2a+c were detected at significantly higher frequencies among human strains compared to food strains. Bivariate analysis revealed significant concordance (P<0.05) between the LSPA-6 assay and the other typing methods. Multivariable regression analysis suggested that tir (255T) was the most distinctive genotype that can be used to detect bacterial clones with potential risk for human illness from food sources. This study supported previous reports of the existence of diversity in genetic markers among different isolation sources by including E. coli O157 : H7 strains from both food and human sources. This might enable tracking genotypes with potential risk for human illness from food sources.

  12. Manipulation of Dysfunctional Spinal Joints Affects Sensorimotor Integration in the Prefrontal Cortex: A Brain Source Localization Study

    PubMed Central

    Lelic, Dina; Niazi, Imran Khan; Holt, Kelly; Jochumsen, Mads; Dremstrup, Kim; Yielder, Paul; Murphy, Bernadette; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr; Haavik, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. Studies have shown decreases in N30 somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) peak amplitudes following spinal manipulation (SM) of dysfunctional segments in subclinical pain (SCP) populations. This study sought to verify these findings and to investigate underlying brain sources that may be responsible for such changes. Methods. Nineteen SCP volunteers attended two experimental sessions, SM and control in random order. SEPs from 62-channel EEG cap were recorded following median nerve stimulation (1000 stimuli at 2.3 Hz) before and after either intervention. Peak-to-peak amplitude and latency analysis was completed for different SEPs peak. Dipolar models of underlying brain sources were built by using the brain electrical source analysis. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA was used to assessed differences in N30 amplitudes, dipole locations, and dipole strengths. Results. SM decreased the N30 amplitude by 16.9 ± 31.3% (P = 0.02), while no differences were seen following the control intervention (P = 0.4). Brain source modeling revealed a 4-source model but only the prefrontal source showed reduced activity by 20.2 ± 12.2% (P = 0.03) following SM. Conclusion. A single session of spinal manipulation of dysfunctional segments in subclinical pain patients alters somatosensory processing at the cortical level, particularly within the prefrontal cortex. PMID:27047694

  13. 40 CFR Table 10 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Continuous Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. XXXX, Table 10 Table 10 to Subpart XXXX... each monthly period that no cements and solvents were purchased and used at the affected...

  14. QCL seeded, ns-pulse, multi-line, CO2 laser oscillator for laser-produced-plasma extreme-UV source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowak, Krzysztof Michał; Suganuma, Takashi; Kurosawa, Yoshiaki; Ohta, Takeshi; Kawasuji, Yasufumi; Nakarai, Hiroaki; Saitou, Takashi; Fujimoto, Junichi; Mizoguchi, Hakaru; Sumitani, Akira; Endo, Akira

    2017-01-01

    Successful merger of state-of-the-art, semiconductor quantum-cascade lasers (QCL), with the mature CO2 laser technology, resulted in a delivery of highly-desired qualities of CO2 laser output that were not available previously without much effort. These qualities, such as multi-line operation, excellent spectro-temporal stability and pulse waveform control, became available from a single device of moderate complexity. This paper describes the operation principle and the unique properties of the solid{state seeded CO2 laser, invented for an application in laser-produced-plasma (LPP), extreme-UV (EUV) light source.

  15. How does a Collaborative Community Affect Diverse Students' Engagement with an Open Source Software Project: A Pedagogical Paradigm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, Becka S.

    Open Source Software (OSS) communities are homogenous and their lack of diversity is of concern to many within this field. This problem is becoming more pronounced as it is the practice of many technology companies to use OSS participation as a factor in the hiring process, disadvantaging those who are not a part of this community. We should expect that any field would have a population that reflects the general population given no constraints. The constraints within OSS are documented as being a hostile environment for women and minorities to participate in. Additionally OSS communities rely predominately on volunteers to create and maintain source code, documentation, and user interface as well as the organizational structure of the project. The volunteer nature of OSS projects creates a need for an ongoing pool of participants. This research addresses the lack of diversity along with the continual need for new members by developing a pedagogical paradigm that uses a collaborative environment to promote participation in an OSS project by diverse students. This collaborative environment used a Communities of Practice (CoP) framework to design the course, the indicators of which were used to operationalize the collaboration. The outcomes of this course not only benefit the students by providing them with skills necessary to continue participation and experience for getting a job, but also provide a diverse pool of volunteers for the OSS community. This diverse pool shows promise of creating a more diverse culture within OSS. In the development of this pedagogical paradigm this research looked primarily at student's perception of the importance of their group members and mentors provided to guide their participation in and contribution to an OSS community. These elements were used to facilitate the formation of a CoP. Self-efficacy was also used as a measure; an increase in self-efficacy is associated with the successful formation of a CoP. Finally the intent to

  16. QMRAcatch - faecal microbial quality of water resources in a river-floodplain area affected by urban sources and recreational visitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derx, Julia; Schijven, Jack; Sommer, Regina; Kirschner, Alexander; Farnleitner, Andreas H.; Blaschke, Alfred Paul

    2016-04-01

    QMRAcatch, a tool to simulate microbial water quality including infection risk assessment, was previously developed and successfully tested at a Danube river site (Schijven et al. 2015). In the tool concentrations of target faecal microorganisms and viruses (TMVs) are computed at a point of interest (PI) along the main river and the floodplain river at daily intervals for a one year period. Even though faecal microbial pathogen concentrations in water resources are usually below the sample limit of detection, this does not ensure, that the water quality complies with a certain required health based target. The aim of this study was therefore to improve the predictability of relevant human pathogenic viruses, i.e. enterovirus and norovirus, in the studied river/floodplain area. This was done by following an innovative calibration strategy based on human-associated microbial source tracking (MST) marker data which were determined following the HF183 TaqMan assay (Green et al. 2011). The MST marker is strongly associated with human faeces and communal sewage, occurring there in numbers by several magnitudes higher than for human enteric pathogens (Mayer et al 2015). The calibrated tool was then evaluated with measured enterovirus concentrations at the PI and in the floodplain river. In the simulation tool the discharges of 5 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) were considered with point discharges along a 200 km reach of the Danube river. The MST marker and target virus concentrations at the PI at a certain day were computed based on the concentrations of the previous day, plus the wastewater concentrations times the WWTP discharge divided by the river discharge. A ratio of the river width was also considered, over which the MST marker and virus particles have fully mixed with river water. In the tool, the excrements from recreational visitors frequenting the floodplain area every day were assumed to be homogeneously distributed in the area. A binomial distributed

  17. Exploring hydrocarbon-bearing shale formations with multi-component seismic technology and evaluating direct shear modes produced by vertical-force sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alkan, Engin

    It is essential to understand natural fracture systems embedded in shale-gas reservoirs and the stress fields that influence how induced fractures form in targeted shale units. Multicomponent seismic technology and elastic seismic stratigraphy allow geologic formations to be better images through analysis of different S-wave modes as well as the P-wave mode. Significant amounts of energy produced by P-wave sources radiate through the Earth as downgoing SV-wave energy. A vertical-force source is an effective source for direct SV radiation and provides a pure shear-wave mode (SV-SV) that should reveal crucial information about geologic surfaces located in anisotropic media. SV-SV shear wave modes should carry important information about petrophysical characteristics of hydrocarbon systems that cannot be obtained using other elastic-wave modes. Regardless of the difficulties of extracting good-quality SV-SV signal, direct shear waves as well as direct P and converted S energy should be accounted for in 3C seismic studies. Acquisition of full-azimuth seismic data and sampling data at small intervals over long offsets are required for detailed anisotropy analysis. If 3C3D data can be acquired with improved signal-to-noise ratio, more uniform illumination of targets, increased lateral resolution, more accurate amplitude attributes, and better multiple attenuation, such data will have strong interest by the industry. The objectives of this research are: (1) determine the feasibility of extracting direct SV-SV common-mid-point sections from 3-C seismic surveys, (2) improve the exploration for stratigraphic traps by developing systematic relationship between petrophysical properties and combinations of P and S wave modes, (3) create compelling examples illustrating how hydrocarbon-bearing reservoirs in low-permeable rocks (particularly anisotropic shale formations) can be better characterized using different Swave modes (P-SV, SV-SV) in addition to the conventional P

  18. Patterns of organic acids exuded by pioneering fungi from a glacier forefield are affected by carbohydrate sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunner, Ivano; Goren, Asena; Schlumpf, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    Bare soils in the area of retreating glaciers are ideal environments to study the role of microorganisms in the early soil formation and in processes of mineral weathering. The aim of our study was to investigate whether the source of carbohydrate would influence the patterns of organic acids exuded by fungal species. Three pioneering fungus species, isolated from fine granitic sediments in front of the Damma glacier from the central Swiss Alps, have previously been found to have the capability to exude organic acids and dissolve granite powder. In batch experiments, various carbohydrates, including glucose, cellulose, pectin, pollen, and cell remnants of cyanobacteria, fungi, and algae, were applied as carbohydrate sources and the patterns of exuded organic acids recorded. The results showed that two fungi, the zygomycete fungus Mucor hiemalis and the ascomycete fungus Penicillium chrysogenum, released a significantly higher amount of organic acids in dependence on specific carbohydrate sources. Pollen and algae as carbohydrate sources triggered significantly the exudation of malate in M. hiemalis, and pollen and cellulose that of oxalate in P. chrysogenum. We conclude that the occurrence of complex carbohydrate sources in nutrient-deficient deglaciated soils may positively influence the exudation of organic acids of fungi. In particular, pollen and remnants of other microorganisms can trigger the exudation of organic acids of fungi in order to promote the weathering of minerals and to make nutrients available that would otherwise be trapped in that cryospheric environment.

  19. Patterns in atmospheric circulation affect emission sources contributing to nitrogen deposition in the Columbia River Gorge, Pacific Northwest USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, S. M.; Chung, S. H.; Welker, J. M.; Harlow, B.; Evans, R. D.

    2014-12-01

    The Columbia River Gorge separating Oregon and Washington provides an ideal setting to investigate how atmospheric circulation patterns determine types of emission sources contributing to atmospheric deposition. Up-gorge and down-gorge atmospheric circulation patterns each provide a different suite of emission sources. Up-gorge airflow originates in the Portland-Vancouver metro area dominated by urban and industrial sources. Down-gorge patterns originate in the Columbia River basin, which is dominated by agricultural production. We tested the dependence of emission sources contributing to atmospheric deposition on circulation patterns by measuring the isotopic composition of nitrate (NO3-) in 2003-2004 precipitation samples from the WA98-Columbia River Gorge NADP & USNIP site. Circulation patterns were determined using back-trajectory analysis with the Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model using the archived EDAS meteorological dataset. We observed a significant difference (P=0.01) between up-gorge and down-gorge patterns with mean δ15N-NO3- of +1.8 and -2.1‰ for up- and down-gorge, respectively. The differences observed between these two patterns is likely tied to the different emission sources of N found in these different geographic areas. The lower δ15N of down-gorge sources is due to the large amount of agricultural production in the Columbia River basin. Observed values for the up-gorge patterns likely result from industrial and fossil fuel emissions of NOx, the precursor of deposited NO3-, in the Portland-Vancouver area. The significantly greater amount of NO3- in precipitation from up-gorge patterns (0.72 mg/L) compared to down-gorge patterns (0.36 mg/L, P=0.01) supports the influence of urban sources rather than relatively clean marine air which characteristically has low amounts of NO3-. No significant differences are found in δ18Onitrate or Δ17Onitrate between the two patterns, suggesting that atmospheric chemistry

  20. How Does a Collaborative Community Affect Diverse Students' Engagement with an Open Source Software Project: A Pedagogical Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Becka S.

    2012-01-01

    Open Source Software (OSS) communities are homogenous and their lack of diversity is of concern to many within this field. This problem is becoming more pronounced as it is the practice of many technology companies to use OSS participation as a factor in the hiring process, disadvantaging those who are not a part of this community. We should…

  1. Production of sensory compounds by means of the yeast Dekkera bruxellensis in different nitrogen sources with the prospect of producing cachaça.

    PubMed

    Castro Parente, Denise; Vidal, Esteban Espinosa; Leite, Fernanda Cristina Bezerra; de Barros Pita, Will; de Morais, Marcos Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The distilled spirit made from sugar cane juice, also known as cachaça, is a traditional Brazilian beverage that in recent years has increased its market share among international distilled beverages. Several volatile compounds produced by yeast cells during the fermentation process are responsible for the unique taste and aroma of this drink. The yeast Dekkera bruxellensis has acquired increasing importance in the fermented beverage production, as the different metabolites produced by this yeast may be either beneficial or harmful to the end-product. Since D. bruxellensis is often found in the fermentation processes carried out in ethanol fuel distillation in Brazil, we employed this yeast to analyse the physiological profile and production of aromatic compounds and to examine whether it is feasible to regard it as a cachaça-producing microorganism. The assays were performed on a small scale and simulated the conditions for the production of handmade cachaça. The results showed that the presence of aromatic and branched-chain amino acids in the medium has a strong influence on the metabolism and production of flavours by D. bruxellensis. The assimilation of these alternative nitrogen sources led to different fermentation yields and the production of flavouring compounds. The influence of the nitrogen source on the metabolism of fusel alcohols and esters in D. bruxellensis highlights the need for further studies of the nitrogen requirements to obtain the desired level of sensory compounds in the fermentation. Our results suggest that D. bruxellensis has the potential to play a role in the production of cachaça.

  2. Do additional sugar sources affect the degree of attendance of Dysmicoccus brevipes by the fire ant Solenopsis geminata?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mutualistic interactions between ants and Hemiptera are mediated to large extent by the amount and quality of sugar-rich honeydew produced. Throughout the neotropics, the fire ant Solenopsis geminata (F.) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) is found in association with colonies of the pineapple mealybug Dysmi...

  3. Optimization of X-ray sources from a high-average-power ND:Glass laser-produced plasma for proximity lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Celliers, P.; Da Silva, L.B.; Dane, C.B.

    1996-06-01

    The concept of a laser-based proximity lithography system for electronic microcircuit production has advanced to the point where a detailed design of a prototype system capable of exposing wafers at 40 wafer levels per hr is technically feasible with high-average-power laser technology. In proximity x-ray lithography, a photoresist composed of polymethyl- methacrylate (PMMA) or similar material is exposed to x rays transmitted through a mask placed near the photoresist, a procedure which is similar to making a photographic contact print. The mask contains a pattern of opaque metal features, with line widths as small as 0.12 {mu}m, placed on a thin (1-{mu}m thick) Si membrane. During the exposure, the shadow of the mask projected onto the resist produces in the physical and chemical properties of the resist a pattern of variation with the same size and shape as the features contained in the metal mask. This pattern can be further processed to produce microscopic structures in the Si substrate. The main application envisioned for this technology is the production of electronic microcircuits with spatial features significantly smaller than currently achievable with conventional optical lithographic techniques (0.12 {micro}m vs 0.25 {micro}m). This article describes work on optimizing a laser-produced plasma x-ray source intended for microcircuit production by proximity lithography.

  4. Physiological and biochemical adjustment of iron chlorosis affected low-chill peach cultivars supplied with different iron sources.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Binayak; Singh, Pramod Narayan; Shukla, Alok; Mishra, Daya Shankar

    2012-04-01

    A pot experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of iron supplementation on physiological and biochemical status of the low-chill peach cultivars (Saharanpur Prabhat, Shan-e-Punjab and Pratap) suffered from iron chlorosis in artificially created calcareous soil. Three most commonly used iron sources viz. Fe-sulphate (1.0 % and 0.5 %), Fe-citrate (1.0 % and 0.5 %) and FeEDTA (0.1 % and 0.2 %) were sprayed on the 4th and 5th leaves from the apex of the twig. And after 1 week of spraying, observation on various physiological and biochemical parameters in leaves were recorded. Improvement in plant physiological parameters like chlorophyll content index (CCI), photosynthetic rate (P n), stomatal conductance (g s) and intercellular CO2 conc. (C i) were recorded best with the application of 1.0 % Fe-sulphate both in treated and untreated upper leaves. The maximum recovery in biochemical parameters such as total leaf chlorophyll content, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) activity was also noted with the application of 1.0 % Fe-sulphate. However, application of 1.0 % Fe-sulphate and 0.5 % Fe-sulphate had similar effect for most of the parameters under study. The ability of iron sources to induce physiological and biochemical responses in iron deficient low-chill peach plants were in the following order Fe-sulphate>Fe-citrate>FeEDTA. Differential responses in plant physiological and biochemical parameters were also exhibited by the low-chill peach cultivars with regard to supplementation of various iron sources. Among the low-chill peach cultivars, Saharanpur Prabhat responded best with the application of iron sources followed by Shan-e-Punjab and Pratap.

  5. Assessment of food source profitability in honeybees (Apis mellifera): how does disturbance of foraging activity affect trophallactic behaviour?

    PubMed

    Wainselboim, A J; Roces, F; Farina, W M

    2003-01-01

    When forager honeybees (Apis mellifera) return to the hive after a successful foraging trip, they unload the collected liquid to recipient hive mates through mouth-to-mouth contacts (trophallaxis). The speed at which the liquid is transferred (unloading rate) from donor to recipient is related to the profitability of the recently visited food source. Two main characteristics that define this profitability are the flow of solution delivered by the feeder and the time invested by the forager at the source (visit time). To investigate the effect of visit time on trophallactic behaviour, donor foragers were trained to a rate feeder that could deliver different flows of solution. We dissociated visit time and flow of solution by introducing pauses in the solution's deliverance at different moments of the foraging visit. We analysed whether timing of the non-deliverance period within the visit is important for the forager's assessment of resource profitability. During the subsequent trophallactic encounter with a hive mate, unloading rate was related to the total time invested by the forager at the food source only if the ingestion process had already been started. These results together with previous ones suggest that foragers integrate an overall flow rate of solution of the feeder throughout the entire foraging visit.

  6. Locating the sources for cross-modal interactions and decision making during judging the visual-affected auditory intensity change.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuan; Ge, Xiaoli; Sun, Junfeng; Tong, Shanbao

    2011-01-01

    Audiovisual interaction has been one of the most important topics in cognitive neurosciences. Visual stimuli could significantly impact the auditory perception, and vice versa. Nevertheless, how much the change in visual stimuli would influence the perception of auditory change remains to be investigated. In this paper, we designed an audiovisual experiment in which subjects were required to judge whether there is a change in the intensities of two sounds with 150 ms interval, while there are two simultaneously presented size-changed visual stimuli. Behavioral results demonstrated that incongruent audiovisual change could result in the illusory perception of the change in sound intensity. For the correctly judged trials, source analysis showed two characteristic windows post the first auditory stimulus, i.e., (i) the 160-200 ms window including the auditory P200 and visual N100 wave, which was related to audiovisual interaction and working memory of the first stimulus with localized sources in insula and agranular retrolimbic area; and (ii) the 300-400 ms window for P300 with sources in premotor cortex and caudate nucleus, which were related to later audiovisual interaction, change discrimination and working memory. These preliminary results implied two stages in the audiovisual change perception task, with the involvement of insula, agranular retrolimbic, premotor cortex and caudate nucleus.

  7. How Growing Complexity of Consumer Choices and Drivers of Consumption Behaviour Affect Demand for Animal Source Foods.

    PubMed

    Perry, B D; Grace, D C

    2015-12-01

    Many societies are spoiled for choice when they purchase meat and other livestock products, and around the globe food choice has grown dramatically in the last two decades. What is more, besides the cost and obvious health concerns influencing commodity section, an increasing proportion of choices is made to contribute to the achievement of certain ideals, such as natural resource management, climate change mitigation, animal welfare concerns and personal lifestyle. At the same time, human health considerations are becoming more important for consumption choices as richer societies, and increasingly the urban poor in low- and middle-income countries, face an unprecedented epidemic of over-consumption and associated diet-related non-communicable diseases. Animal source foods are considered significant contributors to this trend. This paper reviews this complicated arena, and explores the range of considerations that influence consumers' preferences for meat and other animal source foods. This paper also argues that deeper drivers of consumption behaviour of many foods may act in opposition to the articulated preferences for choices around animal source food consumption. We review how the returns to different causes are being valued, how emerging metrics are helping to manage and influence consumption behaviours, and draw conclusions regarding options which influence food choice.

  8. Cr(Vi) reduction capacity of activated sludge as affected by nitrogen and carbon sources, microbial acclimation and cell multiplication.

    PubMed

    Ferro Orozco, A M; Contreras, E M; Zaritzky, N E

    2010-04-15

    The objectives of the present work were: (i) to analyze the capacity of activated sludge to reduce hexavalent chromium using different carbon sources as electron donors in batch reactors, (ii) to determine the relationship between biomass growth and the amount of Cr(VI) reduced considering the effect of the nitrogen to carbon source ratio, and (iii) to determine the effect of the Cr(VI) acclimation stage on the performance of the biological chromium reduction assessing the stability of the Cr(VI) reduction capacity of the activated sludge. The highest specific Cr(VI) removal rate (q(Cr)) was attained with cheese whey or lactose as electron donors decreasing in the following order: cheese whey approximately lactose>glucose>citrate>acetate. Batch assays with different nitrogen to carbon source ratio demonstrated that biological Cr(VI) reduction is associated to the cell multiplication phase; as a result, maximum Cr(VI) removal rates occur when there is no substrate limitation. The biomass can be acclimated to the presence of Cr(VI) and generate new cells that maintain the ability to reduce chromate. Therefore, the activated sludge process could be applied to a continuous Cr(VI) removal process.

  9. Rectal Dose and Source Strength of the High-Dose-Rate Iridium-192 Both Affect Late Rectal Bleeding After Intracavitary Radiation Therapy for Uterine Cervical Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Isohashi, Fumiaki; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Koizumi, Masahiko

    2010-07-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to reconfirm our previous findings that the rectal dose and source strength both affect late rectal bleeding after high-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy (HDR-ICBT), by using a rectal dose calculated in accordance with the definitions of the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements Report 38 (ICRU{sub RP}) or of dose-volume histogram (DVH) parameters by the Groupe Europeen de Curietherapie of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology. Methods and Materials: Sixty-two patients who underwent HDR-ICBT and were followed up for 1 year or more were studied. The rectal dose for ICBT was calculated by using the ICRP{sub RP} based on orthogonal radiographs or the DVH parameters based on computed tomography (CT). The total dose was calculated as the biologically equivalent dose expressed in 2-Gy fractions (EQD{sub 2}). The relationship between averaged source strength or the EQD{sub 2} and late rectal bleeding was then analyzed. Results: When patients were divided into four groups according to rectal EQD{sub 2} ({>=} or source strength ({>=} or <2.4 cGy.m{sup 2}.h{sup -1}), the group with both a high EQD{sub 2} and a high source strength showed a significantly greater probability of rectal bleeding for ICRU{sub RP}, D{sub 2cc}, and D{sub 1cc}. The patients with a median rectal dose above the threshold level did not show a greater frequency of rectal bleeding unless the source strength exceeded 2.4 cGy.m{sup 2}.h{sup -1}. Conclusions: Our results obtained with data based on ICRU{sub RP} and CT-based DVH parameters indicate that rectal dose and source strength both affect rectal bleeding after HDR-ICBT.

  10. [The spectra of a laser-produced plasma source with CO2, O2 and CF4 liquid aerosol spray target].

    PubMed

    Ni, Qi-Liang; Chen, Bo

    2008-11-01

    A laser-produced plasma (LPP) source with liquid aerosol spray target and nanosecond laser was developed, based on both soft X-ray radiation metrology and extreme ultraviolet projection lithography (EUVL). The LPP source is composed of a stainless steel solenoid valve whose temperature can be continuously controlled, a Nd : YAG laser with pulse width, working wavelength and pulse energy being 7 ns, 1.064 microm and 1J respectively, and a pulse generator which can synchronously control the valve and the laser. A standard General Valve Corporation series 99 stainless steel solenoid valve with copper gasket seals and a Kel-F poppet are used in order to minimize leakage and poppet deformation during high-pressure cryogenic operation. A close fitting copper cooling jacket surrounds the valve body. The jacket clamps a copper coolant carrying tube 3 mm in diameter, which is fed by an automatically pressurized liquid nitrogen-filled dewar. The valve temperature can be controlled between 77 and 473 K. For sufficiently high backing pressure and low temperature, the valve reservoir gas can undergo a gas-to-liquid phase transition. Upon valve pulsing, the liquid is ejected into a vacuum and breaks up into droplets, which is called liquid aerosol spray target. For the above-mentioned LPP source, firstly, by the use of Cowan program on the basis of non-relativistic quantum mechanics, the authors computed the radiative transition wavelengths and probabilities in soft X-ray region for O4+, O5+, O6+, O7+, F5+, F6+ and F7+ ions which were correspondingly produced from the interaction of the 10(11)-10(12) W x cm(-2) power laser with liquid O2, CO2 and CF4 aerosol spray targets. Secondly, the authors measured the spectra of liquid O2, CO2 and CF4 aerosol spray target LPP sources in the 6-20 nm band for the 8 x 10(11) W x cm(-2) laser irradiance. The measured results were compared with the Cowan calculated results ones, and the radiative transition wavelength and probability for the

  11. INTERACTION OF LASER RADIATION WITH MATTER: Highly stable plasma source produced on the liquid-gallium surface by a femtosecond laser pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordienko, Vyacheslav M.; Kurilova, M. V.; Rakov, Evegenii V.; Savel'ev, Andrei B.; Uryupina, D. S.

    2007-07-01

    Experimental results are presented which demonstrate that a plasma produced on the melted-gallium surface by a femtosecond laser pulse of intensity above 1016 W cm-2 is an efficient and stable source of incoherent hard X-rays with a pulse repetition rate of 10 Hz. For gallium heated up to 270°C, the X-ray yield decreased by ~25% [from (2.2 ± 0.4) × 10-4 % to (1.7 ± 0.4) × 10-4 %] after 50000 laser shots, while the average energy of hot electrons decreased from 9.3 ± 0.9 to 9.0 ± 1.1 keV.

  12. Nitrogen Source and External Medium pH Interaction Differentially Affects Root and Shoot Metabolism in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Sarasketa, Asier; González-Moro, M. Begoña; González-Murua, Carmen; Marino, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Ammonium nutrition often represents an important growth-limiting stress in plants. Some of the symptoms that plants present under ammonium nutrition have been associated with pH deregulation, in fact external medium pH control is known to improve plants ammonium tolerance. However, the way plant cell metabolism adjusts to these changes is not completely understood. Thus, in this work we focused on how Arabidopsis thaliana shoot and root respond to different nutritional regimes by varying the nitrogen source (NO3- and NH4+), concentration (2 and 10 mM) and pH of the external medium (5.7 and 6.7) to gain a deeper understanding of cell metabolic adaptation upon altering these environmental factors. The results obtained evidence changes in the response of ammonium assimilation machinery and of the anaplerotic enzymes associated to Tricarboxylic Acids (TCA) cycle in function of the plant organ, the nitrogen source and the degree of ammonium stress. A greater stress severity at pH 5.7 was related to NH4+ accumulation; this could not be circumvented in spite of the stimulation of glutamine synthetase, glutamate dehydrogenase, and TCA cycle anaplerotic enzymes. Moreover, this study suggests specific functions for different gln and gdh isoforms based on the nutritional regime. Overall, NH4+ accumulation triggering ammonium stress appears to bear no relation to nitrogen assimilation impairment. PMID:26870054

  13. Moisture source and diet affect development and reproduction of Orius thripoborus and Orius naivashae, two predatory anthocorids from Southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Bonte, Jochem; Vangansbeke, Dominiek; Maes, Sara; Bonte, Maarten; Conlong, Des; De Clercq, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    The effect of moisture source and diet on the development and reproduction of the pirate bugs, Orius thripoborus (Hesse) and Orius naivashae (Poppius) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) was examined in the laboratory. Both species had been collected in and around sugarcane fields in South Africa. Supplementing eggs of the flour moth Ephestia kuehniella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) with a green bean pod as a moisture source yielded better nymphal survival and faster development, as compared with free water encapsulated in Parafilm, suggesting that the predators may extract extra nutrients from the bean pod. The impact of two factitious foods and moist honey bee pollen on developmental and reproductive parameters of both predators was also investigated. The overall performance of both Orius species on E. kuehniella eggs and cysts of brine shrimp, Artemia franciscana Kellogg (Crustacea: Artemiidae) was better than on pollen. Nonetheless, a pollen diet alone allowed 66 and 78% of the nymphs of O. thripoborus and O. naivashae, respectively, to reach adulthood. Overall, developmental and reproductive performance of O. thripoborus on the tested diets was superior to that of O. naivashae. The implications of these findings for the mass production of these predators and their potential role in biological control programs in southern Africa are discussed.

  14. Producing more persuasive antiviolence messages for college students: testing the effects of framing, information sources, and positive/negative fact appeal.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hyunjae Jay

    2012-06-01

    College students, between the ages of about 18 and 24, are the group of people who are most often exposed to situations involving diverse types of violence. They have greater access to alcohol and drugs and are under far less parental supervision than younger age groups; reports have shown that frequent involvement in several types of violent behaviors can seriously damage college students physically and psychologically. However, despite the high rate of violence among college students, there has not been enough discussion about how we can produce more effective antiviolence messages targeting college students. This research provides some useful insights into this issue by testing the possible effects of three antiviolence message conditions: gain/loss framing, different information sources, and negative/positive fact appeal. The results reveal that college students in this study find more appeal in antiviolence messages conveyed by a traditional public service announcement (PSA) than in a TV news report. The results also reveal that people pay more attention to messages that use negative fact appeal (e.g., "There are many people losing a lot of precious things because of their violent behaviors") than to those that use positive fact appeal (e.g., "There are many people gaining a lot of precious things by avoiding violent behaviors"). An interaction effect between information sources and positive/negative fact appeal was also detected.

  15. Change in Uptake, Transport and Accumulation of Ions in Nerium oleander (Rosebay) as Affected by Different Nitrogen Sources and Salinity

    PubMed Central

    Abdolzadeh, Ahmad; Shima, Kazuto; Lambers, Hans; Chiba, Kyozo

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims The source of nitrogen plays an important role in salt tolerance of plants. In this study, the effects of NaCl on net uptake, accumulation and transport of ions were investigated in Nerium oleander with ammonium or nitrate as the nitrogen source in order to analyse differences in uptake and cycling of ions within plants. Methods Plants were grown in a greenhouse in hydroponics under different salt treatments (control vs. 100 mm NaCl) with ammonium or nitrate as the nitrogen source, and changes in ion concentration in plants, xylem sap exuded from roots and stems, and phloem sap were determined. Key Results Plant weight, leaf area and photosynthetic rate showed a higher salt tolerance of nitrate-fed plants compared with that of ammonium-fed plants. The total amount of Na+ transported in the xylem in roots, accumulated in the shoot and retranslocated in the phloem of ammonium-fed plants under salt treatment was 1·8, 1·9 and 2·7 times more, respectively, than that of nitrate-treated plants. However, the amount of Na+ accumulated in roots in nitrate-fed plants was about 1·5 times higher than that in ammonium-fed plants. Similarly, Cl− transport via the xylem to the shoot and its retranslocation via the phloem (Cl− cycling) were far greater with ammonium treatment than with nitrate treatment under conditions of salinity. The uptake and accumulation of K+ in shoots decreased more due to salinity in ammonium-fed plants compared with nitrate-fed plants. In contrast, K+ cycling in shoots increased due to salinity, with higher rates in the ammonium-treated plants. Conclusions The faster growth of nitrate-fed plants under conditions of salinity was associated with a lower transport and accumulation of Na+ and Cl− in the shoot, whereas in ammonium-fed plants accumulation and cycling of Na+ and Cl− in shoots probably caused harmful effects and reduced growth of plants. PMID:18772147

  16. Trustworthy Tricksters: Violating a Negative Social Expectation Affects Source Memory and Person Perception When Fear of Exploitation Is High

    PubMed Central

    Süssenbach, Philipp; Gollwitzer, Mario; Mieth, Laura; Buchner, Axel; Bell, Raoul

    2016-01-01

    People who are high in victim-sensitivity—a personality trait characterized by a strong fear of being exploited by others—are more likely to attend to social cues associated with untrustworthiness rather than to cues associated with trustworthiness compared with people who are low in victim-sensitivity. But how do these people react when an initial expectation regarding a target’s trustworthiness turns out to be false? Results from two studies show that victim-sensitive compared with victim-insensitive individuals show enhanced source memory and greater change in person perception for negatively labeled targets that violated rather than confirmed negative expectations (the “trustworthy trickster”). These findings are in line with recent theorizing on schema inconsistency and expectancy violation effects in social cognition and with research on the different facets of justice sensitivity in personality psychology. PMID:28082945

  17. Occurrence, sources, and risk assessment of OCPs in surface sediments from urban, rural, and reclamation-affected rivers of the Pearl River Delta, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Bai, Junhong; Xi, Min; Zhao, Qingqing; Zhang, Guangliang; Wen, Xiaojun; Xiao, Rong

    2017-01-01

    Sediments were collected to a depth of 20 cm from urban, rural, and reclamation-affected rivers in the Pearl River Delta of China. In total, 16 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were analyzed in all sediment samples, and the occurrence, possible sources, toxicity, and health risks of OCPs were evaluated to compare the contamination characteristics of OCPs in sediments among the three types of rivers. The results showed that concentrations of Σ16OCPs in sediments from the three rivers followed the order urban river > reclamation-affected river > rural river, with a mean value of 247.21, 232.91, and 114.92 μg/kg, respectively, and the predominant OCPs were hexachlorobenzene (HCB), dieldrin, aldrin, endrin, and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs). Source diagnostics illustrated that there might be recent input of HCHs, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), and endosulfan in some sampling sites. Based on the soil quality thresholds of China, both HCHs and DDTs fell within the range of class II criteria except for some sediment samples in urban rivers with lower levels (below class I criteria). According to sediment quality guidelines, 92.86 % of samples were predicted to be toxic. The health risk assessment showed that OCPs would not pose a threat to people via dermal contact, ingestion, and inhalation, and the followed order of incremental lifetime cancer risks for OCPs in sediment samples was reclamation-affected river > urban river > rural river.

  18. Transport of Chemical Vapors from Subsurface Sources to Atmosphere as Affected by Shallow Subsurface and Atmospheric Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, A. K.; Smits, K. M.; Hosken, K.; Schulte, P.; Illangasekare, T. H.

    2012-12-01

    Understanding the movement and modeling of chemical vapor through unsaturated soil in the shallow subsurface when subjected to natural atmospheric thermal and mass flux boundary conditions at the land surface is of importance to applications such as landmine detection and vapor intrusion into subsurface structures. New, advanced technologies exist to sense chemical signatures at the land/atmosphere interface, but interpretation of these sensor signals to make assessment of source conditions remains a challenge. Chemical signatures are subject to numerous interactions while migrating through the unsaturated soil environment, attenuating signal strength and masking contaminant source conditions. The dominant process governing movement of gases through porous media is often assumed to be Fickian diffusion through the air phase with minimal or no quantification of other processes contributing to vapor migration, such as thermal diffusion, convective gas flow due to the displacement of air, expansion/contraction of air due to temperature changes, temporal and spatial variations of soil moisture and fluctuations in atmospheric pressure. Soil water evaporation and interfacial mass transfer add to the complexity of the system. The goal of this work is to perform controlled experiments under transient conditions of soil moisture, temperature and wind at the land/atmosphere interface and use the resulting dataset to test existing theories on subsurface gas flow and iterate between numerical modeling efforts and experimental data. Ultimately, we aim to update conceptual models of shallow subsurface vapor transport to include conditionally significant transport processes and inform placement of mobile sensors and/or networks. We have developed a two-dimensional tank apparatus equipped with a network of sensors and a flow-through head space for simulation of the atmospheric interface. A detailed matrix of realistic atmospheric boundary conditions was applied in a series of

  19. Effect of fat source differing in fatty acid profile on metabolic parameters, fertilization, and embryo quality in high-producing dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Cerri, R L A; Juchem, S O; Chebel, R C; Rutigliano, H M; Bruno, R G S; Galvão, K N; Thatcher, W W; Santos, J E P

    2009-04-01

    The objectives were to evaluate the effects of source of fatty acids (FA) on embryo quality of dairy cows. A total of 154 Holstein cows were assigned randomly to 1 of 2 sources of FA supplemented at 2% of the dietary dry matter as calcium salts of either palm oil (PO) or linoleic and trans-octadecenoic acids (LTFA) from 25 d prepartum to 80 d in milk (DIM). Cows were presynchronized beginning at 30 +/- 3 DIM and then subjected to the Ovsynch protocol beginning on d 39 +/- 3 postpartum. Timed artificial insemination was performed 12 h after the final GnRH of the Ovsynch protocol with semen from a single sire of proven fertility. The uteri of cows were nonsurgically flushed at 5 d after artificial insemination for collection of embryos-oocytes. Ovaries were examined by ultrasonography throughout the synchronization protocol. Blood was sampled and plasma was analyzed for concentrations of metabolites and hormones. The body condition score and yields of milk and milk components were measured throughout the first 90 DIM. Treatment did not affect concentrations of nonesterified FA, beta-hydroxybutyrate, glucose, and progesterone in plasma. Body condition was similar between treatments. Milk production was similar between treatments, but concentrations of fat in milk and yields of fat and 3.5% fat-corrected milk decreased in cows fed LTFA, whereas concentration of true protein increased. Source of dietary FA did not influence ovulatory responses, diameter of the ovulatory follicle, and diameter of the corpus luteum during synchronization. Embryo-oocyte recovery relative to the number of corpora lutea did not differ between treatments. Fertilization tended to increase in cows fed LTFA compared with cows fed PO. Feeding LTFA improved the proportion of excellent-, good-, and fair-quality embryos, and embryos from cows fed LTFA had a greater number of blastomeres than embryos from cows fed PO. Feeding a more unsaturated source of FA improved fertilization and embryo

  20. Individual differences affecting caffeine intake. Analysis of consumption behaviours for different times of day and caffeine sources.

    PubMed

    Penolazzi, Barbara; Natale, Vincenzo; Leone, Luigi; Russo, Paolo Maria

    2012-06-01

    The main purpose of the present study was to investigate the individual variables contributing to determine the high variability in the consumption behaviours of caffeine, a psychoactive substance which is still poorly investigated in comparison with other drugs. The effects of a large set of specific personality traits (i.e., Impulsivity, Sensation Seeking, Anxiety, Reward Sensitivity and Circadian Preference) were compared along with some relevant socio-demographic variables (i.e., gender and age) and cigarette smoking behaviour. Analyses revealed that daily caffeine intake was significantly higher for males, older people, participants smoking more cigarettes and showing higher scores on Impulsivity, Sensation Seeking and a facet of Reward Sensitivity. However, more detailed analyses showed that different patterns of individual variables predicted caffeine consumption when the times of day and the caffeine sources were considered. The present results suggest that such detailed analyses are required to detect the critical predictive variables that could be obscured when only total caffeine intake during the entire day is considered.

  1. Subgrouping of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli from animal and human sources: an approach to quantify the distribution of ESBL types between different reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Valentin, Lars; Sharp, Hannah; Hille, Katja; Seibt, Uwe; Fischer, Jennie; Pfeifer, Yvonne; Michael, Geovana Brenner; Nickel, Silke; Schmiedel, Judith; Falgenhauer, Linda; Friese, Anika; Bauerfeind, Rolf; Roesler, Uwe; Imirzalioglu, Can; Chakraborty, Trinad; Helmuth, Reiner; Valenza, Giuseppe; Werner, Guido; Schwarz, Stefan; Guerra, Beatriz; Appel, Bernd; Kreienbrock, Lothar; Käsbohrer, Annemarie

    2014-10-01

    Escherichia (E.) coli producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) are an increasing problem for public health. The success of ESBLs may be due to spread of ESBL-producing bacterial clones, transfer of ESBL gene-carrying plasmids or exchange of ESBL encoding genes on mobile elements. This makes it difficult to identify transmission routes and sources for ESBL-producing bacteria. The objectives of this study were to compare the distribution of genotypic and phenotypic properties of E. coli isolates from different animal and human sources collected in studies in the scope of the national research project RESET. ESBL-producing E. coli from two longitudinal and four cross-sectional studies in broiler, swine and cattle farms, a cross-sectional and a case-control study in humans and diagnostic isolates from humans and animals were used. In the RESET consortium, all laboratories followed harmonized methodologies for antimicrobial susceptibility testing, confirmation of the ESBL phenotype, specific PCR assays for the detection of bla(TEM), bla(CTX), and bla(SHV) genes and sequence analysis of the complete ESBL gene as well as a multiplex PCR for the detection of the four major phylogenetic groups of E. coli. Most ESBL genes were found in both, human and non-human populations but quantitative differences for distinct ESBL-types were detectable. The enzymes CTX-M-1 (63.3% of all animal isolates, 29.3% of all human isolates), CTX-M-15 (17.7% vs. 48.0%) and CTX-M-14 (5.3% vs. 8.7%) were the most common ones. More than 70% of the animal isolates and more than 50% of the human isolates contained the broadly distributed ESBL genes bla(CTX-M-1), bla(CTX-M-15), or the combinations bla(SHV-12)+bla(TEM) or bla(CTX-M-1)+bla(TEM). While the majority of animal isolates carried bla(CTX-M-1) (37.5%) or the combination bla(CTX-M-1)+bla(TEM) (25.8%), this was the case for only 16.7% and 12.6%, respectively, of the human isolates. In contrast, 28.2% of the human isolates carried bla

  2. Assessing water source and channel type as factors affecting benthic macroinvertebrate and periphyton assemblages in the highly urbanized Santa Ana River Basin, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burton, C.A.; Brown, L.R.; Belitz, K.

    2005-01-01

    The Santa Ana River basin is the largest stream system in Southern California and includes a densely populated coastal area. Extensive urbanization has altered the geomorphology and hydrology of the streams, adversely affecting aquatic communities. We studied macroinvertebrate and periphyton assemblages in relation to two categorical features of the highly engineered hydrologic system-water source and channel type. Four water sources were identified-natural, urban-impacted groundwater, urban runoff, and treated wastewater. Three channel types were identified-natural, channelized with natural bottom, and concrete-lined. Nineteen sites, covering the range of these two categorical features, were sampled in summer 2000. To minimize the effects of different substrate types among sites, artificial substrates were used for assessing macroinvertebrate and periphyton assemblages. Physical and chemical variables and metrics calculated from macroinvertebrate and periphyton assemblage data were compared among water sources and channel types using analysis of variance and multiple comparison tests. Macroinvertebrate metrics exhibiting significant (P < 0.05) differences between water sources included taxa and Ephemeroptera-Plecoptera-Trichoptera richness, relative richness and abundance of nonchironomid dipterans, orthoclads, oligochaetes, and some functional-feeding groups such as parasites and shredders. Periphyton metrics showing significant differences between water sources included blue-green algae biovolume and relative abundance of nitrogen heterotrophic, eutrophic, motile, and pollution-sensitive diatoms. The relative abundance of trichopterans, tanytarsini chironomids, noninsects, and filter feeders, as well as the relative richness and abundance of diatoms, were significantly different between channel types. Most physical variables were related to channel type, whereas chemical variables and some physical variables (e.g., discharge, velocity, and channel width) were

  3. Blood gas values and pulmonary hypertension as affected by dietary sodium source in broiler chickens reared at cool temperature in a high-altitude area.

    PubMed

    Saedi, Mostafa; Khajali, Fariborz

    2010-09-01

    One hundred and twenty day-old male chicks (Ross 308) reared at a cool temperature at high altitude were subjected to the following two treatments in a completely randomised design: (1) a group for which the sodium requirements were supplied by sodium chloride from day-old age and regarded as control, (2) a group similar to the control but for which 50% of the sodium requirements was supplied by sodium bicarbonate from day-old age. Provision of sodium equally from NaCl and NaHCO₃ significantly (P < 0.05) increased the partial pressure of oxygen and the saturation of haemoglobin with oxygen, and significantly (P < 0.05) decreased the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio. The right ventricle to total ventricles ratio shifted to lower values as a result of substituting NaHCO₃ for NaCl as a sodium source. Growth performance and carcass characteristics were not affected significantly by the dietary sodium source.

  4. QnrS1- and Aac(6′)-Ib-cr-Producing Escherichia coli among Isolates from Animals of Different Sources: Susceptibility and Genomic Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Jones-Dias, Daniela; Manageiro, Vera; Graça, Rafael; Sampaio, Daniel A.; Albuquerque, Teresa; Themudo, Patrícia; Vieira, Luís; Ferreira, Eugénia; Clemente, Lurdes; Caniça, Manuela

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli can inhabit humans and animals from multiple origins. These bacteria are often associated with gastroenteritis in animals, being a frequent cause of resistant zoonotic infections. In fact, bacteria from animals can be transmitted to humans through the food chain and direct contact. In this study, we aimed to assess the antibiotic susceptibility of a collection of S. enterica and E. coli recovered from animals of different sources, performing a genomic comparison of the plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR)-producing isolates detected. Antibiotic susceptibility testing revealed a high number of non-wild-type isolates for fluoroquinolones among S. enterica recovered from poultry isolates. In turn, the frequency of non-wild-type E. coli to nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin was higher in food-producing animals than in companion or zoo animals. Globally, we detected two qnrS1 and two aac(6′)-Ib-cr in E. coli isolates recovered from animals of different origins. The genomic characterization of QnrS1-producing E. coli showed high genomic similarity (O86:H12 and ST2297), although they have been recovered from a healthy turtle dove from a Zoo Park, and from a dog showing symptoms of infection. The qnrS1 gene was encoded in a IncN plasmid, also carrying blaTEM−1−containing Tn3. Isolates harboring aac(6′)-Ib-cr were detected in two captive bottlenose dolphins, within a time span of two years. The additional antibiotic resistance genes of the two aac(6′)-Ib-cr-positive isolates (blaOXA−1, blaTEM−1,blaCTX−M−15, catB3, aac(3)-IIa, and tetA) were enclosed in IncFIA plasmids that differed in a single transposase and 60 single nucleotide variants. The isolates could be assigned to the same genetic sublineage—ST131 fimH30-Rx (O25:H4), confirming clonal spread. PMQR-producing isolates were associated with symptomatic and asymptomatic hosts, which highlight the aptitude of E. coli to act as silent vehicles, allowing

  5. Genetic and Environmental Sources of Implicit and Explicit Self-Esteem and Affect: Results from a Genetically Sensitive Multi-group Design.

    PubMed

    Stieger, Stefan; Kandler, Christian; Tran, Ulrich S; Pietschnig, Jakob; Voracek, Martin

    2017-03-01

    In today's world, researchers frequently utilize indirect measures of implicit (i.e., automatic, spontaneous) evaluations. The results of several studies have supported the usefulness of these measures in predicting behavior, as compared to utilizing direct measures of explicit (i.e., purposeful, deliberate) evaluations. A current, under-debate issue concerns the origin of these implicit evaluations. The present genetically sensitive multi-group study analyzed data from 223 twin pairs and 222 biological core families to estimate possible genetic and environmental sources of individual differences in implicit and explicit self-esteem and affect. The results show that implicit self-esteem and affect maintain a substantial genetic basis, but demonstrate little influence from the shared environment by siblings (e.g., shared familial socialization in childhood). A bivariate analysis found that implicit and explicit evaluations of the same construct share a common genetic core which aligns with the motivation and opportunity as determinants (MODE) model.

  6. Prepartal plane of nutrition, regardless of dietary energy source, affects periparturient metabolism and dry matter intake in Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Douglas, G N; Overton, T R; Bateman, H G; Dann, H M; Drackley, J K

    2006-06-01

    Previous research in our laboratory showed that dietary fat supplementation during the dry period was associated with decreased peripartum hepatic lipid accumulation. However, fat supplementation decreased dry matter (DM) intake and thereby confounded results. Consequently, 47 Holstein cows with body condition scores (BCS) < or = 3.5 at dry-off were used to determine whether source or amount of energy fed to dry cows was responsible for the decreased hepatic lipid content. Moderate grain- or fat-supplemented diets [1.50 Mcal of net energy for lactation (NE(L))/kg] were fed from dry-off (60 d before expected parturition) to calving at either ad libitum (160% of NE(L) requirement) or restricted (80% of NE(L) requirement) intakes. Postpartum, cows were fed a single lactation diet for ad libitum intake and performance was measured for 105 d. Prepartum intakes of DM and NE(L) were significantly lower for feed-restricted cows as designed. During the first 21 d postpartum, previously restricted cows had higher intakes of DM and NE(L). Body weights and BCS were lower prepartum for restricted cows but groups converged to similar nadirs postpartum. Restricted-fed cows had lower concentrations of glucose and insulin and increased concentrations of NEFA in plasma during the dry period. Peripartum NEFA rose markedly for all treatments but were higher postpartum for cows previously fed ad libitum. Plasma concentrations of NEFA and BHBA remained lower in cows restricted-during the dry period. Postpartum concentrations of total lipid and triglyceride in liver were lower in cows previously feed-restricted. Across dietary treatments, activity of carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) in hepatic mitochondria was lowest at - 21 d, highest at 1 d, and decreased at 21 and 65 d relative to parturition. The activity of CPT at d 1 tended to be higher for previously feed-restricted cows; thereafter, CPT activity declined more rapidly than in cows fed ad libitum. Nutrient intake during the dry

  7. Methods for producing scaffold-free engineered cartilage sheets from auricular and articular chondrocyte cell sources and attachment to porous tantalum.

    PubMed

    Whitney, G Adam; Mera, Hisashi; Weidenbecher, Mark; Awadallah, Amad; Mansour, Joseph M; Dennis, James E

    2012-08-01

    Scaffold-free cartilage engineering techniques may provide a simple alternative to traditional methods employing scaffolds. We previously reported auricular chondrocyte-derived constructs for use in an engineered trachea model; however, the construct generation methods were not reported in detail. In this study, methods for cartilage construct generation from auricular and articular cell sources are described in detail, and the resulting constructs are compared for use in a joint resurfacing model. Attachment of cartilage sheets to porous tantalum is also investigated as a potential vehicle for future attachment to subchondral bone. Large scaffold-free cartilage constructs were produced from culture-expanded chondrocytes from skeletally mature rabbits, and redifferentiated in a chemically-defined culture medium. Auricular constructs contained more glycosaminoglycan (39.6±12.7 vs. 9.7±1.9 μg/mg wet weight, mean and standard deviation) and collagen (2.7±0.45 vs. 1.1±0.2 μg/mg wet weight, mean and standard deviation) than articular constructs. Aggregate modulus was also higher for auricular constructs vs. articular constructs (0.23±0.07 vs. 0.12±0.03 MPa, mean and standard deviation). Attachment of constructs to porous tantalum was achieved by neocartilage ingrowth into tantalum pores. These results demonstrate that large scaffold-free neocartilage constructs can be produced from mature culture-expanded chondrocytes in a chemically-defined medium, and that these constructs can be attached to porous tantalum.

  8. Potential sources and processes affecting speciated atmospheric mercury at Kejimkujik National Park, Canada: comparison of receptor models and data treatment methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaohong; Liao, Yanyin; Cheng, Irene; Zhang, Leiming

    2017-01-01

    Source apportionment analysis was conducted with positive matrix factorization (PMF) and principal component analysis (PCA) methods using concentrations of speciated mercury (Hg), i.e., gaseous elemental mercury (GEM), gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM), and particulate-bound mercury (PBM), and other air pollutants collected at Kejimkujik National Park, Nova Scotia, Canada, in 2009 and 2010. The results were largely consistent between the 2 years for both methods. The same four source factors were identified in each year using PMF method. In both years, factor photochemistry and re-emission had the largest contributions to atmospheric Hg, while the contributions of combustion emission and industrial sulfur varied slightly between the 2 years. Four components were extracted with air pollutants only in each year using PCA method. Consistencies between the results of PMF and PCA include (1) most or all PMF factors overlapped with PCA components, (2) both methods suggest strong impact of photochemistry but little association between ambient Hg and sea salt, and (3) shifting of PMF source profiles and source contributions from one year to another was echoed in PCA. Inclusion of meteorological parameters led to identification of an additional component, Hg wet deposition in PCA, while it did not affect the identification of other components. The PMF model performance was comparable in 2009 and 2010. Among the three Hg forms, the agreements between model-reproduced and observed annual mean concentrations were excellent for GEM, very good for PBM, and acceptable for GOM. However, on a daily basis, the agreement was very good for GEM but poor for GOM and PBM. Sensitivity tests suggest that increasing sample size by imputation is not effective in improving model performance, while reducing the fraction of concentrations below method detection limit, by either scaling GOM and PBM to higher concentrations or combining them to reactive mercury, is effective. Most of the data

  9. Peptide from Sea Anemone Metridium senile Affects Transient Receptor Potential Ankyrin-repeat 1 (TRPA1) Function and Produces Analgesic Effect.

    PubMed

    Logashina, Yulia A; Mosharova, Irina V; Korolkova, Yulia V; Shelukhina, Irina V; Dyachenko, Igor A; Palikov, Victor A; Palikova, Yulia A; Murashev, Arkadii N; Kozlov, Sergey A; Stensvåg, Klara; Andreev, Yaroslav A

    2017-02-17

    The transient receptor potential ankyrin-repeat 1 (TRPA1) is an important player in pain and inflammatory pathways. It is a promising target for novel drug development for the treatment of a number of pathological states. A novel peptide producing a significant potentiating effect on allyl isothiocyanate- and diclofenac-induced currents of TRPA1 was isolated from the venom of sea anemone Metridium senile. It is a 35-amino acid peptide cross-linked by two disulfide bridges named τ-AnmTX Ms 9a-1 (short name Ms 9a-1) according to a structure similar to other sea anemone peptides belonging to structural group 9a. The structures of the two genes encoding the different precursor proteins of Ms 9a-1 were determined. Peptide Ms 9a-1 acted as a positive modulator of TRPA1 in vitro but did not cause pain or thermal hyperalgesia when injected into the hind paw of mice. Intravenous injection of Ms 9a-1 (0.3 mg/kg) produced a significant decrease in the nociceptive and inflammatory response to allyl isothiocyanate (the agonist of TRPA1) and reversed CFA (Complete Freund's Adjuvant)-induced inflammation and thermal hyperalgesia. Taken together these data support the hypothesis that Ms 9a-1 potentiates the response of TRPA1 to endogenous agonists followed by persistent functional loss of TRPA1-expressing neurons. We can conclude that TRPA1 potentiating may be useful as a therapeutic approach as Ms 9a-1 produces significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects in mice models of pain.

  10. Fabrication of nanoscale patterns in lithium fluoride crystal using a 13.5 nm Schwarzschild objective and a laser produced plasma source.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Mu, Baozhong; Jiang, Li; Zhu, Jingtao; Yi, Shengzhen; Wang, Zhanshan; He, Pengfei

    2011-12-01

    Lithium fluoride (LiF) crystal is a radiation sensitive material widely used as EUV and soft x-ray detector. The LiF-based detector has high resolution, in principle limited by the point defect size, large field of view, and wide dynamic range. Using LiF crystal as an imaging detector, a resolution of 900 nm was achieved by a projection imaging of test meshes with a Schwarzschild objective operating at 13.5 nm. In addition, by imaging of a pinhole illuminated by the plasma, an EUV spot of 1.5 μm diameter in the image plane of the objective was generated, which accomplished direct writing of color centers with resolution of 800 nm. In order to avoid sample damage and contamination due to the influence of huge debris flux produced by the plasma source, a spherical normal-incidence condenser was used to collect EUV radiation. Together with a description of experimental results, the development of the Schwarzschild objective, the influence of condenser on energy density and the alignment of the imaging system are also reported.

  11. Oral Administration of Live Exopolysaccharide-Producing Pediococcus parvulus, but Not Purified Exopolysaccharide, Suppressed Enterobacteriaceae without Affecting Bacterial Diversity in Ceca of Mice

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jie; Öste, Rickard; Holst, Olle; Molin, Göran

    2013-01-01

    Growing evidence indicates that the gut microbiota could have an important role in the development of diet- and lifestyle-induced diseases. It has been shown that modulation of the gut microbiota by means of probiotics and prebiotics could improve host health. An oat-based product fermented by the exopolysaccharide (EPS)-producing organism Pediococcus parvulus 2.6 has been reported to have a bifidogenic effect. To find out whether the effect could be attributed to the EPS or the bacterium, mice were fed a diet supplemented with 2% purified EPS or 108 CFU/g of live P. parvulus 2.6 for 6 weeks. Both supplementations altered the gut microbiota composition but in different directions. Purified EPS not only significantly lowered the microbial diversity (P < 0.001) but decreased the bifidobacterial population (P = 0.01). In contrast, the live EPS-producing bacterium P. parvulus 2.6 antagonized Enterobacteriaceae without disturbing the homeostasis of the cecal microbiota. PMID:23770909

  12. Trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid reduces neutral lipid content and may affect cryotolerance of in vitro-produced crossbred bovine embryos

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Due to high neutral lipids accumulation in the cytoplasm, in vitro-produced embryos from Bos primigenius indicus and their crosses are more sensitive to chilling and cryopreservation than those from Bos primigenius taurus. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on the development and cryotolerance of crossbred Bos primigenius taurus x Bos primigenius indicus embryos produced in vitro, and cultured in the presence of fetal calf serum. Bovine zygotes (n = 1,692) were randomly assigned to one of the following treatment groups: 1) Control, zygotes cultured in Charles Rosenkrans 2 amino acid (CR2aa) medium (n = 815) or 2) CLA, zygotes cultured in CR2aa medium supplemented with 100 μmol/L of trans-10, cis-12 CLA (n = 877). Embryo development (cleavage and blastocyst rates evaluated at days 3 and 8 of culture, respectively), lipid content at morula stage (day 5) and blastocyst cryotolerance (re-expansion and hatching rates, evaluated 24 and 72 h post-thawing, respectively) were compared between groups. Additionally, selected mRNA transcripts were measured by Real–Time PCR in blastocyst stage. Results The CLA treatment had no effect on cleavage and blastocyst rates, or on mRNA levels for genes related to cellular stress and apoptosis. On the other hand, abundance of mRNA for the 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate 0-acyltransferase-encoding gene (AGPAT), which is involved in triglycerides synthesis, and consequently neutral lipid content, were reduced by CLA treatment. A significant increase was observed in the re-expansion rate of embryos cultured with trans-10, cis-12 CLA when compared to control (56.3 vs. 34.4%, respectively, P = 0.002). However, this difference was not observed in the hatching rate (16.5 vs. 14.0%, respectively, P = 0.62). Conclusions The supplementation with trans-10, cis-12 CLA isomer in culture medium reduced the lipid content of in vitro produced

  13. SU-E-T-554: Monte Carlo Calculation of Source Terms and Attenuation Lengths for Neutrons Produced by 50–200 MeV Protons On Brass

    SciTech Connect

    Ramos-Mendez, J; Faddegon, B; Paganetti, H

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: We used TOPAS (TOPAS wraps and extends Geant4 for medical physicists) to compare Geant4 physics models with published data for neutron shielding calculations. Subsequently, we calculated the source terms and attenuation lengths (shielding data) of the total ambient dose equivalent (TADE) in concrete for neutrons produced by protons in brass. Methods: Stage1: The Bertini and Binary nuclear models available in Geant4 were compared with published attenuation at depth of the TADE in concrete and iron. Stage2: Shielding data of the TADE in concrete was calculated for 50– 200 MeV proton beams on brass. Stage3: Shielding data from Stage2 was extrapolated for 235 MeV proton beams. This data was used in a point-line-source analytical model to calculate the ambient dose per unit therapeutic dose at two locations inside one treatment room at the Francis H Burr Proton Therapy Center. Finally, we compared these results with experimental data and full TOPAS simulations. Results: At larger angles (∼130o) the TADE in concrete calculated with the Bertini model was about 9 times larger than that calculated with the Binary model. The attenuation length in concrete calculated with the Binary model agreed with published data within 7%±0.4% (statistical uncertainty) for the deepest regions and 5%±0.1% for shallower regions. For iron the agreement was within 3%±0.1%. The ambient dose per therapeutic dose calculated with the Binary model, relative to the experimental data, was a ratio of 0.93±0.16 and 1.23±0.24 for two locations. The analytical model overestimated the dose by four orders of magnitude. These differences are attributed to the complexity of the geometry. Conclusion: The Binary and Bertini models gave comparable results, with the Binary model giving the best agreement with published data at large angle. Shielding data we calculated using the Binary model is useful for fast shielding calculations with other analytical models. This work was supported by

  14. Calcium sources and their interaction with the different levels of non-phytate phosphorus affect performance and bone mineralization in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Hamdi, M; Solà-Oriol, D; Davin, R; Perez, J F

    2015-09-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the influence of different Ca sources (limestone, Ca chloride, and Lipocal, a fat-encapsulated tricalcium phosphate, TCP) in conjunction with 4 dietary levels of non-phytate P (NPP) on performance, ileal digestibility of Ca and P, and bone mineralization in broiler chickens. Calcium sources were also evaluated in vitro to measure acid-binding capacity (ABC) and Ca solubility at different pH values. Ca chloride showed the highest solubility of Ca, with TCP showing the highest ABC. Ross male broiler-chicks were sorted by BW at 1 d post-hatch and assigned to 5 cages per diet with 5 birds per cage. Twelve diets were arranged in a 3×4 factorial of the 3 Ca sources and 4 levels of NPP (0.3%, 0.35%, 0.4% or 0.45%) consisting of 4 added P levels (Ca(H2PO4)2) with a high dose of phytase (1,150 U/kg) in all diets. On d 14 post-hatch, 3 birds were euthanized, and ileal digesta and the right tibia were collected to determine ileal Ca and P digestibility and bone mineralization, respectively. Feed intake (FI) and weight gain (WG) on d 14 was higher (P<0.01) with TCP and limestone than with Ca chloride. Added P increased the tibia weight and tibia ash content in chicks fed TCP up to 0.4% NPP and limestone up to 0.35% NPP. Calcium ileal digestibility was higher (P<0.01) with Ca chloride (73.7%) than with limestone (67.1%) or TCP (66.8%), which increased (P<0.05) with added levels of P from monocalcium phosphate. Phosphorus ileal digestibility was not affected by the Ca source and increased (P<0.001) with added levels of NPP. It can be concluded that starting broilers responded better to low-soluble Ca sources compared to high-soluble sources. A level of 0.35%-0.40% NPP with a high dose of phytase (1,150 U/kg) in diets including limestone or TCP is sufficient to guarantee performance and bone formation for broiler chickens from d 0 to d 14.

  15. New Insights Into the Heat Sources of Mantle Plumes, or: Where Does all the Heat Come From, Heat Producing Elements, Advective or Conductive Heat Flow?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rushmer, T.; Beier, C.; Turner, S.

    2007-12-01

    Melting anomalies in the Earth's upper mantle have often been attributed to the presence of mantle plumes that may originate in the lower mantle, possibly from the core-mantle boundary. Globally, mantle plumes exhibit a large range in buoyancy flux that which is proportional to their temperature and volume. Plumes with higher buoyancy fluxes should have higher temperatures and experience higher degrees of partial melting. Excess heat in mantle plumes could reflect either a) an enrichment of the heat producing elements (HPE: U, Th, K) in their mantle source leading to an increase of heat production by radioactive decay or b) advective or conductive heat transport across the core-mantle boundary. The advective transport of heat may result in a physical contribution of material from the core to the lower mantle. If core material is incorporated into the lower mantle, mantle plumes with a higher buoyancy flux should have higher core tracers, e.g. increased 186Os and Fe concentrations. Geophysical and dynamic modelling indicate that at least Afar, Easter, Hawaii, Louisville and Samoa may all originate at the core-mantle boundary. These plumes encompass the whole range of known buoyancy fluxes from 1.2 Mgs -1(Afar) to 6.5 Mgs -1 (Hawaii) providing evidence that the buoyancy flux is largely independent of other geophysical parameters. In an effort to explore whether the heat producing elements are the cause of excess heat we looked for correlations between fractionation corrected concentrations of the HPE and buoyancy flux. Our results suggest that there is no correlation between HPE concentrations and buoyancy flux (with and without an additional correction for variable degrees of partial melting). As anticipated, K, Th and U are positively correlated with each other (e.g. Hawaii, Iceland and Galapagos have significantly lower concentrations than e.g. Tristan da Cunha, the Canary Islands and the Azores). We also find no correlation between currently available Fe

  16. Flavohaemoglobin HmpX from Erwinia chrysanthemi confers nitrosative stress tolerance and affects the plant hypersensitive reaction by intercepting nitric oxide produced by the host.

    PubMed

    Boccara, Martine; Mills, Catherine E; Zeier, Jürgen; Anzi, Chiara; Lamb, Chris; Poole, Robert K; Delledonne, Massimo

    2005-07-01

    Host cells respond to infection by generating nitric oxide (NO) as a cytotoxic weapon to facilitate killing of invading microbes. Bacterial flavohaemoglobins are well-known scavengers of NO and play a crucial role in protecting animal pathogens from nitrosative stress during infection. Erwinia chrysanthemi, which causes macerating diseases in a wide variety of plants, possesses a flavohaemoglobin (HmpX) whose function in plant pathogens has remained unclear. Here we show that HmpX consumes NO and prevents inhibition by NO of cell respiration, indicating a role in protection from nitrosative stress. Furthermore, infection of Saintpaulia ionantha plants with an HmpX-deficient mutant of E. chrysanthemi revealed that the lack of NO scavenging activity causes the accumulation of unusually high levels of NO in host tissue and triggers hypersensitive cell death. Introduction of the wild-type hmpX gene in an incompatible strain of Pseudomonas syringae had a dramatic effect on the hypersensitive cell death in soya bean cell suspensions, and markedly reduced the development of macroscopic symptoms in Arabidopsis thaliana plants. These observations indicate that HmpX not only protects against nitrosative stress but also attenuates host hypersensitive reaction during infection by intercepting NO produced by the plant for the execution of the hypersensitive cell death programme.

  17. Silencing of ecdysone receptor, insect intestinal mucin and sericotropin genes by bacterially produced double-stranded RNA affects larval growth and development in Plutella xylostella and Helicoverpa armigera.

    PubMed

    Israni, B; Rajam, M V

    2017-04-01

    RNA interference mediated gene silencing, which is triggered by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), has become a important tool for functional genomics studies in various systems, including insects. Bacterially produced dsRNA employs the use of a bacterial strain lacking in RNaseIII activity and harbouring a vector with dual T7 promoter sites, which allow the production of intact dsRNA molecules. Here, we report an assessment of the functional relevance of the ecdysone receptor, insect intestinal mucin and sericotropin genes through silencing by dsRNA in two lepidopteran insect pests, Helicoverpa armigera and Plutella xylostella, both of which cause serious crop losses. Oral feeding of dsRNA led to significant reduction in transcripts of the target insect genes, which caused significant larval mortality with various moulting anomalies and an overall developmental delay. We also found a significant decrease in reproductive potential in female moths, with a drop in egg laying and compromised egg hatching from treated larvae as compared to controls. dsRNA was stable in the insect gut and was efficiently processed into small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), thus accounting for the phenotypes observed in the present work. The study revealed the importance of these genes in core insect processes, which are essential for insect development and survival.

  18. Hydrogen peroxide produced by glucose oxidase affects the performance of laccase cathodes in glucose/oxygen fuel cells: FAD-dependent glucose dehydrogenase as a replacement.

    PubMed

    Milton, Ross D; Giroud, Fabien; Thumser, Alfred E; Minteer, Shelley D; Slade, Robert C T

    2013-11-28

    Hydrogen peroxide production by glucose oxidase (GOx) and its negative effect on laccase performance have been studied. Simultaneously, FAD-dependent glucose dehydrogenase (FAD-GDH), an O2-insensitive enzyme, has been evaluated as a substitute. Experiments focused on determining the effect of the side reaction of GOx between its natural electron acceptor O2 (consumed) and hydrogen peroxide (produced) in the electrolyte. Firstly, oxygen consumption was investigated by both GOx and FAD-GDH in the presence of substrate. Relatively high electrocatalytic currents were obtained with both enzymes. O2 consumption was observed with immobilized GOx only, whilst O2 concentration remained stable for the FAD-GDH. Dissolved oxygen depletion effects on laccase electrode performances were investigated with both an oxidizing and a reducing electrode immersed in a single compartment. In the presence of glucose, dramatic decreases in cathodic currents were recorded when laccase electrodes were combined with a GOx-based electrode only. Furthermore, it appeared that the major loss of performance of the cathode was due to the increase of H2O2 concentration in the bulk solution induced laccase inhibition. 24 h stability experiments suggest that the use of O2-insensitive FAD-GDH as to obviate in situ peroxide production by GOx is effective. Open-circuit potentials of 0.66 ± 0.03 V and power densities of 122.2 ± 5.8 μW cm(-2) were observed for FAD-GDH/laccase biofuel cells.

  19. Characterization of a Thermotolerant Phytase Produced by Rhizopus microsporus var. microsporus Biofilm on an Inert Support Using Sugarcane Bagasse as Carbon Source.

    PubMed

    Sato, Vanessa Sayuri; Jorge, João Atílio; Guimarães, Luis Henrique Souza

    2016-06-01

    The Rhizopus microsporus var. microsporus biofilm was able to produce increased levels of an extracellular thermotolerant phytase using polyethylene and viscose as an inert support in both modified NBRIP medium and modified Khanna medium containing sugarcane bagasse as the carbon source. The enzyme production was strictly regulated by the phosphorus content with optimal production at 0.5 mM of sodium phytate and KH2PO4. The extracellular phytase, RMPhy1, was purified 4.18-fold with 4.78 % recovery using DEAE-cellulose and CM-cellulose. A single protein band with a molecular mass of 35.4 kDa was obtained when the samples were subjected to 10 % SDS-PAGE. The optimum temperature for activity was 55 °C and the optimum pH was 4.5. R. microsporus var. microsporus phytase exhibited high stability at 30 and 40 °C with a half-life of 115 min at 60 °C. The enzyme activity increased in the presence of Ca (2+) and was inhibited by Zn(2+), arsenate, and sodium phosphate. Phytase demonstrated high substrate specificity for sodium phytate with K m = 0.72 mM and V max = 94.55 U/mg of protein and for p-NPP with K m = 0.04 mM and V max = 106.38 U/mg of protein. The enzyme also hydrolyzed ATP, AMPc, glucose 6-phosphate, glucose 1-phosphate, and UDPG. This is the first report on phytase characterization delivered with biofilm technology. The properties of the enzyme account for its high potential for use in biotechnology and the possibility of application in different industrial sectors as feed in the future.

  20. 104 FACTORS AFFECTING PREGNANCY RATES AND EMBRYO/FETAL LOSSES IN RECIPIENTS RECEIVING IN VITRO-PRODUCED EMBRYOS BY FIXED-TIME EMBRYO TRANSFER.

    PubMed

    Tribulo, A; Cedeño, A; Bernal, B; Andrada, S; Barajas, J L; Ortega, J; Oviedo, J M; Tribulo, H; Tribulo, R; Mapletoft, R J; Bó, G A

    2016-01-01

    A retrospective analysis evaluated pregnancy rates and embryo losses with in vitro-produced embryos in a commercial embryo transfer program on 15 different beef farms. Recipients were beef cows and heifers (n=1841) that were synchronized with 5 different protocols and transferred at a fixed-time (FTET). Recipients were examined by ultrasonography on Day 0, and those with a corpus luteum (CL) or a follicle ≥8mm in diameter and with body condition score 2 to 4 (1 to 5 scale) were synchronized. The synchronization treatments were as follows. (T1) Recipients received an intravaginal device with 0.5g of progesterone plus 2mg of oestradiol benzoate on Day 0; device removal, plus 500μg of cloprostenol (prostaglandin F2α), 400IU of eCG, and 0.5mg of oestradiol cypionate on Day 8; and FTET on Day 17. (T2) This treatment was similar to T1 but 1mg of oestradiol cypionate was injected at device removal instead of 0.5mg of oestradiol cypionate. (T3) This treatment was similar to T1 except that animals were tail-painted on Day 8 and observed on Day 10. Those with the tail-paint intact on Day 10 received 100μg of gonadorelin (gonadotropin-releasing hormone) and all recipients were FTET on Day 17. (T4) Recipients received a progesterone device on Day 0; device removal, prostaglandin F2α, and eCG on Day 5; gonadotropin-releasing hormone on Day 8; and FTET on Day 15. (T5) Recipients received a progesterone device and 2mg of oestradiol benzoate on Day 0; device removal, prostaglandin F2α, and eCG on Day 6; gonadotropin-releasing hormone on Day 9; and FTET on Day 16. On the day of FTET all recipients with CL ≥18mm in diameter (G1), ≥16 and <18mm in diameter (G2), and ≥14mm and <16mm in diameter (G3) received in vitro-produced fresh embryos. Pregnancy was diagnosed by ultrasonography at 30 and 60 days of gestation, and data were analysed by logistic regression. The overall proportion of recipients synchronized that were FTET was 80.8% (1487/1841), with a 30-day pregnancy