Science.gov

Sample records for affected sources classified

  1. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Zzzzz of... - Compliance Certifications for New and Existing Affected Sources Classified as Large Iron and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Existing Affected Sources Classified as Large Iron and Steel Foundries 4 Table 4 to Subpart ZZZZZ of Part... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Iron and Steel Foundries Area Sources Pt. 63, Subpt... Affected Sources Classified as Large Iron and Steel Foundries As required by § 63.10900(b),...

  2. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Zzzzz of... - Compliance Certifications for New and Existing Affected Sources Classified as Large Iron and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Existing Affected Sources Classified as Large Iron and Steel Foundries 4 Table 4 to Subpart ZZZZZ of Part... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Iron and Steel Foundries Area Sources Pt. 63, Subpt... Affected Sources Classified as Large Iron and Steel Foundries As required by § 63.10900(b),...

  3. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Zzzzz of... - Compliance Certifications for New and Existing Affected Sources Classified as Large Iron and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Existing Affected Sources Classified as Large Iron and Steel Foundries 4 Table 4 to Subpart ZZZZZ of Part... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Iron and Steel Foundries Area Sources Pt. 63, Subpt... Affected Sources Classified as Large Iron and Steel Foundries As required by § 63.10900(b),...

  4. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Zzzzz of... - Compliance Certifications for New and Existing Affected Sources Classified as Large Iron and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Existing Affected Sources Classified as Large Iron and Steel Foundries 4 Table 4 to Subpart ZZZZZ of Part... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Iron and Steel Foundries Area Sources Pt. 63, Subpt... Affected Sources Classified as Large Iron and Steel Foundries As required by § 63.10900(b),...

  5. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Zzzzz of... - Applicability of General Provisions to New and Existing Affected Sources Classified as Large...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 14 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability of General Provisions to New and Existing Affected Sources Classified as Large Foundries 3 Table 3 to Subpart ZZZZZ of Part 63... Affected Sources Classified as Large Foundries As required in § 63.10900(a), you must meet each...

  6. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Zzzzz of... - Procedures for Establishing Operating Limits for New Affected Sources Classified as Large Foundries

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 14 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procedures for Establishing Operating Limits for New Affected Sources Classified as Large Foundries 2 Table 2 to Subpart ZZZZZ of Part 63... Sources Classified as Large Foundries As required in § 63.10898(k), you must establish operating...

  7. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Zzzzz of... - Applicability of General Provisions to New and Existing Affected Sources Classified as Large...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicability of General Provisions to New and Existing Affected Sources Classified as Large Foundries 3 Table 3 to Subpart ZZZZZ of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS...

  8. Classifying the Zoo of Ultraluminous X-ray Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soria, Roberto; Cropper, Mark; Motch, Christian

    2005-06-01

    Ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) are likely to include different physical types of objects. We discuss some possible subclasses, reviewing the properties of a sample of ULXs recently observed by Chandra and XMM-Newton. Sources with an isotropic X-ray luminosity up to a few times 1039 erg s-1 are consistent with ``normal'' stellar-mass X-ray binaries (mostly high-mass X-ray binaries in star-forming regions). Higher black hole (BH) masses (≈ 50-100 M⊙) may be the end product of massive stellar evolution in peculiar environments: they may explain ULXs with luminosities ≈ 1-2 × 1040 erg s-1. Only a handful of ULXs require a true intermediate-mass BH (M ⪆ 500 M⊙). Finally, a small subclass of ULXs shows flaring or rapid variability in its power-law spectral component.

  9. Classifying X-ray Sources from the Chandra Galactic Bulge Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hynes, Robert

    2012-09-01

    The completion of the Galactic Bulge Survey (GBS) by Chandra in AO-13 identified 400 new X-ray sources (on top of the 1200 already known), many of which are expected to have accessible optical counterparts. Wide-field variability studies can be an extremely powerful tool to classify these sources. In two nights with the new NOAO DECam we can obtain lightcurves of ALL of the optically accessible objects, together with another 400 GBS sources from earlier AOs, and about 1700 additional fainter objects from the Chandra Source Catalog. We therefore propose a joint Archival-NOAO study to obtain these lightcurves, use them to classify the X-ray sources, and pick out ellipsoidal variations and eclipses from the many quiescent low-mass X-ray binaries predicted to be accessible.

  10. An evaluation of supervised classifiers for indirectly detecting salt-affected areas at irrigation scheme level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, Sybrand Jacobus; van Niekerk, Adriaan

    2016-07-01

    Soil salinity often leads to reduced crop yield and quality and can render soils barren. Irrigated areas are particularly at risk due to intensive cultivation and secondary salinization caused by waterlogging. Regular monitoring of salt accumulation in irrigation schemes is needed to keep its negative effects under control. The dynamic spatial and temporal characteristics of remote sensing can provide a cost-effective solution for monitoring salt accumulation at irrigation scheme level. This study evaluated a range of pan-fused SPOT-5 derived features (spectral bands, vegetation indices, image textures and image transformations) for classifying salt-affected areas in two distinctly different irrigation schemes in South Africa, namely Vaalharts and Breede River. The relationship between the input features and electro conductivity measurements were investigated using regression modelling (stepwise linear regression, partial least squares regression, curve fit regression modelling) and supervised classification (maximum likelihood, nearest neighbour, decision tree analysis, support vector machine and random forests). Classification and regression trees and random forest were used to select the most important features for differentiating salt-affected and unaffected areas. The results showed that the regression analyses produced weak models (<0.4 R squared). Better results were achieved using the supervised classifiers, but the algorithms tend to over-estimate salt-affected areas. A key finding was that none of the feature sets or classification algorithms stood out as being superior for monitoring salt accumulation at irrigation scheme level. This was attributed to the large variations in the spectral responses of different crops types at different growing stages, coupled with their individual tolerances to saline conditions.

  11. QUANTIFYING QUASAR VARIABILITY AS PART OF A GENERAL APPROACH TO CLASSIFYING CONTINUOUSLY VARYING SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    Kozlowski, Szymon; Kochanek, Christopher S.; Udalski, A.; Wyrzykowski, L.; Soszynski, I.; Szymanski, M. K.; Kubiak, M.; Pietrzynski, G.; Szewczyk, O.; Ulaczyk, K.; Poleski, R. E-mail: ckochanek@astronomy.ohio-state.ed

    2010-01-10

    Robust fast methods to classify variable light curves in large sky surveys are becoming increasingly important. While it is relatively straightforward to identify common periodic stars and particular transient events (supernovae, novae, microlensing events), there is no equivalent for non-periodic continuously varying sources (quasars, aperiodic stellar variability). In this paper, we present a fast method for modeling and classifying such sources. We demonstrate the method using approx86, 000 variable sources from the OGLE-II survey of the LMC and approx2700 mid-IR-selected quasar candidates from the OGLE-III survey of the LMC and SMC. We discuss the location of common variability classes in the parameter space of the model. In particular, we show that quasars occupy a distinct region of variability space, providing a simple quantitative approach to the variability selection of quasars.

  12. Basic Emotions in the Nencki Affective Word List (NAWL BE): New Method of Classifying Emotional Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Wierzba, Małgorzata; Riegel, Monika; Wypych, Marek; Jednoróg, Katarzyna; Turnau, Paweł; Grabowska, Anna; Marchewka, Artur

    2015-01-01

    The Nencki Affective Word List (NAWL) has recently been introduced as a standardized database of Polish words suitable for studying various aspects of language and emotions. Though the NAWL was originally based on the most commonly used dimensional approach, it is not the only way of studying emotions. Another framework is based on discrete emotional categories. Since the two perspectives are recognized as complementary, the aim of the present study was to supplement the NAWL database by the addition of categories corresponding to basic emotions. Thus, 2902 Polish words from the NAWL were presented to 265 subjects, who were instructed to rate them according to the intensity of each of the five basic emotions: happiness, anger, sadness, fear and disgust. The general characteristics of the present word database, as well as the relationships between the studied variables are shown to be consistent with typical patterns found in previous studies using similar databases for different languages. Here we present the Basic Emotions in the Nencki Affective Word List (NAWL BE) as a database of verbal material suitable for highly controlled experimental research. To make the NAWL more convenient to use, we introduce a comprehensive method of classifying stimuli to basic emotion categories. We discuss the advantages of our method in comparison to other methods of classification. Additionally, we provide an interactive online tool (http://exp.lobi.nencki.gov.pl/nawl-analysis) to help researchers browse and interactively generate classes of stimuli to meet their specific requirements. PMID:26148193

  13. A Combined Stable Isotope And Machine Learning Approach To Quantify And Classify Of Nitrate Pollution Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boeckx, P. F.; Xue, D.; De Baets, B.

    2011-12-01

    Stable isotope analyses of NO3- (δ15N and δ18O) are widely used to determine the sources of nitrate pollution in water. The objective of our study was (1) to quantify NO3- sources in surface water and to classify surface waters in NO3- pollution classes via a combined stable isotope and machine learning approach; and (2) to assess a decision tree model with physicochemical data for retrieving the latter classification. A logical approach has been followed: (1) 2-year monthly sampling of 30 sampling points from different river basins in Belgium, which were classified into 5 different NO3- pollution classes using experts knowledge (Agriculture (A), Agriculture with groundwater compensation (AGC), Combination of agriculture and horticulture (AH), Greenhouses in an agricultural area (G) and Households (H)); (2) estimating proportional NO3- source contribution per NO3- pollution class by applying a Bayesian isotopic mixing model (SIAR) for measured isotopic data of NO3-; (3) re-classifying the 30 sampling points into NO3- pollution classes via a k-means clustering of the SIAR outputs; and (4) building a decision tree model using physicochemical data to retrieve expert knowledge and k-means clustering classification. SIAR successfully estimated proportional contribution ranges of five potential NO3- sources: NO3- in precipitation, NO3- in fertilizer, NH4+ in fertilizer and precipitation, manure and sewage and soil N. For classes A, AGC, AH and H in winter manure and sewage were major (40 - 60%), NO3- in precipitation minor (< 10%), and the other three sources intermediate (10 - 30%) sources. For class G in winter manure and sewage was a dominant source (50%) and the other four sources contributed in an equal range (10 - 20%). The proportional source contributions shifted in summer. Manure and sewage was the dominant source (30 - 40%) for classes A and AH. For class G the source contributions of manure and sewage and NO3- in precipitation were dominant (30% each) and

  14. Artificial Neural Networks as a Tool to Classify the 2FGL Unassociated Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvetti, David; Fermi-LAT Collaboration

    2013-04-01

    The Fermi Large Area Telescope Second Source Catalog (2FGL) lists positional, spectral, and temporal properties for 1873 gamma-ray sources detected during the first 24 months of operation in the 100 MeV to 300 GeV energy band. Approximately 30% of these sources remain "unassociated", i.e. do not have any plausible known counterpart. The improved statistics from the LAT have enabled us to characterize each source with remarkable detail. We report on the use of Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) as a very promising method for understanding the nature of Fermi-LAT unassociated sources. This technique uses identified objects as a training sample, learning to distinguish each source class on the basis of parameters that describe its gamma-ray properties. By applying the algorithm to unknown objects, such as the unassociated sources, it is possible to quantify their probability of belonging to a specific class. We will present the ANN algorithm and discuss its application for classifying the 2FGL unassociated sources, its performance, and the advantages and disadvantages as compared with other classification schemes.

  15. Identification of Functional Modules by Integration of Multiple Data Sources Using a Bayesian Network Classifier

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jinlian; Zuo, Yiming; Liu, Lun; Man, Yangao; Tadesse, Mahlet G.; Ressom, Habtom W

    2014-01-01

    Background Prediction of functional modules is indispensable for detecting protein deregulation in human complex diseases such as cancer. Bayesian network (BN) is one of the most commonly used models to integrate heterogeneous data from multiple sources such as protein domain, interactome, functional annotation, genome-wide gene expression, and the literature. Methods and Results In this paper, we present a BN classifier that is customized to: 1) increase the ability to integrate diverse information from different sources, 2) effectively predict protein-protein interactions, 3) infer aberrant networks with scale-free and small world properties, and 4) group molecules into functional modules or pathways based on the primary function and biological features. Application of this model on discovering protein biomarkers of hepatocelluar carcinoma (HCC) leads to the identification of functional modules that provide insights into the mechanism of the development and progression of HCC. These functional modules include cell cycle deregulation, increased angiogenesis (e.g., vascular endothelial growth factor, blood vessel morphogenesis), oxidative metabolic alterations, and aberrant activation of signaling pathways involved in cellular proliferation, survival, and differentiation. Conclusion The discoveries and conclusions derived from our customized BN classifier are consistent with previously published results. The proposed approach for determining BN structure facilitates the integration of heterogeneous data from multiple sources to elucidate the mechanisms of complex diseases. PMID:24736851

  16. Classifying Sources Influencing Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) Using Artificial Neural Network (ANN)

    PubMed Central

    Mad Saad, Shaharil; Melvin Andrew, Allan; Md Shakaff, Ali Yeon; Mohd Saad, Abdul Rahman; Muhamad Yusof @ Kamarudin, Azman; Zakaria, Ammar

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring indoor air quality (IAQ) is deemed important nowadays. A sophisticated IAQ monitoring system which could classify the source influencing the IAQ is definitely going to be very helpful to the users. Therefore, in this paper, an IAQ monitoring system has been proposed with a newly added feature which enables the system to identify the sources influencing the level of IAQ. In order to achieve this, the data collected has been trained with artificial neural network or ANN—a proven method for pattern recognition. Basically, the proposed system consists of sensor module cloud (SMC), base station and service-oriented client. The SMC contain collections of sensor modules that measure the air quality data and transmit the captured data to base station through wireless network. The IAQ monitoring system is also equipped with IAQ Index and thermal comfort index which could tell the users about the room’s conditions. The results showed that the system is able to measure the level of air quality and successfully classify the sources influencing IAQ in various environments like ambient air, chemical presence, fragrance presence, foods and beverages and human activity. PMID:26007724

  17. Source-emission testing of classified-waste incinerator, Griffiss AFB, New York. Final report, 19-23 September 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, P.T.

    1989-04-01

    At the request of 416 Strategic Hospital/SGPB, personnel of the AFOEHL Air Quality Function conducted source-emission testing for particulates, hydrogen chloride, and opacity on the classified-waste incinerator at Griffiss AFB. The New York Department of Environmental Conservation (NYDEC) required testing for permit compliance. Particulate emissions were well above the emission limits allowed by the State of New York. Action is recommended to bring the classified waste incinerator into compliance.

  18. Should any genetic defect affecting α-granules in platelets be classified as gray platelet syndrome?

    PubMed

    Nurden, Alan T; Nurden, Paquita

    2016-07-01

    There is much current interest in the role of the platelet storage pool of α-granule proteins both in hemostasis and non-hemostatic events. As well as in the arrest of bleeding, the secreted proteins participate in wound healing, inflammation, and innate immunity while in pathology they may be actors in arterial thrombosis and atherosclerosis as well as cancer and metastasis. For a long time, gray platelet syndrome (GPS) has been regarded as the classic inherited platelet disorder caused by an absence of α-granules and their contents. While NBEAL2 is the major source of mutations in GPS, other gene variants may give rise to significant α-granule deficiencies in platelets. These include GATA1, VPS33B, or VIPAS39 in the arthrogryposis, renal dysfunction, and cholestasis (ARC) syndrome and now GFI1B. Nevertheless, many phenotypic differences are associated with mutations in these genes. This critical review was aimed to assess genotype/phenotype variability in disorders of platelet α-granule biogenesis and to urge caution in grouping all genetic defects of α-granules as GPS. Am. J. Hematol. 91:714-718, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26971401

  19. Metabonomics classifies pathways affected by bioactive compounds. Artificial neural network classification of NMR spectra of plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Ott, Karl-Heinz; Araníbar, Nelly; Singh, Bijay; Stockton, Gerald W

    2003-03-01

    The biochemical mode-of-action (MOA) for herbicides and other bioactive compounds can be rapidly and simultaneously classified by automated pattern recognition of the metabonome that is embodied in the 1H NMR spectrum of a crude plant extract. The ca. 300 herbicides that are used in agriculture today affect less than 30 different biochemical pathways. In this report, 19 of the most interesting MOAs were automatically classified. Corn (Zea mays) plants were treated with various herbicides such as imazethapyr, glyphosate, sethoxydim, and diuron, which represent various biochemical modes-of-action such as inhibition of specific enzymes (acetohydroxy acid synthase [AHAS], protoporphyrin IX oxidase [PROTOX], 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase [EPSPS], acetyl CoA carboxylase [ACC-ase], etc.), or protein complexes (photosystems I and II), or major biological process such as oxidative phosphorylation, auxin transport, microtubule growth, and mitosis. Crude isolates from the treated plants were subjected to 1H NMR spectroscopy, and the spectra were classified by artificial neural network analysis to discriminate the herbicide modes-of-action. We demonstrate the use and refinement of the method, and present cross-validated assignments for the metabolite NMR profiles of over 400 plant isolates. The MOA screen also recognizes when a new mode-of-action is present, which is considered extremely important for the herbicide discovery process, and can be used to study deviations in the metabolism of compounds from a chemical synthesis program. The combination of NMR metabolite profiling and neural network classification is expected to be similarly relevant to other metabonomic profiling applications, such as in drug discovery. PMID:12590124

  20. Translator, Traitor, Source of Data: Classifying Translations of "Foreign Phrases" as an Awareness-Raising Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkinson, Brian

    1998-01-01

    A system for classifying (coding) translations of sentence-length or similar material is presented and illustrated with codings of entries in the "Dictionary of Foreign Phrases and Classical Quotations." Problems in coding are discussed, relating especially to intertextuality, intention, and ownership. The system is intended for pedagogic use, and…

  1. Source-emission testing of hospital and classified-waste incinerators, Plattsburgh AFB, New York. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Garrison, J.A.

    1988-07-01

    Source-emission testing for particulates and hydrogen chloride emissions was conducted on the USAF Hospital pathological incinerator at Plattsburgh AFB. This survey was requested to evaluate emissions with respect to a proposed New York State Standard for medical care facility-waste incinerators. The 380 BMW/MSS classified-waste incinerator was also tested because of concerns that similar emissions could be produced from this unit. Results indicate that the hospital incinerator did not meet the present air-emission standards or proposed standards with the exception of hydrogen chloride (HCl) emissions. The classified-waste incinerator met both standards with respect to visible emissions but did not meet the standards for particulate emissions. Although not required by present or proposed regulations, the classified waste incinerator was evaluated for HCl emissions; results indicate that this unit met the proposed HCl emissions standards for infectious waste incinerators. Since only one sample run of the three required by testing methods could be accomplished on the classified-waste unit, results should only be used as an indicator of performance and not as definite evidence of either meeting or failing to meet regulations.

  2. The role of local populations within a landscape context: defining and classifying sources and sinks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Runge, J.P.; Runge, M.C.; Nichols, J.D.

    2006-01-01

    The interaction of local populations has been the focus of an increasing number of studies in the past 30 years. The study of source-sink dynamics has especially generated much interest. Many of the criteria used to distinguish sources and sinks incorporate the process of apparent survival (i.e., the combined probability of true survival and site fidelity) but not emigration. These criteria implicitly treat emigration as mortality, thus biasing the classification of sources and sinks in a manner that could lead to flawed habitat management. Some of the same criteria require rather restrictive assumptions about population equilibrium that, when violated, can also generate misleading inference. Here, we expand on a criterion (denoted ?contribution? or Cr) that incorporates successful emigration in differentiating sources and sinks and that makes no restrictive assumptions about dispersal or equilibrium processes in populations of interest. The metric Cr is rooted in the theory of matrix population models, yet it also contains clearly specified parameters that have been estimated in previous empirical research. We suggest that estimates of emigration are important for delineating sources and sinks and, more generally, for evaluating how local populations interact to generate overall system dynamics. This suggestion has direct implications for issues such as species conservation and habitat management.

  3. Classifying IR sources in the SMC: 2MASS/MSX color-based identifications.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egan, M. P.; van Dyk, S. D.

    2000-12-01

    The Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) was observed in the mid-infrared by the Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) and in the near-IR by the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS). We have performed a cross-correlation of the MSX SMC point source catalog and the 2MASS point source catalog and find 236 matches. The colors of the sources correspond very well with sources seen by MSX/2MASS in the Large Magellanic Cloud (Egan et al. 2000 submitted). Using the identification scheme developed for the LMC, we identify a number of stellar populations and red nebulae, including main sequence stars, giant stars, red supergiants, carbon- and oxygen-rich asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, planetary nebulae, H II regions, and other dusty objects likely associated with early-type stars. The spatial distribution of the infrared SMC sources may contribute to understanding stellar formation and evolution in the SMC and its overall galactic evolution. Our combined mid- and near-infrared photometric baseline provides a powerful means of locating new objects in the SMC for future ground-based and space-based follow-up observations.

  4. The reactivation of associated information affects source monitoring.

    PubMed

    Ball, B Hunter; Marsh, Richard L; Meeks, J Thadeus; Hicks, Jason L

    2011-07-01

    In this study, we examined a source-monitoring phenomenon that arises from reactivated related information from the study phase. Three experiments showed that source attributions for target events were influenced not only by the target item itself, but also by studied information about related items. In Experiment 1, source memory for target items that have a high forward association value to a single related study item (e.g., credit) were affected by the source of the associated information (e.g., card), so that memory performance was better when associated items were presented in the same source rather than a different source. A similar effect occurred with bidirectional associates (Exp. 2), as well as with synonymous pairs of words (Exp. 3). We argue that the source information of the reactivated material can be commingled with information about a candidate during a source judgment at retrieval and thereby can affect performance. PMID:21286898

  5. 40 CFR 63.821 - Designation of affected sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... in 40 CFR 63.2, that complies with the criteria of paragraphs (b)(1) or (b)(2) on and after the... affected source at a facility that is a major source of HAP, as defined in 40 CFR 63.2, that complies with... ingredients prior to application; ink or coating mixing for viscosity adjustment, color tint or...

  6. 40 CFR 63.821 - Designation of affected sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... in 40 CFR 63.2, that complies with the criteria of paragraphs (b)(1) or (b)(2) on and after the... affected source at a facility that is a major source of HAP, as defined in 40 CFR 63.2, that complies with... apply solids-containing materials to the same web or substrate; or (B) The stand-alone equipment and...

  7. 40 CFR 63.821 - Designation of affected sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... in 40 CFR 63.2, that complies with the criteria of paragraphs (b)(1) or (b)(2) on and after the... affected source at a facility that is a major source of HAP, as defined in 40 CFR 63.2, that complies with... packaging rotogravure or wide-web flexographic printing presses at a facility plus any other equipment...

  8. 40 CFR 63.821 - Designation of affected sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... in 40 CFR 63.2, that complies with the criteria of paragraphs (b)(1) or (b)(2) on and after the... affected source at a facility that is a major source of HAP, as defined in 40 CFR 63.2, that complies with... packaging rotogravure or wide-web flexographic printing presses at a facility plus any other equipment...

  9. 40 CFR 63.821 - Designation of affected sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Designation of affected sources. 63.821 Section 63.821 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for the...

  10. Investigations on the Effective Use of a Neural Network Classifier for Source Attribution in the Indianapolis Urban Domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nathan, B.; Lauvaux, T.; Turnbull, J. C.; Sweeney, C.; Karion, A.; Richardson, S.; Miles, N. L.

    2015-12-01

    The problem of attributing atmospheric fossil fuel signatures to specific source contributors—i.e. sectors of the economy—from measured greenhouse gas concentrations is an important one to solve so that policy makers can best make educated regulatory decisions towards reducing any desired sector's carbon emissions. One approach for solving this attribution problem involves applying atmospheric inversions to flask measurements collected on communication towers. The precision of the inversions' attributions can be augmented through the addition of prior knowledge of source locations. Further, by including multiple species' concentrations in an analysis, unique signatures can be identified to help distinguish between nearby sources with similar characteristics. The analysis presented here expands upon this framework by incorporating a neural network classifier known as a self-organizing map to facilitate the identification of source signatures. Indianapolis is chosen as the urban domain. The Indianapolis Flux Experiment (INFLUX) flask collection towers serve as the measurement sites, and the source locations from Hestia—the high-resolution CO2 emission product—are used to spatially identify source areas of interest. The accuracy and sensitivity of the source attribution model is tested in the theoretical framework using Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs). Based on the OSSEs, the theoretical requirements are presented in terms of the characteristics of the gas species and the relative importance of their uniqueness related to individual sectors of economic activities. A first practical application of the method is presented for the INFLUX flask campaign, analyzing an unprecedented amount of flask samples at multiple site locations available over a single urban area.

  11. Effect of MSW source-classified collection on the emission of PCDDs/Fs and heavy metals from incineration in China.

    PubMed

    Shi, De-Zhi; Wu, Wei-Xiang; Lu, Sheng-Yong; Chen, Tong; Huang, Hui-Liang; Chen, Ying-Xu; Yan, Jian-Hua

    2008-05-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) source-classified collection represents a change in MSW management in China and other developing countries. Comparative experiments were performed to evaluate the effect of a newly established MSW source-classified collection system on the emission of PCDDs/Fs (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans) and heavy metals (HMs) from a full-scale incinerator in China. As a result of presorting and dewatering, the chlorine level, heavy metal and water content were lower, but heat value was higher in the source-classified MSW (classified MSW) as compared with the conventionally mixed collected MSW (mixed MSW). The generation of PCDDs/Fs in flue gas from the classified MSW incineration was 9.28 ng I-TEQ/Nm(3), only 69.4% of that from the mixed MSW incineration, and the final emission of PCDDs/Fs was only 0.12 ng I-TEQ/Nm(3), although activated carbon injection was reduced by 20%. The level of PCDDs/Fs in fly ash from the bag filter was 0.27 ng I-TEQ/g. These results indicated that the source-classified collection with pretreatment could improve the characteristics of MSW for incineration, and significantly decrease formation of PCDDs/Fs in MSW incineration. Furthermore, distributions of HMs such as Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, Cr, As, Ni, Hg in bottom ash and fly ash were investigated to assess the need for treatment of residual ash. PMID:17936503

  12. Influential sources affecting Bangkok adolescent body image perceptions.

    PubMed

    Thianthai, Chulanee

    2006-01-01

    The study of body image-related problems in non-Western countries is still very limited. Thus, this study aims to identify the main influential sources and show how they affect the body image perceptions of Bangkok adolescents. The researcher recruited 400 Thai male and female adolescents in Bangkok, attending high school to freshmen level, ranging from 16-19 years, to participate in this study. Survey questionnaires were distributed to every student and follow-up interviews conducted with 40 students. The findings showed that there are eight main influential sources respectively ranked from the most influential to the least influential: magazines, television, peer group, familial, fashion trend, the opposite gender, self-realization and health knowledge. Similar to those studies conducted in Western countries, more than half of the total percentage was the influence of mass media and peer groups. Bangkok adolescents also internalized Western ideal beauty through these mass media channels. Alike studies conducted in the West, there was similarities in the process of how these influential sources affect Bangkok adolescent body image perception, with the exception of familial source. In conclusion, taking the approach of identifying the main influential sources and understanding how they affect adolescent body image perceptions can help prevent adolescents from having unhealthy views and taking risky measures toward their bodies. More studies conducted in non-Western countries are needed in order to build a cultural sensitive program, catered to the body image problems occurring in adolescents within that particular society. PMID:17340854

  13. Analysis of the Variability of Classified and Unclassified Radiological Source term Inventories in the Rainier Mesa/Shoshone Mountain Area, Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, P; Zavarin, M

    2008-06-04

    It has been proposed that unclassified source terms used in RM/SM reactive transport modeling investigations should be based on yield-weighted source terms calculated using the RM/SM average source term from Bowen et al. (2001) and the unclassified announced yields reported in DOE/NV-209. This unclassified inventory is likely to be used in unclassified contaminant boundary calculations and is, thus, relevant to compare to the classified inventory. They have examined the classified radionuclide inventory produced by 73 underground nuclear tests conducted in the Rainier Mesa/Shoshone Mountain (RM/SM) area of the Nevada Test Site. The goals were to (1) evaluate the variability in classified radiological source terms among the 73 tests and (2) and compare that variability and inventory uncertainties to an average unclassified inventory (e.g. Bowen 2001). To evaluate source term variability among the 73 tests, radiological inventories were compared on two relative scales: geometric mean and yield-weighted geometric mean. Furthermore, radiological inventories were either decay corrected to a common date (9/23/1992) or the time zero (t{sub 0}) of each test. Thus, a total of four data sets were produced. The date of 9/23/1992 was chosen based on the date of the last underground nuclear test at the Nevada Test Site.

  14. Classifying Microorganisms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, William P.; Leyva, Kathryn J.; Lang, Michael; Goodmanis, Ben

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on an activity in which students sample air at school and generate ideas about how to classify the microorganisms they observe. The results are used to compare air quality among schools via the Internet. Supports the development of scientific inquiry and technology skills. (DDR)

  15. Source characterization of volatile organic compounds affecting the air quality in a coastal urban area of South Texas.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Marciano; Karnae, Saritha; John, Kuruvilla

    2008-09-01

    Selected Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) emitted from various anthropogenic sources including industries and motor vehicles act as primary precursors of ozone, while some VOC are classified as air toxic compounds. Significantly large VOC emission sources impact the air quality in Corpus Christi, Texas. This urban area is located in a semi-arid region of South Texas and is home to several large petrochemical refineries and industrial facilities along a busy ship-channel. The Texas Commission on Environmental Quality has setup two continuous ambient monitoring stations (CAMS 633 and 634) along the ship channel to monitor VOC concentrations in the urban atmosphere. The hourly concentrations of 46 VOC compounds were acquired from TCEQ for a comprehensive source apportionment study. The primary objective of this study was to identify and quantify the sources affecting the ambient air quality within this urban airshed. Principal Component Analysis/Absolute Principal Component Scores (PCA/APCS) was applied to the dataset. PCA identified five possible sources accounting for 69% of the total variance affecting the VOC levels measured at CAMS 633 and six possible sources affecting CAMS 634 accounting for 75% of the total variance. APCS identified natural gas emissions to be the major source contributor at CAMS 633 and it accounted for 70% of the measured VOC concentrations. The other major sources identified at CAMS 633 included flare emissions (12%), fugitive gasoline emissions (9%), refinery operations (7%), and vehicle exhaust (2%). At CAMS 634, natural gas sources were identified as the major source category contributing to 31% of the observed VOC. The other sources affecting this site included: refinery operations (24%), flare emissions (22%), secondary industrial processes (12%), fugitive gasoline emissions (8%) and vehicle exhaust (3%). PMID:19139530

  16. Source Characterization of Volatile Organic Compounds Affecting the Air Quality in a Coastal Urban Area of South Texas

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Marciano; Karnae, Saritha; John, Kuruvilla

    2008-01-01

    Selected Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) emitted from various anthropogenic sources including industries and motor vehicles act as primary precursors of ozone, while some VOC are classified as air toxic compounds. Significantly large VOC emission sources impact the air quality in Corpus Christi, Texas. This urban area is located in a semi-arid region of South Texas and is home to several large petrochemical refineries and industrial facilities along a busy ship-channel. The Texas Commission on Environmental Quality has setup two continuous ambient monitoring stations (CAMS 633 and 634) along the ship channel to monitor VOC concentrations in the urban atmosphere. The hourly concentrations of 46 VOC compounds were acquired from TCEQ for a comprehensive source apportionment study. The primary objective of this study was to identify and quantify the sources affecting the ambient air quality within this urban airshed. Principal Component Analysis/Absolute Principal Component Scores (PCA/APCS) was applied to the dataset. PCA identified five possible sources accounting for 69% of the total variance affecting the VOC levels measured at CAMS 633 and six possible sources affecting CAMS 634 accounting for 75% of the total variance. APCS identified natural gas emissions to be the major source contributor at CAMS 633 and it accounted for 70% of the measured VOC concentrations. The other major sources identified at CAMS 633 included flare emissions (12%), fugitive gasoline emissions (9%), refinery operations (7%), and vehicle exhaust (2%). At CAMS 634, natural gas sources were identified as the major source category contributing to 31% of the observed VOC. The other sources affecting this site included: refinery operations (24%), flare emissions (22%), secondary industrial processes (12%), fugitive gasoline emissions (8%) and vehicle exhaust (3%). PMID:19139530

  17. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart III of... - Compliance Requirements for Slabstock Foam Production Affected Sources Complying With the Source...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production Pt. 63, Subpt. III, Table 4 Table 4 to Subpart III of Part 63—Compliance Requirements for Slabstock Foam Production Affected Sources... Foam Production Affected Sources Complying With the Source-Wide Emission Limitation 4 Table 4...

  18. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart III of... - Compliance Requirements for Slabstock Foam Production Affected Sources Complying With the Source...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production Pt. 63, Subpt. III, Table 4 Table 4 to Subpart III of Part 63—Compliance Requirements for Slabstock Foam Production Affected Sources... Foam Production Affected Sources Complying With the Source-Wide Emission Limitation 4 Table 4...

  19. 40 CFR 63.5984 - What emission limits must I meet for tire production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... tire production affected sources? 63.5984 Section 63.5984 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources § 63.5984 What emission limits must I meet for tire production affected sources? You must meet each emission limit in...

  20. 40 CFR 63.5984 - What emission limits must I meet for tire production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... tire production affected sources? 63.5984 Section 63.5984 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources § 63.5984 What emission limits must I meet for tire production affected sources? You must meet each emission limit in...

  1. 40 CFR 63.5984 - What emission limits must I meet for tire production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... tire production affected sources? 63.5984 Section 63.5984 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources § 63.5984 What emission limits must I meet for tire production affected sources? You must meet each emission limit in...

  2. A Comparison of Independent Component Analysis (ICA) of fMRI and Electrical Source Imaging (ESI) in Focal Epilepsy Reveals Misclassification Using a Classifier.

    PubMed

    Maziero, Danilo; Sturzbecher, Marcio; Velasco, Tonicarlo Rodrigues; Rondinoni, Carlo; Castellanos, Agustin Lage; Carmichael, David William; Salmon, Carlos Ernesto Garrido

    2015-11-01

    Interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs) can produce haemodynamic responses that can be detected by electroencephalography-functional magnetic resonance imaging (EEG-fMRI) using different analysis methods such as the general linear model (GLM) of IEDs or independent component analysis (ICA). The IEDs can also be mapped by electrical source imaging (ESI) which has been demonstrated to be useful in presurgical evaluation in a high proportion of cases with focal IEDs. ICA advantageously does not require IEDs or a model of haemodynamic responses but its use in EEG-fMRI of epilepsy has been limited by its ability to separate and select epileptic components. Here, we evaluated the performance of a classifier that aims to filter all non-BOLD responses and we compared the spatial and temporal features of the selected independent components (ICs). The components selected by the classifier were compared to those components selected by a strong spatial correlation with ESI maps of IED sources. Both sets of ICs were subsequently compared to a temporal model derived from the convolution of the IEDs (derived from the simultaneously acquired EEG) with a standard haemodynamic response. Selected ICs were compared to the patients' clinical information in 13 patients with focal epilepsy. We found that the misclassified ICs clearly related to IED in 16/25 cases. We also found that the classifier failed predominantly due to the increased spectral range of fMRIs temporal responses to IEDs. In conclusion, we show that ICA can be an efficient approach to separate responses related to epilepsy but that contemporary classifiers need to be retrained for epilepsy data. Our findings indicate that, for ICA to contribute to the analysis of data without IEDs to improve its sensitivity, classification strategies based on data features other than IC time course frequency is required. PMID:25998855

  3. Sources and Processes Affecting Particulate Matter Pollution over North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L.; Shao, J.; Lu, X.; Zhao, Y.; Gong, S.; Henze, D. K.

    2015-12-01

    Severe fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution over North China has received broad attention worldwide in recent years. Better understanding the sources and processes controlling pollution over this region is of great importance with urgent implications for air quality policy. We will present a four-dimensional variational (4D-Var) data assimilation system using the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model and its adjoint model at 0.25° × 0.3125° horizontal resolution, and apply it to analyze the factors affecting PM2.5 concentrations over North China. Hourly surface observations of PM2.5 and sulfur dioxide (SO2) from the China National Environmental Monitoring Center (CNEMC) can be assimilated into the model to evaluate and constrain aerosol (primary and precursors) emissions. Application of the data assimilation system to the APEC period (the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation summit; 5-11 November 2014) shows that 46% of the PM2.5 pollution reduction during APEC ("The APEC Blue") can be attributed to meteorology conditions and the rest 54% to emission reductions due to strict emission controls. Ammonia emissions are shown to significantly contribute to PM2.5 over North China in the fall. By converting sulfuric acid and nitric acid to longer-lived ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate aerosols, ammonia plays an important role in promoting their regional transport influences. We will also discuss the pathways and mechanisms of external long-range transport influences to the PM2.5 pollution over North China.

  4. Factors Affecting the Sustainability of Groundwater-Source Cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferguson, G. A.; Woodbury, A. D.

    2004-12-01

    The use of groundwater in thermal applications has grown in popularity due to increases in environmental awareness and rising energy costs. While this source of energy is generally seen as beneficial to the environment, changes in subsurface temperatures resulting from thermal development and other factors may make this practice unsustainable. An example of such changes in subsurface temperatures has been observed in Winnipeg, Manitoba, where groundwater is extensively used for cooling applications. Temperatures in a regional aquifer beneath the city were found to be as much as ten degrees Celsius greater than those measured in surrounding rural areas. Numerical modeling indicates increases in temperature of up to 5 degrees Celsius can be attributed to downward heat flow originating in buildings in many cases. Areas where increases in temperature were found to be greater corresponded to areas where water is being injected into the aquifer. This water is being produced in the process of using groundwater for cooling applications, such as air conditioning and industrial cooling, and is being injected back into the aquifer to maintain hydraulic head and reduce the demand on Winnipeg's sewer system. In most cases, the heat introduced by injecting this water is significantly affecting temperatures at the production well of the same system and numerical modeling indicates that this is inevitable with the current method of development. The combination of heat loss from buildings and injection of heated water is largely responsible for a reduction in the efficiency of groundwater as a coolant and may eventually make the use of groundwater in cooling applications unsustainable.

  5. HVAC SYSTEMS AS EMISSION SOURCES AFFECTING INDOOR AIR QUALITY: A CRITICAL REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study evaluates heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems as contaminant emission sources that affect indoor air quality (IAQ). Various literature sources and methods for characterizing HVAC emission sources are reviewed. Available methods include in situ test...

  6. How Focus at Encoding Affects Children's Source Monitoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawley, Stacie L.; Newcombe, Nora S.; Bingman, Hannah

    2010-01-01

    Retention of source information is enhanced by focus on speakers' feelings about statements even though recognition is reduced for both adults and children. However, does any focus on another person lead to enhanced source monitoring, or is a particular kind of focus required? Does other-focus enhance source monitoring, or does self-focus detract…

  7. Hygroscopic growth of size-resolved, emission-source classified, aerosol particles sampled across the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shingler, T.; Crosbie, E. C.; Ziemba, L. D.; Anderson, B. E.; Campuzano Jost, P.; Jimenez, J. L.; Mikoviny, T.; Wisthaler, A.; Sorooshian, A.

    2014-12-01

    The hygroscopic growth of atmospheric aerosol particles is a key air quality parameter, impacting the radiation budget, visibility, and cloud formation. During the DC3 and SEAC4RS field campaigns (>300 total flight hours), measurements were made over 32 US states, Canada, the Pacific Ocean, and the Gulf of Mexico, between the surface and 41,000 feet ASL. The aircraft research payloads included a suite of in-situ aerosol and gas phase instruments. The Differential Aerosol Sizing and Hygroscopicity Spectrometer Probe (DASH-SP) and the Langley Aerosol Research Group Experiment (LARGE) humidified nephelometer instrument applied different techniques to measure water uptake by aerosol particles at prescribed relative humidity values. Size-resolved growth factor (GF ≡ Dp,wet/Dp,dry) measurements by the DASH-SP are compared to bulk scattering measurements (f(RH) ≡ σscat,wet/σscat,dry) by the LARGE instrument. Spatial location and volatile organic compound tracers such as isoprene and acetonitrile are used to classify the origin of distinct air masses, including: forest fires, biogenic-emitting forests, agricultural use lands, marine boundary layer, urban, and rural background. Analyses of GF results by air mass origin are reported and results are compared with f(RH) measurements. A parameterization between the f(RH) and GF measurements and its potential uses are discussed.

  8. Information Source Affects Peers' Initial Attitudes toward Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morton, Jane F.; Campbell, Jonathan M.

    2008-01-01

    Authors examined the effects of information source on peers' cognitive and behavioral attitudes toward an unfamiliar child with autism. Children (N=296; M age=10.21 years) received information about an unfamiliar child with autism from one of the following sources: (a) videotape, (b) teacher, (c) hypothetical mother, (d) hypothetical father, or…

  9. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Qqqq of... - Emission Limits for New or Reconstructed Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Surface Coating of Wood Building Products Pt. 63, Subpt. QQQQ, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart QQQQ of Part 63—Emission Limits... affected source in the following table as required by § 63.4690. If the affected source applies coating...

  10. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Qqqq of... - Emission Limits for New or Reconstructed Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Surface Coating of Wood Building Products Pt. 63, Subpt. QQQQ, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart QQQQ of Part 63—Emission Limits... affected source in the following table as required by § 63.4690. If the affected source applies coating...

  11. 40 CFR 63.5984 - What emission limits must I meet for tire production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... tire production affected sources? 63.5984 Section 63.5984 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources § 63.5984 What emission limits must I...

  12. 40 CFR 63.5984 - What emission limits must I meet for tire production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... tire production affected sources? 63.5984 Section 63.5984 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources § 63.5984 What emission limits must I...

  13. Different carbon sources affect PCB accumulation by marine bivalves.

    PubMed

    Laitano, M V; Silva Barni, M F; Costa, P G; Cledón, M; Fillmann, G; Miglioranza, K S B; Panarello, H O

    2016-02-01

    Pampean creeks were evaluated in the present study as potential land-based sources of PCB marine contamination. Different carbon and nitrogen sources from such creeks were analysed as boosters of PCB bioaccumulation by the filter feeder bivalve Brachidontes rodriguezii and grazer limpet Siphonaria lessoni. Carbon of different source than marine and anthropogenic nitrogen assimilated by organisms were estimated through their C and N isotopic composition. PCB concentration in surface sediments and mollusc samples ranged from 2.68 to 6.46 ng g(-1) (wet weight) and from 1074 to 4583 ng g(-1) lipid, respectively, reflecting a punctual source of PCB contamination related to a landfill area. Thus, despite the low flow of creeks, they should not be underestimated as contamination vectors to the marine environment. On the other hand, mussels PCB bioaccumulation was related with the carbon source uptake which highlights the importance to consider this factor when studying PCB distribution in organisms of coastal systems. PMID:26606107

  14. 40 CFR 63.1940 - What is the affected source of this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... source includes the entire disposal facility in a contiguous geographic space where household waste is... CFR 63.2 of subpart A. (c) An affected source of this subpart is existing if it is not new....

  15. Does the light source affect the repairability of composite resins?

    PubMed

    Karaman, Emel; Gönülol, Nihan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of the light source on the microshear bond strength of different composite resins repaired with the same substrate. Thirty cylindrical specimens of each composite resin--Filtek Silorane, Filtek Z550 (3M ESPE), Gradia Direct Anterior (GC), and Aelite Posterior (BISCO)--were prepared and light-cured with a QTH light curing unit (LCU). The specimens were aged by thermal cycling and divided into three subgroups according to the light source used--QTH, LED, or PAC (n = 10). They were repaired with the same substrate and a Clearfil Repair Kit (Kuraray). The specimens were light-cured and aged for 1 week in distilled water at 37 °C. The microshear bond strength and failure modes were assessed. There was no significant difference in the microshear bond strength values among the composite resins, except for the Filtek Silorane group that showed significantly lower bond strength values when polymerized with the PAC unit compared to the QTH or LED unit. In conclusion, previously placed dimethacrylate-based composites can be repaired with different light sources; however, if the composite to be repaired is silorane-based, then using a QTH or LED device may be the best option. PMID:25098825

  16. Finding, characterizing and classifying variable sources in multi-epoch sky surveys: QSOs and RR Lyraes in PS1 3Pi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernitschek, N.; Schlafly, E. F.; Sesar, B.; Rix, H.-W.; Hogg, D. W.; Ivezic, Z.; Grebel, E. K.

    2016-05-01

    We develop a new approach for quantifying statistical properties of non-simultaneous, sparse, multi-color light curves through light-curve structure functions. Using PS1 data on SDSS Stripe 82 as "ground truth", a Random Forest Classifier identifies QSOs and RR Lyrae stars based on their variability and mean PS1 and WISE colors. We find that, aside from the Galactic plane, QSO and RR Lyrae samples of purity 75% and completeness 92% can be selected. On this completeness and purity basis we have identified a QSO candidate sample of a million objects, including many at low latitudes. We have assembled an unprecedentedly large and deep sample of 150 000 likely RR Lyrae candidates, with distances from 10 kpc to 120 kpc. We provide a catalog of 2.6 x 107 likely variable point sources. This work illustrates the power of time- domain surveys to identify variable objects and opens up enormous follow-up possibilities.

  17. Solar Sources of Earth-affecting Energetic Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswamy, Nat

    2012-01-01

    Particle radiation from the Sun is one of the most important sources of hazardous space weather in the vicinity of Earth. Detailed studies of the origin of the so-called large solar energetic particle (SEP) events became possible only during the solar cycle 23, thanks to the availability of nearly continuous observation of the solar sources ofthese events. In particular, coronal mass ejections (CMEs), which are found to be a key requirement for the occurrence of an SEP event, have been recorded continuously only starting in the 1990s. The physical connection between CMEs and SEPs is that the CMEs drive a fast-mode MHD shock, which accelerates SEPs in the corona and interplanetary medium. The earliest indication of a shock is the occurrence of a type II radio burst at frequencies anywhere from more than a hundred MHz to a few MHz. Recent investigations using STEREO observations have revealed that the shock forms very close to the Sun - a mere 100,000 km above the surface. The shock formation depends not only on the CME properties, but also on the physical conditions in the ambient medium that supports shock propagation. This paper considers extreme cases of SEP events and the associated CMEs and type II radio bursts to illustrate the variability observed in SEP event properties. Comparison will be made between the events of solar cycles 23 and 24.

  18. Protein sources for finishing calves as affected by management system.

    PubMed

    Sindt, M H; Stock, R A; Klopfenstein, T J; Vieselmeyer, B A

    1993-03-01

    Two beef production systems were evaluated in conjunction with an evaluation of escape protein sources for finishing calves. Two hundred forty crossbred steers and 80 crossbred heifer calves (BW = 267 +/- 2 kg) were split into two groups: 1) control, finished (207 d) after a 3-wk feedlot adjustment period and 2) grazing cornstalks for 74 d after a 3-wk feedlot adjustment period, then finished (164 d). Finishing treatments were sources and proportions of supplemental CP: 1) urea 100%; 2) soybean meal (SBM) 100%; 3) blood meal (BM) 50%, urea 50%; 4) feather meal (FTH) 50%, urea 50%; 5) SBM 50%, FTH 25%, urea 25%; 6) SBM 25%, FTH 38%, urea 37%; 7) FTH 25%, BM 25%, urea 50%, and 8) FTH 38%, BM 13%, urea 50%. Treatments 1 to 8 were fed in dry-rolled corn (DRC)-based diets. Treatments 9 and 10 were supplement Treatments 1 and 7 fed in diets based on high-moisture corn. Calves finished after a 74-d period of grazing cornstalks consumed more feed (P < .01) and gained faster (P < .01) but were less efficient (P < .05) than calves finished directly after weaning. Although not statistically different, calves finished after grazing cornstalks and supplemented with natural protein in the feedlot were 7% more efficient than calves supplemented with urea alone. Efficiency of calves finished directly after weaning was similar for calves supplemented with natural protein or urea alone. Supplementing SBM/FTH/urea or BM/FTH/urea improved feed efficiency compared with supplementing FTH/urea alone. These data suggest that allowing calves to graze cornstalks before finishing is a possible management option, but this system may require more metabolizable protein in the finishing diet to maximize feed efficiency if the calves are expressing compensatory growth. PMID:8463161

  19. Factors Affecting Blood Glucose Monitoring: Sources of Errors in Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Ginsberg, Barry H.

    2009-01-01

    Glucose monitoring has become an integral part of diabetes care but has some limitations in accuracy. Accuracy may be limited due to strip manufacturing variances, strip storage, and aging. They may also be due to limitations on the environment such as temperature or altitude or to patient factors such as improper coding, incorrect hand washing, altered hematocrit, or naturally occurring interfering substances. Finally, exogenous interfering substances may contribute errors to the system evaluation of blood glucose. In this review, I discuss the measurement of error in blood glucose, the sources of error, and their mechanism and potential solutions to improve accuracy in the hands of the patient. I also discuss the clinical measurement of system accuracy and methods of judging the suitability of clinical trials and finally some methods of overcoming the inaccuracies. I have included comments about additional information or education that could be done today by manufacturers in the appropriate sections. Areas that require additional work are discussed in the final section. PMID:20144340

  20. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart III of... - Compliance Requirements for Slabstock Foam Production Affected Sources Complying With the Source...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production Pt. 63, Subpt. III, Table 4 Table 4 to Subpart III of Part 63—Compliance Requirements for Slabstock Foam... Foam Production Affected Sources Complying With the Source-Wide Emission Limitation 4 Table 4...

  1. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart III of... - Compliance Requirements for Slabstock Foam Production Affected Sources Complying With the Source...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production Pt. 63, Subpt. III, Table 4 Table 4 to Subpart III of Part 63—Compliance Requirements for Slabstock Foam... Foam Production Affected Sources Complying With the Source-Wide Emission Limitation 4 Table 4...

  2. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart III of... - Compliance Requirements for Slabstock Foam Production Affected Sources Complying With the Source...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Compliance Requirements for Slabstock Foam Production Affected Sources Complying With the Source-Wide Emission Limitation 4 Table 4 to Subpart III of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS...

  3. Finding, Characterizing, and Classifying Variable Sources in Multi-epoch Sky Surveys: QSOs and RR Lyrae in PS1 3π data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernitschek, Nina; Schlafly, Edward F.; Sesar, Branimir; Rix, Hans-Walter; Hogg, David W.; Ivezić, Željko; Grebel, Eva K.; Bell, Eric F.; Martin, Nicolas F.; Burgett, W. S.; Flewelling, H.; Hodapp, K. W.; Kaiser, N.; Magnier, E. A.; Metcalfe, N.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Waters, C.

    2016-01-01

    In area and depth, the Pan-STARRS1 (PS1) 3π survey is unique among many-epoch, multi-band surveys and has enormous potential for the all-sky identification of variable sources. PS1 has observed the sky typically seven times in each of its five bands (grizy) over 3.5 years, but unlike SDSS, not simultaneously across the bands. Here we develop a new approach for quantifying statistical properties of non-simultaneous, sparse, multi-color light curves through light curve structure functions, effectively turning PS1 into a ∼35-epoch survey. We use this approach to estimate variability amplitudes and timescales (ωr, τ) for all point sources brighter than rP1 = 21.5 mag in the survey. With PS1 data on SDSS Stripe 82 as “ground truth,” we use a Random Forest Classifier to identify QSOs and RR Lyrae based on their variability and their mean PS1 and WISE colors. We find that, aside from the Galactic plane, QSO and RR Lyrae samples of purity ∼75% and completeness ∼92% can be selected. On this basis we have identified a sample of ∼1,000,000 QSO candidates, as well as an unprecedentedly large and deep sample of ∼150,000 RR Lyrae candidates with distances from ∼10 to ∼120 kpc. Within the Draco dwarf spheroidal, we demonstrate a distance precision of 6% for RR Lyrae candidates. We provide a catalog of all likely variable point sources and likely QSOs in PS1, a total of 25.8 × 106 sources.

  4. HVAC SYSTEMS AS EMISSION SOURCES AFFECTING INDOOR AIR QUALITY: A CRITICAL REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses results of an evaluation of literature on heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems as contaminant emission sources that affect indoor air quality (IAQ). The various literature sources and methods for characterizing HVAC emission sources are re...

  5. 40 CFR 63.54 - Preconstruction review procedures for new affected sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... advertisement in the area affected of the location of the source information and analysis specified in § 63.52(f... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE... source subject to § 63.52(c)(1). The purpose of this section is to describe alternative review...

  6. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Qqqq of... - Emission Limits for Existing Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Surface Coating of Wood Building... following table as required by § 63.4690. If the affected source applies coating to products in...

  7. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Qqqq of... - Emission Limits for Existing Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Surface Coating of Wood Building... following table as required by § 63.4690. If the affected source applies coating to products in...

  8. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Qqqq of... - Emission Limits for Existing Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Surface Coating of Wood... the following table as required by § 63.4690. If the affected source applies coating to products...

  9. Location of odor sources and the affected population in Imperial County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, J.L.

    1981-08-01

    This report is divided into four sections. The first two sections contain general background information on Imperial County. The third section is a general discussion of odor sources in Imperial County, and the fourth maps the specific odor sources, the expected areas of perception, and the affected populations. this mapping is done for the Imperial Valley and each of the four Imperial County KGRA's (Known Geothermal Resource Areas) where odor from the development of the geothermal energy may affect population.

  10. 40 CFR 63.1317 - PET and polystyrene affected sources-monitoring provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false PET and polystyrene affected sources-monitoring provisions. 63.1317 Section 63.1317 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... and Resins § 63.1317 PET and polystyrene affected sources—monitoring provisions. Continuous...

  11. 40 CFR 63.1320 - PET and polystyrene affected sources-reporting provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true PET and polystyrene affected sources-reporting provisions. 63.1320 Section 63.1320 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 63.1320 PET and polystyrene affected sources—reporting provisions. (a) Except as specified...

  12. 40 CFR 63.1320 - PET and polystyrene affected sources-reporting provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true PET and polystyrene affected sources-reporting provisions. 63.1320 Section 63.1320 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 63.1320 PET and polystyrene affected sources—reporting provisions. (a) Except as specified...

  13. 40 CFR 63.1317 - PET and polystyrene affected sources-monitoring provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true PET and polystyrene affected sources-monitoring provisions. 63.1317 Section 63.1317 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 63.1317 PET and polystyrene affected sources—monitoring provisions. Continuous process vents using...

  14. 40 CFR 63.1317 - PET and polystyrene affected sources-monitoring provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false PET and polystyrene affected sources-monitoring provisions. 63.1317 Section 63.1317 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 63.1317 PET and polystyrene affected sources—monitoring provisions. Continuous process vents using...

  15. 40 CFR 63.1319 - PET and polystyrene affected sources-recordkeeping provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true PET and polystyrene affected sources-recordkeeping provisions. 63.1319 Section 63.1319 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 63.1319 PET and polystyrene affected sources—recordkeeping provisions. (a) Except as specified...

  16. 40 CFR 63.1320 - PET and polystyrene affected sources-reporting provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false PET and polystyrene affected sources-reporting provisions. 63.1320 Section 63.1320 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... and Resins § 63.1320 PET and polystyrene affected sources—reporting provisions. (a) Except...

  17. 40 CFR 63.1319 - PET and polystyrene affected sources-recordkeeping provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false PET and polystyrene affected sources-recordkeeping provisions. 63.1319 Section 63.1319 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 63.1319 PET and polystyrene affected sources—recordkeeping provisions. (a) Except as specified...

  18. 40 CFR 63.1319 - PET and polystyrene affected sources-recordkeeping provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true PET and polystyrene affected sources-recordkeeping provisions. 63.1319 Section 63.1319 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 63.1319 PET and polystyrene affected sources—recordkeeping provisions. (a) Except as specified...

  19. 40 CFR 63.1319 - PET and polystyrene affected sources-recordkeeping provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false PET and polystyrene affected sources-recordkeeping provisions. 63.1319 Section 63.1319 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... and Resins § 63.1319 PET and polystyrene affected sources—recordkeeping provisions. (a) Except...

  20. 40 CFR 63.1317 - PET and polystyrene affected sources-monitoring provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false PET and polystyrene affected sources-monitoring provisions. 63.1317 Section 63.1317 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... and Resins § 63.1317 PET and polystyrene affected sources—monitoring provisions. Continuous...

  1. 40 CFR 63.1320 - PET and polystyrene affected sources-reporting provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false PET and polystyrene affected sources-reporting provisions. 63.1320 Section 63.1320 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 63.1320 PET and polystyrene affected sources—reporting provisions. (a) Except as specified...

  2. 40 CFR 63.1319 - PET and polystyrene affected sources-recordkeeping provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false PET and polystyrene affected sources-recordkeeping provisions. 63.1319 Section 63.1319 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... and Resins § 63.1319 PET and polystyrene affected sources—recordkeeping provisions. (a) Except...

  3. 40 CFR 63.1320 - PET and polystyrene affected sources-reporting provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false PET and polystyrene affected sources-reporting provisions. 63.1320 Section 63.1320 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... and Resins § 63.1320 PET and polystyrene affected sources—reporting provisions. (a) Except...

  4. 40 CFR 63.1317 - PET and polystyrene affected sources-monitoring provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true PET and polystyrene affected sources-monitoring provisions. 63.1317 Section 63.1317 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 63.1317 PET and polystyrene affected sources—monitoring provisions. Continuous process vents using...

  5. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart U of... - Group 1 Storage Vessels at Existing Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Group 1 Storage Vessels at Existing Affected Sources 3 Table 3 to Subpart U of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission...

  6. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart U of... - Group 1 Storage Vessels at Existing Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Group 1 Storage Vessels at Existing Affected Sources 3 Table 3 to Subpart U of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission...

  7. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart U of... - Group 1 Storage Vessels at Existing Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Group 1 Storage Vessels at Existing Affected Sources 3 Table 3 to Subpart U of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission...

  8. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Jjj of... - Group 1 Storage Vessels at New Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Group 1 Storage Vessels at New Affected Sources 4 Table 4 to Subpart JJJ of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National...

  9. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Jjj of... - Group 1 Storage Vessels at New Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Group 1 Storage Vessels at New Affected Sources 4 Table 4 to Subpart JJJ of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission...

  10. 40 CFR 63.1400 - Applicability and designation of affected sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicability and designation of affected sources. 63.1400 Section 63.1400 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards...

  11. 40 CFR 63.741 - Applicability and designation of affected sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Applicability and designation of affected sources. 63.741 Section 63.741 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission...

  12. 40 CFR 63.1310 - Applicability and designation of affected sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Applicability and designation of affected sources. 63.1310 Section 63.1310 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission...

  13. 40 CFR 63.7882 - What site remediation sources at my facility does this subpart affect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What site remediation sources at my facility does this subpart affect? 63.7882 Section 63.7882 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES...

  14. 40 CFR 63.7882 - What site remediation sources at my facility does this subpart affect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 14 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true What site remediation sources at my facility does this subpart affect? 63.7882 Section 63.7882 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED)...

  15. 40 CFR 63.680 - Applicability and designation of affected sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Applicability and designation of affected sources. 63.680 Section 63.680 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission...

  16. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart U of... - Group 1 Storage Vessels at Existing Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Group 1 Storage Vessels at Existing Affected Sources 3 Table 3 to Subpart U of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission...

  17. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... source Emissions must not exceed 280 grams HAP per megagram (0.56 pounds per ton) of fabric processed at... tire cord production affected source Emissions must not exceed 220 grams HAP per megagram (0.43 pounds... Table 16 to this subpart must not exceed 1,000 grams HAP per megagram (2 pounds per ton) of...

  18. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... source Emissions must not exceed 280 grams HAP per megagram (0.56 pounds per ton) of fabric processed at... tire cord production affected source Emissions must not exceed 220 grams HAP per megagram (0.43 pounds... Table 16 to this subpart must not exceed 1,000 grams HAP per megagram (2 pounds per ton) of...

  19. 40 CFR 63.1940 - What is the affected source of this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Municipal Solid Waste Landfills What This Subpart... CFR 63.2 of subpart A. (c) An affected source of this subpart is existing if it is not new. ... source includes the entire disposal facility in a contiguous geographic space where household waste...

  20. 40 CFR 63.1310 - Applicability and designation of affected sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Applicability and designation of affected sources. 63.1310 Section 63.1310 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission...

  1. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Mmmmm of... - Performance Test Requirements for New or Reconstructed Flame Lamination Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... or Reconstructed Flame Lamination Affected Sources 3 Table 3 to Subpart MMMMM of Part 63 Protection... Lamination Affected Sources As stated in § 63.8800, you must comply with the requirements for performance tests for new or reconstructed flame lamination affected sources in the following table using...

  2. 40 CFR 63.5986 - What emission limits must I meet for tire cord production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... tire cord production affected sources? 63.5986 Section 63.5986 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources § 63.5986 What emission limits must I meet for tire cord production affected sources? You must meet each emission limit...

  3. 40 CFR 63.5987 - What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire cord production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the emission limits for tire cord production affected sources? 63.5987 Section 63.5987 Protection of... Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources § 63.5987 What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire cord production affected sources?...

  4. 40 CFR 63.5994 - How do I conduct tests and procedures for tire production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... for tire production affected sources? 63.5994 Section 63.5994 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Testing and Initial Compliance Requirements for Tire Production Affected Sources § 63.5994 How do I conduct tests and procedures for tire production affected sources? (a)...

  5. 40 CFR 63.5986 - What emission limits must I meet for tire cord production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... tire cord production affected sources? 63.5986 Section 63.5986 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources § 63.5986 What emission limits must I meet for tire cord production affected sources? You must meet each emission limit...

  6. 40 CFR 63.5987 - What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire cord production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the emission limits for tire cord production affected sources? 63.5987 Section 63.5987 Protection of... Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources § 63.5987 What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire cord production affected sources?...

  7. 40 CFR 63.5985 - What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the emission limits for tire production affected sources? 63.5985 Section 63.5985 Protection of... Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources § 63.5985 What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire production affected sources? You must...

  8. 40 CFR 63.5985 - What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the emission limits for tire production affected sources? 63.5985 Section 63.5985 Protection of... Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources § 63.5985 What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire production affected sources? You must...

  9. 40 CFR 63.5994 - How do I conduct tests and procedures for tire production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... for tire production affected sources? 63.5994 Section 63.5994 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Testing and Initial Compliance Requirements for Tire Production Affected Sources § 63.5994 How do I conduct tests and procedures for tire production affected sources? (a)...

  10. 40 CFR 63.5986 - What emission limits must I meet for tire cord production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... tire cord production affected sources? 63.5986 Section 63.5986 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources § 63.5986 What emission limits must I meet for tire cord production affected sources? You must meet each emission limit...

  11. Genetic variants affecting human TRPA1 or TRPM8 structure can be classified in vitro as 'well expressed', 'poorly expressed' or 'salvageable'.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Kevin; Sadofsky, Laura Rachel; Morice, Alyn Hugh

    2015-01-01

    Multiple mis-sense variants of TRPA1 (transient receptor potential A1) and TRPM8 (transient receptor potential M8) are recorded in the human genome single nt polymorphism (SNP) database, but their potential impact on channel signalling in patho-physiology is not fully explored. Variants, mostly quite rare in the general human population, alter sites in different structural domains of these homo-tetrameric ion channel proteins. The effects of individual SNPs affecting the large cytoplasmic N-terminal domain have not been completely documented for TRPM8 or TRPA1. We examined the Ca(2+) signalling properties of a short-list of eight variants affecting the N-terminal domain by individual expression in human embryonic kidney HEK293 or neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cell lines (four SNP variants for TRPM8: G150R, K423N, R475C, R485W and four for TRPA1: Y69C, A366D, E477K, D573A). These were compared with TRPA1 SNP variants affecting intracellular loops located beyond the N-terminal domain and associated with gain of function (such as increased sensitivity to agonists: TRPA1 R797T and N855S). A substitution in TRPA1 (Y69C) exhibited high expression/sensitivity to agonists (high iCa(2+)max (maximum level of intracellular calcium ion), similar to R797T, but less sensitive than N855S), whereas each of the other non-conservative substitutions exhibited poor signalling response (low iCa(2+)max). Responses from these poorly expressed variants could be salvaged, to different extents, by pre-treating cells with the Src (Src protein) family inhibitor protein kinase inhibitor PP2 (PP2: 4-Amino-3-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-(t-butyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine, 4-Amino-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-7-(t-butyl)pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine), or with micromolar Zn(2+). The TRPA1 variants and several experimental mutants (TRPA1 Y97F, Y226F and YY654-655FF) expressed poorly in SH-SY5Y compared with HEK293 cells. More in-depth studies are needed to identify SNP variants eliciting gain of function in these TRP

  12. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Jjj of... - Group 1 Storage Vessels at Existing Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Existing Affected Sources Vessel capacity(cubic meters) Vapor pressure a (kilopascals) 75≤capacity 151 ≥13.1 151≤capacity ≥5.2 a Maximum true vapor pressure of total organic HAP at storage temperature....

  13. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Jjj of... - Group 1 Storage Vessels at Existing Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Existing Affected Sources Vessel capacity(cubic meters) Vapor pressure a (kilopascals) 75≤capacity 151 ≥13.1 151≤capacity ≥5.2 a Maximum true vapor pressure of total organic HAP at storage temperature....

  14. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Jjj of... - Group 1 Storage Vessels at Existing Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Existing Affected Sources Vessel capacity(cubic meters) Vapor pressure a (kilopascals) 75≤capacity 151 ≥13.1 151≤capacity ≥5.2 a Maximum true vapor pressure of total organic HAP at storage temperature....

  15. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Jjj of... - Group 1 Storage Vessels at Existing Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... at Existing Affected Sources Vessel capacity(cubic meters) Vapor pressure a (kilopascals) 75≤capacity 151 ≥13.1 151≤capacity ≥5.2 a Maximum true vapor pressure of total organic HAP at storage temperature....

  16. 40 CFR 63.1400 - Applicability and designation of affected sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... affected source is: (1) The total of all amino/phenolic resin process units (APPU); (2) The associated heat... if amino/phenolic resins were produced for 5 percent or greater of the total operating time since... amino/phenolic resins have been produced in the previous 5-year period or since the date that...

  17. 40 CFR 63.640 - Applicability and designation of affected source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Applicability and designation of affected source. 63.640 Section 63.640 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... required by 40 CFR 61.357 of subpart FF; (vi) Reports and notifications required by § 63.428(b), (c),...

  18. 40 CFR 63.640 - Applicability and designation of affected source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicability and designation of affected source. 63.640 Section 63.640 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... table 3 of this subpart; (v) Reports required by 40 CFR 61.357 of subpart FF; (vi) Reports...

  19. 40 CFR 63.3300 - Which of my emission sources are affected by this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Paper and Other Web Coating... affected source subject to this subpart is the collection of all web coating lines at your facility. This includes web coating lines engaged in the coating of metal webs that are used in flexible packaging,...

  20. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Emission Limits for Tire Cord...: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. XXXX, Table 2 Table 2 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63—Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources As stated in § 63.5986, you must comply with the...

  1. 40 CFR 63.741 - Applicability and designation of affected sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (PL 94-580) (RCRA) as implemented by 40 CFR parts 260 and 261, and that are subject to RCRA requirements as implemented in 40 CFR parts 262 through 268, are exempt from the... cleaning operations constitute an affected source. (ii) Each spray gun cleaning operation constitutes...

  2. 40 CFR 63.741 - Applicability and designation of affected sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (PL 94-580) (RCRA) as implemented by 40 CFR parts 260 and 261, and that are subject to RCRA requirements as implemented in 40 CFR parts 262 through 268, are exempt from the... cleaning operations constitute an affected source. (ii) Each spray gun cleaning operation constitutes...

  3. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Jjj of... - Group 1 Storage Vessels at New Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Group 1 Storage Vessels at New Affected Sources 4 Table 4 to Subpart JJJ of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY.... 63, Subpt. JJJ, Table 4 Table 4 to Subpart JJJ of Part 63—Group 1 Storage Vessels at New...

  4. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Jjj of... - Group 1 Storage Vessels at Existing Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Group 1 Storage Vessels at Existing Affected Sources 2 Table 2 to Subpart JJJ of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Polymers and Resins Pt. 63, Subpt. JJJ, Table 2 Table 2 to Subpart JJJ of Part 63—Group 1 Storage...

  5. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Jjj of... - Group 1 Storage Vessels at New Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Group 1 Storage Vessels at New Affected Sources 4 Table 4 to Subpart JJJ of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY.... 63, Subpt. JJJ, Table 4 Table 4 to Subpart JJJ of Part 63—Group 1 Storage Vessels at New...

  6. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Jjj of... - Group 1 Storage Vessels at New Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Group 1 Storage Vessels at New Affected Sources 4 Table 4 to Subpart JJJ of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Polymers and Resins Pt. 63, Subpt. JJJ, Table 4 Table 4 to Subpart JJJ of Part 63—Group 1 Storage...

  7. 40 CFR 63.1400 - Applicability and designation of affected sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... complying with the provisions of 40 CFR part 60, subpart Kb, shall continue to comply with 40 CFR part 60... affected source subject to this subpart that is also subject to the provisions of 40 CFR part 60, subpart... CFR part 60, subpart Kb, is required to comply only with the provisions of this subpart. After...

  8. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... must not exceed 280 grams HAP per megagram (0.56 pounds per ton) of fabric processed at the tire cord... affected source Emissions must not exceed 220 grams HAP per megagram (0.43 pounds per ton) of fabric... exceed 1,000 grams HAP per megagram (2 pounds per ton) of total coatings used at the tire cord...

  9. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... must not exceed 280 grams HAP per megagram (0.56 pounds per ton) of fabric processed at the tire cord... affected source Emissions must not exceed 220 grams HAP per megagram (0.43 pounds per ton) of fabric... exceed 1,000 grams HAP per megagram (2 pounds per ton) of total coatings used at the tire cord...

  10. Directed forgetting in the list method affects recognition memory for source.

    PubMed

    Gottlob, Lawrence R; Golding, Jonathan M

    2007-11-01

    The effects of list-method directed forgetting on recognition memory were explored. In Experiment 1 (N = 40), observers were instructed to remember words and their type-cases; in Experiment 2 (N = 80), the instruction was to remember words and their colours. Two lists of 10 words were presented; after the first list, half of the observers (forget) were instructed to forget that list, and the other half (remember) were not given the forget instruction. Recognition of items (words) as well as source (encoding list + case/colour) was measured for forget and remember observers. The forget instruction affected case/colour memory more consistently than item and list memory, a multinomial analysis indicated that source information was affected by the forget instructions. The results indicated that recognition of source information may be a more sensitive indicator of forgetting than recognition of items. PMID:17853219

  11. 40 CFR 63.7884 - What are the general standards I must meet for each site remediation with affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... meet for each site remediation with affected sources? 63.7884 Section 63.7884 Protection of Environment... Pollutants: Site Remediation General Standards § 63.7884 What are the general standards I must meet for each site remediation with affected sources? (a) For each site remediation with an affected...

  12. 40 CFR 63.5985 - What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the emission limits for tire production affected sources? 63.5985 Section 63.5985 Protection of... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources § 63.5985 What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire production affected...

  13. 40 CFR 63.5985 - What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the emission limits for tire production affected sources? 63.5985 Section 63.5985 Protection of... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources § 63.5985 What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire production affected...

  14. 40 CFR 63.5997 - How do I conduct tests and procedures for tire cord production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... for tire cord production affected sources? 63.5997 Section 63.5997 Protection of Environment... Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Testing and Initial Compliance Requirements for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources § 63.5997 How do I conduct tests and procedures for tire cord production affected...

  15. 40 CFR 63.5985 - What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the emission limits for tire production affected sources? 63.5985 Section 63.5985 Protection of... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources § 63.5985 What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire production affected...

  16. 40 CFR 63.5997 - How do I conduct tests and procedures for tire cord production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... for tire cord production affected sources? 63.5997 Section 63.5997 Protection of Environment... Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Testing and Initial Compliance Requirements for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources § 63.5997 How do I conduct tests and procedures for tire cord production affected...

  17. National shellfish register of classified estuarine waters, 1990. Data supplement

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    The 1990 Register summarized data on 3,172 of the Nation's classified shellfish-growing areas. However, State and Federal shellfish officials often need area-specific data to manage their daily operations. The Data Supplement, therefore, provides detailed information about local classified shellfish-growing areas for both the 1985 and 1990 Registers. It also updates relevant information that has become available since the publication of the 1990 Register, specifically in the areas of classifications, pollution sources affecting shellfish-growing waters, harvests, and evolving issues.

  18. 40 CFR 63.5986 - What emission limits must I meet for tire cord production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... tire cord production affected sources? 63.5986 Section 63.5986 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources § 63.5986 What emission limits must...

  19. 40 CFR 63.5986 - What emission limits must I meet for tire cord production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... tire cord production affected sources? 63.5986 Section 63.5986 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources § 63.5986 What emission limits must...

  20. The effects of different sources of occupational stress on affective, motivational, and psychosomatic outcomes

    SciTech Connect

    Ovalle, N.K. II.

    1991-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of role conflict, role ambiguity, and five additional potential sources of occupational stress on an affective outcome (job satisfaction), a motivational outcome (intent to quit), and two psychosomatic outcomes (mental and physical anxiety). In addition to role conflict and role ambiguity, the five additional sources of occupational stress centered on job characteristics, work pressures, rewards and opportunities, interaction of the job and home life, and lack of job challenge. Data were collected from 85 technicians and managers in a service organization. The results of correlation and multiple regression analyses indicated that each of the sources of stress have significant yet different effects on the outcomes. Moreover, role conflict and ambiguity did not have as much of an effect across all outcomes as the other five sources of stress. These findings could be used to improve the measurement, understanding, and treatment of occupational stress. Other implications are discussed. 23 refs., 2 tabs.

  1. Identification of sources affecting fog formation using receptor modeling approaches and inventory estimates of sectoral emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, Bhavin; Venkataraman, Chandra; Bhushan, Mani; Tripathi, Sachchida Nand

    Positive matrix factorization (PMF) was used to identify factors affecting fog formation in Kanpur during the ISRO-GBP land campaign-II (LC-II) in December 2004. PMF predicted factors were validated by contrasting the emission strength of sources in the foggy and clear periods, using a combination of potential source contribution function (PSCF) analysis and quantitative emission inventory information. A time series aerosol chemical data set of 29 days and 12 species was decomposed to identify 4-factors: Secondary species, Biomass burning, Dust and Sea salt. PMF predicted particle mass with a satisfactory goodness-of-fit (slope of 0.83 ± 0.17 and R2 of 0.8), and strong species within 11-12% relative standard deviation. Mean contributions of anthropogenic factors were significantly higher during the foggy period for secondary species (2.9 ± 0.3) and biomass burning (1.2 ± 0.09) compared to the clear period. Local sources contributing to aerosols that mediated fog events at Kanpur, based on emissions in a 200 km × 200 km area around Kanpur city were thermal power plants and transportation (SO 2) and biofuel combustion (BC and OM). Regional scale sources influencing emissions during the foggy period, in probable source regions identified by PSCF included thermal power plants, transportation, brick kilns and biofuel combustion. While biofuel combustion and transportation are distributed area sources, individual point sources include coal-fired thermal power plants located in Aligarh, Delhi, Ghaziabad, Jhansi, Kanpur, Rae Bareli and Rupnagar and brick kilns located in Allahabad, Agra, Farrukhabad, Ghaziabad, Kanpur, Ludhiana, Lucknow and Rae Bareli. Additionally, in the foggy period, large areas of probable source regions lay outside India, implying the significance of aerosol incursion from outside India.

  2. Evaluating phosphorus loss from a Florida spodosol as affected by phosphorus-source application methods.

    PubMed

    Agyin-Birikorang, S; O'Connor, G A; Brinton, S R

    2008-01-01

    Incorporating applied phosphorus (P) sources can reduce P runoff losses and is a recommended best management practice. However, in soils with low P retention capacities, leaching can be a major mechanism for off-site P loss, and the P-source application method (surface or incorporation) may not significantly affect the total amount of off-site P loss. We utilized simulated rainfall protocols to investigate effects of P-source characteristics and application methods on the forms and amounts of P losses from six P sources, including five biosolids materials produced and/or marketed in Florida, and one inorganic fertilizer (triple superphosphate). A typical Florida Spodosol (Immokalee fine sand; sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Arenic Alaquods) was used for the study, to which the P sources were each applied at a rate of 224 kg P ha(-1) (approximately the P rate associated with N-based biosolids applications). The P sources were either surface-applied to the soil or incorporated into the soil to a depth of 5 cm. Amended soils were subjected to three simulated rainfall events, at 1-d intervals. Runoff and leachate were collected after each rainfall event and analyzed for P losses in the form of soluble reactive P (SRP), total dissolved P (TDP), total P (TP), and bioavailable P (BAP) (in runoff only). Cumulative masses (runoff + leachate for the three rainfall events) of P losses from all the P sources were similar, whether the amendments were surface-applied or incorporated into the soil. The solubility of the amendment, rather than application method, largely determines the P loss potential in poorly P-sorbing Florida Spodosols. PMID:18453437

  3. 40 CFR Table 2 of Subpart Ppp of... - Applicability of HON Provisions to Subpart PPP Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Subpart PPP Affected Sources 2 Table 2 of Subpart PPP of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Emissions for Polyether Polyols Production Pt. 63, Subpt. PPP, Table 2 Table 2 of Subpart PPP of Part 63—Applicability of HON Provisions to Subpart PPP Affected Sources Reference Applies to subpart PPP...

  4. 40 CFR Table 2 of Subpart Ppp of... - Applicability of General Provisions to Subpart PPP Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Subpart PPP Affected Sources 2 Table 2 of Subpart PPP of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Polyether Polyols Production Pt. 63, Subpt. PPP, Table 2 Table 2 of Subpart PPP of Part 63—Applicability of General Provisions to Subpart PPP Affected Sources Reference Applies to subpart PPP Explanation...

  5. 40 CFR Table 2 of Subpart Ppp of... - Applicability of General Provisions to Subpart PPP Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Subpart PPP Affected Sources 2 Table 2 of Subpart PPP of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Emissions for Polyether Polyols Production Pt. 63, Subpt. PPP, Table 2 Table 2 of Subpart PPP of Part 63—Applicability of General Provisions to Subpart PPP Affected Sources Reference Applies to subpart PPP...

  6. 40 CFR Table 2 of Subpart Ppp of... - Applicability of General Provisions to Subpart PPP Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Subpart PPP Affected Sources 2 Table 2 of Subpart PPP of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Polyether Polyols Production Pt. 63, Subpt. PPP, Table 2 Table 2 of Subpart PPP of Part 63—Applicability of General Provisions to Subpart PPP Affected Sources Reference Applies to subpart PPP Explanation...

  7. 40 CFR Table 2 of Subpart Ppp of... - Applicability of General Provisions to Subpart PPP Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Subpart PPP Affected Sources 2 Table 2 of Subpart PPP of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Polyether Polyols Production Pt. 63, Subpt. PPP, Table 2 Table 2 of Subpart PPP of Part 63—Applicability of General Provisions to Subpart PPP Affected Sources Reference Applies to subpart PPP Explanation...

  8. 40 CFR 63.1345 - Emissions limits for affected sources other than kilns; clinker coolers; new and reconstructed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Emissions limits for affected sources other than kilns; clinker coolers; new and reconstructed raw material dryers. 63.1345 Section 63.1345... and Operating Limits § 63.1345 Emissions limits for affected sources other than kilns; clinker...

  9. 40 CFR 63.1345 - Emissions limits for affected sources other than kilns; clinker coolers; new and reconstructed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Emissions limits for affected sources other than kilns; clinker coolers; new and reconstructed raw material dryers. 63.1345 Section 63.1345... and Operating Limits § 63.1345 Emissions limits for affected sources other than kilns; clinker...

  10. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Initial Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources 6 Table 6 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63 Protection of... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. XXXX, Table 6 Table 6 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63—Initial Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources As stated...

  11. 40 CFR Table 12 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Continuous Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources 12 Table 12 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63 Protection of... Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. XXXX, Table 12 Table 12 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63—Continuous Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources As stated in §...

  12. 40 CFR 63.5987 - What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire cord production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the emission limits for tire cord production affected sources? 63.5987 Section 63.5987 Protection of... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources § 63.5987 What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire cord...

  13. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Initial Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources 7 Table 7 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63 Protection of... Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. XXXX, Table 7 Table 7 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63—Initial Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources As stated in § 63.5999,...

  14. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Initial Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources 7 Table 7 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63 Protection of... Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. XXXX, Table 7 Table 7 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63—Initial Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources As stated in § 63.5999,...

  15. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Initial Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources 7 Table 7 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63 Protection of... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. XXXX, Table 7 Table 7 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63—Initial Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources As...

  16. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Initial Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources 6 Table 6 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63 Protection of... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. XXXX, Table 6 Table 6 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63—Initial Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources As stated...

  17. 40 CFR Table 12 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Continuous Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources 12 Table 12 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63 Protection of... Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. XXXX, Table 12 Table 12 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63—Continuous Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources As stated in §...

  18. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Initial Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources 6 Table 6 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63 Protection of... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. XXXX, Table 6 Table 6 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63—Initial Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources As stated...

  19. 40 CFR 63.5987 - What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire cord production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the emission limits for tire cord production affected sources? 63.5987 Section 63.5987 Protection of... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources § 63.5987 What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire cord...

  20. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Initial Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources 7 Table 7 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63 Protection of... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. XXXX, Table 7 Table 7 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63—Initial Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources As...

  1. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Initial Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources 6 Table 6 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63 Protection of... Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. XXXX, Table 6 Table 6 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63—Initial Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources As stated in § 63.5996, you...

  2. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Initial Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources 7 Table 7 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63 Protection of... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. XXXX, Table 7 Table 7 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63—Initial Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources As...

  3. 40 CFR 63.5987 - What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire cord production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the emission limits for tire cord production affected sources? 63.5987 Section 63.5987 Protection of... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources § 63.5987 What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire cord...

  4. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Initial Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources 6 Table 6 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63 Protection of... Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. XXXX, Table 6 Table 6 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63—Initial Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources As stated in § 63.5996, you...

  5. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart III of... - Compliance Requirements for Slabstock Foam Production Affected Sources Complying With the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production Pt. 63, Subpt. III, Table 3 Table 3 to Subpart III of Part 63—Compliance Requirements for Slabstock Foam Production Affected Sources... Foam Production Affected Sources Complying With the Emission Point Specific Limitations 3 Table 3...

  6. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart III of... - Compliance Requirements for Molded and Rebond Foam Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production Pt. 63, Subpt. III, Table 5 Table 5 to Subpart III of Part 63—Compliance Requirements for Molded and Rebond Foam Production Affected Sources Emission point... Rebond Foam Production Affected Sources 5 Table 5 to Subpart III of Part 63 Protection of...

  7. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart III of... - Compliance Requirements for Molded and Rebond Foam Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production Pt. 63, Subpt. III, Table 5 Table 5 to Subpart III of Part 63—Compliance Requirements for Molded and Rebond Foam Production Affected Sources Emission point... Rebond Foam Production Affected Sources 5 Table 5 to Subpart III of Part 63 Protection of...

  8. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart III of... - Compliance Requirements for Molded and Rebond Foam Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production Pt. 63, Subpt. III, Table 5 Table 5 to Subpart III of Part 63—Compliance Requirements for Molded and Rebond Foam Production Affected Sources Emission point Emission point... Rebond Foam Production Affected Sources 5 Table 5 to Subpart III of Part 63 Protection of...

  9. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart III of... - Compliance Requirements for Molded and Rebond Foam Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production Pt. 63, Subpt. III, Table 5 Table 5 to Subpart III of Part 63—Compliance Requirements for Molded and Rebond Foam Production Affected Sources Emission point Emission point... Rebond Foam Production Affected Sources 5 Table 5 to Subpart III of Part 63 Protection of...

  10. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart III of... - Compliance Requirements for Slabstock Foam Production Affected Sources Complying With the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production Pt. 63, Subpt. III, Table 3 Table 3 to Subpart III of Part 63—Compliance Requirements for Slabstock Foam Production Affected Sources... Foam Production Affected Sources Complying With the Emission Point Specific Limitations 3 Table 3...

  11. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Jjj of... - Group 1 Storage Vessels at Existing Affected Sources Producing the Listed Thermoplastics

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Affected Sources Producing the Listed Thermoplastics 3 Table 3 to Subpart JJJ of Part 63 Protection of... Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins Pt. 63, Subpt. JJJ, Table 3 Table 3 to Subpart JJJ of Part 63—Group 1 Storage Vessels at Existing Affected Sources Producing the...

  12. Quantile-based classifiers

    PubMed Central

    Hennig, C.; Viroli, C.

    2016-01-01

    Classification with small samples of high-dimensional data is important in many application areas. Quantile classifiers are distance-based classifiers that require a single parameter, regardless of the dimension, and classify observations according to a sum of weighted componentwise distances of the components of an observation to the within-class quantiles. An optimal percentage for the quantiles can be chosen by minimizing the misclassification error in the training sample. It is shown that this choice is consistent for the classification rule with the asymptotically optimal quantile and that under some assumptions, as the number of variables goes to infinity, the probability of correct classification converges to unity. The effect of skewness of the distributions of the predictor variables is discussed. The optimal quantile classifier gives low misclassification rates in a comprehensive simulation study and in a real-data application. PMID:27279668

  13. Dynamic system classifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pumpe, Daniel; Greiner, Maksim; Müller, Ewald; Enßlin, Torsten A.

    2016-07-01

    Stochastic differential equations describe well many physical, biological, and sociological systems, despite the simplification often made in their derivation. Here the usage of simple stochastic differential equations to characterize and classify complex dynamical systems is proposed within a Bayesian framework. To this end, we develop a dynamic system classifier (DSC). The DSC first abstracts training data of a system in terms of time-dependent coefficients of the descriptive stochastic differential equation. Thereby the DSC identifies unique correlation structures within the training data. For definiteness we restrict the presentation of the DSC to oscillation processes with a time-dependent frequency ω (t ) and damping factor γ (t ) . Although real systems might be more complex, this simple oscillator captures many characteristic features. The ω and γ time lines represent the abstract system characterization and permit the construction of efficient signal classifiers. Numerical experiments show that such classifiers perform well even in the low signal-to-noise regime.

  14. Ongoing evaluation of sources and factors affecting emissions from engineered wood products

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, S.L.; Martin, C.B.; Sheldon, L.S.; Baskir, J.N.; Howard, E.M.

    1998-09-01

    The paper describes an ongoing evaluation of sources and factors affecting emissions from engineered wood products. It summarizes early results from emissions testing of engineered wood products. These tests have shown the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the alcohol, aldehyde/ketone, ester, aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbon, monoterpene, sesquiterpene, indene, and alkyl ether chemical families from engineered wood samples. This information will be used to target pollution prevention approaches, such as alternate materials and production technologies for raw board and engineered wood products, for reducing VOC emissions.

  15. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Zzzzz of... - Compliance Certifications for New and Existing Affected Sources Classified as Large Iron and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... charged to a metal melting furnace at this facility are materials recovered for their specialty alloy... limit in § 63.10895(c) for each metal melting furnace or group of all metal melting furnaces based on...

  16. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Zzzzz of... - Performance Test Requirements for New and Existing Affected Sources Classified as Large Foundries

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... . . According to the followingrequirements. . . 1. Each metal melting furnace subject to a PM or total metal HAP... or duct using EPA Method 1 or 1A (40 CFR part 60, appendix A)b. Determine volumetric flow rate of the stack gas using Method 2, 2A, 2C, 2D, 2F, or 2G (40 CFR part 60, appendix A) c. Determine dry...

  17. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Zzzzz of... - Performance Test Requirements for New and Existing Affected Sources Classified as Large Foundries

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... or duct using EPA Method 1 or 1A (40 CFR part 60, appendix A)b. Determine volumetric flow rate of the stack gas using Method 2, 2A, 2C, 2D, 2F, or 2G (40 CFR part 60, appendix A) c. Determine dry molecular weight of the stack gas using EPA Method 3, 3A, or 3B (40 CFR part 60, appendix A).1 d. Measure...

  18. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Zzzzz of... - Performance Test Requirements for New and Existing Affected Sources Classified as Large Foundries

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... or duct using EPA Method 1 or 1A (40 CFR part 60, appendix A)b. Determine volumetric flow rate of the stack gas using Method 2, 2A, 2C, 2D, 2F, or 2G (40 CFR part 60, appendix A) c. Determine dry molecular weight of the stack gas using EPA Method 3, 3A, or 3B (40 CFR part 60, appendix A).1 d. Measure...

  19. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Zzzzz of... - Performance Test Requirements for New and Existing Affected Sources Classified as Large Foundries

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (40 CFR part 60, appendix A), the manual method for measuring the oxygen, carbon dioxide, and carbon... or duct using EPA Method 1 or 1A (40 CFR part 60, appendix A)b. Determine volumetric flow rate of the stack gas using Method 2, 2A, 2C, 2D, 2F, or 2G (40 CFR part 60, appendix A) c. Determine dry...

  20. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Zzzzz of... - Performance Test Requirements for New and Existing Affected Sources Classified as Large Foundries

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (40 CFR part 60, appendix A), the manual method for measuring the oxygen, carbon dioxide, and carbon... or duct using EPA Method 1 or 1A (40 CFR part 60, appendix A)b. Determine volumetric flow rate of the stack gas using Method 2, 2A, 2C, 2D, 2F, or 2G (40 CFR part 60, appendix A) c. Determine dry...

  1. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Zzzzz of... - Procedures for Establishing Operating Limits for New Affected Sources Classified as Large Foundries

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the operating limits in § 63.10895(d)(1) for pressure drop and scrubber water flow rate. Using the CPMS required in § 63.10897(b), measure and record the pressure drop and scrubber water flow rate in... average pressure drop and average scrubber water flow rate for all the valid sampling runs in which...

  2. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Zzzzz of... - Procedures for Establishing Operating Limits for New Affected Sources Classified as Large Foundries

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the operating limits in § 63.10895(d)(1) for pressure drop and scrubber water flow rate. Using the CPMS required in § 63.10897(b), measure and record the pressure drop and scrubber water flow rate in... average pressure drop and average scrubber water flow rate for all the valid sampling runs in which...

  3. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Zzzzz of... - Procedures for Establishing Operating Limits for New Affected Sources Classified as Large Foundries

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the operating limits in § 63.10895(d)(1) for pressure drop and scrubber water flow rate. Using the CPMS required in § 63.10897(b), measure and record the pressure drop and scrubber water flow rate in... average pressure drop and average scrubber water flow rate for all the valid sampling runs in which...

  4. Milk protein composition and stability changes affected by iron in water sources.

    PubMed

    Wang, Aili; Duncan, Susan E; Knowlton, Katharine F; Ray, William K; Dietrich, Andrea M

    2016-06-01

    Water makes up more than 80% of the total weight of milk. However, the influence of water chemistry on the milk proteome has not been extensively studied. The objective was to evaluate interaction of water-sourced iron (low, medium, and high levels) on milk proteome and implications on milk oxidative state and mineral content. Protein composition, oxidative stability, and mineral composition of milk were investigated under conditions of iron ingestion through bovine drinking water (infused) as well as direct iron addition to commercial milk in 2 studies. Four ruminally cannulated cows each received aqueous infusions (based on water consumption of 100L) of 0, 2, 5, and 12.5mg/L Fe(2+) as ferrous lactate, resulting in doses of 0, 200, 500 or 1,250mg of Fe/d, in a 4×4Latin square design for a 14-d period. For comparison, ferrous sulfate solution was directly added into commercial retail milk at the same concentrations: control (0mg of Fe/L), low (2mg of Fe/L), medium (5mg of Fe/L), and high (12.5mg of Fe/L). Two-dimensional electrophoresis coupled with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-tandem time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF) high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry analysis was applied to characterize milk protein composition. Oxidative stability of milk was evaluated by the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay for malondialdehyde, and mineral content was measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. For milk from both abomasal infusion of ferrous lactate and direct addition of ferrous sulfate, an iron concentration as low as 2mg of Fe/L was able to cause oxidative stress in dairy cattle and infused milk, respectively. Abomasal infusion affected both caseins and whey proteins in the milk, whereas direct addition mainly influenced caseins. Although abomasal iron infusion did not significantly affect oxidation state and mineral balance (except iron), it induced oxidized off-flavor and partial degradation of whey proteins. Direct

  5. Functions and sources of perceived social support among children affected by HIV/AIDS in China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guoxiang; Li, Xiaoming; Fang, Xiaoyi; Zhao, Junfeng; Hong, Yan; Lin, Xiuyun; Stanton, Bonita

    2011-06-01

    While the relationship between perceived social support (PSS) and psychosocial well-being has been well documented in the global literature, existing studies also suggest the existence of multiple domains in definition and measurement of PSS. The current study, utilizing data from 1299 rural children affected by HIV/AIDS in central China, examines the relative importance of PSS functional measures (informational/emotional, material/tangible, affectionate, and social interaction) and PSS structural measures (family/relatives, teachers, friends, and significant others) in predicting psychosocial outcomes including internalizing problems, externalizing problems, and educational resilience. Both functional and structural measures of PSS provided reliable measures of related but unique aspects of PSS. The findings of the current study confirmed the previous results that PSS is highly correlated with children's psychosocial well-being and such correlations vary by functions and sources of the PSS as well as different psychosocial outcomes. The findings in the current study suggested the roles of specific social support functions or resources may need to be assessed in relation to specific psychosocial outcome and the context of children's lives. The strong association between PSS and psychosocial outcomes underscores the importance of adequate social support to alleviate stressful life events and improve psychosocial well-being of children affected by HIV/AIDS. Meanwhile, the study findings call for gender and developmentally appropriate and situation-specific social support for children and families affected by HIV/AIDS. PMID:21287421

  6. Review of uncertainty sources affecting the long-term predictions of space debris evolutionary models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolado-Perez, J. C.; Pardini, Carmen; Anselmo, Luciano

    2015-08-01

    Since the launch of Sputnik-I in 1957, the amount of space debris in Earth's orbit has increased continuously. Historically, besides abandoned intact objects (spacecraft and orbital stages), the primary sources of space debris in Earth's orbit were (i) accidental and intentional break-ups which produced long-lasting debris and (ii) debris released intentionally during the operation of launch vehicle orbital stages and spacecraft. In the future, fragments generated by collisions are expected to become a significant source as well. In this context, and from a purely mathematical point of view, the orbital debris population in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) should be intrinsically unstable, due to the physics of mutual collisions and the relative ineffectiveness of natural sink mechanisms above~700 km. Therefore, the real question should not be "if", but "when" the exponential growth of the space debris population is supposed to start. From a practical point of view, and in order to answer the previous question, since the end of the 1980's several sophisticated long-term debris evolutionary models have been developed. Unfortunately, the predictions performed with such models, in particular beyond a few decades, are affected by considerable uncertainty. Such uncertainty comes from a relative important number of variables that being either under the partial control or completely out of the control of modellers, introduce a variability on the long-term simulation of the space debris population which cannot be captured with standard Monte Carlo statistics. The objective of this paper is to present and discuss many of the uncertainty sources affecting the long-term predictions done with evolutionary models, in order to serve as a roadmap for the uncertainty and the statistical robustness analysis of the long-term evolution of the space debris population.

  7. Semantic trouble sources and their repair in conversations affected by Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Saldert, Charlotta; Ferm, Ulrika; Bloch, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Background It is known that dysarthria arising from Parkinson's disease may affect intelligibility in conversational interaction. Research has also shown that Parkinson's disease may affect cognition and cause word-retrieval difficulties and pragmatic problems in the use of language. However, it is not known whether or how these problems become manifest in everyday conversations or how conversation partners handle such problems. Aims To describe the pragmatic problems related to the use of words that occur in everyday conversational interaction in dyads including an individual with Parkinson's disease, and to explore how interactants in conversation handle the problems to re-establish mutual understanding. Methods & Procedures Twelve video-recorded everyday conversations involving three couples where one of the individuals had Parkinson's disease were included in the study. All instances of other-initiated repair following a contribution from the people with Parkinson's disease were analysed. Those instances involving a trouble source relating to the use of words were analysed with a qualitative interaction analysis based on the principles of conversation analysis. Outcomes & Results In 70% of the instances of other-initiated repair the trouble source could be related to the semantic content produced by the individual with Parkinson's disease. The problematic contributions were typically characterized by more or less explicit symptoms of word search or use of atypical wording. The conversation partners completed the repair work collaboratively, but typically the non-impaired individual made a rephrasing or provided a suggestion for what the intended meaning had been. Conclusions & Implications In clinical work with people with Parkinson's disease and their conversation partners it is important to establish what type of trouble sources occur in conversations in a specific dyad. It may often be necessary to look beyond intelligibility and into aspects of pragmatics

  8. Recognition Using Hybrid Classifiers.

    PubMed

    Osadchy, Margarita; Keren, Daniel; Raviv, Dolev

    2016-04-01

    A canonical problem in computer vision is category recognition (e.g., find all instances of human faces, cars etc., in an image). Typically, the input for training a binary classifier is a relatively small sample of positive examples, and a huge sample of negative examples, which can be very diverse, consisting of images from a large number of categories. The difficulty of the problem sharply increases with the dimension and size of the negative example set. We propose to alleviate this problem by applying a "hybrid" classifier, which replaces the negative samples by a prior, and then finds a hyperplane which separates the positive samples from this prior. The method is extended to kernel space and to an ensemble-based approach. The resulting binary classifiers achieve an identical or better classification rate than SVM, while requiring far smaller memory and lower computational complexity to train and apply. PMID:26959677

  9. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Xxxxxx... - Description of Source Categories Affected by This Subpart

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... manufacturing electric motors (except engine starting motors) and power generators; motor generator sets... classified. Fabricated Plate Work (Boiler Shops) Establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing power...), coke and gas burning salamanders, liquid or gas solar energy collectors, solar heaters, space...

  10. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Xxxxxx... - Description of Source Categories Affected by This Subpart

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... manufacturing electric motors (except engine starting motors) and power generators; motor generator sets... classified. Fabricated Plate Work (Boiler Shops) Establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing power...), coke and gas burning salamanders, liquid or gas solar energy collectors, solar heaters, space...

  11. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Xxxxxx... - Description of Source Categories Affected by This Subpart

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... manufacturing electric motors (except engine starting motors) and power generators; motor generator sets... classified. Fabricated Plate Work (Boiler Shops) Establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing power...), coke and gas burning salamanders, liquid or gas solar energy collectors, solar heaters, space...

  12. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Xxxxxx... - Description of Source Categories Affected by This Subpart

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... manufacturing electric motors (except engine starting motors) and power generators; motor generator sets... classified. Fabricated Plate Work (Boiler Shops) Establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing power...), coke and gas burning salamanders, liquid or gas solar energy collectors, solar heaters, space...

  13. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Xxxxxx... - Description of Source Categories Affected by This Subpart

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... manufacturing electric motors (except engine starting motors) and power generators; motor generator sets... classified. Fabricated Plate Work (Boiler Shops) Establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing power...), coke and gas burning salamanders, liquid or gas solar energy collectors, solar heaters, space...

  14. Dietary starch sources affect net portal appearance of amino acids and glucose in growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Li, T-J; Dai, Q-Z; Yin, Y-L; Zhang, J; Huang, R-L; Ruan, Z; Deng, Z; Xie, M

    2008-05-01

    Four male pigs (Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire; average initial (mean ± SEM) BW = 22.5 ± 1.1 kg), fitted with permanent catheters in the portal vein, ileal vein and carotid artery, were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square experimental design to measure the effect of dietary starch sources on the net portal appearance of glucose and amino acids. Dietary starch sources were resistant starch (RS), maize, sticky rice and brown rice. Diets were provided at 0730, 1530 and 2330 h during a 6-day adjustment period and 1-day collection period. On day 7 of each period, blood samples were collected from the portal vein and carotid artery at 0730 h (prior to feeding) and hourly up to 8 h after meal. Blood samples were used to determine glucose, amino acid, packed cell volume and partial pressure of oxygen (pO2). When calculated per 100 g feed intake, cumulative portal glucose appearance was lower (P < 0.05) for resistant starch than for maize, sticky rice or brown rice up to 8 h after the meal. Cumulative portal glucose appearance was higher (P < 0.05) for sticky rice and brown rice than for other diets until 4 h after the meal, but maize had higher cumulative glucose appearance after 4 h. Net cumulative portal concentrations of most amino acids for resistant starch were also reduced (P < 0.05) than for the other starch sources. Cumulative portal appearance of amino acid represented 48.39%, 63.76%, 61.80% and 59.18% of dietary intake for resistant starch, maize, sticky rice and brown rice, respectively. Collectively, our results indicate that dietary starch sources substantially affect the appearance of amino acids and glucose in the portal circulation. PMID:22443597

  15. Classifying Adolescent Perfectionists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Kenneth G.; Ashby, Jeffrey S.; Gilman, Rich

    2011-01-01

    A large school-based sample of 9th-grade adolescents (N = 875) completed the Almost Perfect Scale-Revised (APS-R; Slaney, Mobley, Trippi, Ashby, & Johnson, 1996). Decision rules and cut-scores were developed and replicated that classify adolescents as one of two kinds of perfectionists (adaptive or maladaptive) or as nonperfectionists. A…

  16. Number in Classifier Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nomoto, Hiroki

    2013-01-01

    Classifier languages are often described as lacking genuine number morphology and treating all common nouns, including those conceptually count, as an unindividuated mass. This study argues that neither of these popular assumptions is true, and presents new generalizations and analyses gained by abandoning them. I claim that no difference exists…

  17. Classifying Cereal Data

    Cancer.gov

    The DSQ includes questions about cereal intake and allows respondents up to two responses on which cereals they consume. We classified each cereal reported first by hot or cold, and then along four dimensions: density of added sugars, whole grains, fiber, and calcium.

  18. Pharmaceutical Residues Affecting the UNESCO Biosphere Reserve Kristianstads Vattenrike Wetlands: Sources and Sinks.

    PubMed

    Björklund, Erland; Svahn, Ola; Bak, Søren; Bekoe, Samuel Oppong; Hansen, Martin

    2016-10-01

    This study is the first to investigate the pharmaceutical burden from point sources affecting the UNESCO Biosphere Reserve Kristianstads Vattenrike, Sweden. The investigated Biosphere Reserve is a >1000 km(2) wetland system with inflows from lakes, rivers, leachate from landfill, and wastewater-treatment plants (WWTPs). We analysed influent and treated wastewater, leachate water, lake, river, and wetland water alongside sediment for six model pharmaceuticals. The two WWTPs investigated released pharmaceutical residues at levels close to those previously observed in Swedish monitoring exercises. Compound-dependent WWTP removal efficiencies ranging from 12 to 100 % for bendroflumethiazide, oxazepam, atenolol, carbamazepine, and diclofenac were observed. Surface-water concentrations in the most affected lake were ≥100 ng/L for the various pharmaceuticals with atenolol showing the highest levels (>300 ng/L). A small risk assessment showed that adverse single-substance toxicity on aquatic organisms within the UNESCO Biosphere Reserve is unlikely. However, the effects of combinations of a large number of known and unknown pharmaceuticals, metals, and nutrients are still unknown. PMID:27480162

  19. Fish oil source differentially affects rat immune cell alpha-tocopherol concentration.

    PubMed

    McGuire, S O; Alexander, D W; Fritsche, K L

    1997-07-01

    We have previously reported that both the source of dietary fish oil and the chemical form of vitamin E supplied in the diet affect the vitamin E status of immune cells in rats. The purpose of this study was to investigate further the effect of fish oil source on immune cell vitamin E status using free alpha-tocopherol (alpha-T) at the AIN recommended level as the sole source of vitamin E. Sixty weanling female rats were fed semipurified, high fat (20 g/100 g) diets containing either tocopherol-stripped lard (LRD), menhaden fish oil (MFO), sardine fish oil (SRD) or cod liver oil (CLO) as the primary lipid source. Endogenous alpha-T concentration was measured and equalized to 150 mg/kg oil by addition of free RRR-alpha-T to each lipid source, allowing for a final concentration of alpha-T in the mixed diet of 30 mg/kg. An additional group of rats was fed LRD without supplemental vitamin E (LRD-) as a negative control. After feeding experimental diets for 5 or 10 wk, tissues were collected for alpha-T analysis by HPLC. After 5 wk, plasma and liver alpha-T (micromol alpha-T/g lipid) were significantly lower in SRD- and CLO-fed rats compared with LRD-fed rats. At 10 wk, only plasma alpha-T in CLO-fed rats remained significantly depressed. Plasma and liver alpha-T concentrations (micromol alpha-T/g lipid) were not significantly lower in MFO-fed rats than LRD-fed rats at either time point. Compared with LRD, feeding MFO to rats for 5 or 10 wk resulted in significantly greater alpha-T content of immune cells. In similar fashion, SRD-fed rats, compared with LRD-fed rats, also had significantly greater alpha-T content in splenocytes at both time points and greater thymocyte alpha-T at 10 wk. In all instances, the alpha-T status of rats fed CLO was indistinguishable from that of rats fed the vitamin E-free diet (LRD-). These data further demonstrate the complexity of the relationship between vitamin E status and dietary (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). PMID:9202096

  20. Natural and anthropogenic sources and processes affecting water chemistry in two South Korean streams.

    PubMed

    Shin, Woo-Jin; Ryu, Jong-Sik; Mayer, Bernhard; Lee, Kwang-Sik; Lee, Sin-Woo

    2014-07-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) in a watershed provides potential sources of pollutants for surface and subsurface waters that can deteriorate water quality. Between March and early August 2011, water samples were collected from two streams in South Korea, one dominantly draining a watershed with carbonate bedrock affected by coal mines and another draining a watershed with silicate bedrock and a relatively undisturbed catchment area. The objective of the study was to identify the sources and processes controlling water chemistry, which was dependent on bedrock and land use. In the Odae stream (OS), the stream in the silicate-dominated catchment, Ca, Na, and HCO3 were the dominant ions and total dissolved solids (TDS) was low (26.1-165 mg/L). In the Jijang stream (JS), in the carbonate-dominated watershed, TDS (224-434 mg/L) and ion concentrations were typically higher, and Ca and SO4 were the dominant ions due to carbonate weathering and oxidation of pyrite exposed at coal mines. Dual isotopic compositions of sulfate (δ(34)SSO4 and δ(18)OSO4) verified that the SO4 in JS is derived mainly from sulfide mineral oxidation in coal mines. Cl in JS was highest upstream and decreased progressively downstream, which implies that pollutants from recreational facilities in the uppermost part of the catchment are the major source governing Cl concentrations within the discharge basin. Dual isotopic compositions of nitrate (δ(15)NNO3 and δ(18)ONO3) indicated that NO3 in JS is attributable to nitrification of soil organic matter but that NO3 in OS is derived mostly from manure. Additionally, the contributions of potential anthropogenic sources to the two streams were estimated in more detail by using a plot of δ(34)SSO4 and δ(15)NNO3. This study suggests that the dual isotope approach for sulfate and nitrate is an excellent additional tool for elucidating the sources and processes controlling the water chemistry of streams draining watersheds having different lithologies and

  1. Elucidating Sources and Factors Affecting Delivery of Nitrogen to Surface Waters of New York State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golden, H. E.; Boyer, E. W.; Burns, D. A.; Elliott, E.; Kendall, C.; Butler, T.

    2005-12-01

    Rapid changes in power generation, transportation, and agriculture have appreciably altered nitrogen (N) cycling at regional scales, increasing N inputs to landscapes and surface waters. Numerous studies have linked this surplus N to a host of concerns, including eutrophication and violations in drinking water standards. Inputs of N nation-wide have increased during recent decades, primarily from the production and use of fertilizers, the planting of N-fixing crops, and the combustion of fossil fuels. The role of atmospheric N sources is of particular concern in New York, as rates of atmospheric N deposition in the northeast are among the highest in the nation. Our work aims to quantify nitrogen sources and fate in watersheds throughout the state. Further, we intend to elucidate factors controlling the retention and release of N to surface waters. We quantify nitrogen inputs through both measurement data (e.g., from wet and dry atmospheric deposition, precipitation, streamflow, water quality, and isotopic tracers) and from synoptic spatial databases (e.g., of terrain, land use, and fertilizer inputs). We present preliminary results from large catchments in contrasting spatial settings across the state (different land use configurations and atmospheric deposition gradients), illustrating the contribution of nitrogen sources to each region and factors affecting delivery to surface waters. Further, we present 30 years of temporal data from a large watershed (Fall Creek) in the Finger Lakes region of the state to demonstrate how hydrological and biogeochemical factors, over seasons and under varying hydrological regimes, combine to control N dynamics in surface waters. Our collective work provides information that is necessary to develop sound strategies for understanding and managing nutrients at regional scales.

  2. VOC emissions of Grey poplar leaves as affected by salt stress and different N sources.

    PubMed

    Teuber, M; Zimmer, I; Kreuzwieser, J; Ache, P; Polle, A; Rennenberg, H; Schnitzler, J-P

    2008-01-01

    Nitrogen nutrition and salt stress experiments were performed in a greenhouse with hydroponic-cultured, salt-sensitive Grey poplar (Populus x canescens) plants to study the combined influence of different N sources (either 1 mm NO(3) (-) or NH(4)(+)) and salt (up to 75 mm NaCl) on leaf gas exchange, isoprene biosynthesis and VOC emissions. Net assimilation and transpiration proved to be highly sensitive to salt stress and were reduced by approximately 90% at leaf sodium concentrations higher than 1,800 microg Na g dry weight (dw)(-1). In contrast, emissions of isoprene and oxygenated VOC (i.e. acetaldehyde, formaldehyde and acetone) were unaffected. There was no significant effect of combinations of salt stress and N source, and neither NO(3)(-) or NH(4)(+) influenced the salt stress response in the Grey poplar leaves. Also, transcript levels of 1-deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase (PcDXR) and isoprene synthase (PcISPS) did not respond to the different N sources and only responded slightly to salt application, although isoprene synthase (PcISPS) activity was negatively affected at least in one of two experiments, despite high isoprene emission rates. A significant salt effect was the strong reduction of leaf dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMADP) content, probably due to restricted availability of photosynthates for DMADP biosynthesis. Further consequences of reduced photosynthetic gas exchange and maintaining VOC emissions are a very high C loss, up to 50%, from VOC emissions related to net CO(2) uptake and a strong increase in leaf internal isoprene concentrations, with maximum mean values up to 6.6 microl x l(-1). Why poplar leaves maintain VOC biosynthesis and emission under salt stress conditions, despite impaired photosynthetic CO(2) fixation, is discussed. PMID:18211549

  3. 40 CFR Table 12 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Continuous Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources 12 Table 12 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63 Protection... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. XXXX, Table 12 Table 12 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63—Continuous Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected...

  4. 40 CFR Table 12 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Continuous Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources 12 Table 12 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63 Protection of... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. XXXX, Table 12 Table 12 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63—Continuous Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected...

  5. 40 CFR Table 12 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Continuous Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources 12 Table 12 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63 Protection... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. XXXX, Table 12 Table 12 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63—Continuous Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected...

  6. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Ppp of... - Group 1 Storage Vessels at Existing and New Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Group 1 Storage Vessels at Existing and New Affected Sources 3 Table 3 to Subpart PPP of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES...

  7. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Ppp of... - Group 1 Storage Vessels at Existing and New Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Group 1 Storage Vessels at Existing and New Affected Sources 3 Table 3 to Subpart PPP of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National...

  8. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart U of... - Applicability of General Provisions to Subpart U Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicability of General Provisions to Subpart U Affected Sources 1 Table 1 to Subpart U of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES...

  9. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Ooo of... - Applicability of General Provisions to Subpart OOO Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Applicability of General Provisions to Subpart OOO Affected Sources 1 Table 1 to Subpart OOO of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES...

  10. 40 CFR Table 1 of Subpart Ppp of... - Applicability of General Provisions to Subpart PPP Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Applicability of General Provisions to Subpart PPP Affected Sources 1 Table 1 of Subpart PPP of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES...

  11. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Jjj of... - Applicability of general provisions to subpart JJJ affected sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Applicability of general provisions to subpart JJJ affected sources 1 Table 1 to Subpart JJJ of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES...

  12. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart U of... - Applicability of General Provisions to Subpart U Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Applicability of General Provisions to Subpart U Affected Sources 1 Table 1 to Subpart U of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES...

  13. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart III of... - Compliance Requirements for Molded and Rebond Foam Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Compliance Requirements for Molded and Rebond Foam Production Affected Sources 5 Table 5 to Subpart III of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE...

  14. Root-zone acidity affects relative uptake of nitrate and ammonium from mixed nitrogen sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vessey, J. K.; Henry, L. T.; Chaillou, S.; Raper, C. D. Jr; Raper CD, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1990-01-01

    Soybean plants (Glycine max [L.] Merr. cv Ransom) were grown for 21 days on 4 sources of N (1.0 mM NO3-, 0.67 mM NO3- plus 0.33 mM NH4+, 0.33 mM NO3- plus 0.67 mM NH4+, and 1.0 mM NH4+) in hydroponic culture with the acidity of the nutrient solution controlled at pH 6.0, 5.5, 5.0, and 4.5. Dry matter and total N accumulation of the plants was not significantly affected by N-source at any of the pH levels except for decreases in these parameters in plants supplied solely with NH4+ at pH 4.5. Shoot-to-root ratios increased in plants which had an increased proportion [correction of proporiton] of NH4(+)-N in their nutrient solutions at all levels of root-zone pH. Uptake of NO3- and NH4+ was monitored daily by ion chromatography as depletion of these ions from the replenished hydroponic solutions. At all pH levels the proportion of either ion that was absorbed increased as the ratio of that ion increased in the nutrient solution. In plants which were supplied with sources of NO3- plus NH4+, NH4+ was absorbed at a ratio of 2:1 over NO3- at pH 6.0. As the pH of the root-zone declined, however, NH4+ uptake decreased and NO3- uptake increased. Thus, the NH4+ to NO3- uptake ratio declined with decreases in root-zone pH. The data indicate a negative effect of declining root-zone pH on NH4+ uptake and supports a hypothesis that the inhibition of growth of plants dependent on NH4(+)-N at low pH is due to a decline in NH4+ uptake and a consequential limitation of growth by N stress.

  15. Analysis of factors affecting the accuracy, reproducibility, and interpretation of microbial community carbon source utilization patterns

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haack, S.K.; Garchow, H.; Klug, M.J.; Forney, L.J.

    1995-01-01

    We determined factors that affect responses of bacterial isolates and model bacterial communities to the 95 carbon substrates in Biolog microliter plates. For isolates and communities of three to six bacterial strains, substrate oxidation rates were typically nonlinear and were delayed by dilution of the inoculum. When inoculum density was controlled, patterns of positive and negative responses exhibited by microbial communities to each of the carbon sources were reproducible. Rates and extents of substrate oxidation by the communities were also reproducible but were not simply the sum of those exhibited by community members when tested separately. Replicates of the same model community clustered when analyzed by principal- components analysis (PCA), and model communities with different compositions were clearly separated un the first PCA axis, which accounted for >60% of the dataset variation. PCA discrimination among different model communities depended on the extent to which specific substrates were oxidized. However, the substrates interpreted by PCA to be most significant in distinguishing the communities changed with reading time, reflecting the nonlinearity of substrate oxidation rates. Although whole-community substrate utilization profiles were reproducible signatures for a given community, the extent of oxidation of specific substrates and the numbers or activities of microorganisms using those substrates in a given community were not correlated. Replicate soil samples varied significantly in the rate and extent of oxidation of seven tested substrates, suggesting microscale heterogeneity in composition of the soil microbial community.

  16. 29 CFR 1630.5 - Limiting, segregating, and classifying.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Limiting, segregating, and classifying. 1630.5 Section 1630... Limiting, segregating, and classifying. It is unlawful for a covered entity to limit, segregate, or classify a job applicant or employee in a way that adversely affects his or her employment opportunities...

  17. 29 CFR 1630.5 - Limiting, segregating, and classifying.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Limiting, segregating, and classifying. 1630.5 Section 1630... Limiting, segregating, and classifying. It is unlawful for a covered entity to limit, segregate, or classify a job applicant or employee in a way that adversely affects his or her employment opportunities...

  18. 29 CFR 1630.5 - Limiting, segregating, and classifying.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Limiting, segregating, and classifying. 1630.5 Section 1630... Limiting, segregating, and classifying. It is unlawful for a covered entity to limit, segregate, or classify a job applicant or employee in a way that adversely affects his or her employment opportunities...

  19. 29 CFR 1630.5 - Limiting, segregating, and classifying.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Limiting, segregating, and classifying. 1630.5 Section 1630... Limiting, segregating, and classifying. It is unlawful for a covered entity to limit, segregate, or classify a job applicant or employee in a way that adversely affects his or her employment opportunities...

  20. 29 CFR 1630.5 - Limiting, segregating, and classifying.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Limiting, segregating, and classifying. 1630.5 Section 1630... Limiting, segregating, and classifying. It is unlawful for a covered entity to limit, segregate, or classify a job applicant or employee in a way that adversely affects his or her employment opportunities...

  1. Classifying Facial Actions

    PubMed Central

    Donato, Gianluca; Bartlett, Marian Stewart; Hager, Joseph C.; Ekman, Paul; Sejnowski, Terrence J.

    2010-01-01

    The Facial Action Coding System (FACS) [23] is an objective method for quantifying facial movement in terms of component actions. This system is widely used in behavioral investigations of emotion, cognitive processes, and social interaction. The coding is presently performed by highly trained human experts. This paper explores and compares techniques for automatically recognizing facial actions in sequences of images. These techniques include analysis of facial motion through estimation of optical flow; holistic spatial analysis, such as principal component analysis, independent component analysis, local feature analysis, and linear discriminant analysis; and methods based on the outputs of local filters, such as Gabor wavelet representations and local principal components. Performance of these systems is compared to naive and expert human subjects. Best performances were obtained using the Gabor wavelet representation and the independent component representation, both of which achieved 96 percent accuracy for classifying 12 facial actions of the upper and lower face. The results provide converging evidence for the importance of using local filters, high spatial frequencies, and statistical independence for classifying facial actions. PMID:21188284

  2. Factors Affecting Source-Water Quality after Disturbance of Forests by Wildfire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, S. F.; Martin, D. A.; McCleskey, R. B.; Writer, J. H.

    2015-12-01

    Forests yield high-quality water supplies to communities throughout the world, in part because forest cover reduces flooding and the consequent transport of suspended and dissolved constituents to surface water. Disturbance by wildfire reduces or eliminates forest cover, leaving watersheds susceptible to increased surface runoff during storms and reduced ability to retain contaminants. We assessed water-quality response to hydrologic events for three years after a wildfire in the Fourmile Creek Watershed, near Boulder, Colorado, and found that hydrologic and geochemical responses downstream of a burned area were primarily driven by small, brief convective storms that had relatively high, but not unusual, rainfall intensity. Total suspended sediment, dissolved organic carbon, nitrate, and manganese concentrations were 10-156 times higher downstream of a burned area compared to upstream, and water quality was sufficiently impaired to pose water-treatment concerns. The response in both concentration and yield of water-quality constituents differed depending on source availability and dominant watershed processes controlling the constituent. For example, while all constituent concentrations were highest during storm events, annual sediment yields downstream of the burned area were controlled by storm events and subsequent mobilization, whereas dissolved organic carbon yields were more dependent on spring runoff from upstream areas. The watershed response was affected by a legacy of historical disturbance: the watershed had been recovering from extensive disturbance by mining, railroad and road development, logging, and fires in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and we observed extensive erosion of mine waste in response to these summer storms. Therefore, both storm characteristics and historical disturbance in a burned watershed must be considered when evaluating the role of wildfire on water quality.

  3. Stack filter classifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, Reid B; Hush, Don

    2009-01-01

    Just as linear models generalize the sample mean and weighted average, weighted order statistic models generalize the sample median and weighted median. This analogy can be continued informally to generalized additive modeels in the case of the mean, and Stack Filters in the case of the median. Both of these model classes have been extensively studied for signal and image processing but it is surprising to find that for pattern classification, their treatment has been significantly one sided. Generalized additive models are now a major tool in pattern classification and many different learning algorithms have been developed to fit model parameters to finite data. However Stack Filters remain largely confined to signal and image processing and learning algorithms for classification are yet to be seen. This paper is a step towards Stack Filter Classifiers and it shows that the approach is interesting from both a theoretical and a practical perspective.

  4. Transionospheric chirp event classifier

    SciTech Connect

    Argo, P.E.; Fitzgerald, T.J.; Freeman, M.J.

    1995-09-01

    In this paper we will discuss a project designed to provide computer recognition of the transionospheric chirps/pulses measured by the Blackbeard (BB) satellite, and expected to be measured by the upcoming FORTE satellite. The Blackbeard data has been perused by human means -- this has been satisfactory for the relatively small amount of data taken by Blackbeard. But with the advent of the FORTE system, which by some accounts might ``see`` thousands of events per day, it is important to provide a software/hardware method of accurately analyzing the data. In fact, we are providing an onboard DSP system for FORTE, which will test the usefulness of our Event Classifier techniques in situ. At present we are constrained to work with data from the Blackbeard satellite, and will discuss the progress made to date.

  5. 40 CFR 63.1340 - Applicability and designation of affected sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... sources subject to this subpart are: (1) Each kiln and each in-line kiln/raw mill at any major or area source, including alkali bypasses, except for kilns and in-line kiln/raw mills that burn hazardous waste... to the kiln at any portland cement plant which is a major source; and (8) Each bagging and...

  6. Assessment of source probabilities for potential tsunamis affecting the U.S. Atlantic coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geist, E.L.; Parsons, T.

    2009-01-01

    Estimating the likelihood of tsunamis occurring along the U.S. Atlantic coast critically depends on knowledge of tsunami source probability. We review available information on both earthquake and landslide probabilities from potential sources that could generate local and transoceanic tsunamis. Estimating source probability includes defining both size and recurrence distributions for earthquakes and landslides. For the former distribution, source sizes are often distributed according to a truncated or tapered power-law relationship. For the latter distribution, sources are often assumed to occur in time according to a Poisson process, simplifying the way tsunami probabilities from individual sources can be aggregated. For the U.S. Atlantic coast, earthquake tsunami sources primarily occur at transoceanic distances along plate boundary faults. Probabilities for these sources are constrained from previous statistical studies of global seismicity for similar plate boundary types. In contrast, there is presently little information constraining landslide probabilities that may generate local tsunamis. Though there is significant uncertainty in tsunami source probabilities for the Atlantic, results from this study yield a comparative analysis of tsunami source recurrence rates that can form the basis for future probabilistic analyses.

  7. 40 CFR Table 10 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Continuous Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Continuous Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources 10 Table 10 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR...

  8. 40 CFR Table 10 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Continuous Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Continuous Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources 10 Table 10 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR...

  9. 40 CFR Table 10 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Continuous Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Continuous Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources 10 Table 10 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR...

  10. 40 CFR Table 10 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Continuous Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Continuous Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources 10 Table 10 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR...

  11. 40 CFR Table 10 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Continuous Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Continuous Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources 10 Table 10 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR...

  12. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Ppp of... - Group 1 Storage Vessels at Existing and New Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Group 1 Storage Vessels at Existing and New Affected Sources 3 Table 3 to Subpart PPP of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Emissions for Polyether Polyols Production Pt. 63, Subpt. PPP, Table 3 Table 3 to Subpart PPP of Part...

  13. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Ppp of... - Group 1 Storage Vessels at Existing and New Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Group 1 Storage Vessels at Existing and New Affected Sources 3 Table 3 to Subpart PPP of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Polyether Polyols Production Pt. 63, Subpt. PPP, Table 3 Table 3 to Subpart PPP of Part 63—Group 1...

  14. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Ppp of... - Group 1 Storage Vessels at Existing and New Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Group 1 Storage Vessels at Existing and New Affected Sources 3 Table 3 to Subpart PPP of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Polyether Polyols Production Pt. 63, Subpt. PPP, Table 3 Table 3 to Subpart PPP of Part 63—Group 1...

  15. 40 CFR 63.55 - Maximum achievable control technology (MACT) determinations for affected sources subject to case...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Requirements for Control Technology Determinations for Major Sources in Accordance With Clean Air Act Sections... quality health and environmental impacts and energy requirements, determines is achievable by affected... and any non-air quality health and environmental impacts and energy requirements, determines...

  16. 40 CFR 63.55 - Maximum achievable control technology (MACT) determinations for affected sources subject to case...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Requirements for Control Technology Determinations for Major Sources in Accordance With Clean Air Act Sections... quality health and environmental impacts and energy requirements, determines is achievable by affected... and any non-air quality health and environmental impacts and energy requirements, determines...

  17. 40 CFR 63.55 - Maximum achievable control technology (MACT) determinations for affected sources subject to case...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Requirements for Control Technology Determinations for Major Sources in Accordance With Clean Air Act Sections... quality health and environmental impacts and energy requirements, determines is achievable by affected... and any non-air quality health and environmental impacts and energy requirements, determines...

  18. 40 CFR 63.55 - Maximum achievable control technology (MACT) determinations for affected sources subject to case...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Requirements for Control Technology Determinations for Major Sources in Accordance With Clean Air Act Sections... quality health and environmental impacts and energy requirements, determines is achievable by affected... and any non-air quality health and environmental impacts and energy requirements, determines...

  19. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart Jjj of... - Group 1 Storage Vessels at New Affected Sources Producing the Listed Thermoplastics

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Group 1 Storage Vessels at New Affected Sources Producing the Listed Thermoplastics 5 Table 5 to Subpart JJJ of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR...

  20. 40 CFR 63.6000 - How do I conduct tests and procedures for puncture sealant application affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... that satisfies EPA Method 204 (found in 40 CFR part 51, appendix M) criteria, assume 100 percent capture efficiency for variable F. Equation 1 follows: ER09JY02.008 Where: R=overall control system... used at your puncture sealant application affected source, use EPA Method 311 of appendix A of 40...

  1. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Ooo of... - Applicability of General Provisions to Subpart OOO Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... equipment leaks, comply with requirements in 40 CFR part 63, subpart UU. 63.8(c)(1)(iii) Yes 63.8(c)(2) Yes... 40 CFR part 63, subpart UU) specifies acceptable alternative methods. 63.8(f)(4)(ii) No Contents of... Subpart OOO Affected Sources 1 Table 1 to Subpart OOO of Part 63 Protection of Environment...

  2. 40 CFR Table 1 of Subpart Ppp of... - Applicability of General Provisions to Subpart PPP Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Subpart PPP Affected Sources 1 Table 1 of Subpart PPP of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Emissions for Polyether Polyols Production Pt. 63, Subpt. PPP, Table 1 Table 1 of Subpart PPP of Part 63... shall be achieved. 63.1(a)(4) Yes Subpart PPP (this table) specifies the applicability of each...

  3. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Ooo of... - Applicability of General Provisions to Subpart OOO Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... equipment leaks, comply with requirements in 40 CFR part 63, subpart UU. 63.8(c)(1)(iii) Yes 63.8(c)(2) Yes... 40 CFR part 63, subpart UU) specifies acceptable alternative methods. 63.8(f)(4)(ii) No Contents of... Subpart OOO Affected Sources 1 Table 1 to Subpart OOO of Part 63 Protection of Environment...

  4. 40 CFR Table 1 of Subpart Ppp of... - Applicability of General Provisions to Subpart PPP Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Subpart PPP Affected Sources 1 Table 1 of Subpart PPP of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Polyether Polyols Production Pt. 63, Subpt. PPP, Table 1 Table 1 of Subpart PPP of Part 63—Applicability of.... 63.1(a)(4) Yes Subpart PPP (this table) specifies the applicability of each paragraph in subpart A...

  5. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Jjj of... - Applicability of general provisions to subpart JJJ affected sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... subpart JJJ affected sources 1 Table 1 to Subpart JJJ of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Polymers and Resins Pt. 63, Subpt. JJJ, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart JJJ of Part 63—Applicability of general... achieved. § 63.1(a)(4) Yes Subpart JJJ (this table) specifies the applicability of each paragraph...

  6. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Ooo of... - Applicability of General Provisions to Subpart OOO Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... equipment leaks, comply with requirements in 40 CFR part 63, subpart UU. 63.8(c)(1)(iii) Yes 63.8(c)(2) Yes... 40 CFR part 63, subpart UU) specifies acceptable alternative methods. 63.8(f)(4)(ii) No Contents of... Subpart OOO Affected Sources 1 Table 1 to Subpart OOO of Part 63 Protection of Environment...

  7. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart U of... - Applicability of General Provisions to Subpart U Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Subpart U Affected Sources 1 Table 1 to Subpart U of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Polymers and Resins Pt. 63, Subpt. U, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart U of Part 63—Applicability of General....1(a)(4) Yes Subpart U (this table) specifies the applicability of each paragraph in subpart A...

  8. 40 CFR Table 1 of Subpart Ppp of... - Applicability of General Provisions to Subpart PPP Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Subpart PPP Affected Sources 1 Table 1 of Subpart PPP of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Emissions for Polyether Polyols Production Pt. 63, Subpt. PPP, Table 1 Table 1 of Subpart PPP of Part 63... shall be achieved. 63.1(a)(4) Yes Subpart PPP (this table) specifies the applicability of each...

  9. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Jjj of... - Applicability of general provisions to subpart JJJ affected sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... subpart JJJ affected sources 1 Table 1 to Subpart JJJ of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Polymers and Resins Pt. 63, Subpt. JJJ, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart JJJ of Part 63—Applicability of general... achieved. § 63.1(a)(4) Yes Subpart JJJ (this table) specifies the applicability of each paragraph...

  10. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart U of... - Applicability of General Provisions to Subpart U Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Subpart U Affected Sources 1 Table 1 to Subpart U of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Polymers and Resins Pt. 63, Subpt. U, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart U of Part 63—Applicability of General....1(a)(4) Yes Subpart U (this table) specifies the applicability of each paragraph in subpart A...

  11. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Jjj of... - Applicability of general provisions to subpart JJJ affected sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... subpart JJJ affected sources 1 Table 1 to Subpart JJJ of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins Pt. 63, Subpt. JJJ, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart JJJ of Part 63... compliance shall be achieved. § 63.1(a)(4) Yes Subpart JJJ (this table) specifies the applicability of...

  12. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Ooo of... - Applicability of General Provisions to Subpart OOO Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... equipment leaks, comply with requirements in 40 CFR part 63, subpart UU. 63.8(c)(1)(iii) Yes 63.8(c)(2) Yes... 40 CFR part 63, subpart UU) specifies acceptable alternative methods. 63.8(f)(4)(ii) No Contents of... Subpart OOO Affected Sources 1 Table 1 to Subpart OOO of Part 63 Protection of Environment...

  13. 40 CFR Table 1 of Subpart Ppp of... - Applicability of General Provisions to Subpart PPP Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Subpart PPP Affected Sources 1 Table 1 of Subpart PPP of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Polyether Polyols Production Pt. 63, Subpt. PPP, Table 1 Table 1 of Subpart PPP of Part 63—Applicability of.... 63.1(a)(4) Yes Subpart PPP (this table) specifies the applicability of each paragraph in subpart A...

  14. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart U of... - Applicability of General Provisions to Subpart U Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Subpart U Affected Sources 1 Table 1 to Subpart U of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Polymers and Resins Pt. 63, Subpt. U, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart U of Part 63—Applicability of General....1(a)(4) Yes Subpart U (this table) specifies the applicability of each paragraph in subpart A...

  15. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Jjj of... - Applicability of general provisions to subpart JJJ affected sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... subpart JJJ affected sources 1 Table 1 to Subpart JJJ of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins Pt. 63, Subpt. JJJ, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart JJJ of Part 63... compliance shall be achieved. § 63.1(a)(4) Yes Subpart JJJ (this table) specifies the applicability of...

  16. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart III of... - Compliance Requirements for Slabstock Foam Production Affected Sources Complying With the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production Pt. 63, Subpt. III, Table 3 Table 3 to Subpart III of Part 63—Compliance Requirements for Slabstock Foam... Foam Production Affected Sources Complying With the Emission Point Specific Limitations 3 Table 3...

  17. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart III of... - Compliance Requirements for Slabstock Foam Production Affected Sources Complying With the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production Pt. 63, Subpt. III, Table 3 Table 3 to Subpart III of Part 63—Compliance Requirements for Slabstock Foam... Foam Production Affected Sources Complying With the Emission Point Specific Limitations 3 Table 3...

  18. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart III of... - Compliance Requirements for Slabstock Foam Production Affected Sources Complying With the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Compliance Requirements for Slabstock Foam Production Affected Sources Complying With the Emission Point Specific Limitations 3 Table 3 to Subpart III of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS...

  19. 40 CFR 63.5320 - How does my affected major source comply with the HAP emission standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Leather Finishing Operations Compliance Requirements § 63.5320 How does my affected major source comply... specified at § 63.5335(b), to record monthly the pounds of each type of finish applied for each leather... specified at § 63.5430(f), to record monthly the surface area of leather processed in 1,000's of square...

  20. 40 CFR 63.5320 - How does my affected major source comply with the HAP emission standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Leather Finishing Operations Compliance Requirements § 63.5320 How does my affected major source comply... specified at § 63.5335(b), to record monthly the pounds of each type of finish applied for each leather... specified at § 63.5430(f), to record monthly the surface area of leather processed in 1,000's of square...

  1. 40 CFR 63.5320 - How does my affected major source comply with the HAP emission standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Leather Finishing Operations Compliance Requirements § 63.5320 How does my affected major source comply... specified at § 63.5335(b), to record monthly the pounds of each type of finish applied for each leather... specified at § 63.5430(f), to record monthly the surface area of leather processed in 1,000's of square...

  2. 40 CFR 63.55 - Maximum achievable control technology (MACT) determinations for affected sources subject to case...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Requirements for Control Technology Determinations for Major Sources in Accordance With Clean Air Act Sections... quality health and environmental impacts and energy requirements, determines is achievable by affected... and any non-air quality health and environmental impacts and energy requirements, determines...

  3. 40 CFR 63.6000 - How do I conduct tests and procedures for puncture sealant application affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... that satisfies EPA Method 204 (found in 40 CFR part 51, appendix M) criteria, assume 100 percent capture efficiency for variable F. Equation 1 follows: ER09JY02.008 Where: R=overall control system... used at your puncture sealant application affected source, use EPA Method 311 of appendix A of 40...

  4. 40 CFR 63.6000 - How do I conduct tests and procedures for puncture sealant application affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... satisfies EPA Method 204 (found in 40 CFR part 51, appendix M) criteria, assume 100 percent capture... puncture sealant application affected source, use EPA Method 311 of appendix A of 40 CFR part 63, an..., percent. F=capture efficiency of the capture system on add-on control device, percent, determined...

  5. 40 CFR 63.6000 - How do I conduct tests and procedures for puncture sealant application affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... that satisfies EPA Method 204 (found in 40 CFR part 51, appendix M) criteria, assume 100 percent capture efficiency for variable F. Equation 1 follows: ER09JY02.008 Where: R=overall control system... used at your puncture sealant application affected source, use EPA Method 311 of appendix A of 40...

  6. 40 CFR 63.6000 - How do I conduct tests and procedures for puncture sealant application affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... satisfies EPA Method 204 (found in 40 CFR part 51, appendix M) criteria, assume 100 percent capture... puncture sealant application affected source, use EPA Method 311 of appendix A of 40 CFR part 63, an..., percent. F=capture efficiency of the capture system on add-on control device, percent, determined...

  7. Positive Affect as a Source of Resilience for Women in Chronic Pain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zautra, Alex J.; Johnson, Lisa M.; Davis, Mary C.

    2005-01-01

    A sample of 124 women with osteoarthritis or fibromyalgia, or both, completed initial assessments for demographic data, health status, and personality traits and 10-12 weekly interviews regarding pain, stress, negative affect, and positive affect. Multilevel modeling analyses indicated that weekly elevations of pain and stress predicted increases…

  8. Semantic Trouble Sources and Their Repair in Conversations Affected by Parkinson's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saldert, Charlotta; Ferm, Ulrika; Bloch, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Background: It is known that dysarthria arising from Parkinson's disease may affect intelligibility in conversational interaction. Research has also shown that Parkinson's disease may affect cognition and cause word-retrieval difficulties and pragmatic problems in the use of language. However, it is not known whether or how these…

  9. Classifying partner femicide.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Louise; Hamilton-Giachritsis, Catherine; Browne, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    The heterogeneity of domestic violent men has long been established. However, research has failed to examine this phenomenon among men committing the most severe form of domestic violence. This study aims to use a multidimensional approach to empirically construct a classification system of men who are incarcerated for the murder of their female partner based on the Holtzworth-Munroe and Stuart (1994) typology. Ninety men who had been convicted and imprisoned for the murder of their female partner or spouse in England were identified from two prison samples. A content dictionary defining offense and offender characteristics associated with two dimensions of psychopathology and criminality was developed. These variables were extracted from institutional records via content analysis and analyzed for thematic structure using multidimensional scaling procedures. The resultant framework classified 80% (n = 72) of the sample into three subgroups of men characterized by (a) low criminality/low psychopathology (15%), (b) moderate-high criminality/ high psychopathology (36%), and (c) high criminality/low-moderate psychopathology (49%). The latter two groups are akin to Holtzworth-Munroe and Stuart's (1994) generally violent/antisocial and dysphoric/borderline offender, respectively. The implications for intervention, developing consensus in research methodology across the field, and examining typologies of domestic violent men prospectively are discussed. PMID:18087033

  10. 40 CFR 63.7882 - What site remediation sources at my facility does this subpart affect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What site remediation sources at my... Remediation What This Subpart Covers § 63.7882 What site remediation sources at my facility does this subpart... remediation as designated by paragraphs (a)(1) through (3) of this section. (1) Process vents. The...

  11. 40 CFR 63.54 - Preconstruction review procedures for new affected sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES Requirements for Control Technology Determinations for Major Sources in Accordance With Clean Air Act Sections, Sections 112(g) and 112(j) § 63.54 Preconstruction review procedures for new...

  12. 40 CFR 63.52 - Approval process for new and existing affected sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES Requirements for Control Technology Determinations for Major Sources in Accordance With Clean Air Act Sections, Sections 112(g) and 112(j) § 63.52 Approval process for new and existing...

  13. 40 CFR 63.52 - Approval process for new and existing affected sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES Requirements for Control Technology Determinations for Major Sources in Accordance With Clean Air Act Sections, Sections 112(g) and 112(j) § 63.52 Approval process for new and existing...

  14. 40 CFR 63.54 - Preconstruction review procedures for new affected sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES Requirements for Control Technology Determinations for Major Sources in Accordance With Clean Air Act Sections, Sections 112(g) and 112(j) § 63.54 Preconstruction review procedures for new...

  15. 40 CFR 63.54 - Preconstruction review procedures for new affected sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES Requirements for Control Technology Determinations for Major Sources in Accordance With Clean Air Act Sections, Sections 112(g) and 112(j) § 63.54 Preconstruction review procedures for new...

  16. Nitrogen Source Affects Nitrous Oxide Emissions in a Strip-Tilled Continuous Corn Field

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated the effects of nitrogen (N) source on nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from a strip-till (ST), irrigated continuous corn field in 2009 near Fort Collins, CO. Emissions were monitored from plots receiving six different inorganic N fertilizer sources (urea, ESN®1, SuperU®, UAN, UAN+Agrotain...

  17. Nitrogen Source and Placement Affect Soil Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Irrigated Corn in Colorado

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Limited information is available on the effects of N fertilizer source on soil nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. This article summarizes research conducted by the USDA-ARS from 2009-2011 on N fertilizer source effects on growing season soil nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from irrigated corn systems in...

  18. Fusion and Gaussian mixture based classifiers for SONAR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotari, Vikas; Chang, KC

    2011-06-01

    Underwater mines are inexpensive and highly effective weapons. They are difficult to detect and classify. Hence detection and classification of underwater mines is essential for the safety of naval vessels. This necessitates a formulation of highly efficient classifiers and detection techniques. Current techniques primarily focus on signals from one source. Data fusion is known to increase the accuracy of detection and classification. In this paper, we formulated a fusion-based classifier and a Gaussian mixture model (GMM) based classifier for classification of underwater mines. The emphasis has been on sound navigation and ranging (SONAR) signals due to their extensive use in current naval operations. The classifiers have been tested on real SONAR data obtained from University of California Irvine (UCI) repository. The performance of both GMM based classifier and fusion based classifier clearly demonstrate their superior classification accuracy over conventional single source cases and validate our approach.

  19. 40 CFR 63.7490 - What is the affected source of this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... subpart? 63.7490 Section 63.7490 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Industrial, Commercial,...

  20. Intelligence and Language Proficiency as Sources of Variance in Self-Reported Affective Variables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oller, John W., Jr.; Perkins, Kyle

    1978-01-01

    Discusses three possible sources of nonrandom but extraneous variance in self-reported attitude data, and demonstrates that these data may be surreptitious measures of verbal intelligence and language proficiency. (Author/AM)

  1. 40 CFR 63.7490 - What is the affected source of this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... existing industrial, commercial, and institutional boilers and process heaters within a subcategory located... reconstructed industrial, commercial, or institutional boiler or process heater located at a major source as... (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Industrial, Commercial,...

  2. Does fine sediment source as well as quantity affect salmonid embryo mortality and development?

    PubMed

    Sear, D A; Jones, J I; Collins, A L; Hulin, A; Burke, N; Bateman, S; Pattison, I; Naden, P S

    2016-01-15

    Fine sediments are known to be an important cause of increased mortality in benthic spawning fish. To date, most of the research has focussed on the relationship between embryo mortality and the quantity of fine sediment accumulated in the egg pocket. However, recent evidence suggests a) that the source of fine sediment might also be important, and b) that fitness of surviving embryos post-hatch might also be impacted by the accumulation of fine sediments. In this paper, we report an experiment designed to simulate the incubation environment of brown trout (Salmo trutta) and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). During the experiment, the incubating embryos were exposed to different quantities of fine (<63 μm) sediment derived from four different sources; agricultural topsoils, damaged road verges, eroding river channel banks and tertiary level treated sewage. Results showed that mass and source are independently important for determining the mortality and fitness of alevin. Differences between species were observed, such that brown trout are less sensitive to mass and source of accumulated sediment. We demonstrate for the first time that sediment source is an additional control on the impact of fine sediment, and that this is primarily controlled by the organic matter content and oxygen consumption of the catchment source material. PMID:26473698

  3. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Oooo of... - Emission Limits for New or Reconstructed and Existing Affected Sources in the Printing, Coating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Reconstructed and Existing Affected Sources in the Printing, Coating and Dyeing of Fabrics and Other Textiles... SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Printing, Coating, and Dyeing...—Emission Limits for New or Reconstructed and Existing Affected Sources in the Printing, Coating and...

  4. Green Power Grids: How Energy from Renewable Sources Affects Networks and Markets.

    PubMed

    Mureddu, Mario; Caldarelli, Guido; Chessa, Alessandro; Scala, Antonio; Damiano, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    The increasing attention to environmental issues is forcing the implementation of novel energy models based on renewable sources. This is fundamentally changing the configuration of energy management and is introducing new problems that are only partly understood. In particular, renewable energies introduce fluctuations which cause an increased request for conventional energy sources to balance energy requests at short notice. In order to develop an effective usage of low-carbon sources, such fluctuations must be understood and tamed. In this paper we present a microscopic model for the description and for the forecast of short time fluctuations related to renewable sources in order to estimate their effects on the electricity market. To account for the inter-dependencies in the energy market and the physical power dispatch network, we use a statistical mechanics approach to sample stochastic perturbations in the power system and an agent based approach for the prediction of the market players' behavior. Our model is data-driven; it builds on one-day-ahead real market transactions in order to train agents' behaviour and allows us to deduce the market share of different energy sources. We benchmarked our approach on the Italian market, finding a good accordance with real data. PMID:26335705

  5. Green Power Grids: How Energy from Renewable Sources Affects Networks and Markets

    PubMed Central

    Mureddu, Mario; Caldarelli, Guido; Chessa, Alessandro; Scala, Antonio; Damiano, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    The increasing attention to environmental issues is forcing the implementation of novel energy models based on renewable sources. This is fundamentally changing the configuration of energy management and is introducing new problems that are only partly understood. In particular, renewable energies introduce fluctuations which cause an increased request for conventional energy sources to balance energy requests at short notice. In order to develop an effective usage of low-carbon sources, such fluctuations must be understood and tamed. In this paper we present a microscopic model for the description and for the forecast of short time fluctuations related to renewable sources in order to estimate their effects on the electricity market. To account for the inter-dependencies in the energy market and the physical power dispatch network, we use a statistical mechanics approach to sample stochastic perturbations in the power system and an agent based approach for the prediction of the market players’ behavior. Our model is data-driven; it builds on one-day-ahead real market transactions in order to train agents’ behaviour and allows us to deduce the market share of different energy sources. We benchmarked our approach on the Italian market, finding a good accordance with real data. PMID:26335705

  6. Relations of job characteristics from multiple data sources with employee affect, absence, turnover intentions, and health.

    PubMed

    Spector, P E; Jex, S M

    1991-02-01

    Much of the evidence in support of job characteristics theory is limited to incumbent reports of job characteristics. In this study, job characteristics data from three independent sources--incumbents, ratings from job descriptions, and the Dictionary of Occupational Titles--were used. Convergent validities of incumbent reports with other sources were quite modest. Although incumbent reports of job characteristics correlated significantly with several employee outcomes (job satisfaction, work frustration, anxiety on the job, turnover intentions, and number of doctor visits), the other sources showed few significant correlations, except for number of doctor visits. Caution is urged in the use of incumbent self-reports of job characteristics as indicators of actual work environments. New methods for studying job characteristics are suggested. PMID:2016216

  7. 40 CFR 63.1316 - PET and polystyrene affected sources-emissions control provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... appropriate, and are not required to comply with the requirements specified in 40 CFR part 60, subpart DDD... requirements specified in 40 CFR part 60, subpart DDD. Compliance can be based on either organic HAP or TOC. (1... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true PET and polystyrene affected...

  8. 40 CFR 63.1316 - PET and polystyrene affected sources-emissions control provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... appropriate, and are not required to comply with the requirements specified in 40 CFR part 60, subpart DDD... requirements specified in 40 CFR part 60, subpart DDD. Compliance can be based on either organic HAP or TOC. (1... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false PET and polystyrene affected...

  9. 40 CFR 63.1316 - PET and polystyrene affected sources-emissions control provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... appropriate, and are not required to comply with the requirements specified in 40 CFR part 60, subpart DDD...) through (c)(3) of this section, as appropriate, instead of the requirements specified in 40 CFR part 60... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false PET and polystyrene affected...

  10. 40 CFR 63.1316 - PET and polystyrene affected sources-emissions control provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... appropriate, and are not required to comply with the requirements specified in 40 CFR part 60, subpart DDD... requirements specified in 40 CFR part 60, subpart DDD. Compliance can be based on either organic HAP or TOC. (1... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true PET and polystyrene affected...

  11. 40 CFR 63.1316 - PET and polystyrene affected sources-emissions control provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... appropriate, and are not required to comply with the requirements specified in 40 CFR part 60, subpart DDD... requirements specified in 40 CFR part 60, subpart DDD. Compliance can be based on either organic HAP or TOC. (1... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false PET and polystyrene affected...

  12. The affective reactivity of psychotic speech: The role of internal source monitoring in explaining increased thought disorder under emotional challenge.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Paulo; Sellwood, William; Spray, Amy; Bentall, Richard P

    2016-04-01

    Thought disorder (TD) has been shown to vary in relation to negative affect. Here we examine the role internal source monitoring (iSM, i.e. ability to discriminate between inner speech and verbalized speech) in TD and whether changes in iSM performance are implicated in the affective reactivity effect (deterioration of TD when participants are asked to talk about emotionally-laden topics). Eighty patients diagnosed with schizophrenia-spectrum disorder and thirty healthy controls received interviews that promoted personal disclosure (emotionally salient) and interviews on everyday topics (non-salient) on separate days. During the interviews, participants were tested on iSM, self-reported affect and immediate auditory recall. Patients had more TD, poorer ability to discriminate between inner and verbalized speech, poorer immediate auditory recall and reported more negative affect than controls. Both groups displayed more TD and negative affect in salient interviews but only patients showed poorer performance on iSM. Immediate auditory recall did not change significantly across affective conditions. In patients, the relationship between self-reported negative affect and TD was mediated by deterioration in the ability to discriminate between inner speech and speech that was directed to others and socially shared (performance on the iSM) in both interviews. Furthermore, deterioration in patients' performance on iSM across conditions significantly predicted deterioration in TD across the interviews (affective reactivity of speech). Poor iSM is significantly associated with TD. Negative affect, leading to further impaired iSM, leads to increased TD in patients with psychosis. Avenues for future research as well as clinical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:26851142

  13. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Kkkk of... - Emission Limits for New or Reconstructed Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Surface Coating of... the following table as required by § 63.3490(a) through (c). If you apply surface coatings to metal... and two-piece draw and iron can body coating a. Two-piece beverage cans—all coatingsb. Two-piece...

  14. Does Specific Instruction during Collecting from Several Sources Affect the Quality of the Written Text Product?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilbig, Annemarie; Proske, Antje

    2014-01-01

    Although academic writing is a complex interplay of comprehending and producing text the aspect of collecting information from source texts is hardly addressed in writing research. This study examined the impact of instructions supporting the collection process on writing quality, as well as the role of prior motivation and computer experience.…

  15. 40 CFR 63.7882 - What site remediation sources at my facility does this subpart affect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... remediation processes include but are not limited to, thermal desorption, bioremediation, and air stripping... source is the entire group of process vents associated with the in-situ and ex-situ remediation processes... remediation material subject to remediation. Examples of such in-situ remediation processes include, but...

  16. 40 CFR 63.7882 - What site remediation sources at my facility does this subpart affect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... remediation processes include but are not limited to, thermal desorption, bioremediation, and air stripping... source is the entire group of process vents associated with the in-situ and ex-situ remediation processes... remediation material subject to remediation. Examples of such in-situ remediation processes include, but...

  17. 40 CFR 63.1505 - Emission standards for affected sources and emission units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... that is a major or area source. (d) Scrap dryer/delacquering kiln/decoating kiln. On and after the compliance date established by § 63.1501: (1) The owner or operator of a scrap dryer/delacquering kiln/decoating kiln must not discharge or cause to be discharged to the atmosphere emissions in excess of: (i)...

  18. 40 CFR 63.1505 - Emission standards for affected sources and emission units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... that is a major or area source. (d) Scrap dryer/delacquering kiln/decoating kiln. On and after the compliance date established by § 63.1501: (1) The owner or operator of a scrap dryer/delacquering kiln/decoating kiln must not discharge or cause to be discharged to the atmosphere emissions in excess of: (i)...

  19. 40 CFR 63.1505 - Emission standards for affected sources and emission units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... that is a major or area source. (d) Scrap dryer/delacquering kiln/decoating kiln. On and after the compliance date established by § 63.1501: (1) The owner or operator of a scrap dryer/delacquering kiln/decoating kiln must not discharge or cause to be discharged to the atmosphere emissions in excess of: (i)...

  20. 40 CFR 63.1505 - Emission standards for affected sources and emission units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... that is a major or area source. (d) Scrap dryer/delacquering kiln/decoating kiln. On and after the compliance date established by § 63.1501: (1) The owner or operator of a scrap dryer/delacquering kiln/decoating kiln must not discharge or cause to be discharged to the atmosphere emissions in excess of: (i)...

  1. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Emission Limits for Tire Production... SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. XXXX, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63—Emission Limits for...

  2. 40 CFR 63.1505 - Emission standards for affected sources and emission units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... that is a major source must not discharge or cause to be discharged to the atmosphere: (1) Emissions in... discharged to the atmosphere emissions in excess of: (1) 0.40 kilogram (kg) of THC, as propane, per megagram.../decoating kiln must not discharge or cause to be discharged to the atmosphere emissions in excess of: (i)...

  3. A temporal and spatial analysis of anthropogenic noise sources affecting SNMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalgaard, E.; Christiansen, P.; Larsen, J. J.; Auken, E.

    2014-11-01

    One of the biggest challenges when using the surface nuclear magnetic resonance (SNMR) method in urban areas is a relatively low signal level compared to a high level of background noise. To understand the temporal and spatial behavior of anthropogenic noise sources like powerlines and electric fences, we have developed a multichannel instrument, noiseCollector (nC), which measures the full noise spectrum up to 10 kHz. Combined with advanced signal processing we can interpret the noise as seen by a SNMR instrument and also obtain insight into the more fundamental behavior of the noise. To obtain a specified acceptable noise level for a SNMR sounding the stack size can be determined by quantifying the different noise sources. Two common noise sources, electromagnetic fields stemming from powerlines and fences are analyzed and show a 1/r2 dependency in agreement with theoretical relations. A typical noise map, obtained with the nC instrument prior to a SNMR field campaign, clearly shows the location of noise sources, and thus we can efficiently determine the optimal location for the SNMR sounding from a noise perspective.

  4. Emergent behaviors of classifier systems

    SciTech Connect

    Forrest, S.; Miller, J.H.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses some examples of emergent behavior in classifier systems, describes some recently developed methods for studying them based on dynamical systems theory, and presents some initial results produced by the methodology. The goal of this work is to find techniques for noticing when interesting emergent behaviors of classifier systems emerge, to study how such behaviors might emerge over time, and make suggestions for designing classifier systems that exhibit preferred behaviors. 20 refs., 1 fig.

  5. Factors, origin and sources affecting PM1 concentrations and composition at an urban background site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Squizzato, Stefania; Masiol, Mauro; Agostini, Chiara; Visin, Flavia; Formenton, Gianni; Harrison, Roy M.; Rampazzo, Giancarlo

    2016-11-01

    PM1 is widely believed to provide better information on the anthropogenic fraction of particulate matter pollution than PM2.5. However, data on PM1 are still limited in Europe as well as comprehensive information about its chemical composition and source apportionment and this gap is more evident in the pollution hot-spots still remaining in Europe, such as the Po Valley (Northern Italy). Elemental and organic carbon, 7 water soluble inorganic ions and 17 elements were quantified in 117 PM1 samples collected at an urban background site in Venice-Mestre, a large city located in the eastern Po Valley, during winter (December 2013-February 2014) and summer (May-July 2014) periods. Results show a strong seasonality for PM1 mass concentration (averages ranging from 6 ± 2 in summer to 34 ± 24 μg m- 3 in winter) and for most of the analysed species. Components mainly related to road traffic, residential heating, biomass burning and secondary inorganic aerosol (ammonium nitrate) reached their highest levels in winter, while mineral dust and marine components were elevated in summer. PMF analysis revealed 7 potential sources. Secondary inorganic aerosol (33%) and biomass burning (33%) are the major contributor in winter followed by EC-primary emissions (16%), aged sulphate (6%), road traffic (7%), fossil fuel combustion (%) and marine aerosol (3%). During summer, these sources account for 12%, 14%, 20%, 22%, 8%, 14% and 10%, respectively. Some PM1 sources are located near the sampling site (residential area, traffic road, industrial area) but a major contribution of long range transport is observed when high pollution events occur. The results give useful insights into PM1 composition in an urban area and chemical profiles of sources helpful in the interpretation of receptor model results.

  6. Dietary carbohydrate and lipid sources affect differently the oxidative status of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) juveniles.

    PubMed

    Castro, Carolina; Peréz-Jiménez, Amalia; Coutinho, Filipe; Díaz-Rosales, Patricia; Serra, Cláudia Alexandra Dos Reis; Panserat, Stéphane; Corraze, Geneviève; Peres, Helena; Oliva-Teles, Aires

    2015-11-28

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of dietary lipid source and carbohydrate content on the oxidative status of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) juveniles. For that purpose, four diets were formulated with fish oil (FO) and vegetable oils (VO) as the lipid source and with 20 or 0 % gelatinised starch as the carbohydrate source, in a 2×2 factorial design. Liver and intestine antioxidant enzyme activities (catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GR), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)), hepatic and intestinal lipid peroxidation (LPO), as well as hepatic oxidative stress index (OSI), were measured in fish fed the experimental diets for 73 d (n 9 fish/diet). Carbohydrate-rich diets promoted a decrease in hepatic LPO and OSI, whereas the lipid source induced no changes. Inversely, dietary lipid source, but not dietary carbohydrate concentration, affected LPO in the intestine. Lower intestinal LPO was observed in VO groups. Enzymes responsive to dietary treatments were GR, G6PD and CAT in the liver and GR and GPX in the intestine. Dietary carbohydrate induced GR and G6PD activities and depressed CAT activity in the liver. GPX and GR activities were increased in the intestine of fish fed VO diets. Overall, effects of diet composition on oxidative status were tissue-related: the liver and intestine were strongly responsive to dietary carbohydrates and lipid sources, respectively. Furthermore, different metabolic routes were more active to deal with the oxidative stress in the two organs studied. PMID:26365262

  7. Factors affecting quality for beta dose rate measurements using ISO 6980 series I reference sources

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, R.E. Jr.; O`Brien, J.M. Jr.

    1993-12-31

    Atlan-Tech, Inc. has performed several calibrations of ISO 6980 Series 1 reference beta sources over the past two to three years. There were many problems encountered in attempting to compare the results of these calibrations with those from other laboratories, indicating the need for more standardization in the methodology employed for the measurement of the absorbed dose rate from ISO 6980 Series 1 reference beta sources. This document describes some of the problems encountered in attempting to intercompare results of beta dose-rate measurements. It proposes some solutions in an attempt to open a dialogue among facilities using reference beta standards for the purpose of promoting better measurement quality assurance through data intercomparison.

  8. Statistical Characterization of Environmental Error Sources Affecting Electronically Scanned Pressure Transducers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Del L.; Walker, Eric L.; Everhart, Joel L.

    2006-01-01

    Minimization of uncertainty is essential to extend the usable range of the 15-psid Electronically Scanned Pressure [ESP) transducer measurements to the low free-stream static pressures found in hypersonic wind tunnels. Statistical characterization of environmental error sources inducing much of this uncertainty requires a well defined and controlled calibration method. Employing such a controlled calibration system, several studies were conducted that provide quantitative information detailing the required controls needed to minimize environmental and human induced error sources. Results of temperature, environmental pressure, over-pressurization, and set point randomization studies for the 15-psid transducers are presented along with a comparison of two regression methods using data acquired with both 0.36-psid and 15-psid transducers. Together these results provide insight into procedural and environmental controls required for long term high-accuracy pressure measurements near 0.01 psia in the hypersonic testing environment using 15-psid ESP transducers.

  9. Statistical Characterization of Environmental Error Sources Affecting Electronically Scanned Pressure Transducers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Del L.; Walker, Eric L.; Everhart, Joel L.

    2006-01-01

    Minimization of uncertainty is essential to extend the usable range of the 15-psid Electronically Scanned Pressure (ESP) transducer measurements to the low free-stream static pressures found in hypersonic wind tunnels. Statistical characterization of environmental error sources inducing much of this uncertainty requires a well defined and controlled calibration method. Employing such a controlled calibration system, several studies were conducted that provide quantitative information detailing the required controls needed to minimize environmental and human induced error sources. Results of temperature, environmental pressure, over-pressurization, and set point randomization studies for the 15-psid transducers are presented along with a comparison of two regression methods using data acquired with both 0.36-psid and 15-psid transducers. Together these results provide insight into procedural and environmental controls required for long term high-accuracy pressure measurements near 0.01 psia in the hypersonic testing environment using 15-psid ESP transducers.

  10. 40 CFR 63.640 - Applicability and designation of affected source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... required by 40 CFR 61.357 of subpart FF; (vi) Reports and notifications required by § 63.428(b), (c), (g)(1... 6 of this subpart. (iv) Reports and notifications required by § 63.182, or 40 CFR 60.487. The... that is part of an existing source and is also subject to the provisions of 40 CFR part 60, subpart...

  11. Do knowledge, knowledge sources and reasoning skills affect the accuracy of nursing diagnoses? a randomised study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This paper reports a study about the effect of knowledge sources, such as handbooks, an assessment format and a predefined record structure for diagnostic documentation, as well as the influence of knowledge, disposition toward critical thinking and reasoning skills, on the accuracy of nursing diagnoses. Knowledge sources can support nurses in deriving diagnoses. A nurse’s disposition toward critical thinking and reasoning skills is also thought to influence the accuracy of his or her nursing diagnoses. Method A randomised factorial design was used in 2008–2009 to determine the effect of knowledge sources. We used the following instruments to assess the influence of ready knowledge, disposition, and reasoning skills on the accuracy of diagnoses: (1) a knowledge inventory, (2) the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory, and (3) the Health Science Reasoning Test. Nurses (n = 249) were randomly assigned to one of four factorial groups, and were instructed to derive diagnoses based on an assessment interview with a simulated patient/actor. Results The use of a predefined record structure resulted in a significantly higher accuracy of nursing diagnoses. A regression analysis reveals that almost half of the variance in the accuracy of diagnoses is explained by the use of a predefined record structure, a nurse’s age and the reasoning skills of `deduction’ and `analysis’. Conclusions Improving nurses’ dispositions toward critical thinking and reasoning skills, and the use of a predefined record structure, improves accuracy of nursing diagnoses. PMID:22852577

  12. Source population characteristics affect heterosis following genetic rescue of fragmented plant populations

    PubMed Central

    Pickup, M.; Field, D. L.; Rowell, D. M.; Young, A. G.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the relative importance of heterosis and outbreeding depression over multiple generations is a key question in evolutionary biology and is essential for identifying appropriate genetic sources for population and ecosystem restoration. Here we use 2455 experimental crosses between 12 population pairs of the rare perennial plant Rutidosis leptorrhynchoides (Asteraceae) to investigate the multi-generational (F1, F2, F3) fitness outcomes of inter-population hybridization. We detected no evidence of outbreeding depression, with inter-population hybrids and backcrosses showing either similar fitness or significant heterosis for fitness components across the three generations. Variation in heterosis among population pairs was best explained by characteristics of the foreign source or home population, and was greatest when the source population was large, with high genetic diversity and low inbreeding, and the home population was small and inbred. Our results indicate that the primary consideration for maximizing progeny fitness following population augmentation or restoration is the use of seed from large, genetically diverse populations. PMID:23173202

  13. Affective Norms for 718 Polish Short Texts (ANPST): Dataset with Affective Ratings for Valence, Arousal, Dominance, Origin, Subjective Significance and Source Dimensions

    PubMed Central

    Imbir, Kamil K.

    2016-01-01

    Affective sciences are of burgeoning interest and are attracting more and more research attention. Three components of stimuli meaning have traditionally been distinguished: valence (degree of pleasantness), arousal (degree of intensity of sensations), and dominance (degree of control over sensations). Recently, another three dimensions have been introduced to measure qualities connected to the emotion–duality model: origin (the main component originating in the heart or in the mind), subjective significance (the degree of the subjective goal’s relevance), and source (the location of the stimuli evoking the state). All six affective dimensions were assessed in our study of 718 Polish short texts (sentences of 5–23 words and 36–133 characters in length) describing situations or states in a way that can be referenced to an individual’s experience. Assessments were carried out by 148 psychology students (all women for 108 sentences) and 2,091 students of different faculties (social science, engineering, life science, and science) from Warsaw colleges and universities (1,061 women and 1,030 men for all 718 sentences). Assessing sets of sentences for emotional response is especially useful for researchers interested in emotion elicitation through the use of a phrase such as “imagine that …” or by simply reading emotionally charged material that is more complex and that provides better context than single pictures or words. PMID:27458420

  14. Affective Norms for 718 Polish Short Texts (ANPST): Dataset with Affective Ratings for Valence, Arousal, Dominance, Origin, Subjective Significance and Source Dimensions.

    PubMed

    Imbir, Kamil K

    2016-01-01

    Affective sciences are of burgeoning interest and are attracting more and more research attention. Three components of stimuli meaning have traditionally been distinguished: valence (degree of pleasantness), arousal (degree of intensity of sensations), and dominance (degree of control over sensations). Recently, another three dimensions have been introduced to measure qualities connected to the emotion-duality model: origin (the main component originating in the heart or in the mind), subjective significance (the degree of the subjective goal's relevance), and source (the location of the stimuli evoking the state). All six affective dimensions were assessed in our study of 718 Polish short texts (sentences of 5-23 words and 36-133 characters in length) describing situations or states in a way that can be referenced to an individual's experience. Assessments were carried out by 148 psychology students (all women for 108 sentences) and 2,091 students of different faculties (social science, engineering, life science, and science) from Warsaw colleges and universities (1,061 women and 1,030 men for all 718 sentences). Assessing sets of sentences for emotional response is especially useful for researchers interested in emotion elicitation through the use of a phrase such as "imagine that …" or by simply reading emotionally charged material that is more complex and that provides better context than single pictures or words. PMID:27458420

  15. Feature Selection and Effective Classifiers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deogun, Jitender S.; Choubey, Suresh K.; Raghavan, Vijay V.; Sever, Hayri

    1998-01-01

    Develops and analyzes four algorithms for feature selection in the context of rough set methodology. Experimental results confirm the expected relationship between the time complexity of these algorithms and the classification accuracy of the resulting upper classifiers. When compared, results of upper classifiers perform better than lower…

  16. Assessment of the sources of error affecting the quantitative accuracy of SPECT imaging in small animals

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Andrew B; Franc, Benjamin L; Gullberg, Grant T; Hasegawa, Bruce H

    2009-01-01

    Small animal SPECT imaging systems have multiple potential applications in biomedical research. Whereas SPECT data are commonly interpreted qualitatively in a clinical setting, the ability to accurately quantify measurements will increase the utility of the SPECT data for laboratory measurements involving small animals. In this work, we assess the effect of photon attenuation, scatter and partial volume errors on the quantitative accuracy of small animal SPECT measurements, first with Monte Carlo simulation and then confirmed with experimental measurements. The simulations modeled the imaging geometry of a commercially available small animal SPECT system. We simulated the imaging of a radioactive source within a cylinder of water, and reconstructed the projection data using iterative reconstruction algorithms. The size of the source and the size of the surrounding cylinder were varied to evaluate the effects of photon attenuation and scatter on quantitative accuracy. We found that photon attenuation can reduce the measured concentration of radioactivity in a volume of interest in the center of a rat-sized cylinder of water by up to 50% when imaging with iodine-125, and up to 25% when imaging with technetium-99m. When imaging with iodine-125, the scatter-to-primary ratio can reach up to approximately 30%, and can cause overestimation of the radioactivity concentration when reconstructing data with attenuation correction. We varied the size of the source to evaluate partial volume errors, which we found to be a strong function of the size of the volume of interest and the spatial resolution. These errors can result in large (>50%) changes in the measured amount of radioactivity. The simulation results were compared with and found to agree with experimental measurements. The inclusion of attenuation correction in the reconstruction algorithm improved quantitative accuracy. We also found that an improvement of the spatial resolution through the use of resolution

  17. Assessment of the sources of error affecting the quantitative accuracy of SPECT imaging in small animals

    SciTech Connect

    Joint Graduate Group in Bioengineering, University of California, San Francisco and University of California, Berkeley; Department of Radiology, University of California; Gullberg, Grant T; Hwang, Andrew B.; Franc, Benjamin L.; Gullberg, Grant T.; Hasegawa, Bruce H.

    2008-02-15

    Small animal SPECT imaging systems have multiple potential applications in biomedical research. Whereas SPECT data are commonly interpreted qualitatively in a clinical setting, the ability to accurately quantify measurements will increase the utility of the SPECT data for laboratory measurements involving small animals. In this work, we assess the effect of photon attenuation, scatter and partial volume errors on the quantitative accuracy of small animal SPECT measurements, first with Monte Carlo simulation and then confirmed with experimental measurements. The simulations modeled the imaging geometry of a commercially available small animal SPECT system. We simulated the imaging of a radioactive source within a cylinder of water, and reconstructed the projection data using iterative reconstruction algorithms. The size of the source and the size of the surrounding cylinder were varied to evaluate the effects of photon attenuation and scatter on quantitative accuracy. We found that photon attenuation can reduce the measured concentration of radioactivity in a volume of interest in the center of a rat-sized cylinder of water by up to 50percent when imaging with iodine-125, and up to 25percent when imaging with technetium-99m. When imaging with iodine-125, the scatter-to-primary ratio can reach up to approximately 30percent, and can cause overestimation of the radioactivity concentration when reconstructing data with attenuation correction. We varied the size of the source to evaluate partial volume errors, which we found to be a strong function of the size of the volume of interest and the spatial resolution. These errors can result in large (>50percent) changes in the measured amount of radioactivity. The simulation results were compared with and found to agree with experimental measurements. The inclusion of attenuation correction in the reconstruction algorithm improved quantitative accuracy. We also found that an improvement of the spatial resolution through the

  18. Fishing in urban New Jersey: Ethnicity affects information sources, perception and compliance

    SciTech Connect

    Burger, J. ); Pflugh, K.K.; Lurig, L.; Hagen, L.A.V. . Div. of Science and Research); Hagen, S. von . Dept. of Pharmacology and Toxicity)

    1999-04-01

    Recreational and subsistence angling are important aspects of urban culture for much of North American where people are concentrated near the coasts or major rivers. Yet there are fish and shellfish advisories for many estuaries, rivers, and lakes, and these are not always heeded. This paper examines fishing behavior, sources of information, perceptions, and compliance with fishing advisories as a function of ethnicity for people fishing in the Newark Bay Complex of the New York-New Jersey Harbor. The authors test the null hypothesis that there were no ethnic differences in sources of information, perceptions of the safety of fish consumption, and compliance with advisories. There were ethnic differences in consumption rates, sources of information about fishing, knowledge about the safety of the fish, awareness of fishing advisories or of the correct advisories, and knowledge about risks for increased cancer and to unborn and young children. In general, the knowledge base was much lower for Hispanics, was intermediate for blacks, and was greatest for whites. When presented with a statement about the potential risks from eating fish, there were no differences in their willingness to stop eating fish or to encourage pregnant women to stop. These results indicate a willingness to comply with advisories regardless of ethnicity, but a vast difference in the base knowledge necessary to make an informed risk decisions about the safety of fish and shellfish. Although the overall median income level of the population was in the $25,000--34,999 income category, for Hispanics it was on the border between $15,000--24,999 and $25,000--34,999.

  19. Manure source and age affect survival of zoonotic pathogens during aerobic composting at sublethal temperatures.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Marilyn C; Smith, Chris; Jiang, Xiuping; Flitcroft, Ian D; Doyle, Michael P

    2015-02-01

    Heat is the primary mechanism by which aerobic composting inactivates zoonotic bacterial pathogens residing within animal manures, but at sublethal temperatures, the time necessary to hold the compost materials to ensure pathogen inactivation is uncertain. To determine the influence of the type of nitrogen amendment on inactivation of Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes, and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in compost mixtures stored at sublethal temperatures, specific variables investigated in these studies included the animal source of the manure, the initial carbon/nitrogen (C:N) ratio of the compost mixture, and the age of the manure. Salmonella and L. monocytogenes were both inactivated more rapidly in chicken and swine compost mixtures stored at 20°C when formulated to an initial C:N ratio of 20:1 compared with 40:1, whereas a C:N ratio did not have an effect on inactivation of these pathogens in cow compost mixtures. Pathogen inactivation was related to the elevated pH of the samples that likely arises from ammonia produced by the indigenous microflora in the compost mixtures. Indigenous microbial activity was reduced when compost mixtures were stored at 30°C and drier conditions (<10% moisture level) were prevalent. Furthermore, under these drier conditions, Salmonella persisted to a greater extent than L. monocytogenes, and the desiccation resistance of Salmonella appeared to convey cross-protection to ammonia. Salmonella persisted longer in compost mixtures prepared with aged chicken litter compared with fresh chicken litter, whereas E. coli O157:H7 survived to similar extents in compost mixtures prepared with either fresh or aged cow manure. The different responses observed when different sources of manure were used in compost mixtures reveal that guidelines with times required for pathogen inactivation in compost mixtures stored at sublethal temperatures should be dependent on the source of nitrogen, i.e., type of animal manure, present. PMID:25710145

  20. Protein source and choice of anticoagulant decisively affect nanoparticle protein corona and cellular uptake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schöttler, S.; Klein, Katja; Landfester, K.; Mailänder, V.

    2016-03-01

    Protein adsorption on nanoparticles has been a focus of the field of nanocarrier research in the past few years and more and more papers are dealing with increasingly detailed lists of proteins adsorbed to a plethora of nanocarriers. While there is an urgent need to understand the influence of this protein corona on nanocarriers' interactions with cells the strong impact of the protein source on corona formation and the consequence for interaction with different cell types are factors that are regularly neglected, but should be taken into account for a meaningful analysis. In this study, the importance of the choice of protein source used for in vitro protein corona analysis is concisely investigated. Major and decisive differences in cellular uptake of a polystyrene nanoparticle incubated in fetal bovine serum, human serum, human citrate and heparin plasma are reported. Furthermore, the protein compositions are determined for coronas formed in the respective incubation media. A strong influence of heparin, which is used as an anticoagulant for plasma generation, on cell interaction is demonstrated. While heparin enhances the uptake into macrophages, it prevents internalization into HeLa cells. Taken together we can give the recommendation that human plasma anticoagulated with citrate seems to give the most relevant results for in vitro studies of nanoparticle uptake.Protein adsorption on nanoparticles has been a focus of the field of nanocarrier research in the past few years and more and more papers are dealing with increasingly detailed lists of proteins adsorbed to a plethora of nanocarriers. While there is an urgent need to understand the influence of this protein corona on nanocarriers' interactions with cells the strong impact of the protein source on corona formation and the consequence for interaction with different cell types are factors that are regularly neglected, but should be taken into account for a meaningful analysis. In this study, the importance

  1. Protein source and choice of anticoagulant decisively affect nanoparticle protein corona and cellular uptake.

    PubMed

    Schöttler, S; Klein, Katja; Landfester, K; Mailänder, V

    2016-03-14

    Protein adsorption on nanoparticles has been a focus of the field of nanocarrier research in the past few years and more and more papers are dealing with increasingly detailed lists of proteins adsorbed to a plethora of nanocarriers. While there is an urgent need to understand the influence of this protein corona on nanocarriers' interactions with cells the strong impact of the protein source on corona formation and the consequence for interaction with different cell types are factors that are regularly neglected, but should be taken into account for a meaningful analysis. In this study, the importance of the choice of protein source used for in vitro protein corona analysis is concisely investigated. Major and decisive differences in cellular uptake of a polystyrene nanoparticle incubated in fetal bovine serum, human serum, human citrate and heparin plasma are reported. Furthermore, the protein compositions are determined for coronas formed in the respective incubation media. A strong influence of heparin, which is used as an anticoagulant for plasma generation, on cell interaction is demonstrated. While heparin enhances the uptake into macrophages, it prevents internalization into HeLa cells. Taken together we can give the recommendation that human plasma anticoagulated with citrate seems to give the most relevant results for in vitro studies of nanoparticle uptake. PMID:26804616

  2. Escherichia coli carbon source metabolism affects longevity of its predator Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Brokate-Llanos, Ana María; Garzón, Andrés; Muñoz, Manuel J

    2014-01-01

    Nutrition is probably the most determinant factor affecting aging. Microorganisms of the intestinal flora lay in the interface between available nutrients and nutrients that are finally absorbed by multicellular organisms. They participate in the processing and transformation of these nutrients in a symbiotic or commensalistic relationship. In addition, they can also be pathogens. Alive Escherichia coli OP50 are usually used to culture the bacteriovorus nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Here, we report a beneficial effect of low concentration of saccharides on the longevity of C. elegans. This effect is only observed when the bacterium can metabolize the sugar, suggesting that physiological changes in the bacterium feeding on the saccharides are the cause of this beneficial effect. PMID:25263107

  3. Foraging reactivation in the honeybee Apis mellifera L.: factors affecting the return to known nectar sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, Mariana; Farina, Walter Marcelo

    2002-05-01

    This paper addresses, what determines that experienced forager honeybees return to places where they have previously exploited nectar. Although there was already some evidence that dance and trophallaxis can cause bees to return to feed, the fraction of unemployed foragers that follow dance or receive food from employed foragers before revisiting the feeder was unknown. We found that 27% of the experienced foragers had no contact with the returning foragers inside the hive. The most common interactions were dance following (64%) and trophallaxis (21%). The great variability found in the amount of interactions suggests that individual bees require different stimulation before changing to the foraging mode. This broad disparity negatively correlated with the number of days after marking at the feeder, a variable that is closely related to the foraging experience, suggesting that a temporal variable might affect the decision-making in reactivated foragers.

  4. Factors affecting the pore space transformation during hydrocarbon generation in source rock (shales): laboratory experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giliazetdinova, D. R.; Korost, D. V.

    2014-12-01

    Oil and gas generation is a set of processes which taking place in the interior, the processes can't be observable in nature. In the process of dumping the source rock, organic matter is transformed into a complex of high-molecular compounds - precursors of oil and gas (kerogen). Entering of a source column for specific thermobaric conditions, triggers the formation of low molecular weight hydrocarbon compounds. Generation of sufficient quantities of hydrocarbons leads to the primary fluid migration within the source rock. For the experiment were selected mainly siliceous-carbonate composition rocks from Domanic horizon South-Tatar arch. The main aim of experiment was heating the rocks in the pyrolyzer to temperatures which correspond katagenes stages. For monitoring changes in the morphology of the pore space X-ray microtomography method was used. As a result, when was made a study of the composition of mineral and organic content of the rocks, as well as textural and structural features, have been identified that the majority of the rock samples within the selected collection are identical. However, characteristics such as organic content and texture of rocks are different. Thus, the experiment was divided into two parts: 1) the study of the influence of organic matter content on the morphology of the rock in the process of thermal effects; 2) study the effect of texture on the primary migration processes for the same values of organic matter. Also, an additional experiment was conducted to study the dynamics of changes in the structure of the pore space. At each stage of the experiment morphology of altered rocks characterized by the formation of new pores and channels connecting the primary voids. However, it was noted that the samples with a relatively low content of the organic matter had less changes in pore space morphology, in contrast to rocks with a high organic content. At the second stage of the research also revealed that the conversion of the pore

  5. [Carbon source metabolic diversity of soil microbial community under different climate types in the area affected by Wenchuan earthquake].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guang-Shuai; Lin, Yong-Ming; Ma, Rui-Feng; Deng, Hao-Jun; Du, Kun; Wu, Cheng-Zhen; Hong, Wei

    2015-02-01

    The MS8.0 Wenchuan earthquake in 2008 led to huge damage to land covers in northwest Sichuan, one of the critical fragile eco-regions in China which can be divided into Semi-arid dry hot climate zone (SDHC) and Subtropical humid monsoon climate zone (SHMC). Using the method of Bilog-ECO-microplate technique, this paper aimed to determine the functional diversity of soil microbial community in the earthquake-affected areas which can be divided into undamaged area (U), recover area (R) and damaged area without recovery (D) under different climate types, in order to provide scientific basis for ecological recovery. The results indicated that the average-well-color-development (AWCD) in undamaged area and recovery area showed SDHC > SHMC, which was contrary to the AWCD in the damaged area without recovery. The AWCD of damaged area without recovery was the lowest in both climate zones. The number of carbon source utilization types of soil microbial in SHMC zone was significantly higher than that in SDHC zone. The carbon source utilization types in both climate zones presented a trend of recover area > undamaged area > damaged area without recovery. The carbon source metabolic diversity characteristic of soil microbial community was significantly different in different climate zones. The diversity index and evenness index both showed a ranking of undamaged area > recover area > damaged area without recovery. In addition, the recovery area had the highest richness index. The soil microbial carbon sources metabolism characteristic was affected by soil nutrient, aboveground vegetation biomass and vegetation coverage to some extent. In conclusion, earthquake and its secondary disasters influenced the carbon source metabolic diversity characteristic of soil microbial community mainly through the change of aboveground vegetation and soil environmental factors. PMID:26031097

  6. Fluency affects source memory for familiar names in younger and older adults: evidence from event-related brain potentials.

    PubMed

    Komes, Jessica; Schweinberger, Stefan R; Wiese, Holger

    2014-05-15

    A current debate in memory research is whether and how the access to source information depends not only on recollection, but on fluency-based processes as well. In three experiments, we used event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to examine influences of fluency on source memory for famous names. At test, names were presented visually throughout, whereas visual or auditory presentation was used at learning. In Experiment 1, source decisions following old/new judgments were more accurate for repeated relative to non-repeated visually and auditorily learned names. ERPs were more positive between 300 and 600 ms for visually learned as compared to both auditorily learned and new names, resembling an N400 priming effect. In Experiment 2, we omitted the old/new decision to more directly test fast-acting fluency effects on source memory. We observed more accurate source judgments for repeated versus non-repeated visually learned names, but no such effect for repeated versus non-repeated auditorily learned names. Again, an N400 effect (300-600 ms) differentiated between visually and auditorily learned names. Importantly, this effect occurred for correct source decisions only. We interpret it as indexing fluency arising from within-modality priming of visually learned names at test. This idea was further supported in Experiment 3, which revealed an analogous pattern of results in older adults, consistent with the assumption of spared fluency processes in older age. In sum, our findings suggest that fluency affects person-related source memory via within-modality repetition priming in both younger and older adults. PMID:24531047

  7. How parental dietary behavior and food parenting practices affect children's dietary behavior. Interacting sources of influence?

    PubMed

    Larsen, Junilla K; Hermans, Roel C J; Sleddens, Ester F C; Engels, Rutger C M E; Fisher, Jennifer O; Kremers, Stef P J

    2015-06-01

    Until now, the literatures on the effects of food parenting practices and parents' own dietary behavior on children's dietary behavior have largely been independent from one another. Integrating findings across these areas could provide insight on simultaneous and interacting influences on children's food intake. In this narrative review, we provide a conceptual model that bridges the gap between both literatures and consists of three main hypotheses. First, parental dietary behavior and food parenting practices are important interactive sources of influence on children's dietary behavior and Body Mass Index (BMI). Second, parental influences are importantly mediated by changes in the child's home food environment. Third, parenting context (i.e., parenting styles and differential parental treatment) moderates effects of food parenting practices, whereas child characteristics (i.e., temperament and appetitive traits) mainly moderate effects of the home food environment. Future studies testing (parts of) this conceptual model are needed to inform effective parent-child overweight preventive interventions. PMID:25681294

  8. Sink-source characteristics of two distinctly different forest species as affected by elevated carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Pushnik, J.C.; Florv, W.B.; Demaree, R.S. ); Anderson, P.D.; Houpis J.L.J. )

    1993-05-01

    The basic physiology and biochemistry of photosynthesis is being correlated with the leaf level processes and morphology of the Sierra Nevada varieties of Taxus brevifolia and Pinus ponderosa in an attempt to identify control mechanisms of carbohydrate partitioning. We are evaluating sink/source relationships in terms of carbon assimilation (gas-exchange (A[ci] curves and temperature effects); RuBPCase activity, chloroplast structure, integrity, and distributions, stomatal densities, internal leaf organization); transport functions (sucrose-phosphate synthetase (SPS) activity); long-term sink (immunoelectron microscopic detection of taxol). The results of these investigations suggest carbon acquisition characteristics are similar among the conifers, but with distinct differences in carboxylation efficiencies, SPS activity, needle starch content/chloroplast, and vascular tissue areas. These baseline characteristics are currently being evaluated in response to elevated CO[sub 2].

  9. Hawaii Integrated Energy Assessment. Volume V. Rules, regulations, permits and policies affecting the development of alternate energy sources in Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    A comprehensive presentaton of the major permits, regulations, rules, and controls which are likely to affect the development of alternate energy sources in Hawaii is presented. An overview of the permit process, showing the major categories and types of permits and controls for energy alternatives is presented. This is followed by a brief resume of current and projected changes designed to streamline the permit process. The permits, laws, regulations, and controls that are applicable to the development of energy alternatives in Hawaii are described. The alternate energy technologies affected, a description of the permit or control, and the requirements for conformance are presented for each applicable permit. Federal, state, and county permits and controls are covered. The individual energy technologies being considered as alternatives to the State's present dependence on imported fossil fuels are emphasized. The alternate energy sources covered are bioconversion, geothermal, ocean thermal, wind, solar (direct), and solid waste. For each energy alternative, the significant permits are summarized with a brief explanation of why they may be necessary. The framework of policy development at each of the levels of government with respect to the alternate energy sources is covered.

  10. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Dd of... - Tank Control Levels for Tanks at Existing Affected Sources as Required by 40 CFR 63.685(b)(1)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Existing Affected Sources as Required by 40 CFR 63.685(b)(1) 3 Table 3 to Subpart DD of Part 63 Protection... Subpart DD of Part 63—Tank Control Levels for Tanks at Existing Affected Sources as Required by 40 CFR 63.685(b)(1) Tank design capacity (cubic meters) Maximum HAP vapor pressure of off-site material...

  11. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Dd of... - Tank Control Levels for Tanks at New Affected Sources as Required by 40 CFR 63.685(b)(2)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Affected Sources as Required by 40 CFR 63.685(b)(2) 4 Table 4 to Subpart DD of Part 63 Protection of... Subpart DD of Part 63—Tank Control Levels for Tanks at New Affected Sources as Required by 40 CFR 63.685(b)(2) Tank design capacity (cubic meters) Maximum HAP vapor pressure of off-site material managed...

  12. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Dd of... - Tank Control Levels for Tanks at Existing Affected Sources as Required by 40 CFR 63.685(b)(1)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Existing Affected Sources as Required by 40 CFR 63.685(b)(1) 3 Table 3 to Subpart DD of Part 63 Protection... Subpart DD of Part 63—Tank Control Levels for Tanks at Existing Affected Sources as Required by 40 CFR 63.685(b)(1) Tank design capacity (cubic meters) Maximum HAP vapor pressure of off-site material...

  13. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Dd of... - Tank Control Levels for Tanks at Existing Affected Sources as Required by 40 CFR 63.685(b)(1)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Existing Affected Sources as Required by 40 CFR 63.685(b)(1) 3 Table 3 to Subpart DD of Part 63 Protection... Subpart DD of Part 63—Tank Control Levels for Tanks at Existing Affected Sources as Required by 40 CFR 63.685(b)(1) Tank design capacity (cubic meters) Maximum HAP vapor pressure of off-site material...

  14. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Dd of... - Tank Control Levels for Tanks at New Affected Sources as Required by 40 CFR 63.685(b)(2)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Affected Sources as Required by 40 CFR 63.685(b)(2) 4 Table 4 to Subpart DD of Part 63 Protection of... Subpart DD of Part 63—Tank Control Levels for Tanks at New Affected Sources as Required by 40 CFR 63.685(b)(2) Tank design capacity (cubic meters) Maximum HAP vapor pressure of off-site material managed...

  15. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Dd of... - Tank Control Levels for Tanks at New Affected Sources as Required by 40 CFR 63.685(b)(2)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Affected Sources as Required by 40 CFR 63.685(b)(2) 4 Table 4 to Subpart DD of Part 63 Protection of... Subpart DD of Part 63—Tank Control Levels for Tanks at New Affected Sources as Required by 40 CFR 63.685(b)(2) Tank design capacity (cubic meters) Maximum HAP vapor pressure of off-site material managed...

  16. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Dd of... - Tank Control Levels for Tanks at Existing Affected Sources as Required by 40 CFR 63.685(b)(1)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Existing Affected Sources as Required by 40 CFR 63.685(b)(1) 3 Table 3 to Subpart DD of Part 63 Protection... Subpart DD of Part 63—Tank Control Levels for Tanks at Existing Affected Sources as Required by 40 CFR 63.685(b)(1) Tank design capacity (cubic meters) Maximum HAP vapor pressure of off-site material...

  17. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Dd of... - Tank Control Levels for Tanks at New Affected Sources as Required by 40 CFR 63.685(b)(2)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Affected Sources as Required by 40 CFR 63.685(b)(2) 4 Table 4 to Subpart DD of Part 63 Protection of... Subpart DD of Part 63—Tank Control Levels for Tanks at New Affected Sources as Required by 40 CFR 63.685(b)(2) Tank design capacity (cubic meters) Maximum HAP vapor pressure of off-site material managed...

  18. 40 CFR 63.1345 - Emissions limits for affected sources other than kilns; in-line kiln/raw mills; clinker coolers...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Emissions limits for affected sources other than kilns; in-line kiln/raw mills; clinker coolers; new and reconstructed raw material dryers... for affected sources other than kilns; in-line kiln/raw mills; clinker coolers; new and...

  19. 40 CFR 63.1345 - Emissions limits for affected sources other than kilns; in-line kiln/raw mills; clinker coolers...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Emissions limits for affected sources other than kilns; in-line kiln/raw mills; clinker coolers; new and reconstructed raw material dryers... for affected sources other than kilns; in-line kiln/raw mills; clinker coolers; new and...

  20. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart U of... - Applicability of Subparts F, G, & H of This Part to Subpart U Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... This Part to Subpart U Affected Sources 2 Table 2 to Subpart U of Part 63 Protection of Environment...: Group I Polymers and Resins Pt. 63, Subpt. U, Table 2 Table 2 to Subpart U of Part 63—Applicability of Subparts F, G, & H of This Part to Subpart U Affected Sources Reference Applies to Subpart U...

  1. Application of soil magnetometry on urban and industrial areas affected by different sources of pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magiera, T.; Szuszkiewicz, M.; Rachwał, M.

    2012-04-01

    Soil magnetometry as a proxy screening method has proven to be a suitable method for outlining soil pollution, connected with industrial and urban dust deposition as well as qualitative and semi-quantitative evaluation of potentially contaminated areas with considerably high concentration of technogenic iron particles and related heavy metals. In combination with geochemical method it could be also used for better targeting the geochemical sampling and reducing the number of chemical analysis. During this study the method was applied on areas dominated by 3 different sources of pollution: urban (mostly related to coal combustion), metallurgical and coke production. The three analyzed forest complexes were artificially planted and grow on anthroposols with different stage of transformation. During the study analysis of vertical distribution of magnetic susceptibility (κ) in 40 topsoil profiles taken in 3 above mentioned forest areas were performed. Additionally, soil samples taken from horizons with increased magnetic susceptibility (mostly organic horizon) and from mineral horizons (considered as a background) were selected to chemical analysis of 9 heavy metal content (Fe, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd and Pb). X-ray fluorescence method was applied for geochemical study. The highest κ values up to 1200 × 10-5 SI units were measured in the vicinity of metallurgical plant but the correlation between κ values and heavy metal content was there very low and statistically not significant. The considerably high correlation between magnetic susceptibility and some heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Cd, Cu, As) were observed on 2 other areas of study. On the base of these study in combination with former mineralogical study of industrial dusts and topsoils, the following conclusions have been drown: Steelworks - emit strongly magnetic technogenic magnetic particles (TMPs) including metallic iron (α-Fe) that is strong ferromagnetic (giving high κ values) but do not contain heavy

  2. Dietary Protein Sources Affect Internal Quality of Raw and Cooked Shell Eggs under Refrigerated Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Wang, X. C.; Zhang, H. J.; Wu, S. G.; Yue, H. Y.; Wang, J.; Li, J.; Qi, G. H.

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of various protein sources (soybean meal, SBM; cottonseed protein, CSP; double-zero rapeseed meal, DRM) on the internal quality of refrigerated eggs. A total of 360 laying hens (32 wk of age) were randomly allotted to six treatment groups (five replicates per treatment) and fed diets containing SBM, CSP, or DRM individually or in combination with equal crude protein content (SBM-CSP, SBM-DRM, and CSP-DRM) as the protein ingredient(s). A 6×3 factorial arrangement was employed with dietary types and storage time (0 d, 2 wk, and 4 wk) as the main effects. After 12 wk of diet feeding, a total of 270 eggs were collected for egg quality determination. The egg Haugh unit (HU) in the CSP, SBM-DRM, and DRM groups were significantly lower than those in the SBM and SBM-CSP groups. The hardness and springiness of the cooked yolk in the CSP group were significantly higher than those in the other treatment groups. A lower HU, lower yolk index and higher albumen pH were observed in the DRM group compared to the SBM and SBM-CSP groups when the eggs were stored to 4 wk, and the HU was improved in the CSP-DRM group compared to the DRM group (p<0.05). Higher yolk hardness was observed in the CSP group compared to the other groups during storage (p<0.05), but the hardness of the cooked yolk in the SBM-CSP and CSP-DRM groups showed no difference in comparison to the SBM group. In conclusion, CSP may ameliorate the negative effects of DRM on the HU of refrigerated eggs, and SBM or DRM may alleviate the adverse effects of CSP on yolk hardness. PMID:26580286

  3. Classifying Chondrules Based on Cathodoluminesence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristarela, T. C.; Sears, D. W.

    2011-03-01

    Sears et al. (1991) proposed a scheme to classify chondrules based on cathodoluminesence color and electron microprobe analysis. This research evaluates that scheme and criticisms received from Grossman and Brearley (2005).

  4. Milk from forage as affected by carbohydrate source and degradability with alfalfa silage-based diets.

    PubMed

    Charbonneau, E; Chouinard, P Y; Allard, G; Lapierre, H; Pellerin, D

    2006-01-01

    Milk from forage (MF) is an estimation of the milk produced solely from forage intake. It is calculated by subtracting milk production theoretically allowed by concentrates from total milk production, assuming that maintenance requirements are covered by the forage portion of the diet. Eight multiparous Holstein cows in early lactation were used in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design to evaluate the impact on MF of different sources of carbohydrate with forage that was high in RDP. Diets were alfalfa-based total mixed rations that were formulated to provide similar concentrations of NEL and CP while differing in rumen degradability of concentrate carbohydrates. Treatments were 1) cracked corn (control), 2) ground corn (GC), 3) GC plus wheat starch (GC+S), and 4) GC plus dried whey permeate (GC+W). The GC and the GC+S treatments increased MF as calculated on a protein basis (14.8 vs. 10.5 kg) and increased average MF production (8.6 vs. 5.5 kg) compared with the control. Protein of forage was used more efficiently with GC and with GC+S, as shown by the lower differences between allowable MF, which estimates the potential for milk production from forage, and MF on a protein basis for these 2 treatments when compared with the control. Compared with the control, DMI increased with GC and GC+S; GC+W yielded the highest DMI. Milk production with GC+W (35.8 kg/d) was lower than with GC and GC+S (37.5 kg/d) but was higher than the control (34.0 kg/d). Milk fat concentration was higher with GC+W and lower with GC+S; GC and the control had intermediate values. Milk urea was higher with the control diet compared with the other 3 treatments. Results emphasize the advantage of using concentrates of higher degradability in the rumen to improve MF and milk production when feeding silage with high rumen-degradable protein. PMID:16357292

  5. Genetic variants affecting human TRPA1 or TRPM8 structure can be classified in vitro as ‘well expressed’, ‘poorly expressed’ or ‘salvageable’

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Kevin; Sadofsky, Laura Rachel; Morice, Alyn Hugh

    2015-01-01

    Multiple mis-sense variants of TRPA1 (transient receptor potential A1) and TRPM8 (transient receptor potential M8) are recorded in the human genome single nt polymorphism (SNP) database, but their potential impact on channel signalling in patho-physiology is not fully explored. Variants, mostly quite rare in the general human population, alter sites in different structural domains of these homo-tetrameric ion channel proteins. The effects of individual SNPs affecting the large cytoplasmic N-terminal domain have not been completely documented for TRPM8 or TRPA1. We examined the Ca2+ signalling properties of a short-list of eight variants affecting the N-terminal domain by individual expression in human embryonic kidney HEK293 or neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cell lines (four SNP variants for TRPM8: G150R, K423N, R475C, R485W and four for TRPA1: Y69C, A366D, E477K, D573A). These were compared with TRPA1 SNP variants affecting intracellular loops located beyond the N-terminal domain and associated with gain of function (such as increased sensitivity to agonists: TRPA1 R797T and N855S). A substitution in TRPA1 (Y69C) exhibited high expression/sensitivity to agonists (high iCa2+max (maximum level of intracellular calcium ion), similar to R797T, but less sensitive than N855S), whereas each of the other non-conservative substitutions exhibited poor signalling response (low iCa2+max). Responses from these poorly expressed variants could be salvaged, to different extents, by pre-treating cells with the Src (Src protein) family inhibitor protein kinase inhibitor PP2 (PP2: 4-Amino-3-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-(t-butyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine, 4-Amino-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-7-(t-butyl)pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine), or with micromolar Zn2+. The TRPA1 variants and several experimental mutants (TRPA1 Y97F, Y226F and YY654–655FF) expressed poorly in SH-SY5Y compared with HEK293 cells. More in-depth studies are needed to identify SNP variants eliciting gain of function in these TRP (transient

  6. Multi-isotope approach: a tool to better constrain both sources and processes affecting NO3 pollution in watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widory, D.

    2006-12-01

    Nitrate is one of the major pollutants of drinking water resources worldwide. Recent European directives reduced inputs from intensive agriculture, but in most places NO3 levels are approaching the potable limit of 50 mg.l-1 in groundwater. Determining the source(s) of contamination in groundwater is an important first step for improving its quality by emission control. It is with this aim that we review here the benefit of using a multi- isotope approach (d15N, d180, d11B and 87Sr/86Sr), in addition to conventional hydrogeological analysis, to both constrain the watersheds hydrology and trace the origin of their NO3 pollution. Watersheds presented here include both fractured bedrock and alluvial (subsurface and deep) hydrogeological contexts. The strontium budget in watersheds is mainly controlled by the water-rock interactions (human inputs usually represents negligible fluxes). With the example of the Allier river (Central France), we show that, even on a very small watershed, the main water flows can usually be determined by the use of the 87Sr/86Sr ratios, thus helping understanding the hydrology controlling pollution processes. The characterisation of the different usual nitrate sources of pollution in groundwater (mineral fertilisers, wastewater and animals manure) shows that they can clearly be discriminated using isotopes. The isotopic composition of the dissolved nitrogen species has been used extensively to better constrain the sources and fate of nitrate in groundwater. The possibility of quantifying both origin and secondary processes affecting N concentrations by means of a single tracer appears more limited however. Nitrogen cannot be considered conservative because it is biologically modified through nitrification and denitrification reactions, both during infiltration of the water and in the groundwater body, causing isotopic fractionation that modifies the d15N-n signatures of the dissolved N species. Discriminating multiple NO3 sources by their N

  7. Production of bromoform and dibromomethane by Giant Kelp: Factors affecting release and comparison to anthropogenic bromine sources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goodwin, K.D.; North, W.J.; Lidstrom, M.E.

    1998-01-01

    Macrocystis pyrifera (Giant Kelp), a dominant macroalgal species in southern California, produced 171 ng per g fresh wt (gfwt) per day of CHBr3 and 48 ng gfwt-1 d-1 of CH2Br2 during laboratory incubations of whole blades. Comparable rates were measured during in situ incubations of intact fronds. Release of CHBr3 and CH2Br2 by M. pyrifera was affected by light and algal photosynthetic activity, suggesting that environmental factors influencing kelp physiology can affect halomethane release to the atmosphere. Data from H2O2 additions suggest that brominated methane production during darkness is limited by bromide oxidant supply. A bromine budget constructed for a region of southern California indicated that bromine emitted from the use of CH3Br as a fumigant (1 x 108 g Br yr-1) dominates macroalgal sources (3 x 106 g Br yr-1). Global projections, however, suggest that combined emissions of marine algae (including microalgae) contribute substantial amounts of bromine to the global cycle, perhaps on the same order of magnitude as anthropogenic sources.

  8. Inferences over the sources and processes affecting polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the atmosphere derived from measured data.

    PubMed

    Mari, Montse; Harrison, Roy M; Schuhmacher, Marta; Domingo, José L; Pongpiachan, Siwatt

    2010-05-01

    Data concerning atmospheric lifetime and relative source contributions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are fragmentary and contradictory. In this study, two datasets of measurements of atmospheric PAH (sum of particulate and gaseous phases), one from a national network, the other from a more local three-site study, were analysed and used to infer processes affecting PAH in the atmosphere, and their sources. PAH congener profiles measured at urban and rural locations were remarkably similar suggesting that atmospheric decay processes are relatively slow. This allows the use of such profiles to elucidate sources. A spatial analysis of two PAH datasets showed a clear influence of industry and road traffic upon local PAH concentrations. When Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was applied to UK national network data, it showed a clear influence of steel industry emissions and of home heating emissions from coal and oil in Northern Ireland. These sites also showed different winter/summer concentration ratios to the main group of sites. In the data from Birmingham (UK), PCA identified separate factors relating to gasoline and diesel vehicles, as well as the influence of wood combustion on "Bonfire night", and a factor related to home heating emissions which shows up only in the cold season. PMID:20207394

  9. Profiles, sources, and transport of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils affected by electronic waste recycling in Longtang, south China.

    PubMed

    Huang, De-Yin; Liu, Chuan-Ping; Li, Fang-Bai; Liu, Tong-Xu; Liu, Cheng-Shuai; Tao, Liang; Wang, Yan

    2014-06-01

    We studied the profiles, possible sources, and transport of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils from the Longtang area, which is an electronic waste (e-waste) recycling center in south China. The sum of 16 PAH concentrations ranged from 25 to 4,300 ng/g (dry weight basis) in the following order: pond sediment sites (77 ng/g), vegetable fields (129 ng/g), paddy fields (180 ng/g), wastelands (258 ng/g), dismantling sites (678 ng/g), and former open burning sites (2,340 ng/g). Naphthalene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, chrysene, and benzo[b]fluoranthene were the dominant PAHs and accounted for approximately 75 % of the total PAHs. The similar composition characteristics of PAHs and the significant correlations among individual, low molecular weight, high molecular weight, and total PAHs were found in all six sampling site types, thus indicating that PAHs originated from similar sources. The results of both isomeric ratios and principal component analyses confirmed that PAHs were mainly derived from the incomplete combustion of e-waste. The former open burning sites and dismantling sites were the main sources of PAHs. Soil samples that were taken closer to the point sources had high PAH concentrations. PAHs are transported via different soil profiles, including those in agricultural fields, and have been detected not only in 0- to 40-cm-deep soil but also in 40 cm to 80 cm-deep soil. PAH concentrations in soils in Longtang have been strongly affected by primitive e-waste recycling, particularly by former open burning activities. PMID:24448685

  10. Method for classifying ceramic powder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takabe, K.

    1983-01-01

    Under the invented method, powder A of particles of less than 10 microns, and carrier powder B, whose average particle diameter is more than five times that of powder A, are premixed so that the powder is less than 40 wt.% of the total mixture, before classifying.

  11. The Classified Catalogue: LU Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, C.-C.; Mount, Joan

    1971-01-01

    The Laurentian University Library has evolved a bilingual classified catalogue consisting of a public shelflist supplement by a French/English subject index. This produces an effective tool for locating all materials pertaining to a given topic in either or both of two languages. (Author/NH)

  12. A Hybrid Model for Research on Subjective Well-Being: Examining Common- and Component-Specific Sources of Variance in Life Satisfaction, Positive Affect, and Negative Affect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busseri, Michael; Sadava, Stanley; DeCourville, Nancy

    2007-01-01

    The primary components of subjective well-being (SWB) include life satisfaction (LS), positive affect (PA), and negative affect (NA). There is little consensus, however, concerning how these components form a model of SWB. In this paper, six longitudinal studies varying in demographic characteristics, length of time between assessment periods,…

  13. Interactions between Bifidobacterium and Bacteroides Species in Cofermentations Are Affected by Carbon Sources, Including Exopolysaccharides Produced by Bifidobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Rios-Covian, David; Arboleya, Silvia; Hernandez-Barranco, Ana M.; Alvarez-Buylla, Jorge R.; Ruas-Madiedo, Patricia; Gueimonde, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    Cocultures of strains from two Bifidobacterium and two Bacteroides species were performed with exopolysaccharides (EPS) previously purified from bifidobacteria, with inulin, or with glucose as the carbon source. Bifidobacterium longum NB667 and Bifidobacterium breve IPLA20004 grew in glucose but showed poor or no growth in complex carbohydrates (inulin, EPS E44, and EPS R1), whereas Bacteroides grew well in the four carbon sources tested. In the presence of glucose, the growth of Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron DSM-2079 was inhibited by B. breve, whereas it remained unaffected in the presence of B. longum. Ba. fragilis DSM-2151 contributed to a greater survival of B. longum, promoting changes in the synthesis of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and organic acids in coculture with respect to monocultures. In complex carbohydrates, cocultures of bifidobacterium strains with Ba. thetaiotaomicron did not modify the behavior of Bacteroides nor improve the poor growth of bifidobacteria. The metabolic activity of Ba. fragilis in coculture with bifidobacteria was not affected by EPS, but greater survival of bifidobacteria at late stages of incubation occurred in cocultures than in monocultures, leading to a higher production of acetic acid than in monocultures. Therefore, cocultures of Bifidobacterium and Bacteroides can behave differently against fermentable carbohydrates as a function of the specific characteristics of the strains from each species. These results stress the importance of considering specific species and strain interactions and not simply higher taxonomic divisions in the relationship among intestinal microbial populations and their different responses to probiotics and prebiotics. PMID:24077708

  14. Interactions between Bifidobacterium and Bacteroides species in cofermentations are affected by carbon sources, including exopolysaccharides produced by bifidobacteria.

    PubMed

    Rios-Covian, David; Arboleya, Silvia; Hernandez-Barranco, Ana M; Alvarez-Buylla, Jorge R; Ruas-Madiedo, Patricia; Gueimonde, Miguel; de los Reyes-Gavilan, Clara G

    2013-12-01

    Cocultures of strains from two Bifidobacterium and two Bacteroides species were performed with exopolysaccharides (EPS) previously purified from bifidobacteria, with inulin, or with glucose as the carbon source. Bifidobacterium longum NB667 and Bifidobacterium breve IPLA20004 grew in glucose but showed poor or no growth in complex carbohydrates (inulin, EPS E44, and EPS R1), whereas Bacteroides grew well in the four carbon sources tested. In the presence of glucose, the growth of Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron DSM-2079 was inhibited by B. breve, whereas it remained unaffected in the presence of B. longum. Ba. fragilis DSM-2151 contributed to a greater survival of B. longum, promoting changes in the synthesis of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and organic acids in coculture with respect to monocultures. In complex carbohydrates, cocultures of bifidobacterium strains with Ba. thetaiotaomicron did not modify the behavior of Bacteroides nor improve the poor growth of bifidobacteria. The metabolic activity of Ba. fragilis in coculture with bifidobacteria was not affected by EPS, but greater survival of bifidobacteria at late stages of incubation occurred in cocultures than in monocultures, leading to a higher production of acetic acid than in monocultures. Therefore, cocultures of Bifidobacterium and Bacteroides can behave differently against fermentable carbohydrates as a function of the specific characteristics of the strains from each species. These results stress the importance of considering specific species and strain interactions and not simply higher taxonomic divisions in the relationship among intestinal microbial populations and their different responses to probiotics and prebiotics. PMID:24077708

  15. 48 CFR 1803.907 - Classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Classified information... Whistleblower Protections 1803.907 Classified information. Nothing in this subpart provides any rights to disclose classified information not otherwise provided by law....

  16. 75 FR 705 - Classified National Security Information

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-05

    ... Executive Order 13526--Classified National Security Information Memorandum of December 29, 2009--Implementation of the Executive Order ``Classified National Security Information'' Order of December 29, 2009... ] Executive Order 13526 of December 29, 2009 Classified National Security Information This order prescribes...

  17. 76 FR 34761 - Classified National Security Information

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-14

    ... Classified National Security Information AGENCY: Marine Mammal Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This... information, as directed by Information Security Oversight Office regulations. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT..., ``Classified National Security Information,'' and 32 CFR part 2001, ``Classified National Security...

  18. Increasing children's ASL classifier production: a multicomponent intervention.

    PubMed

    Beal-Alvarez, Jennifer S; Easterbrooks, Susan R

    2013-01-01

    The Authors examined classifier production during narrative retells by 10 deaf and hard of hearing students in grades 2-4 at a day school for the deaf following a 6-week intervention of repeated viewings of stories in American Sign Language (ASL) paired with scripted teacher mediation. Classifier production, documented through a multiple-baseline-across-participants design, was followed by visual analysis and calculation of the percentage of non-overlapping data (Scruggs, Mastropieri, & Casto, 1987). Following the intervention, most students increased specific elements within their classifier production during narrative retells of stories they had watched and showed improved performance from pre- to postintervention measures. Picture support and fading of teacher mediation during retells variably affected classifier production. The results suggest that students may benefit from tailored intervention, including repeated viewings of ASL models paired with teacher mediation and possibly picture support, to increase classifier production during narrative retells. PMID:24133957

  19. Sediment composition for the assessment of water erosion and nonpoint source pollution in natural and fire-affected landscapes.

    PubMed

    Carkovic, Athena B; Pastén, Pablo A; Bonilla, Carlos A

    2015-04-15

    Water erosion is a leading cause of soil degradation and a major nonpoint source pollution problem. Many efforts have been undertaken to estimate the amount and size distribution of the sediment leaving the field. Multi-size class water erosion models subdivide eroded soil into different sizes and estimate the aggregate's composition based on empirical equations derived from agricultural soils. The objective of this study was to evaluate these equations on soil samples collected from natural landscapes (uncultivated) and fire-affected soils. Chemical, physical, and soil fractions and aggregate composition analyses were performed on samples collected in the Chilean Patagonia and later compared with the equations' estimates. The results showed that the empirical equations were not suitable for predicting the sediment fractions. Fine particles, including primary clay, primary silt, and small aggregates (<53 μm) were over-estimated, and large aggregates (>53 μm) and primary sand were under-estimated. The uncultivated and fire-affected soils showed a reduced fraction of fine particles in the sediment, as clay and silt were mostly in the form of large aggregates. Thus, a new set of equations was developed for these soils, where small aggregates were defined as particles with sizes between 53 μm and 250 μm and large aggregates as particles>250 μm. With r(2) values between 0.47 and 0.98, the new equations provided better estimates for primary sand and large aggregates. The aggregate's composition was also well predicted, especially the silt and clay fractions in the large aggregates from uncultivated soils (r(2)=0.63 and 0.83, respectively) and the fractions of silt in the small aggregates (r(2)=0.84) and clay in the large aggregates (r(2)=0.78) from fire-affected soils. Overall, these new equations proved to be better predictors for the sediment and aggregate's composition in uncultivated and fire-affected soils, and they reduce the error when estimating soil loss in

  20. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Oooo of... - Emission Limits for New or Reconstructed and Existing Affected Sources in the Printing, Coating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Reconstructed and Existing Affected Sources in the Printing, Coating and Dyeing of Fabrics and Other Textiles..., and Dyeing of Fabrics and Other Textiles Pt. 63, Subpt. OOOO, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart OOOO of Part... and Dyeing of Fabrics and Other Textiles Source Category If you are required to comply with...

  1. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Oooo of... - Emission Limits for New or Reconstructed and Existing Affected Sources in the Printing, Coating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Reconstructed and Existing Affected Sources in the Printing, Coating and Dyeing of Fabrics and Other Textiles... of Fabrics and Other Textiles Pt. 63, Subpt. OOOO, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart OOOO of Part 63... of Fabrics and Other Textiles Source Category If you are required to comply with emission...

  2. Clustering signatures classify directed networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahnert, S. E.; Fink, T. M. A.

    2008-09-01

    We use a clustering signature, based on a recently introduced generalization of the clustering coefficient to directed networks, to analyze 16 directed real-world networks of five different types: social networks, genetic transcription networks, word adjacency networks, food webs, and electric circuits. We show that these five classes of networks are cleanly separated in the space of clustering signatures due to the statistical properties of their local neighborhoods, demonstrating the usefulness of clustering signatures as a classifier of directed networks.

  3. Classifying Southern Hemisphere extratropical cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catto, Jennifer

    2015-04-01

    There is a wide variety of flavours of extratropical cyclones in the Southern Hemisphere, with differing structures and lifecycles. Previous studies have classified these manually using upper level flow features or satellite data. In order to be able to evaluate climate models and understand how extratropical cyclones might change in the future, we need to be able to use an automated method to classify cyclones. Extratropical cyclones have been identified in the Southern Hemisphere from the ERA-Interim reanalysis dataset with a commonly used identification and tracking algorithm that employs 850hPa relative vorticity. A clustering method applied to large-scale fields from ERA-Interim at the time of cyclone genesis (when the cyclone is first identified), has been used to objectively classify these cyclones in the Southern Hemisphere. This simple method is able to separate the cyclones into classes with quite different development mechanisms and lifecycle characteristics. Some of the classes seem to coincide with previous manual classifications on shorter timescales, showing their utility for climate model evaluation and climate change studies.

  4. Multi-input distributed classifiers for synthetic genetic circuits.

    PubMed

    Kanakov, Oleg; Kotelnikov, Roman; Alsaedi, Ahmed; Tsimring, Lev; Huerta, Ramón; Zaikin, Alexey; Ivanchenko, Mikhail

    2015-01-01

    For practical construction of complex synthetic genetic networks able to perform elaborate functions it is important to have a pool of relatively simple modules with different functionality which can be compounded together. To complement engineering of very different existing synthetic genetic devices such as switches, oscillators or logical gates, we propose and develop here a design of synthetic multi-input classifier based on a recently introduced distributed classifier concept. A heterogeneous population of cells acts as a single classifier, whose output is obtained by summarizing the outputs of individual cells. The learning ability is achieved by pruning the population, instead of tuning parameters of an individual cell. The present paper is focused on evaluating two possible schemes of multi-input gene classifier circuits. We demonstrate their suitability for implementing a multi-input distributed classifier capable of separating data which are inseparable for single-input classifiers, and characterize performance of the classifiers by analytical and numerical results. The simpler scheme implements a linear classifier in a single cell and is targeted at separable classification problems with simple class borders. A hard learning strategy is used to train a distributed classifier by removing from the population any cell answering incorrectly to at least one training example. The other scheme implements a circuit with a bell-shaped response in a single cell to allow potentially arbitrary shape of the classification border in the input space of a distributed classifier. Inseparable classification problems are addressed using soft learning strategy, characterized by probabilistic decision to keep or discard a cell at each training iteration. We expect that our classifier design contributes to the development of robust and predictable synthetic biosensors, which have the potential to affect applications in a lot of fields, including that of medicine and industry

  5. Multi-Input Distributed Classifiers for Synthetic Genetic Circuits

    PubMed Central

    Kanakov, Oleg; Kotelnikov, Roman; Alsaedi, Ahmed; Tsimring, Lev; Huerta, Ramón; Zaikin, Alexey; Ivanchenko, Mikhail

    2015-01-01

    For practical construction of complex synthetic genetic networks able to perform elaborate functions it is important to have a pool of relatively simple modules with different functionality which can be compounded together. To complement engineering of very different existing synthetic genetic devices such as switches, oscillators or logical gates, we propose and develop here a design of synthetic multi-input classifier based on a recently introduced distributed classifier concept. A heterogeneous population of cells acts as a single classifier, whose output is obtained by summarizing the outputs of individual cells. The learning ability is achieved by pruning the population, instead of tuning parameters of an individual cell. The present paper is focused on evaluating two possible schemes of multi-input gene classifier circuits. We demonstrate their suitability for implementing a multi-input distributed classifier capable of separating data which are inseparable for single-input classifiers, and characterize performance of the classifiers by analytical and numerical results. The simpler scheme implements a linear classifier in a single cell and is targeted at separable classification problems with simple class borders. A hard learning strategy is used to train a distributed classifier by removing from the population any cell answering incorrectly to at least one training example. The other scheme implements a circuit with a bell-shaped response in a single cell to allow potentially arbitrary shape of the classification border in the input space of a distributed classifier. Inseparable classification problems are addressed using soft learning strategy, characterized by probabilistic decision to keep or discard a cell at each training iteration. We expect that our classifier design contributes to the development of robust and predictable synthetic biosensors, which have the potential to affect applications in a lot of fields, including that of medicine and industry

  6. Temperature Affects the Use of Storage Fatty Acids as Energy Source in a Benthic Copepod (Platychelipus littoralis, Harpacticoida).

    PubMed

    Werbrouck, Eva; Van Gansbeke, Dirk; Vanreusel, Ann; De Troch, Marleen

    2016-01-01

    The utilization of storage lipids and their associated fatty acids (FA) is an important means for organisms to cope with periods of food shortage, however, little is known about the dynamics and FA mobilization in benthic copepods (order Harpacticoida). Furthermore, lipid depletion and FA mobilization may depend on the ambient temperature. Therefore, we subjected the temperate copepod Platychelipus littoralis to several intervals (3, 6 and 14 days) of food deprivation, under two temperatures in the range of the normal habitat temperature (4, 15°C) and under an elevated temperature (24°C), and studied the changes in FA composition of storage and membrane lipids. Although bulk depletion of storage FA occurred after a few days of food deprivation under 4°C and 15°C, copepod survival remained high during the experiment, suggesting the catabolization of other energy sources. Ambient temperature affected both the degree of FA depletion and the FA mobilization. In particular, storage FA were more exhausted and FA mobilization was more selective under 15°C compared with 4°C. In contrast, depletion of storage FA was limited under an elevated temperature, potentially due to a switch to partial anaerobiosis. Food deprivation induced selective DHA retention in the copepod's membrane, under all temperatures. However, prolonged exposure to heat and nutritional stress eventually depleted DHA in the membranes, and potentially induced high copepod mortality. Storage lipids clearly played an important role in the short-term response of the copepod P. littoralis to food deprivation. However, under elevated temperature, the use of storage FA as an energy source is compromised. PMID:26986852

  7. Temperature Affects the Use of Storage Fatty Acids as Energy Source in a Benthic Copepod (Platychelipus littoralis, Harpacticoida)

    PubMed Central

    Werbrouck, Eva; Van Gansbeke, Dirk; Vanreusel, Ann; De Troch, Marleen

    2016-01-01

    The utilization of storage lipids and their associated fatty acids (FA) is an important means for organisms to cope with periods of food shortage, however, little is known about the dynamics and FA mobilization in benthic copepods (order Harpacticoida). Furthermore, lipid depletion and FA mobilization may depend on the ambient temperature. Therefore, we subjected the temperate copepod Platychelipus littoralis to several intervals (3, 6 and 14 days) of food deprivation, under two temperatures in the range of the normal habitat temperature (4, 15°C) and under an elevated temperature (24°C), and studied the changes in FA composition of storage and membrane lipids. Although bulk depletion of storage FA occurred after a few days of food deprivation under 4°C and 15°C, copepod survival remained high during the experiment, suggesting the catabolization of other energy sources. Ambient temperature affected both the degree of FA depletion and the FA mobilization. In particular, storage FA were more exhausted and FA mobilization was more selective under 15°C compared with 4°C. In contrast, depletion of storage FA was limited under an elevated temperature, potentially due to a switch to partial anaerobiosis. Food deprivation induced selective DHA retention in the copepod’s membrane, under all temperatures. However, prolonged exposure to heat and nutritional stress eventually depleted DHA in the membranes, and potentially induced high copepod mortality. Storage lipids clearly played an important role in the short-term response of the copepod P. littoralis to food deprivation. However, under elevated temperature, the use of storage FA as an energy source is compromised. PMID:26986852

  8. Within plant distribution of Potato Virus Y in hairy nightshade (Solanum sarrachoides): an inoculum source affecting PVY aphid transmission.

    PubMed

    Cervantes, Felix A; Alvarez, Juan M

    2011-08-01

    Potato virus Y (PVY) is vectored by several potato-colonizing and non-colonizing aphid species in a non-persistent manner and has a wide host range. It occurs naturally in several plant families. Myzus persicae and Macrosiphum euphorbiae are the most efficient potato-colonizing aphid vectors of PVY. Rhopalosiphum padi, a cereal aphid that migrates in large numbers through potato fields during the middle of the growing season, does not colonize potato plants but can transmit PVY. Hairy nightshade, Solanum sarrachoides, a prevalent annual solanaceous weed in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) of the United States, is an alternative host for PVY and a preferred host for M. persicae and M. euphorbiae. Hence, hairy nightshade plants might play an important role as an inoculum source in the epidemiology of PVY. We looked at titre accumulation and distribution of PVY(O), PVY(N:O) and PVY(NTN) in S. sarrachoides and potato after aphid inoculation with M. persicae and studied the transmission of PVY(O) and PVY(NTN), by M. persicae, M. euphorbiae and R. padi from hairy nightshade to potato plants. Virus titre at different positions on the plant was similar in S. sarrachoides and potato plants with strains PVY(O) and PVY(N:O). Titres of PVY(NTN) were similar in S. sarrachoides and potato but differences in titre were observed at different positions within the plant depending on the plant phenology. Percentage transmission of PVY(NTN) by M. persicae and M. euphorbiae was twice as high (46 and 34%, respectively) from hairy nightshade to potato than from potato to potato (20 and 14%). Percentage transmission of PVY(O) by M. persicae and M. euphorbiae was not affected by the inoculum source. No effect of the inoculum source was observed in the transmission of either PVY strain by R. padi. These results show that hairy nightshade may be an equal or better virus reservoir than potato and thus, important in the epidemiology of PVY. PMID:21601597

  9. Faster P300 Classifier Training Using Spatiotemporal Beamforming.

    PubMed

    Wittevrongel, Benjamin; Van Hulle, Marc M

    2016-05-01

    The linearly-constrained minimum-variance (LCMV) beamformer is traditionally used as a spatial filter for source localization, but here we consider its spatiotemporal extension for P300 classification. We compare two variants and show that the spatiotemporal LCMV beamformer is at par with state-of-the-art P300 classifiers, but several orders of magnitude faster in training the classifier. PMID:26971787

  10. Sources and Processes Affecting Fine Particulate Matter Pollution over North China: An Adjoint Analysis of the Beijing APEC Period.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lin; Shao, Jingyuan; Lu, Xiao; Zhao, Yuanhong; Hu, Yongyun; Henze, Daven K; Liao, Hong; Gong, Sunling; Zhang, Qiang

    2016-08-16

    The stringent emission controls during the APEC 2014 (the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Summit; November 5-11, 2014) offer a unique opportunity to quantify factors affecting fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution over North China. Here we apply a four-dimensional variational data assimilation system using the adjoint model of GEOS-Chem to address this issue. Hourly surface measurements of PM2.5 and SO2 for October 15-November 14, 2014 are assimilated into the model to optimize daily aerosol primary and precursor emissions over North China. Measured PM2.5 concentrations in Beijing average 50.3 μg m(-3) during APEC, 43% lower than the mean concentration (88.2 μg m(-3)) for the whole period including APEC. Model results attribute about half of the reduction to meteorology due to active cold surge occurrences during APEC. Assimilation of surface measurements largely reduces the model biases and estimates 6%-30% lower aerosol emissions in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region during APEC than in late October. We further demonstrate that high PM2.5 events in Beijing during this period can be occasionally contributed by natural mineral dust, but more events show large sensitivities to inorganic aerosol sources, particularly emissions of ammonia (NH3) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) reflecting strong formation of aerosol nitrate in the fall season. PMID:27434821

  11. 32 CFR 1602.8 - Classifying authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Classifying authority. 1602.8 Section 1602.8....8 Classifying authority. The term classifying authority refers to any official or board who is authorized in § 1633.1 to classify a registrant....

  12. 10 CFR 25.35 - Classified visits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Classified visits. 25.35 Section 25.35 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ACCESS AUTHORIZATION Classified Visits § 25.35 Classified visits. (a) The number of classified visits must be held to a minimum. The licensee, certificate holder, applicant for a...

  13. 28 CFR 701.14 - Classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Classified information. 701.14 Section... UNDER THE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT § 701.14 Classified information. In processing a request for information that is classified or classifiable under Executive Order 12356 or any other Executive...

  14. 28 CFR 701.14 - Classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Classified information. 701.14 Section... UNDER THE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT § 701.14 Classified information. In processing a request for information that is classified or classifiable under Executive Order 12356 or any other Executive...

  15. 28 CFR 700.14 - Classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Classified information. 700.14 Section... the Privacy Act of 1974 § 700.14 Classified information. In processing a request for access to a record containing information that is classified or classifiable under Executive Order 12356 or any...

  16. 32 CFR 1633.1 - Classifying authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Classifying authority. 1633.1 Section 1633.1... CLASSIFICATION § 1633.1 Classifying authority. The following officials are authorized to classify registrants... Service may in accord with the provisions of this chapter classify a registrant into any class for...

  17. 32 CFR 1633.1 - Classifying authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Classifying authority. 1633.1 Section 1633.1... CLASSIFICATION § 1633.1 Classifying authority. The following officials are authorized to classify registrants... Service may in accord with the provisions of this chapter classify a registrant into any class for...

  18. 32 CFR 1602.8 - Classifying authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Classifying authority. 1602.8 Section 1602.8....8 Classifying authority. The term classifying authority refers to any official or board who is authorized in § 1633.1 to classify a registrant....

  19. 32 CFR 1602.8 - Classifying authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Classifying authority. 1602.8 Section 1602.8....8 Classifying authority. The term classifying authority refers to any official or board who is authorized in § 1633.1 to classify a registrant....

  20. 14 CFR 1216.317 - Classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Classified information. 1216.317 Section... Classified information. Environmental assessments and impact statements which contain classified information... organized so that the classified portions are appendices to the environmental document itself....

  1. 32 CFR 1633.1 - Classifying authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Classifying authority. 1633.1 Section 1633.1... CLASSIFICATION § 1633.1 Classifying authority. The following officials are authorized to classify registrants... Service may in accord with the provisions of this chapter classify a registrant into any class for...

  2. 32 CFR 1602.8 - Classifying authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Classifying authority. 1602.8 Section 1602.8....8 Classifying authority. The term classifying authority refers to any official or board who is authorized in § 1633.1 to classify a registrant....

  3. 28 CFR 700.14 - Classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Classified information. 700.14 Section... the Privacy Act of 1974 § 700.14 Classified information. In processing a request for access to a record containing information that is classified or classifiable under Executive Order 12356 or any...

  4. 28 CFR 701.14 - Classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Classified information. 701.14 Section... UNDER THE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT § 701.14 Classified information. In processing a request for information that is classified or classifiable under Executive Order 12356 or any other Executive...

  5. 28 CFR 701.14 - Classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Classified information. 701.14 Section... UNDER THE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT § 701.14 Classified information. In processing a request for information that is classified or classifiable under Executive Order 12356 or any other Executive...

  6. 10 CFR 25.35 - Classified visits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classified visits. 25.35 Section 25.35 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ACCESS AUTHORIZATION Classified Visits § 25.35 Classified visits. (a) The number of classified visits must be held to a minimum. The licensee, certificate holder, applicant for a...

  7. 28 CFR 700.14 - Classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Classified information. 700.14 Section... the Privacy Act of 1974 § 700.14 Classified information. In processing a request for access to a record containing information that is classified or classifiable under Executive Order 12356 or any...

  8. 14 CFR 1216.317 - Classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Classified information. 1216.317 Section... Classified information. Environmental assessments and impact statements which contain classified information... organized so that the classified portions are appendices to the environmental document itself....

  9. 28 CFR 701.14 - Classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Classified information. 701.14 Section... UNDER THE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT § 701.14 Classified information. In processing a request for information that is classified or classifiable under Executive Order 12356 or any other Executive...

  10. 32 CFR 651.13 - Classified actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Classified actions. 651.13 Section 651.13... § 651.13 Classified actions. (a) For proposed actions and NEPA analyses involving classified information... proposed action. (c) When classified information can be reasonably separated from other information and...

  11. 32 CFR 1602.8 - Classifying authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Classifying authority. 1602.8 Section 1602.8....8 Classifying authority. The term classifying authority refers to any official or board who is authorized in § 1633.1 to classify a registrant....

  12. 28 CFR 700.14 - Classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Classified information. 700.14 Section... the Privacy Act of 1974 § 700.14 Classified information. In processing a request for access to a record containing information that is classified or classifiable under Executive Order 12356 or any...

  13. 10 CFR 25.35 - Classified visits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Classified visits. 25.35 Section 25.35 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ACCESS AUTHORIZATION Classified Visits § 25.35 Classified visits. (a) The number of classified visits must be held to a minimum. The licensee, certificate holder, applicant for a...

  14. 28 CFR 700.14 - Classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Classified information. 700.14 Section... the Privacy Act of 1974 § 700.14 Classified information. In processing a request for access to a record containing information that is classified or classifiable under Executive Order 12356 or any...

  15. 10 CFR 25.35 - Classified visits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Classified visits. 25.35 Section 25.35 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ACCESS AUTHORIZATION Classified Visits § 25.35 Classified visits. (a) The number of classified visits must be held to a minimum. The licensee, certificate holder, applicant for a...

  16. 32 CFR 1633.1 - Classifying authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Classifying authority. 1633.1 Section 1633.1... CLASSIFICATION § 1633.1 Classifying authority. The following officials are authorized to classify registrants... Service may in accord with the provisions of this chapter classify a registrant into any class for...

  17. 10 CFR 25.35 - Classified visits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Classified visits. 25.35 Section 25.35 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ACCESS AUTHORIZATION Classified Visits § 25.35 Classified visits. (a) The number of classified visits must be held to a minimum. The licensee, certificate holder, applicant for a...

  18. 14 CFR 1216.317 - Classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classified information. 1216.317 Section... Classified information. Environmental assessments and impact statements which contain classified information... organized so that the classified portions are appendices to the environmental document itself....

  19. 32 CFR 1633.1 - Classifying authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Classifying authority. 1633.1 Section 1633.1... CLASSIFICATION § 1633.1 Classifying authority. The following officials are authorized to classify registrants... Service may in accord with the provisions of this chapter classify a registrant into any class for...

  20. Dimensionality Reduction Through Classifier Ensembles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oza, Nikunj C.; Tumer, Kagan; Norwig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    In data mining, one often needs to analyze datasets with a very large number of attributes. Performing machine learning directly on such data sets is often impractical because of extensive run times, excessive complexity of the fitted model (often leading to overfitting), and the well-known "curse of dimensionality." In practice, to avoid such problems, feature selection and/or extraction are often used to reduce data dimensionality prior to the learning step. However, existing feature selection/extraction algorithms either evaluate features by their effectiveness across the entire data set or simply disregard class information altogether (e.g., principal component analysis). Furthermore, feature extraction algorithms such as principal components analysis create new features that are often meaningless to human users. In this article, we present input decimation, a method that provides "feature subsets" that are selected for their ability to discriminate among the classes. These features are subsequently used in ensembles of classifiers, yielding results superior to single classifiers, ensembles that use the full set of features, and ensembles based on principal component analysis on both real and synthetic datasets.

  1. Quantitative amd Qualitative Sources of Affect: How Unexpectedness and Valence Relate to Pleasantness and Preference. Technical Report No. 293.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iran-Nejad, Asghar; Ortony, Andrew

    Optimal-level theories maintain that the quality of affect is a function of a quantitative arousal potential dimension. An alternative view is that the quantitative dimension merely modulates preexisting qualitative properties and is therefore only responsible for changes in the degree of affect. Thus, the quality of affect, whether it is positive…

  2. Robust Combining of Disparate Classifiers Through Order Statistics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tumer, Kagan; Ghosh, Joydeep

    2001-01-01

    Integrating the outputs of multiple classifiers via combiners or meta-learners has led to substantial improvements in several difficult pattern recognition problems. In this article we investigate a family of combiners based on order statistics, for robust handling of situations where there are large discrepancies in performance of individual classifiers. Based on a mathematical modeling of how the decision boundaries are affected by order statistic combiners, we derive expressions for the reductions in error expected when simple output combination methods based on the the median, the maximum and in general, the ith order statistic, are used. Furthermore, we analyze the trim and spread combiners, both based on linear combinations of the ordered classifier outputs, and show that in the presence of uneven classifier performance, they often provide substantial gains over both linear and simple order statistics combiners. Experimental results on both real world data and standard public domain data sets corroborate these findings.

  3. Classifying sex biased congenital anomalies

    SciTech Connect

    Lubinsky, M.S.

    1997-03-31

    The reasons for sex biases in congenital anomalies that arise before structural or hormonal dimorphisms are established has long been unclear. A review of such disorders shows that patterning and tissue anomalies are female biased, and structural findings are more common in males. This suggests different gender dependent susceptibilities to developmental disturbances, with female vulnerabilities focused on early blastogenesis/determination, while males are more likely to involve later organogenesis/morphogenesis. A dual origin for some anomalies explains paradoxical reductions of sex biases with greater severity (i.e., multiple rather than single malformations), presumably as more severe events increase the involvement of an otherwise minor process with opposite biases to those of the primary mechanism. The cause for these sex differences is unknown, but early dimorphisms, such as differences in growth or presence of H-Y antigen, may be responsible. This model provides a useful rationale for understanding and classifying sex-biased congenital anomalies. 42 refs., 7 tabs.

  4. Solid and hollow pedicle screws affect the electrical resistance: A potential source of error with stimulus-evoked electromyography

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hongwei; Liao, Xinhua; Ma, Xianguang; Li, Changqing; Han, Jianda; Zhou, Yue

    2013-01-01

    Background: Although stimulus evoked electromyography (EMG) is commonly used to confirm the accuracy of pedicle screw placement. There are no studies to differentiate between solid screws and hollow screws to the electrical resistance of pedicle screws. We speculate that the electrical resistance of the solid and hollow pedicle screws may be different and then a potential source of error with stimulus-evoked EMG may happen. Materials and Methods: Resistance measurements were obtained from 12 pedicle screw varieties (6 screws of each manufacturer) across the screw shank based on known constant current and measured voltage. The voltage was measured 5 times at each site. Results: Resistance of all solid screws ranged from 0.084 Ω to 0.151 Ω (mean =0.118 ± 0.024 Ω) and hollow screws ranged from 0.148 Ω to 0.402 Ω (mean = 0.285 ± 0.081 Ω). There was a significant difference of resistance between the solid screws and hollow screws (P < 0.05). The screw with the largest diameter no matter solid screws or hollow screws had lower resistance than screws with other diameters. No matter in solid screws group or hollow screws group, there were significant differences (P < 0.05) between the 5.0 mm screws and 6.0 mm screws, 6.0 mm screws and 7.0 mm screws, 5.0 mm screws and 7.0 mm screws, 4.5 mm screws and 5.5 mm screws, 5.5 mm screws and 6.5 mm screws, 4.5 mm screws and 6.5 mm screws. The resistance of hollow screws was much larger than the solid screws in the same diameter group (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Hollow pedicle screws have the potential for high electrical resistance compared to the solid pedicle screws and therefore may affect the EMG response during stimulus-evoked EMG testing in pedicle screw fixation especially in minimally invasive percutaneous pedical screw fixation surgery. PMID:23960278

  5. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Dd of... - Tank Control Levels for Tanks at New Affected Sources as Required by 40 CFR 63.685(b)(2)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Tank Control Levels for Tanks at New Affected Sources as Required by 40 CFR 63.685(b)(2) 4 Table 4 to Subpart DD of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR...

  6. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Dd of... - Tank Control Levels for Tanks at Existing Affected Sources as Required by 40 CFR 63.685(b)(1)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Tank Control Levels for Tanks at Existing Affected Sources as Required by 40 CFR 63.685(b)(1) 3 Table 3 to Subpart DD of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS...

  7. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Rrr of... - Summary of Operating Requirements for New and Existing Affected Sources and Emission Units

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... operating requirements posted at affected sources and emission units; control device temperature and... accordance with OM&M plan b; operate such that alarm does not sound more than 5% of operating time in 6-month... operating temperature Maintain average temperature for each 3-hr period at or above average...

  8. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Kkkk of... - Emission Limits for Affected Sources Using the Control Efficiency/Outlet Concentration Compliance...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Using the Control Efficiency/Outlet Concentration Compliance Option 3 Table 3 to Subpart KKKK of Part 63... of Part 63—Emission Limits for Affected Sources Using the Control Efficiency/Outlet Concentration... following table as required by § 63.3490(d). If you use the control efficiency/outlet concentration...

  9. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Kkkk of... - Emission Limits for Affected Sources Using the Control Efficiency/Outlet Concentration Compliance...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Using the Control Efficiency/Outlet Concentration Compliance Option 3 Table 3 to Subpart KKKK of Part 63... of Part 63—Emission Limits for Affected Sources Using the Control Efficiency/Outlet Concentration... following table as required by § 63.3490(d). If you use the control efficiency/outlet concentration...

  10. 40 CFR 63.5595 - What compliance options do I have if part of my affected source is subject to both this subpart...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What compliance options do I have if part of my affected source is subject to both this subpart and another subpart? 63.5595 Section 63.5595 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS...

  11. 40 CFR 63.5795 - How do I know if my reinforced plastic composites production facility is a new affected source or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true How do I know if my reinforced plastic... for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Reinforced Plastic Composites Production What This Subpart Covers § 63.5795 How do I know if my reinforced plastic composites production facility is a new affected source...

  12. 40 CFR 63.5795 - How do I know if my reinforced plastic composites production facility is a new affected source or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true How do I know if my reinforced plastic... for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Reinforced Plastic Composites Production What This Subpart Covers § 63.5795 How do I know if my reinforced plastic composites production facility is a new affected source...

  13. 40 CFR Table 9 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Minimum Data for Continuous Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Method 311 (40 CFR part 60, appendix A), or approved alternative method, test results indicating the mass... With the Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources 9 Table 9 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. XXXX, Table 9 Table 9...

  14. 40 CFR Table 9 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Minimum Data for Continuous Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Method 311 (40 CFR part 60, appendix A), or approved alternative method, test results indicating the mass... With the Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources 9 Table 9 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. XXXX, Table 9 Table 9...

  15. 40 CFR Table 9 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Minimum Data for Continuous Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Method 311 (40 CFR part 60, appendix A), or approved alternative method, test results indicating the mass... With the Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources 9 Table 9 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. XXXX, Table 9 Table 9...

  16. Dietary protein level and source differentially affect bone metabolism, strength, and intestinal calcium transporter expression during ad libitum and food-restricted conditions in male rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High protein diets may attenuate bone loss during energy restriction (ER). The objective of the current study was to determine whether high protein diets suppress bone turnover and improve bone quality in rats during ER and whether dietary protein source affects this relationship. Eighty 12-week o...

  17. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Rrr of... - Summary of Operating Requirements for New and Existing Affected Sources and Emission Units

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...; operate in accordance with OM&M plan. b All affected sources and emission units subject to production... records the weight of each charge; Operate in accordance with OM&M plan. b Group 1 furnace, group 2... alarm and complete in accordance with OM&M plan b; operate such that alarm does not sound more than...

  18. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Rrr of... - Summary of Operating Requirements for New and Existing Affected Sources and Emission Units

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...; operate in accordance with OM&M plan. b All affected sources and emission units subject to production... records the weight of each charge; Operate in accordance with OM&M plan. b Group 1 furnace, group 2... alarm and complete in accordance with OM&M plan b; operate such that alarm does not sound more than...

  19. Hybrid k -Nearest Neighbor Classifier.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhiwen; Chen, Hantao; Liuxs, Jiming; You, Jane; Leung, Hareton; Han, Guoqiang

    2016-06-01

    Conventional k -nearest neighbor (KNN) classification approaches have several limitations when dealing with some problems caused by the special datasets, such as the sparse problem, the imbalance problem, and the noise problem. In this paper, we first perform a brief survey on the recent progress of the KNN classification approaches. Then, the hybrid KNN (HBKNN) classification approach, which takes into account the local and global information of the query sample, is designed to address the problems raised from the special datasets. In the following, the random subspace ensemble framework based on HBKNN (RS-HBKNN) classifier is proposed to perform classification on the datasets with noisy attributes in the high-dimensional space. Finally, the nonparametric tests are proposed to be adopted to compare the proposed method with other classification approaches over multiple datasets. The experiments on the real-world datasets from the Knowledge Extraction based on Evolutionary Learning dataset repository demonstrate that RS-HBKNN works well on real datasets, and outperforms most of the state-of-the-art classification approaches. PMID:26126291

  20. 28 CFR 61.8 - Classified proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Classified proposals. 61.8 Section 61.8... ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT Implementing Procedures § 61.8 Classified proposals. If an environmental document includes classified matter, a version containing only unclassified material shall be prepared unless...

  1. 15 CFR 4.8 - Classified Information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Classified Information. 4.8 Section 4... INFORMATION Freedom of Information Act § 4.8 Classified Information. In processing a request for information classified under Executive Order 12958 or any other executive order concerning the classification of...

  2. 6 CFR 5.7 - Classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Freedom of Information Act § 5.7 Classified information. In processing a request for information that is classified under Executive Order 12958 (3 CFR, 1996 Comp., p. 333) or any other executive order, the... 6 Domestic Security 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Classified information. 5.7 Section 5.7...

  3. 15 CFR 4.8 - Classified Information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Classified Information. 4.8 Section 4... INFORMATION Freedom of Information Act § 4.8 Classified Information. In processing a request for information classified under Executive Order 12958 or any other executive order concerning the classification of...

  4. 14 CFR 1216.310 - Classified actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Classified actions. 1216.310 Section 1216... 1216.3 Procedures for Implementing the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) § 1216.310 Classified... environmental impacts of a proposed action. (b) When classified information can reasonably be separated...

  5. 6 CFR 5.24 - Classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Classified information. 5.24 Section 5.24... INFORMATION Privacy Act § 5.24 Classified information. In processing a request for access to a record containing information that is classified under Executive Order 12958 or any other executive order,...

  6. 32 CFR 775.5 - Classified actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Classified actions. 775.5 Section 775.5 National... IMPLEMENTING THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 775.5 Classified actions. (a) The fact that a proposed action is of a classified nature does not relieve the proponent of the action from complying with...

  7. 28 CFR 61.8 - Classified proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Classified proposals. 61.8 Section 61.8... ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT Implementing Procedures § 61.8 Classified proposals. If an environmental document includes classified matter, a version containing only unclassified material shall be prepared unless...

  8. 6 CFR 5.7 - Classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Freedom of Information Act § 5.7 Classified information. In processing a request for information that is classified under Executive Order 12958 (3 CFR, 1996 Comp., p. 333) or any other executive order, the... 6 Domestic Security 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Classified information. 5.7 Section 5.7...

  9. 12 CFR 1301.9 - Classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Classified information. 1301.9 Section 1301.9 Banks and Banking FINANCIAL STABILITY OVERSIGHT COUNCIL FREEDOM OF INFORMATION § 1301.9 Classified information. (a) Referrals of requests for classified information. Whenever a request is made for a...

  10. 6 CFR 5.24 - Classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Classified information. 5.24 Section 5.24... INFORMATION Privacy Act § 5.24 Classified information. In processing a request for access to a record containing information that is classified under Executive Order 12958 or any other executive order,...

  11. 28 CFR 16.44 - Classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Classified information. 16.44 Section 16... Protection of Privacy and Access to Individual Records Under the Privacy Act of 1974 § 16.44 Classified information. In processing a request for access to a record containing information that is classified...

  12. 32 CFR 775.5 - Classified actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Classified actions. 775.5 Section 775.5 National... IMPLEMENTING THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 775.5 Classified actions. (a) The fact that a proposed action is of a classified nature does not relieve the proponent of the action from complying with...

  13. 32 CFR 148.2 - Classified programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Classified programs. 148.2 Section 148.2... Inspections of Facilities § 148.2 Classified programs. Once a facility is authorized, approved, certified, or accredited, all U.S. Government organizations desiring to conduct classified programs at the facility at...

  14. 12 CFR 1070.19 - Classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Classified information. 1070.19 Section 1070.19... of Information Act § 1070.19 Classified information. Whenever a request is made for a record containing information that another agency has classified, or which may be appropriate for classification...

  15. 6 CFR 5.24 - Classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Classified information. 5.24 Section 5.24... INFORMATION Privacy Act § 5.24 Classified information. In processing a request for access to a record containing information that is classified under Executive Order 12958 or any other executive order,...

  16. 6 CFR 5.7 - Classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Freedom of Information Act § 5.7 Classified information. In processing a request for information that is classified under Executive Order 12958 (3 CFR, 1996 Comp., p. 333) or any other executive order, the... 6 Domestic Security 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Classified information. 5.7 Section 5.7...

  17. 32 CFR 775.5 - Classified actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Classified actions. 775.5 Section 775.5 National... IMPLEMENTING THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 775.5 Classified actions. (a) The fact that a proposed action is of a classified nature does not relieve the proponent of the action from complying with...

  18. 28 CFR 16.44 - Classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Classified information. 16.44 Section 16... Protection of Privacy and Access to Individual Records Under the Privacy Act of 1974 § 16.44 Classified information. In processing a request for access to a record containing information that is classified...

  19. 28 CFR 61.8 - Classified proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Classified proposals. 61.8 Section 61.8... ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT Implementing Procedures § 61.8 Classified proposals. If an environmental document includes classified matter, a version containing only unclassified material shall be prepared unless...

  20. 15 CFR 4.8 - Classified Information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Classified Information. 4.8 Section 4... INFORMATION Freedom of Information Act § 4.8 Classified Information. In processing a request for information classified under Executive Order 12958 or any other executive order concerning the classification of...

  1. 28 CFR 16.44 - Classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Classified information. 16.44 Section 16... Protection of Privacy and Access to Individual Records Under the Privacy Act of 1974 § 16.44 Classified information. In processing a request for access to a record containing information that is classified...

  2. 28 CFR 61.8 - Classified proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Classified proposals. 61.8 Section 61.8... ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT Implementing Procedures § 61.8 Classified proposals. If an environmental document includes classified matter, a version containing only unclassified material shall be prepared unless...

  3. 28 CFR 16.7 - Classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Procedures for Disclosure of Records Under the Freedom of Information Act § 16.7 Classified information. In processing a request for information that is classified under Executive Order 12958 (3 CFR, 1996 Comp., p... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Classified information. 16.7 Section...

  4. 32 CFR 148.2 - Classified programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Classified programs. 148.2 Section 148.2... Inspections of Facilities § 148.2 Classified programs. Once a facility is authorized, approved, certified, or accredited, all U.S. Government organizations desiring to conduct classified programs at the facility at...

  5. 15 CFR 4.8 - Classified Information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Classified Information. 4.8 Section 4... INFORMATION Freedom of Information Act § 4.8 Classified Information. In processing a request for information classified under Executive Order 12958 or any other executive order concerning the classification of...

  6. 6 CFR 5.7 - Classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Freedom of Information Act § 5.7 Classified information. In processing a request for information that is classified under Executive Order 12958 (3 CFR, 1996 Comp., p. 333) or any other executive order, the... 6 Domestic Security 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Classified information. 5.7 Section 5.7...

  7. 6 CFR 5.24 - Classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classified information. 5.24 Section 5.24... INFORMATION Privacy Act § 5.24 Classified information. In processing a request for access to a record containing information that is classified under Executive Order 12958 or any other executive order,...

  8. 32 CFR 148.2 - Classified programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Classified programs. 148.2 Section 148.2... Inspections of Facilities § 148.2 Classified programs. Once a facility is authorized, approved, certified, or accredited, all U.S. Government organizations desiring to conduct classified programs at the facility at...

  9. 12 CFR 1070.19 - Classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Classified information. 1070.19 Section 1070.19... of Information Act § 1070.19 Classified information. Whenever a request is made for a record containing information that another agency has classified, or which may be appropriate for classification...

  10. 28 CFR 16.44 - Classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Classified information. 16.44 Section 16... Protection of Privacy and Access to Individual Records Under the Privacy Act of 1974 § 16.44 Classified information. In processing a request for access to a record containing information that is classified...

  11. 28 CFR 16.44 - Classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Classified information. 16.44 Section 16... Protection of Privacy and Access to Individual Records Under the Privacy Act of 1974 § 16.44 Classified information. In processing a request for access to a record containing information that is classified...

  12. 12 CFR 1301.9 - Classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Classified information. 1301.9 Section 1301.9 Banks and Banking FINANCIAL STABILITY OVERSIGHT COUNCIL FREEDOM OF INFORMATION § 1301.9 Classified information. (a) Referrals of requests for classified information. Whenever a request is made for a...

  13. 6 CFR 5.24 - Classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Classified information. 5.24 Section 5.24... INFORMATION Privacy Act § 5.24 Classified information. In processing a request for access to a record containing information that is classified under Executive Order 12958 or any other executive order,...

  14. 32 CFR 148.2 - Classified programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Classified programs. 148.2 Section 148.2... Inspections of Facilities § 148.2 Classified programs. Once a facility is authorized, approved, certified, or accredited, all U.S. Government organizations desiring to conduct classified programs at the facility at...

  15. 28 CFR 16.7 - Classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Procedures for Disclosure of Records Under the Freedom of Information Act § 16.7 Classified information. In processing a request for information that is classified under Executive Order 12958 (3 CFR, 1996 Comp., p... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Classified information. 16.7 Section...

  16. 32 CFR 775.5 - Classified actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Classified actions. 775.5 Section 775.5 National... IMPLEMENTING THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 775.5 Classified actions. (a) The fact that a proposed action is of a classified nature does not relieve the proponent of the action from complying with...

  17. 28 CFR 61.8 - Classified proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Classified proposals. 61.8 Section 61.8... ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT Implementing Procedures § 61.8 Classified proposals. If an environmental document includes classified matter, a version containing only unclassified material shall be prepared unless...

  18. 12 CFR 1070.19 - Classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Classified information. 1070.19 Section 1070.19... of Information Act § 1070.19 Classified information. Whenever a request is made for a record containing information that another agency has classified, or which may be appropriate for classification...

  19. 28 CFR 16.7 - Classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Procedures for Disclosure of Records Under the Freedom of Information Act § 16.7 Classified information. In processing a request for information that is classified under Executive Order 12958 (3 CFR, 1996 Comp., p... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Classified information. 16.7 Section...

  20. 28 CFR 16.7 - Classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Procedures for Disclosure of Records Under the Freedom of Information Act § 16.7 Classified information. In processing a request for information that is classified under Executive Order 12958 (3 CFR, 1996 Comp., p... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Classified information. 16.7 Section...

  1. 28 CFR 16.7 - Classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Procedures for Disclosure of Records Under the Freedom of Information Act § 16.7 Classified information. In processing a request for information that is classified under Executive Order 12958 (3 CFR, 1996 Comp., p... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Classified information. 16.7 Section...

  2. 32 CFR 148.2 - Classified programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Classified programs. 148.2 Section 148.2... Inspections of Facilities § 148.2 Classified programs. Once a facility is authorized, approved, certified, or accredited, all U.S. Government organizations desiring to conduct classified programs at the facility at...

  3. 6 CFR 5.7 - Classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Freedom of Information Act § 5.7 Classified information. In processing a request for information that is classified under Executive Order 12958 (3 CFR, 1996 Comp., p. 333) or any other executive order, the... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classified information. 5.7 Section 5.7...

  4. 15 CFR 4.8 - Classified Information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classified Information. 4.8 Section 4... INFORMATION Freedom of Information Act § 4.8 Classified Information. In processing a request for information..., the information shall be reviewed to determine whether it should remain classified. Ordinarily...

  5. Energy Materials: A Classified Listing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library Journal, 1978

    1978-01-01

    This bibliography includes 615 books and audiovisual products on energy and related topics. Books are listed in the following categories: reference, general, alternative sources, citizen action, coal, conservation and ecology, economics and politics, electricity, gas, geothermal, nuclear power, oil, solar, water, wind, and juveniles. A/V materials…

  6. Entropic One-Class Classifiers.

    PubMed

    Livi, Lorenzo; Sadeghian, Alireza; Pedrycz, Witold

    2015-12-01

    The one-class classification problem is a well-known research endeavor in pattern recognition. The problem is also known under different names, such as outlier and novelty/anomaly detection. The core of the problem consists in modeling and recognizing patterns belonging only to a so-called target class. All other patterns are termed nontarget, and therefore, they should be recognized as such. In this paper, we propose a novel one-class classification system that is based on an interplay of different techniques. Primarily, we follow a dissimilarity representation-based approach; we embed the input data into the dissimilarity space (DS) by means of an appropriate parametric dissimilarity measure. This step allows us to process virtually any type of data. The dissimilarity vectors are then represented by weighted Euclidean graphs, which we use to determine the entropy of the data distribution in the DS and at the same time to derive effective decision regions that are modeled as clusters of vertices. Since the dissimilarity measure for the input data is parametric, we optimize its parameters by means of a global optimization scheme, which considers both mesoscopic and structural characteristics of the data represented through the graphs. The proposed one-class classifier is designed to provide both hard (Boolean) and soft decisions about the recognition of test patterns, allowing an accurate description of the classification process. We evaluate the performance of the system on different benchmarking data sets, containing either feature-based or structured patterns. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed technique. PMID:25879977

  7. 40 CFR 63.7884 - What are the general standards I must meet for each site remediation with affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air... extent of the contamination by collecting and analyzing samples; activities to obtain permits...

  8. 40 CFR 63.7884 - What are the general standards I must meet for each site remediation with affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air... extent of the contamination by collecting and analyzing samples; activities to obtain permits...

  9. 40 CFR 63.7884 - What are the general standards I must meet for each site remediation with affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air... extent of the contamination by collecting and analyzing samples; activities to obtain permits...

  10. 40 CFR 63.7884 - What are the general standards I must meet for each site remediation with affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air... extent of the contamination by collecting and analyzing samples; activities to obtain permits...

  11. Classifier mills for coal grinding and drying

    SciTech Connect

    Galk, J.; Peukert, W.

    1995-12-31

    This report presents a special air classifier mill for coal grinding. Air classifier mills use the two fundamental process steps grinding and classifying in one machine. An essential advantage is the independent operation of grinding rotor speed and classifier rotor speed. This offers good control of the produced particle size distribution and great flexibility in process control. Using an air classifier mill for grinding coal followed by direct injection into the firing chamber allows for good control of burnout. Another advantage is that drying of coal can take place as a parallel step by heating process air passing through the classifier mill. In this report an air classifier mill, some typical process data, possible throughput, and an industrial application are shown.

  12. Manipulation of Dysfunctional Spinal Joints Affects Sensorimotor Integration in the Prefrontal Cortex: A Brain Source Localization Study

    PubMed Central

    Lelic, Dina; Niazi, Imran Khan; Holt, Kelly; Jochumsen, Mads; Dremstrup, Kim; Yielder, Paul; Murphy, Bernadette; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr; Haavik, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. Studies have shown decreases in N30 somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) peak amplitudes following spinal manipulation (SM) of dysfunctional segments in subclinical pain (SCP) populations. This study sought to verify these findings and to investigate underlying brain sources that may be responsible for such changes. Methods. Nineteen SCP volunteers attended two experimental sessions, SM and control in random order. SEPs from 62-channel EEG cap were recorded following median nerve stimulation (1000 stimuli at 2.3 Hz) before and after either intervention. Peak-to-peak amplitude and latency analysis was completed for different SEPs peak. Dipolar models of underlying brain sources were built by using the brain electrical source analysis. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA was used to assessed differences in N30 amplitudes, dipole locations, and dipole strengths. Results. SM decreased the N30 amplitude by 16.9 ± 31.3% (P = 0.02), while no differences were seen following the control intervention (P = 0.4). Brain source modeling revealed a 4-source model but only the prefrontal source showed reduced activity by 20.2 ± 12.2% (P = 0.03) following SM. Conclusion. A single session of spinal manipulation of dysfunctional segments in subclinical pain patients alters somatosensory processing at the cortical level, particularly within the prefrontal cortex. PMID:27047694

  13. Manipulation of Dysfunctional Spinal Joints Affects Sensorimotor Integration in the Prefrontal Cortex: A Brain Source Localization Study.

    PubMed

    Lelic, Dina; Niazi, Imran Khan; Holt, Kelly; Jochumsen, Mads; Dremstrup, Kim; Yielder, Paul; Murphy, Bernadette; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr; Haavik, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. Studies have shown decreases in N30 somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) peak amplitudes following spinal manipulation (SM) of dysfunctional segments in subclinical pain (SCP) populations. This study sought to verify these findings and to investigate underlying brain sources that may be responsible for such changes. Methods. Nineteen SCP volunteers attended two experimental sessions, SM and control in random order. SEPs from 62-channel EEG cap were recorded following median nerve stimulation (1000 stimuli at 2.3 Hz) before and after either intervention. Peak-to-peak amplitude and latency analysis was completed for different SEPs peak. Dipolar models of underlying brain sources were built by using the brain electrical source analysis. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA was used to assessed differences in N30 amplitudes, dipole locations, and dipole strengths. Results. SM decreased the N30 amplitude by 16.9 ± 31.3% (P = 0.02), while no differences were seen following the control intervention (P = 0.4). Brain source modeling revealed a 4-source model but only the prefrontal source showed reduced activity by 20.2 ± 12.2% (P = 0.03) following SM. Conclusion. A single session of spinal manipulation of dysfunctional segments in subclinical pain patients alters somatosensory processing at the cortical level, particularly within the prefrontal cortex. PMID:27047694

  14. Patterns of organic acids exuded by pioneering fungi from a glacier forefield are affected by carbohydrate sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunner, Ivano; Goren, Asena; Schlumpf, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    Bare soils in the area of retreating glaciers are ideal environments to study the role of microorganisms in the early soil formation and in processes of mineral weathering. The aim of our study was to investigate whether the source of carbohydrate would influence the patterns of organic acids exuded by fungal species. Three pioneering fungus species, isolated from fine granitic sediments in front of the Damma glacier from the central Swiss Alps, have previously been found to have the capability to exude organic acids and dissolve granite powder. In batch experiments, various carbohydrates, including glucose, cellulose, pectin, pollen, and cell remnants of cyanobacteria, fungi, and algae, were applied as carbohydrate sources and the patterns of exuded organic acids recorded. The results showed that two fungi, the zygomycete fungus Mucor hiemalis and the ascomycete fungus Penicillium chrysogenum, released a significantly higher amount of organic acids in dependence on specific carbohydrate sources. Pollen and algae as carbohydrate sources triggered significantly the exudation of malate in M. hiemalis, and pollen and cellulose that of oxalate in P. chrysogenum. We conclude that the occurrence of complex carbohydrate sources in nutrient-deficient deglaciated soils may positively influence the exudation of organic acids of fungi. In particular, pollen and remnants of other microorganisms can trigger the exudation of organic acids of fungi in order to promote the weathering of minerals and to make nutrients available that would otherwise be trapped in that cryospheric environment.

  15. Factors affecting reservoir and stream-water quality in the Cambridge, Massachusetts, drinking-water source area and implications for source-water protection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waldron, Marcus C.; Bent, Gardner C.

    2001-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the city of Cambridge, Massachusetts, Water Department, to assess reservoir and tributary-stream quality in the Cambridge drinking-water source area, and to use the information gained to help guide the design of a comprehensive water-quality monitoring program for the source area. Assessments of the quality and trophic state of the three primary storage reservoirs, Hobbs Brook Reservoir, Stony Brook Reservoir, and Fresh Pond, were conducted (September 1997-November 1998) to provide baseline information on the state of these resources and to determine the vulnerability of the reservoirs to increased loads of nutrients and other contaminants. The effects of land use, land cover, and other drainage-basin characteristics on sources, transport, and fate of fecal-indicator bacteria, highway deicing chemicals, nutrients, selected metals, and naturally occurring organic compounds in 11 subbasins that contribute water to the reservoirs also was investigated, and the data used to select sampling stations for incorporation into a water-quality monitoring network for the source area. All three reservoirs exhibited thermal and chemical stratification, despite artificial mixing by air hoses in Stony Brook Reservoir and Fresh Pond. The stratification produced anoxic or hypoxic conditions in the deepest parts of the reservoirs and these conditions resulted in the release of ammonia nitrogen orthophosphate phosphorus, and dissolved iron and manganese from the reservoir bed sediments. Concentrations of sodium and chloride in the reservoirs usually were higher than the amounts recommended by the U.S. Environmental Protection agency for drinking-water sources (20 milligrams per liter for sodium and 250 milligrams per liter for chloride). Maximum measured sodium concentrations were highest in Hobbs Brook Reservoir (113 milligrams per liter), intermediate in Stony Brook Reservoir (62

  16. An investigation of potential regional and local source regions affecting fine particulate matter concentrations in Delhi, India.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Saikat; Biswas, Jhumoor; Guttikunda, Sarath; Roychowdhury, Soma; Nayak, Mugdha

    2015-02-01

    In this study, potential regional and local sources influencing PM2.5 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter >2.5 μm) concentrations in Delhi, India, are identified and their possible impact evaluated through diverse approaches based on study of variability of synoptic and local airflow patterns that transport aerosol concentrations from these emission sources to an urban receptor site in Delhi, India. Trajectory clustering of 72-hr and 48-hr back trajectories simulated at arrival heights of 500 m and 100 m, respectively, every hour for representative years 2008-2010 are used to assess the relative influence of long-distance, regional, and subregional sources on this site. Nonparametric statistical procedures are employed on trajectory clusters to better delineate various distinct regional pollutant source regions. Trajectory clustering and concentration-weighted trajectory (CWT) analyses indicate that regional and subregional PM2.5 emission sources in neighboring country of Pakistan and adjacent states of Punjab, Haryana, and Uttar Pradesh contribute significantly to the total surplus of aerosol concentrations in the Delhi region. Conditional probability function and Bayesian approach used to identify local source regions have established substantial influence from highly urbanized satellite towns located southwest (above 25%) and southeast (above 45%) of receptor location. There is significant seasonal variability in synoptic and local air circulation patterns, which is discerned in variability in seasonal concentrations. Mean of daily averaged PM2.5 concentrations at the Income Tax Office (ITO) receptor site over Delhi at 95% confidence level is highest in winter, ranging between 209 and 185 μg m⁻³ for the entire study period. The annual variability in air transport pathways is more in winter than in other seasons. Year-to-year variability is present in aerosol concentrations, especially during winter, with standard deviations varying from a

  17. Patterns in atmospheric circulation affect emission sources contributing to nitrogen deposition in the Columbia River Gorge, Pacific Northwest USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, S. M.; Chung, S. H.; Welker, J. M.; Harlow, B.; Evans, R. D.

    2014-12-01

    The Columbia River Gorge separating Oregon and Washington provides an ideal setting to investigate how atmospheric circulation patterns determine types of emission sources contributing to atmospheric deposition. Up-gorge and down-gorge atmospheric circulation patterns each provide a different suite of emission sources. Up-gorge airflow originates in the Portland-Vancouver metro area dominated by urban and industrial sources. Down-gorge patterns originate in the Columbia River basin, which is dominated by agricultural production. We tested the dependence of emission sources contributing to atmospheric deposition on circulation patterns by measuring the isotopic composition of nitrate (NO3-) in 2003-2004 precipitation samples from the WA98-Columbia River Gorge NADP & USNIP site. Circulation patterns were determined using back-trajectory analysis with the Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model using the archived EDAS meteorological dataset. We observed a significant difference (P=0.01) between up-gorge and down-gorge patterns with mean δ15N-NO3- of +1.8 and -2.1‰ for up- and down-gorge, respectively. The differences observed between these two patterns is likely tied to the different emission sources of N found in these different geographic areas. The lower δ15N of down-gorge sources is due to the large amount of agricultural production in the Columbia River basin. Observed values for the up-gorge patterns likely result from industrial and fossil fuel emissions of NOx, the precursor of deposited NO3-, in the Portland-Vancouver area. The significantly greater amount of NO3- in precipitation from up-gorge patterns (0.72 mg/L) compared to down-gorge patterns (0.36 mg/L, P=0.01) supports the influence of urban sources rather than relatively clean marine air which characteristically has low amounts of NO3-. No significant differences are found in δ18Onitrate or Δ17Onitrate between the two patterns, suggesting that atmospheric chemistry

  18. ApoE4 effects on automated diagnostic classifiers for mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Apostolova, Liana G; Hwang, Kristy S; Kohannim, Omid; Avila, David; Elashoff, David; Jack, Clifford R; Shaw, Leslie; Trojanowski, John Q; Weiner, Michael W; Thompson, Paul M

    2014-01-01

    Biomarkers are the only feasible way to detect and monitor presymptomatic Alzheimer's disease (AD). No single biomarker can predict future cognitive decline with an acceptable level of accuracy. In addition to designing powerful multimodal diagnostic platforms, a careful investigation of the major sources of disease heterogeneity and their influence on biomarker changes is needed. Here we investigated the accuracy of a novel multimodal biomarker classifier for differentiating cognitively normal (NC), mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and AD subjects with and without stratification by ApoE4 genotype. 111 NC, 182 MCI and 95 AD ADNI participants provided both structural MRI and CSF data at baseline. We used an automated machine-learning classifier to test the ability of hippocampal volume and CSF Aβ, t-tau and p-tau levels, both separately and in combination, to differentiate NC, MCI and AD subjects, and predict conversion. We hypothesized that the combined hippocampal/CSF biomarker classifier model would achieve the highest accuracy in differentiating between the three diagnostic groups and that ApoE4 genotype will affect both diagnostic accuracy and biomarker selection. The combined hippocampal/CSF classifier performed better than hippocampus-only classifier in differentiating NC from MCI and NC from AD. It also outperformed the CSF-only classifier in differentiating NC vs. AD. Our amyloid marker played a role in discriminating NC from MCI or AD but not for MCI vs. AD. Neurodegenerative markers contributed to accurate discrimination of AD from NC and MCI but not NC from MCI. Classifiers predicting MCI conversion performed well only after ApoE4 stratification. Hippocampal volume and sex achieved AUC = 0.68 for predicting conversion in the ApoE4-positive MCI, while CSF p-tau, education and sex achieved AUC = 0.89 for predicting conversion in ApoE4-negative MCI. These observations support the proposed biomarker trajectory in AD, which postulates that amyloid markers

  19. How Does a Collaborative Community Affect Diverse Students' Engagement with an Open Source Software Project: A Pedagogical Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Becka S.

    2012-01-01

    Open Source Software (OSS) communities are homogenous and their lack of diversity is of concern to many within this field. This problem is becoming more pronounced as it is the practice of many technology companies to use OSS participation as a factor in the hiring process, disadvantaging those who are not a part of this community. We should…

  20. Supplemental lysine sulfate does not negatively affect performance of broiler chicks fed dietary sulfur from multiple dietary and water sources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Commercial producers and nutritionists have questioned the performance consequences of sulfur (S) from various dietary and water sources combined in current commercial production. The combination of high S containing feed ingredients, including dried distiller’s grains with solubles (DDGS) and dieta...

  1. Soil carbon and nitrogen sequestration as affected by long-term tillage, cropping system, and nitrogen fertilizer sources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry litter application in no-tilled intensive cropping system could increase soil C and N sequestration compared with conventional management practices. We evaluated the 10-year effects of tillage, cropping systems, and N sources on crop residue (stems + leaves) production and soil organic C (SO...

  2. 40 CFR 63.5320 - How does my affected major source comply with the HAP emission standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Leather... record monthly the pounds of each type of finish applied for each leather product process operation and...), to record monthly the surface area of leather processed in 1,000's of square feet for each...

  3. 40 CFR 63.5320 - How does my affected major source comply with the HAP emission standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Leather... record monthly the pounds of each type of finish applied for each leather product process operation and...), to record monthly the surface area of leather processed in 1,000's of square feet for each...

  4. The Freundlich adsorption isotherm constants and prediction of phosphorus bioavailability as affected by different phosphorus sources in two Kansas soils.

    PubMed

    Shafqat, Mustafa N; Pierzynski, Gary M

    2014-03-01

    Phosphorus (P) adsorption onto soil constituents influences P bioavailability from both agronomic and environmental perspectives. In this study, the P availability from different P sources along with utility of Freundlich adsorption coefficients on the predictability of various crop growth parameters were assessed. Two soils were amended with 150mgPkg(-1) each from six different P sources comprised of manures from two types of ruminants animals, three types of monogastric animals, and inorganic P fertilizer. Corn (Zea mays) was grown and harvested seven times under greenhouse conditions to remove P from the P amended treatments. The application of all P sources reduced the value of Freundlich K and increased the value of Freundlich 1/n and equilibrium P concentration (EPC0) in both soils compared to the un-amended control before cropping. The swine (Sus scrofa) manure (HM) resulted in significant smaller values of Freundlich K and larger values of 1/n in the P deficient Eram-Lebo soil compared to other P sources while, the opposite was true for the turkey (Meleagris gallopava) litter (TL) in the Ulysses soil. The corn biomass, tissue P concentration and P uptake were significantly influenced by all P sources during the first harvest and the total P uptake during seven harvests in both soils compared to the control treatment. Both Freundlich coefficients had strong relationships with the aforementioned corn parameters in the P deficient Eram-Lebo soil while, strength of the association was weak or missing in the Ulysses soil which had optimum levels of antecedent P. PMID:24238913

  5. A hybrid classifier for remote sensing applications.

    PubMed

    Ruppert, G S; Schardt, M; Balzuweit, G; Hussain, M

    1997-02-01

    This paper presents a hybrid-unsupervised and supervised-classifier for land use classification of remote sensing images. The entire satellite image is quantized by an unsupervised Neural Gas process and the resulting codebook is labeled by a supervised majority voting process using the ground truth. The performance of the classifier is similar to that of Maximum Likelihood and is only a little worse than Multilayer Perceptions while training and classifying requires no expert knowledge after collecting the ground truth. The hybrid classifier is much better suited to classifications with complex non-normally distributed classes than Maximum Likelihood. The main advantage of the Neural Gas classifier, however, is that it requires much less user interaction than other classifiers, especially Maximum Likelihood. PMID:9228578

  6. Error minimizing algorithms for nearest eighbor classifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, Reid B; Hush, Don; Zimmer, G. Beate

    2011-01-03

    Stack Filters define a large class of discrete nonlinear filter first introd uced in image and signal processing for noise removal. In recent years we have suggested their application to classification problems, and investigated their relationship to other types of discrete classifiers such as Decision Trees. In this paper we focus on a continuous domain version of Stack Filter Classifiers which we call Ordered Hypothesis Machines (OHM), and investigate their relationship to Nearest Neighbor classifiers. We show that OHM classifiers provide a novel framework in which to train Nearest Neighbor type classifiers by minimizing empirical error based loss functions. We use the framework to investigate a new cost sensitive loss function that allows us to train a Nearest Neighbor type classifier for low false alarm rate applications. We report results on both synthetic data and real-world image data.

  7. SAR terrain classifier and mapper of biophysical attributes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulaby, Fawwaz T.; Dobson, M. Craig; Pierce, Leland; Sarabandi, Kamal

    1993-01-01

    In preparation for the launch of SIR-C/X-SAR and design studies for future orbital SAR, a program has made considerable progress in the development of an SAR terrain classifier and algorithms for quantification of biophysical attributes. The goal of this program is to produce a generalized software package for terrain classification and estimation of biophysical attributes and to make this package available to the larger scientific community. The basic elements of the SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) terrain classifier are outlined. An SAR image is calibrated with respect to known system and processor gains and external targets (if available). A Level 1 classifier operates on the data to differentiate: urban features, surfaces and tall and short vegetation. Level 2 classifiers further subdivide these classes on the basis of structure. Finally, biophysical and geophysical inversions are applied to each class to estimate attributes of interest. The process used to develop the classifiers and inversions is shown. Radar scattering models developed from theory and from empirical data obtained by truck-mounted polarimeters and the JPL AirSAR are validated. The validated models are used in sensitivity studies to understand the roles of various scattering sources (i.e., surface trunk, branches, etc.) in determining net backscatter. Model simulations of sigma (sup o) as functions of the wave parameters (lambda, polarization and angle of incidence) and the geophysical and biophysical attributes are used to develop robust classifiers. The classifiers are validated using available AirSAR data sets. Specific estimators are developed for each class on the basis of the scattering models and empirical data sets. The candidate algorithms are tested with the AirSAR data sets. The attributes of interest include: total above ground biomass, woody biomass, soil moisture and soil roughness.

  8. Ruminal protein metabolism and intestinal amino acid utilization as affected by dietary protein and carbohydrate sources in sheep.

    PubMed

    Hussein, H S; Jordan, R M; Stern, M D

    1991-05-01

    Eight wether lambs fitted with ruminal, duodenal, and ileal cannulas were used in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design to study the effects of carbohydrate and protein sources on ruminal protein metabolism and carbohydrate fermentation and intestinal amino acid (AA) absorption. Treatments were arranged as a 2 x 2 factorial. Carbohydrate sources were corn and barley; protein sources were soybean meal (SBM) and fish meal (FM). Diets contained 15.5% CP, of which 40% was supplied by SBM or FM. Corn or barley provided 39% of dietary DM that contained equal amounts of grass hay and wheat straw. Fish meal diets produced a lower (P less than .05) ruminal NH3 concentration and resulted in less CP degradation and bacterial protein flow to the duodenum than did SBM diets. Replacing SBM with FM increased (P less than .05) ruminal digestion of all fiber fractions. In addition, cellulose and hemicellulose digestibilities in the rumen tended to increase (P greater than .05) when barley replaced corn in the FM diets. Carbohydrate x protein interactions (P less than .05) were observed for OM digestion in the rumen and AA absorption in the small intestine (percentage of AA entering); these interactions were highest for the barley-FM diet. These results suggest that feeding FM with barley, which is high in both degradable carbohydrate and protein, might benefit ruminants more than feeding FM with corn, which is high in degradable carbohydrate but relatively low in degradable protein. PMID:1648551

  9. How Growing Complexity of Consumer Choices and Drivers of Consumption Behaviour Affect Demand for Animal Source Foods.

    PubMed

    Perry, B D; Grace, D C

    2015-12-01

    Many societies are spoiled for choice when they purchase meat and other livestock products, and around the globe food choice has grown dramatically in the last two decades. What is more, besides the cost and obvious health concerns influencing commodity section, an increasing proportion of choices is made to contribute to the achievement of certain ideals, such as natural resource management, climate change mitigation, animal welfare concerns and personal lifestyle. At the same time, human health considerations are becoming more important for consumption choices as richer societies, and increasingly the urban poor in low- and middle-income countries, face an unprecedented epidemic of over-consumption and associated diet-related non-communicable diseases. Animal source foods are considered significant contributors to this trend. This paper reviews this complicated arena, and explores the range of considerations that influence consumers' preferences for meat and other animal source foods. This paper also argues that deeper drivers of consumption behaviour of many foods may act in opposition to the articulated preferences for choices around animal source food consumption. We review how the returns to different causes are being valued, how emerging metrics are helping to manage and influence consumption behaviours, and draw conclusions regarding options which influence food choice. PMID:26682899

  10. Consumption of different sources of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids by growing female rats affects long bone mass and microarchitecture.

    PubMed

    Lukas, Robin; Gigliotti, Joseph C; Smith, Brenda J; Altman, Stephanie; Tou, Janet C

    2011-09-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) consumption has been reported to improve bone health. However, sources of ω-3 PUFAs differ in the type of fatty acids and structural form. The study objective was to determine the effect of various ω-3 PUFAs sources on bone during growth. Young (age 28d) female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned (n=10/group) to a high fat 12% (wt) diet consisting of either corn oil (CO) or ω-3 PUFA rich, flaxseed (FO), krill (KO), menhaden (MO), salmon (SO) or tuna (TO) for 8 weeks. Bone mass was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and bone microarchitecture by micro-computed tomography (μCT). Bone turnover markers were measured by enzyme immunoassay. Lipid peroxidation was measured by calorimetric assays. Results showed that rats fed TO, rich in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6ω-3) had higher (P<0.009) tibial bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) and lower (P=0.05) lipid peroxidation compared to the CO-fed rats. Reduced lipid peroxidation was associated with increased tibial BMD (r2=0.08, P=0.02) and BMC (r2=0.71, P=0.01). On the other hand, rats fed FO or MO, rich in alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3ω-3), improved bone microarchitecture compared to rats fed CO or SO. Serum osteocalcin was higher (P=0.03) in rats fed FO compared to rats fed SO. Serum osteocalcin was associated with improved trabecular bone microarchitecture. The animal study results suggest consuming a variety of ω-3 PUFA sources to promote bone health during the growth stage. PMID:21672645

  11. 48 CFR 927.207 - Classified contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Classified contracts. 927.207 Section 927.207 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patents 927.207 Classified contracts....

  12. 48 CFR 927.207 - Classified contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Classified contracts. 927.207 Section 927.207 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patents 927.207 Classified contracts....

  13. 48 CFR 927.207 - Classified contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Classified contracts. 927.207 Section 927.207 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patents 927.207 Classified contracts....

  14. 48 CFR 927.207 - Classified contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Classified contracts. 927.207 Section 927.207 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patents 927.207 Classified contracts....

  15. 48 CFR 927.207 - Classified contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Classified contracts. 927.207 Section 927.207 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patents 927.207 Classified contracts....

  16. 32 CFR 775.5 - Classified actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Classified actions. 775.5 Section 775.5 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY MISCELLANEOUS RULES PROCEDURES FOR IMPLEMENTING THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 775.5 Classified actions. (a) The fact that a...

  17. A fuzzy classifier system for process control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karr, C. L.; Phillips, J. C.

    1994-01-01

    A fuzzy classifier system that discovers rules for controlling a mathematical model of a pH titration system was developed by researchers at the U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM). Fuzzy classifier systems successfully combine the strengths of learning classifier systems and fuzzy logic controllers. Learning classifier systems resemble familiar production rule-based systems, but they represent their IF-THEN rules by strings of characters rather than in the traditional linguistic terms. Fuzzy logic is a tool that allows for the incorporation of abstract concepts into rule based-systems, thereby allowing the rules to resemble the familiar 'rules-of-thumb' commonly used by humans when solving difficult process control and reasoning problems. Like learning classifier systems, fuzzy classifier systems employ a genetic algorithm to explore and sample new rules for manipulating the problem environment. Like fuzzy logic controllers, fuzzy classifier systems encapsulate knowledge in the form of production rules. The results presented in this paper demonstrate the ability of fuzzy classifier systems to generate a fuzzy logic-based process control system.

  18. Moisture source and diet affect development and reproduction of Orius thripoborus and Orius naivashae, two predatory anthocorids from Southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Bonte, Jochem; Vangansbeke, Dominiek; Maes, Sara; Bonte, Maarten; Conlong, Des; De Clercq, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    The effect of moisture source and diet on the development and reproduction of the pirate bugs, Orius thripoborus (Hesse) and Orius naivashae (Poppius) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) was examined in the laboratory. Both species had been collected in and around sugarcane fields in South Africa. Supplementing eggs of the flour moth Ephestia kuehniella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) with a green bean pod as a moisture source yielded better nymphal survival and faster development, as compared with free water encapsulated in Parafilm, suggesting that the predators may extract extra nutrients from the bean pod. The impact of two factitious foods and moist honey bee pollen on developmental and reproductive parameters of both predators was also investigated. The overall performance of both Orius species on E. kuehniella eggs and cysts of brine shrimp, Artemia franciscana Kellogg (Crustacea: Artemiidae) was better than on pollen. Nonetheless, a pollen diet alone allowed 66 and 78% of the nymphs of O. thripoborus and O. naivashae, respectively, to reach adulthood. Overall, developmental and reproductive performance of O. thripoborus on the tested diets was superior to that of O. naivashae. The implications of these findings for the mass production of these predators and their potential role in biological control programs in southern Africa are discussed. PMID:22935002

  19. Moisture Source and Diet affect Development and Reproduction of Orius thripoborus and Orius naivashae, two Predatory Anthocorids from Southern Africa

    PubMed Central

    Bonte, Jochem; Vangansbeke, Dominiek; Maes, Sara; Bonte, Maarten; Conlong, Des; Clercq, Patrick De

    2012-01-01

    The effect of moisture source and diet on the development and reproduction of the pirate bugs, Orius thripoborus (Hesse) and Orius naivashae (Poppius) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) was examined in the laboratory. Both species had been collected in and around sugarcane fields in South Africa. Supplementing eggs of the flour moth Ephestia kuehniella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) with a green bean pod as a moisture source yielded better nymphal survival and faster development, as compared with free water encapsulated in Parafilm, suggesting that the predators may extract extra nutrients from the bean pod. The impact of two factitious foods and moist honey bee pollen on developmental and reproductive parameters of both predators was also investigated. The overall performance of both Orius species on E. kuehniella eggs and cysts of brine shrimp, Artemia franciscana Kellogg (Crustacea: Artemiidae) was better than on pollen. Nonetheless, a pollen diet alone allowed 66 and 78% of the nymphs of O. thripoborus and O. naivashae, respectively, to reach adulthood. Overall, developmental and reproductive performance of O. thripoborus on the tested diets was superior to that of O. naivashae. The implications of these findings for the mass production of these predators and their potential role in biological control programs in southern Africa are discussed. PMID:22935002

  20. Source apportionment methods applied to the determination of the origin of ambient aerosols that affect visibility in forested areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Robert K.; Dzubay, Thomas G.; Lewis, Charles W.; Shaw, Robert W.

    An aerosol characterization, visibility, and receptor modeling study was conducted in the Shenandoah Valley, VA between 14 July and 15 August 1980. The objectives of this study were to: (1) determine the origin of the ambient particles, (2) determine the major chemical species contributing to the light extinction coefficient, (3) evaluate analytical methods to characterize aerosols and (4) provide data for comparison with chemical composition of aerosols collected in the Great Smoky Mountains and in the Abastumani Mountains of Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic. The average sulfate concentrations measured in fine particles (<2.5μm) at these three locations were: 12.0μgm -3 at Great Smoky Mountains; 13.6 μg m -3 at Shenandoah Valley, and 4.6 μg m -3 at Abastumani Mountains; the fractions of sulfate in the fine particle mass concentrations at each site were 0.50,0.50 and 0.38, respectively. For the two studies in the United States, the fine particle sulfate during sulfate maxima was mostly in the form of ammonium acid sulfate. Factor analysis of the fine aerosol composition measured in the Shenandoah Valley yielded a persistent factor containing large loadings on mass, SO 2-4, S, NH +4, H +, Se and total nitrate (sum of particulate nitrate and nitric acid), which is characteristic of coal-fired sources. This factor analysis grouping along with additional emissions information suggests that coal-fired power plants are the principal source of sulfate and nitrate.