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Sample records for affected upper extremity

  1. Factors Affecting Outcomes in Patients Treated Surgically for Upper Extremity Tumors and Tumor-Like Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Otero, Jesse E; Graves, Christopher M; TeKippe, Ashley; Buckwalter, Joseph A; Miller, Benjamin J

    2013-01-01

    There is little data available regarding outcomes of patients who have undergone surgery for tumors of the upper extremity. Functional data after surgery for upper extremity tumors would aid in guiding patient expectations in the peri-operative period. The purpose of this study was to identify patient, tumor, and surgery-related characteristics associated with patient-reported physical and emo-tional function before and after surgery for tumors of the upper extremity. Pre- and post-operative mental and physical Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 (SF-36) scores were collected from 79 patients with benign and malignant neoplasms of the upper extremity. A retrospective chart review was performed to ascertain whether tumor behavior, type, location, patient sex, age, surgical specimen size, or type of surgery were correlated with differing outcomes. Our outcome measure was patient-reported physi-cal and mental score (SF-36) at less than one year, one to two years, and greater than two years post-operatively. We found that patients with tumors proximal to the elbow and patients with right-sided tumors had statistically significantly lower post-operative physical scores at minimum two-year follow-up (p=0.02). Additionally, lower physical scores were associated with age greater than 50 (p=0.03) and tumor resection rather than curettage (p=0.01). The subset of patients with hereditary multiple exostoses had significantly lower post-operative physical scores than other patient sub-populations. There was no difference in physical function after surgery between patients with benign and malig-nant tumors, patients with tumors larger than 5 cm and less than 5 cm in greatest dimension, and patients with bone versus soft tissue tumors. Inter-estingly, we found that there was no difference in mental function scores between any comparisons. Our results suggest that patient age, tumor location, and type of surgery are correlated with patient-reported physical function following sur

  2. [Upper extremity arterial diseases].

    PubMed

    Becker, F

    2007-02-01

    Compared to lower limb arterial diseases, upper limb arterial diseases look rare, heterogeneous with various etiologies and a rather vague clinical picture, but with a negligible risk of amputation. Almost all types of arterial diseases can be present in the upper limb, but the anatomical and hemodynamic conditions particular to the upper limb often confuse the issue. Thus, atherosclerosis affects mainly the subclavian artery in its proximal segment where the potential of collateral pathway is high making the symptomatic forms not very frequent whereas the prevalence of subclavian artery stenosis or occlusion is relatively high. The clinical examination and the etiologies are discussed according to the clinical, anatomical and hemodynamic context.

  3. Upper extremity golf injuries.

    PubMed

    Cohn, Michael A; Lee, Steven K; Strauss, Eric J

    2013-01-01

    Golf is a global sport enjoyed by an estimated 60 million people around the world. Despite the common misconception that the risk of injury during the play of golf is minimal, golfers are subject to a myriad of potential pathologies. While the majority of injuries in golf are attributable to overuse, acute traumatic injuries can also occur. As the body's direct link to the golf club, the upper extremities are especially prone to injury. A thorough appreciation of the risk factors and patterns of injury will afford accurate diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of further injury.

  4. Upper Extremity Amputations and Prosthetics

    PubMed Central

    Ovadia, Steven A.; Askari, Morad

    2015-01-01

    Upper extremity amputations are most frequently indicated by severe traumatic injuries. The location of the injury will determine the level of amputation. Preservation of extremity length is often a goal. The amputation site will have important implications on the functional status of the patient and options for prosthetic reconstruction. Advances in amputation techniques and prosthetic reconstructions promote improved quality of life. In this article, the authors review the principles of upper extremity amputation, including techniques, amputation sites, and prosthetic reconstructions. PMID:25685104

  5. Technology improves upper extremity rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Kowalczewski, Jan; Prochazka, Arthur

    2011-01-01

    Stroke survivors with hemiparesis and spinal cord injury (SCI) survivors with tetraplegia find it difficult or impossible to perform many activities of daily life. There is growing evidence that intensive exercise therapy, especially when supplemented with functional electrical stimulation (FES), can improve upper extremity function, but delivering the treatment can be costly, particularly after recipients leave rehabilitation facilities. Recently, there has been a growing level of interest among researchers and healthcare policymakers to deliver upper extremity treatments to people in their homes using in-home teletherapy (IHT). The few studies that have been carried out so far have encountered a variety of logistical and technical problems, not least the difficulty of conducting properly controlled and blinded protocols that satisfy the requirements of high-level evidence-based research. In most cases, the equipment and communications technology were not designed for individuals with upper extremity disability. It is clear that exercise therapy combined with interventions such as FES, supervised over the Internet, will soon be adopted worldwide in one form or another. Therefore it is timely that researchers, clinicians, and healthcare planners interested in assessing IHT be aware of the pros and cons of the new technology and the factors involved in designing appropriate studies of it. It is crucial to understand the technical barriers, the role of telesupervisors, the motor improvements that participants can reasonably expect and the process of optimizing IHT-exercise therapy protocols to maximize the benefits of the emerging technology.

  6. Technology improves upper extremity rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Kowalczewski, Jan; Prochazka, Arthur

    2011-01-01

    Stroke survivors with hemiparesis and spinal cord injury (SCI) survivors with tetraplegia find it difficult or impossible to perform many activities of daily life. There is growing evidence that intensive exercise therapy, especially when supplemented with functional electrical stimulation (FES), can improve upper extremity function, but delivering the treatment can be costly, particularly after recipients leave rehabilitation facilities. Recently, there has been a growing level of interest among researchers and healthcare policymakers to deliver upper extremity treatments to people in their homes using in-home teletherapy (IHT). The few studies that have been carried out so far have encountered a variety of logistical and technical problems, not least the difficulty of conducting properly controlled and blinded protocols that satisfy the requirements of high-level evidence-based research. In most cases, the equipment and communications technology were not designed for individuals with upper extremity disability. It is clear that exercise therapy combined with interventions such as FES, supervised over the Internet, will soon be adopted worldwide in one form or another. Therefore it is timely that researchers, clinicians, and healthcare planners interested in assessing IHT be aware of the pros and cons of the new technology and the factors involved in designing appropriate studies of it. It is crucial to understand the technical barriers, the role of telesupervisors, the motor improvements that participants can reasonably expect and the process of optimizing IHT-exercise therapy protocols to maximize the benefits of the emerging technology. PMID:21763524

  7. Physical examination of upper extremity compressive neuropathies.

    PubMed

    Popinchalk, Samuel P; Schaffer, Alyssa A

    2012-10-01

    A thorough history and physical examination are vital to the assessment of upper extremity compressive neuropathies. This article summarizes relevant anatomy and physical examination findings associated with upper extremity compressive neuropathies.

  8. Updating upper extremity temporary prosthesis: thermoplastics.

    PubMed

    Fletchall, S; Tran, T; Ungaro, V; Hickerson, W

    1992-01-01

    Since 1989 amputees with upper-extremity burns have been fitted with a temporary prosthesis fabricated from low-temperature thermoplastic. Before 1989 conventional temporary prostheses were fabricated with plaster. The use of the thermoplastic material has produced a lightweight, cost-effective, modular system. No patients exhibited skin breakdown with the thermoplastic material. It appears that thermoplastics may be the next major breakthrough in terms of a design for a temporary upper-extremity prosthesis.

  9. Effects of Adjuvant Mental Practice on Affected Upper Limb Function Following a Stroke: Results of Three-Dimensional Motion Analysis, Fugl-Meyer Assessment of the Upper Extremity and Motor Activity Logs

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of adjuvant mental practice (MP) on affected upper limb function following a stroke using three-dimensional (3D) motion analysis. Methods In this AB/BA crossover study, we studied 10 hemiplegic patients who had a stroke within the past 6 months. The patients were randomly allocated to two groups: one group received MP combined with conventional rehabilitation therapy for the first 3 weeks followed by conventional rehabilitation therapy alone for the final 3 weeks; the other group received the same therapy but in reverse order. The MP tasks included drinking from a cup and opening a door. MP was individually administered for 20 minutes, 3 days a week for 3 weeks. To assess the tasks, we used 3D motion analysis and three additional tests: the Fugl-Meyer Assessment of the upper extremity (FMA-UE) and the motor activity logs for amount of use (MAL-AOU) and quality of movement (MAL-QOM). Assessments were performed immediately before treatment (T0), 3 weeks into treatment (T1), and 6 weeks into treatment (T2). Results Based on the results of the 3D motion analysis and the FMA-UE index (p=0.106), the MAL-AOU scale (p=0.092), and MAL-QOM scale (p=0.273), adjuvant MP did not result in significant improvements. Conclusion Adjuvant MP had no significant effect on upper limb function following a stroke, according to 3D motion analysis and three clinical assessment tools (the FMA-UE index and the two MAL scales). The importance of this study is its use of objective 3D motion analysis to evaluate the effects of MP. Further studies will be needed to validate these findings. PMID:27446776

  10. Management of Major Traumatic Upper Extremity Amputations.

    PubMed

    Solarz, Mark K; Thoder, Joseph J; Rehman, Saqib

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic upper extremity amputation is a life-altering event, and recovery of function depends on proper surgical management and postoperative rehabilitation. Many injuries require revision amputation and postoperative prosthesis fitting. Care should be taken to preserve maximal length of the limb and motion of the remaining joints. Skin grafting or free tissue transfer may be necessary for coverage to allow preservation of length. Early prosthetic fitting within 30 days of surgery should be performed so the amputee can start rehabilitation while the wound is healing and the stump is maturing. Multidisciplinary care is essential for the overall care of the patient following a traumatic amputation of the upper limb.

  11. Upper extremity quad splint: indications and technique.

    PubMed

    DeFroda, Steven F; Gil, Joseph A; Bokshan, Steven; Waryasz, Gregory

    2015-12-01

    Patients experiencing high-energy trauma evaluated at level I trauma centers often present with multiple injuries and varying levels of hemodynamic instability. The polytrauma patient requires immediate assessment and stabilization of their orthopedic injuries once the primary trauma survey is complete, and oftentimes, operative fixation of injuries is delayed while patients are resuscitated by general trauma services. The authors describe the application of the upper extremity "quad" splint which includes components of a sugar tong, intrinsic plus, thumb spica, and dorsal extension blocking splint and its indication for patients with multiple upper extremity fractures distal to the humerus. This splint is efficiently applied using minimal material while simultaneously allowing for the stabilizing aspects of 4 splints commonly applied in the emergency setting. PMID:26472510

  12. Bone Lengthening in the Pediatric Upper Extremity.

    PubMed

    Farr, Sebastian; Mindler, Gabriel; Ganger, Rudolf; Girsch, Werner

    2016-09-01

    ➤Bone lengthening has been used successfully for several congenital and acquired conditions in the pediatric clavicle, humerus, radius, ulna, and phalanges.➤Common indications for bone lengthening include achondroplasia, radial longitudinal deficiency, multiple hereditary exostosis, brachymetacarpia, symbrachydactyly, and posttraumatic and postinfectious growth arrest.➤Most authors prefer distraction rates of <1 mm/day for each bone in the upper extremity except the humerus, which can safely be lengthened by 1 mm/day.➤Most authors define success by the amount of radiographic bone lengthening, joint motion after lengthening, and subjective patient satisfaction rather than validated patient-related outcome measures.➤Bone lengthening of the upper extremity is associated with a high complication rate, with complications including pin-track infections, fixation device failure, nerve lesions, nonunion, fracture of regenerate bone, and joint dislocations. PMID:27605694

  13. Throwing injuries of the upper extremity.

    PubMed

    Patel, Neel B; Thomas, Stephen; Lazarus, Martin L

    2013-03-01

    The overhead throwing motion is a complex sequence of maneuvers that requires coordinated muscle activity in the upper and lower extremities. The shoulder and elbow are subject to multidirectional forces and are particularly vulnerable to injury during specific phases of the overhead throwing motion. Ligamentous, tendinous, neural, and osseous pathology that may occur in the shoulder or elbow of an overhead-throwing athlete will be discussed, with an emphasis on the role of MR imaging and MR arthrography.

  14. Combined Cognitive-Strategy and Task-Specific Training Affects Cognition and Upper-Extremity Function in Subacute Stroke: An Exploratory Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Timothy J; Polatajko, Helene; Baum, Carolyn; Rios, Jorge; Cirone, Dianne; Doherty, Meghan; McEwen, Sara

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the effect of Cognitive Orientation to Daily Occupational Performance (CO-OP) compared with usual occupational therapy on upper-extremity movement, cognitive flexibility, and stroke impact in people less than 3 mo after stroke. An exploratory, single-blind randomized controlled trial was conducted with people referred to outpatient occupational therapy services at two rehabilitation centers. Arm movement was measured with the Action Research Arm Test, cognitive flexibility with the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System Trail Making subtest, and stroke impact with subscales of the Stroke Impact Scale. A total of 35 participants were randomized, and 26 completed the intervention. CO-OP demonstrated measurable effects over usual care on all measures. These data provide early support for the use of CO-OP to improve performance and remediate cognitive and arm movement impairments after stroke over usual care; however, future study is warranted to confirm the effects observed in this trial.

  15. Upper extremity sensorimotor control among collegiate football players.

    PubMed

    Laudner, Kevin G

    2012-03-01

    Injuries stemming from shoulder instability are very common among athletes participating in contact sports, such as football. Previous research has shown that increased laxity negatively affects the function of the sensorimotor system potentially leading to a pathological cycle of shoulder dysfunction. Currently, there are no data detailing such effects among football players. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the differences in upper extremity sensorimotor control among football players compared with that of a control group. Forty-five collegiate football players and 70 male control subjects with no previous experience in contact sports participated. All the subjects had no recent history of upper extremity injury. Each subject performed three 30-second upper extremity balance trials on each arm. The balance trials were conducted in a single-arm push-up position with the test arm in the center of a force platform and the subjects' feet on a labile device. The trials were averaged, and the differences in radial area deviation between groups were analyzed using separate 1-way analyses of variance (p < 0.05). The football players showed significantly more radial area deviation of the dominant (0.41 ± 1.23 cm2, p = 0.02) and nondominant arms (0.47 ± 1.63 cm2, p = 0.03) when compared with the control group. These results suggest that football players may have decreased sensorimotor control of the upper extremity compared with individuals with no contact sport experience. The decreased upper extremity sensorimotor control among the football players may be because of the frequent impacts accumulated during football participation. Football players may benefit from exercises that target the sensorimotor system. These findings may also be beneficial in the evaluation and treatment of various upper extremity injuries among football players.

  16. Current management of the mangled upper extremity.

    PubMed

    Bumbasirevic, Marko; Stevanovic, Milan; Lesic, Aleksandar; Atkinson, Henry D E

    2012-11-01

    Mangled describes an injury caused by cutting, tearing, or crushing, which leads to the limb becoming unrecognizable; in essence, there are two treatment options for mangled upper extremities, amputation and salvage reconstruction. With advances in our understanding of human physiology and basic science, and with the development of new fixation devices, modern microsurgical techniques and the possibility of different types of bony and soft tissue reconstruction, the clinical and functional outcomes are often good, and certainly preferable to those of contemporary prosthetics. Early or even immediate (emergency) complete upper extremity reconstruction appears to give better results than delayed or late reconstruction and should be the treatment of choice where possible. Before any reconstruction is attempted, injuries to other organs must be excluded. Each step in the assessment and treatment of a mangled extremity is of utmost importance. These include radical tissue debridement, prophylactic antibiotics, copious irrigation with a lavage system, stable bone fixation, revascularization, nerve repair, and soft tissue coverage. Well-planned and early rehabilitation leads to a better functional outcome. Despite the use of scoring systems to help guide decisions and predict outcomes, the decision to reconstruct or to amputate still ultimately lies with the surgical judgment and experience of the treating surgeon.

  17. Acute compartment syndrome of the upper extremity.

    PubMed

    Prasarn, Mark L; Ouellette, Elizabeth A

    2011-01-01

    Acute compartment syndrome occurs when pressure within a fibro-osseous space increases to a level that results in a decreased perfusion gradient across tissue capillary beds. Compartment syndromes of the hand, forearm, and upper arm can result in tissue necrosis, which can lead to devastating loss of function. The etiology of acute compartment syndrome in the upper extremity is diverse, and a high index of suspicion must be maintained. Pain out of proportion to injury is the most reliable early symptom of impending compartment syndrome. Diagnosis is particularly difficult in obtunded patients and in young children. Early recognition and expeditious surgical treatment are essential to obtain a good clinical outcome and prevent permanent disability.

  18. Upper Extremity Deep Vein Thromboses: The Bowler and the Barista

    PubMed Central

    du Breuil, Anne L.; Close, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Effort thrombosis of the upper extremity refers to a deep venous thrombosis of the upper extremity resulting from repetitive activity of the upper limb. Most cases of effort thrombosis occur in young elite athletes with strenuous upper extremity activity. This article reports two cases who both developed upper extremity deep vein thromboses, the first being a 67-year-old bowler and the second a 25-year-old barista, and illustrates that effort thrombosis should be included in the differential diagnosis in any patient with symptoms concerning DVT associated with repetitive activity. A literature review explores the recommended therapies for upper extremity deep vein thromboses. PMID:27800207

  19. Recognizing upper-extremity stress lesions.

    PubMed

    Cervoni, T D; Martire, J R; Curl, L A; McFarland, E G

    1997-08-01

    Athletes in sports such as baseball, gymnastics, weight lifting, javelin, and racket sports are susceptible to stress lesions in the bones of the upper extremities. Injuries range from periostitis to bone spurs to stress fractures. Injuries in adolescents typically involve the growth plates, while midshaft injuries at the area of muscle insertion are more common in adults. It's especially important to detect these injuries in adolescents because untreated stress lesions at growth plates can have serious consequences. Plain films demonstrate obvious fractures and physeal injuries, but triple-phase bone scans are often needed to define the extent of stress lesions.

  20. Combined Cognitive-Strategy and Task-Specific Training Affects Cognition and Upper-Extremity Function in Subacute Stroke: An Exploratory Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Polatajko, Helene; Baum, Carolyn; Rios, Jorge; Cirone, Dianne; Doherty, Meghan; McEwen, Sara

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the effect of Cognitive Orientation to Daily Occupational Performance (CO–OP) compared with usual occupational therapy on upper-extremity movement, cognitive flexibility, and stroke impact in people less than 3 mo after stroke. An exploratory, single-blind randomized controlled trial was conducted with people referred to outpatient occupational therapy services at two rehabilitation centers. Arm movement was measured with the Action Research Arm Test, cognitive flexibility with the Delis–Kaplan Executive Function System Trail Making subtest, and stroke impact with subscales of the Stroke Impact Scale. A total of 35 participants were randomized, and 26 completed the intervention. CO–OP demonstrated measurable effects over usual care on all measures. These data provide early support for the use of CO–OP to improve performance and remediate cognitive and arm movement impairments after stroke over usual care; however, future study is warranted to confirm the effects observed in this trial. PMID:26943113

  1. Combined Cognitive-Strategy and Task-Specific Training Affects Cognition and Upper-Extremity Function in Subacute Stroke: An Exploratory Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Timothy J; Polatajko, Helene; Baum, Carolyn; Rios, Jorge; Cirone, Dianne; Doherty, Meghan; McEwen, Sara

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the effect of Cognitive Orientation to Daily Occupational Performance (CO-OP) compared with usual occupational therapy on upper-extremity movement, cognitive flexibility, and stroke impact in people less than 3 mo after stroke. An exploratory, single-blind randomized controlled trial was conducted with people referred to outpatient occupational therapy services at two rehabilitation centers. Arm movement was measured with the Action Research Arm Test, cognitive flexibility with the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System Trail Making subtest, and stroke impact with subscales of the Stroke Impact Scale. A total of 35 participants were randomized, and 26 completed the intervention. CO-OP demonstrated measurable effects over usual care on all measures. These data provide early support for the use of CO-OP to improve performance and remediate cognitive and arm movement impairments after stroke over usual care; however, future study is warranted to confirm the effects observed in this trial. PMID:26943113

  2. Venous gangrene of the upper extremity.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, B M; Shield, G W; Riddell, D H; Snell, J D

    1985-01-01

    Gangrene of the hand associated with acute upper extremity venous insufficiency has been seen in four limbs in three patients treated at Vanderbilt University Medical Center. All three patients had life-threatening illnesses associated with diminished tissue perfusion, hypercoagulability, and venous injury. One patient progressed to above-elbow amputation, but venous thrombectomy in one limb and thrombolytic therapy in two others were successful in preventing major tissue loss. All three patients eventually died from their underlying illness. Thirteen previously reported patients with "venous gangrene" of the upper extremity have been analyzed. An underlying life-threatening illness was present in the majority of these patients (7/13, 54%) and, like the Vanderbilt series, amputations were frequent (7/13, 54%) and mortality (5/13, 38%) was high. This unusual form of ischemia appears to be produced by permutations of global circulatory stasis, subclavian or axillary vein occlusion, and peripheral venous thrombosis. Early, aggressive restoration of adequate cardiac output and thrombectomy and/or thrombolytic therapy may provide the best chance for tissue salvage and survival in this group of patients. Images FIG. 1. FIG. 2. FIG. 3. FIG. 4. FIG. 5. FIGS. 6A and B. FIGS. 7A and B. FIG. 8. PMID:3977453

  3. Upper-extremity deep venous thrombosis: a review.

    PubMed

    Mai, Cuc; Hunt, Daniel

    2011-05-01

    Upper-extremity deep venous thrombosis is less common than lower-extremity deep venous thrombosis. However, upper-extremity deep venous thrombosis is associated with similar adverse consequences and is becoming more common in patients with complex medical conditions requiring central venous catheters or wires. Although guidelines suggest that this disorder be managed using approaches similar to those for lower-extremity deep venous thrombosis, studies are refining the prognosis and management of upper-extremity deep venous thrombosis. Physicians should be familiar with the diagnostic and treatment considerations for this disease. This review will differentiate between primary and secondary upper-extremity deep venous thromboses; assess the risk factors and clinical sequelae associated with upper-extremity deep venous thrombosis, comparing these with lower-extremity deep venous thrombosis; and describe an approach to treatment and prevention of secondary upper-extremity deep venous thrombosis based on clinical evidence.

  4. Early management of the mangled upper extremity.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Michael L; Chung, Kevin C

    2007-12-01

    Mangling injuries to the upper extremity can be devastating, and the early management of these injuries is critical for the success of the reconstruction. These are universally high energy injuries that will need to be taken to the operating room for effective management. Evaluation begins in the emergency department with assessment of vascularity, categorization of damaged structures and assessment of salvageability. There is no role for conservative treatment of these wounds, and once in the operating room, restoration of blood supply and adequate debridement are critical to the ultimate outcome. Removal of damaged, contaminated and devitalized tissues must occur. The goal of early treatment is to create a clean wound ready for reconstruction as soon as possible. Inadequate debridement will only delay reconstruction to the detriment of the patient. PMID:18061189

  5. [Exoprosthetic Replacement of the Upper Extremity].

    PubMed

    Salminger, S; Mayer, J A; Sturma, A; Riedl, O; Bergmeister, K D; Aszmann, O C

    2016-08-01

    During the last years, the prosthetic replacement in upper limb amputees has undergone different developments. The use of new nerve surgical concepts improved the control strategies tremendously, especially for high-level amputees. Technological innovation in the field of pattern recognition enables the control of multifunctional myoelectric hand prostheses in a natural and intuitive manner. However, the different levels of amputation pose different challenges for the therapeutic team which concern not only the prosthetic attachment; also the expected functional outcome of prosthetic limb replacement differs greatly between the individual levels of amputation. Therefore, especially in partial hand amputations the indication for prosthetic fitting has to be evaluated critically, as these patients may benefit more from biologic reconstructive concepts. The value of the upper extremity, in particular of the hand, is undisputable and, as such represents the driving force for the technological and surgical developments within the exoprosthetic replacement. This article discusses the possibilities and limitations of exoprosthetic limb replacement on the different amputation levels and explores new developments. PMID:27547980

  6. Radical reduction of upper extremity lymphedema with preservation of perforators.

    PubMed

    Salgado, Christopher J; Sassu, Paolo; Gharb, Bahar Bassiri; Spanio di Spilimbergo, Stefano; Mardini, Samir; Chen, Hung-Chi

    2009-09-01

    Excisional procedures have been successfully utilized by different authors in multistage treatment of upper extremity lymphedema. We have used microsurgical principles of perforator flap surgery in order to develop a one-stage procedure that enables a radical reduction of the lymphedematous tissue with preservation of the vascular supply to the overlying skin.Between March 2000 and February 2007, 11 patients affected by late stage II lymphedema underwent radical reduction of the affected tissues with preservation of perforators. Perforator vessels from the radial and posterior interosseous arteries were identified and through medial and lateral forearm incisions, skin flaps were raised off the underlying lymphedematous tissue and the affected tissue was removed off the deep fascia. At a mean follow-up of 17.8 months the average percentage reductions above and below the elbow, at the wrist, and the hand were 15.1%, 20.7%, 0.5%, and 3.6%, respectively. Statistical analysis showed significant circumference reduction above and below the elbow (P = 0.048 and 0.022, respectively) but not at the wrist and hand. There were no cases of wound breakdown, skin necrosis, or cellulitis in the postoperative period. Four patients complained of mild numbness confined to the vicinity of the surgical incisions.Microvascular principles applied to the radical excision of the subcutaneous tissue seems to offer a new promising one-stage surgical procedure in patients affected by upper extremity lymphedema that has failed conservative therapy. PMID:19692901

  7. Functional and Clinical Outcomes of Upper Extremity Amputation.

    PubMed

    Fitzgibbons, Peter; Medvedev, Gleb

    2015-12-01

    Upper extremity amputation is an uncommon but often necessary procedure. It can be required as a result of trauma, infection, or malignancy. Amputation is a life-changing procedure. Careful planning for it must not only include the level of amputation and assurance of durable soft-tissue coverage of the amputation site, but it must also consider patients' goals and occupations, as well as social factors affecting amputees. The choice of prosthesis is an individual matter, but new technology permits lighter and more multifunctional prostheses. Targeted muscle reinnervation can be used to achieve improved myoelectric signaling and possibly decrease limb pain following amputation. Rehabilitation is crucial to achieving favorable results.

  8. Interpretation of upper extremity arteriography: vascular anatomy and pathology [corrected].

    PubMed

    Wong, Victor W; Katz, Ryan D; Higgins, James P

    2015-02-01

    Understanding the utility and interpretation of upper extremity angiography is critical for the hand surgeon treating vaso-occlusive diseases of the hand. Although invasive and requiring the use of contrast dye, it remains the gold standard for imaging of the vascular system of the upper extremity. Angiography may detect numerous variants of the upper limb arterial system which may contribute to surgical pathology. Extensive vascular collateralization helps to maintain perfusion to the hand and facilitates reconstruction of the upper extremity. It is paramount to remember that angiography is a dynamic study and should represent a "flexible roadmap" for surgical reconstruction. PMID:25455362

  9. Weather extremes could affect agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2012-05-01

    As Earth's climate warms, agricultural producers will need to adapt. Changes, especially increases in extreme events, are already having an impact on food production, according to speakers at a 1 May session on agriculture and food security at the AGU Science Policy Conference. Christopher Field, director of the Department of Global Ecology at the Carnegie Institution for Science of Washington, D. C., pointed out the complex factors that come into play in understanding food security, including spatially varying controls and stresses, incomplete models, and the potential for threshold responses. Factors that are likely to cause problems include increasing population; increasing preference for meat, which needs more land and energy inputs to produce; climate change; and increasing use of agricultural lands for biomass energy.

  10. Mechanosensitivity in the upper extremity following breast cancer treatment

    PubMed Central

    Smoot, Betty; Boyd, Benjamin S; Byl, Nancy; Dodd, Marylin

    2013-01-01

    Study Design Descriptive, cross-sectional. Introduction Breast cancer (BC) treatments place the nervous system at risk, which may contribute to upper extremity (UE) mechanosensitivity. Purpose of the Study To evaluate elbow extension range of motion (EE-ROM) during upper limb neurodynamic testing (ULNT) post-BC treatment. Methods ULNT EE-ROM was measured for 145 women post-BC treatment. Women were sub-grouped by presence/absence of pain and lymphedema Results Mean EE-ROM during ULNT1 was −22.3° (SD: 11.9°) on the unaffected limb and −25.99° (SD 13.1°) on the affected limb. The women with pain and lymphedema had the greatest limitation in EE-ROM during ULNT1 testing, particularly of their affected limb (−33.8°, SD 12.9). Symptoms were reported more frequently in the affected chest, shoulder, arm, elbow, and hand. The intensity of symptoms was greater at the affected chest (p=0.046), shoulder (p=0.033) and arm (p=0.039). Conclusions Women with lymphedema and pain after BC treatment may present with altered neural mechanosensitivity. PMID:24084387

  11. Upper-extremity thrombosis in a patient after biceps tenodesis.

    PubMed

    Offoha, Roosevelt U; Garzon-Muvdi, Juan; Streiff, Michael B; McFarland, Edward G

    2014-12-01

    Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) of the upper extremity is uncommon compared with DVT of the lower extremity. Exertional DVT has been described in some athletes, especially in the dominant arm of baseball players. It is important for health care professionals to recognize the signs and symptoms of upper-extremity DVT, which can occur after exertion or after surgery of the upper extremity. Superficial venous thrombosis is also very uncommon in the upper extremity. This article describes a case of superficial venous thrombosis that mimicked DVT in the surgical (right) arm of a recreational baseball player after suprapectoral biceps tenodesis for a painful superior labrum anterior-posterior lesion. Although the superficial venous system of the upper arm has frequent connections to the deeper basilar system, it is uncommon for superficial venous thrombosis to occur concurrently with DVT. It is important for clinicians to understand the distinction between superficial venous thrombosis and DVT in the upper extremity because the physical findings, treatment, and prognosis for these 2 entities differ in the following ways: (1) superficial venous thrombosis may be accompanied by a cord, but DVT is associated with more generalized swelling; (2) superficial venous thrombosis requires symptomatic treatment only, whereas DVT requires anticoagulation; and (3) superficial venous thrombosis typically resolves with few sequelae, whereas upper-extremity DVT increases the risk of future DVT.

  12. Approach to complex upper extremity injury: an algorithm.

    PubMed

    Ng, Zhi Yang; Askari, Morad; Chim, Harvey

    2015-02-01

    Patients with complex upper extremity injuries represent a unique subset of the trauma population. In addition to extensive soft tissue defects affecting the skin, bone, muscles and tendons, or the neurovasculature in various combinations, there is usually concomitant involvement of other body areas and organ systems with the potential for systemic compromise due to the underlying mechanism of injury and resultant sequelae. In turn, this has a direct impact on the definitive reconstructive plan. Accurate assessment and expedient treatment is thus necessary to achieve optimal surgical outcomes with the primary goal of limb salvage and functional restoration. Nonetheless, the characteristics of these injuries places such patients at an increased risk of complications ranging from limb ischemia, recalcitrant infections, failure of bony union, intractable pain, and most devastatingly, limb amputation. In this article, the authors present an algorithmic approach toward complex injuries of the upper extremity with due consideration for the various reconstructive modalities and timing of definitive wound closure for the best possible clinical outcomes. PMID:25685098

  13. Upper extremity function: What's posture got to do with it?

    PubMed

    Harbourne, Regina; Kamm, Kathi

    2015-01-01

    This perspective paper reviews the linkage between developing postural control and upper extremity function. We suggest updated principles for guiding clinical practice, based on current views from motor learning, motor development, and motor control research. Using three clinical examples, we illustrate principles focusing on the use of variability, the importance of errors in learning movement, task specific exploration and practice, and the critical timing necessary to build skill of the upper extremity in a variety of postures. These principles differ from historic approaches in therapeutic exercise, which treated posture as a separate system and a precursor for extremity skill building. We maintain that current movement science supports the tight interaction of posture and upper extremity function through developmental time and in real time, such that one system cannot be considered separate from the other. Specific suggestions for clinical practice flow from the guiding principles outlined in this paper. PMID:25840492

  14. Exertional compartment syndrome of the upper extremity.

    PubMed

    Botte, M J; Fronek, J; Pedowitz, R A; Hoenecke, H R; Abrams, R A; Hamer, M L

    1998-08-01

    Exertional compartment syndrome is characterized by intracompartmental pressures that rise transiently following repetitive motion or exercise, thereby producing temporary, reversible ischemia, pain, weakness, and, occasionally, neurologic deficits. The exact cause or pathogenesis remains unclear; a disturbance of microvascular flow caused by elevated intramuscular pressure leads to tissue ischemia, depletion of high-energy phosphate stores, and cellular acidosis. Anatomic contributing factors may include a limited compartment size, increased intracompartmental volume, constricted fascia, loss of compartment elasticity, poor venous return, or increased muscle bulk. The diagnosis is suspected based on history and confirmed with physical examination and intramuscular pressure evaluation before and after exercise (stress test). Differential diagnosis includes claudication or other vascular abnormalities, myositis, tendinitis, periostitis, chronic strains or sprains, stress fracture, other compression or systemic neuropathies, and cardiac abnormalities with angina or referred extremity pain. Initial treatment includes activity modification; refractory symptoms can be managed with elective fasciotomy.

  15. Management of neuromas of the upper extremity.

    PubMed

    Brogan, David M; Kakar, Sanjeev

    2013-08-01

    Neuromas primarily arise from iatrogenic injury, trauma, or chronic irritation. Given the disabling symptoms of neuromas, an array of treatment strategies exist, with varied results. Successful treatment relies on accurate identification of the offending nerve, containment of the regenerating fascicles, and cessation of mechanical or other noxious stimuli over the regenerating nerve end. The choice of treatment depends in part on the nerve affected, whether it involves critical or noncritical sensation, and its location.

  16. Application of RFID technology—upper extremity rehabilitation training

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chih-Chen; Chen, Yu-Luen; Chen, Shih-Ching

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Upper extremity rehabilitation after an injury is very important. This study proposes radio frequency identification (RFID) technology to improve and enhance the effectiveness of the upper extremity rehabilitation. [Subjects and Methods] People use their upper extremities to conduct daily activities. When recovering from injuries, many patients neglect the importance of rehabilitation, which results in degraded function. This study recorded the training process using the traditional rehabilitation hand gliding cart with a RFID reader, RFID tags in the panel, and a servo host computer. [Results] Clinical evidence, time taken to achieve a full score, counts of missing the specified spots, and Brunnstrom stage of aided recovery, the proximal part of the upper extremity show that the RFID-based upper extremity training significantly and reduce negative impacts of the disability in daily life and activities. [Conclusion] This study combined a hand-gliding cart with an RFID reader, and when patients moved the cart, the movement could be observed via the activated RFID tags. The training data was collected and quantified for a better understanding of the recovery status of the patients. Each of the participating patients made progress as expected. PMID:27065539

  17. Application of RFID technology-upper extremity rehabilitation training.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Chen; Chen, Yu-Luen; Chen, Shih-Ching

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Upper extremity rehabilitation after an injury is very important. This study proposes radio frequency identification (RFID) technology to improve and enhance the effectiveness of the upper extremity rehabilitation. [Subjects and Methods] People use their upper extremities to conduct daily activities. When recovering from injuries, many patients neglect the importance of rehabilitation, which results in degraded function. This study recorded the training process using the traditional rehabilitation hand gliding cart with a RFID reader, RFID tags in the panel, and a servo host computer. [Results] Clinical evidence, time taken to achieve a full score, counts of missing the specified spots, and Brunnstrom stage of aided recovery, the proximal part of the upper extremity show that the RFID-based upper extremity training significantly and reduce negative impacts of the disability in daily life and activities. [Conclusion] This study combined a hand-gliding cart with an RFID reader, and when patients moved the cart, the movement could be observed via the activated RFID tags. The training data was collected and quantified for a better understanding of the recovery status of the patients. Each of the participating patients made progress as expected. PMID:27065539

  18. Application of RFID technology-upper extremity rehabilitation training.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Chen; Chen, Yu-Luen; Chen, Shih-Ching

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Upper extremity rehabilitation after an injury is very important. This study proposes radio frequency identification (RFID) technology to improve and enhance the effectiveness of the upper extremity rehabilitation. [Subjects and Methods] People use their upper extremities to conduct daily activities. When recovering from injuries, many patients neglect the importance of rehabilitation, which results in degraded function. This study recorded the training process using the traditional rehabilitation hand gliding cart with a RFID reader, RFID tags in the panel, and a servo host computer. [Results] Clinical evidence, time taken to achieve a full score, counts of missing the specified spots, and Brunnstrom stage of aided recovery, the proximal part of the upper extremity show that the RFID-based upper extremity training significantly and reduce negative impacts of the disability in daily life and activities. [Conclusion] This study combined a hand-gliding cart with an RFID reader, and when patients moved the cart, the movement could be observed via the activated RFID tags. The training data was collected and quantified for a better understanding of the recovery status of the patients. Each of the participating patients made progress as expected.

  19. Workers' compensation and outcomes of upper extremity surgery.

    PubMed

    Gruson, Konrad I; Huang, Kevin; Wanich, Tony; Depalma, Anthony A

    2013-02-01

    Clinical outcomes following upper extremity surgery among workers' compensation patients have traditionally been found to be worse than those of non-workers' compensation patients. In addition, workers' compensation patients take significantly longer to return to their jobs, and they return to their preinjury levels of employment at a lower overall rate. These unfavorable prognoses may stem from the strenuous physical demands placed on the upper extremity in this group of patients. Further, there is a potential financial benefit within this patient population to report severe functional disability following surgery. Orthopaedic upper extremity surgeons who treat workers' compensation patients should be aware of the potentially prolonged period before return to work after surgical intervention and should counsel this group of patients accordingly. Vocational training should be considered if a patient's clinical progress begins to plateau.

  20. Trans-femoral thromboaspiration for upper extremity ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Gordhan, Ajeet

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Endovascular trans-femoral access catheter aspiration of thrombus within the proximal subclavian, brachial, radial and ulnar arteries for symptomatic upper extremity ischemic pain has not been previously reported. We describe a case in which a successful clinical outcome was achieved using long length neuro-endovascular aspiration catheters. Presentation of case A 45 year old female presented with diffuse left upper limb pain. Sonography revealed compromised upper extremity blood flow. Thrombus was identified in the proximal left subclavian artery by CT angiography. Surgical retrograde brachial artery access thrombectomy was performed. Occlusion of the left vertebral artery with embolic infarcts of the cerebellar hemispheres was noted post-procedurally. Trans-femoral mechanical aspiration thrombectomy and angioplasty of the subclavian, brachial, ulnar and radial arteries was subsequently performed with successful recanalization. Conclusion Recanalization of vasculature to the upper arm through safer femoral access can be achieved with thrombo-aspiration catheters of sufficient length. PMID:26708945

  1. Vascular injuries in the upper extremity in athletes.

    PubMed

    de Mooij, Tristan; Duncan, Audra A; Kakar, Sanjeev

    2015-02-01

    Repetitive, high-stress, or high-impact arm motions can cause upper extremity arterial injuries. The increased functional range of the upper extremity causes increased stresses on the vascular structures. Muscle hypertrophy and fatigue-induced joint translation may incite impingement on critical neurovasculature and can cause vascular damage. A thorough evaluation is essential to establish the diagnosis in a timely fashion as presentation mimics more common musculoskeletal injuries. Conservative treatment includes equipment modification, motion analysis and adjustment, as well as equipment enhancement to limit exposure to blunt trauma or impingement. Surgical options include ligation, primary end-to-end anastomosis for small defects, and grafting. PMID:25455355

  2. Predictive factors of hypertonia in the upper extremity of chronic stroke survivors.

    PubMed

    Lee, GyuChang; An, SeungHeon; Lee, YunBok; Lee, DongGeon; Park, Dong-Sik

    2015-08-01

    [Purpose] Muscle tone is known to predict the motor function of the upper extremity within 12 months after onset in stroke survivors. The aim of this study was to investigate whether motor function of the upper extremity can predict the risk of hypertonia in chronic stroke survivors, and to analyze the correlation between the two variables to determine the predictive validity. [Subjects and Methods] Forty-three chronic stroke survivors were assessed using the Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS) for elbow flexor tone, the Fugl-Meyer assessment of the upper extremity (FM-UE), and the Action Research Arm Test (ARAT) for upper extremity motor recovery and function. [Results] Elbow flexor tone (MAS≥1(+)) increased by 0.246 compared with the baseline muscle tone even at month 12 and appeared to negatively affect the motor function of the upper extremity. The cutoff value for predicting muscle tone (MAS≥1(+)) was 24 for FM-UE and 15.5 for ARAT. FM-UE had the biggest impact on elbow flexor tone (MAS≥1(+)), and the risk of elbow flexor hypertonia (MAS≥1(+)) increased 0.764-fold for a cutoff value of FM-UE≤24 compared with a cutoff value of FM-UE>24. [Conclusion] The results show that the most important variable for predicting muscle tone of the elbow flexor in stroke survivors is the FM assessment of the upper extremity. PMID:26357437

  3. The relationship of upper extremity strength to throwing speed.

    PubMed

    Pedegana, L R; Elsner, R C; Roberts, D; Lang, J; Farewell, V

    1982-01-01

    Cybex II Isokinetic Dynamometer (Lumex Corp. Ronkonkoma, NY) tests for the upper extremity strength of eight professional baseball players, together with radar gun measurements of their individual throwing speeds, were subjected to statistical analysis. Results of simple and multiple regression analysis showed a relationship between the strength of the elbow extension and wrist extension movements and throwing speed.

  4. Multiple Concomitant Injuries in One Upper Extremity: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Abutalib, Raid A.; Khoshhal, Khalid I.

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 36 Final Diagnosis: Multiple concomitant right upper limb fractures Symptoms: — Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Open reduction and internal fixation of right upper limb fractures Specialty: Orthopedics and Traumatology Objective: Rare co-existance of disease or pathology Background: This report is about unusual multiple upper extremity concomitant injuries in an adult after a fall from a height. To the best of our knowledge this is the first reported case of concomitant ipsilateral occurrence of multiple common injuries, uncommonly occurring together in a single traumatic episode. Case Report: A 36-year-old right-handed man fell through a skylight to the floor about 4 meters below. He presented with multiple concomitant injuries in his right upper extremity: elbow dislocation with radial head fracture associated with distal radius, ulnar styloid, and scaphoid fractures. Conclusions: The probable mechanism of injury along with the surgical treatment of these previously undescribed injuries is discussed to emphasize the need to clinically examine the whole upper extremity in severe injuries. The awareness of such an association for early recognition is paramount for excellent clinical results. PMID:26732673

  5. An electromyographic analysis of the upper extremity in pitching.

    PubMed

    Digiovine, N M; Jobe, F W; Pink, M; Perry, J

    1992-01-01

    The upper extremity is vulnerable to injury during the baseball pitch because of the repetitious nature of the action, the extremes in range of motion, and the high angular velocities and torques generated at the shoulder and elbow. Hence this study was designed to describe the muscle-firing patterns through fine-wire electromyography in 29 muscle bellies in the upper extremities of skilled pitchers during the fastball pitch. The results demonstrated that the muscles functioned with precise timing for joint stabilization to prevent injury, joint activation to transfer forces to the ball, and joint deceleration to dissipate forces after ball release. The synchrony of reciprocal and sequential muscle contraction necessary to accomplish these functions was clearly evident. This study provides a better understanding of the coordinated sequence of muscle activity during the throwing motion; this understanding is crucial to the development of exercise protocols and surgical procedures used for treatment and prevention of shoulder and elbow injuries in the throwing athlete.

  6. A hybrid joint based controller for an upper extremity exoskeleton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohd Khairuddin, Ismail; Taha, Zahari; Majeed, Anwar P. P. Abdul; Hakeem Deboucha, Abdel; Azraai Mohd Razman, Mohd; Aziz Jaafar, Abdul; Mohamed, Zulkifli

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents the modelling and control of a two degree of freedom upper extremity exoskeleton. The Euler-Lagrange formulation was used in deriving the dynamic modelling of both the human upper limb as well as the exoskeleton that consists of the upper arm and the forearm. The human model is based on anthropometrical measurements of the upper limb. The proportional-derivative (PD) computed torque control (CTC) architecture is employed in this study to investigate its efficacy performing joint-space control objectives specifically in rehabilitating the elbow and shoulder joints along the sagittal plane. An active force control (AFC) algorithm is also incorporated into the PD-CTC to investigate the effectiveness of this hybrid system in compensating disturbances. It was found that the AFC- PD-CTC performs well against the disturbances introduced into the system whilst achieving acceptable trajectory tracking as compared to the conventional PD-CTC control architecture.

  7. New Options for Vascularized Bone Reconstruction in the Upper Extremity

    PubMed Central

    Houdek, Matthew T.; Wagner, Eric R.; Wyles, Cody C.; Nanos, George P.; Moran, Steven L.

    2015-01-01

    Originally described in the 1970s, vascularized bone grafting has become a critical component in the treatment of bony defects and non-unions. Although well established in the lower extremity, recent years have seen many novel techniques described to treat a variety of challenging upper extremity pathologies. Here the authors review the use of different techniques of vascularized bone grafts for the upper extremity bone pathologies. The vascularized fibula remains the gold standard for the treatment of large bone defects of the humerus and forearm, while also playing a role in carpal reconstruction; however, two other important options for larger defects include the vascularized scapula graft and the Capanna technique. Smaller upper extremity bone defects and non-unions can be treated with the medial femoral condyle (MFC) free flap or a vascularized rib transfer. In carpal non-unions, both pedicled distal radius flaps and free MFC flaps are viable options. Finally, in skeletally immature patients, vascularized fibular head epiphyseal transfer can provide growth potential in addition to skeletal reconstruction. PMID:25685100

  8. Upper extremity neuro-rehabilitation through the use of power mobility.

    PubMed

    Damiao, John; Kean, Danielle

    2016-01-01

    Power mobility is typically used as an accommodative form of assistive technology allowing individuals with impaired ambulation to remain mobile. While research has focused on the cognitive development and social benefits of power mobility for individuals with developmental disabilities, research is lacking on using this technology to rehabilitate physical dysfunction. Recent technology, such as robot-mediated neuro-rehabilitation, is proving effective in upper extremity rehabilitation, but lacks the movement feedback of power mobility. This article presents a case study of a client with cerebral palsy who experienced severe neural impairment following a motor vehicle accident. As a previous power mobility user, the client identified returning to using power mobility with the affected upper extremity as a key functional goal. This case study describes the series of steps that returned the client to independent mobility and increased upper extremity function. PMID:26565130

  9. Modelling and control of an upper extremity exoskeleton for rehabilitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taha, Zahari; Majeed, Anwar P. P. Abdul; Tze, Mohd Yashim Wong Paul; Abdo Hashem, Mohammed; Mohd Khairuddin, Ismail; Azraai Mohd Razman, Mohd

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents the modelling and control of a two degree of freedom upper extremity exoskeleton for rehabilitation. The Lagrangian formulation was employed to obtain the dynamic modelling of both the anthropometric based human upper limb as well as the exoskeleton that comprises of the upper arm and the forearm. A proportional-derivative (PD) architecture is employed to investigate its efficacy performing a joint task trajectory tracking in performing flexion/extension on the elbow joint as well as the forward adduction/abduction on the shoulder joint. An active force control (AFC) algorithm is also incorporated into the aforementioned controller to examine its effectiveness in compensating disturbances. It was found from the study that the AFC-PD performed well against the disturbances introduced into the system without compromising its tracking performances as compared to the conventional PD control architecture.

  10. Hip and upper extremity kinematics in youth baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Holt, Taylor; Oliver, Gretchen D

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between dynamic hip rotational range of motion and upper extremity kinematics during baseball pitching. Thirty-one youth baseball pitchers (10.87 ± 0.92 years; 150.03 ± 5.48 cm; 44.83 ± 8.04 kg) participated. A strong correlation was found between stance hip rotation and scapular upward rotation at maximum shoulder external rotation (r = 0.531, P = 0.002) and at ball release (r = 0.536, P = 0.002). No statistically significant correlations were found between dynamic hip rotational range of motion and passive hip range of motion. Hip range of motion deficits can constrain pelvis rotation and limit energy generation in the lower extremities. Shoulder pathomechanics can then develop as greater responsibility is placed on the shoulder to generate the energy lost from the proximal segments, increasing risk of upper extremity injury. Additionally, it appears that passive seated measurements of hip range of motion may not accurately reflect the dynamic range of motion of the hips through the progression of the pitch cycle.

  11. Constraint Induced Movement Techniques To Facilitate Upper Extremity Use in Stroke Patients.

    PubMed

    Taub, E; Wolf, S L

    1997-01-01

    A new therapeutic approach to the rehabilitation of movement after stroke, termed constraint-induced (CI) movement therapy, has been derived from basic research with monkeys given somatosensory deafferentation. CI movement therapy consists of a family of therapies; their common element is that they induce stroke patients to greatly increase the use of an affected upper extremity for many hours a day over a period of 10 to 14 consecutive days. The signature intervention involves motor restriction of the contralateral upper extremity in a sling and training of the affected arm. The therapies result in large changes in amount of use of the affected arm in the activities of daily living outside of the clinic that have persisted for the 2 years measured to date. Patients who will benefit from Cl therapy can be identified before the beginning of treatment. PMID:27620374

  12. Mirror therapy enhances upper extremity motor recovery in stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Mirela Cristina, Luca; Matei, Daniela; Ignat, Bogdan; Popescu, Cristian Dinu

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of mirror therapy program in addition with physical therapy methods on upper limb recovery in patients with subacute ischemic stroke. 15 subjects followed a comprehensive rehabilitative treatment, 8 subjects received only control therapy (CT) and 7 subjects received mirror therapy (MT) for 30 min every day, five times a week, for 6 weeks in addition to the conventional therapy. Brunnstrom stages, Fugl-Meyer Assessment (upper extremity), the Ashworth Scale, and Bhakta Test (finger flexion scale) were used to assess changes in upper limb motor recovery and motor function after intervention. After 6 weeks of treatment, patients in both groups showed significant improvements in the variables measured. Patients who received MT showed greater improvements compared to the CT group. The MT treatment results included: improvement of motor functions, manual skills and activities of daily living. The best results were obtained when the treatment was started soon after the stroke. MT is an easy and low-cost method to improve motor recovery of the upper limb.

  13. Isolated Upper Extremity Posttransplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder in a Child.

    PubMed

    Halula, Sarah E; Leino, Daniel G; Patel, Manish N; Racadio, John M; Lungren, Matthew P

    2015-01-01

    Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a well-described complication of solid organ and bone marrow transplants. The most common presentation is intra-abdominal lymphadenopathy or single or multiple intraparenchymal masses involving the liver, spleen, or kidneys. Here we describe the imaging and pathology findings of an unusual case of PTLD appearing as an intramuscular forearm lesion in a pediatric male. The manifestation of PTLD as an isolated upper extremity mass in a pediatric patient has to our knowledge not been described. PMID:26167324

  14. Free Functional Muscle Transfers to Restore Upper Extremity Function.

    PubMed

    Krauss, Emily M; Tung, Thomas H; Moore, Amy M

    2016-05-01

    Free functional muscle transfer provides an option for functional restoration when nerve reconstruction and tendon transfers are not feasible. To ensure a successful outcome, many factors need to be optimized, including proper patient selection, timing of intervention, donor muscle and motor nerve selection, optimal microneurovascular technique and tension setting, proper postoperative management, and appropriate rehabilitation. Functional outcomes of various applications to the upper extremity and the authors' algorithm for the use of free functional muscle transfer are also included in this article. PMID:27094895

  15. Electrodiagnosis of brachial plexopathies and proximal upper extremity neuropathies.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Zachary

    2013-02-01

    This article describes the normal anatomy of the brachial plexus and its major terminal branches, as well as the major causes and clinical presentations of lesions of these structures. An approach to electrodiagnosis of brachial plexopathies and proximal upper extremity neuropathies is provided, with an emphasis on those nerve conduction studies and portions of the needle examination, which permit localization of lesions to specific trunks, cords, and terminal branches. The importance of specific sensory nerve conduction studies for differentiating plexopathies from radiculopathies and mononeuropathies is emphasized.

  16. Management of catheter-associated upper extremity deep venous thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Jeffrey D; Liem, Timothy K; Moneta, Gregory L

    2016-07-01

    Central venous catheters or peripherally inserted central catheters are major risk factors for upper extremity deep venous thrombosis (UEDVT). The body and quality of literature evaluating catheter-associated (CA) UEDVT have increased, yet strong evidence on screening, diagnosis, prevention, and optimal treatment is limited. We herein review the current evidence of CA UEDVT that can be applied clinically. Principally, we review the anatomy and definition of CA UEDVT, identification of risk factors, utility of duplex ultrasound as the preferred diagnostic modality, preventive strategies, and an algorithm for management of CA UEDVT. PMID:27318061

  17. Lower extremity lipedema, upper extremity lipodystrophy and severe calcinosis complicating juvenile dermatomyositis.

    PubMed

    Pavlov-Dolijanovic, Slavica R; Vujasinovic Stupar, Nada Z; Gavrilov, Nikola; Seric, Srdjan

    2014-11-01

    Juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM) is a rare but complex and potentially life-threatening autoimmune disease of childhood. Significant proportions of patients have residual weakness, muscle atrophy, joint contractures, and calcinosis. Recently, new clinical findings, such as lipodystrophy accompanied with increased fat deposition in certain areas, have been reported. So far, it is not known whether the redistribution of body fat may be the type of lipedema of lower extremity. We describe a 39-year-old woman who was diagnosed with JDM at the age of 7. Later she developed symmetrical lipodystrophy of upper extremities and symmetrical lipedema of lower extremities (making 2 and 58.3 % of total body fat mass, respectively), with multiple calcified nodules in the subcutaneous tissues. These nodules gradually increased in size despite therapy. Capillaroscopy findings showed scleroderma-like abnormalities. ANA and anti-U1RNP antibodies were positive. Similar cases with simultaneous occurrence of the lipedema of lower extremities, lipodystrophy of upper extremities, and severe calcinosis complicating JDM have not been published so far. We showed that the calcinosis and lipodystrophy were associated with short duration of active disease. Also, we display case that raises the question whether it is possible overlapping autoimmune diseases revealed during follow-up.

  18. Effects of mental practice on stroke patients’ upper extremity function and daily activity performance

    PubMed Central

    Park, JuHyung; Lee, Nayun; Cho, Milim; Kim, DeokJu; Yang, Yeongae

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of mental practice on stroke patients’ upper extremity function and activities of daily living (ADL). [Subjects and Methods] In this study, 29 stroke patients were randomly assigned to two groups: an experimental group (n=14) and a control group (n=15). The experimental group performed 10 minutes of mental practice once a day, 5 days a week for 2 weeks in combination with conventional rehabilitation therapy. For the control group, general rehabilitation therapy was provided during the same sessions as the experimental group. The Action Research Arm Test (ARAT) and the Fugl-Myer assessment (FMA) were used to measure upper extremity function, and the Modified Bathel Index (MBI) was used to measure daily activity performance. [Results] After the intervention, the mental practice group showed significant improvements in upper extremity function on the affected side and ADL scores compared to the control group. [Conclusion] The results of this study demonstrate mental practice intervention is effective at improving stroke patients’ upper extremity function and daily activity performance. In follow-up studies, securing a greater number of experimental subjects, and evaluation of the intervention’s therapeutic durability are required. PMID:25995560

  19. The effect of upper extremity fatigue on grip strength and passing accuracy in junior basketball players.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Taghread

    2013-01-01

    Fatigue is an unavoidable part of a basketball game, which may affect an athlete's performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of upper extremity fatigue on grip strength and passing accuracy in basketball, and ascertain if the effects of different fatigue protocols on grip strength and passing accuracy are the same. Twenty-four juniors under 18 years old (age: 16.75 ± 0.62 years; body height: 184.5 ± 3.31 cm; body mass: 77.25 ± 3.22 kg) volunteered to participate in the study, and were divided into two groups. After a warm-up, both groups performed the basketball passing test and grip strength was recorded for each group under three different testing conditions: rest, 70% and 90% exercise intensity. The protocol used for the first group was the chest press, and for the second group the wrist curls. Results show that after the upper extremity fatigue protocol all parameters of the study (grip strength and passing accuracy) showed a significant decrease, and there was no significant difference between both groups regarding grip strength and passing accuracy. The study suggested that in order to avoid upper extremity fatigue, basketball trainers and coaches need to include upper extremity conditioning exercises into their training sessions.

  20. Extreme Cranial Ontogeny in the Upper Cretaceous Dinosaur Pachycephalosaurus

    PubMed Central

    Horner, John R.; Goodwin, Mark B.

    2009-01-01

    Background Extended neoteny and late stage allometric growth increase morphological disparity between growth stages in at least some dinosaurs. Coupled with relatively low dinosaur density in the Upper Cretaceous of North America, ontogenetic transformational representatives are often difficult to distinguish. For example, many hadrosaurids previously reported to represent relatively small lambeosaurine species were demonstrated to be juveniles of the larger taxa. Marginocephalians (pachycephalosaurids + ceratopsids) undergo comparable and extreme cranial morphological change during ontogeny. Methodology/Principal Findings Cranial histology, morphology and computer tomography reveal patterns of internal skull development that show the purported diagnostic characters for the pachycephalosaurids Dracorex hogwartsia and Stygimoloch spinifer are ontogenetically derived features. Coronal histological sections of the frontoparietal dome of an adult Pachycephalosaurus wyomingensis reveal a dense structure composed of metaplastic bone with a variety of extremely fibrous and acellular tissue. Coronal histological sections and computer tomography of a skull and frontoparietal dome of Stygimoloch spinifer reveal an open intrafrontal suture indicative of a subadult stage of development. These dinosaurs employed metaplasia to rapidly grow and change the size and shape of their horns, cranial ornaments and frontoparietal domes, resulting in extreme cranial alterations during late stages of growth. We propose that Dracorex hogwartsia, Stygimoloch spinifer and Pachycephalosaurus wyomingensis are the same taxon and represent an ontogenetic series united by shared morphology and increasing skull length. Conclusions/Significance Dracorex hogwartsia (juvenile) and Stygimoloch spinifer (subadult) are reinterpreted as younger growth stages of Pachycephalosaurus wyomingensis (adult). This synonymy reduces the number of pachycephalosaurid taxa from the Upper Cretaceous of North America

  1. Aging contributes to inflammation in upper extremity tendons and declines in forelimb agility in a rat model of upper extremity overuse.

    PubMed

    Kietrys, David M; Barr-Gillespie, Ann E; Amin, Mamta; Wade, Christine K; Popoff, Steve N; Barbe, Mary F

    2012-01-01

    We sought to determine if tendon inflammatory and histopathological responses increase in aged rats compared to young rats performing a voluntary upper extremity repetitive task, and if these changes are associated with motor declines. Ninety-six female Sprague-Dawley rats were used in the rat model of upper extremity overuse: 67 aged and 29 young adult rats. After a training period of 4 weeks, task rats performed a voluntary high repetition low force (HRLF) handle-pulling task for 2 hrs/day, 3 days/wk for up to 12 weeks. Upper extremity motor function was assessed, as were inflammatory and histomorphological changes in flexor digitorum and supraspinatus tendons. The percentage of successful reaches improved in young adult HRLF rats, but not in aged HRLF rats. Forelimb agility decreased transiently in young adult HRLF rats, but persistently in aged HRLF rats. HRLF task performance for 12 weeks lead to increased IL-1beta and IL-6 in flexor digitorum tendons of aged HRLF rats, compared to aged normal control (NC) as well as young adult HRLF rats. In contrast, TNF-alpha increased more in flexor digitorum tendons of young adult 12-week HRLF rats than in aged HRLF rats. Vascularity and collagen fibril organization were not affected by task performance in flexor digitorum tendons of either age group, although cellularity increased in both. By week 12 of HRLF task performance, vascularity and cellularity increased in the supraspinatus tendons of only aged rats. The increased cellularity was due to increased macrophages and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF)-immunoreactive fibroblasts in the peritendon. In conclusion, aged rat tendons were overall more affected by the HRLF task than young adult tendons, particularly supraspinatus tendons. Greater inflammatory changes in aged HRLF rat tendons were observed, increases associated temporally with decreased forelimb agility and lack of improvement in task success.

  2. How Do Coronal Hole Storms Affect the Upper Atmosphere?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mannucci, A. J.; Tsurutani, B. T.; Solomon, S. C.; Verkhoglyadova, O. P.; Thayer, J. P.

    2012-02-01

    The solar cycle, often described as an increase and decrease of solar activity with a period of about 11 years, can strongly affect Earth's thermosphere and ionosphere. Although the longest direct record of solar activity is based on sunspot number, a more quantifiable parameter is solar irradiance at extreme ultraviolet (EUV) wavelengths, which varies by more than a factor of 3 over the sunspot cycle. To first order, upper atmospheric variation is a result of changes in ionizing fluxes at EUV wavelengths. As the solar cycle passes its EUV peak and approaches minimum, the number of solar active regions declines, leading to a reduction and then a near absence of coronal mass ejections (CMEs)—episodic events of high-energy bursts of solar plasma that cause geomagnetic storms at Earth. During the solar cycle's declining phase, coronal holes begin to occupy lower latitudes on the solar surface and fall in line with the ecliptic plane.

  3. Multibody model of the human upper extremity for fracture simulation

    PubMed Central

    Milanowicz, Marcin; Kędzior, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    About 3.8 million people are injured in accidents at work in Europe every year. The resulting high costs are incurred by the victims themselves, their families, employers and society. We have used a numerical simulation to reconstruct accidents at work for several years. To reconstruct these accidents MADYMO R7.5 with a numerical human model (pedestrian model) is used. However, this model is dedicated to the analysis of car-to-pedestrian accidents and thus cannot be fully used for reconstructing accidents at work. Therefore, we started working on the development of a numerical model of the human body for the purpose of simulating accidents at work. Developing a new numerical model which gives an opportunity to simulate fractures of the upper extremity bones is a stage of that work. PMID:26651896

  4. Upper Extremity Injuries in NASCAR Drivers and Pit Crew

    PubMed Central

    Wertman, Gary; Gaston, R. Glenn; Heisel, William

    2016-01-01

    Background: Understanding the position-specific musculoskeletal forces placed on the body of athletes facilitates treatment, prevention, and return-to-play decisions. While position-specific injuries are well documented in most major sports, little is known about the epidemiology of position-specific injuries in National Association for Stock Car Automobile Racing (NASCAR) drivers and pit crew. Purpose: To investigate position-specific upper extremity injuries in NASCAR drivers and pit crew members. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiological study. Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed to assess position-specific injuries in NASCAR drivers and pit crew members. Included in the study were patients seen by a single institution between July 2003 and October 2014 with upper extremity injuries from race-related NASCAR events or practices. Charts were reviewed to identify the diagnosis, mechanism of injury, and position of each patient. Results: A total of 226 NASCAR team members were treated between July 2003 and October 2014. Of these, 118 injuries (52%) occurred during NASCAR racing events or practices. The majority of these injuries occurred in NASCAR changers (42%), followed by injuries in drivers (16%), carriers (14%), jack men (11%), fuel men (9%), and utility men (8%). The majority of the pit crew positions are at risk for epicondylitis, while drivers are most likely to experience neuropathies, such as hand-arm vibration syndrome. The changer sustains the most hand-related injuries (42%) on the pit crew team, while carriers commonly sustain injuries to their digits (29%). Conclusion: Orthopaedic injuries in NASCAR vary between positions. Injuries in NASCAR drivers and pit crew members are a consequence of the distinctive forces associated with each position throughout the course of the racing season. Understanding these forces and position-associated injuries is important for preventive measures and facilitates diagnosis and return-to-play decisions

  5. Tumors involving the skin of the upper extremity.

    PubMed

    Fleegler, E J

    1987-05-01

    This review can only introduce the subject of tumors found involving the skin of the upper extremity. Many benign masses as well as some malignant tumors have to be considered when a patient calls to the physician's attention a lump, firm area, color change, ulcer, or other alteration in the skin. In response, the physician must have a high index of suspicion, take a careful history, and carry out a thorough examination in order to develop a safe approach. Thought has to be given to the complex anatomy of this area. Understanding of the pathophysiology of tumors and of possible later additional therapy is needed to plan an appropriate biopsy. In the brief discussions of treatment, the difficulty in choosing margins of resection and assessing the efficacy of lymph node dissection is mentioned. An open mind and assessment of future reports of studies in progress may be helpful. Whatever treatment is applied to the malignant tumors under consideration, it is my opinion that one must persist in this until one obtains tumor-free margins. The surgeon undertaking this responsibility must apply the same tumor techniques including operating room discipline that would be applied to any serious malignancy. Consultation and careful work with colleagues that are able to assess the potential for response to chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and/or radiotherapy, should be sought. Subtle hazards in our environment, such as changing risk of sun exposure, industrial chemicals, and irradiation should be pointed out to our patients. These are a challenge to the student of this subject, just as tobacco products are to those involved with malignancies of the head and neck, respiratory, and other systems. All of the previously mentioned methods must be used in the anatomically complex upper extremity to preserve function while ridding the patient of the burden of a disfiguring or painful benign process, or even a life-threatening malignancy. PMID:3034925

  6. Complete 3D kinematics of upper extremity functional tasks.

    PubMed

    van Andel, Carolien J; Wolterbeek, Nienke; Doorenbosch, Caroline A M; Veeger, DirkJan H E J; Harlaar, Jaap

    2008-01-01

    Upper extremity (UX) movement analysis by means of 3D kinematics has the potential to become an important clinical evaluation method. However, no standardized protocol for clinical application has yet been developed, that includes the whole upper limb. Standardization problems include the lack of a single representative function, the wide range of motion of joints and the complexity of the anatomical structures. A useful protocol would focus on the functional status of the arm and particularly the orientation of the hand. The aim of this work was to develop a standardized measurement method for unconstrained movement analysis of the UX that includes hand orientation, for a set of functional tasks for the UX and obtain normative values. Ten healthy subjects performed four representative activities of daily living (ADL). In addition, six standard active range of motion (ROM) tasks were executed. Joint angles of the wrist, elbow, shoulder and scapula were analyzed throughout each ADL task and minimum/maximum angles were determined from the ROM tasks. Characteristic trajectories were found for the ADL tasks, standard deviations were generally small and ROM results were consistent with the literature. The results of this study could form the normative basis for the development of a 'UX analysis report' equivalent to the 'gait analysis report' and would allow for future comparisons with pediatric and/or pathologic movement patterns.

  7. Thermograpic study of upper extremities in patients with cerebral palsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lampe, R.; Kawelke, S.; Mitternacht, J.; Turova, V.; Blumenstein, T.; Alves-Pinto, A.

    2015-03-01

    Trophic disorders like reduced skin blood circulation are well-known epiphenomenon of cerebral palsy (CP). They can influence quality of life and can lead to skin damages and, as a consequence, to decubitus. Therefore, it is important to analyse temperature regulation in patients with CP. Thermal imaging camera FLIR BCAM SD was used to study the dependency of skin blood circulation in upper extremities of patients with CP on hand dominance, hand force and hand volume. The hand force was evaluated using a conventional dynamometer. The hand volume was measured with a volumeter. A cold stress test for hands was applied in 22 patients with CP and 6 healthy subjects. The warming up process after the test was recorded with the thermal camera. It was confirmed that the hands of patients warm up slower comparing to healthy persons. The patients' working hands warm up faster than non-working ones. A slight correlation was established between the hand grip force of the working hands and their warm up time. No correlation was found between the warming up time and the volume of the hand. The results confirm our assumption that there is a connection of peripheral blood circulation to upper limb motor functions.

  8. Paget-Schroetter syndrome: diagnostic limitations of imaging upper extremity deep vein thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Jourdain, Victor; Goldenberg, William D; Matteucci, Michael; Auten, Jonathan

    2016-03-01

    Paget-Schroetter syndrome is a rare but potentially debilitating condition affecting young, otherwise healthy individuals. This condition, also known as effort thrombosis, is an upper extremity deep vein thrombosis classically caused by anatomical abnormalities compressing the neurovascular structures of the thoracic outlet. The diagnosis is important to emergency medicine providers due to its secondary morbidity and mortality. Common complications affecting these active adults are pulmonary embolism and postthrombotic syndrome. Most patients report a precedent history of vigorous exercise or activity involving the upper extremities. We present a case of a 23-year-old man with redness and swelling of his dominant arm after weightlifting. Previous literature describes Paget-Schroetter syndrome from repetitive activities. The report highlights the limitations of imaging studies in proximal upper extremity deep vein thromboses. The initial selected imaging study, Doppler ultrasound, was negative in our case and was followed by a nondiagnostic computed tomographic venogram. Although ultrasound is the preferred diagnostic imaging modality, it is limited when thrombosis is present in the noncompressible region of the clavicle. Magnetic resonance venogram or computed tomographic venogram is recommended if index of suspicion is high and the ultrasound shows normal results, but these studies are highly dependent on technique, flow, and timing. The eventual diagnosis of axillosubclavian thrombosis was obtained only after specialty consultation and formal venography. This case discusses the limitations of each imaging modality and the importance of a comprehensive clinical approach to this rare diagnosis.

  9. ASSESSMENT OF UPPER EXTREMITY IMPAIRMENT, FUNCTION, AND ACTIVITY FOLLOWING STROKE: FOUNDATIONS FOR CLINICAL DECISION MAKING

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Catherine E.; Bland, Marghuretta D.; Bailey, Ryan R.; Schaefer, Sydney Y.; Birkenmeier, Rebecca L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to provide a comprehensive approach for assessing the upper extremity (UE) after stroke. First, common upper extremity impairments and how to assess them are briefly discussed. While multiple UE impairments are typically present after stroke, the severity of one impairment, paresis, is the primary determinant of UE functional loss. Second, UE function is operationally defined and a number of clinical measures are discussed. It is important to consider how impairment and loss of function affect UE activity outside of the clinical environment. Thus, this review also identifies accelerometry as an objective method for assessing UE activity in daily life. Finally, the role that each of these levels of assessment should play in clinical decision making is discussed in order to optimize the provision of stroke rehabilitation services. PMID:22975740

  10. Upper extremity peripheral nerve entrapments among wheelchair athletes: prevalence, location, and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Burnham, R S; Steadward, R D

    1994-05-01

    Wheelchair athletes commonly experience hand pain and numbness. This investigation studied the prevalence, location, and risk factors of upper extremity peripheral nerve entrapment among wheelchair athletes. Clinical and electrodiagnostic assessments were performed on both upper extremities of 28 wheelchair athletes and 30 able-bodied controls. Included in the assessment were short-segment stimulation techniques of the median nerve across the carpal tunnel and the ulnar nerve across the elbow. By clinical criteria, the prevalence of nerve entrapment among the wheelchair athletes was 23%, whereas it was 64% electrodiagnostically. The most common electrodiagnostic dysfunction was of the median nerve at the carpal tunnel (46%), and the portion of the nerve within the proximal carpal tunnel was most frequently affected. Ulnar neuropathy was the second most common entrapment electrodiagnostically (39%) and occurred at the wrist and forearm segments. Disability duration correlated significantly with electrophysiologic median nerve dysfunction.

  11. Physical demands and injuries to the upper extremity associated with the space program.

    PubMed

    Viegas, Steven F; Williams, David; Jones, Jeffrey; Strauss, Samuel; Clark, Jonathan

    2004-05-01

    Hand and upper-extremity overuse and repetitive injuries in astronauts have been and continue to be a common problem in the space program. The demands on upper-extremity use in the astronaut training program, the zero-gravity environment, the extreme temperature conditions of space, the effects of space travel on human physiology/anatomy, and the constraints and pressures of space suits and gloves all can negatively impact upper-extremity function in ways that can result in overuse/repetitive injuries. Future plans for space exploration include endeavors that will continue and even increase the demands on the hand and upper extremity.

  12. Recognizing Complex Upper Extremity Activities Using Body Worn Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Lemmens, Ryanne J. M.; Janssen-Potten, Yvonne J. M.; Timmermans, Annick A. A.; Smeets, Rob J. E. M.; Seelen, Henk A. M.

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate arm-hand therapies for neurological patients it is important to be able to assess actual arm-hand performance objectively. Because instruments that measure the actual quality and quantity of specific activities in daily life are lacking, a new measure needs to be developed. The aims of this study are to a) elucidate the techniques used to identify upper extremity activities, b) provide a proof-of-principle of this method using a set of activities tested in a healthy adult and in a stroke patient, and c) provide an example of the method’s applicability in daily life based on readings taken from a healthy adult. Multiple devices, each of which contains a tri-axial accelerometer, a tri-axial gyroscope and a tri-axial magnetometer were attached to the dominant hand, wrist, upper arm and chest of 30 healthy participants and one stroke patient, who all performed the tasks ‘drinking’, ‘eating’ and ‘brushing hair’ in a standardized environment. To establish proof-of-principle, a prolonged daily life recording of 1 participant was used to identify the task ‘drinking’. The activities were identified using multi-array signal feature extraction and pattern recognition algorithms and 2D-convolution. The activities ‘drinking’, ‘eating’ and ‘brushing hair’ were unambiguously recognized in a sequence of recordings of multiple standardized daily activities in a healthy participant and in a stroke patient. It was also possible to identify a specific activity in a daily life recording. The long term aim is to use this method to a) identify arm-hand activities that someone performs during daily life, b) determine the quantity of activity execution, i.e. amount of use, and c) determine the quality of arm-hand skill performance. PMID:25734641

  13. Playing Piano Can Improve Upper Extremity Function after Stroke: Case Studies

    PubMed Central

    Villeneuve, Myriam; Lamontagne, Anouk

    2013-01-01

    Music-supported therapy (MST) is an innovative approach that was shown to improve manual dexterity in acute stroke survivors. The feasibility of such intervention in chronic stroke survivors and its longer-term benefits, however, remain unknown. The objective of this pilot study was to estimate the short- and long-term effects of a 3-week piano training program on upper extremity function in persons with chronic stroke. A multiple pre-post sequential design was used, with measurements taken at baseline (week0, week3), prior to (week6) and after the intervention (week9), and at 3-week follow-up (week12). Three persons with stroke participated in the 3-week piano training program that combined structured piano lessons to home practice program. The songs, played on an electronic keyboard, involved all 5 digits of the affected hand and were displayed using a user-friendly MIDI program. After intervention, all the three participants showed improvements in their fine (nine hole peg test) and gross (box and block test) manual dexterity, as well as in the functional use of the upper extremity (Jebsen hand function test). Improvements were maintained at follow-up. These preliminary results support the feasibility of using an MST approach that combines structured lessons to home practice to improve upper extremity function in chronic stroke. PMID:23533954

  14. Playing piano can improve upper extremity function after stroke: case studies.

    PubMed

    Villeneuve, Myriam; Lamontagne, Anouk

    2013-01-01

    Music-supported therapy (MST) is an innovative approach that was shown to improve manual dexterity in acute stroke survivors. The feasibility of such intervention in chronic stroke survivors and its longer-term benefits, however, remain unknown. The objective of this pilot study was to estimate the short- and long-term effects of a 3-week piano training program on upper extremity function in persons with chronic stroke. A multiple pre-post sequential design was used, with measurements taken at baseline (week0, week3), prior to (week6) and after the intervention (week9), and at 3-week follow-up (week12). Three persons with stroke participated in the 3-week piano training program that combined structured piano lessons to home practice program. The songs, played on an electronic keyboard, involved all 5 digits of the affected hand and were displayed using a user-friendly MIDI program. After intervention, all the three participants showed improvements in their fine (nine hole peg test) and gross (box and block test) manual dexterity, as well as in the functional use of the upper extremity (Jebsen hand function test). Improvements were maintained at follow-up. These preliminary results support the feasibility of using an MST approach that combines structured lessons to home practice to improve upper extremity function in chronic stroke. PMID:23533954

  15. Playing piano can improve upper extremity function after stroke: case studies.

    PubMed

    Villeneuve, Myriam; Lamontagne, Anouk

    2013-01-01

    Music-supported therapy (MST) is an innovative approach that was shown to improve manual dexterity in acute stroke survivors. The feasibility of such intervention in chronic stroke survivors and its longer-term benefits, however, remain unknown. The objective of this pilot study was to estimate the short- and long-term effects of a 3-week piano training program on upper extremity function in persons with chronic stroke. A multiple pre-post sequential design was used, with measurements taken at baseline (week0, week3), prior to (week6) and after the intervention (week9), and at 3-week follow-up (week12). Three persons with stroke participated in the 3-week piano training program that combined structured piano lessons to home practice program. The songs, played on an electronic keyboard, involved all 5 digits of the affected hand and were displayed using a user-friendly MIDI program. After intervention, all the three participants showed improvements in their fine (nine hole peg test) and gross (box and block test) manual dexterity, as well as in the functional use of the upper extremity (Jebsen hand function test). Improvements were maintained at follow-up. These preliminary results support the feasibility of using an MST approach that combines structured lessons to home practice to improve upper extremity function in chronic stroke.

  16. Validity of Body-Worn Sensor Acceleration Metrics to Index Upper Extremity Function in Hemiparetic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Urbin, M.A.; Bailey, Ryan R.; Lang, Catherine E.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose In people with stroke, real-world use of the paretic upper extremity influences function. Therefore, measures of real-world use are of value for guiding rehabilitation. We undertook a study to identify the acceleration characteristics that have a stable association with upper extremity function and sensitivity to within-participant fluctuations in function over multiple sessions of task-specific training. Methods Twenty-seven adults > 6 months post stroke with upper extremity paresis participated. Signals from wrist-worn accelerometers were sampled at 30 Hz during seven sessions of task-specific training. Paretic upper extremity function was evaluated with the Action Research Arm Test (ARAT). We used Spearman correlations to examine within-session associations between acceleration metrics and ARAT performance. A mixed model was used to determine which metrics were sensitive to within-participant fluctuations in upper extremity function across the seven training sessions. Results Upper extremity function correlated with bilateral acceleration variability and use ratio during five and six session, respectively. Time accelerating between 76-100% of peak acceleration correlated with function in six sessions. Variability of the paretic upper extremity acceleration and the ratio of acceleration variability between upper extremities were associated with function during all seven sessions. Variability in both the acceleration of the paretic upper extremity, and acceleration of the paretic and non-paretic extremities combined were sensitive to within-participant fluctuations in function across training sessions. Conclusion Multiple features of the acceleration profile track with upper extremity function within and across sessions of task-specific training. It may be possible to monitor these features with accelerometers to index upper extremity function outside of clinical settings. PMID:25742378

  17. Treatment of upper extremity reflex sympathetic dystrophy with joint stiffness using sympatholytic Bier blocks and manipulation.

    PubMed

    Duncan, K H; Lewis, R C; Racz, G; Nordyke, M D

    1988-06-01

    Twenty patients with reflex sympathetic dystrophy involving the upper extremity with associated joint stiffness were treated by manipulation under Bier blocks composed of lidocaine, methylprednisolone, and reserpine or guanethidine. Depending on the patients' response, repeat blocks were performed at 48- to 72-hour intervals. Range of motion in the affected joints (primarily the hand and wrist) improved from a pre-block mean of 46% to 81% of normal following the blocks. Patients also reported an 80% mean improvement in their pain. The treatment of advanced reflex sympathetic dystrophy using joint manipulation under sympatholytic Bier blocks appears to be a safe and effective method of treatment.

  18. Motor Cortex Stimulation for the Treatment of Chronic Facial, Upper Extremity, and Throat Pain.

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-08-29

    Trigeminal Neuralgia (Burchiel Type I); Trigeminal Neuralgia (Burchiel Type II); Trigeminal Neuropathic Pain; Trigeminal Deafferentation Pain; Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (Types I and II, Involving the Upper Extremity); Glossopharyngeal Neuralgia; Upper Extremity Pain Due to Deafferentation of the Cervical Spine; Central Pain Syndromes

  19. Role of Anomalous States of Upper Tropospheric Circulation on Extremely Dry and Wet Summer Monsoon Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, S.; Koike, T.; Nishii, K.; Shrestha, M.

    2011-12-01

    Seasonal changes in wind pattern, monsoon, sometimes result in severe droughts and intense flooding in many parts of the world including South Asian countries like Pakistan. The livelihood of a vast population in Pakistan depends on agriculture and land use is strongly influenced by water-based ecosystems that depend on the monsoon rains. Furthermore, climate change studies undertaken so far reveal that action is essential in order to prevent long term damage to water cycle and thus of great concern to the community and stakeholders. Pakistan Summer Monsoon (PSM) is affected by both the disturbances from the tropical and the extratropical regions; however there is lack of understanding of physical mechanisms of PSM compared to other regional studies i.e. Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) and South-East Asian Monsoon (SEAM). In our study, we applied heat and vorticity budgets, and wave train analysis to reveal the mechanisms of the extremely dry and wet PSM events associated with the anomalous upper tropospheric conditions. We found that the extremely dry (wet) PSM events were closely related with the anomalous cyclonic (anticyclonic) upper-tropospheric circulation around northwest of Pakistan, and mid-upper tropospheric cooling (warming) anomaly around Pakistan and to its north/northwest. We also found in addition to Rossby wave response due to the suppressed (enhanced) convective activities around monsoon regions, the midlatitude wave energy propagation emanating around cyclonic/anticyclonic anomaly around northwestern Atlantic, northeastern Atlantic, Europe or Mediterranean regions induced/reinforced/maintained the anomalous upper tropospheric cyclonic (anticyclonic) circulation around northwest of Pakistan during extremely dry (wet) PSM events. Therefore, devastating drought (flood) events over the PSM region resulting from weak (strong) convection anomalies are induced by both the tropical and extratropical processes.

  20. The effects of smartphone use on upper extremity muscle activity and pain threshold

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Minkyung; Hong, Yunkyung; Lee, Seunghoon; Won, Jinyoung; Yang, Jinjun; Park, Sookyoung; Chang, Kyu-Tae; Hong, Yonggeun

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine whether muscle activity and pressure-induced pain in the upper extremities are affected by smartphone use, and to compare the effects of phone handling with one hand and with both hands. [Subjects] The study subjects were asymptomatic women 20–22 years of age. [Methods] The subjects sat in a chair with their feet on the floor and the elbow flexed, holding a smartphone positioned on the thigh. Subsequently, the subjects typed the Korean anthem for 3 min, one-handed or with both hands. Each subject repeated the task three times, with a 5-min rest period between tasks to minimize fatigue. Electromyography (EMG) was used to record the muscle activity of the upper trapezius (UT), extensor pollicis longus (EPL), and abductor pollicis (AP) during phone operation. We also used a dolorimeter to measure the pressure-induced pain threshold in the UT. [Results] We observed higher muscle activity in the UT, AP, and EPL in one-handed smartphone use than in its two-handed use. The pressure-induced pain threshold of the UT was lower after use of the smartphone, especially after one-handed use. [Conclusion] Our results show that smartphone operation with one hand caused greater UT pain and induced increased upper extremity muscle activity. PMID:26180311

  1. Evaluation of negative viscosity as upper extremity training for stroke survivors.

    PubMed

    Huang, Felix C; Patton, James L

    2011-01-01

    With stroke survivors (n=30) as the test population, we investigated how upper extremity training with negative viscosity affects coordination in unassisted conditions. Using a planar force-feedback device, subjects performed exploratory movements within an environment that simulated 1) negative viscosity added to elbow and shoulder joints 2) augmented inertia to the upper and lower arm combined with negative viscosity, or 3) a null force field (control). After training, we evaluated each subject's ability to perform circular movements in the null field. Negative viscosity training resulted in greater within-day reductions in error compared with the combined field training. Negative viscosity promoted greater distributions of accelerations during free exploration, especially in the sagittal axis, while combined field training diminished overall activity. Both force field training groups exhibited next day retention, while this was not observed for the control group. The improvement in performance suggests that greater range of kinematic experiences contribute to learning, even despite novel force field environments. These findings provide support for the use of movement amplifying environments for upper extremity rehabilitation, allowing greater access to training while maintaining user engagement.

  2. Management of upper extremity dysfunction in people with Parkinson disease and Huntington disease: facilitating outcomes across the disease lifespan.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Lori; Busse, Monica; Dal Bello-Haas, Vanina

    2013-01-01

    Parkinson Disease (PD) and Huntington Disease (HD) are degenerative neurological diseases, which can result in impairments and activity limitations affecting the upper extremities from early in the disease process. The progressive nature of these diseases poses unique challenges for therapists aiming to effectively maximize physical functioning and minimize participation restrictions in these patient groups. Research is underway in both diseases to develop effective disease-modifying agents and pharmacological interventions, as well as mobility-focused rehabilitation protocols. Rehabilitation, and in particular task-specific interventions, has the potential to influence the upper extremity functional abilities of patients with these degenerative conditions. However to date, investigations of interventions specifically addressing upper extremity function have been limited in both PD, and in particular HD. In this paper, we provide an update of the known pathological features of PD and HD as they relate to upper extremity function. We further review the available literature on the use of outcome measures, and the clinical management of upper extremity function in both conditions. Due to the currently limited evidence base in both diseases, we recommend utilization of a clinical management framework specific for degenerative conditions that can serve as a guideline for disease management.

  3. Nephrotic Syndrome Complicated with Deep Venous Thrombosis in the Upper Extremities

    PubMed Central

    Onishi, Akira; Inoue, Makoto; Imai, Toshimi; Takeda, Shin-ichi; Kondo, Mariko; Shimada, Kazuyuki; Nagata, Daisuke

    2015-01-01

    Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) in the upper extremities is a rare but important clinical illness, which leads to severe complications such as pulmonary embolism. Unlike DVT in the lower extremities, which is mainly induced by a hypercoagulable state, DVT in the upper extremities is usually caused by mechanical obstruction or anatomical stenosis in the venous system. We herein report a case in which DVT developed in the left upper limb during treatment of nephrotic syndrome. This is the first case report of upper-extremity DVT in association with nephrotic syndrome in the literature. Our patient was a 56-year-old male with nephrotic syndrome due to idiopathic membranous nephropathy who was treated with 40 mg/day of prednisolone. During corticosteroid therapy, he developed a swelling of the left upper limb. Computed tomography revealed thrombi in the left internal jugular vein and the left subclavian vein without anatomical abnormalities in his venous system. Thus, he was diagnosed with DVT of the upper extremities. After the initiation of warfarin treatment and subsequent regression of nephrotic syndrome, the swelling disappeared and the thrombi significantly diminished. DVT should be considered when upper-extremity edema is observed in patients with nephrotic syndrome. PMID:25849667

  4. The Chauvet 2014 Meeting Report: Psychiatric and Psychosocial Evaluation and Outcomes of Upper Extremity Grafted Patients.

    PubMed

    Jowsey-Gregoire, Sheila G; Kumnig, Martin; Morelon, Emmanuel; Moreno, Elisa; Petruzzo, Palmina; Seulin, Christian

    2016-07-01

    Under the auspices for the International Society on Hand and Composite Tissue Allotransplantation, a section of The Transplantation Society (IHCTAS), a meeting was convened on March 21-22, 2014 in Paris to review the following areas that were deemed significant in the understanding of the psychosocial evaluation and outcomes of upper extremity transplant recipients: required domains of the evaluation, screening instruments, clinical monitoring pretransplant, clinical monitoring posttransplant, patient and team expectations, body image, psychiatric complications, functional goals and quality of life, ethics and media relations. Experts in the fields of psychiatry and psychology, transplantation, social work, ethics, and transplant administration met and reviewed center experiences and literature. The attendees highlighted the importance and the complexity of the psychiatric assessment in this field of transplantation. Moreover, the necessity to develop common instruments and evaluation protocols to predict psychosocial outcomes as well as to understand whether we are transplanting the right patients and how the transplantation is affecting the patients were pointed out. Psychiatric complications in upper extremity transplanted patients have been reported by the majority of teams. Preexisting psychiatric difficulties, the initial trauma of amputation, or adjusting to the transplantation process itself (especially the medical follow-up and rehabilitation process) appeared to be important factors. Monitoring during the whole follow-up was recommended to detect psychiatric issues and to facilitate and ensure long-term adherence. The participants proposed an annual meeting format to build upon the findings of this inaugural meeting to be called the Chauvet Workgroup meeting. PMID:26636738

  5. From confounders to suspected risk factors: psychosocial factors and work-related upper extremity disorders.

    PubMed

    Feuerstein, Michael; Shaw, William S; Nicholas, Rena A; Huang, Grant D

    2004-02-01

    Psychosocial variables have recently been more prominent among epidemiologic risk factors for work-related upper extremity disorders (WRUEDs), but bio-behavioral mechanisms underlying these associations have been elusive. One reason is that the psychosocial domain has included many broad and disparate variables (e.g. mood, coping skills, job control, job satisfaction, job stress, social support), and this lack of specificity in the conceptualization of psychosocial factors has produced limited hypothesis testing opportunities. Therefore, recent research efforts have focused on identifying and conceptualizing specific psychosocial factors that might more clearly delineate plausible bio-behavioral mechanisms linking psychosocial factors to WRUEDs. One such factor is workstyle, a strategy that workers may employ for completing, responding to, or coping with job demands that might affect musculoskeletal health. Preliminary studies have provided support for measurable differences in workstyle among individual workers and an association with upper extremity pain and discomfort. An initial self-report measure of workstyle has been pilot tested among office workers and shown acceptable reliability and validity. Future studies are needed to study this construct among other working populations and to determine its relationship with other clinical endpoints. Nevertheless, early findings suggest workstyle may be a potential focus of WRUED prevention efforts. PMID:14759762

  6. Wearing a Wetsuit Alters Upper Extremity Motion during Simulated Surfboard Paddling

    PubMed Central

    Nessler, J. A.; Silvas, M.; Carpenter, S.; Newcomer, S. C.

    2015-01-01

    Surfers often wear wetsuits while paddling in the ocean. This neoprene covering may be beneficial to upper extremity movement by helping to improve proprioceptive acuity, or it may be detrimental by providing increased resistance. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of wearing a wetsuit on muscle activation, upper extremity motion, heart rate, and oxygen consumption during simulated surfboard paddling in the laboratory. Twelve male, recreational surfers performed two paddling trials at a constant workload on a swim bench ergometer both with and without a wetsuit. Kinematic data and EMG were acquired from the right arm via motion capture, and oxygen consumption and heart rate were recorded with a metabolic cart and heart rate monitor. Wearing a wetsuit had no significant effect on oxygen consumption or heart rate. A significant increase in EMG activation was observed for the middle deltoid but not for any of the other shoulder muscle evaluated. Finally, approximate entropy and estimates of the maximum Lyapunov exponent increased significantly for vertical trajectory of the right wrist (i.e. stroke height) when a wetsuit was worn. These results suggest that a 2mm wetsuit has little effect on the energy cost of paddling at lower workloads but does affect arm motion. These changes may be the result of enhanced proprioceptive acuity due to mechanical compression from the wetsuit. PMID:26551321

  7. Measurement of upper extremity torque production and its relationship to throwing speed in the competitive athlete.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, L R; Storey, M D; Simons, B D

    1989-01-01

    This study was conducted to establish whether or not a correlation exists between peak torque production of upper extremity (UE) musculature and throwing speed. Eleven professional baseball players were tested for upper extremity peak torque production using a Cybex II Isokinetic Dynamometer. Throwing speed was measured with a radar gun. Results of statistical analysis performed on the data indicate a correlation between shoulder adductors and throwing speed.

  8. Recapitulating flesh with silicon and steel: advancements in upper extremity robotic prosthetics.

    PubMed

    Lee, Brian; Attenello, Frank J; Liu, Charles Y; McLoughlin, Michael P; Apuzzo, Michael L J

    2014-01-01

    With the loss of function of an upper extremity because of stroke or spinal cord injury or a physical loss from amputation, an individual's life is forever changed, and activities that were once routine become a magnitude more difficult. Much research and effort have been put into developing advanced robotic prostheses to restore upper extremity function. For patients with upper extremity amputations, previously crude prostheses have evolved to become exceptionally functional. Because the upper extremities can perform a wide variety of activities, several types of upper extremity prostheses are available ranging from passive cosmetic limbs to externally powered robotic limbs. In addition, new developments in brain-machine interface are poised to revolutionize how patients can control these advanced prostheses using their thoughts alone. For patients with spinal cord injury or stroke, functional electrical stimulation promises to provide the most sophisticated prosthetic limbs possible by reanimating paralyzed arms of these patients. Advances in technology and robotics continue to help patients recover vital function. This article examines the latest neurorestorative technologies for patients who have either undergone amputation or lost the use of their upper extremities secondary to stroke or spinal cord injury.

  9. The influence of altering push force effectiveness on upper extremity demand during wheelchair propulsion.

    PubMed

    Rankin, Jeffery W; Kwarciak, Andrew M; Mark Richter, W; Neptune, Richard R

    2010-10-19

    Manual wheelchair propulsion has been linked to a high incidence of overuse injury and pain in the upper extremity, which may be caused by the high load requirements and low mechanical efficiency of the task. Previous studies have suggested that poor mechanical efficiency may be due to a low effective handrim force (i.e. applied force that is not directed tangential to the handrim). As a result, studies attempting to reduce upper extremity demand have used various measures of force effectiveness (e.g., fraction effective force, FEF) as a guide for modifying propulsion technique, developing rehabilitation programs and configuring wheelchairs. However, the relationship between FEF and upper extremity demand is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to use forward dynamics simulations of wheelchair propulsion to determine the influence of FEF on upper extremity demand by quantifying individual muscle stress, work and handrim force contributions at different values of FEF. Simulations maximizing and minimizing FEF resulted in higher average muscle stresses (23% and 112%) and total muscle work (28% and 71%) compared to a nominal FEF simulation. The maximal FEF simulation also shifted muscle use from muscles crossing the elbow to those at the shoulder (e.g., rotator cuff muscles), placing greater demand on shoulder muscles during propulsion. The optimal FEF value appears to represent a balance between increasing push force effectiveness to increase mechanical efficiency and minimize upper extremity demand. Thus, care should be taken in using force effectiveness as a metric to reduce upper extremity demand.

  10. Effectiveness of Stellate Ganglion Block Under Fuoroscopy or Ultrasound Guidance in Upper Extremity CRPS

    PubMed Central

    Imani, Farnad; Hemati, Karim; Kazemi, Mohamad Reza; Hejazian, Kokab

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Stellate Ganglion Block (SGB) is an effective technique which may be used to manage upper extremities pain due to Chronic Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS), in this study we tried to evaluate the effectiveness of this procedure under two different guidance for management of this syndrome. Aim The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of ultrsound guide SGB by comparing it with the furoscopy guided SGB in upper extermities CRPS patients in reducing pain & dysfuction of the affected link. Materials and Methods Fourteen patients with sympathetic CRPS in upper extremities in a randomized method with block randomization divided in two equal groups (with ultrasound or fluoroscopic guidance). First group was blocked under fluoroscopic guidance and second group blocked under ultrasound guidance. After correct positioning of the needle, a mixture of 5 ml bupivacaine 0.25% and 1 mL of triamcinolone was injected. Results These data represent no meaningful statistical difference between the two groups in terms of the number of pain attacks before the blocks, a borderline correlation between two groups one week and one month after the block and a significant statistical correlation between two groups three month after the block. These data represent no meaningful statistical difference between the patients of any group in terms of the pain intensity (from one week to six months after block), p-value = 0.61. These data represent a meaningful statistical difference among patients of any group and between the two groups in terms of the pain intensity (before the block until six months after block), p-values were 0.001, 0.031 respectively. Conclusion According the above mentioned data, in comparison with fluoroscopic guidance, stellate ganglion block under ultrasound guidance is a safe and effective method with lower complication and better improvement in patient’s disability indexes. PMID:26894152

  11. Upper extremity surgery in children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Lomita, Craig; Ezaki, Marybeth; Oishi, Scott

    2010-03-01

    Pediatric patients with cerebral palsy present unique challenges. Any treatment regimen must take into account potential growth, possible sequelae of surgery, and, in some cases, significant behavioral issues. Careful evaluation of motor and sensory function of the extremity and of use patterns is imperative because these findings play a critical role in determining the ultimate success of any intervention. Every patient is addressed independently and treatment individualized. The patient and parents must understand that surgery can address only the function or position of the anatomic area. Surgery will not correct the underlying problem. PMID:20190106

  12. Upper extremity impairments in women with or without lymphedema following breast cancer treatment

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Josephine; Cooper, Bruce; Wanek, Linda; Topp, Kimberly; Byl, Nancy; Dodd, Marylin

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Breast-cancer-related lymphedema affects ∼25% of breast cancer (BC) survivors and may impact use of the upper limb during activity. The purpose of this study is to compare upper extremity (UE) impairment and activity between women with and without lymphedema after BC treatment. Methods 144 women post BC treatment completed demographic, symptom, and Disability of Arm-Shoulder-Hand (DASH) questionnaires. Objective measures included Purdue pegboard, finger-tapper, Semmes-Weinstein monofilaments, vibration perception threshold, strength, range of motion (ROM), and volume. Results Women with lymphedema had more lymph nodes removed (p < .001), more UE symptoms (p < .001), higher BMI (p = .041), and higher DASH scores (greater limitation) (p < .001). For all participants there was less strength (elbow flexion, wrist flexion, grip), less shoulder ROM, and decreased sensation at the medial upper arm (p < .05) in the affected UE. These differences were greater in women with lymphedema, particularly in shoulder abduction ROM (p < .05). Women with lymphedema had bilaterally less elbow flexion strength and shoulder ROM (p < .05). Past diagnosis of lymphedema, grip strength, shoulder abduction ROM, and number of comorbidities contributed to the variance in DASH scores (R2 of 0.463, p < .001). Implications for cancer survivors UE impairments are found in women following treatment for BC. Women with lymphedema have greater UE impairment and limitation in activities than women without. Many of these impairments are amenable to prevention measures or treatment, so early detection by health care providers is essential. PMID:20373044

  13. Tendinopathies in the upper extremity: a paradigm shift.

    PubMed

    Ashe, Maureen C; McCauley, Tracey; Khan, Karim M

    2004-01-01

    Epicondylitis and de Quervain's tenosynovitis are two common diagnoses seen by hand therapists in clinical practice. Traditionally, these conditions have been viewed as being due to an inflammatory process and treated as such. New research shows that tendons exhibit areas of degeneration and a distinct lack of inflammatory cells. Tendinosis is degeneration of the collagen tissue due to aging, microtrauma, or vascular compromise. This article reviews key literature related to tendinopathies in the lower extremity and comments on the dearth of similar articles for the elbow and forearm. Hand therapists are encouraged to embrace this new terminology and to engage in research in this difficult area to improve treatment regimens and outcome measures. PMID:15273673

  14. A Comparison of Upper-Extremity Reaction Forces between the Yurchenko Vault and Floor Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Seeley, Matthew K.; Bressel, Eadric

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine reaction forces transmitted to the upper extremities of high-level gymnasts during the round-off phase of the Yurchenko vault. A secondary purpose of this study was to compare reaction forces during the Yurchenko vault to reaction forces observed in a tumbling pass during the floor exercise. Ten high-level, female gymnasts volunteered to participate. Conditions of the independent variable were the Yurchenko vault and floor exercise; dependent variables were peak vertical and peak anterior-posterior reaction forces. Each participant performed three trials of both conditions with the trail hand contacting a force platform. Vertical and anterior-posterior reaction forces, normalized to body weight, were greater (p < 0.05) during the round-off phase of the Yurchenko vault (2.38) than during the floor exercise round-off (2.15). Vertical reaction forces during the round-off phase of the Yurchenko vault and floor exercise round-off are similar to reaction forces transmitted to upper extremities during other gymnastic skills and ground reaction forces transmitted to lower extremities while running and walking at various speeds. Results of this study reveal a need for further research considering methods aimed at reducing reaction forces transmitted to the upper extremities during the Yurchenko vault and floor exercise. Key PointsDespite high difficulty and increased risk, a dearth of information exists concerning reaction forces transmitted to upper-extremities of high-level gymnasts performing the Yurchenko vault.Reaction forces experienced by high-level gymnasts performing the Yurchenko vault are relatively high; aforementioned forces are comparable to forces transmitted to lower-extremities during various activities and may be responsible for upper-extremity injury.Reaction forces observed during this study will serve as a baseline in the evaluation of methods purporting to reduce forces transmitted to upper-extremities during

  15. Injuries sustained to the upper extremity due to modern warfare and the evolution of care.

    PubMed

    Hofmeister, Eric P; Mazurek, Michael; Ingari, Jack

    2007-10-01

    The formation of the American Society for Surgery of the Hand was related to world conflicts and hostilities. Therefore, it is appropriate that upper-extremity surgeons understand injuries resulting from modern-day combat. Because of ongoing warfare, many countries have experienced a large increase in the number of wounded service members and civilians, particularly wounds of the extremities. As a result of increased rate of survival in battlefield trauma in part because of the use of modern body armor, there is increasing complexity of extremity injuries that require complex reconstructions. Decreased mortality and a consequent increase in the incidence of injured extremities underline the need for the development of new treatment options. The purpose of this presentation is to describe upper-extremity injury patterns in modern warfare, the levels of care available, and the treatment at each level of care based on the experience of the United States Military Medical Support System. PMID:17923293

  16. Injuries sustained to the upper extremity due to modern warfare and the evolution of care.

    PubMed

    Hofmeister, Eric P; Mazurek, Michael; Ingari, Jack

    2007-10-01

    The formation of the American Society for Surgery of the Hand was related to world conflicts and hostilities. Therefore, it is appropriate that upper-extremity surgeons understand injuries resulting from modern-day combat. Because of ongoing warfare, many countries have experienced a large increase in the number of wounded service members and civilians, particularly wounds of the extremities. As a result of increased rate of survival in battlefield trauma in part because of the use of modern body armor, there is increasing complexity of extremity injuries that require complex reconstructions. Decreased mortality and a consequent increase in the incidence of injured extremities underline the need for the development of new treatment options. The purpose of this presentation is to describe upper-extremity injury patterns in modern warfare, the levels of care available, and the treatment at each level of care based on the experience of the United States Military Medical Support System.

  17. Grading and Quantification of Upper Extremity Function in Children with Spasticity.

    PubMed

    Wallen, Margaret; Stewart, Kirsty

    2016-02-01

    The World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) provides an ideal framework within which to conceptualize grading and quantification of upper extremity function for children with spasticity. In this article the authors provide an overview of assessments and classification tools used to (1) understand upper extremity function associated with spasticity and the factors that contribute to dysfunction, (2) guide the selection of appropriate interventions, (3) identify specific muscles to target using surgical interventions and botulinum toxin-A injections, and (4) measure the outcomes of upper extremity interventions. Assessments of upper extremity function are briefly described and categorized as to whether they (1) measure children's best ability or actual performance in daily life, (2) are clinician administered or are a child/proxy report, (3) assist in planning intervention and/or measuring outcomes, and (4) evaluate unimanual or bimanual ability. In addition, measures of spasticity and hypertonicity, and classifications of static and dynamic upper extremity postures are summarized. PMID:26869858

  18. Climatology of extreme rainfall and flooding from orographic thunderstorm systems in the upper Arkansas River basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javier, Julie Rose N.; Smith, James A.; England, John; Baeck, Mary Lynn; Steiner, Matthias; Ntelekos, Alexandros A.

    2007-10-01

    Analyses of the spatial and temporal distribution of extreme rainfall in the Arkansas River basin above Pueblo, Colorado, are based on volume scan reflectivity observations from the Pueblo WSR-88D radar during the period 1995-2003. A storm catalog of 66 rainfall events during the 9-year period has been developed. Climatological analyses of extreme rainfall are carried out both from an Eulerian perspective, in which distributional aspects of rainfall at fixed locations are examined, and from a Lagrangian perspective, in which distributional aspects of rainfall are based on storm-tracking algorithms. Of particular interest is the spatial heterogeneity of extreme rainfall in the complex terrain of the upper Arkansas River basin. Lagrangian analyses are used to characterize the spatially varying distribution of storm initiation, storm motion, and storm structure. Climatological analyses indicate that convective rainfall in the Arkansas River basin above Canon City (drainage area of 8070 km2) does not contribute to the extreme flood response of the Arkansas River at Pueblo (drainage area of 12,140 km2). There is pronounced diurnal variation in warm season rainfall in the Arkansas River basin, and this feature of extreme rainfall is a key element of flood response in the upper Arkansas River basin. Climatological analyses of extreme rainfall in the upper Arkansas River basin are examined relative to the spatial and temporal properties of rainfall for extreme flood events that have occurred in the basin, including major flood episodes in June 1921 and June 1965.

  19. Temperature Changes in Deep Muscles of Humans During Upper and Lower Extremity Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Wirth, Valerie J.; Van Lunen, Bonnie L.; Mistry, Dilaawar; Saliba, Ethan; McCue, Frank C.

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effect of 15 minutes of upper and lower extremity exercise on raising intramuscular temperature in the triceps surae to 39 ° C to 45 ° C (the therapeutic range). Design and Setting: Intramuscular temperature was measured 5 cm deep in the triceps surae using a 23-gauge thermistor needle microprobe connected to a monitor. Each subject was tested under 3 conditions: 15 minutes of rest, 15 minutes of jogging on a treadmill, and 15 minutes of handpedaling an upper-body ergometer. Exercise bouts were performed at 70% of each subject's maximum heart rate. Subjects: Six males, either sedentary or recreational athletes (age = 21.3 ± 2.9 years; ht = 176.8 ± 6.0 cm; wt = 72.7 ± 11.6 kg; resting heart rate = 57.8 ± 6.74 bpm; target heart rate = 156.5 ± 3.0 bpm), volunteered to participate in this experiment. Measurements: Intramuscular temperature was measured at a depth of 5 cm before and after each test condition. Results: Data analyses consisted of analyses of variance with repeated measures and a Tukey post hoc test (P < .05). The results showed a significant temperature increase over baseline after exercise on the treadmill (2.2 ° C ± 0.63 ° C); however, it did not yield temperature increases ≥ 39 ° C. No significant temperature change occurred after exercise on the upper-body ergometer (-0.45 ° C ± 0.80 ° C). Conclusions: Active exercise increased intramuscular temperature in working muscles but did not affect intramuscular temperature in nonworking muscles. In addition, 15 minutes of jogging on a treadmill at 70% of maximum heart rate was not sufficient to raise intramuscular temperature to 39 ° C to 45 ° C. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2. PMID:16558512

  20. Understanding the importance of natural neuromotor strategy in upper extremity neuroprosthetic control.

    PubMed

    Nathan, Dominic E; Prost, Robert W; Guastello, Stephen J; Jeutter, Dean C

    2014-01-01

    A key challenge in upper extremity neuroprosthetics is variable levels of skill and inconsistent functional recovery. We examine the feasibility and benefits of using natural neuromotor strategies through the design and development of a proof-of-concept model for a feed-forward upper extremity neuroprosthetic controller. Developed using Artificial Neural Networks, the model is able to extract and classify neural correlates of movement intention from multiple brain regions that correspond to functional movements. This is unique compared to contemporary controllers that record from limited physiological sources or require learning of new strategies. Functional MRI (fMRI) data from healthy subjects (N = 13) were used to develop the model, and a separate group (N = 4) of subjects were used for validation. Results indicate that the model is able to accurately (81%) predict hand movement strictly from the neural correlates of movement intention. Information from this study is applicable to the development of upper extremity technology aided interventions. PMID:24589839

  1. Upper extremities flexibility comparisons of collegiate "soft" martial art practitioners with other athletes.

    PubMed

    Huang, C-C; Yang, Y-H; Chen, C-H; Chen, T-W; Lee, C-L; Wu, C-L; Chuang, S-H; Huang, M-H

    2008-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the flexibility of the upper extremities in collegiate students involved in Aikido (a kind of soft martial art attracting youth) training with those involved in other sports. Fifty freshmen with a similar frequency of exercise were divided into the Aikido group (n = 18), the upper-body sports group (n = 17), and the lower-body sports group (n = 15) according to the sports that they participated in. Eight classes of range of motion in upper extremities were taken for all subjects by the same clinicians. The Aikido group had significantly better flexibility than the upper-body sports group except for range of motion in shoulder flexion (p = 0.22), shoulder lateral rotation (p > 0.99), and wrist extension (p > 0.99). The Aikido group also had significantly better flexibility than the lower-body sports group (p < 0.01) and the sedentary group (p < 0.01) in all classes of range of motion. The upper-body sports group was significantly more flexible in five classes of range of motion and significantly tighter in range of motion of wrist flexion (p < 0.01) compared to the lower-body sports group. It was concluded that the youths participating in soft martial arts had good upper extremities flexibility that might not result from regular exercise alone.

  2. Musculoskeletal Disorders of the Upper Extremities Due to Extensive Usage of Hand Held Devices

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective The use of hand held devices (HHD) such as mobile phones, game controls, tablets, portable media players and personal digital assistants have increased dramatically in past decade. While sending a text message or using the controls of the HHD the users need to use their thumb and other palm muscles extensively. The objective of this study was to describe the risk factors and clinical features of the musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) arising due to usage of hand held devices and to evaluate the effectiveness of a sequenced rehabilitation protocol. Methods A retrospective report analysis of 70 subjects, who were diagnosed to have a MSD affecting the upper extremities, was conducted. Medical charts from a tertiary level rehabilitation centre from 2005–2013 were analysed. All the subjects reported pain in their upper extremities following extensive usage of HHD and were examined and diagnosed to have a MSD by an orthopaedic and rehabilitation physician. After the assessment and diagnosis, all the patients underwent rehabilitation using a sequenced protocol. Results All the subjects reported pain in the thumb and forearm with associated burning, numbness and tingling around the thenar aspect of the hand, and stiffness of wrist and hand. 43 subjects had symptoms on the right side; 9 on left and 18 had bilateral symptoms. Correlation was found between hand dominance and MSD. 33 subjects complained of onset of symptoms following extensive text messaging. All the subjects were diagnosed to have tendinosis of Extensor Pollicis Longus and Myofascial Pain Syndrome affecting the 1st interossei, thenar group of muscles and Extensor Digitorum Communis. 23 of the subjects were senior executives, among these 7 were CEO’s of major multinational companies in India. All the subjects recovered completely following the rehabilitation. Conclusions The study concluded that mobile phones and gadgets that promoted the predominant usage of thumb or only one finger while texting

  3. Development of an Interactive Upper Extremity Gestural Robotic Feedback System: From Bench to Reality

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Krista A. Coleman; Lathan, Corinna E.; Kaufman, Kenton R.

    2010-01-01

    Development of an interactive system to treat patients with movement impairments of the upper extremity is described. Gestures and movement of patients as instructed by therapists are detected by accelerometers and feedback is provided directly to the patient via a robot. PMID:19964144

  4. A Piano Training Program to Improve Manual Dexterity and Upper Extremity Function in Chronic Stroke Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Villeneuve, Myriam; Penhune, Virginia; Lamontagne, Anouk

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Music-supported therapy was shown to induce improvements in motor skills in stroke survivors. Whether all stroke individuals respond similarly to the intervention and whether gains can be maintained over time remain unknown. We estimated the immediate and retention effects of a piano training program on upper extremity function in persons with chronic stroke. Methods: Thirteen stroke participants engaged in a 3-week piano training comprising supervised sessions (9 × 60 min) and home practice. Fine and gross manual dexterity, movement coordination, and functional use of the upper extremity were assessed at baseline, pre-intervention, post-intervention, and at a 3-week follow-up. Results: Significant improvements were observed for all outcomes at post-intervention and follow-up compared to pre-intervention scores. Larger magnitudes of change in manual dexterity and functional use of the upper extremity were associated with higher initial levels of motor recovery. Conclusion: Piano training can result in sustainable improvements in upper extremity function in chronic stroke survivors. Individuals with a higher initial level of motor recovery at baseline appear to benefit the most from this intervention. PMID:25202258

  5. Upper Extremity Artificial Limb Control as an Issue Related to Movement and Mobility in Daily Living

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Steve; Anderson, David I.; Trujillo, Michael; Weeks, Douglas L.

    2005-01-01

    The 1992 NIH Research Planning Conference on Prosthetic and Orthotic Research for the 21st Century (Childress, 1992) recognized that the field of prosthetics lacks theoretical understanding and empirical studies on learning to control an upper-extremity prosthesis. We have addressed this problem using a novel approach in which persons without…

  6. Effects of upper extremity training in a standing position on trunk alignment in stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun Ja; Lee, Kyoung Bo; Hwang, Byong Yong

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to examine the effect of upper extremity training in the standing position on trunk alignment of patients with stroke. [Subjects and Methods] Twelve stroke patients were enrolled in the study and divided into two groups: a group of six patients in a sitting position and a group of six patients in a standing position. Upper extremity training for 30 min per day, five times a week for six weeks was given to subjects in both groups. In order to assess trunk alignment, lumbar lordosis and thoracic kyphosis were examined before and after upper extremity training using Formetric 4D. [Results] After training the standing position group had no significant change in lumbar lordosis but a significant change in thoracic kyphosis. The sitting position group showed no significant changes in either lumbar lordosis or thoracic kyphosis. The comparison between groups showed there was no significant difference in the change in lumbar lordosis but there was a significant difference in the change in thoracic kyphosis. [Conclusion] Examination of trunk alignment showed that upper extremity training conducted in a standing position reduced thoracic kyphosis more than in a sitting position. PMID:27799662

  7. An evolutionary perspective on the history of flap reconstruction in the upper extremity.

    PubMed

    Fang, Frank; Chung, Kevin C

    2014-05-01

    Examining the evolution of flap reconstruction of the upper extremity is similar to studying the evolution of biological species. This analogy provides a perspective to appreciate the contributing factors that led to the development of the current arsenal of techniques. It shows the trajectory for the future and provides a glimpse of the factors that that will be influential in the future.

  8. Construct Validity of the Quality of Upper Extremity Skills Test for Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorley, Megan; Lannin, Natasha; Cusick, Anne; Novak, Iona; Boyd, Roslyn

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate the construct validity of the Quality of Upper Extremity Skills Test (QUEST) in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Method: A total of 170 QUEST assessments from a convenience sample of 94 children with CP involved in clinical and research treatment programmes (54 males, 40 females; mean age 6y 10mo, SD…

  9. Brief Assessment of Motor Function: Content Validity and Reliability of the Upper Extremity Gross Motor Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cintas, Holly Lea; Parks, Rebecca; Don, Sarah; Gerber, Lynn

    2011-01-01

    Content validity and reliability of the Brief Assessment of Motor Function (BAMF) Upper Extremity Gross Motor Scale (UEGMS) were evaluated in this prospective, descriptive study. The UEGMS is one of five BAMF ordinal scales designed for quick documentation of gross, fine, and oral motor skill levels. Designed to be independent of age and…

  10. Musculoskeletal rehabilitation and sports medicine. 2. Shoulder and upper extremity injuries.

    PubMed

    Ellen, M I; Smith, J

    1999-05-01

    This self-directed learning module discusses classic concepts and highlights new advances in the diagnosis and management of shoulder and upper extremity injuries commonly occurring from athletic competition. It is part of the chapter on musculoskeletal rehabilitation and sports medicine in the Self-Directed Physiatric Education Program for practitioners and trainees in physical medicine and rehabilitation.

  11. Effects of virtual reality-based bilateral upper-extremity training on brain activity in post-stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Lee, Su-Hyun; Kim, Yu-Mi; Lee, Byoung-Hee

    2015-07-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the therapeutic effects of virtual reality-based bilateral upper-extremity training on brain activity in patients with stroke. [Subjects and Methods] Eighteen chronic stroke patients were divided into two groups: the virtual reality-based bilateral upper-extremity training group (n = 10) and the bilateral upper-limb training group (n = 8). The virtual reality-based bilateral upper-extremity training group performed bilateral upper-extremity exercises in a virtual reality environment, while the bilateral upper-limb training group performed only bilateral upper-extremity exercise. All training was conducted 30 minutes per day, three times per week for six weeks, followed by brain activity evaluation. [Results] Electroencephalography showed significant increases in concentration in the frontopolar 2 and frontal 4 areas, and significant increases in brain activity in the frontopolar 1 and frontal 3 areas in the virtual reality-based bilateral upper-extremity training group. [Conclusion] Virtual reality-based bilateral upper-extremity training can improve the brain activity of stroke patients. Thus, virtual reality-based bilateral upper-extremity training is feasible and beneficial for improving brain activation in stroke patients.

  12. Simultaneous bilateral upper extremity venous thrombosis in a factor V Leiden heterozygote: a case report and review.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, V V; Wolk, S W; Whitehouse, W M

    2001-01-01

    Primary upper extremity deep venous thrombosis (DVT), or effort thrombosis, typically occurs in young, healthy individuals with a history of repetitive upper extremity movement while secondary upper extremity DVT is associated with a number of predisposing factors. The role of factors such as hypercoagulability in the development of effort thrombosis is less well described. This report describes a previously healthy 21-year-old man who presented with simultaneous bilateral upper extremity DVT after hours of pushing and lifting a heavy wheelbarrow. Treatment included thrombolytic therapy followed by delayed venolysis and vein patch angioplasty. Hypercoagulable screening revealed factor V Leiden heterozygous characteristics. PMID:11565040

  13. Absence of a proximal to distal gradient of motor deficits in the upper extremity early after stroke

    PubMed Central

    Beebe, Justin A.; Lang, Catherine E.

    2008-01-01

    Objective Our first purpose was to determine whether there was a proximal to distal gradient in motor deficits in nine segments of the affected upper extremity (shoulder, elbow, forearm, wrist, and 5 fingers) post stroke. Our second purpose was to determine which upper extremity segments made the greatest contributions to hand function. Methods 33 subjects were tested on average 18.6 (± 5.6) days after stroke. The ability to move each segment was measured by active range of motion (AROM). Hand function was measured by a battery of standardized clinical tests which were synthesized into a single, sensitive score for hand function using principal components analysis. Results AROM at all nine segments of the upper extremity was reduced and there was no evidence of a proximal to distal gradient in AROM values. Strength of each segment was reduced and there was also no evidence of a gradient in strength values. AROM at each segment was strongly correlated with hand function scores (range 0.76 – 0.94). General multiple regression analysis showed that AROM explained 82% of the variance in hand function, with most of the variance shared across proximal, middle, and distal segments. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that shoulder AROM alone could explain 88% of the variance in hand function. Conclusion Early after stroke a proximal to distal gradient of motor deficits was not present, and loss of hand function was due to a loss of ability to move many segments of the upper extremity and not just the distal ones. Significance These results suggest that a change in the clinical perception of motor deficits post stroke is needed. Our finding that shoulder AROM predicted almost all the variance in hand function opens up the possibility that this quick, simple measure may be predictive of future hand function. This would be of high economic and clinical utility compared to other ongoing efforts attempting to predict outcomes post stroke (e.g. fMRI, MEG). PMID:18571981

  14. An intelligent active force control algorithm to control an upper extremity exoskeleton for motor recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasbullah Mohd Isa, Wan; Taha, Zahari; Mohd Khairuddin, Ismail; Majeed, Anwar P. P. Abdul; Fikri Muhammad, Khairul; Abdo Hashem, Mohammed; Mahmud, Jamaluddin; Mohamed, Zulkifli

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents the modelling and control of a two degree of freedom upper extremity exoskeleton by means of an intelligent active force control (AFC) mechanism. The Newton-Euler formulation was used in deriving the dynamic modelling of both the anthropometry based human upper extremity as well as the exoskeleton that consists of the upper arm and the forearm. A proportional-derivative (PD) architecture is employed in this study to investigate its efficacy performing joint-space control objectives. An intelligent AFC algorithm is also incorporated into the PD to investigate the effectiveness of this hybrid system in compensating disturbances. The Mamdani Fuzzy based rule is employed to approximate the estimated inertial properties of the system to ensure the AFC loop responds efficiently. It is found that the IAFC-PD performed well against the disturbances introduced into the system as compared to the conventional PD control architecture in performing the desired trajectory tracking.

  15. The influence of wheelchair propulsion hand pattern on upper extremity muscle power and stress.

    PubMed

    Slowik, Jonathan S; Requejo, Philip S; Mulroy, Sara J; Neptune, Richard R

    2016-06-14

    The hand pattern (i.e., full-cycle hand path) used during manual wheelchair propulsion is frequently classified as one of four distinct hand pattern types: arc, single loop, double loop or semicircular. Current clinical guidelines recommend the use of the semicircular pattern, which is based on advantageous levels of broad biomechanical metrics implicitly related to the demand placed on the upper extremity (e.g., lower cadence). However, an understanding of the influence of hand pattern on specific measures of upper extremity muscle demand (e.g., muscle power and stress) is needed to help make such recommendations, but these quantities are difficult and impractical to measure experimentally. The purpose of this study was to use musculoskeletal modeling and forward dynamics simulations to investigate the influence of the hand pattern used on specific measures of upper extremity muscle demand. The simulation results suggest that the double loop and semicircular patterns produce the most favorable levels of overall muscle stress and total muscle power. The double loop pattern had the lowest full-cycle and recovery-phase upper extremity demand but required high levels of muscle power during the relatively short contact phase. The semicircular pattern had the second-lowest full-cycle levels of overall muscle stress and total muscle power, and demand was more evenly distributed between the contact and recovery phases. These results suggest that in order to decrease upper extremity demand, manual wheelchair users should consider using either the double loop or semicircular pattern when propelling their wheelchairs at a self-selected speed on level ground. PMID:27062591

  16. The influence of wheelchair propulsion hand pattern on upper extremity muscle power and stress.

    PubMed

    Slowik, Jonathan S; Requejo, Philip S; Mulroy, Sara J; Neptune, Richard R

    2016-06-14

    The hand pattern (i.e., full-cycle hand path) used during manual wheelchair propulsion is frequently classified as one of four distinct hand pattern types: arc, single loop, double loop or semicircular. Current clinical guidelines recommend the use of the semicircular pattern, which is based on advantageous levels of broad biomechanical metrics implicitly related to the demand placed on the upper extremity (e.g., lower cadence). However, an understanding of the influence of hand pattern on specific measures of upper extremity muscle demand (e.g., muscle power and stress) is needed to help make such recommendations, but these quantities are difficult and impractical to measure experimentally. The purpose of this study was to use musculoskeletal modeling and forward dynamics simulations to investigate the influence of the hand pattern used on specific measures of upper extremity muscle demand. The simulation results suggest that the double loop and semicircular patterns produce the most favorable levels of overall muscle stress and total muscle power. The double loop pattern had the lowest full-cycle and recovery-phase upper extremity demand but required high levels of muscle power during the relatively short contact phase. The semicircular pattern had the second-lowest full-cycle levels of overall muscle stress and total muscle power, and demand was more evenly distributed between the contact and recovery phases. These results suggest that in order to decrease upper extremity demand, manual wheelchair users should consider using either the double loop or semicircular pattern when propelling their wheelchairs at a self-selected speed on level ground.

  17. Musculotendon lengths and moment arms for a three-dimensional upper-extremity model.

    PubMed

    Rankin, Jeffery W; Neptune, Richard R

    2012-06-01

    Generating muscle-driven forward dynamics simulations of human movement using detailed musculoskeletal models can be computationally expensive. This is due in part to the time required to calculate musculotendon geometry (e.g., musculotendon lengths and moment arms), which is necessary to determine and apply individual musculotendon forces during the simulation. Modeling upper-extremity musculotendon geometry can be especially challenging due to the large number of multi-articular muscles and complex muscle paths. To accurately represent this geometry, wrapping surface algorithms and/or other computationally expensive techniques (e.g., phantom segments) are used. This paper provides a set of computationally efficient polynomial regression equations that estimate musculotendon length and moment arms for thirty-two (32) upper-extremity musculotendon actuators representing the major muscles crossing the shoulder, elbow and wrist joints. Equations were developed using a least squares fitting technique based on geometry values obtained from a validated public-domain upper-extremity musculoskeletal model that used wrapping surface elements (Holzbaur et al., 2005). In general, the regression equations fit well the original model values, with an average root mean square difference for all musculotendon actuators over the represented joint space of 0.39 mm (1.1% of peak value). In addition, the equations reduced the computational time required to simulate a representative upper-extremity movement (i.e., wheelchair propulsion) by more than two orders of magnitude (315 versus 2.3 s). Thus, these equations can assist in generating computationally efficient forward dynamics simulations of a wide range of upper-extremity movements.

  18. Precipitation extremes in the Mediterranean region and associated upper-level synoptic-scale flow structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toreti, Andrea; Giannakaki, Paraskevi; Martius, Olivia

    2016-09-01

    A non-stationary analysis of daily precipitation extremes over the Mediterranean region and the associated upper-level atmospheric dynamics is presented for autumn, winter and spring. An Extreme Value Theory approach is applied to identify homogeneous areas in terms of precipitation extremes and to characterise the spatio-temporal behaviour of precipitation extremes. Results reveal a high spatial variability of extremes in the region as a whole, while the eastern Mediterranean shows a lower variability compared to the western part. The temporal variability of the estimated 5-year return levels also varies significantly across the basin especially in autumn. The synoptic-scale flow structures associated with these extreme events are then investigated. Significant upper-level flow anomalies in the form of troughs and cut-offs are found for all regions/seasons. Moreover, in many areas the associated low-level flow is directed against the local topography pointing to the relevant role of orographic lifting. Finally, significant precursor signals, 2-3 days before the events, are identified for most of the areas.

  19. Using Free Internet Videogames in Upper Extremity Motor Training for Children with Cerebral Palsy.

    PubMed

    Sevick, Marisa; Eklund, Elizabeth; Mensch, Allison; Foreman, Matthew; Standeven, John; Engsberg, Jack

    2016-01-01

    Movement therapy is one type of upper extremity intervention for children with cerebral palsy (CP) to improve function. It requires high-intensity, repetitive and task-specific training. Tedium and lack of motivation are substantial barriers to completing the training. An approach to overcome these barriers is to couple the movement therapy with videogames. This investigation: (1) tested the feasibility of delivering a free Internet videogame upper extremity motor intervention to four children with CP (aged 8-17 years) with mild to moderate limitations to upper limb function; and (2) determined the level of intrinsic motivation during the intervention. The intervention used free Internet videogames in conjunction with the Microsoft Kinect motion sensor and the Flexible Action and Articulated Skeleton Toolkit software (FAAST) software. Results indicated that the intervention could be successfully delivered in the laboratory and the home, and pre- and post- impairment, function and performance assessments were possible. Results also indicated a high level of motivation among the participants. It was concluded that the use of inexpensive hardware and software in conjunction with free Internet videogames has the potential to be very motivating in helping to improve the upper extremity abilities of children with CP. Future work should include results from additional participants and from a control group in a randomized controlled trial to establish efficacy. PMID:27338485

  20. Using Free Internet Videogames in Upper Extremity Motor Training for Children with Cerebral Palsy.

    PubMed

    Sevick, Marisa; Eklund, Elizabeth; Mensch, Allison; Foreman, Matthew; Standeven, John; Engsberg, Jack

    2016-01-01

    Movement therapy is one type of upper extremity intervention for children with cerebral palsy (CP) to improve function. It requires high-intensity, repetitive and task-specific training. Tedium and lack of motivation are substantial barriers to completing the training. An approach to overcome these barriers is to couple the movement therapy with videogames. This investigation: (1) tested the feasibility of delivering a free Internet videogame upper extremity motor intervention to four children with CP (aged 8-17 years) with mild to moderate limitations to upper limb function; and (2) determined the level of intrinsic motivation during the intervention. The intervention used free Internet videogames in conjunction with the Microsoft Kinect motion sensor and the Flexible Action and Articulated Skeleton Toolkit software (FAAST) software. Results indicated that the intervention could be successfully delivered in the laboratory and the home, and pre- and post- impairment, function and performance assessments were possible. Results also indicated a high level of motivation among the participants. It was concluded that the use of inexpensive hardware and software in conjunction with free Internet videogames has the potential to be very motivating in helping to improve the upper extremity abilities of children with CP. Future work should include results from additional participants and from a control group in a randomized controlled trial to establish efficacy.

  1. Using Free Internet Videogames in Upper Extremity Motor Training for Children with Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Sevick, Marisa; Eklund, Elizabeth; Mensch, Allison; Foreman, Matthew; Standeven, John; Engsberg, Jack

    2016-01-01

    Movement therapy is one type of upper extremity intervention for children with cerebral palsy (CP) to improve function. It requires high-intensity, repetitive and task-specific training. Tedium and lack of motivation are substantial barriers to completing the training. An approach to overcome these barriers is to couple the movement therapy with videogames. This investigation: (1) tested the feasibility of delivering a free Internet videogame upper extremity motor intervention to four children with CP (aged 8–17 years) with mild to moderate limitations to upper limb function; and (2) determined the level of intrinsic motivation during the intervention. The intervention used free Internet videogames in conjunction with the Microsoft Kinect motion sensor and the Flexible Action and Articulated Skeleton Toolkit software (FAAST) software. Results indicated that the intervention could be successfully delivered in the laboratory and the home, and pre- and post- impairment, function and performance assessments were possible. Results also indicated a high level of motivation among the participants. It was concluded that the use of inexpensive hardware and software in conjunction with free Internet videogames has the potential to be very motivating in helping to improve the upper extremity abilities of children with CP. Future work should include results from additional participants and from a control group in a randomized controlled trial to establish efficacy. PMID:27338485

  2. Extremely rare presentation of soft tissue metastasis from carcinoma breast as a massive swelling of upper extremity.

    PubMed

    Purkayastha, Abhishek; Sharma, Neelam

    2016-04-01

    Soft tissue metastasis from any primary malignancy is considered very rare and a breast carcinoma metastasizing to soft tissue is still rarer. To the best of our knowledge, carcinoma breast with soft tissue metastasis to upper extremity is very uncommon with only six cases been reported in world literature till date and our case is the seventh such case in an 80-year-old female, previously treated for carcinoma right breast 15 years ago. The patient presented with progressive painful massive swelling of right upper arm measuring 21 cm × 17 cm, of 2 months duration. Histopathological examination of the swelling showed metastatic deposits from a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. Further immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis revealed tumor cells staining positive for estrogen and progesterone receptors while negative for HER 2-Nu, desmin, epithelial membrane antigen, CK7 and thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1), suggestive of metastasis from a primary breast carcinoma. Only few case series and isolated cases reports have been published regarding any primary malignancy or breast carcinoma metastasizing to soft tissues. A thorough review of literature also reveals that our case is the largest soft tissue metastatic swelling from breast carcinoma ever reported. We hereby present this case with review of literature to highlight its extreme rarity, unusual presentation, clinicopathological characteristics and its overall prognosis.

  3. Content Range and Precision of a Computer Adaptive Test of Upper Extremity Function for Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montpetit, Kathleen; Haley, Stephen; Bilodeau, Nathalie; Ni, Pengsheng; Tian, Feng; Gorton, George, III; Mulcahey, M. J.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on the content range and measurement precision of an upper extremity (UE) computer adaptive testing (CAT) platform of physical function in children with cerebral palsy. Upper extremity items representing skills of all abilities were administered to 305 parents. These responses were compared with two traditional standardized…

  4. The first results of the development and implementation of the upper extremity exoskeleton "EXAR"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorobiev, A. A.; Krivonozhkina, P. S.; Zasypkina, O. A.; Andrewshenko, F. A.

    2015-11-01

    This research considers the first results of the development and implementation of the upper extremity exoskeleton "EXAR". Made anatomical parameterization developed the device the testing of the apparatus have been conducted in accordance with the bioethics regulations with the girl I. Sh. at the age of 4 years suffering the artrogryposis. The parameters of the exoskeleton "EXAR" selected according to our methods allowed us to conduct its use in the period of 4 months. There have been no defects at all. By the analysis of the first results of the passive upper limb skeleton EXAR development we should consider them as positive and worthy of the widespread adoption in the remedial practice.

  5. Paget-von Schroetter Syndrome: Upper Extremity Deep Vein Thrombosis after Continuous Lifting of Heavy Weight.

    PubMed

    Shiva, Charu; Saini, Meera

    2015-08-01

    Effort-induced axillary and/or subclavian vein thrombosis occurring in otherwise normal individuals is referred to as Paget-von Schroetter Syndrome (PVSS) or primary, effort-induced, upper extremity deep vein thrombosis (UEDVT). A 42-year old right-handed male presented with complaints of swelling over the left shoulder and arm and dull aching pain in the left arm for two days following regular lifting of heavy LPG gas cylinders. Left upper limb venous Doppler study revealed partial thrombus in the distal axillary vein and near total thrombus in the subclavian and basilic vein. He was managed with anticoagulation therapy. PMID:27604444

  6. Hibernomas of the upper extremity: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Cipriano, Cara A; Gray, Robert R L; Fernandez, John J

    2015-09-01

    Hibernomas are rare, benign tumors of brown adipose tissue. While they have been found in a variety of locations, they are rare in the upper extremity and not previously described in the hand. Diagnosis is most often made histologically, and treatment consists of surgical resection. We present an unusual case of hibernoma in the hand treated with marginal excision, resulting in good function, cosmesis, and no recurrence.

  7. Perfusion Assessment with the SPY System after Arterial Venous Reversal for Upper Extremity Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background: The timing and pattern of reperfusion following arterial- venous reversal (AVR) in patients with terminal ischemia of an upper extremity is not well understood. Methods: The current case series describes the timing and pattern of reperfusion observed in patients with terminal upper extremity ischemia who underwent AVR and repeated postoperative indocyanine green (ICG) angiography between 2004 and 2009. For all included patients, the SPY Near-Infrared Perfusion Assessment System permitted visualization of ICG-labeled blood flow for 60-second sampling periods at scheduled postoperative time points; outflow and rate and amplitude of inflow were objectively quantified with SPY-Q Analysis Toolkit image analysis software. Results: The series comprised 6 male patients (mean age, 46 years) who presented with upper extremity ischemia related to hypothenar hammer syndrome (n = 2), embolism with patent foramen ovale (n = 2), atherosclerosis (n = 1), and avulsion amputation of the thumb (n = 1); the patient with the avulsion amputation was diagnosed with thromboangiitis obliterans at the time of replantation. AVR was successful in all 6 patients. In 5 of 6 patients, ICG angiography and SPY-based visualization/quantification showed that venous outflow and arterial inflow gradually normalized (versus unaffected digits) between postoperative days (PODs) 0 and 3 and was maintained at long-term follow-up (≥3 months); for the patient who underwent thumb replantation, perfusion normalized between POD 3 and month 5 follow-up. Conclusions: AVR effectively reestablished blood flow in patients with terminal upper extremity ischemia. ICG angiography with SPY technology revealed that, in most cases, kinetic curves, timing, and patterns of perfusion gradually normalized over several PODs. PMID:25426368

  8. Unilateral upper extremity lymphedema deteriorates the postural stability in breast cancer survivors

    PubMed Central

    Karadibak, Didem; Yavuzşen, Tuğba; Demirbüken, İlkşan

    2014-01-01

    Aim of the study There is little known about any change in postural balance caused by asymmetrical volume increase due to unilateral upper extremity lymphedema in patients who underwent breast surgery. The aim of this study was to determine whether there is a change in postural balance by measuring postural sway velocity (PSV), center of gravity (CoG) displacement and directional control (DCL) in patients with unilateral upper extremity lymphedema in breast cancer survivors. Material and methods Eighteen females 38–60 (M = 53) years old diagnosed with upper extremity lymphedema due to breast cancer surgery, and 18 healthy females with similar ages (M = 52.5) were assessed using the Balance Master system (Neuro Com, Clackamas, USA). Unilateral stance (US) and bilateral stance (BS) tests in eyes open and closed conditions and the limit of stability (LOS) test were applied to quantify postural sway velocity (PSV), CoG displacement, and directional control (DCL). Results The lymphedema group showed a significant increase in PSV in the US test on the ipsilateral leg with eyes open (p = 0.02) and eyes closed (p = 0.005) as well as on the contralateral leg with eyes open (p = 0.004) and eyes closed (p = 0.0001). Average displacement and position of the CoG were 25% of LOS (p = 0.0001) towards the lymphedema side and 60.6 degrees respectively. DCL in the lymphedema group was significantly lower in forward (p = 0.0001), back (p = 0.003), ipsilateral (p = 0.002), and contralateral (p = 0.03) directions. Conclusions These findings suggest that unilateral upper extremity lymphedema may have challenging effects on postural balance. PMID:25258587

  9. Upper extremity tumor embolization using a transradial artery approach: technical note.

    PubMed

    Zaw, Taryar; Ni, Jason C; Park, Jonathan K; Walsworth, Matthew

    2016-09-01

    Transradial access is being used with increasing frequency for interventional radiology procedures and offers several key advantages, including decreased access site complications and increased patient comfort. We report the technique of using transradial access to perform preoperative embolization of a humeral renal cell carcinoma metastasis and pathologic fracture. A transradial approach for performing humeral preoperative tumor embolization has not been previously reported, to our knowledge. In the appropriately selected patient, this approach may be safely used to perform upper extremity embolization. PMID:27594948

  10. Upper extremity muscle volumes and functional strength after resistance training in older adults.

    PubMed

    Daly, Melissa; Vidt, Meghan E; Eggebeen, Joel D; Simpson, W Greg; Miller, Michael E; Marsh, Anthony P; Saul, Katherine R

    2013-04-01

    Aging leads to a decline in strength and an associated loss of independence. The authors examined changes in muscle volume, maximum isometric joint moment, functional strength, and 1-repetition maximum (1RM) after resistance training (RT) in the upper extremity of older adults. They evaluated isometric joint moment and muscle volume as predictors of functional strength. Sixteen healthy older adults (average age 75 ± 4.3 yr) were randomized to a 6-wk upper extremity RT program or control group. The RT group increased 1RM significantly (p < .01 for all exercises). Compared with controls, randomization to RT led to greater functional pulling strength (p = .003), isometric shoulder-adduction moment (p = .041), elbow-flexor volume (p = .017), and shoulder-adductor volume (p = .009). Shoulder-muscle volumes and isometric moments were good predictors of functional strength. The authors conclude that shoulder strength is an important factor for performing functional reaching and pulling tasks and a key target for upper extremity RT interventions. PMID:22952203

  11. Critical review of the impact of core stability on upper extremity athletic injury and performance

    PubMed Central

    Silfies, Sheri P.; Ebaugh, David; Pontillo, Marisa; Butowicz, Courtney M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Programs designed to prevent or rehabilitate athletic injuries or improve athletic performance frequently focus on core stability. This approach is based upon the theory that poor core stability increases the risk of poor performance and/or injury. Despite the widespread use of core stability training amongst athletes, the question of whether or not sufficient evidence exists to support this practice remains to be answered. OBJECTIVES: 1) Open a dialogue on the definition and components of core stability. 2) Provide an overview of current science linking core stability to musculoskeletal injuries of the upper extremity. 3) Provide an overview of evidence for the association between core stability and athletic performance. DISCUSSION: Core stability is the ability to control the position and movement of the trunk for optimal production, transfer, and control of forces to and from the upper and lower extremities during functional activities. Muscle capacity and neuromuscular control are critical components of core stability. A limited body of evidence provides some support for a link between core stability and upper extremity injuries amongst athletes who participate in baseball, football, or swimming. Likewise, few studies exist to support a relationship between core stability and athletic performance. CONCLUSIONS: A limited body of evidence exists to support the use of core stability training in injury prevention or performance enhancement programs for athletes. Clearly more research is needed to inform decision making when it comes to inclusion or emphasis of core training when designing injury prevention and rehabilitation programs for athletes. PMID:26537806

  12. Effect of mirror therapy on upper extremity motor function in stroke patients: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Gurbuz, Nigar; Afsar, Sevgi Ikbali; Ayaş, Sehri; Cosar, Sacide Nur Saracgil

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of mirror therapy combined with a conventional rehabilitation program on upper extremity motor and functional recovery in stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-one hemiplegic patients were included. The patients were randomly assigned to a mirror (n=16) or conventional group (n=15). The patients in both groups underwent conventional therapy for 4 weeks (60–120 minutes/day, 5 days/week). The mirror group received mirror therapy, consisting of periodic flexion and extension movements of the wrist and fingers on the non-paralyzed side. The patients in the conventional group performed the same exercises against the non-reflecting face of the mirror. The patients were evaluated at the beginning and end of the treatment by a blinded assessor using the Brunnstrom stage, Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA) upper extremity score, and the Functional Independence Measure (FIM) self-care score. [Results] There was an improvement in Brunnstrom stage and the FIM self-care score in both groups, but the post-treatment FMA score was significantly higher in the mirror therapy group than in the conventional treatment group. [Conclusion] Mirror therapy in addition to a conventional rehabilitation program was found to provide additional benefit in motor recovery of the upper extremity in stroke patients. PMID:27799679

  13. Upper extremity muscle volumes and functional strength after resistance training in older adults.

    PubMed

    Daly, Melissa; Vidt, Meghan E; Eggebeen, Joel D; Simpson, W Greg; Miller, Michael E; Marsh, Anthony P; Saul, Katherine R

    2013-04-01

    Aging leads to a decline in strength and an associated loss of independence. The authors examined changes in muscle volume, maximum isometric joint moment, functional strength, and 1-repetition maximum (1RM) after resistance training (RT) in the upper extremity of older adults. They evaluated isometric joint moment and muscle volume as predictors of functional strength. Sixteen healthy older adults (average age 75 ± 4.3 yr) were randomized to a 6-wk upper extremity RT program or control group. The RT group increased 1RM significantly (p < .01 for all exercises). Compared with controls, randomization to RT led to greater functional pulling strength (p = .003), isometric shoulder-adduction moment (p = .041), elbow-flexor volume (p = .017), and shoulder-adductor volume (p = .009). Shoulder-muscle volumes and isometric moments were good predictors of functional strength. The authors conclude that shoulder strength is an important factor for performing functional reaching and pulling tasks and a key target for upper extremity RT interventions.

  14. A checklist for evaluating ergonomic risk factors associated with upper extremity cumulative trauma disorders.

    PubMed

    Keyserling, W M; Stetson, D S; Silverstein, B A; Brouwer, M L

    1993-07-01

    A two-page checklist for determining the presence of ergonomic risk factors associated with the development of upper extremity cumulative trauma disorders (e.g., repetitiveness, local mechanical contact stresses, forceful manual exertions, awkward postures, and hand tool usage) was developed and evaluated as part of a joint labour-management ergonomics intervention programme. This checklist was used by plant personnel at four work sites to assess the presence of upper extremity risk factors in 335 manufacturing and warehouse jobs. In addition, results generated by the checklist were compared to the results of ergonomic analyses performed by persons with advanced training (Masters degree) in occupational ergonomics for a subset of 51 jobs. Most of the jobs included in the survey were found to have significant exposures to upper extremity risk factors. Awkward work postures were common, with 90% of the jobs requiring wrist deviations outside the neutral range-of-motion. The jobs were also highly repetitive and frequently required workers to exert high hand forces. Results generated by the checklist were generally in agreement with results generated by the ergonomic analysts; however, the checklist was found to be more sensitive in identifying the presence of risk factors. The checklist was found to be an effective rapid-screening instrument for identifying jobs that expose workers to potentially harmful ergonomic stresses. However, the checklist methodology did not include sufficient documentation of work methods to identify specific job attributes associated with these exposures. PMID:8339720

  15. Upper extremity 3D reachable workspace analysis in dystrophinopathy using Kinect

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jay J.; Kurillo, Gregorij; Abresch, Richard T.; de Bie, Evan; Nicorici, Alina; Bajcsy, Ruzena

    2015-01-01

    Introduction An innovative upper extremity 3D reachable workspace outcome measure acquired using Kinect sensor is applied towards Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy (DMD/BMD). The validity, sensitivity, and clinical meaningfulness of the novel outcome is examined. Methods Upper extremity function assessment (Brooke scale, NeuroQOL questionnaire) and Kinect-based reachable workspace analyses were conducted in 43 individuals with dystrophinopathy (30-DMD, 13-BMD; ages 7–60) and 46 controls (ages 6–68). Results The reachable workspace measure reliably captured a wide-range of upper extremity impairments encountered in both pediatric and adult, as well as ambulatory and non-ambulatory individuals with dystrophinopathy. Reduced reachable workspaces were noted for the dystrophinopathy cohort compared to controls, and they correlated with Brooke grades. Additionally, progressive reduction in reachable workspace directly correlated with worsening ability to perform activities of daily living, as self-reported on the NeuroQOL. Discussion This study demonstrates the utility and potential of the novel sensor-acquired reachable workspace outcome measure in dystrophinopathy. PMID:25597487

  16. Kinetics of the upper extremity in the open and square stance tennis forehand.

    PubMed

    Bahamonde, R E; Knudson, D

    2003-03-01

    Seven right-handed teaching professionals and eight intermediate tennis players were filmed using two high-speed cameras (100 Hz) as they performed open and square stance forehand drives. Three-dimensional coordinates (3D) were reconstructed using the DLT method. A three-segment rigid body model of the racket and upper extremity was used to calculate the kinetics of the wrist, elbow, and shoulder joints up to impact. The open stance created lower resultant velocities of the racket at impact (21.2 and 15.8 m/s) than the square stance (22.3 and 16.4 m/s) for professional and intermediate subjects, respectively. The largest components of the resultant joint torques were generated by the shoulder horizontal adductors, followed by elbow varus torques, and shoulder internal rotation torques. Torques were similar across stance and skill level except for significantly (p < 0.05) greater peak shoulder internal rotation torques in the square compared to the open stance, greater peak wrist flexion torques in the intermediate compared to the professionals, and greater peak wrist flexion torques in the square stance compared to the open stance. The data did not support the hypothesis that the open stance technique creates greater loading throughout the upper extremity than the square stance technique. Peak upper extremity torques were similar to peak torques reported for baseball pitching and represent loads that could contribute to strength imbalances and overuse injuries.

  17. EFFECT OF INTENSE FUNCTIONAL TASK TRAINING UPON TEMPORAL STRUCTURE OF VARIABILITY OF UPPER EXTREMITY POST STROKE

    PubMed Central

    Sethi, Amit; Davis, Sandra; McGuirk, Theresa; Patterson, Tara S.; Richards, Lorie G.

    2012-01-01

    Study Design Quasi-experimental design Introduction Although the effectiveness of constraint induced movement therapy (CIMT) in upper extremity (UE) rehabilitation post stroke is well known, the efficacy of CIMT to enhance the temporal structure of variability in upper extremity movement is not known. Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate whether CIMT could enhance temporal structure of variability in upper extremity movement in individuals with chronic stroke. Methods Six participants with chronic stroke underwent CIMT for 4 hours/day for 2 weeks. Participants performed three trials of functional reach-to-grasp before and after CIMT. Temporal structure of variability was determined by calculating approximate entropy (ApEn) in shoulder, elbow and wrist flexion/extension joint angles. Results ApEn increased post CIMT, however, statistical significance was not achieved (p > 0.0167). Conclusion Future studies with larger sample size are warranted to investigate the effect of CIMT upon temporal structure of variability in UE movement. PMID:23084461

  18. Two-point discrimination of the upper extremities of healthy Koreans in their 20's.

    PubMed

    Koo, Ja-Pung; Kim, Soon-Hee; An, Ho-Jung; Moon, Ok-Gon; Choi, Jung-Hyun; Yun, Young-Dae; Park, Joo-Hyun; Min, Kyoung-Ok

    2016-03-01

    [Purpose] The present study attempted to measure two-point discrimination in the upper extremities of healthy Koreans in their 20's. [Subjects and Methods] Using a three-point esthesiometer, we conducted an experiment with a group of 256 college students (128 male and 128 female), attending N University in Chonan, Republic of Korea. [Results] Females showed two-point discrimination at a shorter distance than males at the following points: (i) 5 cm above the elbow joint, the middle part, and 5 cm below the shoulder joint of the anterior upper arm; (ii) 5 cm above the elbow joint and 5 cm below the shoulder joint of the posterior upper arm; (iii) 5 cm above the front of the wrist joint of the forearm; 5 cm below the elbow joint, the palmar part of the distal interphalangeal joint of the thumb, the dorsal part of the distal interphalangeal joint of the middle and little fingers. It was also found that females showed greater two-point discrimination than males in distal regions rather than proximal regions. [Conclusion] The findings of this study will help establish normal values for two-point discrimination of upper extremities of young Koreans in their 20's.

  19. Case report: upper extremity deep venous thrombosis in a 19-year-old baseball player.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Sarah S; O'Brien, Micheal J O

    2014-05-01

    This report describes a case of a collegiate baseball player who presented with 3 weeks of worsening right shoulder pain and mild swelling and faint discoloration of the right arm and hand. He was found to have a nonocclusive clot on his brachial vein and was treated with anticoagulants. This was his second lifetime thrombosis. A hematologic workup revealed no evidence of a hereditary origin, and thrombosis was believed to be related to recent exertion (baseball throwing). Upper extremity deep vein thromboses are extremely uncommon. However, because they can have potentially life-threatening consequences, deep vein thromboses must be on the differential for any athlete who presents with increased pain, swelling, or discoloration of an extremity.

  20. Lower Extremity Overuse Conditions Affecting Figure Skaters During Daily Training

    PubMed Central

    Campanelli, Valentina; Piscitelli, Francesco; Verardi, Luciano; Maillard, Pauline; Sbarbati, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Background Most ice figure skaters train and compete with ongoing issues in the lower extremities, which are often overlooked by the skaters and considered injuries only when they prevent the athletes from skating. Although not severe, these conditions impair the quality of daily training and compromise the skaters’ state of mind and performances. Purpose (1) To determine the point prevalence of the ongoing lower extremity overuse conditions in a population of ice figure skaters of all ages and levels and (2) to identify the risk factors contributing to the development of the most common ongoing conditions. Study Design Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods A total of 95 skaters of all ages and skating levels were evaluated in a single examination in the middle of the competitive season. Data collection consisted of a questionnaire, clinical examination, and measurement of the skaters’ characteristics and the equipment used. Results Retrocalcaneal bursitis was the most common problem, affecting at least 1 foot in 34% of the skaters evaluated, followed by posterior heel skin calluses and superficial calcaneal bursitis, which affected 29% and 28% of skaters, respectively. The prevalence of the majority of these conditions was 10% to 32% higher in elite skaters than in nonelite skaters. Higher boot–foot length difference was associated with greater risk of superficial calcaneal bursitis in the landing foot of elite skaters, while higher body weight and greater in-skate ankle flexibility were associated with the development of retrocalcaneal bursitis in nonelite skaters. Only 30 skaters (32%) wore the appropriate boot size, while 57 skaters (51%) could not dorsiflex their ankles properly while wearing skates. Conclusion The heel represents a major area of concern for the high prevalence of calcaneal bursitis and calluses in proximity of the Achilles tendon, suggesting that improvements on the boot heel cup design should take priority. The

  1. An Accelerometry-Based Methodology for Assessment of Real-World Bilateral Upper Extremity Activity

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Ryan R.; Klaesner, Joseph W.; Lang, Catherine E.

    2014-01-01

    Background The use of both upper extremities (UE) is necessary for the completion of many everyday tasks. Few clinical assessments measure the abilities of the UEs to work together; rather, they assess unilateral function and compare it between affected and unaffected UEs. Furthermore, clinical assessments are unable to measure function that occurs in the real-world, outside the clinic. This study examines the validity of an innovative approach to assess real-world bilateral UE activity using accelerometry. Methods Seventy-four neurologically intact adults completed ten tasks (donning/doffing shoes, grooming, stacking boxes, cutting playdough, folding towels, writing, unilateral sorting, bilateral sorting, unilateral typing, and bilateral typing) while wearing accelerometers on both wrists. Two variables, the Bilateral Magnitude and Magnitude Ratio, were derived from accelerometry data to distinguish between high- and low-intensity tasks, and between bilateral and unilateral tasks. Estimated energy expenditure and time spent in simultaneous UE activity for each task were also calculated. Results The Bilateral Magnitude distinguished between high- and low-intensity tasks, and the Magnitude Ratio distinguished between unilateral and bilateral UE tasks. The Bilateral Magnitude was strongly correlated with estimated energy expenditure (ρ = 0.74, p<0.02), and the Magnitude Ratio was strongly correlated with time spent in simultaneous UE activity (ρ = 0.93, p<0.01) across tasks. Conclusions These results demonstrate face validity and construct validity of this methodology to quantify bilateral UE activity during the performance of everyday tasks performed in a laboratory setting, and can now be used to assess bilateral UE activity in real-world environments. PMID:25068258

  2. Effects of a novel forced intensive strengthening technique on muscle size and upper extremity function in a patient with chronic stroke.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Hee-Won; Chon, Seung-Chul

    2015-11-01

    [Purpose] This research demonstrated a forced intensive strength technique as a novel treatment for muscle power and function in the affected upper extremity muscle to determine the clinical feasibility with respect to upper extremity performance in a stroke hemiparesis. [Subject and Methods] The subject was a patient with chronic stroke who was dependent on others for performing the functional activities of his affected upper extremity. The technique incorporates a comprehensive approach of forced, intensive, and strength-inducing activities to enhance morphological changes associated with motor learning of the upper extremity. The forced intensive strength technique consisted of a 6-week course of sessions lasting 60 minutes per day, five times a week. [Results] After the 6-week intervention, the difference between relaxation and contraction of the affected extensor carpi radialis muscle increased from 0.28 to 0.63 cm(2), and that of the affected triceps brachii muscle increased from 0.30 to 0.90 cm(2). The results of clinical tests including the modified Ashworth scale (MAS; from 1+ to 1), muscle strength (from 15 to 32 kg), the manual function test (MFT; scores of 16/32 to 27/32 score), the Fugl-Meyer assessment (FMA; scores of 29/66 to 49/66 score), and the Jebsen-Taylor hand function test (JTHFT; from 38/60 to 19/60 sec) were improved. [Conclusion] Our results suggest that the forced intensive strength technique may have a beneficial effect on the muscle size of the upper extremity and motor function in patients with chronic stroke.

  3. Upper extremity blood flow in collegiate and high school baseball pitchers A preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Bast, S C; Perry, J R; Poppiti, R; Vangsness, C T; Weaver, F A

    1996-01-01

    The arterial and venous volume blood flow in the dominant and nondominant upper extremities of five male pitchers, ages 16 to 21, was measured using color flow duplex ultrasound. Blood-flow measurements were obtained at baseline, after warm-up, and after each sequence of 20 pitches until 100 pitches were thrown. Blood flow was additionally determined 1 hour after the last pitch. The velocity of each pitch was recorded with a speed gun. Anthropomorphic measurements of the upper extremity were obtained at baseline and immediately after Pitch 100 using a standard measuring tape. The highest average arterial volume flow in the pitching arm occurred after 40 pitches, reaching a peak of 549 ml/min (56% increase from baseline). Thereafter, the average arterial blood flow steadily declined, reaching an average of 402 ml/min after the 100th pitch (14% increase from baseline). In contrast, the arterial blood flow in the nonpitching arm increased only slightly from baseline, reaching a maximal volume flow of 448 ml/min immediately after the warm-up period (10% increase from baseline). The volume flow then persistently fell to a level 30% below baseline after the 100th pitch. Although this small pilot study does not demonstrate causation between a decline in pitching performance and arterial blood flow, it suggests arterial flow in the dominant extremity falls as the pitch count increases.

  4. Rehabilitation of Motor Function after Stroke: A Multiple Systematic Review Focused on Techniques to Stimulate Upper Extremity Recovery.

    PubMed

    Hatem, Samar M; Saussez, Geoffroy; Della Faille, Margaux; Prist, Vincent; Zhang, Xue; Dispa, Delphine; Bleyenheuft, Yannick

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is one of the leading causes for disability worldwide. Motor function deficits due to stroke affect the patients' mobility, their limitation in daily life activities, their participation in society and their odds of returning to professional activities. All of these factors contribute to a low overall quality of life. Rehabilitation training is the most effective way to reduce motor impairments in stroke patients. This multiple systematic review focuses both on standard treatment methods and on innovating rehabilitation techniques used to promote upper extremity motor function in stroke patients. A total number of 5712 publications on stroke rehabilitation was systematically reviewed for relevance and quality with regards to upper extremity motor outcome. This procedure yielded 270 publications corresponding to the inclusion criteria of the systematic review. Recent technology-based interventions in stroke rehabilitation including non-invasive brain stimulation, robot-assisted training, and virtual reality immersion are addressed. Finally, a decisional tree based on evidence from the literature and characteristics of stroke patients is proposed. At present, the stroke rehabilitation field faces the challenge to tailor evidence-based treatment strategies to the needs of the individual stroke patient. Interventions can be combined in order to achieve the maximal motor function recovery for each patient. Though the efficacy of some interventions may be under debate, motor skill learning, and some new technological approaches give promising outcome prognosis in stroke motor rehabilitation.

  5. Rehabilitation of Motor Function after Stroke: A Multiple Systematic Review Focused on Techniques to Stimulate Upper Extremity Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Hatem, Samar M.; Saussez, Geoffroy; della Faille, Margaux; Prist, Vincent; Zhang, Xue; Dispa, Delphine; Bleyenheuft, Yannick

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is one of the leading causes for disability worldwide. Motor function deficits due to stroke affect the patients' mobility, their limitation in daily life activities, their participation in society and their odds of returning to professional activities. All of these factors contribute to a low overall quality of life. Rehabilitation training is the most effective way to reduce motor impairments in stroke patients. This multiple systematic review focuses both on standard treatment methods and on innovating rehabilitation techniques used to promote upper extremity motor function in stroke patients. A total number of 5712 publications on stroke rehabilitation was systematically reviewed for relevance and quality with regards to upper extremity motor outcome. This procedure yielded 270 publications corresponding to the inclusion criteria of the systematic review. Recent technology-based interventions in stroke rehabilitation including non-invasive brain stimulation, robot-assisted training, and virtual reality immersion are addressed. Finally, a decisional tree based on evidence from the literature and characteristics of stroke patients is proposed. At present, the stroke rehabilitation field faces the challenge to tailor evidence-based treatment strategies to the needs of the individual stroke patient. Interventions can be combined in order to achieve the maximal motor function recovery for each patient. Though the efficacy of some interventions may be under debate, motor skill learning, and some new technological approaches give promising outcome prognosis in stroke motor rehabilitation.

  6. Rehabilitation of Motor Function after Stroke: A Multiple Systematic Review Focused on Techniques to Stimulate Upper Extremity Recovery.

    PubMed

    Hatem, Samar M; Saussez, Geoffroy; Della Faille, Margaux; Prist, Vincent; Zhang, Xue; Dispa, Delphine; Bleyenheuft, Yannick

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is one of the leading causes for disability worldwide. Motor function deficits due to stroke affect the patients' mobility, their limitation in daily life activities, their participation in society and their odds of returning to professional activities. All of these factors contribute to a low overall quality of life. Rehabilitation training is the most effective way to reduce motor impairments in stroke patients. This multiple systematic review focuses both on standard treatment methods and on innovating rehabilitation techniques used to promote upper extremity motor function in stroke patients. A total number of 5712 publications on stroke rehabilitation was systematically reviewed for relevance and quality with regards to upper extremity motor outcome. This procedure yielded 270 publications corresponding to the inclusion criteria of the systematic review. Recent technology-based interventions in stroke rehabilitation including non-invasive brain stimulation, robot-assisted training, and virtual reality immersion are addressed. Finally, a decisional tree based on evidence from the literature and characteristics of stroke patients is proposed. At present, the stroke rehabilitation field faces the challenge to tailor evidence-based treatment strategies to the needs of the individual stroke patient. Interventions can be combined in order to achieve the maximal motor function recovery for each patient. Though the efficacy of some interventions may be under debate, motor skill learning, and some new technological approaches give promising outcome prognosis in stroke motor rehabilitation. PMID:27679565

  7. Rehabilitation of Motor Function after Stroke: A Multiple Systematic Review Focused on Techniques to Stimulate Upper Extremity Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Hatem, Samar M.; Saussez, Geoffroy; della Faille, Margaux; Prist, Vincent; Zhang, Xue; Dispa, Delphine; Bleyenheuft, Yannick

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is one of the leading causes for disability worldwide. Motor function deficits due to stroke affect the patients' mobility, their limitation in daily life activities, their participation in society and their odds of returning to professional activities. All of these factors contribute to a low overall quality of life. Rehabilitation training is the most effective way to reduce motor impairments in stroke patients. This multiple systematic review focuses both on standard treatment methods and on innovating rehabilitation techniques used to promote upper extremity motor function in stroke patients. A total number of 5712 publications on stroke rehabilitation was systematically reviewed for relevance and quality with regards to upper extremity motor outcome. This procedure yielded 270 publications corresponding to the inclusion criteria of the systematic review. Recent technology-based interventions in stroke rehabilitation including non-invasive brain stimulation, robot-assisted training, and virtual reality immersion are addressed. Finally, a decisional tree based on evidence from the literature and characteristics of stroke patients is proposed. At present, the stroke rehabilitation field faces the challenge to tailor evidence-based treatment strategies to the needs of the individual stroke patient. Interventions can be combined in order to achieve the maximal motor function recovery for each patient. Though the efficacy of some interventions may be under debate, motor skill learning, and some new technological approaches give promising outcome prognosis in stroke motor rehabilitation. PMID:27679565

  8. EMG-Torque correction on Human Upper extremity using Evolutionary Computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    JL, Veronica; Parasuraman, S.; Khan, M. K. A. Ahamed; Jeba DSingh, Kingsly

    2016-09-01

    There have been many studies indicating that control system of rehabilitative robot plays an important role in determining the outcome of the therapy process. Existing works have done the prediction of feedback signal in the controller based on the kinematics parameters and EMG readings of upper limb's skeletal system. Kinematics and kinetics based control signal system is developed by reading the output of the sensors such as position sensor, orientation sensor and F/T (Force/Torque) sensor and there readings are to be compared with the preceding measurement to decide on the amount of assistive force. There are also other works that incorporated the kinematics parameters to calculate the kinetics parameters via formulation and pre-defined assumptions. Nevertheless, these types of control signals analyze the movement of the upper limb only based on the movement of the upper joints. They do not anticipate the possibility of muscle plasticity. The focus of the paper is to make use of the kinematics parameters and EMG readings of skeletal system to predict the individual torque of upper extremity's joints. The surface EMG signals are fed into different mathematical models so that these data can be trained through Genetic Algorithm (GA) to find the best correlation between EMG signals and torques acting on the upper limb's joints. The estimated torque attained from the mathematical models is called simulated output. The simulated output will then be compared with the actual individual joint which is calculated based on the real time kinematics parameters of the upper movement of the skeleton when the muscle cells are activated. The findings from this contribution are extended into the development of the active control signal based controller for rehabilitation robot.

  9. The WISTAH hand study: A prospective cohort study of distal upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Few prospective cohort studies of distal upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders have been performed. Past studies have provided somewhat conflicting evidence for occupational risk factors and have largely reported data without adjustments for many personal and psychosocial factors. Methods/design A multi-center prospective cohort study was incepted to quantify risk factors for distal upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders and potentially develop improved methods for analyzing jobs. Disorders to analyze included carpal tunnel syndrome, lateral epicondylalgia, medial epicondylalgia, trigger digit, deQuervain’s stenosing tenosynovitis and other tendinoses. Workers have thus far been enrolled from 17 different employment settings in 3 diverse US states and performed widely varying work. At baseline, workers undergo laptop administered questionnaires, structured interviews, two standardized physical examinations and nerve conduction studies to ascertain demographic, medical history, psychosocial factors and current musculoskeletal disorders. All workers’ jobs are individually measured for physical factors and are videotaped. Workers are followed monthly for the development of musculoskeletal disorders. Repeat nerve conduction studies are performed for those with symptoms of tingling and numbness in the prior six months. Changes in jobs necessitate re-measure and re-videotaping of job physical factors. Case definitions have been established. Point prevalence of carpal tunnel syndrome is a combination of paraesthesias in at least two median nerve-served digits plus an abnormal nerve conduction study at baseline. The lifetime cumulative incidence of carpal tunnel syndrome will also include those with a past history of carpal tunnel syndrome. Incident cases will exclude those with either a past history or prevalent cases at baseline. Statistical methods planned include survival analyses and logistic regression. Discussion A prospective cohort study of

  10. Upper-Extremity Transplantation Using a Cell-Based Protocol to Minimize Immunosuppression

    PubMed Central

    Schneeberger, Stefan; Gorantla, Vijay S.; Brandacher, Gerald; Zeevi, Adriana; Demetris, Anthony J.; Lunz, John G.; Metes, Diana M.; Donnenberg, Albert D.; Shores, Jaimie T.; Dimartini, Andrea F.; Kiss, Joseph E.; Imbriglia, Joseph E.; Azari, Kodi; Goitz, Robert J.; Manders, Ernest K.; Nguyen, Vu T.; Cooney, Damon S.; Wachtman, Galen S.; Keith, Jonathan D.; Fletcher, Derek R.; Macedo, Camila; Planinsic, Raymond; Losee, Joseph E.; Shapiro, Ron; Starzl, Thomas E.; Andrew Lee, W. P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To minimize maintenance immunosuppression in upper-extremity transplantation to favor the risk-benefit balance of this procedure. Background Despite favorable outcomes, broad clinical application of reconstructive transplantation is limited by the risks and side effects of multidrug immunosuppression. We present our experience with upper-extremity transplantation under a novel, donor bone marrow (BM) cell-based treatment protocol (“Pittsburgh protocol”). Methods Between March 2009 and September 2010, 5 patients received a bilateral hand (n = 2), a bilateral hand/forearm (n = 1), or a unilateral (n = 2) hand transplant. Patients were treated with alemtuzumab and methylprednisolone for induction, followed by tacrolimus monotherapy. On day 14, patients received an infusion of donor BM cells isolated from 9 vertebral bodies. Comprehensive follow-up included functional evaluation, imaging, and immunomonitoring. Results All patients are maintained on tacrolimus monotherapy with trough levels ranging between 4 and 12 ng/mL. Skin rejections were infrequent and reversible. Patients demonstrated sustained improvements in motor function and sensory return correlating with time after transplantation and level of amputation. Side effects included transient increase in serum creatinine, hyperglycemia managed with oral hypoglycemics, minor wound infection, and hyperuricemia but no infections. Immunomonitoring revealed transient moderate levels of donor-specific antibodies, adequate immunocompetence, and no peripheral blood chimerism. Imaging demonstrated patent vessels with only mild luminal narrowing/occlusion in 1 case. Protocol skin biopsies showed absent or minimal perivascular cellular infiltrates. Conclusions Our data suggest that this BM cell-based treatment protocol is safe, is well tolerated, and allows upper-extremity transplantation using low-dose tacrolimus monotherapy. PMID:23001085

  11. Design and control of RUPERT: a device for robotic upper extremity repetitive therapy.

    PubMed

    Sugar, Thomas G; He, Jiping; Koeneman, Edward J; Koeneman, James B; Herman, Richard; Huang, H; Schultz, Robert S; Herring, D E; Wanberg, J; Balasubramanian, Sivakumar; Swenson, Pete; Ward, Jeffrey A

    2007-09-01

    The structural design, control system, and integrated biofeedback for a wearable exoskeletal robot for upper extremity stroke rehabilitation are presented. Assisted with clinical evaluation, designers, engineers, and scientists have built a device for robotic assisted upper extremity repetitive therapy (RUPERT). Intense, repetitive physical rehabilitation has been shown to be beneficial overcoming upper extremity deficits, but the therapy is labor intensive and expensive and difficult to evaluate quantitatively and objectively. The RUPERT is developed to provide a low cost, safe and easy-to-use, robotic-device to assist the patient and therapist to achieve more systematic therapy at home or in the clinic. The RUPERT has four actuated degrees-of-freedom driven by compliant and safe pneumatic muscles (PMs) on the shoulder, elbow, and wrist. They are programmed to actuate the device to extend the arm and move the arm in 3-D space. It is very important to note that gravity is not compensated and the daily tasks are practiced in a natural setting. Because the device is wearable and lightweight to increase portability, it can be worn standing or sitting providing therapy tasks that better mimic activities of daily living. The sensors feed back position and force information for quantitative evaluation of task performance. The device can also provide real-time, objective assessment of functional improvement. We have tested the device on stroke survivors performing two critical activities of daily living (ADL): reaching out and self feeding. The future improvement of the device involves increased degrees-of-freedom and interactive control to adapt to a user's physical conditions.

  12. rt-PA Thrombolysis in Acute Thromboembolic Upper-Extremity Arterial Occlusion

    SciTech Connect

    Cejna, Manfred; Salomonowitz, Erich; Wohlschlager, Helmut; Zwrtek, Karin; Boeck, Rudolf; Zwrtek, Ronald

    2001-07-15

    Purpose: Retrospective analysis of the results of rt-PA thrombolysis in the treatment of acute thromboembolic occlusion of the upper limb.Methods: Of 55 patients with demonstrated acute embolic arterial occlusion, rt-PA thrombolysis was performed on 40 occlusions in 38 patients (23 women with a mean age of 62 years, range 32-85 years; 15 men with a mean age of 65 years, range 32-92 years) according to the following design: 6 mg rt-PA/hr for 30 min, 3 mg rt-PA/hr for the next 30 min, 1 mg rt-PA/hr for 7 hr, and 0.4 mg rt-PA/hr until the end of lysis. Onset of symptoms varied from 1 to 14 days. Included were three isolated upper-arm occlusions, nine combined brachial and forearm occlusions, and 28 forearm and hand artery occlusions.Results: The overall success rate was 55%. The lysis results for isolated upper arm, combined brachial and forearm occlusions, and forearm and hand artery occlusions were 100%, 66%, and 46%, respectively. In eight patients surgical embolectomy had to be performed after failed thrombolysis. No amputation was required in the follow-up period. No lethal complications occurred.Conclusions: Interventional rt-PA treatment of proximal upper-extremity arterial occlusions may be performed with comparable success rates to surgical embolectomy and without severe complications. For distal occlusions the results are inferior to the success rates obtained with surgery.

  13. Preconditioning electromyographic data for an upper extremity model using neural networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberson, D. J.; Fernjallah, M.; Barr, R. E.; Gonzalez, R. V.

    1994-01-01

    A back propagation neural network has been employed to precondition the electromyographic signal (EMG) that drives a computational model of the human upper extremity. This model is used to determine the complex relationship between EMG and muscle activation, and generates an optimal muscle activation scheme that simulates the actual activation. While the experimental and model predicted results of the ballistic muscle movement are very similar, the activation function between the start and the finish is not. This neural network preconditions the signal in an attempt to more closely model the actual activation function over the entire course of the muscle movement.

  14. Clear cell adenocarcinoma of the renal pelvis: an extremely rare neoplasm of the upper urinary tract.

    PubMed

    Liu, K-W; Lin, V C-H; Chang, I-W

    2013-12-01

    Clear cell adenocarcinoma (CCA) in the urinary tract is a rare neoplasm morphologically identical to the Müllerian counterpart. Clear cell adenocarcinoma is extremely rare in the upper urinary tract. We present a case with CCA of the renal pelvis. Microscopically, the tumor exhibited exophytic growth with predominantly tubulocystic structures, as well as solid and papillary patterns. The neoplastic cells were cuboidal with clear to pale eosinophilic cytoplasm and abundant intracellular and extracellular eosinophilic hyaline globules. By immunohistochemically, the tumor was labeled by cytokeratins and hepatocyte nuclear factor-1β. The patient was still alive without evidence of recurrence in the follow-up period of nineteen months after diagnosis. PMID:24375047

  15. Principles of Nerve Repair in Complex Wounds of the Upper Extremity

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Amy M.; Wagner, I. Janelle; Fox, Ida K.

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral nerve injuries are common in the setting of complex upper extremity trauma. Early identification of nerve injuries and intervention is critical for maximizing return of function. In this review, the principles of nerve injury, patient evaluation, and surgical management are discussed. An evidence-based approach to nerve reconstruction is reviewed, including the benefits and limitations of direct repair and nerve gap reconstruction with the use of autografts, processed nerve allografts, and conduits. Further, the principles and indications of commonly used nerve transfers in proximal nerve injuries are also addressed. PMID:25685102

  16. Work-related upper extremity injuries: prevalence, cost and risk factors in military and civilian populations.

    PubMed

    Fabrizio, Andrew J

    2002-01-01

    Persons with musculoskeletal-related disorders represent a prevalent source of outpatient visits, lost work time and disability in the military; however, research concerning the extent of work-related upper extremity disorders (WRUEDs) within this population is lacking. This literature review examined studies in civilian and military settings to ascertain the prevalence, cost and risk factors associated with WRUEDs. The results indicated that the prevalence and cost of WRUEDs in the civilian workforce are significant, justifying the need to research the military population. The literature also outlined physical, individual and psychosocial factors associated with WRUEDs that will help identify potential risk factors within military occupations.

  17. The effect of the action observation physical training on the upper extremity function in children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin-Young; Kim, Jong-Man; Ko, Eun-Young

    2014-06-01

    The purpose this study was to investigate the effect of action observation physical training (AOPT) on the functioning of the upper extremities in children with cerebral palsy (CP), using an evaluation framework based on that of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). The subjects were divided into an AOPT group and a physical training (PT) group. AOPT group practiced repeatedly the actions they observed on video clips, in which normal child performed an action with their upper extremities. PT group performed the same actions as the AOPT group did after observing landscape photographs. The subjects participated in twelve 30-min sessions, 3 days a week, for 4 weeks. Evaluation of upper extremity function using the following: the power of grasp and Modified Ashworth Scale for body functions and structures, a Box and Block test, an ABILHAND-Kids questionnaire, and the WeeFIM scale for activity and participation. Measurements were performed before and after the training, and 2 weeks after the end of training. The results of this study showed that, in comparison with the PT group, the functioning of the upper extremities in the AOPT group was significantly improved in body functions and activity and participation according to the ICF framework. This study demonstrates that AOPT has a positive influence on the functioning of the upper extremities in children with CP. It is suggested that this alternative approach for functioning of the upper extremities could be an effective method for rehabilitation in children with CP. PMID:25061598

  18. The impact of breast cancer-related lymphedema on the ability to perform upper extremity activities of daily living.

    PubMed

    O'Toole, Jean A; Ferguson, Chantal M; Swaroop, Meyha N; Horick, Nora; Skolny, Melissa N; Brunelle, Cheryl L; Miller, Cynthia L; Jammallo, Lauren S; Specht, Michelle C; Taghian, Alphonse G

    2015-04-01

    We sought to assess the association of breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL) with the ability to perform upper extremity activities of daily living (ADL) in our patient population. 324 breast cancer patients who had received treatment for unilateral breast cancer at our institution between 2005 and 2014 were prospectively screened for lymphedema. Bilateral arm measurements were performed pre-operatively and during post-operative follow-up using a Perometer. Patients completed an extensive quality of life (QOL) questionnaire at the time of each study assessment. Lymphedema was defined as a relative volume change (RVC) of ≥10% from the patient's pre-operative baseline measurement. Linear regression models were used to evaluate the relationship between post-operative arm function score (as a continuous variable) and RVC, demographic, clinical, and QOL factors. By multivariate analysis, greater fear of lymphedema (p < 0.0001), more pain (p < 0.0001), body mass index >25 (p = 0.0015), mastectomy (p = 0.0001), and having an axillary node dissection (p = 0.0045) were all associated with lower functional scores. Higher emotional well-being score (p < 0.0001) and adjuvant chemotherapy (p = 0.0005) were associated with higher post-operative functional score. Neither low-level volume changes (5-10 % RVC) nor BCRL (RVC ≥10 %) were associated with ability to perform upper extremity ADL as measured by self-report (p = 0.99, p = 0.79). This prospective study demonstrates that low-level changes in arm volume (RVC 5-10 %) as well as clinically significant BCRL (RVC ≥10 %) did not impact the self-reported ability to use the affected extremity for ADL. These findings may help to inform clinicians and patients on the importance of prospective screening for lymphedema and QOL which enables early detection and intervention. PMID:25749734

  19. Probability modeling of high flow extremes in Yingluoxia watershed, the upper reaches of Heihe River basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhanling; Li, Zhanjie; Li, Chengcheng

    2014-05-01

    Probability modeling of hydrological extremes is one of the major research areas in hydrological science. Most basins in humid and semi-humid south and east of China are concerned for probability modeling analysis of high flow extremes. While, for the inland river basin which occupies about 35% of the country area, there is a limited presence of such studies partly due to the limited data availability and a relatively low mean annual flow. The objective of this study is to carry out probability modeling of high flow extremes in the upper reach of Heihe River basin, the second largest inland river basin in China, by using the peak over threshold (POT) method and Generalized Pareto Distribution (GPD), in which the selection of threshold and inherent assumptions for POT series are elaborated in details. For comparison, other widely used probability distributions including generalized extreme value (GEV), Lognormal, Log-logistic and Gamma are employed as well. Maximum likelihood estimate is used for parameter estimations. Daily flow data at Yingluoxia station from 1978 to 2008 are used. Results show that, synthesizing the approaches of mean excess plot, stability features of model parameters, return level plot and the inherent independence assumption of POT series, an optimum threshold of 340m3/s is finally determined for high flow extremes in Yingluoxia watershed. The resulting POT series is proved to be stationary and independent based on Mann-Kendall test, Pettitt test and autocorrelation test. In terms of Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Anderson-Darling test and several graphical diagnostics such as quantile and cumulative density function plots, GPD provides the best fit to high flow extremes in the study area. The estimated high flows for long return periods demonstrate that, as the return period increasing, the return level estimates are probably more uncertain. The frequency of high flow extremes exhibits a very slight but not significant decreasing trend from 1978 to

  20. Prevalence of tendinitis and related disorders of the upper extremity in a manufacturing workforce.

    PubMed

    McCormack, R R; Inman, R D; Wells, A; Berntsen, C; Imbus, H R

    1990-07-01

    A cross sectional survey of a randomly selected population of 2,261 textile workers form an overall population of 8,539 eligible workers was performed to evaluate the prevalence of tendinitis in related upper extremity disorders. Of the sample, 2,047 respondents (91.3%) participated in a nurse screening history and examination: 1,091 (53%) had no upper extremity symptoms or abnormalities on examination; 959 (47%) with positive findings were examined by trained physicians. Of these, 347 (36.5%) were found to have no abnormality, whereas, 548 (57.3%) workers were assigned a diagnosis. Of these 227 were considered to fall into the categories of tendinitis (n = 69) or related disorders (n = 158). The projected prevalence of tendinitis and related disorders for the overall group was 11.6% (carpal tunnel syndrome 1.1%, epicondylitis 2.0%, tendinitis 3.5%, shoulder condition 2.3%, ganglion 2.3%, neck conditions 4.0%). Tendinitis was less frequent in the older age group and those employed for a longer time. The prevalence of tendinitis was found to be statistically higher in physically demanding job categories. Ninety-four percent of ailments were of mild or moderate severity. Although our study provides prevalence data for these conditions in a large manufacturing workforce across several job categories.

  1. Upper extremity deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolus after ovarian hyperstimulation.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Anne Catherine Miller; McLean, Anna Warszawa; Ahari, Jalil

    2016-01-01

    A healthy female presented with upper extremity (UE) swelling of several days duration. Admission laboratories were normal except for an elevated D-dimer. An UE ultrasound with Doppler revealed a thrombus in the right subclavian vein. A subsequent chest CT angiogram further characterised the subclavian vein thrombus and also identified a pulmonary embolus. A thorough history and laboratory evaluation showed that her only risk factors were long-time contraceptive pills and a recent cycle of ovarian hyperstimulation (OH) 7 weeks prior to presentation. Anticoagulation treatment was started and the patient's remaining outpatient work-up was negative for all other hereditary causes. A complete anatomic work-up showed bilateral thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS). A review of the literature on the occurrence of upper extremity deep venous thrombosis suggests that these usually occur in the presence of a predisposing factor, including catheters, indwelling devices and active malignancies. OH has been shown to precipitate venous thromboembolism events; however, the diagnosis of bilateral TOS as a predisposing risk factor has not been described in a patient who had recently undergone recent OH and in one who was not actively pregnant. PMID:27530880

  2. Characterization and Intervention for Upper Extremity Exploration & Reaching Behaviors in Infancy

    PubMed Central

    Lobo, M.A.; Galloway, J.C.; Heathcock, J.C

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to: 1) highlight general exploration, reaching, and object exploration behaviors as key activities of daily living in infancy, 2) describe how knowledge of early warning signs for these behaviors may improve early assessment, and 3) discuss interventions that may advance performance of these behaviors. Early intervention for at-risk infants and their families should focus on improving performance of these behaviors for several reasons. First, these early, interrelated upper extremity behaviors serve an integral role in global learning and development in infancy. Second, among at-risk populations, differences have been observed in the quantity and quality of performance of these behaviors. In many cases, these differences are in turn associated with additional perceptual-motor and cognitive delays. This article fills a gap in the literature by summarizing how early assessment and intervention can target these key early behaviors in populations at risk for upper extremity disabilities, such as those born preterm, with Down syndrome, brachial plexus palsy, or arthrogryposis multiplex congentia. PMID:25835251

  3. Evolving Role of Ultrasound in Therapeutic Injections of the Upper Extremity.

    PubMed

    Wilson, David J; Scully, William F; Rawlings, John M

    2015-11-01

    Ultrasound machines are creating more refined pictures and becoming more user-friendly and readily accessible. As a result, ultrasound is being increasingly used for therapeutic purposes. One example involves the use of ultrasound guidance in musculoskeletal interventional procedures, such as joint injections, tendon sheath injections, and peripheral nerve blocks. Technical considerations and therapeutic results have been described for multiple locations about the upper extremities, with varying levels of success. The implementation of ultrasound-guided injections in the orthopedist's clinic has therapeutic, financial, and provider role implications. Given these potential benefits, orthopedic providers, both in practice and residency, would benefit from increased exposure and education in ultrasound use. Ultrasound provides the benefit of real-time, dynamic imaging without the radiation exposure of fluoroscopy, and ultrasound-guided injections can be performed in the office, as opposed to the operating room, which is frequently required when using fluoroscopy. A basic knowledge of the principles and terms used in ultrasound is required. With these simple principles, a practitioner can review techniques for specific areas of the musculoskeletal system and begin using ultrasound to guide injections. Many locations for diagnostic and/or therapeutic injections in the upper extremities have improved accuracy and benefit with the use of ultrasound vs blind techniques, although a few have not been shown to have a significant difference in the literature. The educational and professional implications can be significant, but these potential benefits need to be carefully weighed against costs by each orthopedic practice. PMID:26558666

  4. Upper Extremity 3D Reachable Workspace Assessment in ALS by Kinect sensor

    PubMed Central

    Oskarsson, Bjorn; Joyce, Nanette C.; de Bie, Evan; Nicorici, Alina; Bajcsy, Ruzena; Kurillo, Gregorij; Han, Jay J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Reachable workspace is a measure that provides clinically meaningful information regarding arm function. In this study, a Kinect sensor was used to determine the spectrum of 3D reachable workspace encountered in a cross-sectional cohort of individuals with ALS. Method Bilateral 3D reachable workspace was recorded from 10 subjects with ALS and 23 healthy controls. The data were normalized by each individual's arm length to obtain a reachable workspace relative surface area (RSA). Concurrent validity was assessed by correlation with ALSFRSr scores. Results The Kinect-measured reachable workspace RSA differed significantly between the ALS and control subjects (0.579±0.226 vs. 0.786±0.069; P<0.001). The RSA demonstrated correlation with ALSFRSr upper extremity items (Spearman correlation ρ=0.569; P=0.009). With worsening upper extremity function as categorized by the ALSFRSr, the reachable workspace also decreased progressively. Conclusions This study demonstrates the feasibility and potential of using a novel Kinect-based reachable workspace outcome measure in ALS. PMID:25965847

  5. Predictors of upper extremity discomfort: a longitudinal study of industrial and clerical workers.

    PubMed

    Werner, Robert A; Franzblau, Alfred; Gell, Nancy; Ulin, Sheryl S; Armstrong, Thomas J

    2005-03-01

    Upper extremity discomfort associated with work activity is common with a prevalence of over 50% in many settings. This study followed a cohort of 501 active workers for an average of 5.4 years. Cases were defined as workers who were asymptomatic or had a low discomfort score of 1 or 2 at baseline testing and went on to report a discomfort score of 4 or above on a 10-point visual analog scale. This change is considered clinically significant. Controls had a low baseline discomfort score and continued to have a low discomfort rating throughout the study. The risk factors found to have the highest predictive value for identifying a person who is likely to develop a significant upper extremity discomfort rating included age over 40, a BMI over 28, a complaint of baseline discomfort, the severity of the baseline discomfort rating and a job that had a high hand activity level (based upon hand repetition and force). The risk profile identified both ergonomic and personal health factors as risks and both factors may be amenable to prevention strategies.

  6. Wartime upper extremity injuries: experience from the Kabul International Airport combat support hospital.

    PubMed

    Mathieu, L; Bertani, A; Gaillard, C; Ollat, D; Rigal, S; Rongiéras, F

    2014-06-01

    Few epidemiologic studies have been published about the surgical management of wartime upper extremity injuries (UEIs). The purpose of the present report was to analyze upper extremity combat-related injuries (CRIs) and non-combat related injuries (NCRIs) treated in the Kabul International Airport Combat Support Hospital. A retrospective study was conducted using the French surgical database OpEX (French military health service) from June 2009 to January 2013. During this period, 491 patients with a mean age of 28.7 ± 13 years were operated on because of an UEI. Among them, 244 (49.7%) sustained CRIs and 247 (50.3%) sustained NCRIs. A total number of 558 UEIs were analyzed. Multiple UEIs and associated injuries were significantly more common in the CRIs group. Debridement was the most common procedure in both groups. External fixator application, delayed primary closure and flap coverage were predominant in the CRIs group, as well as internal fracture fixation and tendon repair in the NCRIs group. The overall number of surgical episodes was significantly higher in the CRIs group. Due to the high frequency of UEIs in the theatres of operations, deployed orthopedic surgeons should be trained in basic hand surgery. Although the principles of CRIs treatment are well established, management of hand NCRIs remains controversial in this setting. PMID:24857707

  7. Brief Assessment of Motor Function: Content Validity and Reliability of the Upper Extremity Gross Motor Scale

    PubMed Central

    Cintas, Holly Lea; Parks, Rebecca; Don, Sarah; Gerber, Lynn

    2011-01-01

    Content validity and reliability of the Brief Assessment of Motor Function (BAMF) Upper Extremity Gross Motor Scale (UEGMS) were evaluated in this prospective, descriptive study. The UEGMS is one of five ordinal scales designed for quick documentation of gross, fine and oral motor skill levels. Designed to be independent of age and diagnosis, it is intended for use for infants through young adults. An expert panel of 17 physical therapists and 13 occupational therapists refined the content by responding to a standard questionnaire comprised of questions which asked whether each item should be included, is clearly worded, should be reordered higher or lower, is functionally relevant, and is easily discriminated. Ratings of content validity exceeded the criterion except for two items which may represent different perspectives of physical and occupational therapists. The UEGMS was modified using the quantitative and qualitative feedback from the questionnaires. For reliability, five raters scored videotaped motor performances of ten children. Coefficients for inter-rater (0.94) and intra-rater (0.95) reliability were high. The results provide evidence of content validity and reliability of the UEGMS for assessment of upper extremity gross motor skill. PMID:21599568

  8. Paleohydrologic bounds and extreme flood frequency of the Upper Arkansas River, Colorado, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    England, J. F., Jr.; Godaire, J. E.; Klinger, R. E.; Bauer, T. R.; Julien, P. Y.

    2010-12-01

    The Upper Arkansas River basin has experienced notable large floods, including the event of 2-6 June 1921 that devastated the city of Pueblo, Colorado. We investigated flood and paleoflood hydrology at strategic sites to determine the frequency and geographic extent of extreme floods within the basin for a dam safety application. Streamgage, historical, and paleoflood data were utilized to develop frequency curves at sites near Salida, Cotopaxi, Parkdale, and Pueblo. Soil/stratigraphic descriptions, radiocarbon dating, and hydraulic modeling were used to estimate paleoflood nonexceedance bounds at the four sites, which ranged from 400 to 2200 YBP for late Holocene surfaces to late Pleistocene surfaces near Cotopaxi. Peak-flow data are from lower-magnitude snowmelt runoff in May and June in the upper basin and from high-magnitude rainfall runoff from June to August in the lower basin. Flood frequency curves reflect this transition near Parkdale from snowmelt to extreme rainfall-runoff. For similar return periods, paleoflood peak discharges increase from about 480 m 3/s upstream at Loma Linda to about 4250 m 3/s downstream near Pueblo. This increase is attributed to the larger rainfall component derived from lower elevations between Loma Linda and Pueblo. Return periods for design floods at Pueblo Dam exceeded 10,000 years based on paleoflood frequency curve extrapolations.

  9. Effect of a Task-Oriented Rehabilitation Program on Upper Extremity Recovery Following Motor Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Winstein, Carolee J.; Wolf, Steven L.; Dromerick, Alexander W.; Lane, Christianne J.; Nelsen, Monica A.; Lewthwaite, Rebecca; Cen, Steven Yong; Azen, Stanley P.

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Clinical trials suggest that higher doses of task-oriented training are superior to current clinical practice for patients with stroke with upper extremity motor deficits. OBJECTIVE To compare the efficacy of a structured, task-oriented motor training program vs usual and customary occupational therapy (UCC) during stroke rehabilitation. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Phase 3, pragmatic, single-blind randomized trial among 361 participants with moderate motor impairment recruited from 7 US hospitals over 44 months, treated in the outpatient setting from June 2009 to March 2014. INTERVENTIONS Structured, task-oriented upper extremity training (Accelerated Skill Acquisition Program[ASAP]; n = 119); dose-equivalent occupational therapy (DEUCC; n = 120); or monitoring-only occupational therapy (UCC; n = 122). The DEUCC group was prescribed 30 one-hour sessions over 10 weeks; the UCC group was only monitored, without specification of dose. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The primary outcome was 12-month change in log-transformed Wolf Motor Function Test time score (WMFT, consisting of a mean of 15 timed arm movements and hand dexterity tasks). Secondary outcomes were change in WMFT time score (minimal clinically important difference [MCID] = 19 seconds) and proportion of patients improving ≥25 points on the Stroke Impact Scale (SIS) hand function score (MCID = 17.8 points). RESULTS Among the 361 randomized patients (mean age, 60.7 years; 56% men; 42% African American; mean time since stroke onset, 46 days), 304 (84%) completed the 12-month primary outcome assessment; in intention-to-treat analysis, mean group change scores (log WMFT, baseline to 12 months) were, for the ASAP group, 2.2 to 1.4 (difference, 0.82); DEUCC group, 2.0 to 1.2 (difference, 0.84); and UCC group, 2.1 to 1.4 (difference, 0.75), with no significant between-group differences (ASAP vs DEUCC:0.14; 95% CI, −0.05 to 0.33; P = .16; ASAP vs UCC: −0.01; 95% CI, −0.22 to 0.21; P = .94; and

  10. Benthic processes affecting contaminant transport in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuwabara, James S.; Topping, Brent R.; Carter, James L.; Carlson, Rick A; Parchaso, Francis; Fend, Steven V.; Stauffer-Olsen, Natalie; Manning, Andrew J.; Land, Jennie M.

    2016-09-30

    Executive SummaryMultiple sampling trips during calendar years 2013 through 2015 were coordinated to provide measurements of interdependent benthic processes that potentially affect contaminant transport in Upper Klamath Lake (UKL), Oregon. The measurements were motivated by recognition that such internal processes (for example, solute benthic flux, bioturbation and solute efflux by benthic invertebrates, and physical groundwater-surface water interactions) were not integrated into existing management models for UKL. Up until 2013, all of the benthic-flux studies generally had been limited spatially to a number of sites in the northern part of UKL and limited temporally to 2–3 samplings per year. All of the benthic invertebrate studies also had been limited to the northern part of the lake; however, intensive temporal (weekly) studies had previously been completed independent of benthic-flux studies. Therefore, knowledge of both the spatial and temporal variability in benthic flux and benthic invertebrate distributions for the entire lake was lacking. To address these limitations, we completed a lakewide spatial study during 2013 and a coordinated temporal study with weekly sampling of benthic flux and benthic invertebrates during 2014. Field design of the spatially focused study in 2013 involved 21 sites sampled three times as the summer cyanobacterial bloom developed (that is, May 23, June 13, and July 3, 2013). Results of the 27-week, temporally focused study of one site in 2014 were summarized and partitioned into three periods (referred to herein as pre-bloom, bloom and post-bloom periods), each period involving 9 weeks of profiler deployments, water column and benthic sampling. Partitioning of the pre-bloom, bloom, and post-bloom periods were based on water-column chlorophyll concentrations and involved the following date intervals, respectively: April 15 through June 10, June 17 through August 13, and August 20 through October 16, 2014. To examine

  11. Central venous catheters and upper-extremity deep-vein thrombosis complicating immune heparin-induced thrombocytopenia.

    PubMed

    Hong, Aaron P; Cook, Deborah J; Sigouin, Christopher S; Warkentin, Theodore E

    2003-04-15

    Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is a transient antibody-mediated hypercoagulability state strongly associated with lower-limb deep-vein thrombosis (DVT). Whether HIT is additionally associated with upper-limb DVT--either with or without central venous catheter (CVC) use--is unknown. We therefore studied 260 patients with antibody-positive HIT to determine the influence of CVC use on frequency and localization of upper-extremity DVT in comparison with 2 non-HIT control populations (postoperative orthopedic surgery and intensive-care unit patients). Compared with the control populations, both upper- and lower-extremity DVTs were found to be associated with HIT. Upper-extremity DVTs occurred more frequently in HIT patients with a CVC (14 of 145 [9.7%]) versus none of 115 (0%) patients without a CVC (P =.000 35). All upper-extremity DVTs occurred at the CVC site (right, 12; left, 2; kappa = 1.0; P =.011). We conclude that a localizing vascular injury (CVC use) and a systemic hypercoagulability disorder (HIT) interact to explain upper-extremity DVT complicating HIT.

  12. Stiffness and ultimate load of osseointegrated prosthesis fixations in the upper and lower extremity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Techniques for the skeletal attachment of amputation-prostheses have been developed over recent decades. This type of attachment has only been performed on a small number of patients. It poses various potential advantages compared to conventional treatment with a socket, but is also associated with an increased risk of bone or implant-bone interface fracture in the case of a fall. We therefore investigated the bending stiffness and ultimate bending moment of such devices implanted in human and synthetic bones. Methods Eight human specimens and 16 synthetic models of the proximal femora were implanted with lower extremity prostheses and eight human specimens and six synthetic humeri were implanted with upper extremity prostheses. They were dissected according to typical amputation levels and underwent loading in a material testing machine in a four-point bending setup. Bending stiffness, ultimate bending moment and fracture modes were determined in a load to failure experiment. Additionally, axial pull-out was performed on eight synthetic specimens of the lower extremity. Results Maximum bending moment of the synthetic femora was 160.6±27.5 Nm, the flexural rigidity of the synthetic femora was 189.0±22.6 Nm2. Maximum bending moment of the human femora was 100.4±38.5 Nm, and the flexural rigidity was 137.8±29.4 Nm2. The maximum bending moment of the six synthetic humeri was 104.9±19.0 Nm, and the flexural rigidity was 63.7±3.6 Nm2. For the human humeri the maximum bending moment was 36.7±11.0 Nm, and the flexural rigidity at was 43.7±10.5 Nm2. The maximum pull-out force for the eight synthetic femora was 3571±919 N. Conclusion Significant differences were found between human and synthetic specimens of the lower and upper extremity regarding maximum bending moment, bending displacement and flexural rigidity. The results of this study are relevant with respect to previous finding regarding the load at the interfaces of osseointegrated prosthesis

  13. Children in genocide: extreme traumatization and the 'affect propeller'.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Suzanne

    2006-06-01

    The author bases this paper on extensive research concerning children in genocide with a starting point in the Holocaust and in the genocide in Rwanda 1994. She demonstrates indicators for psychological phenomena concerning the child survivors' affect regulating that appeared in life histories presented in videotaped in-depth interviews. The psychological phenomena concern experiences of persecution and ways of coming to terms with recurring memory images and affects. The interviews that have been analysed in detail form a basis for an emerging conceptual model about trauma- and generational-linking processes within each individual--the 'affect propeller'. An overall conclusion from this study is that past traumatic experiences are recovered not as memories in the usual sense of the word, but as affects invading the present. Accordingly, affects seem to tell the story of the past traumatic experiences.

  14. Severe Upper Extremity Dysfunction After 4CMenB Vaccination in a Young Infant.

    PubMed

    Tenenbaum, Tobias; Niessen, Johanna; Schroten, Horst

    2016-01-01

    The 4-component meningococcal serogroup B vaccine 4CMenB (Bexsero) is the first vaccine against this serogroup and has been approved by licensing authorities in Europe, Canada and Australia. Therefore, the vaccine may enter soon nationwide vaccine recommendation schemes. We report on a case of a 5-month-old infant who developed prolonged upper extremity dysfunction after the second injection of the 4CMenB vaccine in the left deltoid muscle and was concomitantly applied with 2 routine vaccinations. Myositis, periostitis, (peri-) vasculitis and axillary inflammation were confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging. Two months after initial initiation of an anti-inflammatory and an antibiotic treatment, symptoms completely resolved. Administration of 3 vaccines requires clear recommendations for the preferred injection site in infants because increased reactogenicity of 4CMenB may lead to local severe adverse events.

  15. Injury to the upper extremity caused by extravasation of contrast medium: a true emergency.

    PubMed

    Fallscheer, Philipp; Kammer, Erich; Roeren, Thomas; Meuli-Simmen, Claudia

    2007-01-01

    This retrospective clinical study, over a period of four years, includes 16 patients who had extravasation of iopromidum 623 mg (Ultravist 300) in the upper extremity during computed tomography (CT). Although conservative management is sufficient in most cases, seven patients were operated on. The mean time between extravasation and operation was 155 minutes. The most complicated postoperative course occurred when the operation was delayed 300 minutes after extravasation. When patients were treated early, there was no permanent postoperative impairment. Extravasation of contrast is an increasing cause of potential complications in the forearm as a result of the use of power injectors in CT. Immediate assessment by an experienced plastic surgeon followed by either conservative treatment or quick intervention if necessary may avoid serious damage.

  16. A methodology to assess the upper extremity strength in a chair egress posture.

    PubMed

    Naqvi, S A; Stobbe, T J; Stanley, C F

    1993-04-01

    In this paper a method is presented which can be used to analyse the force distribution resulting from the application of force on the left and right armrest of a chair during the action of sitting down or standing up. The peak data for both hands can be combined to obtain the maximum for a trial on a specific chair configuration. This method is useful to assess the upper extremity limitations of an elderly or disabled population when rising from a seated position. The method involved the instrumentation, with strain gauges, of armrests of a prototype lounge chair obtained from a manufacturer of seating for the elderly. Provision for hand placement was included and the system was appropriately calibrated. The methodology presented may have a variety of applications, such as the assessment of seating requirements for the elderly or disabled, and the relative evaluation of a range of seats for nursing homes, clinics, hospitals and rehabilitation or recreational lounges. PMID:15676907

  17. Neurological Recovery of Upper Extremity in Stroke Woman after 5 Years: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Vejabhuti, Chayanin

    2016-02-01

    Strokes are common neurological disorders in Thailand. Rehabilitation programs significantly improve arm function outcomes if performed during the sub-acute period of stroke rehabilitation, within 6 months of the attack. This report describes the case of a stroke patient who gained upper extremity motor recovery after 5 years, which is beyond the normal recovery period. Although the patient does not have functionality, she has partial motor recovery, and she is enthusiastic about learning to gain better use of her hand. However there is still limited evidence to use in designing effective intervention and proper timing of rehabilitation administered by personnel in training chronic stroke patients. Therefore, evidence based on neuroplasticity and neurological recovery in chronic stroke patients, including rehabilitation intervention, is presented in this report. PMID:27266238

  18. Limited surgical treatment of suspected necrotizing fasciitis of the upper extremity with a benign clinical presentation

    PubMed Central

    Gander, Brian; Kaye, Marc; Wollstein, Ronit

    2012-01-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis is a rapidly evolving, potentially fatal infection. Current recommendations advocate antibiotic administration and early aggressive surgical debridement. Aggressive surgery is associated with significant morbidity, leaving patients with substantial tissue loss and complex wounds. A case of suspected necrotizing fasciitis treated with minimal surgery is described. A previously healthy 48-year-old man presented with increased erythema, swelling and blistering of his left upper extremity. Despite a benign systemic clinical presentation, the hand and forearm were suspicious for necrotizing fasciitis, prompting surgical treatment. Surgical exploration found a significant amount of intradermal and subdermal clear fluid. It was decided to limit the amount of debridement. The diagnosis was Wells syndrome, eosinophilic cellulitis. Treated with steroids, the wounds healed uneventfully. It is important to consider the complete clinical picture before aggressive surgical treatment. A negative history for diabetes, atypical clinical presentation and benign operative findings are suggestive of a more benign diagnosis. PMID:23997598

  19. Sports injuries to the upper extremity. How to recognize and deal with some common problems.

    PubMed

    Cooney, W P

    1984-09-15

    Upper extremity syndromes caused by a single stress or by repetitive microtrauma occur in a variety of sports. The throwing motion, long-distance swimming, bowling, golf, gymnastics, basketball, volleyball, and field events can repetitively stress the hand, wrist, elbow, and shoulder. The biomechanical evaluation of racquet handling, throwing, and swimming motions has progressed considerably, and the future looks promising for better identification and prevention of sports injuries due to stress. These insights will help the physician more adequately understand and treat athletic injuries. As for the present, we must recognize athletic injuries for what they are--debilitating single or repetitive trauma to active persons who want a rapid return to their sport. The goal of both the injured athlete and the treating physician must be 100% recovery; compromise in treatment is not warranted. To achieve the best results, the physician should emphasize to the athlete, coach, and parent that healing is a matter of time. PMID:6473225

  20. Neck and upper extremity pain in sonographers - Associations with occupational factors.

    PubMed

    Gremark Simonsen, Jenny; Axmon, Anna; Nordander, Catarina; Arvidsson, Inger

    2017-01-01

    Sonographers have a high risk of musculoskeletal disorders. This study explores the associations between working conditions and musculoskeletal pain based on the frequency and intensity of pain in the neck and upper extremities. A questionnaire was answered by 291 female sonographers. High prevalence of neck/shoulder pain was associated with eye complaints and headache related to work on the computer, dissatisfaction with the computer workstation, high mechanical exposure index (MEI) and high demands. The possibility to adjust the keyboard and chair, and adequately corrected eyesight were positive factors. High prevalence of elbow/hand pain was associated with performing echocardiography, computer-related eye complaints, high MEI and high job and sensory demands. In echocardiography, working with a straight wrist and holding the transducer with a two-handed grip or alternating hands was associated with a low prevalence of elbow/hand pain. Thus, further improvements in the working conditions are possible and are recommended. PMID:27633219

  1. [Hemiplegia and cerebral palsy - multidisciplinary treatment of the spastic upper extremity].

    PubMed

    Haefeli, Mathias; Calcagni, Maurizio

    2014-09-17

    Spastic hemiplegia and cerebral palsy often lead to typical deformities of the upper extremity. Muscle- and joint-contractures may be painful and aesthetically unappealing and may interfere with function and hygiene. Within the first weeks after the cerebral incidence the vital threat is dominating and the exact amount of neurologic impairment is not assessable. During this period, conservative treatment should counteract the development of contractures. After spontaneous neurologic recovery, surgical options should be taken into account. When choosing surgical procedures, factors as volitional motor control, sensibility and cognition must be taken into account besides the morphologic changes. This is best achieved in a multidisciplinary setting of neurologists, rehabilitation specialists, physiotherapists and surgeons. PMID:25228575

  2. Sports injuries to the upper extremity. How to recognize and deal with some common problems.

    PubMed

    Cooney, W P

    1984-09-15

    Upper extremity syndromes caused by a single stress or by repetitive microtrauma occur in a variety of sports. The throwing motion, long-distance swimming, bowling, golf, gymnastics, basketball, volleyball, and field events can repetitively stress the hand, wrist, elbow, and shoulder. The biomechanical evaluation of racquet handling, throwing, and swimming motions has progressed considerably, and the future looks promising for better identification and prevention of sports injuries due to stress. These insights will help the physician more adequately understand and treat athletic injuries. As for the present, we must recognize athletic injuries for what they are--debilitating single or repetitive trauma to active persons who want a rapid return to their sport. The goal of both the injured athlete and the treating physician must be 100% recovery; compromise in treatment is not warranted. To achieve the best results, the physician should emphasize to the athlete, coach, and parent that healing is a matter of time.

  3. Benthic processes affecting contaminant transport in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuwabara, James S.; Topping, Brent R.; Carter, James L.; Carlson, Rick A; Parchaso, Francis; Fend, Steven V.; Stauffer-Olsen, Natalie; Manning, Andrew J.; Land, Jennie M.

    2016-09-30

    Executive SummaryMultiple sampling trips during calendar years 2013 through 2015 were coordinated to provide measurements of interdependent benthic processes that potentially affect contaminant transport in Upper Klamath Lake (UKL), Oregon. The measurements were motivated by recognition that such internal processes (for example, solute benthic flux, bioturbation and solute efflux by benthic invertebrates, and physical groundwater-surface water interactions) were not integrated into existing management models for UKL. Up until 2013, all of the benthic-flux studies generally had been limited spatially to a number of sites in the northern part of UKL and limited temporally to 2–3 samplings per year. All of the benthic invertebrate studies also had been limited to the northern part of the lake; however, intensive temporal (weekly) studies had previously been completed independent of benthic-flux studies. Therefore, knowledge of both the spatial and temporal variability in benthic flux and benthic invertebrate distributions for the entire lake was lacking. To address these limitations, we completed a lakewide spatial study during 2013 and a coordinated temporal study with weekly sampling of benthic flux and benthic invertebrates during 2014. Field design of the spatially focused study in 2013 involved 21 sites sampled three times as the summer cyanobacterial bloom developed (that is, May 23, June 13, and July 3, 2013). Results of the 27-week, temporally focused study of one site in 2014 were summarized and partitioned into three periods (referred to herein as pre-bloom, bloom and post-bloom periods), each period involving 9 weeks of profiler deployments, water column and benthic sampling. Partitioning of the pre-bloom, bloom, and post-bloom periods were based on water-column chlorophyll concentrations and involved the following date intervals, respectively: April 15 through June 10, June 17 through August 13, and August 20 through October 16, 2014. To examine

  4. Catheter-Directed Thrombolysis for Treatment of Deep Venous Thrombosis in the Upper Extremities

    SciTech Connect

    Vik, Anders; Holme, Pal Andre; Singh, Kulbir; Dorenberg, Eric; Nordhus, Kare Christian; Kumar, Satish; Hansen, John-Bjarne

    2009-09-15

    Traditional anticoagulant treatment of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) in the upper extremities (UEDVT) is associated with a relatively high incidence of postthrombotic syndrome (PTS). Catheter-directed thrombolysis (CDT) for UEDVT would provide efficient thrombolysis with less subsequent PTS than during traditional anticoagulation. Primary efficacy, complications, and long-term results after CDT are reported in a retrospective cohort (2002-2007) of patients (n = 30) with DVT in the upper extremities. PTS was assessed by a modified Villalta scale. UEDVT was unprovoked in 11 (37%) cases and effort related in 9 (30%) cases. The median duration of symptoms prior to CDT was 7.0 days (range, 1-30); median duration of thrombolysis treatment, 70 h (range, 24-264 h); and the median amount of rt-PA infused during CDT, 52 mg (range, 19-225 mg). Major bleeding was registered in three (9%) patients, and CDT was stopped prematurely in three patients due to local hematoma. No intracerebral bleeding, clinical pulmonary embolism, or deaths occurred during treatment. Grade II (>50%) or III (>90%) lysis was present in 29 patients (97%) at the end of CDT. Bleeding complications increased by each day of delay from the debut of symptoms to the start of treatment (OR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.01-1.42). At follow-up (n = 29; median, 21 months; range, 5-58 months), 11 (38%) patients had occluded veins, whereas 18 (62%) had patent veins. However, stenosis of varying severity was present in eight of those with a patent vein. No patients had severe PTS, whereas six (21%) experienced mild PTS. In conclusion, our retrospective cohort study of patients with UEDVT showed that treatment restored venous drainage, with a subsequent low frequency of mild PTS at follow-up. Early intervention with CDT prevented bleeding complications.

  5. Cortical reorganization after macroreplantation at the upper extremity: a magnetoencephalographic study.

    PubMed

    Blume, Kathrin R; Dietrich, Caroline; Huonker, Ralph; Götz, Theresa; Sens, Elisabeth; Friedel, Reinhard; Hofmann, Gunther O; Miltner, Wolfgang H R; Weiss, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    With the development of microsurgical techniques, replantation has become a feasible alternative to stump treatment after the amputation of an extremity. It is known that amputation often induces phantom limb pain and cortical reorganization within the corresponding somatosensory areas. However, whether replantation reduces the risk of comparable persisting pain phenomena as well as reorganization of the primary somatosensory cortex is still widely unknown. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the potential development of persistent pain and cortical reorganization of the hand and lip areas within the sensory cortex by means of magnetoencephalographic dipole analyses after replantation of a traumatically amputated upper limb proximal to the radiocarpal joint. Cortical reorganization was investigated in 13 patients with limb replantation using air puff stimulation of the phalanges of both thumbs and both corners of the lower lip. Displacement of the centre of gravity of lip and thumb representations and increased cortical activity were found in the limb and face areas of the primary somatosensory cortex contralateral to the replanted arm when compared to the ipsilateral hemisphere. Thus, cortical reorganization in the primary somatosensory cortex also occurs after replantation of the upper extremity. Patients' reports of pain in the replanted body part were negatively correlated with the amount of cortical reorganization, i.e. the more pain the patients reported, the less reorganization of the subjects' hand representation within the primary somatosensory cortex was observed. Longitudinal studies in patients after macroreplantation are necessary to assess whether the observed reorganization in the primary somatosensory cortex is a result of changes within the representation of the replanted arm and/or neighbouring representations and to assess the relationship between the development of persistent pain and reorganization.

  6. [The most common overuse injury syndromes of the upper extremity associated with work activity].

    PubMed

    Krapac, L

    2001-12-01

    Repetitive use of upper extremities, non-physiological body posture, especially of cervical spine, shoulders, lower arms, and fists are still present in modern technological processes. Innate deformities, weakness of connective tissue, accompanying morbidity (radicular symptoms, neuropathies, superior thoracic aperture syndrome, vasopathies and neuroses) are significant pathogenic overuse syndromes. Other causes of overuse syndromes are non-ergonomic tools, musical instruments, furniture, or keyboards. Lack of training for jobs involving repetitive movements, as well as job dissatisfaction are additional aggravating factors of the overuse syndrome. Polypragmasy with drug and physical therapy, insufficient rehabilitation, and questionable medical prognosis of working capacity are challenges to public health of even in richer societies. This paper describes the most common overuse syndromes of upper extremities. The aetiology of reflex dystrophy syndrome, carpal tunnel, and myofascial painful syndrome are still insufficiently explained. The paper also presents data collected in a group of 40 metal workers exposed to significant shoulder strain. They more often reported pain in the cervical spine than the control group of workers under moderate strain (45% v. 7.5%; P < 0.01), as well as pain in the shoulders (12.5% v. 5.0%) and stiffened hand (22.5%:7.5%). Symptoms were significantly more frequent in the dominant hand. A common diagnosis in a sample of 110 musicians was a change in the shoulder joint, which was more distinct in the right shoulder (10%) than in the left (7%) and comparable in the elbows (8%). The paper proceeds with cases of advanced overuse syndrome in a textile worker and cases of dissimulation in a physician and a guitarist. The paper stresses the importance of quantification of morphological and functional changes in overuse syndromes and discusses the necessity of prevention, education, early diagnosis, pharmacological and physical therapy, and

  7. Comparison of upper extremity function, pain, and tactile sense between the uneffected side of hemiparetic patients and healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Balcı, Nilay Comuk; Dogru, Esra; Aytar, Aydan; Gokmen, Ozge; Depreli, Ozde

    2016-07-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to compare the unaffected upper extremity of patients with hemiparesis with that of healthy subjects in terms of function, pain, and tactile sense. [Subjects and Methods] Upper extremity evaluation parameters of 20 patients with hemiparesis were compared with an age-matched control group of 20 healthy subjects. A shorter version of the Disability of Arm and Shoulder Questionnaire, Upper Extremity Functional Index, and Simple Shoulder Test were used to evaluate the upper extremity functionality. The Visual Analog Scale was used to measure pain severity at rest, at night, and during activity. Tactile sensation levels were assessed by Semmes-Weinstein monofilaments at four palmar areas. [Results] A statistically significant difference was found in the upper extremity functionality between the groups. Pain severity at rest was significantly higher in the hemiparetic group. There was no significant difference in night and activity pain severities or tactile sensation levels between the groups. [Conclusion] According to our results, the unaffected side of patients with hemiparesis differs in functionality and pain at rest compared with that of healthy persons. Studies with larger sample size and various evaluation tests are needed to further investigate the unaffected side of patients with hemiparesis. PMID:27512250

  8. Comparison of upper extremity function, pain, and tactile sense between the uneffected side of hemiparetic patients and healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Balcı, Nilay Comuk; Dogru, Esra; Aytar, Aydan; Gokmen, Ozge; Depreli, Ozde

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to compare the unaffected upper extremity of patients with hemiparesis with that of healthy subjects in terms of function, pain, and tactile sense. [Subjects and Methods] Upper extremity evaluation parameters of 20 patients with hemiparesis were compared with an age-matched control group of 20 healthy subjects. A shorter version of the Disability of Arm and Shoulder Questionnaire, Upper Extremity Functional Index, and Simple Shoulder Test were used to evaluate the upper extremity functionality. The Visual Analog Scale was used to measure pain severity at rest, at night, and during activity. Tactile sensation levels were assessed by Semmes-Weinstein monofilaments at four palmar areas. [Results] A statistically significant difference was found in the upper extremity functionality between the groups. Pain severity at rest was significantly higher in the hemiparetic group. There was no significant difference in night and activity pain severities or tactile sensation levels between the groups. [Conclusion] According to our results, the unaffected side of patients with hemiparesis differs in functionality and pain at rest compared with that of healthy persons. Studies with larger sample size and various evaluation tests are needed to further investigate the unaffected side of patients with hemiparesis. PMID:27512250

  9. Clinical and workplace factors associated with a return to modified duty in work-related upper extremity disorders.

    PubMed

    Feuerstein, Michael; Shaw, William S; Lincoln, Andrew E; Miller, Virginia I; Wood, Patricia M

    2003-03-01

    Return to work following treatment for a work-related upper extremity disorder (WRUED) is affected by a variety of medical, workplace, and personal factors, and returning to modified duty may ease the transition to normal work activities. This study surveyed 165 federal government employees (127 females, 38 males) who were unable to resume their normal work after filing a workers' compensation claim for a WRUED (<90 days from claim filing) and who volunteered for a randomized study of alternative case management strategies. Before randomization, participants completed a baseline survey of upper extremity (UE) symptoms, functional limitations, and workplace factors. At baseline, 58 participants (35%) were working modified duty and 107 participants (65%) were not working. Compared with participants working modified duty, those who were not working were more likely to report: (a). a diagnosis of mononeuropathy, odds ratio (OR)=3.16 (95% confidence interval (CI)=1.37-7.14) versus enthesopathy, (b). higher pain ratings, OR=1.43 (95% CI=1.01-2.01), (c). greater functional limitations, OR=1.63 (95% CI=1.11-2.38), and (d). higher level of ergonomic stressors, OR=1.62 (95% CI=1.09-2.43) in a multivariable logistic regression. Measures of high risk work styles (fast pace and working despite pain) were associated with greater perceptions of ergonomic exposure, but not with work status. The model had 87.9% sensitivity and 43.1% specificity to correctly classify those not working (overall classification 72.1% correct). The results suggest that modified duty for workers with persistent WRUEDs may be enhanced by assessing perceived functional limitation and ergonomic exposure as well as the type and severity of symptoms. PMID:12620596

  10. Biomechanical Model for Evaluation of Pediatric Upper Extremity Joint Dynamics during Wheelchair Mobility

    PubMed Central

    Schnorenberg, Alyssa J.; Slavens, Brooke A.; Wang, Mei; Vogel, Lawrence; Smith, Peter; Harris, Gerald F.

    2014-01-01

    Pediatric manual wheelchair users (MWU) require high joint demands on their upper extremity (UE) during wheelchair mobility, leading them to be at risk of developing pain and pathology. Studies have examined UE biomechanics during wheelchair mobility in the adult population; however, current methods for evaluating UE joint dynamics of pediatric MWU are limited. An inverse dynamics model is proposed to characterize three-dimensional UE joint kinematics and kinetics during pediatric wheelchair mobility using a SmartWheel instrumented handrim system. The bilateral model comprises thorax, clavicle, scapula, upper arm, forearm, and hand segments and includes the sternoclavicular, acromioclavicular, glenohumeral, elbow and wrist joints. A single 17 year-old male with a C7 spinal cord injury (SCI) was evaluated while propelling his wheelchair across a 15-meter walkway. The subject exhibited wrist extension angles up to 60°, large elbow ranges of motion and peak glenohumeral joint forces up to 10% body weight. Statistically significant asymmetry of the wrist, elbow, glenohumeral and acromioclavicular joints was detected by the model. As demonstrated, the custom bilateral UE pediatric model may provide considerable quantitative insight into UE joint dynamics to improve wheelchair prescription, training, rehabilitation and long-term care of children with orthopaedic disabilities. Further research is warranted to evaluate pediatric wheelchair mobility in a larger population of children with SCI to investigate correlations to pain, function and transitional changes to adulthood. PMID:24309622

  11. Regional differences in peripheral circulation between upper and lower extremity in patients with cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Okumura, H; Aramaki, T; Katsuta, Y; Terada, H; Satomura, K; Akaike, M; Sekiyama, T

    1990-09-01

    In 42 patients with compensated cirrhosis and 31 control subjects, blood flow (BF) and vascular resistance (VR) were measured at the forearm and calf, using a pneumoplethysmograph. In some of the subjects deep-body temperature (DBT) was also measured by the zero heat flow method. In cirrhosis, BF and DBT were significantly higher and VR was significantly lower in the forearm than in the calf. Corresponding differences were not observed in control subjects. When these indices of the forearm were compared between cirrhosis and controls, BF and DBT were significantly higher and VR was significantly lower in cirrhosis than in controls. In cirrhotics in whom the gradient between forearm BF and calf BF was 1 ml.dl-1.min-1 or more (forearm greater than calf), the vascular response of the forearm to cold stimulation was reduced, whereas in the remaining patients and in controls the forearm BF and VR responded significantly. These results suggest that there is a regional difference in peripheral circulation in cirrhotics, partly with participation of impaired sympathetic nervous activity, which may account for the selective distribution observed in the clinical manifestations of vascular spider, palmar erythema, and warm hand, inclined toward the upper extremities or the upper part of the body.

  12. Biomechanical model for evaluation of pediatric upper extremity joint dynamics during wheelchair mobility.

    PubMed

    Schnorenberg, Alyssa J; Slavens, Brooke A; Wang, Mei; Vogel, Lawrence C; Smith, Peter A; Harris, Gerald F

    2014-01-01

    Pediatric manual wheelchair users (MWU) require high joint demands on their upper extremity (UE) during wheelchair mobility, leading them to be at risk of developing pain and pathology. Studies have examined UE biomechanics during wheelchair mobility in the adult population; however, current methods for evaluating UE joint dynamics of pediatric MWU are limited. An inverse dynamics model is proposed to characterize three-dimensional UE joint kinematics and kinetics during pediatric wheelchair mobility using a SmartWheel instrumented handrim system. The bilateral model comprises thorax, clavicle, scapula, upper arm, forearm, and hand segments and includes the sternoclavicular, acromioclavicular, glenohumeral, elbow and wrist joints. A single 17 year-old male with a C7 spinal cord injury (SCI) was evaluated while propelling his wheelchair across a 15-meter walkway. The subject exhibited wrist extension angles up to 60°, large elbow ranges of motion and peak glenohumeral joint forces up to 10% body weight. Statistically significant asymmetry of the wrist, elbow, glenohumeral and acromioclavicular joints was detected by the model. As demonstrated, the custom bilateral UE pediatric model may provide considerable quantitative insight into UE joint dynamics to improve wheelchair prescription, training, rehabilitation and long-term care of children with orthopedic disabilities. Further research is warranted to evaluate pediatric wheelchair mobility in a larger population of children with SCI to investigate correlations to pain, function and transitional changes to adulthood.

  13. The Risk Factors for Failure of an Upper Extremity Replantation: Is the Use of Cigarettes/Tobacco a Significant Factor?

    PubMed Central

    He, Ji-Yin; Chen, Shih-Heng; Tsai, Tsu-Min

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to explore the potential risk factors associated with the failure of an upper extremity replantation with a focus on cigarette or tobacco use. Patients and Methods A cohort of 102 patients with 149 replants (6 extremities, 143 digits) and a mean age of 41 years (range 5 to 72 years) was enrolled in this study. The data collected included age, gender, tobacco/cigarettes use, trauma mechanism, underlying disease (e.g., hypertension (HTN), diabetes mellitus (DM), etc.), and vein graft use. An analysis with a multivariable regression was conducted to identify the risk factors of replant failure and their respective odds ratios (ORs). Results Multilevel generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs) with a binomial distribution and logit link showed that smoking did not increase the risk of replant failure (p = 0.234). In addition, the survival of replants was not affected by DM or HTN (p = 0.285 and 0.938, respectively). However, the replantation results were significantly affected by the age of the patients and the mechanism of injury. Patients older than 50 years and those with avulsion or crush injuries tended to have a higher risk of replant failure (OR = 2.29, 6.45, and 5.42, respectively; p = 0.047, 0.028, and 0.032, respectively). Conclusions This study showed that the use of cigarettes/tobacco did not affect the replantation outcome. The main risks for replant failure included being older than 50 years and the trauma mechanism (avulsion or crush injuries). PMID:26513147

  14. Variables associated with upper extremity function in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Mariska M H P; Hendriks, Jan C M; Geurts, Alexander C H; de Groot, Imelda J M

    2016-09-01

    Preserving upper extremity (UE) function in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is extremely important as it is related to independence and quality of life. For clinical decision making, knowledge of variables associated with UE function is necessary. This knowledge is, however, limited. Therefore, this study aims to gain more insight into the variables associated with UE function in DMD. Data from an international web-based questionnaire on UE function, obtained from 213 DMD patients, were used. Six dependent variables regarding UE function were used in multivariable linear regression analyses. In addition, 26 independent variables regarding patient characteristics, medication, therapy, supportive aids, pain, stiffness and participation were used. Twelve independent variables showed a significant relation to UE function. Variables with a negative relation to UE function were: later disease stage, occurrence of scoliosis, higher age, use of UE splints, more frequent stiffness complaints, more limitations due to stiffness, more frequent elbow pain, and having physical therapy. A positive relation with UE function was seen for going to school or work, use of corticosteroids, higher BMI, and higher age at diagnosis. These variables explained 56-81 % of the variation of the different measures of UE function. Knowledge of variables associated with UE function is very important in the clinical management of DMD patients. The results of this study suggest that corticosteroid use and participation in school and work related activities are positively related to UE function in DMD patients, as well as reducing pain and stiffness and preventing scoliosis.

  15. Variables associated with upper extremity function in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Mariska M H P; Hendriks, Jan C M; Geurts, Alexander C H; de Groot, Imelda J M

    2016-09-01

    Preserving upper extremity (UE) function in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is extremely important as it is related to independence and quality of life. For clinical decision making, knowledge of variables associated with UE function is necessary. This knowledge is, however, limited. Therefore, this study aims to gain more insight into the variables associated with UE function in DMD. Data from an international web-based questionnaire on UE function, obtained from 213 DMD patients, were used. Six dependent variables regarding UE function were used in multivariable linear regression analyses. In addition, 26 independent variables regarding patient characteristics, medication, therapy, supportive aids, pain, stiffness and participation were used. Twelve independent variables showed a significant relation to UE function. Variables with a negative relation to UE function were: later disease stage, occurrence of scoliosis, higher age, use of UE splints, more frequent stiffness complaints, more limitations due to stiffness, more frequent elbow pain, and having physical therapy. A positive relation with UE function was seen for going to school or work, use of corticosteroids, higher BMI, and higher age at diagnosis. These variables explained 56-81 % of the variation of the different measures of UE function. Knowledge of variables associated with UE function is very important in the clinical management of DMD patients. The results of this study suggest that corticosteroid use and participation in school and work related activities are positively related to UE function in DMD patients, as well as reducing pain and stiffness and preventing scoliosis. PMID:27314968

  16. Upper extremity deep vein thrombosis in hospitalized patients: a descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Schleyer, Anneliese M; Jarman, Kenneth M; Calver, Patty; Cuschieri, Joseph; Robinson, Ellen; Goss, J Richard

    2014-01-01

    Increasingly, there is a focus on the prevention of hospital-acquired conditions including venous thromboembolism. Many studies have evaluated pulmonary embolism and lower extremity deep vein thrombosis, but less is known about upper extremity deep vein thrombosis (UEDVT) in hospitalized patients. The objective of this study was to describe UEDVT incidence, associated risks, outcomes, and management in our institution. Using an information technology tool, we reviewed records of all symptomatic adult inpatients diagnosed with UEDVT at an academic tertiary center between September 2011 and November 2012. Fifty inpatients were diagnosed with 76 UEDVTs. Their mean age was 49 years; 70% were men. Sixteen percent had a history of venous thromboembolism; 20% had a history of malignancy. The mean length of stay (LOS) was 24.6 days (range, 2-91 days); 50% were transferred from outside hospitals. Thirty-eight percent of UEDVTs were in internal jugular veins, 21% in axillary veins, and 25% in brachial veins. Forty-four percent of patients had UEDVT associated with central venous catheters (CVCs). During hospitalization, 78% were fully anticoagulated; 75% of survivors at discharge. Only 38% were discharged to self-care; 10% died during hospitalization. Patients with UEDVT were more likely to have CVCs, malignancy, and severe infection. Many patients were transferred critically ill with prolonged LOS and high in-hospital mortality. Most UEDVTs were treated even in the absence of concurrent lower extremity deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism. Additional research is needed to modify risks and optimize outcomes. Journal of Hospital Medicine 2014;9:48-53. © 2013 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  17. The effect of task-oriented training on the muscle activation of the upper extremity in chronic stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Park, JuHyung

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine the effects of task-oriented training on upper extremity muscle activation in daily activities performed by chronic stoke patients. [Subjects and Methods] In this research, task-oriented training was conducted by 2 chronic hemiplegic stroke patients. Task-oriented training was conducted 5 times a week, 30 minutes per day, for 2 weeks. Evaluation was conducted 3 times before and after the intervention. The Change of muscle activation in the upper extremity was measured using a BTS FreeEMG 300. [Results] The subjects’ root mean square values for agonistic muscles for the reaching activity increased after the intervention. All subjects’ co-coordination ratios decreased after the intervention in all movements of reaching activity. [Conclusion] Through this research, task-oriented training was proven to be effective in improving the muscle activation of the upper extremity in chronic hemiplegic stroke patients. PMID:27190488

  18. The effect of task-oriented training on the muscle activation of the upper extremity in chronic stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Park, JuHyung

    2016-04-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine the effects of task-oriented training on upper extremity muscle activation in daily activities performed by chronic stoke patients. [Subjects and Methods] In this research, task-oriented training was conducted by 2 chronic hemiplegic stroke patients. Task-oriented training was conducted 5 times a week, 30 minutes per day, for 2 weeks. Evaluation was conducted 3 times before and after the intervention. The Change of muscle activation in the upper extremity was measured using a BTS FreeEMG 300. [Results] The subjects' root mean square values for agonistic muscles for the reaching activity increased after the intervention. All subjects' co-coordination ratios decreased after the intervention in all movements of reaching activity. [Conclusion] Through this research, task-oriented training was proven to be effective in improving the muscle activation of the upper extremity in chronic hemiplegic stroke patients. PMID:27190488

  19. Intra-arterial Autologous Bone Marrow Cell Transplantation in a Patient with Upper-extremity Critical Limb Ischemia

    SciTech Connect

    Madaric, Juraj; Klepanec, Andrej; Mistrik, Martin; Altaner, Cestmir; Vulev, Ivan

    2013-04-15

    Induction of therapeutic angiogenesis by autologous bone marrow mononuclear cell transplantation has been identified as a potential new option in patients with advanced lower-limb ischemia. There is little evidence of the benefit of intra-arterial cell application in upper-limb critical ischemia. We describe a patient with upper-extremity critical limb ischemia with digital gangrene resulting from hypothenar hammer syndrome successfully treated by intra-arterial autologous bone marrow mononuclear cell transplantation.

  20. The effects of very early mirror therapy on functional improvement of the upper extremity in acute stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Yeldan, Ipek; Huseyınsınoglu, Burcu Ersoz; Akıncı, Buket; Tarakcı, Ela; Baybas, Sevim; Ozdıncler, Arzu Razak

    2015-11-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of a very early mirror therapy program on functional improvement of the upper extremity in acute stroke patients. [Subjects] Eight stroke patients who were treated in an acute neurology unit were included in the study. [Methods] The patients were assigned alternatively to either the mirror therapy group receiving mirror therapy and neurodevelopmental treatment or the neurodevelopmental treatment only group. The primary outcome measures were the upper extremity motor subscale of the Fugl-Meyer Assessment, Motricity Index upper extremity score, and the Stroke Upper Limb Capacity Scale. Somatosensory assessment with the Ayres Southern California Sensory Integration Test, and the Barthel Index were used as secondary outcome measures. [Results] No statistically significant improvements were found for any measures in either group after the treatment. In terms of minimally clinically important differences, there were improvements in Fugl-Meyer Assessment and Barthel Index in both mirror therapy and neurodevelopmental treatment groups. [Conclusion] The results of this pilot study revealed that very early mirror therapy has no additional effect on functional improvement of upper extremity function in acute stroke patients. Multicenter trials are needed to determine the results of early application of mirror therapy in stroke rehabilitation. PMID:26696729

  1. Age-related structural changes in upper extremity muscle tissue in a non-human primate model

    PubMed Central

    Santago, Anthony C.; Plate, Johannes F.; Shively, Carol A.; Register, Thomas C.; Smith, Thomas L.; Saul, Katherine R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Longitudinal studies of upper extremity aging in humans include logistical concerns that animal models can overcome. The vervet is a promising species with which to study aging related processes. However, age-related changes in upper extremity muscle structure have not been quantified in this species. This study measured age-related changes to muscle structure, examined relationships between muscle structure and measures of physical performance, and evaluated the presence of rotator cuff tears. Methods Muscle structure: volume, optimal fiber length, physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA), of 10 upper extremity muscles was quantified from the right upper limb of 5 middle aged and 6 older adult female vervets. Results Total measured PCSA was smaller (p=0.001) in the older adult vervets than the middle aged vervets. Muscle volume reduction predominate the age-related reductions in PCSA. Total measured PCSA was not correlated to any measures of physical performance. No rotator cuff tears were observed. Supraspinatus volume was relatively larger and deltoid volume relatively smaller in the vervet compared to a human. Conclusion The vervet is an appropriate translational model for age-related upper extremity muscle volume loss. Functional measures were not correlated to PCSA, suggesting the vervets may have enough strength for normal function despite loss of muscle tissue. Reduced relative demand on the supraspinatus may be responsible for the lack of naturally occurring rotator cuff tears. PMID:25963066

  2. The effects of very early mirror therapy on functional improvement of the upper extremity in acute stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Yeldan, Ipek; Huseyınsınoglu, Burcu Ersoz; Akıncı, Buket; Tarakcı, Ela; Baybas, Sevim; Ozdıncler, Arzu Razak

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of a very early mirror therapy program on functional improvement of the upper extremity in acute stroke patients. [Subjects] Eight stroke patients who were treated in an acute neurology unit were included in the study. [Methods] The patients were assigned alternatively to either the mirror therapy group receiving mirror therapy and neurodevelopmental treatment or the neurodevelopmental treatment only group. The primary outcome measures were the upper extremity motor subscale of the Fugl-Meyer Assessment, Motricity Index upper extremity score, and the Stroke Upper Limb Capacity Scale. Somatosensory assessment with the Ayres Southern California Sensory Integration Test, and the Barthel Index were used as secondary outcome measures. [Results] No statistically significant improvements were found for any measures in either group after the treatment. In terms of minimally clinically important differences, there were improvements in Fugl-Meyer Assessment and Barthel Index in both mirror therapy and neurodevelopmental treatment groups. [Conclusion] The results of this pilot study revealed that very early mirror therapy has no additional effect on functional improvement of upper extremity function in acute stroke patients. Multicenter trials are needed to determine the results of early application of mirror therapy in stroke rehabilitation. PMID:26696729

  3. Shoulder muscle recruitment patterns and related biomechanics during upper extremity sports.

    PubMed

    Escamilla, Rafael F; Andrews, James R

    2009-01-01

    Understanding when and how much shoulder muscles are active during upper extremity sports is helpful to physicians, therapists, trainers and coaches in providing appropriate treatment, training and rehabilitation protocols to these athletes. This review focuses on shoulder muscle activity (rotator cuff, deltoids, pectoralis major, latissimus dorsi, triceps and biceps brachii, and scapular muscles) during the baseball pitch, the American football throw, the windmill softball pitch, the volleyball serve and spike, the tennis serve and volley, baseball hitting, and the golf swing. Because shoulder electromyography (EMG) data are far more extensive for overhead throwing activities compared with non-throwing upper extremity sports, much of this review focuses on shoulder EMG during the overhead throwing motion. Throughout this review shoulder kinematic and kinetic data (when available) are integrated with shoulder EMG data to help better understand why certain muscles are active during different phases of an activity, what type of muscle action (eccentric or concentric) occurs, and to provide insight into the shoulder injury mechanism. Kinematic, kinetic and EMG data have been reported extensively during overhead throwing, such as baseball pitching and football passing. Because shoulder forces, torques and muscle activity are generally greatest during the arm cocking and arm deceleration phases of overhead throwing, it is believed that most shoulder injuries occur during these phases. During overhead throwing, high rotator cuff muscle activity is generated to help resist the high shoulder distractive forces approximately 80-120% bodyweight during the arm cocking and deceleration phases. During arm cocking, peak rotator cuff activity is 49-99% of a maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) in baseball pitching and 41-67% MVIC in football throwing. During arm deceleration, peak rotator cuff activity is 37-84% MVIC in baseball pitching and 86-95% MVIC in football

  4. Shoulder muscle recruitment patterns and related biomechanics during upper extremity sports.

    PubMed

    Escamilla, Rafael F; Andrews, James R

    2009-01-01

    Understanding when and how much shoulder muscles are active during upper extremity sports is helpful to physicians, therapists, trainers and coaches in providing appropriate treatment, training and rehabilitation protocols to these athletes. This review focuses on shoulder muscle activity (rotator cuff, deltoids, pectoralis major, latissimus dorsi, triceps and biceps brachii, and scapular muscles) during the baseball pitch, the American football throw, the windmill softball pitch, the volleyball serve and spike, the tennis serve and volley, baseball hitting, and the golf swing. Because shoulder electromyography (EMG) data are far more extensive for overhead throwing activities compared with non-throwing upper extremity sports, much of this review focuses on shoulder EMG during the overhead throwing motion. Throughout this review shoulder kinematic and kinetic data (when available) are integrated with shoulder EMG data to help better understand why certain muscles are active during different phases of an activity, what type of muscle action (eccentric or concentric) occurs, and to provide insight into the shoulder injury mechanism. Kinematic, kinetic and EMG data have been reported extensively during overhead throwing, such as baseball pitching and football passing. Because shoulder forces, torques and muscle activity are generally greatest during the arm cocking and arm deceleration phases of overhead throwing, it is believed that most shoulder injuries occur during these phases. During overhead throwing, high rotator cuff muscle activity is generated to help resist the high shoulder distractive forces approximately 80-120% bodyweight during the arm cocking and deceleration phases. During arm cocking, peak rotator cuff activity is 49-99% of a maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) in baseball pitching and 41-67% MVIC in football throwing. During arm deceleration, peak rotator cuff activity is 37-84% MVIC in baseball pitching and 86-95% MVIC in football

  5. Dynamic injury tolerances for long bones of the female upper extremity

    PubMed Central

    DUMA, STEFAN M.; SCHREIBER, PHIL H.; McMASTER, JOHN D.; CRANDALL, JEFF R.; BASS, CAMERON R.; PILKEY, WALTER D.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the dynamic injury tolerances for the female humerus and forearm derived from dynamic 3-point bending tests using 22 female cadaver upper extremities. Twelve female humeri were tested at an average strain rate of 3.7±1.3%/s. The strain rates were chosen to be representative of those observed during upper extremity interaction with frontal and side airbags. The average moment to failure when mass scaled for the 5th centile female was 128±19 Nm. Using data from the in situ strain gauges during the drop tests and geometric properties obtained from pretest CT scans, an average dynamic elastic modulus for the female humerus was found to be 24.4±3.9 GPa. The injury tolerance for the forearm was determined from 10 female forearms tested at an average strain rate of 3.94±2.0%/s. Using 3 matched forearm pairs, it was determined that the forearm is 21% stronger in the supinated position (92±5 Nm) versus the pronated position (75±7 Nm). Two distinct fracture patterns were seen for the pronated and supinated groups. In the supinated position the average difference in fracture time between the radius and ulna was a negligible 0.4±0.3 ms. However, the pronated tests yielded an average difference in fracture time of 3.6±1.2 ms, with the ulna breaking before the radius in every test. This trend implies that in the pronated position, the ulna and radius are loaded independently, while in the supinated position the ulna and radius are loaded together as a combined structure. To produce a conservative injury criterion, a total of 7 female forearms were tested in the pronated position, which resulted in the forearm injury criterion of 58±12 Nm when scaled for the 5th centile female. It is anticipated that these data will provide injury reference values for the female forearm during driver air bag loading, and the female humerus during side air bag loading. PMID:10386782

  6. Muscle activation patterns of the upper and lower extremity during the windmill softball pitch.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Gretchen D; Plummer, Hillary A; Keeley, David W

    2011-06-01

    Fast-pitch softball has become an increasingly popular sport for female athletes. There has been little research examining the windmill softball pitch in the literature. The purpose of this study was to describe the muscle activation patterns of 3 upper extremity muscles (biceps, triceps, and rhomboids [scapular stabilizers]) and 2 lower extremity muscles (gluteus maximus and medius) during the 5 phases of the windmill softball pitch. Data describing muscle activation were collected on 7 postpubescent softball pitchers (age 17.7 ± 2.6 years; height 169 ± 5.4 cm; mass 69.1 ± 5.4 kg). Surface electromyographic data were collected using a Myopac Jr 10-channel amplifier (RUN Technologies Scientific Systems, Laguna Hills, CA, USA) synchronized with The MotionMonitor™ motion capture system (Innovative Sports Training Inc, Chicago IL, USA) and presented as a percent of maximum voluntary isometric contraction. Gluteus maximus activity reached (196.3% maximum voluntary isometric contraction [MVIC]), whereas gluteus medius activity was consistent during the single leg support of phase 3 (101.2% MVIC). Biceps brachii activity was greatest during phase 4 of the pitching motion. Triceps brachii activation was consistently >150% MVIC throughout the entire pitching motion, whereas the scapular stabilizers were most active during phase 2 (170.1% MVIC). The results of this study indicate the extent to which muscles are activated during the windmill softball pitch, and this knowledge can lead to the development of proper preventative and rehabilitative muscle strengthening programs. In addition, clinicians will be able to incorporate strengthening exercises that mimic the timing of maximal muscle activation most used during the windmill pitching phases.

  7. Are pushing and pulling work-related risk factors for upper extremity symptoms? A systematic review of observational studies.

    PubMed

    Hoozemans, M J M; Knelange, E B; Frings-Dresen, M H W; Veeger, H E J; Kuijer, P P F M

    2014-11-01

    Systematically review observational studies concerning the question whether workers that perform pushing/pulling activities have an increased risk for upper extremity symptoms as compared to workers that perform no pushing/pulling activities. A search in MEDLINE via PubMed and EMBASE was performed with work-related search terms combined with push/pushing/pull/pulling. Studies had to examine exposure to pushing/pulling in relation to upper extremity symptoms. Two authors performed the literature selection and assessment of the risk of bias in the studies independently. A best evidence synthesis was used to draw conclusions in terms of strong, moderate or conflicting/insufficient evidence. The search resulted in 4764 studies. Seven studies were included, with three of them of low risk of bias, in total including 8279 participants. A positive significant relationship with upper extremity symptoms was observed in all four prospective cohort studies with effect sizes varying between 1.5 and 4.9. Two out of the three remaining studies also reported a positive association with upper extremity symptoms. In addition, significant positive associations with neck/shoulder symptoms were found in two prospective cohort studies with effect sizes of 1.5 and 1.6, and with shoulder symptoms in one of two cross-sectional studies with an effect size of 2.1. There is strong evidence that pushing/pulling is related to upper extremity symptoms, specifically for shoulder symptoms. There is insufficient or conflicting evidence that pushing/pulling is related to (combinations of) upper arm, elbow, forearm, wrist or hand symptoms.

  8. Computer game-based upper extremity training in the home environment in stroke persons: a single subject design

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The objective of the present study was to assess whether computer game-based training in the home setting in the late phase after stroke could improve upper extremity motor function. Methods Twelve subjects with prior stroke were recruited; 11 completed the study. Design The study had a single subject design; there was a baseline test (A1), a during intervention test (B) once a week, a post-test (A2) measured directly after the treatment phase, plus a follow-up (C) 16–18 weeks after the treatment phase. Information on motor function (Fugl-Meyer), grip force (GrippitR) and arm function in activity (ARAT, ABILHAND) was gathered at A1, A2 and C. During B, only Fugl-Meyer and ARAT were measured. The intervention comprised five weeks of game-based computer training in the home environment. All games were designed to be controlled by either the affected arm alone or by both arms. Conventional formulae were used to calculate the mean, median and standard deviations. Wilcoxon’s signed rank test was used for tests of dependent samples. Continuous data were analyzed by methods for repeated measures and ordinal data were analyzed by methods for ordered multinomial data using cumulative logistic models. A p-value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results Six females and five males, participated in the study with an average age of 58 years (range 26–66). FMA-UE A-D (motor function), ARAT, the maximal grip force and the mean grip force on the affected side show significant improvements at post-test and follow-up compared to baseline. No significant correlation was found between the amount of game time and changes in the outcomes investigated in this study. Conclusion The results indicate that computer game-based training could be a promising approach to improve upper extremity function in the late phase after stroke, since in this study, changes were achieved in motor function and activity capacity. PMID:24625289

  9. Assessing upper extremity motor function in practice of virtual activities of daily living.

    PubMed

    Adams, Richard J; Lichter, Matthew D; Krepkovich, Eileen T; Ellington, Allison; White, Marga; Diamond, Paul T

    2015-03-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the criterion validity of measures of upper extremity (UE) motor function derived during practice of virtual activities of daily living (ADLs). Fourteen hemiparetic stroke patients employed a Virtual Occupational Therapy Assistant (VOTA), consisting of a high-fidelity virtual world and a Kinect™ sensor, in four sessions of approximately one hour in duration. An unscented Kalman Filter-based human motion tracking algorithm estimated UE joint kinematics in real-time during performance of virtual ADL activities, enabling both animation of the user's avatar and automated generation of metrics related to speed and smoothness of motion. These metrics, aggregated over discrete sub-task elements during performance of virtual ADLs, were compared to scores from an established assessment of UE motor performance, the Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT). Spearman's rank correlation analysis indicates a moderate correlation between VOTA-derived metrics and the time-based WMFT assessments, supporting the criterion validity of VOTA measures as a means of tracking patient progress during an UE rehabilitation program that includes practice of virtual ADLs.

  10. Brief assessment of motor function: content validity and reliability of the upper extremity gross motor scale.

    PubMed

    Cintas, Holly Lea; Parks, Rebecca; Don, Sarah; Gerber, Lynn

    2011-11-01

    Content validity and reliability of the Brief Assessment of Motor Function (BAMF) Upper Extremity Gross Motor Scale (UEGMS) were evaluated in this prospective, descriptive study. The UEGMS is one of five BAMF ordinal scales designed for quick documentation of gross, fine, and oral motor skill levels. Designed to be independent of age and diagnosis, it is intended for use for infants through young adults. An expert panel of 17 physical therapists and 13 occupational therapists refined the content by responding to a standard questionnaire comprised of questions, which asked whether each item should be included, is clearly worded, should be reordered higher or lower, is functionally relevant, and is easily discriminated. Ratings of content validity exceeded the criterion except for two items, which may represent different perspectives of physical and occupational therapists. The UEGMS was modified using the quantitative and qualitative feedback from the questionnaires. For reliability, five raters scored videotaped motor performances of 10 children. Coefficients for inter-rater (0.94) and intra-rater (0.95) reliability were high. The results provide evidence of content validity and reliability of the UEGMS for the assessment of UEGM skill.

  11. Soluble IL-1RII and IL-18 are associated with incipient upper extremity soft tissue disorders.

    PubMed

    Rechardt, Martti; Shiri, Rahman; Matikainen, Sampsa; Viikari-Juntura, Eira; Karppinen, Jaro; Alenius, Harri

    2011-05-01

    Previous studies suggest a role for IL-1β in the pathophysiology of upper extremity soft tissue disorders (UESTDs). We studied the levels of interleukin-1 family members in patients with incipient UESTDs and compared them with healthy controls. In this case control study, we included 163 patients with UESTDs and symptom duration shorter than 1 month and 42 healthy controls matched for age and gender at the group level. Serum levels of cytokines IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-1Ra, IL-6, IL-8, IL-18, IL-33, TNFα and sensitized C-reactive protein as well as IL-1 family soluble receptors sIL-1RII and sST2 were assessed. We used unconditional logistic regression models to study the associations between cytokines and UESTDs. After adjustment for potential confounders, the serum levels of sIL-1RII (p<0.001) and sST2 (p=0.014) were higher in the patients than the controls. The level of IL-18 was lower in the patients than the controls (p=0.005). There were no significant differences between the patients and controls regarding the levels of IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-1Ra, IL-33, IL-6, IL-8, TNFα, or sensitized C-reactive protein. The levels of circulating sIL-1RII and IL-18 are associated with incipient UESTDs, suggesting an important role for these IL-1 family members in the early course of UESTDs. PMID:21371906

  12. Does Upper Extremity Training Influence Body Composition after Spinal Cord Injury?

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Justin A.; McNelis, Meredith A.; Gorgey, Ashraf S.; Dolbow, David R.; Goetz, Lance L.

    2015-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) leads to serious body composition adaptations characterized by increasing whole body fat mass and decreased soft tissue lean mass (LM). These adaptations in body composition may lead to several cardio-metabolic disorders that reduce the quality of life, increase patients’ and caregivers’ burden and eventually leads to mortality. Exercise, an appropriate dietary regimen, and an active lifestyle may alleviate several of the negative effects on body composition after a SCI. Today however, there is no established consensus on the recommended dose, frequency or type of exercise to ameliorate several of the body composition sequelae after an acute SCI. Resistance training has been previously recommended as an effective strategy to restore soft tissue LM and decrease fat mass (FM). The strategy can be simply implemented as a routine home-based training program using free weights or resistance bands after a SCI. Additionally, upper extremity (UE) circuit resistance training has been previously used to improve cardiovascular and metabolic parameters after a SCI; however compared to the vast knowledge regarding the able-bodied (AB) population, the effects of UE circuit resistance training on body composition after a SCI is not well established. In summary, the available evidence does not support the rationale that UE circuit resistance training can lead to positive adaptations in body composition after a SCI. Further studies are suggested to examine the effects of UE circuit resistance training on body composition. PMID:26236549

  13. Bone multicentric epithelioid hemangioendothelioma of the lower and upper extremities with pulmonary metastases: A case report

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, HUA; FU, YANBIAO; YE, ZHAOMING

    2015-01-01

    The present study reports a rare case of bone multicentric epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (EH) involving the upper and lower extremities simultaneously, with visceral involvement of the lung. Osteolytic lesions were first identified in the right distal femur and proximal tibia. Slight increased radionuclide uptake was observed in the right shoulder joint on bone scintigraphy, however, this was ignored, as no clinical symptoms were present. The patient was initially misdiagnosed with multifocal chondroblastoma, and an extra-articular curettage of lesions was performed in the proximal tibia and medial femoral condyle, which was filled with bone cement. The histopathological diagnosis was corrected post-operatively following immunohistochemical analysis, which indicated EH, and subsequently, an amputation of the right leg at thigh level was performed. In addition, multiple lytic lesions in the right shoulder joint and pulmonary metastases were identified on whole-body radiological examination. Radiotherapy was administered to the right shoulder joint, however, the patient refused chemotherapy or further surgery. At 15 months after the initial surgery, the patient currently remains alive. This case indicates that an improved understanding with regard to the clinical features of this disease may prevent misdiagnosis and improve EH treatment. PMID:26137035

  14. Management of the spastic upper extremity in the neurologically impaired adult.

    PubMed

    Keenan, M A

    1988-08-01

    Spasticity that interferes with upper extremity function is common in adults following stroke, brain injury, or anoxia. During the period of neurologic recovery definitive surgical procedures are avoided. Techniques to temporarily reduce spasticity include the implantation of a MicroPort reservoir and catheter for repeated branchial plexus blocks and phenol nerve blocks, which provide longer lasting relief of noxious muscle tone. Percutaneous blocks of the musculocutaneous and recurrent median nerves and motor point blocks of the pectoralis major, the brachioradialis, and forearm flexor muscles are easily performed at bedside. The motor branch of the ulnar nerve can be injected surgically with phenol to diminish intrinsic spasticity. When neurologic recovery has plateaued, hand placement can be improved in many patients following proximal release of the brachioradialis muscle and lengthening of the biceps and branchialis tendons. Hand function is enhanced by fractional lengthening of spastic wrist and finger flexors. Intrinsic spasticity must be addressed at the same time by phenol block or intrinic release. When extensor function is lacking, a tenodesis of the wrist extensors is helpful. The thumb-in-palm deformity requires proximal release of the thenar muscles as well as lengthening of the flexor pollicis longus. Contracture releases in the nonfunctional arm improve hygiene and ease care.

  15. Ergonomic task reduction prevents bone osteopenia in a rat model of upper extremity overuse

    PubMed Central

    BARBE, Mary F.; JAIN, Nisha X.; MASSICOTTE, Vicky S.; POPOFF, Steven N.; BARR-GILLESPIE, Ann E.

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of ergonomic workload reduction of switching rats from a high repetition high force (HRHF) lever pulling task to a reduced force and reach rate task for preventing task-induced osteopenic changes in distal forelimb bones. Distal radius and ulna trabecular structure was examined in young adult rats performing one of three handle-pulling tasks for 12 wk: 1) HRHF, 2) low repetition low force (LRLF); or 3) HRHF for 4 wk and than LRLF thereafter (HRHF-to-LRLF). Results were compared to age-matched controls rats. Distal forelimb bones of 12-wk HRHF rats showed increased trabecular resorption and decreased volume, as control rats. HRHF-to-LRLF rats had similar trabecular bone quality as control rats; and decreased bone resorption (decreased trabecular bone volume and serum CTX1), increased bone formation (increased mineral apposition, bone formation rate, and serum osteocalcin), and decreased osteoclasts and inflammatory cytokines, than HRHF rats. Thus, an ergonomic intervention of HRHF-to-LRLF prevented loss of trabecular bone volume occurring with prolonged performance of a repetitive upper extremity task. These findings support the idea of reduced workload as an effective approach to management of work-related musculoskeletal disorders, and begin to define reach rate and load level boundaries for such interventions. PMID:25739896

  16. OrthoJacket: an active FES-hybrid orthosis for the paralysed upper extremity.

    PubMed

    Schill, Oliver; Wiegand, Roland; Schmitz, Bastian; Matthies, Richard; Eck, Ute; Pylatiuk, Christian; Reischl, Markus; Schulz, Stefan; Rupp, Rüdiger

    2011-02-01

    The loss of the grasp function in cervical spinal cord injured (SCI) patients leads to life-long dependency on caregivers and to a tremendous decrease of the quality of life. This article introduces the novel non-invasive modular hybrid neuro-orthosis OrthoJacket for the restoration of the restricted or completely lost hand and arm functions in high tetraplegic SCI individuals. The primary goal of the wearable orthosis is to improve the paralysed upper extremity function and, thus, to enhance a patient's independence in activities of daily living. The system combines the advantage of orthotics in mechanically stabilising joints together with the possibilities of functional electrical stimulation for activation of paralysed muscles. In patients with limited capacity, for force generation, flexible fluidic actuators are used to support the movement. Thus, the system is not only intended for functional restoration but also for training. Several sensor systems together with an intelligent signal processing allow for automatic adaptation to the anatomical and neurological individualities of SCI patients. The integration of novel user interfaces based on residual muscle activities and detection of movement intentions by real-time data mining methods will enable the user to autonomously control the system in a natural and cooperative way.

  17. Assessing upper extremity motor function in practice of virtual activities of daily living.

    PubMed

    Adams, Richard J; Lichter, Matthew D; Krepkovich, Eileen T; Ellington, Allison; White, Marga; Diamond, Paul T

    2015-03-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the criterion validity of measures of upper extremity (UE) motor function derived during practice of virtual activities of daily living (ADLs). Fourteen hemiparetic stroke patients employed a Virtual Occupational Therapy Assistant (VOTA), consisting of a high-fidelity virtual world and a Kinect™ sensor, in four sessions of approximately one hour in duration. An unscented Kalman Filter-based human motion tracking algorithm estimated UE joint kinematics in real-time during performance of virtual ADL activities, enabling both animation of the user's avatar and automated generation of metrics related to speed and smoothness of motion. These metrics, aggregated over discrete sub-task elements during performance of virtual ADLs, were compared to scores from an established assessment of UE motor performance, the Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT). Spearman's rank correlation analysis indicates a moderate correlation between VOTA-derived metrics and the time-based WMFT assessments, supporting the criterion validity of VOTA measures as a means of tracking patient progress during an UE rehabilitation program that includes practice of virtual ADLs. PMID:25265612

  18. Antiphospholipid antibodies in patients with upper-extremity deep vein thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Nikolov, Krasimir V.; Baleva, Marta P.; Savov, Alexey S.

    2015-01-01

    The levels of antibodies to cardiolipin and β2-glycoprotein I and polymorphic variants G1691A of Factor V (factor V Leiden, FVL) and G20210A of prothrombin gene (G20210A) were studied in 16 patients with upper-extremity deep vein thrombosis (UEDVT). Most of patients with this syndrome have elevated values of these antibodies. Two of these patients are heterozygous carriers for G20210A and 1 – for FVL. Three patients with UEDVT and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are positive for ANA and two others (one of them with Raynaud syndrome) have border line titre 1: 80 for ANA. All 3 patients with SLE are women and the interval between the development of the UEDVT and the onset of SLE was 1-4 years. We would like to suggest that: 1) UEDVT could be the first clinical symptom of Antiphospholipid syndrome, and 2) UEDVT may be the first clinical manifestation of SLE preceding the development of the systemic autoimmune disease by several years. PMID:26648774

  19. A comparison of acromion marker cluster calibration methods for estimating scapular kinematics during upper extremity ergometry.

    PubMed

    Richardson, R Tyler; Nicholson, Kristen F; Rapp, Elizabeth A; Johnston, Therese E; Richards, James G

    2016-05-01

    Accurate measurement of joint kinematics is required to understand the musculoskeletal effects of a therapeutic intervention such as upper extremity (UE) ergometry. Traditional surface-based motion capture is effective for quantifying humerothoracic motion, but scapular kinematics are challenging to obtain. Methods for estimating scapular kinematics include the widely-reported acromion marker cluster (AMC) which utilizes a static calibration between the scapula and the AMC to estimate the orientation of the scapula during motion. Previous literature demonstrates that including additional calibration positions throughout the motion improves AMC accuracy for single plane motions; however this approach has not been assessed for the non-planar shoulder complex motion occurring during UE ergometry. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of single, dual, and multiple AMC calibration methods during UE ergometry. The orientations of the UE segments of 13 healthy subjects were recorded with motion capture. Scapular landmarks were palpated at eight evenly-spaced static positions around the 360° cycle. The single AMC method utilized one static calibration position to estimate scapular kinematics for the entire cycle, while the dual and multiple AMC methods used two and four static calibration positions, respectively. Scapulothoracic angles estimated by the three AMC methods were compared with scapulothoracic angles determined by palpation. The multiple AMC method produced the smallest RMS errors and was not significantly different from palpation about any axis. We recommend the multiple AMC method as a practical and accurate way to estimate scapular kinematics during UE ergometry.

  20. A longitudinal study of industrial and clerical workers: predictors of upper extremity tendonitis.

    PubMed

    Werner, Robert A; Franzblau, Alfred; Gell, Nancy; Ulin, Sheryl S; Armstrong, Thomas J

    2005-03-01

    Upper extremity tendonitis (UET) associated with work activity is common but the true incidence and risk factors can best be determined by a prospective cohort study. This study followed a cohort of 501 active workers for an average of 5.4 years. Incident cases were defined as workers who were asymptomatic at baseline testing and had no prior history of UET and went on to be diagnosed with an UET during the follow-up period or at the follow-up evaluation. The incident cases were compared to the subset of the cohort who also had no history of an UET and did not develop tendonitis during the study. The cumulative incidence in this cohort was 24.3% or 4.5% annually. The factors found to have the highest predictive value for identifying a person who is likely to develop an UET in the near future included age over 40, a BMI over 30, a complaint at baseline of a shoulder or neck discomfort, a history of CTS and a job with a higher shoulder posture rating. The risk profile identifies both ergonomic and personal health factors as risks and both categories of factors may be amenable to prevention strategies. PMID:15794495

  1. Clinical tools to facilitate workplace accommodation after treatment for an upper extremity disorder.

    PubMed

    Shaw, W S; Feuerstein, M; Miller, V I; Lincoln, A E

    2001-01-01

    Failure to implement work site accommodations for work-related upper extremity disorders (WRUEDs) may be a factor contributing to delayed functional recovery and relapse. The present study describes the use of the 38-item Job Requirements and Physical Demands (JRPD) scale, a self-report measure of ergonomic exposure, and other case management tools to improve accommodation efforts for 101 workers (75 women, 26 men) returning to work after lost time related to a WRUED. Items were categorized into five subscales based on item content: administrative, computer-related, workstation design, environmental, and equipment. Administrative risk factors were elevated among office clerks, whereas postal clerks and letter carriers reported more workstation design risk factors, and letter carriers and electrical/mechanical workers cited more equipment-related risk factors (p < 0.05). All occupational categories rated computer-related risk factors highest. The Integrated Case Management (ICM) approach, which relies on the JRPD scale to guide recommendations, was used with a subgroup of these workers (n = 53), resulting in 1.4 times more workplace accommodations per worker than with a non-ICM approach. Clinical use of the self-reported exposure measure within the overall workplace accommodation process may have been a factor contributing to more frequent accommodation in the ICM group. This study of a subgroup of workers' compensation cases highlights the need for additional investigation of tools to integrate ergonomic approaches within the workplace accommodation process. PMID:12530837

  2. Sequential muscle activity and its functional role in the upper extremity and trunk during overarm throwing.

    PubMed

    Hirashima, Masaya; Kadota, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Shizuka; Kudo, Katzutoshi; Ohtsuki, Tatsuyuki

    2002-04-01

    The proximal-to-distal segmental sequence has been identified in many sports activities, including baseball pitching and ball kicking. However, proximal-to-distal sequential muscle activity has not been identified. The aims of this study were to establish whether sequential muscle activity does occur and, if it does, to determine its functional role. We recorded surface electromyograms (EMGs) for 17 muscles from the upper extremity and abdomen during overarm throwing and detected the onset and peak times as indices of muscle activity. The following electromyographic properties were commonly identified in the participants. First, sequential muscle activity was observed from the scapular protractors to the shoulder horizontal flexors and from the shoulder horizontal flexors to the elbow extensor, but not from the elbow extensor to the wrist flexor or forearm pronator. Secondly, the external oblique contralateral to the throwing arm became activated before the ipsilateral external oblique. This sequence is considered to be very effective for the generation of high force and energy in the trunk. Thirdly, the ipsilateral external oblique began its activity almost at foot strike. Finally, the main activity of the rectus abdominis appeared just before the point of release.

  3. Force Myography to Control Robotic Upper Extremity Prostheses: A Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Erina; Chen, Richard; Merhi, Lukas-Karim; Xiao, Zhen; Pousett, Brittany; Menon, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Advancement in assistive technology has led to the commercial availability of multi-dexterous robotic prostheses for the upper extremity. The relatively low performance of the currently used techniques to detect the intention of the user to control such advanced robotic prostheses, however, limits their use. This article explores the use of force myography (FMG) as a potential alternative to the well-established surface electromyography. Specifically, the use of FMG to control different grips of a commercially available robotic hand, Bebionic3, is investigated. Four male transradially amputated subjects participated in the study, and a protocol was developed to assess the prediction accuracy of 11 grips. Different combinations of grips were examined, ranging from 6 up to 11 grips. The results indicate that it is possible to classify six primary grips important in activities of daily living using FMG with an accuracy of above 70% in the residual limb. Additional strategies to increase classification accuracy, such as using the available modes on the Bebionic3, allowed results to improve up to 88.83 and 89.00% for opposed thumb and non-opposed thumb modes, respectively. PMID:27014682

  4. Increase in upper extremity fractures in young male soccer players in the Netherlands, 1998-2009.

    PubMed

    de Putter, C E; van Beeck, E F; Burdorf, A; Borsboom, G J J M; Toet, H; Hovius, S E R; Selles, R W

    2015-08-01

    Young male soccer players have been identified as a target group for injury prevention, but studies addressing trends and determinants of injuries within this group are scarce. The goal of this study was to analyze age-specific trends in hospital-treated upper extremity fractures (UEF) among boys playing soccer in the Netherlands and to explore associated soccer-related factors. Data were obtained from a national database for the period 1998-2009. Rates were expressed as the annual number of UEF per 1000 soccer players. Poisson's regression was used to explore the association of UEF with the number of artificial turf fields and the number of injuries by physical contact. UEF rates increased significantly by 19.4% in boys 5-10 years, 73.2% in boys 11-14 years, and 38.8% in boys 15-18 years old. The number of injuries by physical contact showed a significant univariate association with UEF in boys 15-18 years old. The number of artificial turf fields showed a significant univariate association with UEF in all age groups, and remained significant for boys aged 15-18 years in a multivariate model. This study showed an increase of UEF rates in boys playing soccer, and an independent association between artificial turf fields and UEF in the oldest boys.

  5. Effects of task-oriented training on upper extremity function and performance of daily activities by chronic stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Park, JuHyung; Yoo, Chanuk

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine the effects that task-oriented training has on upper extremity function and performance of daily activities by chronic stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Task-oriented training was applied to two chronic hemiplegic patients in this research. The training was provided to each patient for 30 minutes a day, five times a week for two weeks. The treatment program included six different types of training that could be performed by the patients themselves. Evaluation was performed four times, that is, once a week for three weeks before the intervention and once after the intervention. The change in upper extremity function was measured with the Manual Function Test, and the change in performance of daily activity was measured with the Functional Independence Measure. [Results] The upper extremity function of both subjects was improved after application of task-oriented training. However, in the performance of daily activities, subject one showed improvement compared to with before the intervention, whereas subject two showed the same results. [Conclusion] This research confirmed that two weeks of task-oriented training for chronic stroke patients is effective for improvement of upper extremity function and performance of daily activities by chronic stroke patients. PMID:26355425

  6. Acute Bouts of Assisted Cycling Improves Cognitive and Upper Extremity Movement Functions in Adolescents with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ringenbach, Shannon D. R; Albert, Andrew R.; Chen, Chih-Chia; Alberts, Jay L.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of 2 modes of exercise on cognitive and upper extremity movement functioning in adolescents with Down syndrome (DS). Nine participants randomly completed 3 interventions over 3 consecutive weeks. The interventions were: (a) voluntary cycling (VC), in which participants cycled at their…

  7. To Constrain or Not to Constrain, and Other Stories of Intensive Upper Extremity Training for Children with Unilateral Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Andrew M.

    2011-01-01

    Impaired hand function is among the most functionally disabling symptoms of unilateral cerebral palsy. Evidence-based treatment approaches are generally lacking. However, recent approaches providing intensive upper extremity training appear promising. In this review, we first describe two such approaches, constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT)…

  8. Reliability of the Quality of Upper Extremity Skills Test for Children with Cerebral Palsy Aged 2 to 12 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorley, Megan; Lannin, Natasha; Cusick, Anne; Novak, Iona; Boyd, Roslyn

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To investigate reliability of the Quality of Upper Extremity Skills Test (QUEST) scores for children with cerebral palsy (CP) aged 2-12 years. Method: Thirty-one QUESTs from 24 children with CP were rated once by two raters and twice by one rater. Internal consistency of total scores, inter- and intra-rater reliability findings for total,…

  9. The effect of mirror therapy on upper-extremity function and activities of daily living in stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jin-Young; Chang, Moonyoung; Kim, Kyeong-Mi; Kim, Hee-Jung

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of mirror therapy on upper-extremity function and activities of daily living in chronic stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Fifteen subjects were each assigned to a mirror therapy group and a sham therapy group. The Fugl-Meyer Motor Function Assessment and the Box and Block Test were performed to compare paretic upper-extremity function and hand coordination abilities. The functional independence measurement was conducted to compare abilities to perform activities of daily living. [Results] Paretic upper-extremity function and hand coordination abilities were significantly different between the mirror therapy and sham therapy groups. Intervention in the mirror therapy group was more effective than in the sham therapy group for improving the ability to perform activities of daily living. Self-care showed statistically significant differences between the two groups. [Conclusion] Mirror therapy is effective in improving paretic upper-extremity function and activities of daily living in chronic stroke patients. PMID:26180297

  10. The effects of mirror therapy with tasks on upper extremity function and self-care in stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Park, Youngju; Chang, Moonyoung; Kim, Kyeong-Mi; An, Duk-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of mirror therapy with tasks on upper extremity unction and self-care in stroke patients. [Subjects] Thirty participants were randomly assigned to either an experimental group (n=15) or a control group (n=15). [Methods] Subjects in the experimental group received mirror therapy with tasks, and those in the control group received a sham therapy; both therapies were administered, five times per week for six weeks. The main outcome measures were the Manual Function Test for the paralyzed upper limb and the Functional Independence Measure for self-care performance. [Results] The experimental group had more significant gains in change scores compared with the control group after the intervention. [Conclusion] We consider mirror therapy with tasks to be an effective form of intervention for upper extremity function and self-care in stroke patients. PMID:26157249

  11. Identifying barriers to recovery from work related upper extremity disorders: use of a collaborative problem solving technique.

    PubMed

    Shaw, William S; Feuerstein, Michael; Miller, Virginia I; Wood, Patricia M

    2003-08-01

    Improving health and work outcomes for individuals with work related upper extremity disorders (WRUEDs) may require a broad assessment of potential return to work barriers by engaging workers in collaborative problem solving. In this study, half of all nurse case managers from a large workers' compensation system were randomly selected and invited to participate in a randomized, controlled trial of an integrated case management (ICM) approach for WRUEDs. The focus of ICM was problem solving skills training and workplace accommodation. Volunteer nurses attended a 2 day ICM training workshop including instruction in a 6 step process to engage clients in problem solving to overcome barriers to recovery. A chart review of WRUED case management reports (n = 70) during the following 2 years was conducted to extract case managers' reports of barriers to recovery and return to work. Case managers documented from 0 to 21 barriers per case (M = 6.24, SD = 4.02) within 5 domains: signs and symptoms (36%), work environment (27%), medical care (13%), functional limitations (12%), and coping (12%). Compared with case managers who did not receive the training (n = 67), workshop participants identified more barriers related to signs and symptoms, work environment, functional limitations, and coping (p < .05), but not to medical care. Problem solving skills training may help focus case management services on the most salient recovery factors affecting return to work. PMID:12934861

  12. Kinesiology Taping reduces lymphedema of the upper extremity in women after breast cancer treatment: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Rosseger, Agnieszka; Hanuszkiewicz, Justyna; Woźniewski, Marek

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Secondary lymphedema affects approximately 40% of women treated for breast cancer and is recognized as a major problem associated with the therapy of malignant tumors. Consequently, new therapeutic methods are constantly being sought to effectively eliminate the condition. One of the new forms of edema management, especially in the initial stages of edematous development, is Kinesiology Taping (KT). Aim of the study The aim of the study was to assess the effects of KT applications on the extent of lymphedema of the upper extremity in women post cancer treatment. Material and methods The study group consisted of 28 women after axillary lymphadenectomy due to breast cancer. All the patients were diagnosed with grade I secondary lymphedema. Kinesiology Taping was applied to a total of 14 randomly selected women. The remaining 14 patients constituted a control group. The extent of lymphedema was measured using a centimeter tape and Limb Volumes Professional 5.0 software. Results A significant reduction in the extent of lymphedema (p = 0.0009) was achieved in the KT group between baseline and post-treatment assessments. No such reduction, however, was found in the control group (p = 0.36). Conclusions Kinesiology Taping applications are an effective method of early-stage edema management. Kinesiology Taping may be a safe new therapeutic option in patients who are contraindicated for the use of other methods. PMID:26327858

  13. Incidence of central vein stenosis and occlusion following upper extremity PICC and port placement.

    PubMed

    Gonsalves, Carin F; Eschelman, David J; Sullivan, Kevin L; DuBois, Nancy; Bonn, Joseph

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of central vein stenosis and occlusion following upper extremity placement of peripherally inserted central venous catheters (PICCs) and venous ports. One hundred fifty-four patients who underwent venography of the ipsilateral central veins prior to initial and subsequent venous access device insertion were retrospectively identified. All follow-up venograms were interpreted at the time of catheter placement by one interventional radiologist over a 5-year period and compared to the findings on initial venography. For patients with central vein abnormalities, hospital and home infusion service records and radiology reports were reviewed to determine catheter dwell time and potential alternative etiologies of central vein stenosis or occlusion. The effect of catheter caliber and dwell time on development of central vein abnormalities was evaluated. Venography performed prior to initial catheter placement showed that 150 patients had normal central veins. Three patients had central vein stenosis, and one had central vein occlusion. Subsequent venograms (n = 154) at the time of additional venous access device placement demonstrated 8 patients with occlusions and 10 with stenoses. Three of the 18 patients with abnormal follow-up venograms were found to have potential alternative causes of central vein abnormalities. Excluding these 3 patients and the 4 patients with abnormal initial venograms, a 7% incidence of central vein stenosis or occlusion was found in patients with prior indwelling catheters and normal initial venograms. Catheter caliber showed no effect on the subsequent development of central vein abnormalities. Patients who developed new or worsened central vein stenosis or occlusion had significantly (p = 0.03) longer catheter dwell times than patients without central vein abnormalities. New central vein stenosis or occlusion occurred in 7% of patients following upper arm placement of venous access

  14. Incidence of Central Vein Stenosis and Occlusion Following Upper Extremity PICC and Port Placement

    SciTech Connect

    Gonsalves, Carin F. Eschelman, David J.; Sullivan, Kevin L.; DuBois, Nancy; Bonn, Joseph

    2003-04-15

    The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of central vein stenosis and occlusion following upper extremity placement of peripherally inserted central venous catheters(PICCs) and venous ports. One hundred fifty-four patients who underwent venography of the ipsilateral central veins prior to initial and subsequent venous access device insertion were retrospectively identified. All follow-up venograms were interpreted at the time of catheter placement by one interventional radiologist over a 5-year period and compared to the findings on initial venography. For patients with central vein abnormalities, hospital and home infusion service records and radiology reports were reviewed to determine catheter dwelltime and potential alternative etiologies of central vein stenosis or occlusion. The effect of catheter caliber and dwell time on development of central vein abnormalities was evaluated. Venography performed prior to initial catheter placement showed that 150 patients had normal central veins. Three patients had central vein stenosis, and one had central vein occlusion. Subsequent venograms (n = 154)at the time of additional venous access device placement demonstrated 8 patients with occlusions and 10 with stenoses. Three of the 18 patients with abnormal follow-up venograms were found to have potential alternative causes of central vein abnormalities. Excluding these 3 patients and the 4 patients with abnormal initial venograms, a 7% incidence of central vein stenosis or occlusion was found in patients with prior indwelling catheters and normal initial venograms. Catheter caliber showed no effect on the subsequent development of central vein abnormalities. Patients who developed new or worsened central vein stenosis or occlusion had significantly (p =0.03) longer catheter dwell times than patients without central vein abnormalities. New central vein stenosis or occlusion occurred in 7% of patients following upper arm placement of venous access devices

  15. Development of an upper extremity FES system for individuals with C4 tetraplegia.

    PubMed

    Smith, B T; Mulcahey, M J; Betz, R R

    1996-12-01

    The application of functional electrical stimulation (FES) to provide upper extremity function for individuals with C4 tetraplegia is under investigation. In this study, a FES system was designed that allowed one individual with complete C4 tetraplegia to coordinate stimulated lateral or palmar prehension with stimulated arm movements using contralateral shoulder position. The system consisted of percutaneous intramuscular electrodes implanted to muscles for hand grasp and release, supination, elbow flexion, and extension and arm adduction. Due to peripheral denervation, transposition and subsequent stimulation of the paralyzed latissimus dorsi muscle provided elbow flexion and transfer and stimulation of the paralyzed extensor carpi ulnaris muscle provided forearm supination. A suspended sling provided shoulder joint stability. The subject controlled stimulation proportionally using contralateral shoulder motion sensed by a position transducer. Control of stimulated hand grasp and release were coupled with stimulated arm motions so that hand-to-mouth activities could be accomplished with one motion of the contralateral shoulder. With this system, the subject was able to grasp a milk carton placed in the hand and lift and lower it from his mouth to drink from a short straw. He could also scoop a semisolid substance with an adapted spoon and lift and lower it from the work surface to his mouth to eat. The subject required assistance to place the milk carton or spoon in his hand and position the plate for scooping. Further investigation is needed to generate the necessary arm movements to make completion of these tasks possible without assistance and to expand the range of activities possible with the FES system.

  16. Challenging the Dogma of Tourniquet Pressure Requirements for Upper Extremity Surgery.

    PubMed

    Sarfani, Shumaila; Cantwell, Sean; Shin, Alexander Y; Kakar, Sanjeev

    2016-05-01

    Background Traditional teaching supports upper extremity tourniquet pressure to be set at 250 mm Hg. Complications have been associated with increased pressure and duration of tourniquet use. We hypothesized that there will be no significant difference in intraoperative variables between tourniquet pressures of 125, 150, 175, or 200 mm Hg as compared with the current practice of 250 mm Hg during mini-open carpal tunnel release. Case Description A retrospective review was conducted of patients undergoing open carpal tunnel release from June 2009 to June 2012. Those undergoing surgery with a tourniquet pressure of 250 mm Hg were compared with those with lower tourniquet pressures regarding their demographics, operative and anesthesia time, and whether the tourniquet pressure needed to be increased to 250 mm Hg during surgery. Literature Review A total of 432 patients underwent carpal tunnel release over the 3-year period. There were no differences with respect to patient demographics. There was no significant difference between operative or anesthesia time between different tourniquet pressure groups. There were no reported problems with breakthrough bleeding or difficulty with visualization of structures in any of the pressure groups. None of the patients with lower tourniquet pressures needed the tourniquet pressure to be adjusted during surgery. Clinical Relevance This study demonstrated that using lower tourniquet pressures had no effect on the operation for open carpal tunnel release including effect on operative or anesthesia time, breakthrough bleeding, or complications directly related to tourniquet pressures. Orthopedic surgeons may consider reducing tourniquet pressures during carpal tunnel release. PMID:27104077

  17. Selection of acupoints for managing upper-extremity spasticity in chronic stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bi-Huei; Lin, Chien-Lin; Li, Te-Mao; Lin, Shih-Din; Lin, Jaung-Geng; Chou, Li-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Background This study investigated the clinical efficacy of electroacupuncture (EA) in inhibiting upper-extremity spasticity in chronic stroke patients, and also in mapping a unique preliminary acupoint-selection protocol. Methods Fifteen patients were divided into two groups: patients in the control group (n=6) received minimal acupuncture (MA), and those in the experimental group (n=9) received EA. Four acupoints, which include Neiguan (PC6), Shaohai (HT3), Zeqian (Ex-UE, A32), and Shounizhu (EX-UE), were treated near the motor points of the muscles for elbow flexion, forearm pronation, and finger flexion. Both groups were treated for twelve sessions, 20 minutes per session, for 6 weeks (two sessions per week). The outcome measures in this study included angle of muscle reaction (R1), passive range of motion (R2), and dynamic component (R2–R1). Results In the experimental group, the R2–R1 of the elbow joint was significantly decreased at 1 (P=0.0079), 3 (P=0.0013), and 6 weeks (P=0.0149) after treatment compared with pretreatment levels (P<0.05). The between-group difference in the R2–R1 of the elbow joint after the 6-week treatment was statistically significant. Conclusion Combining the 6-week EA and standard rehabilitation treatment reduced the spasticity of the elbow for chronic stroke survivors. However, no significant effect was observed in the spasticity of the wrist joints. The choice of acupoints and the frequency of EA have to be taken into account to achieve a positive treatment effect. The correlation between acupoints and motor points provides a model of acupoint selection to improve spasticity. PMID:24453485

  18. Finger Muscle Attachments for an OpenSim Upper-Extremity Model

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jong Hwa; Asakawa, Deanna S.; Dennerlein, Jack T.; Jindrich, Devin L.

    2015-01-01

    We determined muscle attachment points for the index, middle, ring and little fingers in an OpenSim upper-extremity model. Attachment points were selected to match both experimentally measured locations and mechanical function (moment arms). Although experimental measurements of finger muscle attachments have been made, models differ from specimens in many respects such as bone segment ratio, joint kinematics and coordinate system. Likewise, moment arms are not available for all intrinsic finger muscles. Therefore, it was necessary to scale and translate muscle attachments from one experimental or model environment to another while preserving mechanical function. We used a two-step process. First, we estimated muscle function by calculating moment arms for all intrinsic and extrinsic muscles using the partial velocity method. Second, optimization using Simulated Annealing and Hooke-Jeeves algorithms found muscle-tendon paths that minimized root mean square (RMS) differences between experimental and modeled moment arms. The partial velocity method resulted in variance accounted for (VAF) between measured and calculated moment arms of 75.5% on average (range from 48.5% to 99.5%) for intrinsic and extrinsic index finger muscles where measured data were available. RMS error between experimental and optimized values was within one standard deviation (S.D) of measured moment arm (mean RMS error = 1.5 mm < measured S.D = 2.5 mm). Validation of both steps of the technique allowed for estimation of muscle attachment points for muscles whose moment arms have not been measured. Differences between modeled and experimentally measured muscle attachments, averaged over all finger joints, were less than 4.9 mm (within 7.1% of the average length of the muscle-tendon paths). The resulting non-proprietary musculoskeletal model of the human fingers could be useful for many applications, including better understanding of complex multi-touch and gestural movements. PMID:25853869

  19. Development of an upper extremity FES system for individuals with C4 tetraplegia.

    PubMed

    Smith, B T; Mulcahey, M J; Betz, R R

    1996-12-01

    The application of functional electrical stimulation (FES) to provide upper extremity function for individuals with C4 tetraplegia is under investigation. In this study, a FES system was designed that allowed one individual with complete C4 tetraplegia to coordinate stimulated lateral or palmar prehension with stimulated arm movements using contralateral shoulder position. The system consisted of percutaneous intramuscular electrodes implanted to muscles for hand grasp and release, supination, elbow flexion, and extension and arm adduction. Due to peripheral denervation, transposition and subsequent stimulation of the paralyzed latissimus dorsi muscle provided elbow flexion and transfer and stimulation of the paralyzed extensor carpi ulnaris muscle provided forearm supination. A suspended sling provided shoulder joint stability. The subject controlled stimulation proportionally using contralateral shoulder motion sensed by a position transducer. Control of stimulated hand grasp and release were coupled with stimulated arm motions so that hand-to-mouth activities could be accomplished with one motion of the contralateral shoulder. With this system, the subject was able to grasp a milk carton placed in the hand and lift and lower it from his mouth to drink from a short straw. He could also scoop a semisolid substance with an adapted spoon and lift and lower it from the work surface to his mouth to eat. The subject required assistance to place the milk carton or spoon in his hand and position the plate for scooping. Further investigation is needed to generate the necessary arm movements to make completion of these tasks possible without assistance and to expand the range of activities possible with the FES system. PMID:8973952

  20. Interfering effects of multitasking on muscle activity in the upper extremity.

    PubMed

    Au, Alvin K; Keir, Peter J

    2007-10-01

    Multitasking, where workers are required to perform multiple physical tasks with various levels of cognitive load is common in today's workplace. Simultaneous physical and mental demands are thought to cause task interference and likely increase muscle activity. To test the interfering effects of multitasking, 16 healthy participants performed hand and shoulder exertions with combinations of four grip conditions (no grip, 30% grip with low precision, 30% grip with high precision, and maximal grip) and three shoulder conditions at 90 degrees abduction (maintaining posture, 40% force-controlled moment, 40% posture-controlled moment), with and without the Stroop test while surface EMG was recorded from eight upper extremity muscles. Both 40% MVC shoulder moments increased extrinsic forearm muscle activity by 2-4% MVE (p<0.01). Grip exertion at 30% MVC reduced anterior and middle deltoid activity by 2% MVE (p<0.01). Exerting a constant force against the transducer (force-controlled) required 3-4% MVE greater middle and posterior deltoid activity (p<0.001) compared to supporting an equivalent inertial load at the same shoulder angle (posture-controlled). Performing the mental task (Stroop test) concurrently with either 40% MVC shoulder moments significantly increased trapezius activity by nearly 2% MVE (p<0.05). Interestingly, the Stroop test also reduced all deltoid activity by 1% MVE (p<0.05). The addition of both the Stroop test and force-control shoulder exertion independently reduced maximal grip force by 7% and 10% MVC, respectively. These results suggest that more complex workplace tasks may act to increase muscle load or interfere with task performance. These small but significant findings may play a role in the development of long-term musculoskeletal disorders in the workplace.

  1. Upper extremity sensory feedback therapy in chronic cerebrovascular accident patients with impaired expressive aphasia and auditory comprehension.

    PubMed

    Balliet, R; Levy, B; Blood, K M

    1986-05-01

    Electromyographic (EMG) sensory feedback therapy (SFT) was used in the neuromuscular retraining of the nonfunctional upper extremity in five chronic left cerebrovascular accident (CVA) patients with impaired expressive and auditory comprehension. Speech diagnoses included global, moderate-to-severe Broca, and Wernicke aphasias. These patients had experienced increased despondency associated with previous therapy failures and often had indicated that they wished to have their involved extremity amputated, so that it would no longer be in the way. In this study, specific behavioral training strategies to increase patient involvement were used, including: general relaxation, modified SFT instruction, and home exercises, which were supported by family and/or friends. After an average of 50 therapy sessions, all patients were successfully retrained to use their right upper extremity at the gross-assist level. This resulted in feelings of increased self-esteem to the extent that amputation was no longer requested. It is concluded that EMG SFT can be beneficial in the neuromuscular reeducation of paretic upper extremity muscles of CVA patients with expressive aphasia and (impaired) auditory comprehension.

  2. Upper extremity stress fractures and spondylolysis in an adolescent baseball pitcher with an associated endocrine abnormality: a case report.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinning; Heffernan, Michael J; Mortimer, Errol S

    2010-06-01

    Lower extremity stress fractures are relatively common among competitive athletes. Stress fractures of the upper extremity, however, are rare and most have been reported in the literature as case reports. We present a case of an adolescent baseball pitcher who had both proximal humeral and ulnar shaft stress fractures, as well as spondylolysis of the lumbar spine. This particular patient also had an underlying endocrine abnormality of secondary hyperparathyroidism with a deficiency in vitamin D. A bone mineral density panel demonstrated a high T score (+2.79 SD above the mean) and the patient's biologic bone age was noted to be 2 years ahead of his chronologic age. The patient was treated with a course of vitamin D and calcium supplementation. After treatment, both the vitamin D and parathyroid hormone returned to normal levels. The upper extremity stress fractures and spondylolysis were managed conservatively and he was able to return to full activity and baseball. For patients who present with multiple stress fractures not associated with consistent high levels of repeated stress, a bone mineral density panel should be considered. If vitamin D deficiency is present, a course of oral supplementation may be considered in the management. An endocrinology consult should also be considered in patients who present with multiple stress fractures. Conservative management of upper extremity stress fractures and spondylolysis was successful in returning this patient back to his previous activity level. PMID:20502233

  3. Upper extremity stress fractures and spondylolysis in an adolescent baseball pitcher with an associated endocrine abnormality: a case report.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinning; Heffernan, Michael J; Mortimer, Errol S

    2010-06-01

    Lower extremity stress fractures are relatively common among competitive athletes. Stress fractures of the upper extremity, however, are rare and most have been reported in the literature as case reports. We present a case of an adolescent baseball pitcher who had both proximal humeral and ulnar shaft stress fractures, as well as spondylolysis of the lumbar spine. This particular patient also had an underlying endocrine abnormality of secondary hyperparathyroidism with a deficiency in vitamin D. A bone mineral density panel demonstrated a high T score (+2.79 SD above the mean) and the patient's biologic bone age was noted to be 2 years ahead of his chronologic age. The patient was treated with a course of vitamin D and calcium supplementation. After treatment, both the vitamin D and parathyroid hormone returned to normal levels. The upper extremity stress fractures and spondylolysis were managed conservatively and he was able to return to full activity and baseball. For patients who present with multiple stress fractures not associated with consistent high levels of repeated stress, a bone mineral density panel should be considered. If vitamin D deficiency is present, a course of oral supplementation may be considered in the management. An endocrinology consult should also be considered in patients who present with multiple stress fractures. Conservative management of upper extremity stress fractures and spondylolysis was successful in returning this patient back to his previous activity level.

  4. Potential compensation of hydrological extremes in headwaters: case study of upper Vltava River basin, Šumava Mts., Czechia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocum, Jan; Janský, Bohumír.; Česák, Julius

    2010-05-01

    Increasing frequency of catastrophic flash floods and extreme droughts in recent years results in an urgent need of solving of flood protection questions and measures leading to discharge increase in dry periods. Flattening of discharge call for the use of untraditional practices as a suitable complement to classical engineering methods. These measures could be represented by gradual increase of river catchment retention capacity in headstream areas. Very favorable conditions for this research solution are concentrated to the upper part of Otava River basin (Vltava River left tributary, Šumava Mts., southwestern Czechia) representing the core zone of a number of extreme floods in Central Europe and the area with high peat land proportion. A number of automatic ultrasound and hydrostatic pressure water level gauges, climatic stations and precipitation gauges and utilization of modern equipment and methods were used in chosen experimental catchments to assess the landscape retention potential and to find out rainfall-runoff relations in this area. Successively, the detailed analysis of peat land hydrological function was carried out. The peat bogs influence on runoff conditions were assessed by thorough comparison of runoff regimes in subcatchments with different peat land proportion. The peat bog influence on hydrological process can be considered also with respect to its affecting of water quality. Therefore, hydrological monitoring was completed by ion, carbon (TOC) and oxygen isotopes balance observing within periods of high or low discharges in order to precise runoff phases separation by means of anion deficiency. Pedological survey of different soil types and textures was carried out to precise the estimation of its water capacity. Detailed analyses of extreme runoff ascending and descending phases and minimum discharges in profiles closing several subcatchments with different physical-geographic conditions show higher peak flow frequency and their shorter

  5. Language changes coincide with motor and fMRI changes following upper extremity motor therapy for hemiparesis: a brief report.

    PubMed

    Harnish, Stacy; Meinzer, Marcus; Trinastic, Jonathan; Fitzgerald, David; Page, Stephen

    2014-09-01

    To formally assess changes in language, affected UE movement, and motor functional activation changes via functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) following participation in motor therapy without any accompanying language intervention. Pre-post case series. Five subjects with stroke exhibiting chronic, stable UE hemiparesis. The upper extremity section of the Fugl-Meyer (FM), the Western Aphasia Battery (WAB), and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), administered during performance of an affected UE motor task. All subjects were administered six weeks of repetitive task specific training (RTP), performed for approximately 2.5 hours per day, split into two sessions. For the first four weeks of the intervention period, RTP was administered every weekday, whereas, for the subsequent two weeks, RTP was administered 3 days/week. Epidural cortical stimulation was co-administered with the RTP via an electrode array and implanted pulse generator. For all sessions, one subject worked with a single therapist. Four weeks before and four weeks after the intervention period, all subjects were administered the FM, WAB, and fMRI. Three of the subjects exhibited clinically significant language changes on the WAB. These individuals exhibited the largest motor changes as measured by the FM. Functional MRI revealed distinct motor activation patterns in these subjects, characterized by more strongly right lateralized focal BOLD activity or a shift in activation toward the right hemisphere. Language changes appear to co-occur with motor changes after UE RTP. Understanding the underlying mechanisms of these findings may lead to more efficient and synergistic rehabilitative therapy delivery.

  6. Peripheral nerve blocks on the upper extremity: Technique of landmark-based and ultrasound-guided approaches.

    PubMed

    Steinfeldt, T; Volk, T; Kessler, P; Vicent, O; Wulf, H; Gottschalk, A; Lange, M; Schwartzkopf, P; Hüttemann, E; Tessmann, R; Marx, A; Souquet, J; Häger, D; Nagel, W; Biscoping, J; Schwemmer, U

    2015-11-01

    The German Society of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Anästhesiologie und Intensivmedizin, DGAI) established an expert panel to develop preliminary recommendations for the application of peripheral nerve blocks on the upper extremity. The present recommendations state in different variations how ultrasound and/or electrical nerve stimulation guided nerve blocks should be performed. The description of each procedure is rather a recommendation than a guideline. The anaesthesiologist should select the variation of block which provides the highest grade of safety according to his individual opportunities. The first section comprises recommendations regarding dosages of local anaesthetics, general indications and contraindications for peripheral nerve blocks and informations about complications. In the following sections most common blocks techniques on the upper extremity are described. PMID:26408023

  7. Effects of kinesiology taping on the upper-extremity function and activities of daily living in patients with hemiplegia

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eung-beom; Kim, Young-dong

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study determined the effects of kinesiology taping on the upper-extremity function and activities of daily living of patients with hemiplegia. [Subjects] The experimental group and control group comprised 15 hemiplegia patients each. [Methods] This study was performed from June 4 to December 22, 2012, involving 30 hemiplegia patients. The experimental and controls groups performed task practices for 30 minutes, 3 times per week for 28 weeks with and without taping, respectively. [Results] After treatment, there were significant differences in every outcome measures within each group except for the Brunnstrom recovery stage of the hand. However, there was a significant difference in functional independence movements between the groups. [Conclusion] Task practice has the same effectiveness regardless of the taping of the upper extremities. Nevertheless, taping is helpful for improving both the functions and activities of daily living in patients with hemiplegia. PMID:26157239

  8. Effects of kinesiology taping on the upper-extremity function and activities of daily living in patients with hemiplegia.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eung-Beom; Kim, Young-Dong

    2015-05-01

    [Purpose] This study determined the effects of kinesiology taping on the upper-extremity function and activities of daily living of patients with hemiplegia. [Subjects] The experimental group and control group comprised 15 hemiplegia patients each. [Methods] This study was performed from June 4 to December 22, 2012, involving 30 hemiplegia patients. The experimental and controls groups performed task practices for 30 minutes, 3 times per week for 28 weeks with and without taping, respectively. [Results] After treatment, there were significant differences in every outcome measures within each group except for the Brunnstrom recovery stage of the hand. However, there was a significant difference in functional independence movements between the groups. [Conclusion] Task practice has the same effectiveness regardless of the taping of the upper extremities. Nevertheless, taping is helpful for improving both the functions and activities of daily living in patients with hemiplegia.

  9. Prevalence of Symptoms of Depression, Anxiety, and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Workers With Upper Extremity Complaints.

    PubMed

    Degen, Ryan M; MacDermid, Joy C; Grewal, Ruby; Drosdowech, Darren S; Faber, Kenneth J; Athwal, George S

    2016-07-01

    Study Design Cross-sectional cohort study. Background Symptoms of depression, panic disorder (PD), and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have been associated with musculoskeletal complaints and could represent barriers to recovery in injured workers. Objectives To determine the prevalence of symptoms of depression, PD, and PTSD utilizing the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) in a cohort of patients presenting to an upper extremity injured-worker clinic; secondarily, to identify any relationships between patients screening positive and patient-reported outcome measures. Methods In 2010, 418 patients completed the PHQ during their initial evaluation. Patients with PHQ scores exceeding threshold values for symptoms of depression, PD, or PTSD were compared based on patient-reported outcome scores, including the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand questionnaire (DASH) and Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36). The prevalence of symptoms, and their relationship with presenting complaints and patient-reported outcomes, were calculated. Results Thirty-one percent of patients scored above thresholds for symptoms of at least 1 mental health disorder. Of those who screened positive, 67% screened positive for depression, 44% for PTSD, and 50% for PD, with 43% of patients positive for multiple symptoms. Patients experiencing neck pain had significantly higher screening rates of depressive symptoms (62.5% versus 20.1%, P = .004) and PD (37.5% versus 12.9%, P = .044) compared with other presenting complaints. Similarly, patients with chronic pain had higher rates of depression (54.5% versus 20.1%, P = .006), PD (63.6% versus 12%, P<.001), and PTSD (36.4% versus 14.8%, P = .05) compared with other presenting complaints. Patients endorsing depressive symptoms had significantly lower SF-36 mental component summary scores (26.3 ± 10.7 versus 37.6 ± 9.9, P<.001) and higher shortened-version DASH (72.3 ± 16.7 versus 61.5 ± 11.1, P = .003) and

  10. Upper Extremity Functional Evaluation by Fugl-Meyer Assessment Scoring Using Depth-Sensing Camera in Hemiplegic Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Dongyoub; Bang, Hyunwoo; Paik, Nam-Jong

    2016-01-01

    Virtual home-based rehabilitation is an emerging area in stroke rehabilitation. Functional assessment tools are essential to monitor recovery and provide current function-based rehabilitation. We developed the Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA) tool using Kinect (Microsoft, USA) and validated it for hemiplegic stroke patients. Forty-one patients with hemiplegic stroke were enrolled. Thirteen of 33 items were selected for upper extremity motor FMA. One occupational therapist assessed the motor FMA while recording upper extremity motion with Kinect. FMA score was calculated using principal component analysis and artificial neural network learning from the saved motion data. The degree of jerky motion was also transformed to jerky scores. Prediction accuracy for each of the 13 items and correlations between real FMA scores and scores using Kinect were analyzed. Prediction accuracies ranged from 65% to 87% in each item and exceeded 70% for 9 items. Correlations were high for the summed score for the 13 items between real FMA scores and scores obtained using Kinect (Pearson’s correlation coefficient = 0.873, P<0.0001) and those between total upper extremity scores (66 in full score) and scores using Kinect (26 in full score) (Pearson’s correlation coefficient = 0.799, P<0.0001). Log transformed jerky scores were significantly higher in the hemiplegic side (1.81 ± 0.76) compared to non-hemiplegic side (1.21 ± 0.43) and showed significant negative correlations with Brunnstrom stage (3 to 6; Spearman correlation coefficient = -0.387, P = 0.046). FMA using Kinect is a valid way to assess upper extremity function and can provide additional results for movement quality in stroke patients. This may be useful in the setting of unsupervised home-based rehabilitation. PMID:27367518

  11. Computer-Aided Treatment Design of a Distal Upper Extremity Soft Tissue Tumor with Electron Beam Radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Li, Chun; Crawford, Susan; Mundt, A J; Vijayakumar, S

    2015-01-01

    We present here a novel approach for the planning and treatment of a distal upper extremity soft tissue tumor. Utilizing computed tomography (CT) based electron dose calculations, a customized compensating wax bolus was designed in order to deliver sufficient dose coverage to the tumor volume while sparing the draining lymphatics of the patient's hand and digits. A clinical case is presented as well as the design and construction of the compensator. Outcome and clinical implications are discussed.

  12. A Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Botulinum Toxin A Dosage in the Upper Extremity of Children with Spasticity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kawamura, Anne; Campbell, Kent; Lam-Damji, Sophie; Fehlings, Darcy

    2007-01-01

    This study compared the effects of low and high doses of botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) to improve upper extremity function. Thirty-nine children (22 males, 17 females) with a mean age of 6 years 2 months (SD 2y 9mo) diagnosed with spastic hemiplegia or triplegia were enrolled into this double-blind, randomized controlled trial. The high-dose group…

  13. Upper Extremity Functional Evaluation by Fugl-Meyer Assessment Scoring Using Depth-Sensing Camera in Hemiplegic Stroke Patients.

    PubMed

    Kim, Won-Seok; Cho, Sungmin; Baek, Dongyoub; Bang, Hyunwoo; Paik, Nam-Jong

    2016-01-01

    Virtual home-based rehabilitation is an emerging area in stroke rehabilitation. Functional assessment tools are essential to monitor recovery and provide current function-based rehabilitation. We developed the Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA) tool using Kinect (Microsoft, USA) and validated it for hemiplegic stroke patients. Forty-one patients with hemiplegic stroke were enrolled. Thirteen of 33 items were selected for upper extremity motor FMA. One occupational therapist assessed the motor FMA while recording upper extremity motion with Kinect. FMA score was calculated using principal component analysis and artificial neural network learning from the saved motion data. The degree of jerky motion was also transformed to jerky scores. Prediction accuracy for each of the 13 items and correlations between real FMA scores and scores using Kinect were analyzed. Prediction accuracies ranged from 65% to 87% in each item and exceeded 70% for 9 items. Correlations were high for the summed score for the 13 items between real FMA scores and scores obtained using Kinect (Pearson's correlation coefficient = 0.873, P<0.0001) and those between total upper extremity scores (66 in full score) and scores using Kinect (26 in full score) (Pearson's correlation coefficient = 0.799, P<0.0001). Log transformed jerky scores were significantly higher in the hemiplegic side (1.81 ± 0.76) compared to non-hemiplegic side (1.21 ± 0.43) and showed significant negative correlations with Brunnstrom stage (3 to 6; Spearman correlation coefficient = -0.387, P = 0.046). FMA using Kinect is a valid way to assess upper extremity function and can provide additional results for movement quality in stroke patients. This may be useful in the setting of unsupervised home-based rehabilitation.

  14. Overuse injuries of the upper extremity in the competitive athlete: magnetic resonance imaging findings associated with repetitive trauma.

    PubMed

    Banks, Kevin P; Ly, Justin Q; Beall, Douglas P; Grayson, David E; Bancroft, Laura W; Tall, Michael A

    2005-01-01

    Overuse injuries are a very common cause of pain in athletes, accounting for a significant loss of training time and missed competitions. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is playing an increasing role in facilitating the expeditious and safe return of these individuals to their preinjury level of physical performance by allowing accurate diagnosis. Sports physicians are increasingly relying on the exquisite anatomic detail afforded by this technique to formulate diagnoses that assist with the optimal management of these athletic injuries. Some upper extremity overuse entities are well recognized; two examples are medial epicondylitis, classically appearing in baseball pitchers, and lateral epicondylitis, in tennis players. Other less well-known injuries of the upper extremity, such as intersection syndrome in rowers and distal clavicular stress fractures in weightlifters, are frequent occurrences in certain circles of athletes. The following article is a pictorial review of the MRI findings of upper extremity overuse injuries encountered in the competitive athlete, with an emphasis on the sports scenarios in which they occur. We will depict mechanisms of injury and applicable anatomy and show characteristic imaging findings. A wide range of entities are addressed, including but not limited to overuse injuries occurring in baseball, swimming, gymnastics, weightlifting, bowling, and cycling.

  15. Refining the Sensory and Motor Ratunculus of the Rat Upper Extremity Using fMRI and Direct Nerve Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Younghoon R.; Pawela, Christopher P.; Li, Rupeng; Kao, Dennis; Schulte, Marie L.; Runquist, Matthew L.; Yan, Ji-Geng; Matloub, Hani S.; Jaradeh, Safwan S.; Hudetz, Anthony G.; Hyde, James S.

    2008-01-01

    It is well understood that the different regions of the body have cortical representations in proportion to the degree of innervation. Our current understanding of the rat upper extremity has been enhanced using functional MRI (fMRI), but these studies are often limited to the rat forepaw. The purpose of this study is to describe a new technique that allows us to refine the sensory and motor representations in the cerebral cortex by surgically implanting electrodes on the major nerves of the rat upper extremity and providing direct electrical nerve stimulation while acquiring fMRI images. This technique was used to stimulate the ulnar, median, radial, and musculocutaneous nerves in the rat upper extremity using four different stimulation sequences that varied in frequency (5 Hz vs. 10 Hz) and current (0.5 mA vs. 1.0 mA). A distinct pattern of cortical activation was found for each nerve. The higher stimulation current resulted in a dramatic increase in the level of cortical activation. The higher stimulation frequency resulted in both increases and attenuation of cortical activation in different regions of the brain, depending on which nerve was stimulated. PMID:17969116

  16. Two-point discrimination of the upper extremities of healthy Koreans in their 20’s

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Ja-Pung; Kim, Soon-Hee; An, Ho-Jung; Moon, Ok-Gon; Choi, Jung-Hyun; Yun, Young-Dae; Park, Joo-Hyun; Min, Kyoung-Ok

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The present study attempted to measure two-point discrimination in the upper extremities of healthy Koreans in their 20’s. [Subjects and Methods] Using a three-point esthesiometer, we conducted an experiment with a group of 256 college students (128 male and 128 female), attending N University in Chonan, Republic of Korea. [Results] Females showed two-point discrimination at a shorter distance than males at the following points: (i) 5 cm above the elbow joint, the middle part, and 5 cm below the shoulder joint of the anterior upper arm; (ii) 5 cm above the elbow joint and 5 cm below the shoulder joint of the posterior upper arm; (iii) 5 cm above the front of the wrist joint of the forearm; 5 cm below the elbow joint, the palmar part of the distal interphalangeal joint of the thumb, the dorsal part of the distal interphalangeal joint of the middle and little fingers. It was also found that females showed greater two-point discrimination than males in distal regions rather than proximal regions. [Conclusion] The findings of this study will help establish normal values for two-point discrimination of upper extremities of young Koreans in their 20’s. PMID:27134375

  17. [Remote intelligent Brunnstrom assessment system for upper limb rehabilitation for post-stroke based on extreme learning machine].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue; Yu, Lei; Fu, Jianming; Fang, Qiang

    2014-04-01

    In order to realize an individualized and specialized rehabilitation assessment of remoteness and intelligence, we set up a remote intelligent assessment system of upper limb movement function of post-stroke patients during rehabilitation. By using the remote rehabilitation training sensors and client data sampling software, we collected and uploaded the gesture data from a patient's forearm and upper arm during rehabilitation training to database of the server. Then a remote intelligent assessment system, which had been developed based on the extreme learning machine (ELM) algorithm and Brunnstrom stage assessment standard, was used to evaluate the gesture data. To evaluate the reliability of the proposed method, a group of 23 stroke patients, whose upper limb movement functions were in different recovery stages, and 4 healthy people, whose upper limb movement functions were normal, were recruited to finish the same training task. The results showed that, compared to that of the experienced rehabilitation expert who used the Brunnstrom stage standard table, the accuracy of the proposed remote Brunnstrom intelligent assessment system can reach a higher level, as 92.1%. The practical effects of surgery have proved that the proposed system could realize the intelligent assessment of upper limb movement function of post-stroke patients remotely, and it could also make the rehabilitation of the post-stroke patients at home or in a community care center possible.

  18. A Study on Extremely Dry and Wet Summer Monsoon in Pakistan by Focusing on the Anomalous States of the Upper Troposphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, S.; Koike, T.; Nishii, K.

    2012-04-01

    Seasonally-changes in wind pattern, monsoon, sometimes results in severe droughts and intense flooding in many parts of the world including South Asian countries like Pakistan. The livelihood of a vast population in Pakistan depends on agriculture and land use is strongly influenced by water-based ecosystems that depend on the monsoon rains. Furthermore, climate change studies undertaken so far reveal that action is essential in order to prevent long term damage to water cycle and thus of great concern to the community and stakeholders. Pakistan Summer Monsoon (PSM) is generally affected by both the disturbances from the tropical and the extratropical regions; however there is lack of understanding of physical mechanisms of PSM compared to other regional studies i.e. Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) and South-East Asian Monsoon (SEAM). In our study, we applied heat and vorticity budgets and wave train analysis to reveal the mechanisms of the extremely dry and wet PSM events associated with the anomalous upper tropospheric circulation. We found that the extremely dry (wet) PSM events are closely related with the strengthening(weakening) of the upper-tropospheric central Asian high. We also found that in addition to Rossby-wave (Matsuno-Gill) type atmospheric response, the Rossby wave train along the Asian Jet originating from northwestern Europe or North Atlantic Ocean strengthened(weakened) the upper-tropospheric central Asian high. Therefore strong convection anomalies resulting in severe flooding (drought) events over the PSM region are induced by both the tropical and extratropical processes. Key Words: Pakistan, Extremes Monsoon Events, Physical Processes, Heat Budget, Vorticity, Wave Train

  19. Upper-Extremity Dual-Task Function: An Innovative Method to Assess Cognitive Impairment in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Toosizadeh, Nima; Najafi, Bijan; Reiman, Eric M.; Mager, Reine M.; Veldhuizen, Jaimeson K.; O’Connor, Kathy; Zamrini, Edward; Mohler, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Background: Difficulties in orchestrating simultaneous tasks (i.e., dual-tasking) have been associated with cognitive impairments in older adults. Gait tests have been commonly used as the motor task component for dual-task assessments; however, many older adults have mobility impairments or there is a lack of space in busy clinical settings. We assessed an upper-extremity function (UEF) test as an alternative motor task to study the dual-task motor performance in older adults. Methods: Older adults (≥65 years) were recruited, and cognitive ability was measured using the Montreal cognitive assessment (MoCA). Participants performed repetitive elbow flexion with their maximum pace, once single-task, and once while counting backward by one (dual-task). Single- and dual-task gait tests were also performed with normal speed. Three-dimensional kinematics was measured both from upper-extremity and lower-extremity using wearable sensors to determine UEF and gait parameters. Parameters were compared between the cognitively impaired and healthy groups using analysis of variance tests, while controlling for age, gender, and body mass index (BMI). Correlations between UEF and gait parameters for dual-task and dual-task cost were assessed using linear regression models. Results: Sixty-seven older adults were recruited (age = 83 ± 10 years). Based on MoCA, 10 (15%) were cognitively impaired. While no significant differences were observed in the single-task condition, within the dual-task condition, the cognitively impaired group showed significantly less arm flexion speed (62%, d = 1.51, p = 0.02) and range of motion (27%, d = 0.93, p = 0.04), and higher speed variability (88%, d = 1.82, p < 0.0001) compared to the cognitively intact group, when adjusted with age, gender, and BMI. Significant correlations were observed between UEF speed parameters and gait stride velocity for dual-task condition (r = 0.55, p < 0.0001) and dual-task cost (r = 0.28, p = 0.03). Conclusion: We

  20. Upper limits on extreme ultraviolet radiation from nearby main sequence and subgiant stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ayres, T. R.; Linsky, J. L.; Margon, B.; Bowyer, S.

    1978-01-01

    Flux upper limits for 44-800 A radiation were measured in a sample of nearby main sequence stars and one subgiant star with the aid of the Apollo-Soyuz grazing incidence telescope. Comparisons of emission measure upper limits with three different methods for predicting coronal properties cannot yet determine which, if any, are valid. Data for Alpha Centauri A and B are consistent with recent HEAO-1 soft X-ray measurements which suggest that the surface flux of coronal emission from the Alpha Cen system is comparable to that of the 'normal' sun.

  1. A rare case of the upper extremity diffuse large B-cell lymphoma mimicking soft tissue sarcoma in an elderly patient.

    PubMed

    Mamorska-Dyga, Aleksandra; Ronny, Faisal M H; Puccio, Carmelo; Islam, Humayun; Liu, Delong

    2016-01-01

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, with about 30% of new cases presenting with extranodal disease. Lesions originating from soft tissues of the upper extremities are extremely rare and may mimic other malignancies like sarcoma. We present a case of an elderly patient with right upper extremity (RUE) mass which was proven to be DLBCL instead of sarcoma. We emphasize the increasing need for investigating new therapeutic options for patients of extreme age and/or with underlying heart disease. PMID:27486587

  2. The Effect of Self-directed Exercise Using a Task Board on Pain and Function in the Upper Extremities of Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Han Suk; Kim, Jin Ung

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] We evaluated the effect of self-directed exercise using a task board on function and pain in the upper extremities of stroke patients [Subjects and Methods] We used the one group pre-post test design. Seven stroke patients who were selected based on the inclusion criteria participated in the program once a week for 10 weeks. The self-directed exercise comprised 5 stages that were divided according to the level of difficulty. The exercise was performed for 60 minutes using a special task board that we designed. The FMA (Fugl-Meyer Motor Assessment), VAS (Visual Analogue Scale), and speed of stacking were assessed to evaluate the amount of use of the affected arm at before and after intervention. [Results] The scores of the VAS and FMA, but not that of the speed of stacking cups, were improved. There was no significant correlation between the changes in VAS, FMA, and the speed of stacking cups. [Conclusion] The findings suggest that self-directed exercise with the task board could improve the levels of function and pain in the upper extremities. We suggest that self-directed exercise can be utilized as a clinical rehabilitation program and improve therapeutic effects. PMID:24259894

  3. Upper-extremity and neck disorders associated with keyboard and mouse use.

    PubMed

    Mattioli, Stefano; Violante, Francesco S; Bonfiglioli, Roberta

    2015-01-01

    Musculoskeletal disorders are frequently related to computer use in the workplace. The aim of this chapter is to provide an overview of the evidence in the literature concerning the putative association between neck, shoulder, and upper-limb disorders and occupational exposure to use of a computer and its devices. We searched the scientific literature via PubMed, using specific search strategies, including substrings tailored to retrieve papers about: (1) occupational etiology; (2) computer use; and (3) different upper-limb disorders. We intended to include, in our evaluation, systematic reviews and relevant, informative papers published later on. We were able to retrieve 11 systematic reviews and 11 informative studies regarding neck, shoulder, and upper-limb disorders. There is limited/insufficient and/or inconsistent evidence indicating that computer work may be associated to neck, shoulder, or distal arm complaints. There is sufficient evidence indicating no association between carpal tunnel syndrome and computer work. There are no studies regarding the use of computers and some neck, shoulder, and upper-limb diseases, such as tennis elbow and trigger finger. Applying the general principles of ergonomics to computer work is probably the correct strategy to pursue, with the aim of maintaining office workers' well-being.

  4. On the Dynamics of Extreme Meteorological Droughts during Pakistan Summer Monsoon by Focusing the Anomalous States of Upper Troposphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, S.; Koike, T.; Nishii, K.

    2012-12-01

    The lack of summer monsoon sometimes brings severe droughts in many parts of the world including South Asian countries like Pakistan. Human life and economy in Pakistan considerably depends on the summer monsoon. So, an essential question arises "how can we contribute better to manage the water resources during drought conditions for the societal needs". To address the concern as a hydrologist, we need to develop a basis of the scientific understanding of the different contrast of the climatology during extremely dry rainfall events over Pakistan region. However, compared to other regional studies i.e. Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) and South-East Asian Monsoon (SEAM), the basis of the thermodynamical structure and the processes associated with upper tropospheric conditions during the climatological mean Pakistan Summer Monsoon (PSM) and its extreme events have not been addressed deeply yet and need to be investigated, because it is immensely vital for the hydrologist as a first step to develop the basis of scientific understanding. By data analysis, an attempt has been made to accomplish this objective. Firstly, the climatological tropospheric conditions and the associated processes from pre-monsoon phase to the PSM mature phase are investigated. During the PSM mature phase (mid July), the climatological-mean structure of the atmosphere favors convective activity compared to the pre-monsoon phase (late June) with weakening of the subsidence in the upper troposphere and also with increasing of incoming moisture flux in the lower troposphere from Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal around Pakistan. Specifically, in the upper troposphere, the upper-level subsidence and convergence observed over Pakistan during pre-monsoon phase shifts and reallocates to the northwest of Pakistan during mature phase, which results in weakening of the subsidence just over Pakistan, and then the PSM mature phase initiated. Secondly, comparing the PSM mature phase climatological mean

  5. The effect of limb crossing and limb congruency on multisensory integration in peripersonal space for the upper and lower extremities.

    PubMed

    van Elk, Michiel; Forget, Joachim; Blanke, Olaf

    2013-06-01

    The present study investigated how multisensory integration in peripersonal space is modulated by limb posture (i.e. whether the limbs are crossed or uncrossed) and limb congruency (i.e. whether the observed body part matches the actual position of one's limb). This was done separately for the upper limbs (Experiment 1) and the lower limbs (Experiment 2). The crossmodal congruency task was used to measure peripersonal space integration for the hands and the feet. It was found that the peripersonal space representation for the hands but not for the feet is dynamically updated based on both limb posture and limb congruency. Together these findings show how dynamic cues from vision, proprioception, and touch are integrated in peripersonal limb space and highlight fundamental differences in the way in which peripersonal space is represented for the upper and lower extremity. PMID:23579198

  6. Factors Associated With Upper Extremity Functional Recovery Following Low-Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the factors related to upper extremity functional improvement following inhibitory repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in stroke patients. Methods Forty-one stroke patients received low-frequency rTMS over the contralesional hemisphere according to a standard protocol, in addition to conventional physical and occupational therapy. The rTMS-treated patients were divided into two groups according to their responsiveness to rTMS measured by the self-care score of the Korean version of Modified Barthel Index (K-MBI): responded group (n=19) and non-responded group (n=22). Forty-one age-matched stroke patients who had not received rTMS served as controls. Neurological, cognitive and functional assessments were performed before rTMS and 4 weeks after rTMS treatment. Results Among the rTMS-treated patients, the responded group was significantly younger than the non-responded group (51.6±10.5 years and 65.5±13.7 years, respectively; p=0.001). Four weeks after rTMS, the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, the Brunnstrom recovery stage and upper extremity muscle power scores were significantly more improved in the responded group than in the control group. Besides the self-care score, the mobility score of the K-MBI was also more improved in the responded group than in the non-responded group or controls. Conclusion Age is the most obvious factor determining upper extremity functional responsiveness to low-frequency rTMS in stroke patients. PMID:27446773

  7. Robots integrated with virtual reality simulations for customized motor training in a person with upper extremity hemiparesis: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Fluet, Gerard G.; Merians, Alma S.; Qiu, Qinyin; Lafond, Ian; Saleh, Soha; Ruano, Viviana; Delmonico, Andrea R.; Adamovich, Sergei V.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose A majority of studies examining repetitive task practice facilitated by robots for the treatment of upper extremity paresis utilize standardized protocols applied to large groups. Others utilize interventions tailored to patients but don't describe the clinical decision making process utilized to develop and modify interventions. This case report will describe a robot-based intervention customized to match the goals and clinical presentation of a gentleman with upper extremity hemiparesis secondary to stroke. Methods PM is an 85 year-old man with left hemiparesis secondary to an intracerebral hemorrhage five years prior to examination. Outcomes were measured before and after a one month period of home therapy and after a one month robotic intervention. The intervention was designed to address specific impairments identified during his PT examination. When necessary, activities were modified based on the patient's response to his first week of treatment. Outcomes PM trained twelve sessions using six virtually simulated activities. Modifications to original configurations of these activities resulted in performance improvements in five of these activities. PM demonstrated a 35 second improvement in Jebsen Test of Hand Function time and a 44 second improvement in Wolf Motor Function Test time subsequent to the robotic training intervention. Reaching kinematics, 24 hour activity measurement and the Hand and Activities of Daily Living scales of the Stroke Impact Scale all improved as well. Discussion A customized program of robotically facilitated rehabilitation resulted in large short-term improvements in several measurements of upper extremity function in a patient with chronic hemiparesis. PMID:22592063

  8. A Synthesis of Best Evidence for the Restoration of Upper-Extremity Function in People with Tetraplegia

    PubMed Central

    Verrier, Mary C.

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: Because upper-limb function represents overall function for individuals with tetraplegia, the restoration of upper-extremity function is exceedingly important for this population. The purpose of this review was to identify interventions that optimize upper-limb function after tetraplegia based on best available evidence. Methods: A search of MEDLINE, AMED, and PubMed with the search terms “hand function AND tetraplegia” and “upper limb function AND tetraplegia” found 384 articles. After elimination of duplicates and review of titles and abstracts, 43 studies were found to be applicable. Study quality of all applicable studies was assessed with a modified version of the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network for Cohort Studies methodology. Results: The applicable studies were organized into three categories: conventional therapies (CT), electrical stimulation therapies (ES), and surgical interventions (SI). The proportion of papers in each category that presented with sufficient methodological quality to contribute to best evidence was as follows: CT: 0/2; ES: 10/21; SI: 6/20. Conclusions: ES therapies are beneficial as assistive technologies and as therapeutic intervention in the subacute phase of recovery. SIs are suitable for individuals who meet very specific criteria for tendon-transfer surgery. Further clinical trials are warranted for ES and SI therapies to substantiate prescription of therapeutics. PMID:22942526

  9. Input-increase and input-decrease types of cortical reorganization after upper extremity amputation in humans.

    PubMed

    Elbert, T; Sterr, A; Flor, H; Rockstroh, B; Knecht, S; Pantev, C; Wienbruch, C; Taub, E

    1997-10-01

    A plastic remodeling of regions in somatosensory cortex has previously been observed to occur in separate experimental paradigms in response to loss of somatosensory input and to increase in input. In this study, both types of cortical reorganization have been observed to occur concurrently in the same adult human nervous system as a result of a single intervention. Following upper extremity amputation, magnetic source imaging revealed that tactile stimulation of the lip evoked responses not only in the area of the somatosensory cortex corresponding to the face, but also within the cortical region that would normally correspond to the now absent hand. This "invasion" of the cortical amputation zone was accompanied by a significant increase in the size of the representation of the digits of the intact hand, presumably as a result of an increased importance of sensory stimulation consequent to increased dependence on that hand imposed by the loss of the contralateral extremity.

  10. Closed Kinetic Chain Upper Extremity Stability test (CKCUES test): a reliability study in persons with and without shoulder impingement syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Close Kinetic Chain Upper Extremity Stability Test (CKCUES test) is a low cost shoulder functional test that could be considered as a complementary and objective clinical outcome for shoulder performance evaluation. However, its reliability was tested only in recreational athletes’ males and there are no studies comparing scores between sedentary and active samples. The purpose was to examine inter and intrasession reliability of CKCUES Test for samples of sedentary male and female with (SIS), for samples of sedentary healthy male and female, and for male and female samples of healthy upper extremity sport specific recreational athletes. Other purpose was to compare scores within sedentary and within recreational athletes samples of same gender. Methods A sample of 108 subjects with and without SIS was recruited. Subjects were tested twice, seven days apart. Each subject performed four test repetitions, with 45 seconds of rest between them. The last three repetitions were averaged and used to statistical analysis. Intraclass Correlation Coefficient ICC2,1 was used to assess intrasession reliability of number of touches score and ICC2,3 was used to assess intersession reliability of number of touches, normalized score, and power score. Test scores within groups of same gender also were compared. Measurement error was determined by calculating the Standard Error of the Measurement (SEM) and Minimum detectable change (MDC) for all scores. Results The CKCUES Test showed excellent intersession reliability for scores in all samples. Results also showed excellent intrasession reliability of number of touches for all samples. Scores were greater in active compared to sedentary, with exception of power score. All scores were greater in active compared to sedentary and SIS males and females. SEM ranged from 1.45 to 2.76 touches (based on a 95% CI) and MDC ranged from 2.05 to 3.91(based on a 95% CI) in subjects with and without SIS. At least three touches

  11. Placement of a Retrievable Guenther Tulip Filter in the Superior Vena Cava for Upper Extremity Deep Venous Thrombosis

    SciTech Connect

    Nadkarni, Sanjay; Macdonald, Sumaira; Cleveland, Trevor J.; Gaines, Peter A.

    2002-12-15

    A retrievable Guenther Tulip caval filter(William Cook, Europe) was successfully placed and retrieved in the superior vena cava for upper extremity deep venous thrombosis in a 56-year-old woman. Bilateral subclavian and internal jugular venous thromboses thought secondary to placement of multiple central venous catheters were present. There have been reports of the use of permanent Greenfield filters and a single case report of a temporary filter in the superior vena cava. As far as we are aware this is the first reported placement and successful retrieval of a filter in these circumstances.

  12. An important Norwegian contribution to the study of the bursae of the upper and lower extremities

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    We present a critical analysis of the monograph of A.S.D. Synnestvedt (1869) “En anatomisk beskrivelse af de paa over- og underestremiteterne forekommende Bursae mucosae”. The analysis was completed using anatomical information from the historically oldest publications dealing with the bursae of the extremities: Albinus (1734), Monro (1788), Rosenmüller (1799). We are of the opinion that Synnestvedt's publication is important, not only historically but also as a source of information for recent medical practitioners. Synnestvedt's monograph has a wealth of literary citations, unambiguous opinions of seasoned anatomists regarding the structure and function of the synovial membrane, and detailed descriptions of dissections he performed on fetal and adult cadavers. The information in this publication may enhance the diagnosis of bursopathies and enthesopathies of the extremities. PMID:20860444

  13. Gram stain microbiological pattern of upper extremities suppuration at Baptist Medical Centre, Ogbomoso Nigeria: a fifteen month review.

    PubMed

    Oke, A J; Olaolorun, D A; Meier, D E; Tarpley, J L

    2011-06-01

    Sixty-eight (68) patients with serious upper extremity suppurative infections, presenting within a period of fifteen (15) months, were prospectively studied clinically, Gram stain of aspirates/pus were performed, specimen cultured, planted, and where indicated glucose levels and haemoglobin genotype determined. Half of the patients had hand infections. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from thirty-nine (39) patients. Gram Negative bacilli, including Salmonella were more isolated from patients with diabetes mellitus or Hgb SS or SC. The Gram stain results correlated with the culture result 90%. When Gram Positive cocci were demonstrated in the primary microscopic examination, cultures were not mandatory. When no organism was demonstrated on primary Gram stain or the patient was diabetic or a sickler, cultures of the specimens were done. The Gram stain, well performed, remains a useful, inexpensive, technologically appropriate laboratory test for abetting decision making in patients with upper extremity suppurative infections. Organisms encountered in this study included: Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Salmonella typhi, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Coliforms.

  14. Integrated case management for work-related upper-extremity disorders: impact of patient satisfaction on health and work status.

    PubMed

    Feuerstein, Michael; Huang, Grant D; Ortiz, Jose M; Shaw, William S; Miller, Virginia I; Wood, Patricia M

    2003-08-01

    An integrated case management (ICM) approach (ergonomic and problem-solving intervention) to work-related upper-extremity disorders was examined in relation to patient satisfaction, future symptom severity, function, and return to work (RTW). Federal workers with work-related upper-extremity disorder workers' compensation claims (n = 205) were randomly assigned to usual care or ICM intervention. Patient satisfaction was assessed after the 4-month intervention period. Questionnaires on clinical outcomes and ergonomic exposure were administered at baseline and at 6- and 12-months postintervention. Time from intervention to RTW was obtained from an administrative database. ICM group assignment was significantly associated with greater patient satisfaction. Regression analyses found higher patient satisfaction levels predicted decreased symptom severity and functional limitations at 6 months and a shorter RTW. At 12 months, predictors of positive outcomes included male gender, lower distress, lower levels of reported ergonomic exposure, and receipt of ICM. Findings highlight the utility of targeting workplace ergonomic and problem solving skills. PMID:12915782

  15. Motion analysis of the upper extremity in children with unilateral cerebral palsy--an assessment of six daily tasks.

    PubMed

    Klotz, Matthias C M; van Drongelen, Stefan; Rettig, Oliver; Wenger, Patrick; Gantz, Simone; Dreher, Thomas; Wolf, Sebastian I

    2014-11-01

    Restrictions in range of motion of the upper extremity are common in patients with unilateral cerebral palsy (CP). The purpose of this study was to investigate movement deviations of the upper extremity in children with unilateral CP by means of 3D motion capture as well as by the use of easy to use scores and questionnaires (MACS, MRC, MAS, ABILHAND-Kids). 16 children with a spastic, unilateral CP were included and compared to a group of 17 typically developing adolescents (TD). The movement time and range of motion (ROM) of six uni- and bimanual daily tasks were compared and correlated with the scores and questionnaires. Movement times increased significantly with involvement according to MACS in all tasks. The restrictions in ROM were pronounced in the forearm. As a compensatory mechanism the children of the MACS 2 and 3 groups showed increased trunk movement. Furthermore, there was a positive correlation between the MACS and the ABILHAND-Kids Questionnaire. In contrast to previous studies, which reported a correlation between the restrictions in ROM and the MACS, this study showed no consistent correlation between the restrictions in ROM neither with the MACS nor with the ABILHAND-Kids. While the MACS and the ABILHAND-Kids function as a simple rating tool for clinical use, the detailed analysis of different daily tasks using 3-D-motion capture provides more detailed information about the movement deviations and spatiotemporal parameters. PMID:25112796

  16. Advances in 3D-Printed Pediatric Prostheses for Upper Extremity Differences.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Kara S; Lightdale-Miric, Nina

    2016-08-01

    ➤The prohibitive cost of cutting-edge prostheses prevents many children with a limb difference from obtaining them; however, new developments in 3-dimensional (3D) printing have the potential to increase the accessibility, customization, and procurement of such devices.➤Children with upper limb differences are ideal candidates for currently available 3D-printed devices because they quickly damage and outgrow prostheses, and the low cost of 3D printing makes repairs and upgrades substantially more affordable.➤Physicians and medical practitioners should become familiar with the possibilities of 3D-printed devices in order to determine the benefits and utility for their patients. PMID:27489324

  17. Advances in 3D-Printed Pediatric Prostheses for Upper Extremity Differences.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Kara S; Lightdale-Miric, Nina

    2016-08-01

    ➤The prohibitive cost of cutting-edge prostheses prevents many children with a limb difference from obtaining them; however, new developments in 3-dimensional (3D) printing have the potential to increase the accessibility, customization, and procurement of such devices.➤Children with upper limb differences are ideal candidates for currently available 3D-printed devices because they quickly damage and outgrow prostheses, and the low cost of 3D printing makes repairs and upgrades substantially more affordable.➤Physicians and medical practitioners should become familiar with the possibilities of 3D-printed devices in order to determine the benefits and utility for their patients.

  18. Catheter-Directed Thrombolysis with Percutaneous Rheolytic Thrombectomy Versus Thrombolysis Alone in Upper and Lower Extremity Deep Vein Thrombosis

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hyun S. Patra, Ajanta; Paxton, Ben E.; Khan, Jawad; Streiff, Michael B.

    2006-12-15

    Purpose. To compare the efficacy of catheter-directed thrombolysis (CDT) alone versus CDT with rheolytic percutaneous mechanical thrombectomy (PMT) for upper and lower extremity deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Methods. A retrospective cohort of consecutive patients with acute iliofemoral or brachiosubclavian DVT treated with urokinase CDT was identified, and a chart review was conducted. Demographic characteristics, treatment duration, total lytic dose, clot lysis rates and complications were compared in patients treated with urokinase CDT alone or combined CDT and rheolytic PMT. Results. Forty limbs in 36 patients were treated with urokinase CDT alone. Twenty-seven limbs in 21 patients were treated with urokinase CDT and rheolytic PMT. The mean treatment duration for urokinase CDT alone was 48.0 {+-} 27.1 hr compared with 26.3 {+-} 16.6 hr for urokinase CDT and rheolytic PMT (p = 0.0004). The mean urokinase dose required for CDT alone was 5.6 {+-} 5.3 million units compared with 2.7 {+-} 1.8 million units for urokinase CDT with rheolytic PMT (p = 0.008). Complete clot lysis was achieved in 73% (29/40) of DVT treated with urokinase CDT alone compared with 82% (22/27) treated with urokinase CDT with rheolytic PMT. Conclusion. Percutaneous CDT with rheolytic PMT is as effective as CDT alone for acute proximal extremity DVT but requires significantly shorter treatment duration and lower lytic doses. Randomized studies to confirm the benefits of pharmacomechanical thrombolysis in the treatment of acute proximal extremity DVT are warranted.

  19. New color-based tracking algorithm for joints of the upper extremities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiangping; Chow, Daniel H. K.; Zheng, Xiaoxiang

    2007-11-01

    To track the joints of the upper limb of stroke sufferers for rehabilitation assessment, a new tracking algorithm which utilizes a developed color-based particle filter and a novel strategy for handling occlusions is proposed in this paper. Objects are represented by their color histogram models and particle filter is introduced to track the objects within a probability framework. Kalman filter, as a local optimizer, is integrated into the sampling stage of the particle filter that steers samples to a region with high likelihood and therefore fewer samples is required. A color clustering method and anatomic constraints are used in dealing with occlusion problem. Compared with the general basic particle filtering method, the experimental results show that the new algorithm has reduced the number of samples and hence the computational consumption, and has achieved better abilities of handling complete occlusion over a few frames.

  20. Accelerometer measurement of upper extremity movement after stroke: a systematic review of clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Noorkõiv, Marika; Rodgers, Helen; Price, Christopher I

    2014-10-09

    The aim of this review was to identify and summarise publications, which have reported clinical applications of upper limb accelerometry for stroke within free-living environments and make recommendations for future studies. Data was searched from MEDLINE, Scopus, IEEExplore and Compendex databases. The final search was 31st October 2013. Any study was included which reported clinical assessments in parallel with accelerometry in a free-living hospital or home setting. Study quality is reflected by participant numbers, methodological approach, technical details of the equipment used, blinding of clinical measures, whether safety and compliance data was collected. First author screened articles for inclusion and inclusion of full text articles and data extraction was confirmed by the third author. Out of 1375 initial abstracts, 8 articles were included. All participants were stroke patients. Accelerometers were worn for either 24 hours or 3 days. Data were collected as summed acceleration counts over a specified time or as the duration of active/inactive periods. Activity in both arms was reported by all studies and the ratio of impaired to unimpaired arm activity was calculated in six studies. The correlation between clinical assessments and accelerometry was tested in five studies and significant correlations were found. The efficacy of a rehabilitation intervention was assessed using accelerometry by three studies: in two studies both accelerometry and clinical test scores detected a post-treatment difference but in one study accelerometry data did not change despite clinical test scores showing motor and functional improvements. Further research is needed to understand the additional value of accelerometry as a measure of upper limb use and function in a clinical context. A simple and easily interpretable accelerometry approach is required.

  1. Land use affects the resistance and resilience of carbon dynamics of mountain grassland to extreme drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingrisch, Johannes; Karlowsky, Stefan; Hasibeder, Roland; Anadon-Rosell, Alba; Augusti, Angela; Scheld, Sarah; König, Alexander; Gleixner, Gerd; Bahn, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Climatic extremes like droughts are expected to occur more frequently and to be more severe in a future climate and have been shown to strongly affect the carbon (C) cycle. Few studies have so far explored how the management intensity of ecosystems and land-use changes alter C cycle responses to extreme climatic events. In many mountain areas land-use changes have been taking place at a rapid pace and have altered plant species composition and biogeochemical cycles. It is still unknown whether and how abandonment of mountain grasslands affects the resistance and the resilience of carbon dynamics to extreme drought. We carried out an in situ experiment to test the hypothesis that abandonment increases the resistance of grassland C dynamics to extreme drought, but decreases its resilience (i.e. post-drought recovery). In a common garden experiment at a mountain meadow in the Austrian Central Alps we exposed large intact monoliths from the meadow and a nearby abandoned grassland to extreme drought conditions during the main growth period in late spring. We measured above- and belowground productivity and net ecosystem exchange and its components over the course of the drought and during the recovery to assess and quantify their resistance and resilience. Furthermore, we analysed the coupling of the two major ecosystem CO2 fluxes, photosynthesis and soil respiration, as based on 13CO2 pulse labelling campaigns at peak drought and during post-drought recovery using isotope laser spectroscopy. Four weeks of early season drought induced a strong decrease of aboveground biomass at the mountain meadow, whereas no effect was observed for the abandoned grassland. At peak drought gross primary productivity was reduced at both grasslands compared to the respective controls, but with a stronger decrease at the meadow (80%) compared to the abandoned grassland (60%). The same pattern was observed for ecosystem respiration. However, the effect was less pronounced compared to carbon

  2. Extreme sensory processing patterns and their relation with clinical conditions among individuals with major affective disorders.

    PubMed

    Engel-Yeger, Batya; Muzio, Caterina; Rinosi, Giorgio; Solano, Paola; Geoffroy, Pierre Alexis; Pompili, Maurizio; Amore, Mario; Serafini, Gianluca

    2016-02-28

    Previous studies highlighted the involvement of sensory perception in emotional processes. However, the role of extreme sensory processing patterns expressed in hyper- or hyposensitivity was not thoroughly considered. The present study, in real life conditions, examined the unique sensory processing patterns of individuals with major affective disorders and their relationship with psychiatric symptomatology. The sample consisted of 105 participants with major affective conditions ranging in age from 20 to 84 years (mean=56.7±14.6). All participants completed the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego (TEMPS-A), the second version of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II), and Adolescent/Adult Sensory Profile (AASP). Sensory sensitivity/avoiding hypersensitivity patterns and low registration (a hyposensitivity pattern) were prevalent among our sample as compared to normative data. About seventy percent of the sample showed lower seeking tendency. Stepwise regression analyses revealed that depression and anxious/cyclothymic affective temperaments were predicted by sensory sensory/avoiding. Anxious and irritable affective temperaments were predicted by low registration. Hyperthymic affective temperament and lower severity of depression were predicted by sensation seeking. Hyposensitivity or hypersensitivity may be "trait" markers of individuals with major affective disorders. Interventions should refer to the individual unique sensory profiles and their behavioral and functional impact in the context of real life.

  3. Pale nasal mucosa affects airflow limitations in upper and lower airways in asthmatic children

    PubMed Central

    Odajima, Hiroshi; Yamada, Atsunobu; Taba, Naohiko; Murakami, Yoko; Nishima, Sankei

    2016-01-01

    Background Severe asthmatics are thought to have severer rhinitis than mild asthmatics. A pale nasal mucosa is a typical clinical finding in subjects with severe allergic rhinitis. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate whether a pale nasal mucosa affects airflow limitations in the upper and lower airways in asthmatic children. Methods Rhinomanometry, nasal scraping, and spirometry were performed in 54 asthmatic children (median age, 10 years). The nasal mucosa was evaluated by an otolaryngologist. Thirty-seven patients were treated with inhaled corticosteroids, and 11 patients were treated with intranasal corticosteroids. Results Subjects with a pale nasal mucosa (n = 23) exhibited a lower nasal airflow (p < 0.05) and a larger number of nasal eosinophils (p < 0.05) in the upper airway as well as lower pulmonary functional parameters (p < 0.05 for all comparisons), i.e., the forced vital capacity (FVC), the forced expiratory volume in 1 second, and the peak expiratory flow, compared with the subjects who exhibited a normal or pinkish mucosa (n = 31). No significant difference in the forced expiratory flow between 25%–75% of the FVC, regarded as indicating the peripheral airway, was observed between the 2 groups. Conclusion A pale nasal mucosa may be a predictor of eosinophil infiltration of the nasal mucosa and central airway limitations in asthmatic children. When allergists observe a pale nasal mucosa in asthmatic children, they should consider the possibility of airflow limitations in not only the upper airway, but also the lower airway. PMID:27803882

  4. A kinematic analysis of an upper extremity ballistic skill: the windmill pitch.

    PubMed

    Alexander, M J; Haddow, J B

    1982-09-01

    The purposes of this study were (1) to determine the relative motions of the upper limb segments during the execution of the softball windmill pitch (2) to attempt to determine the effect of these motions on the performance of the skill. High speed motion picture film was used to calculate the kinematic parameters of the pitching arm segments during the pitch. Four highly-skilled pitchers were used as subjects. Each performed at least ten trials of the pitch, which were recorded by two motion picture cameras. The two trials with the fastest ball velocity for each of the four subjects were analyzed from a sagittal aspect only. The resulting kinematic analysis indicated that there was a definite proximal-to-distal sequence of these motions, with decelerations occurring in the proximal segments prior to release of the ball. It was concluded that one of the critical factors in highly-skilled performance of ballistic skills is the ability to decelerate such segments, which likely require very strong eccentric contractions of antagonistic muscle groups.

  5. Evaluation and training of upper extremity control from a systems perspective in the patient with neurological dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Charness, A L

    1995-01-01

    Three phases exist for using the arm in a functional activity, namely, localization of the target in the environment, transportation of the arm to the target, and grasp release or in-hand manipulation of the object. According to the systems model of motor control, functional use of the arm requires the integrated activity of the musculoskeletal, sensorimotor integration, commanding, comparing, regulating, and environmental systems. Comprehensive retraining of upper extremity control in the client with neurological dysfunction should include restoration of postural alignment range of motion and strength, elimination of pain, reduction of shoulder subluxation, training postural control and orientation, optimizing sensory processing and organization, training the shoulder elbow coupling needed to transport the arm to the target, reeducating grasp release and manipulation of objects, developing the predictive central set needed for environmental adaptation, developing the patient's intrinsic error detection skills, and maximizing the ability to use knowledge of results and performance for generalization of learning. PMID:27619901

  6. ISAKOS upper extremity committee consensus statement on the need for diversification of the Rockwood classification for acromioclavicular joint injuries.

    PubMed

    Beitzel, Knut; Mazzocca, Augustus D; Bak, Klaus; Itoi, Eiji; Kibler, William B; Mirzayan, Raffy; Imhoff, Andreas B; Calvo, Emilio; Arce, Guillermo; Shea, Kevin

    2014-02-01

    Optimal treatment for the unstable acromioclavicular (AC) joint remains a highly debated topic in the field of orthopaedic medicine. In particular, no consensus exists regarding treatment of grade III injuries, which are classified according to the Rockwood classification by disruption of both the coracoclavicular and AC ligaments. The ISAKOS Upper Extremity Committee has provided a more specific classification of shoulder pathologies to enhance the knowledge on and clinical approach to these injuries. We suggest the addition of grade IIIA and grade IIIB injuries to a modified Rockwood classification. Grade IIIA injuries would be defined by a stable AC joint without overriding of the clavicle on the cross-body adduction view and without significant scapular dysfunction. The unstable grade IIIB injury would be further defined by therapy-resistant scapular dysfunction and an overriding clavicle on the cross-body adduction view.

  7. Changes in Upper-Extremity Functional Capacity and Daily Performance During Outpatient Occupational Therapy for People With Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Doman, Caitlin A.; Waddell, Kimberly J.; Bailey, Ryan R.; Moore, Jennifer L.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. This study explored how upper-extremity (UE) functional capacity and daily performance change during the course of outpatient rehabilitation in people with stroke. METHOD. Fifteen participants receiving outpatient occupational therapy services for UE paresis poststroke were enrolled. UE motor capacity was measured with the Action Research Arm Test (ARAT), and UE performance was measured using bilateral, wrist-worn accelerometers. Measurements were taken at or near the start of therapy, at every 10th visit or every 30 days throughout the duration of services, and at discharge. RESULTS. Three patterns were observed: (1) increase in ARAT scores and more normalized accelerometry profiles, (2) increase in ARAT scores but no change in accelerometry profiles, and (3) no change in ARAT scores or in accelerometry profiles. CONCLUSION. UE performance in daily life was highly variable, with inconsistencies between change in UE capacity and change in UE performance. UE capacity and performance are important constructs to assess separately during rehabilitation. PMID:27089298

  8. In-flight estimation of gyro noise on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) and Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, M.; Crouse, P.; Harman, R.; Leid, Terry; Davis, W.; Underwood, S.

    1994-01-01

    This paper characterizes the low-frequency noise response of the Teledyne dry rotor inertial reference unit (DRIRU) gyroscopes on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) and the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE). The accuracy of spacecraft attitude estimation algorithms that use gyro data for propagating the spacecraft attitude is sensitive to gyro noise. EUVE gyro data were processed to validate a single-axis gyro noise model, which is used onboard various spacecraft. The paper addresses the potential impact of temperature effects on the gyro noise model and the overall impact on attitude determination accuracy. The power spectral density (PSD) of the gyro noise is estimated from UARS in-flight data by Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). The role of actuator dynamics on the PSD function is also discussed.

  9. Relationship between gluteal muscle activation and upper extremity kinematics and kinetics in softball position players.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Gretchen D

    2014-03-01

    As the biomechanical literature concerning softball pitching is evolving, there are no data to support the mechanics of softball position players. Pitching literature supports the whole kinetic chain approach including the lower extremity in proper throwing mechanics. The purpose of this project was to examine the gluteal muscle group activation patterns and their relationship with shoulder and elbow kinematics and kinetics during the overhead throwing motion of softball position players. Eighteen Division I National Collegiate Athletic Association softball players (19.2 ± 1.0 years; 68.9 ± 8.7 kg; 168.6 ± 6.6 cm) who were listed on the active playing roster volunteered. Electromyographic, kinematic, and kinetic data were collected while players caught a simulated hit or pitched ball and perform their position throw. Pearson correlation revealed a significant negative correlation between non-throwing gluteus maximus during the phase of maximum external rotation to maximum internal rotation (MIR) and elbow moments at ball release (r = -0.52). While at ball release, trunk flexion and rotation both had a positive relationship with shoulder moments at MIR (r = 0.69, r = 0.82, respectively) suggesting that the kinematic actions of the pelvis and trunk are strongly related to the actions of the shoulder during throwing.

  10. Upper extremity kinematics and body roll during preferred-side breathing and breath-holding front crawl swimming.

    PubMed

    Payton, C J; Bartlett, R M; Baltzopoulos, V; Coombs, R

    1999-09-01

    Front crawl swimmers often restrict the number of breaths they take during a race because of the possible adverse effects of the breathing action on resistance or stroke mechanics. The aim of this study was to determine whether differences exist in the kinematics of the trunk and upper extremity used during preferred-side breathing and breath-holding front crawl swimming. Six male swimmers performed trials at their 200 m race pace under breathing and breath-holding conditions. The underwater arm stroke was filmed from the front and side using video cameras suspended over periscope systems. Video recordings were digitized at 50 Hz and the three-dimensional coordinates of the upper extremity obtained using a direct linear transformation algorithm. Body roll angles were obtained by digitizing video recordings of a balsa wood fin attached to the swimmers' backs. The swimmers performed the breathing action without any decrement in stroke length (mean +/- s: breathing 2.24 +/- 0.27 m; breath-holding 2.15 +/- 0.22 m). Stroke widths were similar in the breathing (0.28 +/- 0.07 m) and breath-holding (0.27 +/- 0.07 m) trials, despite swimmers rolling further when taking a breath (66 +/- 5 degrees) than when not (57 +/- 4 degrees). The timing of the four underwater phases of the stroke was also unaffected by the breathing action, with swimmers rolling back towards the neutral position during the insweep phase. In conclusion, the results suggest that front crawl swimmers can perform the breathing action without it interfering with their basic stroke parameters. The insweep phase of the stroke assists body roll and not vice versa as suggested in previous studies.

  11. Neuromusculoskeletal disorders in the neck and upper extremities among drivers of all-terrain vehicles – a case series

    PubMed Central

    Rehn, Börje; Nilsson, Tohr; Järvholm, Bengt

    2004-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to investigate whether professional drivers of all-terrain vehicles (ATVs) with neck pain have a different array of neuromusculoskeletal disorders in the neck and upper extremities than a referent group with neck pain from the general population. It is hypothesized that exposure to shock-type vibration and unfavorable working postures in ATVs have the capacity to cause peripheral nervous lesions. Methods This study was based on a case series analyzed according to a case-case comparison design. The study population consisted of 60 male subjects, including professional drivers of forest machines (n = 15), snowmobiles (n = 15), snowgroomers (n = 15) and referents from the general population (n = 15) all of whom had reported neck pain in a questionnaire and underwent an extensive physical examination of the neck and upper extremities. Based on symptom history, symptoms and signs, and in some cases chemical, electroneurographical and radiological findings, subjects were classified as having a nociceptive or neuropathic disorder or a mix of these types. Results The occurrence of asymmetrical and focal neuropathies (peripheral nervous lesion), pure or in a mix with a nociceptive disorder was common among cases in the ATV driver groups (47%–79%). This contrasted with the referents that were less often classified as having asymmetrical and focal neuropathy (27%), but instead had more nociceptive disorders. The difference was most pronounced among drivers of snowgroomers, while drivers of forest machines were more frequently classified as having a nociceptive disorder originating in the muscles. Conclusion This study found a high prevalence of assymetrical and focal neuropathies among drivers with pain in the neck, operating various ATVs. It seems as if exposure to shock-type whole-body vibration (WBV) and appurtenant unfavorable postures in ATVs may be associated to peripheral nervous lesions. PMID:14718063

  12. On the assessment of coordination between upper extremities: towards a common language between rehabilitation engineers, clinicians and neuroscientists.

    PubMed

    Shirota, Camila; Jansa, Jelka; Diaz, Javier; Balasubramanian, Sivakumar; Mazzoleni, Stefano; Borghese, N Alberto; Melendez-Calderon, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Well-developed coordination of the upper extremities is critical for function in everyday life. Interlimb coordination is an intuitive, yet subjective concept that refers to spatio-temporal relationships between kinematic, kinetic and physiological variables of two or more limbs executing a motor task with a common goal. While both the clinical and neuroscience communities agree on the relevance of assessing and quantifying interlimb coordination, rehabilitation engineers struggle to translate the knowledge and needs of clinicians and neuroscientists into technological devices for the impaired. The use of ambiguous definitions in the scientific literature, and lack of common agreement on what should be measured, present large barriers to advancements in this area. Here, we present the different definitions and approaches to assess and quantify interlimb coordination in the clinic, in motor control studies, and by state-of-the-art robotic devices. We then propose a taxonomy of interlimb activities and give recommendations for future neuroscience-based robotic- and sensor-based assessments of upper limb function that are applicable to the everyday clinical practice. We believe this is the first step towards our long-term goal of unifying different fields and help the generation of more consistent and effective tools for neurorehabilitation. PMID:27608923

  13. On the assessment of coordination between upper extremities: towards a common language between rehabilitation engineers, clinicians and neuroscientists.

    PubMed

    Shirota, Camila; Jansa, Jelka; Diaz, Javier; Balasubramanian, Sivakumar; Mazzoleni, Stefano; Borghese, N Alberto; Melendez-Calderon, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Well-developed coordination of the upper extremities is critical for function in everyday life. Interlimb coordination is an intuitive, yet subjective concept that refers to spatio-temporal relationships between kinematic, kinetic and physiological variables of two or more limbs executing a motor task with a common goal. While both the clinical and neuroscience communities agree on the relevance of assessing and quantifying interlimb coordination, rehabilitation engineers struggle to translate the knowledge and needs of clinicians and neuroscientists into technological devices for the impaired. The use of ambiguous definitions in the scientific literature, and lack of common agreement on what should be measured, present large barriers to advancements in this area. Here, we present the different definitions and approaches to assess and quantify interlimb coordination in the clinic, in motor control studies, and by state-of-the-art robotic devices. We then propose a taxonomy of interlimb activities and give recommendations for future neuroscience-based robotic- and sensor-based assessments of upper limb function that are applicable to the everyday clinical practice. We believe this is the first step towards our long-term goal of unifying different fields and help the generation of more consistent and effective tools for neurorehabilitation.

  14. Occupational upper extremity disorders in the federal workforce. Prevalence, health care expenditures, and patterns of work disability.

    PubMed

    Feuerstein, M; Miller, V L; Burrell, L M; Berger, R

    1998-06-01

    Upper extremity disorders (UEDs) account for a significant number of work-related illnesses in the US workforce. Little information exists on the distribution of UEDs, their associated health care and indemnity costs, or patterns of work disability. The study presented is an analysis of upper extremity claims within the federal workforce. In this study, the universe consisted of all claims accepted by the US Department of Labor, Office of Workers' Compensation Programs (OWCP), from October 1, 1993, through September 30, 1994. A total of 185,927 claims of notices of injury were processed during the study period, and of these, 8,147 or 4.4% had an UED diagnosis coded according to the International Classification of Diseases, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM). 5,844 claims involved a single UED diagnosis and were the only claims field by these employees between October 1, 1990, and September 30, 1994. These single claims with single diagnoses comprised the sample for further analysis. Mononeuritis and enthesopathies of the upper limb were the most common diagnoses, accounting for 43% and 31% of the claims, respectively. Women had a higher proportion of carpal tunnel syndrome, "unspecified" mononeuritis, and "unspecified" enthesopathies. The majority of claimants for both the mononeuritis- and enthesopathy-related diagnoses were between 31 and 50 years of age, received only health care benefits, and did not incur wage loss. Health care costs for mononeuritis and enthesopathy claims were $12,228,755 (M = $2,849). Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and enthesopathy of the elbow were the most costly diagnoses, accounting for 57% and 16% of the total, respectively. Surgical services represented the highest expenditures in CTS claims. Physical therapy accounted for the majority of health care costs for enthesopathy cases. The mean number of workdays lost for CTS and enthesopathy claims were 84 and 79, and the average indemnity costs were $4,941 and $4,477, respectively. These

  15. Pulse wave transit time measured by imaging photoplethysmography in upper extremities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volynsky, M. A.; Mamontov, O. V.; Sidorov, I. S.; Kamshilin, A. A.

    2016-08-01

    We describe highly reliable measurement method of the pulse wave transit time (PWTT) to human limbs by using simultaneous recordings of imaging photoplethysmography and electrocardiography. High accuracy of measurements was achieved by access to a larger number of statistically independent data obtained simultaneously in different points. The method is characterized by higher diagnostic reliability because of automatic selection of the regions less affected by environmental noise. The technique was tested in the group of 12 young healthy subjects aged from 21 to 33 years. Even though PWTT in right and left hands was comparable after averaging over the whole group of subjects, significant difference in the time delay of pulse wave between the hands was found in several individuals. The technique can be used for early-stage diagnostics of various vascular diseases.

  16. The Acute Effects of Upper Extremity Stretching on Throwing Velocity in Baseball Throwers

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Michael; Harveson, Lanisa; Melton, Jason; Delobel, Ashley; Puentedura, Emilio J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To examine the effects of static and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretching of the shoulder internal rotators on throwing velocity. Subjects. 27 male throwers (mean age = 25.1 years old, SD = 2.4) with adequate knowledge of demonstrable throwing mechanics. Study Design. Randomized crossover trial with repeated measures. Methods. Subjects warmed up, threw 10 pitches at their maximum velocity, were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 stretching protocols (static, PNF, or no stretch), and then repeated their 10 pitches. Velocities were recorded after each pitch and average and peak velocities were recorded after each session. Results. Data were analyzed using a 3 × 2 repeated measures ANOVA. No significant interaction between stretching and throwing velocity was observed. Main effects for time were not statistically significant. Main effects for the stretching groups were statistically significant. Discussion. Results suggest that stretching of the shoulder internal rotators did not significantly affect throwing velocity immediately after stretching. This may be due to the complexity of the throwing task. Conclusions. Stretching may be included in a thrower's warm-up without any effects on throwing velocity. Further research should be performed using a population with more throwing experience and skill. PMID:26464880

  17. The Acute Effects of Upper Extremity Stretching on Throwing Velocity in Baseball Throwers.

    PubMed

    Williams, Michael; Harveson, Lanisa; Melton, Jason; Delobel, Ashley; Puentedura, Emilio J

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To examine the effects of static and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretching of the shoulder internal rotators on throwing velocity. Subjects. 27 male throwers (mean age = 25.1 years old, SD = 2.4) with adequate knowledge of demonstrable throwing mechanics. Study Design. Randomized crossover trial with repeated measures. Methods. Subjects warmed up, threw 10 pitches at their maximum velocity, were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 stretching protocols (static, PNF, or no stretch), and then repeated their 10 pitches. Velocities were recorded after each pitch and average and peak velocities were recorded after each session. Results. Data were analyzed using a 3 × 2 repeated measures ANOVA. No significant interaction between stretching and throwing velocity was observed. Main effects for time were not statistically significant. Main effects for the stretching groups were statistically significant. Discussion. Results suggest that stretching of the shoulder internal rotators did not significantly affect throwing velocity immediately after stretching. This may be due to the complexity of the throwing task. Conclusions. Stretching may be included in a thrower's warm-up without any effects on throwing velocity. Further research should be performed using a population with more throwing experience and skill. PMID:26464880

  18. The Acute Effects of Upper Extremity Stretching on Throwing Velocity in Baseball Throwers.

    PubMed

    Williams, Michael; Harveson, Lanisa; Melton, Jason; Delobel, Ashley; Puentedura, Emilio J

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To examine the effects of static and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretching of the shoulder internal rotators on throwing velocity. Subjects. 27 male throwers (mean age = 25.1 years old, SD = 2.4) with adequate knowledge of demonstrable throwing mechanics. Study Design. Randomized crossover trial with repeated measures. Methods. Subjects warmed up, threw 10 pitches at their maximum velocity, were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 stretching protocols (static, PNF, or no stretch), and then repeated their 10 pitches. Velocities were recorded after each pitch and average and peak velocities were recorded after each session. Results. Data were analyzed using a 3 × 2 repeated measures ANOVA. No significant interaction between stretching and throwing velocity was observed. Main effects for time were not statistically significant. Main effects for the stretching groups were statistically significant. Discussion. Results suggest that stretching of the shoulder internal rotators did not significantly affect throwing velocity immediately after stretching. This may be due to the complexity of the throwing task. Conclusions. Stretching may be included in a thrower's warm-up without any effects on throwing velocity. Further research should be performed using a population with more throwing experience and skill.

  19. Evidence for altered upper extremity muscle synergies in chronic stroke survivors with mild and moderate impairment

    PubMed Central

    Roh, Jinsook; Rymer, William Z.; Beer, Randall F.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that motor coordination may be achieved by assembling task-dependent combinations of a few muscle synergies, defined here as fixed patterns of activation across a set of muscles. Our recent study of severely impaired chronic stroke survivors showed that some muscle synergies underlying isometric force generation at the hand are altered in the affected arm. However, whether similar alterations are evident in stroke survivors with lesser impairment remains unclear. Accordingly, we examined muscle synergies underlying spatial patterns of elbow and shoulder muscle activation recorded during an isometric force target matching protocol performed by 16 chronic stroke survivors, evenly divided across mild and moderate impairment levels. We applied non-negative matrix factorization to identify the muscle synergies and compared their structure across groups, including previously collected data from six age-matched control subjects and eight severely impaired stroke survivors. For all groups, EMG spatial patterns were well explained by task-dependent combinations of only a few (typically 4) muscle synergies. Broadly speaking, elbow-related synergies were conserved across stroke survivors, regardless of impairment level. In contrast, the shoulder-related synergies of some stroke survivors with mild and moderate impairment differed from controls, in a manner similar to severely impaired subjects. Cluster analysis of pooled synergies for the 30 subjects identified seven distinct clusters (synergies). Subsequent analysis confirmed that the incidences of three elbow-related synergies were independent of impairment level, while the incidences of four shoulder-related synergies were systematically correlated with impairment level. Overall, our results suggest that alterations in the shoulder muscle synergies underlying isometric force generation appear prominently in mild and moderate stroke, as in most cases of severe stroke, in an impairment level

  20. Changes in upper-extremity muscle activities due to head position in subjects with a forward head posture and rounded shoulders

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Jung Won; Son, Sung Min; Lee, Na Kyung

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated upper-extremity muscle activities in natural, ideal, and corrected head positions. [Subjects and Methods] Forty subjects with a forward head posture and rounded shoulder were recruited and randomly assigned to the natural head position group (n = 13), ideal head position group (n = 14), or corrected head position group (n = 13). Muscle activities were measured using a four-channel surface electromyography system at the sternocleidomastoideus, upper and lower trapezius, and serratus anterior muscles on the right side during an overhead reaching task. [Results] The muscle activities of the upper trapezius and serratus anterior differed significantly among head positions. Post hoc tests revealed significant differences between natural and ideal head positions, and natural and ideal head positions for both the upper trapezius and serratus anterior. [Conclusion] Recovery of normal upper trapezius and serratus anterior muscle functions plays an important role in correcting forward head posture and rounded shoulders. PMID:26180310

  1. Changes in upper-extremity muscle activities due to head position in subjects with a forward head posture and rounded shoulders.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Jung Won; Son, Sung Min; Lee, Na Kyung

    2015-06-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated upper-extremity muscle activities in natural, ideal, and corrected head positions. [Subjects and Methods] Forty subjects with a forward head posture and rounded shoulder were recruited and randomly assigned to the natural head position group (n = 13), ideal head position group (n = 14), or corrected head position group (n = 13). Muscle activities were measured using a four-channel surface electromyography system at the sternocleidomastoideus, upper and lower trapezius, and serratus anterior muscles on the right side during an overhead reaching task. [Results] The muscle activities of the upper trapezius and serratus anterior differed significantly among head positions. Post hoc tests revealed significant differences between natural and ideal head positions, and natural and ideal head positions for both the upper trapezius and serratus anterior. [Conclusion] Recovery of normal upper trapezius and serratus anterior muscle functions plays an important role in correcting forward head posture and rounded shoulders.

  2. Upper Extremity Radiography

    MedlinePlus

    ... los anillos, pulseras y se acueste sobre la mesa de rayos X relojes, para que las áreas ... alhajas puedan radiografiarse. Si el brazo sobre la mesa. Se colocarán no puede sacarse un anillo porque ...

  3. Correlation between vibration-induced white finger and symptoms of upper and lower extremities in vibration syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sakakibara, H; Akamatsu, Y; Miyao, M; Kondo, T; Furuta, M; Yamada, S; Harada, N; Miyake, S; Hosokawa, M

    1988-01-01

    The correlation was investigated between the frequency of attacks of vibration-induced white finger (VWF) and numbness or coldness of the fingers and legs in patients with vibration syndrome. Some 1687 patients with vibration syndrome were examined and of these 342 chain-saw operators and 277 rock-drill operators had no disease other than vibration syndrome. Then subjects were matched by age and period of treatment within three years. In the last analysis, 20 in the VWF "almost everyday" group or in the "never" group, and 40 in the "occasionally" group were selected from the chain-saw operators, and from the rock-drill operators 32 in the VWF "everyday" or the "never" group and 64 in the "occasionally" group. The present study showed that, with the frequency of VWF attacks, patients had a higher prevalence of coldness not only in the fingers but also in the legs. These findings suggest a correlation between the severity of circulatory disturbances of the upper extremities and that of the lower ones in patients with vibration syndrome. Further studies on circulatory disturbances in the leg are required.

  4. A standard set of upper extremity tasks for evaluating rehabilitation interventions for individuals with complete arm paralysis

    PubMed Central

    Cornwell, Andrew S.; Liao, James Y.; Bryden, Anne M.; Kirsch, Robert F.

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a set of upper extremity functional tasks to guide the design and test the performance of rehabilitation technologies that restore arm motion in people with high tetraplegia. Our goal was to develop a short set of tasks that would be representative of a much larger set of activities of daily living while also being feasible for a unilateral user of an implanted Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) system. To compile this list of tasks, we reviewed existing clinical outcome measures related to arm and hand function, and were further informed by surveys of patient desires. We ultimately selected a set of five tasks that captured the most common components of movement seen in these tasks, making them highly relevant for assessing FES-restored unilateral arm function in individuals with high cervical spinal cord injury (SCI). The tasks are intended to be used when setting design specifications and for evaluation and standardization of rehabilitation technologies under development. While not unique, this set of tasks will provide a common basis for comparing different interventions (e.g., FES, powered orthoses, robotic assistants) and testing different user command interfaces (e.g., sip-and-puff, head joysticks, brain-computer interfaces). PMID:22773199

  5. Wireless wearable range-of-motion sensor system for upper and lower extremity joints: a validation study.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Yogaprakash; Yen, Shih-Cheng; Tay, Arthur; Lee, Wangwei; Gao, Fan; Zhao, Ziyi; Li, Jingze; Hon, Benjamin; Tian-Ma Xu, Tim; Cheong, Angela; Koh, Karen; Ng, Yee-Sien; Chew, Effie; Koh, Gerald

    2015-02-01

    Range-of-motion (ROM) assessment is a critical assessment tool during the rehabilitation process. The conventional approach uses the goniometer which remains the most reliable instrument but it is usually time-consuming and subject to both intra- and inter-therapist measurement errors. An automated wireless wearable sensor system for the measurement of ROM has previously been developed by the current authors. Presented is the correlation and accuracy of the automated wireless wearable sensor system against a goniometer in measuring ROM in the major joints of upper (UEs) and lower extremities (LEs) in 19 healthy subjects and 20 newly disabled inpatients through intra (same) subject comparison of ROM assessments between the sensor system against goniometer measurements by physical therapists. In healthy subjects, ROM measurements using the new sensor system were highly correlated with goniometry, with 95% of differences < 20° and 10° for most movements in major joints of UE and LE, respectively. Among inpatients undergoing rehabilitation, ROM measurements using the new sensor system were also highly correlated with goniometry, with 95% of the differences being < 20° and 25° for most movements in the major joints of UE and LE, respectively.

  6. Wireless wearable range-of-motion sensor system for upper and lower extremity joints: a validation study

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Yogaprakash; Yen, Shih-Cheng; Lee, Wangwei; Gao, Fan; Zhao, Ziyi; Li, Jingze; Hon, Benjamin; Tian-Ma Xu, Tim; Cheong, Angela; Koh, Karen; Ng, Yee-Sien; Chew, Effie; Koh, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Range-of-motion (ROM) assessment is a critical assessment tool during the rehabilitation process. The conventional approach uses the goniometer which remains the most reliable instrument but it is usually time-consuming and subject to both intra- and inter-therapist measurement errors. An automated wireless wearable sensor system for the measurement of ROM has previously been developed by the current authors. Presented is the correlation and accuracy of the automated wireless wearable sensor system against a goniometer in measuring ROM in the major joints of upper (UEs) and lower extremities (LEs) in 19 healthy subjects and 20 newly disabled inpatients through intra (same) subject comparison of ROM assessments between the sensor system against goniometer measurements by physical therapists. In healthy subjects, ROM measurements using the new sensor system were highly correlated with goniometry, with 95% of differences < 20° and 10° for most movements in major joints of UE and LE, respectively. Among inpatients undergoing rehabilitation, ROM measurements using the new sensor system were also highly correlated with goniometry, with 95% of the differences being < 20° and 25° for most movements in the major joints of UE and LE, respectively. PMID:26609398

  7. Evaluating the Impact of Player Experience in the Design of a Serious Game for Upper Extremity Stroke Rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Cordeiro d'Ornellas, Marcos; Cargnin, Diego João; Cervi Prado, Ana Lúcia

    2015-01-01

    Video games have become a major entertainment industry and one of the most popular leisure forms, ranging from laboratory experiments to a mainstream cultural medium. Indeed, current games are multimodal and multidimensional products, relying on sophisticated features including not only a narrative-driven story but also impressive graphics and detailed settings. All of these elements helped to create a seamless and appealing product that have resulted in a growing number of players and in the number of game genres. Although video games have been used in education, simulation, and training, another application that exploits serious gaming is the exploration of player experience in the context of game research. Recent advances in the natural user interfaces and player experience have brought new perspectives on the in-game assessment of serious games. This paper evaluates the impact of player experience in the design of a serious game for upper extremity stroke rehabilitation. The game combines biofeedback and mirror neurons both in single and multiplayer mode. Results have shown that the game is a feasible solution to integrate serious games into the physical therapy routine. PMID:26262072

  8. Rapid Responsiveness to Practice Predicts Longer-Term Retention of Upper Extremity Motor Skill in Non-Demented Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, Sydney Y.; Duff, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Skill acquisition is a form of motor learning that may provide key insights into the aging brain. Although previous work suggests that older adults learn novel motor tasks slower and to a lesser extent than younger adults, we have recently demonstrated no significant effect of chronological age on the rates and amounts of skill acquisition, nor on its long-term retention, in adults over the age of 65. To better understand predictors of skill acquisition in non-demented older adults, we now explore the relationship between early improvements in motor performance due to practice (i.e., rapid responsiveness) and longer-term retention of an upper extremity motor skill, and whether the extent of rapid responsiveness was associated with global cognitive status. Results showed significant improvements in motor performance within the first five (of 150) trials, and that this “rapid responsiveness” was predictive of skill retention 1 month later. Notably, the extent of rapid responsiveness was not dependent on global cognitive status, as measured by the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Thus, rapid responsiveness appears to be an important variable in longer-term neurorehabilitative efforts with older adults, regardless of their cognitive status. PMID:26635601

  9. Effectiveness of workplace interventions in the prevention of upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders and symptoms: an update of the evidence

    PubMed Central

    Van Eerd, D; Munhall, C; Irvin, E; Rempel, D; Brewer, S; van der Beek, A J; Dennerlein, J T; Tullar, J; Skivington, K; Pinion, C; Amick, B

    2016-01-01

    The burden of disabling musculoskeletal pain and injuries (musculoskeletal disorders, MSDs) arising from work-related causes in many workplaces remains substantial. There is little consensus on the most appropriate interventions for MSDs. Our objective was to update a systematic review of workplace-based interventions for preventing and managing upper extremity MSD (UEMSD). We followed a systematic review process developed by the Institute for Work & Health and an adapted best evidence synthesis. 6 electronic databases were searched (January 2008 until April 2013 inclusive) yielding 9909 non-duplicate references. 26 high-quality and medium-quality studies relevant to our research question were combined with 35 from the original review to synthesise the evidence on 30 different intervention categories. There was strong evidence for one intervention category, resistance training, leading to the recommendation: Implementing a workplace-based resistance training exercise programme can help prevent and manage UEMSD and symptoms. The synthesis also revealed moderate evidence for stretching programmes, mouse use feedback and forearm supports in preventing UEMSD or symptoms. There was also moderate evidence for no benefit for EMG biofeedback, job stress management training, and office workstation adjustment for UEMSD and symptoms. Messages are proposed for both these and other intervention categories. PMID:26552695

  10. An Upper Limit on the Ratio Between the Extreme Ultraviolet and the Bolometric Luminosities of Stars Hosting Habitable Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengupta, Sujan

    2016-06-01

    A large number of terrestrial planets in the classical habitable zone of stars of different spectral types have already been discovered and many are expected to be discovered in the near future. However, owing to the lack of knowledge on the atmospheric properties, the ambient environment of such planets are unknown. It is known that sufficient amount of Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) radiation from the star can drive hydrodynamic outflow of hydrogen that may drag heavier species from the atmosphere of the planet. If the rate of mass loss is sufficiently high, then substantial amount of volatiles would escape causing the planet to become uninhabitable. Considering energy-limited hydrodynamical mass loss with an escape rate that causes oxygen to escape alongwith hydrogen, an upper limit for the ratio between the EUV and the bolometric luminosities of stars which constrains the habitability of planets around them is presented here. Application of the limit to planet-hosting stars with known EUV luminosities implies that many M-type of stars should not have habitable planets around them.

  11. Effectiveness of workplace interventions in the prevention of upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders and symptoms: an update of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Van Eerd, D; Munhall, C; Irvin, E; Rempel, D; Brewer, S; van der Beek, A J; Dennerlein, J T; Tullar, J; Skivington, K; Pinion, C; Amick, B

    2016-01-01

    The burden of disabling musculoskeletal pain and injuries (musculoskeletal disorders, MSDs) arising from work-related causes in many workplaces remains substantial. There is little consensus on the most appropriate interventions for MSDs. Our objective was to update a systematic review of workplace-based interventions for preventing and managing upper extremity MSD (UEMSD). We followed a systematic review process developed by the Institute for Work & Health and an adapted best evidence synthesis. 6 electronic databases were searched (January 2008 until April 2013 inclusive) yielding 9909 non-duplicate references. 26 high-quality and medium-quality studies relevant to our research question were combined with 35 from the original review to synthesise the evidence on 30 different intervention categories. There was strong evidence for one intervention category, resistance training, leading to the recommendation: Implementing a workplace-based resistance training exercise programme can help prevent and manage UEMSD and symptoms. The synthesis also revealed moderate evidence for stretching programmes, mouse use feedback and forearm supports in preventing UEMSD or symptoms. There was also moderate evidence for no benefit for EMG biofeedback, job stress management training, and office workstation adjustment for UEMSD and symptoms. Messages are proposed for both these and other intervention categories. PMID:26552695

  12. Effectiveness of workplace interventions in the prevention of upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders and symptoms: an update of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Van Eerd, D; Munhall, C; Irvin, E; Rempel, D; Brewer, S; van der Beek, A J; Dennerlein, J T; Tullar, J; Skivington, K; Pinion, C; Amick, B

    2016-01-01

    The burden of disabling musculoskeletal pain and injuries (musculoskeletal disorders, MSDs) arising from work-related causes in many workplaces remains substantial. There is little consensus on the most appropriate interventions for MSDs. Our objective was to update a systematic review of workplace-based interventions for preventing and managing upper extremity MSD (UEMSD). We followed a systematic review process developed by the Institute for Work & Health and an adapted best evidence synthesis. 6 electronic databases were searched (January 2008 until April 2013 inclusive) yielding 9909 non-duplicate references. 26 high-quality and medium-quality studies relevant to our research question were combined with 35 from the original review to synthesise the evidence on 30 different intervention categories. There was strong evidence for one intervention category, resistance training, leading to the recommendation: Implementing a workplace-based resistance training exercise programme can help prevent and manage UEMSD and symptoms. The synthesis also revealed moderate evidence for stretching programmes, mouse use feedback and forearm supports in preventing UEMSD or symptoms. There was also moderate evidence for no benefit for EMG biofeedback, job stress management training, and office workstation adjustment for UEMSD and symptoms. Messages are proposed for both these and other intervention categories.

  13. Evaluating the Impact of Player Experience in the Design of a Serious Game for Upper Extremity Stroke Rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Cordeiro d'Ornellas, Marcos; Cargnin, Diego João; Cervi Prado, Ana Lúcia

    2015-01-01

    Video games have become a major entertainment industry and one of the most popular leisure forms, ranging from laboratory experiments to a mainstream cultural medium. Indeed, current games are multimodal and multidimensional products, relying on sophisticated features including not only a narrative-driven story but also impressive graphics and detailed settings. All of these elements helped to create a seamless and appealing product that have resulted in a growing number of players and in the number of game genres. Although video games have been used in education, simulation, and training, another application that exploits serious gaming is the exploration of player experience in the context of game research. Recent advances in the natural user interfaces and player experience have brought new perspectives on the in-game assessment of serious games. This paper evaluates the impact of player experience in the design of a serious game for upper extremity stroke rehabilitation. The game combines biofeedback and mirror neurons both in single and multiplayer mode. Results have shown that the game is a feasible solution to integrate serious games into the physical therapy routine.

  14. Playskin Lift: Development and Initial Testing of an Exoskeletal Garment to Assist Upper Extremity Mobility and Function

    PubMed Central

    Koshy, John; Hall, Martha L.; Erol, Ozan; Cao, Huantian; Buckley, Jenner M.; Galloway, James C.; Higginson, Jill

    2016-01-01

    Background A person's ability to move his or her arms against gravity is important for independent performance of critical activities of daily living and for exploration that facilitates early cognitive, language, social, and perceptual-motor development. Children with a variety of diagnoses have difficulty moving their arms against gravity. Objective The purpose of this technical report is to detail the design process and initial testing of a novel exoskeletal garment, the Playskin Lift, that assists and encourages children to lift their arms against gravity. Design This report details the design theory and process, the device, and the results of field testing with a toddler with impaired upper extremity function due to arthrogryposis multiplex congenita. Results The Playskin Lift is an inexpensive (<$30 material costs), easy to use (5/5 rating), comfortable (5/5 rating), and attractive (4/5 rating) device. While wearing the device, the child was able to contact objects more often throughout an increased play space, to look at toys more while contacting them, and to perform more complex interactions with toys. Limitations This report details initial testing with one child. Future testing with more participants is recommended. Conclusions These results suggest that by considering the broad needs of users, including cost, accessibility, comfort, aesthetics, and function, we can design inexpensive devices that families and clinicians can potentially fabricate in their own communities to improve function, participation, exploration, and learning for children with disabilities. PMID:26316534

  15. Upper extremity range of motion and isokinetic strength of the internal and external shoulder rotators in major league baseball players.

    PubMed

    Brown, L P; Niehues, S L; Harrah, A; Yavorsky, P; Hirshman, H P

    1988-01-01

    Forty-one professional baseball players volunteered for upper extremity range of motion measurements and isokinetic testing for internal and external shoulder rotation. Pitchers demonstrated 9 degrees more external shoulder rotation with the arm abducted, 5 degrees more forearm pronation, and 9 degrees less shoulder extension on the dominant side compared with the dominant side of position players. Pitchers also demonstrated 9 degrees more external rotation in abduction, 5 degrees less shoulder flexion, 11 degrees less horizontal extension, 15 degrees less internal rotation in abduction, 6 degrees less elbow extension, 4 degrees less elbow flexion, and 5 degrees less forearm supination on the dominant side compared with their nondominant side. Position players demonstrated 8 degrees more external rotation in abduction, 14 degrees less horizontal extension, and 8 degrees less elbow extension on the dominant side compared with their nondominant side. Greater torque was produced by pitchers compared with position players for the dominant and nondominant arm at all test speeds for both mean peak and mean average torque. Greater torque was produced by the dominant arm compared with the nondominant arm also at all test speeds for both of these measurements. No difference was found between the rotation ratios for either arm, for either group, for all speeds.

  16. Observer reliability of the Gross Motor Performance Measure and the Quality of Upper Extremity Skills Test, based on video recordings.

    PubMed

    Sorsdahl, Anne Brit; Moe-Nilssen, Rolf; Strand, Liv Inger

    2008-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine observer reliability of the Gross Motor Performance Measure (GMPM) and the Quality of Upper Extremity Skills Test (QUEST) based on video clips. The tests were administered to 26 children with cerebral palsy (CP; 14 males, 12 females; range 2-13y, mean 7y 6mo), 24 with spastic CP, and two with dyskinesia. Respectively, five, six, five, four, and six children were classified in Gross Motor Function Classification System Levels I to V; and four, nine, five, five, and three children were classified in Manual Ability Classification System levels I to V. The children's performances were recorded and edited. Two experienced paediatric physical therapists assessed the children from watching the video clips. Intraobserver and interobserver reliability values of the total scores were mostly high, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC)(1,1) varying from 0.69 to 0.97 with only one coefficient below 0.89. The ICCs of subscores varied from 0.36 to 0.95, finding'Alignment'and'Weight shift'in GMPM and'Protective extension'in QUEST highly reliable. The subscores'Dissociated movements'in GMPM and QUEST, and'Grasp'in QUEST were the least reliable, and recommendations are made to increase reliability of these subscores. Video scoring was time consuming, but was found to offer many advantages; the possibility to review performance, to use special trained observers for scoring and less demanding assessment for the children. PMID:18201304

  17. Feedback training using a non-motorized device for long-term upper extremity impairment after stroke: a single group study

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Ki Hun; Song, Won-Kyung

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To investigate the effect of feedback training using a non-motorized device on the upper extremity kinematic performance of chronic stroke survivors. [Subjects] This study had a single group design. Thirteen chronic stroke survivors (onset duration: 11.5 years, 62.6 years, mini-mental state examination score: 26.0) were enrolled. [Methods] The feedback training system consisted of a non-motorized device that offered weight support, and a projective display device and loud speakers that provided suitable visual and auditory feedback to the user. Subjects participated in the feedback training for 40 min per day, two times a week for 4 weeks. Upper extremity kinematic performance (i.e., movement time) in three directions was confirmed twice (at baseline and post-intervention). [Results] After 4 weeks of the intervention, a significant improvement in upper extremity kinematic performance was observed in the three directions. [Conclusion] The present study demonstrated the positive effects of feedback training using a non-motorized device on the upper extremity kinematic performance of chronic stroke survivors. Therefore, the findings of this study may provide beneficial information for future studies on feedback training using a non-motorized device for chronic stroke survivors. PMID:27064768

  18. Constraint-induced movement therapy as a rehabilitation intervention for upper extremity in stroke patients: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Etoom, Mohammad; Hawamdeh, Mohannad; Hawamdeh, Ziad; Alwardat, Mohammad; Giordani, Laura; Bacciu, Serenella; Scarpini, Claudia; Foti, Calogero

    2016-09-01

    Constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) is a neurorehabilitation technique designed to improve upper extremity motor functions after stroke. This review aimed to investigate evidence of the effect of CIMT on upper extremity in stroke patients and to identify optimal methods to apply CIMT. Four databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINHAL, and PEDro) and reference lists of relevant articles and reviews were searched. Randomized clinical trials that studied the effect of CIMT on upper extremity outcomes in stroke patients compared with other rehabilitative techniques, usual care, or no intervention were included. Methodological quality was assessed using the PEDro score. The following data were extracted for each trial: patients' characteristics, sample size, eligibility criteria, protocols of CIMT and control groups, outcome measurements, and the PEDro score. A total of 38 trials were identified according to the inclusion criteria. The trials included were heterogeneous in CIMT protocols, time since stroke, and duration and frequency of treatment. The pooled meta-analysis of 36 trials found a heterogeneous significant effect of CIMT on upper extremity. There was no significant effect of CIMT at different durations of follow-up. The majority of included articles did not fulfill powered sample size and quality criteria. The effect of CIMT changed in terms of sample size and quality features of the articles included. These meta-analysis findings indicate that evidence for the superiority of CIMT in comparison with other rehabilitative interventions is weak. Information on the optimal dose of CIMT and optimal time to start CIMT is still limited.

  19. The effects of hand strength on upper extremity function and activities of daily living in stroke patients, with a focus on right hemiplegia

    PubMed Central

    Kim, DeokJu

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of hand strength on upper extremity function and activities of daily living in patients with right hemiplegia, as well as to provide important fundamental data for rehabilitation after stroke. [Subjects and Methods] This study was conducted from May 1 to December 30, 2013, at the Department of Rehabilitation of P Hospital in Seoul and included subjects hospitalized with a diagnosis of stroke. Patients with right hemiplegia were selected, and their hand strength, upper extremity function, and activities of daily living were evaluated. Hand strength was measured by grip, lateral pinch, and three-point pinch strength. [Results] The effects of hand strength on upper extremity function were evaluated. The results showed that all types of hand strength significantly influenced upper extremity function. However, only grip strength influenced activities of daily living. [Conclusion] In rehabilitation of stroke patients, it is necessary to first improve their general physical condition and basic activities of daily living, and then improve hand movement and hand muscle strength for instrumental activities of daily living training, which requires detailed hand movements. PMID:27799695

  20. High-Pressure Transvenous Perfusion of the Upper Extremity in Human Muscular Dystrophy: A Safety Study with 0.9% Saline

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Zheng; Kocis, Keith; Valley, Robert; Howard, James F.; Chopra, Manisha; Chen, Yasheng; An, Hongyu; Lin, Weili; Muenzer, Joseph; Powers, William

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated safety and feasibility of high-pressure transvenous limb perfusion in an upper extremity of adult patients with muscular dystrophy, after completing a similar study in a lower extremity. A dose escalation study of single-limb perfusion with 0.9% saline was carried out in nine adults with muscular dystrophies under intravenous analgesia. Our study demonstrates that it is feasible and definitely safe to perform high-pressure transvenous perfusion with 0.9% saline up to 35% of limb volume in the upper extremities of young adults with muscular dystrophy. Perfusion at 40% limb volume is associated with short-lived physiological changes in peripheral nerves without clinical correlates in one subject. This study provides the basis for a phase 1/2 clinical trial using pressurized transvenous delivery into upper limbs of nonambulatory patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Furthermore, our results are applicable to other conditions such as limb girdle muscular dystrophy as a method for delivering regional macromolecular therapeutics in high dose to skeletal muscles of the upper extremity. PMID:25953425

  1. High-Pressure Transvenous Perfusion of the Upper Extremity in Human Muscular Dystrophy: A Safety Study with 0.9% Saline.

    PubMed

    Fan, Zheng; Kocis, Keith; Valley, Robert; Howard, James F; Chopra, Manisha; Chen, Yasheng; An, Hongyu; Lin, Weili; Muenzer, Joseph; Powers, William

    2015-09-01

    We evaluated safety and feasibility of high-pressure transvenous limb perfusion in an upper extremity of adult patients with muscular dystrophy, after completing a similar study in a lower extremity. A dose escalation study of single-limb perfusion with 0.9% saline was carried out in nine adults with muscular dystrophies under intravenous analgesia. Our study demonstrates that it is feasible and definitely safe to perform high-pressure transvenous perfusion with 0.9% saline up to 35% of limb volume in the upper extremities of young adults with muscular dystrophy. Perfusion at 40% limb volume is associated with short-lived physiological changes in peripheral nerves without clinical correlates in one subject. This study provides the basis for a phase 1/2 clinical trial using pressurized transvenous delivery into upper limbs of nonambulatory patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Furthermore, our results are applicable to other conditions such as limb girdle muscular dystrophy as a method for delivering regional macromolecular therapeutics in high dose to skeletal muscles of the upper extremity.

  2. Susceptibility of South Korea to hydrologic extremes affecting the global food system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puma, M. J.; Chon, S. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Food security in South Korea is closely linked to trade in the global food system. The country's production of major grains declined from 5.8 million metric tons (mmt) in 1998 to 4.8 mmt in 2014, which coincided with a shift in grain self sufficiency from 43% down to 24% over this same period. Many factors led to these changes, including reductions in domestic agricultural land, governmental policies supporting industry over agriculture, and a push towards trade liberalization. South Korea's self sufficiency is now one of the lowest among Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries, leaving it vulnerable to disruptions in the global food system. Here we explore this vulnerability by assessing how global trade disruptions would affect Korea's food security. We impose historical extreme drought and flood events that would possibly affect today's major food producing regions concurrently. Next we compute food supply deficits in South Korea that might result from these events. Our analyses provide a framework for formulating domestic food policies to enhance South Korea's food security in the increasingly fragile global food system.

  3. The fire-walker's high: affect and physiological responses in an extreme collective ritual.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Ronald; Xygalatas, Dimitris; Mitkidis, Panagiotis; Reddish, Paul; Tok, Penny; Konvalinka, Ivana; Bulbulia, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    How do people feel during extreme collective rituals? Despite longstanding speculation, few studies have attempted to quantify ritual experiences. Using a novel pre/post design, we quantified physiological fluctuations (heart rates) and self-reported affective states from a collective fire-walking ritual in a Mauritian Hindu community. Specifically, we compared changes in levels of happiness, fatigue, and heart rate reactivity among high-ordeal participants (fire-walkers), low-ordeal participants (non-fire-walking participants with familial bonds to fire-walkers) and spectators (unrelated/unknown to the fire-walkers). We observed that fire-walkers experienced the highest increase in heart rate and reported greater happiness post-ritual compared to low-ordeal participants and spectators. Low-ordeal participants reported increased fatigue after the ritual compared to both fire-walkers and spectators, suggesting empathetic identification effects. Thus, witnessing the ritualistic suffering of loved ones may be more exhausting than experiencing suffering oneself. The findings demonstrate that the level of ritual involvement is important for shaping affective responses to collective rituals. Enduring a ritual ordeal is associated with greater happiness, whereas observing a loved-one endure a ritual ordeal is associated with greater fatigue post-ritual. PMID:24586315

  4. Prediction of Significant Wave Heights in Extreme Storms Affecting Far North Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassano, E. N.; Thornbrugh, C.; Lynch, A.

    2003-12-01

    Barrow, Alaska is located at the northernmost point of the United States on the shore of the Arctic Ocean. The area surrounding Barrow is low lying and is thus vulnerable to coastal flooding via waves and storm surges. Previous modeling of flooding resulting from a storm that affected Barrow and the rest of the North Slope coast region in October 1963 did not reproduce observed flooding, which was substantially greater than modeled. It is hypothesized that because this model only incorporated storm surge and not waves, the model was unable to simulate the total amount of flooding. The current study examines a recent storm that affected the North Slope of Alaska on July 28-30, 2003, and includes prediction of wave height using the SWAN (Simulating WAves Nearshore) model. In addition this study considers the formation and development, climatological context, and community responses for this storm. Results from the wave modeling portion of this study will be incorporated into a coastal flooding model in order to better simulate the coastal environment under extreme conditions in this area.

  5. The Fire-Walker’s High: Affect and Physiological Responses in an Extreme Collective Ritual

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Ronald; Xygalatas, Dimitris; Mitkidis, Panagiotis; Reddish, Paul; Tok, Penny; Konvalinka, Ivana; Bulbulia, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    How do people feel during extreme collective rituals? Despite longstanding speculation, few studies have attempted to quantify ritual experiences. Using a novel pre/post design, we quantified physiological fluctuations (heart rates) and self-reported affective states from a collective fire-walking ritual in a Mauritian Hindu community. Specifically, we compared changes in levels of happiness, fatigue, and heart rate reactivity among high-ordeal participants (fire-walkers), low-ordeal participants (non-fire-walking participants with familial bonds to fire-walkers) and spectators (unrelated/unknown to the fire-walkers). We observed that fire-walkers experienced the highest increase in heart rate and reported greater happiness post-ritual compared to low-ordeal participants and spectators. Low-ordeal participants reported increased fatigue after the ritual compared to both fire-walkers and spectators, suggesting empathetic identification effects. Thus, witnessing the ritualistic suffering of loved ones may be more exhausting than experiencing suffering oneself. The findings demonstrate that the level of ritual involvement is important for shaping affective responses to collective rituals. Enduring a ritual ordeal is associated with greater happiness, whereas observing a loved-one endure a ritual ordeal is associated with greater fatigue post-ritual. PMID:24586315

  6. The fire-walker's high: affect and physiological responses in an extreme collective ritual.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Ronald; Xygalatas, Dimitris; Mitkidis, Panagiotis; Reddish, Paul; Tok, Penny; Konvalinka, Ivana; Bulbulia, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    How do people feel during extreme collective rituals? Despite longstanding speculation, few studies have attempted to quantify ritual experiences. Using a novel pre/post design, we quantified physiological fluctuations (heart rates) and self-reported affective states from a collective fire-walking ritual in a Mauritian Hindu community. Specifically, we compared changes in levels of happiness, fatigue, and heart rate reactivity among high-ordeal participants (fire-walkers), low-ordeal participants (non-fire-walking participants with familial bonds to fire-walkers) and spectators (unrelated/unknown to the fire-walkers). We observed that fire-walkers experienced the highest increase in heart rate and reported greater happiness post-ritual compared to low-ordeal participants and spectators. Low-ordeal participants reported increased fatigue after the ritual compared to both fire-walkers and spectators, suggesting empathetic identification effects. Thus, witnessing the ritualistic suffering of loved ones may be more exhausting than experiencing suffering oneself. The findings demonstrate that the level of ritual involvement is important for shaping affective responses to collective rituals. Enduring a ritual ordeal is associated with greater happiness, whereas observing a loved-one endure a ritual ordeal is associated with greater fatigue post-ritual.

  7. The Utilization of Opioid Analgesics Following Common Upper Extremity Surgical Procedures: A National, Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Waljee, Jennifer F.; Zhong, Lin; Hou, Hechuan; Sears, Erika; Brummet, Chad; Chung, Kevin C.

    2016-01-01

    Background The misuse of opioid analgesics is a major public health concern, and guidelines regarding postoperative opioid use are sparse. We examined the use of opioids following outpatient upper extremity procedures. We hypothesized that opioid use varies widely by procedure and patient factors. Methods We studied opioid prescriptions among 296,452 adults ages ≥ 18 years who underwent carpal tunnel release, trigger finger release, cubital tunnel release, and thumb carpometacarpal (CMC) arthroplasty from 2009 to 2013. We analyzed insurance claims drawn using Truven Health MarketScan Commercial Claims and Encounters, which encompasses over 100 health plans in the United States. Using multivariable regression, we compared the receipt of opioids, number of days supplied, indicators of inappropriate prescriptions, and number of refills by patient factors. Results In this cohort, 59% filled a postoperative prescription for opioid medication, and 8.8% patients had an indicator of inappropriate prescribing. The probability of filling an opioid prescription declined linearly with advancing age. In multivariate analysis, patients who had previously received opioids were more likely to fill a postoperative opioid prescription (66% vs. 59%), receive longer prescriptions (24 vs. 5 days), receive refills following surgery (24% vs. 5%), and have at least one indicator of potentially inappropriate prescribing (19% vs 6%). Conclusions Current opioid users are more likely to require postoperative opioid analgesics for routine procedures, and more likely to receive inappropriate prescriptions. More evidence is needed to identify patients who derive the greatest benefit from opioids in order to curb opioids prescriptions when alternative analgesics may be equally effective and available. PMID:26818326

  8. Extreme erosion response after wildfire in the Upper Ovens, south-east Australia: Assessment of catchment scale connectivity by an intensive field survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Box, Walter; Keestra, Saskia; Nyman, Petter; Langhans, Christoph; Sheridan, Gary

    2015-04-01

    South-eastern Australia is generally regarded as one of the world's most fire-prone environments because of its high temperatures, low rainfall and flammable native Eucalyptus forests. Modifications to the landscape by fire can lead to significant changes to erosion rates and hydrological processes. Debris flows in particular have been recognised as a process which increases in frequency as a result of fire. This study used a debris flow event in the east Upper Ovens occurred on the 28th of February 2013 as a case study for analysing sediment transport processes and connectivity of sediment sources and sinks. Source areas were identified using a 15 cm resolution areal imagery and a logistic regression model was made based on fire severity, aridity index and slope to predict locations of source areas. Deposits were measured by making cross-sections using a combination of a differential GPS and a total station. In total 77 cross-sections were made in a 14.1 km2 sub-catchment and distributed based on channel gradient and width. A more detailed estimation was obtained by making more cross-sections where the volume per area is higher. Particle size distribution between sources and sink areas were obtained by combination of field assessment, photography imagery analyses and sieve and laser diffraction. Sediment was locally eroded, transported and deposited depending on factors such as longitude gradient, stream power and the composition of bed and bank material. The role of headwaters as sediment sinks changed dramatically as a result of the extreme erosion event in the wildfire affected areas. Disconnected headwaters became connected to low order streams due to debris flow processes in the contributing catchment. However this redistribution of sediment from headwaters to the drainage network was confined to upper reaches of the Ovens. Below this upper part of the catchment the event resulted in redistribution of sediment already existing in the channel through a

  9. What is the most effective posture to conduct vibration from the lower to the upper extremities during whole-body vibration exercise?

    PubMed Central

    Tsukahara, Yuka; Iwamoto, Jun; Iwashita, Kosui; Shinjo, Takuma; Azuma, Koichiro; Matsumoto, Hideo

    2016-01-01

    Background Whole-body vibration (WBV) exercise is widely used for training and rehabilitation. However, the optimal posture for training both the upper and lower extremities simultaneously remains to be established. Objectives The objective of this study was to search for an effective posture to conduct vibration from the lower to the upper extremities while performing WBV exercises without any adverse effects. Methods Twelve healthy volunteers (age: 22–34 years) were enrolled in the study. To measure the magnitude of vibration, four accelerometers were attached to the upper arm, back, thigh, and calf of each subject. Vibrations were produced using a WBV platform (Galileo 900) with an amplitude of 4 mm at two frequencies, 15 and 30 Hz. The following three postures were examined: posture A, standing posture with the knees flexed at 30°; posture B, crouching position with no direct contact between the knees and elbows; and posture C, crouching position with direct contact between the knees and elbows. The ratio of the magnitude of vibration at the thigh, back, and upper arm relative to that at the calf was used as an index of vibration conduction. Results Posture B was associated with a greater magnitude of vibration to the calf than posture A at 15 Hz, and postures B and C were associated with greater magnitudes of vibration than posture A at 30 Hz. Posture C was associated with a vibration conduction to the upper arm that was 4.62 times and 8.26 times greater than that for posture A at 15 and 30 Hz, respectively. Conclusion This study revealed that a crouching position on a WBV platform with direct contact between the knees and elbows was effective for conducting vibration from the lower to the upper extremities. PMID:26793008

  10. Nosology of Juvenile Muscular Atrophy of Distal Upper Extremity: From Monomelic Amyotrophy to Hirayama Disease—Indian Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Kaukab Maqbool; Sahni, Hirdesh

    2013-01-01

    Since its original description by Keizo Hirayama in 1959, “juvenile muscular atrophy of the unilateral upper extremity” has been described under many nomenclatures from the east. Hirayama disease (HD), also interchangeably referred to as monomelic amyotrophy, has been more frequently recognised in the west only in the last two decades. HD presents in adolescence and young adulthood with insidious onset unilateral or bilateral asymmetric atrophy of hand and forearm with sparing of brachioradialis giving the characteristic appearance of oblique amyotrophy. Symmetrically bilateral disease has also been recognized. Believed to be a cervical flexion myelopathy, HD differs from motor neuron diseases because of its nonprogressive course and pathologic findings of chronic microcirculatory changes in the lower cervical cord. Electromyography shows features of acute and/or chronic denervation in C7, C8, and T1 myotomes in clinically affected limb and sometimes also in clinically unaffected contralateral limb. Dynamic forward displacement of dura in flexion causes asymmetric flattening of lower cervical cord. While dynamic contrast magnetic resonance imaging is diagnostic, routine study has high predictive value. There is a need to lump all the nomenclatures under the rubric of HD as prognosis in this condition is benign and prompt diagnosis is important to institute early collar therapy. PMID:24063005

  11. Individual and Center-Level Factors Affecting Mortality Among Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants

    PubMed Central

    Alleman, Brandon W.; Li, Lei; Dagle, John M.; Smith, P. Brian; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam; Laughon, Matthew M.; Stoll, Barbara J.; Goldberg, Ronald N.; Carlo, Waldemar A.; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Cotten, C. Michael; Shankaran, Seetha; Walsh, Michele C.; Laptook, Abbot R.; Ellsbury, Dan L.; Hale, Ellen C.; Newman, Nancy S.; Wallace, Dennis D.; Das, Abhik; Higgins, Rosemary D.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine factors affecting center differences in mortality for extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants. METHODS: We analyzed data for 5418 ELBW infants born at 16 Neonatal Research Network centers during 2006–2009. The primary outcomes of early mortality (≤12 hours after birth) and in-hospital mortality were assessed by using multilevel hierarchical models. Models were developed to investigate associations of center rates of selected interventions with mortality while adjusting for patient-level risk factors. These analyses were performed for all gestational ages (GAs) and separately for GAs <25 weeks and ≥25 weeks. RESULTS: Early and in-hospital mortality rates among centers were 5% to 36% and 11% to 53% for all GAs, 13% to 73% and 28% to 90% for GAs <25 weeks, and 1% to 11% and 7% to 26% for GAs ≥25 weeks, respectively. Center intervention rates significantly predicted both early and in-hospital mortality for infants <25 weeks. For infants ≥25 weeks, intervention rates did not predict mortality. The variance in mortality among centers was significant for all GAs and outcomes. Center use of interventions and patient risk factors explained some but not all of the center variation in mortality rates. CONCLUSIONS: Center intervention rates explain a portion of the center variation in mortality, especially for infants born at <25 weeks’ GA. This finding suggests that deaths may be prevented by standardizing care for very early GA infants. However, differences in patient characteristics and center intervention rates do not account for all of the observed variability in mortality; and for infants with GA ≥25 weeks these differences account for only a small part of the variation in mortality. PMID:23753096

  12. Evaluation of upper extremity movement characteristics during standardized pediatric functional assessment with a Kinect®-based markerless motion analysis system.

    PubMed

    Rammer, Jacob R; Krzak, Joseph J; Riedel, Susan A; Harris, Gerald F

    2014-01-01

    A recently developed and evaluated upper extremity (UE) markerless motion analysis system based on the Microsoft® Kinect® has potential for improving functional assessment of patients with hemiplegic cerebral palsy. 12 typically-developing adolescents ages 12-17 were evaluated using both the Kinect-based system and the Shriners Hospitals for Children Upper Extremity Evaluation (SHUEE), a validated measure of UE motion. The study established population means of UE kinematic parameters for each activity. Statistical correlation analysis was used to identify key kinematic metrics used to develop automatic scoring algorithms. The Kinect motion analysis platform is technically sound and can be applied to standardized task-based UE evaluation while providing enhanced sensitivity in clinical analysis and automation through scoring algorithms. PMID:25570504

  13. Musculoskeletal symptoms of the upper extremities and the neck: A cross-sectional study on prevalence and symptom-predicting factors at visual display terminal (VDT) workstations

    PubMed Central

    Klussmann, André; Gebhardt, Hansjuergen; Liebers, Falk; Rieger, Monika A

    2008-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and the predictors of musculoskeletal symptoms in the upper extremities and neck at visual display terminal (VDT) workstations. Methods In a cross-sectional study 1,065 employees working at VDT > 1 h/d completed a standardised questionnaire. Workstation conditions were documented in a standardised checklist, and a subgroup of 82 employees underwent a physical examination. Results Using the Nordic Questionnaire, the 12-month prevalence of symptoms of the neck, shoulder region, hand/wrist, or elbow/lower arm was 55%, 38%, 21%, and 15% respectively. The duration of VDT work had a significant impact on the frequency of neck symptoms in employees performing such work > 6 h/d. Conclusion With regard to musculoskeletal symptoms of the upper extremities, preventive measures at VDT workstations should be focused on neck and shoulder symptoms (e.g. ergonomic measures, breaks to avoid sitting over long periods). PMID:18588677

  14. Impact of musculoskeletal co-morbidity of neck and upper extremities on healthcare utilisation and sickness absence for low back pain

    PubMed Central

    IJzelenberg, W; Burdorf, A

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To describe the presence of musculoskeletal co-morbidity of the neck and upper extremities among industrial workers with low back pain, and to examine whether it has an impact on healthcare utilisation and sickness absence for low back pain. Methods: A self administered questionnaire was used to collect data from 505 industrial workers (response 86%). Results: The 12 month prevalence of low back pain was 50%. Among subjects with low back pain the 12 month prevalence of musculoskeletal co-morbidity of the neck and upper extremities was 68%. Among workers with low back pain, subjects with high pain intensity or disabling low back pain were more likely to have musculoskeletal co-morbidity. In comparison to the subjects who report back pain only, subjects with co-morbidity showed worse general health and health related quality of life. No impact of upper extremity co-morbidity was found on healthcare utilisation, and sickness absence due to low back pain. Conclusions: This study provides no evidence that musculoskeletal co-morbidity of the neck and upper extremities influences the choice to seek care or take sick leave due to low back pain among industrial manual workers. For occupational health practitioners the finding of a high co-morbidity is important to consider when implementing workplace interventions aimed at the reduction of specific musculoskeletal complaints, since the controls for one musculoskeletal complaint may impact adversely on another musculoskeletal complaint. Researchers who perform low back pain intervention studies using generic health measures, should take into account the impact of musculoskeletal co-morbidity on these measures. PMID:15377765

  15. The effects of game-based virtual reality movement therapy plus mental practice on upper extremity function in chronic stroke patients with hemiparesis: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin-Hyuck; Park, Ji-Hyuk

    2016-03-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of game-based virtual reality movement therapy plus mental practice on upper extremity function in chronic stroke patients with hemiparesis. [Subjects] The subjects were chronic stroke patients with hemiparesis. [Methods] Thirty subjects were randomly assigned to either the control group or experimental group. All subjects received 20 sessions (5 days in a week) of virtual reality movement therapy using the Nintendo Wii. In addition to Wii-based virtual reality movement therapy, experimental group subjects performed mental practice consisting of 5 minutes of relaxation, Wii games imagination, and normalization phases before the beginning of Wii games. To compare the two groups, the upper extremity subtest of the Fugl-Meyer Assessment, Box and Block Test, and quality of movement subscale of the Motor Activity Log were performed. [Results] Both groups showed statistically significant improvement in the Fugl-Meyer Assessment, Box and Block Test, and quality of the movement subscale of Motor Activity Log after the interventions. Also, there were significant differences in the Fugl-Meyer Assessment, Box and Block Test, and quality of movement subscale of the Motor Activity Log between the two groups. [Conclusion] Game-based virtual reality movement therapy alone may be helpful to improve functional recovery of the upper extremity, but the addition of MP produces a lager improvement.

  16. Mirror therapy combined with biofeedback functional electrical stimulation for motor recovery of upper extremities after stroke: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung Hee; Lee, Byoung-Hee

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of mirror therapy in combination with biofeedback functional electrical stimulation (BF-FES) on motor recovery of the upper extremities after stroke. Twenty-nine patients who suffered a stroke > 6 months prior participated in this study and were randomly allocated to three groups. The BF-FES + mirror therapy and FES + mirror therapy groups practiced training for 5 × 30 min sessions over a 4-week period. The control group received a conventional physical therapy program. The following clinical tools were used to assess motor recovery of the upper extremities: electrical muscle tester, electrogoniometer, dual-inclinometer, electrodynamometer, the Box and Block Test (BBT) and Jabsen Taylor Hand Function Test (JHFT), the Functional Independence Measure, the Modified Ashworth Scale, and the Stroke Specific Quality of Life (SSQOL) assessment. The BF-FES + mirror therapy group showed significant improvement in wrist extension as revealed by the Manual Muscle Test and Range of Motion (p < 0.05). The BF-FES + mirror therapy group showed significant improvement in the BBT, JTHT, and SSQOL compared with the FES + mirror therapy group and control group (p < 0.05). We found that BF-FES + mirror therapy induced motor recovery and improved quality of life. These results suggest that mirror therapy, in combination with BF-FES, is feasible and effective for motor recovery of the upper extremities after stroke.

  17. The effects of game-based virtual reality movement therapy plus mental practice on upper extremity function in chronic stroke patients with hemiparesis: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jin-Hyuck; Park, Ji-Hyuk

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of game-based virtual reality movement therapy plus mental practice on upper extremity function in chronic stroke patients with hemiparesis. [Subjects] The subjects were chronic stroke patients with hemiparesis. [Methods] Thirty subjects were randomly assigned to either the control group or experimental group. All subjects received 20 sessions (5 days in a week) of virtual reality movement therapy using the Nintendo Wii. In addition to Wii-based virtual reality movement therapy, experimental group subjects performed mental practice consisting of 5 minutes of relaxation, Wii games imagination, and normalization phases before the beginning of Wii games. To compare the two groups, the upper extremity subtest of the Fugl-Meyer Assessment, Box and Block Test, and quality of movement subscale of the Motor Activity Log were performed. [Results] Both groups showed statistically significant improvement in the Fugl-Meyer Assessment, Box and Block Test, and quality of the movement subscale of Motor Activity Log after the interventions. Also, there were significant differences in the Fugl-Meyer Assessment, Box and Block Test, and quality of movement subscale of the Motor Activity Log between the two groups. [Conclusion] Game-based virtual reality movement therapy alone may be helpful to improve functional recovery of the upper extremity, but the addition of MP produces a lager improvement. PMID:27134363

  18. The effects of game-based virtual reality movement therapy plus mental practice on upper extremity function in chronic stroke patients with hemiparesis: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin-Hyuck; Park, Ji-Hyuk

    2016-03-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of game-based virtual reality movement therapy plus mental practice on upper extremity function in chronic stroke patients with hemiparesis. [Subjects] The subjects were chronic stroke patients with hemiparesis. [Methods] Thirty subjects were randomly assigned to either the control group or experimental group. All subjects received 20 sessions (5 days in a week) of virtual reality movement therapy using the Nintendo Wii. In addition to Wii-based virtual reality movement therapy, experimental group subjects performed mental practice consisting of 5 minutes of relaxation, Wii games imagination, and normalization phases before the beginning of Wii games. To compare the two groups, the upper extremity subtest of the Fugl-Meyer Assessment, Box and Block Test, and quality of movement subscale of the Motor Activity Log were performed. [Results] Both groups showed statistically significant improvement in the Fugl-Meyer Assessment, Box and Block Test, and quality of the movement subscale of Motor Activity Log after the interventions. Also, there were significant differences in the Fugl-Meyer Assessment, Box and Block Test, and quality of movement subscale of the Motor Activity Log between the two groups. [Conclusion] Game-based virtual reality movement therapy alone may be helpful to improve functional recovery of the upper extremity, but the addition of MP produces a lager improvement. PMID:27134363

  19. Quantification of radiation exposure in the operating theatre during management of common fractures of the upper extremity in children.

    PubMed

    Maempel, J F; Stone, O D; Murray, A W

    2016-09-01

    Introduction Surgical procedures to manage trauma to the wrist, forearm and elbow in children are very common. Image intensifiers are used routinely, yet studies/guidelines that quantify expected radiation exposure in such procedures are lacking. Methods Information on demographics, injury type, surgeon grade and dose area product (DAP) of radiation exposure per procedure was collected prospectively for 248 patients undergoing manipulation/fixation of injuries to the elbow, forearm or wrist at a paediatric hospital over 1 year. Results DAP exposure (in cGycm(2)) differed significantly across different procedures (p<0.001): wrist manipulation under anaesthesia (MUA; median, 0.39), wrist k-wiring (1.01), forearm MUA (0.50), flexible nailing of the forearm (2.67), supracondylar fracture MUA and k-wiring (2.23) and open reduction and internal fixation of the lateral humeral condyle (0.96). Fixation of a Gartland grade-3 supracondylar fracture (2.94cGycm(2)) was associated with higher exposure than grade-2 fixation (1.95cGycm(2)) (p=0.048). Fractures of the wrist or forearm necessitating metalwork fixation resulted in higher exposure than those requiring manipulation only (both p<0.001). For procedures undertaken by trainees, trainee seniority (between year-5 and year-8 and clinical fellow, p≥0.24) did not affect the DAP significantly. Conclusions The spectrum of radiation exposures for common procedures utilised in the management of paediatric upper limb trauma were quantified. These findings will be useful to surgeons auditing their practice and quantifying radiation-associated risks to patients. Our data may serve as a basis for implementing protocols designed to improve patient safety. PMID:27580309

  20. Quantification of radiation exposure in the operating theatre during management of common fractures of the upper extremity in children.

    PubMed

    Maempel, J F; Stone, O D; Murray, A W

    2016-09-01

    Introduction Surgical procedures to manage trauma to the wrist, forearm and elbow in children are very common. Image intensifiers are used routinely, yet studies/guidelines that quantify expected radiation exposure in such procedures are lacking. Methods Information on demographics, injury type, surgeon grade and dose area product (DAP) of radiation exposure per procedure was collected prospectively for 248 patients undergoing manipulation/fixation of injuries to the elbow, forearm or wrist at a paediatric hospital over 1 year. Results DAP exposure (in cGycm(2)) differed significantly across different procedures (p<0.001): wrist manipulation under anaesthesia (MUA; median, 0.39), wrist k-wiring (1.01), forearm MUA (0.50), flexible nailing of the forearm (2.67), supracondylar fracture MUA and k-wiring (2.23) and open reduction and internal fixation of the lateral humeral condyle (0.96). Fixation of a Gartland grade-3 supracondylar fracture (2.94cGycm(2)) was associated with higher exposure than grade-2 fixation (1.95cGycm(2)) (p=0.048). Fractures of the wrist or forearm necessitating metalwork fixation resulted in higher exposure than those requiring manipulation only (both p<0.001). For procedures undertaken by trainees, trainee seniority (between year-5 and year-8 and clinical fellow, p≥0.24) did not affect the DAP significantly. Conclusions The spectrum of radiation exposures for common procedures utilised in the management of paediatric upper limb trauma were quantified. These findings will be useful to surgeons auditing their practice and quantifying radiation-associated risks to patients. Our data may serve as a basis for implementing protocols designed to improve patient safety.

  1. The Influence of the Extreme Ultraviolet Spectral Energy Distribution on the Structure and Composition of the Upper Atmosphere of Exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, J. H.; Ben-Jaffel, Lotfi

    2016-02-01

    By varying the profiles of stellar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectral energy distributions (SEDs), we tested the influences of stellar EUV SEDs on the physical and chemical properties of an escaping atmosphere. We apply our model to study four exoplanets: HD 189733b, HD 209458b, GJ 436b, and Kepler-11b. We find that the total mass loss rates of an exoplanet, which are determined mainly by the integrated fluxes, are moderately affected by the profiles of the EUV SED, but the composition and species distributions in the atmosphere can be dramatically modified by the different profiles of the EUV SED. For exoplanets with a high hydrodynamic escape parameter (λ), the amount of atomic hydrogen produced by photoionization at different altitudes can vary by one to two orders of magnitude with the variation of stellar EUV SEDs. The effect of photoionization of H is prominent when the EUV SED is dominated by the low-energy spectral region (400–900 Å), which pushes the transition of H/H+ to low altitudes. In contrast, the transition of H/H+ moves to higher altitudes when most photons are concentrated in the high-energy spectral region (50–400 Å). For exoplanets with a low λ, the lower temperatures of the atmosphere make many chemical reactions so important that photoionization alone can no longer determine the composition of the escaping atmosphere. For HD 189733b, it is possible to explain the time variability of Lyα between 2010 and 2011 by a change in the EUV SED of the host K-type star, yet invoking only thermal H i in the atmosphere.

  2. Factors Affecting the Career Mobility of Upper-Level Hispanic School Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Brigido. Jr.

    1996-01-01

    Studied the relationship between personal, professional, and situational factors in the career mobility of 94 Hispanic upper-level school administrators in Texas, examined the administrators' attitudes, and identified a framework to explain career mobility. Findings confirm the underrepresentation of Hispanics in administrative posts and give…

  3. DESICCATION AND OTHER FACTORS AFFECTING THE UPPER INTERTIDAL DISTRIBUTION OF EELGRASS IN YAQUINA BAY, OR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Eelgrass (Zostera marina) in Pacific Northwest is primarily intertidal, yet little research has been done on what factors control its upper intertidal growth boundary. In July 2000 a two year study was initiated in Yaquina Bay (Newport, OR) to evaluate the effects of four factor...

  4. To compare the effectiveness of constraint induced movement therapy versus motor relearning programme to improve motor function of hemiplegic upper extremity after stroke

    PubMed Central

    Batool, Sana; Soomro, Nabila; Amjad, Fareeha; Fauz, Rabia

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effectiveness of constraint induced movement therapy versus motor relearning programme to improve motor function of hemiplegic upper extremity after stroke. Method: A sample of 42 patients was recruited from the Physiotherapy Department of IPM&R and Neurology OPD of Civil Hospital Karachi through non probability purposive sampling technique. Twenty one patients were placed to each experimental and control groups. Experimental group was treated with Constraint Induced Movement Therapy (CIMT) and control group was treated with motor relearning programme (MRP) for three consecutive weeks. Pre and post treatment measurements were determined by upper arm section of Motor Assessment Scale (MAS) and Self Care item of Functional Independence Measure (FIM) Scale. Results: Intra group analysis showed statistically significant results (p-value<0.05) in all items of MAS in both groups. However, advanced hand activities item of MAS in MRP group showed insignificant result (p-value=0.059). Self-care items of FIM Scale also showed significant result (p-value< 0.05) in both groups except dressing upper body item (p-value=0.059) in CIMT group and grooming and dressing upper body items (p-value=0.059 & 0.063) in MRP group showed insignificant p-values. Conclusion: CIMT group showed more significant improvement in motor function and self-care performance of hemiplegic upper extremity as compared to MRP group in patients with sub-acute stroke assessed by the MAS and FIM scales. Thus CIMT is proved to be more statistically significant and clinically effective intervention in comparison to motor relearning programme among the patients aged between 35-60 years. Further studies are needed to evaluate CIMT effects in acute and chronic post stroke population. PMID:26649007

  5. Geologic and atmospheric input factors affecting watershed chemistry in upper michigan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapp, George; Liukkonen, Barbara W.; Allert, James D.; Sorensen, John A.; Glass, Gary E.; Loucks, Orie L.

    1987-10-01

    The relationships between watershed variables and lakewater chemistry were examined for 53 lakes in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan to identify factors influencing lake sensitivity to atmospheric inputs. The lakes lie in three distinct geologic/geomorphic regions. Acid neutralization capacity (ANC), sulfate, and color were correlated with parameters related to atmospheric loading, watershed area and relief, hydrology, geology, and land use for the entire 53-lake set and for lower alkalinity subsets. Acid-neutralizing capacity was related to atmospheric acidic inputs and, in the southern portion of the Upper Peninsula, to the presence of mineralized groundwater inputs. In the north, ANC is correlated with hydrologic lake type and surficial deposits. Results show the highest density of acidified lakes in the northern region, which is underlain by noncalcareous sedimentary rocks. Color was related to lake size and the presence of organic soils in the watershed, whereas lake sulfate concentration was mainly influenced by atmospheric or groundwater inputs, surficial deposits, and soil type.

  6. Are heat and cold resistance of arctic species affected by successive extreme temperature events?

    PubMed

    Marchand, F L; Kockelbergh, Fred; van de Vijver, Bart; Beyens, Louis; Nijs, I

    2006-01-01

    Extreme temperature events are projected to increase in frequency in a future climate. As successive extremes could occur more frequently, patches of vulnerable tundra vegetation were exposed to two consecutive heat waves (HWs) of 10 d each, with a 5-d recovery period in between. Surface temperatures during the HWs were increased approximately 6 degrees C using infrared irradiation sources. In three of the four target species (Pyrola grandiflora, Polygonum viviparum and Carex bigelowii), plant conditions improved upon the first exposure. Depending on species, leaf relative growth, leaf chlorophyll content or maximal photochemical efficiency was increased. In P. grandiflora the positive effects of the heat on the photosynthetic apparatus led to augmented net photosynthesis. By contrast, Salix arctica responded mainly negatively, indicating species-specific responses. During the second HW, leaf mortality suddenly increased, indicating that the heat stress induced by the extreme events lasted too long and negatively influenced the species resistance to high temperature. After the HWs, when plants were exposed to (low) ambient temperatures again, plant performance deteriorated further, indicating possible loss of cold resistance.

  7. Effects of mirror therapy combined with motor tasks on upper extremity function and activities daily living of stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyunghoon; Lee, Sukmin; Kim, Donghoon; Lee, Kyoungbo; Kim, Youlim

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of mirror therapy combined with exercise tasks on the function of the upper limbs and activities of daily living. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-five stroke patients who were receiving physical therapy at K Hospital in Gyeonggi-do, South Korea, were classified into a mirror therapy group (n=12) and a conventional therapy group (n=13). The therapies were applied for 30 minutes per day, five times per week, for a total of four weeks. Upper limb function was measured with the Action Research Arm test, the Fugl-Meyer Assessment, and the Box and Block test, and activities of daily living were measured with the Functional Independence Measure. A paired test was performed to compare the intragroup differences between before training and after four weeks of therapy, and an independent t-test was performed to compare the differences between the two groups before and after four weeks of therapy. [Results] In the intragroup comparison, both groups showed significant differences between measurements taken before and after four weeks of therapy. In the intergroup comparison, the mirror therapy group showed significant improvements compared with the conventional therapy group, both in upper limb function and activities of daily living. [Conclusion] The findings of this study demonstrated that mirror therapy is more effective than conventional therapy for the training of stroke patients to improve their upper limb function and activities of daily living. PMID:27065534

  8. A review of technological and clinical aspects of robot-aided rehabilitation of upper-extremity after stroke.

    PubMed

    Babaiasl, Mahdieh; Mahdioun, Seyyed Hamed; Jaryani, Poorya; Yazdani, Mojtaba

    2016-01-01

    Cerebrovascular accident (CVA) or stroke is one of the leading causes of disability and loss of motor function. Millions of people around the world are effected by it each year. Stroke results in disabled arm function. Restoration of arm function is essential to regaining activities of daily living (ADL). Along with traditional rehabilitation methods, robot-aided therapy has emerged in recent years. Robot-aided rehabilitation is more intensive, of longer duration and more repetitive. Using robots, repetitive dull exercises can turn into a more challenging and motivating tasks such as games. Besides, robots can provide a quantitative measure of the rehabilitation progress. This article overviews the terms used in robot-aided upper-limb rehabilitation. It continues by investigating the requirements for rehabilitation robots. Then the most outstanding works in robot-aided upper-limb rehabilitation and their control schemes have been investigated. The clinical outcomes of the built robots are also given that demonstrates the usability of these robots in real-life applications and their acceptance. This article summarizes a review done along with a research on the design, simulation and control of a robot for use in upper-limb rehabilitation after stroke. Implications for Rehabilitation Reviewing common terms in rehabilitation of upper limb using robots Reviewing rehabilitation robots built up to date Reviewing clinical outcomes of the mentioned rehabilitation robots.

  9. A Comparative Analysis of Speed Profile Models for Ankle Pointing Movements: Evidence that Lower and Upper Extremity Discrete Movements are Controlled by a Single Invariant Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Michmizos, Konstantinos P.; Vaisman, Lev; Krebs, Hermano Igo

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about whether our knowledge of how the central nervous system controls the upper extremities (UE), can generalize, and to what extent to the lower limbs. Our continuous efforts to design the ideal adaptive robotic therapy for the lower limbs of stroke patients and children with cerebral palsy highlighted the importance of analyzing and modeling the kinematics of the lower limbs, in general, and those of the ankle joints, in particular. We recruited 15 young healthy adults that performed in total 1,386 visually evoked, visually guided, and target-directed discrete pointing movements with their ankle in dorsal–plantar and inversion–eversion directions. Using a non-linear, least-squares error-minimization procedure, we estimated the parameters for 19 models, which were initially designed to capture the dynamics of upper limb movements of various complexity. We validated our models based on their ability to reconstruct the experimental data. Our results suggest a remarkable similarity between the top-performing models that described the speed profiles of ankle pointing movements and the ones previously found for the UE both during arm reaching and wrist pointing movements. Among the top performers were the support-bounded lognormal and the beta models that have a neurophysiological basis and have been successfully used in upper extremity studies with normal subjects and patients. Our findings suggest that the same model can be applied to different “human” hardware, perhaps revealing a key invariant in human motor control. These findings have a great potential to enhance our rehabilitation efforts in any population with lower extremity deficits by, for example, assessing the level of motor impairment and improvement as well as informing the design of control algorithms for therapeutic ankle robots. PMID:25505881

  10. Comparison between Steroid Injection and Stretching Exercise on the Scalene of Patients with Upper Extremity Paresthesia: Randomized Cross-Over Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yong Wook; Yoon, Seo Yeon; Park, Yongbum; Chang, Won Hyuk

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To compare the therapeutic effects on upper extremity paresthesia of intra-muscular steroid injections into the scalene muscle with those of stretching exercise only. Materials and Methods Twenty patients with upper extremity paresthesia who met the criteria were recruited to participate in this single-blind, crossover study. Fourteen of 20 patients were female. The average age was 45.0±10.5 years and duration of symptom was 12.2±8.7 months. Each participant completed one injection and daily exercise program for 2 weeks. After randomization, half of all patients received ultrasound-guided injection of scalene muscles before exercise, while the other was invested for the other patients. Results After two weeks, there was a significant decrease of the visual analog scale score of treatment effect compared with baseline in both groups (6.90 to 2.85 after injection and 5.65 to 4.05 after stretching exercise, p<0.01). However, injection resulted in greater improvements than stretching exercise (p<0.01). The number of patients with successful treatment, defined as >50% reduction in post-treatment visual analog scale, was 18 of 20 (90.0%) after injection, compared to 5 of 20 (25.0%) after stretching exercise. There were no cases of unintended brachial plexus block after injection. Conclusion Ultrasound-guided steroid injection or stretching exercise of scalene muscles led to reduced upper extremity paresthesia in patients who present with localized tenderness in the scalene muscle without electrodiagnostic test abnormalities, although injection treatment resulted in more improvements. The results suggest that symptoms relief might result from injection into the muscle alone not related to blockade of the brachial plexus. PMID:26847305

  11. A Comparative Analysis of Speed Profile Models for Ankle Pointing Movements: Evidence that Lower and Upper Extremity Discrete Movements are Controlled by a Single Invariant Strategy.

    PubMed

    Michmizos, Konstantinos P; Vaisman, Lev; Krebs, Hermano Igo

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about whether our knowledge of how the central nervous system controls the upper extremities (UE), can generalize, and to what extent to the lower limbs. Our continuous efforts to design the ideal adaptive robotic therapy for the lower limbs of stroke patients and children with cerebral palsy highlighted the importance of analyzing and modeling the kinematics of the lower limbs, in general, and those of the ankle joints, in particular. We recruited 15 young healthy adults that performed in total 1,386 visually evoked, visually guided, and target-directed discrete pointing movements with their ankle in dorsal-plantar and inversion-eversion directions. Using a non-linear, least-squares error-minimization procedure, we estimated the parameters for 19 models, which were initially designed to capture the dynamics of upper limb movements of various complexity. We validated our models based on their ability to reconstruct the experimental data. Our results suggest a remarkable similarity between the top-performing models that described the speed profiles of ankle pointing movements and the ones previously found for the UE both during arm reaching and wrist pointing movements. Among the top performers were the support-bounded lognormal and the beta models that have a neurophysiological basis and have been successfully used in upper extremity studies with normal subjects and patients. Our findings suggest that the same model can be applied to different "human" hardware, perhaps revealing a key invariant in human motor control. These findings have a great potential to enhance our rehabilitation efforts in any population with lower extremity deficits by, for example, assessing the level of motor impairment and improvement as well as informing the design of control algorithms for therapeutic ankle robots.

  12. Effects of high volume upper extremity plyometric training on throwing velocity and functional strength ratios of the shoulder rotators in collegiate baseball players.

    PubMed

    Carter, Andrew B; Kaminski, Thomas W; Douex, Al T; Knight, Christopher A; Richards, James G

    2007-02-01

    To achieve maximal force output, clinicians and coaches have been experimenting with upper extremity plyometric exercises for years, without sufficient scientific validation of this training method. The goal of this study was to examine the effects of an 8-week course of high volume upper extremity plyometric training on the isokinetic strength and throwing velocity of a group of intercollegiate baseball players. Twenty-four Division I collegiate baseball players (age: 19.7 +/- 1.3 years; height: 183.9 +/- 5.9 cm; mass: 90.7 +/- 10.5 kg) were recruited to participate in this study. Throwing velocity, isokinetic peak torque, isokinetic functional strength ratios, and time to peak torque were measured pre- and posttraining. Subjects were rank-ordered according to concentric internal rotation (IR) strength and were assigned randomly to either the plyometric training group (PLY) or the control group (CON). Training consisted of 6 upper extremity plyometric exercises ("Ballistic Six") performed twice per week for 8 weeks. Subjects assigned to CON performed regular off-season strength and conditioning activities, but did not perform plyometric activities. PLY demonstrated significant increases (p < 0.05) in throwing velocity following 8 weeks of training when compared with CON (83.15 mph [pre] vs. 85.15 mph [post]). There were no statistically significant differences in any of the isokinetic strength measurements between PLY and CON groups pre- to posttraining. Statistically significant differences were seen within PLY for concentric IR and eccentric external rotation (ER) isokinetic strength at 180 degrees x s(-1) and 300 degrees x s(-1); and within CON for eccentric ER isokinetic strength at 300 degrees x s(-1) and concentric IR isokinetic strength at 180 degrees x s(-1). The Ballistic Six training protocol can be a beneficial supplement to a baseball athlete's off-season conditioning by improving functional performance and strengthening the rotator cuff musculature.

  13. A Comparative Analysis of Speed Profile Models for Ankle Pointing Movements: Evidence that Lower and Upper Extremity Discrete Movements are Controlled by a Single Invariant Strategy.

    PubMed

    Michmizos, Konstantinos P; Vaisman, Lev; Krebs, Hermano Igo

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about whether our knowledge of how the central nervous system controls the upper extremities (UE), can generalize, and to what extent to the lower limbs. Our continuous efforts to design the ideal adaptive robotic therapy for the lower limbs of stroke patients and children with cerebral palsy highlighted the importance of analyzing and modeling the kinematics of the lower limbs, in general, and those of the ankle joints, in particular. We recruited 15 young healthy adults that performed in total 1,386 visually evoked, visually guided, and target-directed discrete pointing movements with their ankle in dorsal-plantar and inversion-eversion directions. Using a non-linear, least-squares error-minimization procedure, we estimated the parameters for 19 models, which were initially designed to capture the dynamics of upper limb movements of various complexity. We validated our models based on their ability to reconstruct the experimental data. Our results suggest a remarkable similarity between the top-performing models that described the speed profiles of ankle pointing movements and the ones previously found for the UE both during arm reaching and wrist pointing movements. Among the top performers were the support-bounded lognormal and the beta models that have a neurophysiological basis and have been successfully used in upper extremity studies with normal subjects and patients. Our findings suggest that the same model can be applied to different "human" hardware, perhaps revealing a key invariant in human motor control. These findings have a great potential to enhance our rehabilitation efforts in any population with lower extremity deficits by, for example, assessing the level of motor impairment and improvement as well as informing the design of control algorithms for therapeutic ankle robots. PMID:25505881

  14. Successful Recovery and Transplantation of 11 Organs Including Face, Bilateral Upper Extremities, and Thoracic and Abdominal Organs From a Single Deceased Organ Donor.

    PubMed

    Tullius, Stefan G; Pomahac, Bohdan; Kim, Heung Bae; Carty, Matthew J; Talbot, Simon G; Nelson, Helen M; Delmonico, Francis L

    2016-10-01

    We report on the to date largest recovery of 11 organs from a single deceased donor with the transplantation of face, bilateral upper extremities, heart, 1 lung, liver (split for 2 recipients), kidneys, pancreas, and intestine. Although logistically challenging, this case demonstrates the feasibility and safety of the recovery of multiple thoracic and abdominal organs with multiple vascular composite allotransplants and tissues. Our experience of 8 additional successful multiple vascular composite allotransplants, thoracic, and abdominal organ recoveries suggests that such procedures are readily accomplishable from the same deceased donor. PMID:27624820

  15. Evaluation of Metal Toxicity in Streams Affected by Abandoned Mine Lands, Upper Animas River Watershed, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Besser, John M.; Allert, Ann L.; Hardesty, Douglas K.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; May, Thomas W.; Wang, Ning; Leib, Kenneth J.

    2001-01-01

    Acid drainage from abandoned mines and from naturally-acidic rocks and soil in the upper Animas River watershed of Colorado generates elevated concentrations of acidity and dissolved metals in stream waters and deposition of metal-contaminated particulates in streambed sediments, resulting in both toxicity and habitat degradation for stream biota. High concentrations of iron (Fe), aluminum (Al), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb) occur in acid streams draining headwaters of the upper Animas River watershed, and high concentrations of some metals, especially Zn, persist in circumneutral reaches of the Animas River and Mineral Creek, downstream of mixing zones of acid tributaries. Seasonal variation of metal concentrations is reflected in variation in toxicity of stream water. Loadings of dissolved metals to the upper Animas River and tributaries are greatest during summer, during periods of high stream discharge from snowmelt and monsoonal rains, but adverse effects on stream biota may be greater during winter low-flow periods, when stream flows are dominated by inputs of groundwater and contain greatest concentrations of dissolved metals. Fine stream-bed sediments of the upper Animas River watershed also contain elevated concentrations of potentially toxic metals. Greatest sediment metal concentrations occur in the Animas River upstream from Silverton, where there are extensive deposits of mine and mill tailings, and in mixing zones in the Animas River and lower Mineral Creek, where precipitates of Fe and Al oxides also contain high concentrations of other metals. This report summarizes the findings of a series of toxicity studies in streams of the upper Animas River watershed, conducted on-site and in the laboratory between 1998 and 2000. The objectives of these studies were: (1) to determine the relative toxicity of stream water and fine stream-bed sediments to fish and invertebrates; (2) to determine the seasonal range of toxicity in stream

  16. The Development and Application of Affective Assessment in an Upper-Level Cell Biology Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitchen, Elizabeth; Reeve, Suzanne; Bell, John D.; Sudweeks, Richard R.; Bradshaw, William S.

    2007-01-01

    This study exemplifies how faculty members can develop instruments to assess affective responses of students to the specific features of the courses they teach. Means for assessing three types of affective responses are demonstrated: (a) student attitudes towards courses with differing instructional objectives and methodologies, (b) student…

  17. A 100-year extreme snow-avalanche record based on tree-ring research in upper Bødalen, inner Nordfjord, western Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decaulne, Armelle; Eggertsson, Ólafur; Laute, Katja; Beylich, Achim A.

    2014-08-01

    This paper analyses with the help of tree-ring studies the recurrence of extreme snow avalanches in a path situated in the upper Bødalen valley and originating from an outlet glacier of the Jostedalsbreen ice cap. By analysing tree-ring patterns of 91 trees, four extreme snow-avalanche events, extending over the entire valley floor and up to a distance of 800 m from the foot of the slope, are clearly highlighted during the 20th century and at the beginning of the 21st century. Return periods of 15 to 20 years for the most extreme events are extracted from the analyses, and recurrence intervals of 10 to 15 years for avalanches presenting distinct deposition lobes uphill of the distal torrent. Results obtained by tree-ring analyses are successfully compared with available documents at different spatial and temporal scales. Rock-face snow-avalanche occurrences in the area, of small to medium size, are associated with heavy wintry precipitation combined with strong winds. However this normal situation is not valid for extreme snow avalanches crossing the path investigated in the paper, which result from the outlet glacier located in the starting zone; this glacier commands spatial and inter-annual variations of snow accumulation in the departure zone.

  18. Upper body heavy strength training does not affect performance in junior female cross-country skiers.

    PubMed

    Skattebo, Ø; Hallén, J; Rønnestad, B R; Losnegard, T

    2016-09-01

    We investigated the effects of adding heavy strength training to a high volume of endurance training on performance and related physiological determinants in junior female cross-country skiers. Sixteen well-trained athletes (17 ± 1 years, 60 ± 6 kg, 169 ± 6 cm, VO2max running: 60 ± 5 mL/kg/min) were assigned either to an intervention group (INT; n = 9) or a control group (CON; n = 7). INT completed two weekly sessions of upper body heavy strength training in a linear periodized fashion for 10 weeks. Both groups continued their normal aerobic endurance and muscular endurance training. One repetition maximum in seated pull-down increased significantly more in INT than in CON, with a group difference of 15 ± 8% (P < 0.01). Performance, expressed as average power output on a double poling ergometer over 20 s and as 3 min with maximal effort in both rested (sprint-test) and fatigued states (finishing-test), showed similar changes in both groups. Submaximal O2 -cost and VO2peak in double poling showed similar changes or were unchanged in both groups. In conclusion, 10 weeks of heavy strength training increased upper body strength but had trivial effects on performance in a double poling ergometer in junior female cross-country skiers.

  19. [Proposal of a concise index for the evaluation of the exposure to repetitive movements of the upper extremity (OCRA index)].

    PubMed

    Occhipinti, E; Colombini, D

    1996-01-01

    In the light of data and speculation contained in the literature, and based on procedures illustrated in a previous research project in which the authors describe and evaluate occupational risk factors associated with work-related musculoskeletal disorders of the upper limbs (WMSDs), this article proposes a method for calculating a concise index of exposure to repetitive movements of the upper limbs. The proposal, which still has to be substantiated and validated by further studies and applications, is conceptually based on the procedure recommended by the NIOSH for calculating the Lifting Index in manual load handling activities. The concise exposure index (OCRA index) in this case is based on the relationship between the daily number of actions actually performed by the upper limbs in repetitive tasks, and the corresponding number of recommended actions. The latter are calculated on the basis of a constant (30 actions per minute) which represents the action frequency factor, and is valid-hypothetically-under so-called optimal conditions; the constant is diminished case by case (using appropriate factors) as a function of the presence and characteristics of the other risk factors (force, posture, complementary elements, recovery periods). Although still experimental, the exposure index can be used to obtain an integrated and concise assessment of the various risk factors analysed, and to classify occupational scenarios featuring significant and diversified exposure to such risk factors.

  20. The initial effects of an upper extremity neural mobilization technique on muscle fatigue and pressure pain threshold of healthy adults: a randomized control trial

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Myoung-Kwon; Cha, Hyun-Gyu; Ji, Sang Gu

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of an upper extremity neural mobilization technique on delayed onset muscle soreness. [Subjects] Forty-five healthy subjects were randomly assigned to two groups: a nerve mobilization group (experimental) and a control group. [Methods] The subjects of the experimental group were administered a median nerve mobilization technique and ultrasound for the biceps brachii muscle. The subjects in the control group were only administered ultrasound for the biceps brachii muscle. Muscle fatigue and the pressure pain threshold were assessed before and after the intervention. [Results] The experimental group showed significant improvements in all variables, compared to pre-intervention. Furthermore, the control group showed significant improvements in the pressure pain threshold, compared to pre-intervention. Significant differences in the post-intervention gains in muscle fatigue and pressure pain threshold were found between the experimental group and the control group. [Conclusion] Application of the upper extremity neural mobilization technique is considered to have a positive effect on recovery from delayed onset muscle soreness. PMID:27134351

  1. Changes in maximal and explosive strength, electromyography, and muscle thickness of lower and upper extremities induced by combined strength and endurance training in soldiers.

    PubMed

    Santtila, Matti; Kyröläinen, Heikki; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of present study was to examine to what extent an 8-week endurance-based military training period interferes with muscle strength development in the conscripts (n = 72) compared with that caused by sport-related military training with added strength training (ST) or endurance training (ET). More specifically, we examined the effects of these 3 training modes on maximal isometric force, maximal rate of force development (RFD), electromyography (EMG), and muscle thickness of the lower and upper extremities. The measurements included isometric force-time parameters of leg and arm extensors and EMG activity from the vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, rectus femoris, and triceps brachii muscles. The 8-week basic training period combined with added ST and ET significantly improved maximal bilateral isometric force of the arm extensors in ST by 11.8% (p < 0.001), ET by 13.9% (p < 0.001), and normal training (NT) by 7.8% (p < 0.05). Strength training and ET showed significant increases in maximal EMG activity of the trained arm muscles. A significant increase was observed in maximal RFD of the upper extremities only in ST by 28.1% (p < 0.05). Both ST and ET increased their maximal leg extension strength by 12.9% (p < 0.01) and 9.1% (p < 0.05), respectively, whereas no significant change occurred in NT (5.2%, p = 0.45). No significant changes were observed in the shape of the force-time curves of leg extensors. No increases occurred in muscle thickness either in the lower or upper extremities. The present BT training with a large amount of endurance-based military training interfered with strength development, and especially, explosive power development of the lower extremities in the ST group. The optimal improvements in neuromuscular characteristics may not be possible without some decreases in the amount of the endurance-based military training and/or some increases in the amount of the maximal/explosive strength training during the BT.

  2. Oxygen uptake, heart rate, perceived exertion, and integrated electromyogram of the lower and upper extremities during level and Nordic walking on a treadmill

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize responses in oxygen uptake ( V·O2), heart rate (HR), perceived exertion (OMNI scale) and integrated electromyogram (iEMG) readings during incremental Nordic walking (NW) and level walking (LW) on a treadmill. Ten healthy adults (four men, six women), who regularly engaged in physical activity in their daily lives, were enrolled in the study. All subjects were familiar with NW. Each subject began walking at 60 m/min for 3 minutes, with incremental increases of 10 m/min every 2 minutes up to 120 m/min V·O2 , V·E and HR were measured every 30 seconds, and the OMNI scale was used during the final 15 seconds of each exercise. EMG readings were recorded from the triceps brachii, vastus lateralis, biceps femoris, gastrocnemius, and tibialis anterior muscles. V·O2 was significantly higher during NW than during LW, with the exception of the speed of 70 m/min (P < 0.01). V·E and HR were higher during NW than LW at all walking speeds (P < 0.05 to 0.001). OMNI scale of the upper extremities was significantly higher during NW than during LW at all speeds (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the iEMG reading for the VL was lower during NW than during LW at all walking speeds, while the iEMG reading for the BF and GA muscles were significantly lower during NW than LW at some speeds. These data suggest that the use of poles in NW attenuates muscle activity in the lower extremities during the stance and push-off phases, and decreases that of the lower extremities and increase energy expenditure of the upper body and respiratory system at certain walking speeds. PMID:23406834

  3. An unusual presentation of Guillain-Barré syndrome in a young man with bilateral upper extremity weakness.

    PubMed

    McNicholas, N; O'Dowd, S; McNamara, B; O'Toole, O

    2015-09-08

    A 30-year-old man attended the emergency department with a 4-day history of progressive, bilateral upper limb weakness. He had mild shortness of breath and occasional swallowing difficulties. One month prior to presentation, he had flu-like symptoms and diarrhoea. Examination revealed upper limb hypotonia, symmetrical distal arm weakness and hyporeflexia. Power and reflexes in the lower limbs were normal. Nerve conduction studies and lumbar puncture demonstrated features consistent with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). The patient was treated with a 5-day course of intravenous immunoglobulins. He improved significantly over the next 2 weeks. Breathing and swallow function did not deteriorate and required no further intervention. He had a sustained improvement, and remained at baseline 1 year later. Work-up for underlying structural, infectious, inflammatory and paraneoplastic aetiologies were negative. Serum antiganglioside antibodies were positive for the anti-GT1a IgG isotype supporting the clinical diagnosis of the pharyngeal-cervical-brachial variant of GBS.

  4. Factors affecting metal concentrations in the upper sediment layer of intertidal reedbeds along the river Scheldt.

    PubMed

    Du Laing, Gijs; Vandecasteele, Bart; De Grauwe, Pieter; Moors, Wouter; Lesage, Els; Meers, Erik; Tack, Filip M G; Verloo, Marc G

    2007-05-01

    Factors that play a role in determining metal accumulation in sediments of 26 intertidal marshes which are mainly vegetated by reed plants (Phragmites australis) were assessed along the Scheldt estuary (Belgium and The Netherlands). In the upper 20 cm sediment layer, several physico-chemical properties (clay, silt and sand content, organic matter, carbonate and chloride content, pH and conductivity) and aqua regia extractable metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn) were determined. The sediments were significantly contaminated with trace metals. The Cd concentrations often exceeded the Flemish soil remediation thresholds for nature areas, whereas Cr, Cu and Zn levels indicated moderate contamination. Pb concentrations occasionally were high, whereas Ni concentrations leaned towards background values. Organic matter was the single most important predictor variable for total metal contents in regression models, except for Cr. Additional significant predictor variables were clay or chloride content, depending on the metal. Observed metal concentrations at sites within a range of a few km from specific point-sources of metals (e.g. shipyards, industrial areas with metallurgic activities, affluents, major motorways) were somewhat higher than predicted by the models, whereas they were lower than predicted at sites which are regularly subjected to flooding by water of high salinity. The ratio between observed and predicted concentrations seems to be a valuable tool for the identification of areas which are specifically impacted by point sources. PMID:17492090

  5. Lipid utilization in radish seedlings as affected by weak horizontal extremely low frequency magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Novitskii, Yurii I; Novitskaya, Galina V; Serdyukov, Yurii A

    2014-02-01

    Composition and content of lipids were studied in 5-day-old radish seedlings (Raphanus sativus L. var. radicula DC.) grown in lowlight and darkness in an extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic field characterized by 50 Hz frequency and ∼500 µT flux density. The control seedlings were grown under the same conditions, but without exposure to the magnetic field. The products of lipid metabolism were compared with lipid composition in seeds. In control seedlings, reserve neutral lipids, mostly triacylglycerides, were utilized for the formation of polar lipids (PL). As a result, the amount of the latter doubled, particularly due to glycolipids (GL) and phospholipids (PhL) compared to their content in seeds. At 20-22 °C in light, magnetic field exposure increased the production of PL by threefold specifically, GL content increased fourfold and PhL content rose 2.5 times, compared to seeds. In darkness, the effect of magnetic field on lipids was weaker. At the lower temperature of 13-16 °C in light, the effect of the magnetic field was weak, but in the darkness, no magnetic field action was recorded. It is concluded that ELF magnetic field stimulated lipid synthesis in chloroplast, mitochondrial, and other cell membranes in radish seedlings grown in light at 20-22 °C and 13-16 °C. PMID:24123065

  6. Childhood obesity affects postural control and aiming performance during an upper limb movement.

    PubMed

    Boucher, François; Handrigan, Grant A; Mackrous, Isabelle; Hue, Olivier

    2015-07-01

    Obesity reduces the efficiency of postural and movement control mechanisms. However, the effects of obesity on a functional motor task and postural control in standing and seated position have not been closely quantified among children. The aim of this study is to examine the effects of obesity on the execution of aiming tasks performed in standing and seated conditions in children. Twelve healthy weight children and eleven obese children aged between 8 and 11 years pointed to a target in standing and seated position. The difficulty of the aiming task was varied by using 2 target sizes (1.0 cm and 5.0 cm width; pointing to the smaller target size needs a more precise movement and constitutes a more difficult task). Hand movement time (MT) and its phases were measured to quantify the aiming task. Mean speed of the center of pressure displacement (COP speed) was calculated to assess postural stability during the movement. Obese children had significantly higher MTs compared to healthy-weight children in seated and standing conditions explained by greater durations of deceleration phase when aiming. Concerning the COP speed during the movement, obese children showed significantly higher values when standing compared to healthy-weight children. This was also observed in the seated position. In conclusion, obesity adds a postural constraint during an aiming task in both seated and standing conditions and requires obese children to take more time to correct their movements due to a greater postural instability of the body when pointing to a target with the upper-limb.

  7. Near-Infrared Fluorescence Lymphatic Imaging to Reconsider Occlusion Pressure of Superficial Lymphatic Collectors in Upper Extremities of Healthy Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Vandermeeren, Liesbeth; Vankerckhove, Sophie; Valsamis, Jean-Baptiste; Malloizel-Delaunay, Julie; Moraine, Jean-Jacques; Liebens, Fabienne

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: There are very little scientific data on occlusion pressure for superficial lymphatic collectors. Given its importance in determining the transport capacity of lymphatic vessels, it is crucial to know its value. The novel method of near-infrared fluorescence lymphatic imaging (NIRFLI) can be used to visualize lymphatic flow in real time. The goal of this study was to see if this method could be used to measure the lymphatic occlusion pressure. Methods: We observed and recorded lymph flow in the upper limb of healthy volunteers through a transparent cuff using near-infrared fluorescence lymphatic imaging. After obtaining a baseline of the lymph flow without pressure inside the cuff, the cuff was inflated by increments of 10 mm Hg starting at 30 mm Hg. A NIRFLI guided manual lymphatic drainage technique named “Fill & Flush Drainage Method” was performed during the measurement to promote lymph flow. Lymphatic occlusion pressure was determined by observing when lymph flow stopped under the cuff. Results: We measured the lymphatic occlusion pressure on 30 healthy volunteers (11 men and 19 women). Mean lymphatic occlusion pressure in the upper limb was 86 mm Hg (CI ±3.7 mm Hg, α = 0.5%). No significant differences were found between age groups (p = 0.18), gender (p = 0.12), or limb side (p = 0.85). Conclusions: NIRFLI, a transparent sphygmomanometer cuff and the “Fill and Flush” manual lymphatic drainage method were used to measure the lymphatic occlusion pressure in 30 healthy humans. That combination of these techniques allows the visualization of the lymph flow in real time, while ensuring the continuous filling of the lymph collectors during the measurement session, reducing false negative observations. The measured occlusion pressures are much higher than previously described in the medical literature. PMID:27167187

  8. Underwater Near-Infrared Spectroscopy: Muscle Oxygen Changes in the Upper and Lower Extremities in Club Level Swimmers and Triathletes.

    PubMed

    Jones, B; Cooper, C E

    2016-01-01

    To date, measurements of oxygen status during swim exercise have focused upon systemic aerobic capacity. The development of a portable, waterproof NIRS device makes possible a local measurement of muscle hemodynamics and oxygenation that could provide a novel insight into the physiological changes that occur during swim exercise. The purpose of this study was to observe changes in muscle oxygenation in the vastus lateralis (VL) and latissimus dorsi (LD) of club level swimmers and triathletes. Ten subjects, five club level swimmers and five club level triathletes (three men and seven women) were used for assessment. Swim group; mean±SD=age 21.2±1.6 years; height 170.6±7.5 cm; weight 62.8±6.9 kg; vastus lateralis skin fold 13.8±5.6 mm; latissimus dorsi skin fold 12.6±3.7. Triathlete group; mean±SD=age 44.0±10.5 years; height 171.6±7.0 cm; weight 68.6±12.7 kg; vastus lateralis skin fold 11.8±3.5 mm; latissimus dorsi skin fold 11.2±3.1. All subjects completed a maximal 200 m freestyle swim, with the PortaMon, a portable NIR device, attached to the subject's dominant side musculature. ΔTSI% between the vastus lateralis and latissimus dorsi were analysed using either paired (2-tailed) t-tests or Wilcoxon signed rank test. The level of significance for analysis was set at p<0.05. No significant difference (p=0.686) was found in ΔTSI (%) between the VL and LD in club level swimmers. A significant difference (p=0.043) was found in ΔTSI (%) between the VL and LD in club level triathletes. Club level swimmers completed the 200 m freestyle swim significantly faster (p=0.04) than club level triathletes. Club level swimmers use both the upper and lower muscles to a similar extent during a maximal 200 m swim. Club level triathletes predominately use the upper body for propulsion during the same exercise. The data produced by NIRS in this study are the first of their kind and provide insight into muscle oxygenation changes during swim exercise which can indicate the

  9. Underwater Near-Infrared Spectroscopy: Muscle Oxygen Changes in the Upper and Lower Extremities in Club Level Swimmers and Triathletes.

    PubMed

    Jones, B; Cooper, C E

    2016-01-01

    To date, measurements of oxygen status during swim exercise have focused upon systemic aerobic capacity. The development of a portable, waterproof NIRS device makes possible a local measurement of muscle hemodynamics and oxygenation that could provide a novel insight into the physiological changes that occur during swim exercise. The purpose of this study was to observe changes in muscle oxygenation in the vastus lateralis (VL) and latissimus dorsi (LD) of club level swimmers and triathletes. Ten subjects, five club level swimmers and five club level triathletes (three men and seven women) were used for assessment. Swim group; mean±SD=age 21.2±1.6 years; height 170.6±7.5 cm; weight 62.8±6.9 kg; vastus lateralis skin fold 13.8±5.6 mm; latissimus dorsi skin fold 12.6±3.7. Triathlete group; mean±SD=age 44.0±10.5 years; height 171.6±7.0 cm; weight 68.6±12.7 kg; vastus lateralis skin fold 11.8±3.5 mm; latissimus dorsi skin fold 11.2±3.1. All subjects completed a maximal 200 m freestyle swim, with the PortaMon, a portable NIR device, attached to the subject's dominant side musculature. ΔTSI% between the vastus lateralis and latissimus dorsi were analysed using either paired (2-tailed) t-tests or Wilcoxon signed rank test. The level of significance for analysis was set at p<0.05. No significant difference (p=0.686) was found in ΔTSI (%) between the VL and LD in club level swimmers. A significant difference (p=0.043) was found in ΔTSI (%) between the VL and LD in club level triathletes. Club level swimmers completed the 200 m freestyle swim significantly faster (p=0.04) than club level triathletes. Club level swimmers use both the upper and lower muscles to a similar extent during a maximal 200 m swim. Club level triathletes predominately use the upper body for propulsion during the same exercise. The data produced by NIRS in this study are the first of their kind and provide insight into muscle oxygenation changes during swim exercise which can indicate the

  10. Dorsal decubitus positioning: a novel method to harvest the latissimus dorsi flap for massive upper extremity defect reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Boa, Olivier; Servant, Jean-Marie; Revol, Marc; Salib, Emmanuel G; Guberman, Daniel; Harris, Patrick G; Danino, Alain M

    2011-09-01

    The latissimus dorsi, whether taken as a muscle or with a skin paddle, is one of the most useful flaps in the reconstructive surgeon's arsenal. With its predictable type V vascular pedicle, this broad muscle can be elevated on its dominant thoracodorsal pedicle or used in a reverse manner on its secondary thoracic and lumbar perforators. Traditionally harvested in a lateral decubitus position, over the last 10 years we have chosen to elevate this muscle in a dorsal decubitus position, enabling 2 surgical teams to operate simultaneously. With only one cushion placed along the vertebral column between the scapulas, each element of the subscapular system, including scapular bone, can be used to reconstruct complex upper limb defects. A vertical incision in front of the anterior axillary line is performed to identify the anterior border of the muscle, followed by a dissection in the submuscular plane to reveal the thoracodorsal pedicle and its branches. When a more complex chimeric flap is required, scapular bone, serratus muscle, and scapular or parascapular fasciocutaneous flaps are all available. To achieve the longest length possible, the pedicle can be isolated from the axillary vessels. The most common complications are related to donor site, with seroma and delayed wound healing being the most prevalent. Complaints of shoulder pain and functional disability were rare and mostly encountered in the first 2 weeks postoperatively.

  11. Risk factors associated with catheter-related upper extremity deep vein thrombosis in patients with peripherally inserted central venous catheters: literature review: part 1.

    PubMed

    Clemence, Bonnie J; Maneval, Rhonda E

    2014-01-01

    This is part 1 of a 2-part series of articles that report on the results of a prospective observational cohort study designed to examine the risk factors associated with symptomatic upper extremity deep vein thrombosis (UEDVT) in patients with peripherally inserted central catheters. This article provides an extensive review and critique of the literature that serves to explicate what is currently known about risk factors associated with catheter-related UEDVT. Risk factors such as anticoagulant use, cancer, infection, hypertension, catheter tip placement, and catheter size were identified most frequently in the literature as being associated with UEDVT development. Other risk factors--such as obesity, smoking history, surgery, and presence of pain or edema--were examined in a limited number of studies and lacked consistent evidence of their impact on UEDVT development. The subsequent study that evolved from the review of the literature investigates the relationship between identified risk factors and UEDVT development. PMID:24694512

  12. The Psychometric Properties of a Modified Sit-to-Stand Test With Use of the Upper Extremities in Institutionalized Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Le Berre, Melanie; Apap, David; Babcock, Jade; Bray, Sarah; Gareau, Esther; Chassé, Kathleen; Lévesque, Nicole; Robbins, Shawn M

    2016-08-01

    Current sit-to-stand protocols do not permit use of upper extremities, limiting the protocols' utility for institutionalized older adults with diminished physical function. The objective of this study was to modify a 30-s sit-to-stand protocol to allow for arm use and to examine test-retest reliability and convergent validity; 54 institutionalized older adult men (age = 91 ± 3 year) performed the 30-s sit-to-stand twice within a span of 3 to 7 days. Results suggest good test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient = .84) and convergent validity with the Timed Up and Go Test (r = -.62). This modified 30-s sit-to-stand can be used to assess physical function performance in institutionalized older adults and will ensure that individuals with lower physical function capacity can complete the test, thus eliminating the floor effect demonstrated with other sit-to-stand protocols.

  13. Upper Extremity Proprioception in Healthy Aging and Stroke Populations, and the Effects of Therapist- and Robot-Based Rehabilitation Therapies on Proprioceptive Function

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Charmayne Mary Lee; Tommasino, Paolo; Budhota, Aamani; Campolo, Domenico

    2015-01-01

    The world’s population is aging, with the number of people ages 65 or older expected to surpass 1.5 billion people, or 16% of the global total. As people age, there are notable declines in proprioception due to changes in the central and peripheral nervous systems. Moreover, the risk of stroke increases with age, with approximately two-thirds of stroke-related hospitalizations occurring in people over the age of 65. In this literature review, we first summarize behavioral studies investigating proprioceptive deficits in normally aging older adults and stroke patients, and discuss the differences in proprioceptive function between these populations. We then provide a state of the art review the literature regarding therapist- and robot-based rehabilitation of the upper extremity proprioceptive dysfunction in stroke populations and discuss avenues of future research. PMID:25784872

  14. Task design, psycho-social work climate and upper extremity pain disorders--effects of an organisational redesign on manual repetitive assembly jobs.

    PubMed

    Christmansson, M; Fridén, J; Sollerman, C

    1999-10-01

    A company redesign was carried out to improve production efficiency and minimise the prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders and sick leave. The redesign was evaluated on the basis of studies of assembly workers before (17 workers) and after (12 workers) the redesign. The redesign resulted in more varied, less repetitive, and more autonomous assembly jobs. The psycho-social work climate was both improved and impaired. A medical examination showed that eight of 17 workers before and nine of 12 workers after the redesign suffered from upper extremity pain disorders. Neither the production goals nor the goals of the redesign were fulfilled. Our conclusion was that the increased task variation and impaired psycho-social work climate, combined with a lack of skill and competence, actually increased the physical stress, risk for disorders and difficulties in fulfilling the production goals.

  15. Mobile input device type, texting style and screen size influence upper extremity and trapezius muscle activity, and cervical posture while texting.

    PubMed

    Kietrys, David M; Gerg, Michael J; Dropkin, Jonathan; Gold, Judith E

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to determine the effects of input device type, texting style, and screen size on upper extremity and trapezius muscle activity and cervical posture during a short texting task in college students. Users of a physical keypad produced greater thumb, finger flexor, and wrist extensor muscle activity than when texting with a touch screen device of similar dimensions. Texting on either device produced greater wrist extensor muscle activity when texting with 1 hand/thumb compared with both hands/thumbs. As touch screen size increased, more participants held the device on their lap, and chose to use both thumbs less. There was also a trend for greater finger flexor, wrist extensor, and trapezius muscle activity as touch screen size increased, and for greater cervical flexion, although mean differences for cervical flexion were small. Future research can help inform whether the ergonomic stressors observed during texting are associated with musculoskeletal disorder risk. PMID:25959323

  16. Usage Position and Virtual Keyboard Design Affect Upper-Body Kinematics, Discomfort, and Usability during Prolonged Tablet Typing

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ming-I Brandon; Hong, Ruei-Hong; Chang, Jer-Hao; Ke, Xin-Min

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The increase in tablet usage allows people to perform computer work in non-traditional office environments. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of changes in tablet keyboard design on postures of the upper extremities and neck, discomfort, and usability under different usage positions during prolonged touch-typing. Methods Eighteen healthy participants familiar with touch-screen devices were randomized into three usage positions (desk, lap, and bed) and completed six, 60-minute typing sessions using three virtual keyboard designs (standard, wide, split). Electrogoniometers continuously measured the postures of the wrists, elbow, and neck. Body discomfort and system usability were evaluated by questionnaires before and immediately after each typing session. Results Separate linear mixed effects models on various postural measures and subjective ratings are conducted with usage position as the between-subject factors, keyboard design and typing duration as the with-in subject factors were conducted. Using the tablet in bed led to more extended wrists but a more natural elbow flexion than the desk position. The angled split virtual keyboard significantly reduced the extent of wrist ulnar deviation than the keyboard with either standard or wide design. However, little difference was observed across the usage position and keyboard design. When the postural data were compared between the middle and end of typing sessions, the wrists, elbow, and neck all exhibited a substantially increased range of joint movements (13% to 38%). The discomfort rating also increased significantly over time in every upper body region investigated. Additionally, the split keyboard design received a higher usability rating in the bed position, whereas participants had more satisfactory experience while using the wide keyboard in the traditional desk setting. Conclusions Prolonged use of tablets in non-traditional office environments may result in awkward postures in the

  17. Optimal case definitions of upper extremity disorder for use in the clinical treatment and referral of patients

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Keith T; Harris, E Clare; Linaker, Cathy; Ntani, Georgia; Cooper, Cyrus; Coggon, David

    2012-01-01

    Objective Experts disagree about the optimal classification of upper limb disorders (ULDs). To explore whether differential response to treatments offers a basis for choosing between case definitions, we analysed previously published research. Methods We screened 183 randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of treatments for ULDs, identified from the bibliographies of 10 Cochrane reviews, four other systematic reviews, and a search in Medline, Embase, and Google Scholar to June 2010. From these, we selected RCTs which allowed estimates of benefit (expressed as relative risks (RRs)) for >1 case definition to be compared when other variables (treatment, comparison group, follow-up time, outcome measure) were effectively held constant. Comparisons of RRs for paired case definitions were summarised by their ratios, with the RR for the simpler and broader definition as the denominator. Result Two RCT reports allowed within-trial comparison of RRs and thirteen others allowed between-trial comparisons. Together these provided 17 ratios of RRs (five for shoulder treatments, 12 for elbow treatments, none for wrist/hand treatments). The median ratio of RRs was 1.0 (range 0.3 to 1.7; interquartile range 0.6 to 1.3). Conclusion Although the evidence base is limited, our findings suggest that for musculoskeletal disorders of the shoulder and elbow, clinicians in primary care will often do best to apply simpler and broader case definitions. Researchers should routinely publish secondary analyses for subgroups of patients by different diagnostic features at trial entry, to expand the evidence base on optimal case definitions for patient management. PMID:22213545

  18. Extreme runoff events of the last 2000 years reconstructed from varved sediments of Lake Mondsee (Upper Austria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swierczynski, Tina; Lauterbach, Stefan; Dulski, Peter; Brauer, Achim; Merz, Bruno

    2010-05-01

    The natural occurrence of floods under changing climate conditions is wideley discussed since long and reliable records are missing for the pre-historical time period. Lake sediments are ideal archives for investigating environmental variability on a wide range of timescales down to a sub-annual resolution, thus having a great potential to reconstruct detrital sediment fluxes into the lake caused by runoff events. This study presents a 2000-year record of detrital layers intercalated in a varved sediment succession of pre-alpine Lake Mondsee (47°48'N, 13°23'E). The chronology of the sediment record is based on varve counting, AMS radiocarbon and Cs-137 dating. Overall, 180 detrital layers are detected in the sediments, and two different sediment transport processes have been identified: (i) extreme floods and (ii) debris flows. The deposits of both are well distinguishable by microfacies analysis, µ-XRF element scanning and magnetic susceptibility measurements. Comparing the deposits of the last 30 years to instrumental hydro-climatological data, spring melting caused by "rain-on-snow-events" and heavy summer precipitation are the main triggers of runoff events that induced detrital sediment fluxes to the lake basin. Within the last 2000 years, the average recurrence time of flood layers is less than 11 years. However, flood layer distribution during this time interval is not homogeneous but indicates variable flood activity. More spring and summer flood layers appeared during the coldest phases of the Little Ice Age (LIA) indicating a major role of climatic boundary conditions as flood triggers. In contrast, during the last 200 years flood layers are evenly distributed without pronounced higher flood frequencies. Debris flows deposits are less common than flood layers having a recurrence interval of 90 years. Despite their low numbers, debris flow layers are correlated with periods of higher flood layer frequency, for example during the LIA and the last 200

  19. [Necrotizing soft tissue infection of upper extremity complicated with toxic shock syndrome--clinical presentation and treatment options].

    PubMed

    Oberhofer, Dagmar; Kucisec-Tepes, Nastja; Huljev, Dubravko

    2008-12-01

    Necrotizing soft tissue infections (NSTI) are uncommon infections associated with considerable morbidity and mortality (20%-40%). They are characterized by rapidly progressive necrosis of soft tissue that primarily involves subcutaneous fat and fascia with variable involvement of the overlying skin and muscle. Extensive soft tissue necrosis is often accompanied by systemic toxicity. Establishing the diagnosis in the early stage of the infection can be difficult, which leads to a delay in surgical treatment and a poor outcome. The principles of treatment are early and aggressive surgical debridement, broad spectrum antimicrobial therapy administered empirically and reassessed pending culture and sensitivity results, and intensive care management. We report a case of NSTI of the arm in a 64-year-old female patient caused by group A Streptococcus and Staphylococcus aureus complicated with toxic shock-like syndrome with emphasis on the pathophysiology of toxic shock-like syndrome and treatment modalities. NSTI developed 10 days after a knife cut wound of the thumb. The patient had no significant comorbidity. Treatment included aggressive surgical debridement with removal of necrotic tissue and extensive fasciotomies 24 h of admission, cardiovascular stabilization and monitoring at intensive care unit, and repeat surgical debridement at 72 h of admission. Early triple drug antimicrobial therapy included high-dose clindamycin, which inhibits protein synthesis and bacterial exotoxin production that is responsible for inflammatory response and toxic shock-like syndrome. In addition, the patient received hyperbaric oxygen therapy (8 treatments in total). The above management led to control of the infective process. Prolonged surgical wound care followed by thin split-skin grafting and placement of secondary sutures on day 36 of admission preserved the extremity with good functional and cosmetic result.

  20. Interfacing a haptic robotic system with complex virtual environments to treat impaired upper extremity motor function in children with cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    FLUET, GERARD G.; QIU, QINYIN; KELLY, DONNA; PARIKH, HETA D.; RAMIREZ, DIEGO; SALEH, SOHA; ADAMOVICH, SERGEI V.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the ability of the New Jersey Institute of Technology Robot Assisted Virtual Rehabilitation (NJIT-RAVR) system training to elicit changes in upper extremity (UE) function in children with hemiplegia secondary to cerebral palsy. Methods Nine children (mean age 9 years, three males) participated in three pilots. Subjects trained 1 hour, 3 days a week for 3 weeks. Two groups performed this protocol as their only intervention. The third group also performed 5–6 hours of constraint-induced movement therapy. Results All subjects participated in a short programme of nine, 60-minute training sessions without adverse effects. As a group, subjects demonstrated statistically significant improvements in Melbourne Assessment of Unilateral Upper Limb Function Test, a composite of three timed UE tasks and several measurements of reaching kinematics. Several subjects demonstrated clinically significant improvements in active shoulder abduction and flexion as well as forearm supination. Conclusion Three small pilots of NJIT-RAVR training demonstrated measurable benefit with no complications, warranting further examination. PMID:20828330

  1. Extreme Air Pollution Conditions Adversely Affect Blood Pressure and Insulin Resistance: The Air Pollution and Cardiometabolic Disease Study.

    PubMed

    Brook, Robert D; Sun, Zhichao; Brook, Jeffrey R; Zhao, Xiaoyi; Ruan, Yanping; Yan, Jianhua; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Rao, Xiaoquan; Duan, Fengkui; Sun, Lixian; Liang, Ruijuan; Lian, Hui; Zhang, Shuyang; Fang, Quan; Gu, Dongfeng; Sun, Qinghua; Fan, Zhongjie; Rajagopalan, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Mounting evidence supports that fine particulate matter adversely affects cardiometabolic diseases particularly in susceptible individuals; however, health effects induced by the extreme concentrations within megacities in Asia are not well described. We enrolled 65 nonsmoking adults with metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance in the Beijing metropolitan area into a panel study of 4 repeated visits across 4 seasons since 2012. Daily ambient fine particulate matter and personal black carbon levels ranged from 9.0 to 552.5 µg/m(3) and 0.2 to 24.5 µg/m(3), respectively, with extreme levels observed during January 2013. Cumulative fine particulate matter exposure windows across the prior 1 to 7 days were significantly associated with systolic blood pressure elevations ranging from 2.0 (95% confidence interval, 0.3-3.7) to 2.7 (0.6-4.8) mm Hg per SD increase (67.2 µg/m(3)), whereas cumulative black carbon exposure during the previous 2 to 5 days were significantly associated with ranges in elevations in diastolic blood pressure from 1.3 (0.0-2.5) to 1.7 (0.3-3.2) mm Hg per SD increase (3.6 µg/m(3)). Both black carbon and fine particulate matter were significantly associated with worsening insulin resistance (0.18 [0.01-0.36] and 0.22 [0.04-0.39] unit increase per SD increase of personal-level black carbon and 0.18 [0.02-0.34] and 0.22 [0.08-0.36] unit increase per SD increase of ambient fine particulate matter on lag days 4 and 5). These results provide important global public health warnings that air pollution may pose a risk to cardiometabolic health even at the extremely high concentrations faced by billions of people in the developing world today. PMID:26573709

  2. Extreme Air Pollution Conditions Adversely Affect Blood Pressure and Insulin Resistance: The Air Pollution and Cardiometabolic Disease Study.

    PubMed

    Brook, Robert D; Sun, Zhichao; Brook, Jeffrey R; Zhao, Xiaoyi; Ruan, Yanping; Yan, Jianhua; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Rao, Xiaoquan; Duan, Fengkui; Sun, Lixian; Liang, Ruijuan; Lian, Hui; Zhang, Shuyang; Fang, Quan; Gu, Dongfeng; Sun, Qinghua; Fan, Zhongjie; Rajagopalan, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Mounting evidence supports that fine particulate matter adversely affects cardiometabolic diseases particularly in susceptible individuals; however, health effects induced by the extreme concentrations within megacities in Asia are not well described. We enrolled 65 nonsmoking adults with metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance in the Beijing metropolitan area into a panel study of 4 repeated visits across 4 seasons since 2012. Daily ambient fine particulate matter and personal black carbon levels ranged from 9.0 to 552.5 µg/m(3) and 0.2 to 24.5 µg/m(3), respectively, with extreme levels observed during January 2013. Cumulative fine particulate matter exposure windows across the prior 1 to 7 days were significantly associated with systolic blood pressure elevations ranging from 2.0 (95% confidence interval, 0.3-3.7) to 2.7 (0.6-4.8) mm Hg per SD increase (67.2 µg/m(3)), whereas cumulative black carbon exposure during the previous 2 to 5 days were significantly associated with ranges in elevations in diastolic blood pressure from 1.3 (0.0-2.5) to 1.7 (0.3-3.2) mm Hg per SD increase (3.6 µg/m(3)). Both black carbon and fine particulate matter were significantly associated with worsening insulin resistance (0.18 [0.01-0.36] and 0.22 [0.04-0.39] unit increase per SD increase of personal-level black carbon and 0.18 [0.02-0.34] and 0.22 [0.08-0.36] unit increase per SD increase of ambient fine particulate matter on lag days 4 and 5). These results provide important global public health warnings that air pollution may pose a risk to cardiometabolic health even at the extremely high concentrations faced by billions of people in the developing world today.

  3. A retrospective look at students enrolled in an upper-level horse science class: factors that affect classroom performance.

    PubMed

    Douthit, T L; Bormann, J M; Kouba, J M

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study was to retrospectively analyze demographic variables and academic preparation of students to determine how these factors relate to student performance in ASI 521 Horse Science, an upper-level course offered in the Department of Animal Sciences and Industry (ASI) at Kansas State University (KSU). Data were collected for 264 students enrolled in the course from 2008 to 2010. Students who took the course in 2008 received greater final percentages than those who took the course in subsequent years (P = 0.0016). Females tended to receive greater percentages than males (P = 0.096). Location of origin of students did not affect percentages earned (P > 0.26). Although class standing (P = 0.35) did not affect the final percentages that students earned, transfer students received lesser final percentages in the course (P = 0.020). If students were majoring in ASI, they fared better than those in other majors (P = 0.0097), but pre-veterinary medicine students performed similarly to non-pre-veterinary students (P = 0.49). Enrollment in the equine certificate program (which requires students to complete 20 credit hours of equine coursework) did not affect percentages earned (P = 0.89) nor did completion of any individual equine class before enrolling in ASI 521 (P > 0.19). Test scores earned on the American College Testing Program standardized test during high school were not reflective of classroom performance (P = 0.51), but KSU grade point average (GPA) was highly predictive (P < 0.0001), regardless of the term for which GPA was calculated. Students in the course took an identical comprehensive test at the beginning and end of the semester, and those test scores were also predictive of final percentage earned in ASI 521 (P ≤ 0.0002). In general, students with greater GPA performed better in ASI 521, so strategies aimed at improving classroom performance may best be targeted toward students with histories of poor academic performance.

  4. The effects of walking speed and prosthetic ankle adapters on upper extremity dynamics and stability-related parameters in bilateral transtibial amputee gait

    PubMed Central

    Stine, Rebecca L.; Gard, Steven A.

    2013-01-01

    Bilateral transtibial amputee (BTA) gait has been investigated less and is not as well understood compared to that of their unilateral counterparts. Relative to able-bodied individuals, BTAs walk with reduced self-selected speeds, increased step width, hip-hiking, and greater metabolic cost. The clinically observed upper body motions of these individuals have not been quantified, but appear substantially different from able-bodied ambulators and may impact upright balance. Therefore, the objective of this study was to characterize the upper extremity kinematics of BTAs during steady-state walking. We measured medial-lateral ground reaction forces, step width and extrapolated center-of-mass (XCoM) trajectory, and observed effects of walking speed and increased prosthetic ankle range-of-motion (ROM) on these parameters. Significantly, BTAs display greater lateral trunk flexion ROM and shoulder abduction than able-bodied individuals when walking at similar speeds, and the inclusion of prosthetic adaptors for increasing passive ankle ROM slightly reduced step width. Overall, exaggerated lateral trunk flexion ROM was invariant with step width. Results suggest that lateral trunk motion is useful for shifting the body center-of-mass laterally onto the leading stance limb while simultaneously unloading the trailing limb. However, exaggerated lateral trunk flexion may introduce an unstable scenario if the XCoM is displaced beyond the lateral base-of-support. Further studies would be useful to identify if either prostheses that assist limb advancement and/or gait training may be effective in reducing this lateral sway while still maintaining efficient ambulation. PMID:23680427

  5. Relationship Between Skin Intrinsic Fluorescence—an Indicator of Advanced Glycation End Products—and Upper Extremity Impairments in Individuals With Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Kshamata M.; Clark, B. Ruth; McGill, Janet B.; Lang, Catherine E.; Maynard, John

    2015-01-01

    Background Accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) is thought to contribute to limited joint mobility in people with diabetes mellitus (DM), but the relationships among AGEs, shoulder structural changes, movement, and disability are not understood. Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the differences and relationships among skin intrinsic fluorescence (SIF), a proxy measure of AGEs, biceps and supraspinatus tendon thickness, upper extremity movement, and disability in groups with and without DM. Design This was a cross-sectional, case-control study. Methods Fifty-two individuals participated: 26 with type 2 DM and 26 controls matched for sex, age, and body mass index. The main outcome measures were: SIF; biceps and supraspinatus tendon thickness; 3-dimensional peak shoulder motion; and Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) questionnaire scores. Results Mean SIF measurements were 19% higher in the DM group compared with the control group (P<.05). Biceps tendons (mean and 95% confidence interval [CI]) (4.7 mm [4.4, 5.0] versus 3.2 mm [2.9, 3.5]) and supraspinatus tendons (6.4 mm [5.9, 6.8] versus 4.9 mm [4.4, 5.3]) were thicker and peak humerothoracic elevation (139° [135°, 146°] versus 150° [146°, 155°]) and glenohumeral external rotation (35° [26°, 46°] versus 51° [41°, 58°]) were reduced in the DM group compared with the control group (P<.05). In the DM group, SIF was correlated to biceps tendon thickness, DASH score, and shoulder motion (r=.44–.51, P<.05). The SIF score and shoulder strength explained 64% of the DASH scores (P<.01). Limitations Because this was a cross-sectional study design, a cause-effect relationship could not be established. Conclusions Accumulation of AGEs in the connective tissues of individuals with DM appears to be associated with increased tendon thickness and decreased shoulder joint mobility and upper extremity function. Physical therapists should be aware of these possible

  6. Biomechanics of the Upper Extremity in Response to Dynamic Impact Loading Indicative of a Forward Fall: An Experimental and Numerical Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkhart, Timothy A.

    The distal radius is one of the most common fracture sites in humans, often resulting from a forward fall with more than 60 % of all fractures to the wrist requiring some form of surgical intervention. Although there is a general consensus regarding the risk factors for distal radius fractures resulting from forward falling, prevention of these injuries requires a more thorough understanding of the injury mechanisms. Therefore the overall purpose of this dissertation was to assess the response of the upper extremity to impact loading to improve the understanding of distal radius fracture mechanisms and the effectiveness of joint kinematic strategies for reducing the impact effects. Three main studies were conducted that utilized in vivo, in vitro and numerical techniques. In vitro impact testing of the distal radius revealed that fracture will occur at a mean (SD) resultant impact force and velocity of 2142.1(1228.7) N and 3.4 (0.7) m/s, respectively. Based on the failure data, multi-variate injury criteria models were produced, highlighting the dynamic and multidirectional nature of distal radius fractures The in vitro investigation was also used to develop and validate a finite element model of the distal radius. Dynamic impacts were simulated in LS-DYNARTM and the resulting z-axis force validation metrics (0.23--0.54) suggest that this is a valid model. A comparison of the experimental fracture patterns to those predicted numerically (i.e. von-Mises stress criteria) shows the finite element model is capable of accurately predicting bone failure. Finally, an in vivo fall simulation apparatus was designed and built that was found to reliably (Intraclass Correlation Coefficients > 0.6) apply multi-directional motion and upper extremity impacts indicative of forward falls. This study revealed that, to some extent, individuals are capable of selected an impact strategy that minimizes the significant injury variables that were outlined in the in vitro investigation

  7. Muscles of the Upper Extremity

    MedlinePlus

    ... Central Nervous System Peripheral Nervous System Review Quiz Endocrine System Characteristics of Hormones Endocrine Glands & Their Hormones Pituitary & ... Thyroid & Parathyroid Glands Adrenal Gland Pancreas Gonads Other Endocrine Glands ... Cardiovascular System Heart Structure of the Heart Physiology of the ...

  8. Risk factors associated with catheter-related upper extremity deep vein thrombosis in patients with peripherally inserted central venous catheters: a prospective observational cohort study: part 2.

    PubMed

    Maneval, Rhonda E; Clemence, Bonnie J

    2014-01-01

    This is the second part of a 2-part series that reports on the results of a prospective observational cohort study designed to examine risk factors associated with symptomatic upper extremity deep vein thrombosis (UEDVT) in patients with peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs). Part 1, published in the May/June 2014 issue of the Journal of Infusion Nursing, provided an extensive review and critique of the literature regarding risk factors associated with catheter-related UEDVT and identified 28 suspected risk factors. A study was undertaken to examine each of the risk factors among 203 acute care patients with PICCs, 13 of whom experienced a UEDVT, yielding an incidence of 6.4%. The most common reason for admission was infection (33.5%), and the primary reason for insertion of the PICC was venous access (58.6%). Hypertension (P = .022) and obesity (P = .008), defined as a body mass index ≥30, were associated with UEDVT. The clinical symptoms of edema (P < .001) and a 3-cm or more increase in arm circumference (P < .001) in the PICC arm after PICC placement were associated with UEDVT. All other variables were not statistically significant. The results suggest that patients who are obese and hypertensive may be at greater risk for the development of UEDVT and that the physical finding of edema and increased arm circumference in the PICC arm are possibly suggestive of UEDVT. PMID:24983259

  9. Sex determination using discriminant analysis of upper and lower extremity bones: New approach using the volume and surface area of digital model.

    PubMed

    Lee, U-Young; Kim, In-Beom; Kwak, Dai-Soon

    2015-08-01

    This study used 110 CT images taken from donated Korean cadavers to create 3-D models of the following upper and lower limb bones: the clavicle, scapula, humerus, radius, ulna, hip bone (os coxa), femur, patella (knee cap), tibia, talus, and calcaneus. In addition, the bone volume and surface area were calculated to determine sex differences using discriminant analysis. Significant sex differences were found in all bones with respect to volume and surface area (p<0.01). The order of volume was the same in females and males (femur>hip bone>tibia>humerus>scapula), although the order of surface area was different. The largest surface area in men was the femur and in women was the hip bone (p<0.01). An interesting finding of this study was that the ulna is the bone with the highest accuracy for sex determination (94%). When using the surface area of multiple bones, the maximum accuracy (99.4%) was achieved. The equation was as follows: (discriminant equation of surface area; female<0extremity bones can be used for sex determination.

  10. The Psychometric Properties of a Modified Sit-to-Stand Test With Use of the Upper Extremities in Institutionalized Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Le Berre, Melanie; Apap, David; Babcock, Jade; Bray, Sarah; Gareau, Esther; Chassé, Kathleen; Lévesque, Nicole; Robbins, Shawn M

    2016-08-01

    Current sit-to-stand protocols do not permit use of upper extremities, limiting the protocols' utility for institutionalized older adults with diminished physical function. The objective of this study was to modify a 30-s sit-to-stand protocol to allow for arm use and to examine test-retest reliability and convergent validity; 54 institutionalized older adult men (age = 91 ± 3 year) performed the 30-s sit-to-stand twice within a span of 3 to 7 days. Results suggest good test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient = .84) and convergent validity with the Timed Up and Go Test (r = -.62). This modified 30-s sit-to-stand can be used to assess physical function performance in institutionalized older adults and will ensure that individuals with lower physical function capacity can complete the test, thus eliminating the floor effect demonstrated with other sit-to-stand protocols. PMID:27280453

  11. Management of the complications of traditional bone setting for upper extremity fractures: the experiences of a French Forward Surgical Team in Chad.

    PubMed

    Mathieu, L; Bertani, A; Chaudier, P; Charpail, C; Rongiéras, F; Chauvin, F

    2014-04-01

    The practice of traditional bone setting (TBS) in sub-Saharan Africa often leads to severe complications after upper extremity fracture. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the management of these complications by a French Forward Surgical Team deployed in Chad. An observational, prospective study was conducted over a six-month period between 2010 and 2011. During this period 28 patients were included. There were 20 males and 8 females with a mean age of 30.6 years (range 5-65 years). Thirteen patients (47%) had mal-union of their fracture, nine had non-union (32%), three children (10.5%) presented gangrene and three patients (10.5%) suffered from other complications. Fifteen (54%) patients did not undergo a corrective procedure either because it was not indicated or because they declined. Only 13 (46%) patients were operated on. Twelve of these patients were reviewed with a mean follow-up of 2.4 months. All of them were satisfied with conventional treatment. The infection seemed to be under control in every septic patient. Bone union could not be evaluated in most patients because of the short follow-up. Management of TBS complications is always challenging, even in a deployed Western medical treatment facility. Surgical expectations should be low because of the severity of the sequelae and the uncertainty of patient follow-up. Prevention remains the best treatment.

  12. A review of the progression and future implications of brain-computer interface therapies for restoration of distal upper extremity motor function after stroke.

    PubMed

    Remsik, Alexander; Young, Brittany; Vermilyea, Rebecca; Kiekhoefer, Laura; Abrams, Jessica; Evander Elmore, Samantha; Schultz, Paige; Nair, Veena; Edwards, Dorothy; Williams, Justin; Prabhakaran, Vivek

    2016-05-01

    Stroke is a leading cause of acquired disability resulting in distal upper extremity functional motor impairment. Stroke mortality rates continue to decline with advances in healthcare and medical technology. This has led to an increased demand for advanced, personalized rehabilitation. Survivors often experience some level of spontaneous recovery shortly after their stroke event, yet reach a functional plateau after which there is exiguous motor recovery. Nevertheless, studies have demonstrated the potential for recovery beyond this plateau. Non-traditional neurorehabilitation techniques, such as those incorporating the brain-computer interface (BCI), are being investigated for rehabilitation. BCIs may offer a gateway to the brain's plasticity and revolutionize how humans interact with the world. Non-invasive BCIs work by closing the proprioceptive feedback loop with real-time, multi-sensory feedback allowing for volitional modulation of brain signals to assist hand function. BCI technology potentially promotes neuroplasticity and Hebbian-based motor recovery by rewarding cortical activity associated with sensory-motor rhythms through use with a variety of self-guided and assistive modalities. PMID:27112213

  13. Effects of Seated Postural Stability and Trunk and Upper Extremity Strength on Performance during Manual Wheelchair Propulsion Tests in Individuals with Spinal Cord Injury: An Exploratory Study.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, Dany H; Roy, Audrey; Gabison, Sharon; Duclos, Cyril; Verrier, Molly C; Nadeau, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To quantify the association between performance-based manual wheelchair propulsion tests (20 m propulsion test, slalom test, and 6 min propulsion test), trunk and upper extremity (U/E) strength, and seated reaching capability and to establish which ones of these variables best predict performance at these tests. Methods. 15 individuals with a spinal cord injury (SCI) performed the three wheelchair propulsion tests prior to discharge from inpatient SCI rehabilitation. Trunk and U/E strength and seated reaching capability with unilateral hand support were also measured. Bivariate correlation and multiple linear regression analyses allowed determining the best determinants and predictors, respectively. Results. The performance at the three tests was moderately or strongly correlated with anterior and lateral flexion trunk strength, anterior seated reaching distance, and the shoulder, elbow, and handgrip strength measures. Shoulder adductor strength-weakest side explained 53% of the variance on the 20-meter propulsion test-maximum velocity. Shoulder adductor strength-strongest side and forward seated reaching distance explained 71% of the variance on the slalom test. Handgrip strength explained 52% of the variance on the 6-minute propulsion test. Conclusion. Performance at the manual wheelchair propulsion tests is explained by a combination of factors that should be considered in rehabilitation.

  14. A review of the progression and future implications of brain-computer interface therapies for restoration of distal upper extremity motor function after stroke.

    PubMed

    Remsik, Alexander; Young, Brittany; Vermilyea, Rebecca; Kiekhoefer, Laura; Abrams, Jessica; Evander Elmore, Samantha; Schultz, Paige; Nair, Veena; Edwards, Dorothy; Williams, Justin; Prabhakaran, Vivek

    2016-05-01

    Stroke is a leading cause of acquired disability resulting in distal upper extremity functional motor impairment. Stroke mortality rates continue to decline with advances in healthcare and medical technology. This has led to an increased demand for advanced, personalized rehabilitation. Survivors often experience some level of spontaneous recovery shortly after their stroke event, yet reach a functional plateau after which there is exiguous motor recovery. Nevertheless, studies have demonstrated the potential for recovery beyond this plateau. Non-traditional neurorehabilitation techniques, such as those incorporating the brain-computer interface (BCI), are being investigated for rehabilitation. BCIs may offer a gateway to the brain's plasticity and revolutionize how humans interact with the world. Non-invasive BCIs work by closing the proprioceptive feedback loop with real-time, multi-sensory feedback allowing for volitional modulation of brain signals to assist hand function. BCI technology potentially promotes neuroplasticity and Hebbian-based motor recovery by rewarding cortical activity associated with sensory-motor rhythms through use with a variety of self-guided and assistive modalities.

  15. Effects of Seated Postural Stability and Trunk and Upper Extremity Strength on Performance during Manual Wheelchair Propulsion Tests in Individuals with Spinal Cord Injury: An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Audrey; Gabison, Sharon; Verrier, Molly C.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To quantify the association between performance-based manual wheelchair propulsion tests (20 m propulsion test, slalom test, and 6 min propulsion test), trunk and upper extremity (U/E) strength, and seated reaching capability and to establish which ones of these variables best predict performance at these tests. Methods. 15 individuals with a spinal cord injury (SCI) performed the three wheelchair propulsion tests prior to discharge from inpatient SCI rehabilitation. Trunk and U/E strength and seated reaching capability with unilateral hand support were also measured. Bivariate correlation and multiple linear regression analyses allowed determining the best determinants and predictors, respectively. Results. The performance at the three tests was moderately or strongly correlated with anterior and lateral flexion trunk strength, anterior seated reaching distance, and the shoulder, elbow, and handgrip strength measures. Shoulder adductor strength-weakest side explained 53% of the variance on the 20-meter propulsion test-maximum velocity. Shoulder adductor strength-strongest side and forward seated reaching distance explained 71% of the variance on the slalom test. Handgrip strength explained 52% of the variance on the 6-minute propulsion test. Conclusion. Performance at the manual wheelchair propulsion tests is explained by a combination of factors that should be considered in rehabilitation.

  16. Effects of Seated Postural Stability and Trunk and Upper Extremity Strength on Performance during Manual Wheelchair Propulsion Tests in Individuals with Spinal Cord Injury: An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Audrey; Gabison, Sharon; Verrier, Molly C.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To quantify the association between performance-based manual wheelchair propulsion tests (20 m propulsion test, slalom test, and 6 min propulsion test), trunk and upper extremity (U/E) strength, and seated reaching capability and to establish which ones of these variables best predict performance at these tests. Methods. 15 individuals with a spinal cord injury (SCI) performed the three wheelchair propulsion tests prior to discharge from inpatient SCI rehabilitation. Trunk and U/E strength and seated reaching capability with unilateral hand support were also measured. Bivariate correlation and multiple linear regression analyses allowed determining the best determinants and predictors, respectively. Results. The performance at the three tests was moderately or strongly correlated with anterior and lateral flexion trunk strength, anterior seated reaching distance, and the shoulder, elbow, and handgrip strength measures. Shoulder adductor strength-weakest side explained 53% of the variance on the 20-meter propulsion test-maximum velocity. Shoulder adductor strength-strongest side and forward seated reaching distance explained 71% of the variance on the slalom test. Handgrip strength explained 52% of the variance on the 6-minute propulsion test. Conclusion. Performance at the manual wheelchair propulsion tests is explained by a combination of factors that should be considered in rehabilitation. PMID:27635262

  17. The Long-term Risk of Upper-extremity Lymphedema is Two-fold Higher in Breast Cancer Patients than in Melanoma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Voss, Rachel K.; Cromwell, Kate D.; Chiang, Yi-Ju; Armer, Jane M.; Ross, Merrick I.; Lee, Jeffrey E.; Gershenwald, Jeffrey E.; Stewart, Bob R.; Shaitelman, Simona F.; Cormier, Janice N.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives We assessed the cumulative incidence, symptoms, and risk factors for upper-extremity lymphedema in breast cancer and melanoma patients undergoing sentinel lymph node biopsy or axillary lymph node dissection. Methods Patients were recruited preoperatively (time 0) and assessed at 6, 12, and 18 months postoperatively. Limb volume change (LVC) was measured by perometry. Lymphedema was categorized as none, mild (LVC 5–9.9%), or moderate/severe (LVC≥10%). Symptoms were assessed with a validated lymphedema instrument. Longitudinal logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify risk factors associated with moderate/severe lymphedema. Results Among 205 breast cancer and 144 melanoma patients, the cumulative incidence of moderate/severe lymphedema at 18 months was 36.5% and 35.0, respectively. However, in adjusted analyses, factors associated with moderate/severe lymphedema were breast cancer (OR 2.0, p=0.03), body mass index ≥30 kg/m2 (OR 1.6, p=0.04), greater number of lymph nodes removed (OR 1.05, p<0.01), and longer interval since surgery (OR 2.33 at 18 months, p<0.01). Conclusions: Lymphedema incidence increased over time in both cohorts. However, the adjusted risk of moderate/severe lymphedema was two-fold higher in breast cancer patients. These results may be attributed to surgical treatment of the primary tumor in the breast and more frequent use of radiation. PMID:26477877

  18. Effects of Seated Postural Stability and Trunk and Upper Extremity Strength on Performance during Manual Wheelchair Propulsion Tests in Individuals with Spinal Cord Injury: An Exploratory Study.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, Dany H; Roy, Audrey; Gabison, Sharon; Duclos, Cyril; Verrier, Molly C; Nadeau, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To quantify the association between performance-based manual wheelchair propulsion tests (20 m propulsion test, slalom test, and 6 min propulsion test), trunk and upper extremity (U/E) strength, and seated reaching capability and to establish which ones of these variables best predict performance at these tests. Methods. 15 individuals with a spinal cord injury (SCI) performed the three wheelchair propulsion tests prior to discharge from inpatient SCI rehabilitation. Trunk and U/E strength and seated reaching capability with unilateral hand support were also measured. Bivariate correlation and multiple linear regression analyses allowed determining the best determinants and predictors, respectively. Results. The performance at the three tests was moderately or strongly correlated with anterior and lateral flexion trunk strength, anterior seated reaching distance, and the shoulder, elbow, and handgrip strength measures. Shoulder adductor strength-weakest side explained 53% of the variance on the 20-meter propulsion test-maximum velocity. Shoulder adductor strength-strongest side and forward seated reaching distance explained 71% of the variance on the slalom test. Handgrip strength explained 52% of the variance on the 6-minute propulsion test. Conclusion. Performance at the manual wheelchair propulsion tests is explained by a combination of factors that should be considered in rehabilitation. PMID:27635262

  19. Early Electrodiagnostic Features of Upper Extremity Sensory Nerves Can Differentiate Axonal Guillain-Barré Syndrome from Acute Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Yong Seo; Shin, Ha Young; Kim, Jong Kuk; Nam, Tai-Seung; Shin, Kyong Jin; Bae, Jong-Seok; Suh, Bum Chun; Oh, Jeeyoung; Yoon, Byeol-A

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Serial nerve conduction studies (NCSs) are recommended for differentiating axonal and demyelinating Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), but this approach is not suitable for early diagnoses. This study was designed to identify possible NCS parameters for differentiating GBS subtypes. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 70 patients with GBS who underwent NCS within 10 days of symptom onset. Patients with axonal GBS and acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP) were selected based on clinical characteristics and serial NCSs. An antiganglioside antibody study was used to increase the diagnostic certainty. Results The amplitudes of median and ulnar nerve sensory nerve action potentials (SNAPs) were significantly smaller in the AIDP group than in the axonal-GBS group. Classification and regression-tree analysis revealed that the distal ulnar sensory nerve SNAP amplitude was the best predictor of axonal GBS. Conclusions Early upper extremity sensory NCS findings are helpful in differentiating axonal-GBS patients with antiganglioside antibodies from AIDP patients.

  20. Effects of modified constraint-induced movement therapy and functional bimanual training on upper extremity function and daily activities in a patient with incomplete spinal cord injury: a case study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeon-Ju; Kim, Jin-Kyung; Park, So-Yeon

    2015-12-01

    [Purpose] In this study, we examined effects of modified constraint-induced movement therapy (m-CIMT) and functional bimanual training, when applied to a patient with incomplete spinal cord injury, on upper extremity function and daily activities. [Subject and Methods] One patient, diagnosed with C4 incomplete spinal cord injury, underwent physical therapy with constraint-induced movement therapy for 3 hours and task-oriented bimanual training for 1 hour, per day. This combined 4-hour session was performed five times a week, for 3 weeks, totaling 15 sessions. Upper extremity function was measured using the Manual Function Test (MFT) and Box & Block Test (BBT). Additionally, Spinal Cord Independence Measure Version III (SCIM-III) and Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36) were used to assess functional outcomes. [Results] Mobility of the hand and overall function of upper extremities were enhanced following intervention. Moreover, the subject's quality of life and ability to carry out daily activities also improved. [Conclusion] Modified constraint-induced movement therapy and bimanual training was effective in enhancing upper extremity function and performance of daily routines in a patient with incomplete spinal cord injury. Further studies, recruiting multiple subjects, should focus on m-CIMT using diverse methods, performed during the course of daily activities. PMID:26834387

  1. Effects of modified constraint-induced movement therapy and functional bimanual training on upper extremity function and daily activities in a patient with incomplete spinal cord injury: a case study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeon-Ju; Kim, Jin-Kyung; Park, So-Yeon

    2015-12-01

    [Purpose] In this study, we examined effects of modified constraint-induced movement therapy (m-CIMT) and functional bimanual training, when applied to a patient with incomplete spinal cord injury, on upper extremity function and daily activities. [Subject and Methods] One patient, diagnosed with C4 incomplete spinal cord injury, underwent physical therapy with constraint-induced movement therapy for 3 hours and task-oriented bimanual training for 1 hour, per day. This combined 4-hour session was performed five times a week, for 3 weeks, totaling 15 sessions. Upper extremity function was measured using the Manual Function Test (MFT) and Box & Block Test (BBT). Additionally, Spinal Cord Independence Measure Version III (SCIM-III) and Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36) were used to assess functional outcomes. [Results] Mobility of the hand and overall function of upper extremities were enhanced following intervention. Moreover, the subject's quality of life and ability to carry out daily activities also improved. [Conclusion] Modified constraint-induced movement therapy and bimanual training was effective in enhancing upper extremity function and performance of daily routines in a patient with incomplete spinal cord injury. Further studies, recruiting multiple subjects, should focus on m-CIMT using diverse methods, performed during the course of daily activities.

  2. Effects of modified constraint-induced movement therapy and functional bimanual training on upper extremity function and daily activities in a patient with incomplete spinal cord injury: a case study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yeon-Ju; Kim, Jin-Kyung; Park, So-Yeon

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] In this study, we examined effects of modified constraint-induced movement therapy (m-CIMT) and functional bimanual training, when applied to a patient with incomplete spinal cord injury, on upper extremity function and daily activities. [Subject and Methods] One patient, diagnosed with C4 incomplete spinal cord injury, underwent physical therapy with constraint-induced movement therapy for 3 hours and task-oriented bimanual training for 1 hour, per day. This combined 4-hour session was performed five times a week, for 3 weeks, totaling 15 sessions. Upper extremity function was measured using the Manual Function Test (MFT) and Box & Block Test (BBT). Additionally, Spinal Cord Independence Measure Version III (SCIM-III) and Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36) were used to assess functional outcomes. [Results] Mobility of the hand and overall function of upper extremities were enhanced following intervention. Moreover, the subject’s quality of life and ability to carry out daily activities also improved. [Conclusion] Modified constraint-induced movement therapy and bimanual training was effective in enhancing upper extremity function and performance of daily routines in a patient with incomplete spinal cord injury. Further studies, recruiting multiple subjects, should focus on m-CIMT using diverse methods, performed during the course of daily activities. PMID:26834387

  3. Landscape changes as a factor affecting the course and consequences of extreme floods in the Otava river basin, Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Langhammer, Jakub; Vilímek, Vít

    2008-09-01

    The paper presents the analysis of anthropogenical modifications of the landscape in relation to the course and consequences of floods. The research was conducted in the Otava river basin which represents the core zone of the extreme flood in August 2002 in Central Europe. The analysis was focused on the key indicators of landscape modification potentially affecting the runoff process - the long-term changes of land-use, changes of land cover structure, land drainage, historical shortening of the river network and the modifications of streams and floodplains. The information on intensity and spatial distribution of modifications was derived from different data sources--historical maps, available GIS data, remote sensing and field mapping. The results revealed a high level of spatial diversity of anthropogenical modifications in different parts of the river basin. The intensive modifications in most of indicators were concentrated in the lowland region of the river basin due to its agricultural use; however important changes were also recorded in the headwater region of the basin. The high spatial diversity of the modifications may result in their varying effect on the course and consequences of floods in different parts of the river basin. This effect is demonstrated by the cluster analysis based on the matrix of indicators of stream and floodplain modification, physiogeographical characteristics and geomorphological evidences of the flood in August 2002, derived from the individual thematic layers using GIS.

  4. A retrospective look at students enrolled in an upper-level horse science class: factors that affect classroom performance.

    PubMed

    Douthit, T L; Bormann, J M; Kouba, J M

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study was to retrospectively analyze demographic variables and academic preparation of students to determine how these factors relate to student performance in ASI 521 Horse Science, an upper-level course offered in the Department of Animal Sciences and Industry (ASI) at Kansas State University (KSU). Data were collected for 264 students enrolled in the course from 2008 to 2010. Students who took the course in 2008 received greater final percentages than those who took the course in subsequent years (P = 0.0016). Females tended to receive greater percentages than males (P = 0.096). Location of origin of students did not affect percentages earned (P > 0.26). Although class standing (P = 0.35) did not affect the final percentages that students earned, transfer students received lesser final percentages in the course (P = 0.020). If students were majoring in ASI, they fared better than those in other majors (P = 0.0097), but pre-veterinary medicine students performed similarly to non-pre-veterinary students (P = 0.49). Enrollment in the equine certificate program (which requires students to complete 20 credit hours of equine coursework) did not affect percentages earned (P = 0.89) nor did completion of any individual equine class before enrolling in ASI 521 (P > 0.19). Test scores earned on the American College Testing Program standardized test during high school were not reflective of classroom performance (P = 0.51), but KSU grade point average (GPA) was highly predictive (P < 0.0001), regardless of the term for which GPA was calculated. Students in the course took an identical comprehensive test at the beginning and end of the semester, and those test scores were also predictive of final percentage earned in ASI 521 (P ≤ 0.0002). In general, students with greater GPA performed better in ASI 521, so strategies aimed at improving classroom performance may best be targeted toward students with histories of poor academic performance. PMID

  5. Using an extended 2D hydrodynamic model for evaluating damage risk caused by extreme rain events: Flash-Flood-Risk-Map (FFRM) Upper Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humer, Günter; Reithofer, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Using an extended 2D hydrodynamic model for evaluating damage risk caused by extreme rain events: Flash-Flood-Risk-Map (FFRM) Upper Austria Considering the increase in flash flood events causing massive damage during the last years in urban but also rural areas [1-4], the requirement for hydrodynamic calculation of flash flood prone areas and possible countermeasures has arisen to many municipalities and local governments. Besides the German based URBAS project [1], also the EU-funded FP7 research project "SWITCH-ON" [5] addresses the damage risk caused by flash floods in the sub-project "FFRM" (Flash Flood Risk Map Upper Austria) by calculating damage risk for buildings and vulnerable infrastructure like schools and hospitals caused by flash-flood driven inundation. While danger zones in riverine flooding are established as an integral part of spatial planning, flash floods caused by overland runoff from extreme rain events have been for long an underrated safety hazard not only for buildings and infrastructure, but man and animals as well. Based on the widespread 2D-model "hydro_as-2D", an extension was developed, which calculates the runoff formation from a spatially and temporally variable precipitation and determines two dimensionally the land surface area runoff and its concentration. The conception of the model is to preprocess the precipitation data and calculate the effective runoff-volume for a short time step of e.g. five minutes. This volume is applied to the nodes of the 2D-model and the calculation of the hydrodynamic model is started. At the end of each time step, the model run is stopped, the preprocessing step is repeated and the hydraulic model calculation is continued. In view of the later use for the whole of Upper Austria (12.000 km²) a model grid of 25x25 m² was established using digital elevation data. Model parameters could be estimated for the small catchment of river Ach, which was hit by an intense rain event with up to 109 mm per hour

  6. Using an extended 2D hydrodynamic model for evaluating damage risk caused by extreme rain events: Flash-Flood-Risk-Map (FFRM) Upper Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humer, Günter; Reithofer, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Using an extended 2D hydrodynamic model for evaluating damage risk caused by extreme rain events: Flash-Flood-Risk-Map (FFRM) Upper Austria Considering the increase in flash flood events causing massive damage during the last years in urban but also rural areas [1-4], the requirement for hydrodynamic calculation of flash flood prone areas and possible countermeasures has arisen to many municipalities and local governments. Besides the German based URBAS project [1], also the EU-funded FP7 research project "SWITCH-ON" [5] addresses the damage risk caused by flash floods in the sub-project "FFRM" (Flash Flood Risk Map Upper Austria) by calculating damage risk for buildings and vulnerable infrastructure like schools and hospitals caused by flash-flood driven inundation. While danger zones in riverine flooding are established as an integral part of spatial planning, flash floods caused by overland runoff from extreme rain events have been for long an underrated safety hazard not only for buildings and infrastructure, but man and animals as well. Based on the widespread 2D-model "hydro_as-2D", an extension was developed, which calculates the runoff formation from a spatially and temporally variable precipitation and determines two dimensionally the land surface area runoff and its concentration. The conception of the model is to preprocess the precipitation data and calculate the effective runoff-volume for a short time step of e.g. five minutes. This volume is applied to the nodes of the 2D-model and the calculation of the hydrodynamic model is started. At the end of each time step, the model run is stopped, the preprocessing step is repeated and the hydraulic model calculation is continued. In view of the later use for the whole of Upper Austria (12.000 km²) a model grid of 25x25 m² was established using digital elevation data. Model parameters could be estimated for the small catchment of river Ach, which was hit by an intense rain event with up to 109 mm per hour

  7. Reduction of pain-related fear and increased function and participation in work-related upper extremity pain (WRUEP): effects of exposure in vivo.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Jeroen R; Vlaeyen, Johan W S; van Eijsden, Marjon; Loo, Christoph; Onghena, Patrick

    2012-10-01

    There is increasing evidence that pain-related fear influences the development and maintenance of pain disability, presumably mediated through the fear-related avoidance of valued activities. Individually tailored graded exposure in vivo (GEXP) has been demonstrated to reduce pain-related fear and increase functional abilities in patients with chronic low back pain, neck pain, and complex regional pain syndrome. The current study aimed to test whether these effects generalize towards patients with work-related upper extremity pain. A sequential replicated and randomized single-case experimental phase design with multiple measurements was used. Within each participant, GEXP was compared to a no-treatment baseline period and a no-treatment 6-month follow-up period. Eight patients who reported a high level of pain-related fear were included in the study. Daily changes in pain catastrophizing, pain-related fear, and pain intensity were assessed using a diary, and subjected to randomization tests. Before the start of the baseline period, just after GEXP, and at 6-month follow-up, clinically relevant changes of pain catastrophizing, pain-related fear, perceived harmfulness of physical activity, pain disability, and participation/autonomy were verified. When GEXP was introduced, levels of pain catastrophizing and pain-related fear decreased significantly. Clinically relevant improvements were observed for pain disability, perceived participation, and autonomy. These favourable changes were maintained until 6-month follow-up. The findings of the current study underscore the external validity of a cognitive-behavioural GEXP treatment for patients with chronic pain reporting increased pain-related fear.

  8. Upper extremity kinematics and kinetics during the performance of a stationary wheelie in manual wheelchair users with a spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Lalumiere, Mathieu; Gagnon, Dany H; Routhier, François; Bouyer, Laurent; Desroches, Guillaume

    2014-08-01

    No comprehensive biomechanical study has documented upper extremity (U/E) kinematics and kinetics during the performance of wheelchair wheelies among manual wheelchair users (MWUs). The aim of this study was to describe movement strategies (kinematics), mechanical loads (kinetics), and power at the nondominant U/E joints during a wheelie among MWUs with spinal cord injury (SCI). During a laboratory assessment, 16 MWUs with SCI completed four wheelie trials on a rigid surface. Each participant's wheelchair was equipped with instrumented wheels to record handrim kinetics, while U/E and wheelchair kinematics were recorded with a 3D motion analysis system. The greatest mean and peak total net joint moments were generated by the shoulder flexors (mean = 7.2 ± 3.5 N·m; peak = 20.7 ± 12.9 N·m) and internal rotators (mean = 3.8 ± 2.2 N·m; peak = 11.4 ± 10.9 N·m) as well as by the elbow flexors (mean = 5.5 ± 2.5 N·m; peak = 14.1 ± 7.6 N·m) during the performance of wheelies. Shoulder flexor and internal rotator efforts predominantly generate the effort needed to lift the front wheels of the wheelchair, whereas the elbow flexor muscles control these shoulder efforts to reach a state of balance. In combination with a task-specific training program that remains essential to properly learn how to control wheelies among MWUs with SCI, rehabilitation professionals should also propose a shoulder flexor, internal rotator, and elbow flexor strengthening program.

  9. Exposure-dependent increases in IL-1beta, substance P, CTGF, and tendinosis in flexor digitorum tendons with upper extremity repetitive strain injury.

    PubMed

    Fedorczyk, Jane M; Barr, Ann E; Rani, Shobha; Gao, Helen G; Amin, Mamta; Amin, Shreya; Litvin, Judith; Barbe, Mary F

    2010-03-01

    Upper extremity tendinopathies are associated with performance of forceful repetitive tasks. We used our rat model of repetitive strain injury to study changes induced in forelimb flexor digitorum tendons. Rats were trained to perform a high repetition high force (HRHF) handle-pulling task (12 reaches/min at 60 +/- 5% maximum pulling force [MPF]), or a low repetition negligible force (LRNF) reaching and food retrieval task (three reaches/min at 5 +/- 5% MPF), for 2 h/day in 30 min sessions, 3 days/week for 3-12 weeks. Forelimb grip strength was tested. Flexor digitorum tendons were examined at midtendon at the level of the carpal tunnel for interleukin (IL)-1beta, neutrophil, and macrophage influx, Substance P, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), and periostin-like factor (PLF) immunoexpression, and histopathological changes. In HRHF rats, grip strength progressively decreased, while IL-1beta levels progressively increased in the flexor digitorum peritendon (para- and epitendon combined) and endotendon with task performance. Macrophage invasion was evident in week 6 and 12 HRHF peritendon but not endotendon. Also in HRHF rats, Substance P immunoexpression increased in week 12 peritendon as did CTGF- and PLF-immunopositive fibroblasts, the increased fibroblasts contributing greatly to peritendon thickening. Endotendon collagen disorganization was evident in week 12 HRHF tendons. LRNF tendons did not differ from controls, even at 12 weeks. Thus, we observed exposure-dependent changes in flexor digitorum tendons within the carpal tunnel, including increased inflammation, nociceptor-related neuropeptide immunoexpression, and fibrotic histopathology, changes associated with grip strength decline.

  10. A Physically Based Surface/ Subsurface Flow Model to Assess the Impacts of Climate Change Extremes on the Hydrology of an Upper Midwest U.S. Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acar, O.; Franz, K.; Simpkins, W. W.

    2014-12-01

    Climate change is already affecting the Midwest U.S. Occurrence and intensity of extreme events such as heat waves, droughts and floods are expected to increase in the next few decades. It is the climate extremes, not averages, that have the greater impact on crop and livestock productivity which are vital for the State's economy. Accordingly, potential changes in the hydrologic cycle under prospective climate conditions need to be addressed at the watershed scale for the Midwestern agricultural region to develop better management and adaptation solutions. For this purpose, the 3-D finite element model, HydroGeoSphere has been applied to and calibrated for a representative watershed in north-central Iowa, Tipton Creek watershed. The conceptual model for the watershed consists of all the elements of the hydrologic cycle from the ground surface through the Quaternary aquitard and into the underlying Mississippian limestone aquifer. Extreme wet and dry conditions derived from statistically downscaled climate model scenarios have been used as input to the basin model to simulate the impacts on streamflow and groundwater flow. The model accomplishes integrated hydrologic analysis by the coupled solution of the diffusion wave equation governing 2-D (areal) surface water flow and the Richards' equation governing 3-D unsaturated/ saturated subsurface flow. Thus, actual evapotranspiration is calculated internally as a function of the soil moisture at each node of the defined evaporative zone at each time step and interdependent processes like recharge that are critical for climate change can be handled more accurately. Preliminary results for HadCM3 scenario combined with two SRES projections, A2 and A1fi predict more remarkable increases in stream levels in response to wet periods than the decreases in flows for dry periods in comparison to control (contemporary) period simulations. The impacts on the water table levels seem to be more prominent, in the range of ±4 m for

  11. The Efficacy of Intraoperative Neurophysiological Monitoring Using Transcranial Electrically Stimulated Muscle-evoked Potentials (TcE-MsEPs) for Predicting Postoperative Segmental Upper Extremity Motor Paresis After Cervical Laminoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Manabe, Hideki; Izumi, Bunichiro; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Kawai, Kazumi; Tanaka, Nobuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Study Design: Prospective study. Objective: To investigate the efficacy of transcranial electrically stimulated muscle-evoked potentials (TcE-MsEPs) for predicting postoperative segmental upper extremity palsy following cervical laminoplasty. Summary of Background Data: Postoperative segmental upper extremity palsy, especially in the deltoid and biceps (so-called C5 palsy), is the most common complication following cervical laminoplasty. Some papers have reported that postoperative C5 palsy cannot be predicted by TcE-MsEPs, although others have reported that it can be predicted. Methods: This study included 160 consecutive cases that underwent open-door laminoplasty, and TcE-MsEP monitoring was performed in the biceps brachii, triceps brachii, abductor digiti minimi, tibialis anterior, and abductor hallucis. A >50% decrease in the wave amplitude was defined as an alarm point. According to the monitoring alarm, interventions were performed, which include steroid administration, foraminotomies, etc. Results: Postoperative deltoid and biceps palsy occurred in 5 cases. Among the 155 cases without segmental upper extremity palsy, there were no monitoring alarms. Among the 5 deltoid and biceps palsy cases, 3 had significant wave amplitude decreases in the biceps during surgery, and palsy occurred when the patients awoke from anesthesia (acute type). In the other 2 cases in which the palsy occurred 2 days after the operation (delayed type), there were no significant wave decreases. In all of the cases, the palsy was completely resolved within 6 months. Discussion: The majority of C5 palsies have been reported to occur several days after surgery, but some of them have been reported to occur immediately after surgery. Our results demonstrated that TcE-MsEPs can predict the acute type, whereas the delayed type cannot be predicted. Conclusions: A >50% wave amplitude decrease in the biceps is useful to predict acute-type segmental upper extremity palsy. Further examination

  12. Estimating upper bounds for occupancy and number of manatees in areas potentially affected by oil from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    PubMed

    Martin, Julien; Edwards, Holly H; Bled, Florent; Fonnesbeck, Christopher J; Dupuis, Jérôme A; Gardner, Beth; Koslovsky, Stacie M; Aven, Allen M; Ward-Geiger, Leslie I; Carmichael, Ruth H; Fagan, Daniel E; Ross, Monica A; Reinert, Thomas R

    2014-01-01

    The explosion of the Deepwater Horizon drilling platform created the largest marine oil spill in U.S. history. As part of the Natural Resource Damage Assessment process, we applied an innovative modeling approach to obtain upper estimates for occupancy and for number of manatees in areas potentially affected by the oil spill. Our data consisted of aerial survey counts in waters of the Florida Panhandle, Alabama and Mississippi. Our method, which uses a Bayesian approach, allows for the propagation of uncertainty associated with estimates from empirical data and from the published literature. We illustrate that it is possible to derive estimates of occupancy rate and upper estimates of the number of manatees present at the time of sampling, even when no manatees were observed in our sampled plots during surveys. We estimated that fewer than 2.4% of potentially affected manatee habitat in our Florida study area may have been occupied by manatees. The upper estimate for the number of manatees present in potentially impacted areas (within our study area) was estimated with our model to be 74 (95%CI 46 to 107). This upper estimate for the number of manatees was conditioned on the upper 95%CI value of the occupancy rate. In other words, based on our estimates, it is highly probable that there were 107 or fewer manatees in our study area during the time of our surveys. Because our analyses apply to habitats considered likely manatee habitats, our inference is restricted to these sites and to the time frame of our surveys. Given that manatees may be hard to see during aerial surveys, it was important to account for imperfect detection. The approach that we described can be useful for determining the best allocation of resources for monitoring and conservation.

  13. Estimating upper bounds for occupancy and number of manatees in areas potentially affected by oil from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    PubMed

    Martin, Julien; Edwards, Holly H; Bled, Florent; Fonnesbeck, Christopher J; Dupuis, Jérôme A; Gardner, Beth; Koslovsky, Stacie M; Aven, Allen M; Ward-Geiger, Leslie I; Carmichael, Ruth H; Fagan, Daniel E; Ross, Monica A; Reinert, Thomas R

    2014-01-01

    The explosion of the Deepwater Horizon drilling platform created the largest marine oil spill in U.S. history. As part of the Natural Resource Damage Assessment process, we applied an innovative modeling approach to obtain upper estimates for occupancy and for number of manatees in areas potentially affected by the oil spill. Our data consisted of aerial survey counts in waters of the Florida Panhandle, Alabama and Mississippi. Our method, which uses a Bayesian approach, allows for the propagation of uncertainty associated with estimates from empirical data and from the published literature. We illustrate that it is possible to derive estimates of occupancy rate and upper estimates of the number of manatees present at the time of sampling, even when no manatees were observed in our sampled plots during surveys. We estimated that fewer than 2.4% of potentially affected manatee habitat in our Florida study area may have been occupied by manatees. The upper estimate for the number of manatees present in potentially impacted areas (within our study area) was estimated with our model to be 74 (95%CI 46 to 107). This upper estimate for the number of manatees was conditioned on the upper 95%CI value of the occupancy rate. In other words, based on our estimates, it is highly probable that there were 107 or fewer manatees in our study area during the time of our surveys. Because our analyses apply to habitats considered likely manatee habitats, our inference is restricted to these sites and to the time frame of our surveys. Given that manatees may be hard to see during aerial surveys, it was important to account for imperfect detection. The approach that we described can be useful for determining the best allocation of resources for monitoring and conservation. PMID:24670971

  14. Estimating Upper Bounds for Occupancy and Number of Manatees in Areas Potentially Affected by Oil from the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Julien; Edwards, Holly H.; Bled, Florent; Fonnesbeck, Christopher J.; Dupuis, Jérôme A.; Gardner, Beth; Koslovsky, Stacie M.; Aven, Allen M.; Ward-Geiger, Leslie I.; Carmichael, Ruth H.; Fagan, Daniel E.; Ross, Monica A.; Reinert, Thomas R.

    2014-01-01

    The explosion of the Deepwater Horizon drilling platform created the largest marine oil spill in U.S. history. As part of the Natural Resource Damage Assessment process, we applied an innovative modeling approach to obtain upper estimates for occupancy and for number of manatees in areas potentially affected by the oil spill. Our data consisted of aerial survey counts in waters of the Florida Panhandle, Alabama and Mississippi. Our method, which uses a Bayesian approach, allows for the propagation of uncertainty associated with estimates from empirical data and from the published literature. We illustrate that it is possible to derive estimates of occupancy rate and upper estimates of the number of manatees present at the time of sampling, even when no manatees were observed in our sampled plots during surveys. We estimated that fewer than 2.4% of potentially affected manatee habitat in our Florida study area may have been occupied by manatees. The upper estimate for the number of manatees present in potentially impacted areas (within our study area) was estimated with our model to be 74 (95%CI 46 to 107). This upper estimate for the number of manatees was conditioned on the upper 95%CI value of the occupancy rate. In other words, based on our estimates, it is highly probable that there were 107 or fewer manatees in our study area during the time of our surveys. Because our analyses apply to habitats considered likely manatee habitats, our inference is restricted to these sites and to the time frame of our surveys. Given that manatees may be hard to see during aerial surveys, it was important to account for imperfect detection. The approach that we described can be useful for determining the best allocation of resources for monitoring and conservation. PMID:24670971

  15. A Monte Carlo study of photochemical model uncertainties affecting the calculation of subsonic perturbations in the upper troposphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Stewart, Richard W.

    1994-01-01

    Monte Carlo methods are frequently applied to the evaluation of uncertainties in models with multiple inputs that themselves have associated imprecisions. In the case of photochemical models used to evaluate changes in O3 or OH, inputs analyzed include rate coefficients measured in the laboratory, and chemical and physical constituents measured in the atmosphere. The Monte Carlo method was used with the 1-dimensional GSFC tropospheric photochemical model to examine uncertainty propagation to calculation of NO(x) and the major oxidants (O3, OH) in the upper troposphere. In all cases chemical kinetics inputs are varied and the NO(x) perturbation of a subsonic fleet is simulated. A series of model runs is used to explore sensitivities of model-computed parameters to other parameters: heterogeneous processes, the uncertainty in upper tropospheric H2O vapor measurements, aircraft emissions at different latitudes.

  16. Simultaneous toe-to-hand transfer and lower extremity amputations for severe upper and lower limb defects: the use of spare parts.

    PubMed

    Chang, J; Jones, N F

    2002-06-01

    From 1995 to 2000, five microvascular toe-to-hand transfers were performed in three children who were simultaneously undergoing lower extremity amputations. Their ages at time of transfer ranged from 4 to 10 years and the types of lower extremity amputation included toe amputation, foot amputation and through-knee amputation. The resulting toe-to-hand transfers included three great toe-to-thumb transfers and one combined great and second toe-to-hand transfer. The toe-to-hand transfers were all successful and all the lower extremity amputations healed without complications. In all cases, improved hand function and lower extremity function was noted by the families. These unique cases represent the ultimate use of spare parts in congenital hand surgery.

  17. Precipitation and temperature variations affecting glacierised Himalayan headwaters and water resources in the upper Indus and Sutlej basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, D. N.; Eaton, D.; Entwistle, N. S.

    2013-12-01

    Both the main stem upper Indus and Sutlej rivers feed major reservoirs for hydropower plants and supply water for irrigated agriculture in the Punjab plains. Flows in both rivers have shown significant decreases since the mid-20th century. Monsoon precipitation, which dominates flow in lower Himalayan section of the Sutlej as the upper basin on the Tibetan plateau is fairly dry, has declined by about 30% since the 1950s maximum. Air temperatures decreased from the 1960s to 1980s before recovering in the early 2000s to previous levels. Any enhanced glacier melt in the late twentieth century failed to offset declining precipitation and river flow continued to fall. In the upper Indus basin, precipitation derived in winter from the westerlies was enhanced but temperatures remained flat at stations in valleys at which measurements were undertaken. Runoff from tributary basins of the Indus, which have variable percentages of ice-cover, appears to be subdued as precipitation gently increased. Temperature was more stable than in mountain basins farther east. Valley bottoms in the Karakoram are arid, so that precipitation on glaciers reduces flow but there is little seasonal slow to melt to contribute to runoff in the ice-free areas. Changes in glacierised area seem to have limited impact on flow in these two significant rivers. Precipitation in Himalayan sub-catchments dominates flow, but has contrasting effects on runoff downstream. Temporal variations in both winter and summer precipitation along the Himalayan arc therefore have strong influences on the sustainability of water resources in the adjacent plains.

  18. Comparison of the effects of remote after-effects of static contractions for different upper-extremity positions and pinch-force strengths in patients with restricted wrist flexion range of motion.

    PubMed

    Arai, Mitsuo; Shiratani, Tomoko

    2015-10-01

    The objective of the study was to examine the after-effects of static contractions of upper extremity muscles in different shoulder joint positions and at different pinch-force strengths on the maximal active range of motion (MAROM) and wrist agonist/antagonist IEMG activities for patients with restricted wrist flexion range of motion (ROM) due to upper limb pain and dysfunction. The subjects were 10 outpatients (3 males, 7 females) with restricted wrist joints. These subjects performed four static contractions of upper extremity muscles in neutral and diagonal shoulder joint positions and with weak and strong pinch-force strengths in random order. Two-way repeated measures analysis of variance showed that the change in MAROM was significantly larger (P < 0.05) after diagonal-strong static contractions than after neutral-weak static contractions. There were no significant correlations between changes in MAROM and IEMG activities. These results indicate that shoulder joint position and pinch-force strength should be considered for effective induction of remote after-effects of static contractions for increasing MAROM for restricted wrist flexion ROM.

  19. Dyadic co-regulation, affective intensity and infant's development at 12 months: A comparison among extremely preterm and full-term dyads.

    PubMed

    Sansavini, Alessandra; Zavagli, Veronica; Guarini, Annalisa; Savini, Silvia; Alessandroni, Rosina; Faldella, Giacomo

    2015-08-01

    Extremely low gestational age children (ELGA, born below 28 weeks of GA) represent the most at-risk preterm group in terms of survival, developmental sequelae and rates of impairment and cognitive delays. However, the impact of an extremely preterm birth on mother-infant co-regulation and affective intensity which may affect early infant's development has not been investigated. Based on a relational dynamic system approach, our study aimed to investigate the quality of co-regulation and affective intensity during spontaneous play interaction in 20 mother-infant ELGA dyads compared to 20 full-term (FT) dyads at 12 months (corrected age for ELGA infants). Relationships between the quality of dyadic co-regulation and the infant's level of cognitive, motor and language development were also investigated. The quality of dyadic co-regulation was assessed using the Revised Relational Coding System (R-RCS) by Fogel et al. (2003), the mothers' and infants' affective intensity was coded using a coding system by Lunkenheimer, Olson, Hollenstein, Sameroff, and Winter (2011). Infants' development was assessed using the Bayley Scales (BSID-III, 2006). With respect to FT dyads, ELGA dyads were characterised by less frequent symmetric and more frequent unilateral co-regulation patterns and by less positive and more neutral affective intensity of both infants and mothers. Cognitive, motor and language scores were lower in ELGA infants than in FT infants. Symmetrical co-regulation was related to motor scores in ELGA infants, and to cognitive scores in FT infants. Our findings contribute to the literature by demonstrating the difficulties of ELGA mother-infant dyads at 12 months in sharing the symmetric co-regulation and positive affective intensity and how symmetric co-regulation is strictly related to motor development in ELGA infants. Based on these findings, intervention programmes to foster joint attention, active involvement and positive affective intensity in ELGA dyads and

  20. Dyadic co-regulation, affective intensity and infant's development at 12 months: A comparison among extremely preterm and full-term dyads.

    PubMed

    Sansavini, Alessandra; Zavagli, Veronica; Guarini, Annalisa; Savini, Silvia; Alessandroni, Rosina; Faldella, Giacomo

    2015-08-01

    Extremely low gestational age children (ELGA, born below 28 weeks of GA) represent the most at-risk preterm group in terms of survival, developmental sequelae and rates of impairment and cognitive delays. However, the impact of an extremely preterm birth on mother-infant co-regulation and affective intensity which may affect early infant's development has not been investigated. Based on a relational dynamic system approach, our study aimed to investigate the quality of co-regulation and affective intensity during spontaneous play interaction in 20 mother-infant ELGA dyads compared to 20 full-term (FT) dyads at 12 months (corrected age for ELGA infants). Relationships between the quality of dyadic co-regulation and the infant's level of cognitive, motor and language development were also investigated. The quality of dyadic co-regulation was assessed using the Revised Relational Coding System (R-RCS) by Fogel et al. (2003), the mothers' and infants' affective intensity was coded using a coding system by Lunkenheimer, Olson, Hollenstein, Sameroff, and Winter (2011). Infants' development was assessed using the Bayley Scales (BSID-III, 2006). With respect to FT dyads, ELGA dyads were characterised by less frequent symmetric and more frequent unilateral co-regulation patterns and by less positive and more neutral affective intensity of both infants and mothers. Cognitive, motor and language scores were lower in ELGA infants than in FT infants. Symmetrical co-regulation was related to motor scores in ELGA infants, and to cognitive scores in FT infants. Our findings contribute to the literature by demonstrating the difficulties of ELGA mother-infant dyads at 12 months in sharing the symmetric co-regulation and positive affective intensity and how symmetric co-regulation is strictly related to motor development in ELGA infants. Based on these findings, intervention programmes to foster joint attention, active involvement and positive affective intensity in ELGA dyads and

  1. Genome-wide association study using extreme truncate selection identifies novel genes affecting bone mineral density and fracture risk.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Emma L; Danoy, Patrick; Kemp, John P; Leo, Paul J; McCloskey, Eugene; Nicholson, Geoffrey C; Eastell, Richard; Prince, Richard L; Eisman, John A; Jones, Graeme; Sambrook, Philip N; Reid, Ian R; Dennison, Elaine M; Wark, John; Richards, J Brent; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Spector, Tim D; Esapa, Chris; Cox, Roger D; Brown, Steve D M; Thakker, Rajesh V; Addison, Kathryn A; Bradbury, Linda A; Center, Jacqueline R; Cooper, Cyrus; Cremin, Catherine; Estrada, Karol; Felsenberg, Dieter; Glüer, Claus-C; Hadler, Johanna; Henry, Margaret J; Hofman, Albert; Kotowicz, Mark A; Makovey, Joanna; Nguyen, Sing C; Nguyen, Tuan V; Pasco, Julie A; Pryce, Karena; Reid, David M; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Roux, Christian; Stefansson, Kari; Styrkarsdottir, Unnur; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Tichawangana, Rumbidzai; Evans, David M; Brown, Matthew A

    2011-04-01

    Osteoporotic fracture is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Low bone mineral density (BMD) is a major predisposing factor to fracture and is known to be highly heritable. Site-, gender-, and age-specific genetic effects on BMD are thought to be significant, but have largely not been considered in the design of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of BMD to date. We report here a GWAS using a novel study design focusing on women of a specific age (postmenopausal women, age 55-85 years), with either extreme high or low hip BMD (age- and gender-adjusted BMD z-scores of +1.5 to +4.0, n = 1055, or -4.0 to -1.5, n = 900), with replication in cohorts of women drawn from the general population (n = 20,898). The study replicates 21 of 26 known BMD-associated genes. Additionally, we report suggestive association of a further six new genetic associations in or around the genes CLCN7, GALNT3, IBSP, LTBP3, RSPO3, and SOX4, with replication in two independent datasets. A novel mouse model with a loss-of-function mutation in GALNT3 is also reported, which has high bone mass, supporting the involvement of this gene in BMD determination. In addition to identifying further genes associated with BMD, this study confirms the efficiency of extreme-truncate selection designs for quantitative trait association studies.

  2. Genome-Wide Association Study Using Extreme Truncate Selection Identifies Novel Genes Affecting Bone Mineral Density and Fracture Risk

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Emma L.; Danoy, Patrick; Kemp, John P.; Leo, Paul J.; McCloskey, Eugene; Nicholson, Geoffrey C.; Eastell, Richard; Prince, Richard L.; Eisman, John A.; Jones, Graeme; Sambrook, Philip N.; Reid, Ian R.; Dennison, Elaine M.; Wark, John; Richards, J. Brent; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Spector, Tim D.; Esapa, Chris; Cox, Roger D.; Brown, Steve D. M.; Thakker, Rajesh V.; Addison, Kathryn A.; Bradbury, Linda A.; Center, Jacqueline R.; Cooper, Cyrus; Cremin, Catherine; Estrada, Karol; Felsenberg, Dieter; Glüer, Claus-C.; Hadler, Johanna; Henry, Margaret J.; Hofman, Albert; Kotowicz, Mark A.; Makovey, Joanna; Nguyen, Sing C.; Nguyen, Tuan V.; Pasco, Julie A.; Pryce, Karena; Reid, David M.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Roux, Christian; Stefansson, Kari; Styrkarsdottir, Unnur; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Tichawangana, Rumbidzai; Evans, David M.; Brown, Matthew A.

    2011-01-01

    Osteoporotic fracture is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Low bone mineral density (BMD) is a major predisposing factor to fracture and is known to be highly heritable. Site-, gender-, and age-specific genetic effects on BMD are thought to be significant, but have largely not been considered in the design of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of BMD to date. We report here a GWAS using a novel study design focusing on women of a specific age (postmenopausal women, age 55–85 years), with either extreme high or low hip BMD (age- and gender-adjusted BMD z-scores of +1.5 to +4.0, n = 1055, or −4.0 to −1.5, n = 900), with replication in cohorts of women drawn from the general population (n = 20,898). The study replicates 21 of 26 known BMD–associated genes. Additionally, we report suggestive association of a further six new genetic associations in or around the genes CLCN7, GALNT3, IBSP, LTBP3, RSPO3, and SOX4, with replication in two independent datasets. A novel mouse model with a loss-of-function mutation in GALNT3 is also reported, which has high bone mass, supporting the involvement of this gene in BMD determination. In addition to identifying further genes associated with BMD, this study confirms the efficiency of extreme-truncate selection designs for quantitative trait association studies. PMID:21533022

  3. Instruments and techniques for the analysis of wheelchair propulsion and upper extremity involvement in patients with spinal cord injuries: current concept review

    PubMed Central

    Dellabiancia, Fabio; Porcellini, Giuseppe; Merolla, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Summary The correct functionality of the upper limbs is an essential condition for the autonomy of people with disabilities, especially for those in wheelchair. In this review we focused on the biomechanics of wheelchair propulsion and we described the instrumental analysis of techniques for the acquisition of wheelchair propulsion. PMID:24367774

  4. Intra-articular Fractures of the Sigmoid Notch of the Distal Radius: Analysis of Progression to Distal Radial Ulnar Joint Arthritis and Impact on Upper Extremity Function in Surgically Treated Fractures.

    PubMed

    Vitale, Mark A; Brogan, David M; Shin, Alexander Y; Berger, Richard A

    2016-03-01

    Background Studies have established an increased risk of radiocarpal joint posttraumatic arthritis in patients with displaced intra-articular fractures of the distal radius, although this phenomenon has yet to be evaluated in the distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ). Purpose We hypothesized that patients with displaced intra-articular fractures of the sigmoid notch would have a higher prevalence of DRUJ arthritis and greater upper extremity dysfunction after operative treatment of distal radius fractures compared with fractures without sigmoid notch involvement. We also hypothesized that the degree of sigmoid notch incongruity would be correlated with the grade of DRUJ arthritis and the severity of upper extremity dysfunction. Patients and Methods A retrospective review was conducted on surgically treated patients with distal radius fractures with pre- and/or postoperative computed tomography (CT) scans. Patients were divided into groups based on presence or absence of fracture extension into the sigmoid notch. Within the sigmoid notch group, postoperative CT scans were used to measure sigmoid notch fracture step-off and diastasis (mm), as well as volar or dorsal DRUJ subluxation (%). Patients were administered Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) questionnaires and radiographs were obtained to grade DRUJ arthritis using the Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) radiographic criteria. Results Thirty-three patients were included (19 with sigmoid notch involvement and 14 without) with an average radiographic follow-up of 6.3 years (range: 3.5-10.1 years). DASH scores were available for all patients, and radiographic follow-up was available in 24 patients (73%). A trend toward higher grade of DRUJ arthritis and poorer average DASH was found in those with sigmoid notch involvement, but was not statistically different. In the sigmoid notch group there were poorer DASH scores in patients with coronal step-off > 1.0-mm (p < 0.05). There were no significant

  5. Factors Affecting Water Quality in Domestic Wells in the Upper Floridan Aquifer, Southeastern United States, 1998-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berndt, Marian P.; Crandall, Christy A.; Deacon, Michael; Embry, Teresa L.; Howard, Rhonda S.

    2009-01-01

    The Floridan aquifer system is a highly productive carbonate aquifer that provides drinking water to about 10 million people in Florida, Georgia, and South Carolina. Approximately 1.6 million people rely on domestic wells (privately owned household wells) for drinking water. Withdrawals of water from the Floridan aquifer system have increased by more than 500 percent from 630 million gallons per day (2.38 cubic meters per day) in 1950 to 4,020 million gallons per day (15.2 cubic meters per day) in 2000, largely due to increases in population, tourism, and agriculture production. Water samples were collected from 148 domestic wells in the Upper Floridan aquifer in Florida, Georgia, South Carolina, and Alabama during 1998-2005 as part of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment Program. The wells were located in different hydrogeologic settings based on confinement of the Upper Floridan aquifer. Five networks of wells were sampled con-sisting of 28 to 30 wells each: two networks were in unconfined areas, two networks were in semiconfined areas, and one network was in the confined area. Physical properties and concentrations of major ions, trace elements, nutrients, radon, and organic compounds (volatile organic compounds and pesticides) were measured in water samples. Concentrations were compared to water-quality benchmarks for human health, either U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs) for public water supplies or USGS Health-Based Screening Levels (HBSLs). The MCL for fluoride of 4 milligrams per liter (mg/L) was exceeded for two samples (about 1 percent of samples). A proposed MCL for radon of 300 picocuries per liter was exceeded in about 40 percent of samples. Nitrate concentrations in the Upper Floridan aquifer ranged from less than the laboratory reporting level of 0.06 to 8 mg/L, with a median nitrate concentration less than 0.06 mg/L (as nitrogen). Nitrate concentrations did not exceed the

  6. How Were Southwest Pacific Pelagic Ecosystems Affected by Extreme Global Warming During the Initial Eocene Thermal Maximum?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollis, C. J.; Crouch, E. M.; Dickens, G. R.

    2004-12-01

    Four sections in eastern New Zealand provide the only South Pacific record of the initial Eocene thermal maximum (IETM): a siliciclastic outer shelf section (Tawanui, Hawkes Bay) and three pelagic-hemipelagic sections forming an outer shelf-upper slope transect across a carbonate ramp (Muzzle, Dee and Mead Streams, Clarence Valley). Although the rocks are too indurated to yield reliable oxygen isotope data, the IETM is identified by bulk carbonate carbon isotopes as a sharp negative excursion followed by gradual recovery over 0.6 to 4.0 m. In all sections, the excursion is mirrored by terrigenous sediment concentration, due to reduced biogenic (carbonate and silica) input and increased terrigenous input. Increased precipitation under warm humid conditions appears to have increased terrestrial discharge, recorded by deposition of smectitic marl in pelagic settings and illite/kaolinite-bearing smectitic mudstone in neritic settings. Eutrophic conditions are inferred for the IETM interval at Tawanui based on dysoxia, carbonate dissolution, an acme for the peridinioid dinocyst Apectodinium and abundant Toweius spp in nannofossil assemblages. Continued abundance of Toweius and replacement of Apectodinium by peridinioids of the Deflandrea complex suggests that eutrophic, albeit cooler, conditions persisted for at least 0.5 Ma after the IETM. In contrast, the IETM in Clarence Valley is marked by reduced biogenic silica content but little change in carbonate, and no evidence for carbonate dissolution. Sparse, poorly preserved palynomorphs assemblages suggest organic matter was oxidised under fully oxic conditions. Reduced numbers of upwelling indicators in the siliceous microfossil assemblage and common warm-water planktic foraminifera (Morozovella spp.), nannoplankton (Discoaster spp.) and radiolarians (e.g. Podocyrtis and Theocorys spp.) signal a switch from eutrophic to oligotrophic conditions and significant warming of near-surface waters. A progressive increase in

  7. Rotational kinematics of pelvis and upper trunk at butterfly stroke: Can fins affect the dynamics of the system?

    PubMed

    Averianova, Anastasia; Nikodelis, Thomas; Konstantakos, Vasileios; Kollias, Iraklis

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the rotational kinematics pattern of the upper trunk and the pelvis and the complexity-variability of their movement, during the sprint butterfly stroke between male and female swimmers with long fins (18-26 cm) and without fins. Two pairs of 3D accelerometers and gyroscopes were used to measure segments' flexion-extension angles. There were no gender differences apart from the record. The amplitude values at the pelvis were significantly larger when swimming without fins while at the C7 they were significantly larger when swimming with them. Autocorrelation coefficients of angles' time histories were higher when swimming with fins for both segments. The power spectrums revealed a dominant frequency representing the stroke period which grew significantly stronger for the fin condition. Correlation Dimension verified a lower dimensionality for the fin condition for the C7 segment movement pattern. Overall fin use seems to offer "strength" to the swimmer's movement pattern. This does not imply better movement coordination, but rather a trend toward a more stable attractor.

  8. Rotational kinematics of pelvis and upper trunk at butterfly stroke: Can fins affect the dynamics of the system?

    PubMed

    Averianova, Anastasia; Nikodelis, Thomas; Konstantakos, Vasileios; Kollias, Iraklis

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the rotational kinematics pattern of the upper trunk and the pelvis and the complexity-variability of their movement, during the sprint butterfly stroke between male and female swimmers with long fins (18-26 cm) and without fins. Two pairs of 3D accelerometers and gyroscopes were used to measure segments' flexion-extension angles. There were no gender differences apart from the record. The amplitude values at the pelvis were significantly larger when swimming without fins while at the C7 they were significantly larger when swimming with them. Autocorrelation coefficients of angles' time histories were higher when swimming with fins for both segments. The power spectrums revealed a dominant frequency representing the stroke period which grew significantly stronger for the fin condition. Correlation Dimension verified a lower dimensionality for the fin condition for the C7 segment movement pattern. Overall fin use seems to offer "strength" to the swimmer's movement pattern. This does not imply better movement coordination, but rather a trend toward a more stable attractor. PMID:26806690

  9. Extremely low frequency pulsed electromagnetic field designed for antinociception does not affect microvascular responsiveness to the vasodilator acetylcholine.

    PubMed

    McKay, Julia C; Corbacio, Michael; Tyml, Karel; Prato, Frank S; Thomas, Alex W

    2010-01-01

    A 225 microT, extremely low frequency, pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) that was designed for the induction of antinociception, was tested for its effectiveness to influence blood flow within the skeletal microvasculature of a male Sprague-Dawley rat model (n = 103). Acetylcholine (0.1, 1.0, or 10 mM) was used to perturb normal blood flow and to delineate differential effects of the PEMF, based on degree of vessel dilation. After both 30 and 60 min of PEMF exposure, we report no effects on peak perfusion response to acetylcholine (with only 0.2% of the group difference attributed to exposure). Spectral analysis of blood flow data was generated to obtain information related to myogenic activity (0.15-0.40 Hz), respiratory rate (0.4-2.0 Hz), and heart rate (2.0-7.0 Hz), including the peak frequency within each of the three frequency regions identified above, peak power, full width at half maximum (FWHM), and mean within band. No significant effects due to exposure were observed on myogenic activity of examined blood vessels, or on heart rate parameters. Anesthesia-induced respiratory depression was, however, significantly reduced following PEMF exposure compared to shams (although exposure only accounted for 9.4% of the group difference). This set of data suggest that there are no significant acute physiological effects of 225 microT PEMF after 30 and 60 min of exposure on peak blood flow, heart rate, and myogenic activity, but perhaps a small attenuation effect on anesthetic-induced respiratory depression. PMID:19644977

  10. Adaptive contraction of diet breadth affects sexual maturation and specific nutrient consumption in an extreme generalist omnivore.

    PubMed

    Jensen, K; Schal, C; Silverman, J

    2015-04-01

    Animals balance their intake of specific nutrients, but little is known about how they do so when foraging in an environment with toxic resources and whether toxic foods promote adaptations that affect life history traits. In German cockroach (Blattella germanica) populations, glucose aversion has evolved in response to glucose-containing insecticidal baits. We restricted newly eclosed glucose-averse (GA) and wild-type (WT) female cockroaches to nutritionally defined diets varying in protein-to-carbohydrate (P : C) ratio (3 : 1, 1 : 1, or 1 : 3) or gave them free choice of the 3 : 1 and 1 : 3 diets, with either glucose or fructose as the sole carbohydrate source. We measured consumption of each diet over 6 days and then dissected the females to measure the length of basal oocytes in their ovaries. Our results showed significantly lower consumption by GA compared to WT cockroaches when restricted to glucose-containing diets, but also lower fructose intake by GA compared to WT cockroaches when restricted to high fructose diets or given choice of fructose-containing diets. Protein intake was regulated tightly regardless of carbohydrate intake, except by GA cockroaches restricted to glucose-containing diets. Oocyte growth was completely suppressed in GA females restricted to glucose-containing diets, but also significantly slower in GA than in WT females restricted to fructose-containing diets. Our findings suggest that GA cockroaches have adapted to reduced diet breadth through endocrine adjustments which reduce requirements for energetic fuels. Our study illustrates how an evolutionary change in the chemosensory system may affect the evolution of other traits that govern animal life histories.

  11. A systematic review of the key factors affecting tissue viability and rehabilitation outcomes of the residual limb in lower extremity traumatic amputees.

    PubMed

    Butler, Katrina; Bowen, Catherine; Hughes, Ann-Marie; Torah, Russel; Ayala, Ivo; Tudor, John; Metcalf, Cheryl D

    2014-08-01

    Most traumatic lower limb amputees ambulate using a prosthetic limb. Comfort, appearance of the missing limb and function are confirmed as being important during rehabilitation post-amputation. Emerging evidence suggests that impaired tissue viability of the stump affects rehabilitation and thus clinical ability to provide optimum care. The primary objective of this systematic review was to identify key factors relating to tissue viability of the residual limb in lower extremity traumatic amputees. A secondary objective was to identify factors that affect rehabilitation post-amputation. In total, 218 studies were assessed; 37 met pre-determined criteria. Studies were classified according to the WHO ICF framework and the NHMRC level of evidence. Five key themes emerged; Prosthetic Fit; The Residuum; Quality of Life; Amputee Care and Prosthetic Use. The evidence indicates that high frequencies of skin problems affecting tissue viability within this population are inherently linked to intolerance of the prosthesis. Stump integrity, amputee care regimen and pain were also identified as impacting on quality of life, affecting rehabilitation and the ability to become independently mobile. Levels of evidence within all studies were low and indicative of the majority being non-randomised cohort studies or case-control studies. As there are a limited number of interventional studies, further development of robust outcome measures, clinical trials and prospective studies are of utmost importance to unravel the links between tissue viability and the other key factors. This will inform clinical management strategies and help develop targeted therapies and care pathways. PMID:25193657

  12. Characteristics of streams and aquifers and processes affecting the salinity of water in the upper Colorado River basin, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slade, R.M.; Buszka, P.M.

    1994-01-01

    The chemical characteristics of the saline water in streams and shallow aquifers in the study area were compared to characteristics of water that would result from the probable processes affecting the salinity of water, such as evapotranspiration, mineral dissolution, and mixing of water from streams and shallow-aquifer water with brines from deep aquifers. Dissolution of halite or mixing with deep-aquifer water was the most common cause of increased salinity in 48.0 percent of 77 water samples from shallow aquifers, as classified using salt-norm analysis; the second most common cause was the weathering and dissolution of sulfur-bearing minerals. Mixing with water from soil-mineral dissolution was classified as the principal source of chloride in 28.4 percent of 67 water samples from shallow aquifers with nitrate determinations. Trace-species/chloride ratios indicated that mixing with water from deep aquifers in rocks of the Pennsylvanian System was the principal source of chloride in 24.4 percent of 45 shallow-aquifer samples lacking nitrate determinations.

  13. Crop size, plant aggregation, and microhabitat type affect fruit removal by birds from individual melastome plants in the Upper Amazon.

    PubMed

    Blendinger, Pedro G; Loiselle, Bette A; Blake, John G

    2008-11-01

    We studied the efficiency (proportion of the crop removed) and quantitative effectiveness (number of fruits removed) of dispersal of Miconia fosteri and M. serrulata (Melastomataceae) seeds by birds in lowland tropical wet forest of Ecuador. Specifically, we examined variation in fruit removal in order to reveal the spatial scale at which crop size influences seed dispersal outcome of individual plants, and to evaluate how the effect of crop size on plant dispersal success may be affected by conspecific fruit abundance and by the spatial distribution of frugivore abundance. We established two 9-ha plots in undisturbed terra-firme understory, where six manakin species (Pipridae) disperse most seeds of these two plant species. Mean levels of fruit removal were low for both species, with high variability among plants. In general, plants with larger crop sizes experienced greater efficiency and effectiveness of fruit removal than plants with smaller crops. Fruit removal, however, was also influenced by microhabitat, such as local topography and local neighborhood. Fruit-rich and disperser-rich patches overlapped spatially for M. fosteri but not M. serrulata, nonetheless fruit removal of M. serrulata was still much greater in fruit-rich patches. Fruit removal from individual plants did not decrease in patches with many fruiting conspecifics and, in fact, removal effectiveness was enhanced for M. fosteri with small crop sizes when such plants were in patches with more conspecifics. These results suggest that benefits of attracting dispersers to a patch balanced or outweighed the costs of competition for dispersers. Spatial pattern of fruit removal, a measure of plant fitness, depended on a complex interaction among plant traits, spatial patterns of plant distribution, and disperser behavior. PMID:18810498

  14. [Clinical studies in working populations: value and significance of anamnestic findings, clinical tests and instrumental tests for the diagnosis of musculoskeletal disorders of the upper extremities].

    PubMed

    De Marco, F; Menoni, O; Ricci, M G; Bonaiuti, D; Colombini, D; Occhipinti, E

    1996-01-01

    The authors discuss the value and significance of symptoms in WMSDs, considering that the anamnestic threshold proposed in epidemiological investigations cannot be used as clinical and diagnosing criteria. Some useful clinical procedures are suggested for cases where there is a suspicion of musculo-skeletal disorders of the cervical spine and upper limbs, bearing in mind that they are to be applied within the framework of health surveillance programmes undertaken by health care practitioners who are not specialists in orthopaedics, physiatrics or neurology. The recommendations for instrumental tests and specialist referrals are also discussed for the various disorders. The authors also provide flow charts for the diagnostic procedures pertaining to WMSDs. The Appendix shows a sample patient chart illustrating the proposed procedures; it also permits the findings to be encoded so that they can be stored in a dedicated database. The codes for diagnosing WMSDs are also reported for the same epidemiological purposes.

  15. Large ice-wedge networks and tundra gley horizons in Northern France Upper Pleistocene loess: evidences of extreme cold events and cyclic millennial changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoine, Pierre; Moine, Olivier; Guerin, Gilles

    2015-04-01

    Northern France loess-palaeosol sequences from the last interglacial-glacial cycle (Eemian-Weichselian) have been intensely studied during the last 20 years (about 100 individual sequences). Despite thickness variations of the different stratigraphic units, the sequences from the last interglacial-glacial cycle exhibit a particularly constant pedosedimentary pattern, including well-identified pedological and periglacial marker horizons that can be followed north- and eastward in Belgium and Germany. Within this system, new field investigations and luminescence (OSL) datings put in evidence at least four generations of large ice-wedge networks (10-14 m) preserved by loess deposits between ca. 50 and 20 ka. The best- and most systematically preserved network is presently dated at about 31-32 ka according to the OSL ages from its loess infilling. This main ice-wedge cast horizon systematically occurs at the boundary between Middle Pleniglacial brown soil complexes and the base of the Upper Pleniglacial typical loess cover. Consequently, it represents a major stratigraphic marker for correlations in Western Europe. According to recent OSL dating results, the first thick typical loess unit of the Upper Pleniglacial, covering the main ice-wedge cast horizon, has been deposited shortly after GIS-5 interstadial and could be contemporaneous of H3 event in deep-sea cores. In addition, it is shown that all the large ice wedge casts are developed from the surface of a tundra gley horizon (0.3 to 0.5 m in thickness). As it has been previously demonstrated that tundra gley layers were mainly formed during short interstadial events (malacology, sedimentology), a model linking tundra gley horizons, and ice wedges network regarding to DO stadial-interstadial cycles during the last glacial is proposed.

  16. Laboratory trials reveal that exposure to extreme raining events prior to metamorphosis affect the post-settlement performance of an estuarine crab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rey, Felisa; Silva Neto, Gina M.; Rosa, Rui; Queiroga, Henrique; Calado, Ricardo

    2015-03-01

    Meteorological forcing can impact planktonic communities, with extreme raining events promoting salinity decreases and triggering larval mortality in estuarine plankton. The present study evaluated how exposure to low salinities prior to metamorphosis of Carcinus maenas megalopae (last larval stage) may affect its ability to metamorphose and the post-metamorphosis performance of juvenile crabs. An extreme raining event that promoted a generalized decrease in salinity (from 25 to 10) in the whole water column of one of the main channels of a coastal lagoon was mimicked in the laboratory. Wild megalopae of C. maenas were collected and kept individually without any food at salinities of 10 or 25 (S10 or S25) until they either died or metamorphosed to the first crab instar (C1). Specimens metamorphosing in 5 days or less following their collection were labeled as early settlers (ES10 and ES25), while those taking more than 5 days were labeled as late settlers (LS10 and LS25). All newly metamorphosed crabs were kept individually until C5 at a salinity of 25 and fed ad libitum, with their intermolt periods and carapace width (CW) being recorded. Osmotic stress did not affect the survival or ability to metamorphose of C. maenas megalopae, with 89% of all larvae in both salinities being able to metamorphose. This result is supported by the ability of this larval stage to hyper-regulate. Nonetheless, an exposure of late settling megalopae to low salinities prior to metamorphosis promotes the occurrence of juvenile crabs with a smaller CW. The deleterious effects of exposing late settling megalopae to low salinities appears to be magnified during early benthic life, with C5 originating from treatment LS10 displaying a significantly smaller CW (4.87 ± 0.28 mm) and lower wet weight (WW) (28.95 ± 4.62 mg). On the other side, C5 originating from ES25 exhibited a significantly higher CW (5.90 ± 0.33 mm) and WW (50.89 ± 8.14 mg). The nutritional vulnerability experienced by

  17. Differences in extreme low salinity timing and duration differentially affect eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) size class growth and mortality in Breton Sound, LA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    LaPeyre, Megan K.; Eberline, Benjamin S.; Soniat, Thomas M.; La Peyre, Jerome F.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding how different life history stages are impacted by extreme or stochastic environmental variation is critical for predicting and modeling organism population dynamics. This project examined recruitment, growth, and mortality of seed (25–75 mm) and market (>75 mm) sized oysters along a salinity gradient over two years in Breton Sound, LA. In April 2010, management responses to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill resulted in extreme low salinity (<5) at all sites through August 2010; in 2011, a 100-year Mississippi River flood event resulted in low salinity in late spring. Extended low salinity (<5) during hot summer months (>25 °C) significantly and negatively impacted oyster recruitment, survival and growth in 2010, while low salinity (<5) for a shorter period that did not extend into July (<25 °C) in 2011 had minimal impacts on oyster growth and mortality. In 2011, recruitment was limited, which may be due to a combination of low spring time salinities, high 2010 oyster mortality, minimal 2010 recruitment, cumulative effects from 10 years of declining oyster stock in the area, and poor cultch quality. In both 2010 and 2011, Perkinsus marinusinfection prevalence remained low throughout the year at all sites and almost all infection intensities were light. Oyster plasma osmolality failed to match surrounding low salinity waters in 2010, while oysters appeared to osmoconform throughout 2011 indicating that the high mortality in 2010 may be due to extended valve closing and resulting starvation or asphyxiation in response to the combination of low salinity during high temperatures (>25 °C). With increasing management of our freshwater inputs to estuaries combined with predicted climate changes, how extreme events affect different life history stages is key to understanding variation in population demographics of commercially important species and predicting future populations.

  18. Differences in extreme low salinity timing and duration differentially affect eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) size class growth and mortality in Breton Sound, LA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Peyre, Megan K.; Eberline, Benjamin S.; Soniat, Thomas M.; La Peyre, Jerome F.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding how different life history stages are impacted by extreme or stochastic environmental variation is critical for predicting and modeling organism population dynamics. This project examined recruitment, growth, and mortality of seed (25-75 mm) and market (>75 mm) sized oysters along a salinity gradient over two years in Breton Sound, LA. In April 2010, management responses to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill resulted in extreme low salinity (<5) at all sites through August 2010; in 2011, a 100-year Mississippi River flood event resulted in low salinity in late spring. Extended low salinity (<5) during hot summer months (>25 °C) significantly and negatively impacted oyster recruitment, survival and growth in 2010, while low salinity (<5) for a shorter period that did not extend into July (<25 °C) in 2011 had minimal impacts on oyster growth and mortality. In 2011, recruitment was limited, which may be due to a combination of low spring time salinities, high 2010 oyster mortality, minimal 2010 recruitment, cumulative effects from 10 years of declining oyster stock in the area, and poor cultch quality. In both 2010 and 2011, Perkinsus marinus infection prevalence remained low throughout the year at all sites and almost all infection intensities were light. Oyster plasma osmolality failed to match surrounding low salinity waters in 2010, while oysters appeared to osmoconform throughout 2011 indicating that the high mortality in 2010 may be due to extended valve closing and resulting starvation or asphyxiation in response to the combination of low salinity during high temperatures (>25 °C). With increasing management of our freshwater inputs to estuaries combined with predicted climate changes, how extreme events affect different life history stages is key to understanding variation in population demographics of commercially important species and predicting future populations.

  19. Invited commentary on comparison of robotics, functional electrical stimulation, and motor learning methods for treatment of persistent upper extremity dysfunction after stroke: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Kwakkel, Gert; van Wegen, Erwin E; Meskers, Carel M

    2015-06-01

    In this issue of Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Jessica McCabe and colleagues report findings from their methodologically sound, dose-matched clinical trial in 39 patients beyond 6 months poststroke. In this phase II trial, the effects of 60 treatment sessions, each involving 3.5 hours of intensive practice plus either 1.5 hours of functional electrical stimulation (FES) or a shoulder-arm robotic therapy, were compared with 5 hours of intensive daily practice alone. Although no significant between-group differences were found on the primary outcome measure of Arm Motor Ability Test and the secondary outcome measure of Fugl-Meyer Arm motor score, 10% to 15% within-group therapeutic gains were on the Arm Motor Ability Test and Fugl-Meyer Arm. These gains are clinically meaningful for patients with stroke. However, the underlying mechanisms that drive these improvements remain poorly understood. The approximately $1000 cost reduction per patient calculated for the use of motor learning (ML) methods alone or combined with FES, compared with the combination of ML and shoulder-arm robotics, further emphasizes the need for cost considerations when making clinical decisions about selecting the most appropriate therapy for the upper paretic limb in patients with chronic stroke. PMID:25687763

  20. The use of kinematic and parametric information to highlight lack of movement and compensation in the upper extremities during activities of daily living.

    PubMed

    Murgia, Alessio; Kyberd, Peter; Barnhill, Tom

    2010-03-01

    A problem that is common to the study of upper limb kinematics and gait analysis is the translation of the evidence from kinematic measurements into easily interpretable information on the status of the patient, such as the amount of compensation or lack of motion. In this study parameters that can be helpful in the rapid and clear identification of limited wrist motion and compensation were derived from kinematic data. A group of six subjects (group A) with no hand impairment, average age 32.5 ys SD 10.7 ys, and another group of five subjects (group B), average age 34.2 ys SD 16.8 ys, having suffered from distal radius fracture were tested during a cyclic activity of daily living. The activity simulated page turning. Thorax, shoulder, elbow and wrist angles were measured during this task using a motion capture system. Corresponding angle ranges were also calculated. The active range of motion (AROM) found for Group B was generally lower than that of Group A, particularly for elbow supination and wrist movements, with wrist flexion/extension statistically smaller for group B (P=0.02). Additional parameters that took into account lack of movements at the wrist and compensation from shoulder elevation, rotation and elbow pronation/supination proved to be more useful at identifying those subjects of group B outside the normative range and can provide clinicians with a rapid and efficient tool that can shorten the analysis process and help make more informed decisions on therapeutic treatments.

  1. Invited commentary on comparison of robotics, functional electrical stimulation, and motor learning methods for treatment of persistent upper extremity dysfunction after stroke: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Kwakkel, Gert; van Wegen, Erwin E; Meskers, Carel M

    2015-06-01

    In this issue of Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Jessica McCabe and colleagues report findings from their methodologically sound, dose-matched clinical trial in 39 patients beyond 6 months poststroke. In this phase II trial, the effects of 60 treatment sessions, each involving 3.5 hours of intensive practice plus either 1.5 hours of functional electrical stimulation (FES) or a shoulder-arm robotic therapy, were compared with 5 hours of intensive daily practice alone. Although no significant between-group differences were found on the primary outcome measure of Arm Motor Ability Test and the secondary outcome measure of Fugl-Meyer Arm motor score, 10% to 15% within-group therapeutic gains were on the Arm Motor Ability Test and Fugl-Meyer Arm. These gains are clinically meaningful for patients with stroke. However, the underlying mechanisms that drive these improvements remain poorly understood. The approximately $1000 cost reduction per patient calculated for the use of motor learning (ML) methods alone or combined with FES, compared with the combination of ML and shoulder-arm robotics, further emphasizes the need for cost considerations when making clinical decisions about selecting the most appropriate therapy for the upper paretic limb in patients with chronic stroke.

  2. Archaeomagnetic study of five mounds from Upper Mesopotamia between 2500 and 700 BCE: Further evidence for an extremely strong geomagnetic field ca. 3000 years ago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ertepinar, P.; Langereis, C. G.; Biggin, A. J.; Frangipane, M.; Matney, T.; Ökse, T.; Engin, A.

    2012-12-01

    The distribution of archaeomagnetic data in eastern Europe and the Near and Middle East shows a remarkable gap in Turkey. This study presents the first archaeomagnetic results from five different mounds in southeast Turkey, the northern part of Mesopotamia. The rock magnetic experiments indicate that in the majority of the samples the dominant magnetic carrier is magnetite, which is stable to heating to temperatures of 700 °C. In general, the demagnetization diagrams are single component and all five sets display well-defined characteristic magnetizations and clustered directions. For the period between 2500 and 700 BCE, the declinations are between 350° and 20° while inclinations are in the range of 49-64°. The directional results are compared with the global geomagnetic field models (CALS7k.2, ARCH3k_cst.1 and CALS3k.4) and the data from the archaeomagnetic database GEOMAGIA50v2. The results are coherent with both the data and the models except for two near-contemporaneous sets dating ˜2000 BCE, which are offset to the east by more than 20° with respect to CALS7k.2. Archaeointensity measurements were made using the microwave and conventional thermal Thellier methods applied to five sets of samples (four furnaces and a mud-brick wall). These yielded comparable and intriguing results. While those from the furnaces are slightly higher than the CALS7k.2 model and in agreement with the GEOMAGIA50v2 and the Middle East data, the results from the mud-brick wall suggest a high intensity of 100.8 μT (17.7×1022 Am2) at ˜1000 BCE. This result is in excellent agreement with recent claims of extremely high intensity measured in other regions of the Middle East for this time period though less consistent with these being associated with extremely short-lived events. Finally, we discuss our new and other recently published archaeointensity results in terms of geomagnetic intensity versus climate.

  3. An archaeomagnetic study of Upper Mesopotamia and Central Anatolia between 2500 and 700 BCE. Further evidence for an extremely strong geomagnetic field ca. 3000 years ago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ertepinar, Pinar; Langereis, Cor; Biggin, Andrew; de Groot, Lennart

    2014-05-01

    The distribution of archaeomagnetic data in eastern Europe and the Near and Middle East shows a remarkable gap in Turkey. This study presents the first archaeomagnetic results from eight different archaeological sites in Central and Southeast Turkey. We sampled furnaces, burnt mud-brick walls, and granite and ignimbrite foundation stones. The rock magnetic experiments indicate that in the majority of the samples the dominant magnetic carrier is magnetite, which is stable to heating to temperatures of 700° C. In general, the demagnetization diagrams are single component and all sets display well-defined characteristic magnetizations and clustered directions. For the period between 2500 and 700 BCE, the declinations are between 350° and 20° while inclinations are in the range of 49-64° . The directional results are compared with the global geomagnetic field models (CALS7k.2, ARCH3k_cst.1 and CALS3k.4) and the data from the archaeomagnetic database GEOMAGIA50v2. The results are coherent with both the data and the models except for two near-contemporaneous sets dating ~2000 BCE, which are offset to the east by more than 20° with respect to CALS7k.2. Archaeointensity measurements were made using the microwave and conventional thermal Thellier methods, as well as the multi-specimen method. These different methods yielded comparable and intriguing results. While intensities from the furnaces are slightly higher than the CALS7k.2 model and in agreement with the GEOMAGIA50v2 and the Middle East data, the results from mud-brick walls suggest a high intensity of 100.8μT (17.7 x 1022 Am2 )at ~1000 BCE. This result is in excellent agreement with recent claims of extremely high intensity measured in other regions of the Middle East for this time period though less consistent with these being associated with extremely short-lived events. Finally, we discuss our new and other recently published archaeointensity results in terms of geomagnetic intensity versus climate.

  4. Effect of upper limb deformities on gross motor and upper limb functions in children with spastic cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun Sook; Sim, Eun Geol; Rha, Dong-Wook

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the nature and extent of upper limb deformities via the use of various classifications, and to analyze the relationship between upper limb deformities and gross motor or upper limb functionality levels. Upper extremity data were collected from 234 children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP) who were admitted to the university hospital for intensive rehabilitation. Upper limb deformities were classified according to the Zancolli classification for finger and wrist extension ability, the Gshwind and Tonkin classification for supination ability, and the House classification for thumb-in-palm deformity. Digital deformity was also classified. Upper limb function was assessed using the Upper Extremity Rating Scale (UERS) and the Upper Limb Physician's Rating Scale (ULPRS). Gross motor function was assessed using the Gross Motor Functional Classification System (GMFCS). Among the 234 children observed, 70.5% had a limitation in forearm supination, and 62.8% had problems with wrist and finger extension in at least one limb. Thumb-in-palm deformity of at least one hand was found in 47.0% of patients. Swan neck deformity was the most common finger deformity. Upper limb functional measures, the ULPRS and the UERS, significantly correlated with the degree of upper limb deformity, as assessed by the Gschwind and Tonkin, Zancolli, and House classifications. Further, the degree of upper limb deformity was significantly related to the GMFCS level in children with bilateral CP, but not in children with unilateral CP. Limitation of forearm supination was the most common upper limb deformity in children with spastic CP. The degree of upper limb deformity significantly affected upper limb function in these children. PMID:21821392

  5. How extreme are extremes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cucchi, Marco; Petitta, Marcello; Calmanti, Sandro

    2016-04-01

    High temperatures have an impact on the energy balance of any living organism and on the operational capabilities of critical infrastructures. Heat-wave indicators have been mainly developed with the aim of capturing the potential impacts on specific sectors (agriculture, health, wildfires, transport, power generation and distribution). However, the ability to capture the occurrence of extreme temperature events is an essential property of a multi-hazard extreme climate indicator. Aim of this study is to develop a standardized heat-wave indicator, that can be combined with other indices in order to describe multiple hazards in a single indicator. The proposed approach can be used in order to have a quantified indicator of the strenght of a certain extreme. As a matter of fact, extremes are usually distributed in exponential or exponential-exponential functions and it is difficult to quickly asses how strong was an extreme events considering only its magnitude. The proposed approach simplify the quantitative and qualitative communication of extreme magnitude

  6. The Effects of Topical Sesame (Sesamum indicum) Oil on Pain Severity and Amount of Received Non-Steroid Anti-Inflammatory Drugs in Patients With Upper or Lower Extremities Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Bigdeli Shamloo, Marzieh Beigom; Nasiri, Morteza; Dabirian, Aazam; Bakhtiyari, Ali; Mojab, Faraz; Alavi Majd, Hamid

    2015-01-01

    Background: Most patients with trauma experience different levels of pain. Due to side effects as well as economic burden of drugs used for pain relief after trauma commonly, it is important to use low-cost methods independently or combined with drugs to alleviate pain. Objectives: Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effects of topical sesame oil on pain severity and frequency of received NSAIDs of patients with trauma. Patients and Methods: This randomized clinical trial study was conducted on 150 patients with upper or lower extremities trauma in Dezful Ganjavian Hospital, Ahvaz, Iran, in 2014. Data was collected by a researcher-made questionnaire and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). Patients were divided into two groups of control (n = 75) and intervention (n = 75) randomly. In the intervention group, patients applied topical sesame oil beside the routine cares, while in the control group patients just received routine cares. Severity of pain and frequency of received NSAIDs was assessed in the first, third, seventh and tenth days after the intervention in the both groups. Data was analyzed by SPSS19 software using descriptive and analytic (Chi-square and independent sample t-test) statistical methods. Results: Based on student sample t-test, there was a significant difference between intervention and control groups regarding the pain severity in the first (P = 0.06), third (P = 0.001), seventh (P = 0.001) and tenth (P = 0.001) days after the intervention. Besides, the frequency of received NSAIDs in the intervention group and the control group showed significant difference in four days after the intervention (for four days P = 0.001). Conclusions: Topical application of sesame oil could reduce pain severity and frequency of received NSAIDs in patients with upper or lower extremities trauma. Therefore, it is recommended to use this oil in complementary medicine for pain relief due to low cost, easy usage and lack of adverse effects. PMID:26161326

  7. Detection of genetic variation affecting milk coagulation properties in Danish Holstein dairy cattle by analyses of pooled whole-genome sequences from phenotypically extreme samples (pool-seq).

    PubMed

    Bertelsen, H P; Gregersen, V R; Poulsen, N; Nielsen, R O; Das, A; Madsen, L B; Buitenhuis, A J; Holm, L-E; Panitz, F; Larsen, L B; Bendixen, C

    2016-04-01

    Rennet-induced milk coagulation is an important trait for cheese production. Recent studies have reported an alarming frequency of cows producing poorly coagulating milk unsuitable for cheese production. Several genetic factors are known to affect milk coagulation, including variation in the major milk proteins; however, recent association studies indicate genetic effects from other genomic regions as well. The aim of this study was to detect genetic variation affecting milk coagulation properties, measured as curd-firming rate (CFR) and milk pH. This was achieved by examining allele frequency differences between pooled whole-genome sequences of phenotypically extreme samples (pool-seq).. Curd-firming rate and raw milk pH were measured for 415 Danish Holstein cows, and each animal was sequenced at low coverage. Pools were created containing whole genome sequence reads from samples with "extreme" values (high or low) for both phenotypic traits. A total of 6,992,186 and 5,295,501 SNP were assessed in relation to CFR and milk pH, respectively. Allele frequency differences were calculated between pools and 32 significantly different SNP were detected, 1 for milk pH and 31 for CFR, of which 19 are located on chromosome 6. A total of 9 significant SNP, which were selected based on the possible function of proximal candidate genes, were genotyped in the entire sample set ( = 415) to test for an association. The most significant SNP was located proximal to , explaining 33% of the phenotypic variance. , coding for κ-casein, is the most studied in relation to milk coagulation due to its position on the surface of the casein micelles and the direct involvement in milk coagulation. Three additional SNP located on chromosome 6 showed significant associations explaining 7, 3.6, and 1.3% of the phenotypic variance of CFR. The significant SNP on chromosome 6 were shown to be in linkage disequilibrium with the SNP peaking proximal to ; however, after accounting for the genotype of

  8. Upper extremity orthotics in performing artists.

    PubMed

    Prokop, Lawrence L

    2006-11-01

    Performing artists are an interesting group of patients with a need to maintain their activity at as high a functional level as possible. Their injuries generally are acute or chronic musculoskeletal overuse injuries, The underlying pathology of myositis, myofascial pain syndrome, tendonitis, capsulitis, and ligament sprain is essentially the same through the entire limb. The entire treatment of these injuries includes appropriate medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, proper therapeutic exercises, training in proper performance technique, and the judicious use of properly designed and manufactured othoses. When used as part of the whole treatment regimen, these devices will aid in decreasing pain, inflammation, and contracture formation, and aid in improving flexibility, range of motion, and, most importantly, healing time and full return to performance.

  9. Vascular Disorders of the Upper Extremity

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Español Artritis ... Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Español Artritis ...

  10. Nerve Injuries of the Upper Extremity

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Español Artritis ... Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Español Artritis ...

  11. Upper extremity arterial injury in athletes.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, W J; Yao, J S; Schafer, M F; Nuber, G; Flinn, W R; Blackburn, D; Suker, J R

    1989-02-01

    Between 1983 and 1986, 23 athletes were evaluated for arm and hand complaints. Eleven players had symptoms of thoracic outlet compression. Severe arm fatigue (eight patients) and finger ischemia (three patients) were the presenting symptoms. In the remaining 12 athletes, symptoms of hand ischemia were predominant. Noninvasive testing with Doppler ultrasonography and duplex scanning (positional testing and finger systolic pressure recording) and cold immersion were used to aid in diagnosis. In the 11 athletes with thoracic outlet compression, arteriography confirmed the finding with compression of the subclavian artery in five, the axillary artery in one, both subclavian and axillary arteries in two, posterior humeral circumflex artery in one, and subclavian aneurysm in two. Compression of the suprascapular artery was identified in four, the subscapular artery in two, and the posterior humeral circumflex artery in one. Thrombosis of a first baseman's ulnar artery and occlusion of the palmar arch in a frisbee player were documented by arteriography. Decompression of the thoracic outlet consisted of anterior scalenectomy in five, pectoralis minor muscle division in one, and resection of both muscles in two. Removal of cervical rib with interposed vein graft was performed in the two players with arterial aneurysm. Hand ischemia in the remaining athletes was treated conservatively with Dextran-heparin infusion for acute ischemia. Repeat noninvasive study of all players demonstrated absence of compression in their playing position, and all have resumed their playing careers. Hand ischemia in athletes can be evaluated noninvasively and treated conservatively. Resection of hypertrophied muscles to decompress the thoracic outlet together with release of branch artery compression in selected athletes promotes perfusion to arm and shoulder muscles and helps to avoid the catastrophic complication of repetitive trauma leading to sudden arterial thrombosis.

  12. Upper extremity injuries in young athletes.

    PubMed

    Ireland, M L; Hutchinson, M R

    1995-07-01

    With the knowledge base of normal anatomy, development, biomechanics, and differential diagnosis, the sports medicine professional can treat injured young athletes with greater efficiency. In addition, microtraumatic injuries may be prevented by emphasizing safe parameters of participation, proper throwing techniques, and careful monitoring of the amount of practice time and intensity. Gymnasts using apparatus should always have spotters. The height of towers and basket tosses by cheerleaders should be limited by age and ability. Proper pitching techniques, not the fastest pitch or youngest curve, should be taught to baseball players. "Play it safe" should be the rule. Finally, by establishing an early and precise diagnosis, potential complications from injuries can be lessened.

  13. Development of an upper extremity transplant program.

    PubMed

    Ravindra, Kadiyala V; Gorantla, Vijay S

    2011-11-01

    Starting a hand transplant program poses tremendous challenges. Solid organ transplantation and hand replantation are time-tested procedures and are now standard of care. Hand transplantation is the amalgamation of the scientific principles of reconstructive surgery and the concepts of organ transplantation. Thus, for any hand transplant program to be successful, there must be collaboration within a multidisciplinary team comprising a core group of hand and transplant surgeons. Such a joint effort can overcome the challenges that are inherent in a complex therapeutic option that integrates different disciplines and organizations during the planning, procedural, and posttransplant phases.

  14. Effects of Ving Tsun Chinese Martial Art Training on Upper Extremity Muscle Strength and Eye-Hand Coordination in Community-Dwelling Middle-Aged and Older Adults: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Fong, Shirley S M; Ng, Shamay S M; Cheng, Yoyo T Y; Wong, Janet Y H; Yu, Esther Y T; Chow, Gary C C; Chak, Yvonne T C; Chan, Ivy K Y; Zhang, Joni; Macfarlane, Duncan; Chung, Louisa M Y

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate the effects of Ving Tsun (VT) martial art training on the upper extremity muscle strength and eye-hand coordination of middle-aged and older adults. Methods. This study used a nonequivalent pretest-posttest control group design. Forty-two community-dwelling healthy adults participated in the study; 24 (mean age ± SD = 68.5 ± 6.7 years) underwent VT training for 4 weeks (a supervised VT session twice a week, plus daily home practice), and 18 (mean age ± SD = 72.0 ± 6.7 years) received no VT training and acted as controls. Shoulder and elbow isometric muscle strength and eye-hand coordination were evaluated using the Lafayette Manual Muscle Test System and a computerized finger-pointing test, respectively. Results. Elbow extensor peak force increased by 13.9% (P = 0.007) in the VT group and the time to reach peak force decreased (9.9%) differentially in the VT group compared to the control group (P = 0.033). For the eye-hand coordination assessment outcomes, reaction time increased by 2.9% in the VT group and decreased by 5.3% in the control group (P = 0.002). Conclusions. Four weeks of VT training could improve elbow extensor isometric peak force and the time to reach peak force but not eye-hand coordination in community-dwelling middle-aged and older adults. PMID:27525020

  15. Effects of Ving Tsun Chinese Martial Art Training on Upper Extremity Muscle Strength and Eye-Hand Coordination in Community-Dwelling Middle-Aged and Older Adults: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Shamay S. M.; Cheng, Yoyo T. Y.; Yu, Esther Y. T.; Chow, Gary C. C.; Chak, Yvonne T. C.; Chan, Ivy K. Y.; Zhang, Joni; Macfarlane, Duncan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate the effects of Ving Tsun (VT) martial art training on the upper extremity muscle strength and eye-hand coordination of middle-aged and older adults. Methods. This study used a nonequivalent pretest-posttest control group design. Forty-two community-dwelling healthy adults participated in the study; 24 (mean age ± SD = 68.5 ± 6.7 years) underwent VT training for 4 weeks (a supervised VT session twice a week, plus daily home practice), and 18 (mean age ± SD = 72.0 ± 6.7 years) received no VT training and acted as controls. Shoulder and elbow isometric muscle strength and eye-hand coordination were evaluated using the Lafayette Manual Muscle Test System and a computerized finger-pointing test, respectively. Results. Elbow extensor peak force increased by 13.9% (P = 0.007) in the VT group and the time to reach peak force decreased (9.9%) differentially in the VT group compared to the control group (P = 0.033). For the eye-hand coordination assessment outcomes, reaction time increased by 2.9% in the VT group and decreased by 5.3% in the control group (P = 0.002). Conclusions. Four weeks of VT training could improve elbow extensor isometric peak force and the time to reach peak force but not eye-hand coordination in community-dwelling middle-aged and older adults. PMID:27525020

  16. Work organization is significantly associated with upper extremities musculoskeletal disorders among employees engaged in interactive computer-telephone tasks of an international bank subsidiary in São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ferreira Júnior, M; Conceição, G M; Saldiva, P H

    1997-04-01

    This study was designed to verify the risk factors for developing upper extremities musculoskeletal disorders (UEMD) among workers engaged in customer service tasks performed by telephone at a private banking corporation in São Paulo, Brazil. The monthly incidence of UEMD in hands and/or wrists in this group was studied retrospectively from January 1993 to June 1995. The statistical analysis was done by using multiple linear regression with the monthly incidence of UEMD considered as dependent variable in models controlled for age, seniority, mean daily regular worktime and overtime per operator, time pressure at work, rest/work schedule, management status, personnel training on postural and muscle stretching, and ergonomic hazards. The variables associated with UEMD were the following: time pressure at work (coefficient = 0.049; p = 0.008) and rest/work schedule (coefficient = -0.047; p = 0.02). The results indicate that working conditions are significantly associated with UEMD, and changes in the working schedule may decrease the incidence of this problem in workers assigned to tasks related to the interactive use of computer-accessible databases during telephone contacts. PMID:9093663

  17. Effects of Ving Tsun Chinese Martial Art Training on Upper Extremity Muscle Strength and Eye-Hand Coordination in Community-Dwelling Middle-Aged and Older Adults: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Fong, Shirley S M; Ng, Shamay S M; Cheng, Yoyo T Y; Wong, Janet Y H; Yu, Esther Y T; Chow, Gary C C; Chak, Yvonne T C; Chan, Ivy K Y; Zhang, Joni; Macfarlane, Duncan; Chung, Louisa M Y

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate the effects of Ving Tsun (VT) martial art training on the upper extremity muscle strength and eye-hand coordination of middle-aged and older adults. Methods. This study used a nonequivalent pretest-posttest control group design. Forty-two community-dwelling healthy adults participated in the study; 24 (mean age ± SD = 68.5 ± 6.7 years) underwent VT training for 4 weeks (a supervised VT session twice a week, plus daily home practice), and 18 (mean age ± SD = 72.0 ± 6.7 years) received no VT training and acted as controls. Shoulder and elbow isometric muscle strength and eye-hand coordination were evaluated using the Lafayette Manual Muscle Test System and a computerized finger-pointing test, respectively. Results. Elbow extensor peak force increased by 13.9% (P = 0.007) in the VT group and the time to reach peak force decreased (9.9%) differentially in the VT group compared to the control group (P = 0.033). For the eye-hand coordination assessment outcomes, reaction time increased by 2.9% in the VT group and decreased by 5.3% in the control group (P = 0.002). Conclusions. Four weeks of VT training could improve elbow extensor isometric peak force and the time to reach peak force but not eye-hand coordination in community-dwelling middle-aged and older adults.

  18. Using clinical and robotic assessment tools to examine the feasibility of pairing tDCS with upper extremity physical therapy in patients with stroke and TBI: a consideration-of-concept pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Middleton, Addie; Fritz, Stacy L.; Liuzzo, Derek M.; Newman-Norlund, Roger; Herter, Troy M.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) may provide a safe, non-invasive technique for modulating neural excitability during neurorehabilitation. OBJECTIVE 1) Assess feasibility and potential effectiveness of tDCS as an adjunct to standard upper extremity (UE) physical therapy (PT) for motor impairments resulting from neurological insult. 2) Determine sustainability of improvements over a six month period. METHODS Five participants with chronic neurologic insult (stroke or traumatic brain injury > 6 months prior) completed 24 sessions (40 minutes, three times/week) of UE-PT combined with bihemispheric tDCS delivered at 1.5mA over the motor cortex during the first 15 minutes of each PT session. Outcomes were assessed using clinical (UE Fugl-Meyer, Purdue Pegboard, Box and Block, Stroke Impact Scale) and robotic (unimanual and bimanual motor control) measures. Change in scores and associated effects sizes from Pre-test to Post-test and a six month Follow-up were calculated for each participant and group as a whole. RESULTS Scores on UE Fugl-Meyer, Box and Block, Purdue Pegboard, Stroke Impact Scale, and robotic measures improved from Pre- to Post-test. Improvements on UE Fugl-Meyer, Box and Block, and robotic measures were largely sustained at six months. CONCLUSIONS Combining bihemispheric tDCS with UE-PT in individuals with neurological insult warrants further investigation. PMID:25323084

  19. Local adaptations to frost in marginal and central populations of the dominant forest tree Fagus sylvatica L. as affected by temperature and extreme drought in common garden experiments

    PubMed Central

    Kreyling, Juergen; Buhk, Constanze; Backhaus, Sabrina; Hallinger, Martin; Huber, Gerhard; Huber, Lukas; Jentsch, Anke; Konnert, Monika; Thiel, Daniel; Wilmking, Martin; Beierkuhnlein, Carl

    2014-01-01

    Local adaptations to environmental conditions are of high ecological importance as they determine distribution ranges and likely affect species responses to climate change. Increased environmental stress (warming, extreme drought) due to climate change in combination with decreased genetic mixing due to isolation may lead to stronger local adaptations of geographically marginal than central populations. We experimentally observed local adaptations of three marginal and four central populations of Fagus sylvaticaL., the dominant native forest tree, to frost over winter and in spring (late frost). We determined frost hardiness of buds and roots by the relative electrolyte leakage in two common garden experiments. The experiment at the cold site included a continuous warming treatment; the experiment at the warm site included a preceding summer drought manipulation. In both experiments, we found evidence for local adaptation to frost, with stronger signs of local adaptation in marginal populations. Winter frost killed many of the potted individuals at the cold site, with higher survival in the warming treatment and in those populations originating from colder environments. However, we found no difference in winter frost tolerance of buds among populations, implying that bud survival was not the main cue for mortality. Bud late frost tolerance in April differed between populations at the warm site, mainly because of phenological differences in bud break. Increased spring frost tolerance of plants which had experienced drought stress in the preceding summer could also be explained by shifts in phenology. Stronger local adaptations to climate in geographically marginal than central populations imply the potential for adaptation to climate at range edges. In times of climate change, however, it needs to be tested whether locally adapted populations at range margins can successfully adapt further to changing conditions. PMID:25035801

  20. Local adaptations to frost in marginal and central populations of the dominant forest tree Fagus sylvatica L. as affected by temperature and extreme drought in common garden experiments.

    PubMed

    Kreyling, Juergen; Buhk, Constanze; Backhaus, Sabrina; Hallinger, Martin; Huber, Gerhard; Huber, Lukas; Jentsch, Anke; Konnert, Monika; Thiel, Daniel; Wilmking, Martin; Beierkuhnlein, Carl

    2014-03-01

    Local adaptations to environmental conditions are of high ecological importance as they determine distribution ranges and likely affect species responses to climate change. Increased environmental stress (warming, extreme drought) due to climate change in combination with decreased genetic mixing due to isolation may lead to stronger local adaptations of geographically marginal than central populations. We experimentally observed local adaptations of three marginal and four central populations of Fagus sylvaticaL., the dominant native forest tree, to frost over winter and in spring (late frost). We determined frost hardiness of buds and roots by the relative electrolyte leakage in two common garden experiments. The experiment at the cold site included a continuous warming treatment; the experiment at the warm site included a preceding summer drought manipulation. In both experiments, we found evidence for local adaptation to frost, with stronger signs of local adaptation in marginal populations. Winter frost killed many of the potted individuals at the cold site, with higher survival in the warming treatment and in those populations originating from colder environments. However, we found no difference in winter frost tolerance of buds among populations, implying that bud survival was not the main cue for mortality. Bud late frost tolerance in April differed between populations at the warm site, mainly because of phenological differences in bud break. Increased spring frost tolerance of plants which had experienced drought stress in the preceding summer could also be explained by shifts in phenology. Stronger local adaptations to climate in geographically marginal than central populations imply the potential for adaptation to climate at range edges. In times of climate change, however, it needs to be tested whether locally adapted populations at range margins can successfully adapt further to changing conditions.

  1. A short-term extremely low frequency electromagnetic field exposure increases circulating leukocyte numbers and affects HPA-axis signaling in mice.

    PubMed

    de Kleijn, Stan; Ferwerda, Gerben; Wiese, Michelle; Trentelman, Jos; Cuppen, Jan; Kozicz, Tamas; de Jager, Linda; Hermans, Peter W M; Verburg-van Kemenade, B M Lidy

    2016-10-01

    There is still uncertainty whether extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) can induce health effects like immunomodulation. Despite evidence obtained in vitro, an unambiguous association has not yet been established in vivo. Here, mice were exposed to ELF-EMF for 1, 4, and 24 h/day in a short-term (1 week) and long-term (15 weeks) set-up to investigate whole body effects on the level of stress regulation and immune response. ELF-EMF signal contained multiple frequencies (20-5000 Hz) and a magnetic flux density of 10 μT. After exposure, blood was analyzed for leukocyte numbers (short-term and long-term) and adrenocorticotropic hormone concentration (short-term only). Furthermore, in the short-term experiment, stress-related parameters, corticotropin-releasing hormone, proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and CYP11A1 gene-expression, respectively, were determined in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, pituitary, and adrenal glands. In the short-term but not long-term experiment, leukocyte counts were significantly higher in the 24 h-exposed group compared with controls, mainly represented by increased neutrophils and CD4 ± lymphocytes. POMC expression and plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone were significantly lower compared with unexposed control mice. In conclusion, short-term ELF-EMF exposure may affect hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation in mice. Changes in stress hormone release may explain changes in circulating leukocyte numbers and composition. Bioelectromagnetics. 37:433-443, 2016. © 2016 The Authors. Bioelectromagnetics Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27553635

  2. How extreme is extreme hourly precipitation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papalexiou, Simon Michael; Dialynas, Yannis G.; Pappas, Christoforos

    2016-04-01

    The importance of accurate representation of precipitation at fine time scales (e.g., hourly), directly associated with flash flood events, is crucial in hydrological design and prediction. The upper part of a probability distribution, known as the distribution tail, determines the behavior of extreme events. In general, and loosely speaking, tails can be categorized in two families: the subexponential and the hyperexponential family, with the first generating more intense and more frequent extremes compared to the latter. In past studies, the focus has been mainly on daily precipitation, with the Gamma distribution being the most popular model. Here, we investigate the behaviour of tails of hourly precipitation by comparing the upper part of empirical distributions of thousands of records with three general types of tails corresponding to the Pareto, Lognormal, and Weibull distributions. Specifically, we use thousands of hourly rainfall records from all over the USA. The analysis indicates that heavier-tailed distributions describe better the observed hourly rainfall extremes in comparison to lighter tails. Traditional representations of the marginal distribution of hourly rainfall may significantly deviate from observed behaviours of extremes, with direct implications on hydroclimatic variables modelling and engineering design.

  3. Trying to Learn Lessons for Response to Extreme Events: Paradigm Shifts Affecting Civil Defense in the Trinational Region of Southwestern Amazonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, G. L. P.

    2015-12-01

    The last ten years have seen several extreme climate events in southwestern Amazonia with historic impacts. The City of Rio Branco, Capital of Acre, Brazil´s westernmost State, suffered its seventh consecutive annual flooding and its worst in March 2015. The city of Tarauacá, also in Acre, registered 12 flooding events between November 2014 and April 2015. The most recent flood of the trinational Acre River in 2015 set historic records for flood stage and number of displaced persons in Cobija, the Capital of Pando, Bolivia. From February to April 2014, floods of the Madeira River disrupted the one highway between Acre and southern Brazil. Puerto Maldonado, the capital in Madre de Dios Region of Peru had its worst flood in 50 years during 2014. In 2005 and 2010, prolonged droughts combined with ignition sources resulted in tens to hundreds of thousands of hectares of fire-damaged rainforests in the Madre de Dios, Acre and Pando (MAP) Region. The Civil Defenses in these three contiguous political units faced several abrupt paradigm shifts that affected their responses: 1) The drought of 2005 showed dramatically that regional rainforests do burn; 2) The recent flooding history, particularly in 2012 and 2015, demolished the cultural icon of a nine-year recurrence interval; 3) What happens outside your territory can be devastating. The Madeira River flood impeded an estimated 200 million dollars from circulating in Acre; 4) The past can be a terrible guide. For Cobija and Rio Branco, the 2015 flood was on the order of a meter higher than any other. Many home dwellers did not evacuate in time because they used past floods as a guide; 5) A collapse in communication - cell phones, land lines, and Internet - can get worse. In 2012, such a collapse occurred in two border towns for 5 days, yet in 2015 it lasted more than 11 days. Research is needed to address how institutions linked to Civil Defense can shift paradigms in time to be more effective.

  4. Extremely Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Fields Affect the miRNA-Mediated Regulation of Signaling Pathways in the GC-2 Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Kai-jun; Ao, Lin; Cao, Jia; Zhong, Julia Li; Liu, Jin-yi

    2015-01-01

    Extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs) can affect male reproductive function, but the underlying mechanism of this effect remains unknown. miRNA-mediated regulation has been implicated as an important epigenetic mechanism for regulatory pathways. Herein, we profiled miRNA expression in response to ELF-EMFs in vitro. Mouse spermatocyte-derived GC–2 cells were intermittently exposed to a 50 Hz ELF-EMF for 72 h (5 min on/10 min off) at magnetic field intensities of 1 mT, 2 mT and 3 mT. Cell viability was assessed using the CCK–8 assay. Apoptosis and the cell cycle were analyzed with flow cytometry. miRNA expression was profiled using Affymetrix Mouse Genechip miRNA 3.0 arrays. Our data showed that the growth, apoptosis or cell cycle arrest of GC–2 cells exposed to the 50 Hz ELF-EMF did not significantly change. However, we identified a total of 55 miRNAs whose expression significantly changed compared with the sham group, including 19 differentially expressed miRNAs (7 miRNAs were upregulated, and 12 were downregulated) in the 1 mT exposure group and 36 (9 miRNAs were upregulated, and 27 were downregulated) in the 3 mT exposure group. The changes in the expression of 15 selected miRNAs measured by real-time PCR were consistent with the microarray results. A network analysis was used to predict core miRNAs and target genes, including miR-30e-5p, miR-210-5p, miR-196b-5p, miR-504-3p, miR-669c-5p and miR-455-3p. We found that these miRNAs were differentially expressed in response to different magnetic field intensities of ELF-EMFs. GO term and KEGG pathway annotation based on the miRNA expression profiling results showed that miRNAs may regulate circadian rhythms, cytokine-cytokine receptor interactions and the p53 signaling pathway. These results suggested that miRNAs could serve as potential biomarkers, and the miRNA-mediated regulation of signaling pathways might play significant roles in the biological effects of ELF-EMFs. PMID:26439850

  5. Augmenting Learning in an Out-of-School Context: The Cognitive and Affective Impact of Two Cryogenics-Based Enrichment Programmes on Upper Primary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caleon, Imelda S.; Subramaniam, R.

    2007-01-01

    Concepts learned in the classroom were reinforced and augmented by presenting them in a different context using cryogenics-based enrichment programmes (CBEPs) held in an out-of-school setting. The effectiveness of two CBEPs, which involve the use of liquid nitrogen and liquid oxygen, was explored. Using a sample of 265 upper primary students, it…

  6. Factors affecting the thermal environment of Agassiz’s Desert Tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) cover sites in the Central Mojave Desert during periods of temperature extremes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mack, Jeremy S.; Berry, Kristin H.; Miller, David; Carlson, Andrea S.

    2015-01-01

    Agassiz's Desert Tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) spend >95% of their lives underground in cover sites that serve as thermal buffers from temperatures, which can fluctuate >40°C on a daily and seasonal basis. We monitored temperatures at 30 active tortoise cover sites within the Soda Mountains, San Bernardino County, California, from February 2004 to September 2006. Cover sites varied in type and structural characteristics, including opening height and width, soil cover depth over the opening, aspect, tunnel length, and surficial geology. We focused our analyses on periods of extreme temperature: in summer, between July 1 and September 1, and winter, between November 1 and February 15. With the use of multivariate regression tree analyses, we found cover-site temperatures were influenced largely by tunnel length and subsequently opening width and soil cover. Linear regression models further showed that increasing tunnel length increased temperature stability and dampened seasonal temperature extremes. Climate change models predict increased warming for southwestern North America. Cover sites that buffer temperature extremes and fluctuations will become increasingly important for survival of tortoises. In planning future translocation projects and conservation efforts, decision makers should consider habitats with terrain and underlying substrate that sustain cover sites with long tunnels and expanded openings for tortoises living under temperature extremes similar to those described here or as projected in the future.

  7. [Distribution characteristics of dissolved oxygen and its affecting factors in the Pearl River Estuary during the summer of the extremely drought hydrological year 2011].

    PubMed

    Ye, Feng; Huang, Xiao-ping; Shi, Zhen; Liu, Qing-xi

    2013-05-01

    More and more attention has focused on assessing impacts of extreme hydrologic events on estuarine ecosystem under the background of climate change. Based on a summer cruise conducted in the Pearl River Estuary in 2011 (extreme drought event), we have investigated the spatial distribution of dissolved oxygen (DO) and its relationships to water column stability, nutrient concentrations, and organic matter; besides, the major reason which caused the oxygen depletion was discussed. Under the influence of the extreme drought event, low bottom water dissolved oxygen was apparent in regions characterized by great depths, with an oxygen minimum value of 1.38 mg x L(-1). Statistical analysis shows significant correlations among deltaDO, deltaT, deltaS and deltaPOC. A comparison was conducted to show the mechanisms of oxygen depletion during the summers of 1999, 2009 and 2011, respectively. The result indicates that prolonged residence time of water due to the extremely low discharge and the subsequently decomposition of organic substance are major factors causing the formation of hypoxia during the summer drought in 2011. Despite the changing nutrient and organic matter regime in the Pearl River Estuary, there was no apparent trend in the minimum values of DO over the past 2 decades.

  8. Factors affecting the f × Q product of 3C-SiC microstrings: What is the upper limit for sensitivity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kermany, Atieh R.; Bennett, James S.; Brawley, George A.; Bowen, Warwick P.; Iacopi, Francesca

    2016-02-01

    The fn × Q (Hz) is a crucial sensitivity parameter for micro-electro-mechanical sensing. We have recently shown a fn × Q product of ˜1012 Hz for microstrings made of cubic silicon carbide on silicon, establishing a new state-of-the-art and opening new frontiers for mass sensing applications. In this work, we analyse the main parameters influencing the frequency and quality factor of silicon carbide microstrings (material properties, microstring geometry, clamping condition, and environmental pressure) and investigate the potential for approaching the theoretical upper limit. We indicate that our previous result is only about a factor 2 lower than the thermoelastic dissipation limit. For fully reaching this upper limit, a substantial reduction of the defects in the silicon carbide thin film would be required, while maintaining a high residual tensile stress in the perfect-clamped strings.

  9. Upper limb prostheses.

    PubMed

    Bogucki, A

    2001-04-30

    This article discusses the technical and medical difficulties involved in managing prostheses of the upper limb. The level of amputation governs the type of prosthesis construction chosen, but does not affect emotional acceptance. The factors determining therapeutic success include the quality of the stump, the skill involved in prosthetic socket fabrication, and the proper selection of modular components, as well as good rehabilitation and professional care for the patient with amputated upper limb. PMID:17987000

  10. Heavy metals in waters and suspended sediments affected by a mine tailing spill in the upper San Lorenzo River, Northwestern México.

    PubMed

    Páez-Osuna, F; Bojórquez-Leyva, H; Bergés-Tiznado, M; Rubio-Hernández, O A; Fierro-Sañudo, J F; Ramírez-Rochín, J; León-Cañedo, J A

    2015-05-01

    Concentrations of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), silver (Ag) and zinc (Zn) were evaluated in water and suspended sediments of the upper waters of San Lorenzo River in NW Mexico following a mine tailing spill. Except As (6.64-35.9 µg L(-1)), dissolved metal concentrations were low (Ag <0.06-0.22; Cd 0.01-0.34; Cu 4.71-10.2; Hg 0.02-0.24; Pb <0.15-0.65; Zn 86-1,080 µg L(-1)) and were less than the upper limits established by UNEP (Water quality for ecosystem and human health, 2nd edn. United Nations Environment Programme Global Environment Monitoring System/Water Programme, Burlington, 2008), EPA (2014) and the Mexican regulation (NOM 1994). In contrast, the suspended metal concentrations were high (As 91.4-130; Ag 22.1-531; Cd 3.14-6.30; Cu 65-123; Hg 0.47-1.09; Pb 260-818; Zn 742-1,810 mg kg(-1)) and most of samples exceeded the probable effect level of the Canadian Sediment Quality Guidelines for the Protection of Aquatic Life.

  11. Relaxation mechanisms affecting magneto-optical resonances in an extremely thin cell: Experiment and theory for the cesium D1 line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auzinsh, M.; Berzins, A.; Ferber, R.; Gahbauer, F.; Kalnins, U.; Kalvans, L.; Rundans, R.; Sarkisyan, D.

    2015-02-01

    We have measured magneto-optical signals obtained by exciting the D1 line of cesium atoms confined to an extremely thin cell (ETC), whose walls are separated by less than 1 μ m , and developed an improved theoretical model to describe these signals with experimental precision. The theoretical model was based on the optical Bloch equations and included all neighboring hyperfine transitions, the mixing of the magnetic sublevels in an external magnetic field, and the Doppler effect, as in previous studies. However, in order to model the extreme conditions in the ETC more realistically, the model was extended to include a unified treatment of transit relaxation and wall collisions with relaxation rates that were obtained directly from the thermal velocities of the atoms and the length scales involved. Furthermore, the interactions of the atoms with different regions of the laser beam were modeled separately to account for the varying laser beam intensity over the beam profile as well as saturation effects that become important near the center of the beam at the relatively high laser intensities used during the experiments in order to obtain measurable signals. The model described the experimentally measured signals for laser intensities for magnetic fields up to 55 G and laser intensities up to 1 W/cm2 with excellent agreement.

  12. Augmenting Learning in an Out-of-school Context: The Cognitive and Affective Impact of Two Cryogenics-based Enrichment Programmes on Upper Primary Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caleon, Imelda S.; Subramaniam, R.

    2007-07-01

    Concepts learned in the classroom were reinforced and augmented by presenting them in a different context using cryogenics-based enrichment programmes (CBEPs) held in an out-of-school setting. The effectiveness of two CBEPs, which involve the use of liquid nitrogen and liquid oxygen, was explored. Using a sample of 265 upper primary students, it was found that both enrichment programmes were effective in promoting the learning of science concepts. Fair improvements, albeit only transient, in two attitude constructs, enjoyment of science and career preference, due to either CBEPs were detected. The CBEPs did not have any significant impact on the attitude construct relating to students’ views on the social implications of science. The impact of CBEPs showed signs of retention, specifically in the cognitive realm, and reasonable indications of influencing subsequent learning and activities of students.

  13. Monomelic amyotrophy (hirayama disease) with upper motor neuron signs: a case report.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Seung Don; Kim, Hee-Sang; Yun, Dong Hwan; Kim, Dong Hwan; Chon, Jinmann; Lee, Seung Ah; Lee, Sung Yong; Han, Yoo Jin

    2015-02-01

    Monomelic amyotrophy (MMA), also known as Hirayama disease, is a sporadic juvenile muscular atrophy in the distal upper extremities. This disorder rarely involves proximal upper extremities and presents minimal sensory symptoms with no upper motor neuron (UMN) signs. It is caused by anterior displacement of the posterior dural sac and compression of the cervical cord during neck flexion. An 18-year-old boy visited our clinic with a 5-year history of left upper extremity pain and slowly progressive weakness affecting the left shoulder. Atrophy was present in the left supraspinatus and infraspinatus. On neurological examination, positive UMN signs were evident in both upper and lower extremities. Electrodiagnostic study showed root lesion involving the fifth to seventh cervical segment of the cord with chronic and ongoing denervation in the fifth and sixth cervical segment innervated muscles. Cervical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed asymmetric cord atrophy apparent in the left side and intramedullary high signal intensity along the fourth to sixth cervical vertebral levels. With neck flexion, cervical MRI revealed anterior displacement of posterior dural sac, which results in the cord compression of those segments. The mechanisms of myelopathy in our patient seem to be same as that of MMA. We report a MMA patient involving proximal limb with UMN signs in biomechanical concerns and discuss clinical importance of cervical MRI with neck flexion. The case highlights that clinical variation might cause misdiagnosis. PMID:25750881

  14. Environmental factors affecting distribution and abundance of bacteria, fungi and protozoa in subsurface sediments of the Upper Atlantic Coastal Plain, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, S.N.; Ghiorse, W.C.

    1990-01-01

    Exploratory statistical analyses of microbiological, hydrological and geochemical data for samples from four boreholes drilled into Upper Atlantic Coastal Plain sediments near the Savannah River Site, SC, showed highly significant correlations between bacterial abundance (AODC and CFU) and hydraulic conductivity (K). Sediment texture variables (% sand (S), % silt, % clay (C), and S/C) were strongly interrelated with K and, therefore, also correlated with bacterial abundance. AODC did not correlate with the concentrations of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) or dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in pore water. CFU also did not correlate with DIN, but a negative relationship was found between the CFU and DOC for sandy sediments, suggesting that microbial activity may control pore water DOC concentration. In some, but not all boreholes, AODC and CFU correlated negatively with pore water concentrations of metals and positively with pH. Protozoan abundance correlated strongly with AODC and CFU in the two boreholes closest to the recharge areas for their major aquifers. It also correlated with sediment texture variables, but not with K. Fungal abundance did not correlate with the abundance of other microbial types when data from individual boreholes were considered; however it did correlate with both bacterial and protozoan abundance when data from all four boreholes were combined. There was no relationship between fungal abundance and either K or sediment texture.

  15. Environmental factors affecting distribution and abundance of bacteria, fungi and protozoa in subsurface sediments of the Upper Atlantic Coastal Plain, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, S.N.; Ghiorse, W.C.

    1990-12-31

    Exploratory statistical analyses of microbiological, hydrological and geochemical data for samples from four boreholes drilled into Upper Atlantic Coastal Plain sediments near the Savannah River Site, SC, showed highly significant correlations between bacterial abundance (AODC and CFU) and hydraulic conductivity (K). Sediment texture variables (% sand (S), % silt, % clay (C), and S/C) were strongly interrelated with K and, therefore, also correlated with bacterial abundance. AODC did not correlate with the concentrations of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) or dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in pore water. CFU also did not correlate with DIN, but a negative relationship was found between the CFU and DOC for sandy sediments, suggesting that microbial activity may control pore water DOC concentration. In some, but not all boreholes, AODC and CFU correlated negatively with pore water concentrations of metals and positively with pH. Protozoan abundance correlated strongly with AODC and CFU in the two boreholes closest to the recharge areas for their major aquifers. It also correlated with sediment texture variables, but not with K. Fungal abundance did not correlate with the abundance of other microbial types when data from individual boreholes were considered; however it did correlate with both bacterial and protozoan abundance when data from all four boreholes were combined. There was no relationship between fungal abundance and either K or sediment texture.

  16. Multi-scale Factors Affecting the Distribution of the Critically Imperiled Crayfish, Orconectes williamsi, in the Upper White River Drainage of Missouri, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westhoff, J. T.; Distefano, R. J.; Guyot, J. A.; McManus, M. G.

    2005-05-01

    Orconectes williamsi is known from only a few locations in the upper White River drainage of Missouri and Arkansas. We implemented a stratified (by stream order) random survey to sample for this crayfish in Missouri in 2003-04. Survey objectives were twofold. First, we estimated the overall proportion of stream order segments (segments of streams between points where stream order changes) in the drainage harboring O. williamsi, and then estimated the proportion of first, second and third (or larger) order stream segments harboring this crayfish. Second, we obtained means or ratio estimators (point estimates) and 95 % confidence limits (interval estimates) for 62 environmental variables and conducted overall contrasts of those estimates between segments that did and did not harbor O. williamsi. For significant overall contrasts, we then conducted contrasts partitioned by stream order. We detected O. williamsi at an overall proportion of 0.34 of 50 sampled segments, with no difference between first and second order stream segments. Variables exhibiting differences between segments that did and did not harbor O. williamsi included bankfull width:bankfull depth ratio, wetted width:wetted depth ratio, macrophyte abundance, elevation, and stream connectivity. Results will be used to drive future sampling and conservation efforts.

  17. Rooting depth, water relations and non-structural carbohydrate dynamics in three woody angiosperms differentially affected by an extreme summer drought.

    PubMed

    Nardini, Andrea; Casolo, Valentino; Dal Borgo, Anna; Savi, Tadeja; Stenni, Barbara; Bertoncin, Paolo; Zini, Luca; McDowell, Nathan G

    2016-03-01

    In 2012, an extreme summer drought induced species-specific die-back in woody species in Northeastern Italy. Quercus pubescens and Ostrya carpinifolia were heavily impacted, while Prunus mahaleb was largely unaffected. By comparing seasonal changes in isotopic composition of xylem sap, rainfall and deep soil samples, we show that P. mahaleb has a deeper root system than the other two species. This morphological trait allowed P  mahaleb to maintain higher water potential (Ψ), gas exchange rates and non-structural carbohydrates content (NSC) throughout the summer, when compared with the other species. More favourable water and carbon states allowed relatively stable maintenance of stem hydraul