Science.gov

Sample records for affecting anatomical region

  1. Methamphetamine differentially affects BDNF and cell death factors in anatomically defined regions of the hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Galinato, Melissa H.; Orio, Laura; Mandyam, Chitra D.

    2014-01-01

    hippocampal subregions that may contribute to the altered synaptic activity in the hippocampus, which may underlie enhanced negative affective symptoms and perpetuation of the addiction cycle. PMID:25463524

  2. Complex anatomic variation in the brachial region.

    PubMed

    Troupis, Th; Michalinos, A; Protogerou, V; Mazarakis, A; Skandalakis, P

    2015-01-01

    Authors describe a case of a complex anatomic variation discovered during dissection of the humeral region. On the right side, brachial artery followed a superficial course. Musculocutaneous nerve did not pierce coracobrachialis muscle but instead passed below the muscle before continuing in the forearm. On the left side, a communication between musculocutaneous and median nerve was dissected. Those variations are analytically presented with a brief review on their anatomic and clinical implications. Considerations on their embryological origin are attempted.

  3. Anorectal Cancer: Critical Anatomic and Staging Distinctions That Affect Use of Radiation Therapy.

    PubMed

    Matalon, Shanna A; Mamon, Harvey J; Fuchs, Charles S; Doyle, Leona A; Tirumani, Sree Harsha; Ramaiya, Nikhil H; Rosenthal, Michael H

    2015-01-01

    Although rectal and anal cancers are anatomically close, they are distinct entities with different histologic features, risk factors, staging systems, and treatment pathways. Imaging is at the core of initial clinical staging of these cancers and most commonly includes magnetic resonance imaging for local-regional staging and computed tomography for evaluation of metastatic disease. The details of the primary tumor and involvement of regional lymph nodes are crucial in determining if and how radiation therapy should be used in treatment of these cancers. Unfortunately, available imaging modalities have been shown to have imperfect accuracy for identification of nodal metastases and imaging features other than size. Staging of nonmetastatic rectal cancers is dependent on the depth of invasion (T stage) and the number of involved regional lymph nodes (N stage). Staging of nonmetastatic anal cancers is determined according to the size of the primary mass and the combination of regional nodal sites involved; the number of positive nodes at each site is not a consideration for staging. Patients with T3 rectal tumors and/or involvement of perirectal, mesenteric, and internal iliac lymph nodes receive radiation therapy. Almost all anal cancers warrant use of radiation therapy, but the extent and dose of the radiation fields is altered on the basis of both the size of the primary lesion and the presence and extent of nodal involvement. The radiologist must recognize and report these critical anatomic and staging distinctions, which affect use of radiation therapy in patients with anal and rectal cancers.

  4. The Anatomical Society core regional anatomy syllabus for undergraduate medicine.

    PubMed

    Smith, C F; Finn, G M; Stewart, J; Atkinson, M A; Davies, D C; Dyball, R; Morris, J; Ockleford, C; Parkin, I; Standring, S; Whiten, S; Wilton, J; McHanwell, S

    2016-01-01

    The Anatomical Society's core syllabus for anatomy (2003 and later refined in 2007) set out a series of learning outcomes that an individual medical student should achieve on graduation. The core syllabus, with 182 learning outcomes grouped in body regions, referenced in the General Medical Council's Teaching Tomorrow's Doctors, was open to criticism on the grounds that the learning outcomes were generated by a relatively small group of anatomists, albeit some of whom were clinically qualified. We have therefore used a modified Delphi technique to seek a wider consensus. A Delphi panel was constructed involving 'experts' (n = 39). The revised core syllabus of 156 learning outcomes presented here is applicable to all medical programmes and may be used by curriculum planners, teachers and students alike in addressing the perennial question: 'What do I need to know ?'

  5. Reduction of variance in measurements of average metabolite concentration in anatomically-defined brain regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Ryan J.; Newman, Michael; Nikolaidis, Aki

    2016-11-01

    Multiple methods have been proposed for using Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Imaging (MRSI) to measure representative metabolite concentrations of anatomically-defined brain regions. Generally these methods require spectral analysis, quantitation of the signal, and reconciliation with anatomical brain regions. However, to simplify processing pipelines, it is practical to only include those corrections that significantly improve data quality. Of particular importance for cross-sectional studies is knowledge about how much each correction lowers the inter-subject variance of the measurement, thereby increasing statistical power. Here we use a data set of 72 subjects to calculate the reduction in inter-subject variance produced by several corrections that are commonly used to process MRSI data. Our results demonstrate that significant reductions of variance can be achieved by performing water scaling, accounting for tissue type, and integrating MRSI data over anatomical regions rather than simply assigning MRSI voxels with anatomical region labels.

  6. Remarkable anatomic variations in paranasal sinus region and their clinical importance.

    PubMed

    Kantarci, Mecit; Karasen, R Murat; Alper, Fatih; Onbas, Omer; Okur, Adnan; Karaman, Adem

    2004-06-01

    With the advent of functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) and coronal computed tomography (CT) imaging, considerable attention has been directed toward paranasal region anatomy. Detailed knowledge of anatomic variations in paranasal sinus region is critical for surgeons performing endoscopic sinus surgery as well as for the radiologist involved in the preoperative work-up. To be in the known anatomical variants with some accompanying pathologies, directly influence the success of diagnostic and therapeutic management of paranasal sinus diseases. A review of 512 (1024 sides) paranasal sinus tomographic scans was carried out to expose remarkable anatomic variations of this region. We used only coronal sections, but for some cases to clear exact diagnosis, additional axial CT scan, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and nasal endoscopy were also performed. In this pictorial essay, rates of remarkable anatomic variations in paranasal region were displayed. The images of some interesting cases were illustrated, such as the Onodi cell in which isolated mucocele caused loss of visual acuity, agger nasi cell, Haller's cell, uncinate bulla, giant superior concha bullosa, inferior concha bullosa, bilateral carotid artery protrusion into sphenoid sinus, maxillary sinus agenesis, bilateral secondary middle turbinate (SMT) and sphenomaxillary plate. The clinical importance of all these variations were discussed under the light of the literature. It was suggested that remarkable anatomic variations of paranasal region and their possible pathologic consequences should be well defined in order to improve success of management strategies, and to avoid potential complications of endoscopic sinus surgery. The radiologist must pay close attention to anatomical variations in the preoperative evaluation.

  7. Anatomical variations in the human paranasal sinus region studied by CT

    PubMed Central

    PÉREZ-PIÑAS, I.; SABATÉ, J.; CARMONA, A.; CATALINA-HERRERA, C. J.; JIMÉNEZ-CASTELLANOS, J.

    2000-01-01

    A precise knowledge of the anatomy of the paranasal sinuses is essential for the clinician. Conventional radiology does not permit a detailed study of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses, and has now largely been replaced by computerised tomographic (CT) imaging. This gives an applied anatomical view of the region and the anatomical variants that are very often found. The detection of these variants to prevent potential hazards is essential for the use of current of endoscopic surgery on the sinuses. In the present work, we have studied the anatomical variants observed in the nasal fossae and paranasal sinuses in 110 Spanish subjects, using CT in the coronal plane, complemented by horizontal views. We have concentrated on the variants of the nasal septum, middle nasal concha, ethmoid unciform process and ethmoid bulla, together with others of lesser frequency. The population studied showed great anatomical variability, and a high percentage (67%) presented one or more anatomical variants. Discounting agger nasi air cells and asymmetry of both cavities of the sphenoidal sinus, which were present in all our cases, the variations most often observed were, in order, deviation of the nasal septum, the presence of a concha bullosa, bony spurs of the nasal septum and Onodi air cells. PMID:11005714

  8. Critical anatomic region of nasopalatine canal based on tridimensional analysis: cone beam computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Alonso, Ana; Antonio Suárez-Quintanilla, Juan; Muinelo-Lorenzo, Juan; Varela-Mallou, Jesús; Smyth Chamosa, Ernesto; Mercedes Suárez-Cunqueiro, María

    2015-01-01

    The study aim of this was to define the critical anatomic region of the premaxilla by evaluating dimensions of nasopalatine canal, buccal bone plate (BBP) and palatal bone plate (PBP). 230 CBCTs were selected with both, one or no upper central incisors present (+/+, −/+, −/−) and periodontal condition was evaluated. T-student test, ANOVA, Pearson´s correlation and a multivariant-linear regression model (MLRM) were used. Regarding gender, significant differences at level 1 (lower NC) were found for: buccal-palatal, transversal and sagittal NC diameters, and NC length (NCL). Regarding dental status, significant differences were found for: total BBP length (tBL) and PBP width (PW2) at level 2 (NCL midpoint). NCL was correlated with PW2, tBL, and PBP length at level 3 (foramina of Stenson level). An MLRM had a high prediction value for NCL (69.3%). Gender is related to NC dimensions. Dental status has an influence on BBP dimensions, but does not influence on NC and PBP. Periodontal condition should be evaluated for precise premaxillae analysis NC diameters at the three anatomical planes are related to each other, while NCL is related to BBP and PBP lengths. A third of premaxilla is taken up by NC, thus, establishing the critical anatomic region. PMID:26245884

  9. Critical anatomic region of nasopalatine canal based on tridimensional analysis: cone beam computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Alonso, Ana; Suárez-Quintanilla, Juan Antonio; Muinelo-Lorenzo, Juan; Varela-Mallou, Jesús; Smyth Chamosa, Ernesto; Suárez-Cunqueiro, María Mercedes

    2015-01-01

    The study aim of this was to define the critical anatomic region of the premaxilla by evaluating dimensions of nasopalatine canal, buccal bone plate (BBP) and palatal bone plate (PBP). 230 CBCTs were selected with both, one or no upper central incisors present (+/+, -/+, -/-) and periodontal condition was evaluated. T-student test, ANOVA, Pearson's correlation and a multivariant-linear regression model (MLRM) were used. Regarding gender, significant differences at level 1 (lower NC) were found for: buccal-palatal, transversal and sagittal NC diameters, and NC length (NCL). Regarding dental status, significant differences were found for: total BBP length (tBL) and PBP width (PW2) at level 2 (NCL midpoint). NCL was correlated with PW2, tBL, and PBP length at level 3 (foramina of Stenson level). An MLRM had a high prediction value for NCL (69.3%). Gender is related to NC dimensions. Dental status has an influence on BBP dimensions, but does not influence on NC and PBP. Periodontal condition should be evaluated for precise premaxillae analysis NC diameters at the three anatomical planes are related to each other, while NCL is related to BBP and PBP lengths. A third of premaxilla is taken up by NC, thus, establishing the critical anatomic region. PMID:26245884

  10. Impairment in cognitive and affective empathy in patients with brain lesions: anatomical and cognitive correlates.

    PubMed

    Shamay-Tsoory, S G; Tomer, R; Goldsher, D; Berger, B D; Aharon-Peretz, J

    2004-11-01

    The present study was designed to examine the degree of impairment in cognitive and affective empathy among patients with focal brain lesions, and the contribution of specific cognitive abilities (such as cognitive flexibility and processing of emotional information), to empathy. The cognitive and affective empathic response of patients with localized prefrontal lesions (n=36) was compared to responses of patients with parietal lesions (n=15) and healthy control subjects (n=19). Results indicate that patients with prefrontal lesions (especially those with lesions involving the orbitoprefrontal and medial regions) were significantly impaired in both cognitive and affective empathy as compared to parietal patients and healthy controls. When the damage was restricted to the prefrontal cortex, either left- or right-hemisphere lesions resulted in impaired empathy. However, when the lesion involved the right hemisphere, patients with parietal lesions were also impaired. The pattern of relationships between cognitive performance and empathy suggested dissociation between the cognitive correlates of affective and cognitive empathy. PMID:15590464

  11. Measuring structural-functional correspondence: spatial variability of specialised brain regions after macro-anatomical alignment.

    PubMed

    Frost, Martin A; Goebel, Rainer

    2012-01-16

    The central question of the relationship between structure and function in the human brain is still not well understood. In order to investigate this fundamental relationship we create functional probabilistic maps from a large set of mapping experiments and compare the location of functionally localised regions across subjects using different whole-brain alignment schemes. To avoid the major problems associated with meta-analysis approaches, all subjects are scanned using the same paradigms, the same scanner and the same analysis pipeline. We show that an advanced, curvature driven cortex based alignment (CBA) scheme largely removes macro-anatomical variability across subjects. Remaining variability in the observed spatial location of functional regions, thus, reflects the "true" functional variability, i.e. the quantified variability is a good estimator of the underlying structural-functional correspondence. After localising 13 widely studied functional areas, we found a large variability in the degree to which functional areas respect macro-anatomical boundaries across the cortex. Some areas, such as the frontal eye fields (FEF) are strongly bound to a macro-anatomical location. Fusiform face area (FFA) on the other hand, varies in its location along the length of the fusiform gyrus even though the gyri themselves are well aligned across subjects. Language areas were found to vary greatly across subjects whilst a high degree of overlap was observed in sensory and motor areas. The observed differences in functional variability for different specialised areas suggest that a more complete estimation of the structure-function relationship across the whole cortex requires further empirical studies with an expanded test battery.

  12. Anatomical Society core regional anatomy syllabus for undergraduate medicine: the Delphi process.

    PubMed

    Smith, C F; Finn, G M; Stewart, J; McHanwell, S

    2016-01-01

    A modified Delphi method was employed to seek consensus when revising the UK and Ireland's core syllabus for regional anatomy in undergraduate medicine. A Delphi panel was constructed involving 'expert' (individuals with at least 5 years' experience in teaching medical students anatomy at the level required for graduation). The panel (n = 39) was selected and nominated by members of Council and/or the Education Committee of the Anatomical Society and included a range of specialists including surgeons, radiologists and anatomists. The experts were asked in two stages to 'accept', 'reject' or 'modify' (first stage only) each learning outcome. A third stage, which was not part of the Delphi method, then allowed the original authors of the syllabus to make changes either to correct any anatomical errors or to make minor syntax changes. From the original syllabus of 182 learning outcomes, removing the neuroanatomy component (163), 23 learning outcomes (15%) remained unchanged, seven learning outcomes were removed and two new learning outcomes added. The remaining 133 learning outcomes were modified. All learning outcomes on the new core syllabus achieved over 90% acceptance by the panel.

  13. 3D CT Imaging for Craniofacial Analysis Based on Anatomical Regions.

    PubMed

    Wan Harun, W A R; Ahmad Rajion, Zainul; Abdul Aziz, Izhar; Rani Samsudin, Abdul

    2005-01-01

    The development of a craniofacial database is a multidisciplinary initiative that will provide an important reference for community, security, social and medical applications. A method of landmark identifications and measurements in 3d on craniofacial patients is described. anatomical regions such as mandible, orbits, zygoma and maxilla are located, created and stored as templates of 3D CAD files for subsequent analysis. Data from these images were tested for accuracy and repeatability by comparing with direct measurements using caliper and CMM. The landmark points are reproducible in CAD system for further analysis. it was found that the approach provides a fast, accurate and efficient method for landmarks identification of the craniofacial areas in database development. PMID:17282309

  14. Reducing Inter-subject Anatomical Variation: Effect of Normalization Method on Sensitivity of Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Data Analysis in Auditory Cortex and the Superior Temporal Region

    PubMed Central

    Tahmasebi, Amir M.; Abolmaesumi, Purang; Zheng, Zane Z.; Munhall, Kevin G.; Johnsrude, Ingrid S.

    2009-01-01

    Conventional group analysis of functional MRI (fMRI) data usually involves spatial alignment of anatomy across participants by registering every brain image to an anatomical reference image. Due to the high degree of inter-subject anatomical variability, a low-resolution average anatomical model is typically used as the target template, and/or smoothing kernels are applied to the fMRI data to increase the overlap among subjects’ image data. However, such smoothing can make it difficult to resolve small regions such as subregions of auditory cortex when anatomical morphology varies among subjects. Here, we use data from an auditory fMRI study to show that using a high-dimensional registration technique (HAMMER) results in an enhanced functional signal-to-noise ratio (fSNR) for functional data analysis within auditory regions, with more localized activation patterns. The technique is validated against DARTEL, a high-dimensional diffeomorphic registration, as well as against commonly used low-dimensional normalization techniques such as the techniques provided with SPM2 (cosine basis functions) and SPM5 (unified segmentation) software packages. We also systematically examine how spatial resolution of the template image and spatial smoothing of the functional data affect the results. Only the high-dimensional technique (HAMMER) appears to be able to capitalize on the excellent anatomical resolution of a single-subject reference template, and, as expected, smoothing increased fSNR, but at the cost of spatial resolution. In general, results demonstrate significant improvement in fSNR using HAMMER compared to analysis after normalization using DARTEL, or conventional normalization such as cosine basis function and unified segmentation in SPM, with more precisely localized activation foci, at least for activation in the region of auditory cortex. PMID:19481162

  15. Anatomical factors affecting the selection of an operative approach for fibular fractures involving the posterior malleolus

    PubMed Central

    WANG, XU; MA, XIN; ZHANG, CHAO; HUANG, JIAZHANG; JIANG, JIANYUAN

    2013-01-01

    Several operative approaches are available at present for the exposure and fixation of distal fibular fractures combined with posterior malleolus fractures. The present study was designed to study the anatomical characteristics of the distal fibula and to thereby evaluate the advantages and limitations of various operative approaches, as well as their indications for specific conditions. Ten leg specimens from below the knee joint were dissected using posterior, lateral and posterolateral approaches to the fibula. The adjacent vulnerable structures, including nerves, blood vessels, tendons and ligaments, were carefully examined and their distances from the posterior malleolus were recorded. The distance was 7.2±4.1 mm between the sural nerve and the posterior section of the fibula, 79.2±23.5 mm between the lateral malleolus tip and the point where the shape changes in the lower fibula and 66.4±17.4 mm between the lateral malleolus and the jointed tendon of the peroneal and flexor hallux longus muscles. The widest anteroposterior diameter of the distal fibula was 27.3±3.5 mm. Various approaches have certain advantages and limitations when these anatomical factors are taken into account. The choice should be based on the height of the fibular fracture line, the type of posterior malleolus fracture, the effect of the fracture on the stability of the ankle joint and the materials used for internal fixation. PMID:23403714

  16. Anatomical coupling among distributed cortical regions in youth varies as a function of individual differences in vocabulary abilities.

    PubMed

    Lee, Nancy Raitano; Raznahan, Armin; Wallace, Gregory L; Alexander-Bloch, Aaron; Clasen, Liv S; Lerch, Jason P; Giedd, Jay N

    2014-05-01

    Patient lesion and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have provided convincing evidence that a distributed brain network subserves word knowledge. However, little is known about the structural correlates of this network within the context of typical development and whether anatomical coupling in linguistically relevant regions of cortex varies as a function of vocabulary skill. Here we investigate the association between vocabulary and anatomical coupling in 235 typically developing youth (ages 6-19 years) using structural MRI. The study's primary aim was to evaluate whether higher vocabulary performance was associated with greater vertex-level cortical thickness covariation in distributed regions of cortex known to be associated with word knowledge. Results indicate that better vocabulary skills are associated with greater anatomical coupling in several linguistically relevant regions of cortex, including the left inferior parietal (temporal-parietal junction), inferior temporal, middle frontal, and superior frontal gyri and the right inferior frontal and precentral gyri. Furthermore, in high vocabulary scorers, stronger coupling is found among these regions. Thus, complementing patient and fMRI studies, this is the first investigation to highlight the relevance of anatomical covariance within the cortex to vocabulary skills in typically developing youth, further elucidating the distributed nature of neural systems subserving word knowledge.

  17. Anatomical coupling among distributed cortical regions in youth varies as a function of individual differences in vocabulary abilities.

    PubMed

    Lee, Nancy Raitano; Raznahan, Armin; Wallace, Gregory L; Alexander-Bloch, Aaron; Clasen, Liv S; Lerch, Jason P; Giedd, Jay N

    2014-05-01

    Patient lesion and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have provided convincing evidence that a distributed brain network subserves word knowledge. However, little is known about the structural correlates of this network within the context of typical development and whether anatomical coupling in linguistically relevant regions of cortex varies as a function of vocabulary skill. Here we investigate the association between vocabulary and anatomical coupling in 235 typically developing youth (ages 6-19 years) using structural MRI. The study's primary aim was to evaluate whether higher vocabulary performance was associated with greater vertex-level cortical thickness covariation in distributed regions of cortex known to be associated with word knowledge. Results indicate that better vocabulary skills are associated with greater anatomical coupling in several linguistically relevant regions of cortex, including the left inferior parietal (temporal-parietal junction), inferior temporal, middle frontal, and superior frontal gyri and the right inferior frontal and precentral gyri. Furthermore, in high vocabulary scorers, stronger coupling is found among these regions. Thus, complementing patient and fMRI studies, this is the first investigation to highlight the relevance of anatomical covariance within the cortex to vocabulary skills in typically developing youth, further elucidating the distributed nature of neural systems subserving word knowledge. PMID:23728856

  18. Neurology of Affective Prosody and Its Functional-Anatomic Organization in Right Hemisphere

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Elliott D.; Monnot, Marilee

    2008-01-01

    Unlike the aphasic syndromes, the organization of affective prosody in brain has remained controversial because affective-prosodic deficits may occur after left or right brain damage. However, different patterns of deficits are observed following left and right brain damage that suggest affective prosody is a dominant and lateralized function of…

  19. Cortical networks for visual reaching: physiological and anatomical organization of frontal and parietal lobe arm regions.

    PubMed

    Johnson, P B; Ferraina, S; Bianchi, L; Caminiti, R

    1996-01-01

    The functional and structural properties of the dorsolateral frontal lobe and posterior parietal proximal arm representations were studied in macaque monkeys. Physiological mapping of primary motor (MI), dorsal premotor (PMd), and posterior parietal (area 5) cortices was performed in behaving monkeys trained in an instructed-delay reaching task. The parietofrontal corticocortical connectivities of these same areas were subsequently examined anatomically by means of retrograde tracing techniques. Signal-, set-, movement-, and position-related directional neuronal activities were distributed nonuniformly within the task-related areas in both frontal and parietal cortices. Within the frontal lobe, moving caudally from PMd to the MI, the activity that signals for the visuo-spatial events leading to target localization decreased, while the activity more directly linked to movement generation increased. Physiological recordings in the superior parietal lobule revealed a gradient-like distribution of functional properties similar to that observed in the frontal lobe. Signal- and set-related activities were encountered more frequently in the intermediate and ventral part of the medial bank of the intraparietal sulcus (IPS), in area MIP. Movement-and position-related activities were distributed more uniformly within the superior parietal lobule (SPL), in both dorsal area 5 and in MIP. Frontal and parietal regions sharing similar functional properties were preferentially connected through their association pathways. As a result of this study, area MIP, and possibly areas MDP and 7m as well, emerge as the parietal nodes by which visual information may be relayed to the frontal lobe arm region. These parietal and frontal areas, along with their association connections, represent a potential cortical network for visual reaching. The architecture of this network is ideal for coding reaching as the result of a combination between visual and somatic information.

  20. Factors Affecting Dimensional Accuracy of 3-D Printed Anatomical Structures Derived from CT Data.

    PubMed

    Ogden, Kent M; Aslan, Can; Ordway, Nathaniel; Diallo, Dalanda; Tillapaugh-Fay, Gwen; Soman, Pranav

    2015-12-01

    Additive manufacturing and bio-printing, with the potential for direct fabrication of complex patient-specific anatomies derived from medical scan data, are having an ever-increasing impact on the practice of medicine. Anatomic structures are typically derived from CT or MRI scans, and there are multiple steps in the model derivation process that influence the geometric accuracy of the printed constructs. In this work, we compare the dimensional accuracy of 3-D printed constructs of an L1 vertebra derived from CT data for an ex vivo cadaver T-L spine with the original vertebra. Processing of segmented structures using binary median filters and various surface extraction algorithms is evaluated for the effect on model dimensions. We investigate the effects of changing CT reconstruction kernels by scanning simple geometric objects and measuring the impact on the derived model dimensions. We also investigate if there are significant differences between physical and virtual model measurements. The 3-D models were printed using a commercial 3-D printer, the Replicator 2 (MakerBot, Brooklyn, NY) using polylactic acid (PLA) filament. We found that changing parameters during the scan reconstruction, segmentation, filtering, and surface extraction steps will have an effect on the dimensions of the final model. These effects need to be quantified for specific situations that rely on the accuracy of 3-D printed models used in medicine or tissue engineering applications. PMID:25982877

  1. Factors Affecting Dimensional Accuracy of 3-D Printed Anatomical Structures Derived from CT Data.

    PubMed

    Ogden, Kent M; Aslan, Can; Ordway, Nathaniel; Diallo, Dalanda; Tillapaugh-Fay, Gwen; Soman, Pranav

    2015-12-01

    Additive manufacturing and bio-printing, with the potential for direct fabrication of complex patient-specific anatomies derived from medical scan data, are having an ever-increasing impact on the practice of medicine. Anatomic structures are typically derived from CT or MRI scans, and there are multiple steps in the model derivation process that influence the geometric accuracy of the printed constructs. In this work, we compare the dimensional accuracy of 3-D printed constructs of an L1 vertebra derived from CT data for an ex vivo cadaver T-L spine with the original vertebra. Processing of segmented structures using binary median filters and various surface extraction algorithms is evaluated for the effect on model dimensions. We investigate the effects of changing CT reconstruction kernels by scanning simple geometric objects and measuring the impact on the derived model dimensions. We also investigate if there are significant differences between physical and virtual model measurements. The 3-D models were printed using a commercial 3-D printer, the Replicator 2 (MakerBot, Brooklyn, NY) using polylactic acid (PLA) filament. We found that changing parameters during the scan reconstruction, segmentation, filtering, and surface extraction steps will have an effect on the dimensions of the final model. These effects need to be quantified for specific situations that rely on the accuracy of 3-D printed models used in medicine or tissue engineering applications.

  2. Adaptive algorithms to map how brain trauma affects anatomical connectivity in children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dennis, Emily L.; Prasad, Gautam; Babikian, Talin; Kernan, Claudia; Mink, Richard; Babbitt, Christopher; Johnson, Jeffrey; Giza, Christopher C.; Asarnow, Robert F.; Thompson, Paul M.

    2015-12-01

    Deficits in white matter (WM) integrity occur following traumatic brain injury (TBI), and often persist long after the visible scars have healed. Heterogeneity in injury types and locations can complicate analyses, making it harder to discover common biomarkers for tracking recovery. Here we apply a newly developed adaptive connectivity method, EPIC (evolving partitions to improve connectomics) to identify differences in structural connectivity that persist longitudinally. This data comes from a longitudinal study, in which we scanned participants (aged 8-19 years) with anatomical and diffusion MRI in both the post-acute and chronic phases (1-6 months and 13-19 months post-injury). To identify patterns of abnormal connectivity, we trained a model on data from 32 TBI patients in the post-acute phase and 45 well-matched healthy controls, reducing an initial 68x68 connectivity matrix to a 14x14 matrix. We then applied this reduced parcellation to the chronic data in participants who had returned for their chronic assessment (21 TBI and 26 healthy controls) and tested for group differences. We found significant differences in two connections, comprising callosal fibers and long anterior-posterior fibers, with the TBI group showing increased fiber density relative to controls. Longitudinal analysis revealed that these were connections that were decreasing over time in the healthy controls, as is a common developmental phenomenon, but they were increasing in the TBI group. While we cannot definitively tell why this may occur with our current data, this study provides targets for longitudinal tracking, and poses questions for future investigation.

  3. Anatomic and physiopathologic changes affecting the airway of the elderly patient: implications for geriatric-focused airway management.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Kathleen N; Botros, Daniel B; Groban, Leanne; Bryan, Yvon F

    2015-01-01

    There are many anatomical, physiopathological, and cognitive changes that occur in the elderly that affect different components of airway management: intubation, ventilation, oxygenation, and risk of aspiration. Anatomical changes occur in different areas of the airway from the oral cavity to the larynx. Common changes to the airway include tooth decay, oropharyngeal tumors, and significant decreases in neck range of motion. These changes may make intubation challenging by making it difficult to visualize the vocal cords and/or place the endotracheal tube. Also, some of these changes, including but not limited to, atrophy of the muscles around the lips and an edentulous mouth, affect bag mask ventilation due to a difficult face-mask seal. Physiopathologic changes may impact airway management as well. Common pulmonary issues in the elderly (eg, obstructive sleep apnea and COPD) increase the risk of an oxygen desaturation event, while gastrointestinal issues (eg, achalasia and gastroesophageal reflux disease) increase the risk of aspiration. Finally, cognitive changes (eg, dementia) not often seen as related to airway management may affect patient cooperation, especially if an awake intubation is required. Overall, degradation of the airway along with other physiopathologic and cognitive changes makes the elderly population more prone to complications related to airway management. When deciding which airway devices and techniques to use for intubation, the clinician should also consider the difficulty associated with ventilating the patient, the patient's risk of oxygen desaturation, and/or aspiration. For patients who may be difficult to bag mask ventilate or who have a risk of aspiration, a specialized supralaryngeal device may be preferable over bag mask for ventilation. Patients with tumors or decreased neck range of motion may require a device with more finesse and maneuverability, such as a flexible fiberoptic broncho-scope. Overall, geriatric-focused airway

  4. Anatomic and physiopathologic changes affecting the airway of the elderly patient: implications for geriatric-focused airway management

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Kathleen N; Botros, Daniel B; Groban, Leanne; Bryan, Yvon F

    2015-01-01

    There are many anatomical, physiopathological, and cognitive changes that occur in the elderly that affect different components of airway management: intubation, ventilation, oxygenation, and risk of aspiration. Anatomical changes occur in different areas of the airway from the oral cavity to the larynx. Common changes to the airway include tooth decay, oropharyngeal tumors, and significant decreases in neck range of motion. These changes may make intubation challenging by making it difficult to visualize the vocal cords and/or place the endotracheal tube. Also, some of these changes, including but not limited to, atrophy of the muscles around the lips and an edentulous mouth, affect bag mask ventilation due to a difficult face-mask seal. Physiopathologic changes may impact airway management as well. Common pulmonary issues in the elderly (eg, obstructive sleep apnea and COPD) increase the risk of an oxygen desaturation event, while gastrointestinal issues (eg, achalasia and gastroesophageal reflux disease) increase the risk of aspiration. Finally, cognitive changes (eg, dementia) not often seen as related to airway management may affect patient cooperation, especially if an awake intubation is required. Overall, degradation of the airway along with other physiopathologic and cognitive changes makes the elderly population more prone to complications related to airway management. When deciding which airway devices and techniques to use for intubation, the clinician should also consider the difficulty associated with ventilating the patient, the patient’s risk of oxygen desaturation, and/or aspiration. For patients who may be difficult to bag mask ventilate or who have a risk of aspiration, a specialized supralaryngeal device may be preferable over bag mask for ventilation. Patients with tumors or decreased neck range of motion may require a device with more finesse and maneuverability, such as a flexible fiberoptic broncho-scope. Overall, geriatric-focused airway

  5. Anatomic and physiopathologic changes affecting the airway of the elderly patient: implications for geriatric-focused airway management.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Kathleen N; Botros, Daniel B; Groban, Leanne; Bryan, Yvon F

    2015-01-01

    There are many anatomical, physiopathological, and cognitive changes that occur in the elderly that affect different components of airway management: intubation, ventilation, oxygenation, and risk of aspiration. Anatomical changes occur in different areas of the airway from the oral cavity to the larynx. Common changes to the airway include tooth decay, oropharyngeal tumors, and significant decreases in neck range of motion. These changes may make intubation challenging by making it difficult to visualize the vocal cords and/or place the endotracheal tube. Also, some of these changes, including but not limited to, atrophy of the muscles around the lips and an edentulous mouth, affect bag mask ventilation due to a difficult face-mask seal. Physiopathologic changes may impact airway management as well. Common pulmonary issues in the elderly (eg, obstructive sleep apnea and COPD) increase the risk of an oxygen desaturation event, while gastrointestinal issues (eg, achalasia and gastroesophageal reflux disease) increase the risk of aspiration. Finally, cognitive changes (eg, dementia) not often seen as related to airway management may affect patient cooperation, especially if an awake intubation is required. Overall, degradation of the airway along with other physiopathologic and cognitive changes makes the elderly population more prone to complications related to airway management. When deciding which airway devices and techniques to use for intubation, the clinician should also consider the difficulty associated with ventilating the patient, the patient's risk of oxygen desaturation, and/or aspiration. For patients who may be difficult to bag mask ventilate or who have a risk of aspiration, a specialized supralaryngeal device may be preferable over bag mask for ventilation. Patients with tumors or decreased neck range of motion may require a device with more finesse and maneuverability, such as a flexible fiberoptic broncho-scope. Overall, geriatric-focused airway

  6. Anatomical, physiological and experimental factors affecting the bioavailability of sc administered large biotherapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Fathallah, Anas M.; Balu-Iyer, Sathy V.

    2014-01-01

    Subcutaneous route of administration is highly desirable for protein therapeutics. It improves patient compliance and quality of life1,2, while reducing healthcare cost2. Recent evidence also suggests that sc administration of protein therapeutics can increase tolerability to some treatments such as intravenous immunoglobulin therapy (IVIG) by administering it subcutaneously (subcutaneous immunoglobulin therapy SCIG), which will reduce fluctuation in plasma drug concentration3. Furthermore, sc administration may reduce the risk of systemic infections associated with iv infusion1,2. This route, however, has its challenges especially for large multi-domain proteins. Poor bioavailability and poor scalability from preclinical models are often cited. This commentary will discuss barriers to sc absorption as well as physiological and experimental factors that could affect pharmacokinetics of subcutaneously administered large protein therapeutics in preclinical models. A mechanistic pharmacokinetic model is proposed as a potential tool to address the issue of scalability of sc pharmacokinetic from preclinical models to humans PMID:25411114

  7. Is the omega sign a reliable landmark for the neurosurgical team? An anatomical study about the central sulcus region.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Thiago; Rodrigues, Mariana; Paz, Daniel; Costa, Marcos Devanir; Santos, Bruno; Braga, Vinicius; Paiva Neto, Manoel de; Centeno, Ricardo; Cavalheiro, Sergio; Chaddad-Neto, Feres

    2015-11-01

    The central sulcus region is an eloquent area situated between the frontal and parietal lobes. During neurosurgical procedures, it is sometimes difficult to understand the cortical anatomy of this region.Objective Find alternative ways to anatomically navigate in this region during neurosurgical procedures.Method We analyzed eighty two human hemispheres using a surgical microscope and completed a review of the literature about central sulcus region.Results In 68/82 hemispheres, the central sulcus did not reach the posterior ramus of the lateral sulcus. A knob on the second curve of the precentral gyrus was reliably identified in only 64/82 hemispheres.Conclusion The morphometric data presented in this article can be useful as supplementary method to identify the central sulcus region landmarks.

  8. An anatomical study of the proximal hamstring muscle complex to elucidate muscle strains in this region.

    PubMed

    Battermann, N; Appell, H-J; Dargel, J; Koebke, J

    2011-03-01

    Muscle strain injuries are common in sports, and a high incidence is reported for the hamstring muscles, especially in the proximal region, where the long head of the biceps femoris muscle is most frequently affected. To look for some architectural peculiarities, which would make this muscle vulnerable, 101 legs of embalmed human cadavers were dissected and descriptively examined, morphometric data were obtained in the proximal region, and slices of plastinated specimens were microscopically examined. The 3 muscles composing the proximal hamstring complex are partly twisted around each other and possess common fibrous adhesions. Biceps femoris (BF) and semitendinosus (ST) muscles form a common head, to which the ST contributes the majority of fascicles extending 9 cm down from the ischiac tuberosity, thereby attaching to the common tendon at a remarkable pennation angle. The first BF fascicles origin from the common tendon only at 6 cm distance from the ischiac tuberosity. It is concluded that the high incidence of proximal BF strains may be a misinterpretation due to insufficient imaging and the complex architecture. It is suggested that the pennation angle at which the ST inserts to the common tendon makes this muscle especially vulnerable for strains during forced eccentric contractions.

  9. Reliability of bony anatomic landmark asymmetry assessment in the lumbopelvic region: application to osteopathic medical education.

    PubMed

    Stovall, Bradley A; Kumar, Shrawan

    2010-11-01

    The objective of this review is to establish the current state of knowledge on the reliability of clinical assessment of asymmetry in the lumbar spine and pelvis. To search the literature, the authors consulted the databases of MEDLINE, CINAHL, AMED, MANTIS, Academic Search Complete, and Web of Knowledge using different combinations of the following keywords: palpation, asymmetry, inter or intraexaminer reliability, tissue texture, assessment, and anatomic landmark. Of the 23 studies identified, 14 did not meet the inclusion criteria and were excluded. The quality and methods of studies investigating the reliability of bony anatomic landmark asymmetry assessment are variable. The κ statistic ranges without training for interexaminer reliability were as follows: anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS), -0.01 to 0.19; posterior superior iliac spine (PSIS), 0.04 to 0.15; inferior lateral angle, transverse plane (ILA-A/P), -0.03 to 0.11; inferior lateral angles, coronal plane (ILA-S/I), -0.01 to 0.08; sacral sulcus (SS), -0.4 to 0.37; lumbar spine transverse processes L1 through L5, 0.04 to 0.17. The corresponding ranges for intraexaminer reliability were higher for all associated landmarks: ASIS, 0.19 to 0.4; PSIS, 0.13 to 0.49; ILA-A/P, 0.1 to 0.2; ILA-S/I, 0.03 to 0.21; SS, 0.24 to 0.28; lumbar spine transverse processes L1 through L5, not applicable. Further research is needed to better understand the reliability of asymmetry assessment methods in manipulative medicine. PMID:21135198

  10. The Three Gorges Dam Affects Regional Precipitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Liguang; Zhang, Qiang; Jiang, Zhihong

    2006-01-01

    Issues regarding building large-scale dams as a solution to power generation and flood control problems have been widely discussed by both natural and social scientists from various disciplines, as well as the policy-makers and public. Since the Chinese government officially approved the Three Gorges Dam (TGD) projects, this largest hydroelectric project in the world has drawn a lot of debates ranging from its social and economic to climatic impacts. The TGD has been partially in use since June 2003. The impact of the TGD is examined through analysis of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) rainfall rate and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) land surface temperature and high-resolution simulation using the Pennsylvania State University-National Center for Atmospheric Research (PSU-NCAR) fifth-generation Mesoscale Model (MM5). The independent satellite data sets and numerical simulation clearly indicate that the land use change associated with the TGD construction has increased the precipitation in the region between Daba and Qinling mountains and reduced the precipitation in the vicinity of the TGD after the TGD water level abruptly rose from 66 to 135 m in June 2003. This study suggests that the climatic effect of the TGD is on the regional scale (approx.100 km) rather than on the local scale (approx.10 km) as projected in previous studies.

  11. Brain regions and genes affecting postural control.

    PubMed

    Lalonde, R; Strazielle, C

    2007-01-01

    Postural control is integrated in all facets of motor commands. The role of cortico-subcortical pathways underlying postural control, including cerebellum and its afferents (climbing, mossy, and noradrenergic fibers), basal ganglia, motor thalamus, and parieto-frontal neocortex has been identified in animal models, notably through the brain lesion technique in rats and in mice with spontaneous and induced mutations. These studies are complemented by analyses of the factors underlying postural deficiencies in patients with cerebellar atrophy. With the gene deletion technique in mice, specific genes expressed in cerebellum encoding glutamate receptors (Grid2 and Grm1) and other molecules (Prkcc, Cntn6, Klf9, Syt4, and En2) have also been shown to affect postural control. In addition, transgenic mouse models of the synucleinopathies and of Huntington's disease cause deficiencies of motor coordination resembling those of patients with basal ganglia damage.

  12. Brazil's sugarcane boom could affect regional temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2013-04-01

    With the world seeking to cut its dependence on fossil fuels, the use of bioethanol and other biofuels is on the rise. In Brazil, the second largest producer and consumer of bioethanol, this has led to a boom in sugarcane production. Based on new laws and trade agreements, researchers expect Brazil's production of sugarcane-derived ethanol to increase tenfold over the next decade, with considerable land being converted for growing sugarcane. Much of this expansion is expected to come at a loss of some of the country's cerrado savannas. So while a major aim of the turn to biofuels is to reduce the transfer of carbon to the atmosphere and mitigate global climate change, the shifting agricultural activity could have direct consequences on Brazil's climate by changing the region's physical and biogeochemical properties.

  13. Thermally affected characterization region by Barkhausen noise.

    PubMed

    Zergoug, M; Boucherrou, N; Haddad, A; Benchaala, A; Moulti, B; Tahraoui, H; Sellidj, F; Hammouda, A

    2000-07-01

    The controlling of some industrial components require the development of new and particular nondestructive testing techniques. The testing method using Barkhausen noise (BN) is a particular one which can be applied to ferromagnetic materials. It is a magnetic nondestructive evaluation method and can provide very important information about the material structure. The aim of our work is to study the material structure using this technique to characterize the region submitted to thermal processing. Samples of steel have been heated at temperatures between 650 degrees C and 1,200 degrees C with variable parameters (time processing, maintenance time, etc.). Acoustic BN processing allows an easy interpretation of results. Micrographs of samples have been obtained to confirm the results obtained by BN.

  14. Automatic recognition of anatomical regions in three-dimensional medical images.

    PubMed

    Tóth, Márton; Ruskó, László; Csébfalvi, Balázs

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents a method that detects anatomy regions in three-dimensional medical images. The method labels each axial slice of the image according to the anatomy region it belongs to. The detected regions are the head (and neck), the chest, the abdomen, the pelvis, and the legs. The proposed method consists of two main parts. The core of the algorithm is based on a two-dimensional feature extraction that is followed by a random forest classification. This recognition process achieves an overall accuracy of 91.5% in slice classification, but it cannot always provide fully consistent labeling. The subsequent post-processing step incorporates the expected sequence and size of the human anatomy regions in order to improve the accuracy of the labeling. In this part of the algorithm the detected anatomy regions (represented by Gaussian distributions) are fitted to the region probabilities provided by the random forest classifier. The proposed method was evaluated on a set of whole-body MR images. The results demonstrate that the accuracy of the labeling can be increased to 94.1% using the presented post-processing. In order to demonstrate the robustness of the proposed method it was applied to partial MRI scans of different sizes (cut from the whole-body examinations). According to the results the proposed method works reliably (91.3%) for partial body scans (having as little length as 35cm) as well. PMID:27433991

  15. Specification and estimation of sources of bias affecting neurological studies in PET/MR with an anatomical brain phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teuho, J.; Johansson, J.; Linden, J.; Saunavaara, V.; Tolvanen, T.; Teräs, M.

    2014-01-01

    Selection of reconstruction parameters has an effect on the image quantification in PET, with an additional contribution from a scanner-specific attenuation correction method. For achieving comparable results in inter- and intra-center comparisons, any existing quantitative differences should be identified and compensated for. In this study, a comparison between PET, PET/CT and PET/MR is performed by using an anatomical brain phantom, to identify and measure the amount of bias caused due to differences in reconstruction and attenuation correction methods especially in PET/MR. Differences were estimated by using visual, qualitative and quantitative analysis. The qualitative analysis consisted of a line profile analysis for measuring the reproduction of anatomical structures and the contribution of the amount of iterations to image contrast. The quantitative analysis consisted of measurement and comparison of 10 anatomical VOIs, where the HRRT was considered as the reference. All scanners reproduced the main anatomical structures of the phantom adequately, although the image contrast on the PET/MR was inferior when using a default clinical brain protocol. Image contrast was improved by increasing the amount of iterations from 2 to 5 while using 33 subsets. Furthermore, a PET/MR-specific bias was detected, which resulted in underestimation of the activity values in anatomical structures closest to the skull, due to the MR-derived attenuation map that ignores the bone. Thus, further improvements for the PET/MR reconstruction and attenuation correction could be achieved by optimization of RAMLA-specific reconstruction parameters and implementation of bone to the attenuation template.

  16. Affective Learning in Higher Education: A Regional Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Nina; Ziaian, Tahereh; Sawyer, Janet; Gillham, David

    2013-01-01

    A pilot study was conducted in a regional university setting to promote awareness of the value of affective teaching and learning amongst staff and students. Academic staff and students from diverse disciplines at University of South Australia's (UniSA) Centre for Regional Engagement (CRE) were recruited to the study. The research investigated…

  17. Individual 3D region-of-interest atlas of the human brain: knowledge-based class image analysis for extraction of anatomical objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagenknecht, Gudrun; Kaiser, Hans-Juergen; Sabri, Osama; Buell, Udalrich

    2000-06-01

    After neural network-based classification of tissue types, the second step of atlas extraction is knowledge-based class image analysis to get anatomically meaningful objects. Basic algorithms are region growing, mathematical morphology operations, and template matching. A special algorithm was designed for each object. The class label of each voxel and the knowledge about the relative position of anatomical objects to each other and to the sagittal midplane of the brain can be utilized for object extraction. User interaction is only necessary to define starting, mid- and end planes for most object extractions and to determine the number of iterations for erosion and dilation operations. Extraction can be done for the following anatomical brain regions: cerebrum; cerebral hemispheres; cerebellum; brain stem; white matter (e.g., centrum semiovale); gray matter [cortex, frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal lobes, cingulum, insula, basal ganglia (nuclei caudati, putamen, thalami)]. For atlas- based quantification of functional data, anatomical objects can be convoluted with the point spread function of functional data to take into account the different resolutions of morphological and functional modalities. This method allows individual atlas extraction from MRI image data of a patient without the need of warping individual data to an anatomical or statistical MRI brain atlas.

  18. Phosphorylation of ERK/MAP Kinase Is Required for Long-Term Potentiation in Anatomically Restricted Regions of the Lateral Amygdala in Vivo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schafe, Glenn E.; Swank, Michael W.; Rodriguez, Sarina M.; Debiec, Jacek; Doyere, Valerie

    2008-01-01

    We have previously shown that the extracellular signal-regulated kinase/mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK/ MAPK) is transiently activated in anatomically restricted regions of the lateral amygdala (LA) following Pavlovian fear conditioning and that blockade of ERK/MAPK activation in the LA impairs both fear memory consolidation and long-term…

  19. Setup Uncertainties of Anatomical Sub-Regions in Head-and-Neck Cancer Patients After Offline CBCT Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Kranen, Simon van; Beek, Suzanne van; Rasch, Coen; Herk, Marcel van; Sonke, Jan-Jakob

    2009-04-01

    Purpose: To quantify local geometrical uncertainties in anatomical sub-regions during radiotherapy for head-and-neck cancer patients. Methods and Materials: Local setup accuracy was analyzed for 38 patients, who had received intensity-modulated radiotherapy and were regularly scanned during treatment with cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) for offline patient setup correction. In addition to the clinically used large region of interest (ROI), we defined eight ROIs in the planning CT that contained rigid bony structures: the mandible, larynx, jugular notch, occiput bone, vertebrae C1-C3, C3-C5, and C5-C7, and the vertebrae caudal of C7. By local rigid registration to successive CBCT scans, the local setup accuracy of each ROI was determined and compared with the overall setup error assessed with the large ROI. Deformations were distinguished from rigid body movements by expressing movement relative to a reference ROI (vertebrae C1-C3). Results: The offline patient setup correction protocol using the large ROI resulted in residual systematic errors (1 SD) within 1.2 mm and random errors within 1.5 mm for each direction. Local setup errors were larger, ranging from 1.1 to 3.4 mm (systematic) and 1.3 to 2.5 mm (random). Systematic deformations ranged from 0.4 mm near the reference C1-C3 to 3.8 mm for the larynx. Random deformations ranged from 0.5 to 3.6 mm. Conclusion: Head-and-neck cancer patients show considerable local setup variations, exceeding residual global patient setup uncertainty in an offline correction protocol. Current planning target volume margins may be inadequate to account for these uncertainties. We propose registration of multiple ROIs to drive correction protocols and adaptive radiotherapy to reduce the impact of local setup variations.

  20. Comparison of blood volume pulse and skin conductance responses to mental and affective stimuli at different anatomical sites.

    PubMed

    Kushki, Azadeh; Fairley, Jillian; Merja, Satyam; King, Gillian; Chau, Tom

    2011-10-01

    Measurements of blood volume pulse (BVP) and skin conductance are commonly used as indications of psychological arousal in affective computing and human-machine interfaces. To date, palmar surfaces remain the primary site for these measurements. Placement of sensors on palmar surfaces, however, is undesirable when recordings are fraught with motion and pressure artifacts. These artifacts are frequent when the human participant has involuntary movements as in hyperkinetic cerebral palsy. This motivates the use of alternative measurement sites. The present study examined the correlation between measurements of blood volume pulse and skin conductance obtained from three different sites on the body (fingers, toes and ear for BVP; fingers, toes and arch of the foot for skin conductance) in response to cognitive and affective stimuli. The results of this pilot study indicated significant inter-site correlation among signal features derived from different sites, with the exception of BVP amplitude, the number of electrodermal reactions and the slope of the electrodermal activity response. We attribute these differences in part to inter-site discrepancies in local skin conditions, such as skin temperature. Despite these differences, significant changes from baseline were present in the responses to the cognitive and affective stimuli at non-palmar sites, suggesting that these sites may provide viable signal measurements for use in affective computing and human-machine interface applications.

  1. Comparison of blood volume pulse and skin conductance responses to mental and affective stimuli at different anatomical sites

    PubMed Central

    Kushki, Azadeh; Fairley, Jillian; Merja, Satyam; King, Gillian

    2016-01-01

    Measurements of blood volume pulse (BVP) and skin conductance are commonly used as indications of psychological arousal in affective computing and human–machine interfaces. To date, palmar surfaces remain the primary site for these measurements. Placement of sensors on palmar surfaces, however, is undesirable when recordings are fraught with motion and pressure artifacts. These artifacts are frequent when the human participant has involuntary movements as in hyperkinetic cerebral palsy. This motivates the use of alternative measurement sites. The present study examined the correlation between measurements of blood volume pulse and skin conductance obtained from three different sites on the body (fingers, toes and ear for BVP; fingers, toes and arch of the foot for skin conductance) in response to cognitive and affective stimuli. The results of this pilot study indicated significant inter-site correlation among signal features derived from different sites, with the exception of BVP amplitude, the number of electrodermal reactions and the slope of the electrodermal activity response. We attribute these differences in part to inter-site discrepancies in local skin conditions, such as skin temperature. Despite these differences, significant changes from baseline were present in the responses to the cognitive and affective stimuli at non-palmar sites, suggesting that these sites may provide viable signal measurements for use in affective computing and human–machine interface applications. PMID:21849720

  2. [Regional distribution of the muscarinic cholinergic receptor in the human brain studied with 11C-benztropine and PET using an anatomical standardization technique].

    PubMed

    Ono, S; Kawashima, R; Ito, H; Koyama, M; Goto, R; Inoue, K; Sato, K; Fujiwara, T; Meguro, K; Yanai, K; Sasaki, H; Ido, T; Ito, M; Fukuda, H

    1996-07-01

    We measured regional distribution of the muscarinic cholinergic receptor in the normal human brain with 11C-benztropine (BZT) and positron emission tomography (PET) using an anatomical standardization technique. Seven normal volunteers who gave informed consents were involved in this study. Immediately after intravenous injection of 11C-BZT into the subjects, we started dynamic PET scanning and serial frequent arterial blood sampling. Analyses of plasma metabolites were also performed at selected time points and plasma time activity curves (TAC) of unmetabolized ligand were generated. From these PET and TAC data, we obtained Patlak plot slope calculation images. Using the HBA (human brain atlas) system, the Patlak plot slope calculation image of each subject was transformed into the shape of the standard brain. Mean and standard deviation (SD) calculation images were generated from those anatomically standardized images. On these mean and SD images, we placed regions of interest which were previously outlined on a MR image of the standard brain. From those data, we found the highest receptor distribution in the striatum and occipital cortex, as well as high distribution in the frontal, parietal, and temporal cortices, which were consistent with previous reports. These results suggested that anatomical standardization of PET receptor images with 11C-BZT will be useful for delineating the physiological or pathological alterations of the muscarinic cholinergic receptor in the human brain.

  3. Investigation of factors affecting hypothermic pelvic tissue cooling using bio-heat simulation based on MRI-segmented anatomic models.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yuting; Lin, Wei-Ching; Fwu, Peter T; Shih, Tzu-Ching; Yeh, Lee-Ren; Su, Min-Ying; Chen, Jeon-Hor

    2015-10-01

    This study applied a simulation method to map the temperature distribution based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of individual patients, and investigated the influence of different pelvic tissue types as well as the choice of thermal property parameters on the efficiency of endorectal cooling balloon (ECB). MR images of four subjects with different prostate sizes and pelvic tissue compositions, including fatty tissue and venous plexus, were analyzed. The MR images acquired using endorectal coil provided a realistic geometry of deformed prostate that resembled the anatomy in the presence of ECB. A single slice with the largest two-dimensional (2D) cross-sectional area of the prostate gland was selected for analysis. The rectal wall, prostate gland, peri-rectal fatty tissue, peri-prostatic fatty tissue, peri-prostatic venous plexus, and urinary bladder were manually segmented. Pennes' bioheat thermal model was used to simulate the temperature distribution dynamics, by using an in-house finite element mesh based solver written in MATLAB. The results showed that prostate size and periprostatic venous plexus were two major factors affecting ECB cooling efficiency. For cases with negligible amount of venous plexus and small prostate, the average temperature in the prostate and neurovascular bundles could be cooled down to 25 °C within 30 min. For cases with abundant venous plexus and large prostate, the temperature could not reach 25 °C at the end of 3 h cooling. Large prostate made the cooling difficult to propagate through. The impact of fatty tissue on cooling effect was small. The filling of bladder with warm urine during the ECB cooling procedure did not affect the temperature in the prostate or NVB. In addition to the 2D simulation, in one case a 3D pelvic model was constructed for volumetric simulation. It was found that the 2D slice with the largest cross-sectional area of prostate had the most abundant venous plexus, and was the most difficult slice to

  4. Bone density and anisotropy affect periprosthetic cement and bone stresses after anatomical glenoid replacement: A micro finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Chevalier, Yan; Santos, Inês; Müller, Peter E; Pietschmann, Matthias F

    2016-06-14

    Glenoid loosening is still a main complication for shoulder arthroplasty. We hypothesize that cement and bone stresses potentially leading to fixation failure are related not only to glenohumeral conformity, fixation design or eccentric loading, but also to bone volume fraction, cortical thickness and degree of anisotropy in the glenoid. In this study, periprosthetic bone and cement stresses were computed with micro finite element models of the replaced glenoid depicting realistic bone microstructure. These models were used to quantify potential effects of bone microstructural parameters under loading conditions simulating different levels of glenohumeral conformity and eccentric loading simulating glenohumeral instability. Results show that peak cement stresses were achieved near the cement-bone interface in all loading schemes. Higher stresses within trabecular bone tissue and cement mantle were obtained within specimens of lower bone volume fraction and in regions of low anisotropy, increasing with decreasing glenohumeral conformity and reaching their maxima below the keeled design when the load is shifted superiorly. Our analyses confirm the combined influences of eccentric load shifts with reduced bone volume fraction and anisotropy on increasing periprosthetic stresses. They finally suggest that improving fixation of glenoid replacements must reduce internal cement and bone tissue stresses, in particular in glenoids of low bone density and heterogeneity. PMID:27087675

  5. Bone density and anisotropy affect periprosthetic cement and bone stresses after anatomical glenoid replacement: A micro finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Chevalier, Yan; Santos, Inês; Müller, Peter E; Pietschmann, Matthias F

    2016-06-14

    Glenoid loosening is still a main complication for shoulder arthroplasty. We hypothesize that cement and bone stresses potentially leading to fixation failure are related not only to glenohumeral conformity, fixation design or eccentric loading, but also to bone volume fraction, cortical thickness and degree of anisotropy in the glenoid. In this study, periprosthetic bone and cement stresses were computed with micro finite element models of the replaced glenoid depicting realistic bone microstructure. These models were used to quantify potential effects of bone microstructural parameters under loading conditions simulating different levels of glenohumeral conformity and eccentric loading simulating glenohumeral instability. Results show that peak cement stresses were achieved near the cement-bone interface in all loading schemes. Higher stresses within trabecular bone tissue and cement mantle were obtained within specimens of lower bone volume fraction and in regions of low anisotropy, increasing with decreasing glenohumeral conformity and reaching their maxima below the keeled design when the load is shifted superiorly. Our analyses confirm the combined influences of eccentric load shifts with reduced bone volume fraction and anisotropy on increasing periprosthetic stresses. They finally suggest that improving fixation of glenoid replacements must reduce internal cement and bone tissue stresses, in particular in glenoids of low bone density and heterogeneity.

  6. Quantitative CT of lung nodules: Dependence of calibration on patient body size, anatomic region, and calibration nodule size for single- and dual-energy techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Goodsitt, Mitchell M.; Chan, Heang-Ping; Way, Ted W.; Schipper, Mathew J.; Larson, Sandra C.; Christodoulou, Emmanuel G.

    2009-07-15

    Calcium concentration may be a useful feature for distinguishing benign from malignant lung nodules in computer-aided diagnosis. The calcium concentration can be estimated from the measured CT number of the nodule and a CT number vs calcium concentration calibration line that is derived from CT scans of two or more calcium reference standards. To account for CT number nonuniformity in the reconstruction field, such calibration lines may be obtained at multiple locations within lung regions in an anthropomorphic phantom. The authors performed a study to investigate the effects of patient body size, anatomic region, and calibration nodule size on the derived calibration lines at ten lung region positions using both single energy (SE) and dual energy (DE) CT techniques. Simulated spherical lung nodules of two concentrations (50 and 100 mg/cc CaCO{sub 3}) were employed. Nodules of three different diameters (4.8, 9.5, and 16 mm) were scanned in a simulated thorax section representing the middle of the chest with large lung regions. The 4.8 and 9.5 mm nodules were also scanned in a section representing the upper chest with smaller lung regions. Fat rings were added to the peripheries of the phantoms to simulate larger patients. Scans were acquired on a GE-VCT scanner at 80, 120, and 140 kVp and were repeated three times for each condition. The average absolute CT number separations between the calibration lines were computed. In addition, under- or overestimates were determined when the calibration lines for one condition (e.g., small patient) were used to estimate the CaCO{sub 3} concentrations of nodules for a different condition (e.g., large patient). The authors demonstrated that, in general, DE is a more accurate method for estimating the calcium contents of lung nodules. The DE calibration lines within the lung field were less affected by patient body size, calibration nodule size, and nodule position than the SE calibration lines. Under- or overestimates in Ca

  7. Ethnomedicine use in the war affected region of northwest Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background North-West of Pakistan is bestowed with medicinal plant resources due to diverse geographical and habitat conditions. The traditional use of plants for curing various diseases forms an important part of the region’s cultural heritage. The study was carried out to document medicinal plants used in Frontier Region (FR) Bannu, an area affected by the “War on Terror”. Methods Fieldwork was carried out in four different seasons (spring, autumn, summer and winter) from March 2012 to February 2013. Data on medicinal plants was collected using structured and semi-structured questionnaires from 250 respondents. The voucher specimens were collected, processed and identified following standard methods. Results Of the 107 species of ethnomedicinal plants reported, fifty percent species are herbaceous. The majority of the reported species were wild (55%) but a substantial proportion are cultivated (29%). For most of the plant species (34%), leaves are the most commonly used part in the preparation of ethnomedicines. The most common use of species is for carminative purposes (14 species), with the next most common use being for blood purification (11 species). The main methods used in the preparation of ethnomedicinal recipes involves grinding and boiling, and nearly all the remedies are taken orally along with ingredients such as water, milk or honey for ease of ingestion. Traditional healers prepare plant remedies using one or more plants. There was a significant correlation (r2 = 0.95) between the age of local people and the number of plants known to them, which indicates that in the coming 20 years, an approximate decrease of 75% in the indigenous knowledge may be expected. Conclusion Traditional medicines are important to the livelihoods of rural communities in the region affected by the Global war on Terrorism. The medicinal recipes are indigenous; however, there is a threat to their future use on account of rapid modernization and terrorist activities

  8. A local insult of okadaic acid in wild-type mice induces tau phosphorylation and protein aggregation in anatomically distinct brain regions.

    PubMed

    Baker, Siân; Götz, Jürgen

    2016-03-31

    In Alzheimer's disease (AD), the distribution and density of neurofibrillary tangles, a histological hallmark comprised predominately of phosphorylated tau protein, follows a distinct pattern through anatomically connected brain regions. Studies in transgenic mice engineered to regionally confine tau expression have suggested spreading of tau within neural networks. Furthermore, injection of protein lysates isolated from brains of transgenic mice or patients with tauopathies, including AD, were shown to behave like seeds, accelerating tau pathology and tangle formation in predisposed mice. However, it remains unclear how the initiation of primary aggregation events occurs and what triggers further dissemination throughout the neural system. To consolidate these findings, we pursued an alternative approach to assess the spreading of endogenous phosphorylated tau. To generate endogenous seeds, 130 nl of 100 μM protein phosphatase 2A inhibitor okadaic acid (OA) was injected unilaterally into the amygdala of 8-month-old C57Bl/6 wild-type mice. OA was detected in brain tissue by ELISA, and found to be restricted to the injected hemispheric quadrant, where it remained detectable a week post-injection. OA injection induced tau phosphorylation that was observed not only at the injection site but also in anatomically distinct areas across both hemispheres, including the cortex and hippocampus 24 h post-injection. An increase in insoluble tau was also observed in both hemispheres of injected brains by 7 days. Furthermore, thioflavin-S detected protein aggregation at the injection site and in the cortex of both injected and contralateral hemispheres. OA injection induced no thioflavin-positivity in tau knock-out mice. The data demonstrates that a local OA insult can rapidly initiate changes in protein phosphorylation, solubility and aggregation at anatomically distant sites. This model suggests that tau phosphorylation can be both a primary response to an insult, and a

  9. Regional flux analysis for discovering and quantifying anatomical changes: An application to the brain morphometry in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Lorenzi, M; Ayache, N; Pennec, X

    2015-07-15

    In this study we introduce the regional flux analysis, a novel approach to deformation based morphometry based on the Helmholtz decomposition of deformations parameterized by stationary velocity fields. We use the scalar pressure map associated to the irrotational component of the deformation to discover the critical regions of volume change. These regions are used to consistently quantify the associated measure of volume change by the probabilistic integration of the flux of the longitudinal deformations across the boundaries. The presented framework unifies voxel-based and regional approaches, and robustly describes the volume changes at both group-wise and subject-specific level as a spatial process governed by consistently defined regions. Our experiments on the large cohorts of the ADNI dataset show that the regional flux analysis is a powerful and flexible instrument for the study of Alzheimer's disease in a wide range of scenarios: cross-sectional deformation based morphometry, longitudinal discovery and quantification of group-wise volume changes, and statistically powered and robust quantification of hippocampal and ventricular atrophy.

  10. Regional flux analysis for discovering and quantifying anatomical changes: An application to the brain morphometry in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Lorenzi, M; Ayache, N; Pennec, X

    2015-07-15

    In this study we introduce the regional flux analysis, a novel approach to deformation based morphometry based on the Helmholtz decomposition of deformations parameterized by stationary velocity fields. We use the scalar pressure map associated to the irrotational component of the deformation to discover the critical regions of volume change. These regions are used to consistently quantify the associated measure of volume change by the probabilistic integration of the flux of the longitudinal deformations across the boundaries. The presented framework unifies voxel-based and regional approaches, and robustly describes the volume changes at both group-wise and subject-specific level as a spatial process governed by consistently defined regions. Our experiments on the large cohorts of the ADNI dataset show that the regional flux analysis is a powerful and flexible instrument for the study of Alzheimer's disease in a wide range of scenarios: cross-sectional deformation based morphometry, longitudinal discovery and quantification of group-wise volume changes, and statistically powered and robust quantification of hippocampal and ventricular atrophy. PMID:25963734

  11. Distinct regional anatomic and functional correlates of neurodegenerative apraxia of speech and aphasia: an MRI and FDG-PET study.

    PubMed

    Whitwell, Jennifer L; Duffy, Joseph R; Strand, Edythe A; Xia, Rong; Mandrekar, Jay; Machulda, Mary M; Senjem, Matthew L; Lowe, Val J; Jack, Clifford R; Josephs, Keith A

    2013-06-01

    Progressive apraxia of speech (AOS) can result from neurodegenerative disease and can occur in isolation or in the presence of agrammatic aphasia. We aimed to determine the neuroanatomical and metabolic correlates of progressive AOS and aphasia. Thirty-six prospectively recruited subjects with progressive AOS or agrammatic aphasia, or both, underwent the Western Aphasia Battery (WAB) and Token Test to assess aphasia, an AOS rating scale (ASRS), 3T MRI and 18-F fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET. Correlations between clinical measures and imaging were assessed. The only region that correlated to ASRS was left superior premotor volume. In contrast, WAB and Token Test correlated with hypometabolism and volume of a network of left hemisphere regions, including pars triangularis, pars opercularis, pars orbitalis, middle frontal gyrus, superior temporal gyrus, precentral gyrus and inferior parietal lobe. Progressive agrammatic aphasia and AOS have non-overlapping regional correlations, suggesting that these are dissociable clinical features that have different neuroanatomical underpinnings. PMID:23542727

  12. Study of Anatomical Relationship between Posterior Teeth and Maxillary Sinus Floor in a Subpopulation of the Brazilian Central Region Using Cone-Beam Computed Tomography - Part 2.

    PubMed

    Estrela, Carlos; Nunes, Carla A B C M; Guedes, Orlando Aguirre; Alencar, Ana Helena G; Estrela, Cynthia R A; Silva, Ricardo Gariba; Pécora, Jesus Djalma; Sousa-Neto, Manoel Damião

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the anatomical relationship between posterior teeth root apices and maxillary sinus floor (MSF) on 202 cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) exams. The distance between the root apices and the MSF, as well as the MSF thickness of the cortical bone closest to root apices and furcation regions were measured. The vertical and horizontal relationships of the MSF with the molar roots were classified into categories adapted from the criteria proposed by Kwak et al. (14). The shortest distances between MSF and the root apices were observed in the mesiobuccal root of the second molar (0.36±1.17 mm) and the palatal root of the first molar (0.45±1.10 mm) and the widest in buccal roots of the first premolars (5.47±4.43 mm). Significant differences were observed between the distance of MSF to the root apices of single-rooted first and second premolars. The cortical thickness ranged from 0.65±0.41 mm over the mesiobuccal root of the second molar to 1.28±0.42 mm over the buccal root of the first premolar. The most observed vertical and horizontal relationships were type II and 2H, respectively. The maxillary molar roots showed greater proximity to the MSF. The thickness of the MSF cortical bone closest to the apices and furcation regions was found to be similar only for premolars. PMID:27007338

  13. Investigation of flow regimes affecting the Mexico city region

    SciTech Connect

    Bossert, J.E.

    1997-02-01

    The Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) in used to investigate the detailed mesoscale flow structure over the Mexico City region for a 3-day period in February 1991. The model simulation is compared with rawinsonde and tethersonde profile data and measurements from two surface stations in the southwestern part of Mexico City. The model results show that show that downward momentum transfer from aloft increases southerly winds near the surface on the first case day, effectively sweeping pollution from the basin surrounding Mexico City. Thermally driven circulations within the basin, in adjacent valleys, and over the slope of the Mexican Plateau strongly influence winds within the Mexico City basin on the second case day. These wind systems produce a complex interaction of flows, culminating in the propagation of a 1-km-deep density current circulation through Mexico City that displaces the polluted basin air mass aloft. Regional northeasterly flows develop early in the morning of the third case day and force the polluted basin air mass toward the southwestern portion of the basin where observed ozone concentrations are highest. The results show that both regional- and synoptic-scale flows influence the meteorology within the Mexico City basin over the 3-day period. The simulated circulation also provide a physical basis for understanding the high spatial and temporal variability of ozone concentrations observed over the city. 27 refs., 17 figs.

  14. Early life stress affects limited regional brain activity in depression.

    PubMed

    Du, Lian; Wang, Jingjie; Meng, Ben; Yong, Na; Yang, Xiangying; Huang, Qingling; Zhang, Yan; Yang, Lingling; Qu, Yuan; Chen, Zhu; Li, Yongmei; Lv, Fajin; Hu, Hua

    2016-05-03

    Early life stress (ELS) can alter brain function and increases the risk of major depressive disorder (MDD) in later life. This study investigated whether ELS contributes to differences in regional brain activity between MDD patients and healthy controls (HC), as measured by amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF)/fractional (f)ALFF. Eighteen first-episode, treatment-naïve MDD patients and HC were assessed with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. We compared ALFF/fALFF between MDD patients and HC, with or without controlling for ELS, and determined whether ELS level was correlated with regional brain activity in each group. After regressing out ELS, we found that ALFF increased in bilateral amygdala and left orbital/cerebellum, while fALFF decreased in left inferior temporal and right middle frontal gyri in MDD patients relative to controls. ELS positively correlated with regional activity in the left cerebellum in MDD and in the right post-central/inferior temporal/superior frontal cingulate, inferior frontal gyrus and bilateral cerebellum in HC. Our findings indicate that there is only very limited region showing correlation between ELS and brain activity in MDD, while diverse areas in HC, suggesting ELS has few impacts on MDD patients.

  15. Early life stress affects limited regional brain activity in depression

    PubMed Central

    Du, Lian; Wang, Jingjie; Meng, Ben; Yong, Na; Yang, Xiangying; Huang, Qingling; Zhang, Yan; Yang, Lingling; Qu, Yuan; Chen, Zhu; Li, Yongmei; Lv, Fajin; Hu, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Early life stress (ELS) can alter brain function and increases the risk of major depressive disorder (MDD) in later life. This study investigated whether ELS contributes to differences in regional brain activity between MDD patients and healthy controls (HC), as measured by amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF)/fractional (f)ALFF. Eighteen first-episode, treatment-naïve MDD patients and HC were assessed with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. We compared ALFF/fALFF between MDD patients and HC, with or without controlling for ELS, and determined whether ELS level was correlated with regional brain activity in each group. After regressing out ELS, we found that ALFF increased in bilateral amygdala and left orbital/cerebellum, while fALFF decreased in left inferior temporal and right middle frontal gyri in MDD patients relative to controls. ELS positively correlated with regional activity in the left cerebellum in MDD and in the right post-central/inferior temporal/superior frontal cingulate, inferior frontal gyrus and bilateral cerebellum in HC. Our findings indicate that there is only very limited region showing correlation between ELS and brain activity in MDD, while diverse areas in HC, suggesting ELS has few impacts on MDD patients. PMID:27138376

  16. NATURAL AND ATHROPOGENIC FACTORS AFFECTING GLOBAL AND REGIONAL CLIMATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    New England weather is highly variable for a number of
    reasons. Our regional climate is also quite variable. The
    winters of the past decade are milder than they were in the
    1960s and 1970s but as the ice-out and snowfall data show
    (Figs 2.5 and 2.6), the patterns of c...

  17. Brain regions and genes affecting limb-clasping responses.

    PubMed

    Lalonde, R; Strazielle, C

    2011-06-24

    Adult rodents picked up by the tail and slowly descending towards a horizontal surface extend all four limbs in anticipation of contact. Mouse mutants with pathologies in various brain regions and the spinal cord display instead a flexion response, often characterized by paw-clasping and a bat-like posture. These phenotypes are observed in mice with lesions in cerebellum, basal ganglia, and neocortex, as well as transgenic models of Alzheimer's disease. The underlying mechanism appears to include cerebello-cortico-reticular and cortico-striato-pallido-reticular pathways, possibly triggered by changes in noradrenaline and serotonin transmission.

  18. Insect prey characteristics affecting regional variation in chimpanzee tool use.

    PubMed

    Sanz, Crickette M; Deblauwe, Isra; Tagg, Nikki; Morgan, David B

    2014-06-01

    It is an ongoing interdisciplinary pursuit to identify the factors shaping the emergence and maintenance of tool technology. Field studies of several primate taxa have shown that tool using behaviors vary within and between populations. While similarity in tools over spatial and temporal scales may be the product of socially learned skills, it may also reflect adoption of convergent strategies that are tailored to specific prey features. Much has been claimed about regional variation in chimpanzee tool use, with little attention to the ecological circumstances that may have shaped such differences. This study examines chimpanzee tool use in termite gathering to evaluate the extent to which the behavior of insect prey may dictate chimpanzee technology. More specifically, we conducted a systematic comparison of chimpanzee tool use and termite prey between the Goualougo Triangle in the Republic of Congo and the La Belgique research site in southeast Cameroon. Apes at both of these sites are known to use tool sets to gather several species of termites. We collected insect specimens and measured the characteristics of their nests. Associated chimpanzee tool assemblages were documented at both sites and video recordings were conducted in the Goualougo Triangle. Although Macrotermitinae assemblages were identical, we found differences in the tools used to gather these termites. Based on measurements of the chimpanzee tools and termite nests at each site, we concluded that some characteristics of chimpanzee tools were directly related to termite nest structure. While there is a certain degree of uniformity within approaches to particular tool tasks across the species range, some aspects of regional variation in hominoid technology are likely adaptations to subtle environmental differences between populations or groups. Such microecological differences between sites do not negate the possibility of cultural transmission, as social learning may be required to transmit

  19. Substance P in the descending cholinergic projection to REM sleep-induction regions of the rat pontine reticular formation: anatomical and electrophysiological analyses.

    PubMed

    Kohlmeier, Kristi A; Burns, Joan; Reiner, Peter B; Semba, Kazue

    2002-01-01

    Release of acetylcholine within the pontine reticular formation (PRF) from the axon terminals of mesopontine cholinergic neurons has long been hypothesized to play an important role in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep generation. As some of these cholinergic neurons are known to contain substance P (SP), we used anatomical, electrophysiological and pharmacological techniques to characterize this projection in the rat. Double immunofluorescence demonstrated that 16% of all cholinergic neurons within the mesopontine tegmentum contained SP; this percentage increased to 27% in its caudal regions. When double immunofluorescence was combined with retrograde tracing techniques, it was observed that up to 11% of all SP-containing cholinergic neurons project to the PRF. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from in vitro brainstem slices revealed that SP administration depolarized or evoked an inward current in a dose-dependent manner in all PRF neurons examined, and that these effects were antagonized by a SP antagonist. The amplitude of the SP-induced inward current varied with changes in the Na+ concentration, did not reverse at the calculated K+ or Cl- equilibrium potentials, and was not attenuated in the presence of tetrodotoxin, low Ca2+ concentration or caesium ions. These data suggest that activation of a tetrodotoxin-insensitive cation channel(s) permeable to Na+ is responsible for a SP-induced inward current at resting membrane potentials. The depolarizing actions of SP appeared to be primarily due to activation of the adenylate cyclase pathway, and were additive with cholinergic receptor activation even at maximal concentrations. These data indicate that SP is colocalized in a subpopulation of mesopontine tegmental cholinergic neurons projecting to REM sleep-induction regions of the PRF, and that actions of these two neuroactive substances on PRF neurons are additive. If SP is coreleased with acetylcholine, the additive actions of the two neurotransmitters might

  20. An investigation of flow regimes affecting the Mexico City region

    SciTech Connect

    Bossert, J.E.

    1995-05-01

    The Mexico City region is well-known to the meteorological community for its overwhelming air pollution problem. Several factors contribute to this predicament, namely, the 20 million people and vast amount of industry within the city. The unique geographical setting of the basin encompassing Mexico City also plays an important role. This basin covers approximately 5000 km{sup 2} of the Mexican Plateau at an average elevation of 2250 m above sea level (asl) and is surrounded on three sides by mountains averaging over 3500 m asl, with peaks over 5000 m asl. Only to the north is their a significant opening in the mountainous terrain. Mexico City sprawls over 1000 km{sup 2} in the southwestern portion of the basin. In recent years, several major research programs have been undertaken to investigate the air quality problem within Mexico City. One of these, the Mexico City Air Quality Research Initiative (MARI), conducted in 1990--1993, was a cooperative study between researchers at Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Mexican Petroleum Institute. As part of this study, a field campaign was initiated in February 1991 during which numerous surface, upper air, aircraft, and LIDAR measurements were taken. Much of the work to date has focused upon defining and simulating the local meteorological conditions that are important for understanding the complex photochemistry occurring within the confines of the city. It seems reasonable to postulate, however, that flow systems originating outside of the Mexico City basin will influence conditions within the city much of the time.

  1. Involvement of Sensory Regions in Affective Experience: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Satpute, Ajay B.; Kang, Jian; Bickart, Kevin C.; Yardley, Helena; Wager, Tor D.; Barrett, Lisa F.

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of work suggests that sensory processes may also contribute to affective experience. In this study, we performed a meta-analysis of affective experiences driven through visual, auditory, olfactory, gustatory, and somatosensory stimulus modalities including study contrasts that compared affective stimuli to matched neutral control stimuli. We found, first, that limbic and paralimbic regions, including the amygdala, anterior insula, pre-supplementary motor area, and portions of orbitofrontal cortex were consistently engaged across two or more modalities. Second, early sensory input regions in occipital, temporal, piriform, mid-insular, and primary sensory cortex were frequently engaged during affective experiences driven by visual, auditory, olfactory, gustatory, and somatosensory inputs. A classification analysis demonstrated that the pattern of neural activity across a contrast map diagnosed the stimulus modality driving the affective experience. These findings suggest that affective experiences are constructed from activity that is distributed across limbic and paralimbic brain regions and also activity in sensory cortical regions. PMID:26696928

  2. Novel DTI Methodology to Detect and Quantify Injured Regions and Affected Brain Pathways in Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Manbir; Jeong, Jeongwon; Hwang, Darryl; Sungkarat, Witaya; Gruen, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To develop and apply DTI based normalization methodology for the detection and quantification of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and the impact of injury along specific brain pathways in: a) individual TBI subjects, and b) a TBI group. Materials and Methods Normalized DTI tractography was conducted in the native space of 12 TBI and 10 age-matched control subjects using the same number of seeds in each subject, distributed at anatomically equivalent locations. Whole-brain tracts from the control group were mapped onto the head of each TBI subject. Differences in the Fractional Anisotropy (FA) maps between each TBI subject and the control group were computed in a common space using a t-test, transformed back to the individual TBI subject's head-space, and thresholded to form Regions of Interest (ROIs) that were used to sort tracts from the control group and the individual TBI subject. Tract-counts for a given ROI in each TBI subject were compared to group mean for the same ROI to quantify impact of injury along affected pathways. Same procedure was used to compare TBI group to control group in a common space. Results Sites of injury within individual TBI subjects and affected pathways included hippocampal/fornix, inferior fronto-occipital, inferior longitudinal fasciculus, corpus callosum (genu and splenium), cortico-spinal tracts and the uncinate fasciculus. Most of these regions were also detected in the group study. Conclusions The DTI normalization methodology presented here enables automatic delineation of ROIs within the heads of individual subjects (or in a group). These ROIs not only localize and quantify the extent of injury, but also quantify the impact of injury on affected pathways in an individual or a group of TBI subjects. PMID:19608369

  3. Brain Morphometry Using Anatomical Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bansal, Ravi; Gerber, Andrew J.; Peterson, Bradley S.

    2008-01-01

    The efficacy of anatomical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in studying the morphological features of various regions of the brain is described, also providing the steps used in the processing and studying of the images. The ability to correlate these features with several clinical and psychological measures can help in using anatomical MRI to…

  4. The anatomical basis of prosopagnosia

    PubMed Central

    Meadows, J. C.

    1974-01-01

    Evidence is presented that patients with prosopagnosia have right anterior inferior occipital lesions in the region of the occipital temporal junction. Many if not all cases have an additional lesion in the left hemisphere; this is often but apparently not always symmetrical with the right hemisphere lesion. This evidence is discussed in relation to the anatomical connections of these regions and the results of experiments in animals. Images PMID:4209556

  5. Occipital neuralgia: anatomic considerations.

    PubMed

    Cesmebasi, Alper; Muhleman, Mitchel A; Hulsberg, Paul; Gielecki, Jerzy; Matusz, Petru; Tubbs, R Shane; Loukas, Marios

    2015-01-01

    Occipital neuralgia is a debilitating disorder first described in 1821 as recurrent headaches localized in the occipital region. Other symptoms that have been associated with this condition include paroxysmal burning and aching pain in the distribution of the greater, lesser, or third occipital nerves. Several etiologies have been identified in the cause of occipital neuralgia and include, but are not limited to, trauma, fibrositis, myositis, fracture of the atlas, and compression of the C-2 nerve root, C1-2 arthrosis syndrome, atlantoaxial lateral mass osteoarthritis, hypertrophic cervical pachymeningitis, cervical cord tumor, Chiari malformation, and neurosyphilis. The management of occipital neuralgia can include conservative approaches and/or surgical interventions. Occipital neuralgia is a multifactorial problem where multiple anatomic areas/structures may be involved with this pathology. A review of these etiologies may provide guidance in better understanding occipital neuralgia.

  6. Automatic Segmentation of the Cortical Grey and White Matter in MRI Using a Region-Growing Approach Based on Anatomical Knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasserthal, Christian; Engel, Karin; Rink, Karsten; Brechmann, Andr'e.

    We propose an automatic procedure for the correct segmentation of grey and white matter in MR data sets of the human brain. Our method exploits general anatomical knowledge for the initial segmentation and for the subsequent refinement of the estimation of the cortical grey matter. Our results are comparable to manual segmentations.

  7. Immune Status, Strain Background, and Anatomic Site of Inoculation Affect Mouse Papillomavirus (MmuPV1) Induction of Exophytic Papillomas or Endophytic Trichoblastomas

    PubMed Central

    Sundberg, John P.; Proctor, Mary; Ingle, Arvind; Silva, Kathleen A.; Dadras, Soheil S.; Jenson, A. Bennett; Ghim, Shin-je

    2014-01-01

    Papillomaviruses (PVs) induce papillomas, premalignant lesions, and carcinomas in a wide variety of species. PVs are classified first based on their host and tissue tropism and then their genomic diversities. A laboratory mouse papillomavirus, MmuPV1 (formerly MusPV), was horizontally transmitted within an inbred colony of NMRI-Foxn1nu/Foxn1nu (nude; T cell deficient) mice of an unknown period of time. A ground-up, filtered papilloma inoculum was not capable of infecting C57BL/6J wild-type mice; however, immunocompetent, alopecic, S/RV/Cri-ba/ba (bare) mice developed small papillomas at injection sites that regressed. NMRI-Foxn1nu and B6.Cg-Foxn1nu, but not NU/J-Foxn1nu, mice were susceptible to MmuPV1 infection. B6 congenic strains, but not other congenic strains carrying the same allelic mutations, lacking B- and T-cells, but not B-cells alone, were susceptible to infection, indicating that mouse strain and T-cell deficiency are critical to tumor formation. Lesions initially observed were exophytic papillomas around the muzzle, exophytic papillomas on the tail, and condylomas of the vaginal lining which could be induced by separate scarification or simultaneous scarification of MmuPV1 at all four sites. On the dorsal skin, locally invasive, poorly differentiated tumors developed with features similar to human trichoblastomas. Transcriptome analysis revealed significant differences between the normal skin in these anatomic sites and in papillomas versus trichoblastomas. The primarily dysregulated genes involved molecular pathways associated with cancer, cellular development, cellular growth and proliferation, cell morphology, and connective tissue development and function. Although trichoepitheliomas are benign, aggressive tumors, few of the genes commonly associated with basal cell carcinoma or squamous cells carcinoma were highly dysregulated. PMID:25474466

  8. Do mining lakes in the Lusatian lignite mining region (Eastern Germany) affect regional precipitation patterns?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brück, Yasemine; Pohle, Ina; Keuler, Klaus; Schaller, Eberhard; Hinz, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    Due to the flooding of former open-pit mines, Europe's largest artificial lake district is created in Eastern Germany. Between 1990 and 2006 more than 80 km² of new lakes have already been formed. These large-scale land cover changes may impact regional meteorological characteristics, therefore it is of interest, whether effects of the mining lakes can already be observed. We especially focus on whether the evaporation from the mining pit lakes leads to a higher precipitation on their lee side. To detect changes in the precipitation patterns, we analysed daily precipitation data (1980-2014) of 25 stations in an area of 10 000 km² widely around the lake district. Under the assumption that the influences of the lakes should be detectable either directly as trends in the observed data or as a deviation from a general measure for precipitation we combined statistical tests and principal component analysis (PCA). We applied pre-whitening Mann-Kendall tests to detect precipitation trends and Mann-Whitney tests to detect differences between split samples (before and after the flooding of most of the lakes). The PCA was applied based on the correlation matrix of daily precipitation at the different stations. As the daily precipitation can sufficiently be explained by the first five principal components, the recombination of these five principal components was used as a general measure of precipitation in the region. By regression trees (random forests) a relationship between the eigenvectors of the first five principal components and physiogeographic characteristics of the stations (e.g. altitude) was shown. Both the observed data and the deviations between the measurements and the recombination of the first five principal components showed divergent trends with high spatial variability and also interannual variability, but a pattern consistent with the lee side of the lake could not be detected. Therefore, it has been demonstrated that the emerging lakes had no

  9. Does winter region affect spring arrival time and body mass of king eiders in northern Alaska?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, Abby N.; Oppel, Steffen

    2009-01-01

    Events during the non-breeding season may affect the body condition of migratory birds and influence performance during the following breeding season. Migratory birds nesting in the Arctic often rely on endogenous nutrients for reproductive efforts, and are thus potentially subject to such carry-over effects. We tested whether king eider (Somateria spectabilis) arrival time and body mass upon arrival at breeding grounds in northern Alaska were affected by their choice of a winter region in the Bering Sea. We captured birds shortly after arrival on breeding grounds in early June 2002–2006 at two sites in northern Alaska and determined the region in which individuals wintered using satellite telemetry or stable isotope ratios of head feathers. We used generalized linear models to assess whether winter region explained variation in arrival body mass among individuals by accounting for sex, site, annual variation, and the date a bird was captured. We found no support for our hypothesis that either arrival time or arrival body mass of king eiders differed among winter regions. We conclude that wintering in different regions in the Bering Sea is unlikely to have reproductive consequences for king eiders in our study areas.

  10. Radial force distribution changes associated with tangential force production in cylindrical grasping, and the importance of anatomical registration

    PubMed Central

    Pataky, Todd C.; Slota, Gregory P.; Latash, Mark L.; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M.

    2011-01-01

    Radial force (Fr) distributions describe grip force coordination about a cylindrical object. Recent studies have employed only explicit Fr tasks, and have not normalized for anatomical variance when considering Fr distributions. The goals of the present study were (i) to explore Fr during tangential force production tasks, and (ii) to examine the extent to which anatomical registration (i.e. spatial normalization of anatomically analogous structures) could improve signal detectability in Fr data. Twelve subjects grasped a vertically-oriented cylindrical handle (diameter = 6 cm) and matched target upward tangential forces of 10, 20, and 30 N. Fr data were measured using a flexible pressure mat with an angular resolution 4.8 deg, and were registered using piecewise-linear interpolation between five manually identified points-of-interest. Results indicate that Fr was primarily limited to three contact regions: the distal thumb, the distal fingers, and the fingers’ metatacarpal heads, and that, while increases in tangential force caused significant increases in Fr for these regions, they did not significantly affect the Fr distribution across the hand. Registration was found to substantially reduce between-subject variability, as indicated by both accentuated Fr trends, and amplification of the test statistic. These results imply that, while subjects focus Fr primarily on three anatomical regions during cylindrical grasp, inter-subject anatomical differences introduce a variability that, if not corrected for via registration, may compromise one’s ability to draw anatomically relevant conclusions from grasping force data. PMID:22134182

  11. The constant region affects antigen binding of antibodies to DNA by altering secondary structure.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yumin; Janda, Alena; Eryilmaz, Ertan; Casadevall, Arturo; Putterman, Chaim

    2013-11-01

    We previously demonstrated an important role of the constant region in the pathogenicity of anti-DNA antibodies. To determine the mechanisms by which the constant region affects autoantibody binding, a panel of isotype-switch variants (IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2b) was generated from the murine PL9-11 IgG3 autoantibody. The affinity of the PL9-11 antibody panel for histone was measured by surface plasmon resonance (SPR). Tryptophan fluorescence was used to determine wavelength shifts of the antibody panel upon binding to DNA and histone. Finally, circular dichroism spectroscopy was used to measure changes in secondary structure. SPR analysis revealed significant differences in histone binding affinity between members of the PL9-11 panel. The wavelength shifts of tryptophan fluorescence emission were found to be dependent on the antibody isotype, while circular dichroism analysis determined that changes in antibody secondary structure content differed between isotypes upon antigen binding. Thus, the antigen binding affinity is dependent on the particular constant region expressed. Moreover, the effects of antibody binding to antigen were also constant region dependent. Alteration of secondary structures influenced by constant regions may explain differences in fine specificity of anti-DNA antibodies between antibodies with similar variable regions, as well as cross-reactivity of anti-DNA antibodies with non-DNA antigens.

  12. Arteriolosclerosis that affects multiple brain regions is linked to hippocampal sclerosis of ageing.

    PubMed

    Neltner, Janna H; Abner, Erin L; Baker, Steven; Schmitt, Frederick A; Kryscio, Richard J; Jicha, Gregory A; Smith, Charles D; Hammack, Eleanor; Kukull, Walter A; Brenowitz, Willa D; Van Eldik, Linda J; Nelson, Peter T

    2014-01-01

    Hippocampal sclerosis of ageing is a prevalent brain disease that afflicts older persons and has been linked with cerebrovascular pathology. Arteriolosclerosis is a subtype of cerebrovascular pathology characterized by concentrically thickened arterioles. Here we report data from multiple large autopsy series (University of Kentucky Alzheimer's Disease Centre, Nun Study, and National Alzheimer's Coordinating Centre) showing a specific association between hippocampal sclerosis of ageing pathology and arteriolosclerosis. The present analyses incorporate 226 cases of autopsy-proven hippocampal sclerosis of ageing and 1792 controls. Case-control comparisons were performed including digital pathological assessments for detailed analyses of blood vessel morphology. We found no evidence of associations between hippocampal sclerosis of ageing pathology and lacunar infarcts, large infarcts, Circle of Willis atherosclerosis, or cerebral amyloid angiopathy. Individuals with hippocampal sclerosis of ageing pathology did not show increased rates of clinically documented hypertension, diabetes, or other cardiac risk factors. The correlation between arteriolosclerosis and hippocampal sclerosis of ageing pathology was strong in multiple brain regions outside of the hippocampus. For example, the presence of arteriolosclerosis in the frontal cortex (Brodmann area 9) was strongly associated with hippocampal sclerosis of ageing pathology (P < 0.001). This enables informative evaluation of anatomical regions outside of the hippocampus. To assess the morphology of brain microvasculature far more rigorously than what is possible using semi-quantitative pathological scoring, we applied digital pathological (Aperio ScanScope) methods on a subsample of frontal cortex sections from hippocampal sclerosis of ageing (n = 15) and control (n = 42) cases. Following technical studies to optimize immunostaining methods for small blood vessel visualization, our analyses focused on sections

  13. Pedro Ara anatomic museum.

    PubMed

    Montenegro, V A; Trefilio, D E; Borghino, V N; Páez, R E; Aranega, C I

    2006-03-01

    Museums where anatomical pieces are exhibited are disappearing. The advance of the computer together with the advance of conventional and three-dimensional radiology makes the organs to be exposed without practicing dissection and the virtual images replace the real ones in the educational process. Some current laws that restrict the use of corpses and fetuses for obituary and exhibition studies have also contributed to the tendency. The anatomical museum, today named Pedro Ara, was founded in December 1920 and it exhibits anatomic works from the embryonic stage to old age, contributing unbeatable teachings to the medical sciences and the general public. The museum is located in the Angel Roque Suarez Anatomic Institute in the Clinical National Hospital which depends on the National University of Cordoba. It is visited daily by hundreds of people from all over the world. The museum owns 1211 pieces that combine ethical, scientific, aesthetical and educational values achieving a realization that received international acknowledgement. The most valuable exhibited work is 'Old man's head' made by Professor Pedro Ara in 1928-1929 (Figure 1), which, owing to its high quality, is in an impeccable and unharmed condition despite being exhibited for 80 years. Other authors, such as Professor Humberto Fracassi, also enriched the museum with their work and we, convinced that it favors and will favor our human formation and professional training, have the privilege of being their heirs and the responsibility of being their followers.

  14. Local to regional emission sources affecting mercury fluxes to New York lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bookman, Revital; Driscoll, Charles T.; Engstrom, Daniel R.; Effler, Steven W.

    Lake-sediment records across the Northern Hemisphere show increases in atmospheric deposition of anthropogenic mercury (Hg) over the last 150 years. Most of the previous studies have examined remote lakes affected by the global atmospheric Hg reservoir. In this study, we present Hg flux records from lakes in an urban/suburban setting of central New York affected also by local and regional emissions. Sediment cores were collected from the Otisco and Skaneateles lakes from the Finger Lakes region, Cross Lake, a hypereutrophic lake on the Seneca River, and Glacial Lake, a small seepage lake with a watershed that corresponds with the lake area. Sediment accumulation rates and dates were established by 210Pb. The pre-anthropogenic regional atmospheric Hg flux was estimated to be 3.0 μg m -2 yr -1 from Glacial Lake, which receives exclusively direct atmospheric deposition. Mercury fluxes peaked during 1971-2001, and were 3 to more than 30 times greater than pre-industrial deposition. Land use change and urbanization in the Otisco and Cross watersheds during the last century likely enhanced sediment loads and Hg fluxes to the lakes. Skaneateles and Glacial lakes have low sediment accumulation rates, and thus are excellent indicators for atmospheric Hg deposition. In these lakes, we found strong correlations with emission records for the Great Lakes region that markedly increased in the early 1900s, and peaked during WWII and in the early 1970s. Declines in modern Hg fluxes are generally evident in the core records. However, the decrease in sediment Hg flux at Glacial Lake was interrupted and has increased since the early 1990s probably due to the operation of new local emission sources. Assuming the global Hg reservoir tripled since the pre-industrial period, the contribution of local and regional emission sources to central New York lakes was estimated to about 80% of the total atmospheric Hg deposition.

  15. Anatomical curve identification

    PubMed Central

    Bowman, Adrian W.; Katina, Stanislav; Smith, Joanna; Brown, Denise

    2015-01-01

    Methods for capturing images in three dimensions are now widely available, with stereo-photogrammetry and laser scanning being two common approaches. In anatomical studies, a number of landmarks are usually identified manually from each of these images and these form the basis of subsequent statistical analysis. However, landmarks express only a very small proportion of the information available from the images. Anatomically defined curves have the advantage of providing a much richer expression of shape. This is explored in the context of identifying the boundary of breasts from an image of the female torso and the boundary of the lips from a facial image. The curves of interest are characterised by ridges or valleys. Key issues in estimation are the ability to navigate across the anatomical surface in three-dimensions, the ability to recognise the relevant boundary and the need to assess the evidence for the presence of the surface feature of interest. The first issue is addressed by the use of principal curves, as an extension of principal components, the second by suitable assessment of curvature and the third by change-point detection. P-spline smoothing is used as an integral part of the methods but adaptations are made to the specific anatomical features of interest. After estimation of the boundary curves, the intermediate surfaces of the anatomical feature of interest can be characterised by surface interpolation. This allows shape variation to be explored using standard methods such as principal components. These tools are applied to a collection of images of women where one breast has been reconstructed after mastectomy and where interest lies in shape differences between the reconstructed and unreconstructed breasts. They are also applied to a collection of lip images where possible differences in shape between males and females are of interest. PMID:26041943

  16. Bovine chromosomal regions affecting rheological traits in acid-induced skim milk gels.

    PubMed

    Glantz, M; Gustavsson, F; Bertelsen, H P; Stålhammar, H; Lindmark-Månsson, H; Paulsson, M; Bendixen, C; Gregersen, V R

    2015-02-01

    The production of fermented milk products has increased worldwide during the last decade and is expected to continue to increase during the coming decade. The quality of these products may be optimized through breeding practices; however, the relations between cow genetics and technological properties of acid milk gels are not fully known. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify chromosomal regions affecting acid-induced coagulation properties and possible candidate genes. Skim milk samples from 377 Swedish Red cows were rheologically analyzed for acid-induced coagulation properties using low-amplitude oscillation measurements. The resulting traits, including gel strength, coagulation time, and yield stress, were used to conduct a genome-wide association study. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) were identified using the BovineHD SNPChip (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA), resulting in almost 621,000 segregating markers. The genome was scanned for putative quantitative trait loci (QTL) regions, haplotypes based on highly associated SNP were inferred, and the additive genetic effects of haplotypes within each QTL region were analyzed using mixed models. A total of 8 genomic regions were identified, with large effects of the significant haplotype explaining between 4.8 and 9.8% of the phenotypic variance of the studied traits. One major QTL was identified to overlap between gel strength and yield stress, the QTL identified with the most significant SNP closest to the gene coding for κ-casein (CSN3). In addition, a chromosome-wide significant region affecting yield stress on BTA 11 was identified to be colocated with PAEP, coding for β-lactoglobulin. Furthermore, the coagulation properties of the genetic variants within the 2 genes were compared with the coagulation properties identified by the patterns of the haplotypes within the regions, and it was discovered that the haplotypes were more diverse and in one case slightly better at explaining the

  17. A combination of spatial and recursive temporal filtering for noise reduction when using region of interest (ROI) fluoroscopy for patient dose reduction in image guided vascular interventions with significant anatomical motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setlur Nagesh, S. V.; Khobragade, P.; Ionita, C.; Bednarek, D. R.; Rudin, S.

    2015-03-01

    Because x-ray based image-guided vascular interventions are minimally invasive they are currently the most preferred method of treating disorders such as stroke, arterial stenosis, and aneurysms; however, the x-ray exposure to the patient during long image-guided interventional procedures could cause harmful effects such as cancer in the long run and even tissue damage in the short term. ROI fluoroscopy reduces patient dose by differentially attenuating the incident x-rays outside the region-of-interest. To reduce the noise in the dose-reduced regions previously recursive temporal filtering was successfully demonstrated for neurovascular interventions. However, in cardiac interventions, anatomical motion is significant and excessive recursive filtering could cause blur. In this work the effects of three noise-reduction schemes, including recursive temporal filtering, spatial mean filtering, and a combination of spatial and recursive temporal filtering, were investigated in a simulated ROI dose-reduced cardiac intervention. First a model to simulate the aortic arch and its movement was built. A coronary stent was used to simulate a bioprosthetic valve used in TAVR procedures and was deployed under dose-reduced ROI fluoroscopy during the simulated heart motion. The images were then retrospectively processed for noise reduction in the periphery, using recursive temporal filtering, spatial filtering and a combination of both. Quantitative metrics for all three noise reduction schemes are calculated and are presented as results. From these it can be concluded that with significant anatomical motion, a combination of spatial and recursive temporal filtering scheme is best suited for reducing the excess quantum noise in the periphery. This new noise-reduction technique in combination with ROI fluoroscopy has the potential for substantial patient-dose savings in cardiac interventions.

  18. The use of "stabilization exercises" to affect neuromuscular control in the lumbopelvic region: a narrative review.

    PubMed

    Bruno, Paul

    2014-06-01

    It is well-established that the coordination of muscular activity in the lumbopelvic region is vital to the generation of mechanical spinal stability. Several models illustrating mechanisms by which dysfunctional neuromuscular control strategies may serve as a cause and/or effect of low back pain have been described in the literature. The term "core stability" is variously used by clinicians and researchers, and this variety has led to several rehabilitative approaches suggested to affect the neuromuscular control strategies of the lumbopelvic region (e.g. "stabilization exercise", "motor control exercise"). This narrative review will highlight: 1) the ongoing debate in the clinical and research communities regarding the terms "core stability" and "stabilization exercise", 2) the importance of sub-grouping in identifying those patients most likely to benefit from such therapeutic interventions, and 3) two protocols that can assist clinicians in this process.

  19. Region and site conditions affect phenotypic trait variation in five forest herbs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemke, Isgard Holle; Kolb, Annette; Diekmann, Martin Reemt

    2012-02-01

    Phenotypic plasticity is the ability of organisms to express different phenotypes under different environmental conditions. It may buffer individuals both against short-term environmental fluctuations and long-term effects of global change. A plastic behaviour in response to changes in the environment may be especially important in species with low migration rates and colonization capacities, such as in many forest plants in present-day fragmented landscapes. We compared the phenotypic trait variation (used as a proxy for the amount of phenotypic plasticity) of five forest herbs (Brachypodium sylvaticum, Circaea lutetiana, Impatiens noli-tangere, Sanicula europaea and Stachys sylvatica) between two regions in Germany that differ in their overall environmental conditions (Bremen in the northwest, Freiburg in the southwest; 5 species × 2 regions × 8-15 populations × 25-50 individuals). In addition, we measured light intensity and important soil parameters (soil pH, moisture, K, P and N) in all populations. We found consistent differences in trait variability between the two regions in several species. In Brachypodium and Stachys both vegetative and reproductive traits were more variable in Freiburg. Similarly, reproductive traits of Impatiens and Sanicula appeared to be more variable in Freiburg, while in both species at least one of the vegetative traits was more variable in Bremen. Mean local environmental conditions also affected trait variation; in most of the species both vegetative and reproductive traits were more variable in sites with higher nutrient contents and higher light availability. Across all traits and both regions, seed or fruit production was most variable. In summary, at least some of the studied forest herbs appear to respond strongly to large-scale environmental differences, showing a higher trait variability in the more southern region. Given the assumption that phenotypic trait variation is positively associated with phenotypic plasticity

  20. Reference Man anatomical model

    SciTech Connect

    Cristy, M.

    1994-10-01

    The 70-kg Standard Man or Reference Man has been used in physiological models since at least the 1920s to represent adult males. It came into use in radiation protection in the late 1940s and was developed extensively during the 1950s and used by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in its Publication 2 in 1959. The current Reference Man for Purposes of Radiation Protection is a monumental book published in 1975 by the ICRP as ICRP Publication 23. It has a wealth of information useful for radiation dosimetry, including anatomical and physiological data, gross and elemental composition of the body and organs and tissues of the body. The anatomical data includes specified reference values for an adult male and an adult female. Other reference values are primarily for the adult male. The anatomical data include much data on fetuses and children, although reference values are not established. There is an ICRP task group currently working on revising selected parts of the Reference Man document.

  1. Assessment of well water quality in Tsunami affected regions of south-west coast of Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Nair, G Achuthan; Chandran, R Pratap; Sukumar, B; Santhosh, S; Vijayamohanan; Sobha, V

    2013-07-01

    The quality of well waters, based on 23 parameters of water, at 12 stations of south-west coast of Kerala, India, was assessed during monsoon, 2009 and summer, 2010, to determine their suitability for drinking and other domestic purposes. The stations selected were grouped into four regions viz. least, slightly, moderately and severely affected ones based on the severity of 2004 Asian Tsunami at each station. The depths of wells showed variations depending on the seasons and on their distance from the seacoast. The average water temperatures during monsoon and summer seasons were 28.5 degrees C and 30.2 degrees C respectively. The pH of well waters were below 6.5 in least and slightly affected regions and above this value in moderately and severely affected regions. In all the four regions, the well water parameters of electrical conductivity, hardness, fluoride, free chlorine, copper, zinc, calcium and nickel were below, and phosphorus, lead, iron cadmium and manganese were above the standard permissible levels set for them in drinking water. The values of salinity, sodium and potassium in the well waters of moderately and severely affected regions, and the values of nitrate-nitrogen, nitrate and magnesium in the well waters of severely affected regions were above the permissible limits set for them in drinking water. Water quality index calculated on the basis of drinking water standards revealed that the well waters of least and slightly affected regions were moderately polluted in both monsoon and summer seasons and the same of moderately affected region were excessively polluted during monsoon and severely polluted during summer seasons, whereas the well waters of severely affected regions were severely polluted in both seasons. Suitable recommendations were made to improve the quality of well waters of least and slightly affected regions.

  2. Factors affecting regional pulmonary blood flow in chronic ischemic heart disease

    SciTech Connect

    Pistolesi, M.; Miniati, M.; Bonsignore, M.; Andreotti, F.; Di Ricco, G.; Marini, C.; Rindi, M.; Biagini, A.; Milne, E.N.; Giuntini, C.

    1988-07-01

    To assess the effect of left heart disease on pulmonary blood flow distribution, we measured mean pulmonary arterial and wedge pressures, cardiac output, pulmonary vascular resistance, pulmonary blood volume, and arterial oxygen tension before and after treatment in 13 patients with longstanding ischemic heart failure and pulmonary edema. Pulmonary edema was evaluated by a radiographic score, and regional lung perfusion was quantified on a lung scan by the upper to lower third ratio (U:L ratio) of pulmonary blood flow per unit of lung volume. In all cases, redistribution of lung perfusion toward the apical regions was observed; this pattern was not affected by treatment. After treatment, pulmonary vascular pressures, resistance, and edema were reduced, while pulmonary blood volume did not change. At this time, pulmonary vascular resistance showed a positive correlation with the U:L ratio (r = 0.78; P less than 0.01), whereas no correlation was observed between U:L ratio and wedge pressure, pulmonary edema, or arterial oxygen tension. Hence, redistribution of pulmonary blood flow, in these patients, reflects chronic structural vascular changes prevailing in the dependent lung regions.

  3. Mangrove forest distributions and dynamics (19752005) of the tsunami-affected region of Asia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Giri, C.; Zhu, Z.; Tieszen, L.L.; Singh, A.; Gillette, S.; Kelmelis, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: We aimed to estimate the present extent of tsunami-affected mangrove forests and determine the rates and causes of deforestation from 1975 to 2005. Location: Our study region covers the tsunami-affected coastal areas of Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, Burma (Myanmar), Bangladesh, India and Sri Lanka in Asia. Methods: We interpreted time-series Landsat data using a hybrid supervised and unsupervised classification approach. Landsat data were geometrically corrected to an accuracy of plus-or-minus half a pixel, an accuracy necessary for change analysis. Each image was normalized for solar irradiance by converting digital number values to the top-of-the atmosphere reflectance. Ground truth data and existing maps and data bases were used to select training samples and also for iterative labelling. We used a post-classification change detection approach. Results: were validated with the help of local experts and/or high-resolution commercial satellite data. Results The region lost 12% of its mangrove forests from 1975 to 2005, to a present extent of c. 1,670,000 ha. Rates and causes of deforestation varied both spatially and temporally. Annual deforestation was highest in Burma (c. 1%) and lowest in Sri Lanka (0.1%). In contrast, mangrove forests in India and Bangladesh remained unchanged or gained a small percentage. Net deforestation peaked at 137,000 ha during 1990-2000, increasing from 97,000 ha during 1975-90, and declining to 14,000 ha during 2000-05. The major causes of deforestation were agricultural expansion (81%), aquaculture (12%) and urban development (2%). Main conclusions: We assessed and monitored mangrove forests in the tsunami-affected region of Asia using the historical archive of Landsat data. We also measured the rates of change and determined possible causes. The results of our study can be used to better understand the role of mangrove forests in saving lives and property from natural disasters such as the Indian Ocean tsunami, and to identify

  4. The Use of Infrared Thermography as a Rapid, Quantitative, and Noninvasive Method for Evaluation of Inflammation Response in Different Anatomical Regions of Rats

    PubMed Central

    Całkosiński, Ireneusz; Dobrzyński, Maciej; Rosińczuk, Joanna; Dudek, Krzysztof; Chrószcz, Aleksander; Fita, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Thermographic assessment of temperature distribution within the examined tissues allows a quick, noncontact, noninvasive measurement of their temperature. The aim of the study was to evaluate the usefulness of digital infrared imaging in monitoring experimental inflammation of pleura (PL), lower lip (LL), and left paw (LP) and right paw (RP) of lower limbs in rats. Materials and Methods. The inflammatory reaction was induced by injection of 1% carrageenin solution into pleural cavity, lip, or paws. With the use of digital infrared imaging temperature measurement was conducted at 0 to 72 hours of the inflammatory reaction. Results. The temperature decrease was observed at the site of injection directly afterwards. Next, it was gradually increasing and it reached the maximum on the third day of the inflammatory reaction. Statistically significant changes were observed after 48-hour period in PL and LL regions, as well as after 72-hour period in LP and RP regions (P < 0.005). Conclusion. It was found that thermographic examination allows for indicating the presence of inflammatory reaction within examined tissues and determining the dynamics of this process. This method could be used as alternative procedure that allows using fewer animals for experiments. PMID:25834830

  5. Identification of Differentially Expressed Genes through Integrated Study of Alzheimer’s Disease Affected Brain Regions

    PubMed Central

    Berretta, Regina; Moscato, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Background Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia in older adults that damages the brain and results in impaired memory, thinking and behaviour. The identification of differentially expressed genes and related pathways among affected brain regions can provide more information on the mechanisms of AD. In the past decade, several studies have reported many genes that are associated with AD. This wealth of information has become difficult to follow and interpret as most of the results are conflicting. In that case, it is worth doing an integrated study of multiple datasets that helps to increase the total number of samples and the statistical power in detecting biomarkers. In this study, we present an integrated analysis of five different brain region datasets and introduce new genes that warrant further investigation. Methods The aim of our study is to apply a novel combinatorial optimisation based meta-analysis approach to identify differentially expressed genes that are associated to AD across brain regions. In this study, microarray gene expression data from 161 samples (74 non-demented controls, 87 AD) from the Entorhinal Cortex (EC), Hippocampus (HIP), Middle temporal gyrus (MTG), Posterior cingulate cortex (PC), Superior frontal gyrus (SFG) and visual cortex (VCX) brain regions were integrated and analysed using our method. The results are then compared to two popular meta-analysis methods, RankProd and GeneMeta, and to what can be obtained by analysing the individual datasets. Results We find genes related with AD that are consistent with existing studies, and new candidate genes not previously related with AD. Our study confirms the up-regualtion of INFAR2 and PTMA along with the down regulation of GPHN, RAB2A, PSMD14 and FGF. Novel genes PSMB2, WNK1, RPL15, SEMA4C, RWDD2A and LARGE are found to be differentially expressed across all brain regions. Further investigation on these genes may provide new insights into the development of AD

  6. Genetic Organization of the Region around UNC-15 (I), a Gene Affecting Paramyosin in CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS

    PubMed Central

    Rose, A. M.; Baillie, D. L.

    1980-01-01

    In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans mutants in the gene unc-15 (I) affect the muscle protein paramyosin (Waterston, Fishpool and Brenner 1977). We have characterized 20 ethyl methanesulfonate-induced mutations in essential genes closely linked to unc-15. These lethals defined 16 new complementation groups. In the 0.65 map-unit interval around unc-15 defined by dpy-14 and unc-56, seven newly identified genes have been mapped relative to five existing genes. At present, the average distance between genes in this region is approximately 0.05 map units. Two genes, unc-15 and unc-13, are only 0.025 map units apart. Partial fine-structure maps of alleles of these two genes have been constructed. This analysis of unc-15 and genes adjacent to it is the first in a series of genetic and biochemical studies directed towards understanding the control of unc-15 expression. PMID:7262541

  7. Anatomically heterogeneous populations of CB1 cannabinoid receptor-expressing interneurons in the CA3 region of the hippocampus show homogeneous input-output characteristics.

    PubMed

    Szabó, Gergely G; Papp, Orsolya I; Máté, Zoltán; Szabó, Gábor; Hájos, Norbert

    2014-12-01

    A subpopulation of GABAergic cells in cortical structures expresses CB1 cannabinoid receptors (CB1 ) on their axon terminals. To understand the function of these interneurons in information processing, it is necessary to uncover how they are embedded into neuronal circuits. Therefore, the proportion of GABAergic terminals expressing CB1 and the morphological and electrophysiological properties of CB1 -immunoreactive interneurons should be revealed. We investigated the ratio and the origin of CB1 -expressing inhibitory boutons in the CA3 region of the hippocampus. Using immunocytochemical techniques, we estimated that ∼40% of GABAergic axon terminals in different layers of CA3 also expressed CB1 . To identify the inhibitory cell types expressing CB1 in this region, we recorded and intracellularly labeled interneurons in hippocampal slices. CB1 -expressing interneurons showed distinct axonal arborization, and were classified as basket cells, mossy-fiber-associated cells, dendritic-layer-innervating cells or perforant-path-associated cells. In each morphological category, a substantial variability in axonal projection was observed. In contrast to the diverse morphology, the active and passive membrane properties were found to be rather similar. Using paired recordings, we found that pyramidal cells displayed large and fast unitary postsynaptic currents in response to activating basket and mossy-fiber-associated cells, while they showed slower and smaller synaptic events in pairs originating from interneurons that innervate the dendritic layer, which may be due to dendritic filtering. In addition, CB1 activation significantly reduced the amplitude of the postsynaptic currents in each cell pair tested. Our data suggest that CB1 -expressing interneurons with different axonal projections have comparable physiological characteristics, contributing to a similar proportion of GABAergic inputs along the somato-dendritic axis of CA3 pyramidal cells.

  8. Complex regional pain syndrome type I affects brain structure in prefrontal and motor cortex.

    PubMed

    Pleger, Burkhard; Draganski, Bogdan; Schwenkreis, Peter; Lenz, Melanie; Nicolas, Volkmar; Maier, Christoph; Tegenthoff, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a rare but debilitating pain disorder that mostly occurs after injuries to the upper limb. A number of studies indicated altered brain function in CRPS, whereas possible influences on brain structure remain poorly investigated. We acquired structural magnetic resonance imaging data from CRPS type I patients and applied voxel-by-voxel statistics to compare white and gray matter brain segments of CRPS patients with matched controls. Patients and controls were statistically compared in two different ways: First, we applied a 2-sample ttest to compare whole brain white and gray matter structure between patients and controls. Second, we aimed to assess structural alterations specifically of the primary somatosensory (S1) and motor cortex (M1) contralateral to the CRPS affected side. To this end, MRI scans of patients with left-sided CRPS (and matched controls) were horizontally flipped before preprocessing and region-of-interest-based group comparison. The unpaired ttest of the "non-flipped" data revealed that CRPS patients presented increased gray matter density in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. The same test applied to the "flipped" data showed further increases in gray matter density, not in the S1, but in the M1 contralateral to the CRPS-affected limb which were inversely related to decreased white matter density of the internal capsule within the ipsilateral brain hemisphere. The gray-white matter interaction between motor cortex and internal capsule suggests compensatory mechanisms within the central motor system possibly due to motor dysfunction. Altered gray matter structure in dorsomedial prefrontal cortex may occur in response to emotional processes such as pain-related suffering or elevated analgesic top-down control.

  9. Dust-storm dynamics over Sistan region, Iran: Seasonality, transport characteristics and affected areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashki, A.; Kaskaoutis, D. G.; Francois, P.; Kosmopoulos, P. G.; Legrand, M.

    2015-03-01

    The present work examines the seasonality, dust-plume altitudinal variation and affected areas for dust storms originated from the Sistan region, southeastern Iran during the summer (June-September) months of the period 2001-2012 synthesizing local meteorological records, satellite observations (TOMS, OMI, METEOSAT, MODIS) and HYSPLIT forward trajectories. Dust-storm days (356 in total) are associated with visibility below 1 km at Zabol, Iran meteorological station with higher frequency and intensity in June and July. Monthly-mean composite maps of TOMS and OMI AI show high (>3-3.5) values over Sistan and nearby downwind areas. HYSPLIT forward-trajectory analysis at 500 m for air masses originated from Sistan on the dust-storm days shows that they usually follow an anti-clockwise transport direction at elevations usually below 2 km, initially moving southwards and then shifting to east-northeast when they are approaching the Arabian Sea coast. This is the result of the influence of the local topography and formation of thermal low-pressure systems over the arid lands. It is found that in few cases the dust storms from Sistan affect central/south Arabian Sea and India, while they control the aerosol loading over northernmost Arabian Sea. The Infrared Difference Dust Index (IDDI) images, which represent brightness temperature reduction due to dust presence over land, are used at specific periods of persistent dust storms over Sistan, confirming the main pathways of the dust plumes and illustrating the importance of the region as one of the most active dust sources in southwest Asia.

  10. [SURGICAL TREATMENT OF TUMORS OF THE LEFT PANCREATIC ANATOMICAL SEGMENT].

    PubMed

    Kopchak, V M; Tkachuk, O S; Kopchak, K V; Duvalko, O V; Khomyak, I V; Pererva, L O; Kvasivka, O O; Andronik, S V; Shevkolenko, G G; Khanenko, V V; Romaniv, Ya V; Grebihn, R M

    2015-04-01

    The results of treatment of 231 patients, suffering tumoral affection of pancreatic left anatomical segment in period of 2009-2013 yrs were analyzed. Individualized approach, using modern technologies, was applied. Radical operations were performed in 129 patients, ageing 14-81 yrs old, including pancreatic distal resections in various modifications, central resection and tumoral enucleation. Possibilities of the extended pancreatic resection performance were studied in conditions of tumoral invasion of adjacent organs, regional vessels, as well as impact of such interventions on postoperative complications and lethality rate. While performing pancreatic subtotal distal resection with simultant resection of affected main venous vessels and adjacent organs the operative intervention risk is enhanced, but possibilities of a radical operations performance in previously considered inoperable patients are expanding.

  11. Anatomic Posterolateral Corner Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Serra Cruz, Raphael; Mitchell, Justin J; Dean, Chase S; Chahla, Jorge; Moatshe, Gilbert; LaPrade, Robert F

    2016-06-01

    Posterolateral corner injuries represent a complex injury pattern, with damage to important coronal and rotatory stabilizers of the knee. These lesions commonly occur in association with other ligament injuries, making decisions regarding treatment challenging. Grade III posterolateral corner injuries result in significant instability and have poor outcomes when treated nonoperatively. As a result, reconstruction is advocated. A thorough knowledge of the anatomy is essential for surgical treatment of this pathology. The following technical note provides a diagnostic approach, postoperative management, and details of a technique for anatomic reconstruction of the 3 main static stabilizers of the posterolateral corner of the knee. PMID:27656379

  12. Anatomical calibration for wearable motion capture systems: Video calibrated anatomical system technique.

    PubMed

    Bisi, Maria Cristina; Stagni, Rita; Caroselli, Alessio; Cappello, Angelo

    2015-08-01

    Inertial sensors are becoming widely used for the assessment of human movement in both clinical and research applications, thanks to their usability out of the laboratory. This work aims to propose a method for calibrating anatomical landmark position in the wearable sensor reference frame with an ease to use, portable and low cost device. An off-the-shelf camera, a stick and a pattern, attached to the inertial sensor, compose the device. The proposed technique is referred to as video Calibrated Anatomical System Technique (vCAST). The absolute orientation of a synthetic femur was tracked both using the vCAST together with an inertial sensor and using stereo-photogrammetry as reference. Anatomical landmark calibration showed mean absolute error of 0.6±0.5 mm: these errors are smaller than those affecting the in-vivo identification of anatomical landmarks. The roll, pitch and yaw anatomical frame orientations showed root mean square errors close to the accuracy limit of the wearable sensor used (1°), highlighting the reliability of the proposed technique. In conclusion, the present paper proposes and preliminarily verifies the performance of a method (vCAST) for calibrating anatomical landmark position in the wearable sensor reference frame: the technique is low time consuming, highly portable, easy to implement and usable outside laboratory. PMID:26077101

  13. Revision of the tsunami catalogue affecting Turkish coasts and surrounding regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altinok, Y.; Alpar, B.; Özer, N.; Aykurt, H.

    2011-02-01

    The coasts of Turkey have been hit by tsunamis in the past. The first national earthquake-tsunami catalogues were compiled in the early 1980s while the most up-to-date tsunami catalogues are mainly the products of recent European projects. The EU projects GITEC and GITEC-TWO (Genesis and Impact of Tsunamis on the European Coasts) and TRANSFER (Tsunami Risk ANd Strategies For the European Region) have added important contributions in establishing and developing unified criteria for tsunami parameterisation, standards for the quality of the data, the data format and the database general architecture. On the basis of these new aspects and based on recent marine geophysical data, tsunamigenic earthquakes, tsunami intensities and their reliability have been revised. The current version of the database contains 134 events, most of which have affected the Turkish coasts seriously during the last 3500 years. The reliability index of 76 events was "probable" and "definite", so that they could be used for assessment of the risk along the Turkish coastal region and for implementation of prevention policies.

  14. Crumbs Affects Protein Dynamics In Anterior Regions Of The Developing Drosophila Embryo

    PubMed Central

    Firmino, João; Tinevez, Jean-Yves; Knust, Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    Maintenance of apico-basal polarity is essential for epithelial integrity and requires particular reinforcement during tissue morphogenesis, when cells are reorganised, undergo shape changes and remodel their junctions. It is well established that epithelial integrity during morphogenetic processes depends on the dynamic exchange of adherens junction components, but our knowledge on the dynamics of other proteins and their dynamics during these processes is still limited. The early Drosophila embryo is an ideal system to study membrane dynamics during morphogenesis. Here, morphogenetic activities differ along the anterior-posterior axis, with the extending germband showing a high degree of epithelial remodelling. We developed a Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching (FRAP) assay with a higher temporal resolution, which allowed the distinction between a fast and a slow component of recovery of membrane proteins during the germband extension stage. We show for the first time that the recovery kinetics of a general membrane marker, SpiderGFP, differs in the anterior and posterior parts of the embryo, which correlates well with the different morphogenetic activities of the respective embryonic regions. Interestingly, absence of crumbs, a polarity regulator essential for epithelial integrity in the Drosophila embryo, decreases the fast component of SpiderGFP and of the apical marker Stranded at Second-Venus specifically in the anterior region. We suggest that the defects in kinetics observed in crumbs mutant embryos are the first signs of tissue instability in this region, explaining the earlier breakdown of the head epidermis in comparison to that of the trunk, and that diffusion in the plasma membrane is affected by the absence of Crumbs. PMID:23555600

  15. Methods for reasoning from geometry about anatomic structures injured by penetrating trauma

    PubMed Central

    Ogunyemi, Omolola

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the methods used for three-dimensional (3D) reasoning about anatomic structures affected by penetrating trauma in TraumaSCAN-Web, a platform-independent decision support system for evaluating the effects of penetrating trauma to the chest and abdomen. In assessing outcomes for an injured patient, TraumaSCAN-Web utilizes 3D models of anatomic structures and 3D models of the regions of damage associated with stab and gunshot wounds to determine the probability of injury to anatomic structures. Probabilities estimated from 3D reasoning about affected anatomic structures serve as input to a Bayesian network which calculates posterior probabilities of injury based on these initial probabilities together with available information about patient signs, symptoms and test results. In addition to displaying textual descriptions of conditions arising from penetrating trauma to a patient, TraumaSCAN-Web allows users to visualize the anatomy suspected of being injured in 3D, in this way providing a guide to its reasoning process. PMID:16321576

  16. Motivation and Organizational Principles for Anatomical Knowledge Representation

    PubMed Central

    Rosse, Cornelius; Mejino, José L.; Modayur, Bharath R.; Jakobovits, Rex; Hinshaw, Kevin P.; Brinkley, James F.

    1998-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Conceptualization of the physical objects and spaces that constitute the human body at the macroscopic level of organization, specified as a machine-parseable ontology that, in its human-readable form, is comprehensible to both expert and novice users of anatomical information. Design: Conceived as an anatomical enhancement of the UMLS Semantic Network and Metathesaurus, the anatomical ontology was formulated by specifying defining attributes and differentia for classes and subclasses of physical anatomical entities based on their partitive and spatial relationships. The validity of the classification was assessed by instantiating the ontology for the thorax. Several transitive relationships were used for symbolically modeling aspects of the physical organization of the thorax. Results: By declaring Organ as the macroscopic organizational unit of the body, and defining the entities that constitute organs and higher level entities constituted by organs, all anatomical entities could be assigned to one of three top level classes (Anatomical structure, Anatomical spatial entity and Body substance). The ontology accommodates both the systemic and regional (topographical) views of anatomy, as well as diverse clinical naming conventions of anatomical entities. Conclusions: The ontology formulated for the thorax is extendible to microscopic and cellular levels, as well as to other body parts, in that its classes subsume essentially all anatomical entities that constitute the body. Explicit definitions of these entities and their relationships provide the first requirement for standards in anatomical concept representation. Conceived from an anatomical viewpoint, the ontology can be generalized and mapped to other biomedical domains and problem solving tasks that require anatomical knowledge. PMID:9452983

  17. Multiple and diverse structural changes affect the breakpoint regions of polymorphic inversions across the Drosophila genus

    PubMed Central

    Puerma, Eva; Orengo, Dorcas J.; Aguadé, Montserrat

    2016-01-01

    Chromosomal polymorphism is widespread in the Drosophila genus, with extensive evidence supporting its adaptive character in diverse species. Moreover, inversions are the major contributors to the genus chromosomal evolution. The molecular characterization of a reduced number of polymorphic inversion breakpoints in Drosophila melanogaster and Drosophila subobscura supports that their inversions would have mostly originated through a mechanism that generates duplications —staggered double-strand breaks— and has thus the potential to contribute to their adaptive character. There is also evidence for inversion breakpoint reuse at different time scales. Here, we have characterized the breakpoints of two inversions of D. subobscura —O4 and O8— involved in complex arrangements that are frequent in the warm parts of the species distribution area. The duplications detected at their breakpoints are consistent with their origin through the staggered-break mechanism, which further supports it as the prevalent mechanism in D. subobscura. The comparative analysis of inversions breakpoint regions across the Drosophila genus has revealed several genes affected by multiple disruptions due not only to inversions but also to single-gene transpositions and duplications. PMID:27782210

  18. Local and regional factors affecting atmospheric mercury speciation at a remote location

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manolopoulos, H.; Schauer, J.J.; Purcell, M.D.; Rudolph, T.M.; Olson, M.L.; Rodger, B.; Krabbenhoft, D.P.

    2007-01-01

    Atmospheric concentrations of elemental (Hg0), reactive gaseous (RGM), and particulate (PHg) mercury were measured at two remote sites in the midwestern United States. Concurrent measurements of Hg0, PHg, and RGM obtained at Devil's Lake and Mt. Horeb, located approximately 65 km apart, showed that Hg0 and PHg concentrations were affected by regional, as well as local sources, while RGM was mainly impacted by local sources. Plumes reaching the Devil's Lake site from a nearby coal-fired power plant significantly impacted SO2 and RGM concentrations at Devil's Lake, but had little impact on Hg0. Our findings suggest that traditional modeling approaches to assess sources of mercury deposited that utilize source emissions and large-scale grids may not be sufficient to predict mercury deposition at sensitive locations due to the importance of small-scale sources and processes. We suggest the use of a receptor-based monitoring to better understand mercury source-receptor relationships. ?? 2007 NRC Canada.

  19. THE ROLE OF ACTIVE REGION LOOP GEOMETRY. I. HOW CAN IT AFFECT CORONAL SEISMOLOGY?

    SciTech Connect

    Selwa, M.; Ofman, L.; Solanki, S. K. E-mail: leon.ofman@nasa.gov

    2011-01-01

    We present numerical results of coronal loop oscillation excitation using a three-dimensional (3D) MHD model of an idealized active region (AR) field. The AR is initialized as a potential dipole magnetic configuration with gravitationally stratified density and contains a loop with a higher density than its surroundings. We study different ways of excitation of vertical kink oscillations of this loop by velocity: as an initial condition, and as an impulsive excitation with a pulse of a given position, duration, and amplitude. We vary the geometry of the loop in the 3D MHD model and find that it affects both the period of oscillations and the synthetic observations (difference images) that we get from oscillations. Due to the overestimated effective length of the loop in the case of loops which have maximum separation between their legs above the footpoints (>50% of observed loops), the magnetic field obtained from coronal seismology can also be overestimated. The 3D MHD model shows how the accuracy of magnetic field strength determined from coronal seismology can be improved. We study the damping mechanism of the oscillations and find that vertical kink waves in 3D stratified geometry are damped mainly due to wave leakage in the horizontal direction.

  20. Factors Affecting Mental Health of Local Staff Working in the Vanni Region, Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Cardozo, Barbara Lopes; Crawford, Carol; Petit, Pilar; Ghitis, Frida; Sivilli, Teresa I.; Scholte, Willem F.; Ager, Alastair; Eriksson, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    In the aftermath of the civil war that extended from 1983–2009, humanitarian organizations provided aid to the conflict-affected population of the Vanni region in northern Sri Lanka. In August, 2010, a needs assessment was conducted to determine the mental-health status of Sri Lankan national humanitarian aid staff working in conditions of stress and hardship, and consider contextual and organizational characteristics influencing such status. A total of 398 staff members from nine organizations working in the Vanni area participated in the survey, which assessed stress, work characteristics, social support, coping styles, and symptoms of psychological distress. Exposure to traumatic, chronic, and secondary stressors was common. Nineteen percent of the population met criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), 53% of participants reported elevated anxiety symptoms, and 58% reported elevated depression symptoms. Those reporting high levels of support from their organizations were less likely to suffer depression and PTSD symptoms than those reporting lower levels of staff support (OR =.23, p < .001) and (OR =.26, p < .001), respectively. Participants who were age 55 or older were significantly less likely to suffer anxiety symptoms than those who were between 15 and 34 years of age (OR =.13, p = .011). Having experienced travel difficulties was significantly associated with more anxiety symptoms (OR = 3.35, p < .001). It was recommended that organizations provide stress-management training and increase support to their staff. PMID:27099648

  1. Amygdala atrophy affects emotion-related activity in face-responsive regions in frontotemporal degeneration.

    PubMed

    De Winter, François-Laurent; Van den Stock, Jan; de Gelder, Beatrice; Peeters, Ronald; Jastorff, Jan; Sunaert, Stefan; Vanduffel, Wim; Vandenberghe, Rik; Vandenbulcke, Mathieu

    2016-09-01

    In the healthy brain, modulatory influences from the amygdala commonly explain enhanced activation in face-responsive areas by emotional facial expressions relative to neutral expressions. In the behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) facial emotion recognition is impaired and has been associated with atrophy of the amygdala. By combining structural and functional MRI in 19 patients with bvFTD and 20 controls we investigated the neural effects of emotion in face-responsive cortex and its relationship with amygdalar gray matter (GM) volume in neurodegeneration. Voxel-based morphometry revealed decreased GM volume in anterior medio-temporal regions including amygdala in patients compared to controls. During fMRI, we presented dynamic facial expressions (fear and chewing) and their spatiotemporally scrambled versions. We found enhanced activation for fearful compared to neutral faces in ventral temporal cortex and superior temporal sulcus in controls, but not in patients. In the bvFTD group left amygdalar GM volume correlated positively with emotion-related activity in left fusiform face area (FFA). This correlation was amygdala-specific and driven by GM in superficial and basolateral (BLA) subnuclei, consistent with reported amygdalar-cortical networks. The data suggests that anterior medio-temporal atrophy in bvFTD affects emotion processing in distant posterior areas. PMID:27389802

  2. Distribution and abundance of predators that affect duck production--prairie pothole region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sargeant, A.B.; Greenwood, R.J.; Sovada, M.A.; Shaffer, T.L.

    1993-01-01

    During 1983-88, the relative abundance of 18 species and species-groups of mammalian and avian predators affecting duck production in the prairie pothole region was determined in 33 widely scattered study areas ranging in size from 23-26 km2. Accounts of each studied species and species-group include habitat and history, population structure and reported densities, and information on distribution and abundance from the present study. Index values of undetected, scarce, uncommon, common, or numerous were used to rate abundance of nearly all species in each study area. Principal survey methods were livetrapping of striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) and Franklin's ground squirrels (Spermophilus franklinii), systematic searches for carnivore tracks in quarter sections (0.65 km2), daily records of sightings of individual predator species, and systematic searches for occupied nests of tree-nesting avian predators. Abundances of predators in individual areas were studied 1-3 years.The distribution and abundance of predator species throughout the prairie pothole region have undergone continual change since settlement of the region by Europeans in the late 1800's. Predator populations in areas we studied differed markedly from those of pristine times. The changes occurred from habitat alterations, human-inflicted mortality of predators, and interspecific relations among predator species. Indices from surveys of tracks revealed a decline in the abundance of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and an albeit less consistent decline in the abundance of raccoons (Procyon lotor) with an increase in the abundance of coyotes (Canis latrans). Records of locations of occupied nests revealed great horned owls (Bubo virginianus) and red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) tended to nest 0.5 km apart, and American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos) tended to avoid nesting 0.5 km of nests of red-tailed hawks. Excluding large gulls, for which no measurements of abundance were obtained, the number of

  3. [Interhemispheric supraorbital or frontopolar approach: anatomical study].

    PubMed

    Silveira, Roberto Leal; Gusmão, Sebastião; Avelar, Leonardo

    2005-06-01

    A modification of the supraorbital approach is proposed in order to improve the access to the medial portions of the anterior and middle fossas (supraselar region). It consists of a midline extension of the frontal craniotomy along with an interhemispheric approach: interhemispheric supraorbital or frontopolar approach. The anatomical basis of this approach were studied in eight cadaveric heads. Its results demonstratete that this approach adequaly access the medial structures of the anterior and medial fossas with minimal brain retraction and wide exposure.

  4. Factors affecting motivation and retention of primary health care workers in three disparate regions in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The World Health Organization (WHO) and the Government of Kenya alike identify a well-performing health workforce as key to attaining better health. Nevertheless, the motivation and retention of health care workers (HCWs) persist as challenges. This study investigated factors influencing motivation and retention of HCWs at primary health care facilities in three different settings in Kenya - the remote area of Turkana, the relatively accessible region of Machakos, and the disadvantaged informal urban settlement of Kibera in Nairobi. Methods A cross-sectional cluster sample design was used to select 59 health facilities that yielded interviews with 404 health care workers, grouped into 10 different types of service providers. Data were collected in November 2011 using structured questionnaires and a Focus Group Discussion guide. Findings were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate methods of the associations and determinants of health worker motivation and retention. Results The levels of education and gender factors were lowest in Turkana with female HCWs representing only 30% of the workers against a national average of 53%. A smaller proportion of HCWs in Turkana feel that they have adequate training for their jobs. Overall, 13% of the HCWs indicated that they had changed their job in the last 12 months and 20% indicated that they could leave their current job within the next two years. In terms of work environment, inadequate access to electricity, equipment, transport, housing, and the physical state of the health facility were cited as most critical, particularly in Turkana. The working environment is rated as better in private facilities. Adequate training, job security, salary, supervisor support, and manageable workload were identified as critical satisfaction factors. Family health care, salary, and terminal benefits were rated as important compensatory factors. Conclusions There are distinct motivational and retention factors that affect

  5. THE ANATOMICAL MUSEUM PEDRO ARA.

    PubMed

    Carpio, Carlos Sanchez

    2015-01-01

    The contribute is aimed to shed light on the history of the Anatomical Museum Pedro Ara since his foundation in 1878. Particularly, it describes the activity of Pedro Ara in preparing the anatomical specimens, which constitute the original collection of the Museum.

  6. Effect of acicular ferrite formation on grain refinement in the coarse-grained region of heat-affected zone

    SciTech Connect

    Wan, X.L.; Wei, R.; Wu, K.M.

    2010-07-15

    The microstructure of acicular ferrite and its formation for the grain refinement of coarse-grained region of heat-affected zone of high strength low-alloy bainite steels were studied using three-dimensional reconstruction technique. Crystallographic grain size was analyzed by means of electron backscatter diffraction. It was revealed that the microstructure in the coarse-grained region of the heat-affected zone consisted of predominantly bainite packets and a small proportion of acicular ferrite. Acicular ferrite was of lath or plate-like rather than needle or rod-like morphology. Tempering of the coarse-grained region of heat-affected zone showed that the acicular ferrite was more stable than the bainite, indicating that the acicular ferrite was formed prior to bainite. The acicular ferrite laths or plates divided the prior austenite grains into smaller and separate regions, and confining the bainite transformed at lower temperatures in the smaller regions and hence leading to the grain refinement in the coarse-grained region of the heat-affected zone.

  7. Water-supply options in arsenic-affected regions in Cambodia: targeting the bottom income quintiles.

    PubMed

    Chamberlain, Jim F; Sabatini, David A

    2014-08-01

    In arsenic-affected regions of Cambodia, rural water committees and planners can choose to promote various arsenic-avoidance and/or arsenic-removal water supply systems. Each of these has different costs of providing water, subsequently born by the consumer in order to be sustainable. On a volumetric basis ($/m3-yr) and of the arsenic-avoidance options considered, small-scale public water supply - e.g., treated water provided to a central tap stand - is the most expensive option on a life-cycle cost basis. Rainwater harvesting, protected hand dug wells, and vendor-supplied water are the cheapest with a normalized present worth value, ranging from $2 to $10 per cubic meter per year of water delivered. Subsidization of capital costs is needed to make even these options affordable to the lowest (Q5) quintile. The range of arsenic-removal systems considered here, using adsorptive media, is competitive with large-scale public water supply and deep tube well systems. Both community level and household-scale systems are in a range that is affordable to the Q4 quintile, though more research and field trials are needed. At a target cost of $5.00/m3, arsenic removal systems will compete with the OpEx costs for most of the arsenic-safe water systems that are currently available. The life-cycle cost approach is a valuable method for comparing alternatives and for assessing current water supply practices as these relate to equity and the ability to pay.

  8. Flosequinan does not affect systemic and regional vascular responses to simulated orthostatic stress in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed Central

    Duranteau, J; Pussard, E; Edouard, A; Samii, K; Berdeaux, A; Giudicelli, J F

    1992-01-01

    1. The effects of a single oral dose (100 mg) of flosequinan on systemic and regional (forearm, splanchnic and renal) vascular responses to simulated orthostatic stress (lower body negative pressure, LBNP) were investigated in nine healthy male volunteers, in a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study. 2. Forty-five minutes after its administration and before LBNP, flosequinan induced a significant decrease in total peripheral and in forearm vascular resistances without any concomitant change in arterial pressure, in heart rate and in the investigated biological parameters (plasma catecholamines, arginine vasopressin and renin activity). 3. After flosequinan and placebo, LBNP induced similar decreases in central venous pressure at all levels of LBNP (-10, -20 and -40 mm Hg) and in pulse pressure at LBNP -40 mm Hg. LBNP-induced increase in forearm vascular resistance was significantly more marked after flosequinan than after placebo at all levels of LBNP, and this was also true for splanchnic vascular resistance but at LBNP -40 mm Hg only. However, inasmuch as the basal values of these two parameters before LBNP were lower after flosequinan than after placebo, their final values after LBNP -40 mm Hg were similar. Finally, LBNP-induced changes in renal vascular resistance, glomerular filtration rate and filtration fraction as well as in plasma catecholamines, arginine vasopressin and renin activity were similar after flosequinan and placebo at all levels of LBNP. 4. Flosequinan affected neither reflex control of heart rate (phenylephrine test) nor non-specific vasoconstrictor responses (cold pressor test). (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1389945

  9. PET image reconstruction with anatomical edge guided level set prior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng-Liao, Jinxiu; Qi, Jinyi

    2011-11-01

    Acquiring both anatomical and functional images during one scan, PET/CT systems improve the ability to detect and localize abnormal uptakes. In addition, CT images provide anatomical boundary information that can be used to regularize positron emission tomography (PET) images. Here we propose a new approach to maximum a posteriori reconstruction of PET images with a level set prior guided by anatomical edges. The image prior models both the smoothness of PET images and the similarity between functional boundaries in PET and anatomical boundaries in CT. Level set functions (LSFs) are used to represent smooth and closed functional boundaries. The proposed method does not assume an exact match between PET and CT boundaries. Instead, it encourages similarity between the two boundaries, while allowing different region definition in PET images to accommodate possible signal and position mismatch between functional and anatomical images. While the functional boundaries are guaranteed to be closed by the LSFs, the proposed method does not require closed anatomical boundaries and can utilize incomplete edges obtained from an automatic edge detection algorithm. We conducted computer simulations to evaluate the performance of the proposed method. Two digital phantoms were constructed based on the Digimouse data and a human CT image, respectively. Anatomical edges were extracted automatically from the CT images. Tumors were simulated in the PET phantoms with different mismatched anatomical boundaries. Compared with existing methods, the new method achieved better bias-variance performance. The proposed method was also applied to real mouse data and achieved higher contrast than other methods.

  10. The complexity of anatomical systems

    PubMed Central

    Grizzi, Fabio; Chiriva-Internati, Maurizio

    2005-01-01

    Background The conception of anatomical entities as a hierarchy of infinitely graduated forms and the increase in the number of observed anatomical sub-entities and structural variables has generated a growing complexity, thus highlighting new properties of organised biological matter. Results (1) Complexity is so pervasive in the anatomical world that it has come to be considered as a primary characteristic of anatomical systems. (2) Anatomical entities, when viewed at microscopic as well as macroscopic level of observation, show a different degree of complexity. (3) Complexity can reside in the structure of the anatomical system (having many diverse parts with varying interactions or an intricate architecture) or in its behaviour. Often complexity in structure and behaviour go together. (4) Complex systems admit many descriptions (ways of looking at the system) each of which is only partially true. Each way of looking at a complex system requires its own description, its own mode of analysis and its own breaking down of the system in different parts; (5) Almost all the anatomical entities display hierarchical forms: their component structures at different spatial scales or their process at different time scales are related to each other. Conclusion The need to find a new way of observing and measuring anatomical entities, and objectively quantifying their different structural changes, prompted us to investigate the non-Euclidean geometries and the theories of complexity, and to apply their concepts to human anatomy. This attempt has led us to reflect upon the complex significance of the shape of an observed anatomical entity. Its changes have been defined in relation to variations in its status: from a normal (i.e. natural) to a pathological or altered state introducing the concepts of kinematics and dynamics of anatomical forms, speed of their changes, and that of scale of their observation. PMID:16029490

  11. The influence of forest shelterbelts on 137Cs fallout in Chernobyl affected areas (Tula region, Russia).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Maxim; Shamshurina, Eugeniya; Tatyana, Paramonova; Vladimir, Belyaev; Angelina, Gavruchenkova; Nikolai, Lugovoy; Konstantinov, Pavel

    2015-04-01

    The radioactive fallout after Chernobyl accident caused serious contamination by 137Cs along extensive area of East-European plain.Cs137 fall down on earth surface in two ways: gravitational - "dry" and rainfall - "wet" way. "Dry" fallout is a result of direct deposition of radionuclides from atmosphere with average speed of about 0.1-1 mm/sec. The fate of "dry fall"is far less than rainfall mechanism. Erupted water steam of reactor zone full of radioactive material enriched precipitation with 137Cs. Therefore, the derived spatial structure of contamination was under control of rainfall pattern in May-June 1986. On the areas affected by rainfall fallout was the Southern part of Tula region in Middle Russia. It got name as "Plava hot spot" by the town in the center of this area. Tula is a traditional rural region, the vast areas covered by chernozem soils are cultivated for centuries. During cultivation forest cover was reduced that urged growth of wind erosion and loss of soil fertility. Hence, in the middle of 20 the century large arrangements for creation of forest shelterbelts were conducted. High efficiency of shelterbelts made them a widely provided part of new human-transformed landscape. Usually shelterbelts are set as a regular network across main direction of winds in particular region. Such organization help to reduce speed of air steam in the lowest 20-30 m layer of atmosphere. In addition, shelterbelts are very good collectors of snow in winter time which increase total moisture of soil and its fertility. Represented investigation is conducted to find out any correlation between shelterbelts and fallout of radionuclides. If such correlation is significant, it has to be taken into account for further environmental surveys. Two shelterbelts on the interfluve positions were chosen for detailed examination. Both selected objects emerged before 1986 but have different width, floristic composition, orientation and type of construction. One of shelterbelts is

  12. [Anatomic pitfalls of vagotomies].

    PubMed

    Dia, A; Ouedraogo, T; Zida, M; Sow, M L

    1994-01-01

    In order to minimise relapses and functional problems after vagotomies, an anatomic study of the vagus nerve at the base of the esophagus and stomach was carried out. Fifty stomachs of adult black African corpses were collected, placed in a formaldehyde solution and then dissected. At the level of the esophageal hiatus, the trunks of the vagus nerve were found in 46% of the cases for the anterior vagus and 24% for the posterior. At the level of the abdominal esophagus there was a single anterior vagus in 68% of cases and single posterior vagus in 64% of cases. At the level of the greater curvature, a recurrent anterior branch was found. At the level of the lesser curvature, the main nerves had a plexiform appearance in 8% of cases for the anterior nerve and 6% of cases for the posterior nerve. The classical arrangement was found in 60% of cases for the main anterior nerve and 64% of the cases for the posterior nerve. At the level of the angulus, the classical crowsfeet was found in 20% of cases for the anterior vagus and in 32% of cases for the posterior vagus. The anterior vagus was plexiform in 54% of cases and 46% of cases for the posterior. This study confirms the extreme variability of the vagus in the stomach. A better knowledge of the variations should lead to more successful vagotomy regardless of its forms.

  13. Semantic dementia and persisting Wernicke's aphasia: linguistic and anatomical profiles.

    PubMed

    Ogar, J M; Baldo, J V; Wilson, S M; Brambati, S M; Miller, B L; Dronkers, N F; Gorno-Tempini, M L

    2011-04-01

    Few studies have directly compared the clinical and anatomical characteristics of patients with progressive aphasia to those of patients with aphasia caused by stroke. In the current study we examined fluent forms of aphasia in these two groups, specifically semantic dementia (SD) and persisting Wernicke's aphasia (WA) due to stroke. We compared 10 patients with SD to 10 age- and education-matched patients with WA in three language domains: language comprehension (single words and sentences), spontaneous speech and visual semantics. Neuroanatomical involvement was analyzed using disease-specific image analysis techniques: voxel-based morphometry (VBM) for patients with SD and overlays of lesion digitized lesion reconstructions in patients with WA. Patients with SD and WA were both impaired on tasks that involved visual semantics, but patients with SD were less impaired in spontaneous speech and sentence comprehension. The anatomical findings showed that different regions were most affected in the two disorders: the left anterior temporal lobe in SD and the left posterior middle temporal gyrus in chronic WA. This study highlights that the two syndromes classically associated with language comprehension deficits in aphasia due to stroke and neurodegenerative disease are clinically distinct, most likely due to distinct distributions of damage in the temporal lobe.

  14. Relating anatomical and social connectivity: white matter microstructure predicts emotional empathy.

    PubMed

    Parkinson, Carolyn; Wheatley, Thalia

    2014-03-01

    Understanding cues to the internal states of others involves a widely distributed network of brain regions. Although white matter (WM) connections are likely crucial for communication between these regions, the role of anatomical connectivity in empathic processing remains unexplored. The present study tested for a relationship between anatomical connectivity and empathy by assessing the WM microstructural correlates of affective empathy, which promotes interpersonal understanding through emotional reactions, and cognitive empathy, which does so via perspective taking. Associations between fractional anisotropy (FA) and the emotional (empathic concern, EC) and cognitive (perspective taking, PT) dimensions of empathy as assessed by the Interpersonal Reactivity Index were examined. EC was positively associated with FA in tracts providing communicative pathways within the limbic system, between perception and action-related regions, and between perception and affect-related regions, independently of individual differences in age, gender, and other dimensions of interpersonal reactivity. These findings provide a neuroanatomical basis for the rapid, privileged processing of emotional sensory information and the automatic elicitation of responses to the affective displays of others. PMID:23162046

  15. Relating anatomical and social connectivity: white matter microstructure predicts emotional empathy.

    PubMed

    Parkinson, Carolyn; Wheatley, Thalia

    2014-03-01

    Understanding cues to the internal states of others involves a widely distributed network of brain regions. Although white matter (WM) connections are likely crucial for communication between these regions, the role of anatomical connectivity in empathic processing remains unexplored. The present study tested for a relationship between anatomical connectivity and empathy by assessing the WM microstructural correlates of affective empathy, which promotes interpersonal understanding through emotional reactions, and cognitive empathy, which does so via perspective taking. Associations between fractional anisotropy (FA) and the emotional (empathic concern, EC) and cognitive (perspective taking, PT) dimensions of empathy as assessed by the Interpersonal Reactivity Index were examined. EC was positively associated with FA in tracts providing communicative pathways within the limbic system, between perception and action-related regions, and between perception and affect-related regions, independently of individual differences in age, gender, and other dimensions of interpersonal reactivity. These findings provide a neuroanatomical basis for the rapid, privileged processing of emotional sensory information and the automatic elicitation of responses to the affective displays of others.

  16. Anatomical adaptations of aquatic mammals.

    PubMed

    Reidenberg, Joy S

    2007-06-01

    This special issue of the Anatomical Record explores many of the anatomical adaptations exhibited by aquatic mammals that enable life in the water. Anatomical observations on a range of fossil and living marine and freshwater mammals are presented, including sirenians (manatees and dugongs), cetaceans (both baleen whales and toothed whales, including dolphins and porpoises), pinnipeds (seals, sea lions, and walruses), the sea otter, and the pygmy hippopotamus. A range of anatomical systems are covered in this issue, including the external form (integument, tail shape), nervous system (eye, ear, brain), musculoskeletal systems (cranium, mandible, hyoid, vertebral column, flipper/forelimb), digestive tract (teeth/tusks/baleen, tongue, stomach), and respiratory tract (larynx). Emphasis is placed on exploring anatomical function in the context of aquatic life. The following topics are addressed: evolution, sound production, sound reception, feeding, locomotion, buoyancy control, thermoregulation, cognition, and behavior. A variety of approaches and techniques are used to examine and characterize these adaptations, ranging from dissection, to histology, to electron microscopy, to two-dimensional (2D) and 3D computerized tomography, to experimental field tests of function. The articles in this issue are a blend of literature review and new, hypothesis-driven anatomical research, which highlight the special nature of anatomical form and function in aquatic mammals that enables their exquisite adaptation for life in such a challenging environment. PMID:17516440

  17. Cooling Town - How landscape is affecting urban climates in mountain regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammerle, Albin; Leitinger, Georg; Heinl, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Cities and urban areas are known to have a local climate different from that of surrounding rural landscapes. The so-called 'urban heat island' phenomenon results from the replacement of natural with impervious, non-evaporative surfaces such as concrete and asphalt. Urban areas usually have higher solar radiation absorption and a greater thermal conductivity and capacity that lead to greater heat storage during the day and heat release at night. This results in a modified climate that is warmer than the surrounding rural areas. Despite being often considered as 'heating islands', cities are not isolated from their environment and are affected by their thermal properties. Reports for the cities of Vienna (Austria) or Stuttgart (Germany) document the importance of the environmental setting for the climate in the cities. Especially large forest areas around the cities have shown to provide cooling and higher air quality. It is therefore not only the core urban area that needs to be considered for climatic effects but also the large-scale surrounding and environmental setting of the city. But only very few studies (e.g. for rice fields in Japan and Taiwan) specifically investigated this temperature effect of surrounding landscapes on urban areas. The research project "Cooling Town" (www.coolingtown.at) addresses this little knowledge on temperature regimes of urban areas and their thermal connectivity with surrounding landscapes, focusing on mountain environments. One major aspect in this research is to assess the summer temperature regime of the city of Bolzano in South Tyrol (northern Italy). The spatial distribution of air and surface temperatures is analyzed to derive rural and urban and regions with specific temperature regimes and climates and their connectivity. Twelve climate stations were placed in and around the city of Bolzano to measure air and surface temperatures together with wind parameters throughout summer 2012. Thermal infrared images were taken from

  18. Radial force distribution changes associated with tangential force production in cylindrical grasping, and the importance of anatomical registration.

    PubMed

    Pataky, Todd C; Slota, Gregory P; Latash, Mark L; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M

    2012-01-10

    Radial force (F(r)) distributions describe grip force coordination about a cylindrical object. Recent studies have employed only explicit F(r) tasks, and have not normalized for anatomical variance when considering F(r) distributions. The goals of the present study were (i) to explore F(r) during tangential force production tasks, and (ii) to examine the extent to which anatomical registration (i.e. spatial normalization of anatomically analogous structures) could improve signal detectability in F(r) data. Twelve subjects grasped a vertically oriented cylindrical handle (diameter=6 cm) and matched target upward tangential forces of 10, 20, and 30 N. F(r) data were measured using a flexible pressure mat with an angular resolution of 4.8°, and were registered using piecewise-linear interpolation between five manually identified points-of-interest. Results indicate that F(r) was primarily limited to three contact regions: the distal thumb, the distal fingers, and the fingers' metatacarpal heads, and that, while increases in tangential force caused significant increases in F(r) for these regions, they did not significantly affect the F(r) distribution across the hand. Registration was found to substantially reduce between-subject variability, as indicated by both accentuated F(r) trends, and amplification of the test statistic. These results imply that, while subjects focus F(r) primarily on three anatomical regions during cylindrical grasp, inter-subject anatomical differences introduce a variability that, if not corrected for via registration, may compromise one's ability to draw anatomically relevant conclusions from grasping force data. PMID:22134182

  19. The Computerized Anatomical Man (CAM) model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billings, M. P.; Yucker, W. R.

    1973-01-01

    A computerized anatomical man (CAM) model, representing the most detailed and anatomically correct geometrical model of the human body yet prepared, has been developed for use in analyzing radiation dose distribution in man. This model of a 50-percentile standing USAF man comprises some 1100 unique geometric surfaces and some 2450 solid regions. Internal body geometry such as organs, voids, bones, and bone marrow are explicitly modeled. A computer program called CAMERA has also been developed for performing analyses with the model. Such analyses include tracing rays through the CAM geometry, placing results on magnetic tape in various forms, collapsing areal density data from ray tracing information to areal density distributions, preparing cross section views, etc. Numerous computer drawn cross sections through the CAM model are presented.

  20. Genetic Variants in the STMN1 Transcriptional Regulatory Region Affect Promoter Activity and Fear Behavior in English Springer Spaniels

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hanying; Xu, Yinxue

    2016-01-01

    Stathmin 1 (STMN1) is a neuronal growth-associated protein that is involved in microtubule dynamics and plays an important role in synaptic outgrowth and plasticity. Given that STMN1 affects fear behavior, we hypothesized that genetic variations in the STMN1 transcriptional regulatory region affect gene transcription activity and control fear behavior. In this study, two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), g. -327 A>G and g. -125 C>T, were identified in 317 English Springer Spaniels. A bioinformatics analysis revealed that both were loci located in the canine STMN1 putative promoter region and affected transcription factor binding. A statistical analysis revealed that the TT genotype at g.-125 C>T produced a significantly greater fear level than that of the CC genotype (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the H4H4 (GTGT) haplotype combination was significantly associated with canine fear behavior (P < 0.01). Using serially truncated constructs of the STMN1 promoters and the luciferase reporter, we found that a 395 bp (−312 nt to +83 nt) fragment constituted the core promoter region. The luciferase assay also revealed that the H4 (GT) haplotype promoter had higher activity than that of other haplotypes. Overall, our results suggest that the two SNPs in the canine STMN1 promoter region could affect canine fear behavior by altering STMN1 transcriptional activity. PMID:27390866

  1. Learning, Adjustment and Stress Disorders: With Special Reference to Tsunami Affected Regions. Beitrage zur Padagogischen und Rehabilitationspsychologie. Volume 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witruk, Evelin, Ed.; Riha, David, Ed.; Teichert, Alexandra, Ed.; Haase, Norman, Ed.; Stueck, Marcus, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This book contains selected contributions from the international workshop Learning, "Adjustment and Stress Disorders--with special reference to Tsunami affected Regions" organised by Evelin Witruk and the team of Educational and Rehabilitative Psychology at the University of Leipzig in January 2006. The book contains new results and the state of…

  2. Improving Teaching and Learning in a Regional University Campus through a Focus on the Affective Domain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Janet; Zianian, Tahereh; Evans, Nina; Gillham, David

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the research process undertaken in a pilot study conducted at the University of South Australia's Centre for Regional Engagement (CRE), and reports the feedback collected in relation to this process and the project overall. Academic staff and students from CRE's two sites located in the rural and regional cities of Whyalla and…

  3. The effect of parental loss on cognitive and affective interference in adolescent boys from a post-conflict region.

    PubMed

    Mueller, S C; Baudoncq, R; De Schryver, M

    2015-07-01

    Little is known about the impact of early-life stressors such as parental loss on cognitive-affective processing during adolescence, especially in regions chronically affected by war and armed conflict. Here, we tested 72 male adolescents living in Northern Uganda (ages 14-19), 52 of whom still had both of their parents and 20 participants who had experienced parental loss. Participants completed a classic color-naming Stroop task as well as an affective interference task, the opposite emotions test (OET). Adolescents with parental loss showed a decrease in performance over time, especially on the Stroop task. Critically, this decrement in performance was positively associated with reported symptoms of trauma, but only in the parental loss group. The current data suggest a difficulty in maintaining cognitive control performance in youths with experience of parental loss. The findings are discussed in relation to traumatic stress and mental health in post-conflict regions. PMID:25899130

  4. The effect of parental loss on cognitive and affective interference in adolescent boys from a post-conflict region.

    PubMed

    Mueller, S C; Baudoncq, R; De Schryver, M

    2015-07-01

    Little is known about the impact of early-life stressors such as parental loss on cognitive-affective processing during adolescence, especially in regions chronically affected by war and armed conflict. Here, we tested 72 male adolescents living in Northern Uganda (ages 14-19), 52 of whom still had both of their parents and 20 participants who had experienced parental loss. Participants completed a classic color-naming Stroop task as well as an affective interference task, the opposite emotions test (OET). Adolescents with parental loss showed a decrease in performance over time, especially on the Stroop task. Critically, this decrement in performance was positively associated with reported symptoms of trauma, but only in the parental loss group. The current data suggest a difficulty in maintaining cognitive control performance in youths with experience of parental loss. The findings are discussed in relation to traumatic stress and mental health in post-conflict regions.

  5. Factors Affecting Stream Nutrient Loads: A Synthesis of Regional SPARROW Model Results for the Continental United States1

    PubMed Central

    Preston, Stephen D; Alexander, Richard B; Schwarz, Gregory E; Crawford, Charles G

    2011-01-01

    Abstract We compared the results of 12 recently calibrated regional SPARROW (SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes) models covering most of the continental United States to evaluate the consistency and regional differences in factors affecting stream nutrient loads. The models – 6 for total nitrogen and 6 for total phosphorus – all provide similar levels of prediction accuracy, but those for major river basins in the eastern half of the country were somewhat more accurate. The models simulate long-term mean annual stream nutrient loads as a function of a wide range of known sources and climatic (precipitation, temperature), landscape (e.g., soils, geology), and aquatic factors affecting nutrient fate and transport. The results confirm the dominant effects of urban and agricultural sources on stream nutrient loads nationally and regionally, but reveal considerable spatial variability in the specific types of sources that control water quality. These include regional differences in the relative importance of different types of urban (municipal and industrial point vs. diffuse urban runoff) and agriculture (crop cultivation vs. animal waste) sources, as well as the effects of atmospheric deposition, mining, and background (e.g., soil phosphorus) sources on stream nutrients. Overall, we found that the SPARROW model results provide a consistent set of information for identifying the major sources and environmental factors affecting nutrient fate and transport in United States watersheds at regional and subregional scales. PMID:22457574

  6. Factors affecting stream nutrient loads: A synthesis of regional SPARROW model results for the continental United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Preston, Stephen D.; Alexander, Richard B.; Schwarz, Gregory E.; Crawford, Charles G.

    2011-01-01

    We compared the results of 12 recently calibrated regional SPARROW (SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes) models covering most of the continental United States to evaluate the consistency and regional differences in factors affecting stream nutrient loads. The models - 6 for total nitrogen and 6 for total phosphorus - all provide similar levels of prediction accuracy, but those for major river basins in the eastern half of the country were somewhat more accurate. The models simulate long-term mean annual stream nutrient loads as a function of a wide range of known sources and climatic (precipitation, temperature), landscape (e.g., soils, geology), and aquatic factors affecting nutrient fate and transport. The results confirm the dominant effects of urban and agricultural sources on stream nutrient loads nationally and regionally, but reveal considerable spatial variability in the specific types of sources that control water quality. These include regional differences in the relative importance of different types of urban (municipal and industrial point vs. diffuse urban runoff) and agriculture (crop cultivation vs. animal waste) sources, as well as the effects of atmospheric deposition, mining, and background (e.g., soil phosphorus) sources on stream nutrients. Overall, we found that the SPARROW model results provide a consistent set of information for identifying the major sources and environmental factors affecting nutrient fate and transport in United States watersheds at regional and subregional scales. ?? 2011 American Water Resources Association. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  7. Diffusion of innovations: anatomical informatics and iPods.

    PubMed

    Trelease, Robert B

    2006-09-01

    Over the course of many centuries, evolving scientific methods and technologies have advanced the study of anatomy. More recently, such dissemination of innovations has been formally studied in multidisciplinary psychosocial contexts, yielding useful knowledge about underlying principles and processes. We review these precepts and show how diffusion of innovations theory and principles apply to the development and dissemination of anatomical information methods and resources. We consider the factors affecting the late-20th-century dissemination of personal computers and World Wide Web hypermedia into widespread use in anatomical research and instruction. We report on the results of a small experiment in applied diffusion, the development and Internet-based distribution of learning resources for a popular, widely distributed personal media player. With these wearable microcomputer devices already in use by a variety of students, new opportunities exist for widespread dissemination of anatomical information. The continuing evolution of wearable computing devices underscores the need for maintaining anatomical information transportability via standardized data formats.

  8. Alternative S2 Hinge Regions of the Myosin Rod Affect Myofibrillar Structure and Myosin Kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Mark S.; Dambacher, Corey M.; Knowles, Aileen F.; Braddock, Joan M.; Farman, Gerrie P.; Irving, Thomas C.; Swank, Douglas M.; Bernstein, Sanford I.; Maughan, David W.

    2009-07-01

    The subfragment 2/light meromyosin 'hinge' region has been proposed to significantly contribute to muscle contraction force and/or speed. Transgenic replacement of the endogenous fast muscle isovariant hinge A (exon 15a) in Drosophila melanogaster indirect flight muscle with the slow muscle hinge B (exon 15b) allows examination of the structural and functional changes when only this region of the myosin molecule is different. Hinge B was previously shown to increase myosin rod length, increase A-band and sarcomere length, and decrease flight performance compared to hinge A. We applied additional measures to these transgenic lines to further evaluate the consequences of modifying this hinge region. Structurally, the longer A-band and sarcomere lengths found in the hinge B myofibrils appear to be due to the longitudinal addition of myosin heads. Functionally, hinge B, although a significant distance from the myosin catalytic domain, alters myosin kinetics in a manner consistent with this region increasing myosin rod length. These structural and functional changes combine to decrease whole fly wing-beat frequency and flight performance. Our results indicate that this hinge region plays an important role in determining myosin kinetics and in regulating thick and thin filament lengths as well as sarcomere length.

  9. Evaluating ambivalence: social-cognitive and affective brain regions associated with ambivalent decision-making

    PubMed Central

    van Harreveld, Frenk; Rotteveel, Mark; Lelieveld, Gert-Jan; Crone, Eveline A.

    2014-01-01

    Ambivalence is a state of inconsistency that is often experienced as affectively aversive. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we investigated the role of cognitive and social-affective processes in the experience of ambivalence and coping with its negative consequences. We examined participants’ brain activity during the dichotomous evaluation (pro vs contra) of pretested ambivalent (e.g. alcohol), positive (e.g. happiness) and negative (e.g. genocide) word stimuli. We manipulated evaluation relevance by varying the probability of evaluation consequences, under the hypothesis that ambivalence is experienced as more negative when outcomes are relevant. When making ambivalent evaluations, more activity was found in the anterior cingulate cortex, the insula, the temporal parietal junction (TPJ) and the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC)/precuneus, for both high and low evaluation relevance. After statistically conservative corrections, activity in the TPJ and PCC/precuneus was negatively correlated with experienced ambivalence after scanning, as measured by Priester and Petty’s felt ambivalence scale (1996). The findings show that cognitive and social-affective brain areas are involved in the experience of ambivalence. However, these networks are differently associated with subsequent reduction of ambivalence, thus highlighting the importance of understanding both cognitive and affective processes involved in ambivalent decision-making. PMID:23685774

  10. Evaluating ambivalence: social-cognitive and affective brain regions associated with ambivalent decision-making.

    PubMed

    Nohlen, Hannah U; van Harreveld, Frenk; Rotteveel, Mark; Lelieveld, Gert-Jan; Crone, Eveline A

    2014-07-01

    Ambivalence is a state of inconsistency that is often experienced as affectively aversive. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we investigated the role of cognitive and social-affective processes in the experience of ambivalence and coping with its negative consequences. We examined participants' brain activity during the dichotomous evaluation (pro vs contra) of pretested ambivalent (e.g. alcohol), positive (e.g. happiness) and negative (e.g. genocide) word stimuli. We manipulated evaluation relevance by varying the probability of evaluation consequences, under the hypothesis that ambivalence is experienced as more negative when outcomes are relevant. When making ambivalent evaluations, more activity was found in the anterior cingulate cortex, the insula, the temporal parietal junction (TPJ) and the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC)/precuneus, for both high and low evaluation relevance. After statistically conservative corrections, activity in the TPJ and PCC/precuneus was negatively correlated with experienced ambivalence after scanning, as measured by Priester and Petty's felt ambivalence scale (1996). The findings show that cognitive and social-affective brain areas are involved in the experience of ambivalence. However, these networks are differently associated with subsequent reduction of ambivalence, thus highlighting the importance of understanding both cognitive and affective processes involved in ambivalent decision-making.

  11. Variation of NEE and its affecting factors in a vineyard of arid region of northwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, W. H.; Kang, S. Z.; Li, F. S.; Li, S. E.

    2014-02-01

    To understand the variation of net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) in orchard ecosystem and it's affecting factors, carbon flux was measured using eddy covariance system in a wine vineyard in arid northwest China during 2008-2010. Results show that vineyard NEE was positive value at the early growth stage, higher negative value at the mid-growth stage, and lower negative value at the later growth stage. Diurnal variation of NEE was "W" shaped curve in sunny day, but "U" shaped curve in cloudy day. Irrigation and pruning did not affect diurnal variation shape of NEE, however, irrigation reduced the difference between maximal and minimal value of NEE and pruning reduced the carbon sink capacity. The main factors affecting hourly NEE were canopy conductance (gc) and net radiation (Rn). The hourly NEE increased with the increase of gc or Rn when gc was less than 0.02 m·s-1 or Rn was between 0 and 200 W·m-2. The main factors affecting both daily and seasonal NEE were gc, air temperature (Ta), atmospheric CO2 density, vapour pressure deficit (VPD) and soil moisture content.

  12. Evaluating ambivalence: social-cognitive and affective brain regions associated with ambivalent decision-making.

    PubMed

    Nohlen, Hannah U; van Harreveld, Frenk; Rotteveel, Mark; Lelieveld, Gert-Jan; Crone, Eveline A

    2014-07-01

    Ambivalence is a state of inconsistency that is often experienced as affectively aversive. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we investigated the role of cognitive and social-affective processes in the experience of ambivalence and coping with its negative consequences. We examined participants' brain activity during the dichotomous evaluation (pro vs contra) of pretested ambivalent (e.g. alcohol), positive (e.g. happiness) and negative (e.g. genocide) word stimuli. We manipulated evaluation relevance by varying the probability of evaluation consequences, under the hypothesis that ambivalence is experienced as more negative when outcomes are relevant. When making ambivalent evaluations, more activity was found in the anterior cingulate cortex, the insula, the temporal parietal junction (TPJ) and the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC)/precuneus, for both high and low evaluation relevance. After statistically conservative corrections, activity in the TPJ and PCC/precuneus was negatively correlated with experienced ambivalence after scanning, as measured by Priester and Petty's felt ambivalence scale (1996). The findings show that cognitive and social-affective brain areas are involved in the experience of ambivalence. However, these networks are differently associated with subsequent reduction of ambivalence, thus highlighting the importance of understanding both cognitive and affective processes involved in ambivalent decision-making. PMID:23685774

  13. Anatomical features and clinical relevance of a persistent trigeminal artery

    PubMed Central

    Alcalá-Cerra, Gabriel; Tubbs, R S; Niño-Hernández, Lucía M

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although persistent trigeminal artery (PTA) is uncommonly identified, knowledge of this structure is essential for clinicians who interpret cranial imaging, perform invasive studies of the cerebral vasculature, and operate this region. Methods: A review of the medical literature using standard search engines was performed to locate articles regarding the PTA, with special attention with anatomical descriptions. Results: Although anatomical reports of PTA anatomy are very scarce, those were analyzed to describe in detail the current knowledge about its anatomical relationships and variants. Additionally, the embryology, classification, clinical implications, and imaging modalities of this vessel are extensively discussed. Conclusions: Through a comprehensive review of isolated reports of the PTA, the clinician can better understand and treat patients with such an anatomical derailment. PMID:23087827

  14. Anatomically-aided PET reconstruction using the kernel method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchcroft, Will; Wang, Guobao; Chen, Kevin T.; Catana, Ciprian; Qi, Jinyi

    2016-09-01

    This paper extends the kernel method that was proposed previously for dynamic PET reconstruction, to incorporate anatomical side information into the PET reconstruction model. In contrast to existing methods that incorporate anatomical information using a penalized likelihood framework, the proposed method incorporates this information in the simpler maximum likelihood (ML) formulation and is amenable to ordered subsets. The new method also does not require any segmentation of the anatomical image to obtain edge information. We compare the kernel method with the Bowsher method for anatomically-aided PET image reconstruction through a simulated data set. Computer simulations demonstrate that the kernel method offers advantages over the Bowsher method in region of interest quantification. Additionally the kernel method is applied to a 3D patient data set. The kernel method results in reduced noise at a matched contrast level compared with the conventional ML expectation maximization algorithm.

  15. Regional paleofire regimes affected by non-uniform climate, vegetation and human drivers.

    PubMed

    Blarquez, Olivier; Ali, Adam A; Girardin, Martin P; Grondin, Pierre; Fréchette, Bianca; Bergeron, Yves; Hély, Christelle

    2015-09-02

    Climate, vegetation and humans act on biomass burning at different spatial and temporal scales. In this study, we used a dense network of sedimentary charcoal records from eastern Canada to reconstruct regional biomass burning history over the last 7000 years at the scale of four potential vegetation types: open coniferous forest/tundra, boreal coniferous forest, boreal mixedwood forest and temperate forest. The biomass burning trajectories were compared with regional climate trends reconstructed from general circulation models, tree biomass reconstructed from pollen series, and human population densities. We found that non-uniform climate, vegetation and human drivers acted on regional biomass burning history. In the open coniferous forest/tundra and dense coniferous forest, the regional biomass burning was primarily shaped by gradual establishment of less climate-conducive burning conditions over 5000 years. In the mixed boreal forest an increasing relative proportion of flammable conifers in landscapes since 2000 BP contributed to maintaining biomass burning constant despite climatic conditions less favourable to fires. In the temperate forest, biomass burning was uncoupled with climatic conditions and the main driver was seemingly vegetation until European colonization, i.e. 300 BP. Tree biomass and thus fuel accumulation modulated fire activity, an indication that biomass burning is fuel-dependent and notably upon long-term co-dominance shifts between conifers and broadleaf trees.

  16. Regional paleofire regimes affected by non-uniform climate, vegetation and human drivers

    PubMed Central

    Blarquez, Olivier; Ali, Adam A.; Girardin, Martin P.; Grondin, Pierre; Fréchette, Bianca; Bergeron, Yves; Hély, Christelle

    2015-01-01

    Climate, vegetation and humans act on biomass burning at different spatial and temporal scales. In this study, we used a dense network of sedimentary charcoal records from eastern Canada to reconstruct regional biomass burning history over the last 7000 years at the scale of four potential vegetation types: open coniferous forest/tundra, boreal coniferous forest, boreal mixedwood forest and temperate forest. The biomass burning trajectories were compared with regional climate trends reconstructed from general circulation models, tree biomass reconstructed from pollen series, and human population densities. We found that non-uniform climate, vegetation and human drivers acted on regional biomass burning history. In the open coniferous forest/tundra and dense coniferous forest, the regional biomass burning was primarily shaped by gradual establishment of less climate-conducive burning conditions over 5000 years. In the mixed boreal forest an increasing relative proportion of flammable conifers in landscapes since 2000 BP contributed to maintaining biomass burning constant despite climatic conditions less favourable to fires. In the temperate forest, biomass burning was uncoupled with climatic conditions and the main driver was seemingly vegetation until European colonization, i.e. 300 BP. Tree biomass and thus fuel accumulation modulated fire activity, an indication that biomass burning is fuel-dependent and notably upon long-term co-dominance shifts between conifers and broadleaf trees. PMID:26330162

  17. Regional cholinesterase activity in white-throated sparrow brain is differentially affected by acephate (Orthene?)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vyas, N.B.; Kuenzel, W.J.; Hill, E.F.; Romo, G.A.; Komaragiri, M.V.S.

    1996-01-01

    Effects of a 14-day dietary exposure to an organophosphorus pesticide, acephate (acetylphosphoramidothioic acid O,S-dimethyl ester), were determined on cholinesterase activity in three regions (basal ganglia, hippocampus, and hypothalamus) of the white-throated sparrow, Zonotrichia albicollis, brain. All three regions experienced depressed cholinesterase activity between 0.5-2 ppm acephate. The regions exhibited cholinesterase recovery at 2-16 ppm acephate; however, cholinesterase activity dropped and showed no recovery at higher dietary levels (>16 ppm acephate). Evidence indicates that the recovery is initiated by the magnitude of depression, not the duration. In general, as acephate concentration increased, differences in ChE activity among brain regions decreased. Three terms are introduced to describe ChE response to acephate exposure: (1) ChE resistance threshold, (2) ChE compensation threshold, and (3) ChE depression threshold. It is hypothesized that adverse effects to birds in the field may occur at pesticide exposure levels customarily considered negligible.

  18. How Does Education Affect Environmental Knowledge: A Survey in Urban and Regional Planning Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ergen, Baris; Ergen, Zeynep

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims at measuring of environmental knowledge of students who select environmental science course in Urban and Regional Planning Department at Bozok University. This article includes a survey research, with this survey, we can get information about knowledge of environment of students and where they learn them. First briefly, it provides…

  19. How Do Professional Mutual Recognition Agreements Affect Higher Education? Examining Regional Policy in North America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sa, Creso; Gaviria, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Professional mutual recognition agreements (MRAs) are one of the policy instruments employed in global and regional trade agreements to facilitate the mobility of skilled labour. While such agreements have been noted in the literature examining cross-border academic mobility, little is known about how they impact higher education. This paper…

  20. Factors Affecting School Participation in Turkey: An Analysis of Regional Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gumus, Sedat; Chudgar, Amita

    2016-01-01

    There are thousands of children who remain out of school at both primary and secondary levels in Turkey. The current disparities in access to education in Turkey are mostly driven by systematic regional differences and high gender inequalities. Although several existing studies have paid close attention to gender-based inequities in school access,…

  1. Regional paleofire regimes affected by non-uniform climate, vegetation and human drivers.

    PubMed

    Blarquez, Olivier; Ali, Adam A; Girardin, Martin P; Grondin, Pierre; Fréchette, Bianca; Bergeron, Yves; Hély, Christelle

    2015-01-01

    Climate, vegetation and humans act on biomass burning at different spatial and temporal scales. In this study, we used a dense network of sedimentary charcoal records from eastern Canada to reconstruct regional biomass burning history over the last 7000 years at the scale of four potential vegetation types: open coniferous forest/tundra, boreal coniferous forest, boreal mixedwood forest and temperate forest. The biomass burning trajectories were compared with regional climate trends reconstructed from general circulation models, tree biomass reconstructed from pollen series, and human population densities. We found that non-uniform climate, vegetation and human drivers acted on regional biomass burning history. In the open coniferous forest/tundra and dense coniferous forest, the regional biomass burning was primarily shaped by gradual establishment of less climate-conducive burning conditions over 5000 years. In the mixed boreal forest an increasing relative proportion of flammable conifers in landscapes since 2000 BP contributed to maintaining biomass burning constant despite climatic conditions less favourable to fires. In the temperate forest, biomass burning was uncoupled with climatic conditions and the main driver was seemingly vegetation until European colonization, i.e. 300 BP. Tree biomass and thus fuel accumulation modulated fire activity, an indication that biomass burning is fuel-dependent and notably upon long-term co-dominance shifts between conifers and broadleaf trees. PMID:26330162

  2. Paleoclimate during Neandertal and anatomically modern human occupation at Amud and Qafzeh, Israel: the stable isotope data.

    PubMed

    Hallin, Kristin A; Schoeninger, Margaret J; Schwarcz, Henry P

    2012-01-01

    The δ(13)C(en) and δ(18)O(en) values of goat and gazelle enamel carbonate indicate that Neandertals at Amud Cave, Israel (53-70 ka) lived under different ecological conditions than did anatomically modern humans at Qafzeh Cave, Israel (approximately 92 ka). During the Last Glacial Period, Neandertals at Amud Cave lived under wetter conditions than those in the region today. Neither faunal species ate arid-adapted C(4) plants or drought-stressed C(3) plants. The variation in gazelle δ(18)O(en) values suggests multiple birth seasons, which today occur under wetter than normal conditions. The magnitude and pattern of intra-tooth variation in goat δ(18)O(en) values indicate that rain fell throughout the year unlike today. Anatomically modern humans encountered a Qafzeh Cave region that was more open and arid than Glacial Period Amud Cave, and more open than today's Upper Galilee region. Goat δ(13)C(en) values indicate feeding on varying amounts of C(4) plants throughout the year. The climate apparently ameliorated higher in the sequence; but habitats remained more open than at Amud Cave. Both gazelles and goats fed on C(3) plants in brushy habitats without any inclusion of C(4) plants. The magnitude of intra-tooth variation in goat δ(18)O(en) values, however, suggest that some rain fell throughout the year, and the relative representation of woodland dwelling species indicates the occurrence of woodlands in the region. Climate differences affecting the distribution of plants and animals appear to be the significant factor contributing to behavioral differences previously documented between Neandertals and anatomically modern humans in the region. Climate forcing probably affected the early appearances of anatomically modern humans, although not the disappearance of Neandertals from the Levant. PMID:22115545

  3. Task- and resting-state functional connectivity of brain regions related to affection and susceptible to concurrent cognitive demand

    PubMed Central

    Kellermann, Tanja S.; Caspers, Svenja; Fox, Peter T.; Zilles, Karl; Roski, Christian; Laird, Angela R.; Turetsky, Bruce I.; Eickhoff, Simon B.

    2016-01-01

    A recent fMRI-study revealed neural responses for affective processing of stimuli for which overt attention irrespective of stimulus valence was required in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and bilateral amygdala (AMY): activation decreased with increasing cognitive demand. To further characterize the network putatively related to this attenuation, we here characterized these regions with respect to their functional properties and connectivity patterns in task-dependent and task-independent states. All experiments of the BrainMap database activating the seed regions OFC and bilateral AMY were identified. Their functional characteristics were quantitatively inferred using the behavioral meta-data of the retrieved experiments. Task-dependent functional connectivity was characterized by meta-analytic connectivity modeling (MACM) of significant co-activations with these seed regions. Task-independent resting-state functional connectivity analysis in a sample of 100 healthy subjects complemented these analyses. All three seed regions co-activated with subgenual cingulum (SGC), precuneus (PCu) and nucleus accumbens (NAcc) in the task-dependent MACM analysis. Task-independent resting-state connectivity revealed significant coupling of the seeds only with the SGC, but not the PCu and the NAcc. The former region (SGC) moreover was shown to feature significant resting-state connectivity with all other regions implicated in the network connected to regions where emotional processing may be modulated by a cognitive distractor. Based on its functional profile and connectivity pattern, we suggest that the SGC might serve as a key hub in the identified network, as such linking autobiographic information [PCu], reward [NAcc], (reinforce) values [OFC] and emotional significance [AMY]. Such a role, in turn, may allow the SGC to influence the OFC and AMY to modulate affective processing. PMID:23370055

  4. Survey of SSC12 Regions Affecting Fatty Acid Composition of Intramuscular Fat Using High-Density SNP Data

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, María; Alves, Estefânia; Corominas, Jordi; Folch, Josep María; Casellas, Joaquim; Noguera, Jose Luis; Silió, Luis; Fernández, Ana Isabel

    2012-01-01

    Fatty acid composition is a critical aspect of pork because it affects sensorial and technological aspects of meat quality and it is relevant for human health. Previous studies identified significant QTLs in porcine chromosome 12 for fatty acid profile of back fat (BF) and intramuscular fat (IMF). In the present study, 374 SNPs mapped in SSC12 from the 60K Porcine SNP Beadchip were used. We have combined linkage and association analyses with expression data analysis in order to identify regions of SSC12 that could affect fatty acid composition of IMF in longissimus muscle. The QTL scan showed a region around the 60-cM position that significantly affects palmitic fatty acid and two related fatty acid indexes. The Iberian QTL allele increased the palmitic content (+2.6% of mean trait). This QTL does not match any of those reported in the previous study on fatty acid composition of BF, suggesting different genetic control acting at both tissues. The SNP association analyses showed significant associations with linolenic and palmitic acids besides several indexes. Among the polymorphisms that affect palmitic fatty acid and match the QTL region at 60 cM, there were three that mapped in the Phosphatidylcholine transfer protein (PCTP) gene and one in the Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase ∝ gene (ACACA). Interestingly one of the PCTP SNPs also affected significantly unsaturated and double bound indexes and the ratio between polyunsaturated/monounsaturated fatty acids. Differential expression was assessed on longissimus muscle conditional on the genotype of the QTL and on the most significant SNPs, according to the results obtained in the former analyses. Results from the microarray expression analyses, validated by RT-qPCR, showed that PCTP expression levels significantly vary depending on the QTL as well as on the own PCTP genotype. The results obtained with the different approaches point out the PCTP gene as a powerful candidate underlying the QTL for palmitic content. PMID

  5. Factors affecting employment in the Arabian Gulf region, 1975-1985.

    PubMed

    Looney, R E

    1991-01-01

    "This paper attempts to shed light on factors contributing to the identification of the main employment patterns in the countries of the Arab Gulf region. It also seeks to answer the question of how determinants of employment vary between national and foreign workforces and whether these determinants have changed over time." The countries concerned are Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates.

  6. Factors affecting the perception of luning in monocular regions of partial binocular overlap displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klymenko, Victor; Verona, Robert W.; Martin, John S.; Beasley, Howard H.; McLean, William E.

    1994-08-01

    Luning is a detrimental visual effect characterized by a subjective darkening of the visual field in the monocular regions of partial binocular overlap displays. The effect of a number of factors on the magnitude of luning was investigated. These factors include: (1) the convergent versus the divergent display modes for presenting a partial binocular overlapping field-of-view; (2) the display luminance level; (3) the placement of either black or white contours versus no (null) contours on the binocular overlap border; and (4) the increasing or decreasing of the luminance of the monocular side regions relative to the binocular overlap region. Eighteen Army student aviators served as subjects in a repeated measures design. The percentage of time luning was seen was the measure of the degree of luning. The results indicated that the divergent display mode systematically induced more luning than the convergent display mode under the null contour condition. Adding black contours reduced luning in both the convergent and divergent display modes, where the convergent mode retained its relatively lower magnitude of luning. The display luminance level had no effect on luning for the null or black contour conditions.

  7. August, 2002 - floods events, affected areas revitalisation and prevention for the future in the central Bohemian region, Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bina, L.; Vacha, F.; Vodova, J.

    2003-04-01

    including fields of: urban planning revision, river flow measures, revision of operation mode of dams, modification of waterworks' conception in areas liable to flooding and finally a program of power sources prevention during emergency situation (this program had been started before the floods). Regional establishment puts emphasis on preparation of preventive projects and management mentioned. An international co-operation of regions affected by floods and possibly building of joint teams for prevention measures proposal would be very effective and useful.

  8. Mutations in RNA Polymerase Bridge Helix and Switch Regions Affect Active-Site Networks and Transcript-Assisted Hydrolysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Nan; Schäfer, Jorrit; Sharma, Amit; Rayner, Lucy; Zhang, Xiaodong; Tuma, Roman; Stockley, Peter; Buck, Martin

    2015-01-01

    In bacterial RNA polymerase (RNAP), the bridge helix and switch regions form an intricate network with the catalytic active centre and the main channel. These interactions are important for catalysis, hydrolysis and clamp domain movement. By targeting conserved residues in Escherichia coli RNAP, we are able to show that functions of these regions are differentially required during σ70-dependent and the contrasting σ54-dependent transcription activations and thus potentially underlie the key mechanistic differences between the two transcription paradigms. We further demonstrate that the transcription factor DksA directly regulates σ54-dependent activation both positively and negatively. This finding is consistent with the observed impacts of DksA on σ70-dependent promoters. DksA does not seem to significantly affect RNAP binding to a pre-melted promoter DNA but affects extensively activity at the stage of initial RNA synthesis on σ54-regulated promoters. Strikingly, removal of the σ54 Region I is sufficient to invert the action of DksA (from stimulation to inhibition or vice versa) at two test promoters. The RNAP mutants we generated also show a strong propensity to backtrack. These mutants increase the rate of transcript-hydrolysis cleavage to a level comparable to that seen in the Thermus aquaticus RNAP even in the absence of a non-complementary nucleotide. These novel phenotypes imply an important function of the bridge helix and switch regions as an anti-backtracking ratchet and an RNA hydrolysis regulator. PMID:26365052

  9. Mutations in RNA Polymerase Bridge Helix and Switch Regions Affect Active-Site Networks and Transcript-Assisted Hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Nan; Schäfer, Jorrit; Sharma, Amit; Rayner, Lucy; Zhang, Xiaodong; Tuma, Roman; Stockley, Peter; Buck, Martin

    2015-11-01

    In bacterial RNA polymerase (RNAP), the bridge helix and switch regions form an intricate network with the catalytic active centre and the main channel. These interactions are important for catalysis, hydrolysis and clamp domain movement. By targeting conserved residues in Escherichia coli RNAP, we are able to show that functions of these regions are differentially required during σ(70)-dependent and the contrasting σ(54)-dependent transcription activations and thus potentially underlie the key mechanistic differences between the two transcription paradigms. We further demonstrate that the transcription factor DksA directly regulates σ(54)-dependent activation both positively and negatively. This finding is consistent with the observed impacts of DksA on σ(70)-dependent promoters. DksA does not seem to significantly affect RNAP binding to a pre-melted promoter DNA but affects extensively activity at the stage of initial RNA synthesis on σ(54)-regulated promoters. Strikingly, removal of the σ(54) Region I is sufficient to invert the action of DksA (from stimulation to inhibition or vice versa) at two test promoters. The RNAP mutants we generated also show a strong propensity to backtrack. These mutants increase the rate of transcript-hydrolysis cleavage to a level comparable to that seen in the Thermus aquaticus RNAP even in the absence of a non-complementary nucleotide. These novel phenotypes imply an important function of the bridge helix and switch regions as an anti-backtracking ratchet and an RNA hydrolysis regulator.

  10. Mutations in RNA Polymerase Bridge Helix and Switch Regions Affect Active-Site Networks and Transcript-Assisted Hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Nan; Schäfer, Jorrit; Sharma, Amit; Rayner, Lucy; Zhang, Xiaodong; Tuma, Roman; Stockley, Peter; Buck, Martin

    2015-11-01

    In bacterial RNA polymerase (RNAP), the bridge helix and switch regions form an intricate network with the catalytic active centre and the main channel. These interactions are important for catalysis, hydrolysis and clamp domain movement. By targeting conserved residues in Escherichia coli RNAP, we are able to show that functions of these regions are differentially required during σ(70)-dependent and the contrasting σ(54)-dependent transcription activations and thus potentially underlie the key mechanistic differences between the two transcription paradigms. We further demonstrate that the transcription factor DksA directly regulates σ(54)-dependent activation both positively and negatively. This finding is consistent with the observed impacts of DksA on σ(70)-dependent promoters. DksA does not seem to significantly affect RNAP binding to a pre-melted promoter DNA but affects extensively activity at the stage of initial RNA synthesis on σ(54)-regulated promoters. Strikingly, removal of the σ(54) Region I is sufficient to invert the action of DksA (from stimulation to inhibition or vice versa) at two test promoters. The RNAP mutants we generated also show a strong propensity to backtrack. These mutants increase the rate of transcript-hydrolysis cleavage to a level comparable to that seen in the Thermus aquaticus RNAP even in the absence of a non-complementary nucleotide. These novel phenotypes imply an important function of the bridge helix and switch regions as an anti-backtracking ratchet and an RNA hydrolysis regulator. PMID:26365052

  11. Lung region and racing affect mechanical properties of equine pulmonary microvasculature.

    PubMed

    Stack, Alice; Derksen, Frederik J; Williams, Kurt J; Robinson, N Edward; Jackson, William F

    2014-08-15

    Exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage is a performance-limiting condition of racehorses associated with severe pathology, including small pulmonary vein remodeling. Pathology is limited to caudodorsal (CD) lung. Mechanical properties of equine pulmonary microvasculature have not been studied. We hypothesized that regional differences in pulmonary artery and vein mechanical characteristics do not exist in control animals, and that racing and venous remodeling impact pulmonary vein mechanical properties in CD lung. Pulmonary arteries and veins [range of internal diameters 207-386 ± 67 μm (mean ± SD)] were harvested from eight control and seven raced horses. With the use of wire myography, CD and cranioventral (CV) vessels were stretched in 10-μm increments. Peak wall tension was plotted against changes in diameter (length). Length-tension data were compared between vessel type, lung region, and horse status (control and raced). Pulmonary veins are stiffer walled than arteries. CD pulmonary arteries are stiffer than CV arteries, whereas CV veins are stiffer than CD veins. Racing is associated with increased stiffness of CD pulmonary veins and, to a lesser extent, CV arteries. For example, at 305 μm, tension in raced and control CD veins is 27.74 ± 2.91 and 19.67 ± 2.63 mN/mm (means ± SE; P < 0.05, Bonferroni's multiple-comparisons test after two-way ANOVA), and 16.12 ± 2.04 and 15.07 ± 2.47 mN/mm in raced and control CV arteries, respectively. This is the first report of an effect of region and/or exercise on mechanical characteristics of small pulmonary vessels. These findings may implicate pulmonary vein remodeling in exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage pathogenesis. PMID:24925981

  12. Strategies for flood hazard adaptation in drought affected regions of Afghanistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schleupner, Christine

    2010-05-01

    The development and management of water resources in Afghanistan are critically important for the economic development of the country. But Afghanistan presents a number of specific challenges in terms of water resource management and climate change impact assessment. Political instability and war has caused widespread devastation, insecurity, displacement, poverty and severe environmental degradation. Recent droughts have led to the collapse of many livelihoods, and poor national security restricts structured fieldwork. The recent restructuring and rebuilding of the state can be seen as opportunity to integrate climate change mitigation and adaptation measures into national, regional, and local planning. Governmental organizations are responsible to integrate climate change related issues and pro-active planning processes in water management and environmental considerations into relevant legislations, ministry and sector strategies. Integrated water resource management has been practically nonexistent during the last decades and consideration of climate change impacts are widely ignored in regional planning processes. However, flooding, landslides, drought, and extreme heat and freezing weather are already threatening the population. Climate models suggest that Afghanistan will be confronted by an increase of these events. Desertification and land degradation but also floods due to untimely rainfall are expected to broaden. Studies show that the impact of increasingly frequent flash floods may be amplified due to more rapid spring snow melt as a result of higher temperatures, combined with the downstream effects of land degradation, loss of vegetative cover and land mismanagement. It is further exacerbated by drought, which has the effect of hardening soils and reducing their permeability. In 2007 heavy floods already destroyed fields and harvests, killed livestock, damaged buildings, and claimed many lives. The intensified climatic conditions in Afghanistan will

  13. Climate Impacts Already Affect Every Region of the United States, Report Warns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2014-05-01

    "Climate change, once considered an issue for a distant future, has moved firmly into the present," according to the third iteration of the U.S. National Climate Assessment (NCA), issued by the White House on 6 May. "The observed warming and other climatic changes are triggering wide-ranging impacts in every region of our country and throughout our economy," states the report, titled Climate Change Impacts in the United States, issued through the federal interagency U.S. Global Change Research Program.

  14. Anatomic imaging of the prostate.

    PubMed

    Bhavsar, Anil; Verma, Sadhna

    2014-01-01

    The important role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the anatomic evaluation, detection, and staging of prostate cancer is well established. This paper focuses on the pertinent embryologic, anatomic, and imaging facts regarding both the normal prostate and the several examples of prostate cancers as well as staging implications. The discussion primarily includes findings related to T2-weighted imaging as opposed to the other functional sequences, including diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) or dynamic contrast enhanced MRI and MR spectroscopic imaging, respectively. PMID:25243174

  15. Arsenic in Surface Soils Affected by Mining and Metallurgical Processing in K. Mitrovica Region, Kosovo

    PubMed Central

    Stafilov, Trajce; Aliu, Milihate; Sajn, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The results of a study on the spatial distribution of arsenic in topsoil (0–5 cm) over the K. Mitrovica region, Kosovo, are reported. The investigated region (300 km2) was covered by a sampling grid of 1.4 km × 1.4 km. In total, 159 soil samples were collected from 149 locations. Inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was applied for the determination of arsenic levels. It was found that the average content of arsenic in the topsoil for the entire study area was 30 mg/kg (from 2.1 to 3,900 mg/kg) which exceeds the estimated European arsenic average in topsoil by a factor of 4.3. Contents of arsenic in the topsoil exceeded the optimum value recommended by the new Dutchlist (29 mg/kg As) in 124 km2. The action value (55 mg/kg As) was exceeded in 64 km2, with the average content of 105 mg/kg (from 55 to 3,900 mg/kg As). PMID:21139876

  16. Simulation of Tsunami Hazards Affecting the East Cape Region, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barberopoulou, Aggeliki; Wang, X.; Power, W.; Lukovic, B.

    2015-08-01

    The east coast of New Zealand is known for being exposed to a variety of tsunami sources, both those arising from the nearby Hikurangi subduction zone and its associated crustal faults, and those arising from more distant parts of the Pacific. Using numerical simulations with a parallelized computer model, we assess the tsunami inundation hazard posed to the most populated coastal communities on the east coast of the East Cape region, New Zealand, which had not been evaluated before. Our tsunami inundation hazard study is based on severe but realistic scenario events from a selection of local and distant earthquake tsunami sources. Such modelling covers a gap in knowledge caused by the short historical record of tsunamis in this region (covering <200 years), and the sparse observations of historical tsunamis due to a largely rural population. We identify that the worst flooding is often not associated with the first wave arrivals, and that coastal oscillations can last a long time in distant events. The modelling results allow us to determine typical characteristics of the pattern of flooding, specific to an area. This information is important for emergency planning and preparedness.

  17. Novel polymorphisms of the APOA2 gene and its promoter region affect body traits in cattle.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yang; Li, Caixia; Cai, Hanfang; Xu, Yao; Lan, Xianyong; Lei, Chuzhao; Chen, Hong

    2013-12-01

    Apolipoprotein A-II (APOA2) is one of the major constituents of high-density lipoprotein and plays a critical role in lipid metabolism and obesity. However, similar research for the bovine APOA2 gene is lacking. In this study, polymorphisms of the bovine APOA2 gene and its promoter region were detected in 1021 cows from four breeds by sequencing and PCR-RFLP methods. Totally, we detected six novel mutations which included one mutation in the promoter region, two mutations in the exons and three mutations in the introns. There were four polymorphisms within APOA2 gene were analyzed. The allele A, T, T and G frequencies of the four loci were predominant in the four breeds when in separate or combinations analysis which suggested cows with those alleles to be more adapted to the steppe environment. The association analysis indicated three SVs in Nangyang cows, two SVs in Qinchun cows and the 9 haplotypes in Nangyang cows were significantly associated with body traits (P<0.05 or P<0.01). The results of this study suggested the bovine APOA2 gene may be a strong candidate gene for body traits in the cattle breeding program. PMID:24004543

  18. Mutation affecting the expression of immunoglobulin variable regions in the rabbit.

    PubMed

    Kelus, A S; Weiss, S

    1986-07-01

    We have found a variant of the allotype allele a2 in the rabbit, which presumably arose by mutation, that segregates as expected for an allele at the a locus. This allele is called "ali" and the corresponding rabbit strain is called "Alicia." In heterozygous animals (ali/a1 and ali/a3) the concentration of a2 molecules is lower by a factor of 1000 than in standard a2/a2 homozygotes. In homozygous ali/ali individuals the a2 concentration varies with age--i.e., very low in young rabbits and higher in older ones--but it never reaches normal levels. The low level of a2 is compensated by increased amounts of a-negative molecules. Southern blot analysis did not reveal any gross changes in the intron between JH and C mu (joining region of immunoglobulin heavy chain and constant region of immunoglobulin mu chain) or in the number of VH gene segments encoding a locus specificities. We suggest that the ali phenotype is due to a mutation in a control element.

  19. Identification of Histological Patterns in Clinically Affected and Unaffected Palm Regions in Dupuytren's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Alfonso-Rodríguez, Camilo-Andrés; Garzón, Ingrid; Garrido-Gómez, Juan; Oliveira, Ana-Celeste-Ximenes; Martín-Piedra, Miguel-Ángel; Scionti, Giuseppe; Carriel, Víctor; Hernández-Cortés, Pedro; Campos, Antonio; Alaminos, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Dupuytren's disease is a fibro-proliferative disease characterized by a disorder of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and high myofibroblast proliferation. However, studies failed to determine if the whole palm fascia is affected by the disease. The objective of this study was to analyze several components of the extracellular matrix of three types of tissues—Dupuytren's diseased contracture cords (DDC), palmar fascia clinically unaffected by Dupuytren's disease contracture (NPF), and normal forehand fascia (NFF). Histological analysis, quantification of cells recultured from each type of tissue, mRNA microarrays and immunohistochemistry for smooth muscle actin (SMA), fibrillar ECM components and non-fibrillar ECM components were carried out. The results showed that DDC samples had abundant fibrosis with reticular fibers and few elastic fibers, high cell proliferation and myofibroblasts, laminin and glycoproteins, whereas NFF did not show any of these findings. Interestingly, NPF tissues had more cells showing myofibroblasts differentiation and more collagen and reticular fibers, laminin and glycoproteins than NFF, although at lower level than DDC, with similar elastic fibers than DDC. Immunohistochemical expression of decorin was high in DDC, whereas versican was highly expressed NFF, with no differences for aggrecan. Cluster analysis revealed that the global expression profile of NPF was very similar to DDC, and reculturing methods showed that cells corresponding to DDC tissues proliferated more actively than NPF, and NPF more actively than NFF. All these results suggest that NPF tissues may be affected, and that a modification of the therapeutic approach used for the treatment of Dupuytren's disease should be considered. PMID:25379672

  20. Low temperature and defoliation affect fructan-metabolizing enzymes in different regions of the rhizophores of Vernonia herbacea.

    PubMed

    Portes, Maria Teresa; Figueiredo-Ribeiro, Rita de Cássia L; de Carvalho, Maria Angela M

    2008-10-01

    In addition to the storage function, fructans in Asteraceae from floras with seasonal growth have been associated with drought and freezing tolerance. Vernonia herbacea, native of the Brazilian Cerrado, bears underground reserve organs, rhizophores, accumulating inulin-type fructans. The rhizophore is a cauline branched system with positive geotropic growth, with the apex (distal region) presenting younger tissues; sprouting of new shoots occurs by development of buds located on the opposite end (proximal region). Plants induced to sprouting by excision of the aerial organs present increased 1-fructan exohydrolase (1-FEH) activity in the proximal region, while plants at the vegetative stage present high 1-sucrose:sucrose fructosyltransferase (1-SST) in the distal region. The aim of the present study was to analyze how low temperature (5 degrees C) could affect fructan-metabolizing enzymes and fructan composition in the different regions of the rhizophores of intact and excised plants. 1-SST and 1-fructan:fructan fructosyltransferase (1-FFT) were higher in the distal region decreasing towards the proximal region in intact plants at the vegetative phase, and were drastically diminished when cold and/or excision were imposed. In contrast, 1-FEH increased in the proximal region of treated plants, mainly in excised plants subjected to cold. The ratio fructo-oligo to fructo-polysaccharides was significantly higher in plants exposed to low temperature (1.17 in intact plants and 1.64 in excised plants) than in plants exposed to natural temperature conditions (0.84 in intact vegetative plants and 0.58 in excised plants), suggesting that oligosaccharides are involved in the tolerance of plants to low temperature via 1-FEH, in addition to 1-FFT. Principal component analysis indicated different response mechanisms in fructan metabolism under defoliation and low temperature, which could be interpreted as part of the strategies to undergo unfavorable environmental conditions

  1. Low temperature and defoliation affect fructan-metabolizing enzymes in different regions of the rhizophores of Vernonia herbacea.

    PubMed

    Portes, Maria Teresa; Figueiredo-Ribeiro, Rita de Cássia L; de Carvalho, Maria Angela M

    2008-10-01

    In addition to the storage function, fructans in Asteraceae from floras with seasonal growth have been associated with drought and freezing tolerance. Vernonia herbacea, native of the Brazilian Cerrado, bears underground reserve organs, rhizophores, accumulating inulin-type fructans. The rhizophore is a cauline branched system with positive geotropic growth, with the apex (distal region) presenting younger tissues; sprouting of new shoots occurs by development of buds located on the opposite end (proximal region). Plants induced to sprouting by excision of the aerial organs present increased 1-fructan exohydrolase (1-FEH) activity in the proximal region, while plants at the vegetative stage present high 1-sucrose:sucrose fructosyltransferase (1-SST) in the distal region. The aim of the present study was to analyze how low temperature (5 degrees C) could affect fructan-metabolizing enzymes and fructan composition in the different regions of the rhizophores of intact and excised plants. 1-SST and 1-fructan:fructan fructosyltransferase (1-FFT) were higher in the distal region decreasing towards the proximal region in intact plants at the vegetative phase, and were drastically diminished when cold and/or excision were imposed. In contrast, 1-FEH increased in the proximal region of treated plants, mainly in excised plants subjected to cold. The ratio fructo-oligo to fructo-polysaccharides was significantly higher in plants exposed to low temperature (1.17 in intact plants and 1.64 in excised plants) than in plants exposed to natural temperature conditions (0.84 in intact vegetative plants and 0.58 in excised plants), suggesting that oligosaccharides are involved in the tolerance of plants to low temperature via 1-FEH, in addition to 1-FFT. Principal component analysis indicated different response mechanisms in fructan metabolism under defoliation and low temperature, which could be interpreted as part of the strategies to undergo unfavorable environmental conditions

  2. Development of capability for microtopography-resolving simulations of hydrologic processes in permafrost affected regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Painter, S.; Moulton, J. D.; Berndt, M.; Coon, E.; Garimella, R.; Lewis, K. C.; Manzini, G.; Mishra, P.; Travis, B. J.; Wilson, C. J.

    2012-12-01

    The frozen soils of the Arctic and subarctic regions contain vast amounts of stored organic carbon. This carbon is vulnerable to release to the atmosphere as temperatures warm and permafrost degrades. Understanding the response of the subsurface and surface hydrologic system to degrading permafrost is key to understanding the rate, timing, and chemical form of potential carbon releases to the atmosphere. Simulating the hydrologic system in degrading permafrost regions is challenging because of the potential for topographic evolution and associated drainage network reorganization as permafrost thaws and massive ground ice melts. The critical process models required for simulating hydrology include subsurface thermal hydrology of freezing/thawing soils, thermal processes within ice wedges, mechanical deformation processes, overland flow, and surface energy balances including snow dynamics. A new simulation tool, the Arctic Terrestrial Simulator (ATS), is being developed to simulate these coupled processes. The computational infrastructure must accommodate fully unstructured grids that track evolving topography, allow accurate solutions on distorted grids, provide robust and efficient solutions on highly parallel computer architectures, and enable flexibility in the strategies for coupling among the various processes. The ATS is based on Amanzi (Moulton et al. 2012), an object-oriented multi-process simulator written in C++ that provides much of the necessary computational infrastructure. Status and plans for the ATS including major hydrologic process models and validation strategies will be presented. Highly parallel simulations of overland flow using high-resolution digital elevation maps of polygonal patterned ground landscapes demonstrate the feasibility of the approach. Simulations coupling three-phase subsurface thermal hydrology with a simple thaw-induced subsidence model illustrate the strong feedbacks among the processes. D. Moulton, M. Berndt, M. Day, J

  3. Factors affecting exhaled carbon monoxide levels in coffeehouses in the Western Black Sea region of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Bahcebasi, Talat; Kandis, Hayati; Baltaci, Davut; Kara, Ismail Hamdi

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate indoor air quality and factors affecting expired carbon monoxide (CO) levels in a coffeehouse environment. This cross-sectional study was conducted at 16 randomly selected coffeehouses in Duzce, Turkey, during November 2007 to March 2008. A total of 547 people, average age 46.72 ± 17.03 (19-82) years, participated. The selected coffeehouses were divided into four groups: (1) smoking, (2) nonsmoking, (3) old-style and (iv) new-style coffeehouses. Prior to entering the coffeehouse, exhaled CO levels in smokers (mean 21.17 ± 6.73 parts per million [ppm]) were significantly higher than those for nonsmokers (6.51 ± 4.56 ppm; p < 0.001). Measurements taken after 2 hours in the coffeehouse also showed significantly higher CO concentrations for smokers (22.72 ± 5.31 ppm), compared to nonsmokers (6.51 ± 4.56 ppm; p < 0.001). It was determined that CO levels inside coffee shops were above the WHO guidelines. Exhaled CO levels in nonsmokers are influenced by the ambient CO levels as a result of the use of cigarettes in coffeehouses in addition to the structure of coffeehouses. PMID:20858650

  4. Repeated electrical stimulation of reward-related brain regions affects cocaine but not "natural" reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Levy, Dino; Shabat-Simon, Maytal; Shalev, Uri; Barnea-Ygael, Noam; Cooper, Ayelet; Zangen, Abraham

    2007-12-19

    Drug addiction is associated with long-lasting neuronal adaptations including alterations in dopamine and glutamate receptors in the brain reward system. Treatment strategies for cocaine addiction and especially the prevention of craving and relapse are limited, and their effectiveness is still questionable. We hypothesized that repeated stimulation of the brain reward system can induce localized neuronal adaptations that may either potentiate or reduce addictive behaviors. The present study was designed to test how repeated interference with the brain reward system using localized electrical stimulation of the medial forebrain bundle at the lateral hypothalamus (LH) or the prefrontal cortex (PFC) affects cocaine addiction-associated behaviors and some of the neuronal adaptations induced by repeated exposure to cocaine. Repeated high-frequency stimulation in either site influenced cocaine, but not sucrose reward-related behaviors. Stimulation of the LH reduced cue-induced seeking behavior, whereas stimulation of the PFC reduced both cocaine-seeking behavior and the motivation for its consumption. The behavioral findings were accompanied by glutamate receptor subtype alterations in the nucleus accumbens and the ventral tegmental area, both key structures of the reward system. It is therefore suggested that repeated electrical stimulation of the PFC can become a novel strategy for treating addiction. PMID:18094257

  5. Regional processes affecting dissolved organic material in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergamaschi, B. A.

    2005-05-01

    The Central Valley of California, USA, is drained primarily by the Sacramento and San Joaquin River System into a delta that interacts tidally with the San Francisco Bay estuary. We use historical data along with molecular and isotopic tracers to determine the impact of land use, water impoundments, and diversions on dissolved organic material (DOM) concentration and quality. River-borne DOM supports two thirds of the heterotrophic demand of the estuary, lowers the quality of drinking water diversions from the delta, and affects the transport and methylation of mercury. DOM concentration in the rivers and delta varies by over a factor of 6 throughout the year, with a peak in early spring. Our previous results indicated that the delta DOM contribution to the estuary varies seasonally, supplying from 10 percent to 50 percent of the DOM exported by the river system into the estuary, with the greatest contribution occurring during winter and spring. Recent results using molecular source indicators suggest the DOM is largely added by local aquatic production rather than by terrestrial inputs, and is substantially altered by the heterotrophic microbial community. The molecular and isotopic results suggest that water management and land use significantly impact the timing and composition of DOM.

  6. Rapid and Progressive Regional Brain Atrophy in CLN6 Batten Disease Affected Sheep Measured with Longitudinal Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Sawiak, Stephen J; Perumal, Sunthara Rajan; Rudiger, Skye R; Matthews, Loren; Mitchell, Nadia L; McLaughlan, Clive J; Bawden, C Simon; Palmer, David N; Kuchel, Timothy; Morton, A Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Variant late-infantile Batten disease is a neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis caused by mutations in CLN6. It is a recessive genetic lysosomal storage disease characterised by progressive neurodegeneration. It starts insidiously and leads to blindness, epilepsy and dementia in affected children. Sheep that are homozygous for a natural mutation in CLN6 have an ovine form of Batten disease Here, we used in vivo magnetic resonance imaging to track brain changes in 4 unaffected carriers and 6 affected Batten disease sheep. We scanned each sheep 4 times, between 17 and 22 months of age. Cortical atrophy in all sheep was pronounced at the baseline scan in all affected Batten disease sheep. Significant atrophy was also present in other brain regions (caudate, putamen and amygdala). Atrophy continued measurably in all of these regions during the study. Longitudinal MRI in sheep was sensitive enough to measure significant volume changes over the relatively short study period, even in the cortex, where nearly 40% of volume was already lost at the start of the study. Thus longitudinal MRI could be used to study the dynamics of progression of neurodegenerative changes in sheep models of Batten disease, as well as to assess therapeutic efficacy.

  7. Rapid and Progressive Regional Brain Atrophy in CLN6 Batten Disease Affected Sheep Measured with Longitudinal Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Sawiak, Stephen J.; Perumal, Sunthara Rajan; Rudiger, Skye R.; Matthews, Loren; Mitchell, Nadia L.; McLaughlan, Clive J.; Bawden, C. Simon; Palmer, David N.; Kuchel, Timothy; Morton, A. Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Variant late-infantile Batten disease is a neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis caused by mutations in CLN6. It is a recessive genetic lysosomal storage disease characterised by progressive neurodegeneration. It starts insidiously and leads to blindness, epilepsy and dementia in affected children. Sheep that are homozygous for a natural mutation in CLN6 have an ovine form of Batten disease Here, we used in vivo magnetic resonance imaging to track brain changes in 4 unaffected carriers and 6 affected Batten disease sheep. We scanned each sheep 4 times, between 17 and 22 months of age. Cortical atrophy in all sheep was pronounced at the baseline scan in all affected Batten disease sheep. Significant atrophy was also present in other brain regions (caudate, putamen and amygdala). Atrophy continued measurably in all of these regions during the study. Longitudinal MRI in sheep was sensitive enough to measure significant volume changes over the relatively short study period, even in the cortex, where nearly 40% of volume was already lost at the start of the study. Thus longitudinal MRI could be used to study the dynamics of progression of neurodegenerative changes in sheep models of Batten disease, as well as to assess therapeutic efficacy. PMID:26161747

  8. Factors affecting regional per-capita carbon emissions in China based on an LMDI factor decomposition model.

    PubMed

    Dong, Feng; Long, Ruyin; Chen, Hong; Li, Xiaohui; Yang, Qingliang

    2013-01-01

    China is considered to be the main carbon producer in the world. The per-capita carbon emissions indicator is an important measure of the regional carbon emissions situation. This study used the LMDI factor decomposition model-panel co-integration test two-step method to analyze the factors that affect per-capita carbon emissions. The main results are as follows. (1) During 1997, Eastern China, Central China, and Western China ranked first, second, and third in the per-capita carbon emissions, while in 2009 the pecking order changed to Eastern China, Western China, and Central China. (2) According to the LMDI decomposition results, the key driver boosting the per-capita carbon emissions in the three economic regions of China between 1997 and 2009 was economic development, and the energy efficiency was much greater than the energy structure after considering their effect on restraining increased per-capita carbon emissions. (3) Based on the decomposition, the factors that affected per-capita carbon emissions in the panel co-integration test showed that Central China had the best energy structure elasticity in its regional per-capita carbon emissions. Thus, Central China was ranked first for energy efficiency elasticity, while Western China was ranked first for economic development elasticity.

  9. Factors Affecting Regional Per-Capita Carbon Emissions in China Based on an LMDI Factor Decomposition Model

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Feng; Long, Ruyin; Chen, Hong; Li, Xiaohui; Yang, Qingliang

    2013-01-01

    China is considered to be the main carbon producer in the world. The per-capita carbon emissions indicator is an important measure of the regional carbon emissions situation. This study used the LMDI factor decomposition model–panel co-integration test two-step method to analyze the factors that affect per-capita carbon emissions. The main results are as follows. (1) During 1997, Eastern China, Central China, and Western China ranked first, second, and third in the per-capita carbon emissions, while in 2009 the pecking order changed to Eastern China, Western China, and Central China. (2) According to the LMDI decomposition results, the key driver boosting the per-capita carbon emissions in the three economic regions of China between 1997 and 2009 was economic development, and the energy efficiency was much greater than the energy structure after considering their effect on restraining increased per-capita carbon emissions. (3) Based on the decomposition, the factors that affected per-capita carbon emissions in the panel co-integration test showed that Central China had the best energy structure elasticity in its regional per-capita carbon emissions. Thus, Central China was ranked first for energy efficiency elasticity, while Western China was ranked first for economic development elasticity. PMID:24353753

  10. Regional responsiveness of the tibia to intermittent administration of parathyroid hormone as affected by skeletal unloading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halloran, B. P.; Bikle, D. D.; Harris, J.; Tanner, S.; Curren, T.; Morey-Holton, E.

    1997-01-01

    To determine whether the acute inhibition of bone formation and deficit in bone mineral induced by skeletal unloading can be prevented, we studied the effects of intermittent parathyroid hormone (PTH) administration (8 micrograms/100 g/day) on growing rats submitted to 8 days of skeletal unloading. Loss of weight bearing decreased periosteal bone formation by 34 and 51% at the tibiofibular junction and tibial midshaft, respectively, and reduced the normal gain in tibial mass by 35%. Treatment with PTH of normally loaded and unloaded animals increased mRNA for osteocalcin (+58 and +148%, respectively), cancellous bone volume in the proximal tibia (+41 and +42%, respectively), and bone formation at the tibiofibular junction (+27 and +27%, respectively). Formation was also stimulated at the midshaft in unloaded (+47%, p < 0.05), but not loaded animals (-3%, NS). Although cancellous bone volume was preserved in PTH-treated, unloaded animals, PTH did not restore periosteal bone formation to normal nor prevent the deficit in overall tibial mass induced by unloading. We conclude that the effects of PTH on bone formation are region specific and load dependent. PTH can prevent the decrease in cancellous bone volume and reduce the decrement in cortical bone formation induced by loss of weight bearing.

  11. Biological and Molecular Variability of Alfalfa mosaic virus Affecting Alfalfa Crop in Riyadh Region.

    PubMed

    Al-Saleh, Mohammed A; Amer, Mahmoud A

    2013-12-01

    In 2011-2012, sixty nine samples were collected from alfalfa plants showing viral infection symptoms in Riyadh region. Mechanical inoculation with sap prepared from two collected samples out of twenty five possitive for Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) by ELISA were produced systemic mosaic on Vigna unguiculata and Nicotiana tabacum, local lesion on Chenopodium amaranticolor and C. quinoa. Vicia faba indicator plants that induce mosaic and mottle with AMV-Sagir isolate and no infection with AMV-Wadi aldawasser isolate. Approximately 700-bp was formed by RT-PCR using AMV coat protein specific primer. Samples from infected alfalfa gave positive results, while healthy plant gave negative result using dot blot hybridization assay. The nucleotide sequences of the Saudi isolates were compared with corresponding viral nucleotide sequences reported in GenBank. The obtained results showed that the AMV from Australia, Brazil, Puglia and China had the highest similarity with AMV-Sajer isolate. While, the AMV from Spain and New Zealaland had the lowest similarity with AMV-Sajer and Wadi aldawasser isolates. The data obtained in this study has been deposited in the GenBank under the accession numbers KC434083 and KC434084 for AMV-Sajer and AMV- Wadialdawasser respectively. This is the first report regarding the gnetic make up of AMV in Saudi Arabia. PMID:25288969

  12. Horse impoundments under Control of Horses legislation in the Munster region of Ireland: factors affecting euthanasia.

    PubMed

    Cullinane, M; O'Sullivan, E; Collins, D M; Byrne, A W; More, S J

    2015-01-24

    Recently, considerable international attention has been paid to the problem of unwanted horses. In Ireland, stray horses, particularly in urban areas, are a further problem. The Control of Horses Act 1996 was enacted in response to an ongoing problem of uncontrolled horses in public places. As yet, no research work has been conducted focusing on stray horses in Ireland. This paper describes horses impounded under the Act in the Munster region of Ireland during 2005-2012 and the factors influencing decisions regarding their disposal. A logistic regression model was developed to investigate factors influencing the probability that a horse was euthanised during impoundment. In total, 3625 seizure events were recorded, most towards the end of the study period. Predictors for euthanasia during 2010-2012 included seizure location, sex, age, colour, body condition score and year. This study highlights the problem of stray horses in Ireland, particularly in urban areas. There is a need for rigorous enforcement of newly enacted horse identification legislation, allowing a fully integrated traceability system. More is required to manage the long-established societal problems of stray horses in urban settings, with a uniform approach by all Local Authorities being long overdue.

  13. Biological and Molecular Variability of Alfalfa mosaic virus Affecting Alfalfa Crop in Riyadh Region

    PubMed Central

    AL-Saleh, Mohammed A.; Amer, Mahmoud A.

    2013-01-01

    In 2011–2012, sixty nine samples were collected from alfalfa plants showing viral infection symptoms in Riyadh region. Mechanical inoculation with sap prepared from two collected samples out of twenty five possitive for Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) by ELISA were produced systemic mosaic on Vigna unguiculata and Nicotiana tabacum, local lesion on Chenopodium amaranticolor and C. quinoa. Vicia faba indicator plants that induce mosaic and mottle with AMV-Sagir isolate and no infection with AMV-Wadi aldawasser isolate. Approximately 700-bp was formed by RT-PCR using AMV coat protein specific primer. Samples from infected alfalfa gave positive results, while healthy plant gave negative result using dot blot hybridization assay. The nucleotide sequences of the Saudi isolates were compared with corresponding viral nucleotide sequences reported in GenBank. The obtained results showed that the AMV from Australia, Brazil, Puglia and China had the highest similarity with AMV-Sajer isolate. While, the AMV from Spain and New Zealaland had the lowest similarity with AMV-Sajer and Wadi aldawasser isolates. The data obtained in this study has been deposited in the GenBank under the accession numbers KC434083 and KC434084 for AMV-Sajer and AMV- Wadialdawasser respectively. This is the first report regarding the gnetic make up of AMV in Saudi Arabia. PMID:25288969

  14. Genetic variation of the RASGRF1 regulatory region affects human hippocampus-dependent memory.

    PubMed

    Barman, Adriana; Assmann, Anne; Richter, Sylvia; Soch, Joram; Schütze, Hartmut; Wüstenberg, Torsten; Deibele, Anna; Klein, Marieke; Richter, Anni; Behnisch, Gusalija; Düzel, Emrah; Zenker, Martin; Seidenbecher, Constanze I; Schott, Björn H

    2014-01-01

    The guanine nucleotide exchange factor RASGRF1 is an important regulator of intracellular signaling and neural plasticity in the brain. RASGRF1-deficient mice exhibit a complex phenotype with learning deficits and ocular abnormalities. Also in humans, a genome-wide association study has identified the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs8027411 in the putative transcription regulatory region of RASGRF1 as a risk variant of myopia. Here we aimed to assess whether, in line with the RASGRF1 knockout mouse phenotype, rs8027411 might also be associated with human memory function. We performed computer-based neuropsychological learning experiments in two independent cohorts of young, healthy participants. Tests included the Verbal Learning and Memory Test (VLMT) and the logical memory section of the Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS). Two sub-cohorts additionally participated in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of hippocampus function. 119 participants performed a novelty encoding task that had previously been shown to engage the hippocampus, and 63 subjects participated in a reward-related memory encoding study. RASGRF1 rs8027411 genotype was indeed associated with memory performance in an allele dosage-dependent manner, with carriers of the T allele (i.e., the myopia risk allele) showing better memory performance in the early encoding phase of the VLMT and in the recall phase of the WMS logical memory section. In fMRI, T allele carriers exhibited increased hippocampal activation during presentation of novel images and during encoding of pictures associated with monetary reward. Taken together, our results provide evidence for a role of the RASGRF1 gene locus in hippocampus-dependent memory and, along with the previous association with myopia, point toward pleitropic effects of RASGRF1 genetic variations on complex neural function in humans. PMID:24808846

  15. Genetic variation of the RASGRF1 regulatory region affects human hippocampus-dependent memory

    PubMed Central

    Barman, Adriana; Assmann, Anne; Richter, Sylvia; Soch, Joram; Schütze, Hartmut; Wüstenberg, Torsten; Deibele, Anna; Klein, Marieke; Richter, Anni; Behnisch, Gusalija; Düzel, Emrah; Zenker, Martin; Seidenbecher, Constanze I.; Schott, Björn H.

    2014-01-01

    The guanine nucleotide exchange factor RASGRF1 is an important regulator of intracellular signaling and neural plasticity in the brain. RASGRF1-deficient mice exhibit a complex phenotype with learning deficits and ocular abnormalities. Also in humans, a genome-wide association study has identified the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs8027411 in the putative transcription regulatory region of RASGRF1 as a risk variant of myopia. Here we aimed to assess whether, in line with the RASGRF1 knockout mouse phenotype, rs8027411 might also be associated with human memory function. We performed computer-based neuropsychological learning experiments in two independent cohorts of young, healthy participants. Tests included the Verbal Learning and Memory Test (VLMT) and the logical memory section of the Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS). Two sub-cohorts additionally participated in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of hippocampus function. 119 participants performed a novelty encoding task that had previously been shown to engage the hippocampus, and 63 subjects participated in a reward-related memory encoding study. RASGRF1 rs8027411 genotype was indeed associated with memory performance in an allele dosage-dependent manner, with carriers of the T allele (i.e., the myopia risk allele) showing better memory performance in the early encoding phase of the VLMT and in the recall phase of the WMS logical memory section. In fMRI, T allele carriers exhibited increased hippocampal activation during presentation of novel images and during encoding of pictures associated with monetary reward. Taken together, our results provide evidence for a role of the RASGRF1 gene locus in hippocampus-dependent memory and, along with the previous association with myopia, point toward pleitropic effects of RASGRF1 genetic variations on complex neural function in humans. PMID:24808846

  16. Disparity in regional and systemic circulatory capacities: do they affect the regulation of the circulation?

    PubMed Central

    Calbet, J. A. L.; Joyner, M. J.

    2010-01-01

    In this review we integrate ideas about regional and systemic circulatory capacities and the balance between skeletal muscle blood flow and cardiac output during heavy exercise in humans. In the first part of the review we discuss issues related to the pumping capacity of the heart and the vasodilator capacity of skeletal muscle. The issue is that skeletal muscle has a vast capacity to vasodilate during exercise [~300 mL (100 g)−1 min−1], but the pumping capacity of the human heart is limited to 20–25 L min−1 in untrained subjects and ~35 L min−1 in elite endurance athletes. This means that when more than 7–10 kg of muscle is active during heavy exercise, perfusion of the contracting muscles must be limited or mean arterial pressure will fall. In the second part of the review we emphasize that there is an interplay between sympathetic vasoconstriction and metabolic vasodilation that limits blood flow to contracting muscles to maintain mean arterial pressure. Vasoconstriction in larger vessels continues while constriction in smaller vessels is blunted permitting total muscle blood flow to be limited but distributed more optimally. This interplay between sympathetic constriction and metabolic dilation during heavy whole-body exercise is likely responsible for the very high levels of oxygen extraction seen in contracting skeletal muscle. It also explains why infusing vasodilators in the contracting muscles does not increase oxygen uptake in the muscle. Finally, when ~80% of cardiac output is directed towards contracting skeletal muscle modest vasoconstriction in the active muscles can evoke marked changes in arterial pressure. PMID:20345408

  17. Disparity in regional and systemic circulatory capacities: do they affect the regulation of the circulation?

    PubMed

    Calbet, J A L; Joyner, M J

    2010-08-01

    In this review we integrate ideas about regional and systemic circulatory capacities and the balance between skeletal muscle blood flow and cardiac output during heavy exercise in humans. In the first part of the review we discuss issues related to the pumping capacity of the heart and the vasodilator capacity of skeletal muscle. The issue is that skeletal muscle has a vast capacity to vasodilate during exercise [approximately 300 mL (100 g)(-1) min(-1)], but the pumping capacity of the human heart is limited to 20-25 L min(-1) in untrained subjects and approximately 35 L min(-1) in elite endurance athletes. This means that when more than 7-10 kg of muscle is active during heavy exercise, perfusion of the contracting muscles must be limited or mean arterial pressure will fall. In the second part of the review we emphasize that there is an interplay between sympathetic vasoconstriction and metabolic vasodilation that limits blood flow to contracting muscles to maintain mean arterial pressure. Vasoconstriction in larger vessels continues while constriction in smaller vessels is blunted permitting total muscle blood flow to be limited but distributed more optimally. This interplay between sympathetic constriction and metabolic dilation during heavy whole-body exercise is likely responsible for the very high levels of oxygen extraction seen in contracting skeletal muscle. It also explains why infusing vasodilators in the contracting muscles does not increase oxygen uptake in the muscle. Finally, when approximately 80% of cardiac output is directed towards contracting skeletal muscle modest vasoconstriction in the active muscles can evoke marked changes in arterial pressure.

  18. The use of “stabilization exercises” to affect neuromuscular control in the lumbopelvic region: a narrative review

    PubMed Central

    Bruno, Paul

    2014-01-01

    It is well-established that the coordination of muscular activity in the lumbopelvic region is vital to the generation of mechanical spinal stability. Several models illustrating mechanisms by which dysfunctional neuromuscular control strategies may serve as a cause and/or effect of low back pain have been described in the literature. The term “core stability” is variously used by clinicians and researchers, and this variety has led to several rehabilitative approaches suggested to affect the neuromuscular control strategies of the lumbopelvic region (e.g. “stabilization exercise”, “motor control exercise”). This narrative review will highlight: 1) the ongoing debate in the clinical and research communities regarding the terms “core stability” and “stabilization exercise”, 2) the importance of sub-grouping in identifying those patients most likely to benefit from such therapeutic interventions, and 3) two protocols that can assist clinicians in this process. PMID:24932016

  19. How heterogeneous coseismic slip affects regional probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment: A case study in the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Linlin; Switzer, Adam D.; Chan, Chung-Han; Wang, Yu; Weiss, Robert; Qiu, Qiang

    2016-08-01

    Rupture complexity, typically in the form of heterogeneous slip distribution pattern, significantly affects the local tsunami wave field. However, the effect of rupture complexity is not commonly considered in any form of tsunami hazard assessment. Taking rupture complexity into account significantly increases the computational load, particularly in regional-scaled probabilistic tsunami hazard assessments (PTHAs) that usually require a large number of simulations based on synthetic scenarios. In this study, we investigate how the heterogeneous slip distribution affects the regional-scaled PTHA by taking the South China Sea (SCS) as an example. By doing this, we update PTHA for the SCS by incorporating the best available information of seismic tsunamigenic sources along the Manila megathrust. We integrate a stochastic source model into a Monte Carlo-type simulation, in which a broad range of slip distribution patterns is generated for large numbers of synthetic earthquake events. Green's function technique is employed to efficiently calculate the nearshore tsunami wave amplitude along the SCS coastlines. Our result suggests that for a relatively small and confined region like the SCS, the commonly used approach based on the uniform slip model significantly underestimates tsunami hazard not only in the near-source region like west Luzon, as expected, but also in the relative far field, such as south China and central Vietnam. Additionally, our sensitivity test of the patch size effects suggests that large patch size is unable to adequately resolve the details of heterogeneous seafloor deformation, and such approaches considerably underestimate the potential tsunami hazard for the SCS coasts.

  20. Capturing the multiscale anatomical shape variability with polyaffine transformation trees.

    PubMed

    Seiler, Christof; Pennec, Xavier; Reyes, Mauricio

    2012-10-01

    Mandible fractures are classified depending on their location. In clinical practice, locations are grouped into regions at different scales according to anatomical, functional and esthetic considerations. Implant design aims at defining the optimal implant for each patient. Emerging population-based techniques analyze the anatomical variability across a population and perform statistical analysis to identify an optimal set of implants. Current efforts are focused on finding clusters of patients with similar characteristics and designing one implant for each cluster. Ideally, the description of anatomical variability is directly connected to the clinical regions. This connection is what we present here, by introducing a new registration method that builds upon a tree of locally affine transformations that describes variability at different scales. We assess the accuracy of our method on 146 CT images of femurs. Two medical experts provide the ground truth by manually measuring six landmarks. We illustrate the clinical importance of our method by clustering 43 CT images of mandibles for implant design. The presented method does not require any application-specific input, which makes it attractive for the analysis of other multiscale anatomical structures. At the core of our new method lays the introduction of a new basis for stationary velocity fields. This basis has very close links to anatomical substructures. In the future, this method has the potential to discover the hidden and possibly sparse structure of the anatomy.

  1. Anatomic study of infrapopliteal vessels.

    PubMed

    Lappas, D; Stavropoulos, N A; Noussios, G; Sakellariou, V; Skandalakis, P

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this project is to study and analyse the anatomical variations of the infrapopliteal vessels concerning their branching pattern. A reliable sample of one hundred formalin-fixed adult cadavers was dissected by the Anatomical Laboratory of Athens University. The variations can be classified in the following way: the normal branching of the popliteal artery was present in 90%. The remainder revealed variant branching patterns: hypoplastic or aplastic posterior tibial artery and the pedis arteries arising from the peroneal (3%); hypoplastic or aplastic anterior tibial artery (1.5%); and the dorsalis pedis formed by two equal branches, arising from the peroneal and the anterior tibial artery (2%). The variations were more frequent in females and in short-height individuals. Knowledge of these variations is rather important for any invasive technic concerning lower extremities.

  2. Nodule detection in digital chest radiography: effect of anatomical noise.

    PubMed

    Båth, Magnus; Håkansson, Markus; Börjesson, Sara; Hoeschen, Christoph; Tischenko, Oleg; Kheddache, Susanne; Vikgren, Jenny; Månsson, Lars Gunnar

    2005-01-01

    The image background resulting from imaged anatomy can be divided into those components that are meaningful to the observers, in the sense that they are recognised as separate structures, and those that are not. These latter components (reffered to as anatomical noise) can be removed using a method developed within the RADIUS group. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the removal of the anatomical noise results in images where lung nodules with lower contrast can be detected. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) study was therefore conducted using two types of images: clinical chest images and chest images in which the anatomical noise had been removed. Simulated designer nodules with a full-width-at-fifth-maximum of 10 mm but with varying contrast were added to the images. The contrast needed to obtain an area under the ROC curve of 0.80, C0.8, was used as a measure of detectability (a low value of C0.8 represents a high detectability). Five regions of the chest X ray were investigated and it was found that in all regions the removal of anatomical noise led to images with lower C0.8 than the original images. On average, C0.8 was 20% higher in the original images, ranging from 7% (the lateral pulmonary regions) to 41% (the upper mediastinal regions).

  3. Anatomist on the dissecting table? Dutch anatomical professionals' views on body donation.

    PubMed

    Bolt, Sophie; Venbrux, Eric; Eisinga, Rob; Gerrits, Peter O

    2012-03-01

    Anatomical professionals know better than anyone else that donated bodies are a valuable asset to anatomical science and medical education. They highly value voluntary donations, since a dearth of bodies negatively affects their profession. With this in mind, we conducted a survey (n = 54) at the 171st scientific meeting of the Dutch Anatomical Society in 2009 to see to what extent anatomical professionals are willing to donate their own body. The results reveal that none of the survey participants are registered as a whole body donor and that only a quarter of them would consider the possibility of body donation. We argue that the two main constraints preventing Dutch anatomical professionals from donating their own body are their professional and their social environments. In contrast to the absence of registered body donors, half of the anatomical professionals are registered as an organ donor. This figure far exceeds the proportion of registered organ donors among the general Dutch population.

  4. The anatomical resources on the Internet.

    PubMed

    Paternostro, F; Orlandini, S Z

    2001-01-01

    The main anatomical resources found on the Internet are listed and discussed here, concerning the topics of gross anatomy, neuroanatomy, microscopic anatomy and anatomical museums. The search is updated to September 2000, and all the listed Web sites can be used to build a multimedial anatomical lab. PMID:11410999

  5. TOPICAL REVIEW: Anatomical imaging for radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Philip M.

    2008-06-01

    The goal of radiation therapy is to achieve maximal therapeutic benefit expressed in terms of a high probability of local control of disease with minimal side effects. Physically this often equates to the delivery of a high dose of radiation to the tumour or target region whilst maintaining an acceptably low dose to other tissues, particularly those adjacent to the target. Techniques such as intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), stereotactic radiosurgery and computer planned brachytherapy provide the means to calculate the radiation dose delivery to achieve the desired dose distribution. Imaging is an essential tool in all state of the art planning and delivery techniques: (i) to enable planning of the desired treatment, (ii) to verify the treatment is delivered as planned and (iii) to follow-up treatment outcome to monitor that the treatment has had the desired effect. Clinical imaging techniques can be loosely classified into anatomic methods which measure the basic physical characteristics of tissue such as their density and biological imaging techniques which measure functional characteristics such as metabolism. In this review we consider anatomical imaging techniques. Biological imaging is considered in another article. Anatomical imaging is generally used for goals (i) and (ii) above. Computed tomography (CT) has been the mainstay of anatomical treatment planning for many years, enabling some delineation of soft tissue as well as radiation attenuation estimation for dose prediction. Magnetic resonance imaging is fast becoming widespread alongside CT, enabling superior soft-tissue visualization. Traditionally scanning for treatment planning has relied on the use of a single snapshot scan. Recent years have seen the development of techniques such as 4D CT and adaptive radiotherapy (ART). In 4D CT raw data are encoded with phase information and reconstructed to yield a set of scans detailing motion through the breathing, or cardiac, cycle. In ART a set of

  6. Parametric Anatomical Modeling: a method for modeling the anatomical layout of neurons and their projections

    PubMed Central

    Pyka, Martin; Klatt, Sebastian; Cheng, Sen

    2014-01-01

    Computational models of neural networks can be based on a variety of different parameters. These parameters include, for example, the 3d shape of neuron layers, the neurons' spatial projection patterns, spiking dynamics and neurotransmitter systems. While many well-developed approaches are available to model, for example, the spiking dynamics, there is a lack of approaches for modeling the anatomical layout of neurons and their projections. We present a new method, called Parametric Anatomical Modeling (PAM), to fill this gap. PAM can be used to derive network connectivities and conduction delays from anatomical data, such as the position and shape of the neuronal layers and the dendritic and axonal projection patterns. Within the PAM framework, several mapping techniques between layers can account for a large variety of connection properties between pre- and post-synaptic neuron layers. PAM is implemented as a Python tool and integrated in the 3d modeling software Blender. We demonstrate on a 3d model of the hippocampal formation how PAM can help reveal complex properties of the synaptic connectivity and conduction delays, properties that might be relevant to uncover the function of the hippocampus. Based on these analyses, two experimentally testable predictions arose: (i) the number of neurons and the spread of connections is heterogeneously distributed across the main anatomical axes, (ii) the distribution of connection lengths in CA3-CA1 differ qualitatively from those between DG-CA3 and CA3-CA3. Models created by PAM can also serve as an educational tool to visualize the 3d connectivity of brain regions. The low-dimensional, but yet biologically plausible, parameter space renders PAM suitable to analyse allometric and evolutionary factors in networks and to model the complexity of real networks with comparatively little effort. PMID:25309338

  7. Regional hydrostratigraphy and groundwater flow modeling in the arsenic-affected areas of the western Bengal basin, West Bengal, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Abhijit; Fryar, Alan E.; Howell, Paul D.

    2007-11-01

    The first documented interpretation of the regional-scale hydrostratigraphy and groundwater flow is presented for a ˜21,000-km2 area of the arsenic-affected districts of West Bengal [Murshidabad, Nadia, North 24 Parganas and South 24 Parganas (including Calcutta)], India. A hydrostratigraphic model demonstrates the presence of a continuous, semi-confined sand aquifer underlain by a thick clay aquitard. The aquifer thickens toward the east and south. In the south, discontinuous clay layers locally divide the near-surface aquifer into several deeper, laterally connected, confined aquifers. Eight 22-layer model scenarios of regional groundwater flow were developed based on the observed topography, seasonal conditions, and inferred hydrostratigraphy. The models suggest the existence of seasonally variable, regional, north-south flow across the basin prior to the onset of extensive pumping in the 1970s. Pumping has severely distorted the flow pattern, inducing high vertical hydraulic gradients across wide cones of depression. Pumping has also increased total recharge (including irrigational return flow), inflow from rivers, and sea water intrusion. Consequently, downward flow of arsenic contaminated shallow groundwater appears to have resulted in contamination of previously safe aquifers by a combination of mechanical mixing and changes in chemical equilibrium.

  8. Assembling the Setaria italica L. Beauv. genome into nine chromosomes and insights into regions affecting growth and drought tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Kevin J.; Lu, Mei-Yeh Jade; Yang, Kai-Jung; Li, Mengyun; Teng, Yuchuan; Chen, Shihmay; Ku, Maurice S. B.; Li, Wen-Hsiung

    2016-01-01

    The diploid C4 plant foxtail millet (Setaria italica L. Beauv.) is an important crop in many parts of Africa and Asia for the vast consumption of its grain and ability to grow in harsh environments, but remains understudied in terms of complete genomic architecture. To date, there have been only two genome assembly and annotation efforts with neither assembly reaching over 86% of the estimated genome size. We have combined de novo assembly with custom reference-guided improvements on a popular cultivar of foxtail millet and have achieved a genome assembly of 477 Mbp in length, which represents over 97% of the estimated 490 Mbp. The assembly anchors over 98% of the predicted genes to the nine assembled nuclear chromosomes and contains more functional annotation gene models than previous assemblies. Our annotation has identified a large number of unique gene ontology terms related to metabolic activities, a region of chromosome 9 with several growth factor proteins, and regions syntenic with pearl millet or maize genomic regions that have been previously shown to affect growth. The new assembly and annotation for this important species can be used for detailed investigation and future innovations in growth for millet and other grains. PMID:27734962

  9. Optimization of mammography with respect to anatomical noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fredenberg, E.; Svensson, B.; Danielsson, M.; Lazzari, B.; Cederström, B.

    2011-03-01

    Beam quality optimization in mammography traditionally considers detection of a target obscured by quantum noise on a homogenous background. It can be argued that this scheme does not correspond well to the clinical imaging task because real mammographic images contain a complex superposition of anatomical structures, resulting in anatomical noise that may dominate over quantum noise. Using a newly developed spectral mammography system, we measured the correlation and magnitude of the anatomical noise in a set of mammograms. The results from these measurements were used as input to an observer-model optimization that included quantum noise as well as anatomical noise. We found that, within this framework, the detectability of tumors and microcalcifications behaved very differently with respect to beam quality and dose. The results for small microcalcifications were similar to what traditional optimization methods would yield, which is to be expected since quantum noise dominates over anatomical noise at high spatial frequencies. For larger tumors, however, low-frequency anatomical noise was the limiting factor. Because anatomical structure has similar energy dependence as tumor contrast, optimal x-ray energy was significantly higher and the useful energy region wider than traditional methods suggest. Measurements on a tissue phantom confirmed these theoretical results. Furthermore, since quantum noise constitutes only a small fraction of the noise, the dose could be reduced substantially without sacrificing tumor detectability. Exposure settings used clinically are therefore not necessarily optimal for this imaging task. The impact of these findings on the mammographic imaging task as a whole is, however, at this stage unclear.

  10. Polarimetric Retrievals of Surface and Cirrus Clouds Properties in the Region Affected by the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ottaviani, Matteo; Cairns, Brian; Chowdhary, Jacek; Van Diedenhoven, Bastiaan; Knobelspiesse, Kirk; Hostetler, Chris; Ferrare, Rich; Burton, Sharon; Hair, John; Obland, Michael D.; Rogers, Raymond

    2012-01-01

    In 2010, the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP) performed several aerial surveys over the region affected by the oil spill caused by the explosion of the Deepwater Horizon offshore platform. The instrument was deployed on the NASA Langley B200 aircraft together with the High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL), which provides information on the distribution of the aerosol layers beneath the aircraft, including an accurate estimate of aerosol optical depth. This work illustrates the merits of polarization measurements in detecting variations of ocean surface properties linked to the presence of an oil slick. In particular, we make use of the degree of linear polarization in the glint region, which is severely affected by variations in the refractive index but insensitive to the waviness of the water surface. Alterations in the surface optical properties are therefore expected to directly affect the polarization response of the RSP channel at 2264 nm, where both molecular and aerosol scattering are negligible and virtually all of the observed signal is generated via Fresnel reflection at the surface. The glint profile at this wavelength is fitted with a model which can optimally estimate refractive index, wind speed and direction, together with aircraft attitude variations affecting the viewing geometry. The retrieved refractive index markedly increases over oil-contaminated waters, while the apparent wind speed is significantly lower than in adjacent uncontaminated areas, suggesting that the slick dampens high-frequency components of the ocean wave spectrum. The constraint on surface reflectance provided by the short-wave infrared channels is a cornerstone of established procedures to retrieve atmospheric aerosol microphysical parameters based on the inversion of the RSP multispectral measurements. This retrieval, which benefits from the ancillary information provided by the HSRL, was in this specific case hampered by

  11. Common polymorphism in a highly variable region upstream of the human lactase gene affects DNA-protein interactions.

    PubMed

    Hollox, E J; Poulter, M; Wang, Y; Krause, A; Swallow, D M

    1999-01-01

    In most mammals lactase activity declines after weaning when lactose is no longer part of the diet, but in many humans lactase activity persists into adult life. The difference responsible for this phenotypic polymorphism has been shown to be cis-acting to the lactase gene. The causal sequence difference has not been found so far, but a number of polymorphic sites have been found within and near to the lactase gene. We have shown previously that in Europeans there are two polymorphic sites in a small region between 974 bp and 852 bp upstream from the start of transcription, which are detectable by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). In this study, analysis of individuals from five other population groups by the same DGGE method reveals four new alleles resulting from three additional nucleotide changes within this very small region. Analysis of sequence in four primate species and comparison with the published pig sequence shows that the overall sequence of this highly variable human region is conserved in pigs as well as primates, and that it lies within a 1kb region which has been shown to control lactase downregulation in pigs. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) studies were carried out to determine whether common variation affected protein-DNA binding and several binding activities were found using this technique. A novel two base-pair deletion that is common in most populations tested, but is not present in Europeans, caused no change in binding activity. However, a previously published C to T transition at -958bp dramatically reduced binding activity, although the functional significance of this is not clear.

  12. Assessing Household Economic Vulnerability in HIV-Affected Communities in Five Regions of Côte d'Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Holly M.; Moret, Whitney; Field, Samuel; Chen, Mario; Zeng, Yanwu; Seka, Firmin M.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify and describe levels of household economic vulnerability in HIV-affected communities in Côte d’Ivoire, defined as those with a high prevalence of HIV and large numbers of orphans and vulnerable children. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 3,749 households in five health regions of Côte d’Ivoire. Using principal component analysis, we attempted to identify sets of correlated vulnerabilities and derive a small number of composite scores to create an index for targeting interventions to vulnerable populations. The 65 vulnerability measures examined did not cluster in ways that would allow for the creation of a small number of composite measures. Instead, we found that households face numerous unique pathways to vulnerability. PMID:27655530

  13. Experience in Aligning Anatomical Ontologies.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Songmao; Bodenreider, Olivier

    2007-01-01

    An ontology is a formal representation of a domain modeling the entities in the domain and their relations. When a domain is represented by multiple ontologies, there is need for creating mappings among these ontologies in order to facilitate the integration of data annotated with these ontologies and reasoning across ontologies. The objective of this paper is to recapitulate our experience in aligning large anatomical ontologies and to reflect on some of the issues and challenges encountered along the way. The four anatomical ontologies under investigation are the Foundational Model of Anatomy, GALEN, the Adult Mouse Anatomical Dictionary and the NCI Thesaurus. Their underlying representation formalisms are all different. Our approach to aligning concepts (directly) is automatic, rule-based, and operates at the schema level, generating mostly point-to-point mappings. It uses a combination of domain-specific lexical techniques and structural and semantic techniques (to validate the mappings suggested lexically). It also takes advantage of domain-specific knowledge (lexical knowledge from external resources such as the Unified Medical Language System, as well as knowledge augmentation and inference techniques). In addition to point-to-point mapping of concepts, we present the alignment of relationships and the mapping of concepts group-to-group. We have also successfully tested an indirect alignment through a domain-specific reference ontology. We present an evaluation of our techniques, both against a gold standard established manually and against a generic schema matching system. The advantages and limitations of our approach are analyzed and discussed throughout the paper.

  14. Land-use and soil depth affect resource and microbial stoichiometry in a tropical mountain rainforest region of southern Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Tischer, Alexander; Potthast, Karin; Hamer, Ute

    2014-05-01

    Global change phenomena, such as forest disturbance and land-use change, significantly affect elemental balances as well as the structure and function of terrestrial ecosystems. However, the importance of shifts in soil nutrient stoichiometry for the regulation of belowground biota and soil food webs have not been intensively studied for tropical ecosystems. In the present account, we examine the effects of land-use change and soil depth on soil and microbial stoichiometry along a land-use sequence (natural forest, pastures of different ages, secondary succession) in the tropical mountain rainforest region of southern Ecuador. Furthermore, we analyzed (PLFA-method) whether shifts in the microbial community structure were related to alterations in soil and microbial stoichiometry. Soil and microbial stoichiometry were affected by both land-use change and soil depth. After forest disturbance, significant decreases of soil C:N:P ratios at the pastures were followed by increases during secondary succession. Microbial C:N ratios varied slightly in response to land-use change, whereas no fixed microbial C:P and N:P ratios were observed. Shifts in microbial community composition were associated with soil and microbial stoichiometry. Strong positive relationships between PLFA-markers 18:2n6,9c (saprotrophic fungi) and 20:4 (animals) and negative associations between 20:4 and microbial N:P point to land-use change affecting the structure of soil food webs. Significant deviations from global soil and microbial C:N:P ratios indicated a major force of land-use change to alter stoichiometric relationships and to structure biological systems. Our results support the idea that soil biotic communities are stoichiometrically flexible in order to adapt to alterations in resource stoichiometry.

  15. Utilization management in anatomic pathology.

    PubMed

    Lewandrowski, Kent; Black-Schaffer, Steven

    2014-01-01

    There is relatively little published literature concerning utilization management in anatomic pathology. Nonetheless there are many utilization management opportunities that currently exist and are well recognized. Some of these impact only the cost structure within the pathology department itself whereas others reduce charges for third party payers. Utilization management may result in medical legal liabilities for breaching the standard of care. For this reason it will be important for pathology professional societies to develop national utilization guidelines to assist individual practices in implementing a medically sound approach to utilization management.

  16. Random search for shared chromosomal regions in four affected individuals: the assignment of a new hereditary ataxia locus

    SciTech Connect

    Nikali, K.; Suomalainen, A.; Koskinen, T.; Peltonen, L.; Terwilliger, J.; Weissenbach, J.

    1995-05-01

    Infantile-onset spinocerebellar ataxia (IOSCA) is an autosomal recessively inherited progressive neurological disorder of unknown etiology. This ataxia, identified so far only in the genetically isolated Finnish population, does not share gene locus with any of the previously identified hereditary ataxias, and a random mapping approach was adopted to assign the IOSCA locus. Based on the assumption of one founder mutation, a primary screening of the genome was performed using samples from just four affected individuals in two consanguineous pedigrees. The identification of a shared chromosomal region in these four patients provided the first evidence that the IOSCA gene locus is on chromosome 10q23.3-q24.1, which was confirmed by conventional linkage analysis in the complete family material. Strong linkage disequilibrium observed between IOSCA and the linked markers was utilized to define accurately the critical chromosomal region. The results showed the power of linkage disequilibrium in the locus assignment of diseases with very limited family materials. 30 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. The Affect of Realistic Geologic Heterogeneity on Local and Regional P/S Amplitude Ratios Based on Numerical Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, S C; Wagoner, J L; Preston, L; Smith, K; Larsen, S C

    2005-07-11

    Regional seismic discriminants based on high-frequency P/S ratios reliably distinguish between earthquakes and explosions. However, P/S discriminants in the 0.5 to 3 Hz band (where SNR can be highest) rarely perform well, with similar ratios for earthquake and explosion populations. Variability in discriminant performance has spawned numerous investigations into the generation of S-waves from explosions. Several viable mechanisms for the generation of S-waves from explosions have been forwarded, but most of these mechanisms do not explain observations of frequency-dependant S-wave generation. Recent studies have focused on the affect of near-source scattering to explain the frequency-dependence of both S-wave generation and P/S discriminant performance. In this study we investigate near-source scatter through numerical simulation with a realistic geological model We have constructed a realistic, 3-dimensional earth model of the southern Basin and Range. This regional model includes detailed constraints at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) based on extensive geologic and geophysical studies. Gross structure of the crust and upper mantle is taken from regional surface-wave studies. Variations in crustal thickness are based on receiver function analysis and a compilation of reflection/refraction studies. Upper-crustal constraints are derived from geologic maps and detailed studies of sedimentary basin geometry throughout the study area. The free surface is based on a 10-meter digital elevation model (DEM) at NTS, and a 60-meter DEM elsewhere. The model extends to a depth of 150km, making it suitable for simulations at local and regional distances. Our simulation source is based on the 1993 Non-Proliferation Experiment explosion at the NTS. This shot was well recorded, offering ample validation data. Our validation tests include measures of long-period waveform fit and relative amplitude measurements for P and S phases. Our primary conclusion is that near-source topography

  18. Kanamycin and bumetanide ototoxicity: anatomical, physiological and behavioral correlates.

    PubMed

    Santi, P A; Ruggero, M A; Nelson, D A; Turner, C W

    1982-08-01

    Severe hair-cell degeneration and cochlear dysfunction was observed in chinchillas examined at 60 days (or longer) after administration of a single injection of 150 mg/kg kanamycin, followed 2 h later by a single injection of 20 mg/kg bumetanide. Outer hair cells in the cochlear base were most severely affected. While inner and outer hair-cell loss was common, some animals showed large regions along the basilar membrane where almost all inner hair cells were present and almost all outer hair cells were absent. Wherever areas of complete degeneration of the organ of Corti occurred, a small, diffuse population of nerve fibers within the spiral lamina was always present. Single-unit tuning curves correlated best with anatomical observations, compared with the other functional measures of auditory sensitivity that were obtained (behavioral audiogram and compound action potential thresholds). Results indicated that behavioral detection of auditory stimuli is relatively independent of innervation density as long as a few inner hair cells are present. Thus, the cross-fiber threshold envelope of the single-unit tuning curves appeared very similar to the behavioral audiogram. PMID:7118731

  19. Effect of anatomical backgrounds on detectability in volumetric cone beam CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Minah; Park, Subok; Baek, Jongduk

    2016-03-01

    As anatomical noise is often a dominating factor affecting signal detection in medical imaging, we investigate the effects of anatomical backgrounds on signal detection in volumetric cone beam CT images. Signal detection performances are compared between transverse and longitudinal planes with either uniform or anatomical backgrounds. Sphere objects with diameters of 1mm, 5mm, 8mm, and 11mm are used as the signals. Three-dimensional (3D) anatomical backgrounds are generated using an anatomical noise power spectrum, 1/fβ, with β=3, equivalent to mammographic background [1]. The mean voxel value of the 3D anatomical backgrounds is used as an attenuation coefficient of the uniform background. Noisy projection data are acquired by the forward projection of the uniform and anatomical 3D backgrounds with/without sphere lesions and by the addition of quantum noise. Then, images are reconstructed by an FDK algorithm [2]. For each signal size, signal detection performances in transverse and longitudinal planes are measured by calculating the task SNR of a channelized Hotelling observer with Laguerre-Gauss channels. In the uniform background case, transverse planes yield higher task SNR values for all sphere diameters but 1mm. In the anatomical background case, longitudinal planes yield higher task SNR values for all signal diameters. The results indicate that it is beneficial to use longitudinal planes to detect spherical signals in anatomical backgrounds.

  20. Anatomical heterogeneity of Alzheimer disease

    PubMed Central

    Noh, Young; Jeon, Seun; Seo, Sang Won; Kim, Geon Ha; Cho, Hanna; Ye, Byoung Seok; Yoon, Cindy W.; Kim, Hee Jin; Chin, Juhee; Park, Kee Hyung; Heilman, Kenneth M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Because the signs associated with dementia due to Alzheimer disease (AD) can be heterogeneous, the goal of this study was to use 3-dimensional MRI to examine the various patterns of cortical atrophy that can be associated with dementia of AD type, and to investigate whether AD dementia can be categorized into anatomical subtypes. Methods: High-resolution T1-weighted volumetric MRIs were taken of 152 patients in their earlier stages of AD dementia. The images were processed to measure cortical thickness, and hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis was performed using Ward's clustering linkage. The identified clusters of patients were compared with an age- and sex-matched control group using a general linear model. Results: There were several distinct patterns of cortical atrophy and the number of patterns varied according to the level of cluster analyses. At the 3-cluster level, patients were divided into (1) bilateral medial temporal–dominant atrophy subtype (n = 52, ∼34.2%), (2) parietal-dominant subtype (n = 28, ∼18.4%) in which the bilateral parietal lobes, the precuneus, along with bilateral dorsolateral frontal lobes, were atrophic, and (3) diffuse atrophy subtype (n = 72, ∼47.4%) in which nearly all association cortices revealed atrophy. These 3 subtypes also differed in their demographic and clinical features. Conclusions: This cluster analysis of cortical thickness of the entire brain showed that AD dementia in the earlier stages can be categorized into various anatomical subtypes, with distinct clinical features. PMID:25344382

  1. Brain anatomical network and intelligence.

    PubMed

    Li, Yonghui; Liu, Yong; Li, Jun; Qin, Wen; Li, Kuncheng; Yu, Chunshui; Jiang, Tianzi

    2009-05-01

    Intuitively, higher intelligence might be assumed to correspond to more efficient information transfer in the brain, but no direct evidence has been reported from the perspective of brain networks. In this study, we performed extensive analyses to test the hypothesis that individual differences in intelligence are associated with brain structural organization, and in particular that higher scores on intelligence tests are related to greater global efficiency of the brain anatomical network. We constructed binary and weighted brain anatomical networks in each of 79 healthy young adults utilizing diffusion tensor tractography and calculated topological properties of the networks using a graph theoretical method. Based on their IQ test scores, all subjects were divided into general and high intelligence groups and significantly higher global efficiencies were found in the networks of the latter group. Moreover, we showed significant correlations between IQ scores and network properties across all subjects while controlling for age and gender. Specifically, higher intelligence scores corresponded to a shorter characteristic path length and a higher global efficiency of the networks, indicating a more efficient parallel information transfer in the brain. The results were consistently observed not only in the binary but also in the weighted networks, which together provide convergent evidence for our hypothesis. Our findings suggest that the efficiency of brain structural organization may be an important biological basis for intelligence. PMID:19492086

  2. Trigger Points: An Anatomical Substratum

    PubMed Central

    Akamatsu, Flávia Emi; Ayres, Bernardo Rodrigues; Saleh, Samir Omar; Hojaij, Flávio; Andrade, Mauro; Hsing, Wu Tu; Jacomo, Alfredo Luiz

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to bring the trapezius muscle knowledge of the locations where the accessory nerve branches enter the muscle belly to reach the motor endplates and find myofascial trigger points (MTrPs). Although anatomoclinical correlations represent a major feature of MTrP, no previous reports describing the distribution of the accessory nerve branches and their anatomical relationship with MTrP are found in the literature. Both trapezius muscles from twelve adult cadavers were carefully dissected by the authors (anatomy professors and medical graduate students) to observe the exact point where the branches of the spinal accessory nerve entered the muscle belly. Dissection was performed through stratigraphic layers to preserve the motor innervation of the trapezius muscle, which is located deep in the muscle. Seven points are described, four of which are motor points: in all cases, these locations corresponded to clinically described MTrPs. The four points were common in these twelve cadavers. This type of clinical correlation between spinal accessory nerve branching and MTrP is useful to achieve a better understanding of the anatomical correlation of MTrP and the physiopathology of these disorders and may provide a scientific basis for their treatment, rendering useful additional information to therapists to achieve better diagnoses and improve therapeutic approaches. PMID:25811029

  3. The Brain Atlas Concordance Problem: Quantitative Comparison of Anatomical Parcellations

    PubMed Central

    Bohland, Jason W.; Bokil, Hemant; Allen, Cara B.; Mitra, Partha P.

    2009-01-01

    Many neuroscientific reports reference discrete macro-anatomical regions of the brain which were delineated according to a brain atlas or parcellation protocol. Currently, however, no widely accepted standards exist for partitioning the cortex and subcortical structures, or for assigning labels to the resulting regions, and many procedures are being actively used. Previous attempts to reconcile neuroanatomical nomenclatures have been largely qualitative, focusing on the development of thesauri or simple semantic mappings between terms. Here we take a fundamentally different approach, discounting the names of regions and instead comparing their definitions as spatial entities in an effort to provide more precise quantitative mappings between anatomical entities as defined by different atlases. We develop an analytical framework for studying this brain atlas concordance problem, and apply these methods in a comparison of eight diverse labeling methods used by the neuroimaging community. These analyses result in conditional probabilities that enable mapping between regions across atlases, which also form the input to graph-based methods for extracting higher-order relationships between sets of regions and to procedures for assessing the global similarity between different parcellations of the same brain. At a global scale, the overall results demonstrate a considerable lack of concordance between available parcellation schemes, falling within chance levels for some atlas pairs. At a finer level, this study reveals spatial relationships between sets of defined regions that are not obviously apparent; these are of high potential interest to researchers faced with the challenge of comparing results that were based on these different anatomical models, particularly when coordinate-based data are not available. The complexity of the spatial overlap patterns revealed points to problems for attempts to reconcile anatomical parcellations and nomenclatures using strictly

  4. Sequencing human ribs into anatomical order by quantitative multivariate methods.

    PubMed

    Cirillo, John; Henneberg, Maciej

    2012-06-01

    Little research has focussed on methods to anatomically sequence ribs. Correct anatomical sequencing of ribs assists in determining the location and distribution of regional trauma, age estimation, number of puncture wounds, number of individuals, and personal identification. The aim of the current study is to develop a method for placing fragmented and incomplete rib sets into correct anatomical position. Ribs 2-10 were used from eleven cadavers of an Australian population. Seven variables were measured from anatomical locations on the rib. General descriptive statistics were calculated for each variable along with an analysis of variance (ANOVA) and ANOVA with Bonferroni statistics. Considerable overlap was observed between ribs for univariate methods. Bivariate and multivariate methods were then applied. Results of the ANOVA with post hoc Bonferroni statistics show that ratios of various dimensions of a single rib could be used to sequence it within adjacent ribs. Using multiple regression formulae, the most accurate estimation of the anatomical rib number occurs when the entire rib is found in isolation. This however, is not always possible. Even when only the head and neck of the rib are preserved, a modified multivariate regression formula assigned 91.95% of ribs into correct anatomical position or as an adjacent rib. Using multivariate methods it is possible to sequence a single human rib with a high level of accuracy and they are superior to univariate methods. Left and right ribs were found to be highly symmetrical. Some rib dimensions were greater in males than in females, but overall the level of sexual dimorphism was low.

  5. Region-Specific Disruption of Adenylate Cyclase Type 1 Gene Differentially Affects Somatosensorimotor Behaviors in Mice(1,2,3).

    PubMed

    Arakawa, Hiroyuki; Akkentli, Fatih; Erzurumlu, Reha S

    2014-01-01

    Cover FigureRegion-specific adenylyl cyclase 1 (AC1) loss of function differentially affects both patterning and sensorimotor behaviors in mice. AC1 is expressed at all levels of the somatosensory pathway and plays a major role in refinement and patterning of topographic sensory maps. Cortex-specific AC1 loss of function (CxAC1KO mice) does not affect barrel patterning and activation of specific barrels corresponding to stimulated whiskers and does not impair sensorimotor behaviors. While global (AC1KO) and thalamus-specific (ThAC1KO) AC1 loss of function leads to absence of barrel patterns, selective whisker stimulation activates topographically aligned cortical loci. Despite functional topography of the whisker-barrel cortex, sensorimotor and social behaviors are impaired, indicating the importance of patterning of topographical sensory maps in the neocortex. Adenylate cyclase type I (AC1) is primarily, and, abundantly, expressed in the brain. Intracellular calcium/calmodulin increases regulate AC1 in an activity-dependent manner. Upon stimulation, AC1 produces cAMP and it is involved in the patterning and the refinement of neural circuits. In mice, spontaneous mutations or targeted deletion of the Adcy1 gene, which encodes AC1, resulted in neuronal pattern formation defects. Neural modules in the primary somatosensory (SI) cortex, the barrels, which represent the topographic distribution of the whiskers on the snout, failed to form (Welker et al., 1996; Abdel-Majid et al., 1998). Cortex- or thalamus-specific Adcy1 deletions led to different cortical pattern phenotypes, with thalamus-specific disruption phenotype being more severe (Iwasato et al., 2008; Suzuki et al., 2013). Despite the absence of barrels in the "barrelless"/Adcy1 null mice, thalamocortical terminal bouton density and activation of cortical zones following whisker stimulation were roughly topographic (Abdel-Majid et al., 1998; Gheorghita et al., 2006). To what extent does patterning of the

  6. Bayesian reconstruction and use of anatomical a priori information for emission tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Bowsher, J.E.; Johnson, V.E.; Turkington, T.G.; Jaszczak, R.J.; Floyd, C.E. Jr.; Coleman, R.E.

    1996-10-01

    A Bayesian method is presented for simultaneously segmenting and reconstructing emission computed tomography (ECT) images and for incorporating high-resolution, anatomical information into those reconstructions. The anatomical information is often available from other imaging modalities such as computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The Bayesian procedure models the ECT radiopharmaceutical distribution as consisting of regions, such that radiopharmaceutical activity is similar throughout each region. It estimates the number of regions, the mean activity of each region, and the region classification and mean activity of each voxel. Anatomical information is incorporated by assigning higher prior probabilities to ECT segmentations in which each ECT region stays within a single anatomical region. This approach is effective because anatomical tissue type often strongly influences radiopharmaceutical uptake. The Bayesian procedure is evaluated using physically acquired single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) projection data and MRI for the three-dimensional (3-D) Hoffman brain phantom. A clinically realistic count level is used. A cold lesion within the brain phantom is created during the SPECT scan but not during the MRI to demonstrate that the estimation procedure can detect ECT structure that is not present anatomically.

  7. [Vegetation above-ground biomass and its affecting factors in water/wind erosion crisscross region on Loess Plateau].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian-guo; Fan, Jun; Wang, Quan-jiu; Wang, Li

    2011-03-01

    Field investigations were conducted in Liudaogou small watershed in late September 2009 to study the differences of vegetation above-ground biomass, soil moisture content, and soil nutrient contents under different land use patterns, aimed to approach the vegetation above-ground biomass level and related affecting factors in typical small watershed in water/wind erosion crisscross region on Loess Plateau. The above-ground dry biomass of the main vegetations in Liudaogou was 177-2207 g x m(-2), and that in corn field, millet field, abandoned farmland, artificial grassland, natural grassland, and shrub land was 2097-2207, 518-775, 248-578, 280-545, 177-396, and 372-680 g x m(-2), respectively. The mean soil moisture content in 0-100 layer was the highest (14.2%) in farmlands and the lowest (10.9%) in shrub land. The coefficient of variation of soil moisture content was the greatest (26. 7% ) in abandoned farmland, indicating the strong spatial heterogeneity of soil moisture in this kind of farmland. The mean soil water storage was in the order of farmland > artificial grassland > natural grassland > shrub land. Soil dry layer was observed in alfalfa and caragana lands. There was a significant positive correlation (r = 0.639, P < 0.05) between above-ground dry biomass and 0-100 cm soil water storage, and also, a very significant positive correlation between above-ground fresh biomass and vegetation height. The above-ground biomass of the higher vegetations could potentially better control the wind and water erosion in the water/wind erosion crisscross region. Vegetation above-ground biomass was highly correlated with soil moisture and nutrient contents, but had no significant correlations with elevation, slope gradient, slope aspect, and soil bulk density.

  8. Pregnancy outcomes, site of delivery, and community schisms in regions affected by the armed conflict in Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Brentlinger, Paula E; Sánchez-Pérez, Héctor Javier; Cedeño, Marcos Arana; Morales, Lic Guadalupe Vargas; Hernán, Miguel A; Micek, Mark A; Ford, Douglas

    2005-09-01

    The Zapatista armed conflict began in the state of Chiapas, Mexico, in 1994, and overlaps pre-existing local disputes about land, religion, and other issues. Related disruptions in access to and utilization of health services have been alleged to have compromised local health status, particularly in vulnerable subgroups such as indigenous women and infants. The study objective was to measure maternal and perinatal mortality ratios and utilization of pregnancy-related health services in the region affected by the Zapatista conflict, and to describe associations between these primary outcome measures, socioeconomic and demographic factors, and factors associated with inter-party and intra-community conflict. A cross-sectional, population-based survey was conducted in 46 communities in three regions. The study subjects were 1227 women, 13-49 years old, who had been pregnant during the preceding 2 years (1999-2001). Principal outcome measures were maternal and perinatal mortality, and site of delivery. Secondary analyses explored associations between primary outcomes and socioeconomic, demographic, and conflict-related factors. Most births (87.1%) occurred at home. The crude observed maternal and perinatal mortality ratios were 607/100,000 and 23.5/1000 live births, respectively. Those who died had difficulty accessing emergency obstetrical care. Both home birth and mortality were associated with descriptors of intra-community conflict. Observed maternal and perinatal mortality ratios were substantially higher than those officially reported for Mexico or Chiapas. Reduction of high reproductive mortality ratios will require attention to socioeconomic and conflict-related problems, in addition to improved access to emergency obstetrical services.

  9. Factors affecting summer maize yield under climate change in Shandong Province in the Huanghuaihai Region of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Guoqing; Liu, Hongjun; Zhang, Jiwang; Liu, Peng; Dong, Shuting

    2012-07-01

    Clarification of influencing factors (cultivar planted, cultivation management, climatic conditions) affecting yields of summer maize ( Zea mays L.) would provide valuable information for increasing yields further under variable climatic conditions. Here, we report actual maize yields in the Huanghuaihai region over the past 50 years (1957-2007), simulated yields of major varieties in different years (Baimaya in the 1950s, Zhengdan-2 in the 1970s, Yedan-13 in the 1990s, and Zhengdan-958 in the 2000s), and factors that influence yield. The results show that, although each variety change has played a critical role in increasing maize yields, the contribution of variety to yield increase has decreased steadily over the past 50 years (42.6%-44.3% from the 1950s to the 1970s, 34.4%-47.2% from the 1970s to the 1990s, and 21.0%-37.6% from the 1990s to the 2000s). The impact of climatic conditions on maize yield has exhibited an increasing trend (0.67%-22.5% from the 1950s to the 1970s, 2.6%-27.0% from the 1970s to the 1990s, and 9.1%-51.1% from the 1990s to the 2000s); however, interannual differences can be large, especially if there were large changes in temperature and rainfall. Among climatic factors, rainfall had a greater positive influence than light and temperature on yield increase. Cultivation measures could change the contribution rates of variety and climatic conditions. Overall, unless there is a major breakthrough in variety, improving cultivation measures will remain important for increasing future summer maize yields in the Huanghuaihai region.

  10. Isolation of a Genomic Region Affecting Most Components of Metabolic Syndrome in a Chromosome-16 Congenic Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Šedová, Lucie; Pravenec, Michal; Křenová, Drahomíra; Kazdová, Ludmila; Zídek, Václav; Krupková, Michaela; Liška, František; Křen, Vladimír; Šeda, Ondřej

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a highly prevalent human disease with substantial genomic and environmental components. Previous studies indicate the presence of significant genetic determinants of several features of metabolic syndrome on rat chromosome 16 (RNO16) and the syntenic regions of human genome. We derived the SHR.BN16 congenic strain by introgression of a limited RNO16 region from the Brown Norway congenic strain (BN-Lx) into the genomic background of the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) strain. We compared the morphometric, metabolic, and hemodynamic profiles of adult male SHR and SHR.BN16 rats. We also compared in silico the DNA sequences for the differential segment in the BN-Lx and SHR parental strains. SHR.BN16 congenic rats had significantly lower weight, decreased concentrations of total triglycerides and cholesterol, and improved glucose tolerance compared with SHR rats. The concentrations of insulin, free fatty acids, and adiponectin were comparable between the two strains. SHR.BN16 rats had significantly lower systolic (18–28 mmHg difference) and diastolic (10–15 mmHg difference) blood pressure throughout the experiment (repeated-measures ANOVA, P < 0.001). The differential segment spans approximately 22 Mb of the telomeric part of the short arm of RNO16. The in silico analyses revealed over 1200 DNA variants between the BN-Lx and SHR genomes in the SHR.BN16 differential segment, 44 of which lead to missense mutations, and only eight of which (in Asb14, Il17rd, Itih1, Syt15, Ercc6, RGD1564958, Tmem161a, and Gatad2a genes) are predicted to be damaging to the protein product. Furthermore, a number of genes within the RNO16 differential segment associated with metabolic syndrome components in human studies showed polymorphisms between SHR and BN-Lx (including Lpl, Nrg3, Pbx4, Cilp2, and Stab1). Our novel congenic rat model demonstrates that a limited genomic region on RNO16 in the SHR significantly affects many of the features of metabolic syndrome

  11. Isolation of a Genomic Region Affecting Most Components of Metabolic Syndrome in a Chromosome-16 Congenic Rat Model.

    PubMed

    Šedová, Lucie; Pravenec, Michal; Křenová, Drahomíra; Kazdová, Ludmila; Zídek, Václav; Krupková, Michaela; Liška, František; Křen, Vladimír; Šeda, Ondřej

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a highly prevalent human disease with substantial genomic and environmental components. Previous studies indicate the presence of significant genetic determinants of several features of metabolic syndrome on rat chromosome 16 (RNO16) and the syntenic regions of human genome. We derived the SHR.BN16 congenic strain by introgression of a limited RNO16 region from the Brown Norway congenic strain (BN-Lx) into the genomic background of the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) strain. We compared the morphometric, metabolic, and hemodynamic profiles of adult male SHR and SHR.BN16 rats. We also compared in silico the DNA sequences for the differential segment in the BN-Lx and SHR parental strains. SHR.BN16 congenic rats had significantly lower weight, decreased concentrations of total triglycerides and cholesterol, and improved glucose tolerance compared with SHR rats. The concentrations of insulin, free fatty acids, and adiponectin were comparable between the two strains. SHR.BN16 rats had significantly lower systolic (18-28 mmHg difference) and diastolic (10-15 mmHg difference) blood pressure throughout the experiment (repeated-measures ANOVA, P < 0.001). The differential segment spans approximately 22 Mb of the telomeric part of the short arm of RNO16. The in silico analyses revealed over 1200 DNA variants between the BN-Lx and SHR genomes in the SHR.BN16 differential segment, 44 of which lead to missense mutations, and only eight of which (in Asb14, Il17rd, Itih1, Syt15, Ercc6, RGD1564958, Tmem161a, and Gatad2a genes) are predicted to be damaging to the protein product. Furthermore, a number of genes within the RNO16 differential segment associated with metabolic syndrome components in human studies showed polymorphisms between SHR and BN-Lx (including Lpl, Nrg3, Pbx4, Cilp2, and Stab1). Our novel congenic rat model demonstrates that a limited genomic region on RNO16 in the SHR significantly affects many of the features of metabolic syndrome.

  12. Factors affecting acid neutralizing capacity in the Adirondack region of New York: a solute mass balance approach.

    PubMed

    Ito, Mari; Mitchell, Myron J; Driscoll, Charles T; Roy, Karen M

    2005-06-01

    High rates of acidic deposition in the Adirondack region of New York have accelerated acidification of soils and surface waters. Annual input-output budgets for major solutes and acid-neutralizing capacity (ANC) were estimated for 43 drainage lake-watersheds in the Adirondacks from 1998 to 2000. Sulfate was the predominant anion on an equivalent basis in both precipitation and drainage export. Calcium ion had the largest cation drainage export, followed by Mg2+. While these watersheds showed net nitrogen (N) retention, the drainage losses of SO4(2-), Cl-, base cations, and ANC exceeded their respective inputs from precipitation. Land cover (forest type and wetlands) affected the export of SO4(2-), N solutes, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). The relationships of solute export with elevation (negative for base cations and Cl-, positive for NO3- and H+) suggest the importance of the concomitant changes of biotic and abiotic watershed characteristics associated with elevational gradients. The surface water ANC increased with the sum of base cations and was greatest in the lakes with watersheds characterized by thick deposits of glacial till. The surface water ANC was also higher in the lake-watersheds with lower DOC export. Some variation in lake ANC was associated with variability in acidic deposition. Using a classification system previously developed for Adirondack lakes on the basis primarily of surficial geology, lake-watersheds were grouped into five classes. The calculated ANC fluxes based on the major sinks and sources of ANC were comparable with measured ANC for the thick-till (I) and the medium-till lake-watersheds with low DOC (II). The calculated ANC was overestimated for the medium-till with high DOC (III) and the thin-till with high DOC (V) lake-watersheds, suggesting the importance of naturally occurring organic acids as an ANC sink, which was not included in the calculations. The lower calculated estimates than the measured ANC for the thin-till lake

  13. Deletion of the huntingtin proline-rich region does not significantly affect normal huntingtin function in mice

    PubMed Central

    Neveklovska, Michelle; Clabough, Erin B. D.; Steffan, Joan S.; Zeitlin, Scott O.

    2012-01-01

    The N-terminus of Huntingtin, the protein encoded by the Huntington’s disease gene, contains a stretch of polyglutamine residues that is expanded in Huntington’s disease. The polyglutamine stretch is flanked by two conserved protein domains in vertebrates: an N1-17 domain, and a proline-rich region (PRR). The PRR can modulate the structure of the adjacent polyglutamine stretch, and is a binding site for several interacting proteins. To determine the role of the PRR in Huntingtin function, we have generated a knock-in allele of the mouse Huntington’s disease gene homolog that expresses full-length normal huntingtin lacking the PRR. Mice that are homozygous for the huntingtin PRR deletion are born at the normal Mendelian frequency, suggesting that the PRR is not required for essential huntingtin functions during embryonic development. Moreover, adult homozygous mutants did not exhibit any significant differences from wild-type controls in general motor function and motor learning. However, 18 month-old male, but not female, homozygous PRR deletion mutants exhibited deficits in the Morris water task, suggesting that age-dependent spatial learning and memory may be affected in a sex-specific fashion by the huntingtin PRR deletion. PMID:22956985

  14. Value of anatomic landmarks in carpal tunnel surgery.

    PubMed

    Yavuz, O Y; Uras, I; Tasbas, B; Kaya, M; Ozay, R; Komurcu, M

    2013-07-01

    This study investigated which anatomic landmarks were most useful for correct and safe incision placement in carpal tunnel surgery. Kirschner wires were attached to the hands to mark previously defined landmarks. The bony attachments of the transverse carpal ligament, which were identified previously, were drawn on an anteroposterior digital x-ray of the hand, with the thumb in full abduction. The relationship between anatomic landmarks and these bony attachments were examined. In all hands, either the line along the third web space or the crease between the thenar and the hypothenar regions, or both, were on the ulnar half of the transverse carpal ligament. During incision placement, we recommend selecting the most ulnar choice between the line drawn along the third web space and the crease between the thenar and hypothenar regions in order to be at safe distance from the recurrent motor branch of the median nerve.

  15. Anatomical correlates of foreign speech sound production.

    PubMed

    Golestani, Narly; Pallier, Christophe

    2007-04-01

    Previous work has shown a relationship between brain anatomy and how quickly adults learn to perceive foreign speech sounds. Faster learners have greater asymmetry (left>right) in parietal lobe white matter (WM) volumes and larger WM volumes of left Heschl's gyrus than slower learners. Here, we tested native French speakers who were previously scanned using high-resolution anatomical magnetic resonance imaging. We asked them to pronounce a Persian consonant that does not exist in French but which can easily be distinguished from French speech sounds, the voiced uvular stop. Two judges scored the goodness of the utterances. Voxel-based morphometry revealed that individuals who more accurately pronounce the foreign sound have higher WM density in the left insula/prefrontal cortex and in the inferior parietal cortices bilaterally compared with poorer producers. Results suggest that WM anatomy in brain regions previously implicated in articulation and phonological working memory, or the size/shape of these or adjacent regions, is in part predictive of the accuracy of speech sound pronunciation.

  16. Policy and legislation affecting settlement of the Pacific region: an historical comparison of the United States and the USSR.

    PubMed

    Heer, D M

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents a history of policy and legislation affecting settlement of the Far Eastern Economic Region of the USSR, a similar history for the Pacific Division of the US, and compares the major differences and similarities between the policies and legislation of these 2 nations with respect to settlement of what are now the Pacific territories of the 2 nations. By policy regarding settlement is meant legislation intentionally designed to acquire sovereignty and then populate a region with persons owing allegiance to the given nation. By legislation regarding settlement is meant simply those laws which have consequences for settlement regardless of intent. The history starts with the early 17th century for the USSR and with the early 19th century for the US. In the USSR and in the US, areas adjacent to the Pacific Ocean were annexed by means of direct governmental measures. During the 17th century the efforts on the part of the Tsarist government of Russia to annex territory resulted in armed conflict with the troops of the Chinese Empire. In the middle of the 19th century, following the substantial weakening of Chinese military prowess and in the face of territorial demands on China by the British and French, the Russians were able to impose treaties on the Chinese granting them substantial Pacific territories until then under Chinese rule. A war of conquest against Mexico in 1846-48 made possible for the US the acquisition of California. In addition, a treaty with England in 1846 gave international recognition to US sovereignty in Oregon and Washington. Alaska was purchased from Russia in 1867, and Hawaii was annexed to the US in 1898. In both nations the construction of railroads to link the Pacific coast with the rest of the nation was actively promoted by governmental legislation. In the US and in the USSR migration to the Pacific region has been promoted by direct financial subsidies to settlers -- in the US by the Homestead Act and irrigation

  17. Policy and legislation affecting settlement of the Pacific region: an historical comparison of the United States and the USSR.

    PubMed

    Heer, D M

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents a history of policy and legislation affecting settlement of the Far Eastern Economic Region of the USSR, a similar history for the Pacific Division of the US, and compares the major differences and similarities between the policies and legislation of these 2 nations with respect to settlement of what are now the Pacific territories of the 2 nations. By policy regarding settlement is meant legislation intentionally designed to acquire sovereignty and then populate a region with persons owing allegiance to the given nation. By legislation regarding settlement is meant simply those laws which have consequences for settlement regardless of intent. The history starts with the early 17th century for the USSR and with the early 19th century for the US. In the USSR and in the US, areas adjacent to the Pacific Ocean were annexed by means of direct governmental measures. During the 17th century the efforts on the part of the Tsarist government of Russia to annex territory resulted in armed conflict with the troops of the Chinese Empire. In the middle of the 19th century, following the substantial weakening of Chinese military prowess and in the face of territorial demands on China by the British and French, the Russians were able to impose treaties on the Chinese granting them substantial Pacific territories until then under Chinese rule. A war of conquest against Mexico in 1846-48 made possible for the US the acquisition of California. In addition, a treaty with England in 1846 gave international recognition to US sovereignty in Oregon and Washington. Alaska was purchased from Russia in 1867, and Hawaii was annexed to the US in 1898. In both nations the construction of railroads to link the Pacific coast with the rest of the nation was actively promoted by governmental legislation. In the US and in the USSR migration to the Pacific region has been promoted by direct financial subsidies to settlers -- in the US by the Homestead Act and irrigation

  18. Multiple variations of the tendons of the anatomical snuffbox

    PubMed Central

    Thwin, San San; Zaini, Fazlin; Than, Myo

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Multiple tendons of the abductor pollicis longus (APL) in the anatomical snuffbox of the wrist can lead to the development of de Quervain's syndrome, which is caused by stenosing tenosynovitis. A cadaveric study was performed to establish the variations present in the tendons of the anatomical snuffbox in a Malaysian population, in the hope that this knowledge would aid clinical investigation and surgical treatment of de Quervain's tenosynovitis. METHODS Routine dissection of ten upper limbs was performed to determine the variations in the tendons of the anatomical snuffbox of the wrist. RESULTS In all the dissected upper limbs, the APL tendon of the first extensor compartment was found to have several (3–14) tendon slips. The insertion of the APL tendon slips in all upper limbs were at the base of the first metacarpal bone, trapezium and fascia of the opponens pollicis muscle; however, in seven specimens, they were also found to be attached to the fleshy belly of the abductor pollicis brevis muscle. In two specimens, double tendons of the extensor pollicis longus located in the third extensor compartment were inserted into the capsule of the proximal interphalangeal joints before being joined to the extensor expansion. In two other specimens, the first extensor compartment had two osseofibrous tunnels divided by a septum that separated the APL tendon from the extensor pollicis brevis tendon. CONCLUSION Multiple variations were found in the anatomical snuffbox region of the dissected upper limbs. Knowledge of these variations would be useful in interventional radiology and orthopaedic surgery. PMID:24452976

  19. Hydrogeologic factors that affect the flowpath of water in selected zones of the Edwards Aquifer, San Antonio region, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Groschen, G.E.

    1996-01-01

    The Edwards aquifer in the San Antonio region supplies drinking water for more than 1 million people. Proper development and protection of the aquifer is a high priority for local and State authorities. To better understand the flow of water in two major flowpaths in the Edwards aquifer, stratigraphic, structural, hydrologic, and geochemical data were analyzed. The western Medina flowpath is in parts of Uvalde, Medina, and Bexar Counties, and the eastern flowpath is in northern Bexar and central Comal Counties. A major hydrogeologic factor that affects the pattern of flow in the Edwards aquifer is the spatial and temporal distribution of recharge. Other hydrogeologic factors that affect flowpaths include internal boundaries and the location and rate of spring discharge. The relative displacement of faults and the high permeability layers have substantial control on the discharge at springs and on the flowpaths in the Edwards aquifer. Analysis of the estimated recharge to the Edwards aquifer during 1982 89 indicated that during years of substantial precipitation, a large part of the net recharge probably is diffuse infiltration of precipitation over large parts of the recharge area. During years with below-normal precipitation, most recharge is leakage from rivers and streams that drain the catchment subbasins. In the western Medina flowpath, concentrations of major ions indicate saturation of calcite and undersaturation of dolomite the two minerals that constitute most of the Edwards aquifer matrix. Concentrations of dissolved calcium, alkalinity, and dissolved chloride in the eastern flowpath are greater than those in the western Medina flowpath. These upward trends in concentrations might result in part from: (1) increased development in the recharge area, (2) mineralized effluent from developed areas, or (3) increased dissolution of aquifer material. Tritium data from wells sampled in and near the western Medina flowpath indicate no vertical stratification of

  20. Regional groundwater flow and geochemical processes within an intercratonic sedimentary basin affected by long-term episodes of freshwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bea, S. A.; Mayer, K. U.; Macquarrie, K. T.

    2009-12-01

    Present-day regional groundwater flow systems in intercratonic sedimentary basins are mainly driven by water table topographic gradients and recharge derived from precipitation. During a glaciation-deglaciation event; however, the migration and melting of ice sheets may alter the patterns of freshwater ingress into these basins. Under such conditions water fluxes in aquifers can be expected to be significantly modified as a result of the high hydraulic gradients beneath wet-based ice sheets. In fact, present-day hydrogeological and geochemical conditions across formerly glaciated areas may still reflect the impact of the last glaciation (around 10 ka B.P., e.g. anomalous fluid pressures in deep hydrogeologic units, changes in oxygen isotope composition, etc.). Reactive transport modeling can be used to understand the evolution of geochemical conditions of these formations and assess their suitability for hosting a deep geologic repository for used nuclear fuel. In this work, we will shed light on the effect of long-term perturbations over geologic time scales (e.g. glaciation-deglaciation events) on the hydrogeological and geochemical processes in a hypothetical sedimentary basin. Processes included in the model are density-driven flow and transport, as well as chemical reactions (aqueous complexation, mineral dissolution and precipitation including evaporites, sulfates and carbonates, cation-exchange, redox processes involving the decomposition of organic matter, and the oxidation of ferrous iron and sulfide). Transient boundary conditions are imposed in the upper part of the model to mimic ice sheet advance and retreat. Modeling hydrodynamic and geochemical processes in these basins is complex due to the presence of dense brines, hydraulic heterogeneities, continental-basin scale, permafrost and the formation of taliks., requiring robust numeric capabilities. Our preliminary results suggest that low velocities, in regions containing dense brines, are maintained

  1. Median nerve (anatomical variations) and carpal tunel syndrome - revisited.

    PubMed

    Mizia, Ewa; Tomaszewski, Krzysztof; Depukat, Pawel; Klimek-Piotrowska, Wieslawa; Pasternak, Artur; Mroz, Izabela; Bonczar, Tomasz

    2013-01-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome belongs to the most common causative factors of surgical interventions in the wrist region. Anatomy of carpal tunnel and median nerve is a subject of current revision. Authors paid attention to etiology of the syndrome based on review of literature and their own anatomical studies. They remind basic knowledge on the median nerve and indicate that only based on number of dissections a good orthopedic surgeon may acquire experience necessary to perform procedures in a most appropriate way.

  2. Are the Genitalia of Anatomical Dolls Distorted?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bays, Jan

    1990-01-01

    To determine whether the genitalia of anatomical dolls are disproportionately large and may suggest sexual activity to children who have not been abused, the genitalia and breasts of 17 sets of anatomical dolls were measured. When the measurements were extrapolated to adult human proportions, the sizes were not found to be exaggerated. (Author/JDD)

  3. Nonadherence and factors affecting adherence of diabetic patients to anti-diabetic medication in Assela General Hospital, Oromia Region, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Kassahun, Ashebir; Gashe, Fanta; Mulisa, Eshetu; Rike, Wote Amelo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus is a major global health problem covering approximately 347 million persons worldwide. Glycemic control has a main role in its management which mainly depends upon patient adherence to the treatment plan. Accurate assessment of medication adherence is necessary for effective management of diabetes. Objective: To assess nonadherence and factors affecting adherence of diabetic patients to anti-diabetic medication in Assela General Hospital (AGH), Oromia Region, Ethiopia. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on patients seeking anti-diabetic drug treatment and follow-up at AGH using structured questionnaire and reviewing the patient record card using check list from January 24, 2014 to February 7, 2014. Descriptive analysis was used to describe the percentages and number of distributions of the variables in the study; and association was identified for categorical data. P ≤ 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Result: Of all respondents, 149 (52.3%) and 136 (47.7%) were female and male, respectively. The majority of the study participants 189 (66.3%) were in the age group of 30–60 years. Two-hundred nineteen (76.8%) of respondents were married currently. The majority, 237 (83.2%) of respondents did not have blood glucose self-monitoring equipment (glucometer). A total of 196 (68.8%) respondents were adhered to anti-diabetic medication. There was a significant association between adherence to the medication and side effect, level of education, monthly income and presence of glucometer at home (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The participants in the area of study were moderately adherent to their anti-diabetic medications with nonadherence rate of 31.2%. Different factors of medication nonadherence were identified such as side effect and complexity of regimen, failure to remember, and sociodemographic factors such as educational level and monthly income. PMID:27134464

  4. Regional Algal Biofuel Production Potential in the Coterminous United States as Affected by Resource Availability Trade-offs

    SciTech Connect

    Venteris, Erik R.; Skaggs, Richard; Wigmosta, Mark S.; Coleman, Andre M.

    2014-03-15

    The warm sunny climate and unoccupied arid lands in the American southwest are favorable factors for algae cultivation. However, additional resources affect the overall viability of specific sites and regions. We investigated the tradeoffs between growth rate, water, and CO2 availability and costs for two strains: N. salina and Chlorella sp. We conducted site selection exercises (~88,000 US sites) to produce 21 billion gallons yr-1 (BGY) of renewable diesel (RD). Experimental trials from the National Alliance for Advanced Biofuels and Bio-Products (NAABB) team informed the growth model of our Biomass Assessment Tool (BAT). We simulated RD production by both lipid extraction and hydrothermal liquefaction. Sites were prioritized by the net value of biofuel minus water and flue gas costs. Water cost models for N. salina were based on seawater and high salinity groundwater and for Chlorella, fresh and brackish groundwater. CO2 costs were based on a flue gas delivery model. Selections constrained by production and water were concentrated along the Gulf of Mexico and southeast Atlantic coasts due to high growth rates and low water costs. Adding flue gas constraints increased the spatial distribution, but the majority of sites remained in the southeast. The 21 BGY target required ~3.8 million hectares of mainly forest (41.3%) and pasture (35.7%). Exclusion in favor of barren and scrub lands forced most production to the southwestern US, but with increased water consumption (5.7 times) and decreased economic efficiency (-38%).

  5. Genetic isolation of a chromosome 1 region affecting susceptibility to hypertension-induced renal damage in the spontaneously hypertensive rat.

    PubMed

    St Lezin, E; Griffin, K A; Picken, M; Churchill, M C; Churchill, P C; Kurtz, T W; Liu, W; Wang, N; Kren, V; Zidek, V; Pravenec, M; Bidani, A K

    1999-08-01

    Linkage studies in the fawn-hooded hypertensive rat have suggested that genes influencing susceptibility to hypertension-associated renal failure may exist on rat chromosome 1q. To investigate this possibility in a widely used model of hypertension, the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR), we compared susceptibility to hypertension-induced renal damage between an SHR progenitor strain and an SHR congenic strain that is genetically identical except for a defined region of chromosome 1q. Backcross breeding with selection for the markers D1Mit3 and Igf2 on chromosome 1 was used to create the congenic strain (designated SHR.BN-D1Mit3/Igf2) that carries a 22 cM segment of chromosome 1 transferred from the normotensive Brown Norway rat onto the SHR background. Systolic blood pressure (by radiotelemetry) and urine protein excretion were measured in the SHR progenitor and congenic strains before and after the induction of accelerated hypertension by administration of DOCA-salt. At the same level of DOCA-salt hypertension, the SHR.BN-D1Mit3/Igf2 congenic strain showed significantly greater proteinuria and histologically assessed renal vascular and glomerular injury than the SHR progenitor strain. These findings demonstrate that a gene or genes that influence susceptibility to hypertension-induced renal damage have been trapped in the differential chromosome segment of the SHR.BN-D1Mit3/Igf2 congenic strain. This congenic strain represents an important new model for the fine mapping of gene(s) on chromosome 1 that affect susceptibility to hypertension-induced renal injury in the rat.

  6. Noradrenergic stimulation modulates activation of extinction-related brain regions and enhances contextual extinction learning without affecting renewal

    PubMed Central

    Lissek, Silke; Glaubitz, Benjamin; Güntürkün, Onur; Tegenthoff, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Renewal in extinction learning describes the recovery of an extinguished response if the extinction context differs from the context present during acquisition and recall. Attention may have a role in contextual modulation of behavior and contribute to the renewal effect, while noradrenaline (NA) is involved in attentional processing. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study we investigated the role of the noradrenergic system for behavioral and brain activation correlates of contextual extinction and renewal, with a particular focus upon hippocampus and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (PFC), which have crucial roles in processing of renewal. Healthy human volunteers received a single dose of the NA reuptake inhibitor atomoxetine prior to extinction learning. During extinction of previously acquired cue-outcome associations, cues were presented in a novel context (ABA) or in the acquisition context (AAA). In recall, all cues were again presented in the acquisition context. Atomoxetine participants (ATO) showed significantly faster extinction compared to placebo (PLAC). However, atomoxetine did not affect renewal. Hippocampal activation was higher in ATO during extinction and recall, as was ventromedial PFC activation, except for ABA recall. Moreover, ATO showed stronger recruitment of insula, anterior cingulate, and dorsolateral/orbitofrontal PFC. Across groups, cingulate, hippocampus and vmPFC activity during ABA extinction correlated with recall performance, suggesting high relevance of these regions for processing the renewal effect. In summary, the noradrenergic system appears to be involved in the modification of established associations during extinction learning and thus has a role in behavioral flexibility. The assignment of an association to a context and the subsequent decision on an adequate response, however, presumably operate largely independently of noradrenergic mechanisms. PMID:25745389

  7. Characterizing brain anatomical connections using diffusion weighted MRI and graph theory.

    PubMed

    Iturria-Medina, Y; Canales-Rodríguez, E J; Melie-García, L; Valdés-Hernández, P A; Martínez-Montes, E; Alemán-Gómez, Y; Sánchez-Bornot, J M

    2007-07-01

    A new methodology based on Diffusion Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging (DW-MRI) and Graph Theory is presented for characterizing the anatomical connections between brain gray matter areas. In a first step, brain voxels are modeled as nodes of a non-directed graph in which the weight of an arc linking two neighbor nodes is assumed to be proportional to the probability of being connected by nervous fibers. This probability is estimated by means of probabilistic tissue segmentation and intravoxel white matter orientational distribution function, obtained from anatomical MRI and DW-MRI, respectively. A new tractography algorithm for finding white matter routes is also introduced. This algorithm solves the most probable path problem between any two nodes, leading to the assessment of probabilistic brain anatomical connection maps. In a second step, for assessing anatomical connectivity between K gray matter structures, the previous graph is redefined as a K+1 partite graph by partitioning the initial nodes set in K non-overlapped gray matter subsets and one subset clustering the remaining nodes. Three different measures are proposed for quantifying anatomical connections between any pair of gray matter subsets: Anatomical Connection Strength (ACS), Anatomical Connection Density (ACD) and Anatomical Connection Probability (ACP). This methodology was applied to both artificial and actual human data. Results show that nervous fiber pathways between some regions of interest were reconstructed correctly. Additionally, mean connectivity maps of ACS, ACD and ACP between 71 gray matter structures for five healthy subjects are presented.

  8. Singapore's anatomical future: quo vadis?

    PubMed

    Ang, Eng-Tat; Sugand, Kapil; Hartman, Mikael; Seow, Choon-Sheong; Bay, Boon-Huat; Abrahams, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The disciplines of anatomy and surgery are not dichotomous since one is dependent on the other. Traditionally, surgeons predominantly taught gross and clinical anatomy. In this review, we examine the context of how human anatomy is taught nowadays. In essence, we discovered that there are certain discernable trends consistently observable between the American and British systems. In Singapore, the British Russell Group first influenced its education landscape but now more so by the American Ivy League. Singapore now has three medical schools all offering differing anatomy curricula, which serves as an opportune time for it to consider if there is a best approach given that the practice of surgery is also evolving in parallel. This review discusses the various pedagogies and issues involved, and will serve as a forum and stimulus for discussion. By tweaking the curriculum correctly and the lessons learnt, future doctors and surgeons in training will receive a better anatomical education, not just in Singapore but the world in general. Key recommendations include the use of body painting, clay, plasticine to facilitate the learning of anatomy, and the implementation of a body donation program. Furthermore, strategic mergers with key stakeholders will also ensure the survival of the discipline. PMID:22566391

  9. SEMANTIC DEMENTIA AND PERSISTING WERNICKE’S APHASIA: LINGUISTIC AND ANATOMICAL PROFILES

    PubMed Central

    Ogar, JM; Baldo, JV; Wilson, SM; Brambati, SM; Miller, BL; Dronkers, NF; Gorno-Tempini, ML

    2011-01-01

    Few studies have directly compared the clinical and anatomical characteristics of patients with progressive aphasia to those of patients with aphasia caused by stroke. In the current study we examined fluent forms of aphasia in these two groups, specifically the semantic dementia (SD) and persisting Wernicke's aphasia (WA) due to stroke. We compared 10 patients with SD to 10 age- and education-matched patients with WA in three language domains: language comprehension (single words and sentences), spontaneous speech and visual semantics. Neuroanatomical involvement was analyzed using disease-specific image analysis techniques: voxel-based morphometry (VBM) for patients with SD and overlays of lesion masks in patients with WA. Patients with SD and WA were both impaired on tasks that involved visual semantics, but patients with SD were less impaired in spontaneous speech and sentence comprehension. The anatomical findings showed that different regions were most affected in the two disorders: the left anterior temporal lobe in SD and the left posterior middle temporal gyrus in chronic WA. This study highlights that the two syndromes classically associated with language comprehension deficits in aphasia due to stroke and neurodegenerative disease are clinically distinct, most likely due to distinct distributions of damage in the temporal lobe. PMID:21315437

  10. An illustrated anatomical ontology of the developing mouse lower urogenital tract

    PubMed Central

    Georgas, Kylie M.; Armstrong, Jane; Keast, Janet R.; Larkins, Christine E.; McHugh, Kirk M.; Southard-Smith, E. Michelle; Cohn, Martin J.; Batourina, Ekatherina; Dan, Hanbin; Schneider, Kerry; Buehler, Dennis P.; Wiese, Carrie B.; Brennan, Jane; Davies, Jamie A.; Harding, Simon D.; Baldock, Richard A.; Little, Melissa H.; Vezina, Chad M.; Mendelsohn, Cathy

    2015-01-01

    Malformation of the urogenital tract represents a considerable paediatric burden, with many defects affecting the lower urinary tract (LUT), genital tubercle and associated structures. Understanding the molecular basis of such defects frequently draws on murine models. However, human anatomical terms do not always superimpose on the mouse, and the lack of accurate and standardised nomenclature is hampering the utility of such animal models. We previously developed an anatomical ontology for the murine urogenital system. Here, we present a comprehensive update of this ontology pertaining to mouse LUT, genital tubercle and associated reproductive structures (E10.5 to adult). Ontology changes were based on recently published insights into the cellular and gross anatomy of these structures, and on new analyses of epithelial cell types present in the pelvic urethra and regions of the bladder. Ontology changes include new structures, tissue layers and cell types within the LUT, external genitalia and lower reproductive structures. Representative illustrations, detailed text descriptions and molecular markers that selectively label muscle, nerves/ganglia and epithelia of the lower urogenital system are also presented. The revised ontology will be an important tool for researchers studying urogenital development/malformation in mouse models and will improve our capacity to appropriately interpret these with respect to the human situation. PMID:25968320

  11. Anatomic shoulder arthroplasty: an update on indications, technique, results and complication rates

    PubMed Central

    MATTEI, LORENZO; MORTERA, STEFANO; ARRIGONI, CHIARA; CASTOLDI, FILIPPO

    2015-01-01

    A shoulder replacement is indicated in patients affected by glenohumeral arthropathy with severely reduced range of motion, persistent pain, especially at night, and loss of strength. There is much discussion in the scientific community about the prosthetic options for these cases: hemiarthroplasty, anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty, and reverse total shoulder arthroplasty. We analyzed the indications for, results of, and complications associated with this kind of surgery, focusing on anatomic arthroplasty and on the concept of modularity. PMID:26605254

  12. Analysis of anatomic variability in children with low mathematical skills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Zhaoying; Fuchs, Lynn; Davis, Nikki; Cannistraci, Christopher J.; Anderson, Adam W.; Gore, John C.; Dawant, Benoit M.

    2008-03-01

    Mathematical difficulty affects approximately 5-9% of the population. Studies on individuals with dyscalculia, a neurologically based math disorder, provide important insight into the neural correlates of mathematical ability. For example, cognitive theories, neuropsychological studies, and functional neuroimaging studies in individuals with dyscalculia suggest that the bilateral parietal lobes and intraparietal sulcus are central to mathematical performance. The purpose of the present study was to investigate morphological differences in a group of third grade children with poor math skills. We compare population averages of children with low math skill (MD) to gender and age matched controls with average math ability. Anatomical data were gathered with high resolution MRI and four different population averaging methods were used to study the effect of the normalization technique on the results. Statistical results based on the deformation fields between the two groups show anatomical differences in the bilateral parietal lobes, right frontal lobe, and left occipital/parietal lobe.

  13. Anatomical imbalance between cortical networks in autism.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Takamitsu; Rees, Geraint

    2016-01-01

    Influential psychological models of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have proposed that this prevalent developmental disorder results from impairment of global (integrative) information processing and overload of local (sensory) information. However, little neuroanatomical evidence consistent with this account has been reported. Here, we examined relative grey matter volumes (rGMVs) between three cortical networks, how they changed with age, and their relationship with core symptomatology. Using public neuroimaging data of high-functioning ASD males and age-/sex-/IQ-matched controls, we first identified age-associated atypical increases in rGMVs of the regions of two sensory systems (auditory and visual networks), and an age-related aberrant decrease in rGMV of a task-control system (fronto-parietal network, FPN) in ASD children. While the enlarged rGMV of the auditory network in ASD adults was associated with the severity of autistic socio-communicational core symptom, that of the visual network was instead correlated with the severity of restricted and repetitive behaviours in ASD. Notably, the atypically decreased rGMV of FPN predicted both of the two core symptoms. These findings suggest that disproportionate undergrowth of a task-control system (FPN) may be a common anatomical basis for the two ASD core symptoms, and relative overgrowth of the two different sensory systems selectively compounds the distinct symptoms.

  14. Anatomical imbalance between cortical networks in autism

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Takamitsu; Rees, Geraint

    2016-01-01

    Influential psychological models of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have proposed that this prevalent developmental disorder results from impairment of global (integrative) information processing and overload of local (sensory) information. However, little neuroanatomical evidence consistent with this account has been reported. Here, we examined relative grey matter volumes (rGMVs) between three cortical networks, how they changed with age, and their relationship with core symptomatology. Using public neuroimaging data of high-functioning ASD males and age-/sex-/IQ-matched controls, we first identified age-associated atypical increases in rGMVs of the regions of two sensory systems (auditory and visual networks), and an age-related aberrant decrease in rGMV of a task-control system (fronto-parietal network, FPN) in ASD children. While the enlarged rGMV of the auditory network in ASD adults was associated with the severity of autistic socio-communicational core symptom, that of the visual network was instead correlated with the severity of restricted and repetitive behaviours in ASD. Notably, the atypically decreased rGMV of FPN predicted both of the two core symptoms. These findings suggest that disproportionate undergrowth of a task-control system (FPN) may be a common anatomical basis for the two ASD core symptoms, and relative overgrowth of the two different sensory systems selectively compounds the distinct symptoms. PMID:27484308

  15. Anatomical imbalance between cortical networks in autism.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Takamitsu; Rees, Geraint

    2016-01-01

    Influential psychological models of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have proposed that this prevalent developmental disorder results from impairment of global (integrative) information processing and overload of local (sensory) information. However, little neuroanatomical evidence consistent with this account has been reported. Here, we examined relative grey matter volumes (rGMVs) between three cortical networks, how they changed with age, and their relationship with core symptomatology. Using public neuroimaging data of high-functioning ASD males and age-/sex-/IQ-matched controls, we first identified age-associated atypical increases in rGMVs of the regions of two sensory systems (auditory and visual networks), and an age-related aberrant decrease in rGMV of a task-control system (fronto-parietal network, FPN) in ASD children. While the enlarged rGMV of the auditory network in ASD adults was associated with the severity of autistic socio-communicational core symptom, that of the visual network was instead correlated with the severity of restricted and repetitive behaviours in ASD. Notably, the atypically decreased rGMV of FPN predicted both of the two core symptoms. These findings suggest that disproportionate undergrowth of a task-control system (FPN) may be a common anatomical basis for the two ASD core symptoms, and relative overgrowth of the two different sensory systems selectively compounds the distinct symptoms. PMID:27484308

  16. The anatomical school of Padua.

    PubMed

    Porzionato, Andrea; Macchi, Veronica; Stecco, Carla; Parenti, Anna; De Caro, Raffaele

    2012-06-01

    The University of Padua is one of the most ancient in the world, being founded in 1222, and the most important anatomists of the XVI, XVII, and XVIII centuries studied and taught here. Probably, the first professor of anatomy and surgery was Bruno da Longobucco (c. 1200-c. 1286), who had previously studied at the Salerno School of Medicine. While professor in Padua, Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564) published De Humani Corporis Fabrica (1543), which is considered as the birth of the modern anatomy. Following professors were Realdo Colombo (c. 1516-1559), Gabriel Fallopius (1523-1562), Hieronymus Fabricius ab Aquapendente (1533-1619), Iulius Casserius (1552-1616), Johann Wesling (1598-1649), and Johann Georg Wirsung (1589-1643). Many other foreign scholars studied in the University of Padua, such as Thomas Linacre (c. 1460-1524), the founder of the Royal College of Physicians, Werner Rolfinck (1599-1673), and Olof Rudbeck (1630-1702), who created anatomical theatres in Germany and Sweden, respectively, on the basis of the Paduan model. The anatomy of the XVII century characteristically widened the scope of its enquiry to function, as in the Exercitatio Anatomica De Motu Cordis et Sanguinis in Animalibus (1628) by William Harvey (1578-1657). Further evolution was then given by the anatomy in the XVIII century, which tried to correlate alterations of structure with clinical symptoms. The most important anatomist of this century is Giovanni Battista Morgagni (1682-1771), whose masterpiece De Sedibus et Causis Morborum per Anatomen Indagatis (1761) is a landmark contribution that is viewed as the beginning of modern pathologic anatomy. This year falls the 300th anniversary of Morgagni's inaugural lecture on medical education, Nova Institutionum Medicarum Idea (1712), which is still relevant in its effort to stress the importance of a deep knowledge of all the preclinical and clinical aspects of medical science. PMID:22581496

  17. Brain Anatomical Structure Segmentation by Hybrid Discriminative/Generative Models

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Zhuowen; Narr, Katherine L.; Dollár, Piotr; Dinov, Ivo; Thompson, Paul M.; Toga, Arthur W.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a hybrid discriminative/generative model for brain anatomical structure segmentation is proposed. The learning aspect of the approach is emphasized. In the discriminative appearance models, various cues such as intensity and curvatures are combined to locally capture the complex appearances of different anatomical structures. A probabilistic boosting tree (PBT) framework is adopted to learn multi-class discriminative models that combine hundreds of features across different scales. On the generative model side, both global and local shape models are used to capture the shape information about each anatomical structure. The parameters to combine the discriminative appearance and generative shape models are also automatically learned. Thus low-level and high-level information is learned and integrated in a hybrid model. Segmentations are obtained by minimizing an energy function associated with the proposed hybrid model. Finally, a grid-face structure is designed to explicitly represent the 3D region topology. This representation handles an arbitrary number of regions and facilitates fast surface evolution. Our system was trained and tested on a set of 3D MRI volumes and the results obtained are encouraging. PMID:18390346

  18. Anatomic Eponyms in Neuroradiology: Head and Neck.

    PubMed

    Bunch, Paul M

    2016-10-01

    In medicine, an eponym is a word-typically referring to an anatomic structure, disease, or syndrome-that is derived from a person's name. Medical eponyms are ubiquitous and numerous. They are also at times controversial. Eponyms reflect medicine's rich and colorful history and can be useful for concisely conveying complex concepts. Familiarity with eponyms facilitates correct usage and accurate communication. In this article, 22 eponyms used to describe anatomic structures of the head and neck are discussed. For each structure, the author first provides a biographical account of the individual for whom the structure is named. An anatomic description and brief discussion of the structure's clinical relevance follow. PMID:27283070

  19. Anatomic Eponyms in Neuroradiology: Head and Neck.

    PubMed

    Bunch, Paul M

    2016-10-01

    In medicine, an eponym is a word-typically referring to an anatomic structure, disease, or syndrome-that is derived from a person's name. Medical eponyms are ubiquitous and numerous. They are also at times controversial. Eponyms reflect medicine's rich and colorful history and can be useful for concisely conveying complex concepts. Familiarity with eponyms facilitates correct usage and accurate communication. In this article, 22 eponyms used to describe anatomic structures of the head and neck are discussed. For each structure, the author first provides a biographical account of the individual for whom the structure is named. An anatomic description and brief discussion of the structure's clinical relevance follow.

  20. An Anatomically Validated Brachial Plexus Contouring Method for Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Van de Velde, Joris; Audenaert, Emmanuel; Speleers, Bruno; Vercauteren, Tom; Mulliez, Thomas; Vandemaele, Pieter; Achten, Eric; Kerckaert, Ingrid; D'Herde, Katharina; De Neve, Wilfried; Van Hoof, Tom

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: To develop contouring guidelines for the brachial plexus (BP) using anatomically validated cadaver datasets. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) were used to obtain detailed visualizations of the BP region, with the goal of achieving maximal inclusion of the actual BP in a small contoured volume while also accommodating for anatomic variations. Methods and Materials: CT and MRI were obtained for 8 cadavers positioned for intensity modulated radiation therapy. 3-dimensional reconstructions of soft tissue (from MRI) and bone (from CT) were combined to create 8 separate enhanced CT project files. Dissection of the corresponding cadavers anatomically validated the reconstructions created. Seven enhanced CT project files were then automatically fitted, separately in different regions, to obtain a single dataset of superimposed BP regions that incorporated anatomic variations. From this dataset, improved BP contouring guidelines were developed. These guidelines were then applied to the 7 original CT project files and also to 1 additional file, left out from the superimposing procedure. The percentage of BP inclusion was compared with the published guidelines. Results: The anatomic validation procedure showed a high level of conformity for the BP regions examined between the 3-dimensional reconstructions generated and the dissected counterparts. Accurate and detailed BP contouring guidelines were developed, which provided corresponding guidance for each level in a clinical dataset. An average margin of 4.7 mm around the anatomically validated BP contour is sufficient to accommodate for anatomic variations. Using the new guidelines, 100% inclusion of the BP was achieved, compared with a mean inclusion of 37.75% when published guidelines were applied. Conclusion: Improved guidelines for BP delineation were developed using combined MRI and CT imaging with validation by anatomic dissection.

  1. 9 CFR 93.304 - Import permits for horses from regions affected with CEM and for horse specimens for diagnostic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...-0324) Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 93.304, see the List of CFR Sections... susceptible, as well as vaccinations or other precautionary treatments to which the horses or horse...

  2. 9 CFR 93.304 - Import permits for horses from regions affected with CEM and for horse specimens for diagnostic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...-0324) Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 93.304, see the List of CFR Sections... susceptible, as well as vaccinations or other precautionary treatments to which the horses or horse...

  3. 9 CFR 93.304 - Import permits for horses from regions affected with CEM and for horse specimens for diagnostic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...-0324) Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 93.304, see the List of CFR Sections... susceptible, as well as vaccinations or other precautionary treatments to which the horses or horse...

  4. 9 CFR 93.304 - Import permits for horses from regions affected with CEM and for horse specimens for diagnostic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...-0324) Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 93.304, see the List of CFR Sections... susceptible, as well as vaccinations or other precautionary treatments to which the horses or horse...

  5. 9 CFR 93.304 - Import permits for horses from regions affected with CEM and for horse specimens for diagnostic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...-0324) Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 93.304, see the List of CFR Sections... susceptible, as well as vaccinations or other precautionary treatments to which the horses or horse...

  6. Sensitivity of predicted muscle forces during gait to anatomical variability in musculotendon geometry.

    PubMed

    Bosmans, Lode; Valente, Giordano; Wesseling, Mariska; Van Campen, Anke; De Groote, Friedl; De Schutter, Joris; Jonkers, Ilse

    2015-07-16

    Scaled generic musculoskeletal models are commonly used to drive dynamic simulations of motions. It is however, acknowledged that not accounting for variability in musculoskeletal geometry and musculotendon parameters may confound the simulation results, even when analysing control subjects. This study documents the three-dimensional anatomical variability of musculotendon origins and insertions of 33 lower limb muscles determined based on magnetic resonance imaging in six subjects. This anatomical variability was compared to the musculotendon point location in a generic musculoskeletal model. Furthermore, the sensitivity of muscle forces during gait, calculated using static optimization, to perturbations of the musculotendon point location was analyzed with a generic model. More specific, a probabilistic approach was used: for each analyzed musculotendon point, the three-dimensional location was re-sampled with a uniform Latin hypercube method within the anatomical variability and the static optimization problem was then re-solved for all perturbations. We found that musculotendon point locations in the generic model showed only variable correspondences with the anatomical variability. The anatomical variability of musculotendon point location did affect the calculated muscle forces: muscles most sensitive to perturbations within the anatomical variability are iliacus and psoas. Perturbation of the gluteus medius anterior, iliacus and psoas induces the largest concomitant changes in muscle forces of the unperturbed muscles. Therefore, when creating subject-specific musculoskeletal models, these attachment points should be defined accurately. In addition, the size of the anatomical variability of the musculotendon point location was not related to the sensitivity of the calculated muscle forces.

  7. Sensitivity of predicted muscle forces during gait to anatomical variability in musculotendon geometry.

    PubMed

    Bosmans, Lode; Valente, Giordano; Wesseling, Mariska; Van Campen, Anke; De Groote, Friedl; De Schutter, Joris; Jonkers, Ilse

    2015-07-16

    Scaled generic musculoskeletal models are commonly used to drive dynamic simulations of motions. It is however, acknowledged that not accounting for variability in musculoskeletal geometry and musculotendon parameters may confound the simulation results, even when analysing control subjects. This study documents the three-dimensional anatomical variability of musculotendon origins and insertions of 33 lower limb muscles determined based on magnetic resonance imaging in six subjects. This anatomical variability was compared to the musculotendon point location in a generic musculoskeletal model. Furthermore, the sensitivity of muscle forces during gait, calculated using static optimization, to perturbations of the musculotendon point location was analyzed with a generic model. More specific, a probabilistic approach was used: for each analyzed musculotendon point, the three-dimensional location was re-sampled with a uniform Latin hypercube method within the anatomical variability and the static optimization problem was then re-solved for all perturbations. We found that musculotendon point locations in the generic model showed only variable correspondences with the anatomical variability. The anatomical variability of musculotendon point location did affect the calculated muscle forces: muscles most sensitive to perturbations within the anatomical variability are iliacus and psoas. Perturbation of the gluteus medius anterior, iliacus and psoas induces the largest concomitant changes in muscle forces of the unperturbed muscles. Therefore, when creating subject-specific musculoskeletal models, these attachment points should be defined accurately. In addition, the size of the anatomical variability of the musculotendon point location was not related to the sensitivity of the calculated muscle forces. PMID:25979383

  8. Application of heat- and steam-generating sheets to the lumbar or abdominal region affects autonomic nerve activity.

    PubMed

    Nagashima, Yoshinao; Oda, Hideshi; Igaki, Michihito; Suzuki, Megumi; Suzuki, Atsushi; Yada, Yukihiro; Tsuchiya, Shuichi; Suzuki, Toshiyuki; Ohishi, Sachiko

    2006-06-30

    Effects of applying a heat- and steam-generating (HSG) sheet on peripheral hemodynamics and autonomic nerve activity were examined. An HSG sheet was applied to the lumbar or abdominal region. Measurements included skin temperature at the lumbar and abdominal regions and the fingertip, total hemoglobin, tissue oxygen saturation ratio (StO2), pupillary light reflex, changes in ECG R-R interval blood pressure and percutaneous electrogastrography (EGG). A heat-generating sheet without steam was used as the control. Based on the present findings, application of the HSG sheet to the lumbar or abdominal region may improve peripheral hemodynamics and inhibit sympathetic nerve activity, resulting in parasympathetic nerve activity dominance.

  9. Anatomic Considerations in Frontal Sinus Surgery.

    PubMed

    Folbe, Adam J; Svider, Peter F; Eloy, Jean Anderson

    2016-08-01

    Comprehension of the complex anatomic variants comprising the frontal sinus outflow tract is essential for successful surgical intervention. Deviation from sound technique increases the potential for a variety of deleterious sequelae, including recurrent disease as well as catastrophic intracranial and orbital injury. Furthermore, incomplete removal of elements occluding the frontal recess can result in severe stenosis that can increase the difficulty of further interventions. This review covers anatomic considerations that should be kept in mind when performing frontal sinus surgery. PMID:27329978

  10. Aging and walnut-rich diet supplementation affects the expression of immediate-early genes in critical brain regions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emerging evidence indicates a direct link between age-associated changes in epigenetic mechanisms and onset of neurodegenerative diseases, and that these genomic modulations are directly affected by diet. Diets deficient in folate, choline and methionine, or the trace elements zinc and selenium, are...

  11. Preparing the anatomical model for ablation of unresectable liver tumor

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Nowadays the best treatment of the primary and secondary hepatic tumor is surgical resection, but only 5–15% of all patient with hepatocellular carcinoma and 20–25% of all patients with liver metastases are indicated for resection. In these cases some kind of ablation and other technique could be used. Aim To present the methodology of preparing the anatomical model for ablation of unresectable liver tumor. Material and methods The presented method is based on abdomen computed tomography (CT) dynamic examination. Three methods of segmentation are used: rolling vector for liver volume, modified Frangi filter for liver vessels, and fuzzy expert system with initial region-of-interest anisotropic filtration for liver metastases. Segmentation results are the input data for creating 3D anatomical models in the form of B-spline curves and surfaces performing the surface global interpolation algorithm. A graphical user interface for presentation and evaluation of models, presented in color against DICOM images in grayscale, is designed and implemented. Results The proposed approach was tested on 20 abdominal CT obtained from the Department of Clinical Radiology of Silesian Medical University. The lack of a “gold standard” provides for the correction of the results. Conclusions Preparation of the anatomical model is one of the important early stages of the use of image-based navigation systems. This process could not take place in a fully automatic manner and verification of the results obtained is performed by the radiologist. Using the above anatomical model in surgical workflow is presented. PMID:25097694

  12. Landscape and regional context differentially affect nest parasitism and nest predation for Wood Thrush in central Virginia, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many empirical studies have shown that forest-breeding songbirds, and neotropical migrants in particular, are found in lower abundance in small patches of forest in the Eastern United States compared to similar, but larger patches in the same region. A common hypothesis for the ...

  13. Wind erosion and PM10 emission affected by tillage in the world’s driest rainfed wheat region

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Horse Heaven Hills of south-central Washington is the driest rainfed wheat growing region in the world. Low precipitation, high winds, poorly aggregated soils, sparse residue cover, and a tillage-based winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) – summer fallow (WW-SF) cropping system often combine to c...

  14. [PROGNOSTIC SIGNIFICANCE OF METASTATIC AFFECTION OF REGIONAL LYMPHATIC NODES AND LEVEL OF A LYMPH NODE DISSECTION IN SURGICAL TREATMENT OF GASTRIC CANCER].

    PubMed

    Levyk, O M; Ryaboshapka, A M

    2016-01-01

    In 142 patients, operated on for resectable gastric cancer, a dependence of the survival indices from clinico-morphological characteristics of tumoral process and peculiarities of surgical interventions was studied. Efficacy of a lymph node dissection (LND) on a D1 -D2 level was investigated. There was established, that regional lymph nodes affection in gastric carcinoma causes deterioration of indices of general and disease-free survival. In patients without regional metastases the operation conduction with LND D1 have promoted improvement of indices of general and a disease-free survival, and expansion of a LND up to the D2 level did not guarantee the treatment results improvement.

  15. Correlative CT and anatomic study of the sciatic nerve

    SciTech Connect

    Pech, P.; Haughton, V.

    1985-05-01

    Sciatica can be caused by numerous processes affecting the sciatic nerve or its components within the pelvis including tumors, infectious diseases, aneurysms, fractures, and endometriosis. The CT diagnosis of these causes of sciatica has not been emphasized. This study identified the course and appearance of the normal sciatic nerve in the pelvis by correlating CT and anatomic slices in cadavers. For purposes of discussion, the sciatic nerve complex is conveniently divided into three parts: presacral, muscular, and ischial. Each part is illustrated here by two cryosections with corresponding CT images.

  16. Hydrogeochemical variables regionalization--applying cluster analysis for a seasonal evolution model from an estuarine system affected by AMD.

    PubMed

    Grande, J A; Carro, B; Borrego, J; de la Torre, M L; Valente, T; Santisteban, M

    2013-04-15

    This study describes the spatial evolution of the hydrogeochemical parameters which characterise a strongly affected estuary by Acid Mine Drainage (AMD). The studied estuarine system receives AMD from the Iberian Pyrite Belt (SW Spain) and, simultaneously, is affected by the presence of an industrial chemical complex. Water sampling was performed in the year of 2008, comprising four sampling campaigns, in order to represent seasonality. The results show how the estuary can be divided into three areas of different behaviour in response to hydrogeochemical variables concentrations that define each sampling stations: on one hand, an area dominated by tidal influence; in the opposite end there is a second area including the points located in the two rivers headwaters that are not influenced by seawater; finally there is the area that can be defined as mixing zone. These areas are moved along the hydrological year due to seasonal chemical variations. PMID:23453814

  17. Small beetle, large-scale drivers: how regional and landscape factors affect outbreaks of the European spruce bark beetle

    PubMed Central

    Seidl, Rupert; Müller, Jörg; Hothorn, Torsten; Bässler, Claus; Heurich, Marco; Kautz, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Summary 1. Unprecedented bark beetle outbreaks have been observed for a variety of forest ecosystems recently, and damage is expected to further intensify as a consequence of climate change. In Central Europe, the response of ecosystem management to increasing infestation risk has hitherto focused largely on the stand level, while the contingency of outbreak dynamics on large-scale drivers remains poorly understood. 2. To investigate how factors beyond the local scale contribute to the infestation risk from Ips typographus (Col., Scol.), we analysed drivers across seven orders of magnitude in scale (from 103 to 1010 m2) over a 23-year period, focusing on the Bavarian Forest National Park. Time-discrete hazard modelling was used to account for local factors and temporal dependencies. Subsequently, beta regression was applied to determine the influence of regional and landscape factors, the latter characterized by means of graph theory. 3. We found that in addition to stand variables, large-scale drivers also strongly influenced bark beetle infestation risk. Outbreak waves were closely related to landscape-scale connectedness of both host and beetle populations as well as to regional bark beetle infestation levels. Furthermore, regional summer drought was identified as an important trigger for infestation pulses. Large-scale synchrony and connectivity are thus key drivers of the recently observed bark beetle outbreak in the area. 4. Synthesis and applications. Our multiscale analysis provides evidence that the risk for biotic disturbances is highly dependent on drivers beyond the control of traditional stand-scale management. This finding highlights the importance of fostering the ability to cope with and recover from disturbance. It furthermore suggests that a stronger consideration of landscape and regional processes is needed to address changing disturbance regimes in ecosystem management. PMID:27041769

  18. Benthic macrofauna assemblages and biochemical properties of sediments in two Antarctic regions differently affected by climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sañé, E.; Isla, E.; Gerdes, D.; Montiel, A.; Gili, J.-M.

    2012-03-01

    Lipid, protein and carbohydrate concentrations have been determined in sediment cores from the continental shelf in the South Eastern Weddell Sea (SEWS), where no ice shelves have been present at least for thousands of years, and the continental shelf off the Eastern Antarctic Peninsula (EAP), in the area where two ice shelf collapses occurred in 1995 and 2002. On one hand, SEWS presents an important flux of fresh organic matter to the seabed during summer, whereas on the other hand, the presence of ice shelves in EAP hampered photosynthesis restricting the input of organic matter to advected refractory material. In the present study, biochemical variables and benthic macrofauna abundance, biomass and diversity confirmed differences between the two regions. Lipid concentrations were higher in SEWS than in EAP, whereas carbohydrate concentrations were higher in the latter region. These differences were attributed to the higher concentration of labile and refractory material, respectively. Biomass, abundance and diversity of the macrofauna were higher in SEWS than in EAP, where benthic communities started receiving a fresh organic matter input only after the recent ice shelf collapses. As regards macrofauna composition, both regions presented macrobenthic communities associated to early stages of recolonization.

  19. [Community composition of phytoplankton in Fujian-Guangdong coastal upwelling region in summer and related affecting factors].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Lin, Mao; Lin, Geng-Ming; Xiang, Peng

    2011-02-01

    Based on the investigation data of 133 samples from 30 grid stations in the Fujian-Guangdong coastal upwelling region (21.6 degrees - 24.3 degrees N,115.7 degrees -118.7 degrees E) in 11-16 June 2009, this paper studied the phytoplankton species composition and cell abundance in the region in three dimensions (vertical, horizontal, and sectional), and approached their relations with major environmental factors. A total of 159 taxa belonging to 85 genera of 4 phyla were identified, among which, diatom was predominant, followed by dinoflagellate. Cyanophyceae mainly composed of Trichodesmium also occupied a greater proportion, but Chrysophyceae was only checked out in the upper 10 m water layer at coastal stations. The dominant species were Rhizosolenia alata f. gracillma, Thalassionema nitzschioides, Pseudonitzschia pungens, Skeletonema costatum, Thalassionema frauenfeldii, Paralia sulcata, Guinadia striata, Trichodesmium thiebautii, Ceratium fusus, and Gyrodinium spirale. Most of the phytoplankton taxa were cosmopolitan species, followed by warm-water species, while tropic high-salinity or oceanic eurythermal species were lesser. The cell abundance of the phytoplankton was average of 67.59 x10(2) ind x L(-1). In vertical profile, the cell abundance of the phytoplankton was the highest in surface water, and decreased with water depth. In horizontal and sectional profiles, the cell abundance had no definite patterns, but the high abundance region was in Nanao Island water area, being anastomosed with the center of upwelling region, which indicated that the weak and small intensity of deep-sea water upwelling caused lesser phytoplankton cell abundance and superposition. The comparatively high phytoplankton cell abundance in the four sections (B, C, D, E) along Nanao-Zhangpu was resulted from the upwelling from Taiwan Bank. The phytoplankton cell abundance had a significant positive correlation with the PO4(3-) concentration in the upper 10 m water layer, but no

  20. [Community composition of phytoplankton in Fujian-Guangdong coastal upwelling region in summer and related affecting factors].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Lin, Mao; Lin, Geng-Ming; Xiang, Peng

    2011-02-01

    Based on the investigation data of 133 samples from 30 grid stations in the Fujian-Guangdong coastal upwelling region (21.6 degrees - 24.3 degrees N,115.7 degrees -118.7 degrees E) in 11-16 June 2009, this paper studied the phytoplankton species composition and cell abundance in the region in three dimensions (vertical, horizontal, and sectional), and approached their relations with major environmental factors. A total of 159 taxa belonging to 85 genera of 4 phyla were identified, among which, diatom was predominant, followed by dinoflagellate. Cyanophyceae mainly composed of Trichodesmium also occupied a greater proportion, but Chrysophyceae was only checked out in the upper 10 m water layer at coastal stations. The dominant species were Rhizosolenia alata f. gracillma, Thalassionema nitzschioides, Pseudonitzschia pungens, Skeletonema costatum, Thalassionema frauenfeldii, Paralia sulcata, Guinadia striata, Trichodesmium thiebautii, Ceratium fusus, and Gyrodinium spirale. Most of the phytoplankton taxa were cosmopolitan species, followed by warm-water species, while tropic high-salinity or oceanic eurythermal species were lesser. The cell abundance of the phytoplankton was average of 67.59 x10(2) ind x L(-1). In vertical profile, the cell abundance of the phytoplankton was the highest in surface water, and decreased with water depth. In horizontal and sectional profiles, the cell abundance had no definite patterns, but the high abundance region was in Nanao Island water area, being anastomosed with the center of upwelling region, which indicated that the weak and small intensity of deep-sea water upwelling caused lesser phytoplankton cell abundance and superposition. The comparatively high phytoplankton cell abundance in the four sections (B, C, D, E) along Nanao-Zhangpu was resulted from the upwelling from Taiwan Bank. The phytoplankton cell abundance had a significant positive correlation with the PO4(3-) concentration in the upper 10 m water layer, but no

  1. The Prevalence of Fragility Fractures in a Population of a Region of Southern Italy Affected by Thyroid Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Notarnicola, Angela; Pesce, Vito; Mudoni, Simona; Tafuri, Silvio; Moretti, Biagio

    2016-01-01

    In the literature there is no clear evidence of a relationship between thyropathies and fragility fractures. The aim of our study is to define the prevalence of thyroid disease in a study sample made up of subjects with fragility fractures and from the same geographical area. We retrospectively studied the “hospital discharge records” (HDR) in the Apulian Database for the period 2008–2013 in order to identify all those patients with fragility fractures that required hospitalization. After detecting the prevalent population, we identified the patients affected by thyroid disease. We observed that, between 2008 and 2013 in Apulia, 16,636 patients were affected by hyperthyroidism. In the same period there were 92,341 subjects with hypothyroidism. The incidence of fragility fractures was 4.5% in the population with hyperthyroidism. As regards the population with hypothyroidism, the incidence of fragility fractures was 3.7%. Furthermore, we assessed the statistical connection between thyroid disease and fragility fractures revealing a higher incidence in patients with hyperthyroidism and clinical hypothyroidism. PMID:27807539

  2. Amino acid changes within the E protein hinge region that affect dengue virus type 2 infectivity and fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Butrapet, Siritorn; Childers, Thomas; Moss, Kelley J.; Erb, Steven M.; Luy, Betty E.; Calvert, Amanda E.; Blair, Carol D.; Roehrig, John T.; Huang, Claire Y.-H.

    2011-04-25

    Fifteen mutant dengue viruses were engineered and used to identify AAs in the molecular hinge of the envelope protein that are critical to viral infection. Substitutions at Q52, A54, or E133 reduced infectivity in mammalian cells and altered the pH threshold of fusion. Mutations at F193, G266, I270, or G281 affected viral replication in mammalian and mosquito cells, but only I270W had reduced fusion activity. T280Y affected the pH threshold for fusion and reduced replication in C6/36 cells. Three different mutations at L135 were lethal in mammalian cells. Among them, L135G abrogated fusion and reduced replication in C6/36 cells, but only slightly reduced the mosquito infection rate. Conversely, L135W replicated well in C6/36 cells, but had the lowest mosquito infection rate. Possible interactions between hinge residues 52 and 277, or among 53, 135, 170, 186, 265, and 276 required for hinge function were discovered by sequence analysis to identify compensatory mutations.

  3. Standardized anatomic space for abdominal fat quantification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Yubing; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Torigian, Drew A.

    2014-03-01

    The ability to accurately measure subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) from images is important for improved assessment and management of patients with various conditions such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, obstructive sleep apnea, cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, and degenerative disease. Although imaging and analysis methods to measure the volume of these tissue components have been developed [1, 2], in clinical practice, an estimate of the amount of fat is obtained from just one transverse abdominal CT slice typically acquired at the level of the L4-L5 vertebrae for various reasons including decreased radiation exposure and cost [3-5]. It is generally assumed that such an estimate reliably depicts the burden of fat in the body. This paper sets out to answer two questions related to this issue which have not been addressed in the literature. How does one ensure that the slices used for correlation calculation from different subjects are at the same anatomic location? At what anatomic location do the volumes of SAT and VAT correlate maximally with the corresponding single-slice area measures? To answer these questions, we propose two approaches for slice localization: linear mapping and non-linear mapping which is a novel learning based strategy for mapping slice locations to a standardized anatomic space so that same anatomic slice locations are identified in different subjects. We then study the volume-to-area correlations and determine where they become maximal. We demonstrate on 50 abdominal CT data sets that this mapping achieves significantly improved consistency of anatomic localization compared to current practice. Our results also indicate that maximum correlations are achieved at different anatomic locations for SAT and VAT which are both different from the L4-L5 junction commonly utilized.

  4. Anatomic considerations for central venous cannulation

    PubMed Central

    Bannon, Michael P; Heller, Stephanie F; Rivera, Mariela

    2011-01-01

    Central venous cannulation is a commonly performed procedure which facilitates resuscitation, nutritional support, and long-term vascular access. Mechanical complications most often occur during insertion and are intimately related to the anatomic relationship of the central veins. Working knowledge of surface and deep anatomy minimizes complications. Use of surface anatomic landmarks to orient the deep course of cannulating needle tracts appropriately comprises the crux of complication avoidance. The authors describe use of surface landmarks to facilitate safe placement of internal jugular, subclavian, and femoral venous catheters. The role of real-time sonography as a safety-enhancing adjunct is reviewed. PMID:22312225

  5. Anatomical basis for Wilms tumor surgery

    PubMed Central

    Tröbs, R. B.

    2009-01-01

    Wilms tumor surgery requires meticulous planning and sophisticated surgical technique. Detailed anatomical knowledge can facilitate the uneventful performance of tumor nephrectomy and cannot be replaced by advanced and sophisticated imaging techniques. We can define two main goals for surgery: (1) exact staging as well as (2) safe and complete resection of tumor without spillage. This review aims to review the anatomical basis for Wilms tumor surgery. It focuses on the surgical anatomy of retroperitoneal space, aorta, vena cava and their large branches with lymphatics. Types and management of vascular injuries are discussed. PMID:20671845

  6. Anatomic factors in recurrent pregnancy loss.

    PubMed

    Devi Wold, Anne S; Pham, Norma; Arici, Aydin

    2006-02-01

    Anatomic uterine defects are present in 15% of women evaluated for three or more consecutive spontaneous abortions. These anatomic abnormalities can be classified as congenital or acquired. In addition to pregnancy loss, uterine malformations appear to predispose women to other reproductive difficulties including infertility, preterm labor, and abnormal presentation. These poor reproductive outcomes resulting from uterine septum, intrauterine adhesions, polyps, and fibroids are amenable to surgical correction. Therefore, it is essential to make an accurate diagnosis to offer an adequate treatment. In this article, we review the common congenital and acquired uterine anomalies associated with recurrent pregnancy losses, and discuss contemporary diagnosis and treatment options.

  7. Gambling for self, friends, and antagonists: differential contributions of affective and social brain regions on adolescent reward processing.

    PubMed

    Braams, Barbara R; Peters, Sabine; Peper, Jiska S; Güroğlu, Berna; Crone, Eveline A

    2014-10-15

    Adolescence is a time of increasing emotional arousal, sensation-seeking and risk-taking, especially in the context of peers. Recent neuroscientific studies have pinpointed to the role of the ventral striatum as a brain region which is particularly sensitive to reward, and to 'social brain' regions, such as the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), the precuneus, and the temporal parietal junction, as being particularly responsive to social contexts. However, no study to date has examined adolescents' sensitivity to reward across different social contexts. In this study we examined 249 participants between the ages 8 and 25, on a monetary reward-processing task. Participants could win or lose money for themselves, their best friend and a disliked peer. Winning for self resulted in a mid- to late adolescent specific peak in neural activation in the ventral striatum, whereas winning for a disliked peer resulted in a mid- to late adolescent specific peak in the mPFC. Our findings reveal that ventral striatum and mPFC hypersensitivity in adolescence is dependent on social context. Taken together, these results suggest that increased risk-taking and sensation seeking observed in adolescence might not be purely related to hyperactivity of the ventral striatum, but that these behaviors are probably strongly related to the social context in which they occur.

  8. Gambling for self, friends, and antagonists: differential contributions of affective and social brain regions on adolescent reward processing.

    PubMed

    Braams, Barbara R; Peters, Sabine; Peper, Jiska S; Güroğlu, Berna; Crone, Eveline A

    2014-10-15

    Adolescence is a time of increasing emotional arousal, sensation-seeking and risk-taking, especially in the context of peers. Recent neuroscientific studies have pinpointed to the role of the ventral striatum as a brain region which is particularly sensitive to reward, and to 'social brain' regions, such as the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), the precuneus, and the temporal parietal junction, as being particularly responsive to social contexts. However, no study to date has examined adolescents' sensitivity to reward across different social contexts. In this study we examined 249 participants between the ages 8 and 25, on a monetary reward-processing task. Participants could win or lose money for themselves, their best friend and a disliked peer. Winning for self resulted in a mid- to late adolescent specific peak in neural activation in the ventral striatum, whereas winning for a disliked peer resulted in a mid- to late adolescent specific peak in the mPFC. Our findings reveal that ventral striatum and mPFC hypersensitivity in adolescence is dependent on social context. Taken together, these results suggest that increased risk-taking and sensation seeking observed in adolescence might not be purely related to hyperactivity of the ventral striatum, but that these behaviors are probably strongly related to the social context in which they occur. PMID:24945662

  9. Peripheral vagus nerve stimulation significantly affects lipid composition and protein secondary structure within dopamine-related brain regions in rats.

    PubMed

    Surowka, Artur Dawid; Krygowska-Wajs, Anna; Ziomber, Agata; Thor, Piotr; Chrobak, Adrian Andrzej; Szczerbowska-Boruchowska, Magdalena

    2015-06-01

    Recent immunohistochemical studies point to the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve as the point of departure of initial changes which are related to the gradual pathological developments in the dopaminergic system. In the light of current investigations, it is likely that biochemical changes within the peripheral nervous system may influence the physiology of the dopaminergic system, suggesting a putative role for it in the development of neurodegenerative disorders. By using Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy, coupled with statistical analysis, we examined the effect of chronic, unilateral electrical vagus nerve stimulation on changes in lipid composition and in protein secondary structure within dopamine-related brain structures in rats. It was found that the chronic vagal nerve stimulation strongly affects the chain length of fatty acids within the ventral tegmental area, nucleus accumbens, substantia nigra, striatum, dorsal motor nucleus of vagus and the motor cortex. In particular, the level of lipid unsaturation was found significantly increasing in the ventral tegmental area, substantia nigra and motor cortex as a result of vagal nerve stimulation. When it comes to changes in protein secondary structure, we could see that the mesolimbic, mesocortical and nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathways are particularly affected by vagus nerve stimulation. This is due to the co-occurrence of statistically significant changes in the content of non-ordered structure components, alpha helices, beta sheets, and the total area of Amide I. Macromolecular changes caused by peripheral vagus nerve stimulation may highlight a potential connection between the gastrointestinal system and the central nervous system in rat during the development of neurodegenerative disorders.

  10. Peripheral vagus nerve stimulation significantly affects lipid composition and protein secondary structure within dopamine-related brain regions in rats.

    PubMed

    Surowka, Artur Dawid; Krygowska-Wajs, Anna; Ziomber, Agata; Thor, Piotr; Chrobak, Adrian Andrzej; Szczerbowska-Boruchowska, Magdalena

    2015-06-01

    Recent immunohistochemical studies point to the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve as the point of departure of initial changes which are related to the gradual pathological developments in the dopaminergic system. In the light of current investigations, it is likely that biochemical changes within the peripheral nervous system may influence the physiology of the dopaminergic system, suggesting a putative role for it in the development of neurodegenerative disorders. By using Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy, coupled with statistical analysis, we examined the effect of chronic, unilateral electrical vagus nerve stimulation on changes in lipid composition and in protein secondary structure within dopamine-related brain structures in rats. It was found that the chronic vagal nerve stimulation strongly affects the chain length of fatty acids within the ventral tegmental area, nucleus accumbens, substantia nigra, striatum, dorsal motor nucleus of vagus and the motor cortex. In particular, the level of lipid unsaturation was found significantly increasing in the ventral tegmental area, substantia nigra and motor cortex as a result of vagal nerve stimulation. When it comes to changes in protein secondary structure, we could see that the mesolimbic, mesocortical and nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathways are particularly affected by vagus nerve stimulation. This is due to the co-occurrence of statistically significant changes in the content of non-ordered structure components, alpha helices, beta sheets, and the total area of Amide I. Macromolecular changes caused by peripheral vagus nerve stimulation may highlight a potential connection between the gastrointestinal system and the central nervous system in rat during the development of neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:25893743

  11. Background UV in the 300 to 400 nm region affecting the extended range detection of radioactive material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, William Carey

    The desire to find alternative methods for the detection of radioactive material at extended ranges has resulted in an increased interest in the detection of the air fluorescence resulting from the alpha or beta radioactive particle's interaction with molecules of air. Air fluorescence photons travel further than the radioactive particles, allowing for detections at longer distances. However, any detection of the ultraviolet (UV) air fluorescence is dependant on overcoming natural and man-made background UV to achieve favorable signal to noise ratios. This research describes laboratory and field experiments conducted to determine the background UV in the 300 to 400 nm region of the electromagnetic spectrum for certain detection scenarios, and number of UV air fluorescence photons required to achieve detections with a certain confidence limit. The reflective, scintillation, and transmissive UV characteristics of some common materials are discussed and their contribution to a successful detection explored. Additionally, the contributions to the UV background from natural and man-made light sources are investigated. The successful outside optical detection of alpha and beta radioactive isotopes in the 300 to 400 nm region is possible in the lower part of the spectral region (i.e., near 316 nm), when there is no UV light from man-made sources in that band and only natural light exists. Alpha sources (i.e., 241Am) equal to or larger than 1.017 curies, theoretically can be detected with 95% confidence during nighttime scenarios with moonless overcast skies at a distances of 20 meters at 316 nm with the optical system assumed for these calculations. Additionally, where scintillators are available that can be employed near 90Sr radioactive sources, the detectable activities can be reduced by factors as high as 250. This allows for detections of sources in the millicuries. Tests results are presented for several common materials (e.g., polypropylene, high density

  12. Evaluating the potential for catastrophic fault-rupture-related hazards affecting a key hydroelectric and irrigation region in central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rust, D.; Korjenkov, A.; Tibaldi, A.; Usmanova, M.

    2009-04-01

    The Toktogul hydroelectric and irrigation scheme is the largest in central Asia, with a reservoir containing almost 20 km3 of water behind a 230 m-high dam. Annually, the scheme generates 1200 MW of electricity that is distributed over Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kazakhstan and Russia. The scheme is vital for the economic, social and agricultural stability and development of the emerging central Asian republics it serves and, since it is no longer administered centrally as it was in Soviet times, is increasingly the focus of cross-border tensions involving competing needs for irrigation water and power supplies. Our work aims to identify and evaluate potential geo-environmental threats to this region for the benefit of stakeholders; with recommendations for measures to mitigate a range of threat scenarios, presented in a user-friendly GIS format. Most notably these scenarios involve the potential for very large magnitude earthquakes, with associated widespread slope instability, occurring on the little known Talas - Fergana fault. This structure, some 700 km long, bisects the Toktogul region within the actively (~20 mm a-1) contracting Tien Shan mountain range and exhibits geological characteristics similar to large strike-slip faults such as the San Andreas. Historical records are limited in this inaccessible mountainous region that, until Soviet times, was occupied by mainly nomadic peoples, but do not indicate recent fault rupture. This highlights the role of geological investigations in assembling a record of past catastrophic events to serve as a guide for what may be expected in the future, as well as the inherent difficulties in attempting geological forecasts to a precision that is useful on human timescales. Such forecasts in this region must also include the presence of some 23 uranium mining waste dumps within the mountain valleys, a legacy from Soviet times, as well as arsenic-rich waste dumps remaining from an earlier era of gold mining. Many

  13. Wetlands serve as natural sources for improvement of stream ecosystem health in regions affected by acid deposition.

    PubMed

    Pound, Katrina L; Lawrence, Gregory B; Passy, Sophia I

    2013-09-01

    For over 40 years, acid deposition has been recognized as a serious international environmental problem, but efforts to restore acidified streams and biota have had limited success. The need to better understand the effects of different sources of acidity on streams has become more pressing with the recent increases in surface water organic acids, or 'brownification,' associated with climate change and decreased inorganic acid deposition. Here, we carried out a large scale multi-seasonal investigation in the Adirondacks, one of the most acid-impacted regions in the United States, to assess how acid stream producers respond to local and watershed influences and whether these influences can be used in acidification remediation. We explored the pathways of wetland control on aluminum chemistry and diatom taxonomic and functional composition. We demonstrate that streams with larger watershed wetlands have higher organic content, lower concentrations of acidic anions, and lower ratios of inorganic to organic monomeric aluminum, all beneficial for diatom biodiversity and guilds producing high biomass. Although brownification has been viewed as a form of pollution, our results indicate that it may be a stimulating force for biofilm producers with potentially positive consequences for higher trophic levels. Our research also reveals that the mechanism of watershed control of local stream diatom biodiversity through wetland export of organic matter is universal in running waters, operating not only in hard streams, as previously reported, but also in acid streams. Our findings that the negative impacts of acid deposition on Adirondack stream chemistry and biota can be mitigated by wetlands have important implications for biodiversity conservation and stream ecosystem management. Future acidification research should focus on the potential for wetlands to improve stream ecosystem health in acid-impacted regions and their direct use in stream restoration, for example, through

  14. Wetlands serve as natural sources for improvement of stream ecosystem health in regions affected by acid deposition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pound, Katrina L; Lawrence, Gregory B.; Passy, Sophia I.

    2013-01-01

    For over 40 years, acid deposition has been recognized as a serious international environmental problem, but efforts to restore acidified streams and biota have had limited success. The need to better understand the effects of different sources of acidity on streams has become more pressing with the recent increases in surface water organic acids, or 'brownification' associated with climate change and decreased inorganic acid deposition. Here, we carried out a large scale multi-seasonal investigation in the Adirondacks, one of the most acid-impacted regions in the United States, to assess how acid stream producers respond to local and watershed influences and whether these influences can be used in acidification remediation. We explored the pathways of wetland control on aluminum chemistry and diatom taxonomic and functional composition. We demonstrate that streams with larger watershed wetlands have higher organic content, lower concentrations of acidic anions, and lower ratios of inorganic to organic monomeric aluminum, all beneficial for diatom biodiversity and guilds producing high biomass. Although brownification has been viewed as a form of pollution, our results indicate that it may be a stimulating force for biofilm producers with potentially positive consequences for higher trophic levels. Our research also reveals that the mechanism of watershed control of local stream diatom biodiversity through wetland export of organic matter is universal in running waters, operating not only in hard streams, as previously reported, but also in acid streams. Our findings that the negative impacts of acid deposition on Adirondack stream chemistry and biota can be mitigated by wetlands have important implications for biodiversity conservation and stream ecosystem management. Future acidification research should focus on the potential for wetlands to improve stream ecosystem health in acid-impacted regions and their direct use in stream restoration, for example, through

  15. Wetlands serve as natural sources for improvement of stream ecosystem health in regions affected by acid deposition.

    PubMed

    Pound, Katrina L; Lawrence, Gregory B; Passy, Sophia I

    2013-09-01

    For over 40 years, acid deposition has been recognized as a serious international environmental problem, but efforts to restore acidified streams and biota have had limited success. The need to better understand the effects of different sources of acidity on streams has become more pressing with the recent increases in surface water organic acids, or 'brownification,' associated with climate change and decreased inorganic acid deposition. Here, we carried out a large scale multi-seasonal investigation in the Adirondacks, one of the most acid-impacted regions in the United States, to assess how acid stream producers respond to local and watershed influences and whether these influences can be used in acidification remediation. We explored the pathways of wetland control on aluminum chemistry and diatom taxonomic and functional composition. We demonstrate that streams with larger watershed wetlands have higher organic content, lower concentrations of acidic anions, and lower ratios of inorganic to organic monomeric aluminum, all beneficial for diatom biodiversity and guilds producing high biomass. Although brownification has been viewed as a form of pollution, our results indicate that it may be a stimulating force for biofilm producers with potentially positive consequences for higher trophic levels. Our research also reveals that the mechanism of watershed control of local stream diatom biodiversity through wetland export of organic matter is universal in running waters, operating not only in hard streams, as previously reported, but also in acid streams. Our findings that the negative impacts of acid deposition on Adirondack stream chemistry and biota can be mitigated by wetlands have important implications for biodiversity conservation and stream ecosystem management. Future acidification research should focus on the potential for wetlands to improve stream ecosystem health in acid-impacted regions and their direct use in stream restoration, for example, through

  16. The Evolution of Sex Ratio Distorter Suppression Affects a 25 cM Genomic Region in the Butterfly Hypolimnas bolina

    PubMed Central

    Hornett, Emily A.; Moran, Bruce; Reynolds, Louise A.; Charlat, Sylvain; Tazzyman, Samuel; Wedell, Nina; Jiggins, Chris D.; Hurst, Greg D. D.

    2014-01-01

    Symbionts that distort their host's sex ratio by favouring the production and survival of females are common in arthropods. Their presence produces intense Fisherian selection to return the sex ratio to parity, typified by the rapid spread of host ‘suppressor’ loci that restore male survival/development. In this study, we investigated the genomic impact of a selective event of this kind in the butterfly Hypolimnas bolina. Through linkage mapping, we first identified a genomic region that was necessary for males to survive Wolbachia-induced male-killing. We then investigated the genomic impact of the rapid spread of suppression, which converted the Samoan population of this butterfly from a 100∶1 female-biased sex ratio in 2001 to a 1∶1 sex ratio by 2006. Models of this process revealed the potential for a chromosome-wide effect. To measure the impact of this episode of selection directly, the pattern of genetic variation before and after the spread of suppression was compared. Changes in allele frequencies were observed over a 25 cM region surrounding the suppressor locus, with a reduction in overall diversity observed at loci that co-segregate with the suppressor. These changes exceeded those expected from drift and occurred alongside the generation of linkage disequilibrium. The presence of novel allelic variants in 2006 suggests that the suppressor was likely to have been introduced via immigration rather than through de novo mutation. In addition, further sampling in 2010 indicated that many of the introduced variants were lost or had declined in frequency since 2006. We hypothesize that this loss may have resulted from a period of purifying selection, removing deleterious material that introgressed during the initial sweep. Our observations of the impact of suppression of sex ratio distorting activity reveal a very wide genomic imprint, reflecting its status as one of the strongest selective forces in nature. PMID:25474676

  17. The evolution of sex ratio distorter suppression affects a 25 cM genomic region in the butterfly Hypolimnas bolina.

    PubMed

    Hornett, Emily A; Moran, Bruce; Reynolds, Louise A; Charlat, Sylvain; Tazzyman, Samuel; Wedell, Nina; Jiggins, Chris D; Hurst, Greg D D

    2014-12-01

    Symbionts that distort their host's sex ratio by favouring the production and survival of females are common in arthropods. Their presence produces intense Fisherian selection to return the sex ratio to parity, typified by the rapid spread of host 'suppressor' loci that restore male survival/development. In this study, we investigated the genomic impact of a selective event of this kind in the butterfly Hypolimnas bolina. Through linkage mapping, we first identified a genomic region that was necessary for males to survive Wolbachia-induced male-killing. We then investigated the genomic impact of the rapid spread of suppression, which converted the Samoan population of this butterfly from a 100:1 female-biased sex ratio in 2001 to a 1:1 sex ratio by 2006. Models of this process revealed the potential for a chromosome-wide effect. To measure the impact of this episode of selection directly, the pattern of genetic variation before and after the spread of suppression was compared. Changes in allele frequencies were observed over a 25 cM region surrounding the suppressor locus, with a reduction in overall diversity observed at loci that co-segregate with the suppressor. These changes exceeded those expected from drift and occurred alongside the generation of linkage disequilibrium. The presence of novel allelic variants in 2006 suggests that the suppressor was likely to have been introduced via immigration rather than through de novo mutation. In addition, further sampling in 2010 indicated that many of the introduced variants were lost or had declined in frequency since 2006. We hypothesize that this loss may have resulted from a period of purifying selection, removing deleterious material that introgressed during the initial sweep. Our observations of the impact of suppression of sex ratio distorting activity reveal a very wide genomic imprint, reflecting its status as one of the strongest selective forces in nature. PMID:25474676

  18. Regional-scale dominance of non-framework building corals on Caribbean reefs affects carbonate production and future reef growth.

    PubMed

    Perry, Chris T; Steneck, Robert S; Murphy, Gary N; Kench, Paul S; Edinger, Evan N; Smithers, Scott G; Mumby, Peter J

    2015-03-01

    Coral cover on Caribbean reefs has declined rapidly since the early 1980's. Diseases have been a major driver, decimating communities of framework building Acropora and Orbicella coral species, and reportedly leading to the emergence of novel coral assemblages often dominated by domed and plating species of the genera Agaricia, Porites and Siderastrea. These corals were not historically important Caribbean framework builders, and typically have much smaller stature and lower calcification rates, fuelling concerns over reef carbonate production and growth potential. Using data from 75 reefs from across the Caribbean we quantify: (i) the magnitude of non-framework building coral dominance throughout the region and (ii) the contribution of these corals to contemporary carbonate production. Our data show that live coral cover averages 18.2% across our sites and coral carbonate production 4.1 kg CaCO3  m(-2)  yr(-1) . However, non-framework building coral species dominate and are major carbonate producers at a high proportion of sites; they are more abundant than Acropora and Orbicella at 73% of sites; contribute an average 68% of the carbonate produced; and produce more than half the carbonate at 79% of sites. Coral cover and carbonate production rate are strongly correlated but, as relative abundance of non-framework building corals increases, average carbonate production rates decline. Consequently, the use of coral cover as a predictor of carbonate budget status, without species level production rate data, needs to be treated with caution. Our findings provide compelling evidence for the Caribbean-wide dominance of non-framework building coral taxa, and that these species are now major regional carbonate producers. However, because these species typically have lower calcification rates, continued transitions to states dominated by non-framework building coral species will further reduce carbonate production rates below 'predecline' levels, resulting in shifts

  19. Factors Affecting Utilization of Maternal Health Care Services in Kombolcha District, Eastern Hararghe Zone, Oromia Regional State, Eastern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Zelalem Ayele, Desalew; Belayihun, Bekele; Teji, Kedir; Admassu Ayana, Desalegn

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. World health organization estimates that more than half a million women lose their lives in the process of reproduction worldwide every year and most of these mortalities are avoidable if mothers have access to maternal health care services. Objectives. This study was conducted with objectives of determining the prevalence of utilization of maternal health care services and identifying factors affecting it. Methodology. A community based cross-sectional survey was conducted in six kebeles of Kombolcha district. A total of 495 women of reproductive age participated in the study and their selection was made using simple random sampling technique and data was collected using an interviewer-administered structured questionnaire. The data was analyzed using SPSS version 16. Results. A total of 495 women were included in this study and from these women about 86.1% had at least one ANC visit during their last pregnancy. About 61.7% of mothers had less than four visits which is less than the recommended and 46.2% started it in the second trimester. Only 25.3% of respondents gave birth in health institutions and rural women were less likely to use institutional delivery 20.9% compared to urban women 35.9%. Recommendations. More efforts should be given to educate society in general and mothers in particular, to strengthen community participation and to increase the accessibility of maternal health care services. Moreover, providing accurate information about the services provided in the health institutions is required from the concerned governmental and nongovernmental organizations.

  20. Anatomical variation and its management in transplantation.

    PubMed

    Watson, C J E; Harper, S J F

    2015-06-01

    Variant anatomy may be challenging at retrieval, with failure to identify variance being associated with organ damage, particularly vascular damage. On implantation, some variants demand nonstandard techniques of reconstruction or implantation. This review covers the common and less common anatomical variants of the liver, kidney and pancreas, and gives guidance as to how they may be managed during organ retrieval and implantation.

  1. Incidence of gliomas by anatomic location.

    PubMed

    Larjavaara, Suvi; Mäntylä, Riitta; Salminen, Tiina; Haapasalo, Hannu; Raitanen, Jani; Jääskeläinen, Juha; Auvinen, Anssi

    2007-07-01

    The anatomic location of a glioma influences prognosis and treatment options. The aim of our study was to describe the distribution of gliomas in different anatomic areas of the brain. A representative population-based sample of 331 adults with glioma was used for preliminary analyses. The anatomic locations for 89 patients from a single center were analyzed in more detail from radiologic imaging and recorded on a three-dimensional 1 x 1 x 1-cm grid. The age-standardized incidence rate of gliomas was 4.7 per 100,000 person-years. The most frequent subtypes were glioblastoma (47%) and grade II-III astrocytoma (23%), followed by oligodendroglioma and mixed glioma. The gliomas were located in the frontal lobe in 40% of the cases, temporal in 29%, parietal in 14%, and occipital lobe in 3%, with 14% in the deeper structures. The difference in distribution between lobes remained after adjustment for their tissue volume: the tumor:volume ratio was 4.5 for frontal, 4.8 for temporal, and 2.3 for parietal relative to the occipital lobe. The area with the densest occurrence was the anterior subcortical brain. Statistically significant spatial clustering was found in the three-dimensional analysis. No differences in location were found among glioblastoma, diffuse astrocytoma, and oligodendroglioma. Our results demonstrate considerable heterogeneity in the anatomic distribution of gliomas within the brain.

  2. Giving Ourselves: The Ethics of Anatomical Donation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunderman, Richard B.

    2008-01-01

    In some European countries, such as Italy, medical education is threatened by a dearth of anatomical specimens. Such a shortage could spread to other nations, including the United States. This article addresses two ethical questions in body donation. Why might people choose to donate their bodies to education and science? What sorts of ethical…

  3. HPV Vaccine Effective at Multiple Anatomic Sites

    Cancer.gov

    A new study from NCI researchers finds that the HPV vaccine protects young women from infection with high-risk HPV types at the three primary anatomic sites where persistent HPV infections can cause cancer. The multi-site protection also was observed at l

  4. Evolution of the Anatomical Theatre in Padova

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macchi, Veronica; Porzionato, Andrea; Stecco, Carla; Caro, Raffaele

    2014-01-01

    The anatomical theatre played a pivotal role in the evolution of medical education, allowing students to directly observe and participate in the process of dissection. Due to the increase of training programs in clinical anatomy, the Institute of Human Anatomy at the University of Padova has renovated its dissecting room. The main guidelines in…

  5. Anatomical Data for Analyzing Human Motion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plagenhoef, Stanley; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Anatomical data obtained from cadavers and from water displacement studies with living subjects were used to determine the weight, center of gravity, and radius of gyration for 16 body segments. A lead model was used to study movement patterns of the trunk section of the body. (Authors/PP)

  6. A review of factors affecting productivity of bald eagles in the Great Lakes region: implications for recovery.

    PubMed Central

    Bowerman, W W; Giesy, J P; Best, D A; Kramer, V J

    1995-01-01

    The bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) population in North America declined greatly after World War II due primarily to the eggshell thinning effects of p,p'-DDE, a biodegradation product of DDT. After the banning of DDT in the United States and Canada during the early 1970s, the bald eagle population started to increase. However, this population recovery has not been uniform. Eagles nesting along the shorelines of the North American Great Lakes and rivers open to spawning runs of anadromous fishes from the Great Lakes still exhibit impaired reproduction. We have explored both ecological and toxicological factors that would limit reproduction of bald eagles in the Great Lakes region. Based on our studies, the most critical factors influencing eagle populations are concentrations of environmental toxicants. While there might be some continuing effects of DDE, total PCBs and most importantly 2,3,7,8-tetrachlordibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TCDD-EQ) in fishes from the Great Lakes and rivers open to spawning runs of anadromous fishes from the Great Lakes currently represent a significant hazard to bald eagles living along these shorelines or near these rivers and are most likely related to the impaired reproduction in bald eagles living there. PMID:7556024

  7. A review of factors affecting productivity of bald eagles in the Great Lakes region: implications for recovery.

    PubMed

    Bowerman, W W; Giesy, J P; Best, D A; Kramer, V J

    1995-05-01

    The bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) population in North America declined greatly after World War II due primarily to the eggshell thinning effects of p,p'-DDE, a biodegradation product of DDT. After the banning of DDT in the United States and Canada during the early 1970s, the bald eagle population started to increase. However, this population recovery has not been uniform. Eagles nesting along the shorelines of the North American Great Lakes and rivers open to spawning runs of anadromous fishes from the Great Lakes still exhibit impaired reproduction. We have explored both ecological and toxicological factors that would limit reproduction of bald eagles in the Great Lakes region. Based on our studies, the most critical factors influencing eagle populations are concentrations of environmental toxicants. While there might be some continuing effects of DDE, total PCBs and most importantly 2,3,7,8-tetrachlordibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TCDD-EQ) in fishes from the Great Lakes and rivers open to spawning runs of anadromous fishes from the Great Lakes currently represent a significant hazard to bald eagles living along these shorelines or near these rivers and are most likely related to the impaired reproduction in bald eagles living there.

  8. A procedure to average 3D anatomical structures.

    PubMed

    Subramanya, K; Dean, D

    2000-12-01

    Creating a feature-preserving average of three dimensional anatomical surfaces extracted from volume image data is a complex task. Unlike individual images, averages present right-left symmetry and smooth surfaces which give insight into typical proportions. Averaging multiple biological surface images requires careful superimposition and sampling of homologous regions. Our approach to biological surface image averaging grows out of a wireframe surface tessellation approach by Cutting et al. (1993). The surface delineating wires represent high curvature crestlines. By adding tile boundaries in flatter areas the 3D image surface is parametrized into anatomically labeled (homology mapped) grids. We extend the Cutting et al. wireframe approach by encoding the entire surface as a series of B-spline space curves. The crestline averaging algorithm developed by Cutting et al. may then be used for the entire surface. Shape preserving averaging of multiple surfaces requires careful positioning of homologous surface regions such as these B-spline space curves. We test the precision of this new procedure and its ability to appropriately position groups of surfaces in order to produce a shape-preserving average. Our result provides an average that well represents the source images and may be useful clinically as a deformable model or for animation.

  9. Age-Dependent Effects of Haptoglobin Deletion in Neurobehavioral and Anatomical Outcomes Following Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Glushakov, Alexander V.; Arias, Rodrigo A.; Tolosano, Emanuela; Doré, Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral hemorrhages are common features of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and their presence is associated with chronic disabilities. Recent clinical and experimental evidence suggests that haptoglobin (Hp), an endogenous hemoglobin-binding protein most abundant in blood plasma, is involved in the intrinsic molecular defensive mechanism, though its role in TBI is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Hp deletion on the anatomical and behavioral outcomes in the controlled cortical impact model using wildtype (WT) C57BL/6 mice and genetically modified mice lacking the Hp gene (Hp−∕−) in two age cohorts [2–4 mo-old (young adult) and 7–8 mo-old (older adult)]. The data obtained suggest age-dependent significant effects on behavioral and anatomical TBI outcomes and recovery from injury. Moreover, in the adult cohort, neurological deficits in Hp−∕− mice at 24 h were significantly improved compared to WT, whereas there were no significant differences in brain pathology between these genotypes. In contrast, in the older adult cohort, Hp−∕− mice had significantly larger lesion volumes compared to WT, but neurological deficits were not significantly different. Immunohistochemistry for ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba1) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) revealed significant differences in microglial and astrocytic reactivity between Hp−∕− and WT in selected brain regions of the adult but not the older adult-aged cohort. In conclusion, the data obtained in the study provide clarification on the age-dependent aspects of the intrinsic defensive mechanisms involving Hp that might be involved in complex pathways differentially affecting acute brain trauma outcomes. PMID:27486583

  10. Deposition of 7Be to Bermuda and the regional ocean: Environmental factors affecting estimates of atmospheric flux to the ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadko, David; Prospero, Joseph

    2011-02-01

    The distribution of 7Be in ocean surface waters is used as tracer of upper ocean transport and atmospheric deposition processes. However, there is very little ocean deposition data available to characterize the temporal and spatial input of 7Be to the oceans and test model results. Here we measure the deposition of 7Be in bulk collectors at two sites at Bermuda over a span of nearly 2 years (April 2007 to January 2009) and compare these rates to the flux required to sustain the inventory of 7Be measured in the nearby Sargasso Sea. The Tudor Hill collector site undersampled (by ˜40%) both the rainfall compared to other Bermuda sites and the 7Be flux required for the ocean inventory. On the other hand, the 7Be flux captured at the Bermuda Institute of Ocean Sciences station site (0.048 dpm cm-2 d-1) matched that expected from the ocean observations. Previously measured long-term atmospheric concentration of 7Be in surface air at Bermuda was used to estimate deposition velocities and scavenging ratios, and our estimates in this marine environment were found to be similar to those measured in continental regions. The deposition of 7Be to the oceans is overwhelmingly determined by wet processes; dry deposition to the ocean surface accounts for only a few percent, at most, of the total deposition to the ocean. We place these measurements in a longer-term and large-scale spatial context by using climatological rainfall data on Bermuda and ocean rainfall estimates from the Global Precipitation Climatology Program and Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission.

  11. Human Brain White Matter Atlas: Identification and Assignment of Common Anatomical Structures in Superficial White Matter

    PubMed Central

    Oishi, Kenichi; Zilles, Karl; Amunts, Katrin; Faria, Andreia; Jiang, Hangyi; Li, Xin; Akhter, Kazi; Hua, Kegang; Woods, Roger; Toga, Arthur W.; Pike, G. Bruce; Rosa-Neto, Pedro; Evans, Alan; Zhang, Jiangyang; Huang, Hao; Miller, Michael I.; van Zijl, Peter C.M.; Mazziotta, John; Mori, Susumu

    2008-01-01

    Structural delineation and assignment are the fundamental steps in understanding the anatomy of the human brain. The white matter has been structurally defined in the past only at its core regions (deep white matter). However, the most peripheral white matter areas, which are interleaved between the cortex and the deep white matter, have lacked clear anatomical definitions and parcellations. We used axonal fiber alignment information from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to delineate the peripheral white matter, and investigated its relationship with the cortex and the deep white matter. Using DTI data from 81 healthy subjects, we identified nine common, blade-like anatomical regions, which were further parcellated into 21 subregions based on the cortical anatomy. Four short association fiber tracts connecting adjacent gyri (U-fibers) were also identified reproducibly among the healthy population. We anticipate that this atlas will be useful resource for atlas-based white matter anatomical studies. PMID:18692144

  12. Repetitive sequence variations in the promoter region of the adhesin-encoding gene sabA of Helicobacter pylori affect transcription.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Vivian C; Acio, Catherine R; Bredehoft, Amy K; Zhu, Laurence; Hallinger, Daniel R; Quinlivan-Repasi, Vanessa; Harvey, Samuel E; Forsyth, Mark H

    2014-10-01

    The pathogenesis of diseases elicited by the gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori is partially determined by the effectiveness of adaptation to the variably acidic environment of the host stomach. Adaptation includes appropriate adherence to the gastric epithelium via outer membrane protein adhesins such as SabA. The expression of sabA is subject to regulation via phase variation in the promoter and coding regions as well as repression by the two-component system ArsRS. In this study, we investigated the role of a homopolymeric thymine [poly(T)] tract -50 to -33 relative to the sabA transcriptional start site in H. pylori strain J99. We quantified sabA expression in H. pylori J99 by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR), demonstrating significant changes in sabA expression associated with experimental manipulations of poly(T) tract length. Mimicking the length increase of this tract by adding adenines instead of thymines had similar effects, while the addition of other nucleotides failed to affect sabA expression in the same manner. We hypothesize that modification of the poly(T) tract changes DNA topology, affecting regulatory protein interaction(s) or RNA polymerase binding efficiency. Additionally, we characterized the interaction between the sabA promoter region and ArsR, a response regulator affecting sabA expression. Using recombinant ArsR in electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA), we localized binding to a sequence with partial dyad symmetry -20 and +38 relative to the sabA +1 site. The control of sabA expression by both ArsRS and phase variation at two distinct repeat regions suggests the control of sabA expression is both complex and vital to H. pylori infection.

  13. Hemispheric Asymmetry of Human Brain Anatomical Network Revealed by Diffusion Tensor Tractography

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Ni; Liu, Yaou; Duan, Yunyun; Li, Kuncheng

    2015-01-01

    The topological architecture of the cerebral anatomical network reflects the structural organization of the human brain. Recently, topological measures based on graph theory have provided new approaches for quantifying large-scale anatomical networks. However, few studies have investigated the hemispheric asymmetries of the human brain from the perspective of the network model, and little is known about the asymmetries of the connection patterns of brain regions, which may reflect the functional integration and interaction between different regions. Here, we utilized diffusion tensor imaging to construct binary anatomical networks for 72 right-handed healthy adult subjects. We established the existence of structural connections between any pair of the 90 cortical and subcortical regions using deterministic tractography. To investigate the hemispheric asymmetries of the brain, statistical analyses were performed to reveal the brain regions with significant differences between bilateral topological properties, such as degree of connectivity, characteristic path length, and betweenness centrality. Furthermore, local structural connections were also investigated to examine the local asymmetries of some specific white matter tracts. From the perspective of both the global and local connection patterns, we identified the brain regions with hemispheric asymmetries. Combined with the previous studies, we suggested that the topological asymmetries in the anatomical network may reflect the functional lateralization of the human brain. PMID:26539535

  14. Hemispheric Asymmetry of Human Brain Anatomical Network Revealed by Diffusion Tensor Tractography.

    PubMed

    Shu, Ni; Liu, Yaou; Duan, Yunyun; Li, Kuncheng

    2015-01-01

    The topological architecture of the cerebral anatomical network reflects the structural organization of the human brain. Recently, topological measures based on graph theory have provided new approaches for quantifying large-scale anatomical networks. However, few studies have investigated the hemispheric asymmetries of the human brain from the perspective of the network model, and little is known about the asymmetries of the connection patterns of brain regions, which may reflect the functional integration and interaction between different regions. Here, we utilized diffusion tensor imaging to construct binary anatomical networks for 72 right-handed healthy adult subjects. We established the existence of structural connections between any pair of the 90 cortical and subcortical regions using deterministic tractography. To investigate the hemispheric asymmetries of the brain, statistical analyses were performed to reveal the brain regions with significant differences between bilateral topological properties, such as degree of connectivity, characteristic path length, and betweenness centrality. Furthermore, local structural connections were also investigated to examine the local asymmetries of some specific white matter tracts. From the perspective of both the global and local connection patterns, we identified the brain regions with hemispheric asymmetries. Combined with the previous studies, we suggested that the topological asymmetries in the anatomical network may reflect the functional lateralization of the human brain.

  15. Automatic detection of anatomical landmarks in uterine cervix images.

    PubMed

    Greenspan, Hayit; Gordon, Shiri; Zimmerman, Gali; Lotenberg, Shelly; Jeronimo, Jose; Antani, Sameer; Long, Rodney

    2009-03-01

    The work focuses on a unique medical repository of digital cervicographic images ("Cervigrams") collected by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) in longitudinal multiyear studies. NCI, together with the National Library of Medicine (NLM), is developing a unique web-accessible database of the digitized cervix images to study the evolution of lesions related to cervical cancer. Tools are needed for automated analysis of the cervigram content to support cancer research. We present a multistage scheme for segmenting and labeling regions of anatomical interest within the cervigrams. In particular, we focus on the extraction of the cervix region and fine detection of the cervix boundary; specular reflection is eliminated as an important preprocessing step; in addition, the entrance to the endocervical canal (the "os"), is detected. Segmentation results are evaluated on three image sets of cervigrams that were manually labeled by NCI experts.

  16. Striatal Cholinergic interneurons in the dorsal and ventral striatum: anatomical and functional considerations in normal and diseased conditions

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales, Kalynda K.; Smith, Yoland

    2015-01-01

    Striatal cholinergic interneurons (ChIs) are central for the processing and reinforcement of reward-related behaviors that are negatively affected in states of altered dopamine transmission, such as in Parkinson’s disease or drug addiction. Nevertheless, the development of therapeutic interventions directed at ChIs has been hampered by our limited knowledge of the diverse anatomical and functional characteristics of these neurons in the dorsal and ventral striatum, combined with the lack of pharmacological tools to modulate specific cholinergic receptor subtypes. This review highlights some of the key morphological, synaptic, and functional differences between ChIs of different striatal regions and across species. It also provides an overview of our current knowledge of the cellular localization and function of cholinergic receptor subtypes. The future use of high-resolution anatomical and functional tools to study the synaptic microcircuitry of brain networks, along with the development of specific cholinergic receptor drugs, should help further elucidate the role of striatal ChIs and permit efficient targeting of cholinergic systems in various brain disorders, including Parkinson’s disease and addiction. PMID:25876458

  17. Cholinergic interneurons in the dorsal and ventral striatum: anatomical and functional considerations in normal and diseased conditions.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, Kalynda K; Smith, Yoland

    2015-09-01

    Striatal cholinergic interneurons (ChIs) are central for the processing and reinforcement of reward-related behaviors that are negatively affected in states of altered dopamine transmission, such as in Parkinson's disease or drug addiction. Nevertheless, the development of therapeutic interventions directed at ChIs has been hampered by our limited knowledge of the diverse anatomical and functional characteristics of these neurons in the dorsal and ventral striatum, combined with the lack of pharmacological tools to modulate specific cholinergic receptor subtypes. This review highlights some of the key morphological, synaptic, and functional differences between ChIs of different striatal regions and across species. It also provides an overview of our current knowledge of the cellular localization and function of cholinergic receptor subtypes. The future use of high-resolution anatomical and functional tools to study the synaptic microcircuitry of brain networks, along with the development of specific cholinergic receptor drugs, should help further elucidate the role of striatal ChIs and permit efficient targeting of cholinergic systems in various brain disorders, including Parkinson's disease and addiction.

  18. Tests of linkage and allelic association between markers in the 1p36 PRKCZ (protein kinase C zeta) gene region and bipolar affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Kandaswamy, Radhika; McQuillin, Andrew; Curtis, David; Gurling, Hugh

    2012-03-01

    Three linkage studies of families with multiple cases of bipolar disorder and/or unipolar affective disorder have confirmed the involvement of the chromosome 1p36 region in the etiology of affective disorders with LOD scores of 2.7, 3.6, and 3.97. We investigated the protein kinase C zeta gene (PRKCZ) as a susceptibility locus for bipolar disorder because it is highly brain expressed and is localized close to the marker D1S243 which was linked to affective disorder in a single large UCL bipolar disorder family with a LOD of 3.1. PRKCZ encodes an unusual type of protein kinase which affects axonal differentiation through Wnt-signaling. We genotyped four microsatellite markers and nine single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers within or near the PRKCZ gene in the UCL case-control sample of 600 bipolar disorder patients and up to 605 supernormal controls. Markers D1S243 and rs3128396 were significantly associated with bipolar disorder (empirical P = 0.037 and P = 0.040, respectively). We also included data from eight SNPs which were genotyped as part of our GWA study on bipolar disorder for association analysis. Tests of haplotypic association found that a haplotype block comprising markers rs3128296, rs2503706, and rs3128309 was associated with bipolar disorder (empirical P = 0.004). A previous linkage study had shown greater evidence for linkage within female cases compared to males. Therefore, to assess if the association was sex-specific, we performed a female-only allelic-association analysis, which resulted in SNPs rs3128296 and rs3128309 becoming associated with bipolar disorder (P = 0.004 and P = 0.016, respectively). PRKCZ may play a role in susceptibility to bipolar affective disorder.

  19. [Osteochondrodysplasias. Prenatal diagnosis and pathological-anatomic findings].

    PubMed

    Tennstedt, C; Bartho, S; Bollmann, R; Schwenke, A; Nitz, I; Rothe, K

    1993-03-01

    Prenatal sonographic investigations were applied for malformations to 7,194 foetuses, between October 1985 and April 1992, with 28 cases of osteochondrodysplasia (OCD) and one case of dysostosis being dissected. Included were 20 cases of lethal osteochondrodysplasia, among them two cases of lethal hypophosphatasia, five cases of thanatophoric dysplasia, one case each of Type II shortrib (polydactyly) syndrome (VERMA-NAUMOFF) and metatropic dysplasia, three cases of campomelic dysplasia and eight cases of Type II A imperfect osteogenesis. Also observed were eight cases of nonlethal OCD, among them three cases of diastrophic dysplasia and five of achondroplasia. Dysostosis was recorded from one case and was diagnosed as Type V acrocephalosyndactyly (Pfeiffer). Identification of a specific OCD proved to be difficult in the second or third trimenon. Hence, the form of OCD was prenatally diagnosed only in ten of all cases investigated. Tentative diagnosis was first established from the postmortem radiograph. Additional malformations and other abnormalities then were detected by complementary pathologico-anatomic processing of findings. The final diagnosis was derived from radiological, pathologico-anatomic and histological findings. Diagnosis of this constitutional osteopathy is quite difficult and calls for interdisciplinary cooperation between gynaecologists, neonatologists, paediatric surgeons, radiologists, geneticists and pathologists. More effective counselling of affected families is the major purpose of all the efforts involved. PMID:8499423

  20. Anatomical and functional characteristics of carotid sinus stimulation in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Querry, R. G.; Smith, S. A.; Stromstad, M.; Ide, K.; Secher, N. H.; Raven, P. B.

    2001-01-01

    Transmission characteristics of pneumatic pressure to the carotid sinus were evaluated in 19 subjects at rest and during exercise. Either a percutaneous fluid-filled (n = 12) or balloon-tipped catheter (n = 7) was placed at the carotid bifurcation to record internal transmission of external neck pressure/neck suction (NP/NS). Sustained, 5-s pulses, and rapid ramping pulse protocols (+40 to -80 Torr) were recorded. Transmission of pressure stimuli was less with the fluid-filled catheter compared with that of the balloon-tipped catheter (65% vs. 82% negative pressure, 83% vs. 89% positive pressure; P < 0.05). Anatomical location of the carotid sinus averaged 3.2 cm (left) and 3.6 cm (right) from the gonion of the mandible with a range of 0-7.5 cm. Transmission was not altered by exercise or Valsalva maneuver, but did vary depending on the position of the carotid sinus locus beneath the sealed chamber. These data indicate that transmission of external NP/NS was higher than previously recorded in humans, and anatomical variation of carotid sinus location and equipment design can affect transmission results.

  1. Individualized anatomic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    van Eck, Carola F; Widhalm, Harrald; Murawski, Christopher; Fu, Freddie H

    2015-02-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are often seen in young participants in sports such as soccer, football, and basketball. Treatment options include conservative management as well as surgical intervention, with the goal of enabling the patient to return to cutting and pivoting sports and activities. Individualized anatomic ACL reconstruction is a surgical technique that tailors the procedure to the individual patient using preoperative measurements on plain radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging and intraoperative measurement to map the patients' native ACL anatomy in order to replicate it as closely as possible. Anatomic ACL reconstruction, therefore, is defined as reconstruction of the ACL to its native dimensions, collagen orientation, and insertion site. The surgical reconstruction is followed by a specific rehabilitation protocol that is designed to enable the patient to regain muscle strength and proprioception while facilitating healing of the reconstructed ACL prior to the patient's returning to sports activities.

  2. Endoscopic Ankle Lateral Ligament Graft Anatomic Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Michels, Frederick; Cordier, Guillaume; Guillo, Stéphane; Stockmans, Filip

    2016-09-01

    Chronic instability is a common complication of lateral ankle sprains. If nonoperative treatment fails, a surgical repair or reconstruction may be indicated. Today, endoscopic techniques to treat ankle instability are becoming more popular. This article describes an endoscopic technique, using a step-by-step approach, to reconstruct the ATFL and CFL with a gracilis graft. The endoscopic technique is reproducible and safe with regard to the surrounding anatomic structures. Short and midterm results confirm the benefits of this technique. PMID:27524711

  3. Anatomical and functional imaging in endocrine hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Vikas; Bano, Shahina

    2012-01-01

    In endocrine hypertension, hormonal excess results in clinically significant hypertension. The functional imaging (such as radionuclide imaging) complements anatomy-based imaging (such as ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging) to facilitate diagnostic localization of a lesion causing endocrine hypertension. The aim of this review article is to familiarize general radiologists, endocrinologists, and clinicians with various anatomical and functional imaging techniques used in patients with endocrine hypertension. PMID:23087854

  4. Procedure Planning: Anatomical Determinants of Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Hanratty, Colm; Walsh, Simon

    2014-01-01

    In contemporary practice there are three main methods that can be employed when attempting to open a chronic total occlusion (CTO) of a coronary artery; antegrade or retrograde wire escalation, antegrade dissection re-entry and retrograde dissection re-entry. This editorial will attempt to clarify the anatomical features that can be identified to help when deciding which of these strategies to employ initially and help understand the reasons for this decision. PMID:24694102

  5. Evaluation of the effects of anatomic location, histologic processing, and sample size on shrinkage of skin samples obtained from canine cadavers.

    PubMed

    Reagan, Jennifer K; Selmic, Laura E; Garrett, Laura D; Singh, Kuldeep

    2016-09-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate effects of anatomic location, histologic processing, and sample size on shrinkage of excised canine skin samples. SAMPLE Skin samples from 15 canine cadavers. PROCEDURES Elliptical samples of the skin, underlying subcutaneous fat, and muscle fascia were collected from the head, hind limb, and lumbar region of each cadaver. Two samples (10 mm and 30 mm) were collected at each anatomic location of each cadaver (one from the left side and the other from the right side). Measurements of length, width, depth, and surface area were collected prior to excision (P1) and after fixation in neutral-buffered 10% formalin for 24 to 48 hours (P2). Length and width were also measured after histologic processing (P3). RESULTS Length and width decreased significantly at all anatomic locations and for both sample sizes at each processing stage. Hind limb samples had the greatest decrease in length, compared with results for samples obtained from other locations, across all processing stages for both sample sizes. The 30-mm samples had a greater percentage change in length and width between P1 and P2 than did the 10-mm samples. Histologic processing (P2 to P3) had a greater effect on the percentage shrinkage of 10-mm samples. For all locations and both sample sizes, percentage change between P1 and P3 ranged from 24.0% to 37.7% for length and 18.0% to 22.8% for width. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Histologic processing, anatomic location, and sample size affected the degree of shrinkage of a canine skin sample from excision to histologic assessment. PMID:27580116

  6. Shape analysis of simulated breast anatomical structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contijoch, Francisco; Lynch, Jennifer M.; Pokrajac, David D.; Maidment, Andrew D. A.; Bakic, Predrag R.

    2012-03-01

    Recent advances in high-resolution 3D breast imaging, namely, digital breast tomosynthesis and dedicated breast CT, have enabled detailed analysis of the shape and distribution of anatomical structures in the breast. Such analysis is critically important, since the projections of breast anatomical structures make up the parenchymal pattern in clinical images which can mask the existing abnormalities or introduce false alarms; the parenchymal pattern is also correlated with the risk of cancer. As a first step towards the shape analysis of anatomical structures in the breast, we have analyzed an anthropomorphic software breast phantom. The phantom generation is based upon the recursive splitting of the phantom volume using octrees, which produces irregularly shaped tissue compartments, qualitatively mimicking the breast anatomy. The shape analysis was performed by fitting ellipsoids to the simulated tissue compartments. The ellipsoidal semi-axes were calculated by matching the moments of inertia of each individual compartment and of an ellipsoid. The distribution of Dice coefficients, measuring volumetric overlap between the compartment and the corresponding ellipsoid, as well as the distribution of aspect ratios, measuring relative orientations of the ellipsoids, were used to characterize various classes of phantoms with qualitatively distinctive appearance. A comparison between input parameters for phantom generation and the properties of fitted ellipsoids indicated the high level of user control in the design of software breast phantoms. The proposed shape analysis could be extended to clinical breast images, and used to inform the selection of simulation parameters for improved realism.

  7. Anatomical MRI with an atomic magnetometer.

    PubMed

    Savukov, I; Karaulanov, T

    2013-06-01

    Ultra-low field (ULF) MRI is a promising method for inexpensive medical imaging with various additional advantages over conventional instruments such as low weight, low power, portability, absence of artifacts from metals, and high contrast. Anatomical ULF MRI has been successfully implemented with SQUIDs, but SQUIDs have the drawback of a cryogen requirement. Atomic magnetometers have sensitivity comparable to SQUIDs and can be in principle used for ULF MRI to replace SQUIDs. Unfortunately some problems exist due to the sensitivity of atomic magnetometers to a magnetic field and gradients. At low frequency, noise is also substantial and a shielded room is needed for improving sensitivity. In this paper, we show that at 85 kHz, the atomic magnetometer can be used to obtain anatomical images. This is the first demonstration of any use of atomic magnetometers for anatomical MRI. The demonstrated resolution is 1.1 mm×1.4 mm in about 6 min of acquisition with SNR of 10. Some applications of the method are discussed. We discuss several measures to increase the sensitivity to reach a resolution 1 mm×1 mm.

  8. Mutations on the Switch III region and the alpha3 helix of Galpha16 differentially affect receptor coupling and regulation of downstream effectors

    PubMed Central

    Yu, May YM; Ho, Maurice KC; Liu, Andrew MF; Wong, Yung H

    2008-01-01

    Background Gα16 can activate phospholipase Cβ (PLCβ) directly like Gαq. It also couples to tetratricopeptide repeat 1 (TPR1) which is linked to Ras activation. It is unknown whether PLCβ and TPR1 interact with the same regions on Gα16. Previous studies on Gαq have defined two minimal clusters of amino acids that are essential for the coupling to PLCβ. Cognate residues in Gα16 might also be essential for interacting with PLCβ, and possibly contribute to TPR1 interaction and other signaling events. Results Alanine mutations were introduced to the two amino acid clusters (246–248 and 259–260) in the switch III region and α3 helix of Gα16. Regulations of PLCβ and STAT3 were partially weakened by each cluster mutant. A mutant harboring mutations at both clusters generally produced stronger suppressions. Activation of Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) by Gα16 was completely abolished by mutating either clusters. Contrastingly, phosphorylations of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) were not significantly affected by these mutations. The interactions between the mutants and PLCβ2 and TPR1 were also reduced in co-immunoprecipitation assays. Coupling between G16 and different categories of receptors was impaired by the mutations, with the effect of switch III mutations being more pronounced than those in the α3 helix. Mutations of both clusters almost completely abolished the receptor coupling and prevent receptor-induced Gβγ release. Conclusion The integrity of the switch III region and α3 helix of Gα16 is critical for the activation of PLCβ, STAT3, and JNK but not ERK or NF-κB. Binding of Gα16 to PLCβ2 or TPR1 was reduced by the mutations of either cluster. The same region could also differentially affect the effectiveness of receptor coupling to G16. The studied region was shown to bear multiple functionally important roles of G16. PMID:19025606

  9. Morphological-anatomical characterization and identification of Tomentella ectomycorrhizas.

    PubMed

    Jakucs, Erzsébet; Eros-Honti, Zsolt

    2008-09-01

    Over the last two decades, much information has been gathered on the ectomycorrhizal fungus community composition of plant associations of boreal, temperate, and tropical regions. Worldwide, Tomentella ectomycorrhizas (ECM) are often common and dominant in the mycorrhizosphere of coniferous and deciduous forests. They are present under different environmental conditions and associate with diverse plant hosts. Tomentella sporocarps, however, are rarely found aboveground, so Tomentella species are often missing from fungus community studies based on fruit-body presence. Tomentella is a resupinate genus of Thelephoraceae (Basidiomycota) forming black-brown, brown, yellow, or ochre ECM on the roots of gymnosperm and angiosperm trees, distinguished by typical morphological-anatomical characteristics (clamped hyphae, angular mantle, surface network, special rhizomorphs and cystidia). In this paper, we review the taxonomic position and morphological-anatomical characteristics of Tomentella ECM. A short summary of the microscopic features used for distinguishing tomentelloids during morphotyping and identification is presented in order to support molecular and ecological studies of ectomycorrhizal fungus communities.

  10. Osteoporosis-pseudoglioma syndrome, a disorder affecting skeletal strength and vision, is assigned to chromosome region 11q12-13

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, Yaoqin; Liu, Jin; Warman, M.L.

    1996-07-01

    Osteoporosis-pseudoglioma syndrome (OPS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severe juvenile-onset osteoporosis and congenital or juvenile-onset blindness. The pathogenic mechanism is not known. Clinical, biochemical, and microscopic analyses suggest that OPS may be a disorder of matrix homeostasis rather than a disorder of matrix structure. Consequently, identification of the OPS gene and its protein product could provide insights regarding common osteoporotic conditions, such as postmenopausal and senile osteoporosis. As a first step toward determining the cause of OPS, we utilized a combination of traditional linkage analysis and homozygosity mapping to assign the OPS locus to chromosome region 11q12-13. Mapping was accomplished by analyzing 16 DNA samples (seven affected individuals) from three different consanguineous kindreds. Studies in 10 additional families narrowed the candidate region, supported locus homogeneity, and did not detect founder effects. The OPS locus maps to a 13-cM interval between D11S1298 and D11S971 and most likely lies in a 3-cM region between GSTP1 and D11S1296. At present, no strong candidate genes colocalize with OPS. 33 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  11. THA Retrievals: The Need to Mark the Anatomic Orientation of the Femoral Head

    PubMed Central

    Heiner, Anneliese D.; Kruger, Karen M.; Tikekar, Nishant M.; Callaghan, John J.; Lannutti, John J.; Brown, Thomas D.

    2015-01-01

    The hypothesis of this study was that the rotational orientation of femoral head damage would greatly affect the volumetric wear rate of the opposing polyethylene (PE) liner. Damage on twenty retrieved cobalt-chromium femoral heads was simulated in a validated damage-feature-based finite element model. For each individual retrieval, the anatomic orientation of the femoral head about the femoral neck axis was systematically varied, in 30° increments. The PE wear rate differential between the maximum-versus minimum-wear orientations was often sizable, as high as 7-fold. Knowing the correct femoral head anatomic orientation is therefore important when analyzing the effects of femoral head damage on PE liner wear. Surgeons retrieving modular femoral heads should routinely mark the anatomic orientation of those components. PMID:25682206

  12. Using 3D modeling techniques to enhance teaching of difficult anatomical concepts

    PubMed Central

    Pujol, Sonia; Baldwin, Michael; Nassiri, Joshua; Kikinis, Ron; Shaffer, Kitt

    2016-01-01

    Rationale and Objectives Anatomy is an essential component of medical education as it is critical for the accurate diagnosis in organs and human systems. The mental representation of the shape and organization of different anatomical structures is a crucial step in the learning process. The purpose of this pilot study is to demonstrate the feasibility and benefits of developing innovative teaching modules for anatomy education of first-year medical students based on 3D reconstructions from actual patient data. Materials and Methods A total of 196 models of anatomical structures from 16 anonymized CT datasets were generated using the 3D Slicer open-source software platform. The models focused on three anatomical areas: the mediastinum, the upper abdomen and the pelvis. Online optional quizzes were offered to first-year medical students to assess their comprehension in the areas of interest. Specific tasks were designed for students to complete using the 3D models. Results Scores of the quizzes confirmed a lack of understanding of 3D spatial relationships of anatomical structures despite standard instruction including dissection. Written task material and qualitative review by students suggested that interaction with 3D models led to a better understanding of the shape and spatial relationships among structures, and helped illustrate anatomical variations from one body to another. Conclusion The study demonstrates the feasibility of one possible approach to the generation of 3D models of the anatomy from actual patient data. The educational materials developed have the potential to supplement the teaching of complex anatomical regions and help demonstrate the anatomic variation among patients. PMID:26897601

  13. How spatial abilities and dynamic visualizations interplay when learning functional anatomy with 3D anatomical models.

    PubMed

    Berney, Sandra; Bétrancourt, Mireille; Molinari, Gaëlle; Hoyek, Nady

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of dynamic visualizations of three-dimensional (3D) models in anatomy curricula may be an adequate solution for spatial difficulties encountered with traditional static learning, as they provide direct visualization of change throughout the viewpoints. However, little research has explored the interplay between learning material presentation formats, spatial abilities, and anatomical tasks. First, to understand the cognitive challenges a novice learner would be faced with when first exposed to 3D anatomical content, a six-step cognitive task analysis was developed. Following this, an experimental study was conducted to explore how presentation formats (dynamic vs. static visualizations) support learning of functional anatomy, and affect subsequent anatomical tasks derived from the cognitive task analysis. A second aim was to investigate the interplay between spatial abilities (spatial visualization and spatial relation) and presentation formats when the functional anatomy of a 3D scapula and the associated shoulder flexion movement are learned. Findings showed no main effect of the presentation formats on performances, but revealed the predictive influence of spatial visualization and spatial relation abilities on performance. However, an interesting interaction between presentation formats and spatial relation ability for a specific anatomical task was found. This result highlighted the influence of presentation formats when spatial abilities are involved as well as the differentiated influence of spatial abilities on anatomical tasks.

  14. Modelling the relationship between CO2 assimilation and leaf anatomical properties in tomato leaves.

    PubMed

    Berghuijs, Herman N C; Yin, Xinyou; Ho, Q Tri; van der Putten, Peter E L; Verboven, Pieter; Retta, Moges A; Nicolaï, Bart M; Struik, Paul C

    2015-09-01

    The CO2 concentration near Rubisco and, therefore, the rate of CO2 assimilation, is influenced by both leaf anatomical factors and biochemical processes. Leaf anatomical structures act as physical barriers for CO2 transport. Biochemical processes add or remove CO2 along its diffusion pathway through mesophyll. We combined a model that quantifies the diffusive resistance for CO2 using anatomical properties, a model that partitions this resistance and an extended version of the Farquhar-von Caemmerer-Berry model. We parametrized the model by gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence and leaf anatomical measurements from three tomato cultivars. There was generally a good agreement between the predicted and measured light and CO2 response curves. We did a sensitivity analysis to assess how the rate of CO2 assimilation responds to changes in various leaf anatomical properties. Next, we conducted a similar analysis for assumed diffusive properties and curvature factors. Some variables (diffusion pathway length in stroma, diffusion coefficient of the stroma, curvature factors) substantially affected the predicted CO2 assimilation. We recommend more research on the measurements of these variables and on the development of 2-D and 3-D gas diffusion models, since these do not require the diffusion pathway length in the stroma as predefined parameter.

  15. Modelling the relationship between CO2 assimilation and leaf anatomical properties in tomato leaves.

    PubMed

    Berghuijs, Herman N C; Yin, Xinyou; Ho, Q Tri; van der Putten, Peter E L; Verboven, Pieter; Retta, Moges A; Nicolaï, Bart M; Struik, Paul C

    2015-09-01

    The CO2 concentration near Rubisco and, therefore, the rate of CO2 assimilation, is influenced by both leaf anatomical factors and biochemical processes. Leaf anatomical structures act as physical barriers for CO2 transport. Biochemical processes add or remove CO2 along its diffusion pathway through mesophyll. We combined a model that quantifies the diffusive resistance for CO2 using anatomical properties, a model that partitions this resistance and an extended version of the Farquhar-von Caemmerer-Berry model. We parametrized the model by gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence and leaf anatomical measurements from three tomato cultivars. There was generally a good agreement between the predicted and measured light and CO2 response curves. We did a sensitivity analysis to assess how the rate of CO2 assimilation responds to changes in various leaf anatomical properties. Next, we conducted a similar analysis for assumed diffusive properties and curvature factors. Some variables (diffusion pathway length in stroma, diffusion coefficient of the stroma, curvature factors) substantially affected the predicted CO2 assimilation. We recommend more research on the measurements of these variables and on the development of 2-D and 3-D gas diffusion models, since these do not require the diffusion pathway length in the stroma as predefined parameter. PMID:26259196

  16. Factors affecting the success of a large embryo transfer program in Holstein cattle in a commercial herd in the southeast region of the United States.

    PubMed

    Ferraz, P A; Burnley, C; Karanja, J; Viera-Neto, A; Santos, J E P; Chebel, R C; Galvão, K N

    2016-10-15

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate factors affecting in vivo embryo production and pregnancy per embryo transfer (P/ET) in Holstein cattle in the southeast region of the United States. Data from a total of 516 embryo collections and 10,297 ETs performed from 2011 to 2014 were available. For embryo production, the effects of donor parity (nulliparous [N], primiparous [P], multiparous [M]), average temperature-humidity index (THI) at embryo collection, days in milk at embryo collection, occurrence of calving problems, and occurrence of metritis postpartum were evaluated. For P/ET, the effects of donor parity (N or parous), recipient parity (N, P, and M), embryo type (fresh, frozen, IVF, and IVF-frozen), embryo developmental stage (4-7), embryo quality (1-3), recipient estrous cycle day at ET (6-9), average THI at ET, days in milk at ET, milk yield at ET, occurrence of calving problems (abortion, dystocia, twins, fetal death, or retained placenta), and occurrence of metritis postpartum were evaluated. Pregnancy was diagnosed at 41 ± 3 days of gestation. Continuous and binary data were analyzed using the MIXED and GLIMMIX procedures of SAS, respectively. Parity affected embryo production; M had greater number and percentage of unfertilized embryos and lesser percentage of viable embryos than P and N. Recipient parity, embryo type, embryo stage, embryo quality, estrous cycle day at ET, and THI at ET affected P/ET. There was an interaction between recipient parity and THI at ET. P/ET was greater for N than P and greater for P than M, greater for fresh embryos than others, greater for stage 7 than others, greater for quality 1 than 2 and greater for quality 2 than 3, and greater for ET on estrous cycle Day 7 and 8 than 6. P/ET was decreased for THI ≥80 in N and THI ≥72 in P and M. Calving problems and metritis also affected P/ET in P and M and was lesser for cows that had calving problems and metritis. In conclusion, embryo production was affected by

  17. Space-based, but not arm-based, shift in tactile processing in complex regional pain syndrome and its relationship to cooling of the affected limb.

    PubMed

    Moseley, G Lorimer; Gallace, Alberto; Spence, Charles

    2009-11-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) occurs after stroke, but most cases develop after peripheral trauma and without evidence of brain trauma. However, CRPS is associated with symptoms that appear similar to those observed in patients suffering from hemispatial neglect. Ten participants (four males) with CRPS of one arm performed temporal order judgements of pairs of vibrotactile stimuli, one delivered to each hand, at one of 10 possible stimulus onset asynchronies, under two conditions: arms held each side of the midline and arms crossed over the midline. Participants released a foot switch to indicate which hand had been stimulated first. The order of conditions was randomized and the foot under which the switch was positioned was counterbalanced. There were two blocks of 150 trials in each condition. The stimulus onset asynchronicity at which the participants were equally likely to select either hand, the point of subjective simultaneity (PSS), was compared between conditions and between those with left or right-sided symptoms. When arms were not crossed, the participants prioritized stimuli from the unaffected limb over those from the affected limb (mean +/- SD PSS = 25 +/- 7.5 ms) and the magnitude of the PSS strongly related to the degree to which the affected hand was cooler than the unaffected hand (r = 0.942, P < 0.001). When the arms were crossed, the effect was reversed: the participants prioritized stimuli from the affected limb over those from the unaffected limb [PSS = -18 +/- 13 ms; main effect of condition F (1, 9) = 98.6, P < 0.001]. There was no effect of the side of symptoms. These results show that CRPS is associated with a deficit in tactile processing that is defined by the space in which the affected limb normally resides, not by the affected limb itself, and which relates to the relative cooling of the affected limb. This pattern is consistent with data from those with hemispatial neglect after stroke and raises the possibility that chronic

  18. Extraction of the human cerebral ventricular system from MRI: inclusion of anatomical knowledge and clinical perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aziz, Aamer; Hu, Qingmao; Nowinski, Wieslaw L.

    2004-04-01

    The human cerebral ventricular system is a complex structure that is essential for the well being and changes in which reflect disease. It is clinically imperative that the ventricular system be studied in details. For this reason computer assisted algorithms are essential to be developed. We have developed a novel (patent pending) and robust anatomical knowledge-driven algorithm for automatic extraction of the cerebral ventricular system from MRI. The algorithm is not only unique in its image processing aspect but also incorporates knowledge of neuroanatomy, radiological properties, and variability of the ventricular system. The ventricular system is divided into six 3D regions based on the anatomy and its variability. Within each ventricular region a 2D region of interest (ROI) is defined and is then further subdivided into sub-regions. Various strict conditions that detect and prevent leakage into the extra-ventricular space are specified for each sub-region based on anatomical knowledge. Each ROI is processed to calculate its local statistics, local intensity ranges of cerebrospinal fluid and grey and white matters, set a seed point within the ROI, grow region directionally in 3D, check anti-leakage conditions and correct growing if leakage occurs and connects all unconnected regions grown by relaxing growing conditions. The algorithm was tested qualitatively and quantitatively on normal and pathological MRI cases and worked well. In this paper we discuss in more detail inclusion of anatomical knowledge in the algorithm and usefulness of our approach from clinical perspective.

  19. Anatomical Connections of the Functionally Defined "Face Patches" in the Macaque Monkey.

    PubMed

    Grimaldi, Piercesare; Saleem, Kadharbatcha S; Tsao, Doris

    2016-06-15

    The neural circuits underlying face recognition provide a model for understanding visual object representation, social cognition, and hierarchical information processing. A fundamental piece of information lacking to date is the detailed anatomical connections of the face patches. Here, we injected retrograde tracers into four different face patches (PL, ML, AL, AM) to characterize their anatomical connectivity. We found that the patches are strongly and specifically connected to each other, and individual patches receive inputs from extrastriate cortex, the medial temporal lobe, and three subcortical structures (the pulvinar, claustrum, and amygdala). Inputs from prefrontal cortex were surprisingly weak. Patches were densely interconnected to one another in both feedforward and feedback directions, inconsistent with a serial hierarchy. These results provide the first direct anatomical evidence that the face patches constitute a highly specialized system and suggest that subcortical regions may play a vital role in routing face-related information to subsequent processing stages. PMID:27263973

  20. An epidemiologic and anatomic survey of odontogenic infections.

    PubMed

    Haug, R H; Hoffman, M J; Indresano, A T

    1991-09-01

    An 81-month review of patients with infections of odontogenic origin admitted to the oral and maxillofacial surgery service at a county hospital and teaching facility in northeast Ohio is presented. Age, sex, race, etiology, pathogens isolated, admission temperature, and admission white blood cell count were identified and related to the anatomic space(s) encountered. Multispace and single-space infections occurred with equal distribution. In both the multispace and single-space infections, the submandibular and buccal spaces were most frequently involved. Males were affected with single-space infections twice as often as females. An equal distribution among sexes was found in multispace infections. The most common age range for all infections was 25 to 30 years. alpha-Hemolytic streptococci, Bacteroides melaninogenicus, and beta-hemolytic streptococci were the most frequently isolated pathogens. Third molars were the prevalent cause in both multispace and single-space infections that required hospital admission.

  1. Diffusing capacity and anatomic dead space for carbon-18 monoxide.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, P. D.; Mazzone, R. W.; West, J. B.

    1971-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is difficult to measure with a respiratory mass spectrometer because of the similar mass numbers of CO and nitrogen, but this is possible using carbon-18 monoxide. The mass resolution, signal-to-noise ratio, linearity, and background were all found to be adequate. The measurement of the single-breath diffusing capacity was examined. Unless the mean alveolar volume during breath holding is used in the calculation, the value for Dco obtained depends on which portion of the alveolar sample is analyzed. The anatomic dead space for CO was found to be almost the same as that for argon suggesting that the diffusion rate at the dead space-alveolar gas interface was not greatly affected by the alveolar concentration of the gas.

  2. Foundations of Intonational Meaning: Anatomical and Physiological Factors.

    PubMed

    Gussenhoven, Carlos

    2016-04-01

    Like non-verbal communication, paralinguistic communication is rooted in anatomical and physiological factors. Paralinguistic form-meaning relations arise from the way these affect speech production, with some fine-tuning by the cultural and linguistic context. The effects have been classified as "biological codes," following the terminological lead of John Ohala's Frequency Code. Intonational morphemes, though arguably non-arbitrary in principle, are in fact heavily biased toward these paralinguistic meanings. Paralinguistic and linguistic meanings for four biological codes are illustrated. In addition to the Frequency Code, the Effort Code, and the Respiratory Code, the Sirenic Code is introduced here, which is based on the use of whispery phonation, widely seen as being responsible for the signaling and perception of feminine attractiveness and sometimes used to express interrogativity in language. In the context of the evolution of language, the relations between physiological conditions and the resulting paralinguistic and linguistic meanings will need to be clarified. PMID:27016315

  3. Anatomical landmark detection using nearest neighbor matching and submodular optimization.

    PubMed

    Liu, David; Zhou, S Kevin

    2012-01-01

    We present a two-stage method for effective and efficient detection of one or multiple anatomical landmarks in an arbitrary 3D volume. The first stage of nearest neighbor matching is to roughly estimate the landmark locations. It searches out of 100,000 volumes for the closest to an input volume and then transfers landmark annotations to the input. The second stage of submodular optimization is to refine the landmark locations by running discriminative landmark detectors within the search ranges constrained by the first stage results. Further it coordinates multiple detectors with a search strategy optimized on the fly to reduce the overall computation cost arising in a submodular formulation. We validate the accuracy, speed and robustness of our approach by detecting body regions and landmarks in a dataset of 2500 CT scans. PMID:23286155

  4. Anatomical variations of the human suprarenal arteries.

    PubMed

    Manso, J C; DiDio, L J

    2000-09-01

    This is on anatomical study of the suprarenal arteries and their variations in 30 cadavers aimed at providing in a subsequent article the anatomical basis of arterial segments of the gland. The suprarenal glands were supplied by 3 main groups of suprarenal arteries: superior, middle and inferior. Only the superior and the inferior groups were present in all cases, since the middle vessels appeared in only 93.3% +/- 4.6 of the cases. The superior group included on each side 4 arteries in males and 5 in females; the middle group presented only 1 artery on each side in both males and females, and the inferior group exhibited on each side 2 arteries in males and 1 artery in females. The most variable group was the middle one, the aortic origin being the most frequent but with a relatively low incidence (53.3% +/- 9.1 on the right and 46.7% +/- 9.1 on the left). The superior group originated from the posterior branch of the ipsilateral inferior phrenic artery in 83.3% +/- 6.8 on the right and 80% +/- 7.3 on the left. The arteries of the inferior group were branches of the ipsilateral renal artery in 70% +/- 8.4 on the right and 50% +/- 9.1 on the left. The origin of the middle suprarenal arteries from the trunk of the inferior phrenic artery on both sides (26.7% +/- 8.1 on the right and 36.7% +/- 8.8 on the left) should be considered relevant. The anatomical findings warrant a further investigation for the identification, illustration and nomenclature of arterial anatomicosurgical segments.

  5. Prostatome: A combined anatomical and disease based MRI atlas of the prostate

    SciTech Connect

    Rusu, Mirabela; Madabhushi, Anant; Bloch, B. Nicolas; Jaffe, Carl C.; Genega, Elizabeth M.; Lenkinski, Robert E.; Rofsky, Neil M.; Feleppa, Ernest

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: In this work, the authors introduce a novel framework, the anatomically constrained registration (AnCoR) scheme and apply it to create a fused anatomic-disease atlas of the prostate which the authors refer to as the prostatome. The prostatome combines a MRI based anatomic and a histology based disease atlas. Statistical imaging atlases allow for the integration of information across multiple scales and imaging modalities into a single canonical representation, in turn enabling a fused anatomical-disease representation which may facilitate the characterization of disease appearance relative to anatomic structures. While statistical atlases have been extensively developed and studied for the brain, approaches that have attempted to combine pathology and imaging data for study of prostate pathology are not extant. This works seeks to address this gap. Methods: The AnCoR framework optimizes a scoring function composed of two surface (prostate and central gland) misalignment measures and one intensity-based similarity term. This ensures the correct mapping of anatomic regions into the atlas, even when regional MRI intensities are inconsistent or highly variable between subjects. The framework allows for creation of an anatomic imaging and a disease atlas, while enabling their fusion into the anatomic imaging-disease atlas. The atlas presented here was constructed using 83 subjects with biopsy confirmed cancer who had pre-operative MRI (collected at two institutions) followed by radical prostatectomy. The imaging atlas results from mapping thein vivo MRI into the canonical space, while the anatomic regions serve as domain constraints. Elastic co-registration MRI and corresponding ex vivo histology provides “ground truth” mapping of cancer extent on in vivo imaging for 23 subjects. Results: AnCoR was evaluated relative to alternative construction strategies that use either MRI intensities or the prostate surface alone for registration. The AnCoR framework

  6. Prostatome: A combined anatomical and disease based MRI atlas of the prostate

    PubMed Central

    Rusu, Mirabela; Bloch, B. Nicolas; Jaffe, Carl C.; Genega, Elizabeth M.; Lenkinski, Robert E.; Rofsky, Neil M.; Feleppa, Ernest; Madabhushi, Anant

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In this work, the authors introduce a novel framework, the anatomically constrained registration (AnCoR) scheme and apply it to create a fused anatomic-disease atlas of the prostate which the authors refer to as the prostatome. The prostatome combines a MRI based anatomic and a histology based disease atlas. Statistical imaging atlases allow for the integration of information across multiple scales and imaging modalities into a single canonical representation, in turn enabling a fused anatomical-disease representation which may facilitate the characterization of disease appearance relative to anatomic structures. While statistical atlases have been extensively developed and studied for the brain, approaches that have attempted to combine pathology and imaging data for study of prostate pathology are not extant. This works seeks to address this gap. Methods: The AnCoR framework optimizes a scoring function composed of two surface (prostate and central gland) misalignment measures and one intensity-based similarity term. This ensures the correct mapping of anatomic regions into the atlas, even when regional MRI intensities are inconsistent or highly variable between subjects. The framework allows for creation of an anatomic imaging and a disease atlas, while enabling their fusion into the anatomic imaging-disease atlas. The atlas presented here was constructed using 83 subjects with biopsy confirmed cancer who had pre-operative MRI (collected at two institutions) followed by radical prostatectomy. The imaging atlas results from mapping thein vivo MRI into the canonical space, while the anatomic regions serve as domain constraints. Elastic co-registration MRI and corresponding ex vivo histology provides “ground truth” mapping of cancer extent on in vivo imaging for 23 subjects. Results: AnCoR was evaluated relative to alternative construction strategies that use either MRI intensities or the prostate surface alone for registration. The AnCoR framework

  7. Anatomical and spatial matching in imitation: Evidence from left and right brain-damaged patients.

    PubMed

    Mengotti, Paola; Ripamonti, Enrico; Pesavento, Valentina; Rumiati, Raffaella Ida

    2015-12-01

    Imitation is a sensorimotor process whereby the visual information present in the model's movement has to be coupled with the activation of the motor system in the observer. This also implies that greater the similarity between the seen and the produced movement, the easier it will be to execute the movement, a process also known as ideomotor compatibility. Two components can influence the degree of similarity between two movements: the anatomical and the spatial component. The anatomical component is present when the model and imitator move the same body part (e.g., the right hand) while the spatial component is present when the movement of the model and that of the imitator occur at the same spatial position. Imitation can be achieved by relying on both components, but typically the model's and imitator's movements are matched either anatomically or spatially. The aim of this study was to ascertain the contribution of the left and right hemisphere to the imitation accomplished either with anatomical or spatial matching (or with both). Patients with unilateral left and right brain damage performed an ideomotor task and a gesture imitation task. Lesions in the left and right hemispheres gave rise to different performance deficits. Patients with lesions in the left hemisphere showed impaired imitation when anatomical matching was required, and patients with lesions in the right hemisphere showed impaired imitation when spatial matching was required. Lesion analysis further revealed a differential involvement of left and right hemispheric regions, such as the parietal opercula, in supporting imitation in the ideomotor task. Similarly, gesture imitation seemed to rely on different regions in the left and right hemisphere, such as parietal regions in the left hemisphere and premotor, somatosensory and subcortical regions in the right hemisphere.

  8. Tennis elbow. Anatomical, epidemiological and therapeutic aspects.

    PubMed

    Verhaar, J A

    1994-10-01

    Five studies of tennis elbow are presented. Epidemiological studies showed an incidence of tennis elbow between 1 and 2%. The prevalence of tennis elbow in women between 40 and 50 years of age was 10%. Half of the patients with tennis elbow seek medical attention. Local corticosteroid injections were superior to the physiotherapy regime of Cyriax. Release of the common forearm extensor origin resulted in 70% excellent or good results one year after operation and 89% at five years. Anatomical investigations and nerve conduction studies of the Radial Tunnel Syndrome supported the hypothesis that the Lateral Cubital Force Transmission System is involved in the pathogenesis of tennis elbow.

  9. Departmental audit in surgical anatomical pathology.

    PubMed

    Hocking, G R; Niteckis, V N; Cairns, B J; Hayman, J A

    1997-11-01

    Internal auditing of performance by pathology providers is a necessary component of total quality management. In this study a peer review of 10% of departmental surgical anatomical pathology accessions received over a seven month period was performed. A number of critical performance parameters were analysed including turn-around times, accuracy of reports and technical proficiency. The results demonstrated an approximate 2% significant error rate in macroscopic and microscopic descriptions, technically good quality sections and stains and generally satisfactory turn-around times. The value and costing of such an audit and changes initiated by the audit are discussed.

  10. Effects of anatomical constraints on tumor growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capogrosso Sansone, B.; Delsanto, P. P.; Magnano, M.; Scalerandi, M.

    2001-08-01

    Competition for available nutrients and the presence of anatomical barriers are major determinants of tumor growth in vivo. We extend a model recently proposed to simulate the growth of neoplasms in real tissues to include geometrical constraints mimicking pressure effects on the tumor surface induced by the presence of rigid or semirigid structures. Different tissues have different diffusivities for nutrients and cells. Despite the simplicity of the approach, based on a few inherently local mechanisms, the numerical results agree qualitatively with clinical data (computed tomography scans of neoplasms) for the larynx and the oral cavity.

  11. Jugular foramen: anatomic and computed tomographic study

    SciTech Connect

    Daniels, D.L.; Williams, A.L.; Haughton, V.M.

    1984-01-01

    The computed tomographic (CT) appearance of the jugular foramen was examined in detail, and anatomic and CT sections were correlated. The pars nervosa and pars vascularis were identified, and, with intravenous contrast enhancement, a rapid sequence of scans at a gantry angle of +30/sup 0/ to the canthomeatal line demonstrated cranial nerves IX, X, and XI. The osseous margins of the jugular foramen were best shown by CT at planes of sections parallel and positive (0/sup 0/-30/sup 0/) to the canthomeatal line. CT can be used to evaluate osseous anatomy and the jugular foramen with precision sufficient to confidently exclude an intracanalicular mass.

  12. A partial MECP2 duplication in a mildly affected adult male: a putative role for the 3' untranslated region in the MECP2 duplication phenotype

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Duplications of the X-linked MECP2 gene are associated with moderate to severe intellectual disability, epilepsy, and neuropsychiatric illness in males, while triplications are associated with a more severe phenotype. Most carrier females show complete skewing of X-inactivation in peripheral blood and an apparent susceptibility to specific personality traits or neuropsychiatric symptoms. Methods We describe the clinical phenotype of a pedigree segregating a duplication of MECP2 found on clinical array comparative genomic hybridization. The position, size, and extent of the duplication were delineated in peripheral blood samples from affected individuals using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and fluorescence in situ hybridization, as well as targeted high-resolution oligonucleotide microarray analysis and long-range PCR. The molecular consequences of the rearrangement were studied in lymphoblast cell lines using quantitative real-time PCR, reverse transcriptase PCR, and western blot analysis. Results We observed a partial MECP2 duplication in an adult male with epilepsy and mild neurocognitive impairment who was able to function independently; this phenotype has not previously been reported among males harboring gains in MECP2 copy number. The same duplication was inherited by this individual’s daughter who was also affected with neurocognitive impairment and epilepsy and carried an additional copy-number variant. The duplicated segment involved all four exons of MECP2, but excluded almost the entire 3' untranslated region (UTR), and the genomic rearrangement resulted in a MECP2-TEX28 fusion gene mRNA transcript. Increased expression of MECP2 and the resulting fusion gene were both confirmed; however, western blot analysis of lysates from lymphoblast cells demonstrated increased MeCP2 protein without evidence of a stable fusion gene protein product. Conclusion The observations of a mildly affected adult male with a MECP2 duplication and

  13. Anatomic Optical Coherence Tomography of Upper Airways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin Loy, Anthony; Jing, Joseph; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Yong; Elghobashi, Said; Chen, Zhongping; Wong, Brian J. F.

    The upper airway is a complex and intricate system responsible for respiration, phonation, and deglutition. Obstruction of the upper airways afflicts an estimated 12-18 million Americans. Pharyngeal size and shape are important factors in the pathogenesis of airway obstructions. In addition, nocturnal loss in pharyngeal muscular tone combined with high pharyngeal resistance can lead to collapse of the airway and periodic partial or complete upper airway obstruction. Anatomical optical coherence tomography (OCT) has the potential to provide high-speed three-dimensional tomographic images of the airway lumen without the use of ionizing radiation. In this chapter we describe the methods behind endoscopic OCT imaging and processing to generate full three dimensional anatomical models of the human airway which can be used in conjunction with numerical simulation methods to assess areas of airway obstruction. Combining this structural information with flow dynamic simulations, we can better estimate the site and causes of airway obstruction and better select and design surgery for patients with obstructive sleep apnea.

  14. Anatomic factors associated with recurrent pregnancy loss.

    PubMed

    Propst, A M; Hill, J A

    2000-01-01

    Anatomic uterine defects appear to predispose women to reproductive difficulties, including first- and second-trimester pregnancy losses, higher rates of preterm labor and birth, and abnormal fetal presentation. These anatomic abnormalities can be classified as congenital, including müllerian and diethylstilbestrol-related abnormalities, or acquired, such as intrauterine adhesions or leiomyomata. In women with three or more consecutive spontaneous abortions who underwent hysterosalpingography or hysteroscopic examination of their uteri, mullerian anomalies have been found in 8 to 10%. Women with mullerian anomalies may be predisposed to recurrent pregnancy loss because of inadequate vascularity to the developing embryo and placenta, reduced intraluminal volume, or cervical incompetence. The reproductive history of most women with a müllerian anomaly is poor, especially for women with a uterine septum, the most common mullerian anomaly. Recurrent pregnancy losses resulting from a uterine septum, bicornuate uterus, intrauterine adhesions, and fibroids are amenable to surgical correction. Women with müllerian anomaly and a history of second-trimester pregnancy losses may benefit from a prophylactic cervical cerclage.

  15. Anatomical and molecular imaging of skin cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Hao; Sun, Jiangtao; Cai, Weibo

    2008-01-01

    Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer types. It is generally divided into two categories: melanoma (∼ 5%) and nonmelanoma (∼ 95%), which can be further categorized into basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and some rare skin cancer types. Biopsy is still the gold standard for skin cancer evaluation in the clinic. Various anatomical imaging techniques have been used to evaluate different types of skin cancer lesions, including laser scanning confocal microscopy, optical coherence tomography, high-frequency ultrasound, terahertz pulsed imaging, magnetic resonance imaging, and some other recently developed techniques such as photoacoustic microscopy. However, anatomical imaging alone may not be sufficient in guiding skin cancer diagnosis and therapy. Over the last decade, various molecular imaging techniques (in particular single photon emission computed tomography and positron emission tomography) have been investigated for skin cancer imaging. The pathways or molecular targets that have been studied include glucose metabolism, integrin αvβ3, melanocortin-1 receptor, high molecular weight melanoma-associated antigen, and several other molecular markers. Preclinical molecular imaging is thriving all over the world, while clinical molecular imaging has not lived up to the expectations because of slow bench-to-bedside translation. It is likely that this situation will change in the near future and molecular imaging will truly play an important role in personalized medicine of melanoma patients. PMID:21437135

  16. Anatomical modeling of the bronchial tree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hentschel, Gerrit; Klinder, Tobias; Blaffert, Thomas; Bülow, Thomas; Wiemker, Rafael; Lorenz, Cristian

    2010-02-01

    The bronchial tree is of direct clinical importance in the context of respective diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It furthermore constitutes a reference structure for object localization in the lungs and it finally provides access to lung tissue in, e.g., bronchoscope based procedures for diagnosis and therapy. This paper presents a comprehensive anatomical model for the bronchial tree, including statistics of position, relative and absolute orientation, length, and radius of 34 bronchial segments, going beyond previously published results. The model has been built from 16 manually annotated CT scans, covering several branching variants. The model is represented as a centerline/tree structure but can also be converted in a surface representation. Possible model applications are either to anatomically label extracted bronchial trees or to improve the tree extraction itself by identifying missing segments or sub-trees, e.g., if located beyond a bronchial stenosis. Bronchial tree labeling is achieved using a naïve Bayesian classifier based on the segment properties contained in the model in combination with tree matching. The tree matching step makes use of branching variations covered by the model. An evaluation of the model has been performed in a leaveone- out manner. In total, 87% of the branches resulting from preceding airway tree segmentation could be correctly labeled. The individualized model enables the detection of missing branches, allowing a targeted search, e.g., a local rerun of the tree-segmentation segmentation.

  17. Anatomic asymmetric prostheses: shaping the breast.

    PubMed

    Mira, Juan A

    2003-01-01

    Over more than 50 years the manufacturers of mammary prostheses have offered implants of two basic shapes, sphere or teardrop, and always unilateral (symmetric). In the year 2001 Poly Implants Prothèse invited us to participate in the development of a device that, in our opinion, was going to change the conceptual design for mammary augmentation and reconstruction: the asymmetric anatomical prosthesis (AAP). On December 10, 2001 we performed, via the transareolaris inferior, the first breast augmentation using a prototype of anatomic, asymmetric, cohesive silicone implants. The result was pleasing in all aspects. The prostheses were capable to reproduce faithfully, in all dimensions, the anatomy of the female breasts, including the differences between each side. Since then, we have used the AAP with two different contents, silicone cohesive gel and Hidrogel, this last model in which we are currently experimenting. We utilized either a transareolar or submammary approach, according to the case (atrophy, ptosis, tuberous breast, etc.). We present in this paper the features of this new prosthesis, the procedures used for their implant, and a comparative analysis of our results. PMID:14629058

  18. Retinal vascular tree reconstruction with anatomical realism.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kai-Shun; Tsai, Chia-Ling; Tsai, Chih-Hsiangng; Sofka, Michal; Chen, Shih-Jen; Lin, Wei-Yang

    2012-12-01

    Motivated by the goals of automatically extracting vessel segments and constructing retinal vascular trees with anatomical realism, this paper presents and analyses an algorithm that combines vessel segmentation and grouping of the extracted vessel segments. The proposed method aims to restore the topology of the vascular trees with anatomical realism for clinical studies and diagnosis of retinal vascular diseases, which manifest abnormalities in either venous and/or arterial vascular systems. Vessel segments are grouped using extended Kalman filter which takes into account continuities in curvature, width, and intensity changes at the bifurcation or crossover point. At a junction, the proposed method applies the minimum-cost matching algorithm to resolve the conflict in grouping due to error in tracing. The system was trained with 20 images from the DRIVE dataset, and tested using the remaining 20 images. The dataset contained a mixture of normal and pathological images. In addition, six pathological fluorescein angiogram sequences were also included in this study. The results were compared against the groundtruth images provided by a physician, achieving average success rates of 88.79% and 90.09%, respectively.

  19. Arthroscopic Anatomic Glenoid Reconstruction Without Subscapularis Split

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Ivan H.; Urquhart, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    The role of bone loss from the anterior glenoid in recurrent shoulder instability has been well established. We present a completely arthroscopic technique for reconstructing the anterior glenoid with distal tibial allograft and without a subscapularis split. We perform the arthroscopy in the lateral position. We measure and size an allograft distal tibial graft and place it arthroscopically. We use an inside-out medial portal to introduce the graft into the shoulder, passing it through the rotator interval and above the subscapularis. A double-cannula system is used to pass the graft, which is temporarily fixed with K-wires and held in place with cannulated screws. We then perform a Bankart-like repair of the soft tissues to balance the shoulder and augment our repair. Our technique is not only anatomic in the re-creation of the glenoid surface but also anatomic in the preservation of the coracoid and subscapularis tendon and repair of the capsulolabral complex. PMID:26697303

  20. Root anatomical phenes predict root penetration ability and biomechanical properties in maize (Zea Mays)

    PubMed Central

    Chimungu, Joseph G.; Loades, Kenneth W.; Lynch, Jonathan P.

    2015-01-01

    The ability of roots to penetrate hard soil is important for crop productivity but specific root phenes contributing to this ability are poorly understood. Root penetrability and biomechanical properties are likely to vary in the root system dependent on anatomical structure. No information is available to date on the influence of root anatomical phenes on root penetrability and biomechanics. Root penetration ability was evaluated using a wax layer system. Root tensile and bending strength were evaluated in plant roots grown in the greenhouse and in the field. Root anatomical phenes were found to be better predictors of root penetrability than root diameter per se and associated with smaller distal cortical region cell size. Smaller outer cortical region cells play an important role in stabilizing the root against ovalization and reducing the risk of local buckling and collapse during penetration, thereby increasing root penetration of hard layers. The use of stele diameter was found to be a better predictor of root tensile strength than root diameter. Cortical thickness, cortical cell count, cortical cell wall area and distal cortical cell size were stronger predictors of root bend strength than root diameter. Our results indicate that root anatomical phenes are important predictors for root penetrability of high-strength layers and root biomechanical properties. PMID:25903914

  1. A UV-to-MIR Monitoring of DR Tau: Exploring How Water Vapor in the Planet Formation Region is Affected by Stellar Accretion Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banzatti, A.; Meyer, M. R.; Manara, C. F.; Pontoppidan, K. M.; Testi, L.

    2014-01-01

    Young stars are known to show variability due to non-steady mass accretion rate from their circumstellar disks. Accretion flares can produce strong energetic irradiation and heating that may affect the disk in the planet formation region, close to the central star. During an extreme accretion outburst in the young star EX Lupi, the prototype of EXor variables, remarkable changes in molecular gas emission from ~1 AU in the disk have recently been observed. Here, we focus on water vapor and explore how it is affected by variable accretion luminosity in T Tauri stars. We monitored a young highly variable solar-mass star, DR Tau, using simultaneously two high/medium-resolution spectrographs at the European Southern Observatory Very Large Telescope: VISIR at 12.4 μm to observe water lines from the disk and X-shooter covering from 0.3 to 2.5 μm to constrain the stellar accretion. Three epochs spanning timescales from several days to several weeks were obtained. The accretion luminosity was estimated to change within a factor of ~2 and no change in water emission was detected at a significant level. In comparison with EX Lupi and EXor outbursts, DR Tau suggests that the less long-lived and weaker variability phenomena typical of T Tauri stars may leave water at planet-forming radii in the disk mostly unaffected. We propose that these systems may provide evidence for two processes that act over different timescales: ultraviolet photochemistry in the disk atmosphere (faster) and heating of the deeper disk layers (slower).

  2. A UV-to-MIR monitoring of DR Tau: Exploring how water vapor in the planet formation region is affected by stellar accretion variability

    SciTech Connect

    Banzatti, A.; Meyer, M. R.; Manara, C. F.; Testi, L.; Pontoppidan, K. M.

    2014-01-01

    Young stars are known to show variability due to non-steady mass accretion rate from their circumstellar disks. Accretion flares can produce strong energetic irradiation and heating that may affect the disk in the planet formation region, close to the central star. During an extreme accretion outburst in the young star EX Lupi, the prototype of EXor variables, remarkable changes in molecular gas emission from ∼1 AU in the disk have recently been observed. Here, we focus on water vapor and explore how it is affected by variable accretion luminosity in T Tauri stars. We monitored a young highly variable solar-mass star, DR Tau, using simultaneously two high/medium-resolution spectrographs at the European Southern Observatory Very Large Telescope: VISIR at 12.4 μm to observe water lines from the disk and X-shooter covering from 0.3 to 2.5 μm to constrain the stellar accretion. Three epochs spanning timescales from several days to several weeks were obtained. The accretion luminosity was estimated to change within a factor of ∼2 and no change in water emission was detected at a significant level. In comparison with EX Lupi and EXor outbursts, DR Tau suggests that the less long-lived and weaker variability phenomena typical of T Tauri stars may leave water at planet-forming radii in the disk mostly unaffected. We propose that these systems may provide evidence for two processes that act over different timescales: ultraviolet photochemistry in the disk atmosphere (faster) and heating of the deeper disk layers (slower).

  3. The mRNA expression and histological integrity in rat forebrain motor and sensory regions are minimally affected by acrylamide exposure through drinking water

    SciTech Connect

    Bowyer, John F.; Latendresse, John R.; Delongchamp, Robert R.; Warbritton, Alan R.; Thomas, Monzy; Divine, Becky; Doerge, Daniel R.

    2009-11-01

    A study was undertaken to determine whether alterations in the gene expression or overt histological signs of neurotoxicity in selected regions of the forebrain might occur from acrylamide exposure via drinking water. Gene expression at the mRNA level was evaluated by cDNA array and/or RT-PCR analysis in the striatum, substantia nigra and parietal cortex of rat after a 2-week acrylamide exposure. The highest dose tested (maximally tolerated) of approximately 44 mg/kg/day resulted in a significant decreased body weight, sluggishness, and locomotor activity reduction. These physiological effects were not accompanied by prominent changes in gene expression in the forebrain. All the expression changes seen in the 1200 genes that were evaluated in the three brain regions were <= 1.5-fold, and most not significant. Very few, if any, statistically significant changes were seen in mRNA levels of the more than 50 genes directly related to the cholinergic, noradrenergic, GABAergic or glutamatergic neurotransmitter systems in the striatum, substantia nigra or parietal cortex. All the expression changes observed in genes related to dopaminergic function were less than 1.5-fold and not statistically significant and the 5HT1b receptor was the only serotonin-related gene affected. Therefore, gene expression changes were few and modest in basal ganglia and sensory cortex at a time when the behavioral manifestations of acrylamide toxicity had become prominent. No histological evidence of axonal, dendritic or neuronal cell body damage was found in the forebrain due to the acrylamide exposure. As well, microglial activation was not present. These findings are consistent with the absence of expression changes in genes related to changes in neuroinflammation or neurotoxicity. Over all, these data suggest that oral ingestion of acrylamide in drinking water or food, even at maximally tolerable levels, induced neither marked changes in gene expression nor neurotoxicity in the motor and

  4. Identification of a Single-Nucleotide Insertion in the Promoter Region Affecting the sodC Promoter Activity in Brucella neotomae

    PubMed Central

    Moustafa, Dina A.; Jain, Neeta; Sriranganathan, Nammalwar; Vemulapalli, Ramesh

    2010-01-01

    Brucella neotomae is not known to be associated with clinical disease in any host species. Previous research suggested that B. neotomae might not express detectable levels of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD), a periplasmic enzyme known to be involved in protecting Brucella from oxidative bactericidal effects of host phagocytes. This study was undertaken to investigate the genetic basis for the disparity in SOD expression in B. neotomae. Our Western blot and SOD enzyme assay analyses indicated that B. neotomae does express SOD, but at a substantially reduced level. Nucleotide sequence analysis of region upstream to the sodC gene identified a single-nucleotide insertion in the potential promoter region. The same single-nucleotide insertion was also detected in the sodC promoter of B. suis strain Thomsen, belonging to biovar 2 in which SOD expression was undetectable previously. Examination of the sodC promoter activities using translational fusion constructs with E. coli β-galactosidase demonstrated that the B. neotomae and B. suis biovar 2 promoters were very weak in driving gene expression. Site-directed mutation studies indicated that the insertion of A in the B. neotomae sodC promoter reduced the promoter activity. Increasing the level of SOD expression in B. neotomae through complementation with B. abortus sodC gene did not alter the bacterial survival in J774A.1 macrophage-like cells and in tissues of BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. These results for the first time demonstrate the occurrence of a single-nucleotide polymorphism affecting promoter function and gene expression in Brucella. PMID:21124845

  5. Human Polyomavirus JC monitoring and noncoding control region analysis in dynamic cohorts of individuals affected by immune-mediated diseases under treatment with biologics: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) onset, caused by Polyomavirus JC (JCPyV) in patients affected by immune-mediated diseases during biological treatment, raised concerns about the safety profile of these agents. Therefore, the aims of this study were the JCPyV reactivation monitoring and the noncoding control region (NCCR) and viral protein 1 (VP1) analysis in patients affected by different immune-mediated diseases and treated with biologics. Methods We performed JCPyV-specific quantitative PCR of biological samples collected at moment of recruitment (t0) and every 4 months (t1, t2, t3, t4). Subsequently, rearrangements’ analysis of NCCR and VP1 was carried out. Data were analyzed using χ2 test. Results Results showed that at t0 patients with chronic inflammatory rheumatic diseases presented a JCPyV load in the urine significantly higher (p≤0.05) than in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and Crohn’s disease (CD). It can also be observed a significant association between JC viruria and JCPyV antibodies after 1 year of natalizumab (p=0.04) in MS patients. Finally, NCCR analysis showed the presence of an archetype-like sequence in all urine samples, whereas a rearranged NCCR Type IR was found in colon-rectal biopsies collected from 2 CD patients after 16 months of infliximab. Furthermore, sequences isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of 2 MS patients with JCPyV antibody at t0 and t3, showed a NCCR Type IIR with a duplication of a 98 bp unit and a 66 bp insert, resulting in a boxB deletion and 37 T to G transversion into the Spi-B binding site. In all patients, a prevalence of genotypes 1A and 1B, the predominant JCPyV genotypes in Europe, was observed. Conclusions It has been important to understand whether the specific inflammatory scenario in different immune-mediated diseases could affect JCPyV reactivation from latency, in particular from kidneys. Moreover, for a more accurate PML risk stratification

  6. Swept-source anatomic optical coherence elastography of porcine trachea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bu, Ruofei; Price, Hillel; Mitran, Sorin; Zdanski, Carlton; Oldenburg, Amy L.

    2016-02-01

    Quantitative endoscopic imaging is at the vanguard of novel techniques in the assessment upper airway obstruction. Anatomic optical coherence tomography (aOCT) has the potential to provide the geometry of the airway lumen with high-resolution and in 4 dimensions. By coupling aOCT with measurements of pressure, optical coherence elastography (OCE) can be performed to characterize airway wall stiffness. This can aid in identifying regions of dynamic collapse as well as informing computational fluid dynamics modeling to aid in surgical decision-making. Toward this end, here we report on an anatomic optical coherence tomography (aOCT) system powered by a wavelength-swept laser source. The system employs a fiber-optic catheter with outer diameter of 0.82 mm deployed via the bore of a commercial, flexible bronchoscope. Helical scans are performed to measure the airway geometry and to quantify the cross-sectional-area (CSA) of the airway. We report on a preliminary validation of aOCT for elastography, in which aOCT-derived CSA was obtained as a function of pressure to estimate airway wall compliance. Experiments performed on a Latex rubber tube resulted in a compliance measurement of 0.68+/-0.02 mm2/cmH2O, with R2=0.98 over the pressure range from 10 to 40 cmH2O. Next, ex vivo porcine trachea was studied, resulting in a measured compliance from 1.06+/-0.12 to 3.34+/-0.44 mm2/cmH2O, (R2>0.81). The linearity of the data confirms the elastic nature of the airway. The compliance values are within the same order-of-magnitude as previous measurements of human upper airways, suggesting that this system is capable of assessing airway wall compliance in future human studies.

  7. The anatomical tibial axis: reliable rotational orientation in knee replacement.

    PubMed

    Cobb, J P; Dixon, H; Dandachli, W; Iranpour, F

    2008-08-01

    The rotational alignment of the tibia is an unresolved issue in knee replacement. A poor functional outcome may be due to malrotation of the tibial component. Our aim was to find a reliable method for positioning the tibial component in knee replacement. CT scans of 19 knees were reconstructed in three dimensions and orientated vertically. An axial plane was identified 20 mm below the tibial spines. The centre of each tibial condyle was calculated from ten points taken round the condylar cortex. The tibial tubercle centre was also generated as the centre of the circle which best fitted eight points on the outside of the tubercle in an axial plane at the level of its most prominent point. The derived points were identified by three observers with errors of 0.6 mm to 1 mm. The medial and lateral tibial centres were constant features (radius 24 mm (SD 3), and 22 mm (SD 3), respectively). An anatomical axis was created perpendicular to the line joining these two points. The tubercle centre was found to be 20 mm (SD 7) lateral to the centre of the medial tibial condyle. Compared with this axis, an axis perpendicular to the posterior condylar axis was internally rotated by 6 degrees (SD 3). An axis based on the tibial tubercle and the tibial spines was also internally rotated by 5 degrees (sd 10). Alignment of the knee when based on this anatomical axis was more reliable than either the posterior surfaces or any axis involving the tubercle which was the least reliable landmark in the region.

  8. Trying to Learn Lessons for Response to Extreme Events: Paradigm Shifts Affecting Civil Defense in the Trinational Region of Southwestern Amazonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, G. L. P.

    2015-12-01

    The last ten years have seen several extreme climate events in southwestern Amazonia with historic impacts. The City of Rio Branco, Capital of Acre, Brazil´s westernmost State, suffered its seventh consecutive annual flooding and its worst in March 2015. The city of Tarauacá, also in Acre, registered 12 flooding events between November 2014 and April 2015. The most recent flood of the trinational Acre River in 2015 set historic records for flood stage and number of displaced persons in Cobija, the Capital of Pando, Bolivia. From February to April 2014, floods of the Madeira River disrupted the one highway between Acre and southern Brazil. Puerto Maldonado, the capital in Madre de Dios Region of Peru had its worst flood in 50 years during 2014. In 2005 and 2010, prolonged droughts combined with ignition sources resulted in tens to hundreds of thousands of hectares of fire-damaged rainforests in the Madre de Dios, Acre and Pando (MAP) Region. The Civil Defenses in these three contiguous political units faced several abrupt paradigm shifts that affected their responses: 1) The drought of 2005 showed dramatically that regional rainforests do burn; 2) The recent flooding history, particularly in 2012 and 2015, demolished the cultural icon of a nine-year recurrence interval; 3) What happens outside your territory can be devastating. The Madeira River flood impeded an estimated 200 million dollars from circulating in Acre; 4) The past can be a terrible guide. For Cobija and Rio Branco, the 2015 flood was on the order of a meter higher than any other. Many home dwellers did not evacuate in time because they used past floods as a guide; 5) A collapse in communication - cell phones, land lines, and Internet - can get worse. In 2012, such a collapse occurred in two border towns for 5 days, yet in 2015 it lasted more than 11 days. Research is needed to address how institutions linked to Civil Defense can shift paradigms in time to be more effective.

  9. An investigation of anatomical competence in junior medical doctors.

    PubMed

    Vorstenbosch, Marc A T M; Kooloos, Jan G M; Bolhuis, Sanneke M; Laan, Roland F J M

    2016-01-01

    Because of a decrease of the time available for anatomy education, decisions need to be made to reduce the relevant content of the anatomy curriculum. Several expert consensus initiatives resulted in lists of structures, lacking analysis of anatomical competence. This study aims to explore the use of anatomical knowledge by medical doctors in an attempt to delineate the nature of anatomical competence. The research question is: what kind of anatomical knowledge do junior medical doctors use during a consultation with a patient presenting with a shoulder complaint? Ten junior medical doctors participated in this stimulated recall study. Each of them was videotaped while performing a consultation with a standardized patient with a complex shoulder complaint. The recording was viewed immediately after. Participants were videotaped again while verbalizing the thoughts they remembered having during the consultation. Verbatim transcriptions were coded by two coders using the qualitative data analysis ATLAS.ti software. Results were that these junior medical doctors used anatomical knowledge in all phases of the consultation, especially during physical examination. The use of anatomical terms was strongly associated with clinical reasoning and it was apparent that every subject visualized relevant anatomical information. Conclusion is that young medical doctors actively use their anatomical knowledge and it seems that the relevant anatomy consists largely of adequate visual representations in memory. Anatomy teachers should focus the students' learning activity on building an adequate visual representation of anatomical structures. This should be supported by assessments that test the quality of the students' visual representations. PMID:25728557

  10. Fleck, anatomical drawings and early modern history.

    PubMed

    Lowy, Ilana

    2008-01-01

    In 2003, the historian of medicine Michael Stolberg, contested the argument--developed by Thomas Laqueur and Londa Schiebinger--that in the XVIII century, anatomists shifted from a one-sex to a two-sexes model. Laqueur and Schiebinger linked the new focus on anatomical differences between the sexes to the rise of egalitarian aspirations during the Enlightenment, and a consecutive need to ground male domination in invariable "laws of nature". Stolberg claimed that the shift to the two sexes model occurred in the early modern period, and was mainly motivated by developments within medicine. This article examines the 2003 debate on the origin of "two sexes" model in the light of a 1939 controversy that opposed the historian of medicine Tadeusz Bilikiewicz, who advocated a focus on a "spirit" of an earlier epoch, and the pioneer of sociology of science Ludwik Fleck, who promoted the study of the "thought styles" of specific scientific communities.

  11. [Antique anatomical collections for contemporary museums].

    PubMed

    Nesi, Gabriella; Santi, Raffaella

    2013-01-01

    Anatomy and Pathology Museum collections display a great biological value and offer unique samples for research purposes. Pathological specimens may be investigated by means of modern radiological and molecular biology techniques in order to provide the etiological background of disease, with relevance to present-day knowledge. Meanwhile, historical resources provide epidemiologic data regarding the socio-economic conditions of the resident populations, the more frequently encountered illnesses and dietary habits. These multidisciplinary approaches lead to more accurate diagnoses also allowing new strategies in cataloguing and musealization of anatomical specimens. Further, once these data are gathered, they may constitute the basis of riedited Museum catalogues feasible to be digitalized and displayed via the Web.

  12. Identifying and managing risk factors for salt-affected soils: a case study in a semi-arid region in China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, De; Xu, Jianchun; Wang, Li; Lin, Zhulu; Liu, Liming

    2015-07-01

    Soil salinization and desalinization are complex processes caused by natural conditions and human-induced risk factors. Conventional salinity risk identification and management methods have limitations in spatial data analysis and often provide an inadequate description of the problem. The objectives of this study were to identify controllable risk factors, to provide response measures, and to design management strategies for salt-affected soils. We proposed to integrate spatial autoregressive (SAR) model, multi-attribute decision making (MADM), and analytic hierarchy process (AHP) for these purposes. Our proposed method was demonstrated through a case study of managing soil salinization in a semi-arid region in China. The results clearly indicated that the SAR model is superior to the OLS model in terms of risk factor identification. These factors include groundwater salinity, paddy area, corn area, aquaculture (i.e., ponds and lakes) area, distance to drainage ditches and irrigation channels, organic fertilizer input, and cropping index, among which the factors related to human land use activities are dominant risk factors that drive the soil salinization processes. We also showed that ecological irrigation and sustainable land use are acceptable strategies for soil salinity management.

  13. Non-double-couple mechanism of moderate earthquakes occurred in Lower Siang region of Arunachal Himalaya: Evidence of factors affecting non-DC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Rohtash; Gupta, S. C.; Kumar, Arjun

    2015-02-01

    Moment Tensor solutions of 104 earthquakes which were observed at local distances in Lower Siang region of Arunachal Himalaya have been estimated using ISOLA code. The magnitude range of analyzed earthquakes lies between 1.8 (Mw) and 5.3 (Mw). Out of 104 earthquakes, only 32 events are having good data. The signal noise ratio of these 32 events is greater than 6 with magnitude greater than 2.5. All possible sources of non-DC such as, noise present in the data, depth of the source, low azimuthal coverage of the event and non-DC as a part of real earthquake source process are examined. The study reveals that non-DC is highly dependent on the source depth as comparatively shallow events shows high CLVD%. The CLVD is also highly affected by the noise present in the data. Another factor is the magnitude of the event. The high magnitude event shows quite high DC%. So the source mechanisms of high magnitude events are double couple (DC).

  14. Identifying and managing risk factors for salt-affected soils: a case study in a semi-arid region in China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, De; Xu, Jianchun; Wang, Li; Lin, Zhulu; Liu, Liming

    2015-07-01

    Soil salinization and desalinization are complex processes caused by natural conditions and human-induced risk factors. Conventional salinity risk identification and management methods have limitations in spatial data analysis and often provide an inadequate description of the problem. The objectives of this study were to identify controllable risk factors, to provide response measures, and to design management strategies for salt-affected soils. We proposed to integrate spatial autoregressive (SAR) model, multi-attribute decision making (MADM), and analytic hierarchy process (AHP) for these purposes. Our proposed method was demonstrated through a case study of managing soil salinization in a semi-arid region in China. The results clearly indicated that the SAR model is superior to the OLS model in terms of risk factor identification. These factors include groundwater salinity, paddy area, corn area, aquaculture (i.e., ponds and lakes) area, distance to drainage ditches and irrigation channels, organic fertilizer input, and cropping index, among which the factors related to human land use activities are dominant risk factors that drive the soil salinization processes. We also showed that ecological irrigation and sustainable land use are acceptable strategies for soil salinity management. PMID:26063060

  15. Anatomic autoandrophilia in an adult male.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Anne A

    2009-12-01

    Some men are sexually aroused by impersonating the individuals to whom they are sexually attracted, or by permanently changing their bodies to become facsimiles of such individuals. Blanchard (J Sex Marital Ther 17:235-251, 1991) suggested that these paraphilic sexual interests, along with fetishism, represented erotic target location errors, i.e., developmental errors in locating erotic targets in the environment. Because the desire to impersonate or become a facsimile of the kind of person to whom one is attracted can have significant implications for identity, Freund and Blanchard (Br J Psychiatry 162:558-563, 1993) coined the term erotic target identity inversion to describe this type of erotic target location error. The best-known examples of erotic target identity inversions occur in men who are sexually attracted to women and who are also sexually aroused by the idea of impersonating or becoming women; these paraphilic interests manifest as transvestic fetishism and as one type of male-to-female transsexualism. Analogous erotic target identity inversions have been described in men who are sexually attracted to children and to female amputees. In theory, erotic target identity inversions should also occur in men who are sexually attracted to men. There have been no unambiguous descriptions, however, of men who are sexually attracted to men and also sexually aroused by the idea of changing their bodies to become more sexually attractive men. This report describes such a man, whose paraphilic interest would appropriately be called anatomic autoandrophilia. The demonstration that anatomic autoandrophilia exists in men is consistent with the theory that erotic target location errors constitute an independent paraphilic dimension. PMID:19093196

  16. Improved survival for anatomic total shoulder prostheses

    PubMed Central

    Fevang, Bjørg T S; Nystad, Tone W; Skredderstuen, Arne; Furnes, Ove N; Havelin, Leif I

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose Previously, implant survival of total shoulder prostheses was reported to be inferior to that of hemiprostheses. However, the use of total prostheses has increased in Norway due to reported good functional results. On this background, we wanted to study implant survival of 4 major shoulder prosthesis types in Norway between 1994 and 2012. Patients and methods The study population comprised 4,173 patients with shoulder replacements reported to the Norwegian Arthroplasty Register, including 2,447 hemiprostheses (HPs), 444 anatomic total prostheses (ATPs), 454 resurfacing prostheses (RPs), and 828 reversed total prostheses (RTPs). Three time periods were compared: 1994–1999, 2000–2005, and 2006–2012. Kaplan-Meier failure curves were used to compare implant failure rates for subgroups of patients, and adjusted risks of revision were calculated using Cox regression analysis. Results For prostheses inserted from 2006 through 2012, the 5-year survival rates were 95% for HPs (as opposed to 94% in 1994–1999), 95% for ATPs (75% in 1994–1999), 87% for RPs (96% in 1994–1999), and 93% for RTPs (91% in 1994–1999). During the study period, the implant survival improved significantly for ATPs (p < 0.001). A tendency of better results with acute fracture and worse results in sequelae after previous fractures was seen in all time periods. Interpretation The 5-year implant survival rates were good with all prosthesis types, and markedly improved for anatomic total prostheses in the last 2 study periods. The better functional results with total shoulder prostheses than with hemiprostheses support the trend towards increased use of total shoulder prostheses. PMID:25386737

  17. Satellite and ground detection of very dense smoke clouds produced on the islands of the Paraná river delta that affected a large region in Central Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ipiña, A.; Salum, G. M.; Crinó, E.; Piacentini, R. D.

    2012-03-01

    Intense fires were produced on the Paraná river delta islands, Argentina, during most part of 2008, by a combination of an exceptionally dry period and the farmers' use of a fire land-cleaning technique. In April 2008, those fires significantly affected the nearby regions and their inhabitants, from Rosario city to Buenos Aires mega-city. In this work we present satellite as well as ground Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) at 550 nm data obtained during the propagation of pollution clouds to the central zone of Argentina. The highest value (1.18) was registered at Buenos Aires by atmospheric remote sensing, using the satellite instrument MODIS/Terra on April 18th 2008 at 10:35 local time (= UT - 3 h). On the same day, ground air quality detectors also measured in this city the highest Total Suspended Particle (TSP) value of the month, 2.02 mg/m3. The AOD(550) daily variation at Rosario Astronomical Observatory, which is located near the Paraná riverside, was derived by combining solar ultraviolet erythemal irradiance data (measured with a YES biometre) with model calculations. On April 25th 2008, from 12:00 to 15:30 local time, a rather high and constant AOD(550) value was registered, with a mean value of (0.90 ± 0.21). Cities located on the side of the Rosario-Buenos Aires highway (San Nicolás, Baradero and San Pedro) were also affected, showing a mean AOD(550) between the Rosario and Buenos Aires values. The particulate matter was collected with gridded samplers placed on the Paraná river islands as well as at the Rosario Observatory. They were analysed with a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and mainly showed a biological origin. Even if normally large particles travel small distances from the source, organic aerosol in the range of 40-100 μm and complex asymmetric structures were registered several kilometres away from the aerosol sources on the islands. Another event of intense UV index attenuation (98.6%) occurred on September 18th 2008, due to very dense

  18. Relationship between Peeled Internal Limiting Membrane Area and Anatomic Outcomes following Macular Hole Surgery: A Quantitative Analysis.

    PubMed

    Goker, Yasin Sakir; Koc, Mustafa; Yuksel, Kemal; Yazici, Ahmet Taylan; Demir, Abdulvahit; Gunes, Hasan; Ozpinar, Yavuz

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To quantitatively evaluate the effects of peeled internal limiting membrane (ILM) area and anatomic outcomes following macular hole surgery using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Methods. Forty-one eyes in 37 consecutive patients with idiopathic, Gass stage 3-4 macular hole (MH) were enrolled in this retrospective comparative study. All patients were divided into 2 groups according to anatomic success or failure. Basal MH diameter, peeled ILM area, and MH height were calculated using SD-OCT. Other prognostic parameters, including age, stage, preoperative BCVA, and symptom duration were also assessed. Results. Thirty-two cases were classified as anatomic success, and 9 cases were classified as anatomic failure. Peeled ILM area was significantly wider and MH basal diameter was significantly less in the anatomic success group (p = 0.024 and 0.032, resp.). Other parameters did not demonstrate statistical significance. Conclusion. The findings of the present study show that the peeled ILM area can affect the anatomic outcomes of MH surgery. PMID:27413544

  19. Relationship between Peeled Internal Limiting Membrane Area and Anatomic Outcomes following Macular Hole Surgery: A Quantitative Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Goker, Yasin Sakir; Koc, Mustafa; Yuksel, Kemal; Yazici, Ahmet Taylan; Gunes, Hasan; Ozpinar, Yavuz

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To quantitatively evaluate the effects of peeled internal limiting membrane (ILM) area and anatomic outcomes following macular hole surgery using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Methods. Forty-one eyes in 37 consecutive patients with idiopathic, Gass stage 3-4 macular hole (MH) were enrolled in this retrospective comparative study. All patients were divided into 2 groups according to anatomic success or failure. Basal MH diameter, peeled ILM area, and MH height were calculated using SD-OCT. Other prognostic parameters, including age, stage, preoperative BCVA, and symptom duration were also assessed. Results. Thirty-two cases were classified as anatomic success, and 9 cases were classified as anatomic failure. Peeled ILM area was significantly wider and MH basal diameter was significantly less in the anatomic success group (p = 0.024 and 0.032, resp.). Other parameters did not demonstrate statistical significance. Conclusion. The findings of the present study show that the peeled ILM area can affect the anatomic outcomes of MH surgery. PMID:27413544

  20. Anatomically asymmetrical runners move more asymmetrically at the same metabolic cost.

    PubMed

    Seminati, Elena; Nardello, Francesca; Zamparo, Paola; Ardigò, Luca P; Faccioli, Niccolò; Minetti, Alberto E

    2013-01-01

    We hypothesized that, as occurring in cars, body structural asymmetries could generate asymmetry in the kinematics/dynamics of locomotion, ending up in a higher metabolic cost of transport, i.e. more 'fuel' needed to travel a given distance. Previous studies found the asymmetries in horses' body negatively correlated with galloping performance. In this investigation, we analyzed anatomical differences between the left and right lower limbs as a whole by performing 3D cross-correlation of Magnetic Resonance Images of 19 male runners, clustered as Untrained Runners, Occasional Runners and Skilled Runners. Running kinematics of their body centre of mass were obtained from the body segments coordinates measured by a 3D motion capture system at incremental running velocities on a treadmill. A recent mathematical procedure quantified the asymmetry of the body centre of mass trajectory between the left and right steps. During the same sessions, runners' metabolic consumption was measured and the cost of transport was calculated. No correlations were found between anatomical/kinematic variables and the metabolic cost of transport, regardless of the training experience. However, anatomical symmetry significant correlated to the kinematic symmetry, and the most trained subjects showed the highest level of kinematic symmetry during running. Results suggest that despite the significant effects of anatomical asymmetry on kinematics, either those changes are too small to affect economy or some plastic compensation in the locomotor system mitigates the hypothesized change in energy expenditure of running. PMID:24086316

  1. Root anatomical phenes associated with water acquisition from drying soil: targets for crop improvement.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Jonathan P; Chimungu, Joseph G; Brown, Kathleen M

    2014-11-01

    Several root anatomical phenes affect water acquisition from drying soil, and may therefore have utility in breeding more drought-tolerant crops. Anatomical phenes that reduce the metabolic cost of the root cortex ('cortical burden') improve soil exploration and therefore water acquisition from drying soil. The best evidence for this is for root cortical aerenchyma; cortical cell file number and cortical senescence may also be useful in this context. Variation in the number and diameter of xylem vessels strongly affects axial water conductance. Reduced axial conductance may be useful in conserving soil water so that a crop may complete its life cycle under terminal drought. Variation in the suberization and lignification of the endodermis and exodermis affects radial water conductance, and may therefore be important in reducing water loss from mature roots into dry soil. Rhizosheaths may protect the water status of young root tissue. Root hairs and larger diameter root tips improve root penetration of hard, drying soil. Many of these phenes show substantial genotypic variation. The utility of these phenes for water acquisition has only rarely been validated, and may have strong interactions with the spatiotemporal dynamics of soil water availability, and with root architecture and other aspects of the root phenotype. This complexity calls for structural-functional plant modelling and 3D imaging methods. Root anatomical phenes represent a promising yet underexplored and untapped source of crop breeding targets.

  2. Soil-restoration rate and initial soil formation trends on example of anthropogenically affected soils of opencast mine in Kursk region, Russian Federation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pigareva, Tatiana

    2015-04-01

    The mining industry is one of the main factors which anthropogenically change the environment. Mining process results in removing of the rocks and mechanical changes of considerable amounts of ground. One of the main results of mining arising of antropic ecosystems as well as increasing of the new created soils total area is technosols. The main factor controlling the soil formation in postmining environment is the quality of spoiled materials. Initial soil formation has been investigated on spoils of the largest iron ore extraction complex in Russia - Mikhailovsky mining and concentration complex which is situated in Kursk region, Russia. Investigated soils are presented by monogenetic weak developed soils of different age (10-15-20 years). Young soils are formed on the loess parent materials (20 year-old soil), or on a mix of sand and clay overburdens (15 and 10-year-old soils). Anthropogenically affected soils are characterized by well-developed humus horizon which is gradually replaced by weakly changed soil-building rocks (profile type A-C for 10-, 15-years old soils, and A-AC-C for 20 years old soils). Gray-humus soils are characterized by presence of diagnostic humus horizon gradually replaced by soil-building rock. The maximum intensity of humus accumulation has been determined in a semi-hydromorphic 10-year-old soil developed on the mixed heaps which is connected with features of water-air conditions complicating mineralization of plant remnants. 20-year-old soil on loess is characterized by rather high rate of organic substances accumulation between all the automorphous soils. It was shown that one of the most effective restoration ways for anthropogenically affected soils is a biological reclamation. Since overburdens once appeared on a day surface are overgrown badly in the first years, they are subject to influence of water and wind erosion. Our researchers have found out that permanent grasses are able to grow quickly; they accumulate a considerable

  3. Early visual deprivation changes cortical anatomical covariance in dorsal-stream structures.

    PubMed

    Voss, Patrice; Zatorre, Robert J

    2015-03-01

    Early blind individuals possess thicker occipital cortex compared to sighted ones. Occipital cortical thickness is also predictive of performance on several auditory discrimination tasks in the blind, which suggests that it can serve as a neuroanatomical marker of auditory behavioural abilities. In light of this atypical relationship between occipital thickness and auditory function, we sought to investigate here the covariation of occipital cortical morphology in occipital areas with that of all other areas across the cortical surface, to assess whether the anatomical covariance with the occipital cortex differs between early blind and sighted individuals. We observed a reduction in anatomical covariance between the right occipital cortex and several areas of the visual dorsal stream in a group of early blind individuals relative to sighted controls. In a separate analysis, we show that the performance of the early blind in a transposed melody discrimination task was strongly predicted by the strength of the cortical covariance between the occipital cortex and intraparietal sulcus, a region for which cortical thickness in the sighted was previously shown to predict performance in the same task. These findings therefore constitute the first evidence linking altered anatomical covariance to early sensory deprivation. Moreover, since covariation of cortical morphology could potentially be related to anatomical connectivity or driven by experience-dependent plasticity, it could consequently help guide future functional connectivity and diffusion tractography studies. PMID:25562825

  4. Inversion of the anatomical lateralization of chick thalamofugal visual pathway by light experience.

    PubMed

    Koshiba, Mamiko; Kikuchi, Tateki; Yohda, Masafumi; Nakamura, Shun

    2002-02-01

    It has been reported that light exposure to one eye induces functional lateralization, which can be inverted by exposing the opposite eye to the light. However, the anatomical basis of the functional inversion by the light has not been shown. To address this issue, we labeled cells in the dorsolateral anterior thalamus (DLA) using retrograde fluorescent tracers injected into visual Wulst, counted the labeled cell number, and compared the anatomical asymmetry of DLA between the left eye occluded and the right eye occluded chickens. We found that a rostral part of DLA (DLAda) and a lateral/ventral part of DLA differentially projected to the visual cortex ipsilaterally and contralaterally, respectively. These regions showed anatomical asymmetry that was inverted by the light. An antibody against a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit more intensively and widely stained the side of DLA receiving the light stimulation and the cell labeled by the tracers co-localized with the immunoreactive neuropil. These results indicated that the light experience induced the anatomical lateralization of thalamofugal visual pathway. PMID:11803112

  5. Early visual deprivation changes cortical anatomical covariance in dorsal-stream structures.

    PubMed

    Voss, Patrice; Zatorre, Robert J

    2015-03-01

    Early blind individuals possess thicker occipital cortex compared to sighted ones. Occipital cortical thickness is also predictive of performance on several auditory discrimination tasks in the blind, which suggests that it can serve as a neuroanatomical marker of auditory behavioural abilities. In light of this atypical relationship between occipital thickness and auditory function, we sought to investigate here the covariation of occipital cortical morphology in occipital areas with that of all other areas across the cortical surface, to assess whether the anatomical covariance with the occipital cortex differs between early blind and sighted individuals. We observed a reduction in anatomical covariance between the right occipital cortex and several areas of the visual dorsal stream in a group of early blind individuals relative to sighted controls. In a separate analysis, we show that the performance of the early blind in a transposed melody discrimination task was strongly predicted by the strength of the cortical covariance between the occipital cortex and intraparietal sulcus, a region for which cortical thickness in the sighted was previously shown to predict performance in the same task. These findings therefore constitute the first evidence linking altered anatomical covariance to early sensory deprivation. Moreover, since covariation of cortical morphology could potentially be related to anatomical connectivity or driven by experience-dependent plasticity, it could consequently help guide future functional connectivity and diffusion tractography studies.

  6. Clinical Correlates of the Anatomical Relationships of the Foramen Ovale: A Radioanatomical Study

    PubMed Central

    Youssef, Ahmed; Carrau, Ricardo L.; Tantawy, Ahmed; Ibrahim, Ahmed Ali; Prevedello, Daniel M.; Otto, Bradley A.; Solares, Arturo C.; Filho, Leo F. S. Ditzel; Rompaey, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Endonasal endoscopic transpterygoid approaches are commonly used techniques to access the infratemporal fossa and parapharyngeal space. Important endoscopic endonasal landmarks for the poststyloid parapharyngeal space, hence the internal carotid artery, include the mandibular nerve at the level of foramen ovale and the lateral pterygoid plate. This study aims to define the anatomical relationships of the foramen ovale, establishing its distance to other important anatomical landmarks such as the pterygoid process and columella. Methods Distances between the foramen ovale, foramen rotundum, and fixed anatomical landmarks like the columella and pterygoid process were measured using computed tomography (CT) scans and cadaveric dissections of the pterygopalatine and infratemporal fossae. Results The mean distances from the foramen ovale to columella and from the foramen rotundum to columella were found to be 9.15 cm and 7.09 cm, respectively. Analysis of radiologic measurements detected no statistically significant differences between sides or gender. Conclusions The pterygoid plates and V3 are prominent landmarks of the endonasal endoscopic approach to the infratemporal fossa and poststyloid parapharyngeal space. A better understanding of the endoscopic anatomy of the infratemporal fossa and awareness of the approximate distances and geometry among anatomical landmarks facilitates a safe and complete resection of lesions arising or extending to these regions. PMID:25452902

  7. Disruption of brain anatomical networks in schizophrenia: A longitudinal, diffusion tensor imaging based study.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yu; Chen, Yu; Lee, Renick; Bezerianos, Anastasios; Collinson, Simon L; Sim, Kang

    2016-03-01

    Despite convergent neuroimaging evidence indicating a wide range of brain abnormalities in schizophrenia, our understanding of alterations in the topological architecture of brain anatomical networks and how they are modulated over time, is still rudimentary. Here, we employed graph theoretical analysis of longitudinal diffusion tensor imaging data (DTI) over a 5-year period to investigate brain network topology in schizophrenia and its relationship with clinical manifestations of the illness. Using deterministic tractography, weighted brain anatomical networks were constructed from 31 patients experiencing schizophrenia and 28 age- and gender-matched healthy control subjects. Although the overall small-world characteristics were observed at both baseline and follow-up, a scan-point independent significant deficit of global integration was found in patients compared to controls, suggesting dysfunctional integration of the brain and supporting the notion of schizophrenia as a disconnection syndrome. Specifically, several brain regions (e.g., the inferior frontal gyrus and the bilateral insula) that are crucial for cognitive and emotional integration were aberrant. Furthermore, a significant group-by-longitudinal scan interaction was revealed in the characteristic path length and global efficiency, attributing to a progressive aberration of global integration in patients compared to healthy controls. Moreover, the progressive disruptions of the brain anatomical network topology were associated with the clinical symptoms of the patients. Together, our findings provide insights into the substrates of anatomical dysconnectivity patterns for schizophrenia and highlight the potential for connectome-based metrics as neural markers of illness progression and clinical change with treatment.

  8. Effect of anatomical variability on electric field characteristics of electroconvulsive therapy and magnetic seizure therapy: a parametric modeling study.

    PubMed

    Deng, Zhi-De; Lisanby, Sarah H; Peterchev, Angel V

    2015-01-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and magnetic seizure therapy (MST) are conventionally applied with a fixed stimulus current amplitude, which may result in differences in the neural stimulation strength and focality across patients due to interindividual anatomical variability. The objective of this study is to quantify the effect of head anatomical variability associated with age, sex, and individual differences on the induced electric field characteristics in ECT and MST. Six stimulation modalities were modeled including bilateral and right unilateral ECT, focal electrically administered seizure therapy (FEAST), and MST with circular, cap, and double-cone coils. The electric field was computed using the finite element method in a parameterized spherical head model representing the variability in the general population. Head tissue layer thicknesses and conductivities were varied to examine the impact of interindividual anatomical differences on the stimulation strength, depth, and focality. Skull conductivity most strongly affects the ECT electric field, whereas the MST electric field is independent of tissue conductivity variation in this model but is markedly affected by differences in head diameter. Focal ECT electrode configurations such as FEAST is more sensitive to anatomical variability than that of less focal paradigms such as BL ECT. In MST, anatomical variability has stronger influence on the electric field of the cap and circular coils compared to the double-cone coil, possibly due to the more superficial field of the former. The variability of the ECT and MST electric fields due to anatomical differences should be considered in the interpretation of existing studies and in efforts to improve dosing approaches for better control of stimulation strength and focality across patients, such as individualization of the current amplitude. The conventional approach to individualizing dosage by titrating the number of pulses cannot compensate for differences in

  9. An Investigation of Anatomical Competence in Junior Medical Doctors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vorstenbosch, Marc A. T. M.; Kooloos, Jan G. M.; Bolhuis, Sanneke M.; Laan, Roland F. J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Because of a decrease of the time available for anatomy education, decisions need to be made to reduce the relevant content of the anatomy curriculum. Several expert consensus initiatives resulted in lists of structures, lacking analysis of anatomical competence. This study aims to explore the use of anatomical knowledge by medical doctors in an…

  10. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1203 - Anatomical Planes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Anatomical Planes 1 Figure 1 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 1203—Anatomical Planes ER10MR98.001...

  11. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1203 - Anatomical Planes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Anatomical Planes 1 Figure 1 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 1203—Anatomical Planes ER10MR98.001...

  12. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1203 - Anatomical Planes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Anatomical Planes 1 Figure 1 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 1203—Anatomical Planes ER10MR98.001...

  13. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1203 - Anatomical Planes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Anatomical Planes 1 Figure 1 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 1203—Anatomical Planes ER10MR98.001...

  14. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1203 - Anatomical Planes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Anatomical Planes 1 Figure 1 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 1203—Anatomical Planes ER10MR98.001...

  15. The Use of Anatomical Dolls as Assessment and Evidentiary Tools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lie, Gwat-Yong; Inman, Anjanette

    1991-01-01

    Notes that several recent court decisions have questioned reliability and validity of anatomical dolls as assessment and evidentiary tool. Reviews literature on the use of anatomical dolls and highlights issues concerning their diagnostic and forensic efficacy. Identifies and discusses implications of the use of these dolls for social work…

  16. Kagami–Ogata syndrome: a clinically recognizable upd(14)pat and related disorder affecting the chromosome 14q32.2 imprinted region

    PubMed Central

    Ogata, Tsutomu; Kagami, Masayo

    2016-01-01

    Human chromosome 14q32.2 carries paternally expressed genes including DLK1 and RTL1, and maternally expressed genes including MEG3 and RTL1as, along with the germline-derived DLK1-MEG3 intergenic differentially methylated region (IG-DMR) and the postfertilization-derived MEG3-DMR. Consistent with this, paternal uniparental disomy 14 (upd(14)pat), and epimutations (hypermethylations) and microdeletions affecting the IG-DMR and/or the MEG3-DMR of maternal origin, result in a unique phenotype associated with characteristic face, a small bell-shaped thorax with coat-hanger appearance of the ribs, abdominal wall defects, placentomegaly and polyhydramnios. Recently, the name ‘Kagami–Ogata syndrome' (KOS) has been approved for this clinically recognizable disorder. Here, we review the current knowledge about KOS. Important findings include the following: (1) the facial ‘gestalt' and the increased coat-hanger angle constitute pathognomonic features from infancy through childhood/puberty; (2) the unmethylated IG-DMR and MEG3-DMR of maternal origin function as the imprinting control centers in the placenta and body respectively, with a hierarchical interaction regulated by the IG-DMR for the methylation pattern of the MEG3-DMR in the body; (3) RTL1 expression level becomes ~2.5 times increased in the absence of functional RTL1as-encoded microRNAs that act as a trans-acting repressor for RTL1; (4) excessive RTL1 expression and absent MEG expression constitute the primary underlying factor for the phenotypic development; and (5) upd(14)pat accounts for approximately two-thirds of KOS patients, and epimutations and microdeletions are identified with a similar frequency. Furthermore, we refer to diagnostic and therapeutic implications. PMID:26377239

  17. Kagami-Ogata syndrome: a clinically recognizable upd(14)pat and related disorder affecting the chromosome 14q32.2 imprinted region.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Tsutomu; Kagami, Masayo

    2016-02-01

    Human chromosome 14q32.2 carries paternally expressed genes including DLK1 and RTL1, and maternally expressed genes including MEG3 and RTL1as, along with the germline-derived DLK1-MEG3 intergenic differentially methylated region (IG-DMR) and the postfertilization-derived MEG3-DMR. Consistent with this, paternal uniparental disomy 14 (upd(14)pat), and epimutations (hypermethylations) and microdeletions affecting the IG-DMR and/or the MEG3-DMR of maternal origin, result in a unique phenotype associated with characteristic face, a small bell-shaped thorax with coat-hanger appearance of the ribs, abdominal wall defects, placentomegaly and polyhydramnios. Recently, the name 'Kagami-Ogata syndrome' (KOS) has been approved for this clinically recognizable disorder. Here, we review the current knowledge about KOS. Important findings include the following: (1) the facial 'gestalt' and the increased coat-hanger angle constitute pathognomonic features from infancy through childhood/puberty; (2) the unmethylated IG-DMR and MEG3-DMR of maternal origin function as the imprinting control centers in the placenta and body respectively, with a hierarchical interaction regulated by the IG-DMR for the methylation pattern of the MEG3-DMR in the body; (3) RTL1 expression level becomes ~2.5 times increased in the absence of functional RTL1as-encoded microRNAs that act as a trans-acting repressor for RTL1; (4) excessive RTL1 expression and absent MEG expression constitute the primary underlying factor for the phenotypic development; and (5) upd(14)pat accounts for approximately two-thirds of KOS patients, and epimutations and microdeletions are identified with a similar frequency. Furthermore, we refer to diagnostic and therapeutic implications.

  18. Congenital blindness is associated with large-scale reorganization of anatomical networks

    PubMed Central

    Hasson, Uri; Andric, Michael; Atilgan, Hicret; Collignon, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Blindness is a unique model for understanding the role of experience in the development of the brain's functional and anatomical architecture. Documenting changes in the structure of anatomical networks for this population would substantiate the notion that the brain's core network-level organization may undergo neuroplasticity as a result of life-long experience. To examine this issue, we compared whole-brain networks of regional cortical-thickness covariance in early blind and matched sighted individuals. This covariance is thought to reflect signatures of integration between systems involved in similar perceptual/cognitive functions. Using graph-theoretic metrics, we identified a unique mode of anatomical reorganization in the blind that differed from that found for sighted. This was seen in that network partition structures derived from subgroups of blind were more similar to each other than they were to partitions derived from sighted. Notably, after deriving network partitions, we found that language and visual regions tended to reside within separate modules in sighted but showed a pattern of merging into shared modules in the blind. Our study demonstrates that early visual deprivation triggers a systematic large-scale reorganization of whole-brain cortical-thickness networks, suggesting changes in how occipital regions interface with other functional networks in the congenitally blind. PMID:26767944

  19. The anatomical distribution of genetic associations

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Alan; Kopp, Nathan; Xu, Xiaoxiao; O'Brien, David R.; Yang, Wei; Nehorai, Arye; Adair-Kirk, Tracy L.; Kopan, Raphael; Dougherty, J. D.

    2015-01-01

    Deeper understanding of the anatomical intermediaries for disease and other complex genetic traits is essential to understanding mechanisms and developing new interventions. Existing ontology tools provide functional, curated annotations for many genes and can be used to develop mechanistic hypotheses; yet information about the spatial expression of genes may be equally useful in interpreting results and forming novel hypotheses for a trait. Therefore, we developed an approach for statistically testing the relationship between gene expression across the body and sets of candidate genes from across the genome. We validated this tool and tested its utility on three applications. First, we show that the expression of genes in associated loci from GWA studies implicates specific tissues for 57 out of 98 traits. Second, we tested the ability of the tool to identify novel relationships between gene expression and phenotypes. Specifically, we experimentally confirmed an underappreciated prediction highlighted by our tool: that white blood cell count – a quantitative trait of the immune system – is genetically modulated by genes expressed in the skin. Finally, using gene lists derived from exome sequencing data, we show that human genes under selective constraint are disproportionately expressed in nervous system tissues. PMID:26586807

  20. [The meninges, an anatomical point of view].

    PubMed

    Sakka, L; Chazal, J

    2005-03-01

    The meninges correspond to an anatomical concept. For the morphologist, the microscopic organization, the hypothetical presence of a subdural space, the nature of the interface between the deep meningeal layer and the nervous parenchyma in the perivascular spaces are the central issues. For the clinician, dynamic aspects of cerebrospinal fluid flow, secretion, and resorption are essential factors with practical consequences in terms of disease and patient management. Comparative anatomy, embryology, and organogenesis provide an interesting perspective for the descriptive and functional anatomy of the meninges. Usually considered as protective membranes, the meninges play a prominent role in the development and maintenance of the central nervous system. The meninges are in constant evolution, from their formation to senescence. The meninges present three layers in children and adults: the dura mater, the arachnoid and the pia mater. The cerebrospinal fluid is secreted by the choroid plexuses, flows through the ventricles and the subarachnoid space, and is absorbed by arachnoid granulations. Other sites of secretion and resorption are suggested by comparative anatomy and human embryology and organogenesis.

  1. Employing anatomical knowledge in vertebral column labeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Jianhua; Summers, Ronald M.

    2009-02-01

    The spinal column constitutes the central axis of human torso and is often used by radiologists to reference the location of organs in the chest and abdomen. However, visually identifying and labeling vertebrae is not trivial and can be timeconsuming. This paper presents an approach to automatically label vertebrae based on two pieces of anatomical knowledge: one vertebra has at most two attached ribs, and ribs are attached only to thoracic vertebrae. The spinal column is first extracted by a hybrid method using the watershed algorithm, directed acyclic graph search and a four-part vertebra model. Then curved reformations in sagittal and coronal directions are computed and aggregated intensity profiles along the spinal cord are analyzed to partition the spinal column into vertebrae. After that, candidates for rib bones are detected using features such as location, orientation, shape, size and density. Then a correspondence matrix is established to match ribs and vertebrae. The last vertebra (from thoracic to lumbar) with attached ribs is identified and labeled as T12. The rest of vertebrae are labeled accordingly. The method was tested on 50 CT scans and successfully labeled 48 of them. The two failed cases were mainly due to rudimentary ribs.

  2. Anatomic Reconstruction of the Proximal Tibiofibular Joint.

    PubMed

    Warner, Brent T; Moulton, Samuel G; Cram, Tyler R; LaPrade, Robert F

    2016-02-01

    Proximal tibiofibular joint (PTFJ) instability can be easily missed or confused for other, more common lateral knee pathologies such as meniscal tears, fibular collateral ligament injury, biceps femoris pathology, or iliotibial band syndrome. Because of this confusion, some authors believe that PTFJ instability is more common than initially appreciated. Patients with PTFJ subluxation may have no history of inciting trauma or injury, and it is not uncommon for these patients to have bilateral symptoms and generalized ligamentous laxity. Currently, the optimal surgical treatment for patients with chronic PTFJ instability is unknown. Historically, a variety of surgical treatments have been reported. Initially, joint arthrodesis and fibular head resection were recommended. More recently, temporary screw fixation, nonanatomic reconstruction with strips of the biceps femoris tendon or iliotibial band, and reconstruction with free hamstring autograft have been described. The purpose of this report is to present our surgical technique for treatment of chronic PTFJ instability using an anatomic reconstruction of the posterior ligamentous structures of the PTFJ with a semitendinosus autograft. PMID:27274455

  3. Is the cervical fascia an anatomical proteus?

    PubMed

    Natale, Gianfranco; Condino, Sara; Stecco, Antonio; Soldani, Paola; Belmonte, Monica Mattioli; Gesi, Marco

    2015-11-01

    The cervical fasciae have always represented a matter of debate. Indeed, in the literature, it is quite impossible to find two authors reporting the same description of the neck fascia. In the present review, a historical background was outlined, confirming that the Malgaigne's definition of the cervical fascia as an anatomical Proteus is widely justified. In an attempt to provide an essential and a more comprehensive classification, a fixed pattern of description of cervical fasciae is proposed. Based on the morphogenetic criteria, two fascial groups have been recognized: (1) fasciae which derive from primitive fibro-muscular laminae (muscular fasciae or myofasciae); (2) fasciae which derive from connective thickening (visceral fasciae). Topographic and comparative approaches allowed to distinguish three different types of fasciae in the neck: the superficial, the deep and the visceral fasciae. The first is most connected to the skin, the second to the muscles and the third to the viscera. The muscular fascia could be further divided into three layers according to the relationship with the different muscles.

  4. Do retractile testes have anatomical anomalies?

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Kleber M.; Costa, Suelen F.; Sampaio, Francisco J.B.; Favorito, Luciano A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: To assess the incidence of anatomical anomalies in patients with retractile testis. Materials and Methods: We studied prospectively 20 patients (28 testes) with truly retractile testis and compared them with 25 human fetuses (50 testes) with testis in scrotal position. We analyzed the relations among the testis, epididymis and patency of the processus vaginalis (PV). To analyze the relations between the testis and epididymis, we used a previous classification according to epididymis attachment to the testis and the presence of epididymis atresia. To analyze the structure of the PV, we considered two situations: obliteration of the PV and patency of the PV. We used the Chi-square test for contingency analysis of the populations under study (p <0.05). Results: The fetuses ranged in age from 26 to 35 weeks post-conception (WPC) and the 20 patients with retractile testis ranged in ages from 1 to 12 years (average of 5.8). Of the 50 fetal testes, we observed complete patency of the PV in 2 cases (4%) and epididymal anomalies (EAs) in 1 testis (2%). Of the 28 retractile testes, we observed patency of the PV in 6 cases (21.4%) and EA in 4 (14.28%). When we compared the incidence of EAs and PV patency we observed a significantly higher prevalence of these anomalies in retractile testes (p=0.0116). Conclusions: Retractile testis is not a normal variant with a significant risk of patent processus vaginalis and epididymal anomalies. PMID:27564294

  5. Truncus arteriosus. An anatomical-angiographic study.

    PubMed Central

    Ceballos, R; Soto, B; Kirklin, J W; Bargeron, L M

    1983-01-01

    A series of 25 cases of truncus arteriosus communis examined post mortem was studied retrospectively. Fifteen of them had had angiographic studies, enabling anatomo-radiographic correlative analysis to be made. All cases had situs solitus of the atria and concordant connections between atria and ventricles. The three main components of the malformation, present in all 25 cases, were: (a) ventricular septal defect, (b) single semilunar valve, (c) anomalies of the aortopulmonary septum. The ventricular septal defect was always subarterial but its size and its relation to mitral and tricuspid valves were extremely variable. The truncal valve varied greatly also in the number of its cusps and its relation to right and left ventricles. Above valvular level the presence or absence of residual aortopulmonary septum was reflected by the presence or absence of a main pulmonary artery. Additional supratruncal malformations produced variations of the anatomy of the aorta and pulmonary arteries. The angiographic demonstration of all these components was obtained best by selective angiography using special projections. From this study it appears that there is a wide degree of variability in all of the three main components of truncus arteriosus. Such anatomical variations should be identified angiographically in each patient in order to provide enough information before corrective surgery, but they do not alter the basically homogeneous anatomy of the category of truncus arteriosus and therefore do not justify complex classifications. Images PMID:6849718

  6. Anatomic standardization: Linear scaling and nonlinear warping of functional brain images

    SciTech Connect

    Minoshima, S.; Koeppe, R.A.; Frey, K.A.

    1994-09-01

    An automated method was proposed for anatomic standardization of PET scans in three dimensions, which enabled objective intersubject and cross-group comparisons of functional brain images. The method involved linear scaling to correct for individual brain size and nonlinear warping to minimize regional anatomic variations among subjects. In the linear-scaling step, the anteroposterior length and width of the brain were measured on the PET images, and the brain height was estimated by a contour-matching procedure using the midsagittal plane. In the nonlinear warping step, individual gray matter locations were matched with those of a standard brain by maximizing correlation coefficients of regional profile curves determined between predefined stretching centers (predominantly in white matter) and the gray matter landmarks. The accuracy of the brain height estimation was compared with skull x-ray estimations, showing comparable accuracy and better reproducibility. Linear-scaling and nonlinear warping methods were validated using ({sup 18}F)fluorodeoxyglucose and ({sup 15}O)water images. Regional anatomic variability on the glucose images was reduced markedly. The statistical significance of activation foci in paired water images was improved in both vibratory and visual activation paradigms. A group versus group comparison following the proposed anatomic standardization revealed highly significant glucose metabolic alterations in the brains of patients with Alzheimer`s disease compared with those of a normal control group. These results suggested that the method is well suited to both research and clinical settings and can facilitate pixel-by-pixel comparisons of PET images. 26 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Anatomical and functional gonadotrope networks in the teleost pituitary

    PubMed Central

    Golan, Matan; Martin, Agnés O.; Mollard, Patrice; Levavi-Sivan, Berta

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian pituitaries exhibit a high degree of intercellular coordination; this enables them to mount large-scale coordinated responses to various physiological stimuli. This type of communication has not been adequately demonstrated in teleost pituitaries, which exhibit direct hypothalamic innervation and expression of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) in distinct cell types. We found that in two fish species, namely tilapia and zebrafish, LH cells exhibit close cell–cell contacts and form a continuous network throughout the gland. FSH cells were more loosely distributed but maintained some degree of cell–cell contact by virtue of cytoplasmic processes. These anatomical differences also manifest themselves at the functional level as evidenced by the effect of gap-junction uncouplers on gonadotropin release. These substances abolished the LH response to gonadotropin-releasing hormone stimulation but did not affect the FSH response to the same stimuli. Dye transfer between neighboring LH cells provides further evidence for functional coupling. The two gonadotropins were also found to be differently packaged within their corresponding cell types. Our findings highlight the evolutionary origin of pituitary cell networks and demonstrate how the different levels of cell–cell coordination within the LH and FSH cell populations are reflected in their distinct secretion patterns. PMID:27029812

  8. Generation of anatomically realistic numerical phantoms for optoacoustic breast imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lou, Yang; Mitsuhashi, Kenji; Appleton, Catherine M.; Oraevsky, Alexander; Anastasio, Mark A.

    2016-03-01

    Because optoacoustic tomography (OAT) can provide functional information based on hemoglobin contrast, it is a promising imaging modality for breast cancer diagnosis. Developing an effective OAT breast imaging system requires balancing multiple design constraints, which can be expensive and time-consuming. Therefore, computer- simulation studies are often conducted to facilitate this task. However, most existing computer-simulation studies of OAT breast imaging employ simple phantoms such as spheres or cylinders that over-simplify the complex anatomical structures in breasts, thus limiting the value of these studies in guiding real-world system design. In this work, we propose a method to generate realistic numerical breast phantoms for OAT research based on clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data. The phantoms include a skin layer that defines breast-air boundary, major vessel branches that affect light absorption in the breast, and fatty tissue and fibroglandular tissue whose acoustical heterogeneity perturbs acoustic wave propagation. By assigning realistic optical and acoustic parameters to different tissue types, we establish both optic and acoustic breast phantoms, which will be exported into standard data formats for cross-platform usage.

  9. [Linburg-Comstock syndrome. Epidemiologic and anatomic study, clinical applications].

    PubMed

    Hamitouche, K; Roux, J L; Baeten, Y; Allieu, Y

    2000-05-01

    The Linburg-Comstock (LC) syndrome is distinguished by the inability to actively flex the interphalangeal (IP) joint of the thumb without simultaneously flexing the distal IP joint of the index finger. Any resistance to this 'parasitic' reaction causes pain on the palmar side of the wrist or in the distal part of the forearm; this is due to an anomalous tendinous connection between the flexor pollicus longus (FPL) and the flexor digitorum profundus (FDP). An epidemiological study was carried out on 264 individuals (a total of 528 hands were examined), and the LC syndrome was found in 98 subjects (37%); women were more frequently affected than men, and bilaterally rather than unilaterally. In addition, we dissected 26 fresh cadaver upper limbs, and in seven cases found an anomalous connection between FPL and FDP. We also examined the case of a young violinist with bilateral LC syndrome, who complained of pain in the distal part of the left forearm after prolonged musical exercises. Surgical investigation determined a complete fusion between FPL and FDP of the index with a common tendon. Treatment consisted of splitting this common tendon to form two separate tendons, thereby permitting a certain degree of independence between the thumb and index finger, and which considerably improved the violinist's musical performance. A review of the literature showed that there was a large quantity of anatomical descriptions available on these types of connection. Certain publications also provide an extremely precise report on the anthropological significance of these anomalies.

  10. Anatomical and functional gonadotrope networks in the teleost pituitary.

    PubMed

    Golan, Matan; Martin, Agnés O; Mollard, Patrice; Levavi-Sivan, Berta

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian pituitaries exhibit a high degree of intercellular coordination; this enables them to mount large-scale coordinated responses to various physiological stimuli. This type of communication has not been adequately demonstrated in teleost pituitaries, which exhibit direct hypothalamic innervation and expression of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) in distinct cell types. We found that in two fish species, namely tilapia and zebrafish, LH cells exhibit close cell-cell contacts and form a continuous network throughout the gland. FSH cells were more loosely distributed but maintained some degree of cell-cell contact by virtue of cytoplasmic processes. These anatomical differences also manifest themselves at the functional level as evidenced by the effect of gap-junction uncouplers on gonadotropin release. These substances abolished the LH response to gonadotropin-releasing hormone stimulation but did not affect the FSH response to the same stimuli. Dye transfer between neighboring LH cells provides further evidence for functional coupling. The two gonadotropins were also found to be differently packaged within their corresponding cell types. Our findings highlight the evolutionary origin of pituitary cell networks and demonstrate how the different levels of cell-cell coordination within the LH and FSH cell populations are reflected in their distinct secretion patterns. PMID:27029812

  11. Decreased White-Matter Density in a Left-Sided Fronto-Temporal Network in Children with Developmental Language Disorder: Evidence for Anatomical Anomalies in a Motor-Language Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jancke, L.; Siegenthaler, Th.; Preis, S.; Steinmetz, H.

    2007-01-01

    The neurophysiological and neuroanatomical foundations of developmental language disorder (DLD) are still a matter of dispute. A main argument is that children with DLD show atypical anatomical asymmetries of speech-relevant brain areas, which possibly affect efficient language processing. In contrast to previous anatomical studies in DLD…

  12. Regional odontodysplasia.

    PubMed

    Mehta, D N; Bailoor, D; Patel, B

    2011-01-01

    Regional odontodysplasia is an unusual developmental anomaly in which ectodermal and mesodermal tooth components are affected. We present a rare case of a developmental anomaly called regional odontodysplasia or 'ghost teeth' in a 12-year-old Indian girl. The anomaly affected right maxillary permanent teeth. The mandibular teeth were unaffected. The clinical, radiographic and histological features are reviewed. The management of affected patients is discussed.

  13. Embryologic and anatomic basis of duodenal surgery.

    PubMed

    Androulakis, J; Colborn, G L; Skandalakis, P N; Skandalakis, L J; Skandalakis, J E

    2000-02-01

    The following points should be remembered by surgeons (Table 1). In writing about the head of the pancreas, the common bile duct, and the duodenum in 1979, the authors stated that Embryologically, anatomically and surgically these three entities form an inseparable unit. Their relations and blood supply make it impossible for the surgeon to remove completely the head of the pancreas without removing the duodenum and the distal part of the common bile duct. Here embryology and anatomy conspire to produce some of the most difficult surgery of the abdominal cavity. The only alternative procedure, the so-called 95% pancreatectomy, leaves a rim of pancreas along the medial border of the duodenum to preserve the duodenal blood supply. The authors had several conversations with Child, one of the pioneers of this procedure, whose constant message was to always be careful with the blood supply of the duodenum (personal communication, 1970). Beger et al popularized duodenum-preserving resection of the pancreatic head, emphasizing preservation of endocrine pancreatic function. They reported that ampullectomy (removal of the papilla and ampulla of Vater) carries a mortality rate of less than 0.4% and a morbidity rate of less than 10.0%. Surgeons should not ligate the superior and inferior pancreaticoduodenal arteries because such ligation may cause necrosis of the head of the pancreas and of much of the duodenum. The accessory pancreatic duct of Santorini passes under the gastrointestinal artery. For safety, surgeons should ligate the artery away from the anterior medial duodenal wall, where the papilla is located, thereby avoiding injury to or ligation of the duct. "Water under the bridge" applies not only to the relationship of the uterine artery and ureter but also to the gastroduodenal artery and the accessory pancreatic duct. In 10% of cases, the duct of Santorini is the only duct draining the pancreas, so ligation of the gastroduodenal artery with accidental inclusion of

  14. Scalenus minimus muscle: overestimated or not? An anatomical study.

    PubMed

    Natsis, Konstantinos; Totlis, Trifon; Didagelos, Matthaios; Tsakotos, George; Vlassis, Konstantinos; Skandalakis, Panagiotis

    2013-04-01

    The wide range of scalenus minimus muscle incidence reported in the literature along with the plethora of fibromuscular structures that may appear in the interscalene triangle, having various terminologies, were the reasons to conduct the present study questioning the reported high incidence of this supernumerary scalene muscle. Seventy-three Greek cadavers were dissected and examined for the presence of a scalenus minimus muscle. It was found unilaterally in three of 73 (4.11%) cadavers studied. The literature review, concerning its incidence, revealed a wide range between 7.8 and 71.7 per cent, which cannot be attributed only to racial variation. Thus, there is a matter whether other variations of the scalene muscles are considered as a true scalenus minimus muscle. Recognition of this muscle is important not only for anatomists, but also has clinical significance for the diagnosis of the thoracic outlet syndrome. Surgeons performing scalenectomy and anesthesiologists during interscalene brachial plexus block should keep in mind the anatomical variations of this region.

  15. Epilepsy-related long-term amnesia: anatomical perspectives.

    PubMed

    Butler, Chris; Kapur, Narinder; Zeman, Adam; Weller, Roy; Connelly, Alan

    2012-11-01

    There are few clues as to the neural basis of selective long-term amnesia. We report group and single-case data to shed light on this issue. In a group study of patients with transient epileptic amnesia, there were no significant correlations between volumetric measures of the hippocampus and indices of accelerated long-term forgetting or longer-term autobiographical memory loss. Post-mortem investigations in a patient with temporal lobe epilepsy who showed accelerated long-term forgetting, together with a degree of autobiographical memory loss, yielded evidence of neuronal loss and gliosis in regions of both the right and the left hippocampus. Neuronal loss and gliosis were more evident in anterior than posterior hippocampus. These results indicate that the unusual forms of long-term forgetting seen in some patients with temporal lobe epilepsy have no gross anatomical correlate. The findings leave open the possibilities that subtle structural damage or subtle functional disturbance, perhaps in the form of subclinical epileptiform activity, underly epilepsy-related long-term amnesia.

  16. Anatomical variation of arterial supply to the rabbit stomach

    PubMed Central

    IKEGAMI, Reona; TANIMOTO, Yoshimasa; KISHIMOTO, Miori; SHIBATA, Hideshi

    2015-01-01

    Gastric stasis is common in rabbits, and gastrotomy may be performed to cure this pathological condition. Detailed descriptions of the arterial supply to the stomach are essential for this surgical operation, but published descriptions are limited. Here, we investigated anatomical variations of the arterial supply to the stomach in 43 New Zealand White rabbits by injecting colored latex into arteries. We observed that the left gastric artery that arose as the second branch from the celiac artery provided 1–3 parietal and 1–3 visceral branches to the stomach, with various branching patterns depending on the case. In 34 of 43 cases, the left gastric artery ended upon entering the gastric wall at the lesser curvature, whereas in the remaining cases, the artery continued as the hepatic artery without entering the gastric wall. The right gastric artery that branched off from the gastroduodenal artery also supplied the lesser curvature sinistrally but did not anastomose with the left gastric artery. In 40 cases, the hepatic artery provided 1–4 pyloric branches. In the fundic region, the short gastric arteries arose from the splenic artery and varied in number from 2 to 6. The right and left gastroepiploic arteries anastomosed to give 2–7 branches to the greater curvature. The results showed that many variations occurred in the arteries supplying the rabbit stomach, suggesting that such variations should be considered when performing veterinary surgical treatments in rabbits. PMID:26615866

  17. Etiologic analysis of 100 anatomically failed dacryocystorhinostomies

    PubMed Central

    Dave, Tarjani Vivek; Mohammed, Faraz Ali; Ali, Mohammad Javed; Naik, Milind N

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to assess the etiological factors contributing to the failure of a dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR). Patients and methods Retrospective review was performed in 100 consecutive patients who were diagnosed with anatomically failed DCR at presentation to a tertiary care hospital over a 5-year period from 2010 to 2015. Patient records were reviewed for demographic data, type of past surgery, preoperative endoscopic findings, previous use of adjuvants such as intubation and mitomycin C, and intraoperative notes during the re-revision. The potential etiological factors for failure were noted. Results Of the 100 patients with failed DCRs, the primary surgery was an external DCR in 73 and endoscopic DCR in 27 patients. Six patients in each group had multiple revisions. The mean ages at presentation in the external and endoscopic groups were 39.41 years and 37.19 years, respectively. All patients presented with epiphora. The most common causes of failure were inadequate osteotomy (69.8% in the external group and 85.1% in the endoscopic group, P=0.19) followed by inadequate or inappropriate sac marsupialization (60.2% in the external group and 77.7% in the endoscopic group, P=0.16) and cicatricial closure of the ostium (50.6% in the external group and 55.5% in the endoscopic group, P=0.83). The least common causes such as ostium granulomas and paradoxical middle turbinate (1.37%, n=1) were noted in the external group only. Conclusion Inadequate osteotomy, incomplete sac marsupialization, and cicatricial closure of the ostium were the most common causes of failure and did not significantly differ in the external and endoscopic groups. Meticulous evaluation to identify causative factors for failure and addressing them are crucial for subsequent successful outcomes. PMID:27555748

  18. Collaborative regression-based anatomical landmark detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yaozong; Shen, Dinggang

    2015-12-01

    Anatomical landmark detection plays an important role in medical image analysis, e.g. for registration, segmentation and quantitative analysis. Among the various existing methods for landmark detection, regression-based methods have recently attracted much attention due to their robustness and efficiency. In these methods, landmarks are localised through voting from all image voxels, which is completely different from the classification-based methods that use voxel-wise classification to detect landmarks. Despite their robustness, the accuracy of regression-based landmark detection methods is often limited due to (1) the inclusion of uninformative image voxels in the voting procedure, and (2) the lack of effective ways to incorporate inter-landmark spatial dependency into the detection step. In this paper, we propose a collaborative landmark detection framework to address these limitations. The concept of collaboration is reflected in two aspects. (1) Multi-resolution collaboration. A multi-resolution strategy is proposed to hierarchically localise landmarks by gradually excluding uninformative votes from faraway voxels. Moreover, for informative voxels near the landmark, a spherical sampling strategy is also designed at the training stage to improve their prediction accuracy. (2) Inter-landmark collaboration. A confidence-based landmark detection strategy is proposed to improve the detection accuracy of ‘difficult-to-detect’ landmarks by using spatial guidance from ‘easy-to-detect’ landmarks. To evaluate our method, we conducted experiments extensively on three datasets for detecting prostate landmarks and head & neck landmarks in computed tomography images, and also dental landmarks in cone beam computed tomography images. The results show the effectiveness of our collaborative landmark detection framework in improving landmark detection accuracy, compared to other state-of-the-art methods.

  19. An anatomically oriented breast model for MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutra, Dominik; Bergtholdt, Martin; Sabczynski, Jörg; Dössel, Olaf; Buelow, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women in the western world. In the breast cancer care-cycle, MRIis e.g. employed in lesion characterization and therapy assessment. Reading of a single three dimensional image or comparing a multitude of such images in a time series is a time consuming task. Radiological reporting is done manually by translating the spatial position of a finding in an image to a generic representation in the form of a breast diagram, outlining quadrants or clock positions. Currently, registration algorithms are employed to aid with the reading and interpretation of longitudinal studies by providing positional correspondence. To aid with the reporting of findings, knowledge about the breast anatomy has to be introduced to translate from patient specific positions to a generic representation. In our approach we fit a geometric primitive, the semi-super-ellipsoid to patient data. Anatomical knowledge is incorporated by fixing the tip of the super-ellipsoid to the mammilla position and constraining its center-point to a reference plane defined by landmarks on the sternum. A coordinate system is then constructed by linearly scaling the fitted super-ellipsoid, defining a unique set of parameters to each point in the image volume. By fitting such a coordinate system to a different image of the same patient, positional correspondence can be generated. We have validated our method on eight pairs of baseline and follow-up scans (16 breasts) that were acquired for the assessment of neo-adjuvant chemotherapy. On average, the location predicted and the actual location of manually set landmarks are within a distance of 5.6 mm. Our proposed method allows for automatic reporting simply by uniformly dividing the super-ellipsoid around its main axis.

  20. Zebrafish Expression Ontology of Gene Sets (ZEOGS): a tool to analyze enrichment of zebrafish anatomical terms in large gene sets.

    PubMed

    Prykhozhij, Sergey V; Marsico, Annalisa; Meijsing, Sebastiaan H

    2013-09-01

    The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is an established model organism for developmental and biomedical research. It is frequently used for high-throughput functional genomics experiments, such as genome-wide gene expression measurements, to systematically analyze molecular mechanisms. However, the use of whole embryos or larvae in such experiments leads to a loss of the spatial information. To address this problem, we have developed a tool called Zebrafish Expression Ontology of Gene Sets (ZEOGS) to assess the enrichment of anatomical terms in large gene sets. ZEOGS uses gene expression pattern data from several sources: first, in situ hybridization experiments from the Zebrafish Model Organism Database (ZFIN); second, it uses the Zebrafish Anatomical Ontology, a controlled vocabulary that describes connected anatomical structures; and third, the available connections between expression patterns and anatomical terms contained in ZFIN. Upon input of a gene set, ZEOGS determines which anatomical structures are overrepresented in the input gene set. ZEOGS allows one for the first time to look at groups of genes and to describe them in terms of shared anatomical structures. To establish ZEOGS, we first tested it on random gene selections and on two public microarray datasets with known tissue-specific gene expression changes. These tests showed that ZEOGS could reliably identify the tissues affected, whereas only very few enriched terms to none were found in the random gene sets. Next we applied ZEOGS to microarray datasets of 24 and 72 h postfertilization zebrafish embryos treated with beclomethasone, a potent glucocorticoid. This analysis resulted in the identification of several anatomical terms related to glucocorticoid-responsive tissues, some of which were stage-specific. Our studies highlight the ability of ZEOGS to extract spatial information from datasets derived from whole embryos, indicating that ZEOGS could be a useful tool to automatically analyze gene expression

  1. Anatomical substrates and neurocognitive predictors of daily numerical abilities in mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Benavides-Varela, Silvia; Burgio, Francesca; Meneghello, Francesca; De Marco, Matteo; Arcara, Giorgio; Rigon, Jessica; Pilosio, Cristina; Butterworth, Brian; Venneri, Annalena; Semenza, Carlo

    2015-10-01

    Patients with mild cognitive impairment experience difficulties in mathematics that affect their functioning in the activities of everyday life. What are the associated anatomical brain changes and the cognitive correlates underlying such deficits? In the present study, 33 patients with Mild Cognitive Impairments (MCI) and 29 cognitively normal controls underwent volumetric MRI, and completed the standardized battery of Numerical Activities of Daily Living (NADL) along with a comprehensive clinical neuropsychological assessment. Group differences were examined on the numerical tasks and volumetric brain measures. The gray (GM) and white matter (WM) volume correlates were also evaluated. The results showed that relative to controls, the MCI group had impairments in number comprehension, transcoding, written operations, and in daily activities involving time estimation and money usage. In the volumetric measures, group differences emerged for the transcoding subtask in the left insula and left superior temporal gyrus. Among MCI patients, number comprehension and formal numerical performance were correlated with volumetric variability in the right middle occipital areas and right frontal gyrus. Money-usage scores showed significant correlations with left mesial frontal cortex, right superior frontal and right superior temporal cortex. Regression models revealed that neuropsychological measures of long-term memory, language, visuo-spatial abilities, and abstract reasoning were predictive of the patients' decline in daily activities. The present findings suggest that early neuropathology in distributed cortical regions of the brain including frontal, temporal and occipital areas leads to a breakdown of cognitive abilities in MCI that impacts on numerical daily functioning. The findings have implications for diagnosis, clinical and domestic care of patients with MCI.

  2. Anatomical substrates and neurocognitive predictors of daily numerical abilities in mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Benavides-Varela, Silvia; Burgio, Francesca; Meneghello, Francesca; De Marco, Matteo; Arcara, Giorgio; Rigon, Jessica; Pilosio, Cristina; Butterworth, Brian; Venneri, Annalena; Semenza, Carlo

    2015-10-01

    Patients with mild cognitive impairment experience difficulties in mathematics that affect their functioning in the activities of everyday life. What are the associated anatomical brain changes and the cognitive correlates underlying such deficits? In the present study, 33 patients with Mild Cognitive Impairments (MCI) and 29 cognitively normal controls underwent volumetric MRI, and completed the standardized battery of Numerical Activities of Daily Living (NADL) along with a comprehensive clinical neuropsychological assessment. Group differences were examined on the numerical tasks and volumetric brain measures. The gray (GM) and white matter (WM) volume correlates were also evaluated. The results showed that relative to controls, the MCI group had impairments in number comprehension, transcoding, written operations, and in daily activities involving time estimation and money usage. In the volumetric measures, group differences emerged for the transcoding subtask in the left insula and left superior temporal gyrus. Among MCI patients, number comprehension and formal numerical performance were correlated with volumetric variability in the right middle occipital areas and right frontal gyrus. Money-usage scores showed significant correlations with left mesial frontal cortex, right superior frontal and right superior temporal cortex. Regression models revealed that neuropsychological measures of long-term memory, language, visuo-spatial abilities, and abstract reasoning were predictive of the patients' decline in daily activities. The present findings suggest that early neuropathology in distributed cortical regions of the brain including frontal, temporal and occipital areas leads to a breakdown of cognitive abilities in MCI that impacts on numerical daily functioning. The findings have implications for diagnosis, clinical and domestic care of patients with MCI. PMID:26159324

  3. A reusable anatomically segmented digital mannequin for public health communication.

    PubMed

    Fujieda, Kaori; Okubo, Kosaku

    2016-01-01

    The ongoing development of world wide web technologies has facilitated a change in health communication, which has now become bi-directional and encompasses people with diverse backgrounds. To enable an even greater role for medical illustrations, a data set, BodyParts3D, has been generated and its data set can be used by anyone to create and exchange customised three-dimensional (3D) anatomical images. BP3D comprises more than 3000 3D object files created by segmenting a digital mannequin in accordance with anatomical naming conventions. This paper describes the methodologies and features used to generate an anatomically correct male mannequin.

  4. Perceptions of science. The anatomical mission to Burma.

    PubMed

    Sappol, Michael

    2003-10-10

    Until the 1830s, most Americans were unfamiliar with the images of anatomy. Then a small vanguard of reformers and missionaries began to preach, at home and around the world, that an identification with the images and concepts of anatomy was a crucial part of the civilizing process. In his essay, Sappol charts the changes in the perception of self that resulted from this anatomical evangelism. Today, as anatomical images abound in the arts and the media, we still believe that anatomical images show us our inner reality.

  5. Anatomic changes due to interspecific grafting in cassava (Manihot esculenta).

    PubMed

    Bomfim, N; Ribeiro, D G; Nassar, N M A

    2011-05-31

    Cassava rootstocks of varieties UnB 201 and UnB 122 grafted with scions of Manihot fortalezensis were prepared for anatomic study. The roots were cut, stained with safranin and alcian blue, and examined microscopically, comparing them with sections taken from ungrafted roots. There was a significant decrease in number of pericyclic fibers, vascular vessels and tyloses in rootstocks. They exhibited significant larger vessels. These changes in anatomic structure are a consequence of genetic effects caused by transference of genetic material from scion to rootstock. The same ungrafted species was compared. This is the first report on anatomic changes due to grafting in cassava.

  6. Anatomic Double-Bundle Posterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Chahla, Jorge; Nitri, Marco; Civitarese, David; Dean, Chase S; Moulton, Samuel G; LaPrade, Robert F

    2016-02-01

    The posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) is known to be the main posterior stabilizer of the knee. Anatomic single-bundle PCL reconstruction, focusing on reconstruction of the larger anterolateral bundle, is the most commonly performed procedure. Because of the residual posterior and rotational tibial instability after the single-bundle procedure and the inability to restore the normal knee kinematics, an anatomic double-bundle PCL reconstruction has been proposed in an effort to re-create the native PCL footprint more closely and to restore normal knee kinematics. We detail our technique for an anatomic double-bundle PCL reconstruction using Achilles and anterior tibialis tendon allografts. PMID:27284530

  7. A reusable anatomically segmented digital mannequin for public health communication.

    PubMed

    Fujieda, Kaori; Okubo, Kosaku

    2016-01-01

    The ongoing development of world wide web technologies has facilitated a change in health communication, which has now become bi-directional and encompasses people with diverse backgrounds. To enable an even greater role for medical illustrations, a data set, BodyParts3D, has been generated and its data set can be used by anyone to create and exchange customised three-dimensional (3D) anatomical images. BP3D comprises more than 3000 3D object files created by segmenting a digital mannequin in accordance with anatomical naming conventions. This paper describes the methodologies and features used to generate an anatomically correct male mannequin. PMID:27311009

  8. The use of anatomical dolls as assessment and evidentiary tools.

    PubMed

    Lie, G Y; Inman, A

    1991-09-01

    Anatomical dolls commonly are used to assess allegations of child sexual abuse. Such assessments are based largely on interviews with children and observations of how they play with and handle the dolls. Several recent court decisions have questioned the reliability and validity of anatomical dolls as an assessment and evidentiary tool. This article reviews the literature on the use of anatomical dolls and highlights issues concerning their diagnostic and forensic efficacy. The authors identify and discuss implications of the use of these dolls for social work practice and research. PMID:1925700

  9. Anatomic considerations in infections of the face and neck: review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Granite, E L

    1976-01-01

    An attempt was made to summarize the literature concerning the potential spaces between fascial layers in the face and neck and to correlate the variations in terminology used by different authors. It soon became evident in a search of the literature that far too many names are given to the same anatomical space and that there is a wealth of written material for study. As a result, the descriptions given here deal with the terminology that was most frequently encountered (Table). As anatomical relations form the basis of diagnosis and therapy, a thorough knowledge of the nature of infective processes in the facial and cervical regions is essential. The various fascial spaces are described and some general aspects of diagnosis are considered.

  10. Anatomical evidence for the involvement of medial cerebellar output from the interpositus nuclei in cognitive functions

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xiaofeng; Miyachi, Shigehiro; Takada, Masahiko

    2012-01-01

    Although the cerebellar interpositus nuclei are known to be involved in cognitive functions, such as associative motor learning, no anatomical evidence has been available for this issue. Here we used retrograde transneuronal transport of rabies virus to identify neurons in the cerebellar nuclei that project via the thalamus to area 46 of the prefrontal cortex of macaques in comparison with the projections to the primary motor cortex (M1). After rabies injections into area 46, many neurons in the restricted region of the posterior interpositus nucleus (PIN) were labeled disynaptically via the thalamus, whereas no neuron labeling was found in the anterior interpositus nucleus (AIN). The distribution of the labeled neurons was dorsoventrally different from that of PIN neurons labeled from the M1. This defines an anatomical substrate for the contribution of medial cerebellar output to cognitive functions. Like the dentate nucleus, the PIN has dual motor and cognitive channels, whereas the AIN has a motor channel only. PMID:23112179

  11. Brain imaging of the self--conceptual, anatomical and methodological issues.

    PubMed

    Northoff, Georg; Qin, Pengmin; Feinberg, Todd E

    2011-03-01

    In this paper we consider two major issues: conceptual-experimental approaches to the self, and the neuroanatomical substrate of the self. We distinguish content- and processed-based concepts of the self that entail different experimental strategies, and anatomically, we investigate the concept of midline structures in further detail and present a novel view on the anatomy of an integrated subcortical-cortical midline system. Presenting meta-analytic evidence, we show that the anterior paralimbic, e.g. midline, regions do indeed seem to be specific for self-specific stimuli. We conclude that future investigation of the self need to develop novel concepts that are more empirically plausible than those currently in use. Different concepts of self will require novel experimental designs that include, for example, the brain's resting state activity as an independent variable. Modifications of both conceptual and anatomical dimensions will allow an empirically more plausible account of the relationship between brain and self.

  12. Anatomical and physiological evidence for polarisation vision in the nocturnal bee Megalopta genalis.

    PubMed

    Greiner, Birgit; Cronin, Thomas W; Ribi, Willi A; Wcislo, William T; Warrant, Eric J

    2007-06-01

    The presence of a specialised dorsal rim area with an ability to detect the e-vector orientation of polarised light is shown for the first time in a nocturnal hymenopteran. The dorsal rim area of the halictid bee Megalopta genalis features a number of characteristic anatomical specialisations including an increased rhabdom diameter and a lack of primary screening pigments. Optically, these specialisations result in wide spatial receptive fields (Deltarho = 14 degrees ), a common adaptation found in the dorsal rim areas of insects used to filter out interfering effects (i.e. clouds) from the sky. In this specialised eye region all nine photoreceptors contribute their microvilli to the entire length of the ommatidia. These orthogonally directed microvilli are anatomically arranged in an almost linear, anterior-posterior orientation. Intracellular recordings within the dorsal rim area show very high polarisation sensitivity and a sensitivity peak within the ultraviolet part of the spectrum.

  13. The vascular system of the upper eyelid. Anatomical study and clinical interest.

    PubMed

    Lopez, R; Lauwers, F; Paoli, J R; Boutault, F; Guitard, J

    2008-05-01

    Thorough knowledge of the vascular supply is indispensable for repair and oncologic surgery of the eyelids, and has a significant impact on the management of complex defects of this region. This anatomic study was performed with five fresh cadavers after arterial injection of coloured neoprene latex. The distribution of the vascular system of the upper eyelid was examined after dissection and photographic study. It is made up of three arcades: the preseptal arcade, the supratarsal arcade, and the marginal arcade, under the orbicularis oculi muscle. These arcades are supplied by branches of the ophthalmic artery (supraorbital artery, supratrochlear artery and medial palpebral artery) and branches of the facial artery and temporal artery. Small vertical branches arising out of these arcades provide an anastomotic network. This anatomical study aimed to describe the vascular system of the upper eyelid in order to search for constant features and to map the blood supply of the principal upper lid flaps.

  14. Disrupted anatomic networks in the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, J Eric; Yi, James; Calkins, Monica E; Ruparel, Kosha; Roalf, David R; Cassidy, Amy; Souders, Margaret C; Satterthwaite, Theodore D; McDonald-McGinn, Donna M; Zackai, Elaine H; Gur, Ruben C; Emanuel, Beverly S; Gur, Raquel E

    2016-01-01

    The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is an uncommon genetic disorder with an increased risk of psychosis. Although the neural substrates of psychosis and schizophrenia are not well understood, aberrations in cortical networks represent intriguing potential mechanisms. Investigations of anatomic networks within 22q11DS are sparse. We investigated group differences in anatomic network structure in 48 individuals with 22q11DS and 370 typically developing controls by analyzing covariance patterns in cortical thickness among 68 regions of interest using graph theoretical models. Subjects with 22q11DS had less robust geographic organization relative to the control group, particularly in the occipital and parietal lobes. Multiple global graph theoretical statistics were decreased in 22q11DS. These results are consistent with prior studies demonstrating decreased connectivity in 22q11DS using other neuroimaging methodologies. PMID:27622139

  15. Effect of the anatomical site on telomere length and pref-1 gene expression in bovine adipose tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, Tomoya Higuchi, Mikito; Nakanishi, Naoto

    2015-08-07

    Adipose tissue growth is associated with preadipocyte proliferation and differentiation. Telomere length is a biological marker for cell proliferation. Preadipocyte factor-1 (pref-1) is specifically expressed in preadipocytes and acts as a molecular gatekeeper of adipogenesis. In the present study, we investigated the fat depot-specific differences in telomere length and pref-1 gene expression in various anatomical sites (subcutaneous, intramuscular and visceral) of fattening Wagyu cattle. Visceral adipose tissue expressed higher pref-1 mRNA than did subcutaneous and intramuscular adipose tissues. The telomere length in visceral adipose tissue tended to be longer than that of subcutaneous and intramuscular adipose tissues. The telomere length of adipose tissue was not associated with adipocyte size from three anatomical sites. No significant correlation was found between the pref-1 mRNA level and the subcutaneous adipocyte size. In contrast, the pref-1 mRNA level was negatively correlated with the intramuscular and visceral adipocyte size. These results suggest that anatomical sites of adipose tissue affect the telomere length and expression pattern of the pref-1 gene in a fat depot-specific manner. - Highlights: • Visceral adipose tissue express higher pref-1 mRNA than other anatomical sites. • Telomere length in visceral adipose tissue is longer than other anatomical sites. • Telomere length of adipose tissue is not associated with adipocyte size. • Pref-1 mRNA is negatively correlated with intramuscular and visceral adipocyte size.

  16. GBM heterogeneity characterization by radiomic analysis of phenotype anatomical planes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaddad, Ahmad; Desrosiers, Christian; Toews, Matthew

    2016-03-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common malignant primary tumor of the central nervous system, characterized among other traits by rapid metastatis. Three tissue phenotypes closely associated with GBMs, namely, necrosis (N), contrast enhancement (CE), and edema/invasion (E), exhibit characteristic patterns of texture heterogeneity in magnetic resonance images (MRI). In this study, we propose a novel model to characterize GBM tissue phenotypes using gray level co-occurrence matrices (GLCM) in three anatomical planes. The GLCM encodes local image patches in terms of informative, orientation-invariant texture descriptors, which are used here to sub-classify GBM tissue phenotypes. Experiments demonstrate the model on MRI data of 41 GBM patients, obtained from the cancer genome atlas (TCGA). Intensity-based automatic image registration is applied to align corresponding pairs of fixed T1˗weighted (T1˗WI) post-contrast and fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images. GBM tissue regions are then segmented using the 3D Slicer tool. Texture features are computed from 12 quantifier functions operating on GLCM descriptors, that are generated from MRI intensities within segmented GBM tissue regions. Various classifier models are used to evaluate the effectiveness of texture features for discriminating between GBM phenotypes. Results based on T1-WI scans showed a phenotype classification accuracy of over 88.14%, a sensitivity of 85.37% and a specificity of 96.1%, using the linear discriminant analysis (LDA) classifier. This model has the potential to provide important characteristics of tumors, which can be used for the sub-classification of GBM phenotypes.

  17. [Affective dependency].

    PubMed

    Scantamburlo, G; Pitchot, W; Ansseau, M

    2013-01-01

    Affective dependency is characterized by emotional distress (insecure attachment) and dependency to another person with a low self-esteem and reassurance need. The paper proposes a reflection on the definition of emotional dependency and the confusion caused by various denominations. Overprotective and authoritarian parenting, cultural and socio-environmental factors may contribute to the development of dependent personality. Psychological epigenetic factors, such as early socio-emotional trauma could on neuronal circuits in prefronto-limbic regions that are essential for emotional behaviour.We also focus on the interrelations between dependent personality, domestic violence and addictions. The objective for the clinician is to propose a restoration of self-esteem and therapeutic strategies focused on autonomy.

  18. [Affective dependency].

    PubMed

    Scantamburlo, G; Pitchot, W; Ansseau, M

    2013-01-01

    Affective dependency is characterized by emotional distress (insecure attachment) and dependency to another person with a low self-esteem and reassurance need. The paper proposes a reflection on the definition of emotional dependency and the confusion caused by various denominations. Overprotective and authoritarian parenting, cultural and socio-environmental factors may contribute to the development of dependent personality. Psychological epigenetic factors, such as early socio-emotional trauma could on neuronal circuits in prefronto-limbic regions that are essential for emotional behaviour.We also focus on the interrelations between dependent personality, domestic violence and addictions. The objective for the clinician is to propose a restoration of self-esteem and therapeutic strategies focused on autonomy. PMID:23888587

  19. Editorial Commentary: Anatomic Femoral Tunnel Drilling: Does It Really Matter?

    PubMed

    Hohmann, Erik

    2016-01-01

    An anatomic anteromedial portal and outside-in technique for creating the anterior cruciate ligament femoral tunnel may improve rotational stability but shows no published differences in clinical outcomes. PMID:26743417

  20. Precise Anatomic Localization of Accumulated Lipids in Mfp2 Deficient Murine Brains Through Automated Registration of SIMS Images to the Allen Brain Atlas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Škrášková, Karolina; Khmelinskii, Artem; Abdelmoula, Walid M.; De Munter, Stephanie; Baes, Myriam; McDonnell, Liam; Dijkstra, Jouke; Heeren, Ron M. A.

    2015-06-01

    Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) is a powerful tool for the molecular characterization of specific tissue regions. Histochemical staining provides anatomic information complementary to MSI data. The combination of both modalities has been proven to be beneficial. However, direct comparison of histology based and mass spectrometry-based molecular images can become problematic because of potential tissue damages or changes caused by different sample preparation. Curated atlases such as the Allen Brain Atlas (ABA) offer a collection of highly detailed and standardized anatomic information. Direct comparison of MSI brain data to the ABA allows for conclusions to be drawn on precise anatomic localization of the molecular signal. Here we applied secondary ion mass spectrometry imaging at high spatial resolution to study brains of knock-out mouse models with impaired peroxisomal β-oxidation. Murine models were lacking D-multifunctional protein (MFP2), which is involved in degradation of very long chain fatty acids. SIMS imaging revealed deposits of fatty acids within distinct brain regions. Manual comparison of the MSI data with the histologic stains did not allow for an unequivocal anatomic identification of the fatty acids rich regions. We further employed an automated pipeline for co-registration of the SIMS data to the ABA. The registration enabled precise anatomic annotation of the brain structures with the revealed lipid deposits. The precise anatomic localization allowed for a deeper insight into the pathology of Mfp2 deficient mouse models.

  1. Wood Anatomy and Insect Defoliator Systems: Is there an anatomical response to sustained feeding by the western spruce budworm (Choristoneura occidentalis) on Douglas-fir (Pseudotusga menziesii)?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Axelson, Jodi; Gärtner, Holger; Alfaro, René; Smith, Dan

    2013-04-01

    The western spruce budworm (Choristoneura occidentalis Freeman) is the most widespread and destructive defoliator of coniferous forests in western North America, and has a long-term coexistence with its primary host tree, Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii Franco). Western spruce budworm (WSB) outbreaks usually last for several years, and cause reductions in annual growth, stem defects, and regeneration delays. In British Columbia, the WSB is the second most damaging insect after the mountain pine beetle, and sustained and/or severe defoliation can result in the mortality of host trees. Numerous studies have used tree rings to reconstruct WSB outbreaks across long temporal scales, to evaluate losses in stand productivity, and examine isotope ratios. Although some studies have looked at the impacts of artificial defoliation on balsam fir in eastern North America, there has been no prior research on how WSB outbreaks affect the anatomical structure of the stem as described by intra-annual wood density and potential cell size variations. The objective of this study was to anatomically examine the response of Douglas-fir to sustained WSB outbreaks in two regions of southern British Columbia. We hypothesize that the anatomical intra-annual characteristics of the tree rings, such as cell wall thickness, latewood cell size, and/or lumen area changes during sustained WSB outbreaks. To test this hypothesis we sampled four permanent sample plots in coastal and dry interior sites, which had annually resolved defoliation data collected over a 7-12 year period. At each site diameter-at-breast height (cm), height (m), and crown position were recorded and three increment cores were extracted from 25 trees. Increment cores were prepared to permit anatomical and x-ray density analyses. For each tree, a 15µm thick micro section was cut from the radial plane. Digital images of the micro sections were captured and processed. In each annual ring, features such as cell lumen area (µm2

  2. Evidence for a genetic discontinuity between Neandertals and 24,000-year-old anatomically modern Europeans.

    PubMed

    Caramelli, David; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Vernesi, Cristiano; Lari, Martina; Casoli, Antonella; Mallegni, Francesco; Chiarelli, Brunetto; Dupanloup, Isabelle; Bertranpetit, Jaume; Barbujani, Guido; Bertorelle, Giorgio

    2003-05-27

    During the late Pleistocene, early anatomically modern humans coexisted in Europe with the anatomically archaic Neandertals for some thousand years. Under the recent variants of the multiregional model of human evolution, modern and archaic forms were different but related populations within a single evolving species, and both have contributed to the gene pool of current humans. Conversely, the Out-of-Africa model considers the transition between Neandertals and anatomically modern humans as the result of a demographic replacement, and hence it predicts a genetic discontinuity between them. Following the most stringent current standards for validation of ancient DNA sequences, we typed the mtDNA hypervariable region I of two anatomically modern Homo sapiens sapiens individuals of the Cro-Magnon type dated at about 23 and 25 thousand years ago. Here we show that the mtDNAs of these individuals fall well within the range of variation of today's humans, but differ sharply from the available sequences of the chronologically closer Neandertals. This discontinuity is difficult to reconcile with the hypothesis that both Neandertals and early anatomically modern humans contributed to the current European gene pool.

  3. Evidence for a genetic discontinuity between Neandertals and 24,000-year-old anatomically modern Europeans

    PubMed Central

    Caramelli, David; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Vernesi, Cristiano; Lari, Martina; Casoli, Antonella; Mallegni, Francesco; Chiarelli, Brunetto; Dupanloup, Isabelle; Bertranpetit, Jaume; Barbujani, Guido; Bertorelle, Giorgio

    2003-01-01

    During the late Pleistocene, early anatomically modern humans coexisted in Europe with the anatomically archaic Neandertals for some thousand years. Under the recent variants of the multiregional model of human evolution, modern and archaic forms were different but related populations within a single evolving species, and both have contributed to the gene pool of current humans. Conversely, the Out-of-Africa model considers the transition between Neandertals and anatomically modern humans as the result of a demographic replacement, and hence it predicts a genetic discontinuity between them. Following the most stringent current standards for validation of ancient DNA sequences, we typed the mtDNA hypervariable region I of two anatomically modern Homo sapiens sapiens individuals of the Cro-Magnon type dated at about 23 and 25 thousand years ago. Here we show that the mtDNAs of these individuals fall well within the range of variation of today's humans, but differ sharply from the available sequences of the chronologically closer Neandertals. This discontinuity is difficult to reconcile with the hypothesis that both Neandertals and early anatomically modern humans contributed to the current European gene pool. PMID:12743370

  4. Evidence for a genetic discontinuity between Neandertals and 24,000-year-old anatomically modern Europeans.

    PubMed

    Caramelli, David; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Vernesi, Cristiano; Lari, Martina; Casoli, Antonella; Mallegni, Francesco; Chiarelli, Brunetto; Dupanloup, Isabelle; Bertranpetit, Jaume; Barbujani, Guido; Bertorelle, Giorgio

    2003-05-27

    During the late Pleistocene, early anatomically modern humans coexisted in Europe with the anatomically archaic Neandertals for some thousand years. Under the recent variants of the multiregional model of human evolution, modern and archaic forms were different but related populations within a single evolving species, and both have contributed to the gene pool of current humans. Conversely, the Out-of-Africa model considers the transition between Neandertals and anatomically modern humans as the result of a demographic replacement, and hence it predicts a genetic discontinuity between them. Following the most stringent current standards for validation of ancient DNA sequences, we typed the mtDNA hypervariable region I of two anatomically modern Homo sapiens sapiens individuals of the Cro-Magnon type dated at about 23 and 25 thousand years ago. Here we show that the mtDNAs of these individuals fall well within the range of variation of today's humans, but differ sharply from the available sequences of the chronologically closer Neandertals. This discontinuity is difficult to reconcile with the hypothesis that both Neandertals and early anatomically modern humans contributed to the current European gene pool. PMID:12743370

  5. Discovering anatomical patterns with pathological meaning by clustering of visual primitives in structural brain MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leon, Juan; Pulido, Andrea; Romero, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Computational anatomy is a subdiscipline of the anatomy that studies macroscopic details of the human body structure using a set of automatic techniques. Different reference systems have been developed for brain mapping and morphometry in functional and structural studies. Several models integrate particular anatomical regions to highlight pathological patterns in structural brain MRI, a really challenging task due to the complexity, variability, and nonlinearity of the human brain anatomy. In this paper, we present a strategy that aims to find anatomical regions with pathological meaning by using a probabilistic analysis. Our method starts by extracting visual primitives from brain MRI that are partitioned into small patches and which are then softly clustered, forming different regions not necessarily connected. Each of these regions is described by a co- occurrence histogram of visual features, upon which a probabilistic semantic analysis is used to find the underlying structure of the information, i.e., separated regions by their low level similarity. The proposed approach was tested with the OASIS data set which includes 69 Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and 65 healthy subjects (NC).

  6. Lymphedema: A General Outline of Its Anatomical Base.

    PubMed

    Amore, M; Tapia, L; Mercado, D; Pattarone, G; Ciucci, J

    2016-01-01

    The anatomic research of the lymphatic system has been a very controversial subject throughout due to the complexity of the methods for its visualization. More than 30 years ago, together with Prof. Caplan, we began the vascular anatomy research, focusing on the lymphatic anatomy, developing and adapting different techniques of injection. On the third Normal Anatomy Chair of Buenos Aires University, we summarized the lymphatic drainage of the breast and the limbs to interpret the anatomic bases of lymphedema.

  7. Probabilistic predictions of penetrating injury to anatomic structures.

    PubMed Central

    Ogunyemi, O.; Webber, B.; Clarke, J. R.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents an interactive 3D graphical system which allows the user to visualize different bullet path hypotheses and stab wound paths and computes the probability that an anatomical structure associated with a given penetration path is injured. Probabilities can help to identify those anatomical structures which have potentially critical damage from penetrating trauma and differentiate these from structures that are not seriously injured. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:9357718

  8. The linguistic roots of Modern English anatomical terminology.

    PubMed

    Turmezei, Tom D

    2012-11-01

    Previous research focusing on Classical Latin and Greek roots has shown that understanding the etymology of English anatomical terms may be beneficial for students of human anatomy. However, not all anatomical terms are derived from Classical origins. This study aims to explore the linguistic roots of the Modern English terminology used in human gross anatomy. By reference to the Oxford English Dictionary, etymologies were determined for a lexicon of 798 Modern English gross anatomical terms from the 40(th) edition of Gray's Anatomy. Earliest traceable language of origin was determined for all 798 terms; language of acquisition was determined for 747 terms. Earliest traceable languages of origin were: Classical Latin (62%), Classical Greek (24%), Old English (7%), Post-Classical Latin (3%), and other (4%). Languages of acquisition were: Classical Latin (42%), Post-Classical Latin (29%), Old English (8%), Modern French (6%), Classical Greek (5%), Middle English (3%), and other (7%). While the roots of Modern English anatomical terminology mostly lie in Classical languages (accounting for the origin of 86% of terms), the anatomical lexicon of Modern English is actually much more diverse. Interesting and perhaps less familiar examples from these languages and the methods by which such terms have been created and absorbed are discussed. The author suggests that awareness of anatomical etymologies may enhance the enjoyment and understanding of human anatomy for students and teachers alike. PMID:22461143

  9. Toledo School of Translators and their influence on anatomical terminology.

    PubMed

    Arráez-Aybar, Luis-Alfonso; Bueno-López, José-L; Raio, Nicolas

    2015-03-01

    Translation facilitates transmission of knowledge between cultures. The fundamental transfer of anatomic terminology from the Ancient Greek and Islamic Golden Age cultures, to medieval Latin Christendom took place in the so-called Toledo School of Translators in the 12th-13th centuries. Translations made in Toledo circulated widely across Europe. They were the foundation of scientific thinking that was born in the boards of first universities. In Toledo, Gerard of Cremona translated Avicenna's Canon of Medicine, the key work of Islamic Golden Age of medicine. Albertus Magnus, Mondino de Luzzi and Guy de Chauliac, the leading authors of anatomical Latin words in the Middle Ages, founded their books on Gerard's translations. The anatomical terms of the Canon retain auctoritas up to the Renaissance. Thus, terms coined by Gerard such as diaphragm, orbit, pupil or sagittal remain relevant in the current official anatomical terminology. The aim of the present paper is to bring new attention to the highly significant influence that the Toledo School of Translators had in anatomical terminology. For this, we shall review here the onomastic origins of a number of anatomical terms (additamentum; coracoid process; coxal; false ribs; femur; panniculus; spondylus; squamous sutures; thorax; xiphoid process, etc.) which are still used today. PMID:25667112

  10. The linguistic roots of Modern English anatomical terminology.

    PubMed

    Turmezei, Tom D

    2012-11-01

    Previous research focusing on Classical Latin and Greek roots has shown that understanding the etymology of English anatomical terms may be beneficial for students of human anatomy. However, not all anatomical terms are derived from Classical origins. This study aims to explore the linguistic roots of the Modern English terminology used in human gross anatomy. By reference to the Oxford English Dictionary, etymologies were determined for a lexicon of 798 Modern English gross anatomical terms from the 40(th) edition of Gray's Anatomy. Earliest traceable language of origin was determined for all 798 terms; language of acquisition was determined for 747 terms. Earliest traceable languages of origin were: Classical Latin (62%), Classical Greek (24%), Old English (7%), Post-Classical Latin (3%), and other (4%). Languages of acquisition were: Classical Latin (42%), Post-Classical Latin (29%), Old English (8%), Modern French (6%), Classical Greek (5%), Middle English (3%), and other (7%). While the roots of Modern English anatomical terminology mostly lie in Classical languages (accounting for the origin of 86% of terms), the anatomical lexicon of Modern English is actually much more diverse. Interesting and perhaps less familiar examples from these languages and the methods by which such terms have been created and absorbed are discussed. The author suggests that awareness of anatomical etymologies may enhance the enjoyment and understanding of human anatomy for students and teachers alike.

  11. [The anatomical revolution and the transition of anatomical conception in late imperial china].

    PubMed

    Sihn, Kyu Hwan

    2012-04-30

    This paper aimed to examine the anatomical revolution from Yilingaicuo (Correcting the Errors of Medicine) and Quantixinlun(Outline of Anatomy and Physiology) in late imperial China. As the cephalocentrism which the brain superintend human operation of the mind was diffused in China since 16th century, the cephalocentrism and the cardiocentrism had competed for the hegemony of anatomical conception. Because of the advent of Yilingaicuo and Quantixinlun, the cephalocentrism became the main stream in the anatomical conception. The supporters of the Wang Yangming's Xinxue(the Learning of Heart and Mind) argued that the heart was the central organ of perception, sensitivity, and morality of the human body in medicine since 16th century. Even reformist and revolutionary intellectuals like Tan sitong and Mao zedong who had supported the Wang Yangming's Xinxue embraced the cephalocentrism in the late 19th century and the early 20th century. May Fourth intellectuals had not obsessed metaphysical interpretation of human body any more in the New Culture Movement in 1910s. They regarded human body as the object of research and writing. The anatomy was transformed into the instrumental knowledge for mutilation of the body. Yilingaicuo challenged the traditional conception of body, and Chinese intellectuals drew interest in the anatomy knowledge based on real mutilation. Quantixinlun based on Western medicine fueled a controversy about anatomy. Though new knowledge of anatomy was criticized by traditional Chinese medical doctors from the usefulness and morality of anatomy, nobody disavowed new knowledge of anatomy from the institutionalization of Western medicine in medical school. The internal development of cephalocentrism and positivism had influence on anatomy in China since 16th century. The advent of Yilingaicuo and Quantixinlun provided the milestone of new anatomy, though both sides represented traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine respectively. They

  12. Germline deletion of Igh 3′ regulatory region elements hs5-7 affects B cell specific regulation, rearrangement and insulation of the Igh locus1

    PubMed Central

    Volpi, Sabrina A.; Verma-Gaur, Jiyoti; Hassan, Rabih; Ju, Zhongliang; Roa, Sergio; Chatterjee, Sanjukta; Werling, Uwe; Hou, Harry; Will, Britta; Steidl, Ulrich; Scharff, Matthew; Edelman, Winfried; Feeney, Ann J.; Birshtein, Barbara K.

    2012-01-01

    Regulatory elements located within a ~28 kb region 3′ of the Igh gene cluster (3′ regulatory region, 3′ RR) are required for class switch recombination and for high levels of IgH expression in plasma cells. We previously defined novel DNase I hypersensitive (hs) sites, i.e. hs5-7, immediately downstream of this region. Hs5-7 contains a high density of binding sites for CTCF, a zinc finger protein associated with mammalian insulator activity and is an anchor for interactions with CTCF sites flanking the DH region. To test the function of hs5-7, we have generated mice with an 8 kb deletion encompassing all three hs elements. B cells from hs5-7 KO mice showed a modest increase in expression of the nearest downstream gene. In addition, Igh alleles in hs5-7 KO mice were in a less contracted configuration compared to WT Igh alleles and showed a two-fold increase in the usage of proximal VH7183 gene families. Hs5-7 KO mice were essentially indistinguishable from wild type mice in B cell development, allelic regulation, class switch recombination, and chromosomal looping. We conclude that hs5-7--a high-density CTCF binding region at the 3′ end of the Igh locus--impacts usage of VH regions as far as 500 kb away. PMID:22345664

  13. Ethical issues surrounding the use of images from donated cadavers in the anatomical sciences.

    PubMed

    Cornwall, Jon; Callahan, David; Wee, Richman

    2016-01-01

    Body donor programs rely on the generosity and trust of the public to facilitate the provision of cadaver resources for anatomical education and research. The uptake and adoption of emerging technologies, including those allowing the acquisition and distribution of images, are becoming more widespread, including within anatomical science education. Images of cadavers are useful for research and education, and their supply and distribution have commercial potential for textbooks and online education. It is unclear whether the utilization of images of donated cadavers are congruent with donor expectations, societal norms and boundaries of established public understanding. Presently, no global "best practices" or standards exist, nor is there a common model requiring specific image-related consent from body donors. As ongoing success of body donation programs relies upon the ethical and institutional governance of body utilization to maintain trust and a positive relationship with potential donors and the community, discussions considering the potential impact of image misuse are important. This paper discusses the subject of images of donated cadavers, commenting on images in non-specific use, education, research, and commercial applications. It explores the role and significance of such images in the context of anatomical science and society, and discusses how misuse - including unconsented use - of images has the potential to affect donor program success, suggesting that informed consent is currently necessary for all images arising from donated cadavers. Its purpose is to encourage discussion to guide responsible utilization of cadaver images, while protecting the interests of body donors and the public.

  14. Ethical issues surrounding the use of images from donated cadavers in the anatomical sciences.

    PubMed

    Cornwall, Jon; Callahan, David; Wee, Richman

    2016-01-01

    Body donor programs rely on the generosity and trust of the public to facilitate the provision of cadaver resources for anatomical education and research. The uptake and adoption of emerging technologies, including those allowing the acquisition and distribution of images, are becoming more widespread, including within anatomical science education. Images of cadavers are useful for research and education, and their supply and distribution have commercial potential for textbooks and online education. It is unclear whether the utilization of images of donated cadavers are congruent with donor expectations, societal norms and boundaries of established public understanding. Presently, no global "best practices" or standards exist, nor is there a common model requiring specific image-related consent from body donors. As ongoing success of body donation programs relies upon the ethical and institutional governance of body utilization to maintain trust and a positive relationship with potential donors and the community, discussions considering the potential impact of image misuse are important. This paper discusses the subject of images of donated cadavers, commenting on images in non-specific use, education, research, and commercial applications. It explores the role and significance of such images in the context of anatomical science and society, and discusses how misuse - including unconsented use - of images has the potential to affect donor program success, suggesting that informed consent is currently necessary for all images arising from donated cadavers. Its purpose is to encourage discussion to guide responsible utilization of cadaver images, while protecting the interests of body donors and the public. PMID:26474731

  15. Statistical 3D prostate imaging atlas construction via anatomically constrained registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusu, Mirabela; Bloch, B. Nicolas; Jaffe, Carl C.; Rofsky, Neil M.; Genega, Elizabeth M.; Feleppa, Ernest; Lenkinski, Robert E.; Madabhushi, Anant

    2013-03-01

    Statistical imaging atlases allow for integration of information from multiple patient studies collected across different image scales and modalities, such as multi-parametric (MP) MRI and histology, providing population statistics regarding a specific pathology within a single canonical representation. Such atlases are particularly valuable in the identification and validation of meaningful imaging signatures for disease characterization in vivo within a population. Despite the high incidence of prostate cancer, an imaging atlas focused on different anatomic structures of the prostate, i.e. an anatomic atlas, has yet to be constructed. In this work we introduce a novel framework for MRI atlas construction that uses an iterative, anatomically constrained registration (AnCoR) scheme to enable the proper alignment of the prostate (Pr) and central gland (CG) boundaries. Our current implementation uses endorectal, 1.5T or 3T, T2-weighted MRI from 51 patients with biopsy confirmed cancer; however, the prostate atlas is seamlessly extensible to include additional MRI parameters. In our cohort, radical prostatectomy is performed following MP-MR image acquisition; thus ground truth annotations for prostate cancer are available from the histological specimens. Once mapped onto MP-MRI through elastic registration of histological slices to corresponding T2-w MRI slices, the annotations are utilized by the AnCoR framework to characterize the 3D statistical distribution of cancer per anatomic structure. Such distributions are useful for guiding biopsies toward regions of higher cancer likelihood and understanding imaging profiles for disease extent in vivo. We evaluate our approach via the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) for different anatomic structures (delineated by expert radiologists): Pr, CG and peripheral zone (PZ). The AnCoR-based atlas had a CG DSC of 90.36%, and Pr DSC of 89.37%. Moreover, we evaluated the deviation of anatomic landmarks, the urethra and

  16. Paramedics' and pre-hospital physicians' assessments of anatomic injury in trauma patients: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The pre-hospital assessment of a blunt trauma is difficult. Common triage tools are the mechanism of injury (MOI), vital signs, and anatomic injury (AI). Compared to the other tools, the clinical assessment of anatomic injury is more subjective than the others, and, hence, more dependent on the skills of the personnel. The aim of the study was to estimate whether the training and qualifications of the personnel are associated with the accuracy of prediction of anatomic injury and the completion of pre-hospital procedures indicated by local guidelines. Methods Adult trauma patients met by a trauma team at Helsinki University Trauma Centre during a 12-month period (n = 422) were retrospectively analysed. To evaluate the accuracy of prediction of anatomic injury, clinically assessed pre-hospital injuries in six body regions were compared to injuries assessed at hospital in two patient groups, the patients treated by pre-hospital physicians (group 1, n = 230) and those treated by paramedics (group 2, n = 190). Results The groups were comparable in respect to age, sex, and MOI, but the patients treated by physicians were more severely injured than those treated by paramedics [ISS median (interquartile range) 16 (6-26) vs. 6 (2-10)], thus rendering direct comparison of the groups ineligible. The positive predictive values (95% confidence interval) of assessed injury were highest in head injury [0,91 (0,84-0,95) in group 1 and 0,86 (0,77-0,92) in group 2]. The negative predictive values were highest in abdominal injury [0,85 (0,79-0,89) in group 1 and 0,90 (0,84-0,93) in group 2]. The measurements of agreement between injuries assessed pre- and in-hospitally were moderate in thoracic and extremity injuries. Substantial kappa values (95% confidence interval) were achieved in head injury, 0,67 (0,57-0,77) in group 1 and 0,63 (0,52-0,74) in group 2. The rate of performing the pre-hospital procedures as indicated by the local instructions was 95-99%, except for

  17. Variation in the wood anatomical structure of Gmelina arborea (Verbenaceae) trees at different ecological conditions in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Moya, Róger; Tomazello Fo, Mario

    2008-06-01

    The tree Gmelina arborea has been widely introduced in Costa Rica for commercial purposes. This new conditions for melina cause variations on anatomy in secondary xylem of the trees growing in plantations. The objective of the present research was to determine the variation in the anatomy of xylem caused by the ecological conduction variation. Dimensions of fiber, axial parenchyma percentage of cross sections, parameters of vessels and the ray were measured. The results showed that some anatomical characteristics remained stable despite variations of ecological conditions, especially radial parenchyma and anatomical features which were less affected by the altitude. On the other hand, the vessels, axial parenchyma and fiber were less stable because they were affected significantly by the longitude, latitude, altitude and precipitation. Latitude significantly affected vessel percentage, length and diameter of the fiber and lumen. Longitude affected vessel percentage and fiber diameter. Altitude had a significant correlation with the amount of cells at ray height. Annual average precipitation affected vessel percentage and diameter, not only of the fiber, but also of the lumen. These results suggest that the new growth conditions of G. arborea trees in Costa Rica have produced an anatomic adaptation. PMID:19256437

  18. Prevalence and anatomical location of muscle tenderness in adults with nonspecific neck/shoulder pain

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Many adults experience bothersome neck/shoulder pain. While research and treatment strategies often focus on the upper trapezius, other neck/shoulder muscles may be affected as well. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the prevalence and anatomical location of muscle tenderness in adults with nonspecific neck/shoulder pain. Methods Clinical neck/shoulder examination at two large office workplaces in Copenhagen, Denmark. 174 women and 24 men (aged 25-65 years) with nonspecific neck/shoulder pain for a duration of at least 30 days during the previous year and a pain intensity of at least 2 on a modified VAS-scale of 0-10 participated. Exclusion criteria were traumatic injuries or other serious chronic disease. Using a standardized finger pressure of 2 kg, palpable tenderness were performed of eight anatomical neck/shoulder locations in the left and right side on a scale of 'no tenderness', 'some tenderness' and 'severe tenderness'. Results In women, the levator scapulae, neck extensors and infraspinatus showed the highest prevalence of severe tenderness (18-30%). In comparison, the prevalence of severe tenderness in the upper trapezius, occipital border and supraspinatus was 13-19%. Severe tenderness of the medial deltoid was least prevalent (0-1%). In men, the prevalence of severe tenderness in the levator scapulae was 13-21%, and ranged between 0-8% in the remainder of the examined anatomical locations. Conclusions A high prevalence of tenderness exists in several anatomical locations of the neck/shoulder complex among adults with nonspecific neck/shoulder pain. Future research should focus on several neck/shoulder muscles, including the levator scapulae, neck extensors and infraspinatus, and not only the upper trapezius. Trial Registration ISRCTN60264809 PMID:21777478

  19. Anatomical and Physiological Responses of Citrus Trees to Varying Boron Availability Are Dependent on Rootstock

    PubMed Central

    Mesquita, Geisa L.; Zambrosi, Fernando C. B.; Tanaka, Francisco A. O.; Boaretto, Rodrigo M.; Quaggio, José A.; Ribeiro, Rafael V.; Mattos, Dirceu

    2016-01-01

    In Citrus, water, nutrient transport and thereby fruit production, are influenced among other factors, by the interaction between rootstock and boron (B) nutrition. This study aimed to investigate how B affects the anatomical structure of roots and leaves as well as leaf gas exchange in sweet orange trees grafted on two contrasting rootstocks in response to B supply. Plants grafted on Swingle citrumelo or Sunki mandarin were grown in a nutrient solution of varying B concentration (deficient, adequate, and excessive). Those grafted on Swingle were more tolerant to both B deficiency and toxicity than those on Sunki, as revealed by higher shoot and root growth. In addition, plants grafted on Sunki exhibited more severe anatomical and physiological damages under B deficiency, showing thickening of xylem cell walls and impairments in whole-plant leaf-specific hydraulic conductance and leaf CO2 assimilation. Our data revealed that trees grafted on Swingle sustain better growth under low B availablitlity in the root medium and still respond positively to increased B levels by combining higher B absorption and root growth as well as better organization of xylem vessels. Taken together, those traits improved water and B transport to the plant canopy. Under B toxicity, Swingle rootstock would also favor plant growth by reducing anatomical and ultrastructural damage to leaf tissue and improving water transport compared with plants grafted on Sunki. From a practical point of view, our results highlight that B management in citrus orchards shall take into account rootstock varieties, of which the Swingle rootstock was characterized by its performance on regulating anatomical and ultrastructural damages, improving water transport and limiting negative impacts of B stress conditions on plant growth. PMID:26973670

  20. Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue–Derived Stem Cell Utility Is Independent of Anatomical Harvest Site

    PubMed Central

    Choudhery, Mahmood S.; Badowski, Michael; Muise, Angela; Pierce, John; Harris, David T.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract One of the challenges for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine is to obtain suitably large cell numbers for therapy. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can easily be expanded in vitro to obtain large numbers of cells, but this approach may induce cellular senescence. The characteristics of cells are dependent on variables like age, body mass index (BMI), and disease conditions, however, and in the case of adipose tissue–derived stem cells (ASCs), anatomical harvest site is also an important variable that can affect the regenerative potential of isolated cells. We therefore had kept the parameters (age, BMI, disease conditions) constant in this study to specifically assess influence of anatomical sites of individual donors on utility of ASCs. Adipose tissue was obtained from multiple anatomical sites in individual donors, and viability and nucleated cell yield were determined. MSC frequency was enumerated using colony forming unit assay and cells were characterized by flow cytometry. Growth characteristics were determined by long-term population doubling analysis of each sample. Finally, MSCs were induced to undergo adipogenic, osteogenic, and chondrogenic differentiation. To validate the findings, these results were compared with similar single harvest sites from multiple individual patients. The results of the current study indicated that MSCs obtained from multiple harvest sites in a single donor have similar morphology and phenotype. All adipose depots in a single donor exhibited similar MSC yield, viability, frequency, and growth characteristics. Equivalent differentiation capacity into osteocytes, adipocytes, and chondrocytes was also observed. On the basis of results, we conclude that it is acceptable to combine MSCs obtained from various anatomical locations in a single donor to obtain suitably large cell numbers required for therapy, avoiding in vitro senescence and lengthy and expensive in vitro culturing and expansion steps. PMID:26309790

  1. Using local extremum curvatures to extract anatomical markers from medical images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Briquer, Lionel; Lachmann, Frederic; Barillot, Christian

    1993-09-01

    Among the studies concerning the segmentation and the identification of anatomical structures from medical images, one of the major problems is the fusion of heterogeneous data for the recognition of these structures. In this domain, the fusion of inter-patient data for the constitution of anatomical models for instance is particularly critical especially with regards to the identification of complex cerebral structures like the cortical gyri. The goal of this work is to find anatomical markers which can be useful to characterize specific regions in brain images by using either CT or MR images. We have focused this study on the definition of a geometrical operator based on the detection of local extremum curvatures. The main issues addressed by this work concern the fusion of multimodal data from one patient (e.g. between CT and MRI) and moreover the fusion of inter-patient data as a first step toward the modelling of brain morphological deformations. Examples are shown upon 2D MR and CT brain images.

  2. Body shape transformation along a shared axis of anatomical evolution in labyrinth fishes (Anabantoidei).

    PubMed

    Collar, David C; Quintero, Michelle; Buttler, Bernardo; Ward, Andrea B; Mehta, Rita S

    2016-03-01

    Major morphological transformations, such as the evolution of elongate body shape in vertebrates, punctuate evolutionary history. A fundamental step in understanding the processes that give rise to such transformations is identification of the underlying anatomical changes. But as we demonstrate in this study, important insights can also be gained by comparing these changes to those that occur in ancestral and closely related lineages. In labyrinth fishes (Anabantoidei), rapid evolution of a highly derived torpedo-shaped body in the common ancestor of the pikehead (Luciocephalus aura and L. pulcher) occurred primarily through exceptional elongation of the head, with secondary contributions involving reduction in body depth and lengthening of the precaudal vertebral region. This combination of changes aligns closely with the primary axis of anatomical diversification in other anabantoids, revealing that pikehead evolution involved extraordinarily rapid change in structures that were ancestrally labile. Finer-scale examination of the anatomical components that determine head elongation also shows alignment between the pikehead evolutionary trajectory and the primary axis of cranial diversification in anabantoids, with much higher evolutionary rates leading to the pikehead. Altogether, our results show major morphological transformation stemming from extreme change along a shared morphological axis in labyrinth fishes. PMID:26899988

  3. [Contributions and results of lipo-structure in repair and rejuvenation of frontal anatomical unit].

    PubMed

    Chichery, A; Mojallal, A; Voulliaume, D; Comparin, J-P; Foyatier, J-L

    2009-04-01

    Forehead is the most large anatomical unit of face. It includes forehead and anterior part of temple. Deteriorations of frontal anatomical units are numerous, ageing forehead has atrophy with eyebrow ptosis. In this work, we want to estimate contribution of lipo-structure in repair and rejuvenation of frontal anatomical unit (FAU). We present seven cases of repair of FAU and three cases of rejuvenation of the forehead. Results are satisfactory, particularly about frontal band. Results are questionable about Lipo-structure of temple. Applications of Lipo-structure in plastic and aesthetic surgery of the forehead are huge. Lipo-structure is the reference technique of volumetric filling. It is preferred to other techniques as flaps (pediculed or free) or materials, because it is a safe, easy and efficient technique, which permits large fillings. In aesthetic surgery, Lipo-structure gives volume to eyebrow region and fills root of the nose. It can be used with injections of botulinum toxin A. Lipo-structure of forehead takes part in rejuvenation of eye and nose. In conclusion, lipo-structure is actually the major technique of filling with a large implication in plastic and aesthetic surgery of FAU.

  4. Two anatomic resources of canine pelvic limb muscles based on CT and MRI.

    PubMed

    Sunico, Sarena K; Hamel, Corentin; Styner, Martin; Robertson, Ian D; Kornegay, Joe N; Bettini, Chris; Parks, Jerry; Wilber, Kathy; Smallwood, J Edgar; Thrall, Donald E

    2012-01-01

    Advances in magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and three-dimensional (3D) modeling software provide the tools necessary to create sophisticated, interactive anatomic resources that can assist in the interpretation of MR images of extremities, and learning the structure and function of limb musculature. Modeling provides advantages over dissection or consultation of print atlases because of the associated speed, flexibility, 3D nature, and elimination of superimposed arrows and labels. Our goals were to create a diagnostic atlas of pelvic limb muscles that will facilitate interpretation of MR images of patients with muscle injury and to create a 3D model of the canine pelvic limb musculature to facilitate anatomic learning. To create these resources, we used structural segmentation of MR images, a process that groups image pixels into anatomically meaningful regions. The Diagnostic Atlas is an interactive, multiplanar, web-based MR atlas of the canine pelvic limb musculature that was created by manually segmenting clinically analogous MR sequences. Higher resolution volumetric MR and computed tomography (CT) data were segmented into separately labeled volumes of data and then transformed into a multilayered 3D computer model. The 3D Model serves as a resource for students of gross anatomy, encouraging integrative learning with its highly interactive and selective display capabilities. For clinicians, the 3D Model also serves to bridge the gap between topographic and tomographic anatomy, displaying both formats alongside, or even superimposed over each other. Both projects are hosted on an open-access website, http://3dvetanatomy.ncsu.edu/

  5. Pinta: A system for visualizing the anatomical structures of the brain from MR imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Parvin, B.; Johnston, W.; Roselli, D.

    1993-06-01

    Pinta is a system for segmentation and visualization of anatomical structures obtained from serial sections reconstructed from Magnetic Resonance Imaging. The system approaches the segmentation problem by assigning each volumetric region to an anatomical structure. This is accomplished by satisfying constraints at the pixel level, slice level, and volumetric level. Each slice is represented by an attributed graph, where nodes correspond to regions and links correspond to the relations between regions. These regions are obtained by grouping pixels based on similarity and proximity. The slice level attributed graphs are then coerced to form a volumetric attributed graph, where volumetric consistency can be verified. The main novelty of our approach is in the use of the volumetric graph to ensure consistency from symbolic representations obtained from individual slices. In this fashion, the system allows errors to be made at the slice level, yet removes them when the volumetric consistency cannot be verified. Once the segmentation is complete, the 3D surfaces of the brain can be constructed and visualized.

  6. Multimodal 3-D reconstruction of human anatomical structures using SurLens Visualization System.

    PubMed

    Adeshina, A M; Hashim, R; Khalid, N E A; Abidin, S Z Z

    2013-03-01

    In the medical diagnosis and treatment planning, radiologists and surgeons rely heavily on the slices produced by medical imaging devices. Unfortunately, these image scanners could only present the 3-D human anatomical structure in 2-D. Traditionally, this requires medical professional concerned to study and analyze the 2-D images based on their expert experience. This is tedious, time consuming and prone to error; expecially when certain features are occluding the desired region of interest. Reconstruction procedures was earlier proposed to handle such situation. However, 3-D reconstruction system requires high performance computation and longer processing time. Integrating efficient reconstruction system into clinical procedures involves high resulting cost. Previously, brain's blood vessels reconstruction with MRA was achieved using SurLens Visualization System. However, adapting such system to other image modalities, applicable to the entire human anatomical structures, would be a meaningful contribution towards achieving a resourceful system for medical diagnosis and disease therapy. This paper attempts to adapt SurLens to possible visualisation of abnormalities in human anatomical structures using CT and MR images. The study was evaluated with brain MR images from the department of Surgery, University of North Carolina, United States and CT abdominal pelvic, from the Swedish National Infrastructure for Computing. The MR images contain around 109 datasets each of T1-FLASH, T2-Weighted, DTI and T1-MPRAGE. Significantly, visualization of human anatomical structure was achieved without prior segmentation. SurLens was adapted to visualize and display abnormalities, such as an indication of walderstrom's macroglobulinemia, stroke and penetrating brain injury in the human brain using Magentic Resonance (MR) images. Moreover, possible abnormalities in abdominal pelvic was also visualized using Computed Tomography (CT) slices. The study shows SurLens' functionality as

  7. Angelman syndrome: A review highlighting musculoskeletal and anatomical aberrations.

    PubMed

    Sachdeva, Rohit; Donkers, Sarah J; Kim, Soo Y

    2016-07-01

    Angelman's syndrome (AS) is a genetic neurodevelopment disorder. The cause is a known abnormality involving the maternal inherited ubiquitin-protein ligase (UBE3A) gene. Clinical characteristics universal to the disorder are well documented in the literature and include developmental delay, seizures, ataxia, altered tone, severely impaired speech and intellect, as well as an overall happy demeanor, frequent bouts of laughter, and hypermotoric behavior. Associated with this disorder are several musculoskeletal aberrations. To date, a review of case studies reporting on these musculoskeletal changes has not been carried out. Thus, the purpose of this paper was to provide an overview of the musculoskeletal changes present in individuals with AS. In our review of 21 case reports from 1965-2013, the most consistently reported anatomical changes were of the craniofacial region. These include microcephaly, brachycephaly, a palpable occipital groove, prognathism, and wide spaced teeth. Other musculoskeletal abnormalities less frequently reported in the literature include scoliosis, excessive lumbar lordosis, and pes planus. Given that the majority of the case reports reviewed was of young children, the possibility of underreporting musculoskeletal changes which may manifest in the later years of life may be present. Early diagnosis and interventions to minimize secondary complications are crucial to maintain quality of life. An overall multidisciplinary approach is emphasized to maximize developmental potential for these individuals. Future prospective studies that follow patients into adulthood are needed to better understand the prevalence and development of secondary musculoskeletal changes, which in turn can inform intervention techniques and preventative measures. Clin. Anat. 29:561-567, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Segmentation and visualization of anatomical structures from volumetric medical images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jonghyun; Park, Soonyoung; Cho, Wanhyun; Kim, Sunworl; Kim, Gisoo; Ahn, Gukdong; Lee, Myungeun; Lim, Junsik

    2011-03-01

    This paper presents a method that can extract and visualize anatomical structures from volumetric medical images by using a 3D level set segmentation method and a hybrid volume rendering technique. First, the segmentation using the level set method was conducted through a surface evolution framework based on the geometric variation principle. This approach addresses the topological changes in the deformable surface by using the geometric integral measures and level set theory. These integral measures contain a robust alignment term, an active region term, and a mean curvature term. By using the level set method with a new hybrid speed function derived from the geometric integral measures, the accurate deformable surface can be extracted from a volumetric medical data set. Second, we employed a hybrid volume rendering approach to visualize the extracted deformable structures. Our method combines indirect and direct volume rendering techniques. Segmented objects within the data set are rendered locally by surface rendering on an object-by-object basis. Globally, all the results of subsequent object rendering are obtained by direct volume rendering (DVR). Then the two rendered results are finally combined in a merging step. This is especially useful when inner structures should be visualized together with semi-transparent outer parts. This merging step is similar to the focus-plus-context approach known from information visualization. Finally, we verified the accuracy and robustness of the proposed segmentation method for various medical volume images. The volume rendering results of segmented 3D objects show that our proposed method can accurately extract and visualize human organs from various multimodality medical volume images.

  9. Foramen of Civinini: A New Anatomical Guide for Maxillofacial Surgeons

    PubMed Central

    Saran, R Sharmila; Ananthi, K Suba; Subramaniam, Aruna; Balaji, MS Thotakura; Vinaitha, D; Vaithianathan, G

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Study on Morphometric and radiological aspect on existence of foramen of civinini. Sphenoid bone comprises of some rare ossified ligaments, may encounter difficulty in surgical procedures. Incidence of Pterygospinous bars various with different racial groups and they are genetically controlled. Complete ossification of pterygospinous ligament form foramen of civinini. Entrapments of vessels or nerves may occur due to existence of pterygospinous bar. The bar may locate medially or inferiorly to formen ovale as seen in Hawaiian and lemurs. Co – existence of bar with the wide lateral pterygoid plate exhibits development of the bar from herbivore, carnivore and old world monkeys. Comparatively absence or small spine of civinini noted in new world monkeys, rodents and platyrrhines. Pterygospinousbar represents the phylogenetic remnant of Human beings. Material and Methods: By using digital vernier caliper, the measurements of length, width of the pterygospinous bar and area of foramen of civinini including the length and breadth of lateral pterygoid plate were measured. Using X rays the radiological view was determined. Results: In this study from 160 cases of skull and sphenoid bones revealed that complete and incomplete foramen of civinini in 1.25% and 7.5% of cases respectively. Peculiarly accessory foramen of civinini noticed in 1.25% of cases. Maximum area of foramen of civinini was 94.2mm2. The maximum width of lateral pterygoid was noted as 19.6mm respectively. Mentocoronal view of skiagram clearly shows the bar. Conclusion: During Anaesthesia for trigeminal neuralgia may encounter difficult to pass the needle. The bar compress the mandibular nerve branches can cause lingual numbness, pain and speech impairment. Conductive anaesthesia on the mandibular nerve through the lateral subzygomatic route may be difficult to approach. Exploring the anatomical and clinical updates of pterygospinous bar may guide the surgeons and radiologists to overcome any

  10. Precise anatomical resection of the ventral part of Segment VIII

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Canhong; Liu, Zhe; Dong, Jiahong; Sano, Keiji; Makuuchi, Masatoshi

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Anatomical resection of the ventral part of Segment VIII (S8vent) is demanding and there are no accurate methods to identify the demarcation line inside the liver. The current authors have proposed a method to solve the problem. PRESENTATION OF CASE The tumor was located in the S8vent and was 4 cm in size. One tributary of the middle hepatic vein (MHV), designated V8i, was running between S8vent and the dorsal part of Segment VIII (S8dor). Another tributary of the MHV, designated V8-5i, was running between S8vent and the ventral part of S5 (S5vent). About 5 ml of indigo carmine dye was injected into the proximal part of P8vent. After the small tributary of V8-5i was exposed, it was followed all the way to the main trunk of the MHV. The portal pedicle of S8vent was then ligated and divided. Next, the V8i was gradually exposed from the distal MHV to its trunk. DISCUSSION A recent study showed that the subsegmental border visualized between the ventral and dorsal region always coincided with the plane of V8i, so the subsegmental plane can be divided along with V8i by preserving the very small tributaries near the liver surface and following them to determine where they meet as they run into V8i. Also, the landmark vein of V8-5i in the transverse S8–S5 intersegmental plane was determined for the first time. CONCLUSION Proposed here is a more accurate method of dividing the liver parenchyma along the intersegmental and intersubsegmental demarcation. PMID:25460437

  11. Angelman syndrome: A review highlighting musculoskeletal and anatomical aberrations.

    PubMed

    Sachdeva, Rohit; Donkers, Sarah J; Kim, Soo Y

    2016-07-01

    Angelman's syndrome (AS) is a genetic neurodevelopment disorder. The cause is a known abnormality involving the maternal inherited ubiquitin-protein ligase (UBE3A) gene. Clinical characteristics universal to the disorder are well documented in the literature and include developmental delay, seizures, ataxia, altered tone, severely impaired speech and intellect, as well as an overall happy demeanor, frequent bouts of laughter, and hypermotoric behavior. Associated with this disorder are several musculoskeletal aberrations. To date, a review of case studies reporting on these musculoskeletal changes has not been carried out. Thus, the purpose of this paper was to provide an overview of the musculoskeletal changes present in individuals with AS. In our review of 21 case reports from 1965-2013, the most consistently reported anatomical changes were of the craniofacial region. These include microcephaly, brachycephaly, a palpable occipital groove, prognathism, and wide spaced teeth. Other musculoskeletal abnormalities less frequently reported in the literature include scoliosis, excessive lumbar lordosis, and pes planus. Given that the majority of the case reports reviewed was of young children, the possibility of underreporting musculoskeletal changes which may manifest in the later years of life may be present. Early diagnosis and interventions to minimize secondary complications are crucial to maintain quality of life. An overall multidisciplinary approach is emphasized to maximize developmental potential for these individuals. Future prospective studies that follow patients into adulthood are needed to better understand the prevalence and development of secondary musculoskeletal changes, which in turn can inform intervention techniques and preventative measures. Clin. Anat. 29:561-567, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26480021

  12. Post-tsunami stress: a study of posttraumatic stress disorder in children living in three severely affected regions in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Neuner, Frank; Schauer, Elisabeth; Catani, Claudia; Ruf, Martina; Elbert, Thomas

    2006-06-01

    At 3 to 4 weeks after the December 2004 tsunami disaster we assessed symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in 264 children who lived in severely affected coastal communities in Manadkadu (northern coast), Kosgoda (western coast), and Galle (southern coast) in Sri Lanka. The prevalence rate of tsunami-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (ignoring the time criterion) ranged between 14% and 39% and an additional 5% to 8% had PTSD unrelated to the tsunami. The PTSD symptoms were explained by the severity of the trauma exposure and family loss, as well as previous traumatic events. The results confirm the relevance of the individual history of traumatic events for the genesis of PTSD and indicate a high need of mental health assistance among the tsunami-affected children in Sri Lanka.

  13. Anatomic variations of the median nerve in the carpal tunnel: a brief review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Demircay, Emre; Civelek, Erdinc; Cansever, Tufan; Kabatas, Serdar; Yilmaz, Cem

    2011-01-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a common focal peripheral neuropathy. Increased pressure in the carpal tunnel results in median nerve compression and impaired nerve perfusion, leading to discomfort and paresthesia in the affected hand. Surgical division of the transverse carpal ligament is preferred in severe cases of CTS and should be considered when conservative measures fail. A through knowledge of the normal and variant anatomy of the median nerve in the wrist is fundamental in avoiding complications during carpal tunnel release. This paper aims to briefly review the anatomic variations of the median nerve in the carpal tunnel and its implications in carpal tunnel surgery.

  14. Anatomical variant of the liver blood supply

    PubMed Central

    MASLARSKI, IVAN

    2015-01-01

    Vascular variations are significant for liver transplantations, radiological procedures, laparoscopic method of operation and for the healing of penetrating injuries, including the space close to the hepatic area. These variants are very common in the abdominal region, and their description will be useful. During a routine dissection of a 73 year old female cadaver, we found in the subhepatic region that the blood supply of the liver differed from a normal one. The difference was found in the absence of the right liver branch and the cystic artery, which normally arises from the common hepatic artery. After a detailed dissection of the superior mesenteric artery we distinguished a branchthat was routed to the right lobe of the liver. The diameter of this vessel was 3.7 mm and the length 8.2 cm. In the artery pathway, three consecutive branches were observed. The first branch was found about 2.02 cm before the portal region of the liver. The second one became visible after another millimeter and finally the artery made one little curve and became a cystic artery. PMID:26609280

  15. Anatomical connectivity changes in the bilingual brain.

    PubMed

    García-Pentón, Lorna; Pérez Fernández, Alejandro; Iturria-Medina, Yasser; Gillon-Dowens, Margaret; Carreiras, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    How the brain deals with more than one language and whether we need different or extra brain language sub-networks to support more than one language remain unanswered questions. Here, we investigate structural brain network differences between early bilinguals and monolinguals. Using diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI) tractography techniques and a network-based statistic (NBS) procedure, we found two structural sub-networks more connected by white matter (WM) tracts in bilinguals than in monolinguals; confirming WM brain plasticity in bilinguals. One of these sub-networks comprises left frontal and parietal/temporal regions, while the other comprises left occipital and parietal/temporal regions and also the right superior frontal gyrus. Most of these regions have been related to language processing and monitoring; suggesting that bilinguals develop specialized language sub-networks to deal with the two languages. Additionally, a complex network analysis showed that these sub-networks are more graph-efficient in bilinguals than monolinguals and this increase seems to be at the expense of a whole-network graph-efficiency decrease.

  16. Urinary Incontinence in Juvenile Female Soft-Coated Wheaten Terriers: Hospital Prevalence and Anatomic Urogenital Anomalies.

    PubMed

    Callard, Jason; McLoughlin, Mary A; Byron, Julie K; Chew, Dennis J

    2016-01-01

    Urinary incontinence in juvenile female dogs is often associated with urogenital anatomic anomalies. Study objectives include: (1) determine hospital prevalence of urinary incontinence in juvenile female soft-coated wheaten terriers (SCWTs) compared to other affected dogs; (2) characterize anatomic anomalies affecting urinary incontinent juvenile female SCWTs utilizing uroendoscopy; and (3) compare incidence of ectopic ureters, paramesonephric remnants, and short urethras in juvenile female urinary incontinent SCWTs to other juvenile female dogs with urinary incontinence. We hypothesize juvenile SCWTs have an increased prevalence of urinary incontinence and an increased incidence of ectopic ureters, paramesonephric remnants, and short urethras compared to non-SCWTs with urinary incontinence within our hospital population. Medical records of female dogs 6 mo of age and younger with clinical signs of urinary incontinence and video uroendoscopic evaluation presenting to The Ohio State University Veterinary Medical Center from January 2000 to December 2011 were reviewed. Twelve juvenile SCWTs and 107 juvenile non-SCWTs met the inclusion criteria. Juvenile SCWTs were found to have an increased hospital prevalence of urinary incontinence compared to other affected breeds. Observed anomalies in SCWTs include: ectopic ureters, shortened urethras, paramesonephric remnants, and bifid vaginas. This information will help guide veterinarians in recognizing a breed-related disorder of the lower urogenital tract in SCWTs. PMID:26606208

  17. The Integration of Negative Affect, Pain, and Cognitive Control in the Cingulate Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Shackman, Alexander J.; Salomons, Tim V.; Slagter, Heleen A.; Fox, Andrew S.; Winter, Jameel J.; Davidson, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    Preface It has been argued that emotion, pain, and cognitive control are functionally segregated in distinct subdivisions of the cingulate cortex. But recent observations encourage a fundamentally different view. Imaging studies indicate that negative affect, pain, and cognitive control activate an overlapping region of dorsal cingulate, the anterior midcingulate cortex (aMCC). Anatomical studies reveal that aMCC constitutes a hub where information about reinforcers can be linked to motor centers responsible for expressing affect and executing goal-directed behavior. Computational modeling and other kinds of evidence suggest that this intimacy reflects control processes that are common to all three domains. These observations compel a reconsideration of dorsal cingulate’s contribution to negative affect and pain. PMID:21331082

  18. Organic delusions: phenomenology, anatomical correlations, and review.

    PubMed

    Cummings, J L

    1985-02-01

    Organic delusions are common, but have received little systematic study. Review of the literature reveals that they occur most commonly in toxic-metabolic processes and in disorders affecting the limbic system and basal ganglia. A prospective study of 20 consecutive patients with organic delusions revealed four general types of false beliefs: simple persecutory delusions, complex persecutory delusions, grandiose delusions, and those associated with specific neurological defects (anosognosia, reduplicative paramnesia). Simple delusions responded best to treatment, and complex delusions were more resistent. Acting on delusional beliefs was not unusual, and treatment of the delusions was an important aspect of management of the patient.

  19. Maximizing modern distribution of complex anatomical spatial information: 3D reconstruction and rapid prototype production of anatomical corrosion casts of human specimens.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianyi; Nie, Lanying; Li, Zeyu; Lin, Lijun; Tang, Lei; Ouyang, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Anatomical corrosion casts of human specimens are useful teaching aids. However, their use is limited due to ethical dilemmas associated with their production, their lack of perfect reproducibility, and their consumption of original specimens in the process of casting. In this study, new approaches with modern distribution of complex anatomical spatial information were explored to overcome these limitations through the digitalization of anatomical casts of human specimens through three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction, rapid prototype production, and Web-based 3D atlas construction. The corrosion cast of a lung, along with its associated arteries, veins, trachea, and bronchial tree was CT-scanned, and the data was then processed by Mimics software. Data from the lung casts were then reconstructed into 3D models using a hybrid method, utilizing both "image threshold" and "region growing." The fine structures of the bronchial tree, arterial, and venous network of the lung were clearly displayed and demonstrated their distinct relationships. The multiple divisions of bronchi and bronchopulmonary segments were identified. The 3D models were then uploaded into a rapid prototype 3D printer to physically duplicate the cast. The physically duplicated model of the lung was rescanned by CT and reconstructed to detect its production accuracy. Gross observation and accuracy detection were used to evaluate the duplication and few differences were found. Finally, Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) was used to edit the 3D casting models to construct a Web-based 3D atlas accessible through Internet Explorer with 3D display and annotation functions.

  20. Presentation of Anatomical Variations Using the Aurasma Mobile App.

    PubMed

    Hong, Trudy; Bézard, Georg; Lozanoff, Beth K; Labrash, Steven; Lozanoff, Scott

    2015-09-01

    Knowledge of anatomical variations is critical to avoid clinical complications and it enables an understanding of morphogenetic mechanisms. Depictions are comprised of photographs or illustrations often limiting appreciation of three-dimensional (3D) spatial relationships. The purpose of this study is to describe an approach for presenting anatomical variations utilizing video clips emphasizing 3D anatomical relationships delivered on personal electronic devices. An aberrant right subclavian artery (ARSA) was an incidental finding in a routine dissection of an 89-year-old man cadaver during a medical student instructional laboratory. The specimen was photographed and physical measurements were recorded. Three-dimensional models were lofted and rendered with Maya software and converted as Quicktime animations. Photographs of the first frame of the animations were recorded and registered with Aurasma Mobile App software (www.aurasma.com). Resulting animations were viewed on mobile devices. The ARSA model can be manipulated on the mobile device enabling the student to view and appreciate spatial relationships. Model elements can be de-constructed to provide even greater spatial resolution of anatomical relationships. Animations provide a useful approach for visualizing anatomical variations. Future work will be directed at creating a library of variants and underlying mechanism of formation for presentation through the Aurasma application. PMID:26793410

  1. [ANATOMICAL PREPARATIONS IN MUSEUMS A SPECIAL CATEGORY OF CULTURAL HERITAGE].

    PubMed

    Monza, Francesca; Licata, Marta

    2015-01-01

    The international debate on the issue of human remains in museums and on the ethical issues related to their exhibition stimulates reflection on the Italian anatomical collections and on their preparations. A definition of human remains or of anatomical preparation does not exist in the Italian legislation. The anatomical specimens in museums are protected by the laws of Cultural Heritage as part of public collections, but their status is not well defined. By their nature of human material they would in fact be considered as a special category of Cultural Heritage. Because they are part of a cadaver they can be regarded as res nullius, but since treated with special techniques they could also change their meaning and being considered a species nova. Finally, it reflects on the possibility of creating a museum in Italy composed by new anatomical preparations. The article outline the contours of a museological issue that deserves to be investigated in order to better identify the anatomical preparations and their management in museums.

  2. Presentation of Anatomical Variations Using the Aurasma Mobile App

    PubMed Central

    Bézard, Georg; Lozanoff, Beth K; Labrash, Steven; Lozanoff, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of anatomical variations is critical to avoid clinical complications and it enables an understanding of morphogenetic mechanisms. Depictions are comprised of photographs or illustrations often limiting appreciation of three-dimensional (3D) spatial relationships. The purpose of this study is to describe an approach for presenting anatomical variations utilizing video clips emphasizing 3D anatomical relationships delivered on personal electronic devices. An aberrant right subclavian artery (ARSA) was an incidental finding in a routine dissection of an 89-year-old man cadaver during a medical student instructional laboratory. The specimen was photographed and physical measurements were recorded. Three-dimensional models were lofted and rendered with Maya software and converted as Quicktime animations. Photographs of the first frame of the animations were recorded and registered with Aurasma Mobile App software (www.aurasma.com). Resulting animations were viewed on mobile devices. The ARSA model can be manipulated on the mobile device enabling the student to view and appreciate spatial relationships. Model elements can be de-constructed to provide even greater spatial resolution of anatomical relationships. Animations provide a useful approach for visualizing anatomical variations. Future work will be directed at creating a library of variants and underlying mechanism of formation for presentation through the Aurasma application. PMID:26793410

  3. A genomewide association mapping study using ultrasound-scanned information identifies potential genomic regions and candidate genes affecting carcass traits in Nellore cattle.

    PubMed

    Santana, M H A; Ventura, R V; Utsunomiya, Y T; Neves, H H R; Alexandre, P A; Oliveira Junior, G A; Gomes, R C; Bonin, M N; Coutinho, L L; Garcia, J F; Silva, S L; Fukumasu, H; Leme, P R; Ferraz, J B S

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to identify candidate genes and genomic regions associated with ultrasound-derived measurements of the rib-eye area (REA), backfat thickness (BFT) and rumpfat thickness (RFT) in Nellore cattle. Data from 640 Nellore steers and young bulls with genotypes for 290 863 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were used for genomewide association mapping. Significant SNP associations were explored to find possible candidate genes related to physiological processes. Several of the significant markers detected were mapped onto functional candidate genes including ARFGAP3, CLSTN2 and DPYD for REA; OSBPL3 and SUDS3 for BFT; and RARRES1 and VEPH1 for RFT. The physiological pathway related to lipid metabolism (CLSTN2, OSBPL3, RARRES1 and VEPH1) was identified. The significant markers within previously reported QTLs reinforce the importance of the genomic regions, and the other loci offer candidate genes that have not been related to carcass traits in previous investigations.

  4. Rocky Mountain Regional Guide (covering forest service programs that affect the states of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, South Dakota, and Wyoming (east of the continental divide))

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    The Regional Guide proposes the future multiple-use management of the National Forests and National Grasslands in the Rocky Mountain Region. It also provides integrated direction for the National Forest System, and coordination with Research, and State and Private Forestry so these organizational units can accomplish their missions. The management of the National Forest System includes the administration of National Forests and National Grasslands and management within the principles of multiple-use and sustained-yield. Research includes planning and coordinating research programs to learn how we can best use and protect the plant, animal, soil, water, and aesthetic resources of nonagricultural rural lands. State and Private Forestry includes coordinating and providing leadership for intergovernmental resource programs; and coordinating and providing technical and financial assistance to improve and protect tribal, State, privately-owned forest resources, and urban and community forestry. In doing this the Forest Service bears a host of legal and ethical responsibilities. This Regional Guide reflects the responsibilities entrusted to the Forest Service.

  5. Maternal deprivation and early handling affect density of calcium binding protein-containing neurons in selected brain regions and emotional behavior in periadolescent rats.

    PubMed

    Giachino, C; Canalia, N; Capone, F; Fasolo, A; Alleva, E; Riva, M A; Cirulli, F; Peretto, P

    2007-03-16

    Adverse early life experiences can induce neurochemical changes that may underlie modifications in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis responsiveness, emotionality and cognition. Here, we investigated the expression of the calcium binding proteins (CBPs) calretinin, calbindin and parvalbumin, which identify subpopulations of GABAergic neurons and serve important functional roles by buffering intracellular calcium levels, following brief (early handling) and long (maternal deprivation) periods of maternal separation, as compared with non-handled controls. CBP-expressing neurons were analyzed in brain regions related to stress and anxiety. Emotionality was assessed in parallel using the social interaction test. Analyses were carried out at periadolescence, an important phase for the development of brain areas involved in stress responses. Our results indicate that density of CBP-immunoreactive neurons decreases in the paraventricular region of deprived rats but increases in the hippocampus and lateral amygdala of both early-handled and deprived rats when compared with controls. Emotionality is reduced in both early-handled and deprived animals. In conclusion, early handling and deprivation led to neurochemical and behavioral changes linked to stress-sensitive brain regions. These data suggest that the effects of early experiences on CBP containing neurons might contribute to the functional changes of neuronal circuits involved in emotional response.

  6. Reduplicative paramnesia: possible anatomical and neuropsychological mechanisms.

    PubMed Central

    Kapur, N; Turner, A; King, C

    1988-01-01

    A patient is reported who presented with reduplicative paramnesia following a vascular lesion in the right frontal region. Neuropsychological examination revealed significant memory impairment, perservation on a problem solving task and marked left-sided inattention. Recovery from the paramnesic episode was accompanied by selective resolution of the original cognitive deficits. It is suggested that focal right frontal pathology may represent a sufficient condition for the occurrence of reduplicative paramnesia, and that the underlying mechanisms may be dependent on a particular combination and severity of memory, visuospatial and conceptual deficits. Images PMID:3379434

  7. Reduplicative paramnesia: possible anatomical and neuropsychological mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Kapur, N; Turner, A; King, C

    1988-04-01

    A patient is reported who presented with reduplicative paramnesia following a vascular lesion in the right frontal region. Neuropsychological examination revealed significant memory impairment, perservation on a problem solving task and marked left-sided inattention. Recovery from the paramnesic episode was accompanied by selective resolution of the original cognitive deficits. It is suggested that focal right frontal pathology may represent a sufficient condition for the occurrence of reduplicative paramnesia, and that the underlying mechanisms may be dependent on a particular combination and severity of memory, visuospatial and conceptual deficits.

  8. The anatomical problem posed by brain complexity and size: a potential solution

    PubMed Central

    DeFelipe, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Over the years the field of neuroanatomy has evolved considerably but unraveling the extraordinary structural and functional complexity of the brain seems to be an unattainable goal, partly due to the fact that it is only possible to obtain an imprecise connection matrix of the brain. The reasons why reaching such a goal appears almost impossible to date is discussed here, together with suggestions of how we could overcome this anatomical problem by establishing new methodologies to study the brain and by promoting interdisciplinary collaboration. Generating a realistic computational model seems to be the solution rather than attempting to fully reconstruct the whole brain or a particular brain region. PMID:26347617

  9. Distal Triceps Knotless Anatomic Footprint Repair: A New Technique

    PubMed Central

    Paci, James M.; Clark, Jonathan; Rizzi, Angelo

    2014-01-01

    Distal triceps rupture is a rare injury causing significant disability. Several techniques for treating distal triceps ruptures have been described using bone tunnels or suture anchors. More recent techniques have focused on re-creating the anatomic footprint of the distal triceps tendon. However, the increasing numbers of anchors used increase the risk to the articular surface, and all earlier techniques require knot tying and bulky knots beneath the thin posterior elbow soft-tissue envelope. We describe a technique combining the use of bone tunnels and a single suture anchor to create a knotless anatomic footprint repair of the distal triceps. By using this technique, we are able to create a tension-band construct that self-reinforces the anatomic repair and is very low profile while significantly decreasing risk to the articular surface. PMID:25473618

  10. Anterolateral Ligament Reconstruction Technique: An Anatomic-Based Approach.

    PubMed

    Chahla, Jorge; Menge, Travis J; Mitchell, Justin J; Dean, Chase S; LaPrade, Robert F

    2016-06-01

    Restoration of anteroposterior laxity after an anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction has been predictable with traditional open and endoscopic techniques. However, anterolateral rotational stability has been difficult to achieve in a subset of patients, even with appropriate anatomic techniques. Therefore, differing techniques have attempted to address this rotational laxity by augmenting or reconstructing lateral-sided structures about the knee. In recent years, there has been a renewed interest in the anterolateral ligament as a potential contributor to residual anterolateral rotatory instability in anterior cruciate ligament-deficient patients. Numerous anatomic and biomechanical studies have been performed to further define the functional importance of the anterolateral ligament, highlighting the need for surgical techniques to address these injuries in the unstable knee. This article details our technique for an anatomic anterolateral ligament reconstruction using a semitendinosus tendon allograft. PMID:27656361

  11. Anatomical and Physiological Considerations in Vestibular Dysfunction and Compensation

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Sherri M.; Jones, Timothy A.; Mills, Kristal N.; Gaines, G. Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Sensory information from the vestibular, visual, and somatosensory/proprioceptive systems are integrated in the brain in complex ways to produce a final motor output to muscle groups for maintaining gaze, head and body posture, and controlling static and dynamic balance. The balance system is complex, which can make differential diagnosis of dizziness quite challenging. On the other hand, this complex system is organized anatomically in a variety of pathways and some of these pathways have been well studied. The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) is one such pathway. Understanding the anatomy and physiology of the VOR facilitates our understanding of normal and abnormal eye movements and research is advancing our understanding of the plasticity of the vestibular system. This review highlights anatomical and physiological features of the normal vestibular system, applies these concepts to explain some clinical findings in some common peripheral vestibular disorders, and discusses some of the research investigating the anatomical and physiological basis for vestibular compensation. PMID:21072129

  12. Use of anatomical dolls by Boston-area professionals.

    PubMed

    Kendall-Tackett, K A; Watson, M W

    1992-01-01

    Anatomical dolls are a widely used but controversial tool for interviewing child victims of sexual abuse. The present research examines how a representative sample of professionals who evaluate children actually use the dolls. Contrary to past reports, the results revealed that 96.6% of professionals who use the dolls had received training in anatomical doll use, 77.8% followed some standard protocol for interviewing, and 97.3% had at least 1 year of experience with anatomical dolls. The results also revealed that the majority of professionals did not engage in the "leading" behaviors of presenting unclothed dolls to children or undressing the dolls for the child, again contrary to past reports. The present research indicates that the professionals in this sample are more experienced and better trained than is typically thought. PMID:1617476

  13. A joint model for boundaries of multiple anatomical parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerr, Grégoire; Kurtek, Sebastian; Srivastava, Anuj

    2011-03-01

    The use of joint shape analysis of multiple anatomical parts is a promising area of research with applications in medical diagnostics, growth evaluations, and disease characterizations. In this paper, we consider several features (shapes, orientations, scales, and locations) associated with anatomical parts and develop probability models that capture interactions between these features and across objects. The shape component is based on elastic shape analysis of continuous boundary curves. The proposed model is a second order model that considers principal coefficients in tangent spaces of joint manifolds as multivariate normal random variables. Additionally, it models interactions across objects using area-interaction processes. Using given observations of four anatomical parts: caudate, hippocampus, putamen and thalamus, on one side of the brain, we first estimate the model parameters and then generate random samples from them using the Metropolis-Hastings algorithm. The plausibility of these random samples validates the proposed models.

  14. Systematic screening for mutations in the 5{prime}-regulatory region of the human dopamine D{sub 1} receptor (DRD1) gene in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder

    SciTech Connect

    Cichon, S.; Noethen, M.M.; Stoeber, G.

    1996-07-26

    A possible dysregulation of dopaminergic neurotransmission has been implicated in a variety of neuropsychiatric diseases. In the present study we systematically searched for the presence of mutations in the 5{prime}-flanking region of the dopamine D{sub 1} receptor (DRD1) gene. This region has previously been shown to contain a functional promoter. We investigated 119 unrelated individuals (including 36 schizophrenic patients, 38 bipolar affective patients, and 45 healthy controls) using single-strand conformation analysis (SSCA). Eleven overlapping PCR fragments covered 2,189 bp of DNA sequence. We identified six single base substitutions: -2218T/C, -2102C/A, -2030T/C, -1992G/A, -1251G/C, and -800T/C. None of the mutations was found to be located in regions which have important influence on the level of transcriptional activity. Allele frequencies were similar in patients and controls, indicating that genetic variation in the 5{prime}-regulatory region of the DRD1 gene is unlikely to play a frequent, major role in the genetic predisposition to either schizophrenia or bipolar affective disorder. 31 refs., 3 tabs.

  15. Anatomic Aspects of Inguinal Lymph Nodes Applied to Lymphadenectomy in Penile Cancer

    PubMed Central

    de Carvalho, João Paulo Martins; Patrício, Bruno F.; Medeiros, Jorge; Sampaio, Francisco J. B.; Favorito, Luciano A.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. To provide a better understanding of the distribution of inguinal nodes in order to prevent the complications of unnecessary and extended dissections in penile cancer. Methods. The bilateral inguinal regions of 19 male cadavers were dissected. Nodal distribution was noted and quantified based on anatomical location. The superficial nodes were subdivided into quarters as follows: superomedial, superolateral, inferomedial, and inferolateral. Statistical analysis was performed comparing node distribution between quarters using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), and the unpaired T-test was used between superficial and deep nodes. Results. Superficial nodes were found in all inguinal regions studied (mean = 13.60), and their distribution was more prominent in the superomedial quarter (mean = 3.94) and less in the inferolateral quarter (mean = 2.73). There was statistical significance between quarters when comparing the upper group with the lower one (P = 0.02). Nodes were widely distributed in the superficial region compared with deep lymph nodes (mean = 13.60 versus 1.71, P < 0.001). Conclusions. A great number of inguinal lymph nodes are distributed near the classical anatomical landmarks for inguinal lymphadenectomy, more prominent in upper quadrants. PMID:22110493

  16. Body Mass Index in Pregnancy Does Not Affect Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor Gamma Promoter Region (−359 to −260) Methylation in the Neonate

    PubMed Central

    Casamadrid, VRE; Amaya, CA; Mendieta, ZH

    2016-01-01

    Background: Obesity in pregnancy can contribute to epigenetic changes. Aim: To assess whether body mass index (BMI) in pregnancy is associated with changes in the methylation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPAR) promoter region (-359 to - 260) in maternal and neonatal leukocytes. Subjects and Methods: In this matched, cohort study 41 pregnant women were allocated into two groups: (a) Normal weight (n = 21) and (b) overweight (n = 20). DNA was extracted from maternal and neonatal leukocytes (4000-10,000 cells) in MagNA Pure (Roche) using MagNA Pure LC DNA Isolation Kit 1 (Roche, Germany). Treatment of DNA (2 μg) was performed with sodium bisulfite (EZ DNA Methylation-Direct™ Kit; Zymo Research). Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was performed in a LightCycler 2.0 (Roche) using the SYBR® Advantage® qPCR Premix Kit (Clontech). The primers used for PPARγ coactivator (PPARG) M3 were 5’- aagacggtttggtcgatc-3’ (forward), and5’- cgaaaaaaaatccgaaatttaa-3’ (reverse) and those for PPARG unmethylated were: 5’-gggaagatggtttggttgatt-3’ (forward) and 5’- ttccaaaaaaaaatccaaaatttaa-3’ (reverse). Intergroup differences were calculated using the Mann-Whitney U-test, and intragroup differences, with the Wilcoxon test (IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 19.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp.). Results: Significant differences were found in BMI, pregestational weight, and postdelivery weight between groups but not in the methylation status of the PPARγ promoter region (-359 to - 260). Conclusion: The PPARγ promoter region (-359 to - 260) in peripheral leukocytes is unlikely to get an obesity-induced methylation in pregnancy. PMID:27144075

  17. Benign anatomical mistakes: the correct anatomical term for the recurrent laryngeal nerve.

    PubMed

    Mirilas, Petros; Skandalakis, John E

    2002-01-01

    The term recurrent laryngeal nerve has been adopted by Nomina Anatomica (1989) and Terminologia Anatomica (1998) to describe this vagus branch from its origin, its turn dorsally around the subclavian artery and the aortic arch, and its cranial pathway until it reaches its terminal organs in the neck. However, there is still much confusion, and either the terms inferior and recurrent laryngeal nerve are used interchangeably or inferior laryngeal nerve is considered the terminal branch of the recurrent laryngeal nerve. We hereby feel that it is necessary to reassess the term and we propose the term inferior laryngeal nerve for the entire nerve under consideration, from its origin from the vagus nerve to its destinations, including tracheal, esophageal, and pharyngeal branches. If the term superior laryngeal nerve is a given, standard and accepted term in the anatomical terminology, then logically the term inferior laryngeal nerve should also be accepted, as opposed to it. Of course the upward travel of the inferior laryngeal nerve is "recurrent". When nonrecurrence is encountered together with an arteria lusoria, a retroesophageal right subclavian artery or a right aortic arch, we consider that the term nonrecurrent inferior laryngeal nerve should be used to describe the deviation from the normal.

  18. Can modular psychological concepts like affect and emotion be assigned to a distinct subset of regional neural circuits?. Comment on "The quartet theory of human emotions: An integrative and neurofunctional model" by S. Koelsch et al.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fehr, Thorsten; Herrmann, Manfred

    2015-06-01

    The proposed Quartet Theory of Human Emotions by Koelsch and co-workers [11] adumbrates evidence from various scientific sources to integrate and assign the psychological concepts of 'affect' and 'emotion' to four brain circuits or to four neuronal core systems for affect-processing in the brain. The authors differentiate between affect and emotion and assign several facultative, or to say modular, psychological domains and principles of information processing, such as learning and memory, antecedents of affective activity, emotion satiation, cognitive complexity, subjective quality feelings, degree of conscious appraisal, to different affect systems. Furthermore, they relate orbito-frontal brain structures to moral affects as uniquely human, and the hippocampus to attachment-related affects. An additional feature of the theory describes 'emotional effector-systems' for motor-related processes (e.g., emotion-related actions), physiological arousal, attention and memory that are assumed to be cross-linked with the four proposed affect systems. Thus, higher principles of emotional information processing, but also modular affect-related issues, such as moral and attachment related affects, are thought to be handled by these four different physiological sub-systems that are on the other side assumed to be highly interwoven at both physiological and functional levels. The authors also state that the proposed sub-systems have many features in common, such as the selection and modulation of biological processes related to behaviour, perception, attention and memory. The latter aspect challenges an ongoing discussion about the mind-body problem: To which degree do the proposed sub-systems 'sufficiently' cover the processing of complex modular or facultative emotional/affective and/or cognitive phenomena? There are current models and scientific positions that almost completely reject the idea that modular psychological phenomena are handled by a distinct selection of

  19. Bilateral lingual-facial trunk: anatomic and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Troupis, T; Michalinos, A; Kakisis, J; Natsis, K; Sofidis, G; Skandalakis, P

    2015-01-01

    Common origin of lingual and facial artery is a relatively frequent anatomic varia-tion. Instead, bilateral lingual-facial trunk has been described only sparsely in the literature. In this report authors describe and analyse a case of bilateral common lingual-facial trunk in the context of its anatomical, clinical and embryological implications. We also describe possible consequences in performance of elective and emergent surgical operations and modification in surgical techniques that should be considered. We believe that surgeons should be suspicious for this variation's existence and keep alternative solutions in their armentarium.

  20. Visualization of multiple anatomical structures with explicit isosurface manipulation.

    PubMed

    Wan, Xiaonan; Yang, Fei; Yang, Feng; Li, Xiuli; Xu, Min; Tian, Jie

    2015-01-01

    In medical image analysis and surgical planning, it is an essential task to visualize and differentiate multiple anatomical structures. The traditional approaches require expensive 3D segmentation steps during pre-processing stage, which defeats the purpose of real-time interaction with the data. In this paper, we propose an interactive method for visualization of multiple anatomical structures. In our results, we show that the new method is a promising technique for visual analysis of medical datasets and a helpful tool for surgical planning. It can be very efficient for a wide range of visualization and analysis tasks. PMID:26737229

  1. Identification of a region in the N-terminus of Escherichia coli Lon that affects ATPase, substrate translocation and proteolytic activity.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Iteen; Mikita, Natalie; Fishovitz, Jennifer; Frase, Hilary; Wintrode, Patrick; Lee, Irene

    2012-05-01

    Lon, also known as protease La, is an AAA+ protease machine that contains the ATPase and proteolytic domain within each enzyme subunit. Three truncated Escherichia coli Lon (ELon) mutants were generated based on a previous limited tryptic digestion result and hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry analyses performed in this study. Using methods developed for characterizing wild-type (WT) Lon, we compared the ATPase, ATP-dependent protein degradation and ATP-dependent peptidase activities. With the exception of not degrading a putative structured substrate known as CcrM (cell-cycle-regulated DNA methyltransferase), the mutant lacking the first 239 residues behaved like WT ELon. Comparing the activity data of WT and ELon mutants reveals that the first 239 residues are not needed for minimal enzyme catalysis. The mutants lacking the first 252 residues or residues 232-252 displayed compromised ATPase, protein degradation and ATP-dependent peptide translocation abilities but retained WT-like steady-state peptidase activity. The binding affinities of WT and Lon mutants were evaluated by determining the concentration of λ N (K(λN)) needed to achieve 50% maximal ATPase stimulation. Comparing the K(λN) values reveals that the region encompassing 232-252 of ELon could contribute to λ N binding, but the effect is modest. Taken together, results generated from this study reveal that the region constituting residues 240-252 of ELon is important for ATPase activity, substrate translocation and protein degradation.

  2. Structural changes in the hydrophobic hinge region adversely affect the activity and fidelity of the I260Q mutator DNA polymerase β.

    PubMed

    Gridley, Chelsea L; Rangarajan, Sneha; Firbank, Susan; Dalal, Shibani; Sweasy, Joann B; Jaeger, Joachim

    2013-06-25

    The I260Q variant of DNA polymerase β is an efficient mutator polymerase with fairly indiscriminate misincorporation activities opposite all template bases. Previous modeling studies have suggested that I260Q harbors structural variations in its hinge region. Here, we present the crystal structures of wild type and I260Q rat polymerase β in the presence and absence of substrates. Both the I260Q apoenzyme structure and the closed ternary complex with double-stranded DNA and ddTTP show ordered water molecules in the hydrophobic hinge near Gln260, whereas this is not the case in the wild type polymerase. Compared to wild type polymerase β ternary complexes, there are subtle movements around residues 260, 272, 295, and 296 in the mutant. The rearrangements in this region, coupled with side chain movements in the immediate neighborhood of the dNTP-binding pocket, namely, residues 258 and 272, provide an explanation for the altered activity and fidelity profiles observed in the I260Q mutator polymerase.

  3. A single amino acid in the stalk region of the H1N1pdm influenza virus HA protein affects viral fusion, stability and infectivity.

    PubMed

    Cotter, Christopher R; Jin, Hong; Chen, Zhongying

    2014-01-01

    The 2009 H1N1 pandemic (H1N1pdm) viruses have evolved to contain an E47K substitution in the HA2 subunit of the stalk region of the hemagglutinin (HA) protein. The biological significance of this single amino acid change was investigated by comparing A/California/7/2009 (HA2-E47) with a later strain, A/Brisbane/10/2010 (HA2-K47). The E47K change was found to reduce the threshold pH for membrane fusion from 5.4 to 5.0. An inter-monomer salt bridge between K47 in HA2 and E21 in HA1, a neighboring highly conserved residue, which stabilized the trimer structure, was found to be responsible for the reduced threshold pH for fusion. The higher structural and acid stability of the HA trimer caused by the E47K change also conferred higher viral thermal stability and infectivity in ferrets, suggesting a fitness advantage for the E47K evolutionary change in humans. Our study indicated that the pH of HA fusion activation is an important factor for influenza virus replication and host adaptation. The identification of this genetic signature in the HA stalk region that influences vaccine virus thermal stability also has significant implications for influenza vaccine production.

  4. Anatomical, chemical, and ecological factors affecting tree species choice in dendrochemistry studies

    SciTech Connect

    Cutter, B.E.; Guyette, R.P.

    1993-07-01

    Recently, element concentrations in tree rings have been used to monitor metal contamination, fertilization, and the effects of acid precipitation on soils. This has stimulated interest in which tree species may be suitable for use in studies of long-term trends in environmental chemistry. Potential radial translocation of elements across living boundaries can be a confounding factor in assessing environmental change. The selection of species which minimizes radial translocation of elements can be critical to the success of dendrochemical research. Criteria for selection of species with characteristics favorable for dendrochemical analysis are categorized into (1) habitat-based factors, (2) xylem-based factors, and (3) element-based factors. A wide geographic range and ecological amplitude provide an advantage in calibration and better controls on the effects of soil chemistry. The most important xylem-based criteria are heartwood moisture content, permeability, and the nature of the sapwood-heartwood transition. The element of interest is important in determining suitable tree species because all elements are not equally mobile or detectable in the xylem. Ideally, the tree species selected for dendrochemical study will be long-lived, grow on a wide range of sites over a large geographic distribution, have a distinct heartwood with a low number of rings in the sapwood, a low heartwood moisture content, and have low radial permeability. Recommended temperate zone North American species include white oak (Quercus alba L.), post oak (Q. stellate Wangenh.), eastern redcedar (funiperus virginiana L.), old-growth Douglas-fir [Pseudoaugu menziesii (Mirb.) Franco] and big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt.). In addition, species such as bristlecone pine (Pinus aristata Engelm. syn. longaeva), old-growth redwood [Sequoia sempervirens (D. Don) Endl.], and giant sequoia [S. gigantea (Lindl.) Deene] may be suitable for local purposes. 118 refs., 2 tabs.

  5. Technical note: Correlation of respiratory motion between external patient surface and internal anatomical landmarks

    PubMed Central

    Fayad, Hadi; Pan, Tinsu; Clément, Jean-François; Visvikis, Dimitris

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Current respiratory motion monitoring devices used for motion synchronization in medical imaging and radiotherapy provide either 1D respiratory signals over a specific region or 3D information based on few external or internal markers. On the other hand, newer technology may offer the potential to monitor the entire patient external surface in real time. The main objective of this study was to assess the motion correlation between such an external patient surface and internal anatomical landmarks motion. Methods Four dimensional Computed Tomography (4D CT) volumes for ten patients were used in this study. Anatomical landmarks were manually selected in the thoracic region across the 4D CT datasets by two experts. The landmarks included normal structures as well as the tumour location. In addition, a distance map representing the entire external patient surface, which corresponds to surfaces acquired by a Time of Flight (ToF) camera or similar devices, was created by segmenting the skin of all 4D CT volumes using a thresholding algorithm. Finally, the correlation between the internal landmarks and external surface motion was evaluated for different regions (placement and size) throughout a patient’s surface. Results Significant variability was observed in the motion of the different parts of the external patient surface. The larger motion magnitude was consistently measured in the central regions of the abdominal and the thoracic areas for the different patient datasets considered. The highest correlation coefficients were observed between the motion of these external surface areas and internal landmarks such as the diaphragm and mediastinum structures as well as the tumour location landmarks (0.8 ± 0.18 and 0.72 ± 0.12 for the abdominal and the thoracic regions respectively). Worse correlation was observed when one considered landmarks not significantly influenced by respiratory motion such as the apex and the sternum. Discussion and conclusions There

  6. Vernalization Requirement and the Chromosomal VRN1-Region can Affect Freezing Tolerance and Expression of Cold-Regulated Genes in Festuca pratensis

    PubMed Central

    Ergon, Åshild; Melby, Tone I.; Höglind, Mats; Rognli, Odd A.

    2016-01-01

    Plants adapted to cold winters go through annual cycles of gain followed by loss of freezing tolerance (cold acclimation and deacclimation). Warm spells during winter and early spring can cause deacclimation, and if temperatures drop, freezing damage may occur. Many plants are vernalized during winter, a process making them competent to flower in the following summer. In winter cereals, a coincidence in the timing of ver